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1

Discourse Analysis Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of articles includes: "Introduction: Discourse Analysis Today" (Dagmar Schue and M.D. Lopez-Maestre); "The Metaphorical and Metonymic Understanding of the Trinitarian Dogma" (Antonio Barcelona); "Symmetry as Conceptual Metaphor in Walker's The Color Purple" (Elena Tapia); "And She's Like it's Terrible, Like: Spoken Discourse,…

Scheu, Dagmar, Ed.; Lopez-Maestre, M. D., Ed.

2003-01-01

2

Discourse analysis procedures: Reliability issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performing discourse analyses to supplement assessment procedures and facilitate intervention planning is only valuable if the observations are reliable. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare four methods of assessing reliability on one discourse analysis procedure—a modified version of Damico's Clinical Discourse Analysis (1985a, 1985b, 1992). The selected methods were: (a) Pearson product-moment correlations, (b) interobserver

Karen Hux; Dixie Sanger; Robert Reid; Amy Maschka

1997-01-01

3

Discourse Analysis Procedures: Reliability Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study evaluated and compared four methods of assessing reliability on one discourse analysis procedure--a modified version of Damico's Clinical Discourse Analysis. The methods were Pearson product-moment correlations; interobserver agreement; Cohen's kappa; and generalizability coefficients. The strengths and weaknesses of the methods are…

Hux, Karen; And Others

1997-01-01

4

Integrated Theory of Discourse Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper explores some difficult questions related to topics in discourse analysis and offer a partial solution to some of them. In particular, the author addresses the issue of levels in discourse analysis and how the various approaches taken within th...

J. Pustejovsky

1986-01-01

5

Citation Analysis and Discourse Analysis Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

John Swales's 1986 article "Citation analysis and discourse analysis" was written by a discourse analyst to introduce citation research from other fields, mainly sociology of science, to his own discipline. Here, I introduce applied linguists and discourse analysts to citation studies from information science, a complementary tradition not…

White, Howard D.

2004-01-01

6

Ancient Greek "Logos": An Invitation to Historical-Comparative Discourse on Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents aspects of the methodological and epistemological encounter of contemporary historical-comparative discourse on education with the ancient Greek historical comparative "logos": (1) technology/methodology; (2) historiology; (3) epistemology; and (4) synkritilogy. The historical context discourse of education can always be placed in a…

Calogiannakis, Pella

1998-01-01

7

Discourse Analysis in Second Language Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following papers and reports on discourse analysis are included here: (1) "Discourse Analysis, What's That?" by Hatch and Long; (2) "Contextual Analysis of English: Applications to TESL" by Celce-Murcia; (3) "Discourse and Second Language Acquisition of Yes/No Questions" by Vander Brook, Schlue, and Campbell; (4) "An Approach to Conducting…

Larsen-Freeman, Diane, Ed.

8

Using discourse analysis to improve extension practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to create awareness of the potential of discourse analysis to be a valuable contribution to agricultural extension. By way of example, it also reports on the discourses about climate change identified as being present in the Tasmanian agricultural community. The paper outlines the theories of discourse analysis and presents the results from interviews with 63 farmers and

Aysha Fleming; Frank Vanclay

9

Discourse Analysis in Career Counseling and Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discourse analysis can be used to understand and interpret culturally and socially produced meanings regarding work and to outline how specific rules and conventions can configure meaning production of work in context. The implications of some core concepts in discourse analysis pertinent to career counseling are explored, including discourse,…

Stead, Graham B.; Bakker, Terri M.

2010-01-01

10

An Overview of Discourse Analysis and Its Usefulness in TESOL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides an overview of discourse analysis from a linguistic point of view, discussing why it is relevant to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL). It focuses on the following: discourse and discourse analysis; discourse analysis and TESOL; approaches to discourse analysis; systemic functional linguistics; theme and…

Milne, Geraldine Veronica

11

A cultural historical theoretical perspective of discourse and design in the science classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flavio Azevedo, Peggy Martalock and Tugba Keser have initiated an important conversation in science education as they use sociocultural theory to introduce design based scenarios into the science classroom. This response seeks to expand Azevedo, Martalock and Keser's article The discourse of design-based science classroom activities by using a specific perspective within a sociocultural framework. Through using a cultural historical (Vygotsky in The history and development of higher mental functions, Plenum Press, New York, 1987) reading of design based activity and discourse in the science classroom, it is proposed that learning should be an integral part of these processes. Therefore, everyday and scientific concepts are explained and expanded in relation to Inventing Graphing and discourse presented in Azevedo, Martalock and Keser's article. This response reports on the importance of teacher's being explicit in relation to connecting everyday and scientific concepts alongside design based activity and related science concepts when teaching students. It is argued that explicit teaching of concepts should be instigated prior to analysis of discourse in the science classroom as it is only with experience and understanding these processes that students have the resources to call upon to argue like practicing scientists.

Adams, Megan

2014-03-01

12

Discourse Analysis and Structuring Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the kinds of discourse analyses that are currently being undertaken, summarizes research findings, and makes suggestions based on these findings for structuring texts to be used for instructional or informational purposes. (Author/MER)

Pace, Ann Jaffe

1980-01-01

13

Critical discourse analysis from the perspective of ecologism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Now more than ever, critical discourse analysis is urgently called upon to deconstruct the discourses of arrogant power and division which are largely secret for most citizens and which baldly contradict the discourses of populist solidarity propagated in an official democracy. This paper focuses on deconstructing two legal discourses, the craftily named “Patriot Acts,” designed to polarize the citizenry into

Robert de Beaugrande

2004-01-01

14

3. Photocopy of illustration from J. Smith Futhey's Historical Discourse....of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Photocopy of illustration from J. Smith Futhey's Historical Discourse....of the Upper Octoraro Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia, 1870 SHOWS CHURCH WITH SESSIONS HOUSE IN BACKGROUND - Upper Octoraro Presbyterian Church Session House, State Route 10 & Octoraro Road (Sadsbury Township), Parkesburg, Chester County, PA

15

Between Discourse and Schema: Reformulating a Cultural-Historical Approach to Culture and Mind.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses discourse and schema theories to discuss cultural behavior in the context of a dinner party with place cards as the cultural artifacts. A view of culture as ideal/material artifacts is presented as a reformulation of the older notions of the cultural-historical theories. (MMU)

Holland, Dorothy; Cole, Michael

1995-01-01

16

Discourse Analysis of Teaching Computing Online  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses the teaching and learning of computing in a Web-conferencing environment. A discourse analysis of three introductory programming learning episodes is presented to demonstrate issues and effects that arise when teaching computing using such an approach. The subject of discussion, the interactive nature of discussion and any…

Bower, Matt

2009-01-01

17

Superintendent Leadership Style: A Gendered Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a blend of social constructionism, critical feminism, and dialogue theory, the discourse of nine Manitoba superintendents is examined to determine if it illustrates particular gendered assumptions regarding superintendents' leadership style. Qualitative inquiry and analysis methods were utilized to identify emerging themes, or topics of…

Wallin, Dawn C.; Crippen, Carolyn

2007-01-01

18

Feminist Poststructuralism and Discourse Analysis Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author tries to piece together the context in which she wrote "Feminist Poststructuralism and Discourse Analysis" (Gavey, 1989). The article grew out of her attempts to find a different way of doing psychology, after 8 or 9 years of studying and wrestling with the discipline. It is partly a personal story, but also a story…

Gavey, Nicola

2011-01-01

19

Partnering for Research: A Critical Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a critical discourse analysis, informed by poststructuralist theory, we explore the research phenomenon of coerced partnership. This lens allows us to pay attention to the social relations of power operating in knowledge generation processes, especially as they affect feminist researchers in adult education. We propose an alternative vision…

Irving, Catherine J.; English, Leona M.

2008-01-01

20

Critical Discourse Analysis and Rhetoric and Composition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past two decades, critical discourse analysis has emerged as a major new multidisciplinary approach to the study of texts and contexts in the public sphere. Developed in Europe, CDA has lately become increasingly popular in North America, where it is proving especially congenial to new directions in rhetoric and composition. This essay…

Huckin, Thomas; Andrus, Jennifer; Clary-Lemon, Jennifer

2012-01-01

21

Discourse Analysis and Spoken Language Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of discourse analysis by language learners for speaking and listening instruction. Techniques and activities that make students active participants in language learning, by producing and analyzing their own language data and becoming conscious of language production skills are described. Brief annotated and unannotated…

Riggenbach, Heidi

1990-01-01

22

Classroom Discourse Of Malay Language Lesson: A Critical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the teaching and learning process of the Malay language in the classroom usually focuses on the method, content, strategy and teaching aids. Moving away from this norm, this research article examines the process from the discourse analysis perspective called pedagogic discourse analysis, with an adaptation of Fairclough\\\\{$\\\\backslash$textquoteright\\\\}s Critical Discourse Analysis Framework (1992; 1995). The discussion is based on

Idris Aman; Rosniah Mustaffa

2006-01-01

23

Using Discourse Analysis and Automatic Text Generation to Study Discourse Cue Usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our two stage methodology for the study of cue usage coordinates an exhaustive corpus analysis with a system for text generation. Coding of the corpus uses Relational Discourse Analysis, a syn- thesis of two previous accounts of discourse struc- ture. In the first stage of our study, hypotheses about cue usage are evaluated and refined using the corpus analysis. Several

Megan Moser; Johanna D. Moore

1995-01-01

24

Discourse on Discourse. Workshop Reports from the Macquarie Workshop on Discourse Analysis (Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, February 21-25, 1983). Occasional Papers Number 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four group summary papers from an Australian national workshop on discourse analysis discuss verbal and written discourse and the classroom. Papers reflect the four workshop discussion groups of casual conversation, classroom discourse, expository discourse, and literary narrative. They include: "On Casual Conversation" (M. A. K. Halliday and G.…

Hasan, Ruqaiya, Ed.

25

A Discourse Analysis of Teacher-Student Classroom Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation explores the role of classroom discourse in balancing teacher control over lesson content and student participation in educational interactions. The results of a discourse analysis of teacher-student interactions in video-recordings of eight third-grade math and language arts lessons reveal that the role of discourse in this…

Shepherd, Michael Andrew

2010-01-01

26

Discoursing Mathematically: Using Discourse Analysis to Develop a Sociocritical Perspective of Mathematics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how the concepts of discourse and its methodological extension discourse analysis can help mathematics educators re-conceptualize their practices using a sociocultural view of learning. It provides conceptual and methodological tools as well as activities that can be helpful in mathematics methods courses and professional…

Razfar, Aria

2012-01-01

27

Is Business Discourse Colonizing Philanthropy? A Critical Discourse Analysis of (PRODUCT) RED  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, traditional notions of philanthropy are colonized by a market discourse that promotes consumption as an effective\\u000a way to solve social ills, resulting in what scholars have termed “marketized philanthropy.” This paper examines the implications\\u000a of marketized philanthropy through a discourse analysis of the (PRODUCT) RED campaign benefiting the Global Fund to fight\\u000a HIV\\/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis in Africa through

Jessica S. WirgauKathryn; Kathryn Webb Farley; Courtney Jensen

2010-01-01

28

Discourse Analysis: Part I, Information Management and Cohesion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Combining linguistics and composition studies, this paper (part 1 of a two-part article) proposes a model for the analysis of information management and cohesion in written discourse. It defines concepts of discourse analysis--specifically information management, syntax, semantic reference, lexicon, cohesion, and intonation, with examples taken…

Lovejoy, Kim Brian; Lance, Donald M.

29

Discourse Analysis and its Utility for Urban Policy Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, discourse analysis has been deployed by academics as a methodology to understand the urban policy implementation process, in particular, the ways in which key actors exercise power. Much of the discourse-based research in urban policy has drawn upon the writings of Norman Fairclough and Michel Foucault and seeks to provide a critical scrutiny of texts and utterances

Keith Jacobs

2006-01-01

30

Understanding Resistance: An Analysis of Discourses in Academic Staff Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using social realist theory and critical discourse analysis, this article examines a number of discourses which construct academic staff attitudes to teaching and learning in their disciplines. It seeks to explain academics' resistance to engaging in activities aimed at professionalising academic practice. The research described in the article…

Quinn, Lynn

2012-01-01

31

Self in Career Theory and Counselling: A Discourse Analysis Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A rapidly changing postmodern working world demands revised conceptualisations of the self. Recent scholarship in discourse analysis invites an investigation into how selves are constructed and fabricated within a complex matrix of social discourses, and how this may impact on the field of career counselling and development. This paper examines…

Stead, Graham B.; Bakker, Terri M.

2010-01-01

32

Framing analysis: An approach to news discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the American political process, news discourse concerning public policy issues is carefully constructed. This occurs in part because both politicians and interest groups take an increasingly proactive approach to amplify their views of what an issue is about However, news media also play an active role in framing public policy issues. Thus, in this article, news discourse is conceived

Zhongdang Pan; Gerald M. Kosicki

1993-01-01

33

Discourses of Linguistic dominance: A Historical Consideration of French Language Ideology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper offers a historical perspective on the linguistic and cultural imperialism embedded in the struggle to maintain French as a leading international language. France was the nation-state where the ideology of national language was first clearly formulated and directly extended to overseas colonies. This shows the close relationship between linguistic nationalism and imperialism. It was believed that French was the language of universal human reason and had the power to civilize people who spoke it. This myth of the "clarté française" and the "mission civilisatrice" had a strong influence on various kinds of metalinguistic discourses that created the taken-for-granted representation of French as dominant language. It is the essential strategy of language dominance to establish the hierarchy of languages as if it were natural order of things. When French was obliged to yield the status of international language to English, there emerged the ideology of "Francophonie" which tried to defend its privilege against the monopoly of English, but the same ideology is also directed against minorities' claims for their own linguistic human right. It could be said that these discourses form a recursive prototype of language dominance whose variations are to be found in other shapes almost all over the world.

Kasuya, Keisuke

2001-07-01

34

Drugs, Discourses and Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis of a High School Drug Education Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines a high school drug education text using critical discourse analysis (CDA) to discern its underlying ideological commitments and political dispositions. I begin with an overview of CDA and why it is a suitable methodology for my work, and then provide a brief history of drug education in North America. Next, I consider some of…

Tupper, Kenneth W.

2008-01-01

35

A decade of discourse analysis of environmental politics: Achievements, challenges, perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article assesses the contribution of discourse analysis to the study of environmental politics over the period of the past decade. Defining discourse as a particular linguistic regularity that can be found in conversations distinguishes it from ‘deliberation’ and ‘discussion’. Discourse analysis is seen as focused on situational logics studying ‘language-in-use’.Three strengths of discourse analysis are highlighted: its capacity to

Maarten Hajer; Wytske Versteeg

2005-01-01

36

Multimodal analysis within an interactive software environment: critical discourse perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical discourse analysts are increasingly required to account for multimodal phenomena constructed through language and other resources (e.g. images, sound and music) and to relate high-level critical insights on the social motivations of these texts to their realizations in low-level expressive phenomena, and vice versa. In this paper, we use interactive software resources for critical multimodal discourse analysis (O'Halloran, K.L.

Kay L. OHalloran; Sabine Tan; Bradley A. Smith; Alexey Podlasov

2011-01-01

37

Power in clinical teachers' discourses of a curriculum-in-action. Critical discourse analysis.  

PubMed

"Curricula-in-action" generally differ from "official" curricula. That is particularly true of clerkship curricula because the practising doctors who supervise medical students' clinical activities are only secondarily educators. Clerkship education is evaluated, however, according to benchmarks set by official curricula. As a result, clerkship evaluations are important points of contact between clinical teachers and medical schools. We reasoned that an evaluation instrument is part of a medical school's official curriculum discourse and clinical teachers' reactions to it are a discourse of curriculum-in-action. We set out to answer the questions: What are clinical teachers' discourses of curriculum-in-action and how do they relate to an official curriculum discourse? Nineteen clerkship placement leads from two hospitals contributing to a single undergraduate medical programme participated. The evaluation instrument was the Manchester Clinical Placement Index, for which validity evidence has been published. Respondents were asked to say how they would react to junior students giving their placements low or high scores for each of 12 items from the Index. After transcription, we conducted a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of their audio-recorded answers. We purposefully selected the six items that elicited the widest spectrum of responses for analysis because quantity of material can compromise the quality of CDA. A dominant discourse of curriculum-in-action defined how teachers should "really" teach and junior students should learn. It deconstructed the need for teachers to be present when students performed clinical tasks because teachers' role was to give critical feedback on case presentations that were coincidental to clinical care. It positioned students at the bottom of a power hierarchy so they had to "struggle" to be taught. It placed respondents in a powerful position relative to "the hospital" and "the university", though there were tensions between respondents, patients, and nurses. Respondents dismissed criticism that was invalid according to their curriculum-in-action, which included most items in an evaluation instrument. There was a contrasting, non-dominant discourse of responding reflectively to feedback, which generated realistic ways of improving students' learning. The strength of respondents' emotions shows just how committed doctors are to students' learning. The strength of their expressions of power, however, explains why many of them teach in their own way rather than according to official curricula. Changes to clinical curricula, our findings suggest, will not be successful unless they are carefully negotiated with practising doctors. PMID:23283572

Graham, Jennifer; Dornan, Tim

2013-12-01

38

Uniting postcolonial, discourse, and linguistic theory to explore participation of african americans in cancer research as an effect of social and historical race relationships.  

PubMed

This article uses a historical framework of postcolonialism; discourse analytic concepts (significance, identity, and relationships); and 5 social and cultural linguistic principles of emergence, positionality, indexicality, relationality, and partialness as a theoretical and methodological triangulation approach to data analysis of focus group discussion. Exemplars of focus group data from a study exploring African American participation in research demonstrate the application of this combined framework as a useful tool for analysis. This approach allows for examination of identity and interaction and generates a more rigorous and complete understanding of how individuals use language to construct identity as participants or nonparticipants in research. PMID:24469087

Somayaji, Darryl; Cloyes, Kristin Gates

2014-01-01

39

Metaphor Analysis in the Educational Discourse: A Critical Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Metaphor analysis is based on the belief that metaphor is a powerful linguistic device, because it extends and encapsulates knowledge about the familiarity and unfamiliarity. Metaphor analysis has been adopted in the educational discourse. The paper categorizes the previous relevant research into 3: interactions between learners and institutions,…

Zheng, Hong-bo; Song, Wen-juan

2010-01-01

40

The organising vision for telehealth and telecare: discourse analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To (1) map how different stakeholders understand telehealth and telecare technologies and (2) explore the implications for development and implementation of telehealth and telecare services. Design Discourse analysis. Sample 68 publications representing diverse perspectives (academic, policy, service, commercial and lay) on telehealth and telecare plus field notes from 10 knowledge-sharing events. Method Following a familiarisation phase (browsing and informal interviews), we studied a systematic sample of texts in detail. Through repeated close reading, we identified assumptions, metaphors, storylines, scenarios, practices and rhetorical positions. We added successive findings to an emerging picture of the whole. Main findings Telehealth and telecare technologies featured prominently in texts on chronic illness and ageing. There was no coherent organising vision. Rather, four conflicting discourses were evident and engaged only minimally with one another's arguments. Modernist discourse presented a futuristic utopian vision in which assistive technologies, implemented at scale, would enable society to meet its moral obligations to older people by creating a safe ‘smart’ home environment where help was always at hand, while generating efficiency savings. Humanist discourse emphasised the uniqueness and moral worth of the individual and tailoring to personal and family context; it considered that technologies were only sometimes fit for purpose and could create as well as solve problems. Political economy discourse envisaged a techno-economic complex of powerful vested interests driving commodification of healthcare and diversion of public funds into private business. Change management discourse recognised the complicatedness of large-scale technology programmes and emphasised good project management and organisational processes. Conclusion Introduction of telehealth and telecare is hampered because different stakeholders hold different assumptions, values and world views, ‘talk past’ each other and compete for recognition and resources. If investments in these technologies are to bear fruit, more effective inter-stakeholder dialogue must occur to establish an organising vision that better accommodates competing discourses.

Procter, Rob; Wherton, Joe; Sugarhood, Paul; Shaw, Sara

2012-01-01

41

Discourse analysis: an exploration of methodological issues and a call for methodological courage in the field of policy analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of the frequent, yet often divergent, uses of the term ‘discourse analysis’ and the recurrent misunderstandings associated with it, this article seeks to clarify the central postulates of poststructuralist discourse theory and to raise critical methodological issues associated with it. More specifically, this article explores the usefulness of discourse theory for the analysis of policy (discourses) by way

Katharina T. Paul

2009-01-01

42

Information Technology and Interests in Scholarly Communication: A Discourse Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the concept of information technology and scholarly communication as meta-communication as well as journal articles focuses on discourse analysis based on three interview interactions. Highlights include technological determinism; a social constructivist approach to technology; the indexical category of research; and interest…

Jacobs, Neil

2001-01-01

43

A Discourse Analysis of School Counseling Supervisory E-Mail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a discourse analysis of weekly computer-mediated communications between 8 school counseling interns and their e-mail supervisor over a 16-week semester. Course-required e-mail supervision was provided as an adjunct to traditional face-to-face individual and group supervision. School counselor supervisees and supervisor enacted 3…

Luke, Melissa; Gordon, Cynthia

2011-01-01

44

Competency Discourses: An Analysis of Secondary and Tertiary Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of a sample of assessment tasks used in New Zealand first-year clinical and final-year secondary school Biology and Chemistry National Certificate of Educational Achievement summative assessments was conducted to assess whether similarities and differences existed in secondary and tertiary competency discourses. Findings suggested…

McNaughton, Susan M.

2013-01-01

45

The Learning College Movement: A Critical Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, 6 key texts from the literature of the learning college movement are examined with the technique of critical discourse analysis. The rhetorical strategies found in the literature are discussed from the standpoint of critical linguistics, and excerpts from the texts are presented as examples of the discursive practices favored by…

Hanson, Chad M.

2007-01-01

46

Critical Narrative Analysis: The Interplay of Critical Discourse and Narrative Analyses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I question the micro-macro separation in discourse analysis, the separation of personal and institutional discourses. I apply a mostly macroanalytic perspective (critical discourse analysis [CDA]) to inform a predominantly microanalytic perspective (analysis of conversational narratives) and vice versa. In the combination of these…

Souto-Manning, Mariana

2014-01-01

47

Reflections on Foucauldian discourse analysis in planning and environmental policy research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discourse analysis is becoming an increasingly common approach in planning and environmental policy research. This paper asserts that the generic treatment of discourse analysis obscures distinct approaches in which ‘discourses’ can combine different elements of text, systems of thought and action. Textually oriented approaches have been more prevalent during the 1990s, but this paper explores a different approach, grounded in

Liz Sharp; Tim Richardson

2001-01-01

48

Traitement discursif et conversationnel des representations sociales (Discourse and Conversational Analysis of Social Representations).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the interpretive process of social representations of bilingualism by means of discourse and conversational analysis. Representations are to be understood as an interpretive set of assumptions conveyed by discourse, creating recurrent and habitual systems of dispositions and expectations. The article shows how discourse is…

Serra, Cecilia

2000-01-01

49

Structure, Power, and Discourse: An Analysis of Discipline in an Urban High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article looks at one instance of a teacher attempting to discipline students for sexually profane heteronormative language and the resulting events that demonstrate a discipline over all discourses in the school. Using Fairclough's critical discourse analysis (2005) to analyze the narrative, I argue that the discourse in the school reinforces…

Hickman, Heather

2008-01-01

50

Discourse analysis and the impact of the philosophy of Enlightenment in nursing research.  

PubMed

Discourse analysis has been introduced into nursing research as an approach which has the potential to offer new perspectives and to pose new questions to taken-for-granted assumptions. However, critique has arisen that when applied to nursing studies, the epistemological foundation of the discourse analysis is often overlooked. It is furthermore claimed that the methodological inspiration does not lead to any new insights and that these studies can hardly be differentiated from more traditional studies. This study supports this critique, arguing that the challenges of implementing discourse analysis in nursing research reflect a dominant pattern of thought in the discourse of the nursing profession that have held sway throughout the last century. We argue that this pattern of thought stems from the Western philosophy of consciousness and the conception of the sovereign subject. By applying a discourse analytical perspective to the discourse of the nursing profession itself, this study elucidates the challenges of applying discourse analysis in nursing research. PMID:23679133

Beedholm, Kirsten; Lomborg, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

2014-06-01

51

DISCOURSE ANALYSIS MEANS DOING ANALYSIS: A CRITIQUE OF SIX ANALYTIC SHORTCOMINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract A number of ways of treating talk and textual data are identified which fall short of discourse analysis.  They are: (1) under-analysis through summary; (2) under-analysis through taking sides; (3) under-analysis through over-quotation or through isolated quotation; (4) the circular identification of discourses and mental constructs; (5) false survey; and (6) analysis that consists in simply spotting features.  We

Charles Antaki; Michael Billig; Derek Edwards; Jonathan Potter

52

Nursing documentation and nursing practice: a discourse analysis.  

PubMed

Nursing documentation exists as a daily reality of nurses' work. It is interpreted by some as the evidence of nursing actions and dismissed by others as a misrepresentation of nursing care. This paper reports on a study of nursing documentation as nursing practice. The work of Foucault and discourse analysis provide a research design for examination of how written descriptions of patient events taken from patient case notes result from hegemonic influences that construct a knowledge and therefore a practice of nursing. Discourses as ways of understanding knowledge as language, social practices and power relations are used to identify how nursing documentation functions as a manifestation and ritual of power relations. A focus on body work and fragmented bodies provided details of nursing's participation in the discursive construction of the object patient and invisible nurse. It is through resistances to documentation that alternative knowledge of nursing exists. PMID:8807383

Heartfield, M

1996-07-01

53

Gutter to Garden: Historical Discourses of Risk in Interventions in Working Class Children's Street Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates interventions in the gutter play of British working class children in the first decade of the 20th century through their re-location within Free Kindergartens. In contemporary literature, the street child was viewed through a binary lens, as both "at risk" and "as risk", reflecting wider societal discourses in a period of…

Read, Jane

2011-01-01

54

Caring control: methodological issues in a discourse analysis of waterbirth texts.  

PubMed

This paper describes a study where the discourses surrounding waterbirth were identified by an analysis of texts in professional journals and broadsheet newspapers. While one particular discourse, caring control, will be discussed, the focus of the paper is on the method of discourse analysis. What discourse analysis can offer nurses and midwives is a position from which to analyse systematically and to arrive at some understanding of how oppression and inequality of power relations, which are inherent in many forms of health care provision, are created and sustained. PMID:10215983

Redwood, R

1999-04-01

55

Reporting on Sino-Japan in The New York Times: A Critical Discourse Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a critical discourse analysis of the news reports on Sino-Japan conflicts in the New York Times from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2006. A critical discourse analysis is made to delineate the contrasting representations of China and Japan, locating some particular discursive strategies that harbor ideological inclinations. Findings indicate that the New York Times portrayed the

Xiaoxiao Chen

2008-01-01

56

Studying Agency in Literacy Teacher Education: A Layered Approach to Positive Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critically oriented forms of discourse analysis have focused largely on oppression and injustice. Signaling a new turn in the field, scholars have called for an analytic focus on moments of liberation and agency, referring to this orientation as "positive discourse analysis" (PDA). In this research, we turn our attention to a case study of agency…

Rogers, Rebecca; Wetzel, Melissa Mosley

2013-01-01

57

A corpus analysis of discourse relatio ns for Natural Language Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a Natural Language Generation (NLG) system that generates texts tailored for the reading ability of individual readers. As part of building the system, GIRL (Generator for Individual Reading Levels), we carried out an analysis of the RST Discourse Treebank Corpus to find out how human writers linguistically realise discourse relations. The goal of the analysis was (a)

Sandra Williams; Ehud Reiter

2003-01-01

58

"Genre Means...": A Critical Discourse Analysis of Fourth Grade Talk about Genre  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action research study investigates how genre theory can be integrated into the practice of a writing enrichment program and how the frameworks of Critical Discourse Analysis and Multimodal Analysis can help assess and improve both student learning and teacher practice. A multilayered exploration of teacher-student discourse in an urban public…

Schaenen, Inda

2010-01-01

59

Insights beyond Neo-Liberal Educational Practices: The Value of Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the nature, power and effects of neo-liberal rationale in educational settings. By introducing discourse analysis of two cases, the influence of neo-liberal ideology on contemporary curricula and school programs were examined. The analysis showed that dominant discourses based on neo-liberal rationale presented themselves as…

Turunen, Tuija A.; Rafferty, John

2013-01-01

60

Papers in Discourse and Contrastive Discourse Analysis. Jyvaskyla Contrastive Studies, 5. Reports from the Department of English, University of Jyvaskyla, No 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following papers and reports are included: (1) "Prisoners of Code-Centred Privacy: Reflections on Contrastive Analysis and Related Disciplines" by Kari Sajavaara and Jaakko Lehtonen; (2) "The Methodology and Practice of Contrastive Discourse Analysis" by Sajavaara, Lehtonen, and Liisa Korpimies; (3) "Interactional Activities in Discourse

Sajavaara, Kari, Ed.; Lehtonen, Jaakko, Ed.

61

Causal Discourse and the Teaching of History. How Do Teachers Explain Historical Causality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we aim to describe how secondary school teachers explain multicausal historical events. To that end, we recorded and analyzed seven classes on "The discovery and colonization of America". The results show that secondary school teachers do not simply deal with history as a catalog of actions, characters and dates. On the contrary,…

Montanero, Manuel; Lucero, Manuel

2011-01-01

62

The British and Curriculum Development in West Africa: A Historical Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Only recently have African nations begun to make their way towards establishing genuinely autonomous education systems incorporating elements of indigenous culture. The present study examines the historical development of curriculum in British West Africa in its links with the educational activities of the early Christian missionaries and the…

Ofori-Attah, Kwabena Dei

2006-01-01

63

Knowledge Building Discourse Explorer: A Social Network Analysis Application for Knowledge Building Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent studies of learning theories, a new methodology that integrates two prevailing metaphors of learning (acquisition and participation) has been discussed. However, current analytical techniques are insufficient for analyzing how social knowledge develops through learners' discourse and how individual learners contribute to this…

Oshima, Jun; Oshima, Ritsuko; Matsuzawa, Yoshiaki

2012-01-01

64

The Discourses of Discourse Analysis: A Response to Ninnes and Burnett.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field of comparative education has been slow to incorporate poststructuralist concerns due to theoretical bias, the linguistic barrier of postmodernist discourses, and the critique of postmodernism as indifferent to social issues. Debates on key questions of epistemology, ontology, and ethics in social research are needed to further…

Welch, Anthony

2003-01-01

65

A Study of EFL Discourse Using Corpora: An Analysis of Discourse Completion Tasks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the discourse completion data collected through Japanese English-as-a-foreign-language learners with reference to four speech functions--thanking, apology, request, and offering. Compares Japanese learners' expressions with expressions obtained by native speakers of English stored in the London-Lund corpus of Spoken English. (Author/VWL)

Nakano, M.; Miyasaka, N.; Yamazaki, T.

2000-01-01

66

Empowering Discourse: Discourse Analysis as Method and Practice in the Sociology Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collaborative learning and critical pedagogy are widely recognized as "empowering" pedagogies for higher education. Yet, the practical implementation of both has a mixed record. The question, then, is: How could collaborative and critical pedagogies be empowered themselves? This paper makes a primarily theoretical case for discourse

Hjelm, Titus

2013-01-01

67

Front desk talk: discourse analysis of receptionist-patient interaction  

PubMed Central

Background GP receptionists are the first point of contact with the NHS for most patients and have an important role in facilitating access to healthcare services. There is evidence that they are often perceived as impersonal, insensitive, or officious. Aim To analyse the communicative styles of GP receptionists when dealing with patients. Design of study Ethnographically situated discourse analysis of audio recordings. Setting Three NHS GP surgeries in Scotland. Method Fine-grained transcription and stage-by-stage analysis of digital audio recordings of 283 encounters between receptionists and patients engaged in front desk business. Participants were 16 receptionists and 283 patients. Results Interaction between receptionists and patients consists mainly of verbal routines that are shaped by the administrative tasks completed through them. Receptionists adhere to these established patterns of use at all times, even when dealing with non-routine situations. Within the routine framework, receptionists communicate with patients using styles that display three dominant approaches: task centred, conventionally polite, and rapport building. Receptionists who adopt a task-centred approach use forms with minimal interpersonal content, while those who use conventionally polite forms or those associated with rapport building, give attention to establishing positive relationships with patients. There is no evidence that any stylistic approach is more efficient than another. There is, however, evidence that excessive adherence to routine verbal behaviour has an adverse impact on problem solving. Conclusion Most receptionist discourse consists of the repetition of established verbal routines. Receptionists adopt verbal styles that are predominantly task centred, conventionally polite, or rapport building. Although all three styles enable the completion of reception work with similar levels of efficiency, task-centred styles may appear over-direct. The use of a routine approach when dealing with problematic situations can inhibit and delay their resolution.

Hewitt, Heather; McCloughan, Lucy; McKinstry, Brian

2009-01-01

68

A discourse analysis technique for charting the flow of micro-information behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this research is to describe a discourse analysis technique which can be used to analyze text or speech that is produced by people when discussing their information practices. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The method involves coding the phrases and sentences of this interpretive discourse into the three domains of behavior investigated in psychology and education, namely, the

Diane Nahl

2007-01-01

69

Scaling discourse analysis: Experiences from Hermanus, South Africa and Walvis Bay, Namibia1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scaling discourse analysis refers to the necessity to consider environmental discourse a multi-dimensional and diversified practice. Depending on the various levels of state and society at which environmental policies are applied and depending on the geographical scale at which their solution is sought, we have to differentiate both policy processes and outcomes in environmental politics. We introduce the importance of

Roger Keil; Anne-Marie Debbané

2005-01-01

70

What We All (Supposedly) Know about the Poor: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Ruby Payne's "Framework"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses a professional development text by Ruby Payne that claims to inform teachers about the lives and minds of children from poor households. We use Critical Discourse Analysis (Fairclough, 1995; Gee, 2005; Rogers, Malancharuvil-Berkes, & Mosley, 2005) to examine how the author enlists readers' participation in deficit discourses

Dworin, Joel E.; Bomer, Randy

2008-01-01

71

Intellectual Disabilities, Challenging Behaviour and Referral Texts: A Critical Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The texts of referrals written by workers in residential services for people with learning difficulties constitute sites where contemporary discourses of intellectual disabilities are being constructed. This paper uses Critical Discourse Analysis to examine referrals made to a Community Learning Disability Team (CLDT). The study finds referral…

Nunkoosing, Karl; Haydon-Laurelut, Mark

2011-01-01

72

A Conversational Analysis of Computer-Mediated Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Excerpts from a transcript of computer "conversations" provide the basis for a study of how people manage ongoing interaction, given the constraints of computer-mediated discourse, and whether any unusual conventions are used in doing so. The discourse was analyzed using address, topical references, and adjacency pairs to link the messages.…

Holmes, Michael E.

73

A Discourse Analysis of Student Perceptions of Their Communication Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discourse regarding student perceptions of their communication competence was collected from students in geographically diverse university systems in the U.S. These student discourses were analyzed for patterns that revealed shared topics, ideas, and values regarding communication competence in a variety of situations. Three characteristics of…

Almeida, Eugenie

2004-01-01

74

A Discourse Analysis of the Online Mathematics Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirteen online mathematics classes were analyzed using a discourse coding system created by Bellack et al. (1966). Findings suggest that the ratio of teacher-to-student discourse is far lower in online than in face-to-face classes and varies widely from instructor to instructor. A strong positive correlation was shown between instructor posts and…

Offenholley, Kathleen H.

2012-01-01

75

Discourse analysis of an 'observation levels' nursing policy.  

PubMed

The practice of special observation (or constant observation) is widely used in inpatient psychiatric facilities for the care of people who are suicidal. In this study, the policy of special observation was examined using a discourse analysis method to discern prevailing ideas and practices highlighted within the policy. After reading, studying and analysing the special observation nursing policy, the authors briefly describe the document and outline the terms and phrases prevalent within the document. These recurrent ideas are then organized into five categories: professional responsibilities, suicidality, the patient's immediate context, the patient's observable behaviour and the nursing checklist. In discussion of the policy document, the invisibility of the authors, target audience and patients is noted. The authors attempt to elicit evidence for the therapeutic nurse-patient relationship in the document. In the analysis of patient, nurse and doctor roles and responsibilities, it is evident that the policy document reinforces the traditional medical hierarchy of power relations. Some assumptions that underpin the document are postulated. Questions regarding the nature of risk assessment and the evidence base for the medical prescription of special observation are raised. As well as ideas and themes evident in the document, the absence of some relevant issues is explored. While the need for succinctness and clarity in policy documents is acknowledged, the fact that patient rights, therapeutic processes and ethical dilemmas are absent is deemed significant. PMID:11115015

Horsfall, J; Cleary, M

2000-11-01

76

Exploring the discourse on communication modality after cochlear implantation: a foucauldian analysis of parents' narratives.  

PubMed

After pediatric cochlear implantation, parents have to make decisions concerning which communication modality the child and the child's family will use. The choice has to be made against a background of opposing views on communication modality in follow-up after pediatric cochlear implantation. The opposing views form a discourse that has been a core issue in the international body of literature for a long time. For hearing parents caught up in this ongoing controversy, the choice can be a difficult one. The study reported in this article explores the discourse on communication modality and is based on 27 written parental accounts on experiences with follow-up. From the perspective of Foucault's thinking, discourses exert knowledge and power. Drawing on Foucault, the study explores how the discourse on communication modality is constructed, how it operates, and how it governs thinking and acting. The Foucauldian analysis brings to the fore the complex nature of the discourse and states that follow-up, which is intended to be helpful for parents, may induce insecurity and frustration. The study brings into conversation a broader understanding of the discourse on communication modality and addresses a need for increased awareness on how the discourse governs thinking and acting in follow-up. PMID:24558057

Bruin, Marieke; Nevøy, Anne

2014-07-01

77

Cross-Cultural Analysis of Student Writing : Beyond Discourses of Difference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Text analysis traditions in France and the United States include discourse analysis, critical linguistics, French functional linguistics, Bakhtinian dialogics, and "generous reading." These frames have not been used, however, in cross-cultural analysis of university student writing. The author presents a study of 250 student texts from French and…

Donahue, Tiane

2008-01-01

78

NS-NNS Interaction in Academic Writing Tutorials: Discourse Analysis and Its Interpretations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study compared the language of interactions of teachers with students who are native speakers (NSs) and non-native speakers (NNSs) of English in academic writing tutorial sessions. Data were gathered through discourse analysis of transcripts of 12 tutorials and interviews with the participants. Analysis of talk examined topic initiation,…

Thonus, Terese

79

Prisoners signify: a political discourse analysis of mental illness in a prison control unit.  

PubMed

Increasingly, US prisoners diagnosed with mental illness are housed in control units, the most restrictive form of confinement in the US prison system. This situation has led to intense debate over the legal, ethical and clinical status of mental illness. This is a semiotic struggle with profound effects, yet most related work treats mental illness as a neutral, individual variable. Few analyses locate mental illness within a larger sociopolitical context. Fewer still focus on discursive practice. None critically analyze the accounts of control unit prisoners, who talk about extreme marginality and risk for victimization. This paper has two aims: (i) to develop a systematic method of analysis that accounts for signification as discourse-in-action; and (ii) to show how prisoners' signification of mental illness articulates agency through and against marginalizing discourse. Political discourse analysis demonstrates how control unit prisoners with psychiatric diagnoses signify mental illness, and articulate safer identifications in the process. PMID:17718746

Cloyes, Kristin Gates

2007-09-01

80

Qualitative analysis in gay men's health research: comparing thematic, critical discourse, and conversation analysis.  

PubMed

Gay men's health typically relies on traditional forms of qualitative analysis, such as thematic analysis, and would benefit from a diversity of analytic approaches. Such diversity offers public health researchers a breadth of tools to address different kinds of research questions and, thus, substantiate different types of social phenomenon relevant to the health and wellbeing of gay men. In this article, I compare and contrast three qualitative analytic approaches: thematic, critical discourse, and conversation analysis. I demonstrate and distinguish their key analytic assumptions by applying each approach to a single data excerpt taken from a public health interview conducted for a broader study on gay men's health. I engage in a discussion of each approach in relation to three themes: its utility for gay men's health, its approach to dilemmas of voice, and its capacity for reflexivity. I advocate that qualitative researchers should capitalise on the full range of qualitative analytic approaches to achieve the goals of gay men's health. However, I specifically encourage qualitative researchers to engage with conversation analysis, not only because of its capacity to resolve dilemmas of voice and to achieve reflexivity, but also for its ability to capture forms of social life hitherto undocumented through thematic and critical discourse analysis. PMID:22853179

Aguinaldo, Jeffrey P

2012-01-01

81

Using Semantic Feature Analysis to Improve Contextual Discourse in Adults with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Semantic feature analysis (SFA) was used to determine whether training contextually related words would improve the discourse of individuals with nonfluent aphasia in preselected contexts. Method: A modified multiple-probes-across-behaviors design was used to train target words using SFA in 3 adults with nonfluent aphasia. Pretreatment,…

Rider, Jill Davis; Wright, Heather Harris; Marshall, Robert C.; Page, Judith L.

2008-01-01

82

Critical Discourse Analysis in Literacy Education: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a critical, integrative literature review of scholarship in literacy studies from 2004 to 2012 that draws on critical discourse analysis (CDA). We discuss key issues, trends, and criticisms in the field. Our methodology was carried out in three stages. First, we searched educational databases to locate literacy-focused CDA…

Rogers, Rebecca; Schaenen, Inda

2014-01-01

83

‘Preaching to the Choir?’ An Analysis of DUP Discourses about the Northern Ireland Peace Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the Democratic Unionist Party's (DUP) discursive responses to the Northern Ireland peace process. Drawing on narrative analysis of DUP discourses in the Belfast News Letter (1998–2005), it argues that the party has articulated five themes: the de?legitimisation of David Trimble and the Ulster Unionist Party, the immorality of the peace process, the security threat, the victimisation of

Gladys Ganiel

2007-01-01

84

Accreditation and Power: A Discourse Analysis of a New Regime of Governance in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article studies discourses within the accreditation of Norwegian higher education conducted by the Norwegian Agency for Quality Assurance in Education (NOKUT), using one concrete case (the accreditation of bachelor programs in nursing). Analysis of policy documents and accreditation reports are influenced by two of Foucault's concepts of…

Engebretsen, Eivind; Heggen, Kristin; Eilertsen, Heidi Annett

2012-01-01

85

Meaning Making through Multiple Modalities in a Biology Classroom: A Multimodal Semiotics Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching of science is a complex process, involving the use of multiple modalities. This paper illustrates the potential of a multimodal semiotics discourse analysis framework to illuminate meaning-making possibilities during the teaching of a science concept. A multimodal semiotics analytical framework is developed and used to (1) analyze the…

Jaipal, Kamini

2010-01-01

86

Position of Text and Discourse Analysis in Higher Education Policy Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article sets out to address the position of text and discourse analysis in higher education policy research, both from theoretical and methodological points of view. Theoretically, the article presents policy processes as discursive processes, arguing that higher education policies are constructed discursively. Methodologically, the article…

Saarinen, Taina

2008-01-01

87

Experiments in Discourse Analysis Impact on Information Classification and Retrieval Algorithms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the inclusion of contextual information in indexing and retrieval systems to improve results and the ability to carry out text analysis by means of linguistic knowledge. Presents research that investigated whether discourse variables have an impact on information and retrieval and classification algorithms. (Author/LRW)

Morato, Jorge; Llorens, J.; Genova, G.; Moreiro, J. A.

2003-01-01

88

Negotiating Multiple Identities between School and the Outside World: A Critical Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines interview talk of three students in an Australian high school to show how they negotiate their young adult identities between school and the outside world. It draws on Bakhtin's concepts of dialogism and heteroglossia to argue that identities are linguistically and corporeally constituted. A critical discourse analysis of…

Ryan, Mary; Johnson, Greer

2009-01-01

89

Negotiating multiple identities between school and the outside world: a critical discourse analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines interview talk of three students in an Australian high school to show how they negotiate their young adult identities between school and the outside world. It draws on Bakhtin's concepts of dialogism and heteroglossia to argue that identities are linguistically and corporeally constituted. A critical discourse analysis of segments of transcribed interviews and student-related public documents finds

Mary Ryan; Greer Johnson

2009-01-01

90

Postmodernism Debates and Comparative Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis. Essay Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Detailed discourse analysis is presented for two articles that suggest that postmodernism has little to offer comparative education and should be resisted. The two texts, focusing on postmodernism as the antithesis of comparative education and on the "lost promise" of postmodernism, demonstrate the use of language to convey messages that limit or…

Mehta, Sonia; Ninnes, Peter

2003-01-01

91

A New Tool for Discourse Analysis: The Vocabulary-Management Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes the Vocabulary-Management Profile, a tool for discourse analysis. The number of new words introduced in a moving interval of text 35 words long is counted and a curve created by plotting the number of new words in a successive interval at the midpoint of the interval. Analyses of text by George Orwell and James Joyce are presented. (JL)

Youmans, Gilbert

1991-01-01

92

Whom Should We Serve? A Discourse Analysis of Social Workers’ Commentary on Undocumented Immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a discourse analysis of social work practitioners’ commentaries on undocumented immigrants that were collected from a survey of practicing social workers’ attitudes toward immigration and immigrants. Analyzing 198 open-ended comments, we explore the discursive mechanisms practitioners employ to construct undocumented immigrants, and their professional responsibilities toward them. These views are illustrative of the ways in which the profession

Rupaleem Bhuyan

2012-01-01

93

Teacher Education and Development Policies: Critical Discourse Analysis from a Comparative Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to explore teacher education policies in different countries of Latin America and North America through the comparison of policy documents. The training of teachers, a key component of education, faces educational challenges as a result of various reform policies in different countries. Critical discourse analysis

Pini, Monica E.; Gorostiaga, Jorge M.

2008-01-01

94

The Newfoundland School Society (1830-1840): A Critical Discourse Analysis of Its Religious Education Efforts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article uses the lens of critical discourse analysis to examine the religious education efforts of the Newfoundland School Society (NSS), the main provider of religious education in Newfoundland in the 19th century. Although its focus was initially this colony, the NSS quickly broadened its reach to the whole British empire, making it one of…

English, Leona M.

2012-01-01

95

EFL (English as a Foreign Language) Classroom Discourse Analysis of a Vocational College and Some Reflections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The application of classroom discourse analysis of foreign language teaching and learning can reveal much about how teachers perform in their teaching practice and how to make improvement. In this paper, the author tries to reveal the present state of EFL (English as a foreign language) classrooms in a vocational college from the angle of…

Xin, Liu; Luzheng, Lou; Biru, Shi

2011-01-01

96

Reproducing Gender Inequality: A Critical Discourse Analysis of a Turkish Adult Literacy Textbook. Research Brief #7  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult education curricula such as literacy textbooks present blueprints for living, including different ways of being and relating as men and women. However, educators and scholars seldom consider the underlying assumptions about gender in literacy workbooks, especially in international settings. This study used Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)…

Gungor, Ramazan; Prins, Esther

2011-01-01

97

Review of Research: A Review of Discourse Analysis in Literacy Research--Equitable Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review represents research employing discourse analysis conducted by scholars interested in literacy issues in education across the age span--preschool to adult--during the last 10 years. Drawing from more than 300 studies, we discerned that a common theme was understanding how the literacy education of all students can be successfully…

Rex, Lesley A.; Bunn, Mike; Davila, Bethany A.; Dickinson, Hannah A.; Ford, Amy Carpenter; Gerben, Chris; Orzulak, Melinda J. McBee; Thomson, Heather

2010-01-01

98

A Critical Discourse Analysis of a Real-World Problem in Mathematics: Looking for Signs of Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concepts of "access" and "relevance" feature prominently in the discourse of change in mathematics education in South Africa. One way in which these concepts have been played out in mathematics classrooms is in the use of mathematical problems with real-world contexts. This paper presents a Critical Discourse Analysis of one such problem,…

Le Roux, Kate

2008-01-01

99

The Discourse of Parent Involvement in Special Education: A Critical Analysis Linking Policy Documents to the Experiences of Mothers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parent involvement is acknowledged as a crucial aspect of the education of students with special needs. However, the discourse of parent involvement represents parent involvement in limited ways, thereby controlling how and the extent to which parents can be involved in the education of their children. In this article, critical discourse analysis

Lai, Yuan; Vadeboncoeur, Jennifer A.

2013-01-01

100

Plural and hybrid environmental values: a discourse analysis of the wind energy conflict in Australia and the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind energy has divided environmentalists. To understand why, disparate groups from Victoria, Australia and the United Kingdom are characterised as discourse coalitions, and their views and arguments are digested into compelling storylines. Drawing on the literature that explains environmental conflicts in terms of contrasting values, a discourse analysis approach is used to identify and define the hybrid and plural values

Brad Jessup

2010-01-01

101

Gender, Discourse, and "Gender and Discourse."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A critic of Deborah Tannen's book "Gender and Discourse" responds to comments made about her critique, arguing that the book's analysis of the relationship of gender and discourse tends to seek, and perhaps force, explanations only in those terms. Another linguist's analysis of similar phenomena is found to be more rigorous. (MSE)

Davis, Hayley

1997-01-01

102

Analyzing psychotherapy process as intersubjective sensemaking: an approach based on discourse analysis and neural networks.  

PubMed

The authors propose a method for analyzing the psychotherapy process: discourse flow analysis (DFA). DFA is a technique representing the verbal interaction between therapist and patient as a discourse network, aimed at measuring the therapist-patient discourse ability to generate new meanings through time. DFA assumes that the main function of psychotherapy is to produce semiotic novelty. DFA is applied to the verbatim transcript of the psychotherapy. It defines the main meanings active within the therapeutic discourse by means of the combined use of text analysis and statistical techniques. Subsequently, it represents the dynamic interconnections among these meanings in terms of a "discursive network." The dynamic and structural indexes of the discursive network have been shown to provide a valid representation of the patient-therapist communicative flow as well as an estimation of its clinical quality. Finally, a neural network is designed specifically to identify patterns of functioning of the discursive network and to verify the clinical validity of these patterns in terms of their association with specific phases of the psychotherapy process. An application of the DFA to a case of psychotherapy is provided to illustrate the method and the kinds of results it produces. PMID:20665338

Nitti, Mariangela; Ciavolino, Enrico; Salvatore, Sergio; Gennaro, Alessandro

2010-09-01

103

An Analysis of Teacher Discourse that Introduces Real Science Activities to High School Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most academic science educators encourage teachers to provide their students with access to more authentic science activities. What can and do teachers say to increase students’ interests in participating in opportunities to do real science? What are the discursive resources they draw on to introduce authentic science to students? The purpose of this ethnographic and discourse-analytic study is to investigate the ways in which the activities of scientists are discursively presented to high school students in a biology/career preparation course. Data sources were collected by means of observation, field notes, interviews, and videotaped lessons in an eleventh-grade biology/career preparation course. Drawing on discourse analysis, we investigate the discursive resources—or, more specifically and technically, the interpretative repertoires—teachers used to explain and promote opportunities to engage students in real science activities. Our analysis identifies and characterizes six types of interpretative repertoires: specialized, a-stereotypical, relevant, empirical, emotive, and rare-opportunity. To better understand the “big picture” of how these discursive resources are drawn on in the classroom, we also report on the frequencies of the repertoires in the discourse and the ways in which repertoires changed in the course of teacher-student interactions. The findings of this case study offer teachers and researchers with a better understanding of how specific forms of discourse—i.e., the repertoires—can serve as resources to enhance teacher-introduction of authentic science to students and provide students a bridge between school and authentic science.

Hsu, Pei-Ling; Roth, Wolff-Michael

2009-08-01

104

The middle-class nature of identity and its implications for education: a genealogical analysis and reevaluation of a culturally and historically bounded concept.  

PubMed

We consider identity as a historically emerging discourse that requires genealogical analysis - not to discover the roots of our identity but to commit [ourselves] to its dissipation (Foucault 1977, p. 162). We suggest analyzing identity through the history of socio-economic classes, their life struggles, ambitions, development, and reproduction. We see learning not as a project of transformation of identity, but rather as developing access to socially valuable practices and developing one's own voice within these practices (through addressing and responding to other voices). The access and voice projects free agents from unnecessary finalization and objectivization by oneself and others (Bakhtin 1999; Bakhtin 1990). In education, we should develop indigenous discourses of learning and develop a conceptual framework that makes analysis of diverse discourses possible. We argue that learning, as transformation of participation in a sociocultural practice to gain more access, is a better conceptual framework than learning as transformation of identity. PMID:22307777

Matusov, Eugene; Smith, Mark Philip

2012-09-01

105

Exploring the communication between telenurse and caller--A critical discourse analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Telenursing is an expanding service in most Western societies. Sweden is a front-line country, with all of its 21 counties connected to Swedish Healthcare Direct (SHD) 1177. The intention of the service is twofold: to make health care more efficient, while also making it more accessible and safe for patients. Previous research has shown, however, that the service is not used equitably. Gender, age, socio-economic, and ethnicity differences have been reported as determining factors for the use of the service and the advice given. Aim The aim of the study was to explore the communication between telenurses and callers in authentic calls to SHD 1177. Methodology A qualitative method, using critical discourse analysis (CDA), was chosen. The approach was deductive, that is, the analysis was made in view of a predetermined framework of theory. Twenty calls were strategically chosen and included in the study. Results The CDA resulted in five types of calls, namely a gatekeeping call, a gendered call, a call marked by impersonal traits, a call with voices of the life world, and finally a counter discourse call. The dominating patterns in the calls were of gatekeeping and biomedical character. Patterns of the societal gender order were found, in that representations of the reluctant male caller and the ideal female caller were identified, but also a call representing a counter discourse. The service seemed difficult to use for patients with low language proficiency. Conclusion Telenursing could potentially challenge inequalities in health care. However, the discourse of telenursing is dialectically related to neoliberal ideology and the ideology of medicine. It is also situated in a gendered context of ideal femininity and hegemonic masculinity. Through better awareness of gender biases and the callers’ different resources for making themselves heard, the communication between telenurse and caller might become more equal and thereby better suitable for all callers.

Hakimnia, Roya; Holmstrom, Inger K.; Carlsson, Marianne; Hoglund, Anna T.

2014-01-01

106

Analysis of landfills with historic airphotos  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation is conducted regarding the value of existing aerial photographs for waste management, including landfill monitoring. The value of historic aerial photographs for documenting landfill boundaries is shown in a graph in which the expansion of an active landfill is traced over a 40-year period. Historic aerial photographs can also be analyzed to obtain general or detailed land-use and land-cover information. In addition, the photographs provide information regarding other elements of the physical environment, including geology, soils, and surface and subsurface drainage. The value of historic photos is discussed, taking into account applications for inventory, assessing contamination/health hazards, planning corrective measures, planning waste collection and facilities, developing inactive landfills, and research concerning improved land-filling operations.

Erb, T. L.; Philipson, W. R.; Teng, W. L.; Liang, T.

1981-01-01

107

Unity and Detachment: A Discourse Analysis of Doctoral Supervision  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the authors report on an approach that they used to enhance their understanding of the complex nature of doctoral supervision by analyzing e-mail communication within a supervisory relationship. Although some scholars have discussed research supervision, empirical research on the subject is limited, and the authors found no published attempts to explore doctoral supervision through the analysis of

Fiona Irvine

108

An Analysis of Online Interaction Discourse in Knowledge Forum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case study, based on collaborative knowledge building theory, investigated online interaction characteristics and knowledge building of students who used the knowledge forum (KF) to discuss course-related content. Collected data included the discussion transcripts of a postgraduate course during one semester and students interview records. Content analysis was used to examine student participation and interaction characteristics quantitively, and interview method

Yanyan Li; Ronghuai Huang

2008-01-01

109

"TOPOI" and the Generation of Discourse: A Critical Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Literally defined, topoi are places in the mind where items of information (ideas, arguments, etc.) may be stored. The purpose of this paper is to conduct a critical analysis of a number of studies which have appeared in communication literature on the concept of topoi and to discuss the function of topoi in communication. Utilizing the…

King, Corwin P.

110

Uncertainty Analysis of Historical Hurricane Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was conducted for historical hurricane data dating back to 1851 that was obtained from the U. S. Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The data set was chosen because it is a large, publicly available collection of information, exhibiting great variability which has made the forecasting of future states, from current and previous states, difficult. The availability of substantial, high-fidelity validation data, however, made for an excellent uncertainty assessment study. Several factors (independent variables) were identified from the data set, which could potentially influence the track and intensity of the storms. The values of these factors, along with the values of responses of interest (dependent variables) were extracted from the data base, and provided to a commercial software package for processing via the ANOVA technique. The primary goal of the study was to document the ANOVA modeling uncertainty and predictive errors in making predictions about hurricane location and intensity 24 to 120 hours beyond known conditions, as reported by the data set. A secondary goal was to expose the ANOVA technique to a broader community within NASA. The independent factors considered to have an influence on the hurricane track included the current and starting longitudes and latitudes (measured in degrees), and current and starting maximum sustained wind speeds (measured in knots), and the storm starting date, its current duration from its first appearance, and the current year fraction of each reading, all measured in years. The year fraction and starting date were included in order to attempt to account for long duration cyclic behaviors, such as seasonal weather patterns, and years in which the sea or atmosphere were unusually warm or cold. The effect of short duration weather patterns and ocean conditions could not be examined with the current data set. The responses analyzed were the storm latitude, longitude and intensity, as recorded in the data set, 24 or 120 hours beyond the current state. Several ANOVA modeling schemes were examined. Two forms of validation were used: 1) comparison with official hurricane prediction performance metrics and 2) cases studies conducted on hurricanes from the 2005 season, which were not included within the model construction and ANOVA assessment. In general, the ANOVA technique did not perform as well as the established official prediction performance metrics published by NOAA; still, the technique did remarkably well in this demonstration with a difficult data set and could probably be made to perform better with more knowledge of hurricane development and dynamics applied to the problem. The technique provides a repeatable prediction process that eliminates the need for judgment in the forecast.

Green, Lawrence L.

2007-01-01

111

A discourse on sensitivity analysis for discretely-modeled structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A descriptive review is presented of the most recent methods for performing sensitivity analysis of the structural behavior of discretely-modeled systems. The methods are generally but not exclusively aimed at finite element modeled structures. Topics included are: selections of finite difference step sizes; special consideration for finite difference sensitivity of iteratively-solved response problems; first and second derivatives of static structural response; sensitivity of stresses; nonlinear static response sensitivity; eigenvalue and eigenvector sensitivities for both distinct and repeated eigenvalues; and sensitivity of transient response for both linear and nonlinear structural response.

Adelman, Howard M.; Haftka, Raphael T.

1991-01-01

112

HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS: A USEFUL EDUCATIONAL TOOL  

EPA Science Inventory

An historical analysis that presents the ecological consequences of development can be a valuable educational tool for citizens, students, and environmental managers. In highly impacted areas, the cumulative impacts of multiple stressors can result in complex environmental condit...

113

Analysis of Japanese banks’ historical tree diagram  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using the historical data from the Japanese banks’ database at “The Bankers Library” of Japanese Banker Association, we analyze the historical network of banks from 1868 to 2006. Firstly, we define a bank every year by a particle and draw a space-time evolution process of merger, division, establishment, and failure by a tree diagram structure. We found that the distribution of the tree basin size of real data and simulation result are mostly fitting well. Secondly, we analyze the raw data of financial statements of banks collected by the National Diet library. We confirm that the distributions of the amount of deposits have fat-tail every year, however, small deviations are observed relating to governmental policy.

Ueno, Hiromichi; Mizuno, Takayuki; Takayasu, Misako

2007-09-01

114

Normative Discourse and Persuasion: An Analysis of Ga'dang Informal Litigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the discourse of Ga'dang, a Philippine language, focuses on normative discourse and persuasion, especially the ways in which the former is used to accomplish the latter. The first five chapters outline the theoretical framework of the study, placing normative and persuasive discourse in a philosophical context and relating them to the…

Walrod, Michael R.

115

Accounting for Accountability: A Discourse Analysis of Psychiatric Nurses' Experience of a Patient Suicide  

PubMed Central

Whilst the experience of a patient suicide is likely to have a significant impact upon the nurses who had been providing care, little work has actually explored this experience in any depth. In this article we explore how two psychiatric nurses construct and orient to accountability when talking of their experiences of a patient suicide. Discourse analysis was used to explore particular phases that the nurses oriented to in their accounts: scene setting; risk assessment; attributing for the suicide. Findings highlight the different, sometimes contradictory, ways the nurses attended to interactional concerns relating to implicit accountability and potential inferences of blame. Analysis of the nurses’ talk can make a valuable contribution to understanding the nature and the impact of ‘accountability’ in a mental health setting and so help nurses and other professionals gain an insight into their practice. The results from this study suggest that as a consequence of internalising fundamentally unrealisable expectations regarding suicide prevention, nurses can hold themselves to blame raising significant concerns around their needs in terms of support, which may not be recognised. This paper also makes a valuable contribution to our methodological understanding and the value of using discourse analysis in this setting.

Robertson, Maggie; Paterson, Brodie; Lauder, Billy; Fenton, Rosemary; Gavin, John

2010-01-01

116

Dean of Women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: A Story Left Untold  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a paucity of historical discourse on the distinct contributions of African American women serving as deans of women at historically Black colleges and universities. Using historical research and the case study approach, the analysis focused on three deans of women: Lucy Diggs Slowe--Howard University, Owena Hunter Davis--Johnson C. Smith…

Herdlein, Richard; Cali, Christine Frezza; Dina, Joanne

2008-01-01

117

A discourse analysis of the construction of mental illness in two UK newspapers from 1985-2000.  

PubMed

This study explored the discourse of mental illness contained within two UK newspapers over a 15-year period, excluding those stories that mentioned any reference to a diagnosis. Using frame analysis, a form of discourse analysis, ten distinct frames were identified and classified into "stories." These ten stories were categorized as: foreign, legal, drug, feature, trauma, tragedy, community care tragedy, social policy, inquiry report, and sports/celebrity stories. Each frame is described and the potential influence of such frames on both social policy and nursing practice is discussed. PMID:17957551

Paterson, Brodie

2007-10-01

118

A historical review of gait analysis.  

PubMed

Healthcare professionals have long been concerned with the assessment of human gait, but only recently were they able to utilize instrumental gait analysis in routine clinical practice for diagnosis, and to guide the selection of treatment methods for complex musculo-skeletal and neurological disorders. The development of motion analysis systems has progressed through several stages from simple to more sophisticated, versatile, multimodal, and accurate equipment. Several computerized motion analysis systems are now commercially available for the measurement of human gait. These vary in their design and performance. The purpose of this review is to summarize briefly the history and advances in the technology of instrumental gait analysis, especially during the past 3 decades. Further, it is hoped that this review will give clinical practitioners and researchers a general insight into the variety of measurement systems that are currently available for gait analysis and enable them to make an informed choice of the motion analysis system that best suits their clinical needs. PMID:21063300

Al-Zahrani, Khaled S; Bakheit, Magid O

2008-04-01

119

Constructing Teaching and Research Relations from the Top: An Analysis of Senior Manager Discourses on Research-Led Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To show how research and teaching, core academic activities are discursively shaped through policy discussion we critically identify and examine the institutional effects of senior academics' discourses on research-led teaching. The analysis sheds light on the interrelationship between university policy and the powerful and productive effects of…

Mayson, Susan; Schapper, Jan

2012-01-01

120

The framing of Calvin Klein: A frame analysis of media discourse about the August 1995 Calvin Klein Jeans advertising campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the media discourse about the August 1995 Calvin Klein jeans campaign which media critics characterized as “kiddie porn.” Though media placement of the campaign was limited, mainstream media reports of the nascent controversy surrounding the campaign brought it into the national spotlight. A frame analysis is used to deconstruct the kiddie?porn media frame which the industry and

Lauren R. Tucker

1998-01-01

121

Calling Integration into Question: A Discourse Analysis of English and "Humash" Classes at a Modern Orthodox Yeshiva High School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on discourse analysis and critical literacy, this study calls into question prevailing assumptions about integration by examining talk in English and "Humash" classrooms as windows into the two worlds of a Modern Orthodox high school. The study found that the two subjects presented very different models of teaching and learning. "Humash"…

Lehmann, Devra

2008-01-01

122

From Choice to Change: An Analysis of the "Choice" Discourse in Canada's 2006 Federal Election  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A critical discourse analysis (CDA) was used to analyze the representation of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) in the 2006 federal election in Canada. Guided by Fairclough's approach to CDA, this study analyzed written documents including newspaper articles from "The Globe and Mail" and "The National Post", the…

Richardson, Brooke; Langford, Rachel; Friendly, Martha; Rauhala, Ann

2013-01-01

123

Home healthcare and family responsibility: a critical discourse analysis of talk and text.  

PubMed

This paper addresses how families' roles and responsibility for care are constructed within home health (in contrast to the responsibility of home health). A discourse analysis informed by a critical theoretical approach was used to analyze qualitative interviews with 13 home health managers and clinical leaders in British Columbia, alongside home care documents. When referring to family involvement, there was an emphasis on the importance of supporting a client's choice to stay at home. Government and agency documents describe family members as primary providers, with home health having a supplementary role. Agencies seek to avoid "substituting" for family care. Family responsibility is characterized as having both moral and structural value. Nonetheless, some participants advocated flexibility and recognized potential caregiving challenges. Data provide examples of how agency expectations are communicated to clients and families and become embedded within practice and policy. Findings are viewed within the broader organizational context as representing the "responsibilization" of support. PMID:24289942

Funk, Laura M

2013-10-01

124

Expanding discourse repertoires with hybridity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In "Hybrid discourse practice and science learning" Kamberelis and Wehunt present a theoretically rich argument about the potential of hybrid discourses for science learning. These discourses draw from different forms of "talk, social practice, and material practices" to create interactions that are "intertextually complex" and "interactionally dynamic." The hybrid discourse practices are described as involving the dynamic interplay of at least three key elements: "the lamination of multiple cultural frames, the shifting relations between people and their discourse, and the shifting power relations between and among people." Each of these elements requires a respective unit of analysis and are often mutually reinforcing. The authors present a theoretically cogent argument for the study of hybrid discourse practices and identify the potential such discourses may have for science education. This theoretical development leads to an analysis of spoken and written discourse around a set of educational events concerning the investigation of owl pellets by two fifth grade students, their classmates, and teacher. Two discourse segments are presented and analyzed by the authors in detail. The first is a discourse analysis of the dissection of the owl pellet by two students, Kyle and Max. The second analysis examines the science report of these same two students. In this article, I pose a number of questions about the study with the hope that by doing so I expand the conversation around the insightful analysis presented.

Kelly, Gregory J.

2012-09-01

125

A Quantitative Multimodal Discourse Analysis of Teaching and Learning in a Web-Conferencing Environment--The Efficacy of Student-Centred Learning Designs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a quantitative approach to multimodal discourse analysis for analyzing online collaborative learning. The coding framework draws together the fields of systemic functional linguistics and Activity Theory to analyze interactions between collaborative-, content- and technology-related discourse. The approach is used to examine…

Bower, Matt; Hedberg, John G.

2010-01-01

126

Childcare Workforce Reform in England and "The Early Years Professional": A Critical Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to explore the ways in which nursery workers are constructed through government discourse in England. This is done by offering a deconstruction of key policy texts. The discursive construction of "the nursery worker" within government discourses has shifted over time but currently occupies a highly politicised position. It is…

Osgood, Jayne

2009-01-01

127

Learning to Read: Discourse Analysis and the Study and Practice of Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators are inclined to think that the words they use in their discourses about policy, research, and practice mean what they mean them to mean. It is just as clear, however, that such discourses ideologically produce and reproduce relations of power that benefit some and disadvantage others. This essay begins an argument that educators need to…

Wilson, Arthur L.

2009-01-01

128

Established and recent policy arrangements for river management in The Netherlands: an analysis of discourses  

Microsoft Academic Search

After water levels in The Netherlands reached a near-critical level in 1995, a new discourse for managing the lower Rhine basin was introduced into debates about river management. This discourse, called `Room for the river¿, introduces a new management strategy in which the river is given more room (i.e. land adjacent to the main course of the river is made

Irene Immink

2005-01-01

129

Use of historical information in extreme storm surges frequency analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prevention of storm surge flood risks is critical for protection and design of coastal facilities to very low probabilities of failure. The effective protection requires the use of a statistical analysis approach having a solid theoretical motivation. Relating extreme storm surges to their frequency of occurrence using probability distributions has been a common issue since 1950s. The engineer needs to determine the storm surge of a given return period, i.e., the storm surge quantile or design storm surge. Traditional methods for determining such a quantile have been generally based on data from the systematic record alone. However, the statistical extrapolation, to estimate storm surges corresponding to high return periods, is seriously contaminated by sampling and model uncertainty if data are available for a relatively limited period. This has motivated the development of approaches to enlarge the sample extreme values beyond the systematic period. The nonsystematic data occurred before the systematic period is called historical information. During the last three decades, the value of using historical information as a nonsystematic data in frequency analysis has been recognized by several authors. The basic hypothesis in statistical modeling of historical information is that a perception threshold exists and that during a giving historical period preceding the period of tide gauging, all exceedances of this threshold have been recorded. Historical information prior to the systematic records may arise from high-sea water marks left by extreme surges on the coastal areas. It can also be retrieved from archives, old books, earliest newspapers, damage reports, unpublished written records and interviews with local residents. A plotting position formula, to compute empirical probabilities based on systematic and historical data, is used in this communication paper. The objective of the present work is to examine the potential gain in estimation accuracy with the use of historical information (to the Brest tide gauge located in the French Atlantic coast). In addition, the present work contributes to addressing the problem of the presence of outliers in data sets. Historical data are generally imprecise, and their inaccuracy should be properly accounted for in the analysis. However, as several authors believe, even with substantial uncertainty in the data, the use of historical information is a viable mean to improve estimates of rare events related to extreme environmental conditions. The preliminary results of this study suggest that the use of historical information increases the representativity of an outlier in the systematic data. It is also shown that the use of historical information, specifically the perception sea water level, can be considered as a reliable solution for the optimal planning and design of facilities to withstand extreme environmental conditions, which will occur during its lifetime, with an appropriate optimum of risk level. Findings are of practical relevance for applications in storm surge risk analysis and flood management.

Hamdi, Yasser; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Deville, Yves; Bardet, Lise; Rebour, Vincent

2013-04-01

130

Forests, discourses, institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leading question of this Forest Policy and Economics special issue is whether, how and to what extent forest governance processes can be better understood by means of discourse analysis and the science-policy interface. This article focuses on discourses only, but it does so from an institutional perspective. The reasons to advocate this so-called discursive-institutional approach are threefold: (1) to

Bas Arts; Marleen Buizer

2009-01-01

131

Image, measure, figure: a critical discourse analysis of nursing practices that develop children.  

PubMed

Motivated by discourses that link early child development and health, nurses engage in seemingly benign surveillance of children. These practices are based on knowledge claims and technologies of developmental science, which remain anchored in assumptions of the child body as an incomplete form with a universal developmental trajectory and inherent potentiality. This paper engages in a critical discursive analysis, drawing on Donna Haraway's conceptualizations of technoscience and figuration. Using a contemporary developmental screening tool from nursing practice, this analysis traces the effects of this tool through production, transformation, distribution, and consumption. It reveals how the techniques of imaging, abstraction, and measurement collide to fix the open, transformative child body in a figuration of the developing child. This analysis also demonstrates how technobiopower infuses nurses' understandings of children and structures developmentally appropriate expectations for children, parents, and nurses. Furthermore, it describes how practices that claim to facilitate healthy child development may inversely deprive children of agency and foster the production of normal or ideal children. An alternative ontological perspective is offered as a challenge to the individualism of developmental models and other dominant ideologies of development, as well as practices associated with these ideologies. In summary, this analysis argues that nurses must pay closer attention to how technobiopower infuses practices that monitor and promote child development. Fostering a critical understanding of the harmful implications of these practices is warranted and offers the space to conceive of human development in alternate and exciting ways. PMID:23745662

Einboden, Rochelle; Rudge, Trudy; Varcoe, Colleen

2013-07-01

132

Mapping Mathematics in Classroom Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a particular analytic method from systemic functional linguistics, "thematic analysis," which reveals the mathematical meaning potentials construed in discourse. Addressing concerns that discourse analysis is too often content-free, thematic analysis provides a way to represent semantic structures of mathematical content,…

Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth A.; Otten, Samuel

2011-01-01

133

Appendix E: Research papers. Analysis of landfills with historic airphotos  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nature of landfill-related information that can be derived from existing, or historic, aerial photographs, is reviewed. This information can be used for conducting temporal assessments of landfill existence, land use and land cover, and the physical environment. As such, analysis of low cost, readily available aerial photographs can provide important, objective input to landfill inventories, assessing contamination or health hazards, planning corrective measures, planning waste collection and facilities, and developing on inactive landfills.

Liang, T.; Philipson, W. R. (principal investigators); Erb, T. L.; Teng, W. L.

1980-01-01

134

Historical Analysis of Population Reactions to Stimuli-A Case Study of Aceh.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study provides a baseline investigation for determining population reactions to stimuli in a historical context. Historical data analysis and qualitative data analysis techniques are applied to the last 500 years of events in Aceh. Links and trends b...

P. Dexter

2004-01-01

135

Changing Policy Discourses: Constructing Literacy Inequalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the ways in which policy discourses have constructed rationales for addressing adult literacy over the last 50 years. In particular, we examine how policy positions the literacy learner as citizen within discourses of rights and equity. Taking the case of the UK, we compare two key documents produced at different historical

Hamilton, Mary; Pitt, Kathy

2011-01-01

136

'I just want to be normal': An analysis of discourses of normality among recovering heroin users.  

PubMed

Research that has explored the lives of men and women recovering from heroin addiction has reported that users often claim that they 'just want to be normal'. Working within a Foucauldian tradition, we argue in this article that the notions of 'governmentality' and the 'norm' are especially apposite to understanding the ubiquity of this aspiration. Here we focus not on the formal institutions of governance that encourage individuals to adhere to social, cultural and political norms, but rather seek to explore recovering users' accounts of normality as they are envisaged and expressed. The reported empirical data were generated from interviews with 40 men and women in England at various stages of recovery from heroin use. The analytic focus is upon the accounts of normality articulated during the interviews in order to identify the ways in which being normal is presented by the participants. In keeping with the methodological tradition of discourse analysis we identify six discursive repertoires of 'normality talk' that transcend the accounts. It is concluded that the negotiation of normality is a precarious route for this social group. Articulations of a desire to be normal are replete with tensions; there are expressions of both resistance and resignation. Despite claims by some contemporary social theorists that diversity is the 'new normality', the accepted bounds of 'difference' are limited for those who have been addicted to heroin. PMID:22763795

Nettleton, Sarah; Neale, Joanne; Pickering, Lucy

2013-03-01

137

Use of cartography in historical seismicity analysis: a reliable tool to better apprehend the contextualization of the historical documents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historical studies, including historical seismicity analysis, deal with historical documents. Numerous factors, such as culture, social condition, demography, political situations and opinions or religious ones influence the way the events are transcribed in the archives. As a consequence, it is crucial to contextualize and compare the historical documents reporting on a given event in order to reduce the uncertainties affecting their analysis and interpretation. When studying historical seismic events it is often tricky to have a global view of all the information provided by the historical documents. It is also difficult to extract cross-correlated information from the documents and draw a precise historical context. Use of cartographic and geographic tools in GIS software is the best tool for the synthesis, interpretation and contextualization of the historical material. The main goal is to produce the most complete dataset of available information, in order to take into account all the components of the historical context and consequently improve the macroseismic analysis. The Entre-Deux-Mers earthquake (1759, Iepc= VII-VIII) [SISFRANCE 2013 - EDF-IRSN-BRGM] is well documented but has never benefited from a cross-analysis of historical documents and historical context elements. The map of available intensity data from SISFRANCE highlights a gap in macroseismic information within the estimated epicentral area. The aim of this study is to understand the origin of this gap by making a cartographic compilation of both, archive information and historical context elements. The results support the hypothesis that the lack of documents and macroseismic data in the epicentral area is related to a low human activity rather than low seismic effects in this zone. Topographic features, geographical position, flood hazard, roads and pathways locations, vineyards distribution and the forester coverage, mentioned in the archives and reported on the Cassini's map confirm this hypothesis. The location of the recently explored documentary sources evidence that there was no notarial activity in this particular area at that time. The importance of the economic and political dominance of Bordeaux during the XVIIth-XVIIIth centuries has to be taken into account in order to apprehend the way the earthquake was reported by the population at the regional scale. Elements related to chimneys forms or construction techniques could in turn help in identifying regional peculiarities allowing better quantifying the vulnerability aspects of the region.

Thibault, Fradet; Grégory, Quenet; Kevin, Manchuel

2014-05-01

138

Finding Inquiry in Discourses of Audit and Reform in Primary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we examine the discourses of Primary school numeracy coordinators responsible for auditing, monitoring and supporting their colleagues in relation to the introduction and embedding of the National Numeracy Strategy (NNS) in the UK. Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) focuses our analysis on the contradictory coupling of…

Williams, Julian; Corbin, Brian; McNamara, Olwen

2007-01-01

139

Using Discourses for Policy Evaluation: The Case of Marine Common Property Rights in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to combine marine conservation and economic development, the Chilean government introduced a policy that gives formal property rights over defined areas of seabed to artisanal fishers. This study used discourse analysis to understand the impacts and consequences of this policy. Story lines based on sustainability, livelihood maintenance, and historical right claims are mechanisms by which three different

STEFAN GELCICH; GARETH EDWARDS-JONES; MICHEL J. KAISER; ELIZABETH WATSON

2005-01-01

140

Gendered Discourse about Family Business  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language patterns of family business owners were explored by identifying discourse styles and emphasized ideas in four presenting contexts: business, family, intersection of family and business, and business success. The content analysis supports the existence of a general discourse style within family businesses and of similarities and…

Danes, Sharon M.; Haberman, Heather R.; McTavish, Donald

2005-01-01

141

Residue analysis: Future trends from a historical perspective.  

PubMed

A residue is a trace (microg kg(-1), ng kg(-1)) of a substance, present in a matrix. Residue analysis is a relatively young discipline and a very broad area, including banned (A) substances as well as registered veterinary medicinal products (B substances). The objective of this manuscript is to review future trends in the analysis of residues of veterinary drugs in meat producing animals out of historical perspectives. The analysis of residues in meat producing animals has known a tremendous evolution during the past 35-40 years. In the future, it can be foreseen that this evolution will proceed in the direction of the use of more and more sophisticated and expensive machines. These apparatus, and the necessary human resources for their use, will only be affordable for laboratories with sufficient financial resources and having guarantee for a sufficient throughput of samples. PMID:19272610

De Brabander, H F; Noppe, H; Verheyden, K; Vanden Bussche, J; Wille, K; Okerman, L; Vanhaecke, L; Reybroeck, W; Ooghe, S; Croubels, S

2009-11-13

142

Discourse Cohesion in Sign and Speech.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development of discourse cohesion in bilingual children through an analysis of narrative discourses produced by hearing children of deaf parents (HCDP) in both British Sign Language (BSL) and spoken English. Reference mechanisms in both languages are described in the context of recent work on narrative and discourse organization…

Morgan, Gary

2000-01-01

143

Becoming Discourse Analysts: Constructing Meanings and Identities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discourse analysts are concerned with how language both reflects and constructs the social world. As a field of study, there are scores of books, journals, and conferences devoted to the theoretical and methodological issues among the varieties of discourse analysis. Less discussed in the field of discourse studies is how one learns to become a…

Rogers, Rebecca

2011-01-01

144

Producing children in the 21st century: a critical discourse analysis of the science and techniques of monitoring early child development.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to identify the implications of commonly held ideologies within theories of child development. Despite critiques to doing so, developmental theory assumes that children's bodies are unitary, natural and material. The recent explosion of neuroscience illustrates the significance of historical, social and cultural contexts to portrayals of brain development, offering the opportunity for a critical departure in thinking. Instead, this neuroscience research has been taken up in ways that align with biomedical traditions and neoliberal values. This article uses a critical discursive approach, supported by Haraway's ideas of technoscience, to analyse a population-based early child development research initiative. This initiative organises a large-scale surveillance of children's development, operating from the premise that risks to development are best captured early to optimise children's potential. The analysis in this article shows an intermingling of health and economic discourses and clarifies how the child is a figure of significant contemporary social and political interests. In a poignant example of technobiopolitics, the collusion between health research, technologies and the state enrols health professionals to participate in the production of children as subjects of social value, figured as human capital, investments in the future, or alternatively, as waste. The analysis shows how practices that participate in what has become a developmental enterprise also participate in the marginalisation of the very children they intend to serve. Hence, there is the need to rethink practices critically and move towards innovative conceptualisations of child development that hold possibilities to resist these figurations. PMID:23345326

Einboden, Rochelle; Rudge, Trudy; Varcoe, Colleen

2013-11-01

145

Earning One's Inheritance: Rhetorical Criticism, Everyday Talk, and the Analysis of Public Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes a transcribed speech in which an African American community member engaged a panel of school board officials on the topic of racial stereotypes in an elementary school science experiment. Concludes that the force of public discourse may reside less in a speaker's ability to persuade an audience than in an audience's willingness to recycle…

McCormick, Samuel

2003-01-01

146

Semio-Pragmatic Analysis of Cartoons Discourse: A Step towards Semiotranslation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary concern of this study is to explore the subtle implications of the "Semiotranslation Approach vis-a-vis" analyzing the semiotic elements of discourse in Jordanian cartoons as creative artistic texts in which various signs manifest simultaneous interaction, thus achieving both entertainment and purposeful satire. Therefore, the…

AlBzour, Naser Naif

2011-01-01

147

(Un)Earthing a Vocabulary of Values: A Discourse Analysis for Ecocomposition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author aims to propose an analytic method through which composition students and others might discover and understand the ecological complexities of prevailing environmental terminology that create "wicked problems." Through this method, students engage in "discursive ecology" by exploring the connections among discourse,…

Walker, Paul

2010-01-01

148

Pedagogising Poverty Alleviation: A Discourse Analysis of Educational and Social Policies in Argentina and Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the past decades international organisations and governments have promoted and implemented analogous education policies on the grounds that education is the key factor to foster development and fight poverty. This article sets the context of these educational programmes and analyses their discourse on poverty in Argentina and Chile. Then, it…

Rambla, Xavier; Veger, Antoni

2009-01-01

149

Identification and Disidentification in Organizational Discourse: A Metaphor Analysis of E-Mail Communication at Enron  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project is situated within the interpretive tradition in organizational communication research, focusing on organizational discourse. It goes further by bringing the discussion into the 21st century through examining how communication technology--specifically e-mail--plays a role in the linguistic practices that help create, maintain and…

Turnage, Anna K.

2010-01-01

150

Structural Characteristics of Computer-Mediated Language: A Comparative Analysis of InterChange Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares one form of synchronous computer-mediated communication, Daedalus InterChange, with analogous spoken and written corpora. Finds that the InterChange discourse mode is not merely intermediate between speaking and writing; rather the electronic medium uniquely fosters some behaviors and inhibits others, in support of the view that physical…

Ko, Kwang-Kyu

1996-01-01

151

Sustainability and the human\\/nature connection: a critical discourse analysis of being “symbolically” sustainable  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental sustainability as a social and marketing discourse has gathered momentum since the 1990s, forcing companies and consumers to consider how to apprehend this shift. However, this has proved to be challenging, given that sustainability itself remains a fuzzy concept. This paper argues that this fuzziness resides in the impetus for sustainability itself, suggesting that our concern for the environment

He?le?ne de Burgh-Woodman; Dylan King

2012-01-01

152

The Analysis of Classroom Discourse: Elementary School Science Curricula Advancing Reasoning with Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' ability to participate in scientific discourse and to appropriately use empirical evidence to support beliefs or conclusions has been consistently stated as a core goal of science education. In the present study, we analyzed the quality of scientific reasoning in elementary school science classrooms, using the Evidence-Based Reasoning…

Hardy, Ilonca; Kloetzer, Birgit; Moeller, Kornelia; Sodian, Beate

2010-01-01

153

Professional Mathematics Teacher Identity: Analysis of Reflective Narratives from Discourses and Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the methodological use of reflective narratives from discourses and activities of an experienced primary teacher as evidence of her professional identity. The teacher's reflective narratives emerge from her participation in a 3-year developmental and research project, Learning Communities in Mathematics, conducted at the…

Bjuland, Raymond; Cestari, Maria Luiza; Borgersen, Hans Erik

2012-01-01

154

The Leader-Member Exchange Patterns of Women Leaders in Industry: A Discourse Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the communicatively constructed nature of Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) and gender. Analyzes actual routine work conversations to produce 12 discourse patterns that discriminated between high, medium, and low LMX relationships. Focuses on the functioning of the patterns and the influence of gender in the construction of high, medium, and…

Fairhurst, Gail T.

1993-01-01

155

Framing and Face: The Relevance of "The Presentation of Self" to Linguistic Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although Erving Goffman did not turn his analytic focus specifically toward language until later in his career, his work, beginning with "The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life," has been crucial for discourse analysts and interactional sociolinguists who study language in social context. Perhaps most influential have been his concepts of…

Tannen, Deborah

2009-01-01

156

Managing Victim Status in Group Therapy for Men: A Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In contrast to the abundance of research on women victims, this article sheds light on the discourse of men who are self-identified as victims of their female partners' abuse. The purpose of this study was to investigate the most salient identity constructions and abuse conceptualizations among participants of group psychotherapy for men who have…

Zverina, Michaela; Stam, Henderikus J.; Babins-Wagner, Robbie

2011-01-01

157

Application of HyTime Hyperlinks and Finite Coordinate Spaces to Historical Writing, Analysis, and Presentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines a method of using the constructs defined by the HyTime standard to structure scholarly writing and to affect its presentation through the use of dynamic multimedia presentations. Explores the potential power of descriptive hyperlinks as tools of scholarly discourse and analysis, and the system needed to aid historians in information…

Kimber, W. Eliot; Woods, Julia A.

1997-01-01

158

Towards proteomic analysis of milk proteins in historical building materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The addition of proteinaceous binders to mortars and plasters has a long tradition. The protein additions were identified in many sacral and secular historical buildings. For this method of peptide mass mapping, three model mortar samples with protein additives were prepared. These samples were analysed fresh (1-2 weeks old) and after 9 months of natural ageing. The optimal duration of tryptic cleavage (2 h) and the lowest amount of material needed for relevant analysis of fresh and weathered samples were found; the sufficient amounts of weathered and fresh mortars were set to 0.05 and 0.005 g. The list of main tryptic peptides coming from milk additives (bovine milk, curd, and whey), their relative intensities and theoretical amino acid sequences assignment is presented. Several sequences have been "de novo" confirmed by mass spectrometry.

Kuckova, S.; Crhova, M.; Vankova, L.; Hnizda, A.; Hynek, R.; Kodicek, M.

2009-07-01

159

Data Analysis: Statistical Analysis and Use of Historical Control Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival-adjusted methods for the statistical analysis of tumor data from long-term rodent carcinogenicity studies are described. Although most of these methods require knowledge of whether individual tumors are \\

J. K. Haseman

1995-01-01

160

A Discourse Approach to Theorising HRD: Opening a Discursive Space  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how a discourse approach to theorising human resource development (HRD) can open a "discursive space" to challenge dominant discourses within the field; enabling a more critical discourse to emerge. Design/methodology/approach: Discusses two approaches to discourse analysis, a "practice" and a…

Lawless, Aileen; Sambrook, Sally; Garavan, Tom; Valentin, Claire

2011-01-01

161

A Q-Method Analysis of Environmental Governance Discourses in Brazil's Northeastern Soy Frontier  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes and analyzes discourses regarding environmental governance held among key actors in a region of expanding high-input, high-output agriculture. Q-method, an intensive (small n) and quantitative technique in which n tests are measured by m individuals, was used to determine four empirically significant social perspectives: critical environmentalism, agri-environmentalism, private environmentalism, and statist environmentalism. The article highlights major differences

Christian Brannstrom

2011-01-01

162

Discourse as Social Interaction. Discourse Studies: A Multidisciplinary Introduction. Volume 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The collection of essays on discourse as a form of social interaction includes: "Discourse as Interaction in Society" (Teun A. van Dijk); "Discourse Pragmatics" (Shoshana Blum-Kulka); "Conversation Analysis: An Approach to the Study of Social Action as Sense Making Practices" (Anita Pomerantz, B. J. Fehr); "Institutional Dialogue" (Paul Drew,…

van Dijk, Teun A., Ed.

163

The Critical Policy Discourse Analysis Frame: Helping Doctoral Students Engage with the Educational Policy Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses an issue of increasing significance in the context of taught educational doctorates and argues that this may have wider applicability for doctoral students across a range of social science disciplines. It identifies the need to engage with policy analysis as a key element of such programmes and attempts to address…

Hyatt, David

2013-01-01

164

Going South: Analysis of an Historic Project Engineering Failure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's successful conduct of the Apollo Program greatly enhanced the prestige of the United States and remains broadly accepted as America's gift to all Mankind. NASA's accomplishments continue to amaze the world. With the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) Americans once again tasked NASA to carry out a project that is expected to provide inspiration and economic stimulus to the United States and to the world. In preparation NASA has thoroughly examined space program precedents. There is, however, another precedent which has not been examined in this context but whose scope and environment in many ways parallel the VSE. This project was initiated by a team that had, ten years before, successfully completed an effort that, at a cost of $173 billion (in 2008 dollars), had pushed the envelope of technology, brought economic growth, established their country as the world leader in engineering, and been broadly accepted as that country's gift to all Mankind. The new project was again inspired by popular desire to enhance national prestige and make yet another major contribution to Humanity. This effort was predicted to require eight years and $156 billion (2008 dollars). However, after nine years and expenditures of 96% beyond the baseline, the project collapsed amid bankruptcy, political scandal, and criminal prosecution. This paper applies current project management metrics, such as earned value analysis, to review the strategic decisions in this historic failure and describe its ultimate collapse. Key mistakes are identified, and lessons are drawn which may prove useful in guiding the VSE.

Scott, John H.

2009-01-01

165

Perfect harmony: a mathematical analysis of four historical tunings.  

PubMed

In Western music, a musical interval defined by the frequency ratio of two notes is generally considered consonant when the ratio is composed of small integers. Perfect harmony or an "ideal just scale," which has no exact solution, would require the division of an octave into 12 notes, each of which would be used to create six other consonant intervals. The purpose of this study is to analyze four well-known historical tunings to evaluate how well each one approximates perfect harmony. The analysis consists of a general evaluation in which all consonant intervals are given equal weighting and a specific evaluation for three preludes from Bach's "Well-Tempered Clavier," for which intervals are weighted in proportion to the duration of their occurrence. The four tunings, 5-limit just intonation, quarter-comma meantone temperament, well temperament (Werckmeister III), and equal temperament, are evaluated by measures of centrality, dispersion, distance, and dissonance. When all keys and consonant intervals are equally weighted, equal temperament demonstrates the strongest performance across a variety of measures, although it is not always the best tuning. Given C as the starting note for each tuning, equal temperament and well temperament perform strongly for the three "Well-Tempered Clavier" preludes examined. PMID:15532672

Page, Michael F

2004-10-01

166

Perfect harmony: A mathematical analysis of four historical tunings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Western music, a musical interval defined by the frequency ratio of two notes is generally considered consonant when the ratio is composed of small integers. Perfect harmony or an ``ideal just scale,'' which has no exact solution, would require the division of an octave into 12 notes, each of which would be used to create six other consonant intervals. The purpose of this study is to analyze four well-known historical tunings to evaluate how well each one approximates perfect harmony. The analysis consists of a general evaluation in which all consonant intervals are given equal weighting and a specific evaluation for three preludes from Bach's ``Well-Tempered Clavier,'' for which intervals are weighted in proportion to the duration of their occurrence. The four tunings, 5-limit just intonation, quarter-comma meantone temperament, well temperament (Werckmeister III), and equal temperament, are evaluated by measures of centrality, dispersion, distance, and dissonance. When all keys and consonant intervals are equally weighted, equal temperament demonstrates the strongest performance across a variety of measures, although it is not always the best tuning. Given C as the starting note for each tuning, equal temperament and well temperament perform strongly for the three ``Well-Tempered Clavier'' preludes examined. .

Page, Michael F.

2004-10-01

167

Computer-Supported Collaborative Inquiry on Buoyancy: A Discourse Analysis Supporting the "Pieces" Position on Conceptual Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes in detail a conversation analysis of conceptual change in a computer-supported collaborative learning environment. Conceptual change is an essential learning process in science education that has yet to be fully understood. While many models and theories have been developed over the last three decades, empirical data to support them are scarce. The present paper aims to provide such evidence. To this end, the article first reviews seven proposed models of conceptual change before it recalls the main ideas behind the two different positions on conceptual change, the pieces (diSessa 2008) versus coherence (Vosniadou et al. 2008) positions. Then, the article presents and discusses how a close discourse analysis of asynchronous collaborative conversations between grade 5 and 6 students on buoyancy and relative density provides further empirical evidence of the knowledge in pieces position.

Turcotte, Sandrine

2012-12-01

168

Professional caregivers' work with the dying in nursing homes--a Foucault-inspired analysis of discourses in the last decade in a Danish context.  

PubMed

International studies on the death of elderly nursing home residents show the complexity in the understanding of the professionals who care for the dying. The aim of this study is to explore the discourses about professional caregivers caring for those dying in Denmark in the last decade. A discourse analysis inspired by Foucault was constructed. The material consists of different source documents: research articles, newspaper articles, theses, books, websites - 35 sources in total. There are constructed six positions of speech, five discourses and three themes: (1) 'the work of the professional caregivers - a complex low-status work'; (2) 'the education of the professionals - the way to ensure a good death or possessing the right qualifications' and (3) 'the vulnerable professionals'. The study concludes that an economical/political discourse is dominating and sets up the frames within which the professionals care for dying residents, although the medical, the social/critical and the religious discourses attempt to speak against it. All positions articulate that the professional caregivers' job has a low status and that it is not possible to provide an optimal care due to lack of time, resources and education. Psychical or mental demands make the professionals vulnerable. The meaning of optimal care varies according to the positions of speech. PMID:23336738

Nielsen, Karen T; Glasdam, Stinne

2013-12-01

169

Analysis of Student-Instructor Interaction Patterns in Real-Time, Scientific Online Discourse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of the online environment alter how students and instructors interact. Scientific discourse among students and instructors in an online text-only synchronous environment was analyzed. In converting dialogue to text, many of the nonverbal cues, such as facial expression and tone of voice, which instructors use to gauge student understanding are lost. The participants adapt their communication style to the medium, and we present a new interaction pattern for student-instructor communication found prevalent in the synchronous, text-only, online environment. This study has implications for instructors who use synchronous, text-based communication for their courses, namely the value of posing additional questions from the instructor to verify student understanding.

Epp, Erik M.; Green, Kellie F.; Rahman, Aliya M.; Weaver, Gabriela C.

2010-02-01

170

The Power of the Press: A Content and Discourse Analysis of the United States History Standards as Presented in Selected Newspapers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses ethnographic content and critical discourse analytic methodologies to examine how the voluntary national U.S. history standards contained in National Standards for United States History: Exploring the American Experience were presented in selected U.S. newspapers. Our analysis indicates that most newspapers presented a fragmented picture of the history standards, that criticism of the standards was highlighted, and that

Theresa Johnson; Patricia G. Avery

1999-01-01

171

Whose Education Policies in Aid-Receiving Countries? A Critical Discourse Analysis of Quality and Normative Transfer through Cambodia and Laos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical discourse analysis of policy contexts and documents has been employed in this research to analyze the role of language in promoting normative positions affecting the quality of education in Cambodia and Laos. The article examines the ways institutional normative influences at multiple levels within the Education for All (EFA) program have…

McCormick, Alexandra

2012-01-01

172

The Challenges of Contrastive Discourse Analysis: Reflecting on a Study into the Influence of English on Students' Written Spanish on a Bilingual Education Program in Spain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses challenges involved in contrastive discourse analysis that emerged while carrying out a follow-up study into a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) program in Spain. Reversing the focus on English of much contrastive rhetoric work, the study investigates the effect of second-language-English on…

Maxwell-Reid, Corinne

2011-01-01

173

The American Revolution in Children's Fiction: An Analysis of Historical Meaning and Narrative Structure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Marxian analysis of the form and content of children's Revolutionary War fiction shows how characteristics of these materials are related to the socioeconomic and historical milieu from which they come. Structural similarities between these novels and Western films reveal historically rooted bourgeois attitudes, social values, and ideologies.…

Taxel, Joel

1984-01-01

174

Secondary students using expert heuristics in the analysis of digitalized historical documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In time, more historical documents have become accessible through various technological modes including the Internet, CD-ROMs, and local databases. Teachers are now able to infuse a rich variety of resources into lessons with relative ease. This study measured expert historian heuristics in secondary students engaged in analysis of technologically-enhanced historical documents relating to women in the early United States republic.

Daniel W Stuckart

2004-01-01

175

HISTORICAL ANALYSIS, A VALUABLE TOOL IN COMMUNITY-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

A historical analysis of the ecological consequences of development can be a valuable tool in community-based environmental protection. These studies can engage the public in environmental issues and lead to informed decision making. Historical studies provide an understanding of...

176

Computer assisted screening, correction, and analysis of historical weather measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer program, Historical Observation Tools (HOB Tools), has been developed to facilitate many of the calculations used by historical climatologists to develop instrumental and documentary temperature and precipitation datasets and makes them readily accessible to other researchers. The primitive methodology used by the early weather observers makes the application of standard techniques difficult. HOB Tools provides a step-by-step framework to visually and statistically assess, adjust, and reconstruct historical temperature and precipitation datasets. These routines include the ability to check for undocumented discontinuities, adjust temperature data for poor thermometer exposures and diurnal averaging, and assess and adjust daily precipitation data for undercount. This paper provides an overview of the Visual Basic.NET program and a demonstration of how it can assist in the development of extended temperature and precipitation datasets using modern and early instrumental measurements from the United States.

Burnette, Dorian J.; Stahle, David W.

2013-04-01

177

An Analysis of Discourse-Pragmatic and Grammatical Constraints on the Acquisition and Development of Referential Choice in Child English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation investigates how discourse-pragmatics informs children's choice of referential forms. Three studies utilizing naturalistic data examine the role that six discourse-pragmatic features play in the acquisition of referential forms in a non-null subject language, English. The influence of child-directed speech on development is also…

Hughes, Mary E.

2011-01-01

178

The Use of Main Concept Analysis to Measure Discourse Production in Cantonese-Speaking Persons with Aphasia: A Preliminary Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discourse produced by speakers with aphasia contains rich and valuable information for researchers to understand the manifestation of aphasia as well as for clinicians to plan specific treatment components for their clients. Various approaches to investigate aphasic discourse have been proposed in the English literature. However, this is not the…

Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin

2009-01-01

179

The Cultural Politics of National Testing and Test Result Release Policy in South Korea: A Critical Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the ideological construction of educational discourses embedded within the South Korean print media. Significantly, these discourses have recently promoted the resurrection of a sweeping national testing and test results release policy. Through careful examination of the "test plus release" policy, the authors show how the…

Sung, Youl-Kwan; Kang, Mi Ok

2012-01-01

180

A Cultural Analysis of the Achievement Gap Discourse: Challenging the Language and Labels Used in the Work of School Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I critique the labels and terms used to frame practices aimed at closing the achievement gap. I examine how an unacknowledged "achievement gap Discourse" has emerged from the language that informs practices and policies of contemporary school reform. I use Gee's uppercase "Discourse" and a cultural…

Carey, Roderick L.

2014-01-01

181

The Emergence of Metaphor in Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We show how emergence offers new explanations for the behaviour of metaphorically-used expressions. Analysis of metaphors in two types of natural language data are combined: detailed analysis of continuous discourse, which offers wealth of context and the possibility of monitoring emergent forms as the discourse unfolds, and computer-assisted…

Cameron, Lynne; Deignan, Alice

2006-01-01

182

Feral and Isolated Children: Historical Review and Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An historical review of the documented cases of feral and other environmentally deprived children is presented. Discussion focuses on four groups of atypically reared children: animal-reared children, children isolated in wilderness, children confined in isolation, and children confined with limited human contact. (Author/CL)

McNeil, Mary Charles; And Others

1984-01-01

183

Timber age verification using historical satellite image analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Timber inventory data is important for estimating the net present value (NPV) of timberland sales among paper companies, timber investment and management organizations (TIMO), institutional investors, and individual investors. Timber age in an inventory GIS database can be quickly verified through a series of historical satellite image analyses based on image differencing techniques. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), tassel-cap

Joon Heo; Jong Hong Kim; Ji Sang Park; Hong-Gyoo Sohn

2006-01-01

184

The Historical Development of Affirmative Action: An Aggregated Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reconstructs the development of equal employment opportunities for African Americans after the Civil War, recapitulating historical accounts of the integration of African Americans into mainstream society, beginning with the Civil War and including legal precedents such as Brown v. Board of Education. Racial discrimination in employment was…

Woodhouse, Shawn

2002-01-01

185

Analysis of Historical Artillery Expenditures (AHART) Study - CY 87.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is an effort at assembling and analyzing a comprehensive data base of historical data for 20th century field artillery expenditures. The data base contains 3600 records. It is clearly cross-referenced with an annotated bibliography. Included in...

F. L. Dougherty

1987-01-01

186

Transients at GSU transformer terminals. I. Historical case analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a large pumped storage plant, three generator step-up (GSU) transformers successively failed in recent years and considerable economic loss is resulted for the utility. Therefore, a comprehensive investigation is done to find out the possible failure causes. Several aspects are considered in this study, including overall review of historical GSU transformer failures, modeling and simulation of switching transients resulting

Xuzhu Dong; Sebastian Rosado; Yilu Liu; Nien-Chung Wang; Tzong-Yih Guo

2001-01-01

187

The "Islamic" in Islamic Education: Assessing the Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper assesses the dominant discourse on Islam and education that argues for an education derived from an exclusively "Islamic" vision. In addition to exploring the historical roots of this discourse, the paper analyses it with respect to its (i) arguments for an Islamic vision of education, (ii) conception of Islam, and (iii) proposals for…

Panjwani, Farid

2004-01-01

188

Flood frequency analysis supported by the largest historical flood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of non-systematic flood data for statistical purposes depends on the reliability of the assessment of both flood magnitudes and their return period. The earliest known extreme flood year is usually the beginning of the historical record. Even if one properly assesses the magnitudes of historic floods, the problem of their return periods remains unsolved. The matter at hand is that only the largest flood (XM) is known during whole historical period and its occurrence marks the beginning of the historical period and defines its length (L). It is common practice to use the earliest known flood year as the beginning of the record. It means that the L value selected is an empirical estimate of the lower bound on the effective historical length M. The estimation of the return period of XM based on its occurrence (L), i.e. ^M = L, gives a severe upward bias. The problem arises that to estimate the time period (M) representative of the largest observed flood XM. From the discrete uniform distribution with support 1, 2, ... , M of the probability of the L position of XM, one gets ^L = M/2. Therefore ^M = 2L has been taken as the return period of XM and as the effective historical record length as well this time. As in the systematic period (N) all its elements are smaller than XM, one can get ^M = 2t( L+N). The efficiency of using the largest historical flood (XM) for large quantile estimation (i.e. one with return period T = 100 years) has been assessed using the maximum likelihood (ML) method with various length of systematic record (N) and various estimates of the historical period length ^M comparing accuracy with the case when systematic records alone (N) are used only. The simulation procedure used for the purpose incorporates N systematic record and the largest historic flood (XMi) in the period M, which appeared in the Li year of the historical period. The simulation results for selected two-parameter distributions, values of their parameters, different N and M values are presented in terms of bias and root mean square error RMSEs of the quantile of interest are more widely discussed.

Strupczewski, W. G.; Kochanek, K.; Bogdanowicz, E.

2014-06-01

189

Flood Frequency Analysis supported by the largest historical flood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of non-systematic flood data for statistical purposes depends on reliability of assessment both flood magnitudes and their return period. The earliest known extreme flood year is usually the beginning of the historical record. Even if one properly assess the magnitudes of historic floods, the problem of their return periods remains unsolved. The matter in hand is that the only largest flood (XM) is known during whole historical period and its occurrence marks the beginning of the historical period and defines its length (L). It is the common practice of using the earliest known flood year as the beginning of the record. It means that the L value selected is an empirical estimate of the lower bound on the effective historical length M. The estimation of the return period of XM based on its occurrence (L), i.e. M = L, gives the severe upward bias. Problem arises to estimate the time period (M) representative of the largest observed flood XM. From the discrete uniform distribution with support 1,2, ... , M of the probability of the L position of XM one gets L = M/2. Therefore M = 2L has been taken as the return period of XM and as the effective historical record length as well this time. As in the systematic period (N) all its elements are smaller than XM, one can get M =2(L+N). The efficiency of using the largest historical flood (XM) for large quantile estimation (i.e. one with return period T = 100 yr has been assessed using ML method with various length of systematic record (N) and various estimates of historical period length M comparing accuracy with the case when systematic records alone (N) are used only. The simulation procedure used for the purpose incorporates N systematic record and one largest historic flood (XMi) in the period M which appeared in the Li year backward from the end of historical period. The simulation result for selected distributions, values of their parameters, different N and M values are presented in terms of bias and RMSE of the quantile of interest and widely discussed.

Strupczewski, W. G.; Kochanek, K.; Bogdanowicz, E.

2013-11-01

190

A causal analysis relating previous achievement, attitudes, discourse, and intervention to achievement in biology and chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study described the relationship of 38 variates to achievement in high school biology and chemistry classes. Forty-four teachers prepared audio tape recordings of discussions throughout a nine-month period. Equal-sized groups received treatment consisting of wait time feedback and/or supportive intervention, a form of peer coaching. Other variables were initial measures, which included the variates of class size and previous science grade, pre- and posttest scores on student attitudes and perceptions, and prediscourse and discourse analyses, which included the variates of wait times, actions, and response durations. While previous research has shown that wait time feedback and supportive intervention are effective means of changing teacher behavior, the results of the present study revealed that previous student achievement and the attitudes of students accounted for 70% of the variation in the final examination scores (New York State Regents) on the basis of only the first three weeks of data collection on the variables assessed. Generally, little emphasis on higher-level thinking, wait time, or problem solving was found at the beginning of the school year, and only minimal changes resulted from the application of the treatment variables. Pressures for content coverage and preparation for externally imposed statewide examinations that emphasize memory-level learning augured against the changes that the independent variables were designed to produce.

Gooding, C. Thomas; Swift, J. Nathan; Schell, Robert E.; Swift, Patricia R.; McCroskery, James H.

191

Pap smear brochures, misogyny and language: a discourse analysis and feminist critique.  

PubMed

Text from a public health brochure on pap smears was analysed with particular reference to ways in which the language used conveys particular messages about women and their bodies. In the text, 'humans' were found to be excluded as such. Both the pap smear service provider and the women who are the recipients of this service--and at whom such brochures are targeted--are objectified and their characteristics of human existence (i.e. ontological capacities) were restricted. The language of the pamphlet invokes an image for women associated with vaginal (penile penetrative) sex. The discourse also is found to be didactic, biomedical and written in the voice of the service provider. Further, the encounter of pap smear events is contextualized as procedural such that not only is the woman 'done to' in the process of having a cervical smear test but the woman's and provider's experiences of the encounter are silenced. It is concluded that the texts may be viewed as misogynist and that such texts do not take account of the complexity of women's decisions to 'submit to' or comply with cervical cancer screening. PMID:9437963

Lane, V; Lawler, J

1997-12-01

192

Children as agents of their own health: exploratory analysis of child discourse in Spain.  

PubMed

The promotion of children's decision-making is one of the principles of health-promoting schools, and the empowerment of children means that they are enabled to influence their lifestyles and living conditions. The aim of this study was to find out the suggestions of Spanish school pupils in Year 3 and Year 6 of primary education to promote their own health and the health of the people closer to them, through their ideas about health. We analyse the discourse on health in the school environment from focus groups of primary school pupils aged around 8 and 12 of five schools in the town of Alicante (Spain). The groups were organized according to the type of school (public, private), the socioeconomic status of the neighbourhood (residential, working-class) and gender (single-sex, mixed groups) to ensure both the highest intergroup diversity and intra-group homogeneity. The findings show that primary school pupils have a wide and diverse notion of health. The application of the focus group technique has proved useful in eliciting information from groups of primary school pupils, and involving students in health-promoting programmes because it allows them to identify the social and interpersonal determinants of health. There is a firm basis to consider school pupils as health agents, particularly regarding interventions within the school environment itself. With the support of teachers, it is possible to train school pupils as community health agents, and increase their control over their own health. PMID:22669915

Davó-Blanes, María Carmen; La Parra, Daniel

2013-09-01

193

Interpreting flood disasters and flood hazard perceptions from newspaper discourse: Tale of two floods in the Red River valley, Manitoba, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on content analysis of the Winnipeg Free Press reports on the 1950 and 1997 floods in the Red River valley, Manitoba, Canada, this study demonstrates that newspaper discourse on these historic floods provides a basis for assessing a number of research assumptions dealing with media framing of disaster news and the role of newspapers in risk communication and hazard

Harun Rashid

2011-01-01

194

Pedagogic discourse in introductory classes: Multi-dimensional analysis of textbooks and lectures in biology and macroeconomics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The broad goal of this study is to represent the linguistic variation of textbooks and lectures, the primary input for student learning---and sometimes the sole input in the large introductory classes which characterize General Education at many state universities. Computer techniques are used to analyze a corpus of textbooks and lectures from first-year university classes in macroeconomics and biology. These spoken and written variants are compared to each other as well as to benchmark texts from other multi-dimensional studies in order to examine their patterns, relations, and functions. A corpus consisting of 147,000 words was created from macroeconomics and biology lectures at a medium-large state university and from a set of nationally "best-selling" textbooks used in these same introductory survey courses. The corpus was analyzed using multi-dimensional methodology (Biber, 1988). The analysis consists of both empirical and qualitative phases. Quantitative analyses are undertaken on the linguistic features, their patterns of co-occurrence, and on the contextual elements of classrooms and textbooks. The contextual analysis is used to functionally interpret the statistical patterns of co-occurrence along five dimensions of textual variation, demonstrating patterns of difference and similarity with reference to text excerpts. Results of the analysis suggest that academic discourse is far from monolithic. Pedagogic discourse in introductory classes varies by modality and discipline, but not always in the directions expected. In the present study the most abstract texts were biology lectures---more abstract than written genres of academic prose and more abstract than introductory textbooks. Academic lectures in both disciplines, monologues which carry a heavy informational load, were extremely interactive, more like conversation than academic prose. A third finding suggests that introductory survey textbooks differ from those used in upper division classes by being relatively less marked for information density, abstraction, and non-overt argumentation. In addition to the findings mentioned here, numerous other relationships among the texts exhibit complex patterns of variation related to a number of situational variables. Pedagogical implications are discussed in relation to General Education courses, differing student populations, and the reading and listening demands which students encounter in large introductory classes in the university.

Carkin, Susan

195

Corporate Discourse and the Academy: A Polemic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical analysis of vocabulary, imagery, and rhetoric in business texts shows that higher education is adopting a free-market discourse depicting the academy in terms of a knowledge industry or revenue generator in which intellectual resources are "leveraged" and knowledge is a "commodity." This discourse is characterized as management centered,…

Webster, Gary

2003-01-01

196

Aims, Modes, and the Continuum of Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A framework for the study of discourse, based on the analysis of three superordinate features of discourse (asymmetry, hierarchy, and continuum), is proposed in this paper. The paper begins by noting the confusion in terminology that exists in the world of composition pedagogy and theory; pointing to the need for a framework for testing,…

Beale, Walter H.

197

Learning as Discourse Change: A Sociocultural Mechanism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a theoretical mechanism for learning and a methodological approach for analyzing meaning making in classroom talk and action. Examines the potential of the approach for illuminating learning on a discourse level; i.e., how discourses change and how individuals become participants of new practices. Involves a high-resolution analysis of…

Wickman, Per-Olof; Ostman, Leif

2002-01-01

198

Migration Discourse Structures: Escaping Microsoft's Desktop Path  

Microsoft Academic Search

WWW home page: http:\\/\\/www.pfadkolleg.de Abstract: Most studies of FOSS organizational migration projects focus solely on technological and economical aspects, neglecting the importance of organizational discourse structures for migration decisions as well as success. In looking at the case of the municipality of Munich this paper uses structuration theory in combination with discourse analysis to explain why and how in this

Leonhard Dobusch

2008-01-01

199

Discourse Patterns During Children's Collaborative Online Discussions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the discourse of 10 groups of children during text-based online discussions. Analysis of the discourse in the discussions showed that 8 different rhetorical moves, or argument stratagems, were used by most groups of children, whereas 3 other stratagems were used by 1 group. The use of argument stratagems snowballed; that is, once an argument stratagem emerged in

Il-Hee Kim; Richard C. Anderson; Kim Nguyen-Jahiel; Anthi Archodidou

2007-01-01

200

Discourses of Assessment--Discourses of Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the discourses that dominate thinking about assessment in mathematics education; that is, to analyze the sets of constructs, assumptions, and values that underpin research, curriculum development, and teacher education with regard to assessment. Dominant discourses within mathematics education are analyzed and the social…

Morgan, Candia

201

Finding the WRITE Stuff: Automatic Identification of Discourse Structure in Student Essays  

Microsoft Academic Search

An essay-based discourse analysis system can help students improve their writing by identifying relevant essay-based discourse elements in their essays. Our discourse analysis software, which is embedded in Criterion, an online essay evaluation application, uses machine learning to identify discourse elements in student essays. The system makes decisions that exemplify how teachers perform this task. For instance, when grading student

Jill Burstein; Daniel Marcu; Kevin Knight

2003-01-01

202

Norwegian petroleum extraction in Arctic waters to save the environment: introducing ‘discourse co-optation’ as a new analytical term  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the term discourse co-optation is introduced based on a socially oriented discourse analysis of the Norwegian petroleum debate concerning petroleum extraction in the Barents Sea. The introduction of the term is based on empirical findings from two different studies of public discourse through four Norwegian newspapers published between 2000 and 2006. Discourse co-optation describes how one discourse

Leif Christian Jensen

2012-01-01

203

Norwegian petroleum extraction in Arctic waters to save the environment: introducing ‘discourse co-optation’ as a new analytical term  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the term discourse co-optation is introduced based on a socially oriented discourse analysis of the Norwegian petroleum debate concerning petroleum extraction in the Barents Sea. The introduction of the term is based on empirical findings from two different studies of public discourse through four Norwegian newspapers published between 2000 and 2006. Discourse co-optation describes how one discourse

Leif Christian Jensen

2011-01-01

204

Reconstruals of the Past: Settlement or Invasion? The Role of JUDGEMENT Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While little attention has been given in historiography to the language of historical narrative, and the role language plays in portraying history, the discipline of linguistics, and particularly the subdisciplines of discourse analysis and functional linguistics, have given increasing attention to the discourse of history. Recently, a group of…

Coffin, Caroline

205

Data fusion of ultrasound and GPR signals for analysis of historic walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an application of ultrasounds and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) for analysis of historic walls. The objectives are to characterize the deformation of a historic wall under different levels of load weights and to obtain an enhanced image of the wall. A new method that fuses data from ultrasound and GPR traces is proposed which is based on order statistics digital filters. Application results are presented for non destructive testing (NDT) of two replicates of historic ashlars' masonry walls: the first one homogeneous and the second one containing controlled defects such as cracks and nooks. The walls are measured separately using ultrasounds and GPR at different load steps. Time and frequency parameters extracted from the signals and different B-Scans for each of the NDT techniques are obtained. After this, a new fused representation is obtained, which results demonstrate the improvement of characterization and defect detection in historic walls using data fusion.

Salazar, A.; Gosalbez, J.; Safont, G.; Vergara, L.

2012-12-01

206

Notes on Semantic Discourse Structure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The semantic problems of natural language discourse analysis are more serious than the syntactic ones, and much less work has been done on them. It is widely held that a semantic classification of words by their meanings is required for selecting the corr...

K. S. Jones

1967-01-01

207

An Empirical Analysis of Participant Intentions: Discourse in a Graduate Seminar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the dominant paradigm for analyzing interactions, Conversation Analysis (CA), pointing out that the paradigm does not include participant intention in its analysis. Notes that CA practitioners focus on empirical investigations of what the participants are doing and how they are doing it and that the understanding of an utterance is…

Viechnicki, Gail Brendel

1997-01-01

208

Ottawa to Bangkok: changing health promotion discourse.  

PubMed

The discourse of the 2005 Bangkok Charter for Health Promotion in a Globalized World represents a radical departure from that of the Ottawa Charter that, in 1986, staked a place for the health promotion field in mainstream public health. Via a critical analysis of the discourse in these two Charters, this paper illustrates a shift from a 'new social movements' discourse of ecosocial justice in Ottawa to a 'new capitalist' discourse of law and economics in Bangkok. The Bangkok Charter's content may identify 'actions, commitments and pledges required to address the determinants of health in a globalized world through health promotion', but this paper shows how its discourse works to naturalize and perpetuate many of detrimental determinants associated with 'globalization'. PMID:17015407

Porter, Christine

2007-03-01

209

Tractographic Analysis of Historical Lesion Surgery for Depression  

PubMed Central

Various surgical brain ablation procedures for the treatment of refractory depression were developed in the twentieth century. Most notably, key target sites were (i) the anterior cingulum, (ii) the anterior limb of the internal capsule, and (iii) the subcaudate white matter, which were regarded as effective targets. Long-term symptom remissions were better following lesions of the anterior internal capsule and subcaudate white matter than of the cingulum. It is possible that the observed clinical improvements of these various surgical procedures may reflect shared influences on presently unspecified brain affect-regulating networks. Such possibilities can now be analyzed using modern brain connectivity procedures such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography. We determined whether the shared connectivities of the above lesion sites in healthy volunteers might explain the therapeutic effects of the various surgical approaches. Accordingly, modestly sized historical lesions, especially of the anatomical overlap areas, were ‘implanted' in brain-MRI scans of 53 healthy subjects. These were entered as seed regions for probabilistic DTI connectivity reconstructions. We analyzed for the shared connectivities of bilateral anterior capsulotomy, anterior cingulotomy, subcaudate tractotomy, and stereotactic limbic leucotomy (a combination of the last two lesion sites). Shared connectivities between the four surgical approaches mapped onto the most mediobasal aspects of bilateral frontal lobe fibers, including the forceps minor and the anterior thalamic radiations that contacted subgenual cingulate regions. Anatomically, convergence of these shared connectivities may derive from the superolateral branch of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB), a structure that connects these frontal areas to the origin of the mesolimbic dopaminergic ‘reward' system in the midbrain ventral tegmental area. Thus, all four surgical anti-depressant approaches may be promoting positive affect by converging influences onto the MFB.

Schoene-Bake, Jan-Christoph; Parpaley, Yaroslav; Weber, Bernd; Panksepp, Jaak; Hurwitz, Trevor A; Coenen, Volker A

2010-01-01

210

Measuring Discourse-Level Processes with Verbal Protocols and Latent Semantic Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study used latent semantic analysis (LSA) to analyze verbal protocols that were collected while participants read expository passages. In the study, participants were asked to type their thoughts after reading each sentence of 2 scientific texts. The semantic similarity between the protocols and the current sentence and prior causal…

Millis, Keith; Magliano, Joseph; Todaro, Stacey

2006-01-01

211

Discourse analysis of logical memory recall in normal aging and in dementia of the Alzheimer type  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the nature of errors in prose recall made in dementia compared with normal aging. Responses by 48 young adults, 47 nondemented older adults, and 70 people with very mild or mild Alzheimer's disease to the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale were examined in a propositional analysis. Compared with young adults, healthy older adults showed

David K. Johnson; Martha Storandt; David A. Balota

2003-01-01

212

Wildlife-Based Recreation as Economic Windfall: A Rhetorical Analysis of Public Discourse on Birding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Symbolic convergence theory posits that groups of like-minded people use linguistic symbols to construct a shared reality and form rhetorical visions (ways of viewing and communicating about an issue). To see how rhetorical visions might help shape public tourism policy, the authors used fantasy theme analysis to examine 206 Kansas newspaper…

Hill, Steven G.; Cable, Ted T.; Scott, David

2010-01-01

213

An Exploratory Analysis of Communication in Peer-Directed Educational Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory analysis examined the nature of asynchronous, text-based communication in peer-directed educational discussions. The nature of communication changed over time and women exhibited greater tendency for epistolary communication than men. Initial posts, which were expository in nature, focused on disseminating information whereas…

Gibbs, William J.

2009-01-01

214

Analysis of Classroom Discourse and Instructor's Awareness of Speech in a Spanish College Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an instrumental case study and consists of the description, analysis and interpretation of the teaching practices of a Spanish college instructor. The aim of this research project is to find answers to the following questions: What is the ratio of L1-L2 spoken in class? For what functions is each language used? And, are there…

Rondon-Pari, Graziela

2011-01-01

215

The Main Concept Analysis in Cantonese Aphasic Oral Discourse: External Validation and Monitoring Chronic Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The 1st aim of this study was to further establish the external validity of the main concept (MC) analysis by examining its relationship with the Cantonese Linguistic Communication Measure (CLCM; Kong, 2006; Kong & Law, 2004)--an established quantitative system for narrative production--and the Cantonese version of the Western Aphasia…

Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin

2011-01-01

216

Historical analysis of professionalism in western societies: implications for interprofessional education and collaborative practice.  

PubMed

Health care systems around the world are under tremendous pressure to change their models of health care delivery - from the current multiprofessional health care delivery into interprofessional collaborative care models with the ultimate goal of improving patient/client outcomes. The growing diversity of the population, the increasing number of vulnerable persons (elderly, homeless, those living with chronic health conditions), the complexity of health problems, and the shortage of health care providers have forced health policymakers to call for sweeping revisions to how health care is provided, impacting how health care program students are educated. However, in professional training emphasis is placed on uniprofessional education. Learners are socialized in isolation from those in other related professions to ensure the development of a shared professional identity. Consequently, by program completion each student will not only master the knowledge, skills and norms of his/her own profession, but will also develop a silo identity, called "uniprofessional identity". This isolationist identity creates a lack of understanding of others. In limiting their exposure to learning about the roles and value of other health care professionals, persistent negative stereotypical attitudes towards other professionals are reinforced. In this paper, we present the historical evolution(s) of the discourse of professionalism to assist us to develop a deeper understanding of socio-historical context within which interprofessional education (IPE) is embedded within, and collaborative person-centered practice (CPCP). With greater insight, we can (re)conceptualize the possibilities, and advance research on, interprofessional education and practice in the present. PMID:24383410

Khalili, Hossein; Hall, Jodi; DeLuca, Sandra

2014-03-01

217

Selling patients and other metaphors: a discourse analysis of the interpretive frames that shape emergency department admission handoffs.  

PubMed

This paper reports a discourse analysis of the language doctors used as they talked about and engaged in patient handoffs between the emergency department (ED) and various inpatient services at one highly specialized academic tertiary teaching and referral hospital in the Midwest United States. Although interest in handoff improvement has grown considerably in recent years, progress has been hampered, perhaps in part, because of a widely used but limiting conceptual model of handoff as an information transmission. The purpose of the study reported here is to analyze the way doctors make sense of handoff interactions, including uncovering the interpretive frames they use, in order to provide empirical findings to expand conceptual models of handoff. All data reported were drawn from a two-year ethnographic study (2009-2011) and include semi-structured interviews (n = 48), non-participant observations (349 h), and recorded telephone handoff conversations (n = 48). A total of eighty-six individuals participated, including resident and attending doctors from the ED, internal medicine and surgical services, as well as hospital administrators. Findings are organized around four metaphors doctors used: sales, sports and games, packaging, and teamwork. Each metaphor, in turn, reveals an underlying interpretive frame that appears to be influenced by organizational and social structures and to shape the possibilities for action that doctors perceive. The four underlying interpretive frames are: handoff as persuasion, handoff as competition, handoff as expectation matching, and handoff as collaboration. Taken together, these interpretive frames highlight the complex, socially interactive nature of handoff and provide an empirical basis for grounding and enriching the conceptual model of handoff that guides research and practice improvement efforts. PMID:24565149

Hilligoss, Brian

2014-02-01

218

Participation in Knowledge-Building Discourse: An Analysis of Online Discussions in Mainstream and Honours Social Studies Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questions about the suitability of cognitively-oriented instructional approaches for students of different academic levels are frequently raised by teachers and researchers. This study examined student participation in knowledge-building discourse in two implementations of a short inquiry unit focusing on environmental problems. Participants in…

Niu, Hui; van Aalst, Jan

2009-01-01

219

Analysis of the use of an accidental competency discourse as a reflective tool for professional placement students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Situated learning in professional practice is increasingly recognized as a key component of engineering curricula. One challenge in this context is to establish a reflexive link between the students' learning at university and their experiences in practice. This paper proposes the accidental competency discourse as an alternative tool to support students' experiential learning through reflection on critical learning events. The

Joachim Walther; David Radcliffe; Llewellyn Mann

2007-01-01

220

Teachers in the News: A Critical Analysis of One US Newspaper's Discourse on Education, 2006-2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public education discourse in the USA has been characterized by messages of crisis shaping education policies across national contexts. Education policy solutions target a lack of qualified teachers and insufficient oversight of teacher practice as central factors in the crisis, placing teacher identity as knowledgeable, authoritative…

Cohen, Jennifer L.

2010-01-01

221

Congress and the Fusion Energy Sciences Program: A Historical Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report reviews and analyzes the 42-year history of congressional deliberations over funding of the magnetic fusion research and development (R&D) program. That analysis provides the basis for an assessment about how the program might fare in the future as it proceeds in the direction of developing a long-term energy source from fusion. The assessment is presented as a series of questions that Congress may wish to address in determining the program's future.

Rowberg, Richard E.

1999-03-01

222

Bank marketing and information technology: a historical analysis of the post-1970 period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retail banking in the USA is an industry in crisis. This message is repeated from the pages of industry journals to the annals of academic literature. Based on historical analysis of the industry literature, introduces trends and patterns surrounding the interface between the marketing and information services functions within the industry. There is clear evidence that many banks lack alignment

Mark R. Nelson

1999-01-01

223

Objective analysis of temperature and salinity historical data set over the Mediterranean basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrological data set of the MEDATLAS project, is used to compute temperature (T) and salinity (S) climatological fields over the Mediterranean sea. The method used to perform objective analysis of the historical data set is optimal interpolation by kriging. Its implementation to compute basinscale climatology led the authors to address specific issues on data preparation, neighborhood search procedure and

DIDIER JOURDAN; EFSTATHIOS BALOPOULOS; M.-J. Garcia-Fernandez; C. Maillard

1998-01-01

224

Multidimensional visualisation for process historical data analysis: a comparative study with multivariate statistical process control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a comparative study of a multidimensional visualisation technique and multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) for process historical data analysis. The visualisation technique uses parallel coordinates which visualise multidimensional data using two dimensional presentations and allow identification of clusters and outliers, therefore, can be used to detect abnormal events. The study is based on a database covering 527

Hamza Albazzaz; Xue Z. Wang; Fatma Marhoon

2005-01-01

225

Analysis of Patterns of Injury and Disease in an Historic skeletal sample from Belleville, Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

ANALYSIS' OF PATTERNS OF INJURY AND DISEASE IN AN HISTORIC SKELETAL SAMPLE FROM BELLEVILLE' ONTARIO The presence of specific and non-specific infections in human skeletal remains, as well as indicators of trauma are valuable pieces of information that can be utilized to reconstruct the health status of a community. A sample of 25O adults, removed from an archaeological excavation of

Susan Jimenez

1991-01-01

226

Statistical Analysis of Historical State-Level Residential Energy Consumption Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obtaining an accurate picture of the major trends in energy consumption in the nation's stock of residential buildings can serve a variety of national and regional program planning and policy needs related to energy use. This paper employs regression analysis and uses a variable degree-day approach with historical data to provide some insight into overall changes in the thermal integrity

David B. Belzer; Katherine A. Cort

227

Improvements to NOAA’s Historical Merged Land–Ocean Surface Temperature Analysis (1880–2006)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of sea surface and land-near-surface merged temperature anomalies are used to monitor climate variations and to evaluate climate simulations; therefore, it is important to make analyses of these data as accurate as possible. Analysis uncertainty occurs because of data errors and incomplete sampling over the historical period. This manuscript documents recent improvements in NOAA's merged global surface temperature anomaly

Thomas M. Smith; Richard W. Reynolds; Thomas C. Peterson; Jay Lawrimore

2008-01-01

228

Conversational analysis of medical discourse in rehabilitation: A study in Korea  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study is to conduct an analysis of actual communicative behaviors, including nonverbal ones, between physicians and patients in rehabilitation. Design Sixteen videotaped physician–patient interactions in a rehabilitation center in Korea were transcribed. And three coders placed utterances in transcripts into categories while watching the videotapes. Results Consistent with results of previous studies, patient active communicative behaviors varied considerably depending on individual patients. The findings revealed that, on average, patients' active communicative behaviors were less than 9% of patients' total utterances. In particular, almost half of the patients (N = 7) did not even ask one single question. The results also showed that physicians' empathic communicative acts averaged less than 3% of physicians' total utterances. In addition, among physicians' nonverbal behaviors, eye-contact showed significant correlation with physician empathic listening and supportive talks. Conclusions The findings of this study indicated a considerable lack of empathic communicative behaviors of physicians in Korea. This might have led to infrequent use of active communicative behaviors by patients. In addition, the importance of physician's partnership for enhancement of active communicative behaviors of patients was demonstrated. To better serve patients, physicians who wish to improve their communication should first identify components of their empathic communicative behaviors that need improvement and then attempt to refine their skills.

Chang, Chulhun Ludgerus; Park, Byung Kyu; Kim, Sung Soo

2013-01-01

229

In the shadow of a new smoke free policy: A discourse analysis of health care providers' engagement in tobacco control in community mental health  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of tobacco use among individuals with mental illness remains a serious public health concern. Tobacco control has received little attention in community mental health despite the fact that many individuals with mental illness are heavy smokers and experience undue tobacco-related health consequences. Methods This qualitative study used methods of discourse analysis to examine the perceptions of health care providers, both professionals and paraprofessionals, in relation to their roles in tobacco control in the community mental health system. Tobacco control is best conceptualised as a suite of policies and practices directed at supporting smoke free premises, smoking cessation counselling and limiting access to tobacco products. The study took place following the establishment of a new policy that restricted tobacco smoking inside all mental health facilities and on their grounds. Ninety one health care providers participated in open-ended interviews in which they described their role in tobacco control. The interview data were analyzed discursively by asking questions such as: what assumptions underlie what is being said about tobacco? Results Five separate yet overlapping discursive frames were identified in which providers described their roles. Managing a smoke free environment emphasised the need to police and monitor the smoke free environment. Tobacco is therapeutic was a discourse that underscored the putative value of smoking for clients. Tobacco use is an individual choice located the decision to smoke with individual clients thereby negating a role in tobacco control for providers. It's someone else's role was a discourse that placed responsibility for tobacco control with others. Finally, the discourse of tobacco control as health promotion located tobacco control in a range of activities that are used to support the health of clients. Conclusions This study provides insights into the complex factors that shape tobacco control practices in the mental health field and reinforces the need to see practice change as a matter that extends beyond the individual. The study findings highlight discourses structured by power and powerlessness in environments in which health care providers are both imposing and resisting the smoke free policy.

2010-01-01

230

Analysis of historical delta values for IAEA/LANL NDA training courses  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supports the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) by providing training for IAEA inspectors in neutron and gamma-ray Nondestructive Assay (NDA) of nuclear material. Since 1980, all new IAEA inspectors attend this two week course at LANL gaining hands-on experience in the application of NDA techniques, procedures and analysis to measure plutonium and uranium nuclear material standards with well known pedigrees. As part of the course the inspectors conduct an inventory verification exercise. This exercise provides inspectors the opportunity to test their abilities in performing verification measurements using the various NDA techniques. For an inspector, the verification of an item is nominally based on whether the measured assay value agrees with the declared value to within three times the historical delta value. The historical delta value represents the average difference between measured and declared values from previous measurements taken on similar material with the same measurement technology. If the measurement falls outside a limit of three times the historical delta value, the declaration is not verified. This paper uses measurement data from five years of IAEA courses to calculate a historical delta for five non-destructive assay methods: Gamma-ray Enrichment, Gamma-ray Plutonium Isotopics, Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting, Active Neutron Coincidence Counting and the Neutron Coincidence Collar. These historical deltas provide information as to the precision and accuracy of these measurement techniques under realistic conditions.

Geist, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Santi, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bonner, Elisa [FORMER N-4 STUDENT

2009-01-01

231

Captive on a carousel: discourses of 'new' in medical education 1910-2010.  

PubMed

Medical educators aim to train physicians with sound scientific knowledge, expert clinical skills and an ability to work effectively with patients, colleagues and health systems. Over the past century, educators have devoted considerable thought and effort to how medical education might be improved. Analysing the language used to describe these initiatives provides insight into assumptions and practices. The authors conducted a Foucauldian critical discourse analysis of prominent recurrent themes in the North American medical education literature. The assembled archive of texts included works of Abraham Flexner, articles from the journal Academic Medicine (including its predecessor journals) and major medical education reports. A series of recurring themes were identified, including the need to avoid over-specialization, the importance of generalism, and the need to broaden criteria for medical student selection. Analysis of these recurring themes allowed identification of a prominent and recurrent discourse of 'new.' This discourse places focus on the future, ignores the ongoing historical nature of issues, suggests a sense of urgency and enables the proposal of modest solutions. It emphasizes changes for individual future doctors, thereby limiting consideration of institutional and systemic factors. Using the image of a carousel, the regular return of themes can be seen as carousel ponies circling around repeatedly in medical education. Identification of this medical education carousel provides an opportunity for medical educators to understand the historical nature of calls for change, and to consider what kinds of reform might be required if they wish to avoid this repetition in the future. PMID:23053873

Whitehead, Cynthia R; Hodges, Brian D; Austin, Zubin

2013-10-01

232

What does brand mean? historical-analysis method and construct definition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the meaning of the term brand means by presenting a method of historical analysis and construct definition\\u000a based on information in theOxford English Dictionary. The method’s use is demonstrated in an analysis of the original meanings that underlie the term’s usage both as a single\\u000a word and in compounds such as brand competition, brand personality, brand reputation,

Barbara B. Stern

2006-01-01

233

Spatial Hierarchical Bayesian Analysis of the Historical Extreme Streamflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the climate change impact on extreme hydro-climatic events is crucial for future hydrologic/hydraulic designs and water resources decision making. The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes of the extreme value distribution parameters with respect to time to reflect upon the impact of climate change. We develop a statistical model using the observed streamflow data of the Columbia River Basin in USA to estimate the changes of high flows as a function of time as well as other variables. Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) is used to model the upper 95% flows during December through March for 31 gauge stations. In the process layer of the model the covariates including time, latitude, longitude, elevation and basin area are considered to assess the sensitivity of the model to each variable. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method is used to estimate the parameters. The Spatial Hierarchical Bayesian technique models the GPD parameters spatially and borrows strength from other locations by pooling data together, while providing an explicit estimation of the uncertainties in all stages of modeling.

Najafi, M. R.; Moradkhani, H.

2012-04-01

234

The Discourse of Transdisciplinarity: An Expanding Global Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The International Transdisciplinarity Conference in Zurich was a defining event in the evolution of a new discourse of transdisciplinary\\u000a problem solving. The new discourse is linked historically with a new climate for participatory research on sustainability\\u000a problems, changes in the nature of disciplinary research, and the emergence of new knowledge fields. The state-of-the-art\\u000a represented by the conference is a truly

Julie Thompson Klein

235

One sense per discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well-known that there are polysemous words like appears two or more times in a well-written discourse, it is extremely likely that they will all share the same sense. This paper describes an experiment which confirmed this hypothesis and found that the tendency to share sense in the same discourse is extremely strong (98%). This result can be used

William A. Gale; Kenneth W. Church; David Yarowsky

1992-01-01

236

Discourse oriented summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The meaning of text appears to be tightly related to intentions and circumstances. Context sensitivity of meaning is addressed by theories of discourse structure. Few attempts have been made to exploit text organization in summarization. This thesis is an exploration of what knowledge of discourse structure can do for content selection as a subtask of automatic summarization, and query-based summarization

Wauter Eduard Bosma

2008-01-01

237

Profiles of Discourse Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discourse recognition theory derived from more general memory formulations would be broad in its psychological implications. This study compared discourse recognition with some established profiles of item recognition. Participants read 10 stories either once or twice each. They then rated their confidence in recognizing explicit, paraphrased,…

Singer, Murray

2013-01-01

238

A Historical Analysis of Desegregation and Racism in a Racially Polarized Region: Implications for the Historical Construct, a Diversity Problem, and Transforming Teacher Education toward Culturally Relevant Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study chronicles the historical divisions of race and class between Detroit and its suburban neighbor as an explanation for current tensions in the communities and schools. This analysis poses implications for educational apartheid and stark disparities between urban and suburban boundaries and consequent discomfort among practitioners when…

Hill, K. Dara

2009-01-01

239

The competing discourses of HIV\\/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa: Discourses of rights and empowerment vs discourses of control and exclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The competing discourses of HIV\\/AIDS circulating in sub-Saharan Africa are identified. These are medical, medico-moral, developmental (distinguishing between 'women in development' and gender and development perspectives), legal, ethical, and the rights discourse of groups living with HIV\\/AIDS and of African pressure groups. The analytical framework is that of discourse analysis as exemplified by Michel Foucault. The medical and medico-moral are

Gill Seidel

1993-01-01

240

An Integrated 3S and Historical Materials Analysis of the Keriya Paleoriver, NW China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combining analysis of 3S (RS, GIS and GPS) and historical materials (historical records, ancient map and academic and literary writings) allows mapping of the Keriya Paleoriver of Southern Xinjiang, NW China. Keriya Paleoriver, one of the ancient Four Green Corridors which passes through the Taklimakan Desert from south to north in the Tarim Basin, recorded changes of the climate-environment in the ancient Silk Road of the region. According to the archaeological data, historical materials and paleoclimates information, its eco-environment and climate have had great changes since the 1.09Ma B.P., especially during the last 2,000 years, which has led to many famous ancient cities to be abandoned and the route of the ancient Silk Road to be moved southward. Using RS (optical and radar imagery), GIS (mapping and spatial analysis) and GPS (study area investigation), we mapped a major paleodrainage system of Keriya River, which have linked the Kunlun Mountains to the Tienshan Mountains through the Taklimakan Desert, possibly as far back as the early Pleistocene. This study illustrates the capability of the 3S and historical materials, in mapping the Keriya Paleoriver drainage networks and archaeological study on the ancient Silk Road.

Luo, Lei; Wang, Xinyuan; Cai, Heng

2014-03-01

241

Men and talk about legal abortion in South Africa: equality, support and rights discourses undermining reproductive 'choice'.  

PubMed

Discursive constructions of abortion are embedded in the social and gendered power relations of a particular socio-historical space. As part of research on public discourses concerning abortion in South Africa where there has been a radical liberalisation of abortion legislation, we collected data from male group discussions about a vignette concerning abortion, and newspaper articles written by men about abortion. Our analysis revealed how discourses of equality, support and rights may be used by men to subtly undermine women's reproductive right to 'choose' an abortion. Within an Equal Partnership discourse, abortion, paired with the assumption of foetal personhood, was equated with violating an equal heterosexual partnership and a man's patriarchal duty to protect a child. A New Man discourse, which positions men as supportive of women, was paired with the assumption of men as rational and women as irrational in decision-making, to allow for the possibility of men dissuading women from terminating a pregnancy. A Rights discourse was invoked to suggest that abortion violates men's paternal rights. PMID:23768420

Macleod, Catriona Ida; Hansjee, Jateen

2013-01-01

242

HPLC-APCI-MS analysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in historical pharmaceutical ointments from the eighteenth century.  

PubMed

The lipid fractions of residues from historical pharmaceutical ointments were analysed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and mass spectrometer detection. The residues were contained in a series of historical apothecary jars, dating from the eighteenth century and conserved at the "Aboca Museum" in Sansepolcro (Arezzo, Italy) and at the pharmacy of the "Real Cartuja de Valldemossa" in Palma de Majorca (Spain). The analytical protocol was set up using a comparative study based on the evaluation of triacylglycerol (TAG) compositions in raw natural lipid materials and in laboratory-reproduced ointments. These ointments were prepared following pharmaceutical recipes reported in historical treatises and used as reference materials. The reference materials were also subjected to stress treatments in order to evaluate the modification occurring in the TAG profiles as an effect of ageing. TAGs were successfully detected in the reproduced formulations even in mixtures of up to ten ingredients and after harsh degradative treatments, and also in real historical samples. No particular interferences were detected from other non-lipid ingredients of the formulations. The TAG compositions detected in the historical ointments indicated a predominant use of olive oil and pig adipose material as lipid ingredients. The detection of a high level of tristearine and myristyl-palmitoyl-stearyl glycerol in two of the samples suggested the presence of a fatty material of a different origin (maybe a ruminant). On the basis of the positional isomer ratio, sn-PPO/sn-POP, it was possible to hypothesize an exclusive use of pig fat in one sample. We also evaluated the application of principal component analysis of TAG profiles as an approach for the multivariate statistical comparison of the reference and historical ointments. PMID:21713420

Saliu, Francesco; Modugno, Francesca; Orlandi, Marco; Colombini, Maria Perla

2011-10-01

243

Analysis of natural red dyes (cochineal) in textiles of historical importance using HPLC and multivariate data analysis.  

PubMed

A new analytical approach based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and multivariate data analysis was applied and assessed for analyzing the red dye extracted from cochineal insects, used in precious historical textiles. The most widely used method of analysis involves quantification of specific minor compounds (markers), using HPLC-DAD. However, variation in the cochineal markers concentration, use of aggressive dye extraction methods and poor resolution of HPLC chromatograms can compromise the identification of the precise insect species used in the textiles. In this study, a soft extraction method combined with a new dye recovery treatment was developed, capable of yielding HPLC chromatograms with good resolution, for the first time, for historical cochineal-dyed textiles. After principal components analysis (PCA) and mass spectrometry (MS), it was possible to identify the cochineal species used in these textiles, in contrast to the accepted method of analysis. In order to compare both methodologies, 7 cochineal species and 63 historical cochineal insect specimens were analyzed using the two approaches, and then compared with the results for 15 historical textiles in order to assess their applicability to real complex samples. The methodology developed here was shown to provide more accurate and consistent information than the traditional method. Almost all of the historical textiles were dyed with Porphyrophora sp. insects. These results emphasize the importance of adopting the proposed methodology for future research on cochineal (and related red dyes). Mild extraction methods and HPLC-DAD/MS(n) analysis yield distinctive profiles, which, in combination with a PCA reference database, are a powerful tool for identifying red insect dyes. PMID:21626194

Serrano, Ana; Sousa, Micaela M; Hallett, Jessica; Lopes, João A; Oliveira, M Conceição

2011-08-01

244

[Family planning policies in João Pessoa-PB: analysis of the contradictions between official and practical discourses].  

PubMed

This research project's main objective is to analyze the contradictions encountered between official and practical discourses referent to family planning in public health policies in João Pessoa, PB, Brasil, using as its reference, PAISM (Program for Assistance in Women's Health). The policy was analyzed according to its official intentions and its practical use through interviews with people linked to PAISM. It was concluded that, this program is being developed under a utilitarian ideal, negating the individual citizen's right to regulate one's own fertility. PMID:11341232

Coelho, E A; Lucena, M F; Silva, A T

2000-06-01

245

Analysis of natural red dyes (cochineal) in textiles of historical importance using HPLC and multivariate data analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new analytical approach based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and multivariate\\u000a data analysis was applied and assessed for analyzing the red dye extracted from cochineal insects, used in precious historical\\u000a textiles. The most widely used method of analysis involves quantification of specific minor compounds (markers), using HPLC-DAD.\\u000a However, variation in the cochineal markers concentration, use

Ana Serrano; Micaela M. Sousa; Jessica Hallett; João A. Lopes; M. Conceição Oliveira

246

A Legal Discourse Community: Text Centered and Interdisciplinary in Social and Political Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews recent studies of legal discourse and nonacademic writing and presents the results of a historical case study on an environmental public policy. Finds that a dynamic discourse community changed writing roles among government employees, lay members of the audience, and water pollution control board members. States that controversial…

Griggs, Karen

1996-01-01

247

The climatic effect of explosive volcanic activity: Analysis of the historical data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By using the most complete available records of direct beam radiation and volcanic eruptions, an historical analysis of the role of the latter in modulating the former was made. A very simple fallout and dispersion model was applied to the historical chronology of explosive eruptions. The resulting time series explains about 77 percent of the radiation variance, as well as suggests that tropical and subpolar eruptions are more important than mid-latitude eruptions in their impact on the stratospheric aerosol optical depth. The simpler climatic models indicate that past hemispheric temperature can be stimulated very well with volcanic and CO2 inputs and suggest that climate forecasting will also require volcano forecasting. There is some evidence that this is possible some years in advance.

Bryson, R. A.; Goodman, B. M.

1982-01-01

248

Talk in Interaction in the Speech-Language Pathology Clinic: Bringing Theory to Practice through Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of learning about and applying clinical discourse analysis to enhance the talk in interaction in the speech-language pathology clinic is discussed. The benefits of analyzing clinical discourse to explicate therapy dynamics are described.

Leaby, Margaret M.; Walsh, Irene P.

2008-01-01

249

Defining a social problem: socio-historical analysis of the antinuclear weapons movement  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation is a socio-historical analysis of the anti-nuclear weapons movement in the United States. This work conceptualizes social movements in advanced industrial societies by synthesizing certain aspects of social constructionism, resource mobilization, and new class theory. The research design is a socio-historical, comparative case study. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are employed for data analysis. Extensive content analysis of documents and interviews with key actors are supplemented with a critical analysis of a wide variety of primary and secondary data. All major antinuclear weapons protest, particularly the Atomic Scientists Movement of the 1940s, the Ban-the-Bomb Movement of the 1950s and 1960s, and the Freeze Movement of the 1980s, shared similar characteristics, and experienced similar problems. The findings are congruent with the theoretical synthesis. Antinuclear weapons protest is best understood as a new class phenomenon, in which intellectuals have mobilized resources to challenge the ruling elite. Yet, though the protest has succeeded in challenging the legitimacy of the ruling apparatus, successes of the movement have been mostly symbolic.

McCrea, F.B.

1988-01-01

250

Monitoring historical masonry structures with operational modal analysis: Two case studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper addresses two complex case studies of modal and structural identification of monuments in Portugal: the Clock Tower of Mogadouro and the Church of Jerónimos Monastery, in Lisbon. These are being monitored by University of Minho with vibration, temperature and relative air humidity sensors. Operational modal analysis is being used to estimate the modal parameters, followed by statistical analysis to evaluate the environmental effects on the dynamic response. The aim is to explore damage assessment in masonry structures at an early stage by vibration signatures, as a part of a health monitoring process that helps in the preservation of historical constructions. The paper presents the necessary preliminary dynamic analysis steps before the monitoring task, which includes installation of the monitoring system, system identification and subsequent FE model updating analysis, automatic modal identification and investigation of the influence of the environment on the identified modal parameters.

Ramos, L. F.; Marques, L.; Lourenço, P. B.; De Roeck, G.; Campos-Costa, A.; Roque, J.

2010-07-01

251

Lesbian classics in Germany? A film historical analysis of Mädchen in Uniform (1931 and 1958).  

PubMed

The films Mädchen in Uniform (Leontine Sagan, 1931, Germany; Géza von Radványi, 1958, Germany) both tell the story of a schoolgirl falling in love with her teacher at a Prussian boarding school. Whereas the 1931 version is regarded as a lesbian classic in queer (German) cinema, the 1958 remake, however, is not even considered part of the lesbian genre. The following analysis examines both films within their historical context to answer the question what makes Mädchen in Uniform (1931) a lesbian film and why the remake did not measure up to its original's significance. PMID:22702382

Mayer, Veronika

2012-01-01

252

Discourses of Gender in the Contemporary British Army  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is about the discourses of gender which circulate within debates about the inclusion of women in the British Army. Drawing on material from elite policy debates within the British Ministry of Defence, Army, and Parliament, the article uses a methodology informed by theories of discourse analysis to examine how the figures of the male and female soldier are

Rachel Woodward; Patricia Winter

2004-01-01

253

From Interaction to Intersubjectivity: Facilitating online group discourse processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the online discourse that took place in representative threads from two classes, seeking to document indicators that students did or did not engage in co?construction of knowledge. Stahl's (2006) social theory of computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) is used along with discourse analysis methods to examine these course dialogues. Findings show the class that had a peer?like,

Vanessa Paz Dennen; Kristina Wieland

2007-01-01

254

Power-Discourse Relationship in a Croatian Higher Education Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the public space of Croatian higher education through a critical analysis of the discourse of a Croatian faculty revealed through the minutes of two faculty council meetings. Both meetings' minutes provide evidence of discourse strategies of deception used by faculty power holders to create an illusion of consent. Also explores…

Fox, Renata; Fox, John

2002-01-01

255

From Interaction to Intersubjectivity: Facilitating Online Group Discourse Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the online discourse that took place in representative threads from two classes, seeking to document indicators that students did or did not engage in co-construction of knowledge. Stahl's (2006) social theory of computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) is used along with discourse analysis methods to examine these…

Dennen, Vanessa Paz; Wieland, Kristina

2007-01-01

256

The Discourses of OERs: How "Flat" Is This World?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes Critical Discourse Analysis (Fairclough, 2000) as a tool for identifying the various discourses that can be found in the provision of open educational resources. The argument will be built upon the concept of a "flat world", a powerful metaphor used by Friedman in his famous book "The World is Flat" (2005). The discussion will…

dos Santos, Andreia Inamorato

2008-01-01

257

Teaching Discourse Study To Resist General Discourse Theories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If an instructor teaches in a rhetoric and composition program, one of the most important ways to teach discourse study as a resistance to discourse theory is by tracing the fundamental founding dichotomies of discourse theory through the history of rhetorical theory, examining how assumptions of the legitimacy of such founding dichotomies has…

Yarbrough, Stephen R.

258

Application of LC-MS to the analysis of dyes in objects of historical interest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array and mass spectrometric detection permits dyes extracted from objects of historical interest or from natural plant or animal dyestuffs to be characterized on the basis of three orthogonal properties: HPLC retention time, UV-visible spectrum and molecular mass. In the present study, we have focused primarily on yellow dyes, the bulk of which are flavonoid glycosides that would be almost impossible to characterize without mass spectrometric detection. Also critical for this analysis is a method for mild extraction of the dyes from objects (e.g., textiles) without hydrolyzing the glycosidic linkages. This was accomplished using 5% formic acid in methanol, rather than the more traditional 6 M HCl. Mass spectroscopy, besides providing the molecular mass of the dye molecule, sometimes yields additional structural data based on fragmentation patterns. In addition, coeluting compounds can often be detected using extracted ion chromatography. The utility of mass spectrometry is illustrated by the analysis of historical specimens of silk that had been dyed yellow with flavonoid glycosides from Sophora japonica (pagoda tree) and curcumins from Curcuma longa (turmeric). In addition, we have used these techniques to identify the dye type, and sometimes the specific dyestuff, in a variety of objects, including a yellow varnish from a 19th century Tibetan altar and a 3000-year-old wool mortuary textiles, from Xinjiang, China. We are using HPLC with diode array and mass spectrometric detection to create a library of analyzed dyestuffs (>200 so far; mostly plants) to serve as references for identification of dyes in objects of historical interest.

Zhang, Xian; Laursen, Richard

2009-07-01

259

Educational Policy-Making in Post-Communist Ukraine as an Example of Emerging Governmentality: Discourse Analysis of Curriculum Choice and Assessment Policy Documents (1999-2003)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational policy-making in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is still building upon the ambivalences and uncertainties of post-communist transformation. The international support, expertise and discourses--coupled with communist legacies, stalled democratic developments and national discourses--produce unique effects on education in…

Fimyar, Olena

2008-01-01

260

Discourse in Systemic Operational Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Within the literature on Systemic Operational Design, discourse is generally treated as a mechanical communicative process. The monograph presents alternative ways to consider discourse, the implications of this for theory of Systemic Operational Design, ...

J. A. DiPasquale

2007-01-01

261

Conflicting Discourses: Functional Linguistic and Discourse Analyses of Pocahontas Texts in Bilingual Third-Grade Social Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides micro analysis of one representative incident from a larger qualitative study to examine how third-grade bilingual students and their teacher negotiated academic disciplinary and popular culture discourses in a social studies unit on Jamestown and Pocahontas. Informed by discourse and linguistic analyses, this study explores…

Ciechanowski, Kathryn

2012-01-01

262

A discourse analysis on how service providers in non-medical primary health and social care services understand their roles in mental health care.  

PubMed

Enhancing collaboration between specialist mental health services, primary health care and social care services has been a key priority in mental health policy reform in many countries for about 20 years and remains so. Yet progress in terms of widespread implementation of demonstrably effective models of collaborative care has been slow. The views that different providers hold regarding the parameters of their roles, and the values that guide their approach to service delivery, are likely to exert profound effects on engagement with collaborative initiatives. Little research has explored these issues. In this study, discourse analysis from a structurational perspective was used to explore the views of providers in a diverse purposive sample of non-medical primary health and social care services in the state of Victoria, Australia regarding their mental health care roles. Four interconnected discourses were revealed as supporting role positions constructed in opposition to the putative role positions of specialist mental health services: an informal as opposed to a formal approach; a normalising as opposed to a pathologising approach; holistic social and emotional health and wellbeing, and an individualised or client-focused model of care as opposed to an illness-focused model. These oppositional role constructions may contribute to reluctance among providers in these sectors to engage with some agendas being promoted by specialist mental health services, through either reduced self-efficacy or active resistance to innovations that conflict with strongly held values. Greater awareness of, and critical reflection upon, contrasting role constructions, and the implications of these for practice may facilitate the design of more appropriate collaborative models and stronger commitment to their implementation. PMID:19208368

Mitchell, Penelope Fay

2009-04-01

263

Constructing Childhood: Discourses about School Violence in the Greek Daily Press  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the construction of discourses about childhood in the Greek daily press. It employs the theoretical frameworks of the new sociology of childhood and critical discourse analysis to question which discourses of childhood are constructed in the daily press presenting cases where children were the victimisers in school violent…

Avgitidou, Sofia; Stamou, Anastasia G.

2013-01-01

264

The Common Topoi of STEM Discourse: An Apologia and Methodological Proposal, with Pilot Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author proposes a methodology for the rhetorical analysis of scientific, technical, mathematical, and engineering (STEM) discourse based on the common topics (topoi) of this discourse. Beginning with work by Miller, Prelli, and other rhetoricians of STEM discourse--but factoring in related studies in cognitive linguistics--she…

Walsh, Lynda

2010-01-01

265

Discourse Tracing as Qualitative Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces a qualitative research method called "discourse tracing". Discourse tracing draws from contributions made by ethnographers, discourse critics, case study scholars, and process tracers. The approach offers new insights and an attendant language about how we engage in research designed specifically for the…

LeGreco, Marianne; Tracy, Sarah J.

2009-01-01

266

DiZer: An Automatic Discourse Analyzer for Brazilian Portuguese  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents DiZer, an automatic DIscourse analyZER for Brazilian Portuguese. Given a source text, the system automatically produces its corresponding rhetorical analysis, following Rhetorical Structure Theory - RST (Mann and Thompson, 1987). A rhetorical repository, which is DiZer main component, makes the automatic analysis possible. This repository, produced by means of a corpus analysis, includes discourse analysis patterns that

Thiago Alexandre Salgueiro Pardo; Maria Das Graças Volpe Nunes; Lucia Helena Machado Rino

2004-01-01

267

Analysing Bilingual Classroom Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper analyses and evaluates spoken discourse in the bilingual classroom at Damascus University. It looks at the mechanism of classroom interaction: the use of questions, initiations, repetitions and expansions. Although this paper deals with classroom interaction at Damascus University, it is believed that the results arrived at may…

Hasan, Ali S.

2006-01-01

268

Frameworks for Comprehending Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty physical education students and 30 music education students read a passage which could be given two distinct interpretations. Multiple-choice test scores, theme-revealing disambiguations and instrusions in free recall indicate that high-level schemata provide the interpretive framework for comprehending discourse. Schema theory and its…

Anderson, Richard C.; And Others

1977-01-01

269

Summarisation Through Discourse Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a method to obtain summaries fo- cussed on chosen characters of a free text. Summaries are extracted from discourse structures, which resemble rhetorical trees. They are obtained by exploiting cohesion and coherence properties of the text. Evaluation intends to evidence the contribution of each module in the final result. In this paper we describe an

Dan Cristea; Oana Postolache; Ionut Pistol

2005-01-01

270

Science Pedagogy as a Category of Historical Analysis: Past, Present, and Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historical studies of science pedagogy have flourished in recent years. This essay offers an assessment of the literature on science pedagogy from the 1930s to the present. It argues that rather than focusing on the work of Thomas Kuhn and Michel Foucault, historians of science pedagogy could with profit turn to the work of Ludwik Fleck. Fleck offers three categories of historical analysis - experience, sensation, and cognition - that are embedded in science pedagogy. He furthermore argues unequivocally for the central importance of considering the cultural context of science pedagogy. Fleck’s interpretation of the role of publishing in science is used in the final section of this essay to assess scientific publishing and textbook culture, topics that are the principal concern of the articles in this volume. Among the novelties of the articles in this volume on textbooks are (1) the connections they draw between textbooks and social structure; (2) the relationships they suggest between textbooks and the public sphere; and (3) their identification of the eighteenth century as the crucial transformative century in textbook production.

Olesko, Kathryn M.

2006-11-01

271

Typological and Topological Meaning in Diagnostic Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the discourse of a problem-based learning group in medicine. Uses a conceptual distinction between linguistic (and other semiotic) resources for making typological (or categorical) versus topological (or continuous variation) meanings as part of a multimedia semiotic analysis of the data episode. (SR)

Lemke, J. L.

1999-01-01

272

Media Discourse on Globalization and Terror  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article studies the linkage made in media discourse between the September 11 terror attacks and globalization. Analysis of the prestige, national, and regional American press reveals three principal frames that support issue cultures that enhance state power and promote neo-liberal economic policy. These frames also provide an inadvertent cover for unilateral United States foreign policy interests and thus lend

ANDREW ROJECKI

2005-01-01

273

Speaking 'Europe': the politics of integration discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of language has as yet been largely neglected in studies of European integration. This article provides the theoretical groundwork to remedy this gap through discourse analysis. Its main argument is that attempts to capture the EU's nature both in the political and the academic debate themselves take part in the construction of the Euro-polity. The article proceeds in

Thomas Diez

1999-01-01

274

Historical analyses by PIXE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is ideally suited for the elemental analysis of the papers, parchment, and inks of books, manuscripts, and other historical documents. This paper will describe the general kinds of historical and bibliographical issues that can be addressed by PIXE, and it discusses two specific historical applications of the technique: to the Gutenberg Bible and the Calov

B. H. Kusko; R. N. Schwab

1987-01-01

275

From Focus Groups to Peer Discourse Sessions: The Evolution of a Method to Capture Language, Meaning, and Negotiation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors describe a unique approach to conducting and analyzing focus groups, described as peer discourse analysis. The primary objective of this analysis is to examine the shape and form of the discourses and negotiations that develop organically among peers in discussions of social issues. Peer discourse analysis has both…

Manuel, Tiffany; Kendall-Taylor, Nathaniel

2009-01-01

276

Power discourses of fish death: case of linnunsuo peat production.  

PubMed

This article explores the peat production impacts on Jukajoki river in Finland by implementing discourse analysis. Four discourses are explored: state truth statements; company statements that are in close proximity of state power; discourses provided by the local community Selkie, who provided counter-narratives to the official views; and finally media and related discourses. In conclusion, the discourses by the state and closely related actors (A-B) comprised implementation of their power and justifying it at the expense of those who are excluded from such power, in this case the village. The village narrative (C) contains elements that strongly contradict the statements provided by those with power. The results indicate local communities should be taken more seriously. The systematic denial of local peoples' rights should be reviewed, and local participation in environmental permit assessments implemented. PMID:23852881

Mustonen, Tero

2014-03-01

277

A Raman, IR and XRD analysis of the deterioration on historical monuments: Case study from Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman, infrared and XRD analysis have been applied to the examination of deterioration on historical monuments (Morelia, Mexico). Forty-three samples pyroclastic volcanic rocks (ignimbrites) have been studied, all originating from two ex-convents San Francisco and San Agustin, which were the first architectonic complexes in the city of Morelia. Several new mineral neoformation such as sulfates, carbonates, halides, and phosphates were identified in these samples with spectrometric and XRD technique. The observed Raman and infrared spectra are reported and some mineral compound assignments in unaltered and deteriorated volcanic rocks have been made. This survey is the first Raman and infrared spectrometric examination of the environmental mineralogy in Mexico under conditions of urban weathering that are characterized mainly by one secondary alteration formations of low scale.

Ostrooumov, Mikhail

2009-08-01

278

Predicting gender from electronic discourse.  

PubMed

There is substantial evidence of gender differences in face-to-face communication, and we suspect that similar differences are present in electronic communication. We designed three studies to examine gender-preferential language style in electronic discourse. In Expt 1, participants sent electronic messages to a designated 'netpal'. A discriminant analysis showed that it was possible to successfully classify the participants by gender with 91.4% accuracy. In Expts 2 and 3, we wanted to determine whether readers of e-mails could accurately identify author gender. We gave participants a selection of messages from Expt 1 and asked them to predict the author's gender. It was found that for 14 of the 16 messages used, the gender of author was correctly predicted. In the third experiment, six messages about gender-neutral topics were composed. Using a subset of the variables identified in Expt 1, female and male versions of each message were created. When participants were asked to rate whether a female or a male wrote these messages, their ratings differed as a function of the message version. These findings establish that people use gender-preferential language in informal electronic discourse. Furthermore, readers of these messages can use these gender-linked language differences to identify the author's gender. PMID:11446227

Thomson, R; Murachver, T

2001-06-01

279

Analysis of Historic Seismicity in the Transition Zone of southeastern Arizona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Colorado Plateau, southern Basin and Range, and Transition Zone divide Arizona into three physiographic and tectonic provinces (Figure 1). Little is known of the nature of seismicity in the Transition Zone of Arizona and neighboring New Mexico due to low rates of seismicity and poor historical instrumental coverage. The lack of historic instrumental coverage affects location and fault analysis of tremors. This is true for a swarm of events in 1938 that occurred in the Transition Zone of both Arizona and New Mexico. Locations are not well-constrained, relying largely on felt reports (Taggart and Baldwin, 1982). Earthquakes both large and recent enough that information about faulting may be obtained are rare in the Transition Zone. Details about faulting from seismic data exist from only one Transition Zone earthquake in Arizona. The epicenter is located far to the northwest of the area of this study in the Central Basin section of the Transition Zone (Eberhart-Phillips et al. 1981). Comparing information gained from this study will better elucidate Arizona Transition Zone faulting and seismicity. The Arizona Earthquake Information Center (AEIC) seismic stations recorded a swarm of eight earthquakes on 21 December 2003 that occurred in the Datil-Mogollon section of the Transition Zone. Six of the eight events were located, the epicenters forming a 25 km northwest trend, 62 km northwest of Clifton, Arizona. Information derived from the 2003 swarm events and earlier historic events are used to compare the seismicity and tectonic structures within the sections of the Transition Zone, as well as seismicity and tectonic structures of the adjacent Colorado Plateau and southern Basin and Range provinces, and help determine the role of the Arizona Transition Zone in the tectonics of the southwestern United States. The focal mechanism derived from this study of the 2003 swarm is similar to the 1976 Chino Valley earthquake, far to the northwest, in the Arizona Transition Zone. Similar focal mechanisms were derived by previous workers for the Colorado Plateau of Arizona (Wong and Humphrey, 1989). This study supports the role of the Arizona Transition Zone as being an intermediate tectonic Province between the Colorado Plateau and southern Basin and Range in Arizona.

Chang, J. C.; Brumbaugh, D. S.

2005-12-01

280

Statistical Analysis of Historical State-Level Residential Energy Consumption Trends  

SciTech Connect

Developing an accurate picture of the major trends in energy consumption in the nation’s stock of residential buildings can serve a variety of national and regional program planning and policy needs related to energy use. This paper employs regression analysis and uses the PRISM (Princeton Scorekeeping Method) approach with historical data to provide some insight into overall changes in the thermal integrity of the residential building stock by state. Although national energy use intensity estimates exist in aggregate, these numbers shed little light on what drives building consumption, as opposing influences are hidden within the measurement (e.g., more appliances that increase energy use while shell improvements reduce it). This study addresses this issue by estimating changes in the reference temperatures that best characterize the existing residential building stock on a state basis. Improvements in building thermal integrity are reflected by declines in the heating reference temperature, holding other factors constant. Heating and cooling-day estimates to various reference temperatures were computed from monthly average temperature data for approximately 350 climatic divisions in the U.S. A simple cross-sectional analysis is employed to try to explain the differential impacts across states. Among other factors, this analysis considers the impact that the relative growth in the number of residential buildings and the stringency of building energy codes has had on residential building energy use. This paper describes the methodology used, presents results, and suggests directions for future research.

Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.

2004-08-01

281

Photomorphic analysis techniques: An interim spatial analysis using satellite remote sensor imagery and historical data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of machine scanning and/or computer-based techniques to provide greater objectivity in the photomorphic approach was investigated. Photomorphic analysis and its application in regional planning are discussed. Topics included: delineation of photomorphic regions; inadequacies of existing classification systems; tonal and textural characteristics and signature analysis techniques; pattern recognition and Fourier transform analysis; and optical experiments. A bibliography is included.

Keuper, H. R.; Peplies, R. W.; Gillooly, R. P.

1977-01-01

282

Analyzing Discourse: Text and Talk. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics (Washington, D.C., 1981).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Georgetown Round Table on discourse analysis dealt with the following aspects of the topic: Emerson's essay on language; oral remembering and narrative structures; persuasive discourse; social construction of topical cohesion; discourse as an interactional achievement; the place of intonation; topic as the unit of analysis in a criminal law…

Tannen, Deborah, Ed.

283

Using Simple Statistical Analysis of Historical Data to Understand Wind Ramp Events  

SciTech Connect

As renewable resources start providing an increasingly larger percentage of our energy needs, we need to improve our understanding of these intermittent resources so we can manage them better. In the case of wind resources, large unscheduled changes in the energy output, called ramp events, make it challenging to keep the load and the generation balanced. In this report, we show that simple statistical analysis of the historical data on wind energy generation can provide insights into these ramp events. In particular, this analysis can help answer questions such as the time period during the day when these events are likely to occur, the relative severity of positive and negative ramps, and the frequency of their occurrence. As there are several ways in which ramp events can be defined and counted, we also conduct a detailed study comparing different options. Our results indicate that the statistics are relatively insensitive to these choices, but depend on utility-specific factors, such as the magnitude of the ramp and the time interval over which this change occurs. These factors reflect the challenges faced by schedulers and operators in keeping the load and generation balanced and can change over the years. We conduct our analysis using data from wind farms in the Tehachapi Pass region in Southern California and the Columbia Basin region in Northern Oregon; while the results for other regions are likely to be different, the report describes the benefits of conducting simple statistical analysis on wind generation data and the insights that can be gained through such analysis.

Kamath, C

2010-01-29

284

Discourse Theory and "Contrastive Rhetoric."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Appraises R. Kaplan's "contrastic rhetoric" in the light of a multilanguage research project on discourse structure. Concludes that Kaplan's specific analyses are in need of substantive revision. (FL)

Bar-Lev, Zev

1986-01-01

285

Toward the modeling of land use change: A spatial analysis using remote sensing and historical data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was hypothesized that the chronological observation of land use change could be shown to follow a predictable pattern and these patterns could be correlated with other statistical data to develop transition probabilities suitable for modeling purposes. A literature review and preliminary research, however, indicated a totally stochastic approach was not practical for simulating land use change and thus a more deterministic approach was adopted. The approach used assumes the determinants of the land use conversion process are found in the market place, where land transactions among buyers and sellers occur. Only one side of the market transaction process is studied, however, namely, the purchaser's desires in securing an ideal or suitable site. The problem was to identify the ideal qualities, quantities or attributes desired in an industrial site (or housing development), and to formulate a general algorithmic statement capable of identifying potential development sites. Research procedures involved developing a list of variables previously noted in the literature to be related to site selection and streamlining the list to a set suitable for statistical testing. A sample of 157 industries which have located (or relocated) in the 16-county Knoxville metropolitan region since 1950 was selected for industrial location analysis. Using NASA color infrared photography and Tennessee Valley Authority historical aerial photography, data were collected on the spatial characteristics of each industrial location event. These data were then subjected to factor analysis to determine the interrelations of variables.

Honea, R. B.

1976-01-01

286

Modeling, Analysis, and Preservation Techniques for Historic Reinforced Concrete Structures in Seismic Prone Regions Case Study: Augusta Airship Hangar, Sicily  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout the world there are hundreds of historic monuments and structures considered to be invaluable and irreplaceable. They are symbols of cultural identity and a means of educating people about history. Preservation of historic monuments and structures is therefore an important part of safeguarding these cultural heritage sites so that they retain their value for future generations. This report discusses a procedure for the investigation of seismic hazards in existing buildings and possible steps that can be taken to avoid damage caused by these hazards. The Augusta Airship Hangar located in Sicily, will be used as a case study however the topics addressed in this paper can be applied to other structures of historic value around the world. First state-of-the-art scanning procedures were used to create scale digital models that were imported into a structural analysis program. Within this program dynamic analyses were performed on the model based on actual ground motions taken close to the site. This data was used to determine the period and mode shapes of the structure. Then a nonlinear analysis, including a static pushover analysis, was implemented on a two-dimensional model of the structural frame. From this analysis the failure mechanisms of the structure were revealed with relation to an allowable roof displacement. The structural integrity of the structure was evaluated based on pre-defined performance goals. Finally multiple suggestions were made how the Augusta Airship Hangar might be repaired and strengthened so that this structure will not be destroyed should an earthquake occur. The results of our study show that historic structures, despite their age, can still be strong and ductile. Also there are a multitude of effective preservation and retrofit techniques that can be used to strengthen these historic structures, should an earthquake occur. Through this study, the Augusta Airship Hangar has proven to be not only a historic symbol for Sicily but also can be used as an example for the rehabilitation of other historic structures. The techniques and processes discussed in this paper can be applied to other historic reinforced concrete structures and can be expanded upon in future investigations.

Cronin, Kelly; Reiner, Tom; Whyte, Catherine

2008-07-01

287

Modeling, Analysis, and Preservation Techniques for Historic Reinforced Concrete Structures in Seismic Prone Regions Case Study: Augusta Airship Hangar, Sicily  

SciTech Connect

Throughout the world there are hundreds of historic monuments and structures considered to be invaluable and irreplaceable. They are symbols of cultural identity and a means of educating people about history. Preservation of historic monuments and structures is therefore an important part of safeguarding these cultural heritage sites so that they retain their value for future generations.This report discusses a procedure for the investigation of seismic hazards in existing buildings and possible steps that can be taken to avoid damage caused by these hazards. The Augusta Airship Hangar located in Sicily, will be used as a case study however the topics addressed in this paper can be applied to other structures of historic value around the world.First state-of-the-art scanning procedures were used to create scale digital models that were imported into a structural analysis program. Within this program dynamic analyses were performed on the model based on actual ground motions taken close to the site. This data was used to determine the period and mode shapes of the structure. Then a nonlinear analysis, including a static pushover analysis, was implemented on a two-dimensional model of the structural frame. From this analysis the failure mechanisms of the structure were revealed with relation to an allowable roof displacement. The structural integrity of the structure was evaluated based on pre-defined performance goals. Finally multiple suggestions were made how the Augusta Airship Hangar might be repaired and strengthened so that this structure will not be destroyed should an earthquake occur.The results of our study show that historic structures, despite their age, can still be strong and ductile. Also there are a multitude of effective preservation and retrofit techniques that can be used to strengthen these historic structures, should an earthquake occur. Through this study, the Augusta Airship Hangar has proven to be not only a historic symbol for Sicily but also can be used as an example for the rehabilitation of other historic structures. The techniques and processes discussed in this paper can be applied to other historic reinforced concrete structures and can be expanded upon in future investigations.

Cronin, Kelly; Whyte, Catherine [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 760 Davis Hall (United States); Reiner, Tom [Graduate Engineer, Buro Happold Consulting Engineers, Inc., 9601 Jefferson Blvd., Suite B, Culver City, CA 90232 (United States)

2008-07-08

288

Satellite imagery and discourses of transparency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade there has been a dramatic increase in satellite imagery available in the commercial marketplace and to the public in general. Satellite imagery systems and imagery archives, a knowledge domain formally monopolized by nation states, have become available to the public, both from declassified intelligence data and from fully integrated commercial vendors who create and market imagery data. Some of these firms have recently launched their own satellite imagery systems and created rather large imagery "architectures" that threaten to rival military reconnaissance systems. The increasing resolution of the imagery and the growing expertise of software and imagery interpretation developers has engendered a public discourse about the potentials for increased transparency in national and global affairs. However, transparency is an attribute of satellite remote sensing and imagery production that is taken for granted in the debate surrounding the growing public availability of high-resolution satellite imagery. This paper examines remote sensing and military photo reconnaissance imagery technology and the production of satellite imagery in the interests of contemplating the complex connections between imagery satellites, historically situated discourses about democratic and global transparency, and the formation and maintenance of nation state systems. Broader historical connections will also be explored between satellite imagery and the history of the use of cartographic and geospatial technologies in the formation and administrative control of nation states and in the discursive formulation of national identity. Attention will be on the technology itself as a powerful social actor through its connection to both national sovereignty and transcendent notions of scientific objectivity. The issues of the paper will be explored through a close look at aerial photography and satellite imagery both as communicative tools of power and as culturally relevant historical artifacts.

Harris, Chad Vincent

289

Genetic diversity and population structure analysis of accessions in the US historic sweet sorghum collection.  

PubMed

Sweet sorghum has the potential to become a versatile feedstock for large-scale bioenergy production given its sugar from stem juice, cellulose/hemicellulose from stalks, and starch from grain. However, for researchers to maximize its feedstock potential a first step includes additional evaluations of the 2,180 accessions with varied origins in the US historic sweet sorghum collection. To assess genetic diversity of this collection for bioenergy breeding and population structure for association mapping, we selected 96 accessions and genotyped them with 95 simple sequence repeat markers. Subsequent genetic diversity and population structure analysis methods identified four subpopulations in this panel, which correlated well with the geographic locations where these accessions originated or were collected. Model comparisons for three quantitative traits revealed different levels of population structure effects on flowering time, plant height, and brix. Our results suggest that diverse germplasm accessions curated from different geographical regions should be considered for plant breeding programs to develop sweet sorghum cultivars or hybrids, and that this sweet sorghum panel can be further explored for association mapping. PMID:19760215

Wang, Ming L; Zhu, Chengsong; Barkley, Noelle A; Chen, Zhenbang; Erpelding, John E; Murray, Seth C; Tuinstra, Mitchell R; Tesso, Tesfaye; Pederson, Gary A; Yu, Jianming

2009-12-01

290

Social network analysis in the study of nonhuman primates: A historical perspective  

PubMed Central

Advances over the last fifteen years have made social network analysis (SNA) a powerful tool for the study of nonhuman primate social behavior. Although many SNA-based techniques have been only very recently adopted in primatological research, others have been commonly used by primatologists for decades. The roots of SNA also stem from some of the same conceptual frameworks as the majority of nonhuman primate behavioral research. The rapid development of SNA in recent years has led to questions within the primatological community of where and how SNA fits within this field. We aim to address these questions by providing an overview of the historical relationship between SNA and the study of nonhuman primates. We begin with a brief history of the development of SNA, followed by a detailed description of the network-based visualization techniques, analytical methods and conceptual frameworks which have been employed by primatologists since as early as the 1960s. We also introduce some of the latest advances to SNA, thereby demonstrating that this approach contains novel tools for study of nonhuman primate social behavior which may be used to shed light on questions that cannot be addressed fully using more conventional methods.

Brent, Lauren J.N.; Lehmann, Julia; Ramos-Fernandez, Gabriel

2011-01-01

291

Creating Rhetorical Stability in Corporate University Discourse: Discourse Technologies and Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written communication scholarship has shown that successful social change requires discursive stability. This study was designed to investigate how this stability is created. Critical discourse analysis of 30 corporate university articles investigated claims authors made about the expansion of market-based values into contexts of organizational…

Faber, Brenton

2003-01-01

292

Expectations in Incremental Discourse Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way in which discourse features express connections back to the previous discourse has been described in the literature in terms of on a suitably defined right frontier, can be used to both process expectations and constrain discouse processing in general.

Dan Cristea; Bonnie Lynn Webber

1997-01-01

293

Shifting Identity Positions in the Development of Language Education for Immigrants: An Analysis of Discourses Associated with "Swedish for Immigrants"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study presented in this paper focuses upon conceptualisations of language and identity in the institutionalised arena that emerged in the post-Second World War period with the specific intention of teaching Swedish to adult immigrants in the nation-state of Sweden. Our analysis focuses upon the development of the educational programme "Swedish…

Rosen, Jenny Karin; Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta

2013-01-01

294

Computer-Supported Collaborative Inquiry on Buoyancy: A Discourse Analysis Supporting the "Pieces" Position on Conceptual Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes in detail a conversation analysis of conceptual change in a computer-supported collaborative learning environment. Conceptual change is an essential learning process in science education that has yet to be fully understood. While many models and theories have been developed over the last three decades, empirical data to…

Turcotte, Sandrine

2012-01-01

295

"Joyful Learning" in Rural Indian Primary Schools: An Analysis of Social Control in the Context of Child-Centred Discourses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Efforts to improve the "quality" of education for all in government primary schools in India have seen a shift towards child-centred teaching. This paper examines the "Joyful Learning" programme, an example of a pedagogic reform implemented in rural primary schools in the southern Indian state of Karnataka. Through an empirical analysis of…

Sriprakash, Arathi

2009-01-01

296

Baseline Water Quality Data Inventory and Analysis Valley Forge National Historical Park. Volume I of III.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents the results of surface-water-quality data retrievals for Valley Forge National Historical Park from six of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) national databases: (1) Storage and Retrieval (STORET) water qualit...

2003-01-01

297

Analysis of the Effect of Concorde Aircraft Noise on Historic Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Statistical estimates of breakage probabilities from noise-induced vibration were calculated for susceptible structural elements at five historic sites near the proposed subsonic flight path of the Concorde aircraft. The five sites investigated were: Sull...

R. L. Hershey R. J. Kevala S. L. Burns

1975-01-01

298

Historical Analysis of the Development of RED HORSE (Rapid Engineer Deployable, Heavy Operation Repair Squadron, Engineering).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to analyze the historical events leading up to the creation of RED HORSE (Rapid Engineer Deployable, Heavy Operation Repair Squadron, Engineering). The study has two objectives: (1) Capture the decision making rationale for t...

J. A. Wheeler

1987-01-01

299

Think About It: The Misbegotten Promise of Positive Thinking Discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article, historical and critical in scope, explores self-help literature’s positive thinking discourse, through which key concepts of selfhood, self-transformation, and society are textually conveyed, within the context of the genre’s development from roughly 1880 to the present. The article tracks how individual thought, in contrast to dialogical social interaction, has long been constructed as the central means to health,

Louise Woodstock

2007-01-01

300

Competitiveness, diversification and the international higher education cash flow: the EU's higher education discourse amidst the challenges of globalisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the EU discourse on Higher Education and analyses this discourse within the context of globalisation. Importance is attached to the issues of lifelong learning, competitiveness, diversification, entrepreneurship, access, knowledge society, modernisation, quality assurance, innovation and creativity, governance and business–HE partnerships. The paper also provides a critical analysis of this discourse focusing on certain issues involved in

Peter Mayo

2009-01-01

301

A cultural–historical analysis of early childhood education: how do teachers appropriate new cultural tools?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many European heritage early childhood education communities cultural–historical theory has become increasingly influential for informing practice. Yet one of the major challenges facing the field has been the slow mobilisation of new theory into practice. This paper reports on a study of 40 early childhood pre?service students as they moved from a developmental to a cultural–historical framework for observing

Marilyn Fleer; Jill Robbins

2007-01-01

302

Historical analyses by PIXE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is ideally suited for the elemental analysis of the papers, parchment, and inks of books, manuscripts, and other historical documents. This paper will describe the general kinds of historical and bibliographical issues that can be addressed by PIXE, and it discusses two specific historical applications of the technique: to the Gutenberg Bible and the Calov Bible owned by Johann Sebastian Bach.

Kusko, B. H.; Schwab, R. N.

1987-03-01

303

Conceptual Change cum Discourse Analysis to Understand Cognition in a Unit on Chaotic Systems: Towards an Integrative Perspective on Learning in Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates how a well-designed curriculum can lead students to construct an unwanted conception. Concludes that the conceptual-change-cum-discourse perspective has the potential to integrate the affordances of both methodological approaches and past empirical accomplishments. Contains 33 references. (DDR)

Duit, Reinders; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Komorek, Michael; Wilbers, Jens

1998-01-01

304

The Power of the Press: A Content and Discourse Analysis of the United States History Standards as Presented in Selected Newspapers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how the voluntary national U.S. history standards contained within the "National Standards for United States History: Exploring the American Experience" were presented in selected U.S. newspapers. Uses ethnographic content and critical discourse analytic methodologies. Indicates that most newspapers presented a fragmented and inflated…

Johnson, Theresa; Avery, Patricia G.

1999-01-01

305

An analysis of historical exposures of pressmen to airborne benzene (1938-2006).  

PubMed

Benzene is an aromatic hydrocarbon that, with sufficient cumulative lifetime doses, can cause acute myelogenous leukemia. Because of its volatility and solvent properties, it was used in the printing industry in inks, ink solvents, and cleaning agents from the 1930s to the 1970s. This analysis represents the first known attempt to gather and synthesize the available data on historical airborne benzene concentrations in printing facilities and exposures to pressmen. The sources of fugitive benzene vapors from printing operations have been identified as evaporation from ink fountains, exposed sections of the printing cylinder, the paper web, the paper post exit, and spilled ink. In addition, specific activities that could lead to benzene exposure, such as filling the fountains, using solvents to clean the press, and using solvents as personal cleaning agents, potentially occurred multiple times per work period. Eighteen studies were identified that reported workplace airborne concentrations in printing facilities between 1938 and 2006. Typical benzene air concentrations, considering both personal and area samples of various durations, were as high as 200 p.p.m. in the 1930s through the 1950s, 3-35 p.p.m. in the 1960s, 1.3-16 p.p.m. in the 1970s, 0.013-1 in the 1980s, and far less than 1 p.p.m. in the 1990s and 2000s. The decrease in benzene air concentrations by the late 1970s was likely to be linked to the decreased benzene content of printing materials, increased engineering controls, and to more stringent occupational exposure limits. PMID:23316079

Novick, Rachel M; Keenan, James J; Gross, Sherilyn A; Paustenbach, Dennis J

2013-07-01

306

From food insufficiency towards trade dependency: a historical analysis of global food availability.  

PubMed

Achieving global food security is one of the major challenges of the coming decades. In order to tackle future food security challenges we must understand the past. This study presents a historical analysis of global food availability, one of the key elements of food security. By calculating national level dietary energy supply and production for nine time steps during 1965-2005 we classify countries based on their food availability, food self-sufficiency and food trade. We also look at how diets have changed during this period with regard to supply of animal based calories. Our results show that food availability has increased substantially both in absolute and relative terms. The percentage of population living in countries with sufficient food supply (>2500 kcal/cap/d) has almost doubled from 33% in 1965 to 61% in 2005. The population living with critically low food supply (<2000 kcal/cap/d) has dropped from 52% to 3%. Largest improvements are seen in the MENA region, Latin America, China and Southeast Asia. Besides, the composition of diets has changed considerably within the study period: the world population living with high supply of animal source food (>15% of dietary energy supply) increased from 33% to over 50%. While food supply has increased globally, food self-sufficiency (domestic production>2500 kcal/cap/d) has not changed remarkably. In the beginning of the study period insufficient domestic production meant insufficient food supply, but in recent years the deficit has been increasingly compensated by rising food imports. This highlights the growing importance of food trade, either for food supply in importing countries or as a source of income for exporters. Our results provide a basis for understanding past global food system dynamics which, in turn, can benefit research on future food security. PMID:24367545

Porkka, Miina; Kummu, Matti; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

2013-01-01

307

Historical DNA analysis reveals living descendants of an extinct species of Gal?pagos tortoise  

PubMed Central

Giant tortoises, a prominent symbol of the Galápagos archipelago, illustrate the influence of geological history and natural selection on the diversification of organisms. Because of heavy human exploitation, 4 of the 15 known species (Geochelone spp.) have disappeared. Charles Darwin himself detailed the intense harvesting of one species, G. elephantopus, which once was endemic to the island of Floreana. This species was believed to have been exterminated within 15 years of Darwin's historic visit to the Galápagos in 1835. The application of modern DNA techniques to museum specimens combined with long-term study of a system creates new opportunities for identifying the living remnants of extinct taxa in the wild. Here, we use mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite data obtained from museum specimens to show that the population on Floreana was evolutionarily distinct from all other Galápagos tortoise populations. It was demonstrated that some living individuals on the nearby island of Isabela are genetically distinct from the rest of the island's inhabitants. Surprisingly, we found that these “non-native” tortoises from Isabela are of recent Floreana ancestry and closely match the genetic data provided by the museum specimens. Thus, we show that the genetic line of G. elephantopus has not been completely extinguished and still exists in an intermixed population on Isabela. With enough individuals to commence a serious captive breeding program, this finding may help reestablish a species that was thought to have gone extinct more than a century ago and illustrates the power of long-term genetic analysis and the critical role of museum specimens in conservation biology.

Poulakakis, Nikos; Glaberman, Scott; Russello, Michael; Beheregaray, Luciano B.; Ciofi, Claudio; Powell, Jeffrey R.; Caccone, Adalgisa

2008-01-01

308

Can historical controls be used in current clinical trials in osteosarcoma. Analysis of prognostic factors  

SciTech Connect

A comparison with respect to possible prognostic factors has been made between a contemporary group of 44 patients with osteosarcoma in Sweden, who received treatment since 1971, and a historical group of 35 such patients treated prior to 1972. Only patients with no evidence of metastases on admission were included in the material. The female/male ratio was lower, but not significantly so, for the contemporary group. The mean age was similar in the two groups. Pain was the most common symptom in both groups. The site patterns differed slightly, although not significantly so, in the two groups, there was a higher ratio of frequency of femoral and lower leg tumors for the historical group than for the contemporary group. The variability in tumor size was greater for the historical group, as was the tumor diameter. The historical group had a greater proportion of osteoblastic tumors and these tended to be more malignant. On the whole the prognosis would be expected to be less favorable for the historical group and there would seem to be a definite risk in using this group as a control group to the adjuvant interferon treated patients.

Brostroem, L.A. (Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden); Aparisi, T.; Ingimarsson, S.; Lagergren, C.; Nilsonne, U.; Strander, H.; Soederberg, G.

1980-12-01

309

Universal health care: the changing international discourse.  

PubMed

Nearly 34 years ago, in 1978 in the face of a looming crisis in the health of the world's populations and rising health inequality, 134 countries came together to sign the historic Alma Ata Declaration where the idea of primary health care as the chosen path to "Health for All" was formulated. However even before the declaration and more so since, countries have diverse interpretations of Universalism, each setting it in the context of its own health care model. These have ranged from the minimalist to the more comprehensive welfare state. Today, as health statistics reveal, the crisis has deepened, not only in the developing world but also in the developed world. It is important to debate the nature of the crisis and understand current policy initiatives and their ideological legitimations. The paper attempts to trace, clarify and account for the shifts in international discourse on universal health care (UHC). It argues that the idea of UHC is still with us, but there have occurred substantial shifts in discourse and meaning, shaped by changing international and national contexts and social forces impinging on health systems. The current concept of universal health coverage has only a notional allusion to universality of Alma Ata and disregards its fundamental principles. It concludes that the shifts are detrimental and its value in promoting health for all is likely to be severely limited. PMID:24351385

Bisht, Ramila

2013-01-01

310

French Discourse Markers in Shaba Swahili Conversations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines data recorded in Shaba, a province in the Congo, and documents the marked preference to employ French discourse markers in Shaba Swahili discourse. Treats discourse markers as a special kind of contextualization cue that ties parts of a discourse to each other, creating cohesion and coherence. (Author/VWL)

de Rooij, Vincent A.

2000-01-01

311

Troubling Discourses on Gender and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In educational policies, two discourses on gender have existed since the 1980s. I call them the "gender equality discourse" and the "boy discourse". The gender equality discourse in education is based on international and national declarations and plans, and is focused predominantly on the position of girls and…

Lahelma, Elina

2014-01-01

312

Historic Preservation Incentives of the 1976 Tax Reform Act: An Economic Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Tax Reform Act (TRA) of 1976 includes several provisions which affect the financial position of owners of income-producing historic buildings. The report analyzes the effect of the TRA on the after-tax cost of two basic alternatives facing the owner: ...

S. F. Weber

1979-01-01

313

Accessibility and Mobility of Persons Who Are Visually Impaired: A Historical Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article traces the historical development of two movements to improve the mobility of people with visual impairments--environmental modifications to increase accessibility, and orientation and mobility training. It also notes how changes in attitudes, effected to a large degree by the introduction of dog guides, have led to greater acceptance…

Blasch, B. B.; Stuckey, K. A.

1995-01-01

314

Special education reform in Brazil: an historical analysis of educational policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an historical view of the legal and political aspects related to special education. It analyses the current and future perspectives that public and private educational institutions utilize to provide school services to individuals with disabilities in Brazil. Although Brazil has developed laws and provisions to guarantee the integration of students with disabilities into regular schools, this is

MARIA TERESA EGLER MANTOAN; JOSE ARMANDO VALENTE

315

The stability of a laminated Voussoir beam: Back analysis of a historic roof collapse using DDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of a horizontally bedded and vertically jointed roof, referred to here as a laminated Voussoir beam, is studied using careful documentation of a historic roof collapse, which occurred in an ancient underground water storage reservoir dated back to ca. 1000 B.C. The roof of the opening failed immediately after the excavation leaving a dome shaped loosened zone, with

Yossef H. Hatzor; Ron Benary

1998-01-01

316

Comprehensive Sexuality Education: A Historical and Comparative Analysis of Public Opinion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research clarifies the public support of comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) in terms of acceptance, content, timing, and effectiveness as it may inform practice in the United States. The historical context of public opinion, as well as a summary of the efficacy of abstinence only education (AOE) versus CSE in the scientific literature,…

Herrman, Judith W.; Solano, Paul; Stotz, Lauren; McDuffie, Mary Joan

2013-01-01

317

A Historical Analysis of the Educational Modalities of Inequalities Management in Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a historical and comparative study of the role that management of inequalities has played in the formation and evolution of educational institutions in three countries: Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala. This particular focus shows that this function has played a determining role, even if its organization has varied deeply in…

Mulot, Eric

2004-01-01

318

A Cultural-Historical Analysis of Early Childhood Education: How Do Teachers Appropriate New Cultural Tools?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many European heritage early childhood education communities cultural-historical theory has become increasingly influential for informing practice. Yet one of the major challenges facing the field has been the slow mobilisation of new theory into practice. This paper reports on a study of 40 early childhood pre-service students as they moved…

Fleer, Marilyn; Robbins, Jill

2007-01-01

319

Accrediting Culture: An Analysis of Tribal and Historically Black College Curricula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data gleaned from catalogs and bulletins for a sample of 28 tribal, 33 historically black, and 30 "mainstream" colleges, the author analyzes the number of courses that focus explicitly and exclusively on African American or American Indian cultural perspectives--"ethnocentric" content--in 1992 and 2002. Negative binomial regression analyses…

Cole, Wade M.

2006-01-01

320

Historical Models and Science Instruction: A Cross-Cultural Analysis Based on Students' Views  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper is an extended work from a previous study on Taiwanese and German students' conceptions of the universe (Liu, 2005). The study revealed that students discuss astronomical events and entities based on a mental model of universe and their models of the universe seem to have similar underlying principles with historical ones. In present…

Liu, Shu-Chiu

2006-01-01

321

Science Pedagogy as a Category of Historical Analysis: Past, Present, and Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical studies of science pedagogy have flourished in recent years. This essay offers an assessment of the literature on science pedagogy from the 1930s to the present. It argues that rather than focusing on the work of Thomas Kuhn and Michel Foucault, historians of science pedagogy could with profit turn to the work of Ludwik Fleck. Fleck offers three categories

Kathryn M. Olesko

2006-01-01

322

A Comparative Analysis of Academic Development among African American Students in Historically Black versus White Institutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using national longitudinal data, this study sought to compare the effect of attending historically black and white institutions of higher education on academic achievement. African American student characteristics and institutional resources were also compared and contrasted. The analyses through hierarchical linear modeling suggested no…

Kim, Mikyong Minsun

323

A Historical Analysis of the Curriculum of Organic Chemistry Using ACS Exams as Artifacts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized examinations, such as those developed and disseminated by the ACS Examinations Institute, are artifacts of the teaching of a course and over time may provide a historical perspective on how curricula have changed and evolved. This study investigated changes in organic chemistry curricula across a 60-year period by evaluating 18 ACS…

Raker, Jeffrey R.; Holme, Thomas A.

2013-01-01

324

Reduced space optimal analysis for historical data sets: 136 years of Atlantic sea surface temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computationally efficient method for analyzing meteorological and oceanographic historical data sets has been developed. The method combines data reduction and least squares optimal estimation. The data reduction involves computing empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of the data based on their recent, high-quality portion and using a leading EOF subset as a basis for the analyzed solution and for fitting a

Alexey Kaplan; Yochanan Kushnir; Mark A. Cane; M. Benno Blumenthal

1997-01-01

325

Collective Skill Formation: A Historical Analysis of the Least-Likely Case New Zealand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the first study investigating New Zealand's early legislation in apprenticeship from the perspective of historical institutionalism. It shows that, between 1865 and the 1940s, New Zealand's apprenticeship system was less liberal in character than it is today, because a collective skill formation regime, involving dual…

Trampusch, Christine

2014-01-01

326

Public Policy and Legitimacy: A historical policy analysis of the interplay of public policy and legitimacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the interplay of local government policy and legitimacy from a broad postpositivist perspective where historical accounts and narratives are used in a complementary fashion. The basic assumption is that legitimacy is the product of satisfying felt needs and solving perceived problems. Health and social malaise problems and related policies of the past 120 years are analyzed in

Anders Hanberger

2003-01-01

327

A Historical Analysis of the Daniell Cell and Electrochemistry Teaching in French and Tunisian Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The condition in which the Daniell Cell was historically constructed is examined and the evolution of its presentation in French and Tunisian chemistry textbooks is analyzed. Based on the studies, several innovations to facilitate the teaching of the cell, and more generally, the teaching of electrochemistry and of ionic conduction are proposed.

Boulabiar, Ahlem; Bouraoui, Kamel; Chastrette, Maurice; Abderrabba, Manef

2004-01-01

328

Expanding Discourse Options through Computer-Mediated Communication: Guiding Learners toward Autonomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes a multiliteracies-based pedagogical framework for the analysis of computer-mediated discourse (CMD) in order to give students increased access to expanded discourse options that are available in online communication environments and communities (i.e., beyond the classroom). Through the analysis of excerpts and a corpus of…

Abraham, Lee B.; Williams, Lawrence

2011-01-01

329

Queering Literacy Teaching: Analyzing Gay-Themed Discourses in a Fifth-Grade Class in Brazil  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following queer theory and critical discourse analysis principles, my aims in this article are to analyze gay-themed discourses in literacy contexts and to suggest a way of queering literacy teaching. In the first part, I focus on ethnographically generated data from a class of fifth-graders in Brazil. The analysis shows that homoeroticism was…

Moita-Lopes, Luiz Paulo

2006-01-01

330

The Political Discourse of the Campaign against Bilingual Education: From "Proposition 227" to "Horne v. Flores"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the frameworks of critical discourse analysis, representation theory, and legitimization theory, this study examines the political discourse of the campaign for Proposition 227 in California--particularly, the key social representations of languages, their speakers, and the main political actors in the campaign. The analysis examines the…

Yamagami, Mai

2012-01-01

331

Imagining A Monocultural Community: Racialization of Cultural Practice in Educational Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports of racist violence in Britain identified a prevailing institutionalized racism and social segregation. Presents an analysis of authoritative educational discourse in the form of school inspection reports, focusing the cultural practice of minority ethnic families visiting their heritage country. Using critical discourse analysis, suggests…

Blackledge, Adrian

2003-01-01

332

Bayesian Statistical Analysis of Historical and Late Holocene Rates of Sea-Level Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fundamental concern associated with climate change is the rate at which sea levels are rising. Studies of past sea level (particularly beyond the instrumental data range) allow modern sea-level rise to be placed in a more complete context. Considering this, we perform a Bayesian statistical analysis on historical and late Holocene rates of sea-level change. The data that form the input to the statistical model are tide-gauge measurements and proxy reconstructions from cores of coastal sediment. The aims are to estimate rates of sea-level rise, to determine when modern rates of sea-level rise began and to observe how these rates have been changing over time. Many of the current methods for doing this use simple linear regression to estimate rates. This is often inappropriate as it is too rigid and it can ignore uncertainties that arise as part of the data collection exercise. This can lead to over confidence in the sea-level trends being characterized. The proposed Bayesian model places a Gaussian process prior on the rate process (i.e. the process that determines how rates of sea-level are changing over time). The likelihood of the observed data is the integral of this process. When dealing with proxy reconstructions, this is set in an errors-in-variables framework so as to take account of age uncertainty. It is also necessary, in this case, for the model to account for glacio-isostatic adjustment, which introduces a covariance between individual age and sea-level observations. This method provides a flexible fit and it allows for the direct estimation of the rate process with full consideration of all sources of uncertainty. Analysis of tide-gauge datasets and proxy reconstructions in this way means that changing rates of sea level can be estimated more comprehensively and accurately than previously possible. The model captures the continuous and dynamic evolution of sea-level change and results show that not only are modern sea levels rising but that the rates of rise are continuously increasing. Analysis of the a global tide-gauge record (Church and White, 2011) indicated that the rate of sea-level rise increased continuously since 1880AD and is currently 2.57mm/yr (95% credible interval of 1.71 to 4.35mm/yr). Application of the model a proxy reconstruction from North Carolina (Kemp et al., 2011) indicated that the mean rate of rise in this locality since the middle of the 19th century (current rate of 2.66 mm/yr with a 95% credible interval of 1.29 to 4.59mm/yr) is in agreement with results from the tide gauge analysis and is unprecedented in at least the last 2000 years.

Cahill, Niamh; Parnell, Andrew; Kemp, Andrew; Horton, Benjamin

2014-05-01

333

The biomedical discourse relation bank  

PubMed Central

Background Identification of discourse relations, such as causal and contrastive relations, between situations mentioned in text is an important task for biomedical text-mining. A biomedical text corpus annotated with discourse relations would be very useful for developing and evaluating methods for biomedical discourse processing. However, little effort has been made to develop such an annotated resource. Results We have developed the Biomedical Discourse Relation Bank (BioDRB), in which we have annotated explicit and implicit discourse relations in 24 open-access full-text biomedical articles from the GENIA corpus. Guidelines for the annotation were adapted from the Penn Discourse TreeBank (PDTB), which has discourse relations annotated over open-domain news articles. We introduced new conventions and modifications to the sense classification. We report reliable inter-annotator agreement of over 80% for all sub-tasks. Experiments for identifying the sense of explicit discourse connectives show the connective itself as a highly reliable indicator for coarse sense classification (accuracy 90.9% and F1 score 0.89). These results are comparable to results obtained with the same classifier on the PDTB data. With more refined sense classification, there is degradation in performance (accuracy 69.2% and F1 score 0.28), mainly due to sparsity in the data. The size of the corpus was found to be sufficient for identifying the sense of explicit connectives, with classifier performance stabilizing at about 1900 training instances. Finally, the classifier performs poorly when trained on PDTB and tested on BioDRB (accuracy 54.5% and F1 score 0.57). Conclusion Our work shows that discourse relations can be reliably annotated in biomedical text. Coarse sense disambiguation of explicit connectives can be done with high reliability by using just the connective as a feature, but more refined sense classification requires either richer features or more annotated data. The poor performance of a classifier trained in the open domain and tested in the biomedical domain suggests significant differences in the semantic usage of connectives across these domains, and provides robust evidence for a biomedical sublanguage for discourse and the need to develop a specialized biomedical discourse annotated corpus. The results of our cross-domain experiments are consistent with related work on identifying connectives in BioDRB.

2011-01-01

334

The discourse of causal explanations in school science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers and educators working from a systemic functional linguistic perspective have provided a body of work on science discourse which offers an excellent starting point for examining the linguistic aspects of the development of causal discourse in school science, discourse which Derewianka (1995) claimed is critical to success in secondary school. No work has yet described the development of causal language by identifying the linguistic features present in oral discourse or by comparing the causal discourse of native and non-native (ESL) speakers of English. The current research responds to this gap by examining the oral discourse collected from ESL and non-ESL students at the primary and high school grades. Specifically, it asks the following questions: (1) How do the teachers and students in these four contexts develop causal explanations and their relevant taxonomies through classroom interactions? (2) What are the causal discourse features being used by the students in these four contexts to construct oral causal explanations? The findings of the social practice analysis showed that the teachers in the four contexts differed in their approaches to teaching, with the primary school mainstream teacher focusing largely on the hands-on practice , the primary school ESL teacher moving from practice to theory, the high school mainstream teacher moving from theory to practice, and the high school ESL teacher relying primarily on theory. The findings from the quantitative, small corpus approach suggest that the developmental path of cause which has been identified in the writing of experts shows up not only in written texts but also in the oral texts which learners construct. Moreover, this move appears when the discourse of high school ESL and non-ESL students is compared, suggesting a developmental progression in the acquisition of these features by these students. The findings also reveal that the knowledge constructed, as shown by the concept maps created from the discourse, follows a developmental path similar to the linguistic causal path, from the concrete, hands-on, observable items to more abstract, theoretical concepts. This study is the first systemic functional comparison of the oral discourse of primary and secondary learners as well as the first to compare ESL and non-ESL speakers in this way, and as such it helps map general trends in causal discourse development. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Slater, Tammy Jayne Anne

335

Neurobiology in public and private discourse: the case of adults with ADHD.  

PubMed

How do people describe their health? How do their descriptions relate to public definitions? This article focuses on adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We look at Dutch adults who adopt the ADHD label and ask: which discourses structure their descriptions of ADHD? How do these relate to the dominant public discourse on ADHD? Do people use, for example, neurobiological explanations of ADHD? The research makes use of Q-methodology, which combines a discursive relational approach with factor analysis. We examine five different personal discourses that partly differ from the public discourse. People borrow neurobiological, psychological, sociological and even holistic arguments from public discourse to come up with a distinct set of discourses. Neurobiology resonates among adults with ADHD but does not dominate their thinking. Contrary to our expectation, this supports reflexivity instead of discipline theory. PMID:22738075

Bröer, Christian; Heerings, Marjolijn

2013-01-01

336

The Malaysian Intellectual: A Brief Historical Overview of the Discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRAK Kertas ini memperkatakan wacana yang melibatkan intelektual di Malaysia. Ia menegaskan bahawa sesuai dengan perubahan sosio-politik, 'bidang makna' yang berkaitan konsep 'intelektual' dan lokasi sosial sebenar para intelektual itu sudah mengalami perubahan besar sepanjang abad dua puluh. Ini menimbulkan cabaran kepada sejarahwan yang ingin melihat masa lampau dengan kaca mata masa kini tetapi yang sepatutnya perlu difahami dengan tanggapan

DEBORAH JOHNSON

337

Conflicting Holocaust narratives in Moldovan nationalist historical discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effort to build a patriotic, usable past for Moldova has led important Moldovan post?Soviet historians of the pan?Romanian school to de?emphasize and rationalize the Holocaust for fear of it staining a national myth grounded in Romanian victimization narratives. Much of this strategy has been focused on the Jewish connection to Soviet communism in interwar greater Romania, which supposedly undermined

Dmitry Tartakovsky

2008-01-01

338

DOE Integrated Safeguards and Security (DISS) historical document archival and retrieval analysis, requirements and recommendations  

SciTech Connect

The overall primary Objective of HDAR is to create a repository of historical personnel security documents and provide the functionality needed for archival and retrieval use by other software modules and application users of the DISS/ET system. The software product to be produced from this specification is the Historical Document Archival and Retrieval Subsystem The product will provide the functionality to capture, retrieve and manage documents currently contained in the personnel security folders in DOE Operations Offices vaults at various locations across the United States. The long-term plan for DISS/ET includes the requirement to allow for capture and storage of arbitrary, currently undefined, clearance-related documents that fall outside the scope of the ``cradle-to-grave`` electronic processing provided by DISS/ET. However, this requirement is not within the scope of the requirements specified in this document.

Guyer, H.B.; McChesney, C.A.

1994-10-07

339

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF HEAT AND MOISTURE TRANSFER IN HISTORICAL CERAMIC MASONRY WALL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building physics processes in some parts and elements of revitalized historical buildings play an important role in their future energy efficiency and maintenance. The unique character of 100-years-old post-industrial buildings results from masonry-brick façades with precise ornamentation and sophisticated details which should be retained and reconstructed in renovation works. Any changes in wall properties, such as the addition of new

Dariusz Heim; Sebastian Krawczynski; John Grunewald

340

Brief communication "Analysis of deformations in historic urban areas using terrestrial laser scanning"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technique has been used to accurately reconstruct the 3-D shape of the walls and bastions of the historic city of Mdina (Malta) and underlying terrain. By applying this technique it has also been possible to extract additional quantitative information regarding weathering and deformational processes affecting the structures. Thus, with the aim of identifying the main instability mechanisms, a detailed 3-D crack distribution map has been drawn and the main displacement vectors have been defined.

Gigli, G.; Mugnai, F.; Leoni, L.; Casagli, N.

2009-11-01

341

Science Pedagogy as a Category of Historical Analysis: Past, Present, and Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical studies of science pedagogy have flourished in recent years. This essay offers an assessment of the literature\\u000a on science pedagogy from the 1930s to the present. It argues that rather than focusing on the work of Thomas Kuhn and Michel\\u000a Foucault, historians of science pedagogy could with profit turn to the work of Ludwik Fleck. Fleck offers three categories

Kathryn M. Olesko

2006-01-01

342

Analysis of adjustments to the United States Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) temperature database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) temperature database is commonly used in regional climate analyses. However, the raw temperature records in the USHCN are adjusted substantially to account for a variety of potential contaminants to the dataset. We compare the USHCN data with several surface and upper-air datasets and show that the effects of the various USHCN adjustments produce a significantly more positive, and likely spurious, trend in the USHCN data.

Balling, Robert C.; Idso, Craig D.

2002-05-01

343

Geophysical techniques in the historical center of Venice (Italy): preliminary results from HVSR and multichannel analysis of surface waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation aims to outline the preliminary findings related to an extensive seismic survey conducted in the historical center of Venice, Italy. The survey was conducted via noninvasive and low-cost seismic techniques based on surface waves analysis and microtremor methods, mainly using single station horizontal to vertical spectral ratio techninques (HVSR) and multichannel analysis of surface waves in passive (ReMI) and active (MASW) configurations. The importance and the fragility of the cultural heritage of Venice, coupled with its peculiar geological and geotechnical characteristics, stress the importance of a good knowledge of its geological architecture and seismic characteristics as an opportunity to improve restoration and conservation planning. Even if Venice is located in a relatively low seismic hazard zone, a local characterization of soil resonance frequencies and surficial shear waves velocities could improve the planning of engineering interventions, furnishing important information on possible local effects related to seismic amplification and possible coupling within buildings and soil resonance frequencies. In the specific we collected more than 50 HVSR single station noise measurements and several passive and active multichannel analysis of surface waves located in the historical center. In this work we report the characteristics of the conducted seismic surveys (instrumentation, sampling geometry, etc.) and the preliminary findings of our analysis. Moreover, we discuss briefly the practical issues, mainly of logistic nature, of conducting this kind of surveys in a peculiar and crowed historical center as represented by Venice urban contest. Acknowledgments Instrumentation acquired in relation to the project co-financed by Regione Veneto, POR-CRO, FESR, 2007-2013, action 1.1.1. "Supporto ad attività di ricerca, processi e reti di innovazione e alla creazione di imprese in settori a elevato contenuto tecnologico"

Trevisani, Sebastiano; Rocca, Michele; Boaga, Jacopo

2014-05-01

344

Assessing Values in Historical Fiction Written for Children: A Content Analysis of the Winners of the Scott O'Dell Historical Fiction Award.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers how teachers engage children in character education and analyzes core values in books winning the Scott O'Dell Historical Fiction Award. Finds that these books are rich sources for examples of core values that are common features of character-education programs. Observes many teachers using short stories and picture books to insert…

Edgington, William D.; Brabham, Edna Greene; Frost, Jami Bice

1999-01-01

345

Productive vocabulary across discourse types.  

PubMed

AIMS: The goals of the study were (a) to examine the effect of discourse type on lexical diversity by testing whether there are significant differences among language samples elicited using four discourse tasks (procedures, eventcasts, story telling, and recounts); and (b) to assess the extent to which age influences lexical diversity when different types of discourse are elicited. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: A total of 86 cognitively healthy adults participated in the study and comprised two groups - young adults (20-29 years old) and older adults (70-89 years old). Participants completed the discourse tasks and their language samples were analysed using dedicated software (voc-D) to obtain estimates of their lexical diversity. OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: A mixed 2 × 4 ANOVA was conducted and followed by an investigation of simple main effects. A lexical diversity hierarchy was established that was similar for both age groups. The study also uncovered age-related differences that were evident when the stimuli were verbally presented but were eliminated when the language samples were elicited using pictorial stimuli. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated that lexical diversity is one of the microlinguistic indices that are influenced by discourse type and age, a finding that carries important methodological implications. Future investigations are warranted to explore the patterns of lexical diversity in individuals with neurogenic language disorders and assess the clinical utility of measures of lexical diversity. PMID:22904592

Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather Harris; Capilouto, Gilson J

2011-01-10

346

Productive vocabulary across discourse types  

PubMed Central

Aims The goals of the study were (a) to examine the effect of discourse type on lexical diversity by testing whether there are significant differences among language samples elicited using four discourse tasks (procedures, eventcasts, story telling, and recounts); and (b) to assess the extent to which age influences lexical diversity when different types of discourse are elicited. Methods & Procedures A total of 86 cognitively healthy adults participated in the study and comprised two groups – young adults (20–29 years old) and older adults (70–89 years old). Participants completed the discourse tasks and their language samples were analysed using dedicated software (voc-D) to obtain estimates of their lexical diversity. Outcomes & Results A mixed 2 × 4 ANOVA was conducted and followed by an investigation of simple main effects. A lexical diversity hierarchy was established that was similar for both age groups. The study also uncovered age-related differences that were evident when the stimuli were verbally presented but were eliminated when the language samples were elicited using pictorial stimuli. Conclusions Results indicated that lexical diversity is one of the microlinguistic indices that are influenced by discourse type and age, a finding that carries important methodological implications. Future investigations are warranted to explore the patterns of lexical diversity in individuals with neurogenic language disorders and assess the clinical utility of measures of lexical diversity.

Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather Harris; Capilouto, Gilson J.

2011-01-01

347

Historic Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jointly sponsored by the Historic Cities Center within the Department of Geography at Hebrew University and the Jewish National and University Library, the Historic Cities Web site is intended to contain maps, literature, documents, books, and other relevant material concerning the past, present, and future of historic cities While some of these documents and ephemera are still forthcoming to the site, visitors will find a wide array of historic city maps and views dating from 1486 to 1720. The scanned maps are searchable alphabetically, by date, and by individual cartographer. Additionally, a bit of information is provided about each cartographer. Overall, the site contains close to two hundred individual city maps and renderings, ranging from medieval Heidelberg to Casablanca. For persons with an interest in urban morphology and the history of cartography, the Historic Cities site will be a good place to start.

348

Historic Scotland  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scotland is well-known for its efforts to preserve its fantastic range of historic sites, buildings, and monuments and much of this work happens under the auspices of Historic Scotland. Historic Scotland is an agency with the Scottish Executive Education Department and as such, is largely responsible for developing long-range plans for the preservation of the built heritage of the country. To get a sense of the broad range of properties within Historic Scotland, visitors would do well to look through the interactive map of Scotland offered within the "Places to Visit" area. Those persons with a penchant for historic preservation and planning will also want to take a look at the organization's long-range preservation program and some of its free online publications such as "Archaeological Information and Advice in Scotland" and "Conserving the Underwater Heritage."

349

Quarry identification of historical building materials by means of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence and chemometric analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To characterize historical building materials according to the geographic origin of the quarries from which they have been mined, the relative content of major and trace elements were determined by means of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques. 48 different specimens were studied and the entire samples' set was divided in two different groups: the first, used as reference set, was composed by samples mined from eight different quarries located in Seville province; the second group was composed by specimens of unknown provenance collected in several historical buildings and churches in the city of Seville. Data reduction and analysis on laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence measurements was performed using multivariate statistical approach, namely the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA). A clear separation among reference sample materials mined from different quarries was observed in Principal Components (PC) score plots, then a supervised soft independent modeling of class analogy classification was trained and run, aiming to assess the provenance of unknown samples according to their elemental content. The obtained results were compared with the provenance assignments made on the basis of petrographical description. This work gives experimental evidence that laser induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements on a relatively small set of elements is a fast and effective method for the purpose of origin identification.

Colao, F.; Fantoni, R.; Ortiz, P.; Vazquez, M. A.; Martin, J. M.; Ortiz, R.; Idris, N.

2010-08-01

350

Primary Discourse and Expressive Oral Language in a Kindergarten Student  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This seven-month ethnographic case study elucidated a kindergarten student's navigation through her first formal schooling experience with relation to expressive oral language. Gee's theory of Discourses and methodology of discourse analysis were used to examine expressive oral language in use. Two discursive contexts germane to…

Fiano, Darcy A.

2014-01-01

351

Principled, Transformational Leadership: Analyzing the Discourse of Leadership in the Development of Librarianship's Core Competences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using discourse analysis, this article explores three questions: (a) Why was "principled, transformational leadership" the leadership style added to Core Competences? (b) What was the discourse of leadership in the profession surrounding the development of the Core Competences? (c) How might this competence affect LIS education? And what measures,…

Hicks, Deborah; Given, Lisa M.

2013-01-01

352

Turkish Language Teachers' Stance Taking Movements in the Discourse on Globalization and Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates how Turkish teachers take and give stances in the discourse on globalization and language by using linguistic resources. According to the findings obtained through the discourse analysis of the corpus that consisted of 36 h of recording of the discussion among 4 teachers with 5 to 10 years of teaching experience, the…

Coskun, Ibrahim

2013-01-01

353

The discourse of gay men's group sex: the importance of masculinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group sex has consistently been identified as one of a group of risk behaviours among gay men associated with HIV seroconversion. This paper presents a detailed description of how gender, and specifically masculinity, operates as an aspect of the discourse of gay men's group sex. The findings presented in this paper are one part of a multi-aspected discourse analysis through

David McInnes; Jack Bradley; Garrett Prestage

2009-01-01

354

Characteristics of Pre-Service Teachers' Online Discourse: The Study of Local Streams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes the characteristics of pre-service teachers' discourse on a WebCT Bulletin Board in their investigations of local streams in an integrated mathematics and science course. A qualitative analysis of data revealed that the pre-service teachers conducted collaborative discourse in framing their research questions, conducting…

Liang, Ling L.; Ebenezer, Jazlin; Yost, Deborah S.

2010-01-01

355

A Foucaultian Critique of Learning Disability Discourses: Personal Narratives and Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I present a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of two discourses in learning disabilities (LD)--the academic research literature on emotions of students labeled as LD and retrospective autobiographies from adults labeled as LD writing about their emotions as students. Drawing mainly on Foucaultian explanations of power, I…

Mazher, Waseem

2012-01-01

356

Exploring Discourses in Environmental Decision Making: An Indigenous Hunting Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenge of developing environmental outcomes acceptable to stakeholders with different values is well documented. Discourse analysis provides insights into how the views of different stakeholders affect decision making. We studied the discourses of key actors associated with the implementation of a Turtle and Dugong Hunting Management Plan developed by Hope Vale Aboriginal community in the Great Barrier Reef World

Melissa Nursey-Bray; Helene Marsh; Helen Ross

2010-01-01

357

Confronting the “corporate citizen” : Shaping the discourse of corporate social responsibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To demonstrate, through the application of Fairclough's critical discourse analysis framework, that the discourse surrounding corporate social responsibility (CSR) has broader implications. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Argues that the evolution of CSR has become a two-way process of interaction between business and civil society. Findings – As companies place increasing emphasis on their ability to act responsibly as “corporate citizens”,

Jon Burchell; Joanne Cook

2006-01-01

358

Disciplinary Discourses: Rates of Cesarean Section Explained by Medicine, Midwifery, and Feminism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of international concern about increasing rates of cesarean sections, we used discourse analysis to examine explanations arising from feminism and the disciplines of medicine and midwifery, and found that each was positioned differently in relation to the rising rates. Medical discourses asserted that doctors are authorities on birth and that, although cesareans are sometimes medically necessary, women

Amy Su May Lee; Maggie Kirkman

2008-01-01

359

Questioning ‘Open questioning’ in early years science discourse from a social semiotic perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received wisdom in Primary science classroom teaching advocates the use of open questions for elicitation. The socio-cultural perspective on discourse, however, leads one to question the usual classification of questioning by its grammatical formality and leads instead to an analysis of the discourse in the socio-cultural context which includes the background of the children. In this paper we develop this

Diane Harris; Julian Williams

2007-01-01

360

Mapping discourses in teachers' talk about using digital texts in classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many accounts explaining teachers' lack of engagement with new technologies in their classrooms engage with discourses that blame their lack of time, expertise, or enthusiasm. In this paper I offer an alternative reading that provides a more agentic explanation. A rhizotextual analysis is undertaken that reveals the connections between teachers' talk and the institutional and societal discourses that ascribe value

Eileen Honan

2010-01-01

361

Discourse Strategies in Professional E-Mail Negotiation: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to report on some of the preliminary results of an on-going study on the use of discourse strategies in e-mail negotiation. The analysis aims at showing how relations between the participants develop through the use of specific discourse strategies in their e-mail communication which covers a period of three months,…

Jensen, Astrid

2009-01-01

362

Semantic Systems, Discourse Structure, and the Ecology of Language. Working Papers in Sociolinguistics, No. 17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis seeks to link discourse structure and semantic or lexical systems. The example is given of a Cuna curing chant named "the way of the pepper," in which 53 names for pepper ("kapur") are used in a projection of a paradigmatic axis (the lexical taxonomy) onto a syntagmatic axis. A corollary of the principle of viewing discourse from…

Sherzer, Joel

363

Phelps-Stokes in Congo: Transferring Educational Policy Discourse to Govern Metropole and Colony  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article combines a historical with a social/political anthropological framework to examine the role played by the transfer of educational discourse between the United States-based Phelps-Stokes Fund and the Belgian Ministry of Colonies in the formulation of the colonial education policy of "adapted education" in the 1920s. The author argues…

Seghers, Maud

2004-01-01

364

English 283: Rhetorical Theory and Applications--"Rhetorical Theory, Mass Media, and Public Discourse"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a course design of English 283: Rhetorical Theory and Applications. The course is described in the undergraduate catalogue as offering a "critical and analytical examination of the nature and historical development of rhetorical theory and its applications to contemporary discourse." The course fulfills requirements for the…

Grettano, Teresa

2008-01-01

365

Discourses on Communication Technologies in Canadian and European Broadcasting Policy Debates  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been growing similarities between broadcasting issues in Canada and Europe. Some issues, including the emergence of private broadcasting and concerns about American broadcasting, became prominent in Europe decades after they were evident in Canada. In both contexts, historical and contemporary debates about broadcasting issues have been tied to three discourses on communication technologies. This article contends that broadcasting

David Young

2003-01-01

366

A SIMPLE DESCRIPTION OF AN ALGORITHM FOR TRANSFORMATIONAL ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH SENTENCES. TRANSFORMATIONS AND DISCOURSE ANALYSIS PAPERS, NUMBER 67, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PRESENTED IN THIS PAPER IS A SIMPLIFIED DESCRIPTION OF AN ALGORITHM FOR TRANSFORMATIONAL ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH SENTENCES. IT IS NEITHER ASSUMED NOR IMPLIED IN THIS ALGORITHM THAT ANY KIND OF PRIOR ANALYSIS (EITHER STRING OR CONSTITUENT ANALYSIS) IS REQUIRED AS A PREREQUISITE. IN ORDER TO DEFINE THE SET OF ALL TRANSFORMS, THE AUTHORS FIRST DEFINE A…

HIZ, DANUTA; JOSHI, ARAVIND K.

367

Investigating Science Discourse in a High School Science Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science classrooms in the United States have become more diverse with respect to the variety of languages spoken by students. This qualitative study used ethnographic methods to investigate the discourse and practices of two ninth grade science classrooms. Approximately 44% of students included in the study were designated as English learners. The present work focused on addressing the following questions: 1) In what ways is science discourse taken up and used by students and their teacher? 2) Are there differences in how science discourse is used by students depending on their English language proficiency? Data collection consisted of interviewing the science teacher and the students, filming whole class and small group discussions during two lesson sequences, and collecting lesson plans, curricular materials, and student work. These data were analyzed qualitatively. Findings indicated that the teacher characterized science discourse along three dimensions: 1) the use of evidence-based explanations; 2) the practice of sharing one's science understandings publically; and 3) the importance of using precise language, including both specialized (i.e., science specific) and non-specialized academic words. Analysis of student participation during in-class activities highlighted how students progressed in each of these science discourse skills. However, this analysis also revealed that English learners were less likely to participate in whole class discussions: Though these students participated in small group discussions, they rarely volunteered to share individual or collective ideas with the class. Overall, students were more adept at utilizing science discourse during class discussions than in written assignments. Analysis of students' written work highlighted difficulties that were not visible during classroom interactions. One potential explanation is the increased amount of scaffolding the teacher provided during class discussions as compared to written assignments. In the implications section, I provide science teachers with recommendations regarding how to promote science discourse in their classrooms. Specifically, teachers should provide students structured opportunities to practice science discourse, require students to use both written and oral modalities in assignments, and offer timely feedback to students regarding their progress in developing their science discourse skills. How this study contributes to the research base on the teaching of science and English learners will also be described.

Swanson, Lauren Honeycutt

368

Negotiating discourses: Sixth-grade students’ use of multiple science discourses during a science fair presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study offers important insights into the coexistence of multiple discourses and the link between these discourses and science understanding. It offers concrete examples of students’ movement between multiple discourses in sixth-grade science fair presentations, and shows how those multiple discourses in science practices illuminate students’ understanding of science and offer insights into how they engage in the complex thinking

Kimberley Gomez

2007-01-01

369

Negotiating Discourses: Sixth-Grade Students' Use of Multiple Science Discourses during a Science Fair Presentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study offers important insights into the coexistence of multiple discourses and the link between these discourses and science understanding. It offers concrete examples of students' movement between multiple discourses in sixth-grade science fair presentations, and shows how those multiple discourses in science practices illuminate students'…

Gomez, Kimberley

2007-01-01

370

The Complexity of Chinese Pedagogic Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of the commentaries on Wu's "Interpretation, autonomy, and transformation: Chinese pedagogic discourse in a cross-cultural perspective" ("JCS", 43(5), 569-590). It highlights the paper's demystification of Western pedagogic discourse and recovery of the meaning of Chinese traditional pedagogic discourse as a response to the…

Cheng, Liang; Xu, Nan

2011-01-01

371

Analysis of historical water-quality data and description of plan for a sampling network in central and southern Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historical water quality data from about 100 sampling stations on streams, canals and lakes in central and southern Florida were analyzed for areal and temporal variations in water quality , statistical measures of the data, relationships between water quality variables, and long term changes or trends in water quality. Included in the analysis were data on the major inorganic chemical constituents, temperature, nitrogen and phosphorus species, trace metals, pesticides, organic carbon and biochemical oxygen demand. Based on the results of the analysis, a network was designed which would provide data to meet six specific objectives: (1) water quality accounting, (2) areal assessments (3) detection of gross long-term trends, (4) detection of toxic and deleterious substances, (5) establish a limnological data base on lakes and (6) furnish data on chemical inputs from the atmosphere. (Woodard-USGS)

Goolsby, D. A.; Mattraw, H. C., Jr.; Lamonds, A. G.; Maddy, D. V.; Rollo, J. R.

1976-01-01

372

Analysis of Historical Climatological Records In The Carpathian Basin Based On The RÉthly Collection For The Last 1000 Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is undeniable that human activities are significantly and vitally affected by extreme climatological events. People usually notice the large and abrupt changes in regional climate. Therefore, in historical documents, diaries, letters or other written reports extremes are very often mentioned and probably more or less objectively recorded. These historical sources can be used to evaluate the extreme climatic events of the last millenium. Antal Réthly made detailed documentary research on the climatological extremes oc- curred in the Carpathian Basin during the last 1000 years. He collected historical doc- uments related to meteorology and climatology into a four-volume-long book, titled "Meteorological events and natural disasters in Hungary". In order to facilitate compu- tational research of these documentary sources a special code system using hierarchi- cal subclasses have been defined and applied to the almost 15000 collected items and as a result the entire information have been digitalized and stored on computer devices for further analysis. First, we focused on precipitation, temperature and other climatic variables separately. Two-thirds of the documentary information are related to pre- cipitation (extreme precipitation, floods, thunderstorms, snowstorms, hails, droughts). The remainder one-third data provide information on temperature or wind. Spatial and temporal distribution of climatological extremes occurred in the Carpathian Basin in the last millenium have been investigated. Among others, relative frequencies of thunderstorms, hails and snowstorms have been determined and com- pared for each century. Hence long-time changes of regional climate can be demon- strated. Then, various combinations of climatic variables resulting severe climatologi- cal events (e.g., floods and droughts) have been analyzed both spatially and temporally.

Bartholy, J.; Pongrácz, R.; Molnár, Zs.

373

Metaphor, Language, and Discourse Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation of conceptual metaphor theory (CMT) offered by Raymond W. Gibbs, Jr. in this issue suggests a number of important opportunities for future research that may be based on interesting research findings produced over the past 3 decades in response to CMT. This reply to Gibbs argues that the main question for discourse processing remains…

Steen, Gerard

2011-01-01

374

Inquiry-Discourse Mathematics Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Principles and Standards for School Mathematics" (NCTM 2000) proposes that mathematics instruction provide opportunities for students to engage in mathematical inquiry and in meaning-making through discourse. Mathematics teachers are encouraged to build on student discoveries in designing subsequent instruction. In this article, the author…

Manouchehri, Azita

2007-01-01

375

Pronoun resolution and discourse models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological investigations of pronoun resolution have implicitly assumed that the processes involved automatically provide a unique referent for every pronoun. We challenge this assump- tion and propose a new framework for studying pronoun resolution. Drawing on advances in discourse representation and global memory modeling, this framework suggests that automatic processes may not always identify a unique referent for a pronoun.

Steven B. Greene; Gail McKoon; Roger Ratcliff

1992-01-01

376

Pronoun Resolution and Discourse Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological investigations of pronoun resolution have implicitly assumed that the processes involved automatically provide a unique referent for every pronoun. We challenge this assumption and propose a new framework for studying pronoun resolution. Drawing on advances in discourse representation and global memory modeling, this framework suggests that automatic processes may not always identify a unique referent for a pronoun. In

Steven B. Greene; Gail McKoon; Roger Ratcliff

1992-01-01

377

Multimodal science teachers' discourse in modeling the water cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents an intensive study of a micro-event aiming at the characterization of teacher's discourse from a multimodal communication perspective in a secondary school science classroom dealing with the topic of water cycle. The research addresses the following questions: (a) What communicative modes are used by the teacher?, (b) what role do the different communicative modes play within teacher's discourse?, and (c) what are the relationships among communicative modes being used by the teacher? Theoretical framework is developed based on three strands: multimodal communication, science teaching and learning as modeling, and social semotics and Halliday's functional grammar. An analytic scheme guiding teachers' discourse analysis is presented and results discussed. Implications for science teacher education are drawn that would contribute to the improvement of science teacher education.

Márquez, Conxita; Izquierdo, Mercè; Espinet, Mariona

2006-03-01

378

Water Resources Sustainability in Northwest Mexico: Analysis of Regional Infrastructure Plans under Historical and Climate Change Scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The arid state of Sonora, Mexico, has embarked on a large water infrastructure project to provide additional water supply and improved sanitation to the growing capital of Hermosillo. The main component of the Sonora SI project involves an interbasin transfer from rural to urban water users that has generated conflicts over water among different social sectors. Through interactions with regional stakeholders from agricultural and water management agencies, we ascertained the need for a long-term assessment of the water resources of one of the system components, the Sonora River Basin (SRB). A semi-distributed, daily watershed model that includes current and proposed reservoir infrastructure was applied to the SRB. This simulation framework allowed us to explore alternative scenarios of water supply from the SRB to Hermosillo under historical (1980-2010) and future (2031-2040) periods that include the impact of climate change. We compared three precipitation forcing scenarios for the historical period: (1) a network of ground observations from Mexican water agencies; (2) gridded fields from the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) at 12 km resolution; and (3) gridded fields from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at 10 km resolution. These were compared to daily historical observations at two stream gauging stations and two reservoirs to generate confidence in the simulation tools. We then tested the impact of climate change through the use of the A2 emissions scenario and HadCM3 boundary forcing on the WRF simulations of a future period. Our analysis is focused on the combined impact of existing and proposed reservoir infrastructure at two new sites on the water supply management in the SRB under historical and future climate conditions. We also explore the impact of climate variability and change on the bimodal precipitation pattern from winter frontal storms and the summertime North American monsoon and its consequences on water management. Our results are presented in the form of flow duration, reliability and exceedence frequency curves that are commonly used in the water management agencies. Through this effort, we anticipate to build confidence among regional stakeholders in utilizing hydrological models in the development of water infrastructure plans and to foster conversations that address water sustainability issues.

Che, D.; Robles-Morua, A.; Mayer, A. S.; Vivoni, E. R.

2012-12-01

379

Studies in Historical Replication in Psychology VII: The Relative Utility of ``Ancestor Analysis'' from Scientific and Educational Vantages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article discusses, from various vantages, Ryan Tweney’s (this issue) pedagogical technique of employing historical replications of psychological experiments with graduate students in psychology. A prima facie perspective suggests great promise for this sort of academic “ancestor analysis,” particularly given the enthusiasm and skill represented in the activities that culminated in the replicators’ articles. It is suggested that such activities might be enhanced by requiring a contextualization that makes contact with more modern psychological research—particularly regarding expositions of the replications. From a scientific/cognitive methods perspective, the original experimenters’ inexplicit, ambiguous, descriptions provide both challenges and opportunities for students seeking to improve their understandings of their field. Three practical questions are posed herein regarding the general utility of this—or any—proposed instructional intervention. Ultimately, determining and integrating the diverse objectives that essential stakeholders have in graduate psychological training represent critical prerequisites in comprehensively assessing the relative advantages of such historical replications with respect to alternative experiences.

Ranney, Michael Andrew

2008-05-01

380

Social scripts and stark realities: Kenyan adolescents' abortion discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores students' narratives and discourses about adolescent pregnancy and abortion elicited via internet?based open?ended questions posed in response to a cartoon vignette. We report on content analysis of recommendations and strategies for how to manage the unplanned pregnancy of a fictional young couple and in their own personal lives. The responses of 614 young people were analysed. Strategies

Ellen M. H. Mitchell; Carolyn Tucker Halpern; Eva Muthuuri Kamathi; Shirley Owino

2006-01-01

381

Navigating Discourses in Place in the World of Webkinz  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Geosemiotics (Scollon and Scollon, 2003) frames this analysis of play, multimodal collaboration, and peer mediation as players navigate barriers to online connectivity in a children's social network and gaming site. A geosemiotic perspective enables examination of children's web play as "discourses in place": fluidly converging and diverging…

Wohlwend, Karen E.; Zanden, Sarah Vander; Husbye, Nicholas E.; Kuby, Candace R.

2011-01-01

382

The Discourses of Corporate Spiritualism and Evangelical Capitalism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the growth of literature proposing corporate spirituality as a means of motivating employees. Suggests that critical analysis articulates and advocates two entrepreneurial views of subjecthood that obscure contemporary corporate power by centering the individual as an autonomous agent. Concludes that these discourses reinforce social…

Nadesan, Majia Holmer

1999-01-01

383

Measuring Lexical Diversity in Narrative Discourse of People with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: A microlinguistic content analysis for assessing lexical semantics in people with aphasia (PWA) is lexical diversity (LD). Sophisticated techniques have been developed to measure LD. However, validity evidence for these methodologies when applied to the discourse of PWA is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four measures…

Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather H.; West, Thomas M.

2013-01-01

384

Classrooms and the Design of Pedagogic Discourse: A Multimodal Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers a social semiotic analysis of the school classroom, in this case the subject English classroom, as a material instantiation of pedagogic discourse. The classroom is looked at as a multimodal sign: the semiotic ‘residue’ or ‘sediment’ of discursive practices over time. In particular it discusses how visual displays and spatial design in the English classroom can be

Carey Jewitt

2005-01-01

385

Materiality and Genre in the Study of Discourse Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three connected essays that use the idea of genre to study discourse communities. Examines several contexts of language exchange in which the use of genre theory may yield insight into teaching, research, and social interaction: legal practice, medical practice, and classrooms. Suggests how genre analysis contributes to the use of…

Devitt, Amy J.; Bawarshi, Anis; Reiff, Mary Jo

2003-01-01

386

Where Are the Women? And Other Questions, Asked within an Historical Analysis of Sociology of Music Education Research Publications: Being a Self-Reflective Ethnographic Path  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a meta-analysis of one area of sociological literature in music education: Where are the women and "others"? Where do we raise concerns about social values? Institutional Ethnography provides the basis for the meta-analysis, presented in two historical periods, pre-1960 and 2007-2012. A short story of an actual…

Lamb, Roberta

2014-01-01

387

Fire in the Belly and the Professionalization of Nurses: A Historical Analysis of Crohn Disease Care  

PubMed Central

Today professional nurses around the world are stepping up to meet the needs of individuals with Crohn disease using their specialized knowledge and skills that demonstrate areas of expertise that have not always existed. The gastrointestinal-specific knowledge being used by these 21st century nurses exists today because progressive efforts of nurses in previous decades moved the profession of nursing forward. The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the development of the role of nurses in responding to new challenges patients with Crohn disease face since the emergence of the disease in the early 1900s. The authors used traditional historic research methods to conduct the study. Primary sources include nursing journals and textbooks published in the 20th and 21st centuries and documents archived at The Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City, where Burrill B. Crohn conducted his seminal work. The significance of the findings is that the changing role of nurses in caring for patients with Crohn disease mirrors the professionalization of nursing during the 20th and early 21st centuries.

Brotherton, Carol S.; Taylor, Ann Gill; Keeling, Arlene

2012-01-01

388

Association Analysis of Historical Bread Wheat Germplasm Using Additive Genetic Covariance of Relatives and Population Structure  

PubMed Central

Linkage disequilibrium can be used for identifying associations between traits of interest and genetic markers. This study used mapped diversity array technology (DArT) markers to find associations with resistance to stem rust, leaf rust, yellow rust, and powdery mildew, plus grain yield in five historical wheat international multienvironment trials from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). Two linear mixed models were used to assess marker–trait associations incorporating information on population structure and covariance between relatives. An integrated map containing 813 DArT markers and 831 other markers was constructed. Several linkage disequilibrium clusters bearing multiple host plant resistance genes were found. Most of the associated markers were found in genomic regions where previous reports had found genes or quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing the same traits, providing an independent validation of this approach. In addition, many new chromosome regions for disease resistance and grain yield were identified in the wheat genome. Phenotyping across up to 60 environments and years allowed modeling of genotype × environment interaction, thereby making possible the identification of markers contributing to both additive and additive × additive interaction effects of traits.

Crossa, Jose; Burgueno, Juan; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Vargas, Mateo; Herrera-Foessel, Sybil A.; Lillemo, Morten; Singh, Ravi P.; Trethowan, Richard; Warburton, Marilyn; Franco, Jorge; Reynolds, Matthew; Crouch, Jonathan H.; Ortiz, Rodomiro

2007-01-01

389

Historical data and analysis for the first five years of KSC STS payload processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

General and specific quantitative and qualitative results were identified from a study of actual operational experience while processing 186 science, applications, and commercial payloads for the first 5 years of Space Transportation System (STS) operations at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC). All non-Department of Defense payloads from STS-2 through STS-33 were part of the study. Historical data and cumulative program experiences from key personnel were used extensively. Emphasis was placed on various program planning and events that affected KSC processing, payload experiences and improvements, payload hardware condition after arrival, services to customers, and the impact of STS operations and delays. From these initial considerations, operational drivers were identified, data for selected processing parameters collected and analyzed, processing criteria and options determined, and STS payload results and conclusions reached. The study showed a significant reduction in time and effort needed by STS customers and KSC to process a wide variety of payload configurations. Also of significance is the fact that even the simplest payloads required more processing resources than were initially assumed. The success to date of payload integration, testing, and mission operations, however, indicates the soundness of the approach taken and the methods used.

Ragusa, J. M.

1986-01-01

390

Methodology discourses as boundary work in the construction of engineering education.  

PubMed

Engineering education research is a new field that emerged in the social sciences over the past 10 years. This analysis of engineering education research demonstrates that methodology discourses have played a central role in the construction and development of the field of engineering education, and that they have done so primarily through boundary work. This article thus contributes to science and technology studies literature by examining the role of methodology discourses in an emerging social science field. I begin with an overview of engineering education research before situating the case within relevant bodies of literature on methodology discourses and boundary work. I then identify two methodology discourses--rigor and methodological diversity--and discuss how they contribute to the construction and development of engineering education research. The article concludes with a discussion of how the findings relate to prior research on methodology discourses and boundary work and implications for future research. PMID:24941615

Beddoes, Kacey

2014-04-01

391

Characteristics of Pre-Service Teachers' Online Discourse: The Study of Local Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes the characteristics of pre-service teachers' discourse on a WebCT Bulletin Board in their investigations of local streams in an integrated mathematics and science course. A qualitative analysis of data revealed that the pre-service teachers conducted collaborative discourse in framing their research questions, conducting research and writing reports. The science teacher educator provided feedback and carefully crafted prompts to help pre-service teachers develop and refine their work. Overall, the online discourse formats enhance out-of-class communication and support collaborative group work. But the discourse on the critical examination of one another's point of views rooted in scientific inquiry appeared to be missing. It is suggested that pre-service teachers should be given more guidance and opportunities in science courses in carrying out scientific discourse that reflects reform-based scientific inquiry.

Liang, Ling L.; Ebenezer, Jazlin; Yost, Deborah S.

2010-02-01

392

Discourse Tagging Tool and Discourse-Tagged Multilingual Corpora  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of our on-going research on multilingual anaphora resolution (cf. Aone and McKee [3],Aone [1]), we have built a graphical tool to tag texts with antecedent-anaphor relations and havecreated corpora tagged with such relations. The tool, called the Discourse Tagging Tool (DTTool),has been used to manually tag Japanese, Spanish and English texts with anaphora, their types (suchas pronouns

Chinatsu Aone; Scott W. Bennett

1994-01-01

393

A historical and socioeconomic analysis of occupational safety and health in India.  

PubMed

Workers in poor countries of the so-called Third World are more likely to be affected by the dangers of high technology than their counterparts in wealthier countries. Owing to their lack of education, most workers in the "developing" world are unaware of the hazards of their occupations. Moreover, their general backwardness in sanitation and nutrition and climatic proneness of their geographic region to epidemics cause diseases contracted from the work environment to be aggravated. occupational diseases are often misconstrued as diseases resulting from the general environment. Since unemployment in underdeveloped countries is of a very high order, workers are prepared to accept any job, irrespective of the dangers involved. Labor is cheap and easily replaceable, so employers see no need for improving occupational safety and health. Labor unions are mostly controlled by full-time politicians who consider health a political issue, especially when their party controls the country's government. The seriousness of all these factors is heightened by the existing socioeconomic order in poor countries, in which national medievalism and multinational modernism play a crucial role. In order to understand the prevailing socioeconomic order, one has to analyze the social structures of poor countries in the context of today's world economic structure. India is taken as an example of a "developing" country where all the above-mentioned factors and many others are in operation: backwardness of the worker; poor nutrition; lack of concern for public health; proneness to epidemics; and indifference on the part of employers, politicians, and unions toward occupational health; high unemployment, control of the local economy by multinational corporations; and control of the mass media by feudalistic vested interests. This article attempts to analyze the occupational health and safety issue in India from a historical perspective, and stresses the vital need of structural changes in various fields so that workers can have a safe and healthy working environment. PMID:7372383

Vilanilam, J V

1980-01-01

394

Historic Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site about historical maps is the US Military Academy at West Point's History Department's Map Library (1). The page contains links to dozens of maps related to warfare from ancient times, the American Revolution, and the Napoleonic wars to the World Wars and other modern conflicts. Although map descriptions are not given and the main page seemed to have a problem loading correctly, the site does give a very interesting glimpse into the geography and history of conflict. The second offering is from The Dalton School called Maps of the Roman Empire (2). Visitors will find dozens of interesting maps with titles such as the Roman Empire circa 120 AD; Trade Routes; 18 Centuries of Roman Empire; and maps of how the empire expanded, barbarian migrations, and more. Next, the History of Cartography (3) Web site is maintained by the University of Wisconsin Geography Department. The well designed page contains six volumes of information relating to cartographic changes from ancient times to the twentieth century. Full descriptions and images are available from this unique research, editorial, and publishing project. The fourth site from the Library of Congress Historical Collections is entitled American Memory Collections (4). The page contains various links to civil war maps, panoramic maps, revolutionary era maps, and other very impressive collections. The Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection: Historical Maps Web site (5) of the University of Texas at Austin is the next offering. This extensive site contains a well organized collection of historical maps of Africa, the Americas, Asia, Australia and the Pacific, Europe, the Middle East, Polar Regions and Oceans, Russia and the Former Soviet Republics, Texas, the US, and the World. The sixth site is maintained by John Hopkins University called Color Landforms Atlas of the United States (6). The main page contains links to maps from all fifty states, which include large historical maps from 1895, county maps, and shaded relief maps. The next site, old-maps.co.uk (7), is provided by Britain's national mapping agency and the Landmark Information Group. The site gives online access to Britain's most extensive digital historical map archive, which can be searched and browsed by a variety of subjects to view maps of Buckingham Palace, Edinburgh Castle, and Oxford University, among others. The last historical maps Web site is the Maps and Geography (8) search engine from National Geographic online. Users can search by general historical maps, Lewis and Clark maps, New England and New York maps, Civil War, and World Maps to find and view an impressive and interesting collection.

Brieske, Joel A.

2003-01-01

395

Analysis of fungal communities on historical church window glass by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and phylogenetic 18S rDNA sequence analysis.  

PubMed

Besides lichens and bacteria, fungi play a crucial role in the biodeterioration of historical glass. In the present paper, the fungal diversity on the surface of two historical church window glasses was investigated by 18S rDNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. 566-bp 18S rDNA-specific clone libraries were constructed with primer set NS1/NS2+10. Positive clones were reamplified with primer sets EF4/518rGC (426-bp fragments) and NS26/518rGC (316-bp fragments), amplicons were screened by DGGE and clustered according to their position in DGGE. Results indicated that fungal 18S rDNA clone libraries should be screened with at least two different primer sets to obtain the maximum number of different clones. For phylogenetic sequence analyses, clone inserts were sequenced and compared with 18S rDNA sequences listed in the EMBL database. Similarity values ranged from 93.7% to 99.81% to known fungi. Analyses revealed complex fungal communities consisting of members and relatives of the genera Aspergillus, Aureobasidium, Coniosporum, Capnobotryella, Engyodontium, Geomyces, Kirschsteiniothelia, Leptosphaeria, Rhodotorula, Stanjemonium, Ustilago, and Verticillium. The genera Geomyces and Aureobasidium were present on both glass surfaces. Some genera had not been detected on historical glass so far. PMID:11714525

Schabereiter-Gurtner, C; Piñar, G; Lubitz, W; Rölleke, S

2001-12-01

396

Investigating Regional Disparities of China's Human Development with Cluster Analysis: A Historical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper adopts both one-dimensional and multi-dimensional cluster analysis to analyze China's HDI data for 1982, 1995, 1999, and 2003, and to classify China's provinces into four tiers based on the three basic developmental aspects embedded in HDI. The classifications by cluster analysis depends on the observations' similarities with respect to…

Yang, Yongheng; Hu, Angang

2008-01-01

397

Women in physics? Identity and discourse in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation argues that the deeply held hope for gender equity in science can no longer be simply realized as a project to increase women's participation in science. Understanding women's vexed relations with science requires a reconceptualization of the terms women and science, not as given categories to signal how "women" are coping with their disadvantaged positions in "science," but rather as two discourses formed in relation to each other, in institutional practices and in particular social and historical contexts. This dissertation investigates discourses of women and science by focusing on women in physics in Taiwan. This focus extends debates about gender and science by showing that the intervention of a particular discourse---in this case, the discourse of "women in physics"---into an existing discursive field exposed the contested terrain of the gender politics of physics and the identity politics of women physicists in Taiwan. "Women in physics" emerged as an internationally legitimate subject position in Taiwan in 1999 following a call to form a local working team on women in physics. The participants I interviewed utilized this internationally legitimate subject position to reconstruct, in different ways, their gendered identities in physics. Scholarship in the field of gender and science education studies has, over the past three decades, focused on equity and inclusion to address gender inequalities in science. This dissertation suggests, by contrast, that a focus on identity is necessary for understanding gendered career decisions in science. The term identity refers to how individuals perceive themselves and how others respond to their claims; identity involves the purposes, interests and contexts of particular naming processes. In the structural inequalities of gender and science, a focus on identity aims to track individual and collective forms of agency exercised in changing discursive fields. This dissertation concludes by viewing curriculum as a discursive field where various discourses provide subject positions and produce potential meanings through teaching and learning. Hope for social transformation can be situated in the interventionary power of new discourses and the subsequent reconfiguration of gendered identities in existing institutional practices.

Tsai, Li-Ling

398

Automatic discourse connective detection in biomedical text  

PubMed Central

Objective Relation extraction in biomedical text mining systems has largely focused on identifying clause-level relations, but increasing sophistication demands the recognition of relations at discourse level. A first step in identifying discourse relations involves the detection of discourse connectives: words or phrases used in text to express discourse relations. In this study supervised machine-learning approaches were developed and evaluated for automatically identifying discourse connectives in biomedical text. Materials and Methods Two supervised machine-learning models (support vector machines and conditional random fields) were explored for identifying discourse connectives in biomedical literature. In-domain supervised machine-learning classifiers were trained on the Biomedical Discourse Relation Bank, an annotated corpus of discourse relations over 24 full-text biomedical articles (?112?000 word tokens), a subset of the GENIA corpus. Novel domain adaptation techniques were also explored to leverage the larger open-domain Penn Discourse Treebank (?1 million word tokens). The models were evaluated using the standard evaluation metrics of precision, recall and F1 scores. Results and Conclusion Supervised machine-learning approaches can automatically identify discourse connectives in biomedical text, and the novel domain adaptation techniques yielded the best performance: 0.761 F1 score. A demonstration version of the fully implemented classifier BioConn is available at: http://bioconn.askhermes.org.

Polepalli Ramesh, Balaji; Prasad, Rashmi; Miller, Tim; Harrington, Brian

2012-01-01

399

Historic Houses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews some of the efforts of the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities (SPNEA) to preserve, conserve, and interpret historic houses to the public. Examines the history and some of the specific preservation problems concerning the Beauport Cottage, the Sayward-Wheeler House, and the Gropius House. (MJP)

Curtis, Nancy

1997-01-01

400

Completeness period analysis of SisFrance macroseismic database and interpretation in the light of historical context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In metropolitan France the deformation rates are slow, implying low to moderate seismic activity. Therefore, earthquakes observed during the instrumental period (since 1962), and associated catalogs, cannot be representative of the seismic cycle for the French metropolitan territory. In such context it is necessary, when performing seismic hazard studies, to consider historical seismic data in order to extend the observation period and to be more representative of the seismogenic behavior of geological structures. The French macroseismic database SisFrance is jointly developed by EDF (Electricité de France), BRGM (Bureau de Recherche Géologique et Minière) and IRSN (Institut de Radioprotection et Sureté Nucléaire). It contains more than 6,000 events inventoried between 217 BC and 2007 and more than 100,000 macroseismic observations. SisFrance is the reference macroseismic database for metropolitan France. The aim of this study is to determine, over the whole catalog, the completeness periods for different epicentral intensity (Iepc) classes?IV. Two methods have been used: 1) the method of Albarello et al. [2001], which has been adapted to best suit the French catalog, and 2) a mathematical method based on change points estimation, proposed by Muggeo et al. [2003], which has been adapted to the analysis of seismic datasets. After a brief theoretical description, both methods are tested and validated using synthetic catalogs, before being applied to the French catalog. The results show that completeness periods estimated using these two methods are coherent with each other for events with Iepc ?IV (1876 using Albarello et al. [2001] method and 1872 using Muggeo et al. [2003] method) and events with Iepc ?V (1852 using Albarello et al. [2001] method and 1855 using Muggeo et al. [2003] method). Larger differences in estimated completeness period appear when considering events with Iepc ?VI (around 30 years difference) and events with Iepc ?VII (around 50 years difference). These could be explained (1) by the differences in the way each method approaches the data; Muggeo et al. [2003] method estimates all change points within data series, whereas the method of Albarello et al. [2001] focus on the last one, and (2) by a more limited number of data for these epicentral intensity classes (2056 events with Iepc ?IV and 1252 events with Iepc ?V vs. 486 events with Iepc ?VI and 199 events with Iepc ?VII). Results obtained for epicentral intensity classes greater than VIII are considered not reliable due to the short number of existing data (around 30 events). The completeness periods determined in this study are discussed in the light of their contemporary historical context, and in particular of the evolution of the information available from historical archives since the 17th century.

Bonnet, José; Fradet, Thibault; Traversa, Paola; Tuleau-Malot, Christine; Reynaud-Bouret, Patricia; Laloe, Thomas; Manchuel, Kevin

2014-05-01

401

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis of house paint and wallpaper samples from an 18th century historic property.  

PubMed

Conservation efforts for heritage buildings require a substantial knowledge of the chemical makeup of materials that were used throughout the lifetime of the property. In particular, conservators are often concerned with the identification of colorants used in both interior and exterior wall treatments (paint, wallpaper, etc.) in order to gain perspective into how the building may have appeared during a certain time period in its existence. Ideally, such an analysis requires a technique that provides molecular level information as to the identity of the colorant as well as other sample components (binders, fillers, etc.), which is useful for dating purposes. In addition, the technique should be easily applied to paint layer samples which can be extremely thin and fragile. Herein we report the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) analysis of paint and wallpaper samples taken from exterior and interior surfaces of a historic building. Several pigments were identified in the samples, which ranged from early inorganic pigments (lead white, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, anhydrous chromium(III) oxide) which have been used in house paints for centuries, to a more modern pigment (phthalocyanine blue), developed in the middle of the 20th century. This analysis highlights the usefulness of SERS in such a conservation effort, and demonstrates for the first time pigment identification in house paints and wallpaper using SERS, which has far-reaching implications not only in the field of conservation, but also in forensics, industrial process control, and environmental health and safety. PMID:21267481

Harroun, S G; Bergman, J; Jablonski, E; Brosseau, C L

2011-09-01

402

Cognitive and Emotive Empathy in Discourse: Towards an Integrated Theory of Mind.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents an empirical qualitative analysis of eliciting, giving and receiving empathy in discourse. The study identifies discursive and linguistic features, which realize cognitive, emotive, parallel and reactive empathy and suggests that imita...

B. Martinovsky

2006-01-01

403

Translational Research in Behavior Analysis: Historical Traditions and Imperative for the Future  

PubMed Central

“Pure basic” science can become detached from the natural world that it is supposed to explain. “Pure applied” work can become detached from fundamental processes that shape the world it is supposed to improve. Neither demands the intellectual support of a broad scholarly community or the material support of society. Translational research can do better by seeking innovation in theory or practice through the synthesis of basic and applied questions, literatures, and methods. Although translational thinking has always occurred in behavior analysis, progress often has been constrained by a functional separation of basic and applied communities. A review of translational traditions in behavior analysis suggests that innovation is most likely when individuals with basic and applied expertise collaborate. Such innovation may have to accelerate for behavior analysis to be taken seriously as a general-purpose science of behavior. We discuss the need for better coordination between the basic and applied sectors, and argue that such coordination compromises neither while benefiting both.

Mace, F. Charles; Critchfield, Thomas S

2010-01-01

404

Race and Environmental Justice in Buffalo, NY: A ZIP Code and Historical Analysis of Ecological Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of toxic release inventories (TRI) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-regulated facilities in Buffalo, NY, fails to show evidence of environmental racism. Environmental racism is the disproportionate impact of environmental hazards on people of color communities (Bryant 1995, 6). The data do indicate some evidence of environmental classism, the disproportionate impact of environmental hazards on lower income populations.

ERIC J. KRIEG

2005-01-01

405

User analysis in HCI - the historical lessons from individual differences research  

Microsoft Academic Search

User analysis is a crucial aspect of user-centered systems design, yet Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) has yet to formulate reliable and valid characterizations of users beyond gross distinctions based on task and experience. Individual differences research from mainstream psychology has identified a stable set of characteristics that would appear to offer potential application in the HCI arena. Furthermore, in its evolution

Andrew Dillon; Charles Watson

1996-01-01

406

A Critical Analysis of Literature on Social Justice Curriculum: Avoiding Historical Amnesia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this critical analysis is to gain quantitatively greater statistical accuracy synthesizing past empirical studies conducted on the topic of social justice curriculum (hereafter SJC) with similar research foci, but dissimilar research questions. Currently there is a clarion call for further quantitative research to be conducted on…

Hartlep, Nicholas D., Ed.

2009-01-01

407

Fifty years of solid-phase extraction in water analysishistorical development and overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of an appropriate sample handling technique is a must in an analysis of organic micropollutants in water. The efforts to use a solid phase for the recovery of analytes from a water matrix prior to their detection have a long history. Since the first experimental trials using activated carbon filters that were performed 50 years ago, solid-phase extraction

I. Liška

2000-01-01

408

Analysis of micro computed tomography images; a look inside historic enamelled metal objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study the usefulness of micro-Computed Tomography (µ-CT) for the in-depth analysis of enamelled metal objects was tested. Usually investigations of enamelled metal artefacts are restricted to non-destructive surface analysis or analysis of cross sections after destructive sampling. Radiography, a commonly used technique in the field of cultural heritage studies, is limited to providing two-dimensional information about a three-dimensional object (Lang and Middleton, Radiography of Cultural Material, pp. 60-61, Elsevier-Butterworth-Heinemann, Amsterdam-Stoneham-London, 2005). Obtaining virtual slices and information about the internal structure of these objects was made possible by CT analysis. With this technique the underlying metal work was studied without removing the decorative enamel layer. Moreover visible defects such as cracks were measured in both width and depth and as of yet invisible defects and weaker areas are visualised. All these features are of great interest to restorers and conservators as they allow a view inside these objects without so much as touching them.

van der Linden, Veerle; van de Casteele, Elke; Thomas, Mienke Simon; de Vos, Annemie; Janssen, Elsje; Janssens, Koen

2010-02-01

409

Lighting the Way Through Scientific Discourse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a thought-provoking lesson that compares various arrangements of lamp-battery circuits to help students develop the motivation and competence to participate in scientific discourse for knowledge construction. Through experimentation and discourse, students explore concepts about voltage, current, resistance, and Ohm's law. The discourse encourages students to become deeply engaged in the process of making sense of their own observations and ideas.

Yang, Li-Hsuan

2008-12-01

410

Is public discourse about language policy really public discourse about immigration? A corpus-based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pluralist narrative of language policies suggests that language policies are influenced by public perceptions of immigrants\\u000a (Darder 2004; González 2000; Pavlenko 2002; Valdés 1997). This paper investigates the relationship between newspaper discourse about language policies and newspaper discourse about\\u000a immigration. It asks how much key, lexical overlap exists between the discourses. This study compared Arizona newspaper corpora\\u000a representing discourse

Shannon Fitzsimmons-Doolan

2009-01-01

411

Statistical analysis of the historical activity of Mount Etna, aimed at the evaluation of volcanic hazard  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the space–time distribution of the lateral eruptions of Mt Etna during the last 5centuries aimed at the definition of the probability of eruption, and proposed a method to make quantitative estimate of lava flow hazard.The time series analysis shows that, on average, the temporal distribution of flank eruptions follows a non-homogeneous Poisson distribution. The last 20 years of

Francesco Salvi; Roberto Scandone; Claudio Palma

2006-01-01

412

The Italian residential construction sector: an input-output historical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two sets of input-output tables are employed in this paper to analyse the role of the Italian residential construction sector in the national economy. The analysis focuses on changes in construction technology over a period of some 30 years, ending in 1985, the last year for which such data are available. A set of eight-sector input-output tables is used to

Roberto Pietroforte; Ranko Bon

1999-01-01

413

Optimizing Air Transportation Service to Metroplex Airports. Part 1; Analysis of Historical Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The air transportation system is a significant driver of the U.S. economy, providing safe, affordable, and rapid transportation. During the past three decades airspace and airport capacity has not grown in step with demand for air transportation (+4% annual growth), resulting in unreliable service and systemic delays. Estimates of the impact of delays and unreliable air transportation service on the economy range from $32B to $41B per year. This report describes the results of an analysis of airline strategic decision-making with regards to: (1) geographic access, (2) economic access, and (3) airline finances. This analysis evaluated markets-served, scheduled flights, aircraft size, airfares, and profit from 2005-2009. During this period, airlines experienced changes in costs of operation (due to fluctuations in hedged fuel prices), changes in travel demand (due to changes in the economy), and changes in infrastructure capacity (due to the capacity limits at EWR, JFK, and LGA). This analysis captures the impact of the implementation of capacity limits at airports, as well as the effect of increased costs of operation (i.e. hedged fuel prices). The increases in costs of operation serve as a proxy for increased costs per flight that might occur if auctions or congestion pricing are imposed.

Donohue, George; Hoffman, Karla; Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Kara, Abdul Qadar

2010-01-01

414

Historical Directories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sometime you may find yourself wondering one of the world's eternal questions: How many cutlers were in Sheffield during the 1850s? Well, you might not be actively seeking the answer to that particular query, but this incredibly extensive digital library created by the University of Leicester may help you solve other related historical questions. This digital library contains a host of local and trade directories for England and Wales from 1750 to 1919, many of which were previously only accessible by making a special trip to any number of local historical societies or archives. Curious visitors can search the directories through an interactive map of England and Wales in order to find the information that is most relevant to their interests. Currently, the project provides at least one directory for each segment from the interactive map from the 1850s, 1890s, and 1910s. Visitors can also search the entire digitized archive by keyword, location, and name.

415

Lexical Bundles in Discourse Structure: A Corpus-Based Study of Classroom Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study applies corpus-based methods to document the distributional patterns of previously reported lexical bundle functions as they relate to discourse structure. Specifically, 84 lexical bundles and their discourse functions (Biber "et al." 2004a) were tracked in 1,176 discourse units extracted from the initial phases of 196 university…

Csomay, Eniko

2013-01-01

416

Historic Pittsburgh  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This joint project by the University of Pittsburgh and the Western Pennsylvania Historical Society provides access to digitized books, maps, and archival collections documenting the history of the city of Pittsburgh, its residents, and the surrounding Allegheny County. The Full-Text Collection contains text and illustrations from more than 60 books, including multi-volume histories of Pittsburgh and special reports, such as urban planner and park designer Frederick Law Olmsted's "Pittsburgh main thoroughfares and the down town district; improvements necessary to meet the city's present and future needs" (1910). Also included are guides or finding aids to 64 archival collections, for example, Guide to the Records of Allegheny County Allied Boards of Trade, 1922-1940, and plat maps. In addition, there is detailed background information on Historic Pittsburgh, such as tools and techniques used for full-text production, and vendors and software used for data creation and processing. This background information should prove extremely useful for archivists and librarians undertaking similar projects, or anyone curious about how the digital presentation of historical materials is accomplished.

417

When discourses collide: creationism and evolution in the public sphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review essay focuses on Özgür Ta?k?n's discussion of the theory of evolution (TOE), intelligent design (ID) and the convictions of fundamentalist science educators and students in his paper entitled: An exploratory examination of Islamic values in science education: Islamization of science teaching and learning via constructivism. It examines the competing social discourses of evolution and creationism in the United States, which is partially maintained by national public opinion polls and states' legislation about the TOE in the science curricula. The examination of US social discourses presented here is framed by James Gee's (2008) theory that Discourses with a capital "D," are unconscious and uncritical socially accepted ways of speaking/listening and writing/reading that are merged with "distinctive ways of acting, interacting, valuing, feeling, dressing, thinking, [and] believing…so as to enact specific socially recognizable identities…" (p. 155). Such Discourses identify insiders of and outsiders to religious affiliations and other social or cultural groups. The context of this examination is unique in that is draws from the national conversation about the inclusion of ID alongside of the TOE in the public school science programs. Gee's (2011) concept that Discourses serve as tools of inquiry guides the analysis of video recorded public messages from Bill Nye and Lawrence Krauss as well as Creation Museum president Ken Ham. The analysis and discussion of the national conversation about creationism and public education suggests that the education community must consider the global landscape of science literacy both locally and internationally. It also indicates that preservice and practicing science educators may require special training and support. In order to provide unbiased, religious-resistant, evidence-based science instruction, science educators must understand how to separate church from state regardless of their personal beliefs. They must also know how to navigate conversations about the TOE among diverse communities of learners that include both religiously and non-religiously affiliated students.

Dávila, Denise

2014-02-01

418

Historical changes in Australian temperature extremes as inferred from extreme value distribution analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract This study develops a generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution <span class="hlt">analysis</span> approach, namely, a GEV tree approach that allows for both stationary and nonstationary cases. This approach is applied to a century-long homogenized daily temperature data set for Australia to assess changes in temperature extremes from 1910 to 2010. Changes in 20 year return values are estimated from the most suitable GEV distribution chosen from a GEV tree. Twenty year return values of extreme low minimum temperature are found to have warmed strongly over the century in most parts of the continent. There is also a tendency toward warming of extreme high maximum temperatures, but it is weaker than that for minimum temperatures, with the majority of stations not showing significant trends. The observed changes in extreme temperatures are broadly consistent with observed changes in mean temperatures and in the frequency of temperatures above the ninetieth and below the tenth percentile (i.e., extreme indices). The GEV tree <span class="hlt">analysis</span> provides insight into behavior of extremes with re-occurrence times of several years to decades that are of importance to engineering design/applications, while extreme indices represent moderately extreme events with re-occurrence times of a year or shorter.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Xiaolan L.; Trewin, Blair; Feng, Yang; Jones, David</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18818276"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Discourse</span> of 'transformational leadership' in infection control.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The article explores the impact of the ;transformational leadership' style in the role of modern matron with regards to infection control practices. Policy and guidance on the modern matron role suggest that it is distinctive in its combination of management and clinical components, and in its reliance on transformational leadership. Senior nurses are therefore expected to motivate staff by creating high expectations, modelling appropriate behaviour, and providing personal attention to followers by giving respect and responsibility. In this article, we draw on policy documents and interview data to explore the potential impact of this new management style on infection control practices. Combining the techniques of <span class="hlt">discourse</span> <span class="hlt">analysis</span> and corpus linguistics, we identify examples where matrons appear to disassociate themselves from the role of ;an empowered manager' who has control over human and financial resources to resolve problems in infection control efficiently. PMID:18818276</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koteyko, Nelya; Carter, Ronald</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.compadre.org/Repository/document/ServeFile.cfm?ID=11883&DocID=2730"> <span id="translatedtitle">Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational <span class="hlt">discourse</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, <span class="hlt">discourse</span> patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an <span class="hlt">analysis</span> methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; Mckagan, Sarah B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SciEd..86..601W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Learning as <span class="hlt">discourse</span> change: A sociocultural mechanism</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper deals with a theoretical mechanism for learning and a methodological approach for analyzing meaning making in classroom talk and action. It examines the potential of the approach for illuminating learning on a discursive level, i.e., how <span class="hlt">discourses</span> change and how individuals become participants of new practices. Our approach involves a high-resolution <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of how meaningful relations are built in encounters between individuals and between individuals and the world. The approach is based mainly on the work of the later Wittgenstein, but also on pragmatism and sociocultural research. To demonstrate how our approach can be used, we analyze what university students learn during a practical on insects. We specifically demonstrate how the encounters with physical pinned insects contribute to the meaning students make and how these encounters interact with other experiences during laboratory work.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wickman, Per-Olof; Östman, Leif</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B31A0401G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Landscape Vulnerability <span class="hlt">Analysis</span> from <span class="hlt">Historic</span> Lower Mississippi River Flood in 2011</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study presents the results of a landscape vulnerability <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of the Birds Point New Madrid Floodway in southeastern Missouri. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers intentionally inundated 500 square kilometers of agricultural floodplain in May of 2011 as an emergency flood control measure. We use pre-flood (2005) and post-flood (2011) high resolution Lidar data to establish the landscape impact of the levee breach on the floodplain. The Lidar DEMs were corrected for flight line errors using a Fourier filtering technique, and then subtracted to obtain a differential DEM of erosion and deposition patterns. We use soil erosion characteristics, AVIRIS remote sensing data, and 2D floodplain modeling to analyze the three components of vulnerability: sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity. HydroSed2D (Liu, Landry and García 2008), a 2D flow model, is implemented to simulate flow depths and speeds, or flood exposure, over the entire floodway, as well as smaller sections at increased resolution using a nested grid. We classify woody vegetation based on AVIRIS remote sensing data, and represent vegetated regions in the model as varied values of the Manning's n coefficient. Soil erodibility, vegetation, topography, and flow characteristics are compared to observed landscape changes within the floodplain. Overall, the floodway showed a remarkable resilience to an extreme flood event. When compared to levee breaches on similar rivers in other floods, the lack of newly deposited sediment is noticeable and likely attributable to the presence of a substantial riparian corridor between the main channel of the Mississippi River and the floodway. Although many meander scars indicating former channels of the Mississippi River are apparent in the topography, only one, known as O'Bryan Ridge, experienced high volumes of erosion and deposition due to the flooding. The vulnerability <span class="hlt">analysis</span> supports the hypothesis this high impact is due to a combination of vulnerability factors such as high flow speed, few localized patches of vegetation, and high soil erodibility at this ridge compared to other similar meander scars. The methodology of this <span class="hlt">analysis</span> can be used to locate regions of high vulnerability in future floodplain management and flood control, and mitigate potentially catastrophic landscape change.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goodwell, A. E.; Zhu, Z.; Dutta, D.; Greenberg, J.; Kumar, P.; Garcia, M. H.; Rhoads, B. L.; Parker, G.; Berretta, D.; Holmes, R. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20039115"> <span id="translatedtitle">The "participating victim" in the study of erotic experiences between children and adults: an <span class="hlt">historical</span> <span class="hlt">analysis</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">During the 20th century, erotic experiences between minors and adults occupied a position of increasing interest, both public as well as scientific. In this area of research, one of the most notable evolutions in how these experiences are treated has been the progressive disappearance and/or the intense redefinition of what earlier researchers called "participating victims," i.e., minors apparently interested in accepting and/or sustaining these relationships. The present work, through a comparative <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of the literature, seeks to substantiate this transformation during the second third of the 20th century. It will also argue that this evolution can be fundamentally explained in terms of the intense emotional, moral, and ideological importance that is ascribed to these experiences in the rise of the current victimological paradigm. Finally, this study endeavors to contribute to the understanding of childhood and the scientific study of child sexuality as well as of these experiences with adults. PMID:20039115</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Malón, Agustín</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23552650"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Historical</span> <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of oil and gas well plugging in New York: is the regulatory system working?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this work was to evaluate New York State's regulatory program for plugging inactive oil and gas wells. <span class="hlt">Analysis</span> of reports from the Division of Mineral Resources, Department of Environmental Conservation, reveals that three-fourths of the state's abandoned oil and gas wells were never plugged. Inadequate enforcement efforts have resulted in steady increases of unplugged oil and gas wells abandoned since 1992. Further, no program exists or is proposed to monitor abandoned wells which were plugged. These results strongly suggest that comprehensive reform and increased agency resources would be required to effectively regulate conventional oil and gas development in New York. Industrial expansion into shale oil and gas development should be postponed to avoid adding stress to an already compromised regulatory system. PMID:23552650</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bishop, Ronald E</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23905159"> <span id="translatedtitle">Silver colloidal pastes for dye <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of reference and <span class="hlt">historical</span> textile fibers using direct, extractionless, non-hydrolysis surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an ideal tool for analyzing dyes on <span class="hlt">historical</span> textiles because it requires very little sample compared to other available analytical methods and <span class="hlt">analysis</span> can be done directly on the fiber. This paper reports on the first systematic study of the use of citrate-reduced silver colloidal pastes for the direct, extractionless, non-hydrolysis detection of dyes directly on wool, silk, cotton, and flax fibers. This type of study provides greater insight into the optimal conditions required for accurate <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of dyes in <span class="hlt">historical</span> samples. In this work, Ag colloidal pastes were characterized using localized surface plasmon resonance and scanning electron microscopy. The pastes were then employed for SERS <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of twelve reference samples of different vegetal and animal fibers dyed with cochineal and eleven dyed with brazilwood. Furthermore, six <span class="hlt">historical</span> textiles from an important collection of Mariano Fortuny (1871-1949) textiles at the Art Institute of Chicago were also examined, to test the efficacy of the paste on aged samples, and to shed light on Fortuny's fascinating production techniques. A mixture of cochineal and brazilwood was detected in some of the <span class="hlt">historical</span> samples demonstrating, for the first time, simultaneous identification of these colorants used in combination. In addition, the findings give substance to the claim that Fortuny kept using natural dyes at a time when many new and attractive synthetic products became available. PMID:23905159</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Idone, Ambra; Gulmini, Monica; Henry, Anne-Isabelle; Casadio, Francesca; Chang, Lauren; Appolonia, Lorenzo; Van Duyne, Richard P; Shah, Nilam C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42470688"> <span id="translatedtitle">Romania is a family and it needs a strict father: conceptual metaphors at work in radical right populist <span class="hlt">discourses</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Investigating Romanian radical right populism, I evidence the gendered nature of conceptual metaphors and provide insights on the specific masculinities that they underpin in such political <span class="hlt">discourses</span>. With the 2004 presidential elections as a backdrop, the <span class="hlt">analysis</span> focuses on how the radical right populist candidates articulated in their <span class="hlt">discourses</span> the conceptual metaphor of the “strict father.” At first, the theoretical</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ov Cristian Norocel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22positioning%22&pg=4&id=EJ921611"> <span id="translatedtitle">Variations in Science Teaching Modalities and Students' Pedagogic Subject Positioning through the <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> Register and Language Code</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study investigated the modalities of science teaching practice and students' pedagogic subject positioning through the linguistic features of science classroom <span class="hlt">discourse</span> and the discursive interaction. For this purpose, this study sought to develop a methodology for classroom <span class="hlt">discourse</span> <span class="hlt">analysis</span>, the TMARC (Triangular Model of Analyzing…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maeng, Seungho; Kim, Chan-Jong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22genealogy%22&pg=3&id=ED528035"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sit Down! You're Rocking the Boat!: Asian Americans, Racial Manipulation, and the <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> of the Denial of Success</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This dissertation seeks to rearticulate racial formations in the United States and expand the <span class="hlt">discourse</span> on race in higher education by placing Asian Americans at the center of the discussion. Through the use of genealogy and <span class="hlt">discourse</span> <span class="hlt">analysis</span>, this research presents a broader description of the Asian American racial experience in higher education…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gonzalez, Anna K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42414886"> <span id="translatedtitle">Conflicting <span class="hlt">discourses</span> of knowledge: Understanding the policy adoption of pro-burning knowledge claims in Cape York Peninsula, Australia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using as a case study the dominant pro-burning policy paradigm in Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, Australia, this article examines how knowledge claims become adopted in environmental policy. Stakeholder views in Cape York are polarised between pro and anti <span class="hlt">discourses</span> regarding anthropogenic burning, each with their own contested knowledge claims. This article carries out a <span class="hlt">discourse</span> <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of stakeholder views on</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David Ockwell; Yvonne Rydin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=spacetime&pg=3&id=EJ650316"> <span id="translatedtitle">"This Is Our Freedom Bus Going Home Right Now": Producing and Hybridizing Space-Time Contexts in Pedagogical <span class="hlt">Discourse</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Advances an approach to <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of discursive intercontextuality through theories of space-time production. Argues management of multiple contexts within school-related <span class="hlt">discourse</span> is an important means of discursively producing identity, agency, and power relations. Draws data from an ethnographic and <span class="hlt">discourse</span>-based study of an extended school…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leander, Kevin M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://centres.exeter.ac.uk/historyresource/journal11/Epstein.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Effects of Family\\/Community and School <span class="hlt">Discourses</span> on Children's and Adolescents' Interpretations of United States History</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the post 9\\/11 era the Al Queda factor is a major influence in shaping the <span class="hlt">Historical</span>, Humanities, Social Sciences and Citizenship curriculum. Central is the issue of racial identity and the ability of school teachers to engage pupils in <span class="hlt">discourses</span> that recognise both diversity and the need to understand the beliefs, values and mores of different ethnic groups. A</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Terrie Epstein</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22928357"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Analysis</span> of mercury levels in <span class="hlt">historical</span> bone material from syphilitic subjects--pilot studies (short report).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of the present work is to study the remains of seven individuals with typical symptoms of tertiary syphilis in terms of mercury content in bones, thereby verifying whether they were subjected to treatment and, if they were, how long their organisms were exposed to toxic mercury fumes. Mercury was used, mainly in the Middle Ages and in the early modern period, as a preventive measure in case of individuals suffering from syphilis, a venereal disease, and also leprosy. Syphilitic patients treated this way should demonstrate increased concentration of mercury in their bones. The skeletons studied in the present work originate from various archaeological sites in southern and north-central Poland. The analyses concerned individuals with diagnosed syphilis as well as healthy individuals who constituted the control group. The analyses were performed by the LA-ICP-MS technique, with the use of laser Nd: YAG, Macro, 266 nm, New Wave, USA, coupled with Spectrometer Elan DRC-e Perkin Elmer, USA. The content <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of the studied bone material revealed with high probability that the contact method of mercurial treatment was used only in the case of two women from north-central Poland, deceased at the turn of the 15th century at the earliest. PMID:22928357</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kepa, Ma?gorzata; Koz?owski, Tomasz; Szostek, Krzysztof; Drozd, Alicja; Walas, Stanis?aw; Mrowiec, Halina; Stepa?czak, Beata; G?ab, Henryk; Grupa, Ma?gorzata</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22066815"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Historical</span> microbiology: revival and phylogenetic <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of the luminous bacterial cultures of M. W. Beijerinck.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Luminous bacteria isolated by Martinus W. Beijerinck were sealed in glass ampoules in 1924 and 1925 and stored under the names Photobacterium phosphoreum and 'Photobacterium splendidum'. To determine if the stored cultures were viable and to assess their evolutionary relationship with currently recognized bacteria, portions of the ampoule contents were inoculated into culture medium. Growth and luminescence were evident after 13 days of incubation, indicating the presence of viable cells after more than 80 years of storage. The Beijerinck strains are apparently the oldest bacterial cultures to be revived from storage. Multi-locus sequence <span class="hlt">analysis</span>, based on the 16S rRNA, gapA, gyrB, pyrH, recA, luxA, and luxB genes, revealed that the Beijerinck strains are distant from the type strains of P. phosphoreum, ATCC 11040(T), and Vibrio splendidus, ATCC 33125(T), and instead form an evolutionarily distinct clade of Vibrio. Newly isolated strains from coastal seawater in Norway, France, Uruguay, Mexico, and Japan grouped with the Beijerinck strains, indicating a global distribution for this new clade, designated as the beijerinckii clade. Strains of the beijerinckii clade exhibited little sequence variation for the seven genes and approximately 6300 nucleotides examined despite the geographic distances and the more than 80 years separating their isolation. Gram-negative bacteria therefore can survive for many decades in liquid storage, and in nature, they do not necessarily diverge rapidly over time. PMID:22066815</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Figge, Marian J; Robertson, Lesley A; Ast, Jennifer C; Dunlap, Paul V</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">434</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3635829"> <span id="translatedtitle">Early Cohort Mortality Predicts the Cohort Rate of Aging: an <span class="hlt">Historical</span> <span class="hlt">Analysis</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Early environmental influences on later life health and mortality are well recognized in the doubling of life expectancy since 1800. To further define these relationships, we analyzed the associations between early life mortality with both the estimated mortality level at age 40 and the exponential acceleration in mortality rates with age characterized by the Gompertz model. Using mortality data from 630 cohorts born throughout the 19th and early 20th century in nine European countries, we developed a multilevel model that accounts for cohort and period effects in later life mortality. We show that early life mortality, which is linked to exposure to infection and poor nutrition, predicts both the estimated cohort mortality level at age 40 and the subsequent Gompertz rate of mortality acceleration during aging. After controlling for effects of country and period, the model accounts for the majority of variance in the Gompertz parameters (about 90% of variation in estimated level of mortality at age 40 and about 78% of variation in Gompertz slope). The gains in cohort survival to older ages are entirely due to large declines in adult mortality level, because the rates of mortality acceleration at older ages became faster. These findings apply to cohorts born in both the 19th Century and the early 20th Century. This <span class="hlt">analysis</span> defines new links in the developmental origins of adult health and disease in which effects of early life circumstances, such as exposure to infections or poor nutrition, persist into mid-adulthood and remain evident in the cohort mortality rates from ages 40 to 90.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beltran-Sanchez, Hiram; Crimmins, Eileen M.; Finch, Caleb E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">435</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.A21D0739L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correlation Lengths and Measurement Uncertainties from <span class="hlt">Analysis</span> of <span class="hlt">Historical</span> Ozonesonde Data in North America and Europe</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A spatial and temporal correlation <span class="hlt">analysis</span> is performed on WOUDC (World Ozone Data Centre) ozonesonde data for 13 stations at mid-latitudes in North America and Europe. As much as 40 years of data is available for some stations. After removal of the seasonal cycle and periodic variations such as the QBO, as well as of long- term trends, spatial correlation (relative to other stations) coefficients and auto-correlation coefficients are calculated. Ozone partial pressure data at 1 km altitude resolution are used. The auto-correlation function appears to drop rapidly within few days, and the spatial correlation decreases with the distance between stations. The distance for the spatial correlation coefficient to decrease by 1/e is about 1000-2000 km in the stratosphere with a peak at around 22 km, and 500-1000 km in the troposphere. If the calculated values of the correlation coefficient with space (or time) are fitted to an exponential function, the extrapolation of this function to zero distance (or time) provides an estimate of the ozonesonde measurement uncertainty. The ozonesonde uncertainty is found to be less than 7% for altitudes in the 20-30 km range. In the troposphere the uncertainty is about 15% , with higher values in the boundary layer and near the tropopause. These results are broadly consistent with those from the recent JOSIE and BESOS field experiments (Smit et al., 2007; Deshler et al., 2007). If the profiles are normalized to total ozone measurements, the uncertainties decrease by few percent at altitudes higher than 20 km.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liu, G.; Tarasick, D. W.; Fioletov, V. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">436</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4041607"> <span id="translatedtitle">Points to Consider on the Statistical <span class="hlt">Analysis</span> of Rodent Cancer Bioassay Data when Incorporating <span class="hlt">Historical</span> Control Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Researchers routinely use <span class="hlt">historical</span> control data (HCD) when analyzing rodent carcinogenicity data obtained in a particular study. Although the concurrent control group is considered to be the most relevant group to compare with the dose groups, the HCD provides a broader perspective to assist in understanding the significance of the current study. The HCD is used to provide information about the incidences of spontaneous tumors and malignant systemic disorders such as lymphoma and leukemia. This paper presents some possible ways of incorporating the HCD when analyzing data from a rodent cancer bioassay. Specifically, exploratory (informal) and formal statistical procedures for analyzing such data are reviewed. The boxplot is presented as an exploratory tool that describes the current data in the context of the distribution of the HCD. It will also identify potential outliers that would not be otherwise be flagged using standard methods such as the mean, standard deviation and range. The various options for the statistical <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of HCD presented here do not necessarily represent standard practice.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elmore, Susan A.; Peddada, Shyamal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">437</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/203210"> <span id="translatedtitle">Attitudes and practices regarding disposal of liquid nuclear waste at Clinton Laboratories in the very early years: A <span class="hlt">historical</span> <span class="hlt">analysis</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many previously unreferenced documents show that the management and disposal of the liquid nuclear waste generated at Clinton Labs (which became ORNL after 1948) during the 1940s was performed with the highest degree of integrity and professionalism, contradicting today`s perceptions. Even before construction of the laboratories in early 1943, professionals were making plans for the ``safe`` disposal of waste through treatment and dilution at medically prescribed levels into White Oak Creek and the Clinch River; concern for human health permeated all the disposal decisions. Chemical and physical treatment processes were used to remove as much of the activity as possible before release. Environmental and biological monitoring of the surface waters was instituted very early in the disposal history. Information learned at Clinton Labs with regard to waste disposal was transferred to Hanford. By the latter part of the 1940s, the scientists were formulating fairly sophisticated research programs for managing liquid waste and began research on the disposal of low-level solid waste. This <span class="hlt">historical</span> <span class="hlt">analysis</span> attempts to place the actions of the 1940s in proper perspective, drawing on the attentiveness and integrity of those who participated 50 years ago. Applying standards of the 1990s to actions in the 1940s must be done skilfully, carefully, and with the realization that those individuals were operating under extremely trying conditions, with minimal knowledge of radionuclide behavior.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stow, S.H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">438</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMS...134...45T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of eutrophication variables and thresholds in the Dutch North Sea in a <span class="hlt">historical</span> context - A model <span class="hlt">analysis</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study presents an evaluation of eutrophication variables and thresholds in the Dutch North Sea in a <span class="hlt">historical</span> context by means of a model <span class="hlt">analysis</span>. An ecosystem model (Delft3D-GEM for the North Sea) was used to simulate four different years, representing periods with little anthropogenic input (1930), medium anthropogenic input (1960), and high anthropogenic input (1985), as well as current (2007) conditions. Model runs differed with respect to nutrient inputs (riverine input and atmospheric deposition) but physical and hydrodynamic conditions were kept unchanged, to enable a clear assessment of the impact of changes in nutrient inputs. Model results showed that current (2007) dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) concentrations along the Dutch North Sea coast are similar to levels in 1930, while dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations have been reduced to levels that were present in 1960. Chl a concentrations did not show clear differences between 2007, 1930 and 1960, but Phaeocystis levels were higher in 2007 than in 1930 and 1960 in all areas, although these differences were not statistically significant. Furthermore, model results indicate that DIN (rather than DIP) should be the focus of nutrient reduction efforts, since reducing nitrogen will cause a shift from a P-limited coastal ecosystem towards a more pristine, N-limited coastal ecosystem. Finally, it was found that assessment parameters and threshold levels should be revised and the harmonization between them should be improved, for which several recommendations are given.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Troost, T. A.; de Kluijver, A.; Los, F. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">439</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://www.lib.umn.edu/bell"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Historical</span> Maps</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The James Ford Bell Library at the University of Minnesota provides the <span class="hlt">Historical</span> Maps page as part of their main Web site. Users can view more than fifty maps online, each of which contain a short description of what the map is depicting. One example is a navigational map of Africa and the Atlantic and Indian Oceans that was designed to illustrate the first Dutch expedition to Java undertaken by Cornelis de Houtman in 1597. The maps can be viewed in fine detail and are quite fascinating to view and learn about. Anyone interested in history, cartography, or other similar subjects should enjoy exploring the collection.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">440</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/27787643"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Historical</span> Supernovae</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The available <span class="hlt">historical</span> records of supernovae occurring in our own Galaxy over the past two thousand years are reviewed.\\u000a These accounts include the well-recorded supernovae of AD1604 (Kepler’s SN), AD1572 (Tycho’s SN), AD1181 AD1054 (which produced\\u000a the Crab Nebula) and AD1006, together with less certain events dating back to AD185. In the case of the supernovae of AD1604\\u000a and AD1572</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David A. Green; F. Richard Stephenson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">441</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/37398874"> <span id="translatedtitle">The hollowness of anti-corruption <span class="hlt">discourse</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">As part of an overall focus on governance in international political economy, the corruption issue has catapulted from the margins of academic and policy <span class="hlt">discourse</span> on international affairs to a position as one of the central problems facing transition economies and the developing world today. But the irreducibly normative character of anti-corruption <span class="hlt">discourse</span> is in tension with the predominantly rationalist,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mlada Bukovansky</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">442</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/13064649"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Multimodal <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> Ontology for Meeting Understanding</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">du Abstract. In this paper, we present a multimodal <span class="hlt">discourse</span> ontology that serves as a knowledge representation and annotation framework for the <span class="hlt">discourse</span> understanding component of an artificial personal office assistant. The ontology models components of natural language, mul- timodal communication, multi-party dialogue structure, meeting struc- ture, and the physical and temporal aspects of human communication. We compare our models</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">443</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/t15213143r57820g.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Multimodal <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> Ontology for Meeting Understanding</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we present a multimodal <span class="hlt">discourse</span> ontology that serves as a knowledge representation and annotation framework for the <span class="hlt">discourse</span> understanding component of an artificial personal oce assistant. The ontology models components of natural language, mul- timodal communication, multi-party dialogue structure, meeting struc- ture, and the physical and temporal aspects of human communication. We compare our models to those</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">John Niekrasz; Matthew Purver</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">444</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ben-center.org/climateChange/the_new_climate_discourse.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The new climate <span class="hlt">discourse</span>: Alarmist or alarming?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">discourse</span> on climate change is in part divided between a sense of alarm and a sense of alarmism in assessments of the magnitude and urgency of the problem. The divide in the <span class="hlt">discourse</span> among climatologists relates to tensions in the use of key phrases to describe climate change. This article reviews evidence to support claims that climate change can</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">James S. Risbey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">445</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=perisylvian&pg=2&id=EJ877576"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Neural Architecture of <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> Compression</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Re-telling a story is thought to produce a progressive refinement in the mental representation of the <span class="hlt">discourse</span>. A neuroanatomical substrate for this compression effect, however, has yet to be identified. We used a <span class="hlt">discourse</span> re-listening task and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify brain regions responsive to repeated…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lillywhite, L. M.; Saling, M. M.; Demutska, A.; Masterton, R.; Farquharson, S.; Jackson, G. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">446</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Sports+Medicine%22&id=EJ927071"> <span id="translatedtitle">Teaching the Conventions of Academic <span class="hlt">Discourse</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Given the current emphasis on disciplinary <span class="hlt">discourses</span>, it's not surprising that so little recent attention has been devoted to identifying conventions that are universal in academic <span class="hlt">discourse</span>. In this essay, the author argues that there are shared features that unite academic writing, and that by introducing these features to first-year students…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thonney, Teresa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">447</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED517970.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Supportive <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> Moves in Persian Requests</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper reports the findings of a study designed to investigate the types of supportive <span class="hlt">discourse</span> moves employed by Persian speakers in their Requestive Speech Acts. 372 respondents took a <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> Completion Test (DCT) with six scenarios ranging from formal to informal degrees of Perceived Situational Seriousness, and returned 2232 Requestive…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Allami, Hamid</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">448</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ircs.upenn.edu/~rjprasad/papers/daarc_02.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> Anaphoric Properties of Connectives</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Discourse</span> connectives can be analyzed as encoding predicate-argument relations whose arguments derive from the interpretation of <span class="hlt">discourse</span> units. These arguments can be anaphoric or structural. Although structural arguments can be encoded in a parse tree, anaphoric arguments must be resolved by other means. A study of nine connectives, annotating the location, size, and syntactic type of their arguments, shows connective-specific</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cassandre Creswell; Kate Forbes; Eleni Miltsakaki; Rashmi Prasad; Aravind Joshi; Bonnie Webber</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">449</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=film+AND+quarterly&pg=6&id=EJ631345"> <span id="translatedtitle">Libraries, Librarians, and the <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> of Fear.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Presents examples of representations of libraries and librarians taken from modern popular culture, including popular film, television, and novels, and using Foucault's approach to <span class="hlt">discourse</span>, asserts that such representations are made possible by, and decoded within, the structures of a <span class="hlt">discourse</span> of fear, a practice of speech and symbols that…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Radford, Gary P.; Radford, Marie L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">450</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50733708"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reciprocal anaphora resolution in Pashto <span class="hlt">discourse</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is very important for an effective machine translation system to transform the multi-sentential <span class="hlt">discourses</span>, of a source language, into simple and cohesion free <span class="hlt">discourses</span>. Anaphora resolution is the predicament in computational linguistics that is responsible for the alleged problem. This paper is about the lexical (reciprocal) anaphora resolution in Pashto language and presents an algorithm that is based on</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rahman Ali; M. A. Khan; M. Bilal; Ihsan Rabbi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">451</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sample+AND+prep&pg=3&id=ED475932"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using Threaded Discussions as a <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> Support.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Students construct meaning from text through conversation and social interaction. This research examines how the use of an online, threaded discussion, as a <span class="hlt">discourse</span> support, can facilitate deeper levels of student understanding. The basic assumption being tested is that using <span class="hlt">discourse</span> supports, applying various discussion strategies like…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gray, Gregory</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">452</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED396534.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Typological and Topological Meaning in Diagnostic <span class="hlt">Discourse</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 6-minute, videotaped segment of <span class="hlt">discourse</span> in a medical school classroom problem-based learning session is analyzed for evidence of the kinds of meanings being constructed, their functions, and the linguistic, kinesic, and other means by which they are being made. Three interdependent <span class="hlt">discourse</span> agendas are distinguished: construction,…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lemke, J. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">453</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=handbook+AND+linguistic+AND+analysis&pg=2&id=ED418606"> <span id="translatedtitle">Principles of Japanese <span class="hlt">Discourse</span>: A Handbook.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This handbook offers a detailed description of the structure and rhetorical effects observed in various genres of Japanese <span class="hlt">discourse</span>. Drawing on Japanese "bunshooron" and incorporating results of Western <span class="hlt">discourse</span> studies, the book covers principles of overall rhetorical organization, including"ki-shoo-ten-ketsu," topic structure, "danraku," and…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maynard, Senko K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">454</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=handbook+AND+linguistic+AND+analysis&id=ED519443"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ideological Uptakes: <span class="hlt">Discourses</span> on Raising Bilingual Children</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Advice literature is ubiquitous. Chouliaraki and Fairclough (1999) argue that our modern lives motivate if not require us to consult the experts. In many fields, experts have negotiated a <span class="hlt">discourse</span> accessible to the public in handbooks, guidebooks, self-help manuals, etc. As I discover in this study, these public <span class="hlt">discourses</span> can reinscribe both…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Basta, Hidy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">455</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57593735"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lawbreaking Jokers: Tricksters Using Outlaw <span class="hlt">Discourse</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In an attempt to enrich Sloop and Ono's (1997) theory of outlaw <span class="hlt">discourse</span>, this article draws from the more extensive literature on the trickster to demonstrate how the two concepts have a shared heritage. First, the nature of outlaw <span class="hlt">discourse</span> is reviewed, and then the myth of the trickster is discussed. Following these overviews, the similarities and differences between the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sarah Hagedorn VanSlette; Josh Boyd</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">456</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=jackson&pg=6&id=EJ1019974"> <span id="translatedtitle">Elementary Teachers Negotiating <span class="hlt">Discourses</span> in Writing Instruction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using Ivanic's (2004) framework, the study of 20 elementary teachers examines the relationships among teachers' beliefs about writing, their instructional practices, and contextual factors. While the district-adopted curriculum reflected specific <span class="hlt">discourses</span>, teachers' beliefs and practices reflected a combination of <span class="hlt">discourses</span>. The…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McCarthey, Sarah J.; Woodard, Rebecca; Kang, Grace</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">457</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=KILIC&pg=3&id=EJ876159"> <span id="translatedtitle">Techniques for Small-Group <span class="hlt">Discourse</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The nature of mathematical <span class="hlt">discourse</span> and its influence on the development of students' mathematical understanding has received much attention from researchers in recent years. Engaging students in discursive practices can be difficult; teachers can increase their competence in facilitating <span class="hlt">discourse</span> through greater awareness of the impact of…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kilic, Hulya; Cross, Dionne I.; Ersoz, Filyet A.; Mewborn, Denise S.; Swanagan, Diana; Kim, Jisun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">458</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39887746"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Study of Online <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> at The Chronicle of Higher Education</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Given the explosive growth of online communications, new forms of <span class="hlt">discourse</span> are an intriguing topic of study. This research\\u000a focused on ten online discussions hosted by The Chronicle of Higher Education, using content and <span class="hlt">discourse</span> <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of the postings to answer several questions. What is the “conversational scaffolding”\\u000a used by posters in higher education-related online discussions? Are academic online discussions</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Katrina A. Meyer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">459</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ApSS..255.5542S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Complementary use of the Raman and XRF techniques for non-destructive <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of <span class="hlt">historical</span> paint layers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The portable XRF spectrometer has been applied in situ for the non-destructive elemental mapping of the pigment components of the XV c. mural painting and frescos of the Little Christopher chamber in the Main Town Hall of Gda?sk, Poland. For a sufficiently large data collection the principal component <span class="hlt">analysis</span> (PCA) was applied in order to associate the most intense lines of the elements Ca, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Hg in the XRF spectra with the palette of colors: white, brown, green, blue, red, yellow, and black observed in the painting. This allowed to limit the number of extractions of the micro-samples for the complementary Raman measurements thus assuring the practically non-destructive character of the entire <span class="hlt">analysis</span>. The reliable identification of the pigment compositions was based on coincidence of the XRF, PCA and the Raman results which confirmed the presence of the chalk, malachite, azurite, red lead, mars red, mars yellow and candle black in the <span class="hlt">historical</span> paints, except of the carbon-based black pigment being out of the XRF detection range. Different hues of the green paint were specified and the variety of the red and brown ones was ascribed to compositions of the Pb- and Fe-based red pigments (Fe 2O 3 and Pb 3O 4) with addition of the vermilion (HgS) and carbon black, in agreement with literature. The traces of elements: Ba and Sr, Sb and Mo, and also Cd, were ascribed to the impurities of Ca, those of some ochre pigments, and to the soluble Cd salts, respectively.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sawczak, M.; Kami?ska, A.; Rabczuk, G.; Ferretti, M.; Jendrzejewski, R.; ?liwi?ski, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">460</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/70797"> <span id="translatedtitle">Waste site characterization through digital <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of <span class="hlt">historical</span> aerial photographs at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Historical</span> aerial photographs are used to provide a physical history and preliminary mapping information for characterizing hazardous waste sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base. The examples cited show how imagery was used to accurately locate and identify previous activities at a site, monitor changes that occurred over time, and document the observable of such activities today. The methodology demonstrates how <span class="hlt">historical</span> imagery (along with any other pertinent data) can be used in the characterization of past environmental damage.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Van Eeckhout, E.; Pope, P.; Wells, B.; Rofer, C.; Martin, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">461</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6402235"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Historical</span> perspective, economic <span class="hlt">analysis</span>, and regulatory <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of the impacts of waste partitioning-transmutation on the disposal of radioactive wastes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Partitioning-transmutation, sometimes called actinide burning, is an alternative approach to high-level radioactive waste management. It consists of removing long-lived radionuclides from wastes and destroying those radionuclides, thus reducing the long-term hazards of radioactive waste. It was studied in detail in the 1970's. New developments in technology and other factors are resulting in a reexamination of this waste management option. This report consists of three papers which summarize the <span class="hlt">historical</span> work, update the <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of the costs of waste disposal, and describe current regulatory requirements which might be impacted by P-T. The papers provide a starting point for future research on P-T. 152 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Forsberg, C.W.; Croff, A.G.; Kocher, D.C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">462</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40162217"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tagalog-english code switching as a mode of <span class="hlt">discourse</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The alternation of Tagalog and English in informal <span class="hlt">discourse</span> is a feature of the linguistic repertoire of educated, middle-\\u000a and upper-class Filipinos. This paper describes the linguistic structure and sociolinguistic functions of Tagalog-English\\u000a code switching (Taglish) as provided by various researchers through the years. It shows that the <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of Taglish began\\u000a with a linguistic focus, segmenting individual utterances into</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maria Lourdes S. Bautista</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">463</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22haifa%22&pg=6&id=ED287758"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Usage of an Improved Systematic "<span class="hlt">Analysis</span> Scheme" for Curricula, Which Includes an <span class="hlt">Historical</span>, Ideological and Social <span class="hlt">Analysis</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Serious attention should be paid to <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of the ideological, social, and educational factors that influence Israel's secondary school curriculum. The values of the kibbutz and its educational system are not included in existing school courses and should be integrated into the social studies curriculum. More than 400 curricula, used in schools…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dror, Yuval</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">464</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18437594"> <span id="translatedtitle">Disciplinary <span class="hlt">discourses</span>: rates of cesarean section explained by medicine, midwifery, and feminism.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the context of international concern about increasing rates of cesarean sections, we used <span class="hlt">discourse</span> <span class="hlt">analysis</span> to examine explanations arising from feminism and the disciplines of medicine and midwifery, and found that each was positioned differently in relation to the rising rates. Medical <span class="hlt">discourses</span> asserted that doctors are authorities on birth and that, although cesareans are sometimes medically necessary, women recklessly choose unnecessary cesareans against medical advice. Midwifery <span class="hlt">discourses</span> portrayed medicine as paternalistic toward both women and midwifery, and feminist <span class="hlt">discourses</span> situated birth and women's bodies in the context of a patriarchally structured society. The findings illustrate the complex ways in which this intervention in birth is discursively constructed, and demonstrate its significance as a site of disciplinary conflict. PMID:18437594</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lee, Amy Su May; Kirkman, Maggie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">465</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1513..414W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reflective <span class="hlt">discourse</span> techniques: From in-class discussions to out-of-classroom problem solving</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Instructors often give prompts that encourage students to articulate their beliefs and conceptions, as well as encourage students to understand the thoughts of their peers. This reflective <span class="hlt">discourse</span> is used in a calculus-based introductory physics class at Lane Community College, where the instructor explicitly has <span class="hlt">discourse</span> goals integrated into his course structure. We investigate whether students utilize this <span class="hlt">discourse</span> when solving problems outside of the classroom context. We interviewed groups of students after the end of spring term, 2012. The students were asked to solve open-ended problems, with <span class="hlt">analysis</span> focused on whether students applied this reflective <span class="hlt">discourse</span>. Students were asked a series of follow-up questions to reflect upon their experiences in the course.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wampler, Wendi; Demaree, Dedra; Gilbert, Dennis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">466</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22685573"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multi-locus phylogeographic and population genetic <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of Anolis carolinensis: <span class="hlt">historical</span> demography of a genomic model species.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The green anole (Anolis carolinensis) has been widely used as an animal model in physiology and neurobiology but has recently emerged as an important genomic model. The recent sequencing of its genome has shed new light on the evolution of vertebrate genomes and on the process that govern species diversification. Surprisingly, the patterns of genetic diversity within natural populations of this widespread and abundant North American lizard remain relatively unknown. In the present study, we use 10 novel nuclear DNA sequence loci (N?=?62 to 152) and one mitochondrial locus (N?=?226) to delimit green anole populations and infer their <span class="hlt">historical</span> demography. We uncovered four evolutionarily distinct and geographically restricted lineages of green anoles using phylogenetics, bayesian clustering, and genetic distance methods. Molecular dating indicates that these lineages last shared a common ancestor ?2 million years ago. Summary statistics and <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of the frequency distributions of DNA polymorphisms strongly suggest range-wide expansions in population size. Using Bayesian Skyline Plots, we inferred the timing of population size expansions, which differ across lineages, and found evidence for a relatively recent and rapid westward expansion of green anoles across the Gulf Coastal Plain during the mid-Pleistocene. One surprising result is that the distribution of genetic diversity is not consistent with a latitudinal shift caused by climatic oscillations as is observed for many co-distributed taxa. This suggests that the most recent Pleistocene glacial cycles had a limited impact on the geographic distribution of the green anole at the northern limits of its range. PMID:22685573</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tollis, Marc; Ausubel, Gavriel; Ghimire, Dhruba; Boissinot, Stéphane</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">467</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AIPC..790..149B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Concerning Scientific <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> about Heat</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We aim to examine communication in physics from a linguistic perspective and suggest a theoretical viewpoint that may enable us to explain and understand many physics students' alternative conceptions. We present evidence, in the context of the concept of heat, that physicists seem to speak and write about physical systems with a set of one or more systematic metaphors that are well understood in their community. We argue that physics students appear to be prone to misinterpreting and overextending the same metaphors and that these misinterpretations exhibit themselves as students' alternative conceptions. We will analyze physicists' <span class="hlt">discourse</span> about heat and present evidence of a connection between students' alternative conceptions and the possibility that they are misinterpreting the language that they read and hear.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brookes, D.; Horton, G.; van Heuvelen, A.; Etkina, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">468</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://webh01.ua.ac.be/mitac4/micr_2008a.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Complementary <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of <span class="hlt">historical</span> glass by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">.  Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP MS) was used as a supporting method for elemental <span class="hlt">analysis</span>\\u000a of <span class="hlt">historical</span> glass investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM\\/EDS).\\u000a Investigated objects represent mainly late- and post-medieval glass objects (mostly Façon-de-Venise vessels and nuppenbechers), window glass and chandeliers from excavation in Elbl?g, Pozna? and Wroc?aw</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barbara Wagner; Anna Nowak; Ewa Bulska; Jerzy Kunicki-Goldfinger; Olivier Schalm; Koen Janssens</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">469</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/24726025"> <span id="translatedtitle">Differential and combined impacts of extreme temperatures and air pollution on human mortality in south–central Canada. Part I: <span class="hlt">historical</span> <span class="hlt">analysis</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper forms the first part of an introduction to a synoptic weather typing approach to assess differential and combined\\u000a impacts of extreme temperatures and air pollution on human mortality in south–central Canada, focusing on <span class="hlt">historical</span> <span class="hlt">analysis</span>\\u000a (a companion paper—Part II focusing on future estimates). In this study, an automated synoptic weather typing procedure was\\u000a used to identify weather types</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chad Shouquan Cheng; Monica Campbell; Qian Li; Guilong Li; Heather Auld; Nancy Day; David Pengelly; Sarah Gingrich; Joan Klaassen; Don MacIver; Neil Comer; Yang Mao; Wendy Thompson; Hong Lin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">470</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19444685"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">discourse</span> of gay men's group sex: The importance of masculinity.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Group sex has consistently been identified as one of a group of risk behaviours among gay men associated with HIV seroconversion. This paper presents a detailed description of how gender, and specifically masculinity, operates as an aspect of the <span class="hlt">discourse</span> of gay men's group sex. The findings presented in this paper are one part of a multi-aspected <span class="hlt">discourse</span> <span class="hlt">analysis</span> through which we are aiming to develop an account of the <span class="hlt">discourse</span> of gay men's group sex as it was produced in a series of qualitative interviews conducted with gay men who participate in group sex. The interviews were conducted as part of the Three or More Study (TOMS), a larger project that involved a substantial quantitative component. The overarching intent of the <span class="hlt">discourse</span> <span class="hlt">analysis</span> is to provide as comprehensive a mapping as possible of this discursive terrain to facilitate the targeted development of HIV and sexual health educational initiatives. The <span class="hlt">discourse</span> of gay men's group sex reproduces some key formations of masculinity within <span class="hlt">discourses</span> of gender, which present specific challenges for HIV prevention education. These challenges are outlined at the conclusion of this paper. PMID:19444685</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McInnes, David; Bradley, Jack; Prestage, Garrett</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">471</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8538E..1NJ"> <span id="translatedtitle">The feasibility of landscape pattern <span class="hlt">analysis</span> within the alpine steppe of the Yellow River source based on <span class="hlt">historical</span> CORONA panchromatic imagery</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Multi-scale <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of landscape statistics is very important to research ecological processes. However, it was lack of high-resolution data to extract the landscape pattern features of suspected ecological degradation region a few decades ago. CORONA panchromatic film photos acquired between 1960 and 1972 provide the <span class="hlt">historical</span> high-resolution image resource in small-scale ecological pattern research. The purpose of this research was to assess the feasibility of landscape pattern <span class="hlt">analysis</span> within the alpine steppe area of the Yellow River source through <span class="hlt">historical</span> CORONA panchromatic imagery. Histogram <span class="hlt">analysis</span> result shows that the swamp meadow is difficult to be distinguished from water, but there is a potential of mapping four patch types in alpine steppe in gray imagery. Through segmentation image of alpine steppe area, different landscape pattern metrics were calculated in several selected areas. The result also shows that landscape pattern metrics are closely related to NDVI level of alpine grassland. It can be concluded that <span class="hlt">historical</span> CORONA panchromatic imagery is a potentially valuable high-resolution remote sensing source for long-time ecological monitoring.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jiao, Quanjun; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Liangyun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">472</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21062667"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reversing the <span class="hlt">historical</span> tide of iatrogenic harm: A therapeutic jurisprudence <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of increases in arrests of domestic batterers and rapists.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) proposes that the law is a social force that can heal or cause harm to parties in a legal action. <span class="hlt">Historically</span>, women victims of intimate partner rape and domestic violence could not seek justice in the legal system because police, like other actors in the justice system, treated these offenses as private matters or fabrications. In domestic violence and intimate rape cases, TJ is concerned with the needs of the victims, and how the law and police play a role in increasing their well-being. In this article, we use a TJ approach to the study of police responsiveness to victims of these offenses by investigating arrests of the offenders pursuant to law reforms that encourage or mandate arrest. Given that in these offenses, victims have the lowest reporting rates of any violent crime, the victim decision to call the police represents an expectation that the mere physical presence of a police officer may redefine the nature of the violence from a private conflict to a societal wrong that will not be tolerated. Police partnership with and treatment of the victim with respect and dignity can change the dynamics of the violence, terminate the violence, and set the criminal justice process in motion by arresting the offender in most cases. Police arrest, and subsequent prosecution and conviction, sends a message to offenders that society does not tolerate their violence, and allows the victim to begin to heal. Yet, past research indicates that police are less likely to arrest intimates than acquaintances and strangers in misdemeanor and aggravated assault, rape, and sexual assault cases. Using the National Incidence Reporting System (NIBRS) for the year 2000, we examine police arrests of intimate partner rape and domestic violence in jurisdictions with mandatory and presumptive arrest policies compared to police arrests in full discretion jurisdictions. We also ascertain whether arrest rates are higher for strangers and acquaintances than for intimates in misdemeanor and aggravated assault, kidnapping, and rape and sexual assault. Third, we determine whether police arrests of intimate partner rape is more likely if there is evidence of violence, injury to the victim, and use of a weapon. Our multivariate findings suggest that both the rape and the domestic violence reform movements have reversed the tide of <span class="hlt">historical</span> negative treatment of female victims of these offenses. Logistic regression <span class="hlt">analysis</span> indicates that police agencies in mandatory and preferred arrest jurisdictions increase the odds of arrest for domestic violence incidents and violations of orders of protection, compared to police agencies in jurisdictions with permissive/discretionary arrest policies. In addition, intimate violence increases the odds of arrest by 98%; forcible rape accompanied by simple assault or kidnapping increases the odds of arrest by 467 and 222%, respectively whereas forcible fondling accompanied by simple assault increases the odds of arrest by 293%. We discuss the implications of our findings for future law reform as well as TJ. PMID:21062667</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Simon, Leonore M J; Ellwanger, Steven J; Haggerty, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">473</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H44F..02C"> <span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">Analysis</span> of <span class="hlt">Historical</span> Impacts of Water Resources Development on Water Levels of the Mekong River (Invited)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The rapid rate of water resources development in the Mekong basin of Southeast Asia is a cause for concern due to potential impacts on highly valued fisheries and natural ecosystems. <span class="hlt">Historical</span> water levels of the Mekong were analyzed by comparing pre and post 1991 daily data of 6 stations along the mainstream from Chiang Sean, in northern Lao PDR and Thailand, to Stung Treng, in Cambodia, and the Pre Kdam station near the Tonle Sap Lake in the lower Mekong floodplain using the Indicators of Hydrological Alteration (IHA) software. The year 1991 marks a turning point in the rate of development in the basin, with the start of development of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong and accelerated hydropower and irrigation development in key tributaries. Observed changes in water level patterns along the Mekong were linked to temporal and spatial water resources development from 1960 to 2010. Variations in climate were accounted for and are important, but they were not observed to be the main causes of changes in key hydrological indicators related to ecosystem productivity. The development of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong basin in the post 1991 period resulted in a significant change of seasonal water levels, raise rates, fall rates, and the number of water level fluctuations at Chiang Sean. This effect diminishes downstream until it becomes negligible at the Mukdahan monitoring station in Thailand, which represents a drainage area of over 50% of the total Mekong Basin. Further downstream at Pakse station in Southern Lao PDR, changes in hydrological indicators post 1991 were observed to be significant again, which can be directly attributed to water resource development in the Chi and Mun River basins in Northeastern Thailand. A reduction of 23% and 11% in water level raising rates and fall rates, respectively at Prek Kdam, provides clear evidence of a diminished flood pulse of the Tonle Sap Lake in the post 1991 period. Given the observed water level alterations from 1991 to 2010 as a result of water infrastructure development, we can extrapolate that future proposed development in the key transboundary Srepok, Sesan and Sekong basins of the Lower Mekong will have an even greater effect on the flood pulse of the Tonle Sap. Although much focus has been placed on impacts of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong, our <span class="hlt">analysis</span> clearly shows that tributary development in the lower Mekong has already affected water level patterns significantly, particularly in the dry season. Through subsequent modeling we infer how future development could further impact water flows and livelihoods, and thus improve regional impact assessments. The <span class="hlt">analysis</span> and methods can be translated to other river systems around the world undergoing rapid water resources development.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cochrane, T. A.; Arias, M. E.; Piman, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">474</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22926825"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environment and mobility: a view from four <span class="hlt">discourses</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Debate and literature on the link between degrading environments and human mobility has been increasing exponentially. There is little concrete evidence, however, of efforts or policies that support the management of environmentally influenced mobility. Through <span class="hlt">discourse</span> <span class="hlt">analysis</span> using Q-methodology, this research aimed to scrutinize the standoff between opposing views under a fresh lens. One-hundred and ninety-seven experts from 49 nations completed an on-line survey asking them to sort, by level of agreement, 42 statements gleaned from the literature concerning the environment-mobility nexus. Four very different <span class="hlt">discourses</span> emerged: determined humanists, benevolent pragmatists, cynical protectionists, and critical realists. The complexity of these <span class="hlt">discourses</span> helps explain the stalemate while confirming the inappropriateness of one-sided terminology and linear quantifications. Despite diametrically opposed viewpoints, experts unanimously agree that human mobility is connected to environmental change. Dissection of these social perspectives builds a new foundation for the Rio+20 <span class="hlt">analysis</span> and policy deliberations related to environmentally influenced human mobility. PMID:22926825</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morinière, Lezlie C Erway; Hamza, Mohammed</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">475</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=regents+AND+questions&id=ED523620"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stability and Change in New York State Regents Mathematics Examinations, 1866-2009: A Socio-<span class="hlt">Historical</span> <span class="hlt">Analysis</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This dissertation illuminates relationships between micro-level practices of schools and macro-level structures of society through the socio-<span class="hlt">historical</span> lens of New York State Regents mathematics examinations, which were administered to public school students throughout the State of New York between 1866 and 2009, inclusive. Fundamental research…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Watson, Robert Stephen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">476</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ851858.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Historical</span> Research: A Thematic <span class="hlt">Analysis</span> of Convention and Conference Themes for Selected Professional Health Education Associations from 1975 to 2009</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many professional organizations and associations hold conventions and conferences on an annual basis. Health Education professional associations take part in this process. Using a <span class="hlt">historical</span> research perspective, this article delineates conference themes for four prominent professional Health Education associations: the American Association for…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Black, Jill M.; Ubbes, Valerie A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">477</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Historical+AND+Cost%22&id=ED030069"> <span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">Historical</span> and Cost <span class="hlt">Analysis</span> of Manpower Development and Training Act Programs in the Washoe County (Reno) School District.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study dealt with the <span class="hlt">historical</span> development of the Manpower Development and Training Act of 1962 and the cost of administering the program in three bookkeeping classes in the Washoe County School District, Nevada. Results of a questionnaire completed by 39 class graduates (1962-65) were combined with information from the Washoe County School…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Flores, Froilan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">478</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.stat.unipg.it/aissec2009/Documents/papers/88_Nenci.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tariff liberalization and the growth of world trade: a comparative <span class="hlt">historical</span> <span class="hlt">analysis</span> for the evaluation of the multilateral trading system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between tariff barriers and world trade growth from a comparative and <span class="hlt">historical</span> perspective and at the same time derive some useful indications for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the current multilateral trading system in promoting world trade. The distinguishing feature of this work is the complex reconstruction of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Silvia Nenci</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">479</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49188351"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reversing the <span class="hlt">historical</span> tide of iatrogenic harm: A therapeutic jurisprudence <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of increases in arrests of domestic batterers and rapists</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) proposes that the law is a social force that can heal or cause harm to parties in a legal action. <span class="hlt">Historically</span>, women victims of intimate partner rape and domestic violence could not seek justice in the legal system because police, like other actors in the justice system, treated these offenses as private matters or fabrications. In domestic</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leonore M. J. Simon; Steven J. Ellwanger; John Haggerty</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">480</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/36461238"> <span id="translatedtitle">Molecular phylogenetic <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of Commiphora (Burseraceae) yields insight on the evolution and <span class="hlt">historical</span> biogeography of an “impossible” genus</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Expansion of the arid zone of sub-Saharan tropical Africa during the Miocene is posited as a significant contributing factor in the evolution of contemporary African flora. Nevertheless, few molecular phylogenetic studies have tested this hypothesis using reconstructed <span class="hlt">historical</span> biogeographies of plants within this zone. Here, we present a molecular phylogeny of Commiphora, a predominantly tropical African, arid-adapted tree genus, in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beryl B. Simpson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" styl