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1

Critical Discourse Analysis: Discourse Acquisition and Discourse Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores arguments around critical-discourse analysis (CDA) and suggests that neither proponents nor critics of CDA have fully come to terms with the implications of what it means to acquire discourse. (Author/VWL)

Price, Steve

1999-01-01

2

Globalisation and policy borrowing in education : a discourse-historical analysis of HIV/AIDS prevention in Uganda   

E-print Network

Educational discourses, practices and institutions are increasingly shaped today by forces and envoys of a globalised world. Research suggests that functional integration into a neo-liberal world economy compels many ...

Barnowe-Meyer, Brooke; Meyer, Brooke Barnowe

2014-07-04

3

Perezhivanie and classroom discourse: a cultural-historical perspective on "Discourse of design based science classroom activities"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flavio Azevedo, Peggy Martalock and Tugba Keser challenge the `argumentation focus of science lessons' and propose that through a `design-based approach' emergent conversations with the teacher offer possibilities for different types of discussions to enhance pedagogical discourse in science classrooms. This important paper offers a "preliminary contribution to a general theory" regarding the link between activity types and discourse practices. Azevedo, Martalock and Keser offer a general perspective with a sociocultural framing for analysis of classroom discourse. Interestingly the specific concepts drawn upon are from conversation analysis; there are few sociocultural concepts explored in detail. Therefore, in this article we focus on a cultural historical (Vygotsky in The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky. The history and development of higher mental functions, vol 4. Plenum Press, New York, 1987; The Vygotsky reader. Black, Cambridge, 1994) methodology to explore, analyse and explain how we would use a different theoretical lens. We argue that a cultural historical reading of argumentation in science lessons and design based activity will expand Azevedo, Martalock and Keser's proposed general theory of activity types and discourse practices. Specifically, we use Lev Vygotksy's idea of perezhivanie as the unit of analysis to reconceptualise this important paper. We focus on the holistic category of students' emotional experience through discourse while developing scientific awareness.

Adams, Megan; March, Sue

2014-12-01

4

Discourse and Identity in Cultural-Historical Activity Theory: A Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a response to two of the papers in the collection. In doing so it takes up two issues: the conceptualization and analysis of discourse within Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) and notions of identity and subject positioning within CHAT. Bernstein [(2000). "Pedagogy, symbolic control and identity: Theory research…

Daniels, Harry

2007-01-01

5

Subjectivity, intersubjectivity and the historical construction of interlocutor stance: from stance markers to discourse markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study draws upon the techniques of corpus linguistics, discourse analysis and historical pragmatics to provide an account of the ways in which speakers recruit markers of epistemic stance to capture their construction of the attitudes of their interlocutors, addressees, or audience. It then examines the ways in which selected markers lose their subjective force over time, whether expressive of

Susan Fitzmaurice

2004-01-01

6

Ancient Greek "Logos": An Invitation to Historical-Comparative Discourse on Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents aspects of the methodological and epistemological encounter of contemporary historical-comparative discourse on education with the ancient Greek historical comparative "logos": (1) technology/methodology; (2) historiology; (3) epistemology; and (4) synkritilogy. The historical context discourse of education can always be placed in a…

Calogiannakis, Pella

1998-01-01

7

Discourse Analysis in Second Language Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following papers and reports on discourse analysis are included here: (1) "Discourse Analysis, What's That?" by Hatch and Long; (2) "Contextual Analysis of English: Applications to TESL" by Celce-Murcia; (3) "Discourse and Second Language Acquisition of Yes/No Questions" by Vander Brook, Schlue, and Campbell; (4) "An Approach to Conducting…

Larsen-Freeman, Diane, Ed.

8

Understanding Teachers: The Potential and Possibility of Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the ways in which teachers make sense of what they do and why is critical to a broader understanding of pedagogy. Historically, teachers have been understood through the thematic and content analysis of their beliefs or philosophies. In this paper, we argue that discourse analysis (DA) involves a much finer-grained analysis of the…

Barker, Dean M.; Rossi, Anthony

2011-01-01

9

An Overview of Discourse Analysis and Its Usefulness in TESOL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides an overview of discourse analysis from a linguistic point of view, discussing why it is relevant to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL). It focuses on the following: discourse and discourse analysis; discourse analysis and TESOL; approaches to discourse analysis; systemic functional linguistics; theme and…

Milne, Geraldine Veronica

10

A cultural historical theoretical perspective of discourse and design in the science classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flavio Azevedo, Peggy Martalock and Tugba Keser have initiated an important conversation in science education as they use sociocultural theory to introduce design based scenarios into the science classroom. This response seeks to expand Azevedo, Martalock and Keser's article The discourse of design-based science classroom activities by using a specific perspective within a sociocultural framework. Through using a cultural historical (Vygotsky in The history and development of higher mental functions, Plenum Press, New York, 1987) reading of design based activity and discourse in the science classroom, it is proposed that learning should be an integral part of these processes. Therefore, everyday and scientific concepts are explained and expanded in relation to Inventing Graphing and discourse presented in Azevedo, Martalock and Keser's article. This response reports on the importance of teacher's being explicit in relation to connecting everyday and scientific concepts alongside design based activity and related science concepts when teaching students. It is argued that explicit teaching of concepts should be instigated prior to analysis of discourse in the science classroom as it is only with experience and understanding these processes that students have the resources to call upon to argue like practicing scientists.

Adams, Megan

2014-03-01

11

Topic-Based Analysis of Classroom Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an analysis of classroom discourse by identifying the topics in the discourse and following their development. To identify topics, bottom-up approaches based on theme-rheme progression and lexical networks were used together with a top-down schematic approach producing semantic networks of keywords. (Author/VWL)

Todd, Richard Watson

1998-01-01

12

Racialized Spaces in Teacher Discourse: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Place-Based Identities in Roche Bois, Mauritius  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This eleven-month ethnographic study puts critical discourse analysis in dialogue with postmodern conceptualizations of space and place to explore how eight educators talk about space and in the process, produce racialized spaces in Roche Bois, Mauritius. The macro-historical context of racialization of this urban marginalized community informs…

Wiehe, Elsa M.

2013-01-01

13

Assessing the Validity of Discourse Analysis: Transdisciplinary Convergence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research studies using discourse analysis approaches make claims about phenomena or issues based on interpretation of written or spoken text, which includes images and gestures. How are findings/interpretations from discourse analysis validated? This paper proposes transdisciplinary convergence as a way to validate discourse analysis approaches to…

Jaipal-Jamani, Kamini

2014-01-01

14

Discourse Analysis of Teaching Computing Online  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyses the teaching and learning of computing in a Web-conferencing environment. A discourse analysis of three introductory programming learning episodes is presented to demonstrate issues and effects that arise when teaching computing using such an approach. The subject of discussion, the interactive nature of discussion and any…

Bower, Matt

2009-01-01

15

Partnering for Research: A Critical Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a critical discourse analysis, informed by poststructuralist theory, we explore the research phenomenon of coerced partnership. This lens allows us to pay attention to the social relations of power operating in knowledge generation processes, especially as they affect feminist researchers in adult education. We propose an alternative vision…

Irving, Catherine J.; English, Leona M.

2008-01-01

16

Superintendent Leadership Style: A Gendered Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a blend of social constructionism, critical feminism, and dialogue theory, the discourse of nine Manitoba superintendents is examined to determine if it illustrates particular gendered assumptions regarding superintendents' leadership style. Qualitative inquiry and analysis methods were utilized to identify emerging themes, or topics of…

Wallin, Dawn C.; Crippen, Carolyn

2007-01-01

17

Discourse Analysis and Foreign Language Teacher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: MAKING A CASE FOR DISCOURSE ANALYSIS IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHER EDUCATION The concept of heteroglossia is extremely interesting to me. I recently gave a paper in which I discussed Ingeborg Bachmann's Malina and asserted that the main character had basically two voices: one masculine, one feminine. I found it fascinating after reading the chapter in Fowler [1996] to think

Julie A. Belz

18

Critical Discourse Analysis, Adult Education and "Fitba"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article I will use an example of current adult education practice, the Glory and Dismay Football Literacies Programme (GDFLP) to appraise the value of critical discourse analysis (CDA) for adult learners, both individually and collectively, and for adult education practitioners with an interest in developing critical literacy skills. The…

Player, John

2013-01-01

19

Critical Discourse Analysis and Rhetoric and Composition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past two decades, critical discourse analysis has emerged as a major new multidisciplinary approach to the study of texts and contexts in the public sphere. Developed in Europe, CDA has lately become increasingly popular in North America, where it is proving especially congenial to new directions in rhetoric and composition. This essay…

Huckin, Thomas; Andrus, Jennifer; Clary-Lemon, Jennifer

2012-01-01

20

Discourse on Discourse. Workshop Reports from the Macquarie Workshop on Discourse Analysis (Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, February 21-25, 1983). Occasional Papers Number 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four group summary papers from an Australian national workshop on discourse analysis discuss verbal and written discourse and the classroom. Papers reflect the four workshop discussion groups of casual conversation, classroom discourse, expository discourse, and literary narrative. They include: "On Casual Conversation" (M. A. K. Halliday and G.…

Hasan, Ruqaiya, Ed.

21

Interpreting the Discourse of H.G. Widdowson: A Corpus-based Critical Discourse Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The discourse of a recent position paper by H.G. Widdowson is analyzed by using three methods criticized in Widdowson's paper. The paper was converted into a miniature data corpus and analyzed with the concepts of systemic functional linguistics, corpus linguistics, and critical discourse analysis. (Author/VWL)

de Beaugrande, Robert

2001-01-01

22

Assessing the validity of discourse analysis: transdisciplinary convergence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research studies using discourse analysis approaches make claims about phenomena or issues based on interpretation of written or spoken text, which includes images and gestures. How are findings/interpretations from discourse analysis validated? This paper proposes transdisciplinary convergence as a way to validate discourse analysis approaches to research. The argument is made that discourse analysis explicitly grounded in semiotics, systemic functional linguistics, and critical theory, offers a credible research methodology. The underlying assumptions, constructs, and techniques of analysis of these three theoretical disciplines can be drawn on to show convergence of data at multiple levels, validating interpretations from text analysis.

Jaipal-Jamani, Kamini

2014-01-01

23

Assessing the validity of discourse analysis: transdisciplinary convergence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research studies using discourse analysis approaches make claims about phenomena or issues based on interpretation of written or spoken text, which includes images and gestures. How are findings/interpretations from discourse analysis validated? This paper proposes transdisciplinary convergence as a way to validate discourse analysis approaches to research. The argument is made that discourse analysis explicitly grounded in semiotics, systemic functional linguistics, and critical theory, offers a credible research methodology. The underlying assumptions, constructs, and techniques of analysis of these three theoretical disciplines can be drawn on to show convergence of data at multiple levels, validating interpretations from text analysis.

Jaipal-Jamani, Kamini

2014-12-01

24

Challenging social cognition models of adherence: cycles of discourse, historical bodies, and interactional order.  

PubMed

Attempts to model individual beliefs as a means of predicting how people follow clinical advice have dominated adherence research, but with limited success. In this article, we challenge assumptions underlying this individualistic philosophy and propose an alternative formulation of context and its relationship with individual actions related to illness. Borrowing from Scollon and Scollon's three elements of social action-historical body, interaction order, and discourses in place-we construct an alternative set of research methods and demonstrate their application with an example of a person talking about asthma management. We argue that talk- or illness-related behavior, both viewed as forms of social action, manifest themselves as an intersection of cycles of discourse, shifting as individuals move through these cycles across time and space. We conclude by discussing how these dynamics of social action can be studied and how clinicians might use this understanding when negotiating treatment with patients. PMID:25231944

Murdoch, Jamie; Salter, Charlotte; Poland, Fiona; Cross, Jane

2015-02-01

25

Talking Mathematically: An Analysis of Discourse Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discourse has always been at the heart of teaching. In more recent years, the mathematics education community has also turned its attention towards understanding the role of discourse in mathematics teaching and learning. Using earlier classifications of discourse, in this paper, we looked at three types of classrooms: classrooms that engage in…

Imm, Kara; Stylianou, Despina A.

2012-01-01

26

Discourse Analysis: Part I, Information Management and Cohesion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Combining linguistics and composition studies, this paper (part 1 of a two-part article) proposes a model for the analysis of information management and cohesion in written discourse. It defines concepts of discourse analysis--specifically information management, syntax, semantic reference, lexicon, cohesion, and intonation, with examples taken…

Lovejoy, Kim Brian; Lance, Donald M.

27

Emotional inhibition: a discourse analysis of disclosure.  

PubMed

Evidence generated within the emotional disclosure paradigm (EDP) suggests that talking or writing about emotional experiences produces health benefits, but recent meta-analyses have questioned its efficacy. Studies within the EDP typically rely upon a unidimensional and relatively unsophisticated notion of emotional inhibition, and tend to use quantitative forms of content analysis to identify associations between percentages of word types and positive or negative health outcomes. In this article, we use a case study to show how a qualitative discourse analysis has the potential to identify more of the complexity linking the disclosure practices and styles that may be associated with emotional inhibition. This may illuminate the apparent lack of evidence for efficacy of the EDP by enabling more comprehensive theorisations of the variations within it. PMID:21678182

Ellis, Darren; Cromby, John

2012-01-01

28

Ideology, Rationality and Reproduction in Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In undertaking a critical discourse analysis of the professed aims and objectives of one of the most influential curricula in the teaching of thinking, this article foregrounds issues of power and ideology latent in curricular discourses of rationality. Specifically, it documents the subtle but powerful ways in which political and class…

Lim, Leonel

2014-01-01

29

Teaching "with an Attitude": Critical Discourse Analysis in EFL Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) sees discourse as a form of "social practice", in which language use is seen at the same time as socially influenced and influential. Another characteristic of CDA is that it is engaged and committed; it intervenes in social practice and attempts to reveal connections between language use, power, and ideology. The…

Cots, Josep M.

2006-01-01

30

Probabilistic Analysis of Historical Seismicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand the devastating seismicity with a long recurrence interval, it is typically required to analyze long seismicity records. The global instrumental observation of seismic events started in early 1900s. The seismicity for only 100 years is instrumentally recorded, which is certainly too short to account for events with recurrence intervals of hundreds or thousands years. This is particularly true in intraplate regions where strain accumulation rates are low. Historical seismicity records may be useful to complement the instrument seismicity records. However, historical documents mainly focus on the description of seismic damages on certain towns with lacks of information on the epicenters and magnitudes. The epicenters of historical events are determined to be the town locations where severe damages were reported. Also, the magnitudes are inferred from the seismic damages with the assumed epicenters. Seismic distribution should be invariant when the tectonic environment remains the same. Thus, we can relocate historical seismicity based on the instrumental seismicity. The Korean Peninsula belongs to an intraplate region with relatively low seismicity. About 900 events with magnitudes greater than 2.0 occurred around the Korean Peninsula for last 32 years. On the other hand, Korea has a long historical seismicity record for ~1,900 years. We collected 2,185 seismic event records from the historical documents. We perform a probabilistic analysis of Korean historical seismicity. We determine the epicenters of historical earthquakes considering the instrumental seismicity with magnitudes greater than 3.0, which is believed to be well determined. For the probabilistic analysis, we first calculate a reference seismic-density map based on the instrumental seismicity. A probabilistic density function is designed with an exponential function. The coefficients in the exponential function are set to be variable. The probability of historical events for each potential location in the seismic-density map is calculated using the probabilistic density function. We determine the epicenters of historical events randomly among the potential locations with probabilities higher than given criteria. We then calculate the historical seismic-density maps for various probabilistic density functions. We determine the probabilistic density function yielding a historical seismic-density map that is similar to the reference seismic-density map. We then calculate the probabilistic magnitudes of historical events considering the reported seismic damages and distance-dependent attenuation. The determined epicentral locations and magnitudes of historical events are used for construction of seismic hazard maps of long recurrence intervals.

Houng, S.; Hong, T.

2011-12-01

31

Cross-cultural Discourse Analysis in German for Business and Economics: A New Paradigm.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief overview of discourse analysis is presented, followed by: (1) a description of cross-cultural discourse analysis; (2) an explanation of how cross-cultural discourse analysis applies to language for special purposes (LSP) in general; and (3) a discussion of selected areas for ongoing and future research areas. Emphasis is on discourse

Paulsell, Patricia R.

32

Drugs, Discourses and Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis of a High School Drug Education Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines a high school drug education text using critical discourse analysis (CDA) to discern its underlying ideological commitments and political dispositions. I begin with an overview of CDA and why it is a suitable methodology for my work, and then provide a brief history of drug education in North America. Next, I consider some of…

Tupper, Kenneth W.

2008-01-01

33

Critical Discourse Analysis and Composition Studies: A Study of Presidential Discourse and Campus Discord  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I argue that critical discourse analysis (CDA) can complement and extend existing critical and radical writing pedagogies; CDA provides the theoretical and methodological context that can articulate explicitly the relationship between language practices and politics. I use CDA to analyze texts that circulated on the campus of…

Powell, Pegeen Reichert

2004-01-01

34

Uniting postcolonial, discourse, and linguistic theory to explore participation of African Americans in cancer research as an effect of social and historical race relationships.  

PubMed

This article uses a historical framework of postcolonialism; discourse analytic concepts (significance, identity, and relationships); and 5 social and cultural linguistic principles of emergence, positionality, indexicality, relationality, and partialness as a theoretical and methodological triangulation approach to data analysis of focus group discussion. Exemplars of focus group data from a study exploring African American participation in research demonstrate the application of this combined framework as a useful tool for analysis. This approach allows for examination of identity and interaction and generates a more rigorous and complete understanding of how individuals use language to construct identity as participants or nonparticipants in research. PMID:24469087

Somayaji, Darryl; Cloyes, Kristin Gates

2014-01-01

35

The organising vision for telehealth and telecare: discourse analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To (1) map how different stakeholders understand telehealth and telecare technologies and (2) explore the implications for development and implementation of telehealth and telecare services. Design Discourse analysis. Sample 68 publications representing diverse perspectives (academic, policy, service, commercial and lay) on telehealth and telecare plus field notes from 10 knowledge-sharing events. Method Following a familiarisation phase (browsing and informal interviews), we studied a systematic sample of texts in detail. Through repeated close reading, we identified assumptions, metaphors, storylines, scenarios, practices and rhetorical positions. We added successive findings to an emerging picture of the whole. Main findings Telehealth and telecare technologies featured prominently in texts on chronic illness and ageing. There was no coherent organising vision. Rather, four conflicting discourses were evident and engaged only minimally with one another's arguments. Modernist discourse presented a futuristic utopian vision in which assistive technologies, implemented at scale, would enable society to meet its moral obligations to older people by creating a safe ‘smart’ home environment where help was always at hand, while generating efficiency savings. Humanist discourse emphasised the uniqueness and moral worth of the individual and tailoring to personal and family context; it considered that technologies were only sometimes fit for purpose and could create as well as solve problems. Political economy discourse envisaged a techno-economic complex of powerful vested interests driving commodification of healthcare and diversion of public funds into private business. Change management discourse recognised the complicatedness of large-scale technology programmes and emphasised good project management and organisational processes. Conclusion Introduction of telehealth and telecare is hampered because different stakeholders hold different assumptions, values and world views, ‘talk past’ each other and compete for recognition and resources. If investments in these technologies are to bear fruit, more effective inter-stakeholder dialogue must occur to establish an organising vision that better accommodates competing discourses. PMID:22815469

Procter, Rob; Wherton, Joe; Sugarhood, Paul; Shaw, Sara

2012-01-01

36

Critical Narrative Analysis: The Interplay of Critical Discourse and Narrative Analyses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I question the micro-macro separation in discourse analysis, the separation of personal and institutional discourses. I apply a mostly macroanalytic perspective (critical discourse analysis [CDA]) to inform a predominantly microanalytic perspective (analysis of conversational narratives) and vice versa. In the combination of these…

Souto-Manning, Mariana

2014-01-01

37

The Application of Critical Discourse Analysis in Environmental Dispute Resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of environmental disputes are such that dispute resolution approaches are not always successful. This was highlighted in recent attempts to resolve disputes related to the introduction of the Native Vegetation Conservation Act 1997 in New South Wales (NSW). Critical discourse analysis of stakeholder narratives is a technique that could be used for conflict scoping and assessment, allowing mediators

Paul M. Smith

2006-01-01

38

Competency Discourses: An Analysis of Secondary and Tertiary Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of a sample of assessment tasks used in New Zealand first-year clinical and final-year secondary school Biology and Chemistry National Certificate of Educational Achievement summative assessments was conducted to assess whether similarities and differences existed in secondary and tertiary competency discourses. Findings suggested…

McNaughton, Susan M.

2013-01-01

39

On Singaporean Authoritarianism: Critical Discourse Analysis and Contextual Dissonance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) has reached a certain degree of canonical status, as it is widely used and applied as a research and analytic tool. However, hitherto it has been taken for granted that CDA can be applied and practised anywhere unproblematically. There is still a dearth of scholarly attention that focuses on the tensions and…

Koh, Aaron

2008-01-01

40

Critical Discourse Analysis in Education: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the past decade educational researchers increasingly have turned to Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as a set of approaches to answer questions about the relationships between language and society. In this article the authors review the findings of their literature review of CDA in educational research. The findings proceed in the…

Rogers, Rebecca; Malancharuvil-Berkes, Elizabeth; Mosley, Melissa; Hui, Diane; Joseph, Glynis O'Garro

2005-01-01

41

Analysis of Leaders' Language and Discourse Vasile Rus1  

E-print Network

focus in this paper on analyzing leaders' language and discourse over time. Our plan is to analyze. It should be noted that leaders' speech analysis has been done in the past, for instance, to examine and it is updated monthly. The site also offers an English translation to some of Mubarak speeches. The collection

Rus, Vasile

42

Why there is no such thing as “critical discourse analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article argues that there is no such thing as Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) in the sense of a method of political or ideological critique based on the application of conventional linguistic constructs. All of us, as language users and makers, are continuously engaged in the critical examination of and response to communication in our everyday lives. The article argues

Peter E. Jones

2007-01-01

43

Intensive physical activity and alexithymia: results from swimmers' discourse analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe and understand the relationship of swimmers' practice intensity and alexithymia features in discourse. This study investigated psychological processes in two groups of male swimmers training at different intensities. The first group was composed of 10 Expert amateurs (M age = 19.5 yr., SD = 1.9), who were competing at the national or international level and trained 22 hours per week. The second group was composed of 10 Amateur swimmers (M age = 20.5 yr., SD = 1.4), who competed at the regional level and trained 6 hours per week. The discourse of swimmers was analysed using the ALCESTE (Analyse de Lexèmes Coocurents dans les Enoncés Simples d'un Texte) method of discourse analysis. Discourse analysis was performed on speech samples produced by swimmers. All the swimmers showed alexithymic verbal behaviour as regards both the means of expression used and the feelings and emotions expressed. This lack of articulateness was more pronounced in the Expert than in the Amateur group. The difference of alexithymic features in correlation with the intensity of sport practice raises the question of the health benefits of intense sports practice and the need for psychological assessment of athletes. PMID:17886500

Allegre, Benjamin; Noel-Jorand, Marie-Christine; Souville, Marc; Pellegrin, Liliane; Therme, Pierre

2007-06-01

44

Talking the talk: a discourse analysis of mental health nurses talking about their practice.  

PubMed

Mental Health nursing exists as a discipline in the UK within the wider contemporary health care establishment. Throughout its history it has attempted to define itself in ways that differentiate mental health nursing practice from other health care professions and fields of nursing. However, it is not surprising in this climate of contemporary healthcare for individual professional identities to become 'lost' in the melange of interdisciplinary practice. This research presents a discourse analysis of individual mental health nurses' rhetorical constructions of their professional role(s) as they emerge in their talk with each other in focus group discussions. In particular, the focus in this paper is their discursive repertoires related to the historical legacy of mental health nursing and how this sits with what they consider to be a 'custodial and controlling' element of their role. The particular discourse analytic approach adopted in this study illustrates how individuals use language in a particular way to make justifications and explanations of mental health nursing identities. This analytic approach is ensconced within the domain of social psychology and lies at the interface of ethno-methodology and conversation analysis. It is concerned with structural units of discourse, beyond the level of the sentence, that emerge as the nurse participants engage in talking about their practice (Potter and Wetherell, 1987 p.53). PMID:15468606

Leishman, June L

2004-08-01

45

Counter-Memory and Race: An Examination of African American Scholars' Challenges to Early Twentieth Century K-12 Historical Discourses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how African American scholars during the early twentieth century employed the genre of curriculum writing to challenge existing discourses of race. Drawing from the findings of a qualitative document analysis of textbooks created by Carter G. Woodson and Charles H. Wesley, this article illustrates how these authors used texts…

Brown, Anthony L.

2010-01-01

46

Discourse analysis and the impact of the philosophy of Enlightenment in nursing research.  

PubMed

Discourse analysis has been introduced into nursing research as an approach which has the potential to offer new perspectives and to pose new questions to taken-for-granted assumptions. However, critique has arisen that when applied to nursing studies, the epistemological foundation of the discourse analysis is often overlooked. It is furthermore claimed that the methodological inspiration does not lead to any new insights and that these studies can hardly be differentiated from more traditional studies. This study supports this critique, arguing that the challenges of implementing discourse analysis in nursing research reflect a dominant pattern of thought in the discourse of the nursing profession that have held sway throughout the last century. We argue that this pattern of thought stems from the Western philosophy of consciousness and the conception of the sovereign subject. By applying a discourse analytical perspective to the discourse of the nursing profession itself, this study elucidates the challenges of applying discourse analysis in nursing research. PMID:23679133

Beedholm, Kirsten; Lomborg, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

2014-06-01

47

Gutter to Garden: Historical Discourses of Risk in Interventions in Working Class Children's Street Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates interventions in the gutter play of British working class children in the first decade of the 20th century through their re-location within Free Kindergartens. In contemporary literature, the street child was viewed through a binary lens, as both "at risk" and "as risk", reflecting wider societal discourses in a period of…

Read, Jane

2011-01-01

48

Hugh Mehan’s Learning Lessons Reconsidered: On the Differences Between the Naturalistic and Critical Analysis of Classroom Discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article begins with a review of the place of Hugh Mehan’s Learning Lessons in the development of the naturalistic study of classroom discourse studies, and especially the sequential analysis of naturally occurring classroom discourse. It then turns to the emergence of an alternative program for classroom discourse studies, in the particulars of critical discourse analysis. There we find a

Douglas Macbeth

2003-01-01

49

Critical Discourse Analysis and Science Education Texts: Employing Foucauldian Notions of Discourse and Subjectivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article supports critical, social justice oriented science education research by providing a theoretical and methodological basis for examining how subjectivities may be constituted through discourses found in science education texts. Such research explores how discourses orient teachers and students to the world, others, and themselves, as…

Bazzul, Jesse

2014-01-01

50

At Last: "What's Discourse Got to Do with It?" A Meditation on Critical Discourse Analysis in Literacy Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lewis explains why critical discourse analysis (CDA) has become an indispensable method for many researchers trying to understand how ideologies and social structures are reflected in and reified by language. The critical linguistic turn that has occurred in the humanities and social sciences for the last three decade has finally taken hold in the…

Lewis, Cynthia

2006-01-01

51

Climate Change Discourse in Mass Media: Application of Computer-Assisted Content Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Content analysis of mass media publications has become a major scientific method used to analyze public discourse on climate change. We propose a computer-assisted content analysis method to extract prevalent themes and analyze discourse changes over an extended period in an objective and quantifiable manner. The method includes the following: (1)…

Kirilenko, Andrei P.; Stepchenkova, Svetlana O.

2012-01-01

52

"Genre Means...": A Critical Discourse Analysis of Fourth Grade Talk about Genre  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action research study investigates how genre theory can be integrated into the practice of a writing enrichment program and how the frameworks of Critical Discourse Analysis and Multimodal Analysis can help assess and improve both student learning and teacher practice. A multilayered exploration of teacher-student discourse in an urban public…

Schaenen, Inda

2010-01-01

53

Researching Educational Policy and Change in "New Times": Using Critical Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of writers have drawn attention to the increasing importance of language in social life in "new times" and Fairclough has referred to "discourse driven" social change. These conditions have led to an increase in the use of various forms of discourse analysis in policy analysis. This paper explores the possibilities of using Critical…

Taylor, Sandra

2004-01-01

54

Critical Discourse Analysis and the Corpus-Informed Interpretation of Metaphor at the Register Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One aspect of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) involves examining how metaphors in texts, particularly hard news texts (reports of very recent conflicts, crimes, etc.), imply certain values. The usual theoretical basis for such analysis is Lakoff and Johnson (1980). My article shows problems with transplanting Lakoff and Johnson's discourse-level…

O'Halloran, Kieran

2007-01-01

55

Discourses of Linguistic dominance: A Historical Consideration of French Language Ideology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper offers a historical perspective on the linguistic and cultural imperialism embedded in the struggle to maintain French as a leading international language. France was the nation-state where the ideology of national language was first clearly formulated and directly extended to overseas colonies. This shows the close relationship between linguistic nationalism and imperialism. It was believed that French was

Keisuke Kasuya

2001-01-01

56

Physical Education for Health and Wellbeing: A Discourse Analysis of Scottish Physical Education Curricular Documentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides an analysis of the discourses associated with physical education in Scotland's "Curriculum for Excellence". We implement a poststructural perspective in order to identify the discourses that underpin the physical education sections of the "Curriculum for Excellence" "health and well-being"…

McEvilly, Nollaig; Verheul, Martine; Atencio, Matthew; Jess, Mike

2014-01-01

57

Argumentative Discourse Structure in Chinese and English Writing: A Comparative Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine formal principles of discourse processing and production, a study reviewed theories in various disciplines related to language and/or thought and thereby rationalized an approach of quantitative matrix analysis to the problems caused by discrepant discourse structures encountered in second language learning. Statistical analyses of…

Chen, Sun-I

58

Negotiating Order in Interorganizational Communication: Discourse Analysis of a Meeting of Three Diverse Organizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the discourse during a meeting of three diverse organizations as they attempt to resolve conflicting organizational interests. Explains that the three diverse groups were a waste disposal business, a grass-roots community organization, and a state regulatory agency. Notes that discourse analysis suggests that organizations with different…

Bennington, Ashley J.; Shetler, Judy C.; Shaw, Thomas

2003-01-01

59

Critical Discourse Analysis and Inclusive Educational Policies: The Power to Exclude  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The legislative shift towards an inclusive education policy in Cyprus has allegedly been fragmented and contradictory. The textual hybridity of the ostensibly more inclusive policy documents prevents the realization of an inclusive discourse. Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is proposed as an emancipatory research tool that has the potential to…

Liasidou, Anastasia

2008-01-01

60

Discourse-Based Methods across Texts and Semiotic Modes: Three Tools for Micro-Rhetorical Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the scope of rhetorical inquiry broadens to cover intersemiotic and intertextual phenomena, scholars are increasingly in need of new, defensible analytic procedures. Several scholars have suggested that methods of discourse analysis could enhance rhetorical criticism. Here, I introduce a discourse-based method that is empirical, delicate, and…

Oddo, John

2013-01-01

61

Optical Process and Analysis of Historical Documents Nikolaos Stamatopoulos*  

E-print Network

Optical Process and Analysis of Historical Documents Nikolaos Stamatopoulos* * Dissertation and segmentation of historical documents. Preprocessing stages play an important role in document image processing process and we focused on the enhancement and segmentation of historical documents. Preprocessing stages

Kouroupetroglou, Georgios

62

Gendered Representations of Jazz Vocal Artists: A Critical Discourse Analysis of CD and Performance Reviews, and Interviews.  

E-print Network

??This study of contemporary jazz discourse and gender applies the techniques of critical discourse analysis, inspired by M.A.K. Halliday's systemic functional linguistics and Norman Fairclough's… (more)

Jichova, Miroslava

2007-01-01

63

Impacts of GSS on Moral Discourse: An Argumentation Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although ethical decision making is a key concern of organizations, the impacts of IT on ethical discourse is an underexplored topic. The laboratory experiment reported in this paper examines the impacts of the use of group support systems (GSSs) on moral discourse. Drawing upon Toulmin’s (1958) model of argumentation and Kohlberg’s (1976) framework of stages of moral reasoning, we used

Suzanne D. Pawlowski; Ed Watson; James B. Davis; Evgeny A. Kaganer

2008-01-01

64

An analysis of EU counterterrorism discourse post-September 11  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the main characteristics and evolution of European Union counterterrorism discourse, primarily through a comparison with United States counterterrorism discourse since September 11. It argues that while both actors share a great deal in common in the language they employ about terrorism, there are a number of subtle but highly significant differences. The article also argues that there

Richard Jackson

2007-01-01

65

The British and curriculum development in West Africa: A historical discourse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

THE BRITISH AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT IN WEST AFRICA: A HISTORICAL STUDY - Only recently have African nations begun to make their way towards establishing genuinely autonomous education systems incorporating elements of indigenous culture. The present study examines the historical development of curriculum in British West Africa in its links with the educational activities of the early Christian missionaries and the imposition of British colonial rule. For over 300 years, the curriculum content was essentially European in nature. African interests and cultural practices were largely excluded, as "bookwork" was favored over "handwork". The colonial curriculum also helped introduce a new social order to West Africa, leading to the rise of new local elites reading, writing, and speaking foreign European languages. This study explores how the idea of a "civilized" person, promoted through the colonial school curriculum, developed new local elites with different sets of values and expectations that often made them strangers in their own societies. It also describes the connection between this curriculum and the repeated failure of education-reform efforts.

Ofori-Attah, Kwabena Dei

2006-09-01

66

Highlighting hybridity: A critical discourse analysis of teacher talk in science classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is evidence that alienation from science is linked to the dominant discourse practices of science classrooms (cf. Lemke, J. L. (1990). Talking Science: Language, Learning, and Values. Norwood, NJ: Ablex). Yet, in secondary science education it is particularly hard to find evidence of curriculum reform that includes explicit changes in pedagogic discourses to accommodate the needs of students from a wide range of backgrounds. However, such evidence does exist and needs to be highlighted wherever it is found to help address social justice concerns in science education. In this article, I show how critical discourse analysis can be used to explore a way of challenging the dominant discourse in teacher - student interactions in science classrooms. My findings suggest a new way of moving toward more socially just science curricula in middle years and secondary classrooms by using hybrid discourses that can serve emancipatory purposes.

Hanrahan, Mary U.

2006-01-01

67

Discourse Analysis: The UFO scientists’ Construction of the UFO Phenomenon in Relation to Science   

E-print Network

This study aims to show how UFO scientists have constructed the UFO phenomenon in relation to science, by using discourse analysis. This work expands on the existing literature concerning the social construction of scientific knowledge. Several...

Raw, Kathleen

2012-06-01

68

Discourse Analysis and the Sociocultural Study of Language and Literacy Learning Sciences 451  

E-print Network

1 Discourse Analysis and the Sociocultural Study of Language and Literacy Learning Sciences 451 Spring 2012 Wednesdays 3-5:30pm Professor Eva Lam and analyzing language and literacy practices and learning. These perspectives include

Bustamante, Fabián E.

69

Critical Discourse Analysis at the End of the 20th Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines the most prominent aspects of critical discourse analysis (CDA) and discusses how such a research program enables individuals to cope with the changes in societies. Also identifies social problems deserving investigation.(Author/VWL)

Wodak, Ruth

1999-01-01

70

Comparative Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA): Interplay of discourses (D/D1) as third grade urban and suburban science students engage in hypothesis formulation and observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This qualitative research project is a comparative analysis of Discourses (D/D1) while focused upon the science processes of hypothesis generation and observation in an urban versus suburban elementary science classroom. D designates the instructional and formal academic science Discourse and D1 represents the students' informal, social or home language D1iscourses. In particular, this research study is a critical discourse analysis that examines how the science processes of hypothesis formulation and observation are constituted through the interplay of classroom Discourses (D/D1) as two third grade science teachers teach the same kit-based, inquiry science lessons with their respective urban and suburban students. The research also considers ethnicity, social class, language, and the central role science teachers play mediating between children's everyday world and the world of science. Communicative approach and distinctive patterns of interaction between the European American teachers and their respective students are analyzed through a critical lens to examine underlying issues of equity and power embedded in the instructional Discourse of science. Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) provides both the theoretical framework and analytical lens. The research informs development of linguistic-based "best" practices to contribute toward promoting greater science teacher awareness in creating linguistic environments that support all students' learning science Discourse and to serve as a springboard for future educational science researchers' use of CDA.

Mendoza, Carmen Irene Reyes

71

Exploring the discourse on communication modality after cochlear implantation: a Foucauldian analysis of parents' narratives.  

PubMed

After pediatric cochlear implantation, parents have to make decisions concerning which communication modality the child and the child's family will use. The choice has to be made against a background of opposing views on communication modality in follow-up after pediatric cochlear implantation. The opposing views form a discourse that has been a core issue in the international body of literature for a long time. For hearing parents caught up in this ongoing controversy, the choice can be a difficult one. The study reported in this article explores the discourse on communication modality and is based on 27 written parental accounts on experiences with follow-up. From the perspective of Foucault's thinking, discourses exert knowledge and power. Drawing on Foucault, the study explores how the discourse on communication modality is constructed, how it operates, and how it governs thinking and acting. The Foucauldian analysis brings to the fore the complex nature of the discourse and states that follow-up, which is intended to be helpful for parents, may induce insecurity and frustration. The study brings into conversation a broader understanding of the discourse on communication modality and addresses a need for increased awareness on how the discourse governs thinking and acting in follow-up. PMID:24558057

Bruin, Marieke; Nevøy, Anne

2014-07-01

72

Social cognition and discourse processing goals in the analysis of `ex-gay' rhetoric  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports a critical discourse analysis of a series of newspaper advertisements advocating `ex-gay' ministries and `reparative therapy' for homosexuality — interventions designed to `treat' homosexuality through prayer or psychoanalysis. These ads, part of an effort to make `ex-gay' discourse more central to the public communication strategies of conservative, anti-gay political groups, feature both narrative and statistical arguments that

Craig O. Stewart

2008-01-01

73

Disciplining Professionals: A Feminist Discourse Analysis of Public Preschool Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational reforms across the globe have had implications for the work of preschool teachers and thus their professional identities. This article draws on a feminist discourse lens to examine data collected from a recent narrative inquiry focused on understanding the professional identities of five public preschool teachers in the USA. This…

Sisson, Jamie Huff; Iverson, Susan V.

2014-01-01

74

A Discourse Analysis of "(the) same" in English Conversation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper first briefly reviews what Halliday and Hasan (1976) said about "(the) same." The paper then examines the understanding of this form by qualitatively analyzing 259 naturally occurring spoken tokens of "(the) same" in their discourse contexts. It focuses on the following questions with reference to the data: (1) What determiners can…

Wong, Jean; Celce-Murcia, Marianne

75

Cross-Cultural Analysis of Student Writing : Beyond Discourses of Difference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Text analysis traditions in France and the United States include discourse analysis, critical linguistics, French functional linguistics, Bakhtinian dialogics, and "generous reading." These frames have not been used, however, in cross-cultural analysis of university student writing. The author presents a study of 250 student texts from French and…

Donahue, Tiane

2008-01-01

76

Beyond the divide between cognition and discourse: Using interpretative phenomenological analysis in health psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces interpretative phenomenological analysis (PA) and discusses the particular contribution it can make to health psychology. This is contextualized within current debates, particularly in social psychology, between social cognition and discourse analysis and the significance for health psychology of such debates is considered. The paper outlines the theoretical roots of PA in phenomenology and symbolic interactionism and argues

Jonathan A. Smith

1996-01-01

77

David Coleman and the Technologisation of the Common Core: A Critical Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on sociocultural perspectives and New Literacies Studies this study uses Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as a tool to closely analyse one way the Common Core State Standards in the United States are being produced, disseminated and consumed. The analysis focuses on a section of the CCSS, a model lesson given by one of the primary…

Johnson, Lindy L.

2014-01-01

78

Media Reports of Links between MMR and Autism: A Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper details an analysis of BBC reporting of the proposed links between MMR and autism. The study aimed to identify main issues arising from the media reports into the link between MMR and the development of autism, and how these contribute to common understandings about people with autism. The study employed a form of discourse analysis to…

O'Dell, Lindsay; Brownlow, Charlotte

2005-01-01

79

Experiments in Discourse Analysis Impact on Information Classification and Retrieval Algorithms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the inclusion of contextual information in indexing and retrieval systems to improve results and the ability to carry out text analysis by means of linguistic knowledge. Presents research that investigated whether discourse variables have an impact on information and retrieval and classification algorithms. (Author/LRW)

Morato, Jorge; Llorens, J.; Genova, G.; Moreiro, J. A.

2003-01-01

80

A Quantitative Discourse Analysis of Student-Initiated Checks of Understanding during Teacher-Fronted Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research highlights the paradoxical importance of students' being able to check their understanding with teachers and of teachers' constraining student participation. Using quantitative discourse analysis, this paper examines third graders' discursive strategies in initiating such checks and teachers' strategies in constraining them. The…

Shepherd, Michael A.

2012-01-01

81

Transmission of Ideology through Translation: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Chomsky's \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among factors that might manipulate translators' mind while producing a text is the notion of ideology transmission through text or talk. Adopting Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) with particular emphasis on the framework of Van Dijk (1999), the present investigation is an attempt to shed light on the relationship between language and ideology involved in translation in general, and more specifically,

Zahra Khajeh; Hajar Khanmohammad

82

Analysis of Narrative Discourse Structure as an Ecologically Relevant Measure of Executive Function in Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the narrative discourse production and executive function (EF) abilities of 46 neuro-typical adults (18-98 years old). Two questions were addressed: Is the analysis of narrative structure sensitive to changes associated with aging? & What is the relationship between measures of narrative structure and EF? Narratives were…

Cannizzaro, Michael S.; Coelho, Carl A.

2013-01-01

83

The Conflict over Origins: A Discourse Analysis of the Creationism Controversy in American Newspapers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate about human origins between creationists and biologists is hardly a new one. In its latest cycle, the dispute concerns the status of Intelligent Design and the teaching of evolutionary theory in public schools. The controversy is primarily political, motivated by deeply held feelings about identity. A discourse analysis using network modeling was applied to newspaper coverage of the

Timothy Shortell

2011-01-01

84

Meaning Making through Multiple Modalities in a Biology Classroom: A Multimodal Semiotics Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching of science is a complex process, involving the use of multiple modalities. This paper illustrates the potential of a multimodal semiotics discourse analysis framework to illuminate meaning-making possibilities during the teaching of a science concept. A multimodal semiotics analytical framework is developed and used to (1) analyze the…

Jaipal, Kamini

2010-01-01

85

Critical Discourse Analysis in Literacy Education: A Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a critical, integrative literature review of scholarship in literacy studies from 2004 to 2012 that draws on critical discourse analysis (CDA). We discuss key issues, trends, and criticisms in the field. Our methodology was carried out in three stages. First, we searched educational databases to locate literacy-focused CDA…

Rogers, Rebecca; Schaenen, Inda

2014-01-01

86

Reproducing Gender Inequality: A Critical Discourse Analysis of a Turkish Adult Literacy Textbook. Research Brief #7  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult education curricula such as literacy textbooks present blueprints for living, including different ways of being and relating as men and women. However, educators and scholars seldom consider the underlying assumptions about gender in literacy workbooks, especially in international settings. This study used Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)…

Gungor, Ramazan; Prins, Esther

2011-01-01

87

Critical Discourse Analysis and Critical Thinking: An Experimental Study in an EFL Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigated the impact of critical discourse analysis (CDA) on TEFL students' critical thinking (CT) ability in "Reading Journalistic Texts" classes. In so doing, the study utilized an experimental design with 24 participants in the control group and 29 participants in the experimental group. The results of a pretest indicated…

Hashemi, Mohammad Reza; Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh

2012-01-01

88

Exposing Ideology within University Policies: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Faculty Hiring, Promotion and Remuneration Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using critical discourse analysis (CDA), this paper exposes the neoliberal ideology of the knowledge-based economy embedded within university policies, specifically those that regulate faculty hiring, promotion, and remuneration in two national contexts: Turkey and Mexico. The paper follows four stages of CDA: (1) focus upon a social wrong in its…

Uzuner-Smith, Sedef; Englander, Karen

2015-01-01

89

EFL (English as a Foreign Language) Classroom Discourse Analysis of a Vocational College and Some Reflections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The application of classroom discourse analysis of foreign language teaching and learning can reveal much about how teachers perform in their teaching practice and how to make improvement. In this paper, the author tries to reveal the present state of EFL (English as a foreign language) classrooms in a vocational college from the angle of…

Xin, Liu; Luzheng, Lou; Biru, Shi

2011-01-01

90

Contrastive Textology: Comparative Discourse Analysis in Applied Linguistics. Studies in Descriptive Linguistics, Volume 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is one in a series of studies in linguistics that is intended to supplement the "International Review of Applied Linguistics." Discourse analysis, or looking at language as text in context, is presented in the first chapter. This is correlated with what is known about the differences between languages in a second chapter on contrastive…

Hartmann, R. R. K.

91

Teacher Education and Development Policies: Critical Discourse Analysis from a Comparative Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to explore teacher education policies in different countries of Latin America and North America through the comparison of policy documents. The training of teachers, a key component of education, faces educational challenges as a result of various reform policies in different countries. Critical discourse analysis

Pini, Monica E.; Gorostiaga, Jorge M.

2008-01-01

92

An Analysis of Selected Korean Hedges in Spoken Discourse: Sociopragmatic and Pragmalinguistic Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation presents an empirical analysis of Korean hedges in contemporary spoken discourse. The data analyzed was drawn from my corpus based on approximately 17 hours of unplanned, naturally occurring conversations. This study classified lexical and syntactic hedges in my corpus and investigated the frequency of individual hedge items. It…

Yoon, Yeonhee

2010-01-01

93

Accreditation and Power: A Discourse Analysis of a New Regime of Governance in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article studies discourses within the accreditation of Norwegian higher education conducted by the Norwegian Agency for Quality Assurance in Education (NOKUT), using one concrete case (the accreditation of bachelor programs in nursing). Analysis of policy documents and accreditation reports are influenced by two of Foucault's concepts of…

Engebretsen, Eivind; Heggen, Kristin; Eilertsen, Heidi Annett

2012-01-01

94

A Critical Discourse Analysis of a Real-World Problem in Mathematics: Looking for Signs of Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concepts of "access" and "relevance" feature prominently in the discourse of change in mathematics education in South Africa. One way in which these concepts have been played out in mathematics classrooms is in the use of mathematical problems with real-world contexts. This paper presents a Critical Discourse Analysis of one such problem,…

Le Roux, Kate

2008-01-01

95

The Discourse of Parent Involvement in Special Education: A Critical Analysis Linking Policy Documents to the Experiences of Mothers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parent involvement is acknowledged as a crucial aspect of the education of students with special needs. However, the discourse of parent involvement represents parent involvement in limited ways, thereby controlling how and the extent to which parents can be involved in the education of their children. In this article, critical discourse analysis

Lai, Yuan; Vadeboncoeur, Jennifer A.

2013-01-01

96

An analysis of the group process in encounters between Jews and Palestinians using a typology for discourse classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an analysis of the group process in encounters between Jewish and Palestinian Israeli citizens by using a typology for discourse classification. The typology presented here is a sensitive research tool that was developed in the absence of existing instruments, which analyze the developmental process of discourse in groups. It is an instrument that can help in conceptualizing

Shoshana Steinberg; Dan Bar-On

2002-01-01

97

Constructing osteoarthritis through discourse – a qualitative analysis of six patient information leaflets on osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Background Health service policy in the United Kingdom emphasises the importance of self-care by patients with chronic conditions. Written information for patients about their condition is seen as an important aid to help patients look after themselves. From a discourse analysis perspective written texts such as patient information leaflets do not simply describe the reality of a medical condition and its management but by drawing on some sorts of knowledge and evidence rather than others help construct the reality of that condition. This study explored patient information leaflets on osteoarthritis (OA) to see how OA was constructed and to consider the implications for self-care. Methods Systematic and repeated readings of six patient information leaflets on osteoarthritis to look for similarities and differences across leaflets, contradictions within leaflets and the resources called on to make claims about the nature of OA and its management. Results Biomedical discourse of OA as a joint disease dominated. Only one leaflet included an illness discourse albeit limited, and was also the only one to feature patient experiences of living with OA. The leaflets had different views on the causes of OA including the role of lifestyle and ageing. Most emphasised patient responsibility for preventing the progression of OA. Advice about changing behaviour such as diet and exercise was not grounded in lived experience. There were inconsistent messages about using painkillers, exercise and the need to involve professionals when making changes to lifestyle. Conclusion The nature of the discourse impacted on how OA and the respective roles of patients and professionals were depicted. Limited discourse on illness meant that the complexity of living with OA and its consequences was underestimated. Written information needs to shift from joint biology to helping patients live with osteoarthritis. Written information should incorporate patient experience and value it alongside biomedical knowledge. PMID:17428315

Grime, Janet C; Ong, Bie Nio

2007-01-01

98

Uncertainty Analysis of Historical Hurricane Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was conducted for historical hurricane data dating back to 1851 that was obtained from the U. S. Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The data set was chosen because it is a large, publicly available collection of information, exhibiting great variability which has made the forecasting of future states, from current and previous states, difficult. The availability of substantial, high-fidelity validation data, however, made for an excellent uncertainty assessment study. Several factors (independent variables) were identified from the data set, which could potentially influence the track and intensity of the storms. The values of these factors, along with the values of responses of interest (dependent variables) were extracted from the data base, and provided to a commercial software package for processing via the ANOVA technique. The primary goal of the study was to document the ANOVA modeling uncertainty and predictive errors in making predictions about hurricane location and intensity 24 to 120 hours beyond known conditions, as reported by the data set. A secondary goal was to expose the ANOVA technique to a broader community within NASA. The independent factors considered to have an influence on the hurricane track included the current and starting longitudes and latitudes (measured in degrees), and current and starting maximum sustained wind speeds (measured in knots), and the storm starting date, its current duration from its first appearance, and the current year fraction of each reading, all measured in years. The year fraction and starting date were included in order to attempt to account for long duration cyclic behaviors, such as seasonal weather patterns, and years in which the sea or atmosphere were unusually warm or cold. The effect of short duration weather patterns and ocean conditions could not be examined with the current data set. The responses analyzed were the storm latitude, longitude and intensity, as recorded in the data set, 24 or 120 hours beyond the current state. Several ANOVA modeling schemes were examined. Two forms of validation were used: 1) comparison with official hurricane prediction performance metrics and 2) cases studies conducted on hurricanes from the 2005 season, which were not included within the model construction and ANOVA assessment. In general, the ANOVA technique did not perform as well as the established official prediction performance metrics published by NOAA; still, the technique did remarkably well in this demonstration with a difficult data set and could probably be made to perform better with more knowledge of hurricane development and dynamics applied to the problem. The technique provides a repeatable prediction process that eliminates the need for judgment in the forecast.

Green, Lawrence L.

2007-01-01

99

Looking at the Psychotherapy Process as an Intersubjective Dynamic of Meaning-Making: A Case Study with Discourse Flow Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a dialogic model of psychotherapy (the Two-Stage Semiotic Model, TSSM) with discourse flow analysis (DFA) and a low-inferential method of analysis based on it. TSSM claims that in good-outcome psychotherapy, the patient's system of meanings follows a U-shaped trend: First, it decreases, and then the dialog promotes new meanings. DFA represents a session's dialog as a “discourse

Sergio Salvatore; Omar Gelo; Alessandro Gennaro; Stefano Manzo; Ahmed Al Radaideh

2010-01-01

100

HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS: A USEFUL EDUCATIONAL TOOL  

EPA Science Inventory

An historical analysis that presents the ecological consequences of development can be a valuable educational tool for citizens, students, and environmental managers. In highly impacted areas, the cumulative impacts of multiple stressors can result in complex environmental condit...

101

Historical analysis in the study of emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical research on emotion has burgeoned in recent years. While some historians examine continuities in emotion despite changes in context—as in 19th- and 20th-century grief reactions—most attention has been directed toward charting major changes in emotional standards and explaining their causation. In Western civilization, the century and a half following about 1680 stands as a major period of emotional change,

Peter N. Stearns

1986-01-01

102

Retrospective Analysis of Communication Events - Understanding the Dynamics of Collaborative Multi-Party Discourse  

SciTech Connect

This research is aimed at understanding the dynamics of collaborative multi-party discourse across multiple communication modalities. Before we can truly make sig-nificant strides in devising collaborative communication systems, there is a need to understand how typical users utilize com-putationally supported communications mechanisms such as email, instant mes-saging, video conferencing, chat rooms, etc., both singularly and in conjunction with traditional means of communication such as face-to-face meetings, telephone calls and postal mail. Attempting to un-derstand an individual’s communications profile with access to only a single modal-ity is challenging at best and often futile. Here, we discuss the development of RACE – Retrospective Analysis of Com-munications Events – a test-bed prototype to investigate issues relating to multi-modal multi-party discourse.

Cowell, Andrew J.; Haack, Jereme N.; McColgin, Dave W.

2006-06-08

103

Non-destructive compositional analysis of historic organ reed pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to be able to reproduce historic organ reed pipes, a bulk non-destructive chemical composition analysis was performed on the tongues and shallots, focusing mainly on the ratio between copper and zinc and on the presence of lead. Prompt gamma activation analysis results allowed us to observe for the first time that the ratio between the two main components

A. Manescu; F. Fiori; A. Giuliani; N. Kardjilov; Z. Kasztovszky; F. Rustichelli; B. Straumal

2008-01-01

104

Factoring genetic determinism: An analysis of sociobiological discourse and debate and their presentations in biology textbooks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis is about Sociobiology, especially human sociobiological discourse, and its emergence as a paradigm especially through the formulations of E. O. Wilson. It asks two distinct and related questions. The first question asks why and how has the general project of Wilsonian or determinist human sociobiology has maintained its appeal and continued to garner popularity and support despite the many cogent and detailed critiques. The second question, covered in part two of this thesis, asks how the sociobiological controversy is presented in three Biology textbooks. Part one of this work examines the development of human sociobiology and its related disciplines and the debates that have arisen around this paradigm. It chronicles how this Wilsonian human sociobiological discourse constructs its legitimacy, the major issues critics have raised and recent developments in human sociobiology and related fields. It also suggests modified epistemological positions and avenues of critique. As such, this work utilizes theory developed within utilizes theory developed within science studies, hegemony studies, discourse theory, textual analysis, and science education. Part Two examines three textbooks used in Ontario Academic Courses (OAC's) in Biology in high school in grade thirteen in Ontario. These texts are similar if not identical to textbooks used in introductory biology courses in universities in North America. This textual analysis, examines how the textbooks portray sociobiology and the related fields of Genetics, Evolutionary theory and the Nature of Science itself. This analysis provides a way both to gauge the influence of Wilsonian human and non-human sociobiological discourse and to gauge the ways in which this controversial issue is handled by the texts. This analysis finds that all three textbooks fail to use sociobiology as an example of a scientific controversy to engage students in a discussion of this topic. They also fail to engage students in any of the collateral controversial issues in genetics, evolutionary theory and the nature of science itself. This work also borrows from the constructivist, Science-Technology-Society-Environment (STS-E), and Nature of Science movements within science education and begins to make recommendations for teachers and textbook authors regarding the teaching and presentations of sociobiology and the nature of science debates.

Schifellite, Carmen James

105

Visual Analysis of Historic Hotel Visitation Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the space and time characteristics of human interac- tion in complex social networks is a critical component of visual tools for intelligence analysis, consumer behavior analysis, and hu- man geography. Visual identification and comparison of patterns of recurring events is an essential feature of such tools. In this pa- per, we describe a tool for exploring hotel visitation patterns

Chris Weaver; David Fyfe; Anthony Robinson; Deryck Holdsworth; Donna Peuquet; Alan M. MacEachren

2006-01-01

106

Accounting for Accountability: A Discourse Analysis of Psychiatric Nurses’ Experience of a Patient Suicide  

PubMed Central

Whilst the experience of a patient suicide is likely to have a significant impact upon the nurses who had been providing care, little work has actually explored this experience in any depth. In this article we explore how two psychiatric nurses construct and orient to accountability when talking of their experiences of a patient suicide. Discourse analysis was used to explore particular phases that the nurses oriented to in their accounts: scene setting; risk assessment; attributing for the suicide. Findings highlight the different, sometimes contradictory, ways the nurses attended to interactional concerns relating to implicit accountability and potential inferences of blame. Analysis of the nurses’ talk can make a valuable contribution to understanding the nature and the impact of ‘accountability’ in a mental health setting and so help nurses and other professionals gain an insight into their practice. The results from this study suggest that as a consequence of internalising fundamentally unrealisable expectations regarding suicide prevention, nurses can hold themselves to blame raising significant concerns around their needs in terms of support, which may not be recognised. This paper also makes a valuable contribution to our methodological understanding and the value of using discourse analysis in this setting. PMID:20305746

Robertson, Maggie; Paterson, Brodie; Lauder, Billy; Fenton, Rosemary; Gavin, John

2010-01-01

107

Normative Discourse and Persuasion: An Analysis of Ga'dang Informal Litigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the discourse of Ga'dang, a Philippine language, focuses on normative discourse and persuasion, especially the ways in which the former is used to accomplish the latter. The first five chapters outline the theoretical framework of the study, placing normative and persuasive discourse in a philosophical context and relating them to the…

Walrod, Michael R.

108

The use of historical records in flood frequency analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inclusion of historical flood information in analysis can greatly increase the span of years sampled and should improve the reliability of estimation. Early flood level data may be obtained from physical marks, which are often found near historic cities. Early written records tend to be qualitative, but newspaper records can provide detailed level information. Verbal information that a recent flood was the highest in living memory, or that an earlier flood reached a certain level, can be used to extend a recent gauged record, particularly in countries with short written histories. Chinese historical flood records are especially long and could contribute valuable scientific information. The conversion of flood levels to discharges must involve extrapolation and should take full account of topography, not only in deriving realistic rating curves but in terms of the geological stability of the site. Two examples from the Nile show that some ratings can be assumed stable while others change significantly. Apparent trends must therefore be treated with caution and considered in relation to physical changes in the catchment, which could include deforestation, urban development or channel improvements as well as possible rainfall changes. Trends would be difficult to deduce from historic information, as the completeness of the records must change. The inclusion of historic records in single station analysis can be based on graphical or statistical methods. They can be given an appropriate plotting position in the graphical approach; examples are given for the Trent and the Yangtze rivers. Alternatively, maximum likelihood techniques can be adapted to censored samples, and examples are given of the inclusion of historic records in analysis. Flood records from a homogeneous region are often used in a combined analysis, and historical records can be included. Examples are given of envelope curves relating maximum flood values to basin area, where historical floods can be incorporated. Flood records from a number of sites can be made dimensionless by dividing by the mean annual flood; they can then be used to obtain regional frequency curves for different hydrological areas of the world. Historical floods may be treated similarly to increase the span of records included.

Sutcliffe, J. V.

1987-12-01

109

A discourse analysis of the construction of mental illness in two UK newspapers from 1985-2000.  

PubMed

This study explored the discourse of mental illness contained within two UK newspapers over a 15-year period, excluding those stories that mentioned any reference to a diagnosis. Using frame analysis, a form of discourse analysis, ten distinct frames were identified and classified into "stories." These ten stories were categorized as: foreign, legal, drug, feature, trauma, tragedy, community care tragedy, social policy, inquiry report, and sports/celebrity stories. Each frame is described and the potential influence of such frames on both social policy and nursing practice is discussed. PMID:17957551

Paterson, Brodie

2007-10-01

110

The comparative analysis of historical alien introductions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparative analysis of past introductions has become a major approach in investigating the rules governing invasions,\\u000a yet their utility to understand the invasion process is not exempt of problems. The relevance of some of these problems has\\u000a not yet been fully appreciated, but it has now become clear that not taking them into account may lead to invalid conclusions.

Daniel Sol; Montserrat Vilà; Ingolf Kühn

2008-01-01

111

Conference on Historical Analysis and Research in Marketing Proceedings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently, the Conference on Historical Analysis and Research in Marketing (CHARM) decided to digitize their annual proceedings. They have placed them online here, and scholars in this field and others will enjoy wandering through past issues. The conference is held biennially, and visitors can start things off by looking over the first volume, which was published in 1983. Articles from this first meeting include "Cultural Materialism: The Role of Goods and Societal Symbolism As Research in Marketing" and "A Note on the Varieties and Vagaries of Historical Data". Visitors are also able to search the contents by keyword or author. Taken as a whole, this archive allows users to track changes in the field of marketing and its study as a historical subject.

112

Perpetuating 'New Public Management' at the expense of nurses' patient education: a discourse analysis.  

PubMed

This study aimed to explore the conditions for nurses' daily patient education work by focusing on managers' way of speaking about the patient education provided by nurses in hospital care. An explorative, qualitative design with a social constructionist perspective was used. Data were collected from three focus group interviews and analysed by means of critical discourse analysis. Discursive practice can be explained by the ideology of hegemony. Due to a heavy workload and lack of time, managers could 'see' neither their role as a supporter of the patient education provided by nurses, nor their role in the development of nurses' pedagogical competence. They used organisational, financial, medical and legal reasons for explaining their failure to support nurses' provision of patient education. The organisational discourse was an umbrella term for 'things' such as cost-effectiveness, which were prioritised over patient education. There is a need to remove managerial barriers to the professional development of nurses' patient education. Managers should be responsible for ensuring and overseeing that nurses have the prerequisites necessary for providing patient education as well as for enabling continuous reflective dialogue and opportunities for learning in practice. PMID:25327764

Bergh, Anne-Louise; Friberg, Febe; Persson, Eva; Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth

2014-10-18

113

Multi-Level Discourse Analysis in a Physics Teaching Methods Course from the Psychological Perspective of Activity Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we present and apply a multi-level method for discourse analysis in science classrooms. This method is based on the structure of human activity (activity, actions, and operations) and it was applied to study a pre-service physics teacher methods course. We argue that such an approach, based on a cultural psychological perspective,…

Vieira, Rodrigo Drumond; Kelly, Gregory J.

2014-01-01

114

Islamists in the Headlines: Critical Discourse Analysis of the Representation of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egyptian Newspapers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines how Islamists are socially, discursively and linguistically represented in the Egyptian newspaper "al-Ahram." The main question of this study is what would the Egyptian government do to halt the Brothers' political growth and potential threat? To answer this question, the study uses Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) to examine…

Pasha, Talaat

2011-01-01

115

From Choice to Change: An Analysis of the "Choice" Discourse in Canada's 2006 Federal Election  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A critical discourse analysis (CDA) was used to analyze the representation of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) in the 2006 federal election in Canada. Guided by Fairclough's approach to CDA, this study analyzed written documents including newspaper articles from "The Globe and Mail" and "The National Post", the…

Richardson, Brooke; Langford, Rachel; Friendly, Martha; Rauhala, Ann

2013-01-01

116

The framing of Calvin Klein: A frame analysis of media discourse about the August 1995 Calvin Klein Jeans advertising campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the media discourse about the August 1995 Calvin Klein jeans campaign which media critics characterized as “kiddie porn.” Though media placement of the campaign was limited, mainstream media reports of the nascent controversy surrounding the campaign brought it into the national spotlight. A frame analysis is used to deconstruct the kiddie?porn media frame which the industry and

Lauren R. Tucker

1998-01-01

117

Understanding the new management ideology: a transdisciplinary contribution from critical discourse analysis and new sociology of capitalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim in this article is to explore how one might approach the language of new capitalism working in a transdisciplinary way, bringing together new sociology of capitalism (Chiapello) and critical discourse analysis (Fairclough). We focus upon `new management ideology', and in particular on a recent book by a highly influential management `guru' (Rosabeth Moss Kanter). The article begins with

Eve Chiapello; Norman Fairclough

2002-01-01

118

Home healthcare and family responsibility: a critical discourse analysis of talk and text.  

PubMed

This paper addresses how families' roles and responsibility for care are constructed within home health (in contrast to the responsibility of home health). A discourse analysis informed by a critical theoretical approach was used to analyze qualitative interviews with 13 home health managers and clinical leaders in British Columbia, alongside home care documents. When referring to family involvement, there was an emphasis on the importance of supporting a client's choice to stay at home. Government and agency documents describe family members as primary providers, with home health having a supplementary role. Agencies seek to avoid "substituting" for family care. Family responsibility is characterized as having both moral and structural value. Nonetheless, some participants advocated flexibility and recognized potential caregiving challenges. Data provide examples of how agency expectations are communicated to clients and families and become embedded within practice and policy. Findings are viewed within the broader organizational context as representing the "responsibilization" of support. PMID:24289942

Funk, Laura M

2013-10-01

119

Doing, talking and writing science: A discourse analysis of the process of resemiotization in a middle school lab-based science class  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines students' sense making practices in a middle school science class from a discourse analytic perspective. Using Mediated Discourse Analysis (MDA) (Scollon 1998, 2001) and interactional sociolinguistics (Gumperz 1999, 2001, Schiffrin 1994), my research seeks to enrich findings from recent sociocultural studies of science classrooms that focus on doing, talking and writing science (Roth 2005, Kress, et al.

Laura J. Wright

2008-01-01

120

Appendix E: Research papers. Analysis of landfills with historic airphotos  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nature of landfill-related information that can be derived from existing, or historic, aerial photographs, is reviewed. This information can be used for conducting temporal assessments of landfill existence, land use and land cover, and the physical environment. As such, analysis of low cost, readily available aerial photographs can provide important, objective input to landfill inventories, assessing contamination or health hazards, planning corrective measures, planning waste collection and facilities, and developing on inactive landfills.

Liang, T.; Philipson, W. R. (principal investigators); Erb, T. L.; Teng, W. L.

1980-01-01

121

Expanding discourse repertoires with hybridity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In "Hybrid discourse practice and science learning" Kamberelis and Wehunt present a theoretically rich argument about the potential of hybrid discourses for science learning. These discourses draw from different forms of "talk, social practice, and material practices" to create interactions that are "intertextually complex" and "interactionally dynamic." The hybrid discourse practices are described as involving the dynamic interplay of at least three key elements: "the lamination of multiple cultural frames, the shifting relations between people and their discourse, and the shifting power relations between and among people." Each of these elements requires a respective unit of analysis and are often mutually reinforcing. The authors present a theoretically cogent argument for the study of hybrid discourse practices and identify the potential such discourses may have for science education. This theoretical development leads to an analysis of spoken and written discourse around a set of educational events concerning the investigation of owl pellets by two fifth grade students, their classmates, and teacher. Two discourse segments are presented and analyzed by the authors in detail. The first is a discourse analysis of the dissection of the owl pellet by two students, Kyle and Max. The second analysis examines the science report of these same two students. In this article, I pose a number of questions about the study with the hope that by doing so I expand the conversation around the insightful analysis presented.

Kelly, Gregory J.

2012-09-01

122

A Study of the Relationship between Historical Analysis and Student Achievement in Eighth Grade American History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this action research project was to study the relationship between Historical Analysis and student performance on the California Standards Test (CSTs), both English Language Arts and History, as well as to study the relationship between Historical Analysis and Reading Comprehension. It was believed that Historical Analysis required…

Stuart, Kevin

2010-01-01

123

Death penalty discourses, the printed media, and the UK public sphere: a critical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I investigate the lack of full public participation and consequent democratic deficit on the issue of capital punishment in the UK. In so doing I critically analyse the media institutions and practices of the UK public sphere within which the death penalty discourses unfold, and several printed media contributions to the capital punishment discourses around abolition in

Eugene Flanagan

2010-01-01

124

Forests, discourses, institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leading question of this Forest Policy and Economics special issue is whether, how and to what extent forest governance processes can be better understood by means of discourse analysis and the science-policy interface. This article focuses on discourses only, but it does so from an institutional perspective. The reasons to advocate this so-called discursive-institutional approach are threefold: (1) to

Bas Arts; Marleen Buizer

2009-01-01

125

Mapping Mathematics in Classroom Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a particular analytic method from systemic functional linguistics, "thematic analysis," which reveals the mathematical meaning potentials construed in discourse. Addressing concerns that discourse analysis is too often content-free, thematic analysis provides a way to represent semantic structures of mathematical content,…

Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth A.; Otten, Samuel

2011-01-01

126

Use of cartography in historical seismicity analysis: a reliable tool to better apprehend the contextualization of the historical documents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historical studies, including historical seismicity analysis, deal with historical documents. Numerous factors, such as culture, social condition, demography, political situations and opinions or religious ones influence the way the events are transcribed in the archives. As a consequence, it is crucial to contextualize and compare the historical documents reporting on a given event in order to reduce the uncertainties affecting their analysis and interpretation. When studying historical seismic events it is often tricky to have a global view of all the information provided by the historical documents. It is also difficult to extract cross-correlated information from the documents and draw a precise historical context. Use of cartographic and geographic tools in GIS software is the best tool for the synthesis, interpretation and contextualization of the historical material. The main goal is to produce the most complete dataset of available information, in order to take into account all the components of the historical context and consequently improve the macroseismic analysis. The Entre-Deux-Mers earthquake (1759, Iepc= VII-VIII) [SISFRANCE 2013 - EDF-IRSN-BRGM] is well documented but has never benefited from a cross-analysis of historical documents and historical context elements. The map of available intensity data from SISFRANCE highlights a gap in macroseismic information within the estimated epicentral area. The aim of this study is to understand the origin of this gap by making a cartographic compilation of both, archive information and historical context elements. The results support the hypothesis that the lack of documents and macroseismic data in the epicentral area is related to a low human activity rather than low seismic effects in this zone. Topographic features, geographical position, flood hazard, roads and pathways locations, vineyards distribution and the forester coverage, mentioned in the archives and reported on the Cassini's map confirm this hypothesis. The location of the recently explored documentary sources evidence that there was no notarial activity in this particular area at that time. The importance of the economic and political dominance of Bordeaux during the XVIIth-XVIIIth centuries has to be taken into account in order to apprehend the way the earthquake was reported by the population at the regional scale. Elements related to chimneys forms or construction techniques could in turn help in identifying regional peculiarities allowing better quantifying the vulnerability aspects of the region.

Thibault, Fradet; Grégory, Quenet; Kevin, Manchuel

2014-05-01

127

[Discourses on the nursing and psychiatric nurse models, published in the Annals of Nursing (1933-1951)].  

PubMed

Social-historical study aimed at discussing the nursing and psychiatric nurse models, from the discourses published in the Annals of Nursing.The historical sources were articles published in the Annals of Nursing journal, from 1933 to 1951. An analysis of the discourse was subsidized by the genealogy of power by Michel Foucault.The analysis showed that the discourse on nursing and the psychiatric nurse, in the first half of the 20th century, is set, on one side, by the propositions used by psychiatrists, who sought to reiterate stereotypes and vocations to practice nursing, and, on the other side, by the active participation of nurses seeking to legitimize expertise for psychiatric nursing. It was concluded that the discourses analyzed defined a psychiatric care focused on the nurse and not the rest of the nursing staff, at that time. PMID:25158460

Pereira, Michelle de Macedo; Padilha, Maria Itayra; de Oliveira, Alexandre Barbosa; Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco; Filho, Antonio José de Almeida; Peres, Maria Angélica de Almeida

2014-06-01

128

Reduced Space Optimal Analysis for Historical Data Sets: 136 years of Atlantic Sea Surface Temperatures  

E-print Network

Reduced Space Optimal Analysis for Historical Data Sets: 136 years of Atlantic Sea Surface meteorological and oceanographic historical data sets has been developed. The method combines data gaps, correct sampling errors, and produce spatially and temporally coherent analyzed data sets

Columbia University

129

Non-destructive compositional analysis of historic organ reed pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to be able to reproduce historic organ reed pipes, a bulk non-destructive chemical composition analysis was performed on the tongues and shallots, focusing mainly on the ratio between copper and zinc and on the presence of lead. Prompt gamma activation analysis results allowed us to observe for the first time that the ratio between the two main components of the brass alloy changed from Cu:Zn = 3:1 for the old tongues and shallots to Cu:Zn = 2:1 around the middle of the 18th century, which is typical also for the modern alloys offered to the organ builders nowadays. We also discovered that the Pb content in the old historic brass alloy diminished until the middle of 18th century when the brass alloy became mainly Pb free. The non-uniform lead distribution inside one of the shallots obtained from a prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) experiment was studied by neutron tomography. It gave us a three-dimensonal (3D) distribution of the lead inclusions inside the shallots. The lead particles are concentrated towards the base of the shallot.

Manescu, A.; Fiori, F.; Giuliani, A.; Kardjilov, N.; Kasztovszky, Z.; Rustichelli, F.; Straumal, B.

2008-03-01

130

Changing Policy Discourses: Constructing Literacy Inequalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the ways in which policy discourses have constructed rationales for addressing adult literacy over the last 50 years. In particular, we examine how policy positions the literacy learner as citizen within discourses of rights and equity. Taking the case of the UK, we compare two key documents produced at different historical

Hamilton, Mary; Pitt, Kathy

2011-01-01

131

Finding Inquiry in Discourses of Audit and Reform in Primary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we examine the discourses of Primary school numeracy coordinators responsible for auditing, monitoring and supporting their colleagues in relation to the introduction and embedding of the National Numeracy Strategy (NNS) in the UK. Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) focuses our analysis on the contradictory coupling of…

Williams, Julian; Corbin, Brian; McNamara, Olwen

2007-01-01

132

Environmental assessment in The Netherlands: Effectively governing environmental protection? A discourse analysis  

SciTech Connect

Environmental assessment (EA) aims to enhance environmental awareness and to ensure that environmental values are fully considered in decision-making. In the EA arena, different discourses exist on what EA should aim for and how it functions. We hypothesise that these discourses influence its application in practice as well as its effectiveness in terms of achieving the above goals. For instance, actors who consider EA as a hindrance to fast implementation of their projects will probably apply it as a mandatory checklist, whereas actors who believe that EA can help to develop more environmentally sound decisions will use EIA as a tool to design their initiatives. In this paper we explore discourses on EA in The Netherlands and elaborate on their implications for EA effectiveness. Based on an innovative research design comprising an online survey with 443 respondents and 20 supplementary semi-structured interviews we conclude that the dominant discourse is that EA is mainly a legal requirement; EAs are conducted because they have to be conducted, not because actors choose to do so. EA effectiveness however seems reasonably high, as a majority of respondents perceive that it enhances environmental awareness and contributes to environmental protection. However, the 'legal requirement' discourse also results in decision-makers seldom going beyond what is prescribed by EA and environmental law. Despite its mandatory character, the predominant attitude towards EA is quite positive. For most respondents, EA is instrumental in providing transparency of decision-making and in minimising the legal risks of not complying with environmental laws. Differences in discourses seldom reflect extreme opposites. The 'common ground' regarding EA provides a good basis for working with EA in terms of meeting legal requirements but at the same time does not stimulate creativity in decision-making or optimisation of environmental values. In countries characterised by less consensual political cultures we may expect more extreme discourses on EA, the consequences of which are reflected upon in this paper. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effectiveness of environmental assessment (EA) depends in part on meanings associated with EA (i.e., discourse). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our results suggest that the general discourse in The Netherlands is that EA is a legal requirement, nothing more. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This discourse makes EA effective in protecting the environment, but not in the optimisation of environmental values. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EA has a limited contribution to the development of policy alternatives or innovative solutions to environmental problems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a high consensus among EA professionals, providing a common ground for working with EA.

Runhaar, Hens, E-mail: h.a.c.runhaar@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Laerhoven, Frank van, E-mail: vanLaerhoven@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter, E-mail: p.driessen@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Arts, Jos, E-mail: e.j.m.m.arts@rug.nl [University of Groningen, Faculty of Planning, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

2013-02-15

133

Terahertz analysis of an East Asian historical mural painting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and THz and imaging techniques are expected to have great potential for the non-invasive analysis of artworks. We have applied THz imaging to analyse the historic mural painting of a Lamaism temple by using a transportable time-domain THz imaging system; such an attempt is the first in the world. The reflection image revealed that there are two orange colours in the painting, although they appear the same to the naked eye. THz imaging can also estimate the depth of cracks. The colours were examined by X-ray fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy, and the results were found to be in good agreement. This work proved that THz imaging can contribute to the non-invasive analysis of cultural heritage.

Fukunaga, K.; Hosako, I.; Kohdzuma, Y.; Koezuka, T.; Kim, M.-J.; Ikari, T.; Du, X.

2010-05-01

134

Discourse Structure  

E-print Network

An essential step in understanding connected discourse is the ability to link the meanings of successive sentences together. Given a growing database to which new sentence meanings must be linked, which out of many possible ...

Rosenberg, Steven T.

1976-08-17

135

Ideological collocation and the recontexualization of Wahhabi-Saudi Islam post-9\\/11: A synergy of corpus linguistics and critical discourse analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes what is termed a ‘methodological synergy’ (Baker et al., 2008) of corpus linguistics and critical discourse analysis (CDA) for exploring how clashing ideologies have been actualized at collocation level across opposing discourses on Wahhabi-Saudi Islam\\/Wahhabism since 9\\/11. The discursive competition over Wahhabi-Saudi Islam reached a new extreme in the USA, when the 9\\/11 attacks called attention to

Amir H. Y. Salama

2011-01-01

136

Application of HyTime Hyperlinks and Finite Coordinate Spaces to Historical Writing, Analysis, and Presentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines a method of using the constructs defined by the HyTime standard to structure scholarly writing and to affect its presentation through the use of dynamic multimedia presentations. Explores the potential power of descriptive hyperlinks as tools of scholarly discourse and analysis, and the system needed to aid historians in information…

Kimber, W. Eliot; Woods, Julia A.

1997-01-01

137

Teaching ethics in engineering education through historical analysis.  

PubMed

The goal of this paper is to stress the significance of ethics for engineering education and to illustrate how it can be brought into the mainstream of higher education in a natural way that is integrated with the teaching objectives of enriching the core meaning of engineering. Everyone will agree that the practicing engineer should be virtuous, should be a good colleague, and should use professional understanding for the common good. But these injunctions to virtue do not reach closely enough the ethic of the engineer as engineer, as someone acting in a uniquely engineering situation, and it is to such conditions that I wish to speak through a set of specific examples from recent history. I shall briefly refer to four controversies between engineers. Then, in some detail I shall narrate three historical cases that directly involve the actions of one engineer, and finally I would like to address some common contemporary issues. The first section, Engineering Ethics and the History of Innovation, includes four cases involving professional controversy. Each controversy sets two people against each other in disputes over who invented the telegraph, the radio, the automobile, and the airplane. In each dispute, it is possible to identify ethical and unethical behavior or ambiguous ethical behavior that serves as a basis for educational discussion. The first two historical cases described in "Crises and the Engineer" involve the primary closure dam systems in The Netherlands, each one the result of the actions of one engineer. The third tells of an American engineer who took his political boss, a big city mayor, to court over the illegal use of a watershed. The challenges these engineers faced required, in the deepest sense, a commitment to ethical behavior that is unique to engineering and instructive to our students. Finally, the cases in "Professors and Comparative Critical Analysis" illuminate the behavior of engineers in the design of structures and also how professors can make public criticisms of designs that seem wasteful. PMID:16609709

Billington, David P

2006-04-01

138

Semio-Pragmatic Analysis of Cartoons Discourse: A Step towards Semiotranslation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary concern of this study is to explore the subtle implications of the "Semiotranslation Approach vis-a-vis" analyzing the semiotic elements of discourse in Jordanian cartoons as creative artistic texts in which various signs manifest simultaneous interaction, thus achieving both entertainment and purposeful satire. Therefore, the…

AlBzour, Naser Naif

2011-01-01

139

The Analysis of Classroom Discourse: Elementary School Science Curricula Advancing Reasoning with Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' ability to participate in scientific discourse and to appropriately use empirical evidence to support beliefs or conclusions has been consistently stated as a core goal of science education. In the present study, we analyzed the quality of scientific reasoning in elementary school science classrooms, using the Evidence-Based Reasoning…

Hardy, Ilonca; Kloetzer, Birgit; Moeller, Kornelia; Sodian, Beate

2010-01-01

140

Pedagogising Poverty Alleviation: A Discourse Analysis of Educational and Social Policies in Argentina and Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the past decades international organisations and governments have promoted and implemented analogous education policies on the grounds that education is the key factor to foster development and fight poverty. This article sets the context of these educational programmes and analyses their discourse on poverty in Argentina and Chile. Then, it…

Rambla, Xavier; Veger, Antoni

2009-01-01

141

Conceptual change cum discourse analysis: Towards an integrative perspective on learning in science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Illustrates how a well-designed curriculum can lead students to construct an unwanted conception. Concludes that the conceptual-change-cum-discourse perspective has the potential to integrate the affordances of both methodological approaches and past empirical accomplishments. Contains 33 references.

Duit, Reinders; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Komorek, Michael; Wilbers, Jens

2006-05-23

142

(Un)Earthing a Vocabulary of Values: A Discourse Analysis for Ecocomposition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author aims to propose an analytic method through which composition students and others might discover and understand the ecological complexities of prevailing environmental terminology that create "wicked problems." Through this method, students engage in "discursive ecology" by exploring the connections among discourse,…

Walker, Paul

2010-01-01

143

Discourse Analysis: Part II, A Comparison of Published Writing in Three Disciplines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Combining linguistics and composition studies in a two-part article (in which part 1 presented the principal concepts of cohesion and information management used in spoken and written discourse) this paper, part 2, describes a model that applies some of these concepts in analyses of the content of samples of published writing in three disciplines…

Lovejoy, Kim Brian

144

Identification and Disidentification in Organizational Discourse: A Metaphor Analysis of E-Mail Communication at Enron  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project is situated within the interpretive tradition in organizational communication research, focusing on organizational discourse. It goes further by bringing the discussion into the 21st century through examining how communication technology--specifically e-mail--plays a role in the linguistic practices that help create, maintain and…

Turnage, Anna K.

2010-01-01

145

Framing and Face: The Relevance of "The Presentation of Self" to Linguistic Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although Erving Goffman did not turn his analytic focus specifically toward language until later in his career, his work, beginning with "The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life," has been crucial for discourse analysts and interactional sociolinguists who study language in social context. Perhaps most influential have been his concepts of…

Tannen, Deborah

2009-01-01

146

Isogeometric analysis: a powerful numerical tool for the elastic analysis of historical masonry arches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We illustrate a numerical tool for analyzing plane arches such as those frequently used in historical masonry heritage. It is based on a refined elastic mechanical model derived from the isogeometric approach. In particular, geometry and displacements are modeled by means of non-uniform rational B-splines. After a brief introduction, outlining the basic assumptions of this approach and the corresponding modeling choices, several numerical applications to arches, which are typical of masonry structures, show the performance of this novel technique. These are discussed in detail to emphasize the advantage and potential developments of isogeometric analysis in the field of structural analysis of historical masonry buildings with complex geometries.

Cazzani, Antonio; Malagù, Marcello; Turco, Emilio

2014-12-01

147

Identification of Historical Veziragasi Aqueduct Using the Operational Modal Analysis  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the results of a model updating study conducted on a historical aqueduct, called Veziragasi, in Turkey. The output-only modal identification results obtained from ambient vibration measurements of the structure were used to update a finite element model of the structure. For the purposes of developing a solid model of the structure, the dimensions of the structure, defects, and material degradations in the structure were determined in detail by making a measurement survey. For evaluation of the material properties of the structure, nondestructive and destructive testing methods were applied. The modal analysis of the structure was calculated by FEM. Then, a nondestructive dynamic test as well as operational modal analysis was carried out and dynamic properties were extracted. The natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes were determined from both theoretical and experimental modal analyses and compared with each other. A good harmony was attained between mode shapes, but there were some differences between natural frequencies. The sources of the differences were introduced and the FEM model was updated by changing material parameters and boundary conditions. Finally, the real analytical model of the aqueduct was put forward and the results were discussed. PMID:24511287

Ercan, E.; Nuhoglu, A.

2014-01-01

148

Retrospective gap analysis in a Swedish boreal forest landscape using historical data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main problem when adapting forest management to mimic natural processes and structures is the lack of detailed knowledge about historical forest conditions. One way to refine these management goals is by local analysis of change in forest conditions over time. The aim of this investigation was to perform a retrospective regional gap analysis by using historical data. Forest surveys

Anna-Lena Axelsson; Lars Östlund

2001-01-01

149

Innocent Victims, Fighter Cells, and White Uncles: A Discourse Analysis of Children's Books about AIDS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we examine a set of 26 children's books on HIV/AIDS published between 1989-1999 to identify the ways in which these texts construct HIV/AIDS and people living with HIV/AIDS. We explore how this marginalized group is depicted in these books, and how well-meaning teachers may in fact be reproducing dominant discourses about HIV/AIDS…

Blumenreich, Megan; Siegel, Marjorie

2006-01-01

150

Discourse Structure and Anaphora in Tutorial Dialogues: an Empirical Analysis of Two Theories of the Global Focus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent development of reliable guidelines for discourse structure annota- tion, and the resulting availability of corpora annotated for discourse structure, have made it possible to subject to rigorous empirical testing the claims of seminal theories about the impact of discourse structure on anaphora. We carried out an empirical investigation of the claims made in two models of the Global

M. POESIO; A. PATEL; B. DI EUGENIO

2005-01-01

151

Reduced Space Optimal Analysis for Historical Data Sets: 136 years of Atlantic Sea Surface Temperatures  

E-print Network

Reduced Space Optimal Analysis for Historical Data Sets: 136 years of Atlantic Sea Surface and oceanographic historical data sets has been developed. The method combines data-reduction and least squares, correct sampling errors, and produce spatially and temporally coherent analyzed data sets

Columbia University

152

Professional caregivers' work with the dying in nursing homes--a Foucault-inspired analysis of discourses in the last decade in a Danish context.  

PubMed

International studies on the death of elderly nursing home residents show the complexity in the understanding of the professionals who care for the dying. The aim of this study is to explore the discourses about professional caregivers caring for those dying in Denmark in the last decade. A discourse analysis inspired by Foucault was constructed. The material consists of different source documents: research articles, newspaper articles, theses, books, websites - 35 sources in total. There are constructed six positions of speech, five discourses and three themes: (1) 'the work of the professional caregivers - a complex low-status work'; (2) 'the education of the professionals - the way to ensure a good death or possessing the right qualifications' and (3) 'the vulnerable professionals'. The study concludes that an economical/political discourse is dominating and sets up the frames within which the professionals care for dying residents, although the medical, the social/critical and the religious discourses attempt to speak against it. All positions articulate that the professional caregivers' job has a low status and that it is not possible to provide an optimal care due to lack of time, resources and education. Psychical or mental demands make the professionals vulnerable. The meaning of optimal care varies according to the positions of speech. PMID:23336738

Nielsen, Karen T; Glasdam, Stinne

2013-12-01

153

Teacher Recertification: A Historical Analysis of the Illinois Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

License renewal and recertification have long been standard practice in service professions. Ten years ago, a new law called for policy revision and mandated that Illinois teachers acquire continuing professional development to maintain certification. This study provides a historical perspective of the Illinois teacher recertification process,…

Brodbeck, Nancy Negley

2009-01-01

154

ANALYSIS OF A SIMPLE MODEL FOR ESTIMATING HISTORICAL POPULATION SIZES  

E-print Network

for the bridled dolphin, Stenella attenuata, to investigate the behavior ofthe model by which these historical for several populations of dolphin involved with the yellowfin tuna purse seine fishery. We used the data population with its original size (Southwest Fisheries Center3 J. Schools of dolphin of several species

155

Relations between community theory and community analysis in vegetation science: some historical perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relations between community theory and community analysis are elucidated from a historical viewpoint. Four groups of relevant aspects are distinguished. This paper concentrates on aspects of spatial variation in species composition and species distribution relations.

Imanuel Noy-Meir I; Eddy van der Maarel

1987-01-01

156

In the shadow of a new smoke free policy: A discourse analysis of health care providers' engagement in tobacco control in community mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of tobacco use among individuals with mental illness remains a serious public health concern. Tobacco control has received little attention in community mental health despite the fact that many individuals with mental illness are heavy smokers and experience undue tobacco-related health consequences. METHODS: This qualitative study used methods of discourse analysis to examine the perceptions of health

Joy L. Johnson; Barbara M. Moffat; Leslie A. Malchy

2010-01-01

157

The Challenges of Contrastive Discourse Analysis: Reflecting on a Study into the Influence of English on Students' Written Spanish on a Bilingual Education Program in Spain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses challenges involved in contrastive discourse analysis that emerged while carrying out a follow-up study into a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) program in Spain. Reversing the focus on English of much contrastive rhetoric work, the study investigates the effect of second-language-English on…

Maxwell-Reid, Corinne

2011-01-01

158

Discourse Structure and Anaphora in Tutorial Dialogues: An Empirical Analysis of Two Theories of the Global Focus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent development of reliable guidelines for discourse structure annotation, and the resulting availability of corpora\\u000a annotated for discourse structure, have made it possible to subject to rigorous empirical testing the claims of seminal theories\\u000a about the impact of discourse structure on anaphora. We carried out an empirical investigation of the claims made in two models\\u000a of the Global Focus–Grosz

M. Poesio; A. Patel; B. Di Eugenio

2006-01-01

159

Reporting the Rhetoric, Implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as Represented in Ireland's Second Report to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child: A Critical Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ireland's second periodic report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) presents the government's case that it is succeeding in protecting and promoting the rights of all children in Ireland. This article presents a critical discourse analysis of the government's Report to the CRC. Using a refined critical discourse

Kiersey, Rachel A.; Hayes, Noirin

2010-01-01

160

The Use of Main Concept Analysis to Measure Discourse Production in Cantonese-Speaking Persons with Aphasia: A Preliminary Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discourse produced by speakers with aphasia contains rich and valuable information for researchers to understand the manifestation of aphasia as well as for clinicians to plan specific treatment components for their clients. Various approaches to investigate aphasic discourse have been proposed in the English literature. However, this is not the…

Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin

2009-01-01

161

An Analysis of Discourse-Pragmatic and Grammatical Constraints on the Acquisition and Development of Referential Choice in Child English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation investigates how discourse-pragmatics informs children's choice of referential forms. Three studies utilizing naturalistic data examine the role that six discourse-pragmatic features play in the acquisition of referential forms in a non-null subject language, English. The influence of child-directed speech on development is also…

Hughes, Mary E.

2011-01-01

162

Islam Hadhari: An Ideological Discourse Analysis of Selected Speeches by UMNO President and Malaysia Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research study explored the problem the Malay identity and society in the discourse of Malay politics. The purpose of this study was to understand how the discourse of Islam "Hadhari" as spoken by prime minister and UMNO president Abdullah Ahmad Badawi in the years 2004-2008 demonstrated the hegemony of his administration and party.…

Yahaya, Azlan R.

2012-01-01

163

The cultural politics of national testing and test result release policy in South Korea: a critical discourse analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the ideological construction of educational discourses embedded within the South Korean print media. Significantly, these discourses have recently promoted the resurrection of a sweeping national testing and test results release policy. Through careful examination of the “test plus release” policy, the authors show how the government has achieved hegemonic power by shaping public opinion through the national

Youl-Kwan Sung; Mi Ok Kang

2012-01-01

164

Discourse Tact In Doctor-Patient Interactions In English: An Analysis of Diagnosis in Medical Communication in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes discourse tact in diagnoses in doctor-patient interactions in English in selected hospitals in South-western Nigeria. Using recorded conversations between doctors and patients in those hospitals as data, the mutual contextual beliefs of participants, speech act patterns, including linguistic patterns, and other pragmatic features are analyzed from the perspective of the pragmatics of discourse. The findings indicate the

WALE ADEGBITE; AKIN ODEBUNMI

2006-01-01

165

Discourse About Children with Mental Disablement: An Analysis of Teacher-Parent Conferences in Special Education Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes discourse in six teacher/parent conferences in Swedish special schools, focusing on work around moral values by parents and teachers in the conferences, as well as on possible threats to such work. Argues that the discourse is, to a large extent, consensus oriented. (Author/JL)

Adelsward, Viveka; Nilholm, Claes

1998-01-01

166

Role Models or Normalizing Agents? A Genealogical Analysis of Popular Written News Media Discourse regarding Male Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author examines popular written news media discourse from the United States concerning the "boy crisis," the gender gap, and male teachers as role models employing genealogical methodologies and theoretical concepts suggested by Foucault (1984, 1990, 1995). It is argued that such discourses reveal how "common sense" beliefs…

Sternod, Brandon M.

2011-01-01

167

A Community-Based Treatment for Native American Historical Trauma: Prospects for Evidence-Based Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nineteen staff and clients in a Native American healing lodge were interviewed regarding the therapeutic approach used to address the legacy of Native American historical trauma. On the basis of thematic content analysis of interviews, 4 components of healing discourse emerged. First, clients were understood by their counselors to carry pain,…

Gone, Joseph P.

2009-01-01

168

The "Islamic" in Islamic Education: Assessing the Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper assesses the dominant discourse on Islam and education that argues for an education derived from an exclusively "Islamic" vision. In addition to exploring the historical roots of this discourse, the paper analyses it with respect to its (i) arguments for an Islamic vision of education, (ii) conception of Islam, and (iii) proposals for…

Panjwani, Farid

2004-01-01

169

Pedagogic discourse in introductory classes: Multi-dimensional analysis of textbooks and lectures in biology and macroeconomics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The broad goal of this study is to represent the linguistic variation of textbooks and lectures, the primary input for student learning---and sometimes the sole input in the large introductory classes which characterize General Education at many state universities. Computer techniques are used to analyze a corpus of textbooks and lectures from first-year university classes in macroeconomics and biology. These spoken and written variants are compared to each other as well as to benchmark texts from other multi-dimensional studies in order to examine their patterns, relations, and functions. A corpus consisting of 147,000 words was created from macroeconomics and biology lectures at a medium-large state university and from a set of nationally "best-selling" textbooks used in these same introductory survey courses. The corpus was analyzed using multi-dimensional methodology (Biber, 1988). The analysis consists of both empirical and qualitative phases. Quantitative analyses are undertaken on the linguistic features, their patterns of co-occurrence, and on the contextual elements of classrooms and textbooks. The contextual analysis is used to functionally interpret the statistical patterns of co-occurrence along five dimensions of textual variation, demonstrating patterns of difference and similarity with reference to text excerpts. Results of the analysis suggest that academic discourse is far from monolithic. Pedagogic discourse in introductory classes varies by modality and discipline, but not always in the directions expected. In the present study the most abstract texts were biology lectures---more abstract than written genres of academic prose and more abstract than introductory textbooks. Academic lectures in both disciplines, monologues which carry a heavy informational load, were extremely interactive, more like conversation than academic prose. A third finding suggests that introductory survey textbooks differ from those used in upper division classes by being relatively less marked for information density, abstraction, and non-overt argumentation. In addition to the findings mentioned here, numerous other relationships among the texts exhibit complex patterns of variation related to a number of situational variables. Pedagogical implications are discussed in relation to General Education courses, differing student populations, and the reading and listening demands which students encounter in large introductory classes in the university.

Carkin, Susan

170

Reconstruals of the Past: Settlement or Invasion? The Role of JUDGEMENT Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While little attention has been given in historiography to the language of historical narrative, and the role language plays in portraying history, the discipline of linguistics, and particularly the subdisciplines of discourse analysis and functional linguistics, have given increasing attention to the discourse of history. Recently, a group of…

Coffin, Caroline

171

Historical Material Analysis of DC745U Pressure Pads  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Enhance Surveillance mission, it is the goal to provide suitable lifetime assessment of stockpile materials. This report is an accumulation of historical publication on the DC745U material and their findings. It is the intention that the B61 LEP program uses this collection of data to further develop their understanding and potential areas of study. DC745U is a commercially available silicone elastomer consisting of dimethyl, methyl-phenyl, and methyl-vinyl siloxane repeat units. Originally, this material was manufactured by Dow Corning as Silastic{reg_sign} DC745U at their manufacturing facility in Kendallville, IN. Recently, Dow Corning shifted this material to the Xiameter{reg_sign} brand product line. Currently, DC745U is available through Xiameter{reg_sign} or Dow Corning's distributor R. D. Abbott Company. DC745U is cured using 0.5 wt% vinyl-specific peroxide curing agent known as Luperox 101 or Varox DBPH-50. This silicone elastomer is used in numerous parts, including two major components (outer pressure pads and aft cap support) in the W80 and as pressure pads on the B61. DC745U is a proprietary formulation, thus Dow Corning provides limited information on its composition and properties. Based on past experience with Dow Corning, DC745U is at risk of formulation changes without notification to the costumer. A formulation change for DC745U may have a significant impact because the network structure is a key variable in determining material properties. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of historical DC745U studies and identify gaps that need to be addressed in future work. Some of the previous studies include the following: 1. Spectroscopic characterization of raw gum stock. 2. Spectroscopic, thermal, and mechanical studies on cured DC745U. 3. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and solvent swelling studies on DC745U with different crosslink densities. 4. NMR, solvent swelling, thermal, and mechanical studies on thermally aged DC745U. 5. NMR, solvent swelling, thermal, and mechanical studies on radiolytically aged DC745U. Each area is reviewed and further work is suggested to improve our understanding of DC745U for systems engineering, surveillance, aging assessments, and lifetime assessment.

Ortiz-Acosta, Denisse [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-30

172

Corporate Discourse and the Academy: A Polemic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical analysis of vocabulary, imagery, and rhetoric in business texts shows that higher education is adopting a free-market discourse depicting the academy in terms of a knowledge industry or revenue generator in which intellectual resources are "leveraged" and knowledge is a "commodity." This discourse is characterized as management centered,…

Webster, Gary

2003-01-01

173

Conceptions of Limited Attention and Discourse Focus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Walker (1996) presents a cache model of the operation of attention in the processing of discourse as an alternative to the focus space stack that was proposed previously by Grosz and Sidner (Grosz 1977a; Grosz and Sidner 1986). In this squib, we present a critical analysis of the cache model and of Walker's supporting evidence from anaphora in discourses with

Barbara J. Grosz; Peter C. Gordon

1999-01-01

174

Reconstructing Eastern paradigms of discourse studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current scholarship on language and communication has largely been culturally monological rather than dialogical and diversified. In this paper, I respond to this sorry state by arguing for the reconstruction of Eastern paradigms in favour of multiculturalism in discourse research. To that end, I first critique the ethnocentrism of Discourse Analysis, then point to the cultural realities of the Eastern

2009-01-01

175

Meta-analysis: Historical Origins and Contemporary Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The early and recent history of meta-analysis is outlined. After providing a definition of meta-analysis and listing its major characteristics, developments in statistics and research are described that influenced the formulation of modern meta-analytic methods. Major meta-analytic methods currently in use are described. Statistical and other…

Kulik, James A.; Kulik, Chen-Lin C.

176

Changing gender relations in Thailand: a historical and cultural analysis.  

PubMed

In response to the stereotyping of Thai women in the media as either modern businesswomen or victims of male oppression, this article studies the changing gender roles and status of women in Thailand to identify the various roles played by Thai women and the ways these roles are linked to key cultural, economic, and political mechanisms in Thai society. After an introduction, the first section of the paper analyzes pre-modern Thai history from the mid-13th century with a look at the traditional social, political, and economic structure of feudal society to determine how women's status was affected by Thai Buddhism, absolute monarchy (the affect of the legal system on upper-class women), and matrifocal kinship (the effect of subsistence agriculture on lower-class women). This section also compares the historic status of upper- and lower-class Thai women. The second section of the article considers the effects of 1) the encroachment of Western colonialism in Southeast Asia during the period 1850-1925 and attendant criticisms of polygamy, 2) the post-1932 revolution that resulted in a constitutional monarchy, and 3) the post 1950s period of economic nationalism that has resulted in globalization. The article concludes that lower-class women have certain rights under the feudal system (before 1932) but were forced into certain roles by economic necessity and motherhood. Upper-class women enjoyed high status, but all women were victims of the Buddhist patriarchy and hierarchical systems. Western modernization caused a decline in polygamy and new opportunities for educated women but the status of Thai women has not changed substantially, and class-specific forms of female oppression continues unabated making lower-class women vulnerable to sexual exploitation. PMID:12321345

Tantiwiramanond, D

1997-01-01

177

Biogeography of Human Infectious Diseases: A Global Historical Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives Human pathogen richness and prevalence vary widely across the globe, yet we know little about whether global patterns found in other taxa also predict diversity in this important group of organisms. This study (a) assesses the relative importance of temperature, precipitation, habitat diversity, and population density on the global distributions of human pathogens and (b) evaluates the species-area predictions of island biogeography for human pathogen distributions on oceanic islands. Methods Historical data were used in order to minimize the influence of differential access to modern health care on pathogen prevalence. The database includes coded data (pathogen, environmental and cultural) for a worldwide sample of 186 non-industrial cultures, including 37 on islands. Prevalence levels for 10 pathogens were combined into a pathogen prevalence index, and OLS regression was used to model the environmental determinants of the prevalence index and number of pathogens. Results Pathogens (number and prevalence index) showed the expected latitudinal gradient, but predictors varied by latitude. Pathogens increased with temperature in high-latitude zones, while mean annual precipitation was a more important predictor in low-latitude zones. Other environmental factors associated with more pathogens included seasonal dry extremes, frost-free climates, and human population density outside the tropics. Islands showed the expected species-area relationship for all but the smallest islands, and the relationship was not mediated by habitat diversity. Although geographic distributions of free-living and parasitic taxa typically have different determinants, these data show that variables that influence the distribution of free-living organisms also shape the global distribution of human pathogens. Understanding the cause of these distributions is potentially important, since geographical variation in human pathogens has an important influence on global disparities in human welfare. PMID:25271730

Cashdan, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

178

Chinese Children's Stories: Teaching Discourse Strategies for Beginning Chinese.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's literature, with its complex structures and discourse strategies, helps beginning language students develop reading strategies and begin understanding discourse strategies in native speech. Tsao's notion of discourse analysis is used to introduce topic deletion in a sample of literary texts. (Contains 25 references.) (LB)

Lu, Sheldon Hsiao-Peng

1993-01-01

179

A Content Analysis and Historical Comparison of Bibliotherapy Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Treatment characteristics and methods were analyzed for 103 empirical studies of reading therapy, or bibliotherapy, from the United States and Canada conducted over the past two decades and retrieved from the PsychInfo database. A content analysis was performed on each study, and quantified data was reported and compared within and between two…

Piercy, Brenda A.

180

NASA/SP-2013-605 An Analysis and a Historical Review  

E-print Network

NASA/SP-2013-605 An Analysis and a Historical Review of the Apollo Program Lunar Module Touchdown Dynamics George A. Zupp, PhD Engineering Directorate, Retired Structural Engineering Division NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058 January 2013 #12;NASA STI Program ... in Profile Since its founding

Rathbun, Julie A.

181

Cultural-Historical Activity Theory and Domain Analysis: Metatheoretical Implications for Information Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Cultural-historical activity theory is an important theory in modern psychology. In recent years, it has drawn more attention from related disciplines including information science. Argument: This paper argues that activity theory and domain analysis which uses the theory as one of its bases could bring about some important…

Wang, Lin

2013-01-01

182

Analysis of genetic data on Jewish populations. I. Historical background, demographic features, and genetic markers.  

PubMed Central

Part I describes the data sets on which the analysis of Part II is based. This covers the nature of the populations sampled, the extent to which the samples are representative, and a brief review of historical and demographic facts on the populations involved. PMID:380329

Bonné-Tamir, B; Karlin, S; Kenett, R

1979-01-01

183

HISTORICAL DOCUMENT ANALYSIS: A REVIEW OF FRENCH PROJECTS AND OPEN ISSUES  

E-print Network

. In a first step, a bird view approach is adopted describing document specificities and associated projectsHISTORICAL DOCUMENT ANALYSIS: A REVIEW OF FRENCH PROJECTS AND OPEN ISSUES Mickael Coustaty, Romain Raveaux and Jean-Marc Ogier L3i Labs University of La Rochelle Avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

184

The Art of Prophecy: Interpretive Analysis, Academic Discourse, and Expository Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that while competence in interpretive analysis is a commonly acknowledged goal of a college education, it is rarely explicitly addressed in the curriculum. Notes that because interpretive analysis makes specific cognitive and generic demands on writers, expository writing students would benefit from both theoretical and practical training…

Ganter, Granville

2001-01-01

185

Livelihood security, vulnerability and resilience: a historical analysis of Chibuene, southern Mozambique.  

PubMed

A sustainable livelihood framework is used to analyse livelihood security, vulnerability and resilience in the village of Chibuene, Vilanculos, southern Mozambique from a historical and contemporary perspective. Interviews, assessments, archaeology, palaeoecology and written sources are used to address tangible and intangible aspects of livelihood security. The analysis shows that livelihood strategies for building resilience, diversification of resource use, social networks and trade, have long historical continuities. Vulnerability is contingent on historical processes as long-term socio-environmental insecurity and resultant biodiversity loss. These contingencies affect the social capacity to cope with vulnerability in the present. The study concludes that contingency and the extent and strength of social networks should be added as a factor in livelihood assessments. Furthermore, policies for mitigating vulnerability must build on the reality of environmental insecurity, and strengthen local structures that diversify and spread risk. PMID:22544636

Ekblom, Anneli

2012-07-01

186

Analysis of historical delta values for IAEA/LANL NDA training courses  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supports the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) by providing training for IAEA inspectors in neutron and gamma-ray Nondestructive Assay (NDA) of nuclear material. Since 1980, all new IAEA inspectors attend this two week course at LANL gaining hands-on experience in the application of NDA techniques, procedures and analysis to measure plutonium and uranium nuclear material standards with well known pedigrees. As part of the course the inspectors conduct an inventory verification exercise. This exercise provides inspectors the opportunity to test their abilities in performing verification measurements using the various NDA techniques. For an inspector, the verification of an item is nominally based on whether the measured assay value agrees with the declared value to within three times the historical delta value. The historical delta value represents the average difference between measured and declared values from previous measurements taken on similar material with the same measurement technology. If the measurement falls outside a limit of three times the historical delta value, the declaration is not verified. This paper uses measurement data from five years of IAEA courses to calculate a historical delta for five non-destructive assay methods: Gamma-ray Enrichment, Gamma-ray Plutonium Isotopics, Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting, Active Neutron Coincidence Counting and the Neutron Coincidence Collar. These historical deltas provide information as to the precision and accuracy of these measurement techniques under realistic conditions.

Geist, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Santi, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bonner, Elisa [FORMER N-4 STUDENT

2009-01-01

187

Wildlife-Based Recreation as Economic Windfall: A Rhetorical Analysis of Public Discourse on Birding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Symbolic convergence theory posits that groups of like-minded people use linguistic symbols to construct a shared reality and form rhetorical visions (ways of viewing and communicating about an issue). To see how rhetorical visions might help shape public tourism policy, the authors used fantasy theme analysis to examine 206 Kansas newspaper…

Hill, Steven G.; Cable, Ted T.; Scott, David

2010-01-01

188

The Main Concept Analysis in Cantonese Aphasic Oral Discourse: External Validation and Monitoring Chronic Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The 1st aim of this study was to further establish the external validity of the main concept (MC) analysis by examining its relationship with the Cantonese Linguistic Communication Measure (CLCM; Kong, 2006; Kong & Law, 2004)--an established quantitative system for narrative production--and the Cantonese version of the Western Aphasia…

Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin

2011-01-01

189

Linguistic Reflections of Social Engagement in Asperger Discourse and Narratives: A Quantitative Analysis of Two Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present linguistic analyses of two children (aged 8 and 10) with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and their two matched controls are based on dyadic therapist-child conversations and on picture description tasks. The circa 100 analysis features covering aspects of (i) lexicon (e.g. prominalization), (ii) structural characteristics of turns, (iii)…

Niemi, Jussi; Otsa, Lidia; Evtyukova, Aleksandra; Lehtoaro, Laura; Niemi, John

2010-01-01

190

Analysis of Classroom Discourse and Instructor's Awareness of Speech in a Spanish College Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an instrumental case study and consists of the description, analysis and interpretation of the teaching practices of a Spanish college instructor. The aim of this research project is to find answers to the following questions: What is the ratio of L1-L2 spoken in class? For what functions is each language used? And, are there…

Rondon-Pari, Graziela

2011-01-01

191

Selling patients and other metaphors: a discourse analysis of the interpretive frames that shape emergency department admission handoffs.  

PubMed

This paper reports a discourse analysis of the language doctors used as they talked about and engaged in patient handoffs between the emergency department (ED) and various inpatient services at one highly specialized academic tertiary teaching and referral hospital in the Midwest United States. Although interest in handoff improvement has grown considerably in recent years, progress has been hampered, perhaps in part, because of a widely used but limiting conceptual model of handoff as an information transmission. The purpose of the study reported here is to analyze the way doctors make sense of handoff interactions, including uncovering the interpretive frames they use, in order to provide empirical findings to expand conceptual models of handoff. All data reported were drawn from a two-year ethnographic study (2009-2011) and include semi-structured interviews (n = 48), non-participant observations (349 h), and recorded telephone handoff conversations (n = 48). A total of eighty-six individuals participated, including resident and attending doctors from the ED, internal medicine and surgical services, as well as hospital administrators. Findings are organized around four metaphors doctors used: sales, sports and games, packaging, and teamwork. Each metaphor, in turn, reveals an underlying interpretive frame that appears to be influenced by organizational and social structures and to shape the possibilities for action that doctors perceive. The four underlying interpretive frames are: handoff as persuasion, handoff as competition, handoff as expectation matching, and handoff as collaboration. Taken together, these interpretive frames highlight the complex, socially interactive nature of handoff and provide an empirical basis for grounding and enriching the conceptual model of handoff that guides research and practice improvement efforts. PMID:24565149

Hilligoss, Brian

2014-02-01

192

Teachers in the News: A Critical Analysis of One US Newspaper's Discourse on Education, 2006-2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public education discourse in the USA has been characterized by messages of crisis shaping education policies across national contexts. Education policy solutions target a lack of qualified teachers and insufficient oversight of teacher practice as central factors in the crisis, placing teacher identity as knowledgeable, authoritative…

Cohen, Jennifer L.

2010-01-01

193

Exploring the Discourse on Communication Modality after Cochlear Implantation: A Foucauldian Analysis of Parents' Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After pediatric cochlear implantation, parents have to make decisions concerning which communication modality the child and the child's family will use. The choice has to be made against a background of opposing views on communication modality in follow-up after pediatric cochlear implantation. The opposing views form a discourse that has…

Bruin, Marieke; Nevøy, Anne

2014-01-01

194

An Analysis of Peer Interaction Patterns as Discoursed by On-Line Small Group Problem-Solving Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Currently, numerous on-line discussion forums have been developed for educational purposes; therefore, a better understanding about peer student discussion or discourse interactions is quite important. Through gathering peer learning interactions on 57 college computer science students, who were randomly assigned into 14 small groups for solving…

Liu, Chen-Chung; Tsai, Chin-Chung

2008-01-01

195

Captive on a carousel: discourses of 'new' in medical education 1910-2010.  

PubMed

Medical educators aim to train physicians with sound scientific knowledge, expert clinical skills and an ability to work effectively with patients, colleagues and health systems. Over the past century, educators have devoted considerable thought and effort to how medical education might be improved. Analysing the language used to describe these initiatives provides insight into assumptions and practices. The authors conducted a Foucauldian critical discourse analysis of prominent recurrent themes in the North American medical education literature. The assembled archive of texts included works of Abraham Flexner, articles from the journal Academic Medicine (including its predecessor journals) and major medical education reports. A series of recurring themes were identified, including the need to avoid over-specialization, the importance of generalism, and the need to broaden criteria for medical student selection. Analysis of these recurring themes allowed identification of a prominent and recurrent discourse of 'new.' This discourse places focus on the future, ignores the ongoing historical nature of issues, suggests a sense of urgency and enables the proposal of modest solutions. It emphasizes changes for individual future doctors, thereby limiting consideration of institutional and systemic factors. Using the image of a carousel, the regular return of themes can be seen as carousel ponies circling around repeatedly in medical education. Identification of this medical education carousel provides an opportunity for medical educators to understand the historical nature of calls for change, and to consider what kinds of reform might be required if they wish to avoid this repetition in the future. PMID:23053873

Whitehead, Cynthia R; Hodges, Brian D; Austin, Zubin

2013-10-01

196

Conversational analysis of medical discourse in rehabilitation: A study in Korea  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study is to conduct an analysis of actual communicative behaviors, including nonverbal ones, between physicians and patients in rehabilitation. Design Sixteen videotaped physician–patient interactions in a rehabilitation center in Korea were transcribed. And three coders placed utterances in transcripts into categories while watching the videotapes. Results Consistent with results of previous studies, patient active communicative behaviors varied considerably depending on individual patients. The findings revealed that, on average, patients' active communicative behaviors were less than 9% of patients' total utterances. In particular, almost half of the patients (N = 7) did not even ask one single question. The results also showed that physicians' empathic communicative acts averaged less than 3% of physicians' total utterances. In addition, among physicians' nonverbal behaviors, eye-contact showed significant correlation with physician empathic listening and supportive talks. Conclusions The findings of this study indicated a considerable lack of empathic communicative behaviors of physicians in Korea. This might have led to infrequent use of active communicative behaviors by patients. In addition, the importance of physician's partnership for enhancement of active communicative behaviors of patients was demonstrated. To better serve patients, physicians who wish to improve their communication should first identify components of their empathic communicative behaviors that need improvement and then attempt to refine their skills. PMID:23433331

Chang, Chulhun Ludgerus; Park, Byung Kyu; Kim, Sung Soo

2013-01-01

197

In the shadow of a new smoke free policy: A discourse analysis of health care providers' engagement in tobacco control in community mental health  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of tobacco use among individuals with mental illness remains a serious public health concern. Tobacco control has received little attention in community mental health despite the fact that many individuals with mental illness are heavy smokers and experience undue tobacco-related health consequences. Methods This qualitative study used methods of discourse analysis to examine the perceptions of health care providers, both professionals and paraprofessionals, in relation to their roles in tobacco control in the community mental health system. Tobacco control is best conceptualised as a suite of policies and practices directed at supporting smoke free premises, smoking cessation counselling and limiting access to tobacco products. The study took place following the establishment of a new policy that restricted tobacco smoking inside all mental health facilities and on their grounds. Ninety one health care providers participated in open-ended interviews in which they described their role in tobacco control. The interview data were analyzed discursively by asking questions such as: what assumptions underlie what is being said about tobacco? Results Five separate yet overlapping discursive frames were identified in which providers described their roles. Managing a smoke free environment emphasised the need to police and monitor the smoke free environment. Tobacco is therapeutic was a discourse that underscored the putative value of smoking for clients. Tobacco use is an individual choice located the decision to smoke with individual clients thereby negating a role in tobacco control for providers. It's someone else's role was a discourse that placed responsibility for tobacco control with others. Finally, the discourse of tobacco control as health promotion located tobacco control in a range of activities that are used to support the health of clients. Conclusions This study provides insights into the complex factors that shape tobacco control practices in the mental health field and reinforces the need to see practice change as a matter that extends beyond the individual. The study findings highlight discourses structured by power and powerlessness in environments in which health care providers are both imposing and resisting the smoke free policy. PMID:20667105

2010-01-01

198

Some historical relationships between science and technology with implications for behavior analysis  

PubMed Central

The relationship between science and technology is examined in terms of some implications for behavior analysis. Problems result when this relationship is seen as one in which science generally begets technology in a one-way, or hierarchical, relationship. These problems are not found when the relationship between science and technology is seen as two-way, or symmetrical, within a larger context of relationships. Some historical examples are presented. Collectively, these and other examples in the references weaken the case for a prevailing one-way, hierarchical relationship and strengthen the case for a two-way, symmetrical relationship. In addition to being more accurate historically, the symmetrical relationship is also more consistent with the principles of behavior analysis. PMID:22478016

Moxley, Roy A.

1989-01-01

199

Climate signature of solar irradiance variations: analysis of long-term instrumental, historical, and proxy data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The signature of solar irradiance variations on decadal-to-centennial climate variability is analysed by means of statistical analysis of long-term instrumental, historical, and proxy data sets. Solar variations associated with the Schwabe, Hale, and Gleissberg cycles are detected by their spatial patterns in sea-surface temperature and sea-level pressure. Different statistical methods for instrumental and proxy data show that the mode related

Gerrit Lohmann; Norel Rimbu; Mihai Dima

2004-01-01

200

An objective change-point analysis of historical Atlantic hurricane numbers  

E-print Network

We perform an objective change-point analysis on 106 years of historical hurricane number data. The algorithm we use looks at all possible combinations of change-points and compares them in terms of the variances of the differences between real and modelled numbers. Overfitting is avoided by using cross-validation. We identify four change-points, and show that the presence of temporal structure in the hurricane number time series is highly statistically significant.

Jewson, S; Jewson, Stephen; Penzer, Jeremy

2006-01-01

201

["Be your own risk-manager!"--the discourse on risk in German HIV/AIDS-prevention].  

PubMed

This article presents, some results of a discourse analysis on the HIV/AIDS-Prevention in Germany. The Analysis has been carried out for a thesis in historical anthropology and focuses on the dicourse on risk, which becomes evident in the statements related to HIV/AIDS-Prevention. First of all, the article shows, how the description of risky situations replaces the construction of high-risk groups. Moreover, the article retraces changes in the strategies of HIV/AIDS-Prevention over the last 25 years and pays special attention to references to risky situations. PMID:18807702

Küppers, C

2008-09-10

202

A Historical Perspective on the Role of Collaboration in Teacher Education Reform: Making Good on the Promise of Teaching All Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an analysis of how collaborative teacher education has developed in terms of practice, discourse, and the relationship between general and special education across three historical stages. It explores how collaborative teacher education between general and special education has been positioned over time in relationship to…

Pugach, Marleen C.; Blanton, Linda P.; Correa, Vivian I.

2011-01-01

203

From "truth" to "invented reality": A discourse analysis of high school physics students' talk about scientific knowledge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students' views of the nature of scientific knowledge have been recognized as an important component of science learning environments. In this study, we analyze an extensive data base consisting of 23 students' written and oral discourse about ontology, epistemology, and sociology of scientific knowledge collected over a 15-month period in the context of two consecutive junior- and senior-level physics courses. Over a 2-month period at the beginning of the second year, students read, reflected on, and talked about a text which discusses epistemology in the context of physics. Our study shows that students drew on nine types of discursive resources to support their ontological, epistemological, and sociological claims. Toward the end of the study, the range and number of supportive statements had increased. Simultaneously, few students changed their ontological and sociological claims, but a considerable number changed their epistemological claims. Two case studies illustrate the development of student discourse in the course of the study.

Roth, Wolff-Michael; Lucas, Keith

2005-11-23

204

[Thoughts on modern aphasic discourse studies].  

PubMed

This article gives a brief introduction to the content of aphasic discourse analysis, the theoretical frameworks applied, and critical findings . It also points out the problem that faces the study, the variety of study methods that arises, and the future trend. The structuralists tend to focus on the micro aspects of the discourse while the functionalists on its general structure and the meaning. The study in the future shall address the connection of these two levels. PMID:16624764

Wu, Ke-rong

2006-04-01

205

Flood frequency analysis of historical flood data under stationary and non-stationary modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historical records are an important source of information about extreme and rare floods with a great value to establish a reliable flood return frequency. The use of long historic records for flood frequency analysis brings in the question of flood stationarity, since climatic and land-use conditions can affect the relevance of past flooding as a predictor of future flooding. In this paper, a detailed 400 year flood record from the Tagus River in Aranjuez (Central Spain) was analysed under stationary and non-stationary flood frequency approaches, to assess their implications on hazard studies. Historical flood records in Aranjuez were obtained from documents (Proceedings of the City Council, diaries, chronicles, memoirs, etc.), epigraphic marks, and indirect historical sources and reports. The water levels associated with different floods (derived from descriptions or epigraphic marks) were computed into discharge values using a one-dimensional hydraulic model. Secular variations on flood magnitude and frequency, found to respond to climate and environmental drivers, showed a good correlation between high values of historical flood discharges and a negative mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO index). Over the systematic gauge record (1913-2008), an abrupt change on flood magnitude was produced in 1957 due to constructions of three major reservoirs in the Tagus headwaters (Bolarque, Entrepeñas and Buendia) controlling 80% of the watershed surface draining to Aranjuez. Two different models were used for the flood frequency analysis: (a) a stationary model estimating statistical distributions incorporating imprecise and categorical data based on maximum likelihood estimators; (b) a time-varying model based on "generalized additive models for location, scale and shape" (GAMLSS) modelling, that incorporates external covariates related to climate variability (NAO index) and catchment hydrology factors (in this paper a reservoir index; RI). Flood frequency analysis using documentary data (plus gauged record) improved the estimates of the probabilities of rare floods (return intervals of 100 year and higher). Under non-stationary modelling flood occurrence associated with an exceedance probability of 0.01 (i.e. return period of 100 year) has changed over the last 500 year due to decadal and multi-decadal variability of the NAO. Yet, frequency analysis under stationary models was successful on providing an average discharge around which value flood quantiles estimated by non-stationary models fluctuate through time.

Machado, M. J.; Botero, B. A.; López, J.; Francés, F.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Benito, G.

2015-01-01

206

A Historical Analysis of the Relationship Between Rice Production and PDSI Values in Sri Lanka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As world population grows, there are ever increasing demands being placed on the food production systems throughout the world. Climate change is complicating these stressors even further through more frequent severe weather events. In the developing world, where there are fewer resources to mitigate the effects of climate change, the combination of these two factors can have drastic consequences. In Sri Lanka, farmers in major rice production areas of the country are already struggling to produce enough rice, a staple food of the local diet, and a severe wet or dry spell could be ruinous. Faced with a changing climate and a growing demand for rice, it is important to be able to anticipate how climatic changes will affect rice production. By examining how extreme wet and dry spells have historically affected rice production, decision makers may be better able to predict and prepare for potential food shortages. We conducted an analysis of historic temperature, precipitation, and rice production statistics in order to determine the effects of extreme wet and dry spells on rice production. We also created a timeline of major developments in Sri Lankan agriculture in order to compare effects on rice production due to changes in agricultural practices with meteorological changes. Historical temperature and precipitation data were used to calculate the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for a number of stations distributed throughout the Mahaweli river basin. The basin, the largest in the country, contains three different climatic regions - dry, intermediate, and wet - that all receive different amounts of annual precipitation. The PDSI values were used to quantify drought and wetness during the Yala (April-September) and Maha (October-March) growing seasons. Analysis of historical PDSI values, agricultural advances, and rice production statistics shows great promise for anticipating and mitigating future food shortages.

Jacobi, J. H.; Hornberger, G. M.

2011-12-01

207

Modeling Narrative Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thesis describes new approaches to the formal modeling of narrative discourse. Although narratives of all kinds are ubiquitous in daily life, contemporary text processing techniques typically do not leverage the aspects that separate narrative from expository discourse. We describe two approaches to the problem. The first approach considers…

Elson, David K.

2012-01-01

208

Galactic Discourse Issue 5  

E-print Network

??????????????????????? Rumor Has It (fiction) ???????????????????????? Anna Walker ??????????????????????? I Know You (poem) ????????????????????????????? 8. L. Barr ???????????????????????? Later, My Friend (poem) ??????????????????????? Debbie Gilbert...: Berkeley Hunt. PROOFREADERS: Mabel 8lunk, Vivian Huff, Berkeley Hunt, Andrea Kunz, & Debbie Kutter. GALACTIC DISCOURSE 5 was printed by Graphtech Printing, Montclair, CA. Copyright ~April, 1987 by Laurie Huff for the contributors. GALACTIC DISCOURSE...

Multiple Contributors

1987-01-01

209

Envisioning the Third Sector's Welfare Role: Critical Discourse Analysis of ‘Post-Devolution’ Public Policy in the UK 1998–2012  

PubMed Central

Welfare state theory has struggled to come to terms with the role of the third sector. It has often categorized welfare states in terms of the pattern of interplay between state social policies and the structure of the labour market. Moreover, it has frequently offered an exclusive focus on state policy – thereby failing to substantially recognize the role of the formally organized third sector. This study offers a corrective view. Against the backdrop of the international shift to multi-level governance, it analyses the policy discourse of third sector involvement in welfare governance following devolution in the UK. It reveals the changing and contrasting ways in which post-devolution territorial politics envisions the sector's role as a welfare provider. The mixed methods analysis compares policy framing and the structural narratives associated with the development of the third sector across the four constituent polities of the UK since 1998. The findings reveal how devolution has introduced a new spatial policy dynamic. Whilst there are elements of continuity between polities – such as the increasing salience of the third sector in welfare provision – policy narratives also provide evidence of the territorialization of third sector policy. From a methodological standpoint, this underlines the distinctive and complementary role discourse-based analysis can play in understanding contemporary patterns and processes shaping welfare governance. PMID:25574063

Chaney, Paul; Wincott, Daniel

2014-01-01

210

Adolescent pregnancies and girls' sexual and reproductive rights in the amazon basin of Ecuador: an analysis of providers' and policy makers' discourses  

PubMed Central

Background Adolescent pregnancies are a common phenomenon that can have both positive and negative consequences. The rights framework allows us to explore adolescent pregnancies not just as isolated events, but in relation to girls' sexual and reproductive freedom and their entitlement to a system of health protection that includes both health services and the so called social determinants of health. The aim of this study was to explore policy makers' and service providers' discourses concerning adolescent pregnancies, and discuss the consequences that those discourses have for the exercise of girls' sexual and reproductive rights' in the province of Orellana, located in the amazon basin of Ecuador. Methods We held six focus-group discussions and eleven in-depth interviews with 41 Orellana's service providers and policy makers. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using discourse analysis, specifically looking for interpretative repertoires. Results Four interpretative repertoires emerged from the interviews. The first repertoire identified was "sex is not for fun" and reflected a moralistic construction of girls' sexual and reproductive health that emphasized abstinence, and sent contradictory messages regarding contraceptive use. The second repertoire -"gendered sexuality and parenthood"-constructed women as sexually uninterested and responsible mothers, while men were constructed as sexually driven and unreliable. The third repertoire was "professionalizing adolescent pregnancies" and lead to patronizing attitudes towards adolescents and disregard of the importance of non-medical expertise. The final repertoire -"idealization of traditional family"-constructed family as the proper space for the raising of adolescents while at the same time acknowledging that sexual abuse and violence within families was common. Conclusions Providers' and policy makers' repertoires determined the areas that the array of sexual and reproductive health services should include, leaving out the ones more prone to cause conflict and opposition, such as gender equality, abortion provision and welfare services for pregnant adolescents. Moralistic attitudes and sexism were present - even if divergences were also found-, limiting services' capability to promote girls' sexual and reproductive health and rights. PMID:20525405

2010-01-01

211

Age transcended: a semiotic and rhetorical analysis of the discourse of agelessness in North American anti-aging skin care advertisements.  

PubMed

Drawing from a collection of over 160 North American print advertisements for anti-aging skin care products from January to December of 2009, this paper examines the discourse of agelessness, a vision of esthetic perfection and optimal health that is continually referred to by gerontologists, cultural theorists, and scientific researchers as a state of being to which humankind can aspire. Employing critical discourse analysis through the use of semiotics and visual rhetoric, this paper explores the means through which anti-aging skin care advertisements present to their viewers a particular object of desire, looking, more specifically, at how agelessness is presented as a way out and ultimate transcendence of age. Through the analytical tools of semiotics and visual rhetoric, four visions of agelessness are identified and explored in this paper: Agelessness as Scientific Purity, Agelessness as Genetic Impulse, Agelessness as Nature's Essence, and Agelessness as Myth. Whether found in the heights of scientific purity, the inner core of our genetic impulse, the depths of nature's essence, or whether agelessness itself has reached its own, untouchable, mythic status, the advertisements in this study represent one of the most pervasive vehicles through which our current vision(s) of ageless perfection are reflected, reinforced, and suspended in a drop of cream. PMID:24655670

Ellison, Kirsten L

2014-04-01

212

Information Management and Cohesion in the Study of Written Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model is described for the analysis of information management and cohesion in written discourse. Concepts of discourse analysis are defined, specifically information management, syntax, semantic reference, lexicon, cohesion, and intonation, with examples taken from scholarly publications in psychology, biology, and history. (48 references) (VWL)

Lovejoy, Kim Bryan; Lance, Donald M.

1991-01-01

213

Naming Giftedness: Whiteness and Ability Discourse in US Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers a conceptual analysis of ability discourse using the theoretical lens of critical whiteness studies and the methodological framework of critical discourse analysis. From its origins in the Progressive Era to contemporary debates on tracking, the concept of giftedness has been formed through racial projects throughout US history.…

Stark, Lauren

2014-01-01

214

[Micro and nondestructive analysis of blue dyes from silk fabrics and decorative painting of historic building].  

PubMed

Dye analysis is important to the understanding of fabric color degradation and technical development of ancient printing and dyeing. In the present study, thin layer chromatography and Raman spectroscopy were used for the analysis of blue dyes from 6 silk fabric of Tang dynasty and decorative painting of Jian Fu Gong, Forbidden City. The applicability of these two methods in the cultural heritages was also studied. The results indicate that all these blue substances are indigo; indigo was not only used as dye in ancient fabrics, but also as pigment in decorative painting of historic building, so it is used widely. Both analytic methods have advantages and disadvantages; Raman spectroscopy is nondestructive analysis; thin layer chromatography needs small amount of sample, but could give more information. PMID:21322217

Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Wei, Xi-Ning; Lei, Yong; Cheng, Xiao-Lin; Zhou, Yang

2010-12-01

215

A Legal Discourse Community: Text Centered and Interdisciplinary in Social and Political Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews recent studies of legal discourse and nonacademic writing and presents the results of a historical case study on an environmental public policy. Finds that a dynamic discourse community changed writing roles among government employees, lay members of the audience, and water pollution control board members. States that controversial…

Griggs, Karen

1996-01-01

216

Application of LC-MS to the analysis of dyes in objects of historical interest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array and mass spectrometric detection permits dyes extracted from objects of historical interest or from natural plant or animal dyestuffs to be characterized on the basis of three orthogonal properties: HPLC retention time, UV-visible spectrum and molecular mass. In the present study, we have focused primarily on yellow dyes, the bulk of which are flavonoid glycosides that would be almost impossible to characterize without mass spectrometric detection. Also critical for this analysis is a method for mild extraction of the dyes from objects (e.g., textiles) without hydrolyzing the glycosidic linkages. This was accomplished using 5% formic acid in methanol, rather than the more traditional 6 M HCl. Mass spectroscopy, besides providing the molecular mass of the dye molecule, sometimes yields additional structural data based on fragmentation patterns. In addition, coeluting compounds can often be detected using extracted ion chromatography. The utility of mass spectrometry is illustrated by the analysis of historical specimens of silk that had been dyed yellow with flavonoid glycosides from Sophora japonica (pagoda tree) and curcumins from Curcuma longa (turmeric). In addition, we have used these techniques to identify the dye type, and sometimes the specific dyestuff, in a variety of objects, including a yellow varnish from a 19th century Tibetan altar and a 3000-year-old wool mortuary textiles, from Xinjiang, China. We are using HPLC with diode array and mass spectrometric detection to create a library of analyzed dyestuffs (>200 so far; mostly plants) to serve as references for identification of dyes in objects of historical interest.

Zhang, Xian; Laursen, Richard

2009-07-01

217

Talk in Interaction in the Speech-Language Pathology Clinic: Bringing Theory to Practice through Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of learning about and applying clinical discourse analysis to enhance the talk in interaction in the speech-language pathology clinic is discussed. The benefits of analyzing clinical discourse to explicate therapy dynamics are described.

Leaby, Margaret M.; Walsh, Irene P.

2008-01-01

218

Science learning in the context of discourse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The original article by Kamberelis and Wehunt (2012) discusses an interesting and important research subject in science education as it focus on classroom interactions and the characteristics of the discourse production of interlocutors. The authors start from the premise that discourse heterogeneity is constitutive of social activities, which is supported by others like Mikhail Bakhtin (Speech genres and other late essays. University of Texas Press, Austin, 1981) and Erving Goffman (Frame analysis: an essay on the organization of experience. Harper and Row, London, 1974). They also present the definitions of three key elements that organize hybrid discourse: (a) lamination of multiple cultural frames, (b) shifting relations between people and their discourse, and (c) shifting power relations between people. Finally, the authors analyze how these three elements organize students' science discourse in the classroom and how it contributes to the creation of a micro-community of practice capable of helping the emergence of a disciplinary knowledge that is legitimized by and strengthens the identity of the group. In the present commentary, I discuss how Michael Foucault's (1970) concept of discursive procedure may help us to analyze the (often neglected) teacher's role in the development of hybrid discourse practices.

do Nascimento, Silvania Sousa

2013-06-01

219

Methodological Considerations for Micro Studies of UNIA DivisionsSome Notes Calling on an Ethno-Historical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores various analytical and interpretive tools and historical methods and techniques of historical research and writing for conducting research on local Garveyism and the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL). The article suggests a new framework that could be used to ably describe, interpret, and evaluate a micro-level analysis of UNIA-ACL divisions of the 1920s

Ronald J. Stephens

2008-01-01

220

Benefits of applying combined diffuse reflectance FTIR spectroscopy and principal component analysis for the study of blue tempera historical painting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the application of diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) to the examination of historic blue pigments and blue tempera paintings commonly found on works of art. The discussion is mainly focused on the practical benefits of using this technique joined to principal component analysis (PCA), a powerful multivariate analysis tool. Thanks to the study of several

Natalia Navas; Julia Romero-Pastor; Eloisa Manzano; Carolina Cardell

2008-01-01

221

Historic records and GIS applications for flood risk analysis in the Salento peninsula (southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of calamitous meteoric events represents a current problem of the Salento peninsula (Southern Italy). In fact, flash floods, generated by very intense rainfall, occur not only in autumn and winter, but at the end of summer as well. These calamities are amplified by peculiar geological and geomorphological characteristics of Salento and by the pollution of sinkholes. Floodings affect often large areas, especially in the impermeable lowering zones. These events cause warnings and emergency states, involving people as well as socio-economic goods. A methodical investigation based on the historic flood records and an analysis of the geoenvironmental factors have been performed, using a Geographic Information System (GIS) methodology for database processing in order to identify the distribution of areas with different risk degrees. The data, referring to events that occurred from 1968 to 2004, have been collected in a database, the so-called IPHAS (Salento Alluvial PHenomena Inventory), extracted in an easily consultable table. The final goal is the development of a risk map where the areas that are affected by floodings are included between small ridges, the so-called "Serre". More than 50% of the Salento peninsula shows high or very high risk values. The numerous maps that were utilized and generated represent an important basis in order to quantify the flood risk, according to the model using historic records.

Forte, F.; Pennetta, L.; Strobl, R. O.

2005-11-01

222

Science Pedagogy as a Category of Historical Analysis: Past, Present, and Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historical studies of science pedagogy have flourished in recent years. This essay offers an assessment of the literature on science pedagogy from the 1930s to the present. It argues that rather than focusing on the work of Thomas Kuhn and Michel Foucault, historians of science pedagogy could with profit turn to the work of Ludwik Fleck. Fleck offers three categories of historical analysis - experience, sensation, and cognition - that are embedded in science pedagogy. He furthermore argues unequivocally for the central importance of considering the cultural context of science pedagogy. Fleck’s interpretation of the role of publishing in science is used in the final section of this essay to assess scientific publishing and textbook culture, topics that are the principal concern of the articles in this volume. Among the novelties of the articles in this volume on textbooks are (1) the connections they draw between textbooks and social structure; (2) the relationships they suggest between textbooks and the public sphere; and (3) their identification of the eighteenth century as the crucial transformative century in textbook production.

Olesko, Kathryn M.

2006-11-01

223

Treatment Plan for Historic Site MWO04 and Analysis of Obsidian Artifacts  

E-print Network

Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility (EREF) in Bonneville County, Idaho (Ref. 1). In accordance with the AES commitment in response to ER RAI #5 (Ref. 2) and to support preparation of the Memorandum of Agreement with the Idaho State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO), Enclosure 2 provides the Treatment Plan for mitigation of historic site MWO04 on the EREF site. This plan outlines methods for obtaining archival and documentary information, conducting surface artifact collection, and gathering subsurface data through testing and excavation. Additionally, Enclosure 3 provides a report prepared by Western Cultural Resource Management, Inc. (WCRM) on the geochemical analysis of obsidian artifacts collected from the EREF site. These artifacts were analyzed at the request of the SHPO. Enclosures 2 and 3 contain proprietary information that AES is requesting be withheld from public disclosure in accordance with 10 CFR 2.390. Enclosure 1 provides an affidavit supporting our request to withhold the information identified in Enclosures 2 and 3 in accordance with 10 CFR 2.390(b). If you have any questions regarding this submittal, please contact me at (508) 573-6554.

Eagle Rock; Enrichment Facility

2010-01-01

224

Hair Analysis Provides a Historical Record of Cortisol Levels in Cushing’s Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The severity of Cushing’s Syndrome (CS) depends on the duration and extent of the exposure to excess glucocorticoids. Current measurements of cortisol in serum, saliva and urine reflect systemic cortisol levels at the time of sample collection, but cannot assess past cortisol levels. Hair cortisol levels may be increased in patients with CS, and, as hair grows about 1 cm/month, measurement of hair cortisol may provide historical information on the development of hypercortisolism. We attempted to measure cortisol in hair in relation to clinical course in six female patients with CS and in 32 healthy volunteers in 1 cm hair sections. Hair cortisol content was measured using a commercially available salivary cortisol immune assay with a protocol modified for use with hair. Hair cortisol levels were higher in patients with CS than in controls, the medians (ranges) were 679 (279–2500) and 116 (26–204) ng/g respectively (P <0.001). Segmental hair analysis provided information for up to 18 months before time of sampling. Hair cortisol concentrations appeared to vary in accordance with the clinical course. Based on these data, we suggest that hair cortisol measurement is a novel method for assessing dynamic systemic cortisol exposure and provides unique historical information on variation in cortisol, and that more research is required to fully understand the utility and limits of this technique. PMID:19609841

Thomson, S.; Koren, G.; Fraser, L.-A.; Rieder, M.; Friedman, T. C.; Van Uum, S. H. M.

2010-01-01

225

The Korean connective nuntey in conversational discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the interactional use of the Korean connective nuntey in spontaneous conversational discourse in the framework of conversation analysis. Nuntey has mainly been discussed as a clause connector, linking a subordinate nuntey-clause to a main clause. As such it has been glossed as ‘and’, ‘but’, ‘so’, or ‘given that’. Using conversation analysis, this study reveals that nuntey-clauses often

Yong-Yae Park

1999-01-01

226

Discourse Factors in the Evaluation of Language Ability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Features of connected discourse that have been identified by discourse analysis may be applied to the evaluation of oral proficiency in a second language. For example, in the area of semantics, a speaker's control of the cause-result relationship involves, among other things, the ability to produce the different grammatical and lexical…

Litteral, Robert

227

Pluralist Discourses of Bilingualism and Translanguaging Talk in Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines student and teacher talk in a first grade classroom in a two-way immersion school in Central Texas. Drawing on audio and video data from a year-long study in a first grade two-way classroom and using a methodology that fuses ethnography and discourse analysis, the authors explore how pluralist discourses are constructed and…

Durán, Leah; Palmer, Deborah

2014-01-01

228

Discourses of Gender in the Contemporary British Army  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is about the discourses of gender which circulate within debates about the inclusion of women in the British Army. Drawing on material from elite policy debates within the British Ministry of Defence, Army, and Parliament, the article uses a methodology informed by theories of discourse analysis to examine how the figures of the male and female soldier are

Rachel Woodward; Patricia Winter

2004-01-01

229

Management of Discourse in Group Therapy for Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative study of group therapy for aphasia was undertaken in order to discover interaction patterns and discourse management strategies that help define "social" or "conversation" group therapy for aphasia. Specifically, an analysis of the discourse of clients and therapists was conducted to identify patterns across therapists and settings.…

Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Elman, Roberta J.; Holland, Audrey L.; Damico, Jack S.

2007-01-01

230

Speaking of “Disorderly” Objects: A poetics of pedagogical discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

To interrogate pedagogical discourses relating to child behaviour as “practices that systematically form the objects of which they speak” this paper features the analysis of three texts through the development and deployment of what might be called a poetics of pedagogical discourse. The principal text is a statement describing “problematic” behaviour in school. Of concern is how this particular statement

Linda J. Graham

2007-01-01

231

Police discourses of homosexual men in New Zealand.  

PubMed

The present study examined the discourses of homosexuality in the police, using the discourse analytic method developed by Potter and Wetherell (1987). The study asked how police officers constructed gay men using their discourses and why gay men should or should not be employed by the police. Eight police officers were interviewed. Analysis revealed officers drew on three distinct discourses to construct gay men. The effeminate discourse associated homosexuals with effeminate behaviors. The deviant discourse associated homosexuals with behaviors that are morally and legally prescribed, and the discourse of conditional acceptance was used by officers to positively present, while voicing reservations about homosexuals. These discourses formed the linguistic resources officers used to construct types of homosexuals that were subsequently rejected as potential police officers. Several arguments were used to justify the conclusion that homosexuals were unsuited to the police. These related to the internal and external pressures impinging on the department with regard to the employment of homosexuals. The implications of the discourses are discussed with reference to gay men, the police, and the ideologies of heterosexism and gender. PMID:8905529

Praat, A C; Tuffin, K F

1996-01-01

232

Conflicting Discourses: Functional Linguistic and Discourse Analyses of Pocahontas Texts in Bilingual Third-Grade Social Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides micro analysis of one representative incident from a larger qualitative study to examine how third-grade bilingual students and their teacher negotiated academic disciplinary and popular culture discourses in a social studies unit on Jamestown and Pocahontas. Informed by discourse and linguistic analyses, this study explores…

Ciechanowski, Kathryn

2012-01-01

233

Constructing Childhood: Discourses about School Violence in the Greek Daily Press  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the construction of discourses about childhood in the Greek daily press. It employs the theoretical frameworks of the new sociology of childhood and critical discourse analysis to question which discourses of childhood are constructed in the daily press presenting cases where children were the victimisers in school violent…

Avgitidou, Sofia; Stamou, Anastasia G.

2013-01-01

234

The Construction of Pro-Science and Technology Discourse in Chinese Language Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the pro-science and technology discourse constructed in Chinese language textbooks currently used for primary school students nationwide in China. By applying analytical techniques of critical discourse analysis (CDA), the paper critically investigates how the discourse is constructed and what ideological forces are manifested…

Liu, Yongbing

2005-01-01

235

The Common Topoi of STEM Discourse: An Apologia and Methodological Proposal, with Pilot Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author proposes a methodology for the rhetorical analysis of scientific, technical, mathematical, and engineering (STEM) discourse based on the common topics (topoi) of this discourse. Beginning with work by Miller, Prelli, and other rhetoricians of STEM discourse--but factoring in related studies in cognitive linguistics--she…

Walsh, Lynda

2010-01-01

236

The expositive discourse as pedagogical discourse: studying recontextualization in the production of a science museum exhibition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper I report on the sociological and educational particulars of The Biodiscovery Space exhibition of the Life Museum of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using Basil Bernstein's framework of pedagogic discourse and recontextualization. Data for analysis was obtained from interviews with the exhibition developers, field observations of museum visitors and analysis of exhibition documents. Using the ideas of power, classification and framework, among others, I analyzed the recontextualization process of the production of expositive discourse. Thus, working with Bernstein's idea of classification, I explain the relationship between the discourses of the science of biology, history of science, museology, education, and communication in order to produce an expositive discourse. I also make explicit how agents of the Official Recontextualization Field of the Museum and the Pedagogic Recontextualization Field "....of the Museum determine partly the final expositive discourse of an exhibition". Using the idea of a pedagogic discourse framework, I discuss how the constraints imposed by objects and texts in exhibitions help to create a specific manner of visitor interaction with these elements, "even if they have some autonomy". Considerations about the audience and the intended process of acquisition are presented, when I discuss the control strategies of the exhibition. I propose that the Biodiscovery Space exhibit has a visible pedagogy. Finally, using the collected data I discuss the power tensions created in the production of expositive discourse showing how distributive, recontextualization and evaluation rules work in the context of exhibitions. The study of the dynamics in forming the expositive discourse using Bernstein's framework reveals the individuals and institutions, the selection criteria, the negotiations and the power relations involved. It has the potential to assist both educators and researchers in the museum education field, as well as designers to understand the teaching and learning processes that occur during a visit and to establish relevant criteria to evaluate quality to best produce exhibitions in science museums.

McLaughlin, Cheryl A.

2014-10-01

237

Photomorphic analysis techniques: An interim spatial analysis using satellite remote sensor imagery and historical data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of machine scanning and/or computer-based techniques to provide greater objectivity in the photomorphic approach was investigated. Photomorphic analysis and its application in regional planning are discussed. Topics included: delineation of photomorphic regions; inadequacies of existing classification systems; tonal and textural characteristics and signature analysis techniques; pattern recognition and Fourier transform analysis; and optical experiments. A bibliography is included.

Keuper, H. R.; Peplies, R. W.; Gillooly, R. P.

1977-01-01

238

Informational database methodology for urban risk analysis.Case study: the historic centre of Bucharest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The urban environment often deals with issues concerning the deterioration of the constructed space and the quality of the environmental factors, in general terms meaning an unsatisfactory quality of life. Taking into account the complexity of the urban environment and the strong human impact, this ambience can be considered the ideal place for a varied range of risks to appear, being favoured by the external interventions and the dynamics of the internal changes that occur in the urban system, often unexpectedly. In this context, historic centre areas are even more vulnerable because of the age of the buildings and their socio-cultural value. The present study focuses on the development of a rapid assessment system of urban risks, putting emphasis on earthquakes. The importance of the study is shown by the high vulnerability that defines urban settlements, which can be considered socio-ecological systems characterized by a maximum risk level. In general, cities are highly susceptible areas because of their compactness and elevated degree of land occupancy, the Bucharest municipality being no exception. The street and sewerage networks disorganized the natural system resulted from the evolution of the lake-river system in Superior Pleistocene-Holocene and the intense construction activity represents a pressure that hasn't been measured and that is in need for a methodological interdisciplinary approach. In particular, the specific of Bucharest is given by the seismic risk based on an explosive urban evolution and the advanced state of degradation of the buildings. In this context, the Lipscani sector from the historic centre of the capital city is a maximum seismic vulnerability area, this being the result of its location in the Dâmbovita River meadow, on the brow and 80 m terrace, but more precisely because of the degradation of the buildings that cumulated the effects of the repeated earthquakes. The historic centre of Bucharest has not only a cultural function, but is also a very populated area, this being factors that favour a high susceptibility level. In addition, the majority of the buildings are included in the first and second categories of seismic risk, being built between 1875 and 1940, the age of the buildings establishing an increased vulnerability to natural hazards. The methodology was developed through the contribution of three partner universities from Bucharest: the University of Bucharest, the Academy for Economic Studies and the Technical University of Constructions. The method suggested was based on the analysis and processing of digital and statistical spatial information resulted from 1:500 topographical plans, satellite pictures, archives and historical maps used for the identification of the age of the buildings. Also, an important stage was represented by the field investigations that resulted with the data used in the assessment of the buildings: year of construction, location and vicinity, height, number of floors, state and function of the building, equipment and construction type. The information collected from the field together with the data resulted from the digitization of the ortophotoplans were inserted in ArcGIS in order to compile the database. Furthermore, the team from the Cybernetics Faculty developed a special software package in Visual Studio and SQL server in order to insert the sheets in GIS so that they could be statistically processed. The final product of the study is a program that includes as main functions editing, the analysis based on selected factors (individual or group) and viewing of building information in the shape of maps or 3D visualization. The strengths of the informational system resulted are given by the extended range of applicability, the short processing period, accessibility, capacity of support for a large amount of information and, thus, standing out as an adequate instrument to fit the needs of a susceptible population.

Armas, I.; Dumitrascu, S.

2009-04-01

239

Discourse Tracing as Qualitative Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article introduces a qualitative research method called "discourse tracing". Discourse tracing draws from contributions made by ethnographers, discourse critics, case study scholars, and process tracers. The approach offers new insights and an attendant language about how we engage in research designed specifically for the…

LeGreco, Marianne; Tracy, Sarah J.

2009-01-01

240

Expanding Discourse Repertoires with Hybridity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Hybrid discourse practice and science learning" Kamberelis and Wehunt present a theoretically rich argument about the potential of hybrid discourses for science learning. These discourses draw from different forms of "talk, social practice, and material practices" to create interactions that are "intertextually complex" and "interactionally…

Kelly, Gregory J.

2012-01-01

241

An Historical Analysis of HRD Knowledge: A Critical Review of "The Foreman: Master and Victim of Doubletalk"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyze the historical development of HRD knowledge. The analysis aims to use the qualitative research technique of text deconstruction on an important management text from the human relations phase of organization theory. Deconstruction is not a common method to HRD. In this paper, HRD scholars…

Storberg-Walker, Julia; Bierema, Laura L.

2008-01-01

242

Innovation and competition in standard-based industries: a historical analysis of the US home video game market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the competitive dynamics in a standard-based industry through a historical observation of the US home video game industry. The paper focuses on the theoretical issues of switching costs, installed base and complementary goods as critical factors of dominant designs and firm success in a network-based industry. The authors' analysis reveals multiple stages of technological innovations and changes

Scott Gallagher; Seung Ho Park

2002-01-01

243

Elaboration and Simplification in Spanish Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article compares spoken discourse models in Spanish as a second language textbooks and online language learning resources with naturally occurring conversations. Telephone service encounters are analyzed from the point of view of three different dimensions of authenticity: linguistic, sociolinguistic, and psycholinguistic. An analysis of 20…

Granena, Gisela

2008-01-01

244

Typological and Topological Meaning in Diagnostic Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the discourse of a problem-based learning group in medicine. Uses a conceptual distinction between linguistic (and other semiotic) resources for making typological (or categorical) versus topological (or continuous variation) meanings as part of a multimedia semiotic analysis of the data episode. (SR)

Lemke, J. L.

1999-01-01

245

Modeling, Analysis, and Preservation Techniques for Historic Reinforced Concrete Structures in Seismic Prone Regions Case Study: Augusta Airship Hangar, Sicily  

SciTech Connect

Throughout the world there are hundreds of historic monuments and structures considered to be invaluable and irreplaceable. They are symbols of cultural identity and a means of educating people about history. Preservation of historic monuments and structures is therefore an important part of safeguarding these cultural heritage sites so that they retain their value for future generations.This report discusses a procedure for the investigation of seismic hazards in existing buildings and possible steps that can be taken to avoid damage caused by these hazards. The Augusta Airship Hangar located in Sicily, will be used as a case study however the topics addressed in this paper can be applied to other structures of historic value around the world.First state-of-the-art scanning procedures were used to create scale digital models that were imported into a structural analysis program. Within this program dynamic analyses were performed on the model based on actual ground motions taken close to the site. This data was used to determine the period and mode shapes of the structure. Then a nonlinear analysis, including a static pushover analysis, was implemented on a two-dimensional model of the structural frame. From this analysis the failure mechanisms of the structure were revealed with relation to an allowable roof displacement. The structural integrity of the structure was evaluated based on pre-defined performance goals. Finally multiple suggestions were made how the Augusta Airship Hangar might be repaired and strengthened so that this structure will not be destroyed should an earthquake occur.The results of our study show that historic structures, despite their age, can still be strong and ductile. Also there are a multitude of effective preservation and retrofit techniques that can be used to strengthen these historic structures, should an earthquake occur. Through this study, the Augusta Airship Hangar has proven to be not only a historic symbol for Sicily but also can be used as an example for the rehabilitation of other historic structures. The techniques and processes discussed in this paper can be applied to other historic reinforced concrete structures and can be expanded upon in future investigations.

Cronin, Kelly; Whyte, Catherine [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 760 Davis Hall (United States); Reiner, Tom [Graduate Engineer, Buro Happold Consulting Engineers, Inc., 9601 Jefferson Blvd., Suite B, Culver City, CA 90232 (United States)

2008-07-08

246

Diversifying Procedural Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the main characteristics of procedural discourse are well known, less is known about its various subtypes. Most of the data for the present paper are taken from Category E (skills, trades, and hobbies) in the Brown and LOB corpora, supplemented with examples from computer manuals and a manual for drivers. Following a survey of previous…

Wikberg, Kay

247

Discourse Devices in Telugu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is to discuss some of the productive discourse devices and markers noted in 50 spoken narratives elicited from Telugu native speakers. Since most of them are college students and residents of Hyderabad, they are also exposed to English as well as Hindi-Urdu (Dakkhini). After presenting certain salient features of Telugu…

Rani, A. Usha

2010-01-01

248

The role of the seismic trigger in the Calitri landslide (Italy): historical reconstruction and dynamic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study covered by this paper was focused on the historical case of the Calitri landslide, which was repeatedly reactivated by earthquakes, as reported since 1694. The town of Calitri (Southern Italy) is located on a ridge whose southern slope, from its top to the Ofanto river valley floor, has been historically affected by major landsliding. The last record of

Salvatore Martino; Gabriele Scarascia Mugnozza

2005-01-01

249

A Discourse of Benefit: technology and school reform in the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests that the subject of school reform and technology in education needs to be considered as a discourse that needs to be ‘unpacked’ and analyzed from a social, historical, and cultural perspective. Unpacking the historical and current interests in educational reform in light of information and communication technologies is no simple matter. There are two basic challenges. First,

Robert Muffoletto

1996-01-01

250

Rethinking Historical Trauma.  

PubMed

Recent years have seen the rise of historical trauma as a construct to describe the impact of colonization, cultural suppression, and historical oppression of Indigenous peoples in North America (e.g., Native Americans in the United States, Aboriginal peoples in Canada). The discourses of psychiatry and psychology contribute to the conflation of disparate forms of violence by emphasizing presumptively universal aspects of trauma response. Many proponents of this construct have made explicit analogies to the Holocaust as a way to understand the transgenerational effects of genocide. However, the social, cultural, and psychological contexts of the Holocaust and of post-colonial Indigenous "survivance" differ in many striking ways. Indeed, the comparison suggests that the persistent suffering of Indigenous peoples in the Americas reflects not so much past trauma as ongoing structural violence. The comparative study of genocide and other forms of massive, organized violence can do much to illuminate both common mechanisms and distinctive features, and trace the looping effects from political processes to individual experience and back again. The ethics and pragmatics of individual and collective healing, restitution, resilience, and recovery can be understood in terms of the self-vindicating loops between politics, structural violence, public discourse, and embodied experience. PMID:24855142

Kirmayer, Laurence J; Gone, Joseph P; Moses, Joshua

2014-05-22

251

How Has Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Therapy Changed?: An Historical Analysis of Journals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applied behavior analysis and behavior therapy are now nearly a half century old. It is interesting to ask if and how these disciplines have changed over time, particularly regarding some of their key internal controversies (e.g., role of cognitions). We examined the first five years and the 2000-2004 five year period of the "Journal of Applied…

O'Donohue, William; Fryling, Mitch

2007-01-01

252

Analyzing Discourse: Text and Talk. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics (Washington, D.C., 1981).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Georgetown Round Table on discourse analysis dealt with the following aspects of the topic: Emerson's essay on language; oral remembering and narrative structures; persuasive discourse; social construction of topical cohesion; discourse as an interactional achievement; the place of intonation; topic as the unit of analysis in a criminal law…

Tannen, Deborah, Ed.

253

Tensions between Discourses of Development, Religion, and Human Capital in Early Childhood Education Policy Texts: The Case of Indonesia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we consider how particular discourses have come to dominate early childhood education (ECE) policy in Indonesia. We briefly explain the governance of Indonesian ECE and then our approach to policy analysis using critical discourse analysis. Three prevalent discourses are identified and discussed: "developmentalism",…

Formen, Ali; Nuttall, Joce

2014-01-01

254

Reaching out to people struggling with their lives: a discourse analysis of answers from Internet-based services in Norway and Sweden.  

PubMed

The Internet has enlarged the scope of human communication, opening new avenues for connecting with people who are struggling with their lives. This article presents a discourse analysis of 101 responses to 98 questions that were posted on 14 different Internet-based mental health services in Norway and Sweden. We aimed to examine and describe the dominant understandings and favored recommendations in the services' answers, and we reflected upon the social consequences of those answers. The services generally understood life struggles as an abnormal state of mind, life rhythms, or self-reinforcing loops. Internet-based mental health services primarily counsel service users to seek help, talk to health care professionals face-to-face, and discuss their life struggles openly and honestly. They also urge service users to take better care of themselves and socialize with other people. However, such answers might enhance the individualization of life problems, masking social origin and construction. Consequently, the services are challenged to include social explanations in their answers and strengthen their responsibility to amplify peoples' messages at a societal level. Potentially, such answers could strengthen democratic structures and put pressure on social equity. PMID:23049282

Andersen, Anders Johan W; Svensson, Tommy

2012-01-01

255

Chasing the illusive American dream: an historical analysis of Mexican-American education, employment, and culture  

E-print Network

The objectives of this study include the identification of the effects of history on contemporary Mexican immigration in the areas of education, employment and culture. Beginning with a detailed historical background of Mexican immigration...

Ham, Arwen Eugene

2013-02-22

256

[Gender discourses and bioethics].  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to present some of the contributions of the gender discourse to the bioethical debate, specifically in the field of nursing. At the same time, it will explain the contribution of the different feminist theories to the recognition and respect of human dignity. Basically, it will describe the three fundamental models in the gender discourse: the egalitarian model, the difference model, and the model of reciprocity or complementarity. The starting point is that even though the first two models have made significant contributions in the field of bioethics, they have nonetheless brought with them some deficiencies and reductionisms inherent in their thinking. The complementarity model, on the contrary, when properly understood, allows for the combination of the principles of equality and difference between man and woman, which places it at a much more enriching standpoint within the bioethical debate. PMID:25329418

Aparisi Miralles, Angela

2014-01-01

257

Historical DNA analysis reveals living descendants of an extinct species of Galápagos tortoise  

PubMed Central

Giant tortoises, a prominent symbol of the Galápagos archipelago, illustrate the influence of geological history and natural selection on the diversification of organisms. Because of heavy human exploitation, 4 of the 15 known species (Geochelone spp.) have disappeared. Charles Darwin himself detailed the intense harvesting of one species, G. elephantopus, which once was endemic to the island of Floreana. This species was believed to have been exterminated within 15 years of Darwin's historic visit to the Galápagos in 1835. The application of modern DNA techniques to museum specimens combined with long-term study of a system creates new opportunities for identifying the living remnants of extinct taxa in the wild. Here, we use mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite data obtained from museum specimens to show that the population on Floreana was evolutionarily distinct from all other Galápagos tortoise populations. It was demonstrated that some living individuals on the nearby island of Isabela are genetically distinct from the rest of the island's inhabitants. Surprisingly, we found that these “non-native” tortoises from Isabela are of recent Floreana ancestry and closely match the genetic data provided by the museum specimens. Thus, we show that the genetic line of G. elephantopus has not been completely extinguished and still exists in an intermixed population on Isabela. With enough individuals to commence a serious captive breeding program, this finding may help reestablish a species that was thought to have gone extinct more than a century ago and illustrates the power of long-term genetic analysis and the critical role of museum specimens in conservation biology. PMID:18809928

Poulakakis, Nikos; Glaberman, Scott; Russello, Michael; Beheregaray, Luciano B.; Ciofi, Claudio; Powell, Jeffrey R.; Caccone, Adalgisa

2008-01-01

258

From Food Insufficiency towards Trade Dependency: A Historical Analysis of Global Food Availability  

PubMed Central

Achieving global food security is one of the major challenges of the coming decades. In order to tackle future food security challenges we must understand the past. This study presents a historical analysis of global food availability, one of the key elements of food security. By calculating national level dietary energy supply and production for nine time steps during 1965–2005 we classify countries based on their food availability, food self-sufficiency and food trade. We also look at how diets have changed during this period with regard to supply of animal based calories. Our results show that food availability has increased substantially both in absolute and relative terms. The percentage of population living in countries with sufficient food supply (>2500 kcal/cap/d) has almost doubled from 33% in 1965 to 61% in 2005. The population living with critically low food supply (<2000 kcal/cap/d) has dropped from 52% to 3%. Largest improvements are seen in the MENA region, Latin America, China and Southeast Asia. Besides, the composition of diets has changed considerably within the study period: the world population living with high supply of animal source food (>15% of dietary energy supply) increased from 33% to over 50%. While food supply has increased globally, food self-sufficiency (domestic production>2500 kcal/cap/d) has not changed remarkably. In the beginning of the study period insufficient domestic production meant insufficient food supply, but in recent years the deficit has been increasingly compensated by rising food imports. This highlights the growing importance of food trade, either for food supply in importing countries or as a source of income for exporters. Our results provide a basis for understanding past global food system dynamics which, in turn, can benefit research on future food security. PMID:24367545

Porkka, Miina; Kummu, Matti; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

2013-01-01

259

From food insufficiency towards trade dependency: a historical analysis of global food availability.  

PubMed

Achieving global food security is one of the major challenges of the coming decades. In order to tackle future food security challenges we must understand the past. This study presents a historical analysis of global food availability, one of the key elements of food security. By calculating national level dietary energy supply and production for nine time steps during 1965-2005 we classify countries based on their food availability, food self-sufficiency and food trade. We also look at how diets have changed during this period with regard to supply of animal based calories. Our results show that food availability has increased substantially both in absolute and relative terms. The percentage of population living in countries with sufficient food supply (>2500 kcal/cap/d) has almost doubled from 33% in 1965 to 61% in 2005. The population living with critically low food supply (<2000 kcal/cap/d) has dropped from 52% to 3%. Largest improvements are seen in the MENA region, Latin America, China and Southeast Asia. Besides, the composition of diets has changed considerably within the study period: the world population living with high supply of animal source food (>15% of dietary energy supply) increased from 33% to over 50%. While food supply has increased globally, food self-sufficiency (domestic production>2500 kcal/cap/d) has not changed remarkably. In the beginning of the study period insufficient domestic production meant insufficient food supply, but in recent years the deficit has been increasingly compensated by rising food imports. This highlights the growing importance of food trade, either for food supply in importing countries or as a source of income for exporters. Our results provide a basis for understanding past global food system dynamics which, in turn, can benefit research on future food security. PMID:24367545

Porkka, Miina; Kummu, Matti; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

2013-01-01

260

"Implicit action": Understanding discourse management in modeling instruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We present "Implicit Action", a discourse management tool, through a qualitative video analysis of a Florida International University Modeling Instruction Introductory Physics I class. Implicit Action in Modeling Instruction is where instructors deliberately create intellectual space in which students ideally see value and need for the construction of new classroom norms and tools that are productive in developing a learning community. This space is created by the implications expressed through the instructors' deliberate actions. Discourse Management is a technique to moderate student discourse in Modeling Instruction classes at the university level that was initially described by Desbien. Implicit Action is one of 9 Modeling Discourse Management tools that we have identified. By means of qualitative analysis we illustrate the effectiveness of Implicit Action in implementing the Modeling Theory of Instruction.

Durden, Jared; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird H.

2012-05-15

261

"Implicit action": Understanding discourse management in modeling instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present "Implicit Action", a discourse management tool, through a qualitative video analysis of a Florida International University Modeling Instruction Introductory Physics I class. Implicit Action in Modeling Instruction is where instructors deliberately create intellectual space in which students ideally see value and need for the construction of new classroom norms and tools that are productive in developing a learning community. This space is created by the implications expressed through the instructors' deliberate actions. Discourse Management is a technique to moderate student discourse in Modeling Instruction classes at the university level that was initially described by Desbien [1]. Implicit Action is one of 9 Modeling Discourse Management tools that we have identified. By means of qualitative analysis we illustrate the effectiveness of Implicit Action in implementing the Modeling Theory of Instruction.

Durden, Jared; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird

2012-02-01

262

Creating Rhetorical Stability in Corporate University Discourse: Discourse Technologies and Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written communication scholarship has shown that successful social change requires discursive stability. This study was designed to investigate how this stability is created. Critical discourse analysis of 30 corporate university articles investigated claims authors made about the expansion of market-based values into contexts of organizational…

Faber, Brenton

2003-01-01

263

Shifting Identity Positions in the Development of Language Education for Immigrants: An Analysis of Discourses Associated with "Swedish for Immigrants"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study presented in this paper focuses upon conceptualisations of language and identity in the institutionalised arena that emerged in the post-Second World War period with the specific intention of teaching Swedish to adult immigrants in the nation-state of Sweden. Our analysis focuses upon the development of the educational programme "Swedish…

Rosen, Jenny Karin; Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta

2013-01-01

264

Bayesian Statistical Analysis of Historical and Late Holocene Rates of Sea-Level Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fundamental concern associated with climate change is the rate at which sea levels are rising. Studies of past sea level (particularly beyond the instrumental data range) allow modern sea-level rise to be placed in a more complete context. Considering this, we perform a Bayesian statistical analysis on historical and late Holocene rates of sea-level change. The data that form the input to the statistical model are tide-gauge measurements and proxy reconstructions from cores of coastal sediment. The aims are to estimate rates of sea-level rise, to determine when modern rates of sea-level rise began and to observe how these rates have been changing over time. Many of the current methods for doing this use simple linear regression to estimate rates. This is often inappropriate as it is too rigid and it can ignore uncertainties that arise as part of the data collection exercise. This can lead to over confidence in the sea-level trends being characterized. The proposed Bayesian model places a Gaussian process prior on the rate process (i.e. the process that determines how rates of sea-level are changing over time). The likelihood of the observed data is the integral of this process. When dealing with proxy reconstructions, this is set in an errors-in-variables framework so as to take account of age uncertainty. It is also necessary, in this case, for the model to account for glacio-isostatic adjustment, which introduces a covariance between individual age and sea-level observations. This method provides a flexible fit and it allows for the direct estimation of the rate process with full consideration of all sources of uncertainty. Analysis of tide-gauge datasets and proxy reconstructions in this way means that changing rates of sea level can be estimated more comprehensively and accurately than previously possible. The model captures the continuous and dynamic evolution of sea-level change and results show that not only are modern sea levels rising but that the rates of rise are continuously increasing. Analysis of the a global tide-gauge record (Church and White, 2011) indicated that the rate of sea-level rise increased continuously since 1880AD and is currently 2.57mm/yr (95% credible interval of 1.71 to 4.35mm/yr). Application of the model a proxy reconstruction from North Carolina (Kemp et al., 2011) indicated that the mean rate of rise in this locality since the middle of the 19th century (current rate of 2.66 mm/yr with a 95% credible interval of 1.29 to 4.59mm/yr) is in agreement with results from the tide gauge analysis and is unprecedented in at least the last 2000 years.

Cahill, Niamh; Parnell, Andrew; Kemp, Andrew; Horton, Benjamin

2014-05-01

265

Accessibility and Mobility of Persons Who Are Visually Impaired: A Historical Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article traces the historical development of two movements to improve the mobility of people with visual impairments--environmental modifications to increase accessibility, and orientation and mobility training. It also notes how changes in attitudes, effected to a large degree by the introduction of dog guides, have led to greater acceptance…

Blasch, B. B.; Stuckey, K. A.

1995-01-01

266

Social-Cultural-Historical Contradictions in an L2 Listening Lesson: A Joint Activity System Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Informed and inspired by neo-Vygotskian theory, this article outlines a study exploiting a contemporary conceptualization of Wells's (2002) joint activity system model as an exploratory framework for examining and depicting the social-cultural-historical contradictions in second-language (L2) learners' joint activity. The participants were a pair…

Cross, Jeremy

2011-01-01

267

A Historical Analysis of the Curriculum of Organic Chemistry Using ACS Exams as Artifacts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standardized examinations, such as those developed and disseminated by the ACS Examinations Institute, are artifacts of the teaching of a course and over time may provide a historical perspective on how curricula have changed and evolved. This study investigated changes in organic chemistry curricula across a 60-year period by evaluating 18 ACS…

Raker, Jeffrey R.; Holme, Thomas A.

2013-01-01

268

Integrating Wikis in the Support and Practice of Historical Analysis Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study examines the benefits of integrating wikis into the World History curriculum. Six middle school students chosen because of their designation in relevant subgroups--GATE, AVID, and RSP--participated in this 20-week study. Abstract historical concepts can be difficult to grasp; therefore, students collaborated via a wiki on topics…

Cabiness, Catherine; Donovan, Loretta; Green, Tim D.

2013-01-01

269

History of Science in the Physics Curriculum: A Directed Content Analysis of Historical Sources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although history of science is a potential resource for instructional materials, teachers do not have a tendency to use historical materials in their lessons. Studies showed that instructional materials should be adaptable and consistent with curriculum. This study purports to examine the alignment between history of science and the curriculum in…

Seker, Hayati; Guney, Burcu G.

2012-01-01

270

A Historical Analysis of the Educational Modalities of Inequalities Management in Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a historical and comparative study of the role that management of inequalities has played in the formation and evolution of educational institutions in three countries: Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala. This particular focus shows that this function has played a determining role, even if its organization has varied deeply in…

Mulot, Eric

2004-01-01

271

A Historical Analysis of the Daniell Cell and Electrochemistry Teaching in French and Tunisian Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The condition in which the Daniell Cell was historically constructed is examined and the evolution of its presentation in French and Tunisian chemistry textbooks is analyzed. Based on the studies, several innovations to facilitate the teaching of the cell, and more generally, the teaching of electrochemistry and of ionic conduction are proposed.

Boulabiar, Ahlem; Bouraoui, Kamel; Chastrette, Maurice; Abderrabba, Manef

2004-01-01

272

Analysis of XXI Century Disasters in the National Geophysical Data Center Historical Natural Hazard Event Databases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) maintains a global historical event database of tsunamis, significant earthquakes, and significant volcanic eruptions. The database includes all tsunami events, regardless of intensity, as well as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions that caused fatalities, moderate damage, or generated a tsunami. Event date, time, location, magnitude of the phenomenon, and socio-economic information are included in the database. Analysis of the NGDC event database reveals that the 21st century began with earthquakes in Gujarat, India (magnitude 7.7, 2001) and Bam, Iran (magnitude 6.6, 2003) that killed over 20,000 and 31,000 people, respectively. These numbers were dwarfed by the numbers of earthquake deaths in Pakistan (magnitude 7.6, 2005-86,000 deaths), Wenchuan, China (magnitude 7.9, 2008-87,652 deaths), and Haiti (magnitude 7.0, 2010-222,000 deaths). The Haiti event also ranks among the top ten most fatal earthquakes. The 21st century has observed the most fatal tsunami in recorded history-the 2004 magnitude 9.1 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami that caused over 227,000 deaths and 10 billion damage in 14 countries. Six years later, the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami, although not the most fatal (15,000 deaths and 5,000 missing), could cost Japan's government in excess of 300 billion-the most expensive tsunami in history. Volcanic eruptions can cause disruptions and economic impact to the airline industry, but due to their remote locations, fatalities and direct economic effects are uncommon. Despite this fact, the second most expensive eruption in recorded history occurred in the 21st century-the 2010 Merapi, Indonesia volcanic eruption that resulted in 324 deaths, 427 injuries, and $600 million in damage. NGDC integrates all natural hazard event datasets into one search interface. Users can find fatal tsunamis generated by earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. The user can then link to information about the related runup observations (e.g. maximum wave height) and the source earthquake or volcano. If available, damage photographs and plots of water level data can also be viewed. The data are accessible online via tables, reports, and a new state-of-the-art interactive map viewer. These data and access capabilities help coastal communities assess their risks, identify hazards, and promote public awareness of tsunamis and earthquakes.

Dunbar, P. K.; McCullough, H. L.

2011-12-01

273

Doctoral Discourses in South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the South African context, three doctoral discourses are heard, each with their own assumptions about the purpose of doctoral education and the kinds of people who undertake doctoral study, and with their own implications for the practice of doctoral education. Two of the three discourses are familiar and well documented in the local and…

Backhouse, Judy

2011-01-01

274

The Anatomy of Critical Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical discourse is best understood when its logical features are identified. An examination of the basic elements and modes of rhetorical criticism (a form of critical discourse) produces a finite set of options for the critic, thus enabling him to develop a system of alternatives in his critical efforts. For example, by selecting from among…

Rosenfield, Lawrence W.

1968-01-01

275

An Analysis of Written Discourse of North Korean Second Language Speakers of English: Its Linguistic Features and Their Discursive Functions with Pragmatic Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examined linguistic and pragmatic characteristics of written discourse of North Korean second language speakers of English comparing it with that of North American native speakers of English by analyzing linguistic features used in the two sets of texts and their discursive functions based on Biber's (1995) and Hinkel's…

Kim, Seung Hwa

2011-01-01

276

A Corpus-Based Analysis of the Discourse Functions of "Ser/Estar" + Adjective in Three Levels of Spanish as FL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the acquisition of Spanish's two copulas, "ser" and "estar," provides an understanding of the interaction among syntax, semantics, pragmatics, morphology, and vocabulary during development (e.g., Geeslin, 2003a, 2003b; Gunterman, 1992; Ryan & Lafford, 1992). Recent research suggests that linguistic features in the surrounding discourse

Collentine, Joe; Asencion-Delaney, Yuly

2010-01-01

277

Exploring Students' Mapping Behaviors and Interactive Discourses in a Case Diagnosis Problem: Sequential Analysis of Collaborative Causal Map Drawing Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the nature of students' mapping and discourse behaviors while constructing causal maps to articulate their understanding of a complex, ill-structured problem. In this study, six graduate-level students were assigned to one of three pair groups, and each pair used the causal mapping software program,…

Lee, Woon Jee

2012-01-01

278

What makes up good consultations? A qualitative study of GPs’ discourses  

PubMed Central

Background In medical literature, several principles that define ‘good consultations’ have been outlined. These principles tend to be prescriptive in nature, overlooking the complexity of general practitioners (GPs)’ perspectives of everyday practice. Focusing on perspectives might be particularly relevant, since they may affect decisions and actions. Therefore, the present study adopts a bottom-up approach, analyzing GPs’ narratives about ‘good’ and ‘bad’ consultations. We aimed at describing the range of discourses GPs use in relating on their practice. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 Belgian GPs. By means of a qualitative analysis, the authors mapped patterns in the interview narratives and described the range of different discourses. Results Four discourses were identified: a biomedically-centered discourse, a communication-focused discourse, a problem-solving discourse and a satisfaction-oriented discourse. Each discourse was further specified in terms of predominant themes, problems the GPs prefer to deal with and inherent difficulties. Although most participants used elements from all four discourses, the majority of the GPs relied on an individual set of predominant discourses and focused on a limited number of themes. Conclusion This study clearly indicates that there is no uniform way in which GPs perceive clinical practice. Each of the participants used a subtle mix of different criteria to define good and bad medical consultations. Some discourse elements appear to be rooted in medical literature, whereas others are of a more personal nature. By focusing on the limitations of each discourse, this study can shed new light on some of the difficulties GPs encounter in their daily practice: being confronted with specific problems might be an effect of adhering to a specific discourse. The typification of different discourses on consultations may function as a framework to help GPs reflect on how they perceive their practice, and help them manage some of the challenges met in daily practice. PMID:23679836

2013-01-01

279

Geophysical techniques in the historical center of Venice (Italy): preliminary results from HVSR and multichannel analysis of surface waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation aims to outline the preliminary findings related to an extensive seismic survey conducted in the historical center of Venice, Italy. The survey was conducted via noninvasive and low-cost seismic techniques based on surface waves analysis and microtremor methods, mainly using single station horizontal to vertical spectral ratio techninques (HVSR) and multichannel analysis of surface waves in passive (ReMI) and active (MASW) configurations. The importance and the fragility of the cultural heritage of Venice, coupled with its peculiar geological and geotechnical characteristics, stress the importance of a good knowledge of its geological architecture and seismic characteristics as an opportunity to improve restoration and conservation planning. Even if Venice is located in a relatively low seismic hazard zone, a local characterization of soil resonance frequencies and surficial shear waves velocities could improve the planning of engineering interventions, furnishing important information on possible local effects related to seismic amplification and possible coupling within buildings and soil resonance frequencies. In the specific we collected more than 50 HVSR single station noise measurements and several passive and active multichannel analysis of surface waves located in the historical center. In this work we report the characteristics of the conducted seismic surveys (instrumentation, sampling geometry, etc.) and the preliminary findings of our analysis. Moreover, we discuss briefly the practical issues, mainly of logistic nature, of conducting this kind of surveys in a peculiar and crowed historical center as represented by Venice urban contest. Acknowledgments Instrumentation acquired in relation to the project co-financed by Regione Veneto, POR-CRO, FESR, 2007-2013, action 1.1.1. "Supporto ad attività di ricerca, processi e reti di innovazione e alla creazione di imprese in settori a elevato contenuto tecnologico"

Trevisani, Sebastiano; Rocca, Michele; Boaga, Jacopo

2014-05-01

280

DOE Integrated Safeguards and Security (DISS) historical document archival and retrieval analysis, requirements and recommendations  

SciTech Connect

The overall primary Objective of HDAR is to create a repository of historical personnel security documents and provide the functionality needed for archival and retrieval use by other software modules and application users of the DISS/ET system. The software product to be produced from this specification is the Historical Document Archival and Retrieval Subsystem The product will provide the functionality to capture, retrieve and manage documents currently contained in the personnel security folders in DOE Operations Offices vaults at various locations across the United States. The long-term plan for DISS/ET includes the requirement to allow for capture and storage of arbitrary, currently undefined, clearance-related documents that fall outside the scope of the ``cradle-to-grave`` electronic processing provided by DISS/ET. However, this requirement is not within the scope of the requirements specified in this document.

Guyer, H.B.; McChesney, C.A.

1994-10-07

281

Convulsion of the lung: an historical analysis of the cause of Dr Johnson's fatal emphysema.  

PubMed Central

Of Johnson's fatal emphysema, it appears probable, on available historical and anatomic evidence, that it resulted from bronchiectasis, a diagnosis favoured by the pattern of illness: a protracted and severe respiratory infection succeeded by annual episodes of severe winter bronchitis, remitting in summer, and culminating in respiratory insufficiency; and by the findings of pleural adhesion and cor pulmonale at necropsy. That is resulted from chronic bronchitis is a proposition both plausible and irrefutable without the specimen. PMID:7853296

Reich, J M

1994-01-01

282

Convulsion of the lung: an historical analysis of the cause of Dr Johnson's fatal emphysema.  

PubMed

Of Johnson's fatal emphysema, it appears probable, on available historical and anatomic evidence, that it resulted from bronchiectasis, a diagnosis favoured by the pattern of illness: a protracted and severe respiratory infection succeeded by annual episodes of severe winter bronchitis, remitting in summer, and culminating in respiratory insufficiency; and by the findings of pleural adhesion and cor pulmonale at necropsy. That is resulted from chronic bronchitis is a proposition both plausible and irrefutable without the specimen. PMID:7853296

Reich, J M

1994-12-01

283

Historical data analysis of lightning and its relation with the Portuguese Transmission system outages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lightning caused around 26% of the total number of faults in the Portuguese transmission system in the analysed period. Based on historical data, this study uses incident data from 2001 until 2008 (2157 faults in overhead lines) and lightning data from 2003 until 2008 (around 1.65 million cloud-to-ground flashes). The performance of the lightning monitoring system is analysed and the

Susana A. B. de Almeida; C. Loureiro; F. P. Maciel Barbosa; Rui Pestana

2009-01-01

284

Looking at discourse in a corpus: The role of lexical cohesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is aimed at reporting on the development and application of a computer model for discourse analysis through segmentation. Segmentation refers to the principled division of texts into contiguous constituents. Other studies have looked at the application of a number of models to the analysis of discourse by computer. The segmentation procedure developed for the present investigation is called

Tony Berber Sardinha

2000-01-01

285

The Political Discourse of the Campaign against Bilingual Education: From "Proposition 227" to "Horne v. Flores"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the frameworks of critical discourse analysis, representation theory, and legitimization theory, this study examines the political discourse of the campaign for Proposition 227 in California--particularly, the key social representations of languages, their speakers, and the main political actors in the campaign. The analysis examines the…

Yamagami, Mai

2012-01-01

286

From overt rejection to enthusiastic embracement: changing state discourses on Israeli emigration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deploys a critical discourse analysis methodology to examine the emergence of three (sometimes overlapping) discourses\\u000a on emigration in Israel. It examines the linkages between the various discursive phases and processes of (trans-) national\\u000a identity formation among emigrants. It argues that emigration discourses have often been strong predictors of subsequent changes\\u000a in state policies—and other programmatic initiatives—aimed at Israeli

Nir Cohen

2007-01-01

287

Procedural discourse following traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedural discourse is a monologue discourse task concerned with explaining to a listener how a particular activity is carried out. The study reported here is part of a series of investigations into discourse abilities following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this study was to compare the procedural discourse skills of a group of 26 TBI speakers, with

Pamela Snow; Jacinta Douglas; Jennie Ponsford

1997-01-01

288

Troubling Discourses on Gender and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: In educational policies, two discourses on gender have existed since the 1980s. I call them the "gender equality discourse" and the "boy discourse". The gender equality discourse in education is based on international and national declarations and plans, and is focused predominantly on the position of girls and…

Lahelma, Elina

2014-01-01

289

French Discourse Markers in Shaba Swahili Conversations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines data recorded in Shaba, a province in the Congo, and documents the marked preference to employ French discourse markers in Shaba Swahili discourse. Treats discourse markers as a special kind of contextualization cue that ties parts of a discourse to each other, creating cohesion and coherence. (Author/VWL)

de Rooij, Vincent A.

2000-01-01

290

Benefits of applying combined diffuse reflectance FTIR spectroscopy and principal component analysis for the study of blue tempera historical painting.  

PubMed

This paper explores the application of diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) to the examination of historic blue pigments and blue tempera paintings commonly found on works of art. The discussion is mainly focused on the practical benefits of using this technique joined to principal component analysis (PCA), a powerful multivariate analysis tool. Thanks to the study of several replica samples that contain either pure blue pigments (azurite, lapis lazuli and smalt), or pure binder (rabbit glue) and mixtures of each of the pigments with the binder (tempera samples), different aspects of these benefits are highlighted. Comparative results of direct spectra and multivariate analysis using transmittance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (T-FTIR) are discussed throughout this study. Results showed an excellent ability of PCA on DRIFT spectra for discriminating replica samples according to differing composition. Several IR regions were tested with this aim; the fingerprint IR region exhibited the best ability for successfully clustering the samples. The presence of the binder was also discriminated. Only using this approach it was possible to completely separate all the studied replica samples. This demonstrates the potential benefits of this approach in identifying historical pigments and binders for conservation and restoration purposes in the field of Cultural Heritage. PMID:19012825

Navas, Natalia; Romero-Pastor, Julia; Manzano, Eloisa; Cardell, Carolina

2008-12-23

291

An historical, biographical, literary, and clinical consideration of Freud's 'Analysis Terminable and Interminable' on its fiftieth birthday.  

PubMed

Freud's paper is re-examined and placed in biographical and historical context, Moses and monotheism (1934-1938) is treated as a parallel text. Freud's ironic scepticism is viewed against the background of Thomas Mann's 1936 idealization of psychoanalysis. Freud was a sick and dying man in 1937 with every reason for personal pessimism. The political setting was the triumph of fascism in Austria and the impending seizure of Austria by Hitler. Freud fantasized the protection of psychoanalysis by the Roman Catholic Church. The paper is a polemic against the theories of Ferenczi, Adler, and Rank. Contemporaneous defence of prophylactic analysis by Fenichel is reviewed. Freud's political judgement of the moral equivalence of Social Democracy and fascism is critiqued. Freud's injunction to periodic re-analysis and his vision of analysis as 'unending' is supported. The possibility of intergenerational prophylaxis is presented. PMID:3042656

Loewenberg, P

1988-01-01

292

A Discourse on Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the historical context of mathematics education research methodologies, describes methodological trends through the "Journal for Research in Mathematics Education" focusing on the domain of teacher knowledge and practice, and considers theoretical and methodological issues of the present and future. (25 references) (MKR)

Schoenfeld, Alan H.

1994-01-01

293

Well, Now, Okey Dokey: English Discourse Markers in Spanish Language Medical Consultations  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to examine use of English discourse markers in otherwise Spanish language consultations. Data is derived from an audio-recorded corpus of Spanish language consultations that took place in a small community clinic in the United States as well as post-consultation interviews with patients and providers. Through quantification of the use of discourse makers in the corpus and discourse analysis of transcripts, we demonstrate that English-speaking dominant medical providers use English discourse markers more frequently and with a broader range of functions than do Spanish-speaking dominant medical providers and patients. We argue that such use of English discourse markers serves to exacerbate the power relationship between providers and patients even though the use of English discourse markers does not cause overt miscommunication in the ongoing interaction. Implications for providers who use a second language in their medical consultations are discussed. PMID:24347670

Vickers, Caroline H.; Goble, Ryan

2013-01-01

294

Efficient Analysis of Live and Historical Streaming Data and itsApplication to Cybersecurity  

SciTech Connect

Applications that query data streams in order to identifytrends, patterns, or anomalies can often benefit from comparing the livestream data with archived historical stream data. However, searching thishistorical data in real time has been considered so far to beprohibitively expensive. One of the main bottlenecks is the update costsof the indices over the archived data. In this paper, we address thisproblem by using our highly-efficient bitmap indexing technology (calledFastBit) and demonstrate that the index update operations aresufficiently efficient for this bottleneck to be removed. We describe ourprototype system based on the TelegraphCQ streaming query processor andthe FastBit bitmap index. We present a detailed performance evaluation ofour system using a complex query workload for analyzing real networktraffic data. The combined system uses TelegraphCQ to analyze streams oftraffic information and FastBit to correlate current behaviors withhistorical trends. We demonstrate that our system can simultaneouslyanalyze (1) live streams with high data rates and (2) a large repositoryof historical stream data.

Reiss, Frederick; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng; Shoshani, Arie; Hellerstein, Joseph M.

2007-04-06

295

Historic Scotland  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scotland is well-known for its efforts to preserve its fantastic range of historic sites, buildings, and monuments and much of this work happens under the auspices of Historic Scotland. Historic Scotland is an agency with the Scottish Executive Education Department and as such, is largely responsible for developing long-range plans for the preservation of the built heritage of the country. To get a sense of the broad range of properties within Historic Scotland, visitors would do well to look through the interactive map of Scotland offered within the "Places to Visit" area. Those persons with a penchant for historic preservation and planning will also want to take a look at the organization's long-range preservation program and some of its free online publications such as "Archaeological Information and Advice in Scotland" and "Conserving the Underwater Heritage."

296

Historic Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jointly sponsored by the Historic Cities Center within the Department of Geography at Hebrew University and the Jewish National and University Library, the Historic Cities Web site is intended to contain maps, literature, documents, books, and other relevant material concerning the past, present, and future of historic cities While some of these documents and ephemera are still forthcoming to the site, visitors will find a wide array of historic city maps and views dating from 1486 to 1720. The scanned maps are searchable alphabetically, by date, and by individual cartographer. Additionally, a bit of information is provided about each cartographer. Overall, the site contains close to two hundred individual city maps and renderings, ranging from medieval Heidelberg to Casablanca. For persons with an interest in urban morphology and the history of cartography, the Historic Cities site will be a good place to start.

297

The sound of music: Constructing science as sociocultural practices through oral and written discourse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article, we examine the oral and written discourse processes in a high school physics class and how these discourse processes are related to sociocultural practices in scientific communities. Our theoretical framework is based on sociological and anthropological studies of scientific communities and ethnographies of classroom life. We review the use of discourse analysis as a methodological orientation in science education and provide a logic-of-inquiry framing how we used discourse analysis in our ethnographic research. Our ethnographic analysis showed that, through students' participation in creating scientific papers on the physics of sound, their appropriation of scientific discourse was related to the framing activities of the teachers and the social practices established over time in the classroom. Our textual analysis of the student papers focused on how they used evidence to make claims. We explore the lessons learned from participating in the classroom of these students.

Kelly, Gregory; Chen, Catherine

2005-11-23

298

Spatial variability of sediment erosion processes using GIS analysis within watersheds in a historically mined region, Patagonia Mountains, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this study, a geographic information system (GIS) is used to integrate and accurately map field studies, information from remotely sensed data, watershed models, and the dispersion of potentially toxic mine waste and tailings. The purpose of this study is to identify erosion rates and net sediment delivery of soil and mine waste/tailings to the drainage channel within several watershed regions to determine source areas of sediment delivery as a method of quantifying geo-environmental analysis of transport mechanisms in abandoned mine lands in arid climate conditions. Users of this study are the researchers interested in exploration of approaches to depicting historical activity in an area which has no baseline data records for environmental analysis of heavily mined terrain.

Brady, Laura M.; Gray, Floyd; Wissler, Craig A.; Guertin, D. Phillip

2001-01-01

299

Analysis of historical water-quality data and description of plan for a sampling network in central and southern Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historical water quality data from about 100 sampling stations on streams, canals and lakes in central and southern Florida were analyzed for areal and temporal variations in water quality , statistical measures of the data, relationships between water quality variables, and long term changes or trends in water quality. Included in the analysis were data on the major inorganic chemical constituents, temperature, nitrogen and phosphorus species, trace metals, pesticides, organic carbon and biochemical oxygen demand. Based on the results of the analysis, a network was designed which would provide data to meet six specific objectives: (1) water quality accounting, (2) areal assessments (3) detection of gross long-term trends, (4) detection of toxic and deleterious substances, (5) establish a limnological data base on lakes and (6) furnish data on chemical inputs from the atmosphere. (Woodard-USGS)

Goolsby, D.A.; Mattraw, H.C., Jr.; Lamonds, A.G.; Maddy, D.V.; Rollo, J.R.

1976-01-01

300

Phytochemical analysis of young fustic (Cotinus coggygria heartwood) and identification of isolated colourants in historical textiles.  

PubMed

Young fustic (Cotinus coggygria Scop.; Anacardiaceae) has been used as a dyestuff since antiquity. Phytochemical investigation of the methanol extract of the heartwood has led to the isolation and structure elucidation by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry (MS) of 3',4',6-trihydroxyaurone (sulfuretin) and 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavonol (fisetin) as well as 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavanol (fustin), 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavonol (quercetin), 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavanol (taxifolin), 4',7-dihydroxyflavanol, 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavanone (butin), 4',7-dihydroxyflavanone (liquiritigenin), trans-2',3,4,4'-tetrahydroxychalcone (butein), 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone and trans-2',4,4'-trihydroxychalcone (isoliquiritigenin). The isolated compounds were used as reference materials for the development of a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-MS method, which was then applied to analyse (1) fresh silk samples dyed with young fustic, (2) dyed silk subjected to artificially accelerated light ageing and (3) historical silk micro-samples, extracted from ecclesiastical post-Byzantine garments (fifteenth to eighteenth century), which belong to monasteries of Mount Athos. Sulfuretin and fisetin, which are usually used as markers for the identification of the yellow dye and, for the first time, some of the aforementioned flavonoid components of young fustic were identified in the historical extracts. Furthermore, preliminary experiments suggested that although the amounts of the dye components decrease with light ageing, the relative ratio of fisetin and sulfuretin, after a first step of ageing, seems to be almost unaffected by such degradation processes raised by light. The effect of the latter on the morphology of the dyed silk fibres is briefly investigated by scanning electron microscopy. PMID:19352635

Valianou, Lemonia; Stathopoulou, Konstantina; Karapanagiotis, Ioannis; Magiatis, Prokopios; Pavlidou, Eleni; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Chryssoulakis, Yannis

2009-06-01

301

A SIMPLE DESCRIPTION OF AN ALGORITHM FOR TRANSFORMATIONAL ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH SENTENCES. TRANSFORMATIONS AND DISCOURSE ANALYSIS PAPERS, NUMBER 67, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PRESENTED IN THIS PAPER IS A SIMPLIFIED DESCRIPTION OF AN ALGORITHM FOR TRANSFORMATIONAL ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH SENTENCES. IT IS NEITHER ASSUMED NOR IMPLIED IN THIS ALGORITHM THAT ANY KIND OF PRIOR ANALYSIS (EITHER STRING OR CONSTITUENT ANALYSIS) IS REQUIRED AS A PREREQUISITE. IN ORDER TO DEFINE THE SET OF ALL TRANSFORMS, THE AUTHORS FIRST DEFINE A…

HIZ, DANUTA; JOSHI, ARAVIND K.

302

Water Resources Sustainability in Northwest Mexico: Analysis of Regional Infrastructure Plans under Historical and Climate Change Scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The arid state of Sonora, Mexico, has embarked on a large water infrastructure project to provide additional water supply and improved sanitation to the growing capital of Hermosillo. The main component of the Sonora SI project involves an interbasin transfer from rural to urban water users that has generated conflicts over water among different social sectors. Through interactions with regional stakeholders from agricultural and water management agencies, we ascertained the need for a long-term assessment of the water resources of one of the system components, the Sonora River Basin (SRB). A semi-distributed, daily watershed model that includes current and proposed reservoir infrastructure was applied to the SRB. This simulation framework allowed us to explore alternative scenarios of water supply from the SRB to Hermosillo under historical (1980-2010) and future (2031-2040) periods that include the impact of climate change. We compared three precipitation forcing scenarios for the historical period: (1) a network of ground observations from Mexican water agencies; (2) gridded fields from the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) at 12 km resolution; and (3) gridded fields from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at 10 km resolution. These were compared to daily historical observations at two stream gauging stations and two reservoirs to generate confidence in the simulation tools. We then tested the impact of climate change through the use of the A2 emissions scenario and HadCM3 boundary forcing on the WRF simulations of a future period. Our analysis is focused on the combined impact of existing and proposed reservoir infrastructure at two new sites on the water supply management in the SRB under historical and future climate conditions. We also explore the impact of climate variability and change on the bimodal precipitation pattern from winter frontal storms and the summertime North American monsoon and its consequences on water management. Our results are presented in the form of flow duration, reliability and exceedence frequency curves that are commonly used in the water management agencies. Through this effort, we anticipate to build confidence among regional stakeholders in utilizing hydrological models in the development of water infrastructure plans and to foster conversations that address water sustainability issues.

Che, D.; Robles-Morua, A.; Mayer, A. S.; Vivoni, E. R.

2012-12-01

303

Where Are the Women? And Other Questions, Asked within an Historical Analysis of Sociology of Music Education Research Publications: Being a Self-Reflective Ethnographic Path  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a meta-analysis of one area of sociological literature in music education: Where are the women and "others"? Where do we raise concerns about social values? Institutional Ethnography provides the basis for the meta-analysis, presented in two historical periods, pre-1960 and 2007-2012. A short story of an actual…

Lamb, Roberta

2014-01-01

304

Scientific analysis and historical aspects as tools in the legal investigation of paintings: A case study in Brazil.  

PubMed

The faker makes use of several strategies to give credibility to his work, as for example by copying artist's style or by using artificial aging techniques. The characterization of artistic materials, such as pigments, binding media and supports through chemical and/or physico-chemical analysis, coupled with art historical information is essential to establish the non-authenticity of works of art. This paper presents a contribution in a legal case regarding paintings attributed to important Brazilian and European artists such as Candido Portinari, Juan Gris, Camille Pissarro, and Umberto Boccioni, among others. In the investigation, modern synthetic painting materials were identified in all the ground layers of the suspected paintings. The use of diverse instrumental analytical techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, polarized light microscopy and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry enabled this characterization. The results demonstrated the presence of titanium dioxide, calcium carbonate and kaolin as inorganic components of the paints, and polyvinyl acetate copolymerized with vinyl versatates or diisobutylphtalate as binding media in the ground layers of the paintings. The results obtained, along with art historical information and art technological studies, were very important in the judicial process, due to the possibility to use titanium dioxide and polyvinyl acetate copolymerized with vinyl versatates as chronological markers. PMID:25498935

Schossler, Patricia; de Figueiredo Júnior, João Cura D'Ars; Fortes, Isabel; Cruz Souza, Luiz Antônio

2014-12-01

305

Semantic Systems, Discourse Structure, and the Ecology of Language. Working Papers in Sociolinguistics, No. 17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis seeks to link discourse structure and semantic or lexical systems. The example is given of a Cuna curing chant named "the way of the pepper," in which 53 names for pepper ("kapur") are used in a projection of a paradigmatic axis (the lexical taxonomy) onto a syntagmatic axis. A corollary of the principle of viewing discourse from…

Sherzer, Joel

306

Epidemiology as discourse: the politics of development institutions in the Epidemiological Profile of El Salvador  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVETo determine the ways in which institutions devoted to international development influence epidemiological studies.DESIGNThis article takes a descriptive epidemiological study of El Salvador,Epidemiological Profile, conducted in 1994 by the US Agency for International Development, as a case study. The methods include discourse analysis in order to uncover the ideological basis of the report and its characteristics as a discourse

L A Avilés

2001-01-01

307

Situated Discourse: The Sociocultural Context of Conversation in a Second Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis of sociocultural aspects of a dinner conversation is presented, part of a larger study of the pragmatics of second language discourse. Salient features of the discourse are examined in terms of implicit frames of reference about social membership that are brought into play in interaction. Primary data come from the conversation between…

Shea, David P.

308

Primary Discourse and Expressive Oral Language in a Kindergarten Student  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This seven-month ethnographic case study elucidated a kindergarten student's navigation through her first formal schooling experience with relation to expressive oral language. Gee's theory of Discourses and methodology of discourse analysis were used to examine expressive oral language in use. Two discursive contexts germane to…

Fiano, Darcy A.

2014-01-01

309

"Are They Just Checking Our Obesity or What?" The Healthism Discourse and Rural Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper makes use of critical discourse analysis and Bourdieu's theoretical framework to explore rural young women's meanings of health and fitness and how the healthism discourse is perpetuated through their experiences in school physical education (PE). The young women's own meanings are explored alongside interview data from their school PE…

Lee, Jessica; Macdonald, Doune

2010-01-01

310

Questioning ‘Open questioning’ in early years science discourse from a social semiotic perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received wisdom in Primary science classroom teaching advocates the use of open questions for elicitation. The socio-cultural perspective on discourse, however, leads one to question the usual classification of questioning by its grammatical formality and leads instead to an analysis of the discourse in the socio-cultural context which includes the background of the children. In this paper we develop this

Diane Harris; Julian Williams

2007-01-01

311

Turkish Language Teachers' Stance Taking Movements in the Discourse on Globalization and Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates how Turkish teachers take and give stances in the discourse on globalization and language by using linguistic resources. According to the findings obtained through the discourse analysis of the corpus that consisted of 36 h of recording of the discussion among 4 teachers with 5 to 10 years of teaching experience, the…

Coskun, Ibrahim

2013-01-01

312

Impersonal, General, and Social: The Use of Metonymy versus Passive Voice in Medical Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impersonalizing role passive voice plays in scientific discourse is well known. Analysis of the Methods sections of nine medical research articles shows that metonymy is another frequent strategy used to create anonymous authors/agents. Discourse agents were categorized into four semantic domains: familial lay, nonfamilial lay, authorial…

Rundblad, Gabriella

2007-01-01

313

John F. Kennedy's Civil Rights Discourse: The Evolution from "Principled Bystander" to Public Advocate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that President John F. Kennedy's civil rights discourse evidences an important evolutionary pattern marking a transition from legal argument to moral argument. Highlights two speeches as exemplars of this change. Asserts that this analysis is useful in the study of contemporary presidential discourse during times of domestic crisis. (MM)

Goldzwig, Steven R.; Dionisopoulos, George N.

1989-01-01

314

Principled, Transformational Leadership: Analyzing the Discourse of Leadership in the Development of Librarianship's Core Competences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using discourse analysis, this article explores three questions: (a) Why was "principled, transformational leadership" the leadership style added to Core Competences? (b) What was the discourse of leadership in the profession surrounding the development of the Core Competences? (c) How might this competence affect LIS education? And what measures,…

Hicks, Deborah; Given, Lisa M.

2013-01-01

315

Questioning "Open Questioning" in Early Years Science Discourse from a Social Semiotic Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Received wisdom in Primary science classroom teaching advocates the use of open questions for elicitation. The socio-cultural perspective on discourse, however, leads one to question the usual classification of questioning by its grammatical formality and leads instead to an analysis of the discourse in the socio-cultural context which includes…

Harris, Diane; Williams, Julian

2007-01-01

316

A Foucaultian Critique of Learning Disability Discourses: Personal Narratives and Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I present a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of two discourses in learning disabilities (LD)--the academic research literature on emotions of students labeled as LD and retrospective autobiographies from adults labeled as LD writing about their emotions as students. Drawing mainly on Foucaultian explanations of power, I…

Mazher, Waseem

2012-01-01

317

A Study of Online Discourse at "The Chronicle of Higher Education"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the explosive growth of online communications, new forms of discourse are an intriguing topic of study. This research focused on ten online discussions hosted by "The Chronicle of Higher Education," using content and discourse analysis of the postings to answer several questions. What is the "conversational scaffolding" used by posters in…

Meyer, Katrina A.

2010-01-01

318

Learning Support Policy in Australia (New South Wales) and New Zealand; Discourses of Influence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a comparative discourse analysis of the learning support policy in New South Wales, Australia and New Zealand. The dominant discourses in both policies are identified and analysed in terms of how they determine the manner in which students experiencing difficulties with learning are included in schools. It is argued that the…

Tearle, Kerri; Spandagou, Ilektra

2012-01-01

319

Circulating Discourses of Minority Education: The Linguistic Construction of Modernity in Globalizing Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on 15 months of fieldwork in Taiwan, this article analyzes circulating discourses and practices across heterogeneous scales that conflate Taiwanese minority-language elders with foreign brides as nonmodern and childlike. The assiduous production and reproduction of historically and geographically displaced linguistic Others is part and…

Lin, Shumin

2015-01-01

320

Phelps-Stokes in Congo: Transferring Educational Policy Discourse to Govern Metropole and Colony  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article combines a historical with a social/political anthropological framework to examine the role played by the transfer of educational discourse between the United States-based Phelps-Stokes Fund and the Belgian Ministry of Colonies in the formulation of the colonial education policy of "adapted education" in the 1920s. The author argues…

Seghers, Maud

2004-01-01

321

Class Readings: Story and Discourse among Girls in Working-Poor America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a four-year ethnographic and pedagogical project set in an urban community with historical ties to rural Appalachia. It begins with a close reading of pedagogical discourse situated in an after-school reading project for preteen girls. It then traces the deep roots of language seeped in class meanings--words such as "nasty"…

Hicks, Deborah

2005-01-01

322

Historical analysis of water quantity and quality in the Elbow River watershed, Alberta, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Elbow River watershed (1235 km2) originates in the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta and represents ~40% of the water supply to the City of Calgary, the third largest municipality in Canada (1.1-million residents). The majority of runoff originates from snowmelt in the alpine zone and forested sub-alpine; it then flows down through parkland and foothills regions before entering the Glenmore Reservoir and/or merging with the Bow River. Historically, the watershed has provided an abundant supply of high quality water. However, there are recent indications that water quality (phosphorus, nitrogen, total suspended solids) in the lower reaches has deteriorated. We present ~13-23 years of water quality and associated hydrologic data for several sub-watersheds within the Elbow River basin. We use this data to characterize the temporal variability of river discharge and key water quality parameters among the dominant hydrologic seasons (pre-melt freshet, rising limb of the annual hydrograph, recession limb of the annual hydrograph, and late summer / fall baseflows). We then characterize the spatial variation in discharge and water quality along a gradient of increasing human impact from the Rocky Mountain headwaters to the City of Calgary.

Bladon, K. D.; Dixon, J.; Silins, U.; Emelko, M. B.

2012-12-01

323

Astronomical orientation analysis of three proto-historical sites in Friuli - Italy  

E-print Network

In this paper we present the results of an archaeoastronomical survey of three proto-historical sites located in the high Friulian plain (Galleriano, Gradisca and Savalons), dating from the end of the Early Bronze Age (1900 B.C.) to the end of the Late Bronze Age (950 B.C.). These structures, commonly indicated as castellieri, are earthworks of quadrangular shape, with sides ranging from 140 to 250 m. At present the perimetrical earthen embankments reach a maximum base width of 18 m and an elevation of more than 5 m the surrounding plain in their best preserved parts. These three sites were often reported in the literature to have the corners aligned to the cardinal directions. Aveni and Romano (1986) included two of them (Galleriano and Gradisca) in their study of earthworks in Veneto and Friuli (Italy), tentatively proposing astronomically relevant alignments for some sides and diagonals. Inspired by this pioneering work and by the renovated archaeological interest for these sites, we obtained digital eleva...

Patat, Ferdinando

2014-01-01

324

Reconstruction and analysis of historical changes in carbon storage in arctic tundra  

SciTech Connect

Surface air temperature in arctic regions has increased since pre-industrial times, raising concerns that warmer and possibly drier conditions have increased soil decomposition rates, thereby stimulating the release to the atmosphere of the large stores of carbon (C) in arctic soils. We used a model (MBL-GEM, Marine Biological Laboratory General Ecosystem Model) of ecosystem C and nitrogen (N) dynamics to predict and analyze historical (1829-1990) changes in C storage in a N-limited, tussock-tundra ecosystem near Toolik Lake on the North Slope of Alaska. The model simulates stand-level photosynthesis and N uptake by plants, allocation of C and N to foliage, stems, and fine roots, respiration in these tissues, turnover of biomass through litterfall, and decomposition of litter and soil organic matter. We first calibrated the model by deriving a single parameter set that closely simulated the response of tussock tundra to decade-long experimental manipulations of nutrients, temperature, light, and atmospheric CO{sub 2}. 60 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

McKane, R.B.; Rastetter, E.B.; Shaver, G.R. [Ecosystems Center, Woods Hole, MA (United States)] [and others

1997-06-01

325

Fire in the belly and the professionalization of nurses: a historical analysis of Crohn disease care.  

PubMed

Today, professional nurses around the world are stepping up to meet the needs of individuals with Crohn disease, using their specialized knowledge and skills that demonstrate areas of expertise that have not always existed. The gastrointestinal-specific knowledge being used by these 21st-century nurses exists today because progressive efforts of nurses in previous decades moved the profession of nursing forward. The purpose of this article was to describe and analyze the development of the role of nurses in responding to new challenges patients with Crohn disease face since the emergence of the disease in the early 20th century. The authors used traditional historic research methods to conduct the study. Primary sources include nursing journals and textbooks published in the 20th and 21st centuries and documents archived at The Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City, where Burrill B. Crohn conducted his seminal work. The significance of the findings is that the changing role of nurses in caring for patients with Crohn disease mirrors the professionalization of nursing during the 20th and early 21st centuries. PMID:23364362

Brotherton, Carol S; Taylor, Ann Gill; Keeling, Arlene

2013-01-01

326

Association analysis of historical bread wheat germplasm using additive genetic covariance of relatives and population structure.  

PubMed

Linkage disequilibrium can be used for identifying associations between traits of interest and genetic markers. This study used mapped diversity array technology (DArT) markers to find associations with resistance to stem rust, leaf rust, yellow rust, and powdery mildew, plus grain yield in five historical wheat international multienvironment trials from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). Two linear mixed models were used to assess marker-trait associations incorporating information on population structure and covariance between relatives. An integrated map containing 813 DArT markers and 831 other markers was constructed. Several linkage disequilibrium clusters bearing multiple host plant resistance genes were found. Most of the associated markers were found in genomic regions where previous reports had found genes or quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing the same traits, providing an independent validation of this approach. In addition, many new chromosome regions for disease resistance and grain yield were identified in the wheat genome. Phenotyping across up to 60 environments and years allowed modeling of genotype x environment interaction, thereby making possible the identification of markers contributing to both additive and additive x additive interaction effects of traits. PMID:17947425

Crossa, José; Burgueño, Juan; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Vargas, Mateo; Herrera-Foessel, Sybil A; Lillemo, Morten; Singh, Ravi P; Trethowan, Richard; Warburton, Marilyn; Franco, Jorge; Reynolds, Matthew; Crouch, Jonathan H; Ortiz, Rodomiro

2007-11-01

327

Historical data and analysis for the first five years of KSC STS payload processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

General and specific quantitative and qualitative results were identified from a study of actual operational experience while processing 186 science, applications, and commercial payloads for the first 5 years of Space Transportation System (STS) operations at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC). All non-Department of Defense payloads from STS-2 through STS-33 were part of the study. Historical data and cumulative program experiences from key personnel were used extensively. Emphasis was placed on various program planning and events that affected KSC processing, payload experiences and improvements, payload hardware condition after arrival, services to customers, and the impact of STS operations and delays. From these initial considerations, operational drivers were identified, data for selected processing parameters collected and analyzed, processing criteria and options determined, and STS payload results and conclusions reached. The study showed a significant reduction in time and effort needed by STS customers and KSC to process a wide variety of payload configurations. Also of significance is the fact that even the simplest payloads required more processing resources than were initially assumed. The success to date of payload integration, testing, and mission operations, however, indicates the soundness of the approach taken and the methods used.

Ragusa, J. M.

1986-01-01

328

Analysis of historical meteor and meteor shower records: Korea, China, and Japan  

E-print Network

We have compiled and analyzed historical Korean meteor and meteor shower records in three Korean official history books, Samguksagi which covers the three Kingdoms period (57 B.C -- A.D. 935), Goryeosa of Goryeo dynasty (A.D. 918 -- 1392), and Joseonwangjosillok of Joseon dynasty (A.D. 1392 -- 1910). We have found 3861 meteor and 31 meteor shower records. We have confirmed the peaks of Perseids and an excess due to the mixture of Orionids, north-Taurids, or Leonids through the Monte-Carlo test. The peaks persist from the period of Goryeo dynasty to that of Joseon dynasty, for almost one thousand years. Korean records show a decrease of Perseids activity and an increase of Orionids/north-Taurids/Leonids activity. We have also analyzed seasonal variation of sporadic meteors from Korean records. We confirm the seasonal variation of sporadic meteors from the records of Joseon dynasty with the maximum number of events being roughly 1.7 times the minimum. The Korean records are compared with Chinese and Japanese records for the same periods. Major features in Chinese meteor shower records are quite consistent with those of Korean records, particularly for the last millennium. Japanese records also show Perseids feature and Orionids/north-Taurids/Leonids feature, although they are less prominent compared to those of Korean or Chinese records.

Hong-Jin Yang; Changbom Park; Myeong-Gu Park

2005-01-12

329

Understanding Scientific Methodology in the Historical and Experimental Sciences via Language Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A key focus of current science education reforms involves developing inquiry-based learning materials. However, without an understanding of how working scientists actually do science, such learning materials cannot be properly developed. Until now, research on scientific reasoning has focused on cognitive studies of individual scientific fields. However, the question remains as to whether scientists in different fields fundamentally rely on different methodologies. Although many philosophers and historians of science do indeed assert that there is no single monolithic scientific method, this has never been tested empirically. We therefore approach this problem by analyzing patterns of language used by scientists in their published work. Our results demonstrate systematic variation in language use between types of science that are thought to differ in their characteristic methodologies. The features of language use that were found correspond closely to a proposed distinction between Experimental Sciences (e.g., chemistry) and Historical Sciences (e.g., paleontology); thus, different underlying rhetorical and conceptual mechanisms likely operate for scientific reasoning and communication in different contexts.

Dodick, Jeff; Argamon, Shlomo; Chase, Paul

2009-08-01

330

Fire in the Belly and the Professionalization of Nurses: A Historical Analysis of Crohn Disease Care  

PubMed Central

Today professional nurses around the world are stepping up to meet the needs of individuals with Crohn disease using their specialized knowledge and skills that demonstrate areas of expertise that have not always existed. The gastrointestinal-specific knowledge being used by these 21st century nurses exists today because progressive efforts of nurses in previous decades moved the profession of nursing forward. The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the development of the role of nurses in responding to new challenges patients with Crohn disease face since the emergence of the disease in the early 1900s. The authors used traditional historic research methods to conduct the study. Primary sources include nursing journals and textbooks published in the 20th and 21st centuries and documents archived at The Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City, where Burrill B. Crohn conducted his seminal work. The significance of the findings is that the changing role of nurses in caring for patients with Crohn disease mirrors the professionalization of nursing during the 20th and early 21st centuries. PMID:23364362

Brotherton, Carol S.; Taylor, Ann Gill; Keeling, Arlene

2012-01-01

331

Association Analysis of Historical Bread Wheat Germplasm Using Additive Genetic Covariance of Relatives and Population Structure  

PubMed Central

Linkage disequilibrium can be used for identifying associations between traits of interest and genetic markers. This study used mapped diversity array technology (DArT) markers to find associations with resistance to stem rust, leaf rust, yellow rust, and powdery mildew, plus grain yield in five historical wheat international multienvironment trials from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). Two linear mixed models were used to assess marker–trait associations incorporating information on population structure and covariance between relatives. An integrated map containing 813 DArT markers and 831 other markers was constructed. Several linkage disequilibrium clusters bearing multiple host plant resistance genes were found. Most of the associated markers were found in genomic regions where previous reports had found genes or quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing the same traits, providing an independent validation of this approach. In addition, many new chromosome regions for disease resistance and grain yield were identified in the wheat genome. Phenotyping across up to 60 environments and years allowed modeling of genotype × environment interaction, thereby making possible the identification of markers contributing to both additive and additive × additive interaction effects of traits. PMID:17947425

Crossa, José; Burgueño, Juan; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Vargas, Mateo; Herrera-Foessel, Sybil A.; Lillemo, Morten; Singh, Ravi P.; Trethowan, Richard; Warburton, Marilyn; Franco, Jorge; Reynolds, Matthew; Crouch, Jonathan H.; Ortiz, Rodomiro

2007-01-01

332

Statistical methods for pavement performance curve building, historical analysis, data sampling and storage. Final report, May 1997--July 1998  

SciTech Connect

The use of a pavement management system provides a state highway agency with the tools necessary to conduct a multi-year analysis of the maintenance and rehabilitation needs within the state based on both current needs and expected future conditions. In order to adequately predict future conditions, pavement performance models must be developed to reflect the deterioration trends of the agency`s pavements. At the time the SDDOT pavement management system was implemented in 1994, the Department developed a new condition rating system to evaluate the existing conditions of the state maintained pavements. At the same time, expert-based pavement performance models were developed to approximate the deterioration patterns of the highways based on pavement families (groupings of pavements with similar characteristics). A recommendation from that study (SD93-14) was to update the curves based on historical performance once sufficient data had been collected.

Zimmerman, K.A.; Bahulkar, A.M.

1998-08-01

333

A historical and socioeconomic analysis of occupational safety and health in India.  

PubMed

Workers in poor countries of the so-called Third World are more likely to be affected by the dangers of high technology than their counterparts in wealthier countries. Owing to their lack of education, most workers in the "developing" world are unaware of the hazards of their occupations. Moreover, their general backwardness in sanitation and nutrition and climatic proneness of their geographic region to epidemics cause diseases contracted from the work environment to be aggravated. occupational diseases are often misconstrued as diseases resulting from the general environment. Since unemployment in underdeveloped countries is of a very high order, workers are prepared to accept any job, irrespective of the dangers involved. Labor is cheap and easily replaceable, so employers see no need for improving occupational safety and health. Labor unions are mostly controlled by full-time politicians who consider health a political issue, especially when their party controls the country's government. The seriousness of all these factors is heightened by the existing socioeconomic order in poor countries, in which national medievalism and multinational modernism play a crucial role. In order to understand the prevailing socioeconomic order, one has to analyze the social structures of poor countries in the context of today's world economic structure. India is taken as an example of a "developing" country where all the above-mentioned factors and many others are in operation: backwardness of the worker; poor nutrition; lack of concern for public health; proneness to epidemics; and indifference on the part of employers, politicians, and unions toward occupational health; high unemployment, control of the local economy by multinational corporations; and control of the mass media by feudalistic vested interests. This article attempts to analyze the occupational health and safety issue in India from a historical perspective, and stresses the vital need of structural changes in various fields so that workers can have a safe and healthy working environment. PMID:7372383

Vilanilam, J V

1980-01-01

334

Historical sketch of Slovak Haban (Hutterite) population based on autosomal STR analysis.  

PubMed

According to the Hutterite chronicles, the Habans arrived from Austrian Tyrol, Switzerland, and northernmost Italy and stayed in four regions of Slovakia (Sobotište, Vel'ké Leváre, Moravský Svätý Ján, Tren?ín). There are some communities in western Slovakia that retained their Haban cultural identity and still identify themselves as descendents of the Hutterite population with their own specific customs. Slovak Habans are typical founder population with significant social isolation for which high degree of inbreeding is typical. Present study investigated STR polymorphisms as a powerful genetic tool for population genetic studies. The aim was to perform a comparative, population genetic study based on 15 STR loci widely used in forensic genetics, of the Haban population, the Slovak majority population and the population of Tyrol. We analyzed allele frequencies and other statistical parameters in three selected populations in order to identify groups of specific ethnic origin and establish their genetic relationship. The data set included 110 unrelated Habans and 201 unrelated individuals from the Slovak majority population, as well as allelic frequencies for the population of Austrian Tyrol available in the literature. Population pairwise FST values used as a short term genetic distance between populations showed significant differentiation between the Habans and both reference populations (FST=0.0025 and 0.0042 for comparison with the Slovaks and Austrians, respectively; p<10(-3)). The Slovak Hutterites were demonstrated to be genetically distinct and more closely related to their geographic neighbors than to their historical ancestral population, which may be at least partially explained by gene flow between neighboring Haban and Slovak populations. PMID:22146063

Soták, M; Petrej?íková, E; Siváková, D; R?ba?a, K; Bôžiková, A; Bernasovský, I; Carnogurská, J; Boronová, I; Ma?eková, S; Homol'ová, L; Sovi?ová, A; Gabriková, D; Rusínová, L; Bernasovská, J

2011-10-01

335

Negotiating Discourses: Sixth-Grade Students' Use of Multiple Science Discourses during a Science Fair Presentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study offers important insights into the coexistence of multiple discourses and the link between these discourses and science understanding. It offers concrete examples of students' movement between multiple discourses in sixth-grade science fair presentations, and shows how those multiple discourses in science practices illuminate students'…

Gomez, Kimberley

2007-01-01

336

An Historical Perspective on the Theory and Practice of Soil Mechanical Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the history of soil mechanical analysis. Evaluates this history in order to place current concepts in perspective, from both a research and teaching viewpoint. Alternatives to traditional separation techniques for use in soils teaching laboratories are discussed. (TW)

Miller, W. P.; And Others

1988-01-01

337

Markers of topical discourse in child-directed speech.  

PubMed

Although the language we encounter is typically embedded in rich discourse contexts, many existing models of processing focus largely on phenomena that occur sentence-internally. Similarly, most work on children's language learning does not consider how information can accumulate as a discourse progresses. Research in pragmatics, however, points to ways in which each subsequent utterance provides new opportunities for listeners to infer speaker meaning. Such inferences allow the listener to build up a representation of the speakers' intended topic and more generally to identify relationships, structures, and messages that extend across multiple utterances. We address this issue by analyzing a video corpus of child-caregiver interactions. We use topic continuity as an index of discourse structure, examining how caregivers introduce and discuss objects across utterances. For the analysis, utterances are grouped into topical discourse sequences using three annotation strategies: raw annotations of speakers' referents, the output of a model that groups utterances based on those annotations, and the judgments of human coders. We analyze how the lexical, syntactic, and social properties of caregiver-child interaction change over the course of a sequence of topically related utterances. Our findings suggest that many cues used to signal topicality in adult discourse are also available in child-directed speech. PMID:24731080

Rohde, Hannah; Frank, Michael C

2014-01-01

338

Completeness period analysis of SisFrance macroseismic database and interpretation in the light of historical context  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In metropolitan France the deformation rates are slow, implying low to moderate seismic activity. Therefore, earthquakes observed during the instrumental period (since 1962), and associated catalogs, cannot be representative of the seismic cycle for the French metropolitan territory. In such context it is necessary, when performing seismic hazard studies, to consider historical seismic data in order to extend the observation period and to be more representative of the seismogenic behavior of geological structures. The French macroseismic database SisFrance is jointly developed by EDF (Electricité de France), BRGM (Bureau de Recherche Géologique et Minière) and IRSN (Institut de Radioprotection et Sureté Nucléaire). It contains more than 6,000 events inventoried between 217 BC and 2007 and more than 100,000 macroseismic observations. SisFrance is the reference macroseismic database for metropolitan France. The aim of this study is to determine, over the whole catalog, the completeness periods for different epicentral intensity (Iepc) classes?IV. Two methods have been used: 1) the method of Albarello et al. [2001], which has been adapted to best suit the French catalog, and 2) a mathematical method based on change points estimation, proposed by Muggeo et al. [2003], which has been adapted to the analysis of seismic datasets. After a brief theoretical description, both methods are tested and validated using synthetic catalogs, before being applied to the French catalog. The results show that completeness periods estimated using these two methods are coherent with each other for events with Iepc ?IV (1876 using Albarello et al. [2001] method and 1872 using Muggeo et al. [2003] method) and events with Iepc ?V (1852 using Albarello et al. [2001] method and 1855 using Muggeo et al. [2003] method). Larger differences in estimated completeness period appear when considering events with Iepc ?VI (around 30 years difference) and events with Iepc ?VII (around 50 years difference). These could be explained (1) by the differences in the way each method approaches the data; Muggeo et al. [2003] method estimates all change points within data series, whereas the method of Albarello et al. [2001] focus on the last one, and (2) by a more limited number of data for these epicentral intensity classes (2056 events with Iepc ?IV and 1252 events with Iepc ?V vs. 486 events with Iepc ?VI and 199 events with Iepc ?VII). Results obtained for epicentral intensity classes greater than VIII are considered not reliable due to the short number of existing data (around 30 events). The completeness periods determined in this study are discussed in the light of their contemporary historical context, and in particular of the evolution of the information available from historical archives since the 17th century.

Bonnet, José; Fradet, Thibault; Traversa, Paola; Tuleau-Malot, Christine; Reynaud-Bouret, Patricia; Laloe, Thomas; Manchuel, Kevin

2014-05-01

339

Historic Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site about historical maps is the US Military Academy at West Point's History Department's Map Library (1). The page contains links to dozens of maps related to warfare from ancient times, the American Revolution, and the Napoleonic wars to the World Wars and other modern conflicts. Although map descriptions are not given and the main page seemed to have a problem loading correctly, the site does give a very interesting glimpse into the geography and history of conflict. The second offering is from The Dalton School called Maps of the Roman Empire (2). Visitors will find dozens of interesting maps with titles such as the Roman Empire circa 120 AD; Trade Routes; 18 Centuries of Roman Empire; and maps of how the empire expanded, barbarian migrations, and more. Next, the History of Cartography (3) Web site is maintained by the University of Wisconsin Geography Department. The well designed page contains six volumes of information relating to cartographic changes from ancient times to the twentieth century. Full descriptions and images are available from this unique research, editorial, and publishing project. The fourth site from the Library of Congress Historical Collections is entitled American Memory Collections (4). The page contains various links to civil war maps, panoramic maps, revolutionary era maps, and other very impressive collections. The Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection: Historical Maps Web site (5) of the University of Texas at Austin is the next offering. This extensive site contains a well organized collection of historical maps of Africa, the Americas, Asia, Australia and the Pacific, Europe, the Middle East, Polar Regions and Oceans, Russia and the Former Soviet Republics, Texas, the US, and the World. The sixth site is maintained by John Hopkins University called Color Landforms Atlas of the United States (6). The main page contains links to maps from all fifty states, which include large historical maps from 1895, county maps, and shaded relief maps. The next site, old-maps.co.uk (7), is provided by Britain's national mapping agency and the Landmark Information Group. The site gives online access to Britain's most extensive digital historical map archive, which can be searched and browsed by a variety of subjects to view maps of Buckingham Palace, Edinburgh Castle, and Oxford University, among others. The last historical maps Web site is the Maps and Geography (8) search engine from National Geographic online. Users can search by general historical maps, Lewis and Clark maps, New England and New York maps, Civil War, and World Maps to find and view an impressive and interesting collection.

Brieske, Joel A.

2003-01-01

340

The Organization of Narrative Discourse in Lewy Body Spectrum Disorder  

PubMed Central

Narrative discourse is an essential component of day-to-day communication, but little is known about narrative in Lewy Body spectrum disorder (LBSD), including Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We performed a detailed analysis of a semi-structured speech sample in 32 non-aphasic patients with LBSD, and we related their narrative impairments to gray matter (GM) atrophy using voxel-based morphometry. We found that patients with PDD and DLB have significant difficulty organizing their narrative speech. This was correlated with deficits on measures of executive functioning and speech fluency. Regression analyses associated this deficit with reduced cortical volume in inferior frontal and anterior cingulate regions. These findings are consistent with a model of narrative discourse that includes executive as well as language components and with an impairment of the organizational component of narrative discourse in patients with PDD and DLB. PMID:21689852

Ash, Sharon; McMillan, Corey; Gross, Rachel G.; Cook, Philip; Morgan, Brianna; Boller, Ashley; Dreyfuss, Michael; Siderowf, Andrew; Grossman, Murray

2011-01-01

341

Pathology Case Study: Lash's Bitters - Biochemical Analysis of a Historic Proprietary Medicine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology. This case examines the history of medicine by tracing the origins and development of proprietary medications. Visitors will find a collection of bottle and advertisement images, analysis procedures results from medications, discussion of those results, and references for further reading. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to understand the history of medicine, the development of proprietary medications, and the biochemical analysis of them. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical chemistry.

Beiler, Bonnie; Cropcho, Lorna; Kelly, Robert; Moraca, Michael; Rao, K. N.; Torbenson, Michael

2007-12-05

342

Discourse Production Following Injury to the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals with damage to the prefrontal cortex, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in particular, often demonstrate difficulties with the formulation of complex language not attributable to aphasia. The present study employed a discourse analysis procedure to characterize the language of individuals with left (L) or right (R) DLPFC…

Coelho, Carl; Le, Karen; Mozeiko, Jennifer; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

2012-01-01

343

Discourse Patterns in First and Second Language: An Ethnographic Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a study of discourse patterns in the learning of second language oral skills. The study, based on research traditions such as ethnography of communication and conversation analysis, adopts as its main theoretical framework Vygotsky's theory of social origin of language and cognition. (DJD)

Baldo, Mariella

1988-01-01

344

Book Reviews and Disciplinary Discourses: Defining a Genre.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzed the English discourse organization of sixty academic book reviews in three disciplines (linguistics, chemistry, economics) published in 1990, to help define book reviews as an academic written genre. Analysis revealed that although book reviews show regularities in information form, function, and content, some variation occurs…

Motta-Roth, Desiree

345

Discourse Processes and Products: Land Surveyors in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported in this paper aims to provide a description of professional communication pertaining to land surveying project management in Hong Kong, achieved through a comprehensive analysis of both workplace discourse processes and products. The study, situated in Hong Kong, represents a collaborative effort between English and Land…

Cheng, Winnie; Mok, Esmond

2008-01-01

346

Towards Building a Math Discourse Community: Investigating Collaborative Information Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reported a study that analyzes collaborative information behavior of small groups in an online math discourse community. Taking group as the unit of analysis, we analyzed the social interactions of participants engaged in collaborative math problem solving and examined how they seek for information in such context. Participants look for information oriented to the procedure, problem, context, and social

Nan Zhou; Gerry Stahl

2007-01-01

347

Headlines and discourses in newspaper reports on traffic accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building on the existing social and health sciences knowledge base, we explore the ways in which traffic accidents on South African roads are constructed by the media and how these constructions are related to the media's role in supporting hegemonic interests, producing public consensus and promoting public agency. Discourse analysis was used to analyse 52 South African newspaper articles that

Victoria MacRitchie; Mohamed Seedat

348

Measuring Lexical Diversity in Narrative Discourse of People with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: A microlinguistic content analysis for assessing lexical semantics in people with aphasia (PWA) is lexical diversity (LD). Sophisticated techniques have been developed to measure LD. However, validity evidence for these methodologies when applied to the discourse of PWA is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four measures…

Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather H.; West, Thomas M.

2013-01-01

349

Online Scholarly Discourse: Lessons Learned for Continuing and Nurse Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of registered nurses participating in an Internet-based cardiac education program included analysis of online discussion forums. Comments about evidence-based theory and discipline-specific wiring indicated that the environment facilitated online scholarly discourse. Interactions provided moral, technical, and academic support to…

Carter, Lorraine; Rukholm, Ellen

2002-01-01

350

Discourse processes and products: Land surveyors in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study reported in this paper aims to provide a description of professional communication pertaining to land surveying project management in Hong Kong, achieved through a comprehensive analysis of both workplace discourse processes and products. The study, situated in Hong Kong, represents a collaborative effort between English and Land Surveying and Geo-Informatics departments in a university and a civil engineering

Winnie Cheng; Esmond Mok

2008-01-01

351

Social scripts and stark realities: Kenyan adolescents' abortion discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores students' narratives and discourses about adolescent pregnancy and abortion elicited via internet?based open?ended questions posed in response to a cartoon vignette. We report on content analysis of recommendations and strategies for how to manage the unplanned pregnancy of a fictional young couple and in their own personal lives. The responses of 614 young people were analysed. Strategies

Ellen M. H. Mitchell; Carolyn Tucker Halpern; Eva Muthuuri Kamathi; Shirley Owino

2006-01-01

352

Navigating Discourses in Place in the World of Webkinz  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Geosemiotics (Scollon and Scollon, 2003) frames this analysis of play, multimodal collaboration, and peer mediation as players navigate barriers to online connectivity in a children's social network and gaming site. A geosemiotic perspective enables examination of children's web play as "discourses in place": fluidly converging and diverging…

Wohlwend, Karen E.; Zanden, Sarah Vander; Husbye, Nicholas E.; Kuby, Candace R.

2011-01-01

353

Children and Reading Tests. Advances in Discourse Processes. Volume 65.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book makes a scholarly contribution to the debate about standardized testing in American education by using the methods of discourse analysis to examine not only representative material from reading tests but also children's responses to it. The book is particularly attentive to the role of culture in shaping children's understanding of what…

Hill, Clifford; Larsen, Eric

354

The Organization of Narrative Discourse in Lewy Body Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Narrative discourse is an essential component of day-to-day communication, but little is known about narrative in Lewy body spectrum disorder (LBSD), including Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We performed a detailed analysis of a semi-structured speech sample in 32 non-aphasic…

Ash, Sharon; McMillan, Corey; Gross, Rachel G.; Cook, Philip; Morgan, Brianna; Boller, Ashley; Dreyfuss, Michael; Siderowf, Andrew; Grossman, Murray

2011-01-01

355

Analysis of micro computed tomography images; a look inside historic enamelled metal objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study the usefulness of micro-Computed Tomography (µ-CT) for the in-depth analysis of enamelled metal objects was tested. Usually investigations of enamelled metal artefacts are restricted to non-destructive surface analysis or analysis of cross sections after destructive sampling. Radiography, a commonly used technique in the field of cultural heritage studies, is limited to providing two-dimensional information about a three-dimensional object (Lang and Middleton, Radiography of Cultural Material, pp. 60-61, Elsevier-Butterworth-Heinemann, Amsterdam-Stoneham-London, 2005). Obtaining virtual slices and information about the internal structure of these objects was made possible by CT analysis. With this technique the underlying metal work was studied without removing the decorative enamel layer. Moreover visible defects such as cracks were measured in both width and depth and as of yet invisible defects and weaker areas are visualised. All these features are of great interest to restorers and conservators as they allow a view inside these objects without so much as touching them.

van der Linden, Veerle; van de Casteele, Elke; Thomas, Mienke Simon; de Vos, Annemie; Janssen, Elsje; Janssens, Koen

2010-02-01

356

Crude oil import policy of Turkey: Historical analysis of determinants and implications since 1968  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey is one of the most energy import dependent countries in the world, suffering deeply from the economic and strategic burdens of oil importation. Our purpose is to determine the factors behind the crude oil import policy of Turkey and to measure their contribution to a well-organized import strategy. We implemented a principle component analysis to construct an Oil Import

Volkan ?. Ediger; Istemi Berk

2011-01-01

357

The "Prediflood" database of historical floods in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula) AD 1035-2013, and its potential applications in flood analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Prediflood" is a database of historical floods that occurred in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula), between the 11th century and the 21st century. More than 2700 flood cases are catalogued, and more than 1100 flood events. This database contains information acquired under modern historiographical criteria and it is, therefore, suitable for use in multidisciplinary flood analysis techniques, such as meteorological or hydraulic reconstructions.

Barriendos, M.; Ruiz-Bellet, J. L.; Tuset, J.; Mazón, J.; Balasch, J. C.; Pino, D.; Ayala, J. L.

2014-12-01

358

North Atlantic Climate Variability: Preliminary Analysis of Historical Weather Data and Stable Isotope Time Series of Cave Dripwater and Holocene-Age Stalagmites from Bermuda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bermuda, located in the center of the Sargasso Sea of the North Atlantic Ocean, is a unique laboratory for analyzing Holocene climate change. This subtropical area lacks a strong seasonal cycle, making it an ideal place to look for low-frequency cycles identified in observational records of North Atlantic climate. A preliminary statistical analysis of historical climate data, provided by the

S. E. Gaurin; S. J. Burns; M. Woodworth; J. Wood; L. Edwards; H. Cheng

2008-01-01

359

Historical Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author presents a historical overview of four decades of scholarship and changing public policy on family and informal caregiving for older adults. Families are changing at a dizzying pace. Changes in family composition, cultural diversity, geographic mobility, and societal norms, coupled with increasing numbers of older…

Scharlach, Andrew

2008-01-01

360

Police Discourse on Racial Profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

As central actors in the phenomenon, the police view is noticeably absent from research on racial profiling. Given the prominence of “color-blind” racial ideology in the face of disparate opinions about the police between minorities and Whites in the United States, police discourse on racial profiling bears examination. The author employs in-depth interviews of patrol officers in the Novad (a

Karen S. Glover

2007-01-01

361

Narrative Discourse and Management Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that narrative discourse helped a management team resolve conflict, influence corporate decisions, and unify the group. Argues managers' preference for collectively constructed narrative reasoning reflected their beliefs that narrative conveyed contextual complexities and helped interpret other types of evidence. Shows how through…

Jameson, Daphne A.

2001-01-01

362

Metaphor, Language, and Discourse Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation of conceptual metaphor theory (CMT) offered by Raymond W. Gibbs, Jr. in this issue suggests a number of important opportunities for future research that may be based on interesting research findings produced over the past 3 decades in response to CMT. This reply to Gibbs argues that the main question for discourse processing remains…

Steen, Gerard

2011-01-01

363

Combined SERS and Raman analysis for the identification of red pigments in cross-sections from historic oil paintings.  

PubMed

The analysis of paint cross-sections can reveal a remarkable amount of information about the layers and materials in a painting without visibly altering the artwork. Although a variety of analytical approaches are used to detect inorganic pigments as well as organic binders, proteins, and lipids in cross-sections, they do not provide for the unambiguous identification of natural, organic colorants. Here, we develop a novel combined surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), light microscopy, and normal Raman scattering (NRS) approach for the identification of red organic and inorganic pigments in paint cross-sections obtained from historic 18th and 19th century oil paintings. In particular, Ag nanoparticles are directly applied to localized areas of paint cross-sections mounted in polyester resin for SERS analysis of the organic pigments. This combined extractionless non-hydrolysis SERS and NRS approach provides for the definitive identification of carmine lake, madder lake, and vermilion in multiple paint layers. To our knowledge, this study represents the first in situ identification of natural, organic pigments within paint cross-sections from oil paintings. Furthermore, the combination of SERS and normal Raman, with light microscopy provides conservators with a more comprehensive understanding of a painting from a single sample and without the need for sample pretreatment. PMID:25340987

Frano, Kristen A; Mayhew, Hannah E; Svoboda, Shelley A; Wustholz, Kristin L

2014-11-10

364

The paradigm that always was: Scientific discourse in Young-Earth Creationist textbooks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bob Jones University Press (BJU Press) is a publishing house owned by the Greenville, South Carolina university of the same name. Fulfilling Bob Jones' mission beyond the college classroom, BJU Press prints a full K-12 educational program that spans all subjects and meets national core content standards. These materials are nationally circulated in homeschooling environments and conservative Christian private schools, a growing portion of America's educational landscape: according to a Department of Education 2009 report, enrollment in these schools represented 885,000 students. Research in rhetoric facilitates our understanding of various discourse communities, especially those that appropriate the discourse of a separate community to forward an argument that runs counter to the purposes of the original community. An interesting example of this rhetorical strategy is BJU Press' educational philosophy called Biblical Integration, in which teachers are invoked to "call into question the secular assumptions of each subject and then encourage the student to rebuild the discipline from biblical presuppositions." Using this technique, teachers using BJU Press materials attempt to shape students' ideologies by teaching a literal reading of the Bible dictating a 6,000-year-old Earth. The most interesting subject area in which BJU Press deploys Biblical Integration is the natural sciences, wherein to achieve this goal, textbook authors must make two rhetorical moves: first, re-frame a biblical ideology as being equally scientific to its secular counterparts; and, second, argue for the superiority of a science based in the Bible. This thesis analyzes a science textbook produced by BJU Press, exploring how the authors meet these exigencies. Specifically, I argue that the authors of the eighth grade title Earth Science both adopt and adapt the discourse of science in order to validate Evangelical Christian Science as being legitimately engaged in scientific endeavors. Within the context of natural sciences, Biblical Integration is particularly compelling: in formulating an alternative view of science and arguing for its superiority over secular science, the authors at BJU Press are implicitly employing the discourse of Kuhnian scientific revolution, adding a layer of scientific credibility to their efforts by mimicking the historical progress of the sciences. In adopting a Kuhnian approach, the authors craft a hybrid discourse that blends science with scripture, working against the secular status quo of the sciences. Accordingly, to analyze this hybrid discourse, this thesis draws upon work within the rhetoric of science directly influenced by Thomas Kuhn. This analysis is conducted via two case studies. The first focuses on the textbook's introductory chapter, highlighting how the chapter appropriates the epistemological practices of scientific research by presenting an overarching argument that forwards a threefold purpose: (1) establishing the purpose of Christian Science; (2) highlighting the inherently ideological nature of scientific epistemology; and (3) providing a dualistic definition that polarizes Christian and secular science. By emphasizing the ideological nature of science, the authors of this textbook create a rhetorical space in which they can articulate their alternative view of science as being theoretically valid. The second case study analyzes a discipline-specific application of Christian Science: two textbook chapters that focus on geology. When the textbook attempts to operationalize Christian Science, this view falls short of the standards of science due to Evangelical faith in the infallibility of scripture. Despite this shortcoming, these two chapters still employ strategies indicative of Kuhnian paradigmatic arguments: highlighting fundamental anomalies in scientific consensus and utilizing arguments from familiarity to gain audiences' tentative acceptance. In using these argumentative strategies, the textbook authors mimic scientific argument, but do not fully meet the criteria of science.

Maynard, Travis

365

Optimizing Air Transportation Service to Metroplex Airports. Part 1; Analysis of Historical Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The air transportation system is a significant driver of the U.S. economy, providing safe, affordable, and rapid transportation. During the past three decades airspace and airport capacity has not grown in step with demand for air transportation (+4% annual growth), resulting in unreliable service and systemic delays. Estimates of the impact of delays and unreliable air transportation service on the economy range from $32B to $41B per year. This report describes the results of an analysis of airline strategic decision-making with regards to: (1) geographic access, (2) economic access, and (3) airline finances. This analysis evaluated markets-served, scheduled flights, aircraft size, airfares, and profit from 2005-2009. During this period, airlines experienced changes in costs of operation (due to fluctuations in hedged fuel prices), changes in travel demand (due to changes in the economy), and changes in infrastructure capacity (due to the capacity limits at EWR, JFK, and LGA). This analysis captures the impact of the implementation of capacity limits at airports, as well as the effect of increased costs of operation (i.e. hedged fuel prices). The increases in costs of operation serve as a proxy for increased costs per flight that might occur if auctions or congestion pricing are imposed.

Donohue, George; Hoffman, Karla; Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Kara, Abdul Qadar

2010-01-01

366

Translational Research in Behavior Analysis: Historical Traditions and Imperative for the Future  

PubMed Central

“Pure basic” science can become detached from the natural world that it is supposed to explain. “Pure applied” work can become detached from fundamental processes that shape the world it is supposed to improve. Neither demands the intellectual support of a broad scholarly community or the material support of society. Translational research can do better by seeking innovation in theory or practice through the synthesis of basic and applied questions, literatures, and methods. Although translational thinking has always occurred in behavior analysis, progress often has been constrained by a functional separation of basic and applied communities. A review of translational traditions in behavior analysis suggests that innovation is most likely when individuals with basic and applied expertise collaborate. Such innovation may have to accelerate for behavior analysis to be taken seriously as a general-purpose science of behavior. We discuss the need for better coordination between the basic and applied sectors, and argue that such coordination compromises neither while benefiting both. PMID:21119847

Mace, F. Charles; Critchfield, Thomas S

2010-01-01

367

Race Talk and Common Sense: Patterns in Pakeha Discourse on Maori\\/Pakeha Relations in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discourse analysis of public submissions arising from an overt racial conflict in New Zealand in 1979 has yielded a number of patterns in the talk of Pakeha New Zealanders. An outline of two such patterns is presented and these are then drawn upon in the deconstruction of a piece of contemporary Pakeha discourse. This analysis is designed to shed some

Raymond G. Nairn; Timothy N. McCreanor

1991-01-01

368

Statistical methods for pavement performance curve building, historical analysis, data sampling and storage: Appendix D. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The technical memorandum is intended to discuss the detailed procedure required for carrying out the statistical analyses of historical pavement condition data for building pavement performance curves. This chapter assumes the availability of the historical data in a spreadsheet format (Microsoft{trademark} Excel) that has been retrieved from the master (pavement management system) database.

NONE

1998-08-01

369

Historical analysis of pewter spoons recovered from the sunken city of Port Royal, Jamaica  

E-print Network

slip tops have hexagonal stems which are 29 KNOP OR FINIAL STEM RAT-TAIL BOWL Figure i. Parts of a spoon. 30 Figure 2. Spoon types: A. Slip Top, B. Puritan, C. Early Round End, D. TriFid End, E. Wavy End, F. Round End. 31 thicker than... is concerned with the identification of the pewter spoons and spoon Fragments recovered From Port Royal. Analysis of the collection has provided information on the type, date and origin of many of the spoons as well as facts about the inhabitants of Port...

Wadley, Cathryn Ann

1985-01-01

370

Speechreading: An Historical Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrated are landmarks in the development of speechreading and its role in speech perception by individuals with impaired hearing. Covered are historical influences from 1450 to the present and issues in teaching/learning speechreading, such as the most effective unit of analysis for instruction and the impact of linguistic context. (JDD)

French-St. George, Marilyn; Stoker, Richard G.

1988-01-01

371

The ghost of genetic diversity past: historical DNA analysis of the greater prairie chicken.  

PubMed

Most, if not all, of the "classic," often-cited examples illustrating the genetic effects of a population bottleneck are open to alternative explanations due to the lack of adequate control populations, that is, low levels of genetic variability are often assumed to be the result of a past population bottleneck without having any prebottleneck measures. Here we provide the first clear case history where both prebottleneck and postbottleneck measures of genetic variability have been collected from a natural system. Analysis of DNA from museum specimens of the greater prairie chicken Tympanuchus cupido from central Illinois revealed the loss of specific alleles (known to have been present earlier in this century) following a demographic contraction. Lost alleles included common ones present in all other populations sampled and others unique to the Illinois population. PMID:18811397

Bouzat, J L; Lewin, H A; Paige, K N

1998-07-01

372

Historical analysis of oil and gas well plugging in New York: is the regulatory system working?  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate New York State's regulatory program for plugging inactive oil and gas wells. Analysis of reports from the Division of Mineral Resources, Department of Environmental Conservation, reveals that three-fourths of the state's abandoned oil and gas wells were never plugged. Inadequate enforcement efforts have resulted in steady increases of unplugged oil and gas wells abandoned since 1992. Further, no program exists or is proposed to monitor abandoned wells which were plugged. These results strongly suggest that comprehensive reform and increased agency resources would be required to effectively regulate conventional oil and gas development in New York. Industrial expansion into shale oil and gas development should be postponed to avoid adding stress to an already compromised regulatory system. PMID:23552650

Bishop, Ronald E

2013-01-01

373

Historic Pelham  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pelham, New York is a city rich with history, dating back to 1654 when Thomas Pell purchased the land from the Siwanoy Native American Indian tribe. The history of the city is detailed in a timeline that begins in the 1500s and includes significant event such as the Battle of Pelham fought in 1776 and the Pelhamville Train Wreck in 1885. This site also highlights some of the more famous people who have ties to Pelham. For example, it is rumored that Aaron Burr, the man who killed Alexander Hamilton in an infamous duel in 1804, spent a couple summers in Pelham with his wife. In addition to historical information on the city of Pelham, the Web site includes a section with ghost stories and legends, photographs of the city, and descriptions of historical landmarks.

374

Women in physics? Identity and discourse in Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation argues that the deeply held hope for gender equity in science can no longer be simply realized as a project to increase women's participation in science. Understanding women's vexed relations with science requires a reconceptualization of the terms women and science, not as given categories to signal how "women" are coping with their disadvantaged positions in "science," but rather as two discourses formed in relation to each other, in institutional practices and in particular social and historical contexts. This dissertation investigates discourses of women and science by focusing on women in physics in Taiwan. This focus extends debates about gender and science by showing that the intervention of a particular discourse---in this case, the discourse of "women in physics"---into an existing discursive field exposed the contested terrain of the gender politics of physics and the identity politics of women physicists in Taiwan. "Women in physics" emerged as an internationally legitimate subject position in Taiwan in 1999 following a call to form a local working team on women in physics. The participants I interviewed utilized this internationally legitimate subject position to reconstruct, in different ways, their gendered identities in physics. Scholarship in the field of gender and science education studies has, over the past three decades, focused on equity and inclusion to address gender inequalities in science. This dissertation suggests, by contrast, that a focus on identity is necessary for understanding gendered career decisions in science. The term identity refers to how individuals perceive themselves and how others respond to their claims; identity involves the purposes, interests and contexts of particular naming processes. In the structural inequalities of gender and science, a focus on identity aims to track individual and collective forms of agency exercised in changing discursive fields. This dissertation concludes by viewing curriculum as a discursive field where various discourses provide subject positions and produce potential meanings through teaching and learning. Hope for social transformation can be situated in the interventionary power of new discourses and the subsequent reconfiguration of gendered identities in existing institutional practices.

Tsai, Li-Ling

375

Discourse Tagging Tool and Discourse-Tagged Multilingual Corpora  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of our on-going research on multilingual anaphora resolution (cf. Aone and McKee [3],Aone [1]), we have built a graphical tool to tag texts with antecedent-anaphor relations and havecreated corpora tagged with such relations. The tool, called the Discourse Tagging Tool (DTTool),has been used to manually tag Japanese, Spanish and English texts with anaphora, their types (suchas pronouns

Chinatsu Aone; Scott W. Bennett

1994-01-01

376

Wavelength resolved neutron transmission analysis to identify single crystal particles in historical metallurgy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phase composition and the microstructure of four ferrous Japanese arrows of the Edo period (17th-19th century) has been determined through two complementary neutron techniques: Position-sensitive wavelength-resolved neutron transmission analysis (PS-WRNTA) and time-of-flight neutron diffraction (ToF-ND). Standard ToF-ND technique has been applied by using the INES diffractometer at the ISIS pulsed neutron source in the UK, while the innovative PS-WRNTA one has been performed at the J-PARC neutron source on the BL-10 NOBORU beam line using the high spatial high time resolution neutron imaging detector. With ToF-ND we were able to reach information about the quantitative distribution of the metal and non-metal phases, the texture level, the strain level and the domain size of each of the samples, which are important parameters to gain knowledge about the technological level of the Japanese weapon. Starting from this base of data, the more complex PS-WRNTA has been applied to the same samples. This experimental technique exploits the presence of the so-called Bragg edges, in the time-of-flight spectrum of neutrons transmitted through crystalline materials, to map the microstructural properties of samples. The two techniques are non-invasive and can be easily applied to archaeometry for an accurate microstructure mapping of metal and ceramic artifacts.

Barzagli, E.; Grazzi, F.; Salvemini, F.; Scherillo, A.; Sato, H.; Shinohara, T.; Kamiyama, T.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Tremsin, A.; Zoppi, Marco

2014-07-01

377

Attitudes and practices regarding disposal of liquid nuclear waste at Clinton Laboratories in the very early years: A historical analysis  

SciTech Connect

Many previously unreferenced documents show that the management and disposal of the liquid nuclear waste generated at Clinton Labs (which became ORNL after 1948) during the 1940s was performed with the highest degree of integrity and professionalism, contradicting today`s perceptions. Even before construction of the laboratories in early 1943, professionals were making plans for the ``safe`` disposal of waste through treatment and dilution at medically prescribed levels into White Oak Creek and the Clinch River; concern for human health permeated all the disposal decisions. Chemical and physical treatment processes were used to remove as much of the activity as possible before release. Environmental and biological monitoring of the surface waters was instituted very early in the disposal history. Information learned at Clinton Labs with regard to waste disposal was transferred to Hanford. By the latter part of the 1940s, the scientists were formulating fairly sophisticated research programs for managing liquid waste and began research on the disposal of low-level solid waste. This historical analysis attempts to place the actions of the 1940s in proper perspective, drawing on the attentiveness and integrity of those who participated 50 years ago. Applying standards of the 1990s to actions in the 1940s must be done skilfully, carefully, and with the realization that those individuals were operating under extremely trying conditions, with minimal knowledge of radionuclide behavior.

Stow, S.H.

1996-02-01

378

Tree-ring analysis by pixe for a historical record of soil chemistry response to acidic air pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tree cores have been analyzed intact in 1 mm steps, corresponding to time intervals in the rings as short as half a growing season, providing a chronological record of 16 elemental concentrations extending over thirty years back to 1950. Samples were collected in a forested region of western Canada in sandy soil which was impacted by acid-forming gases released by a sulfur recovery sour natural gas plant. Tree core samples of the hybrid lodgepole-Jack pine ( Pinns contorta Loud. × Pinus banksiana Lamb.) were taken in five ecologically similar locations between 1.2 and 9.6 km from the gas plant stacks. Concentrations of some elements showed patterns suggesting that the annual rings preserved a record of changing soil chemistry in response both to natural environmental conditions and to deposition from sulfur gas emissions, commencing after plant start-up in 1959 and modified by subsequent modifications in plant operating procedures. These patterns were most pronounced nearest the gas plant. Certain other elements did not exhibit these patterns, probably reflecting greater importance of biological than of soil chemical properties. The high time resolution of tree-ring analysis, which can be achieved by PIXE, demonstrates that the rings preserve a historical record of elemental composition which may reflect changes in soil chemistry during plant growth as it may be affected by both natural ecological processes and acidic deposition from the atmosphere.

Legge, Allan H.; Kaufmann, Henry C.; Winchester, John W.

1984-04-01

379

Identification and analysis of unitary pseudogenes: historic and contemporary gene losses in humans and other primates  

PubMed Central

Background Unitary pseudogenes are a class of unprocessed pseudogenes without functioning counterparts in the genome. They constitute only a small fraction of annotated pseudogenes in the human genome. However, as they represent distinct functional losses over time, they shed light on the unique features of humans in primate evolution. Results We have developed a pipeline to detect human unitary pseudogenes through analyzing the global inventory of orthologs between the human genome and its mammalian relatives. We focus on gene losses along the human lineage after the divergence from rodents about 75 million years ago. In total, we identify 76 unitary pseudogenes, including previously annotated ones, and many novel ones. By comparing each of these to its functioning ortholog in other mammals, we can approximately date the creation of each unitary pseudogene (that is, the gene 'death date') and show that for our group of 76, the functional genes appear to be disabled at a fairly uniform rate throughout primate evolution - not all at once, correlated, for instance, with the 'Alu burst'. Furthermore, we identify 11 unitary pseudogenes that are polymorphic - that is, they have both nonfunctional and functional alleles currently segregating in the human population. Comparing them with their orthologs in other primates, we find that two of them are in fact pseudogenes in non-human primates, suggesting that they represent cases of a gene being resurrected in the human lineage. Conclusions This analysis of unitary pseudogenes provides insights into the evolutionary constraints faced by different organisms and the timescales of functional gene loss in humans. PMID:20210993

2010-01-01

380

Honeymoon, medical treatment or big business? An analysis of the meanings of the term “reproductive tourism” in German and Israeli public media discourses  

PubMed Central

Background/Introduction Infertile couples that travel to another country for reproductive treatment do not refer to themselves as “reproductive tourists”. They might even be offended by this term. “Tourism” is a metaphor with hidden connotations. We will analyze these connotations in public media discourses on “reproductive tourism” in Israel and Germany. We chose to focus on these two countries since legal, ethical and religious restrictions give couples a similar motivation to travel for reproductive care, while the cultural backgrounds and conceptions of reproduction are different. Results Our research shows that the use of the metaphor “reproductive treatment” and its hidden messages depends on the writers’ intention and the target population. Although the phenomenon of patients travelling for reproductive treatment can fit into the definitions of tourism, the term emphasizes aspects that do not reflect patients’ reality. In both the German and the Israeli public media debate the term “reproductive tourism” is either used to criticize the economic aspects of the phenomenon or to attract patients as potential clients. Conclusions Ethicists should be cautious when borrowing metaphors like “reproductive tourism” from the public debate. Our findings support Penning’s suggestion to use instead an unloaded term like cross-border reproductive care to describe the phenomenon in a more neutral way and to make it explicit whenever criticism is necessary. PMID:23962355

2013-01-01

381

Nervous system cancer : analysis of historical mortality rates in the United States and Japan indicate sudden increases in environmental risk  

E-print Network

Nervous System cancer age-specific mortality rates began being recorded for European and Non-European Americans in 1930 and for Japanese in 1952. All ethnic groups show significant historical increases in mortality rates. ...

Alhassani, Ali K

2008-01-01

382

Genetic analysis of historic western Great Lakes region wolf samples reveals early Canis lupus/lycaon hybridization.  

PubMed

The genetic status of wolves in the western Great Lakes region has received increased attention following the decision to remove them from protection under the US Endangered Species Act. A recent study of mitochondrial DNA has suggested that the recovered wolf population is not genetically representative of the historic population. We present microsatellite genotype data on three historic samples and compare them with extant populations, and interpret published genetic data to show that the pre-recovery population was admixed over a century ago by eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) and grey wolf (Canis lupus) hybridization. The DNA profiles of the historic samples are similar to those of extant animals in the region, suggesting that the current Great Lakes wolves are representative of the historic population. PMID:18940770

Wheeldon, Tyler; White, Bradley N

2009-02-23

383

Comprehensive investigation into historical pipeline construction costs and engineering economic analysis of Alaska in-state gas pipeline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzes historical cost data of 412 pipelines and 220 compressor stations. On the basis of this analysis, the study also evaluates the feasibility of an Alaska in-state gas pipeline using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Analysis of pipeline construction costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary by diameter, length, volume, year, and location. Overall average learning rates for pipeline material and labor costs are 6.1% and 12.4%, respectively. Overall average cost shares for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, and right of way (ROW) are 31%, 40%, 23%, and 7%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate pipeline component costs for different lengths, cross-sectional areas, and locations. An analysis of inaccuracy in pipeline cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation of pipeline cost components is biased except for in the case of total costs. Overall overrun rates for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, ROW, and total costs are 4.9%, 22.4%, -0.9%, 9.1%, and 6.5%, respectively, and project size, capacity, diameter, location, and year of completion have different degrees of impacts on cost overruns of pipeline cost components. Analysis of compressor station costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary in terms of capacity, year, and location. Average learning rates for compressor station material and labor costs are 12.1% and 7.48%, respectively. Overall average cost shares of material, labor, miscellaneous, and ROW are 50.6%, 27.2%, 21.5%, and 0.8%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate compressor station component costs in different capacities and locations. An investigation into inaccuracies in compressor station cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation for compressor stations is biased except for in the case of material costs. Overall average overrun rates for compressor station material, labor, miscellaneous, land, and total costs are 3%, 60%, 2%, -14%, and 11%, respectively, and cost overruns for cost components are influenced by location and year of completion to different degrees. Monte Carlo models are developed and simulated to evaluate the feasibility of an Alaska in-state gas pipeline by assigning triangular distribution of the values of economic parameters. Simulated results show that the construction of an Alaska in-state natural gas pipeline is feasible at three scenarios: 500 million cubic feet per day (mmcfd), 750 mmcfd, and 1000 mmcfd.

Rui, Zhenhua

384

Historical Supernovae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The available historical records of supernovae occurring in our own Galaxy over the past two thousand years are reviewed.\\u000a These accounts include the well-recorded supernovae of AD1604 (Kepler’s SN), AD1572 (Tycho’s SN), AD1181 AD1054 (which produced\\u000a the Crab Nebula) and AD1006, together with less certain events dating back to AD185. In the case of the supernovae of AD1604\\u000a and AD1572

David A. Green; F. Richard Stephenson

385

Historical Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The James Ford Bell Library at the University of Minnesota provides the Historical Maps page as part of their main Web site. Users can view more than fifty maps online, each of which contain a short description of what the map is depicting. One example is a navigational map of Africa and the Atlantic and Indian Oceans that was designed to illustrate the first Dutch expedition to Java undertaken by Cornelis de Houtman in 1597. The maps can be viewed in fine detail and are quite fascinating to view and learn about. Anyone interested in history, cartography, or other similar subjects should enjoy exploring the collection.

386

"The Only Solution There Is To Fight": Discourses of Masculinity Among South African Domestically Violent Men.  

PubMed

This qualitative study investigates the discourses that men used when talking about their experiences of attending a Duluth-cognitive-behavioral-therapy (CBT) domestic violence program in Cape Town, South Africa. Data were collected from 12 men who were recruited from three programs. A discourse analysis of interviews revealed that men drew upon various dominant discourses of masculinity that may reinforce the subordination of, control over, and violence against women. Our findings from this study contribute to the debate surrounding the Duluth model's effectiveness in South Africa by questioning its successes in transforming violent masculinity. PMID:25341539

van Niekerk, Taryn J; Boonzaier, Floretta A

2014-10-23

387

Pedagogy, police training, D\\/discourses - \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative and quantitative methods were used in this research to distinguish the prevailing D\\/discourses (words, tools, beliefs, thinking styles) in police training and to analyse the 'discourse-practice' (Cherryholmes 1988, p.1) framework of policing in a training environment. The manifestations, functions and consequences of the D\\/discourses raise concerns about the efficacy of training (its doctrinal intent and value versus its educative

Cheryl Maree Ryan

388

Lighting the Way Through Scientific Discourse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a thought-provoking lesson that compares various arrangements of lamp-battery circuits to help students develop the motivation and competence to participate in scientific discourse for knowledge construction. Through experimentation and discourse, students explore concepts about voltage, current, resistance, and Ohm's law. The discourse encourages students to become deeply engaged in the process of making sense of their own observations and ideas.

Yang, Li-Hsuan

2008-12-01

389

When discourses collide: creationism and evolution in the public sphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review essay focuses on Özgür Ta?k?n's discussion of the theory of evolution (TOE), intelligent design (ID) and the convictions of fundamentalist science educators and students in his paper entitled: An exploratory examination of Islamic values in science education: Islamization of science teaching and learning via constructivism. It examines the competing social discourses of evolution and creationism in the United States, which is partially maintained by national public opinion polls and states' legislation about the TOE in the science curricula. The examination of US social discourses presented here is framed by James Gee's (2008) theory that Discourses with a capital "D," are unconscious and uncritical socially accepted ways of speaking/listening and writing/reading that are merged with "distinctive ways of acting, interacting, valuing, feeling, dressing, thinking, [and] believing…so as to enact specific socially recognizable identities…" (p. 155). Such Discourses identify insiders of and outsiders to religious affiliations and other social or cultural groups. The context of this examination is unique in that is draws from the national conversation about the inclusion of ID alongside of the TOE in the public school science programs. Gee's (2011) concept that Discourses serve as tools of inquiry guides the analysis of video recorded public messages from Bill Nye and Lawrence Krauss as well as Creation Museum president Ken Ham. The analysis and discussion of the national conversation about creationism and public education suggests that the education community must consider the global landscape of science literacy both locally and internationally. It also indicates that preservice and practicing science educators may require special training and support. In order to provide unbiased, religious-resistant, evidence-based science instruction, science educators must understand how to separate church from state regardless of their personal beliefs. They must also know how to navigate conversations about the TOE among diverse communities of learners that include both religiously and non-religiously affiliated students.

Dávila, Denise

2014-12-01

390

Sit Down! You're Rocking the Boat!: Asian Americans, Racial Manipulation, and the Discourse of the Denial of Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation seeks to rearticulate racial formations in the United States and expand the discourse on race in higher education by placing Asian Americans at the center of the discussion. Through the use of genealogy and discourse analysis, this research presents a broader description of the Asian American racial experience in higher education…

Gonzalez, Anna K.

2011-01-01

391

Drought Events and Their Impacts on Food Production in New Zealand: Historical Analysis and Outlook Model Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given the importance of the primary production sector, climatic conditions have always been a significant driver of food production in New Zealand. The country has experienced a number of severe droughts throughout its history, where a number of extended periods of low rainfall have severely impacted primary production. The characteristics of historical drought and their impacts on the primary production sector are analysed, including the economic losses in the 1998-1999 and 2007-2009 events. We include the analysis of a set of national standardised drought monitoring indices: Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardised Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), Soil moisture Index (SMI), and Standardised Pasture Growth Index (SPGI). Since the drought events in New Zealand are clearly linked with ENSO, the SST anomalies in the key regions can be good predictors of drought events. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) information processing technics have been applied to build local drought outlook models, the predictors are the SST anomaly of eight key regions that impact New Zealand climate produced by the Climate Forecasting System v2(CFSv2) of NCEP, and the local NIWA derived observed precipitation and soil moisture data. SST is a variable that CFSv2 can forecast with high skill and after bias correction, can be applied as a climate predictor for New Zealand. Inclusion of local data and the persistent nature of drought leads to good predictors therefore one to three month ensemble drought outlooks can be produced for New Zealand. The potential changes of drought intensity and frequency over the medium to long term future are investigated using downscaled data from 12 GCMs and multiple scenarios. The results indicate that New Zealand may experience more severe drought in many areas, therefore adaptation should be planned and implemented.

Li, Y.; Yin, C.; Urich, P.; Hill, R.

2012-12-01

392

Discourse Markers in Turn-Initial Positions in Interruptive Speech in a Malaysian Radio Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discourse markers play significant roles in any spoken interaction. This research examines the functions of the discourse markers (DMs) well, now and and used as turn-initial interruptive devices in a Malaysian radio discourse. Using Schegloff's (2002) framework of what constitutes an interruption in turn-taking and previous studies on the…

Nor, Siti Nurbaya Mohd

2012-01-01

393

Lexical Bundles in Discourse Structure: A Corpus-Based Study of Classroom Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study applies corpus-based methods to document the distributional patterns of previously reported lexical bundle functions as they relate to discourse structure. Specifically, 84 lexical bundles and their discourse functions (Biber "et al." 2004a) were tracked in 1,176 discourse units extracted from the initial phases of 196 university…

Csomay, Eniko

2013-01-01

394

Seasonal-storage solar-energy heating system for the Charlestown, Boston Navy Yard National Historic Park. Phase II. Analysis with heat pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Phase II study provides further analysis for a seasonal-storage solar-heating system utilizing two existing underground, concrete tanks in the National Historic Park of the Charlestown Navy Yard in Boston. The initial Phase I study was reported in ANL-82-90. The new results focus on the effect of including a heat pump in the system to extend the useful heat-storage capacity

D. S. Breger; A. I. Michaels

1983-01-01

395

Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; Mckagan, Sarah B.

2012-05-15

396

Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.

2012-02-01

397

The Nature of Discourse throughout 5E Lessons in a Large Enrolment College Biology Course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large enrolment science courses play a significant role in educating undergraduate students. The discourse in these classes usually involves an instructor lecturing with little or no student participation, despite calls from current science education reform documents to elicit and utilize students' ideas in teaching. In this study, we used the 5E instructional model to develop and implement four lessons in a large enrolment introductory biology course with multiple opportunities for teacher-student and student-student interaction. Data consisted of video and audio recordings of whole-class and small-group discussions that took place throughout the study. We then used a science classroom discourse framework developed by Mortimer and Scott (2003) to characterize the discursive interactions in each 5E lesson phase. Analysis of the data resulted in two assertions. First, the purpose, communicative approach, patterns of discourse, and teaching interventions were unique to each 5E lesson phase. Second, the type of lesson topic influenced the content of the discourse. We discuss how the findings help characterize the discourse of each phase in a 5E college science lesson and propose a model to understand internalization through discursive interaction using this reform-based approach. We conclude with implications for facilitating discourse in college science lessons and future research. This study provides support for using the discourse framework to characterize discursive interaction in college science courses.

Sickel, Aaron J.; Witzig, Stephen B.; Vanmali, Binaben H.; Abell, Sandra K.

2013-04-01

398

Contributing to Meaning Making: Facilitating Discourse in the High School Physics Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) identify eight practices as essential to science and engineering, and these practices include asking students to construct explanations, to engage in argumentation, and to communicate scientific information. However, few teacher-training programs instruct teachers how to facilitate such discourse in the classroom. Modeling Instruction is one movement in physics education that organizes high school physics content around a small number of student-derived scientific models, and it relies on student discourse for the design, development, and deployment of these models. This research is a self-study of one high school physics teacher's experience facilitating large group discourse in the high school modeling physics classroom. Whiteboard meetings and graded discussions were examined by applying the analytical framework created by Mortimer and Scott (2003) to characterize the classroom talk and the discourse facilitation moves that I employed. In addition, elements of discourse analysis were used to examine some of the tensions that I experienced in the facilitation of this discourse. The findings suggest that deliberate identification of the teaching purposes for the discussion can help determine the scaffolding needed for students to enter the Discourse (Gee, 2011) of being a participant in these large group conversations. In addition, connecting the dialogic dimension of exploring student ideas with the authoritative dimension of introducing the scientific view and supporting the internalization of that view is necessary to contribute to meaning making in the science classroom.

Hovan, Scot Alan

399

An Analysis of Historical Impacts of Water Resources Development on Water Levels of the Mekong River (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid rate of water resources development in the Mekong basin of Southeast Asia is a cause for concern due to potential impacts on highly valued fisheries and natural ecosystems. Historical water levels of the Mekong were analyzed by comparing pre and post 1991 daily data of 6 stations along the mainstream from Chiang Sean, in northern Lao PDR and Thailand, to Stung Treng, in Cambodia, and the Pre Kdam station near the Tonle Sap Lake in the lower Mekong floodplain using the Indicators of Hydrological Alteration (IHA) software. The year 1991 marks a turning point in the rate of development in the basin, with the start of development of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong and accelerated hydropower and irrigation development in key tributaries. Observed changes in water level patterns along the Mekong were linked to temporal and spatial water resources development from 1960 to 2010. Variations in climate were accounted for and are important, but they were not observed to be the main causes of changes in key hydrological indicators related to ecosystem productivity. The development of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong basin in the post 1991 period resulted in a significant change of seasonal water levels, raise rates, fall rates, and the number of water level fluctuations at Chiang Sean. This effect diminishes downstream until it becomes negligible at the Mukdahan monitoring station in Thailand, which represents a drainage area of over 50% of the total Mekong Basin. Further downstream at Pakse station in Southern Lao PDR, changes in hydrological indicators post 1991 were observed to be significant again, which can be directly attributed to water resource development in the Chi and Mun River basins in Northeastern Thailand. A reduction of 23% and 11% in water level raising rates and fall rates, respectively at Prek Kdam, provides clear evidence of a diminished flood pulse of the Tonle Sap Lake in the post 1991 period. Given the observed water level alterations from 1991 to 2010 as a result of water infrastructure development, we can extrapolate that future proposed development in the key transboundary Srepok, Sesan and Sekong basins of the Lower Mekong will have an even greater effect on the flood pulse of the Tonle Sap. Although much focus has been placed on impacts of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong, our analysis clearly shows that tributary development in the lower Mekong has already affected water level patterns significantly, particularly in the dry season. Through subsequent modeling we infer how future development could further impact water flows and livelihoods, and thus improve regional impact assessments. The analysis and methods can be translated to other river systems around the world undergoing rapid water resources development.

Cochrane, T. A.; Arias, M. E.; Piman, T.

2013-12-01

400

Characteristics of Pre-Service Teachers’ Online Discourse: The Study of Local Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the characteristics of pre-service teachers’ discourse on a WebCT Bulletin Board in their investigations\\u000a of local streams in an integrated mathematics and science course. A qualitative analysis of data revealed that the pre-service\\u000a teachers conducted collaborative discourse in framing their research questions, conducting research and writing reports. The\\u000a science teacher educator provided feedback and carefully crafted prompts

Ling L. Liang; Jazlin Ebenezer; Deborah S. Yost

2010-01-01

401

'Natural versus taught': competing discourses in antenatal breastfeeding workshops.  

PubMed

This article is an analysis of talk in breastfeeding workshops that are part of National Childbirth Trust antenatal classes. Using audio-recordings from breastfeeding workshops antenatal classes, the data were analysed using a qualitative, discursive methodology based in part on the premises outlined by Potter and Wetherell (1987) and Edwards and Potter (1992, 2001). The analysis demonstrates how there are two main discourses of breastfeeding constructed by the breastfeeding counsellor-breastfeeding as natural, and breastfeeding as learnt. In particular, it notes how these two main discourses of breastfeeding that are seemingly in competition with one another, operate concurrently within the teaching of breastfeeding, and enable the breastfeeding counsellor to manage issues and concerns around breastfeeding. PMID:19293305

Locke, Abigail

2009-04-01

402

Natural Law Reasoning and American Constitutional Discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay will suggest a link between the relative decline of natural law as a characteristic feature of American public debate, and concern over the possible decline of constitutional discourse. The first part of the essay will describe a particular understanding of constitutional discourse, sharing vital elements with natural law reasoning. Essential to this understanding is the notion that constitutional

Stephen A. Simon

2003-01-01

403

Supportive Discourse Moves in Persian Requests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the findings of a study designed to investigate the types of supportive discourse moves employed by Persian speakers in their Requestive Speech Acts. 372 respondents took a Discourse Completion Test (DCT) with six scenarios ranging from formal to informal degrees of Perceived Situational Seriousness, and returned 2232 Requestive…

Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Allami, Hamid

2011-01-01

404

Effects of Discourse Type on Recall.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differences in discourse type were expected to result in differences in processing text. The more organized discourse types of comparison, problem/solution, and causation were predicted to yield superior recall of information than a collection of descriptions about a topic. Results from two studies supported this prediction. (Author/BW)

Meyer, Bonnie J. F.; Freedle, Roy O.

1984-01-01

405

The Mediating Role of Discoursing in Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discoursing, the use of language in interaction with others, plays a part in almost every human activity. Indeed, some have argued that it is discoursing that has made possible the cumulative development of culture over the course of our species' history. Whether or not that is correct, there can be no question that the ability, with the aid of…

Wells, Gordon

2007-01-01

406

Participial Constructions as Discourse Markers in Hindi  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with the use of participial constructions in Hindi as discourse strategies for cohesion in speech. The data from the "Analyzing Narratives" project indicates that participial constructions are used fairly extensively as discourse connectors. The conjunctive participle is used more extensively than the others. Some of the major…

Mukherjee, Aditi

2010-01-01

407

Asking Questions & Promoting Discourse (Part 2)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief NCTM article presents Part 2 (Part 1 cataloged separately) of their collection of tips on asking good questions and promoting discourse, which is an integral part of the teaching and learning in a classroom. The article includes suggestions on how teachers can improve their questioning techniques as well as how they respond to student discourse.

2013-01-01

408

Metaphor Practices in the German "Wende" Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces a method for computer-based analyses of metaphor in discourse, combining quantitative and qualitative elements. This method is illustrated with data from research on German newspaper discourse concerning the ongoing system transformations of the late 1980s and early 1990s. Methodological aspects of the research procedure are…

Zinken, Jorg

2004-01-01

409

Metaphor Practices in the German Wende Discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a method for computer-based analyses of metaphor in discourse, combining quantitative and qualitative elements. This method is illustrated with data from research on German newspaper discourse concerning the ongoing system transformations of the late 1980s and early 1990s. Methodological aspects of the research procedure are discussed and it is argued that quantitative elements can enhance comparability in

Jörg Zinken

2004-01-01

410

Transforming classroom discourse: An inuit example  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents primarily quantitative data regarding forms of classroom discourse and turn allocation that emerged from a larger ethnographic study examining Inuit classroom interactions and discourse patterns in three kindergarten and three first grade Inuit?taught classrooms in three Ungava Bay communities. The focus is on the transformational effects of the incorporation of culturally?congruous social interaction patterns and the promotion

Martha B. Crago

1994-01-01

411

Bilingual Discourse Markers in Indigenous Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of research considers the occurrence and function of Spanish discourse markers and other particles in indigenous speech. I discuss important research that has examined these phenomena and refer to studies of bilingual discourse markers in other non-indigenous language contact situations to address unresolved issues concerning the form…

Torres, Lourdes

2006-01-01

412

Argumentations in proving discourses in mathematics classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on argumentations in proving discourses in mathematics classrooms. Examples of different types of argumentations that were observed in a comparative study of French and German lessons on the Pythagorean Theorem are presented. These illustrate different argumentations within two kinds of proving discourse. In one case the argumentation is characterised as intuitive-visual, and in the other as conceptual.

Christine Knipping

413

Science Learning in the Context of Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The original article by Kamberelis and Wehunt (2012) discusses an interesting and important research subject in science education as it focus on classroom interactions and the characteristics of the discourse production of interlocutors. The authors start from the premise that discourse heterogeneity is constitutive of social activities, which is…

do Nascimento, Silvania Sousa

2013-01-01

414

Discourse Variation in Oral Proficiency Interviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the discourse structure of oral language proficiency interviews focused on (1) one principal discourse variable, topic, for analyzing contingency and goal orientation in dyadic interactions, and (2) contextual factors (interlocutor, theme, task, participant gender). Data came from 30 dyadic oral interviews in English as a Second…

Young, Richard; Milanovic, Michael

415

Minority Enrollment Demand for Higher Education at Historically Black Colleges and Universities from 1976 to 1998: An Empirical Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several factors may have contributed to the decline of historically black colleges and universities' (HBCUs) relative share of total Black student enrollment in postsecondary educational institutions, and there is no empirical evidence about their effects in the literature. The survival and growth of many HBCUs depend on their ability to maintain…

Sissoko, Macki; Shiau, Liang-Rong

2005-01-01

416

Working on the Short Grass: A Qualitative Analysis of Fundraiser Roles and Experiences at Public Historically Black Colleges and Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The former president of Morehouse College, Dr Benjamin E. Mays, once said, "Higher education for Blacks has always been in a precarious position. These institutions were founded on short grass financially, and they live today on short grass." Today, many public and private historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) have found success in…

Tindall, Natalie T. J.

2009-01-01

417

From the Freedmen’s Bureau to FEMA: A Post-Katrina Historical, Journalistic, and Literary Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This treatment is an examination of the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s response, or lack thereof, to the citizens of New Orleans after the historic and catastrophic events in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. Comparisons are drawn between it and the shameful failure of the Freedmen’s Bureau after the “Emancipation” of enslaved Africans in the place called America. Drawing from current

Pamela Denise Reed

2007-01-01

418

The Reconstruction of the Past through Images: An Iconographic Analysis on the Historical Imagination Usage Skills of Primary School Pupils  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this research is to understand how sixth grade students use their imagination skills in the historical thinking process and, by doing so, how they construct the past. In this respect, first, an exhibition/museum was visited in the context of social studies during history lessons in a primary school in Kadikoy district in Istanbul. Then,…

Dilek, Dursun

2009-01-01

419

Parametric and Probabilistic Analysis of Historical Chlorpyrifos Surface Water Monitoring Data from the San Joaquin River Watershed: 1991–2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of this study were to use both parametric and probabilistic procedures to: (1) analyze historical chlorpyrifos water column monitoring from the San Joaquin River watershed from 1991 to 2001 to assess possible spatial and temporal trends; and (2) determine the probability of exceeding Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) water quality targets for chlorpyrifos established by Calfornia's Central Regional

Ronald D. Anderson

2003-01-01

420

An Historical and Cost Analysis of Manpower Development and Training Act Programs in the Washoe County (Reno) School District.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study dealt with the historical development of the Manpower Development and Training Act of 1962 and the cost of administering the program in three bookkeeping classes in the Washoe County School District, Nevada. Results of a questionnaire completed by 39 class graduates (1962-65) were combined with information from the Washoe County School…

Flores, Froilan

421

Historical Research: A Thematic Analysis of Convention and Conference Themes for Selected Professional Health Education Associations from 1975 to 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many professional organizations and associations hold conventions and conferences on an annual basis. Health Education professional associations take part in this process. Using a historical research perspective, this article delineates conference themes for four prominent professional Health Education associations: the American Association for…

Black, Jill M.; Ubbes, Valerie A.

2009-01-01

422

An Analysis of the Historical Regression Method of Predicting Posttest Grade Equivalents for Categorically-Aided Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To eliminate maturation as a factor in the pretest-posttest design, pretest scores can be converted to anticipate posttest scores using grade equivalent scores from standardized tests. This conversion, known as historical regression, assumes that without specific intervention, growth will continue at the rate (grade equivalents per year of…

Hick, Thomas L.; Irvine, David J.

423

The Construction of "Female Citizens": A Socio-Historical Analysis of Girls' Education in Luxembourg  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This paper will empirically investigate female education in Luxembourg from a historical perspective. A special focus will be laid on the question of how women in Luxembourgian society were constructed as female "citizens", even though they were, rather, considered as a homogeneous category limited to a private sphere…

Schreiber, Catherina

2014-01-01

424

Semi-institutional discourse: The case of talk shows  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the nature of the talk show as a particular instance of broadcast discourse, which is envisaged both as a media product and as an ongoing talk-oriented process. The analysis focuses on the discursive features of the talk show, regarded as a host-controlled, participant-shaped and audience-evaluated speech event. The approach taken here draws on recent research in conversation-

Cornelia Ilie

2001-01-01

425

Reading Words in Discourse: The Modulation of Lexical Priming Effects by Message-Level Context  

PubMed Central

Repetition and semantic-associative priming effects have been demonstrated for words in nonstructured contexts (i.e., word pairs or lists of words) in numerous behavioral and electrophysio-logical studies. The processing of a word has thus been shown to benefit from the prior presentation of an identical or associated word in the absence of a constraining context. An examination of such priming effects for words that are embedded within a meaningful discourse context provides information about the interaction of different levels of linguistic analysis. This article reviews behavioral and electrophysiological research that has examined the processing of repeated and associated words in sentence and discourse contexts. It provides examples of the ways in which eye tracking and event-related potentials might be used to further explore priming effects in discourse. The modulation of lexical priming effects by discourse factors suggests the interaction of information at different levels in online language comprehension. PMID:16891554

Ledoux, Kerry; Camblin, C. Christine; Swaab, Tamara Y.; Gordon, Peter C.

2006-01-01

426

Long-term deformation analysis of historical buildings through the advanced SBAS-DInSAR technique: the case study of the city of Rome, Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring of deformation phenomena affecting urban areas and man-made structures is of key relevance for the preservation of the artistic, archaeological and architectural heritage. The differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) technique has already been demonstrated to be an effective tool for non-invasive deformation analyses over large areas by producing spatially dense deformation maps with centimetre to millimetre accuracy. Moreover, by exploiting long sequences of SAR data acquired by different sensors, the advanced DInSAR technique referred to as the small baseline subset (SBAS) approach allows providing long-term deformation time series, which are strategic for guaranteeing the monitoring of urban area displacements. In this work, we investigate the effectiveness of the two-scale multi-sensor SBAS-DInSAR approach to detect and monitor displacements affecting historical and artistic monuments. The presented results, achieved by applying the full resolution SBAS technique to a huge set of ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT data, spanning the 1992-2010 time interval and relevant to the city of Rome (Italy), show the capability of this approach to detect and analyse the temporal evolution of possible deformation phenomena affecting historical buildings and archaeological sites. Accordingly, our analysis demonstrates the effectiveness of the full resolution multi-sensor SBAS approach to operate as a surface deformation tool for supporting the study and conservation strategies of the historical, cultural and artistic heritage.

Zeni, G.; Bonano, M.; Casu, F.; Manunta, M.; Manzo, M.; Marsella, M.; Pepe, A.; Lanari, R.

2011-09-01

427

Gramsci, Theory, and Modernity: A Historical Analysis of Antonio Gramsci's Conception of Race, Sex, Culture, and Politics  

E-print Network

of hegemony and the dialectical relationship between coercion and consent, have influenced studies in globalization and international political economy (IPE) (Morton 2007; Jessop 2007). In this vein, Gramsci?s work has inspired an entire ?school? of studies... contexts. In specific, Gramsci?s questions concerning the application of historical materialism to political action result in his criticism and disavowal of modernist and positivist biological perspectives on race. More specifically, the link between...

Carley, Robert

2012-07-16

428

Fire and Forest Structure Across Vegetation Gradients in San Juan National Forest, Colorado: A Multi-scaled Historical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem Baseline multi-scale temporal and spatial data about climate, fire and resulting forest structure, species composition, and stand density on the San Juan National Forest was lacking. Long term historical and regional data was needed to tease out the differences between local fire-caused effects and landscape climate-caused effects to forest stands. It was necessary to develop a picture of how

Peter M. Brown

429

The Louisiana State Museum Vessel: a historical and archaeological analysis of an American Civil War-era submersible boat  

E-print Network

Captain's Clerk Charles O. Muzzey John Williams, Quartermaster Theodore Parker, Landsman John Walsh, Second Class Fireman He reached downPom on high and took hold of me; He drew me oat ofdeep waters. psstm ts:ts ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First snd foremost... of the Naval Historical Center's Underwater Archaeology Branch, and Director of Naval History Dr. William S. Dudley, for giving me advanced opportunities to carry out relevant research, including the chance to participate in the HL Htarley identification...

Wills, Richard Keith

2012-06-07

430

Determining Historical Pesticide Deposition on Cape Cod through Sediment Core Analysis:A Validation of GIS as An Exposure Assessment Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has emerged as a powerful tool to assess current and historical exposure to environmental pollutants. GIS aids in the visualization and understanding of associations between exposure to contaminants and disease. This study is an example of the bridge between environmental science and public health and of how new technology such as GIS can be incorporated into these fields to strengthen both the research and the communication of scientific results. It attempts to validate a GIS-based aerial drift model which predicts the residential exposure to and boundaries of historical organochlorine pesticide (OCP) drift from applications on cranberry bogs, tree pest sprayings and others by analytically quantifying the historical pesticide deposition in a transect of lakes radiating from a distinct spray source. This model was previously used to assess historical residential exposure to OCPs in an environmental epidemiological case-control study of breast cancer incidence on Cape Cod, MA, where the incidence rate of the disease is significantly higher than in the rest of the state. The model's validation in this current study is essential to establishing its predictive ability and thus, its further use. Ground truthing of the model was done through the collection and analysis of sediment cores along a transect of five hydrologically independent kettle ponds radiating from a distinct OCP tree-pest spray area. Measurements of OCP concentrations, total carbon and total organic carbon were determined, and dating of the sediments was completed using 210Pb and verified using 137Cs. Each 50-cm core was sliced into 25 2- cm sections for the analyses, creating a fine-scale depositional history in each pond. Information gathered from each core allows for the determination of the extent and degree of dissipation of individual spray events of a known source area and determine how well the model fits the actual data.

Feingold, B. J.; Benoit, G.; Rudel, R.

2006-12-01

431

Historicizing historical trauma theory: Troubling the trans-generational transmission paradigm.  

PubMed

The premise that "trauma" is transmitted across generations is central to the historical trauma discourse currently circulating in indigenous communities and professional networks in Canada. Historical trauma may be understood as the offspring of two older and apparently antithetical discourses: Native healing, and colonial professional critiques of indigenous family life. While the former has maintained a therapeutic focus on restoring intergenerational social relations, the latter has pathologized indigenous parenting and child-rearing practices. The emergence of historical trauma marks a global shift in the moral economy by which victimhood status, acquired through individual experiences of physical and especially sexual abuse, has come to wield greater currency than collective struggles against colonialism. Providers of contemporary indigenous healing programmes are drawing simultaneously on trauma discourse, which is seen to legitimate individual social suffering, and older therapeutic forms centred on sharing local social histories to restore intergenerational continuities and collective identity. But these invocations of historical trauma may continue the colonial discourse of mental health and social welfare professionals, who blamed indigenous parenting practices for children's social problems and failure to assimilate. Some contemporary mental health and child development professionals have invoked parents' and grandparents' transmission of historical trauma in ways which construct indigenous families as pathological, promote an oversimplified, universalizing understanding of Canadian colonialism, and divert attention from the contemporary continuation of colonial structures and relations. PMID:24855143

Maxwell, Krista

2014-05-22

432

Why do companies relocate? The German discourse on relocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the role of discourse in supporting firm's decisions to relocate and how main actors influence such discourse. If there is uncertainty about the general functioning of the economy, discourse is the place where ideas and paradigms, and possible options of behavior, are created. Since interests are not given a priori but are socially constructed, discourse contributes to

Geny Piotti

2007-01-01

433

Concerning Scientific Discourse about Heat  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We aim to examine communication in physics from a linguistic perspective and suggest a theoretical viewpoint that may enable us to explain and understand many physics students' alternative conceptions. We present evidence, in the context of the concept of heat, that physicists seem to speak and write about physical systems with a set of one or more systematic metaphors that are well understood in their community. We argue that physics students appear to be prone to misinterpreting and overextending the same metaphors and that these misinterpretations exhibit themselves as students' alternative conceptions. We will analyze physicists' discourse about heat and present evidence of a connection between students' alternative conceptions and the possibility that they are misinterpreting the language that they read and hear.

Brookes, David T.; Horton, George K.; Van Heuvelen, A.; Etkina, Eugenia

2010-06-29

434

From authoritative discourse to internally persuasive discourse: discursive evolution in teaching and learning the language of science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Learning science interpreted in existing theoretical frameworks often means that students are assimilated, accommodated or enculturated from the entity of the vernacular world to the entity of the scientific world. However, there are some unsolved questions as to how students can best learn purely a new language or new knowledge of science. The purpose of this study is to conduct microanalysis of moment-to-moment interactions in order to understand how science language is taught and learned in details. Informed by Bakhtin's dialogism, the analysis indicates that learning science is a process of appropriating authoritative discourse into internally persuasive discourse. Based on our analysis and findings, we propose the framework of discursive evolution to describe the process of teaching and learning the language of science. Four different stages of discursive evolution are identified to demonstrate the discursive changes during the course of science teaching and learning discourse: (a) using deictic references to connect scientific terminologies, (b) understanding science terminologies through its derivatives, (c) communicating science practices conventionally through science terminologies, and (d) communicating science practices innovatively through mutated science terminologies. The findings suggest that science teaching and learning comprise a heterogeneous process which draws on both science and non-science language and is a constantly evolving process. Understanding teaching and learning as a heterogeneous and constantly evolving process allows us to reunite the roles of teachers and students as mutually responsible collaborators rather than science knowledge givers and consumers.

Hsu, Pei-Ling; Roth, Wolff-Michael

2014-09-01

435

Co-production and co-consumption: Perspectives on immigration through a discourse analysis of voters’ blogs in the 2010 General Election  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of immigration proved to be a crucially important flashpoint for all three parties in the 2010 British General Election. In this paper, we focus on a citizen-centred perspective on the 2010 British General Election by analysing the views of the electorate on this pivotal issue in the as blogosphere. Using thematic and discursive analysis, we examine how voters

Ming Lim; Mona Moufahim

2011-01-01

436

The neural representation of plural discourse entities.  

PubMed

Little is known about the underlying neural structures that mediate the generation and tracking of discourse referents. In two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments, we examined the neural structures involved in generating and maintaining the representations of multiple referents. Experiment 1 used two-sentence discourses with singular and plural conditions linking back to single or conjoined subjects. In Experiment 2, conjunction type was manipulated in order to keep the number of discourse entities constant across the discourse. Both experiments found greater activation in the superior parietal lobule bilaterally for plural entities relative to singular entities in Experiment 1 and for unconjoined plural entities relative to conjoined plural entities in Experiment 2. This parietal activation suggests that referring to multiple entities evokes multiple representations that need to be integrated and tracked. We discuss these findings in terms of psycholinguistic theories of multiple referent representations. PMID:25218099

Boiteau, Timothy W; Bowers, Eric; Nair, Veena A; Almor, Amit

2014-10-01

437

Lyrical language and nursing discourse: can science be the tool of love?  

PubMed

Lyricism is a quality of discourse expressing intensely personal feeling or emotion. It is historically associated with romanticism, which involves the imagination and emotions, the use of autobiographical material, the exaltation of a common humanity, and an appreciation of nature. The language of a science conveys the meaning, significance, and utility of concepts among scholars, practitioners, and the general public. It is incumbent upon nurses to attempt to represent in our disciplinary language the realities lived by people, that is, to apprehend, describe, and explain the full breadth and diversity of human phenomena, guided by the discipline-wide focus on the wholeness of the human being. The language of objectivistic science cannot do this. Even in contemporary qualitative research there are limitations in achieving such a representation. This column therefore calls for greater attention to lyrical discourse in nursing science and outlines the potential benefits in nursing theory development, research, and practice. Encouragement of lyrical discourse in nursing science is consistent with the contemporary movement toward a dialogical rationality. It is posited that, if the ethos of nursing is rooted in love of humanity, lyrical discourse may be one way for nursing to pursue its mission to serve humankind. PMID:11949490

Cody, William K

2002-04-01

438

Historical analysis of genetic variation reveals low effective population size in a northern pike (Esox lucius) population.  

PubMed

Effective population size (Ne) of a natural fish population was estimated from temporal changes in allele frequencies at seven microsatellite loci. Use of a historical collection of fish scales made it possible to increase the precision of estimates by increasing the time interval between samples and to use an equation developed for discrete generations without correcting for demographic parameters. Estimates of Ne for the time intervals 1961-1977 and 1977-1993 were 35 and 72, respectively. For the entire interval, 1961-1993, the estimate of Ne was 48 when based on a weighted mean derived from the above two estimates or 125 when calculated from 1961 and 1993 samples only. Corresponding ratios of effective size to adult census size ranged from 0.03 to 0.14. An Ne of 48 over a 32-year period would imply that this population lost as much as 8% of its heterozygosity in that time. Results suggest the potential for using genetic methods based on microsatellite loci data to compare historical trends in Ne with population dynamic parameters. Such comparisons will help to evaluate the relationship between genetic diversity and long-term persistence of natural populations. PMID:9383067

Miller, L M; Kapuscinski, A R

1997-11-01

439

Historical Analysis of Genetic Variation Reveals Low Effective Population Size in a Northern Pike (Esox Lucius) Population  

PubMed Central

Effective population size (N(e)) of a natural fish population was estimated from temporal changes in allele frequencies at seven microsatellite loci. Use of a historical collection of fish scales made it possible to increase the precision of estimates by increasing the time interval between samples and to use an equation developed for discrete generations without correcting for demographic parameters. Estimates of N(e) for the time intervals 1961-1977 and 1977-1993 were 35 and 72, respectively. For the entire interval, 1961-1993, the estimate of N(e) was 48 when based on a weighted mean derived from the above two estimates or 125 when calculated from 1961 and 1993 samples only. Corresponding ratios of effective size to adult census size ranged from 0.03 to 0.14. An N(e) of 48 over a 32-year period would imply that this population lost as much as 8% of its heterozygosity in that time. Results suggest the potential for using genetic methods based on microsatellite loci data to compare historical trends in N(e) with population dynamic parameters. Such comparisons will help to evaluate the relationship between genetic diversity and long-term persistence of natural populations. PMID:9383067

Miller, L. M.; Kapuscinski, A. R.

1997-01-01

440

Development of the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Gynecologic Applicators for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer: Historical Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To provide historical background on the development and initial studies of the gynecological (gyn) applicators developed by Dr. Gilbert H. Fletcher, a radiation oncologist and chairperson from 1948 to 1981 of the department at the M.D. Anderson Hospital (MDAH) for Cancer Research in Houston, TX, and to acknowledge the previously unrecognized contribution that Dr. Leonard G. Grimmett, a radiation physicist and chairperson from 1949 to 1951 of the physics department at MDAH, made to the development of the gynecological applicators. Methods and Materials: We reviewed archival materials from the Historical Resource Center and from the Department of Radiation Physics at University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, as well as contemporary published papers, to trace the history of the applicators. Conclusions: Dr. Fletcher's work was influenced by the work on gynecologic applicators in the 1940s in Europe, especially work done at the Royal Cancer Hospital in London. Those efforts influenced not only Dr. Fletcher's approach to the design of the applicators but also the methods used to perform in vivo measurements and determine the dose distribution. Much of the initial development of the dosimetry techniques and measurements at MDAH were carried out by Dr. Grimmett.

Yordy, John S., E-mail: john.yordy@utsouthwestern.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Almond, Peter R. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Delclos, Luis [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2012-03-15

441

Age-at-death estimation in an Italian historical sample: a test of the Suchey-Brooks and transition analysis methods.  

PubMed

A growing body of research is demonstrating increased accuracy in aging from a relatively new method, transition analysis. Although transition analysis was developed for paleodemographic research, a majority of subsequent studies have been in the forensic arena, with very little work in bioarchaeological contexts. Using the Suchey-Brooks pubic symphysis phases, scored on a target sample of historic Italians from the island of Sardinia, we compare accuracy of aging between transition analysis combined with a Bayesian approach and the standard Suchey-Brooks age ranges. Because of the difficulty in identifying a reasonable informative prior for bioarchaeological samples, we also compared results of both an informative prior and a uniform prior for age estimation. Published ages-of-transition for the Terry Collection and Balkan genocide victims were used in conjunction with parameters generated from Gompertz hazard models derived from the priors. The ages-of-transition and hazard parameters were utilized to calculate the highest posterior density regions, otherwise known as "coverages" or age ranges, for each Suchey-Brooks phase. Each prior, along with the parameters, were input into cumulative binomial tests. The results indicate that the Bayesian approach outperformed the Suchey-Brooks technique alone. The Terry Collection surpassed the Balkans as a reasonable sample from which to derive transition analysis parameters. This discrepancy between populations is due to different within phase age-at-death distributions that reflect differences in aging between the populations. These results indicate bioarchaeologists should strive to apply a Bayesian analysis when aging historic and archaeological populations by employing an informative prior. PMID:22886637

Godde, Kanya; Hens, Samantha M

2012-10-01

442

The role of fluvial geomorphic analysis and historical ecology in support of flood control channel management in the Livermore Valley, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Julie Beagle, Sarah Pearce, Bronwen Stanford, Lester McKee, Robin Grossinger Flood control, city, and county managers are under increasing pressure to include improved habitat and water quality function, in addition to normal flood control function, to operating procedures for flood channels. Obtaining permits for routine maintenance, such as sediment removal, is now more challenging unless management agencies can demonstrate high level understanding of modern channel processes in the context of historical ecosystem functions. To address this issue, San Francisco Estuary Institute has been working with local agencies throughout the Bay Area to measure and understand sediment supply, the causes and rates of sedimentation in facilities, the impacts of maintenance activities to habitat and species of interest, and to identify mitigation opportunities within the context of historical watershed functions. Ongoing research in the Alameda Creek watershed provides an example of the intersection between historical ecology and modern geomorphic analysis as a developed approach for informing local resource management decisions. Zone 7 Water Agency, in the northern area of the Alameda Creek watershed, maintains 37 miles of channels that receive and convey urban drainage from Livermore, Dublin, and Pleasanton, California; and runoff and eroded sediment from the watersheds of Arroyo Mocho, Arroyo Las Positas and tributaries to the north (~220 sq mi). In the last three decades, population has doubled, accompanied by changing land uses in Livermore Valley. As a result, the flow of sediment and water has evolved such that, in some reaches, a combination of loss of capacity from sedimentation coupled with increased peak flows has led to channels that may not pass design flows. Previous sediment budget work by SFEI showed that the majority of sediment supply to the Alameda Flood Control Channel on the San Francisco Bay margin is supplied from the northern tributaries. SFEI's wider reaching Alameda Creek Historical Ecology Study has assessed overall watershed conditions prior to significant Euro-American modification, including historical patterns of sediment transport and storage in the Livermore Valley. These two studies provide context for a focused three-year study to determine the flow of water and sediment into and out of Zone 7 facilities; determine characteristics, rates, and causes of sedimentation; and map and characterize channel modification and mitigation opportunities. The program has begun measuring suspended load and bedload during high flow events at three sites that constrain the management area which will continue into water year 2012, and has begun mapping hillslope sediment processes. Next phases will include an assessment of channel depositional processes and causes and a more detailed evaluation of historical channel function at the reach scale building upon the existing watershed scale knowledge. This study provides further opportunity to integrate historical understanding of watershed functions with current geomorphic research to more effectively inform resource management decisions and can be and has been a model for other watersheds in California and beyond.

Beagle, J. R.; Pearce, S.; Stanford, B.; McKee, L. J.; Grossinger, R. M.

2011-12-01

443

Historical Frames and the Politics of Humanitarian Intervention: From Ethiopia, Somalia to Rwanda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that historical frames we often find in news media discourse can skew the way we perceive distant wars, and that this can have a knock-on effect on international humanitarian response within a cosmopolitan framework of global justice. Drawing on an empirical exploration of recent "humanitarian interventions" in Ethiopia,…

Shaw, Ibrahim Seaga

2007-01-01

444

Taking the Radio Blinders Off of M83: A Wide Spectrum Analysis of the Historical Point Source Population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present low frequency observations of the grand design spiral galaxy, M83, using the C and L bands of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). With recent optical (HST) and X-ray (Chandra) observations and utilizing the newly expanded bandwidth of the VLA, we are exploring the radio spectral properties of the historical radio point sources in M83. These observations allow us to probe the evolution of supernova remnants (SNRs) and to find previously undiscovered SNRs. These observations represent the fourth epoch of deep VLA observations of M83. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities.

Stockdale, Christopher; Keefe, Clayton; Nichols, Michael; Rujevcan, Colton; Blair, William P.; Cowan, John J.; Godfrey, Leith; Miller-Jones, James; Kuntz, K. D.; Long, Knox S.; Maddox, Larry A.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Pritchard, Tyler A.; Soria, Roberto; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Winkler, P. Frank

2015-01-01

445

Constituting Identities That Challenge the Contemporary Discourse: Power, Discourse, Experience, and Emotion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we use a narrative methodology to understand the work of three teachers who have constituted identities that have allowed them to challenge the contemporary discourse of science education. We describe how teachers' evolving identities have been constituted through their responses to the discourses and situations of their work and…

Melville, Wayne; Bartley, Anthony

2013-01-01

446

Narrative and the Origins of Discourse: Patterns of Discourse in Stories around the World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarises findings of discourse analyses of traditional stories from eleven language phyla around the world. The aim is a preliminary exploration of relationships amongst diverse languages in patterns of discourse, using a systemic functional language model. Several techniques were developed for managing and displaying the analyses,…

Rose, David

2005-01-01

447

Toward Pervasive Knowledge Building Discourse: Analyzing Online and Offline Discourses of Primary Science Learning in Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined discourses in classroom and online learning environments where the Knowledge Building Community model was enacted to foster deep understanding in science learning in Singapore primary classes. This study posited that discourse is a fundamental form of learning that reveals how knowledge building is enacted and embodied by a…

Lossman, Hans; So, Hyo-Jeong

2010-01-01

448

Teacher Teams and Distributed Leadership: A Study of Group Discourse and Collaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article explores distributed leadership as it relates to two teacher teams in one public secondary school. Both situational and social aspects of distributed leadership are foci of investigation. Methods: The qualitative study used constant comparative analysis and discourse analysis to explore leadership as a distributed phenomenon.…

Scribner, Jay Paredes; Sawyer, R. Keith; Watson, Sheldon T.; Myers, Vicki L.

2007-01-01

449

The Integration of Psycholinguistic and Discourse Processing Theories of Reading Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assess the compatibility of miscue analysis and recall analysis as independent elements in a theory of reading comprehension, a study was performed that operationalized each theory and separated its components into measurable units to allow empirical testing. A cueing strategy model was estimated, but the discourse processing model was broken…

Beebe, Mona J.

450

In Their Words: An Exploration into How the Construction of Congruent Third Space Creates an Environment for Employment of Scientific Discourse in Urban, African-American Kindergarten Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this dissertation was to understand how young, urban, African American girls learn new science discourse. The research questions focused on three units of analysis: the teacher, the student, and the discourse. These research questions were the following: (1) How is a congruent Third Space constructed by the teacher in this…

Quigley, Cassie

2010-01-01

451

The role of historical fire disturbance in the carbon dynamics of the pan-boreal region: A process-based analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildfire is a common occurrence in ecosystems of northern high latitudes, and changes in the fire regime of this region have consequences for carbon feedbacks to the climate system. To improve our understanding of how wildfire influences carbon dynamics of this region, we used the process-based Terrestrial Ecosystem Model to simulate fire emissions and changes in carbon storage north of 45??N from the start of spatially explicit historically recorded fire records in the twentieth century through 2002, and evaluated the role of fire in the carbon dynamics of the region within the context of ecosystem responses to changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate. Our analysis indicates that fire plays an important role in interannual and decadal scale variation of source/sink relationships of northern terrestrial ecosystems and also suggests that atmospheric CO2 may be important to consider in addition to changes in climate and fire disturbance. There are substantial uncertainties in the effects of fire on carbon storage in our simulations. These uncertainties are associated with sparse fire data for northern Eurasia, uncertainty in estimating carbon consumption, and difficulty in verifying assumptions about the representation of fires that occurred prior to the start of the historical fire record. To improve the ability to better predict how fire will influence carbon storage of this region in the future, new analyses of the retrospective role of fire in the carbon dynamics of northern high latitudes should address these uncertainties. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

Balshi, M.S.; McGuire, A.D.; Zhuang, Q.; Melillo, J.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Kasischke, E.; Wirth, C.; Flannigan, M.; Harden, J.; Clein, J.S.; Burnside, T.J.; McAllister, J.; Kurz, W.A.; Apps, M.; Shvidenko, A.

2007-01-01

452

Service life assessment of historical building envelopes constructed using different types of sandstone: a computational analysis based on experimental input data.  

PubMed

Service life assessment of three historical building envelopes constructed using different types of sandstone is presented. At first, experimental measurements of material parameters of sandstones are performed to provide the necessary input data for a subsequent computational analysis. In the second step, the moisture and temperature fields across the studied envelopes are calculated for a representative period of time. The computations are performed using dynamic climatic data as the boundary conditions on the exterior side of building envelope. The climatic data for three characteristic localities are experimentally determined by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and contain hourly values of temperature, relative humidity, rainfalls, wind velocity and direction, and sun radiation. Using the measured durability properties of the analyzed sandstones and the calculated numbers of freeze/thaw cycles under different climatic conditions, the service life of the investigated building envelopes is assessed. The obtained results show that the climatic conditions can play a very significant role in the service life assessment of historical buildings, even in the conditions of such a small country as the Czech Republic. In addition, the investigations reveal the importance of the material characteristics of sandstones, in particular the hygric properties, on their service life in a structure. PMID:25114972

Ko?í, Václav; Mad?ra, Ji?í; Fo?t, Jan; Žumár, Jaromír; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek; ?erný, Robert

2014-01-01

453

Media discourses of low carbon housing: The marginalisation of social and behavioural dimensions within the British broadsheet press.  

PubMed

Decarbonising housing is a key UK government policy to mitigate climate change. Using discourse analysis, we assess how low carbon housing is portrayed within British broadsheet media. Three distinct storylines were identified. Dominating the discourse, Zero carbon housing promotes new-build, low carbon houses as offering high technology solutions to the climate problem. Retrofitting homes emphasises the need to reduce emissions within existing housing, tackling both climate change and rising fuel prices. A more marginal discourse, Sustainable living, frames low carbon houses as related to individual identities and 'off-grid' or greener lifestyles. Our analysis demonstrates that technical and economic paradigms dominate media discourse on low carbon housing, marginalising social and behavioural aspects. PMID:24336448

Cherry, Catherine; Hopfe, Christina; Macgillivray, Brian; Pidgeon, Nick

2013-12-11

454

Measuring Lexical Diversity in Narrative Discourse of People With Aphasia  

PubMed Central

Purpose A microlinguistic content analysis for assessing lexical semantics in people with aphasia (PWA) is lexical diversity (LD). Sophisticated techniques have been developed to measure LD. However, validity evidence for these methodologies when applied to the discourse of PWA is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four measures of LD to determine how effective they were at measuring LD in PWA. Method Four measures of LD were applied to short discourse samples produced by 101 PWA: (a) the Measure of Textual Lexical Diversity (MTLD; McCarthy, 2005), (b) the Moving-Average Type-Token Ratio (MATTR; Covington, 2007), (c) D (McKee, Malvern, & Richards, 2000), and (d) the Hypergeometric Distribution (HD-D; McCarthy & Jarvis, 2007). LD was estimated using each method, and the scores were subjected to a series of analyses (e.g., curve-fitting, analysis of variance, confirmatory factor analysis). Results Results from the confirmatory factor analysis suggested that MTLD and MATTR reflect LD and little of anything else. Further, two indices (HD-D and D) were found to be equivalent, suggesting that either one can be used when samples are >50 tokens. Conclusion MTLD and MATTR yielded the strongest evidence for producing unbiased LD scores, suggesting that they may be the best measures for capturing LD in PWA. PMID:23695912

Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather H.; West, Thomas M.

2013-01-01

455

Mitochondrial analysis of a Byzantine population reveals the differential impact of multiple historical events in South Anatolia  

PubMed Central

The archaeological site of Sagalassos is located in Southwest Turkey, in the western part of the Taurus mountain range. Human occupation of its territory is attested from the late 12th millennium BP up to the 13th century AD. By analysing the mtDNA variation in 85 skeletons from Sagalassos dated to the 11th–13th century AD, this study attempts to reconstruct the genetic signature potentially left in this region of Anatolia by the many civilizations, which succeeded one another over the centuries until the mid-Byzantine period (13th century BC). Authentic ancient DNA data were determined from the control region and some SNPs in the coding region of the mtDNA in 53 individuals. Comparative analyses with up to 157 modern populations allowed us to reconstruct the origin of the mid-Byzantine people still dwelling in dispersed hamlets in Sagalassos, and to detect the maternal contribution of their potential ancestors. By integrating the genetic data with historical and archaeological information, we were able to attest in Sagalassos a significant maternal genetic signature of Balkan/Greek populations, as well as ancient Persians and populations from the Italian peninsula. Some contribution from the Levant has been also detected, whereas no contribution from Central Asian population could be ascertained. PMID:21224890

Ottoni, Claudio; Ricaut, François-X; Vanderheyden, Nancy; Brucato, Nicolas; Waelkens, Marc; Decorte, Ronny

2011-01-01

456

The women's quarters in the historical hammam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women's quarters in the historical hammam have had an ongoing impact on women's public lives in the Mediterranean in general and in Turkey in particular. Although the hammam is usually considered a Muslim space, its Roman roots connect its customers to other histories. In this respect, a comparative social and historical analysis of women's quarters of the hammam queries the

Elif Ekin Aksit

2011-01-01

457

Historical analysis (2000-2005) of the coastal water quality in San Andrés Island, SeaFlower Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia.  

PubMed

To understand the coastal water quality of San Andrès Island, and provide tools for the management of its marine resources, we present the historical analysis of the island monitoring, which includes ammonia, nitrites, nitrate, phosphates, fecal and total coliforms. The anthropogenic pressure on the coastal system is heavy, with water nutrification, posing at risk seagrass and coral ecosystems. During dry season, biologically available nitrogen is 3-9 times higher than the maximum recommended for coral reefs, while during wet season values are 2-6.4 times the maximum. Biologically available phosphorous is also high, 1-8 times the maximum during dry season, 2-13 times during wet season. In some sites the concentration of pathogenic bacteria is above the limits set by law for primary and secondary contact. It is urgent to improve the management of sewage discharge, the main polluting source of San Andres coastal waters. PMID:20219216

Gavio, Brigitte; Palmer-Cantillo, Shelly; Mancera, J Ernesto

2010-07-01

458

National (hi)stories of war—German and French discourses in the Kosovo war and the Iraq crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

When democracies go to war, decision makers are expected to use good arguments in order to make their publics follow. It is\\u000a assumed here that historical arguments play a pivotal role in such an endeavour. This assumption is challenged by comparing\\u000a the corresponding discourse among the French and German political elite. The case studies comprise two cases in which the

Bernhard Stahl

459

Teaching with Historical Records.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is intended to help elementary and secondary teachers locate and use historical records in social studies and local history courses. There are four major sections to the manual. The first section discusses educational objectives which can be met by using historical records. How to locate and use historical records is the topic of the…

Roe, Kathleen

460

Computer simulation is an undervalued tool for genetic analysis: a historical view and presentation of SHIMSHON--a Web-based genetic simulation package.  

PubMed

Computer simulation methods are under-used tools in genetic analysis because simulation approaches have been portrayed as inferior to analytic methods. Even when simulation is used, its advantages are not fully exploited. Here, I present SHIMSHON, our package of genetic simulation programs that have been developed, tested, used for research, and used to generated data for Genetic Analysis Workshops (GAW). These simulation programs, now web-accessible, can be used by anyone to answer questions about designing and analyzing genetic disease studies for locus identification. This work has three foci: (1) the historical context of SHIMSHON's development, suggesting why simulation has not been more widely used so far. (2) Advantages of simulation: computer simulation helps us to understand how genetic analysis methods work. It has advantages for understanding disease inheritance and methods for gene searches. Furthermore, simulation methods can be used to answer fundamental questions that either cannot be answered by analytical approaches or cannot even be defined until the problems are identified and studied, using simulation. (3) I argue that, because simulation was not accepted, there was a failure to grasp the meaning of some simulation-based studies of linkage. This may have contributed to perceived weaknesses in linkage analysis; weaknesses that did not, in fact, exist. PMID:22189467

Greenberg, David A

2011-01-01

461

Discourse Analysis of Encouragement in Healthcare Manga  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how healthcare professionals use encouragement. Focusing on GAMBARU ["to try hard"], forty-one scenes were collected from healthcare manga. Each scene of encouragement was analyzed from three perspectives; the contextual background of the communication, the relationship with the patients and the patients' response to the…

Matsuoka, Rieko; Smith, Ian; Uchimura, Mari

2011-01-01

462

Formulation of work stress in 1960-2000: analysis of scientific works from the perspective of historical sociology.  

PubMed

During the latter part of the 20th century, work stress became an important societal issue and a huge amount of scientific attention went to studying it. This paper examines the process of formulating and defining the concept of work stress in the occupational health sciences and in industrial and organizational psychology from the early 1960s to the late 1990s. The empirical material of the study encompasses 108 scientific articles, books, book chapters, 'state of the art' reviews, book reviews, and written conference presentations. The data are analysed in the frameworks of historical sociology, critical psychology, and the anthropology of knowledge. We argue that work stress as a life-structuring concept gained ground in psychosocial and occupational health sciences (and also in lay understanding) in the 1960s simultaneously with the rise of social reformist movements that called for fundamental changes emphasizing democratic and human-orientated work organizations and socially responsible values. With the passing of time, however, the focus on structural improvement of work life waned and the emphasis shifted towards the apolitical occupational health aspects of work stress. Researchers with a psychological orientation emphasized micro-level characteristics as factors affecting work stress, whereas stress-orientated epidemiologists turned to the study of specific occupational stress models and/or risk factors. The emergence and development of work stress research can be seen as a chain of attempts to define and identify new risks and experiences occurring in work life. The process, driven by a gradual shift from industrial environments towards organizational frameworks characterized by social and psychological dimensions, reflected the overall shift towards modern democratic work life and the information society in which employees' emotions and well-being became an issue. PMID:22658625

Väänänen, Ari; Anttila, Erkko; Turtiainen, Jussi; Varje, Pekka

2012-09-01

463

Why Everyday Experience? Interpreting Primary Students' Science Discourse from the Perspective of John Dewey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purposes of this study were, based on John Dewey's ideas on experience, to examine how primary students used their own everyday experience and were affected by own and others' experience in science discourse, and to illuminate the implications of experience in science education. To do these, science discourses by a group of six fourth-graders were observed, where they talked about their ideas related to thermal concepts. The data was collected through interviews and open-ended questions, analyzed based on Dewey's perspective, and depicted as the discourse map which was developed to illustrate students' transaction and changing process of students' ideas. The results of the analysis showed typical examples of Dewey's notions of experience, such as the principles of continuity and of transaction and of different types of experience, examples of `the expanded continuity and transaction', and science discourse as inquiry. It was also found that students' everyday experiences played several roles: as a rebuttal for changing their own ideas or others', backing for assurance of their own ideas in individual students' inner changes after discourse with others, and backing for other's ideas. Based on these observations, this study argues that everyday experience should be considered as a starting point for primary students' science learning because most of their experience comes from everyday, not school science, contexts. In addition, to evoke educative experience in science education, it is important for teachers to pay more attention to Dewey's notions of the principles of continuity and of transaction and to their educational implications.

Na, Jiyeon; Song, Jinwoong

2014-05-01

464

[The national public discourse on priority setting in health care in German print media].  

PubMed

Germany's Central Ethics Committee of the Federal Chamber of Physicians (FCP) and other relevant national actors called for a public discourse on priority setting in health care. Politicians, members of a Federal Joint Committee and health insurance representatives, however, refused to promote or participate in the establishment of a public discussion. A change to that attitude only became apparent after former FCP President Hoppe's opening speech at the annual FCP assembly in Mainz in 2009. The present paper applies the Sociology of Knowledge Approach to Discourse, implemented through Qualitative Content Analysis and elements of Grounded Theory, to examine the development of the national public discourse in leading German print media. It creates a matrix that represents the discourse development between May 2009 and May 2010 and reflects central actors, their "communicative phenomena" and their interactions. Additionally, the matrix has been extended to cover the period until December 2011. Hoppe's arguments for priority setting in health care are faced with a wide opposition assuming opposing prerequisites and thus demanding alternative remedies. The lack of interaction between the different parties prevents any development of the speakers' positions. Incorrect accounts, reductions and left-outs in the media representation add to this effect. Consequently, the public discussion on priority setting is far from being an evolving rational discourse. Instead, it constitutes an exchange of preformed opposing positions. PMID:22857724

Liesching, Florian; Meyer, Thorsten; Raspe, Heiner

2012-01-01

465

The Language and Politics of Exclusion: Others in Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of essays on "the other" in discourse includes: "The Rhetoric of Othering" (Stephen Harold Riggins); "Political Discourse and Racism: Describing Others in Western Parliaments" (Teun A. van Dijk); "'Das Ausland' and Anti-Semitic Discourse: The Discursive Construction of the Other" (Ruth Wodak); "Who Are They? The Rhetoric of…

Riggins, Stephen Harold, Ed.

466

Education in the Sudan: The Privileging of an Islamic Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the educational discourse in the part of the Sudan administered by the Government of the Sudan. It first analyses the value system upon which the Sudanese education is based by focusing on the nature of Islamism. Such a discussion is necessary because the dominant discourse is a discourse where power and Islamic theocracy…

Breidlid, Anders

2005-01-01

467

The Survivor in Contemporary Culture and Public Discourse: A Genealogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article sketches a genealogy examining the production of the concept of “the survivor” in contemporary culture and public discourse across five discursive sites in mainly western (particularly Anglo-American) cultures: the Holocaust, psychotherapy, feminist discourses of childhood and sexual abuse, reality TV, and discourses of health and illness. It argues that the survivor has become a meaningfully visible, cultural notion

Shani Orgad

2009-01-01

468

A Sexuality Education Discourses Framework: Conservative, Liberal, Critical, and Postmodern  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexuality education debates are layered with discourses based on markedly different constructions of sexuality. Rather than seeing these discourses as purely oppositional, this article frames them as complex and varied. It provides a new framework for understanding sexuality education which differentiates 28 discourses by orientation to education,…

Jones, Tiffany

2011-01-01

469

Deixis: "This" and "That" in Written Narrative Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The existing literature presents conflicting models of how "this" and "that" access different segments of a written discourse, frequently relying on implicit analogies with spoken discourse. On the basis of this literature, we hypothesized that in written discourse, "this" more readily accesses the adjacent/right…

Çokal, Derya; Sturt, Patrick; Ferreira, Fernanda

2014-01-01

470

Ethos in Technical Discourse: The Current State of the Question.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the period from 1950 to the present, there has been a progressive realization of the rhetorical character of scientific and technical discourse, rendering such discourse subject to formal rhetorical study. Audience is now seen as a formative influence on discourse. Technical writing must be tailored to audiences, not simply in terms of…

Marcuse, Michael J.

471

Modelling Discourse in Contested Domains: A Semiotic and Cognitive Framework  

E-print Network

Modelling Discourse in Contested Domains: A Semiotic and Cognitive Framework Technical Report KMI, in press). Modelling Discourse in Contested Domains: A Semiotic and Cognitive Framework. International;Modelling Discourse in Contested Domains: A Semiotic and Cognitive Framework Clara Mancini* and Simon J

472

Test-Retest Stability of Word Retrieval in Aphasic Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined the test-retest stability of select word-retrieval measures in the discourses of people with aphasia who completed a 5-stimulus discourse task. Method: Discourse samples across 3 sessions from 12 individuals with aphasia were analyzed for the stability of measures of informativeness, efficiency, main concepts, noun and…

Boyle, Mary

2014-01-01

473

Wired for change: the links between ICTs and development discourses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ICT revolution's promises and threats for developing countries can be brought into clearer perspective if we pay attention to the underlying discourses on development and knowledge employed in this debate. This paper suggests that those who enthusiastically embrace ICTs tend to operate within a modernization discourse, while sceptics are influenced by dependency and post-colonial discourses of development. Both perspectives

Susanne Schech

2002-01-01

474

Prosody and the Interpretation of Hierarchically Ambiguous Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although significant attention has been devoted to prosody in discourse production, relatively little is known about prosody's effect on discourse interpretation. This article explores the ability of synthetic manipulations of prosody to bias interpretation of discourse ambiguities where a first sentence is linked to two following sentences…

Tyler, Joseph

2014-01-01

475

Risky, early, controversial. Puberty in medical discourses.  

PubMed

This article comes within the compass of a research program (entitled CorAge. Bodily Experiences and AgePassages among 9-13 year-olds (ANR-09-ENFT-017) conducted between 2009 and 2013 about the emergence of a "new" age in life -"preadolescence"- as instanced in France (Alsace, Lorraine) and Italy (Venetia). The impressive amount of references to "early puberty" and "precocious puberty", in a context of feeling of a premature end of childhood, led us to make an in-depth study of this issue: first, through an analysis of international and French and Italian medical journals; second, through interviews with health professionals. Following the thesis of Foucault, we assume that the discourses on puberty timing participate of classifications of the child body drenched with moral representations of childhood, especially on gender and age issue. Our results: the question of whether a secular trend in puberty timing even exists continues to be debated between American and European scientists. Second, the terms "puberty", "precocious puberty", "early puberty" have been used to indicate a variety of puberty markers, increasing confusion. A controversy has focused on early breast development in girls, because this attribute is questioning the order of ages and gender. Moreover, psychosocial factors presented as accelerating early puberty, do not demonstrate the relation between earliness and risk behavior. The literature, as it is moved by the female precocity, creates a medical category to objectify the complex and flexible process of puberty and invent female child precocity. These differences between American and European scholars and the interviews with French and Italian health professional show a gap between the international literature and practitioners, clinicians and nurses who regularly work with children: they neither find pubertal advancement, nor increase of "true precocious puberty", although they share concerns about premature feminization of girls (France) or environmental toxicity (Italy) on children. PMID:25467882

Cozzi, Donatella; Vinel, Virginie

2014-11-11

476

Epidemiology as discourse: the politics of development institutions in the Epidemiological Profile of El Salvador  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVE—To determine the ways in which institutions devoted to international development influence epidemiological studies.?DESIGN—This article takes a descriptive epidemiological study of El Salvador, Epidemiological Profile, conducted in 1994 by the US Agency for International Development, as a case study. The methods include discourse analysis in order to uncover the ideological basis of the report and its characteristics as a discourse of development.?SETTING—El Salvador.?RESULTS—The Epidemiological Profile theoretical basis, the epidemiological transition theory, embodies the ethnocentrism of a "colonizer's model of the world." This report follows the logic of a discourse of development by depoliticising development, creating abnormalities, and relying on the development consulting industry. The epidemiological transition theory serves as an ideology that legitimises and dissimulates the international order.?CONCLUSIONS—Even descriptive epidemiological assessments or epidemiological profiles are imbued with theoretical assumptions shaped by the institutional setting under which epidemiological investigations are conducted.???Keywords: El Salvador; politics PMID:11160170

Aviles, L

2001-01-01

477

Modeling senescence changes of the pubic symphysis in historic Italian populations: A comparison of the Rostock and forensic approaches to aging using transition analysis.  

PubMed

Age-related anatomical changes to the surface of the pubic symphysis are well-documented in the literature. However, aligning these morphological changes with chronological age has proven problematic, often resulting in biased age estimates. Statistical modeling provides an avenue for forensic anthropologists and bioarchaeologists to increase the accuracy of traditional aging methods. Locating appropriate samples to use as a basis for modeling age estimations can be challenging due to differing sample age distributions and potentially varying patterns of senescence. We compared two approaches, Rostock and Forensic, coupled with a Bayesian methodology, to address these issues. Transition analysis was run specific to each method (which differ by sample selection). A Gompertz model was derived from an informative prior that yielded the mortality and senescence parameters for constructing highest posterior density ranges, i.e., coverages, which are analogous to age ranges. These age ranges were generated from both approaches and are presented as reference tables useful for historic male and female Italian samples. The age ranges produced from each approach were tested on an historic Italian sample, using cumulative binomial tests. These two approaches performed similarly, with the Forensic approach showing a slight advantage. However, the Forensic approach is unable to identify varying senescence patterns between populations, thus preference for one approach over the other will depend on research design. Finally, we demonstrate that while populations exhibit similar morphological changes with advancing age, there are no significant sex differences in these samples, and the timing of these changes varies from population to population. Am J Phys Anthropol 156:466-473, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25407762

Godde, Kanya; Hens, Samantha M

2015-03-01

478

Discourses of Experience: The Disciplining of Identities and Practices in Student Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is to understand how ideas about teaching and learning to teach are structured and regulated in the student teaching component in university teacher education, and how these ideas are linked to the constructed identities of the student--and the collaborating teacher. I use critical discourse analysis to unpack the everyday…

Sanyal Tudela, Anita

2014-01-01

479

Interactive Micro-Processes in Classroom Discourse: Turning Points and Emergent Meanings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a qualitative analysis of classroom discourse in Italian primary schools, this paper analyses the micro-processes that are emergent moment-by-moment in the unfolding interactions between teacher and pupils. More in particular, our purpose is to identify the conditions under which the interactive orientation of a sequence changes. We argue…

Mameli, Consuelo; Molinari, Luisa

2013-01-01

480

Sentences as interaction: the function of conditional clauses and its implication in dialogic discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given that sentences in dialogic discourse tend to be interrupted with such frequency that incomplete sentences may be considered a normal phenomenon, I adopt the position that the notion of the sentence should be abandoned as a unit of analysis for spontaneous spoken language. In this article, I investigate the possibility that sentences in dialogues are not always constructed by

Etsuko YOSHIDA

481

A discourse model for interaction design based on theories of human communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most current models of interaction design build on scenarios and task analysis. We think that interaction design should be more along the lines of communication between humans. With this motivation, our paper presents a new approach to modeling interaction design based on insights from theories of human communication. From such discourse models, we aim for automated generation of user interfaces.

Jürgen Falb; Hermann Kaindl; Helmut Horacek; Cristian Bogdan; Roman Popp; Edin Arnautovic

2006-01-01

482

The Construction of Schooled Discourse Repertoires: An Interactional Sociolinguistic Perspective on Learning to Talk in Preschool.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of the discourse demands across the school year within a recurred event, "Circle Time," is presented to show how three and four year olds learned to be conversationally appropriate partners within a group, how the teacher's interactional patterns shifted as students learned, and how participation in the subevents added differing…

Kantor, Rebecca; And Others

1992-01-01

483

Discourses about Gender among Hmong American Policymakers: Conflicting Views about Gender, Culture, and Hmong Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we draw on research with Hmong American community members to contribute to a more complex understanding of Hmong culture. Specifically, in a critical discourse analysis of interviews with 3 influential Hmong American politicians, we highlight the divergent perspectives on early marriage, Hmong gender norms, and the struggles of…

Ngo, Bic; Leet-Otley, Jill

2011-01-01

484

Friendly Fire: War-Normalizing Metaphors in the Israeli Political Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Combining principles of peace education and political discourse analysis, this study dwells on one powerful metaphorical mechanism engaged in by Israeli political leaders: war-normalizing metaphors, a mechanism for framing war as part of human nature and normal life. Six core semantic fields were identified as particularly useful "raw material" in…

Gavriely-Nuri, Dalia

2009-01-01

485

Language and the Facilitation of Authority: The Discourse of Noam Chomsky (Reader Response).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applies discourse analysis to an interview with Noam Chomsky to show the use of language to facilitate authority. Discusses idealism and scientism, change and the role of the intellectual, Chomsky's dualism, his "problem," his method, creativity and composition, activism and the intellectual, and the future of intellectualism. (PRA)

Beaugrande, Robert de

1991-01-01

486

Cheating Literacy: The Limitations of Simulated Classroom Discourse in Educational Software for Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a multimodal discourse analysis of children using "drill-and-practice" literacy software at a primary school in the Western Cape, South Africa. The children's interactions with the software are analysed. The software has serious limitations which arise from the global political economy of the educational software industry. The…

Walton, Marion

2007-01-01

487

Marginalizing Merit?: Gender Differences in Black Faculty D/discourses on Tenure, Advancement, and Professional Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little work has addressed the ways in which race and gender intersect and shape Black professors' experiences as they seek professional advancement. Framed by critical race theory, this qualitative study uses discourse analysis to analyze the narratives of 28 Black professors employed at two research universities. Findings suggest that…

Griffin, Kimberly A.; Bennett, Jessica C.; Harris, Jessica

2013-01-01

488

Inclusive and Empowering Discourse in an Early Childhood Literacy Classroom with Indigenous Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an analysis of the classroom discourse and strategies of Marcia, an early childhood teacher of a class with a high percentage of Indigenous Australian students. These students have been demonstrably successful on standardised literacy tests, which is not the case for Indigenous students in general in Australia (e.g., MCEETYA,…

Thwaite, Anne

2007-01-01

489

Reversing the discourse of sexology: Margaret Higgins Sanger's what every girl should know  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay offers an analysis of the interplay between the writings of the “father of sexology,” Henry Havelock Ellis, and the leader of the birth control movement in the United States, Margaret Higgins Sanger. Utilizing the theories of Foucault and Burke, the author argues that Sanger engages in the process of “reverse discourse,” appropriating language that initially functioned to maintain

Sara Hayden

1999-01-01

490

Dual Development of Conversational and Narrative Discourse: Mother and Child Interactions during Narrative Co-Construction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated longitudinally the co-constructed narratives of 31 mother-child dyads collected when the children were 3-, 4-, and 5-years old, examining the dual development of child conversational and narrative discourse skills and the impact of maternal verbal assistance. Linear mixed-model analysis revealed that children's developmental…

Kelly, Kimberly Reynolds; Bailey, Alison L.

2013-01-01

491

Damsels in Discourse: Girls Consuming and Producing Identity Texts through Disney Princess Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing upon theories that reconceptualize toys and artifacts as identity texts, this study employs mediated discourse analysis to examine children's videotaped writing and play interactions with princess dolls and stories in one kindergarten classroom. The study reported here is part of a three-year ethnographic study of literacy play in U.S.…

Wohlwend, Karen E.

2009-01-01