Sample records for historical discourse analysis

  1. Cultural approaches to discourse analysis: A theoretical and methodological conversation with special focus on Donal Carbaugh's Cultural Discourse Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Scollo

    2011-01-01

    This essay opens a conversation in the Journal of Multicultural Discourses on cultural approaches to discourse analysis. Culturally-inclusive approaches to discourse analysis and communication that critique Western-biased theories and methods are covered including Jan Blommaert's Critical Discourse Analysis, Shi-xu's Cultural Approach to Discourse, and Asian communication theories. An extensive review of the historical development of Donal Carbaugh's Cultural Discourse Theory

  2. A historical discourse analysis of the cancerous and non-cancerous body in secondary biology textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Neil Thomas

    This dissertation applies the archeological concepts developed by Michel Foucault to a study of thirteen biology textbooks (1993-2004) in order to develop an understanding of 'purchased truths' concerning cancer. This study focuses on the construction of the health/illness dialogue concerning cancer within the textbooks and not the meaning that the individual makes from reading the text; as such this study concerns itself with social truths rather than the search for an individual awareness of names, dates, or places. This study investigates the practices that allow the creation of dialogues that are inserted into a biology textbook and looks at how discursive formations create the 'truth regime' from which the biology textbook is said to speak. Using the Foucaultian themes of 'event', 'emergence', 'enunciation', and 'exteriority' a new reading of topics concerning cancer emerge from biology textbooks. Cancer is a disease that will impact the lives of countless individuals but coverage devoted to the pathology of cancer in secondary biology textbooks is very limited and no study textbook devoted a whole chapter to the discussion of cancer. There is an identified reduction in the number of pages and depth of coverage devoted to cancer in the newer biology texts compared to the older texts. Humans are pictured more than plants or animals in presentations concerning cancer with emphasis being placed on the digitalization of human cells via the scanning electron microscope. When the whole body is presented it is seldom located within the technology of disease diagnosis and treatment but rather is posed for specific social control. Just as each digitized picture of the cancerous cell in the texts is used to create a story so too are the pictures of the whole body in action. Possible story lines offered by the publishing houses concerning the reaction of the body to cancer are shown to intermingle with risk factor analysis to project a sense of Foucaultian 'governmentality' based on assumed control and self regulation by the informed reader. In conclusion a procedure is suggested to further analyze additional textbooks concerning biological/educational issues that have been recast as social problems.

  3. Principles of Critical Discourse Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teun A. van Dijk

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses some principles of critical discourse analysis, such as the explicit sociopolitical stance of discourse analysts, and a focus on dominance relations by elite groups and institutions as they are being enacted, legitimated or otherwise reproduced by text and talk. One of the crucial elements of this analysis of the relations between power and discourse is the patterns

  4. Globalisation and policy borrowing in education : a discourse-historical analysis of HIV/AIDS prevention in Uganda 

    E-print Network

    Barnowe-Meyer, Brooke; Meyer, Brooke Barnowe

    2014-07-04

    Educational discourses, practices and institutions are increasingly shaped today by forces and envoys of a globalised world. Research suggests that functional integration into a neo-liberal world economy compels many ...

  5. Perezhivanie and classroom discourse: a cultural-historical perspective on "Discourse of design based science classroom activities"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Megan; March, Sue

    2015-06-01

    Flavio Azevedo, Peggy Martalock and Tugba Keser challenge the `argumentation focus of science lessons' and propose that through a `design-based approach' emergent conversations with the teacher offer possibilities for different types of discussions to enhance pedagogical discourse in science classrooms. This important paper offers a "preliminary contribution to a general theory" regarding the link between activity types and discourse practices. Azevedo, Martalock and Keser offer a general perspective with a sociocultural framing for analysis of classroom discourse. Interestingly the specific concepts drawn upon are from conversation analysis; there are few sociocultural concepts explored in detail. Therefore, in this article we focus on a cultural historical (Vygotsky in The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky. The history and development of higher mental functions, vol 4. Plenum Press, New York, 1987; The Vygotsky reader. Black, Cambridge, 1994) methodology to explore, analyse and explain how we would use a different theoretical lens. We argue that a cultural historical reading of argumentation in science lessons and design based activity will expand Azevedo, Martalock and Keser's proposed general theory of activity types and discourse practices. Specifically, we use Lev Vygotksy's idea of perezhivanie as the unit of analysis to reconceptualise this important paper. We focus on the holistic category of students' emotional experience through discourse while developing scientific awareness.

  6. Discourse Analysis in Language Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shohamy, Elana

    1990-01-01

    Reviews studies and tests that show how discourse analysis has contributed to the theory, research, and development of language testing, covering the relations among discourse analysis and competence and testing theory; research on language tests and tasks; and task development. A 60-citation unannotated bibliography is included. (CB)

  7. The Modes of Discourse: An Historical Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Robert J.

    Although first enunciated in 1827 by Samuel Newman, the modes of discourse--narration, description, exposition, and argument--were not very popular until formulated in 1866 and presented in the United States in a rhetoric textbook in 1885. After 1890, they were gradually accepted by the most influential rhetoricians of the day, and their use in…

  8. The Discourse-Historical Approach (DHA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Reisigl; Ruth Wodak

    We start our chapter by introducing the notions of 'critique', 'ideology', and 'power'. These three concepts are constitutive for every approach in CDA, albeit frequently employed with different meanings. Therefore, it is important to clarify how they are conceptualised in the DHA. We then proceed with the delineation of other terms significant for our purposes, such as 'discourse', 'genre', 'text'

  9. Discourse and Identity in Cultural-Historical Activity Theory: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Harry

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a response to two of the papers in the collection. In doing so it takes up two issues: the conceptualization and analysis of discourse within Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) and notions of identity and subject positioning within CHAT. Bernstein [(2000). "Pedagogy, symbolic control and identity: Theory research…

  10. Governmentality as a Genealogical Toolbox in Historical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Janicke

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show how governmentality may be used to analyze historical events and discourses, and how this historical analysis can be used as a perspective to problematize contemporary discourses. The example used in this article is from my research on life-extension handbooks published in Sweden 1700-1930, and by this I stress…

  11. Understanding Teachers: The Potential and Possibility of Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Dean M.; Rossi, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the ways in which teachers make sense of what they do and why is critical to a broader understanding of pedagogy. Historically, teachers have been understood through the thematic and content analysis of their beliefs or philosophies. In this paper, we argue that discourse analysis (DA) involves a much finer-grained analysis of the…

  12. Communicative Competence, Speech Acts and Discourse Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Terry; And Others

    Three papers intended as preliminary studies to bilingual professional curriculum development are included. "Speech Acts and Discourse Analysis," by Terry McCoy, represents an introduction to discourse analysis as a tool for the language teacher. The notion of a typology of speech acts is set forth, and models of discourse analysis by…

  13. Discourse Analysis in Second Language Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane, Ed.

    The following papers and reports on discourse analysis are included here: (1) "Discourse Analysis, What's That?" by Hatch and Long; (2) "Contextual Analysis of English: Applications to TESL" by Celce-Murcia; (3) "Discourse and Second Language Acquisition of Yes/No Questions" by Vander Brook, Schlue, and Campbell; (4) "An Approach to Conducting…

  14. Critical Discourse Analysis and Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriaza, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the need of infusing critical discourse analysis into the preparation and support of prospective school leaders. It argues that in the process of school transformation, the school leader must possess the ability to self-reflect on his/her language and understand the potential power of language as a means that may support or…

  15. An Overview of Discourse Analysis and Its Usefulness in TESOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Geraldine Veronica

    This paper provides an overview of discourse analysis from a linguistic point of view, discussing why it is relevant to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL). It focuses on the following: discourse and discourse analysis; discourse analysis and TESOL; approaches to discourse analysis; systemic functional linguistics; theme and…

  16. A cultural historical theoretical perspective of discourse and design in the science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Megan

    2015-06-01

    Flavio Azevedo, Peggy Martalock and Tugba Keser have initiated an important conversation in science education as they use sociocultural theory to introduce design based scenarios into the science classroom. This response seeks to expand Azevedo, Martalock and Keser's article The discourse of design- based science classroom activities by using a specific perspective within a sociocultural framework. Through using a cultural historical (Vygotsky in The history and development of higher mental functions, Plenum Press, New York, 1987) reading of design based activity and discourse in the science classroom, it is proposed that learning should be an integral part of these processes. Therefore, everyday and scientific concepts are explained and expanded in relation to Inventing Graphing and discourse presented in Azevedo, Martalock and Keser's article. This response reports on the importance of teacher's being explicit in relation to connecting everyday and scientific concepts alongside design based activity and related science concepts when teaching students. It is argued that explicit teaching of concepts should be instigated prior to analysis of discourse in the science classroom as it is only with experience and understanding these processes that students have the resources to call upon to argue like practicing scientists.

  17. Discourse analysis and psychotherapy: A critical review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evrinomy Avdi; Eugenie Georgaca

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to render the research literature on discourse analysis of psychotherapy more accessible to researchers and clinicians, and to provide a concise presentation and evaluation of both the usefulness and the implications of this body of research for our understanding of therapy process. Included in the review are studies which use discourse analysis on actual session transcripts. The

  18. Critical discourse analysis and identity: why bother?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Ainsworth; Cynthia Hardy

    2004-01-01

    Critical discourse analysis (CDA) and other forms of discourse analysis are regularly used to study identity, but rarely do researchers systematically compare and contrast them with other theories to identify exactly what a discursive approach contributes. In this paper, we take the example of a particular identity – the older worker – and systematically compare the contribution of CDA with

  19. Discourse Analysis and Structuring Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Ann Jaffe

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the kinds of discourse analyses that are currently being undertaken, summarizes research findings, and makes suggestions based on these findings for structuring texts to be used for instructional or informational purposes. (Author/MER)

  20. Critical Discourse Analysis and the Marketization of Public Discourse: The Universities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman Fairclough

    1993-01-01

    This paper sets out the author's view of discourse analysis and illustrates the approach with an analysis of discursive aspects of marketization of public discourse in contemporary Britain, specifically in higher education. It includes a condensed theoretical account of critical discourse analysis, a framework for analysing discursive events, and a discussion of discursive practices (including their marketization) in late capitalist

  1. Critical discourse analysis from the perspective of ecologism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert de Beaugrande

    2004-01-01

    Now more than ever, critical discourse analysis is urgently called upon to deconstruct the discourses of arrogant power and division which are largely secret for most citizens and which baldly contradict the discourses of populist solidarity propagated in an official democracy. This paper focuses on deconstructing two legal discourses, the craftily named “Patriot Acts,” designed to polarize the citizenry into

  2. 3. Photocopy of illustration from J. Smith Futhey's Historical Discourse....of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of illustration from J. Smith Futhey's Historical Discourse....of the Upper Octoraro Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia, 1870 SHOWS CHURCH WITH SESSIONS HOUSE IN BACKGROUND - Upper Octoraro Presbyterian Church Session House, State Route 10 & Octoraro Road (Sadsbury Township), Parkesburg, Chester County, PA

  3. Critical discourse analysis of political press conferences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aditi Bhatia

    2006-01-01

    This study of political press conferences allows a closer look at diplomatic talk to communicate political differences in a positive way to smooth out socio-political and ideological discrepancies that often divide prominent political figures. Taking a critical discourse analysis (CDA) perspective, this article analyses textual data from press conferences involving the former Chinese President Jiang Zemin and the US President

  4. Partnering for research: A critical discourse analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine J. Irving; Leona M. English

    2008-01-01

    Using a critical discourse analysis, informed by poststructuralist theory, we explore the research phenomenon of coerced partnership. This lens allows us to pay attention to the social relations of power operating in knowledge generation processes, especially as they affect feminist researchers in adult education. We propose an alternative vision of partnership which politicizes the term partnership, attends to civil society,

  5. Corpus Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debbie Orpin

    2005-01-01

    Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) has often proved fruitful in providing insights into the relationship between language and ideology. However, CDA is not without its critics. Constructive criticism has been offered by Stubbs, who suggests bolstering CDA by using a large corpus as the basis on which to make reliable generalisations about language use. Taking up that suggestion, this paper reports

  6. Description and interpretation in critical discourse analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Flowerdew

    1999-01-01

    In this response to a critique by Hugh Tyrwhitt-Drake of an earlier article (Flowerdew, 1997a), this paper discusses questions of description and interpretation in critical discourse analysis (CDA). In particular it discusses these issues under the following five postulates: CDA does not deal with ‘facts’; CDA is reflexive; CDA is open to multiple readings; CDA must be plausible; and CDA

  7. Using Discourse Analysis and Automatic Text Generation to Study Discourse Cue Usage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan Moser; Johanna D. Moore

    1995-01-01

    Our two stage methodology for the study of cue usage coordinates an exhaustive corpus analysis with a system for text generation. Coding of the corpus uses Relational Discourse Analysis, a syn- thesis of two previous accounts of discourse struc- ture. In the first stage of our study, hypotheses about cue usage are evaluated and refined using the corpus analysis. Several

  8. Resisting the discourse of critical discourse analysis: Reopening a Hong Kong case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugh Tyrwhitt-Drake

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a critique of critical discourse analysis, raising doubts about its theoretical framework and the application of such theory as exists to texts. An analysis of John Flowerdew's paper ‘Reproduction, resistance and joint-production of language power: A Hong Kong case study’ (Journal of Pragmatics 27: 315–337), which draws heavily on work in the field of critical discourse analysis,

  9. Discourse on Discourse. Workshop Reports from the Macquarie Workshop on Discourse Analysis (Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, February 21-25, 1983). Occasional Papers Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Ruqaiya, Ed.

    Four group summary papers from an Australian national workshop on discourse analysis discuss verbal and written discourse and the classroom. Papers reflect the four workshop discussion groups of casual conversation, classroom discourse, expository discourse, and literary narrative. They include: "On Casual Conversation" (M. A. K. Halliday and G.…

  10. Analysis of Academic Discourse: Insights for Teaching Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashemi, Mohammad Reza

    Based on the premise that second language instruction at the college level should focus on the elements of academic discourse and not spend unnecessary time on less relevant grammatical structures, an analysis of discourse structures in subject-area textbooks was undertaken. Grammatical structures characteristic of academic discourse were analyzed…

  11. Using critical discourse analysis to analyze a basic writing workbook

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Ellen Daniloff-Merrill

    2001-01-01

    This project analyzes the discourse of a basic writing workbook for the purpose of showing who controls the discourse of the text and how the ideological common sense assumptions of those groups influence pedagogical decisions which serve to maintain basic writers at a basic writing level. Using Norman Fairclough's three dimensional framework for Critical Discourse Analysis and applying it to

  12. A Discourse Analysis of Teacher-Student Classroom Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Michael Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation explores the role of classroom discourse in balancing teacher control over lesson content and student participation in educational interactions. The results of a discourse analysis of teacher-student interactions in video-recordings of eight third-grade math and language arts lessons reveal that the role of discourse in this…

  13. CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS: IRANIAN BANKS ADVERTISEMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soheila Tahmasbi; Abadan Branch; Ahvaz Jundishapur

    2013-01-01

    The present study tried to analyze an array of banks advertisements in an Iranian socio-cultural context. The selected commercials are analyzed critically from a top-down as well as a bottom-up point of view. The framework is that of the Fairclough's (1992) which embraces three aspects of discourse presenting some closely-related layers called 1) description of textual analysis 2) interpretation of

  14. Interpreting the Discourse of H.G. Widdowson: A Corpus-based Critical Discourse Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Beaugrande, Robert

    2001-01-01

    The discourse of a recent position paper by H.G. Widdowson is analyzed by using three methods criticized in Widdowson's paper. The paper was converted into a miniature data corpus and analyzed with the concepts of systemic functional linguistics, corpus linguistics, and critical discourse analysis. (Author/VWL)

  15. The Fantasmatic Stranger in Polish Nationalism: Critical Discourse Analysis of LPR's Homophobic Discourse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YASUKO SHIBATA

    2009-01-01

    The article presents how the discursive discrimination of homosexuals serves nationalism in the contemporary Polish society. Following a brief conceptual location of homophobia within the ideological movement of nationalism, the exemplar homophobic discourse of the Polish nationalists, i.e. that of the League of Polish Families (LPR), is examined through the interdisciplinary method of critical discourse analysis (CDA). In the theoretical

  16. Manufacturing Consent: A Corpus-Based Critical Discourse Analysis of New Labour's Educational Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulderrig, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents selected findings from a historical analysis of change in the discursive construction of social identity in UK education policy discourse from 1972-2005. My chief argument is that through its linguistic forms of self-identification the government construes educational roles, relations and responsibilities not only for itself,…

  17. A quoi peut servir l'analyse de discours? (Of What Use is Discourse Analysis?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumpf, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Presents a survey of opinions on the nature and usefulness of discourse analysis. The following topics are addressed: (1) discourse analysis and ideologies of power, (2) epistemological considerations, and (3) discourse analysis and interdisciplinary endeavors. (AMH)

  18. The idiosyncratic language of Israeli ‘peace’: A Cultural Approach to Critical Discourse Analysis (CCDA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dalia Gavriely-Nuri

    2010-01-01

    Combining peace studies, cultural studies and Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), this study demonstrates a Cultural approach to Critical Discourse Analysis (CCDA) of political peace discourses. Inspired by the UNESCO definition for the ‘culture of peace’, the study offers two peace discourse models: a supportive peace discourse versus an oppressive one. From a theoretical perspective, CCDA enables a culturally comparative study

  19. A critical discourse analysis of racial literacy in teacher education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca Rogers; Melissa Mosley

    2008-01-01

    What does racial literacy look and sound like in a teacher education book club? Using the tools of critical discourse analysis, we describe, interpret and explain how each member of the group draws on a range of discursive and embodied resources for racial literacy; particularly, how they maneuver the book club discourse to resolve what constitutes anti-racist action in the

  20. Critical discourse analysis and the ethnography of language policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Cassels Johnson

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the compatibility of ethnography and critical discourse analysis (CDA) for the study of language policy. A perennial challenge facing the field of language policy is how to make connections between the macro and micro, and between macro-level policy texts and discourses and micro-level language use. Hornberger and Johnson [(2007). Slicing the onion ethnographically: Layers and spaces in

  1. Critical discourse analysis and metaphor: toward a theoretical framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Hart

    2008-01-01

    Critical discourse analysis (CDA) explores the role of discourse structures in constituting social inequality. Metaphorical structure, however, has received relatively little attention in explicit CDA. The paper aims to redress this by developing a coherent theoretical framework for CDA and metaphor. This framework adopts conceptual blending theory over conceptual metaphor theory, where the latter is perceived to be incompatible with

  2. Some Observations on the Critique of Critical Discourse Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Haig

    Since the publication in 1989 of Norman Fairclough's Language and Power and Ruth Wodak's Language, Power and Ideology, and the launch in 1990 of Teun van Dijk's journal, Discourse & Society, Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) has not only grown into a major field of research in its own right but has also been widely adopted by researchers in a range

  3. Discourse Analysis and the Sociocultural Study of Language and Literacy Learning Sciences 451

    E-print Network

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    1 Discourse Analysis and the Sociocultural Study of Language and Literacy sociolinguistic ethnography, Bakhtinian dialogic approach, and critical approaches to discourse in analyzing discourse in educational settings and in discussing issues of language

  4. Discourses of Linguistic dominance: A Historical Consideration of French Language Ideology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasuya, Keisuke

    2001-07-01

    The paper offers a historical perspective on the linguistic and cultural imperialism embedded in the struggle to maintain French as a leading international language. France was the nation-state where the ideology of national language was first clearly formulated and directly extended to overseas colonies. This shows the close relationship between linguistic nationalism and imperialism. It was believed that French was the language of universal human reason and had the power to civilize people who spoke it. This myth of the "clarté française" and the "mission civilisatrice" had a strong influence on various kinds of metalinguistic discourses that created the taken-for-granted representation of French as dominant language. It is the essential strategy of language dominance to establish the hierarchy of languages as if it were natural order of things. When French was obliged to yield the status of international language to English, there emerged the ideology of "Francophonie" which tried to defend its privilege against the monopoly of English, but the same ideology is also directed against minorities' claims for their own linguistic human right. It could be said that these discourses form a recursive prototype of language dominance whose variations are to be found in other shapes almost all over the world.

  5. Cross-cultural Discourse Analysis in German for Business and Economics: A New Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsell, Patricia R.

    A brief overview of discourse analysis is presented, followed by: (1) a description of cross-cultural discourse analysis; (2) an explanation of how cross-cultural discourse analysis applies to language for special purposes (LSP) in general; and (3) a discussion of selected areas for ongoing and future research areas. Emphasis is on discourse

  6. News discourses on distant suffering: a Critical Discourse Analysis of the 2003 SARS outbreak

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stijn Joye

    2010-01-01

    News carries a unique signifying power, a power to represent events in particular ways (Fairclough, 1995). Applying Critical Discourse Analysis and Chouliaraki’s theory on the mediation of suffering (2006), this article explores the news representation of the 2003 global SARS outbreak. Following a case-based methodology, we investigate how two Belgian television stations have covered the international outbreak of SARS. By

  7. Power and Ideology in Everyday Discourse: The Relevance of Critical Discourse Analysis in Pragmatic Linguistics Today

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Trevor MORLEY

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on what is arguably one of the most compelling and contentious issues in prag- matics today. It explores the relationship between language and concepts of ideology and power in the linguistic practices of contemporary society through a critique of a critical discourse analysis (CDA) approach to linguistic enquiry, as evidenced in a study and brief review of

  8. Metaphor Analysis in the Educational Discourse: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Hong-bo; Song, Wen-juan

    2010-01-01

    Metaphor analysis is based on the belief that metaphor is a powerful linguistic device, because it extends and encapsulates knowledge about the familiarity and unfamiliarity. Metaphor analysis has been adopted in the educational discourse. The paper categorizes the previous relevant research into 3: interactions between learners and institutions,…

  9. Critical Discourse Analysis of Obama's Political Di scourse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juraj Horváth

    This paper examines the persuasive strategies of Pr esident Obama's public speaking as well as the covert ideology of the same, enshrin ed in his inaugural address. Our analysis is grounded in Norman Fairclough's assumpt ions in critical discourse analysis, claiming that \\

  10. The Critical Discourse Analysis of a report on Barack Obama

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ZHAO Chen-xi; YANG Feng-jun

    2009-01-01

    Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is a new method in linguistic analysis. Usually approached from the angles of linguistics, sociology and psychology, CDA aims to uncover through analyzing linguistic forms, the relations between language and ideology. By applying the specific methods of transitivity, transformation, modality and classification in CDA to a report on Barack Obama in The New York Times—a mainstream

  11. The organising vision for telehealth and telecare: discourse analysis

    PubMed Central

    Procter, Rob; Wherton, Joe; Sugarhood, Paul; Shaw, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Objective To (1) map how different stakeholders understand telehealth and telecare technologies and (2) explore the implications for development and implementation of telehealth and telecare services. Design Discourse analysis. Sample 68 publications representing diverse perspectives (academic, policy, service, commercial and lay) on telehealth and telecare plus field notes from 10 knowledge-sharing events. Method Following a familiarisation phase (browsing and informal interviews), we studied a systematic sample of texts in detail. Through repeated close reading, we identified assumptions, metaphors, storylines, scenarios, practices and rhetorical positions. We added successive findings to an emerging picture of the whole. Main findings Telehealth and telecare technologies featured prominently in texts on chronic illness and ageing. There was no coherent organising vision. Rather, four conflicting discourses were evident and engaged only minimally with one another's arguments. Modernist discourse presented a futuristic utopian vision in which assistive technologies, implemented at scale, would enable society to meet its moral obligations to older people by creating a safe ‘smart’ home environment where help was always at hand, while generating efficiency savings. Humanist discourse emphasised the uniqueness and moral worth of the individual and tailoring to personal and family context; it considered that technologies were only sometimes fit for purpose and could create as well as solve problems. Political economy discourse envisaged a techno-economic complex of powerful vested interests driving commodification of healthcare and diversion of public funds into private business. Change management discourse recognised the complicatedness of large-scale technology programmes and emphasised good project management and organisational processes. Conclusion Introduction of telehealth and telecare is hampered because different stakeholders hold different assumptions, values and world views, ‘talk past’ each other and compete for recognition and resources. If investments in these technologies are to bear fruit, more effective inter-stakeholder dialogue must occur to establish an organising vision that better accommodates competing discourses. PMID:22815469

  12. Researching educational policy and change in ‘new times’: using critical discourse analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Taylor

    2004-01-01

    A number of writers have drawn attention to the increasing importance of language in social life in ‘new times’ and Fairclough has referred to ‘discourse driven’ social change. These conditions have led to an increase in the use of various forms of discourse analysis in policy analysis. This paper explores the possibilities of using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) in critical

  13. A Critical Discourse Analysis of three US municipal wireless network initiatives for enhancing social inclusion

    E-print Network

    Kvasny, Lynette

    A Critical Discourse Analysis of three US municipal wireless network initiatives for enhancing Critical Discourse Analysis a b s t r a c t The US has a long history of telecommunications policy aimed Discourse Analysis, our findings confirms that the growing use of digital inclusion rhetoric around

  14. A Discourse Analysis of School Counseling Supervisory E-Mail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Melissa; Gordon, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    This article is a discourse analysis of weekly computer-mediated communications between 8 school counseling interns and their e-mail supervisor over a 16-week semester. Course-required e-mail supervision was provided as an adjunct to traditional face-to-face individual and group supervision. School counselor supervisees and supervisor enacted 3…

  15. The construction of cultural values and beliefs in Chinese language textbooks: A critical discourse analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongbing Liu

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the discourses of cultural values and beliefs constructed in Chinese language textbooks currently used for primary school students nationwide in China. By applying story grammar analysis in the framework of critical discourse analysis, the article critically investigates how the discourses are constructed and what ideological forces are manifested in the textbooks. More specifically, it analyses how story

  16. A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Special Education Referral Process: A case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    REBECCA ROGERS

    2003-01-01

    In this article, I explore a case study of the special education referral process as an institutional site of exploring the intersection of power, discourse and subjectivities. I engage with critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) (Fairclough, Critical Discourse Analysis: the critical study of language , New York, Longman, 1995; Language and Power , London, Longman, 1989) as an analytic and social

  17. Reflections on Foucauldian discourse analysis in planning and environmental policy research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liz Sharp; Tim Richardson

    2001-01-01

    Discourse analysis is becoming an increasingly common approach in planning and environmental policy research. This paper asserts that the generic treatment of discourse analysis obscures distinct approaches in which ‘discourses’ can combine different elements of text, systems of thought and action. Textually oriented approaches have been more prevalent during the 1990s, but this paper explores a different approach, grounded in

  18. Deaf Culture and Competing Discourses in a Residential School for the Deaf: "Can Do" versus "Can't Do"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Catherine A.; Placier, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    From an ethnographic case study of a state-funded residential school for the Deaf, the authors employed Critical Discourse Analysis to identify competing discourses in the talk of educators. These discourses are embedded in the historical oppression and labeling of deaf people as disabled and the development of Deaf culture as a counter-discourse.…

  19. Critical discourse analysis and inclusive educational policies: the power to exclude

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anastasia Liasidou

    2008-01-01

    The legislative shift towards an inclusive education policy in Cyprus has allegedly been fragmented and contradictory. The textual hybridity of the ostensibly more inclusive policy documents prevents the realization of an inclusive discourse. Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is proposed as an emancipatory research tool that has the potential to destabilize the authoritarian discourses entrenched in educational policy agendas, thereby facilitating

  20. Empirical study of Mandarin Chinese discourse analysis: an event-based approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan-Kai Wang; Yi-Shiou Chen; Wen-Lian Hsu

    1998-01-01

    Discourse analysis plays an important role in natural language understanding. Mandarin Chinese discourse, which has many different properties compared with English discourse, is still far behind in the construction of a basic computational model. We propose an event model to elucidate anaphora and ellipsis in Mandarin Chinese. An event based approach (EBA) based on the model is designed to resolve

  1. A Novel Discriminative Framework for Sentence-Level Discourse Analysis Shafiq Joty and Giuseppe Carenini and Raymond T. Ng

    E-print Network

    Carenini, Giuseppe

    discourse analysis has been shown to be critical in several fundamental Natural Lan- guage Processing (NLPA Novel Discriminative Framework for Sentence-Level Discourse Analysis Shafiq Joty and Giuseppe- inative framework for performing sentence- level discourse analysis. Our framework com- prises a discourse

  2. SIGNAL ANALYSIS SOFTWARE FOR TEACHING DISCOURSE INTONATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorothy M. Chun

    1998-01-01

    In the last fifteen years, there have been major paradigm shifts in both general and applied linguistics toward acknowledging intonation as an indispensable component of language and communication. In addition, the hardware and software for conducting acoustic phonetic signal analysis have recently become more accessible. The main goal of this paper is thus to integrate the two seemingly disparate subfields

  3. Gendered Representations of Jazz Vocal Artists: A Critical Discourse Analysis of CD and Performance Reviews, and Interviews

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miroslava Jichova

    2007-01-01

    This study of contemporary jazz discourse and gender applies the techniques of critical discourse analysis, inspired by M.A.K. Halliday's systemic functional linguistics and Norman Fairclough's qualitative critical discourse analysis, to explicate the unequal distribution of power in society as represented by the institutions of jazz and mass media, in discourse about jazz vocal artists. Specifically, the study focuses on the

  4. Critical Discourse Analysis and Science Education Texts: Employing Foucauldian Notions of Discourse and Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    This article supports critical, social justice oriented science education research by providing a theoretical and methodological basis for examining how subjectivities may be constituted through discourses found in science education texts. Such research explores how discourses orient teachers and students to the world, others, and themselves, as…

  5. Reproduction, Resistance and Gender in Educational Discourse: The Role of Critical Discourse Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria L. Bergvall; Kathryn A. Remlinger

    1996-01-01

    Classrooms provide lessons not only in subject content but also in socially approved forms of academic discourse. Moreover, they may function to reproduce normative social values, attitudes and beliefs. This paper focuses on the reproduction of and resistance to traditional gender roles in the classroom discourse of university students. By some measures (turn and word counts), women appear to have

  6. The construction of teacher identities in educational policy documents: A critical discourse analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sue Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is a complex eclectic method that has potential to be a valuable tool for critical policy analysis. This article highlights this potential by demonstrating how CDA can be applied to policy texts. That is, it focuses on the processes involved in ‘doing’ critical discourse analysis. In particular, it examines the framework identified by Chouliaraki & Fairclough

  7. The `cartoons controversy': a Critical Discourse Analysis of English-language Arab newspaper discourse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamila Hakam

    2009-01-01

    This study is unique in two ways: 1) it explores the little-known discourse site of English-language Arab newspapers; and 2) it applies quantitative methods to a large amount of data to uncover patterns that show how these newspapers reproduce, resist and\\/or challenge the discourse that stems from a dominant Euro-centered culture. The article focuses on a corpus of 422 `hard'

  8. Comparative Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA): Interplay of discourses (D\\/D1) as third grade urban and suburban science students engage in hypothesis formulation and observation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen Irene Reyes Mendoza

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research project is a comparative analysis of Discourses (D\\/D1) while focused upon the science processes of hypothesis generation and observation in an urban versus suburban elementary science classroom. D designates the instructional and formal academic science Discourse and D1 represents the students' informal, social or home language D1iscourses. In particular, this research study is a critical discourse analysis

  9. Insights beyond Neo-Liberal Educational Practices: The Value of Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turunen, Tuija A.; Rafferty, John

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, power and effects of neo-liberal rationale in educational settings. By introducing discourse analysis of two cases, the influence of neo-liberal ideology on contemporary curricula and school programs were examined. The analysis showed that dominant discourses based on neo-liberal rationale presented themselves as…

  10. Facets of a Discourse Analysis of Safety Requirements Patrick Saint-Dizier

    E-print Network

    also emerged, e.g. EEC norms for chemical product storage and uses. Besides public regulations, safetyFacets of a Discourse Analysis of Safety Requirements Patrick Saint-Dizier IRIT - CNRS, 118 route a linguistic analysis and an implementation of the discourse structure of safety requirements within

  11. “GENRE MEANS …”: A CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF FOURTH GRADE TALK ABOUT GENRE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inda Schaenen

    2010-01-01

    This action research study investigates how genre theory can be integrated into the practice of a writing enrichment program and how the frameworks of Critical Discourse Analysis and Multimodal Analysis can help assess and improve both student learning and teacher practice. A multilayered exploration of teacher-student discourse in an urban public elementary school in the Midwest United States discloses the

  12. Reporting on Sino-Japan in The New York Times: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoxiao Chen

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a critical discourse analysis of the news reports on Sino-Japan conflicts in the New York Times from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2006. A critical discourse analysis is made to delineate the contrasting representations of China and Japan, locating some particular discursive strategies that harbor ideological inclinations. Findings indicate that the New York Times portrayed the

  13. Discourse Analysis of User Forums in an Online Weight Loss Application Lydia Manikonda1

    E-print Network

    Kambhampati, Subbarao

    Discourse Analysis of User Forums in an Online Weight Loss Application Lydia Manikonda1 , Heather of sentiments, and semantic cohesion of posts made by users vary along with their weight loss pat- tern. To our knowledge, this is the first discourse-level analysis of language and weight loss dynamics. 1 Introduction

  14. Researching Educational Policy and Change in "New Times": Using Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    A number of writers have drawn attention to the increasing importance of language in social life in "new times" and Fairclough has referred to "discourse driven" social change. These conditions have led to an increase in the use of various forms of discourse analysis in policy analysis. This paper explores the possibilities of using Critical…

  15. Climate Change Discourse in Mass Media: Application of Computer-Assisted Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirilenko, Andrei P.; Stepchenkova, Svetlana O.

    2012-01-01

    Content analysis of mass media publications has become a major scientific method used to analyze public discourse on climate change. We propose a computer-assisted content analysis method to extract prevalent themes and analyze discourse changes over an extended period in an objective and quantifiable manner. The method includes the following: (1)…

  16. The British and Curriculum Development in West Africa: A Historical Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofori-Attah, Kwabena Dei

    2006-01-01

    Only recently have African nations begun to make their way towards establishing genuinely autonomous education systems incorporating elements of indigenous culture. The present study examines the historical development of curriculum in British West Africa in its links with the educational activities of the early Christian missionaries and the…

  17. Expanding the Notion of Historical Text through Historic Building Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Christine; Dobbs, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Among the disciplinary skills necessary for understanding in the social studies classroom is the ability to determine context and build meaning from past events. Historical buildings are an important component of historical study, and they serve as a type of nontraditional text that students can decode and use to construct meaning about multiple…

  18. Empowering Discourse: Discourse Analysis as Method and Practice in the Sociology Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjelm, Titus

    2013-01-01

    Collaborative learning and critical pedagogy are widely recognized as "empowering" pedagogies for higher education. Yet, the practical implementation of both has a mixed record. The question, then, is: How could collaborative and critical pedagogies be empowered themselves? This paper makes a primarily theoretical case for discourse

  19. Guidance Matters: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Race-Related Policy Vocabularies Shaping Leadership Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Bradley W.; Diem, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Despite the federal government's historical effort to ensure educational equity via policies targeting issues critical to U.S. urban cities, a transformation has taken place in the discourses shaping educational policy solutions. While policies targeting educational equity have not completely vanquished, they have been largely re-written by…

  20. A New Agenda in (Critical) Discourse Analysis: Theory, Methodology and Interdisciplinarity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Songqing

    2005-01-01

    As part of the Discourse Approaches to Politics, Society and Culture series, this volume mainly introduces the interdisciplinary and multi-methodological character of (critical) discourse analysis (CDA). Some of the contributions were further developed through discussion at the workshop on 'New Agenda in CDA' that was convened in 2003 at the University of Vienna. The intention of the editors was to

  1. Time to get wired: Using web-based corpora in critical discourse analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerlinde Mautner

    2005-01-01

    Although the world wide web has become a popular object of and tool for different kinds of semiotic and linguistic investigation, critical discourse analysis (CDA) does not seem to share this enthusiasm in equal measure. The contemporary relevance of the web as a key site for the articulation of social issues should make it a prime target for critical discourse

  2. Metaphor, morality and myth: a critical discourse analysis of public housing policy in Queensland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg Marston

    2000-01-01

    This article presents illustrative findings from case study research investigating the function and effects of competing discourses in the policy change process. The specific field of research is the development and implementation of public housing policy in Queensland, Australia. Critical discourse analysis is used to explore discursive constructions of the policy problem and power relations within the policy community. It

  3. Ideologies of English in a Chinese high school EFL textbook: a critical discourse analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Xiong; Yamin Qian

    2012-01-01

    In this article we examine ideologies of English in present-day China with a special focus on textbook discourse. The research framework is informed by critical theories on language and education. Critical discourse analysis is applied as a methodological approach characterized by a socially committed attitude in the explanation and interpretation of text. The study finds evidence of: (a) a selective

  4. Discourse-Based Methods across Texts and Semiotic Modes: Three Tools for Micro-Rhetorical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oddo, John

    2013-01-01

    As the scope of rhetorical inquiry broadens to cover intersemiotic and intertextual phenomena, scholars are increasingly in need of new, defensible analytic procedures. Several scholars have suggested that methods of discourse analysis could enhance rhetorical criticism. Here, I introduce a discourse-based method that is empirical, delicate, and…

  5. Physical Education for Health and Wellbeing: A Discourse Analysis of Scottish Physical Education Curricular Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvilly, Nollaig; Verheul, Martine; Atencio, Matthew; Jess, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the discourses associated with physical education in Scotland's "Curriculum for Excellence". We implement a poststructural perspective in order to identify the discourses that underpin the physical education sections of the "Curriculum for Excellence" "health and well-being"…

  6. What is in a text and what does it do: Qualitative Evaluations of an NLG system the BT-Nurse using content analysis and discourse analysis.

    E-print Network

    Reiter, Ehud

    -Nurse ­ using content analysis and discourse analysis. Rahul Sambaraju Queen Margaret Univ, UK rsambaraju different methodologies (content analysis and discourse analysis). The outcomes of such evaluations. In this paper we describe how we used two qualitative methodologies, content analysis and discourse analysis

  7. The British and curriculum development in West Africa: A historical discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofori-Attah, Kwabena Dei

    2006-09-01

    THE BRITISH AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT IN WEST AFRICA: A HISTORICAL STUDY - Only recently have African nations begun to make their way towards establishing genuinely autonomous education systems incorporating elements of indigenous culture. The present study examines the historical development of curriculum in British West Africa in its links with the educational activities of the early Christian missionaries and the imposition of British colonial rule. For over 300 years, the curriculum content was essentially European in nature. African interests and cultural practices were largely excluded, as "bookwork" was favored over "handwork". The colonial curriculum also helped introduce a new social order to West Africa, leading to the rise of new local elites reading, writing, and speaking foreign European languages. This study explores how the idea of a "civilized" person, promoted through the colonial school curriculum, developed new local elites with different sets of values and expectations that often made them strangers in their own societies. It also describes the connection between this curriculum and the repeated failure of education-reform efforts.

  8. Latina/o Health Discourses in Newsprint Media from 2006-2010: A Content Analysis of Four Syndicated Newspapers 

    E-print Network

    Ortega, Frank J

    2013-12-11

    Latina/o health discourses stem from historical and social notions of biological, cultural, and racial inferiority. Popular U.S. newspapers pay scant attention to Latina/o health concerns and often inaccurately portray ...

  9. A Conversational Analysis of Computer-Mediated Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Michael E.

    Excerpts from a transcript of computer "conversations" provide the basis for a study of how people manage ongoing interaction, given the constraints of computer-mediated discourse, and whether any unusual conventions are used in doing so. The discourse was analyzed using address, topical references, and adjacency pairs to link the messages.…

  10. The language of critical discourse analysis: the case of nominalization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Billig

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the way that critical discourse is written. It does so by considering the concept of nominalization. Critical discourse analysts have suggested that nominalization (along with passivization) has important ideological functions such as deleting agency and reifying processes. However, the language used by critical analysts, as they explore nominalization, is revealing. They tend to use, and thereby instantiate,

  11. Constructing parapsychology : a discourse analysis of the accounts of experimental parapsychologists 

    E-print Network

    Coelho, Claudia Carvalho De Matos Teixeira

    2005-11-20

    This thesis is concerned with parapsychology as a field of experimental science. It is based on the discourse analysis of interviews with experimental parapsychologists, in which they provide accounts of their field, ...

  12. Doing accountability: a discourse analysis of research ethics committee letters.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Michelle; Dixon-Woods, Mary; Angell, Emma; Ashcroft, Richard; Bryman, Alan

    2009-03-01

    Research ethics committees (RECs) are charged with adjudicating the ethical status of research projects, and determining the conditions necessary for such projects to proceed. Both because of their position in the research process and because of the controversial nature of ethical judgements, RECs' views and decisions need to be accountable. In this paper we use techniques of discourse analysis to show how REC decision letters 'do' accountability. Using a sample of 260 letters from three datasets, we identify a range of discursive devices used in letters written by RECs. These include drawing attention to: the process behind the decision, including its collaborative nature; holding the applicants accountable, by implying that any decision made by the REC can be attributed to the performance of the applicants; referring to specialist expertise; and calling upon external authorities. These tactics 'do' accountability by showing that routines of ethical assessment have been enacted, by establishing the factuality of claims, and by managing questions of fault and blame attribution. They may, however, also risk undermining legitimacy by failing to acknowledge the inherent contestability of ethical decision making or the limited nature of the cultural authority accorded to RECs, and thus may appear as an illegitimate exercise of power. PMID:18983419

  13. Many Lessons from a School: What Classroom Discourse Analysis Reveals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuengler, Jane

    2011-01-01

    In my talk, I foreground what I and my colleagues have learned about discourse in the numerous classrooms we observed in a four-year research study at an urban high school. While Jefferson High had a student body that was linguistically and culturally diverse, it was homogeneous socioeconomically, being labeled "low income". Some of the research I…

  14. CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS AND THE FUNCTIONAL BASES OF LANGUAGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denize Elena; Garcia da SILVA

    2006-01-01

    This study seeks to illustrate in what way congruence in theoretical approaches allows for the study of transitive processes, interactional processes as well as grammatical and lexico-semantic elements that stand out in discourse as a social practice. In light of this, a brief overview will be given of three inter-related language systems given that the study seeks to establish a

  15. Animating vernaculars, wired: critical discourse analysis on an awkward scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katie Vann

    2009-01-01

    In recent years critical discourse analysts have increasingly pointed to the World Wide Web as a distinctive site of discursive practice, and have urged that more research work be conducted with specifically web-based corpora. While the conduct of ‘wired CDA’ presents new possibilities for CDA, it also entails apparent dilemmas that stem from the scale of web-specific corpora and CDA's

  16. A Historical Analysis of the Relationship of Faith and Science and its Significance within Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yegge, John G.

    Science curriculum and pedagogy are at the center of a centuries-long debate concerning the appropriate relationship of faith and science. The difficulties that science educators face seem to be based in misinformation about the historical roots of this conflict. To address that conflict, the goals of this research were to separate myth from reality and to provide a necessary context to the current tensions that are disrupting science pedagogy and curriculum content within American public schools. Working within a theoretical framework of historical literacy, this qualitative, historical analysis was a comprehensive examination of the relationship of faith and science from ancient times through the Renascence to the emergence and development of Darwinism. The historical approach methodology was utilized as a means to document the systematic examination of past events, in order to illuminate and interpret the meaning of those events. The historical record revealed that science and religion are not necessarily incompatible and that the early Christian religion provided a fertile environment in which modern science could emerge. Also noted were many instances where the record was inconsistent with what educators have commonly taught as historical fact. Finally, the complex sources of tension between modern fundamentalist Christianity and Darwinism, which has appeared as a flashpoint in public discourse within science education, were examined in depth. Based on this analysis, the study includes recommendations for educators in their approach to addressing these challenges and teaching science. This analysis can produce positive social change for educators and their students, as this information is advanced as a means to enhance historical literacy among educators and their students.

  17. Defining and Measuring Parenting for Educational Success: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Parent Education Profile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esther Prins; Blaire Willson Toso

    2008-01-01

    The Parent Education Profile (PEP) is an instrument used by family literacy programs to rate parents’ support for children’s literacy development. This article uses Critical Discourse Analysis to examine how the PEP constructs the ideal parent, the text’s underlying assumptions about parenting and education, and its ideological effects. The analysis shows how many features of the PEP evaluate parents according

  18. Constructing the ‘ideal learner’: a critical discourse analysis of the adult numeracy core curriculum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen M. Oughton

    2007-01-01

    A critical discourse analysis of the Adult Numeracy Core Curriculum is used to expose and challenge the underlying assumptions of the Skills for Life strategy, and to examine the way in which the text constructs subject positions for adult numeracy teachers and learners. The analysis finds that presuppositions include the unproblematic transfer of classroom numeracy learning to social practice, and

  19. Critical discourse analysis, topoi and mystification: disability policy documents from a Norwegian NGO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Grue

    2009-01-01

    In disability studies, social and medical explanatory models are seen as being conflicting or mutually exclusive, and as mystifying respectively bodily impairment and the agency of social and environmental factors. This article uses critical discourse analysis (CDA) to discuss the relationship between such models in policy documents produced by The Norwegian Federation of Organizations of Disabled People (FFO). Analysis of

  20. A useful methodological synergy? Combining critical discourse analysis and corpus linguistics to examine discourses of refugees and asylum seekers in the UK press

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Baker; Costas Gabrielatos; Majid KhosraviNik; Micha? Krzy?anowski; Tony McEnery; Ruth Wodak

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the extent to which methods normally associated with corpus linguistics can be effectively used by critical discourse analysts. Our research is based on the analysis of a 140-million-word corpus of British news articles about refugees, asylum seekers, immigrants and migrants (collectively RASIM). We discuss how processes such as collocation and concordance analysis were able to identify common

  1. Resources for Historical Landscape Analysis: Toronto

    E-print Network

    Haykin, Simon

    Master or online Fire Insurance Plans City Directories Internet resources Toronto Public Library (Historicity) City Toronto Public Library digital atlas versions 1884, 1890, 1892, 1893, 1899, 1910 (Historicity) Library (see Library Catalogue) McMaster original 1912 (Map Collection) Toronto Public Library digital

  2. `Suit, Tie and a Touch of Juju'—The Ideological Construction of Africa: A Critical Discourse Analysis of News on Africa in the British Press

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather Jean Brookes

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the ideological construction of Africa through a critical discourse analysis of news on Africa in the British press. Through a comparative analysis of two British papers with opposing ideological positions, it demonstrates that there is a stereotypical, naturalized and dominant discourse on Africa. The analysis illustrates how the features of this discourse combine to produce particular meanings

  3. Exposing Ideology within University Policies: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Faculty Hiring, Promotion and Remuneration Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzuner-Smith, Sedef; Englander, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Using critical discourse analysis (CDA), this paper exposes the neoliberal ideology of the knowledge-based economy embedded within university policies, specifically those that regulate faculty hiring, promotion, and remuneration in two national contexts: Turkey and Mexico. The paper follows four stages of CDA: (1) focus upon a social wrong in its…

  4. A problem for RST: the need for multi-level discourse analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johanna D. Moore; Martha E. Pollack

    1992-01-01

    this paper, we focus ontwo levels of analysis. The first involves the relation between the information conveyed inconsecutive elements of a coherent discourse. Thus, for example, one utterance may describean event that can be presumed to be the cause of another event described in the subsequentutterance. This causal relation is at what we will call the informational level. The secondlevel

  5. Postmodernism Debates and Comparative Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis. Essay Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Sonia; Ninnes, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Detailed discourse analysis is presented for two articles that suggest that postmodernism has little to offer comparative education and should be resisted. The two texts, focusing on postmodernism as the antithesis of comparative education and on the "lost promise" of postmodernism, demonstrate the use of language to convey messages that limit or…

  6. Analysis of Narrative Discourse Structure as an Ecologically Relevant Measure of Executive Function in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannizzaro, Michael S.; Coelho, Carl A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the narrative discourse production and executive function (EF) abilities of 46 neuro-typical adults (18-98 years old). Two questions were addressed: Is the analysis of narrative structure sensitive to changes associated with aging? & What is the relationship between measures of narrative structure and EF? Narratives were…

  7. Accreditation and Power: A Discourse Analysis of a New Regime of Governance in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engebretsen, Eivind; Heggen, Kristin; Eilertsen, Heidi Annett

    2012-01-01

    This article studies discourses within the accreditation of Norwegian higher education conducted by the Norwegian Agency for Quality Assurance in Education (NOKUT), using one concrete case (the accreditation of bachelor programs in nursing). Analysis of policy documents and accreditation reports are influenced by two of Foucault's concepts of…

  8. Analysing Texts in Context: Current Practices and New Protocols for Critical Discourse Analysis in Organization Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shirley Leitch; Ian Palmer

    2010-01-01

    abstract Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) in organization studies would be strengthened by an increased focus on a central CDA tenet that texts should be analysed in context. Context has, for the most part, been afforded a taken-for-granted status that is misplaced because of the diverse ways in which it may be defined and applied. These generally unacknowledged differences relate to

  9. Transmission of Ideology through Translation: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Chomsky's \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zahra Khajeh; Hajar Khanmohammad

    Among factors that might manipulate translators' mind while producing a text is the notion of ideology transmission through text or talk. Adopting Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) with particular emphasis on the framework of Van Dijk (1999), the present investigation is an attempt to shed light on the relationship between language and ideology involved in translation in general, and more specifically,

  10. Life Writing, Resistance, and the Politics of Representation: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Eli Clare's \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danielle Cowley

    2012-01-01

    Using critical discourse analysis the article examines the ways in which one disabled writer, Eli Clare, uses the life-writing genre to bring his readers' attention to hegemonic representations of the disabled body as inferior, abnormal, and weak. The article argues that in the few lines of the poem \\

  11. Cultural Studies, Critical Theory and Critical Discourse Analysis: Histories, Remembering and Futures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry Threadgold

    In this paper I have explored some of the histories which inevitably connect, but also differentiate, critical discourse analysis and cultural studies. I have argued that both are strongly influenced by the versions of critical theory which have been characterised as 'postmodernism' and 'poststructuralism' and that both could benefit not only from some serious engagement with the several disciplines from

  12. The Newfoundland School Society (1830-1840): A Critical Discourse Analysis of Its Religious Education Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Leona M.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses the lens of critical discourse analysis to examine the religious education efforts of the Newfoundland School Society (NSS), the main provider of religious education in Newfoundland in the 19th century. Although its focus was initially this colony, the NSS quickly broadened its reach to the whole British empire, making it one of…

  13. Reproducing Gender Inequality: A Critical Discourse Analysis of a Turkish Adult Literacy Textbook. Research Brief #7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gungor, Ramazan; Prins, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Adult education curricula such as literacy textbooks present blueprints for living, including different ways of being and relating as men and women. However, educators and scholars seldom consider the underlying assumptions about gender in literacy workbooks, especially in international settings. This study used Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)…

  14. Critical Discourse Analysis and Critical Thinking: An Experimental Study in an EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashemi, Mohammad Reza; Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of critical discourse analysis (CDA) on TEFL students' critical thinking (CT) ability in "Reading Journalistic Texts" classes. In so doing, the study utilized an experimental design with 24 participants in the control group and 29 participants in the experimental group. The results of a pretest indicated…

  15. Comparative Critical Discourse Analysis of Student and Teacher Editions of Secondary Christian American Literature Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agiro, Christa Preston

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the comparative application of critical discourse analysis to student and teacher editions of the two most widely used high school American literature textbooks by Christian publishers, examining them through the lens of critical theory. The study examined all parts of the student and teacher editions, excepting literary…

  16. Modal talk: Discourse analysis of how people talk about bus and car travel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Guiver

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of discourse analysis of the transcripts of ten focus groups discussing bus and car travel. It finds that the modes are talked about in different ways: bus travel being referred to as a series of episodes mostly focussing on worst-case scenarios while car travel is represented as a more consistent commodity. Both modes exhibit different

  17. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Gisela's Family Story: A Construal of Deportation, Illegal Immigrants, and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I use critical discourse analysis to analyze a student's narrative about the arrest, incarceration, and deportation of her mother to Mexico. The student, Gisela, was a fifth grader in my classroom during the 2008/2009 school year, and I encouraged the students to collect family stories from their relatives. Gisela created this…

  18. State-sponsored terrorism: A historical comparative analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Campos Daigle

    2004-01-01

    This thesis undertakes an examination of the social and historical contexts that lead to the continuation and maintenance of terrorist organizations using a cross-national, historical, and comparative analysis. In order to identify the conditions under which terrorist actions emerge or fail to emerge, four pairs of nations were chosen, (a) Libya and Egypt, (b) Iran and Saudi Arabia, (c) Syria

  19. Valid Climatological Data from Historical Sources by Content Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. V. Shank; E. P. Ippen; R. Bersohn; D. W. Moodie; A. J. W. Catchpole

    1976-01-01

    Content analysis is used to derive dates of freeze-up and break-up from historical descriptions of river estuaries on Hudson Bay between 1714 and 1871. Validity testing of these dates indicates that they are comparable with modern data. It is thus proposed that the method affords potential for the systematic retrieval of a broad array of environmental data from the historical

  20. A Critical Discourse Analysis of a Real-World Problem in Mathematics: Looking for Signs of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Roux, Kate

    2008-01-01

    The concepts of "access" and "relevance" feature prominently in the discourse of change in mathematics education in South Africa. One way in which these concepts have been played out in mathematics classrooms is in the use of mathematical problems with real-world contexts. This paper presents a Critical Discourse Analysis of one such problem,…

  1. Pushing up against the Limit-Horizon of Educational Change: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Popular Education Reform Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ashlee; Aronson, Brittany; Ellison, Scott; Fairchild-Keyes, Sherrie

    2015-01-01

    With this article, we work to identify the limit-horizon of possible ideas, practices, and ways of talking about education reform and schooling via a critical discourse analysis of selected popular political and governmental texts. To do so, we explore the popular discourse of education reform in the United States through our analyses of three…

  2. The Discourse of Parent Involvement in Special Education: A Critical Analysis Linking Policy Documents to the Experiences of Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Yuan; Vadeboncoeur, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Parent involvement is acknowledged as a crucial aspect of the education of students with special needs. However, the discourse of parent involvement represents parent involvement in limited ways, thereby controlling how and the extent to which parents can be involved in the education of their children. In this article, critical discourse analysis

  3. HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS: A USEFUL EDUCATIONAL TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An historical analysis that presents the ecological consequences of development can be a valuable educational tool for citizens, students, and environmental managers. In highly impacted areas, the cumulative impacts of multiple stressors can result in complex environmental condit...

  4. Simple Analysis of Historical Lime Mortars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pires, Joa~o

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described in which a simple characterization of a historical lime mortar is made by the determination of its approximate composition by a gravimetric method. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are also used for the qualitative characterization of the lime mortar components. These…

  5. RATIONAL CONSUMPTION: A BRIEF HISTORICAL ANALYSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William E. Kilbourne

    This paper examines the changes in perceptions of rational consumption through three historical periods, the early Greek, the period of religious domination and the industrial period. In each period, the changing definition of Life's goals and the means to achieve them result in changes in perceptions of rational consumption.

  6. Specters of Wal-Mart: A critical discourse analysis of stories of Sam Walton's ghost

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Boje; Grace Ann Rosile

    2008-01-01

    We content analyze the text of Wal-Mart annual reports (1972–2006), both for what is said and in antenarrative fashion what is left out. We find that the specter of Samuel Walton, dead since 1992, dwells in stories told. We intend a critical discourse analysis of the narrative ways in which Wal-Mart translates and crystallizes its version of hyperglobalization by rearticulating

  7. Teacher Education and Development Policies: Critical Discourse Analysis from a Comparative Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mónica E. Pini; Jorge M. Gorostiaga

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore teacher education policies in different countries of Latin America and North America\\u000a through the comparison of policy documents. The training of teachers, a key component of education, faces educational challenges\\u000a as a result of various reform policies in different countries. Critical discourse analysis offers the possibility of illuminating\\u000a certain aspects of educational

  8. Critical discourse analysis and hybrid texts: Analysing english as a second language (esl)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret Kettle

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) and English as a Second Language (ESL) texts, that is texts produced in interactions between native and non?native speakers of English. Such texts are hybrid in that they comprise a blending of ‘standard’ and ‘non?standard'1 English forms. In these times of globalised English and the increasing prevalence of non?native speaker models of

  9. Reconciling Theory with Method: From Conversation Analysis and Critical Discourse Analysis to Positioning Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neill Korobov

    2001-01-01

    Not only is it often challenging to wade through the many different discourse analytic approaches to studying talk-in-interaction, but it is also often challenging to understand how certain methods adequately capture the complexity of the theories that lie behind them. What is needed are methods that are analytically sophisticated enough to empirically demonstrate the complexity of the theories that make

  10. Looking at the Psychotherapy Process as an Intersubjective Dynamic of Meaning-Making: A Case Study with Discourse Flow Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio Salvatore; Omar Gelo; Alessandro Gennaro; Stefano Manzo; Ahmed Al Radaideh

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a dialogic model of psychotherapy (the Two-Stage Semiotic Model, TSSM) with discourse flow analysis (DFA) and a low-inferential method of analysis based on it. TSSM claims that in good-outcome psychotherapy, the patient's system of meanings follows a U-shaped trend: First, it decreases, and then the dialog promotes new meanings. DFA represents a session's dialog as a “discourse

  11. Structural Analysis of Masonry Historical Constructions. Classical and Advanced Approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pere Roca; Miguel Cervera; Giuseppe Gariup; Luca Pela’

    2010-01-01

    A review of methods applicable to the study of masonry historical construction, encompassing both classical and advanced ones,\\u000a is presented. Firstly, the paper offers a discussion on the main challenges posed by historical structures and the desirable\\u000a conditions that approaches oriented to the modeling and analysis of this type of structures should accomplish. Secondly, the\\u000a main available methods which are

  12. A Quantitative Analysis of the Historical Present Tense in Narrative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    This paper presents the results of a quantitative analysis of the historical present tense (HP) in English. The tokens of HP in narrative clauses, such as "he's smiling, an' he picks up the card," are referentially equivalent to their past tense alternants in the phrases, "he was smiling an' he picked up the card." Previous analysis of HP view it…

  13. Dean of Women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: A Story Left Untold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herdlein, Richard; Cali, Christine Frezza; Dina, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    There is a paucity of historical discourse on the distinct contributions of African American women serving as deans of women at historically Black colleges and universities. Using historical research and the case study approach, the analysis focused on three deans of women: Lucy Diggs Slowe--Howard University, Owena Hunter Davis--Johnson C. Smith…

  14. Constructing the ‘gender-specific body’: A critical discourse analysis of publications in the field of gender-specific medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen Annandale; Anne Hammarström

    2011-01-01

    Gender-specific medicine, a new and increasingly influential ethos within medical research and practice, has received little critical attention to date. The objective of this article is to critically examine the attributes of gender-specific medicine as imparted by its advocates. Through a critical discourse analysis of its two leading academic journals, we identify five interrelated discourses: of male\\/female difference; of hegemonic

  15. Belief in extraordinary psychological feats: a discourse analysis 

    E-print Network

    Jones, Lisa

    2012-06-27

    to determine how journalists express their views on the nature of Brown’s feats and overcome the problem of explaining the unexplained. Upon analysis it was found that 4 themes were common among articles: framing the feats as more than magic, non-paranormal...

  16. Defining applied behavior analysis: An historical analogy

    PubMed Central

    Deitz, Samuel M.

    1982-01-01

    This article examines two criteria for a definition of applied behavior analysis. The criteria are derived from a 19th century attempt to establish medicine as a scientific field. The first criterion, experimental determinism, specifies the methodological boundaries of an experimental science. The second criterion, philosophic doubt, clarifies the tentative nature of facts and theories derived from those facts. Practices which will advance the science of behavior are commented upon within each criteria. To conclude, the problems of a 19th century form of empiricism in medicine are related to current practices in applied behavior analysis. PMID:22478557

  17. HAZARDOUS MATERIAL SPILLS: A DOCUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF HISTORICAL DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ultimate goal of this study was the prevention of hazardous material spills through application of research effort. The immediate objective was to provide guidance for the choice of research priorities for spill prevention through documentation and analysis of historical inci...

  18. The comparative analysis of historical alien introductions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Sol; Montserrat Vilà; Ingolf Kühn

    2008-01-01

    The comparative analysis of past introductions has become a major approach in investigating the rules governing invasions,\\u000a yet their utility to understand the invasion process is not exempt of problems. The relevance of some of these problems has\\u000a not yet been fully appreciated, but it has now become clear that not taking them into account may lead to invalid conclusions.

  19. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Provincial Policies Impacting Shelter Service Delivery to Women Exposed to Violence.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Camille; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Berman, Helene; Ward-Griffin, Cathy; Wathen, Nadine

    2015-02-01

    Shelters for abused women function within a broad context that includes intersecting social structures, policies, and resources, which may constrain and limit the options available to abused women and tacitly reinforce the cycle of abuse. This feminist, qualitative study combined in-depth interviews and focus groups conducted with 37 staff and four executive directors from four shelters in Ontario, Canada, along with a critical discourse analysis of salient policy texts. Together, the interviews and critical discourse analysis formed an integrated analysis of the dialectic between policy as written and enacted. The study findings illuminate the complexity of the system and its impact on women, shelters, and the community and highlight how specific types of social policies and various social system subsystems and structures, and system configuration, shape the day to day reality of shelter service delivery and impact outcomes for abused women and their children. Collectively, these findings offer direction regarding where these policies could be improved and provide a basis for shelters, policy makers, advocates, and the community to strengthen current services and policies, potentially enhancing outcomes for women. PMID:25908665

  20. Accounting for Accountability: A Discourse Analysis of Psychiatric Nurses’ Experience of a Patient Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Maggie; Paterson, Brodie; Lauder, Billy; Fenton, Rosemary; Gavin, John

    2010-01-01

    Whilst the experience of a patient suicide is likely to have a significant impact upon the nurses who had been providing care, little work has actually explored this experience in any depth. In this article we explore how two psychiatric nurses construct and orient to accountability when talking of their experiences of a patient suicide. Discourse analysis was used to explore particular phases that the nurses oriented to in their accounts: scene setting; risk assessment; attributing for the suicide. Findings highlight the different, sometimes contradictory, ways the nurses attended to interactional concerns relating to implicit accountability and potential inferences of blame. Analysis of the nurses’ talk can make a valuable contribution to understanding the nature and the impact of ‘accountability’ in a mental health setting and so help nurses and other professionals gain an insight into their practice. The results from this study suggest that as a consequence of internalising fundamentally unrealisable expectations regarding suicide prevention, nurses can hold themselves to blame raising significant concerns around their needs in terms of support, which may not be recognised. This paper also makes a valuable contribution to our methodological understanding and the value of using discourse analysis in this setting. PMID:20305746

  1. Postcolonial analysis of educational research discourse: creating (Mexican) American children as the 

    E-print Network

    Rivas, Araceli

    2006-04-12

    critique research from the postcolonial perspectives of alterity and colonial discourse. In particular, the study sought to deconstruct the conceptual systems that create the alterity of (Mexican) American children within research discourse. The study...

  2. Depression and mental health in neoliberal times: a critical analysis of policy and discourse.

    PubMed

    Teghtsoonian, Katherine

    2009-07-01

    Depression has received increasing attention as a significant public health issue over the past ten years, both in Canada and elsewhere in the industrialized west. During the same period, many of the social and economic policies adopted by governments in these jurisdictions have reflected neoliberal goals and orientations. The purpose of this article is to explore the points of contact between these two features of contemporary social and political life in the industrialized west, using the Canadian province of British Columbia as an empirical site. My analysis draws on the Foucauldian literature on governmentality in presenting a close reading of provincial government documents concerned with depression and mental health literacy that have been produced since the election of the Liberal Party to office in British Columbia in 2001. This analysis identifies discourses of "responsibilization" circulating in these documents, within which individuals, families, communities and workplaces - rather than publicly-funded services - appear as key resources in responding to experiences of mental distress. It also points to a number of strategies visible in the documents that work to align the interests of individuals and their practitioners in pursuing particular approaches to treatment with a governing interest in reducing public spending on services and supports. The article concludes by identifying a number of resistive discourses and proposing further research in a range of empirical contexts within which they may be evident. PMID:19427730

  3. A thematic analysis identifying concepts of problem gambling agency: With preliminary exploration of discourses in selected industry and research documents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Borrell

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this exploratory analysis was the idea and locus of agency in conceptualisations of gambling and problem\\/pathological gambling within corporate and academic domains as presented in public discourses. In order to unpick and analyse how such agency is being conceptualised and presented, the author carried out a preliminary thematic analysis of selected public documents. While annual financial reports,

  4. A discourse analysis of the construction of mental illness in two UK newspapers from 1985-2000.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Brodie

    2007-10-01

    This study explored the discourse of mental illness contained within two UK newspapers over a 15-year period, excluding those stories that mentioned any reference to a diagnosis. Using frame analysis, a form of discourse analysis, ten distinct frames were identified and classified into "stories." These ten stories were categorized as: foreign, legal, drug, feature, trauma, tragedy, community care tragedy, social policy, inquiry report, and sports/celebrity stories. Each frame is described and the potential influence of such frames on both social policy and nursing practice is discussed. PMID:17957551

  5. A Study of the Relationship between Historical Analysis and Student Achievement in Eighth Grade American History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this action research project was to study the relationship between Historical Analysis and student performance on the California Standards Test (CSTs), both English Language Arts and History, as well as to study the relationship between Historical Analysis and Reading Comprehension. It was believed that Historical Analysis required…

  6. The Motivation Analysis Test: an historical and contemporary evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Larry C; Walsh, R Patricia; Mills, Michael

    2005-04-01

    This is an historical review and contemporary empirical evaluation of the Motivation Analysis Test (MAT), one of the first tests to take a psychometric approach to the assessment of motivation. Reviews were quite positive, but the test is now over 50 years old. Nevertheless, it employs innovations in measurement not widely used in objective measurement then or now: (1) subtests with different formats, (2) disguised items, (3) speeded administration procedures, and (4) ipsative format and scoring procedures. These issues are discussed and a contemporary sample (N = 360) obtained to evaluate the Motivation Analysis Test in light of its innovative characteristics. PMID:15941125

  7. Constructing Teaching and Research Relations from the Top: An Analysis of Senior Manager Discourses on Research-Led Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayson, Susan; Schapper, Jan

    2012-01-01

    To show how research and teaching, core academic activities are discursively shaped through policy discussion we critically identify and examine the institutional effects of senior academics' discourses on research-led teaching. The analysis sheds light on the interrelationship between university policy and the powerful and productive effects of…

  8. The Rhetoric of War and Remembrance: An Analysis of President Bill Clinton's 1994 D-Day Discourses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary L. Kahl; Michael Leff

    2006-01-01

    This close textual analysis of President Clinton's discourses in ceremonies commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of D-Day, held on June 6, 1994, considers the rhetorical context and discursive strategies of the president on an international stage. It argues that Clinton employed generational comparisons to emphasize the gifts bequeathed by an older generation and the obligation to advance the goals of democracy

  9. Discursive strategies in the construction of national identity: A critical discourse analysis of the Gibraltar issue in the printed media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ángela Alameda Hernández

    2008-01-01

    Gibraltar is a community in which political conflicts are common, but has quite frequently been ignored in the academic world, despite its great interest and uniqueness. The present research offers a new perspective into the study of the Gibraltarian identity as it adheres to the theoretical paradigm known as Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), which analyses language in relation to the

  10. The new imperialism: Using critical discourse analysis and articulation theory to study George W. Bush's freedom doctrine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tina Sikka

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, I examine how Articulation Theory and Critical Discourse Analysis can be used to examine the Bush administration's ‘Freedom Doctrine’ as it appears in official speeches, press releases, and interviews. I also look at possible alternatives to the dominant militaristic interpretation of international events and foreign policy, and recommend other areas of research and study related to the

  11. Understanding the new management ideology: a transdisciplinary contribution from critical discourse analysis and new sociology of capitalism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eve Chiapello; Norman Fairclough

    2002-01-01

    Our aim in this article is to explore how one might approach the language of new capitalism working in a transdisciplinary way, bringing together new sociology of capitalism (Chiapello) and critical discourse analysis (Fairclough). We focus upon `new management ideology', and in particular on a recent book by a highly influential management `guru' (Rosabeth Moss Kanter). The article begins with

  12. From Choice to Change: An Analysis of the "Choice" Discourse in Canada's 2006 Federal Election

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Brooke; Langford, Rachel; Friendly, Martha; Rauhala, Ann

    2013-01-01

    A critical discourse analysis (CDA) was used to analyze the representation of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) in the 2006 federal election in Canada. Guided by Fairclough's approach to CDA, this study analyzed written documents including newspaper articles from "The Globe and Mail" and "The National Post", the…

  13. Towards responsible system development in health services: a discourse analysis study of design conflict resolution tactics.

    PubMed

    Irestig, Magnus; Timpka, Toomas

    2010-02-01

    We set out to examine design conflict resolution tactics used in development of large information systems for health services and to outline the design consequences for these tactics. Discourse analysis methods were applied to data collected from meetings conducted during the development of a web-based system in a public health context. We found that low risk tactics were characterized by design issues being managed within the formal mandate and competences of the design group. In comparison, high risk tactics were associated with irresponsible compromises, i.e. decisions being passed on to others or to later phases of the design process. The consequence of this collective disregard of issues such as responsibility and legitimacy is that the system design will be impossible to implement in factual health service contexts. The results imply that downstream responsibility issues have to be continuously dealt with in system development in health services. PMID:19683068

  14. Use of cartography in historical seismicity analysis: a reliable tool to better apprehend the contextualization of the historical documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, Fradet; Grégory, Quenet; Kevin, Manchuel

    2014-05-01

    Historical studies, including historical seismicity analysis, deal with historical documents. Numerous factors, such as culture, social condition, demography, political situations and opinions or religious ones influence the way the events are transcribed in the archives. As a consequence, it is crucial to contextualize and compare the historical documents reporting on a given event in order to reduce the uncertainties affecting their analysis and interpretation. When studying historical seismic events it is often tricky to have a global view of all the information provided by the historical documents. It is also difficult to extract cross-correlated information from the documents and draw a precise historical context. Use of cartographic and geographic tools in GIS software is the best tool for the synthesis, interpretation and contextualization of the historical material. The main goal is to produce the most complete dataset of available information, in order to take into account all the components of the historical context and consequently improve the macroseismic analysis. The Entre-Deux-Mers earthquake (1759, Iepc= VII-VIII) [SISFRANCE 2013 - EDF-IRSN-BRGM] is well documented but has never benefited from a cross-analysis of historical documents and historical context elements. The map of available intensity data from SISFRANCE highlights a gap in macroseismic information within the estimated epicentral area. The aim of this study is to understand the origin of this gap by making a cartographic compilation of both, archive information and historical context elements. The results support the hypothesis that the lack of documents and macroseismic data in the epicentral area is related to a low human activity rather than low seismic effects in this zone. Topographic features, geographical position, flood hazard, roads and pathways locations, vineyards distribution and the forester coverage, mentioned in the archives and reported on the Cassini's map confirm this hypothesis. The location of the recently explored documentary sources evidence that there was no notarial activity in this particular area at that time. The importance of the economic and political dominance of Bordeaux during the XVIIth-XVIIIth centuries has to be taken into account in order to apprehend the way the earthquake was reported by the population at the regional scale. Elements related to chimneys forms or construction techniques could in turn help in identifying regional peculiarities allowing better quantifying the vulnerability aspects of the region.

  15. Non-destructive compositional analysis of historic organ reed pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manescu, A.; Fiori, F.; Giuliani, A.; Kardjilov, N.; Kasztovszky, Z.; Rustichelli, F.; Straumal, B.

    2008-03-01

    In order to be able to reproduce historic organ reed pipes, a bulk non-destructive chemical composition analysis was performed on the tongues and shallots, focusing mainly on the ratio between copper and zinc and on the presence of lead. Prompt gamma activation analysis results allowed us to observe for the first time that the ratio between the two main components of the brass alloy changed from Cu:Zn = 3:1 for the old tongues and shallots to Cu:Zn = 2:1 around the middle of the 18th century, which is typical also for the modern alloys offered to the organ builders nowadays. We also discovered that the Pb content in the old historic brass alloy diminished until the middle of 18th century when the brass alloy became mainly Pb free. The non-uniform lead distribution inside one of the shallots obtained from a prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) experiment was studied by neutron tomography. It gave us a three-dimensonal (3D) distribution of the lead inclusions inside the shallots. The lead particles are concentrated towards the base of the shallot.

  16. Discourse Analysis as Social Construction: Towards Greater Integration of Approaches and Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Ainsworth

    This paper presents a reflection on the process of doing critical discourse research. Examples from a current project on the discursive construction of 'older worker' identity are used to illustrate how major challenges inherent in undertaking discourse research can be addressed. These involved initial justifications of discou rse theory as a research framework, research design and the selection of a

  17. Thinking, Writing, Talking: A Discourse Analysis of Writing Instruction for Boys with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madigan, Timothy P.

    2007-01-01

    This article illustrates the importance of classroom discourse and its effect on the writing of students with dyslexia; specifically, this article examines the nature of discourse that took place within the context of two writing classrooms at The Garden School (pseudonym). When teaching students with dyslexia, the teachers in this study followed…

  18. Learning to Read: Discourse Analysis and the Study and Practice of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Arthur L.

    2009-01-01

    Educators are inclined to think that the words they use in their discourses about policy, research, and practice mean what they mean them to mean. It is just as clear, however, that such discourses ideologically produce and reproduce relations of power that benefit some and disadvantage others. This essay begins an argument that educators need to…

  19. Terahertz analysis of an East Asian historical mural painting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukunaga, K.; Hosako, I.; Kohdzuma, Y.; Koezuka, T.; Kim, M.-J.; Ikari, T.; Du, X.

    2010-05-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and THz and imaging techniques are expected to have great potential for the non-invasive analysis of artworks. We have applied THz imaging to analyse the historic mural painting of a Lamaism temple by using a transportable time-domain THz imaging system; such an attempt is the first in the world. The reflection image revealed that there are two orange colours in the painting, although they appear the same to the naked eye. THz imaging can also estimate the depth of cracks. The colours were examined by X-ray fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy, and the results were found to be in good agreement. This work proved that THz imaging can contribute to the non-invasive analysis of cultural heritage.

  20. [Discourses on the nursing and psychiatric nurse models, published in the Annals of Nursing (1933-1951)].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Michelle de Macedo; Padilha, Maria Itayra; de Oliveira, Alexandre Barbosa; Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco; Filho, Antonio José de Almeida; Peres, Maria Angélica de Almeida

    2014-06-01

    Social-historical study aimed at discussing the nursing and psychiatric nurse models, from the discourses published in the Annals of Nursing.The historical sources were articles published in the Annals of Nursing journal, from 1933 to 1951. An analysis of the discourse was subsidized by the genealogy of power by Michel Foucault.The analysis showed that the discourse on nursing and the psychiatric nurse, in the first half of the 20th century, is set, on one side, by the propositions used by psychiatrists, who sought to reiterate stereotypes and vocations to practice nursing, and, on the other side, by the active participation of nurses seeking to legitimize expertise for psychiatric nursing. It was concluded that the discourses analyzed defined a psychiatric care focused on the nurse and not the rest of the nursing staff, at that time. PMID:25158460

  1. Riflessioni e Proposte sulle Unita' di Analisi per l'Analisi del Discorso (Didattico) (Reflections and Suggestions Concerning the Units of Analysis for Discourse Analysis).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landolfi, Liliana

    1995-01-01

    After reviewing units of discourse analysis generally used by sociolinguists, this article reports on a study conducted in university English-as-a-Second-Language classes in Los Angeles to show differences between interactions in and outside of class and proposes a broader frame of analysis to include both the turn and the exchange systems. (CFM)

  2. Analysis of narrative discourse structure as an ecologically relevant measure of executive function in adults.

    PubMed

    Cannizzaro, Michael S; Coelho, Carl A

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the narrative discourse production and executive function (EF) abilities of 46 neuro-typical adults (18-98 years old). Two questions were addressed: Is the analysis of narrative structure sensitive to changes associated with aging? & What is the relationship between measures of narrative structure and EF? Narratives were elicited under two conditions and narrative structure was analyzed for the presence of organizing story grammar elements. Narrative structure was significantly correlated with age as well as linguistic and non-linguistic measures of EF. Factor analysis of story structure and EF variables yielded two factors reflecting constructs of output-fluidity and organizational-efficiency. These data suggest that narrative structure and EF represent aspects of goal-directed knowledge that are not bound by a traditional linguistic and non-linguistic division. Thus, narrative structure may represent a global and ecologically valid measure of goal-directed executive function knowledge that is also sensitive to changes associated with typical aging. PMID:23192423

  3. The feds and enviros can't tell us who we are: a discourse analysis of identity resistance strategies of public lands ranchers 

    E-print Network

    Royer, Rebecca Janell

    2003-01-01

    and unconstrained action are reduced. However, Foucault argued that resistance was available to all, regardless of the balance of power. Discourse analysis of administrative grazing hearing transcripts, media coverage, and interviews with participants revealed...

  4. An analysis of conceptual metaphor in the professional and academic discourse of technical communication 

    E-print Network

    Sherwood, Matthew Aaron

    2005-02-17

    This dissertation explores the ongoing division between technical communication practitioners and academics by examining the conceptual metaphors that underlie their discourse in professional journals and textbooks. Beginning with a demonstration...

  5. Critical Analysis of “At-Risk” Policy Discourse: Implications for Administrators and Teachers

    E-print Network

    Hemmer, Lynn

    2010-10-12

    ? This case study examined the socio-legal discourse applied when seven administrators and 15 teachers administered policy as a response to an at-risk student population in five demographically diverse alternative education settings in California and Texas. A...

  6. Towards proteomic analysis of milk proteins in historical building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuckova, S.; Crhova, M.; Vankova, L.; Hnizda, A.; Hynek, R.; Kodicek, M.

    2009-07-01

    The addition of proteinaceous binders to mortars and plasters has a long tradition. The protein additions were identified in many sacral and secular historical buildings. For this method of peptide mass mapping, three model mortar samples with protein additives were prepared. These samples were analysed fresh (1-2 weeks old) and after 9 months of natural ageing. The optimal duration of tryptic cleavage (2 h) and the lowest amount of material needed for relevant analysis of fresh and weathered samples were found; the sufficient amounts of weathered and fresh mortars were set to 0.05 and 0.005 g. The list of main tryptic peptides coming from milk additives (bovine milk, curd, and whey), their relative intensities and theoretical amino acid sequences assignment is presented. Several sequences have been "de novo" confirmed by mass spectrometry.

  7. A Guide to Commonplaces: On The Use of "Loci" in Educators' Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Maurice, Henry

    1991-01-01

    Raises questions about an aspect of rhetoric called the commonplace. Suggests how commonplaces may be applied to educational topics in innovative ways. Shows historical analysis can highlight assumed concepts and values in discourse, policy, and practices. Argues educators must increase awareness of the interrelated arts of rhetoric in teaching by…

  8. "Behind the Doors of Learning": The Transmission of Racist and Sexist Discourses in a History Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmot, Mark; Naidoo, Devika

    2011-01-01

    Now that the doors of historically white schools have officially been opened to Black learners, this paper presents a critical analysis of discourses of domination transmitted behind the doors of learning in a History classroom. While the official History curriculum (NCS, 2002) advocates multi-perspectival epistemological approaches, this paper…

  9. Changing Policy Discourses: Constructing Literacy Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mary; Pitt, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which policy discourses have constructed rationales for addressing adult literacy over the last 50 years. In particular, we examine how policy positions the literacy learner as citizen within discourses of rights and equity. Taking the case of the UK, we compare two key documents produced at different historical

  10. Environmental assessment in The Netherlands: Effectively governing environmental protection? A discourse analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Runhaar, Hens, E-mail: h.a.c.runhaar@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Laerhoven, Frank van, E-mail: vanLaerhoven@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Driessen, Peter, E-mail: p.driessen@uu.nl [Utrecht University, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, P.O. Box 80,115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands); Arts, Jos, E-mail: e.j.m.m.arts@rug.nl [University of Groningen, Faculty of Planning, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Environmental assessment (EA) aims to enhance environmental awareness and to ensure that environmental values are fully considered in decision-making. In the EA arena, different discourses exist on what EA should aim for and how it functions. We hypothesise that these discourses influence its application in practice as well as its effectiveness in terms of achieving the above goals. For instance, actors who consider EA as a hindrance to fast implementation of their projects will probably apply it as a mandatory checklist, whereas actors who believe that EA can help to develop more environmentally sound decisions will use EIA as a tool to design their initiatives. In this paper we explore discourses on EA in The Netherlands and elaborate on their implications for EA effectiveness. Based on an innovative research design comprising an online survey with 443 respondents and 20 supplementary semi-structured interviews we conclude that the dominant discourse is that EA is mainly a legal requirement; EAs are conducted because they have to be conducted, not because actors choose to do so. EA effectiveness however seems reasonably high, as a majority of respondents perceive that it enhances environmental awareness and contributes to environmental protection. However, the 'legal requirement' discourse also results in decision-makers seldom going beyond what is prescribed by EA and environmental law. Despite its mandatory character, the predominant attitude towards EA is quite positive. For most respondents, EA is instrumental in providing transparency of decision-making and in minimising the legal risks of not complying with environmental laws. Differences in discourses seldom reflect extreme opposites. The 'common ground' regarding EA provides a good basis for working with EA in terms of meeting legal requirements but at the same time does not stimulate creativity in decision-making or optimisation of environmental values. In countries characterised by less consensual political cultures we may expect more extreme discourses on EA, the consequences of which are reflected upon in this paper. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effectiveness of environmental assessment (EA) depends in part on meanings associated with EA (i.e., discourse). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our results suggest that the general discourse in The Netherlands is that EA is a legal requirement, nothing more. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This discourse makes EA effective in protecting the environment, but not in the optimisation of environmental values. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EA has a limited contribution to the development of policy alternatives or innovative solutions to environmental problems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a high consensus among EA professionals, providing a common ground for working with EA.

  11. Discourse Structure

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Steven T.

    1976-08-17

    An essential step in understanding connected discourse is the ability to link the meanings of successive sentences together. Given a growing database to which new sentence meanings must be linked, which out of many possible ...

  12. Reduced Space Optimal Analysis for Historical Data Sets: 136 years of Atlantic Sea Surface Temperatures

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Reduced Space Optimal Analysis for Historical Data Sets: 136 years of Atlantic Sea Surface meteorological and oceanographic historical data sets has been developed. The method combines data meaningless. Where covariance patterns can be estimated from the available data, the analysis methods fill

  13. Reduced Space Optimal Analysis for Historical Data Sets: 136 years of Atlantic Sea Surface Temperatures

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Reduced Space Optimal Analysis for Historical Data Sets: 136 years of Atlantic Sea Surface and oceanographic historical data sets has been developed. The method combines data-reduction and least squares meaningless. Where covariance patterns can be estimated from the available data, the analysis methods ll gaps

  14. Flood frequency analysis with regional and historical information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minghui Jin; Jery R. Stedinger

    1989-01-01

    This paper develops generalized maximum likelihood estimators which efficiently employ both at-site historical information and systematic flood records with a regional index flood distribution. Monte Carlo experiments document the performance of these estimators in heterogeneous and homogeneous regions, with different historical record lengths, and with various perception thresholds. When carefully employed with stationary flood records and appropriate and robust statistical

  15. Integration and utilization of the historical cultural resources of Nanjing based on cluster analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Zong, Yueguang

    2007-06-01

    As one of the 101 leading national-level historical and culture cities in China, Nanjing owns affluent historical cultural resources. In order to effectively manage and thoroughly protect these valuable resources, which seem to scatter randomly across the space of Nanjing, we must explore the potential distribution rule beneath them. Empirical experience informs us historical sightings agglomerating in a geographical sense (along linear streets, within architectures blocks, etc) generally preserve a relatively complete historical style and feature because of rooting in a same historical tradition. Based on it, we firstly tackle these plot data with cluster analysis, which produces a preliminary result of twelve sorts, and then disconnects or units certain sorts according to a further investigation of cultural homogeneity and neighboring natural scene. This modification reaches seven sorts, an ideal historical and culture planning model for Nanjing. Undoubtedly, extending from this successful case, we believe this method will also provide powerful references for historical city preservation plans of other cities.

  16. Gendered Discourse about Family Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danes, Sharon M.; Haberman, Heather R.; McTavish, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Language patterns of family business owners were explored by identifying discourse styles and emphasized ideas in four presenting contexts: business, family, intersection of family and business, and business success. The content analysis supports the existence of a general discourse style within family businesses and of similarities and…

  17. Narrative, Event-Structure Analysis, and Causal Interpretation in Historical Sociology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Larry J.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that recent developments in historical sociology emphasize the centrality of temporality to analysis and explanation. Illustrates how computer-assisted analysis of qualitative narrative can be used to develop generalizable causal interpretation of events. (CFR)

  18. Going South: Analysis of an Historic Project Engineering Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John H.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's successful conduct of the Apollo Program greatly enhanced the prestige of the United States and remains broadly accepted as America's gift to all Mankind. NASA's accomplishments continue to amaze the world. With the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) Americans once again tasked NASA to carry out a project that is expected to provide inspiration and economic stimulus to the United States and to the world. In preparation NASA has thoroughly examined space program precedents. There is, however, another precedent which has not been examined in this context but whose scope and environment in many ways parallel the VSE. This project was initiated by a team that had, ten years before, successfully completed an effort that, at a cost of $173 billion (in 2008 dollars), had pushed the envelope of technology, brought economic growth, established their country as the world leader in engineering, and been broadly accepted as that country's gift to all Mankind. The new project was again inspired by popular desire to enhance national prestige and make yet another major contribution to Humanity. This effort was predicted to require eight years and $156 billion (2008 dollars). However, after nine years and expenditures of 96% beyond the baseline, the project collapsed amid bankruptcy, political scandal, and criminal prosecution. This paper applies current project management metrics, such as earned value analysis, to review the strategic decisions in this historic failure and describe its ultimate collapse. Key mistakes are identified, and lessons are drawn which may prove useful in guiding the VSE.

  19. Analysis of Student-Instructor Interaction Patterns in Real-Time, Scientific Online Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epp, Erik M.; Green, Kellie F.; Rahman, Aliya M.; Weaver, Gabriela C.

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of the online environment alter how students and instructors interact. Scientific discourse among students and instructors in an online text-only synchronous environment was analyzed. In converting dialogue to text, many of the nonverbal cues, such as facial expression and tone of voice, which instructors use to gauge student…

  20. Pedagogising poverty alleviation: a discourse analysis of educational and social policies in Argentina and Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xavier Rambla; Antoni Veger

    2009-01-01

    For the past decades international organisations and governments have promoted and implemented analogous education policies on the grounds that education is the key factor to foster development and fight poverty. This article sets the context of these educational programmes and analyses their discourse on poverty in Argentina and Chile. Then, it shows how they institutionalise strict surveillance, institutional denigration of

  1. The Analysis of Classroom Discourse: Elementary School Science Curricula Advancing Reasoning with Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ilonca; Kloetzer, Birgit; Moeller, Kornelia; Sodian, Beate

    2010-01-01

    Students' ability to participate in scientific discourse and to appropriately use empirical evidence to support beliefs or conclusions has been consistently stated as a core goal of science education. In the present study, we analyzed the quality of scientific reasoning in elementary school science classrooms, using the Evidence-Based Reasoning…

  2. Performing Gender: A Discourse Analysis of Theatre-Based Sexual Violence Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Susan V.

    2006-01-01

    Among the numerous approaches that are employed to prevent sexual violence, the performance of scenarios has become one of the "promising practices" in U.S. postsecondary education. This article describes findings from a pilot study to analyze scripts used for theatre-based sexual violence prevention programs. Employing the method of discourse

  3. Literacy Models and the Reconstruction of History Education: A Comparative Discourse Analysis of Two Lesson Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin, Ross; Reich, Gabriel A.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents discourse analyses of two lesson plans designed for secondary school history classes. Although the plans focus on the same topic, they rely on different models of content area literacy: disciplinary literacy, or reading and writing like experts in a given domain, and critical literacy, or reading and writing to address…

  4. Gender identity and critical discourse analysis: a rhetorical study in Taiwanese female collegian athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Yi-Chien Chen

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore the Taiwanese female collegian athletes? gender discourse in the description of their gender identities. Sport, the field stresses strong physical characteristics traditionally belong to men, has been long considered the powerful sites in cultural context of masculine hegemony. Female athletes are required to build physical masculine characteristics in order to compete. How prominent masculine appearances

  5. Citizenship and citizenship education: a critical discourse analysis of the Zimbabwe Presidential Commission Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron T. Sigauke

    2011-01-01

    Educational discourse, like other fields, is not neutral. Through policy documents it has ideological functions of transmitting dominant cultures and serving certain sectional interest groups. In Zimbabwe 1998 was characterized by radical political discontent as witnessed by a rise in student activism and the formation of the main political opposition party. It is during this same year that a government

  6. Making Explicit the Analysis of Students' Mathematical Discourses--Revisiting a Newly Developed Methodological Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryve, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Sfard and Kieran [Kieran, C., Educational Studies in Mathematics 46, 2001, 187-228; Sfard, A., Educational Studies in Mathematics 46, 2001, 13-57; Sfard, A. and Kieran, C., Mind, Culture, and Activity 8, 2001, 42-76] have developed a methodological framework, which aims at characterizing the students' mathematical discourses while they are working…

  7. Semio-Pragmatic Analysis of Cartoons Discourse: A Step towards Semiotranslation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlBzour, Naser Naif

    2011-01-01

    The primary concern of this study is to explore the subtle implications of the "Semiotranslation Approach vis-a-vis" analyzing the semiotic elements of discourse in Jordanian cartoons as creative artistic texts in which various signs manifest simultaneous interaction, thus achieving both entertainment and purposeful satire. Therefore, the…

  8. Researching Writing Events: Using Mediated Discourse Analysis to Explore How Students Write Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rish, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses how mediated discourse theory and related analytical tools can be used to explore how students write together. Considered within a sociocultural framework that conceptualises writing as involving distributed, mediated and dialogic processes of invention, this article presents an investigation of how three high school…

  9. Earning One's Inheritance: Rhetorical Criticism, Everyday Talk, and the Analysis of Public Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Samuel

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes a transcribed speech in which an African American community member engaged a panel of school board officials on the topic of racial stereotypes in an elementary school science experiment. Concludes that the force of public discourse may reside less in a speaker's ability to persuade an audience than in an audience's willingness to recycle…

  10. (Un)Earthing a Vocabulary of Values: A Discourse Analysis for Ecocomposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author aims to propose an analytic method through which composition students and others might discover and understand the ecological complexities of prevailing environmental terminology that create "wicked problems." Through this method, students engage in "discursive ecology" by exploring the connections among discourse,…

  11. Citizenship and Citizenship Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Zimbabwe Presidential Commission Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigauke, Aaron T.

    2011-01-01

    Educational discourse, like other fields, is not neutral. Through policy documents it has ideological functions of transmitting dominant cultures and serving certain sectional interest groups. In Zimbabwe 1998 was characterized by radical political discontent as witnessed by a rise in student activism and the formation of the main political…

  12. Loose women or lost women? The re-emergence of the myth of white slavery in contemporary discourses of trafficking in women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jo Doezema

    1999-01-01

    This article compares current concerns about “trafficking in women” with turn of the century discourses about “white slavery.”\\u000a It traces the emergence of narratives on “white slavery” and their re-emergence in the moral panics and boundary crises of\\u000a contemporary discourses on “trafficking in women.” Drawing on historical analysis and contemporary representations of sex\\u000a worker migration, the paper argues that the

  13. HISTORICAL ANALYSIS, A VALUABLE TOOL IN COMMUNITY-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A historical analysis of the ecological consequences of development can be a valuable tool in community-based environmental protection. These studies can engage the public in environmental issues and lead to informed decision making. Historical studies provide an understanding of...

  14. Capitalizing on Synergies—A Discourse Analysis of the Process of Collaboration Among Providers of Integrative Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Andermo, Susanne; Sundberg, Tobias; Forsberg, Christina; Falkenberg, Torkel

    2015-01-01

    Background Integrative health care (IHC) combines therapies and providers from complementary and conventional health care. Previous studies on IHC have shown power relations between providers but few studies have explored how the interaction develops over time. The objective of this study was to explore the development of IHC collaboration and interaction among participating providers during a series of consensus case conferences for managing patients with back and neck pain. Methods This qualitative study was conducted within a pragmatic randomized controlled clinical trial in primary care. Patients' treatment plans were developed based on IHC provider consensus conferences (n = 26) of which 15 (5 of the first, 5 in the middle, and 5 of the last in the clinical trial) were selected for analysis. Findings were derived by means of discourse analysis, focusing on the participants’ use of subject positions during the conferences. Findings The IHC team in this study gradually formed a group identity, moving their subject positions from individual treating subjects to members of a team and were able to make consensus-based decisions about patients’ individual treatment plans. In the discourse, the IHC team identified collaborative shortcomings and problematized the provision of IHC. They were able to capitalize on the synergies in their collaboration and developed a shared vision of IHC provision. Conclusions The process of IHC collaboration involved the gradual formation of an IHC team identity, which facilitated interdisciplinary, non-hierarchical consensus-based decision-making in the team. The discourse further suggests that a reform of some legal and organizational health sector barriers might be needed to realize sustainable implementation of IHC services in Sweden. PMID:25793967

  15. The (Bio)politics of Engagement: Shifts in Singapore's Policy and Public Discourse on Civics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weninger, Csilla; Kho, Ee Moi

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a historical overview of civic educational policy and political discourse in Singapore from 1959 to 2011, focusing on changes in the role attributed to students in the education process. A review of educational programmes and analysis of political speeches reveals that an earlier transmissionist approach that focused on value…

  16. Applying Habermas’ Validity Claims as a Standard for Critical Discourse Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy Cukier; Robert Bauer; Catherine Middleton

    It has been proposed that the theory and practice of information systems development could benefit from a more explicit consideration\\u000a of concepts of rationality. Habermas’ communicative rationality has been proposed as an approach to improve the conditions\\u000a for rational discourse in systems development, thereby improving outcomes (Klein and Hirschheim 1991), and applied at the\\u000a project level (Ulrich 2001) and to

  17. CRITICAL POSTLIBERALISM: CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS AS THE BASIS FOR NEW THEOLOGY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noel Heather

    2005-01-01

    A new avenue for theology has been formed by combining the postliberal view of religion (the cultural-linguistic system of the believing community) with the perspectives of CDA, leading to critical postliberalism (CP). CDA-focused research has revealed the existence of a basic (R1–R2) dialectic, and of two opposing social cognitions, within the discourse of UK church life. At an ecclesial level

  18. Choice and compassion at the end of life: A critical analysis of recent English policy discourse.

    PubMed

    Borgstrom, Erica; Walter, Tony

    2015-07-01

    End of life care in England has recently been framed by two very different discourses. One (connected to advance care planning) promotes personal choice, the other promotes compassionate care; both are prominent in professional, policy and media settings. The article outlines the history of who promoted each discourse from 2008 to early 2015, when, why and how and this was done. Each discourse is then critically analysed from a standpoint that takes account of bodily decline, structural constraints, and human relationality. We focus on the biggest group of those nearing the end of their life, namely frail very old people suffering multiple conditions. In their care within contemporary healthcare organisations, choice becomes a tick box and compassion a commodity. Informed choice, whether at the end of life or in advance of it, does not guarantee the death the person wants, especially for those dying of conditions other than cancer and in the absence of universally available skilled and compassionate care. Enabling healthcare staff to provide compassionate, relational care, however, implies reversing the philosophical, political and financial direction of healthcare in the UK and most other Anglophone countries. PMID:25989003

  19. The Critical Policy Discourse Analysis Frame: Helping Doctoral Students Engage with the Educational Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses an issue of increasing significance in the context of taught educational doctorates and argues that this may have wider applicability for doctoral students across a range of social science disciplines. It identifies the need to engage with policy analysis as a key element of such programmes and attempts to address…

  20. The Historical Development of Affirmative Action: An Aggregated Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhouse, Shawn

    2002-01-01

    Reconstructs the development of equal employment opportunities for African Americans after the Civil War, recapitulating historical accounts of the integration of African Americans into mainstream society, beginning with the Civil War and including legal precedents such as Brown v. Board of Education. Racial discrimination in employment was…

  1. Discourse as Social Interaction. Discourse Studies: A Multidisciplinary Introduction. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dijk, Teun A., Ed.

    The collection of essays on discourse as a form of social interaction includes: "Discourse as Interaction in Society" (Teun A. van Dijk); "Discourse Pragmatics" (Shoshana Blum-Kulka); "Conversation Analysis: An Approach to the Study of Social Action as Sense Making Practices" (Anita Pomerantz, B. J. Fehr); "Institutional Dialogue" (Paul Drew,…

  2. Multifractal analysis for the historic set in topological dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaoyao; Chen, Ercai

    2013-07-01

    In this paper the historic set is divided into different level sets and we use topological pressure to describe the size of these level sets. We give an application of these results to dimension theory. Our primary focus is using topological pressure to describe the relative multifractal spectrum of ergodic averages and to give a positive answer to the conjecture posed by Olsen (2003 J. Math. Pures Appl. 82 1591-649).

  3. Flood frequency analysis - the challenge of using historical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engeland, Kolbjorn

    2015-04-01

    Estimates of high flood quantiles are needed for many applications, .e.g. dam safety assessments are based on the 1000 years flood, whereas the dimensioning of important infrastructure requires estimates of the 200 year flood. The flood quantiles are estimated by fitting a parametric distribution to a dataset of high flows comprising either annual maximum values or peaks over a selected threshold. Since the record length of data is limited compared to the desired flood quantile, the estimated flood magnitudes are based on a high degree of extrapolation. E.g. the longest time series available in Norway are around 120 years, and as a result any estimation of a 1000 years flood will require extrapolation. One solution is to extend the temporal dimension of a data series by including information about historical floods before the stream flow was systematically gaugeded. Such information could be flood marks or written documentation about flood events. The aim of this study was to evaluate the added value of using historical flood data for at-site flood frequency estimation. The historical floods were included in two ways by assuming: (1) the size of (all) floods above a high threshold within a time interval is known; and (2) the number of floods above a high threshold for a time interval is known. We used a Bayesian model formulation, with MCMC used for model estimation. This estimation procedure allowed us to estimate the predictive uncertainty of flood quantiles (i.e. both sampling and parameter uncertainty is accounted for). We tested the methods using 123 years of systematic data from Bulken in western Norway. In 2014 the largest flood in the systematic record was observed. From written documentation and flood marks we had information from three severe floods in the 18th century and they were likely to exceed the 2014 flood. We evaluated the added value in two ways. First we used the 123 year long streamflow time series and investigated the effect of having several shorter series' which could be supplemented with a limited number of known large flood events. Then we used the three historical floods from the 18th century combined with the whole and subsets of the 123 years of systematic observations. In the latter case several challenges were identified: i) The possibility to transfer water levels to river streamflows due to man made changes in the river profile, (ii) The stationarity of the data might be questioned since the three largest historical floods occurred during the "little ice age" with different climatic conditions compared to today.

  4. AMETHODOLOGY OF ANALYSIS FOR A CRITIQUE INTERPRETATION OF THE DATAACQUIRED FROM MONITORING SYSTEM OF HISTORICAL BUILDINGS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    AMETHODOLOGY OF ANALYSIS FOR A CRITIQUE INTERPRETATION OF THE DATAACQUIRED FROM MONITORING SYSTEM. KEYWORDS : structural health monitoring, data analysis, reference quantities, historic buildings of the cultural heritage of any country. The need to carry out structural analysis with non-destructive methods

  5. Preserving Respectability or Blatant Disrespect? A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Morehouse Appropriate Attire Policy and Implications for Intersectional Approaches to Examining Campus Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Lori D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I conduct a critical discourse analysis of the Morehouse College Appropriate Attire Policy and discuss how issues of race, gender, and sexuality converge to reveal both overt and hidden meanings embedded in the policy. I also consider how power is used towards "other" black college men who neither fit neatly into…

  6. In the shadow of a new smoke free policy: A discourse analysis of health care providers' engagement in tobacco control in community mental health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joy L. Johnson; Barbara M. Moffat; Leslie A. Malchy

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of tobacco use among individuals with mental illness remains a serious public health concern. Tobacco control has received little attention in community mental health despite the fact that many individuals with mental illness are heavy smokers and experience undue tobacco-related health consequences. METHODS: This qualitative study used methods of discourse analysis to examine the perceptions of health

  7. Uncertainty Analysis of Historic Water Resources Availability in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, A.; Arsenault, K. R.; Narapusetty, B.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    Seeing how current agrometerological conditions measure up to historic events helps analysts and decision-makers judge the potential impact that anomalous rainfall and temperatures will have on the availability and accessibility of food and water resources. We present results from the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS), which is used to produce multi-model and rainfall ensembles of the water balance over semi-arid Africa from 1982-2014. The ensemble approach allows us to assess confidence in our estimates, which is critical given that food and water insecure regions in Africa are data-poor are characterized by complex interactions and feedbacks that cause deterministic hydrologic modeling approaches to fall short. We then use the ensemble of water balance estimates to calculate drought severity (derived from modeled soil moisture), and the Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (a function of atmospheric water demand). We compare these indices to the GIMMS 30-year vegetation data product from AVHRR, and the ESA ECV 30 year microwave soil moisture. These historical time series (with confidence bounds) allow us to improve our quantitative understanding of drought thresholds, to explore sources of parameter and model uncertainty, and to better contextualize current operational drought monitoring efforts in Africa.

  8. SI Engine Trends: A Historical Analysis with Future Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlowski, Alexander [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Splitter, Derek A [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that spark ignited engine performance and efficiency is closely coupled to fuel octane number. The present work combines historical and recent trends in spark ignition engines to build a database of engine design, performance, and fuel octane requirements over the past 80 years. The database consists of engine compression ratio, required fuel octane number, peak mean effective pressure, specific output, and combined unadjusted fuel economy for passenger vehicles and light trucks. Recent trends in engine performance, efficiency, and fuel octane number requirement were used to develop correlations of fuel octane number utilization, performance, specific output. The results show that historically, engine compression ratio and specific output have been strongly coupled to fuel octane number. However, over the last 15 years the sales weighted averages of compression ratios, specific output, and fuel economy have increased, while the fuel octane number requirement has remained largely unchanged. Using the developed correlations, 10-year-out projections of engine performance, design, and fuel economy are estimated for various fuel octane numbers, both with and without turbocharging. The 10-year-out projection shows that only by keeping power neutral while using 105 RON fuel will allow the vehicle fleet to meet CAFE targets if only the engine is relied upon to decrease fuel consumption. If 98 RON fuel is used, a power neutral fleet will have to reduce vehicle weight by 5%.

  9. Analysis of Student-Instructor Interaction Patterns in Real-Time, Scientific Online Discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epp, Erik M.; Green, Kellie F.; Rahman, Aliya M.; Weaver, Gabriela C.

    2010-02-01

    The characteristics of the online environment alter how students and instructors interact. Scientific discourse among students and instructors in an online text-only synchronous environment was analyzed. In converting dialogue to text, many of the nonverbal cues, such as facial expression and tone of voice, which instructors use to gauge student understanding are lost. The participants adapt their communication style to the medium, and we present a new interaction pattern for student-instructor communication found prevalent in the synchronous, text-only, online environment. This study has implications for instructors who use synchronous, text-based communication for their courses, namely the value of posing additional questions from the instructor to verify student understanding.

  10. Collateral Damage: An Analysis of the Achievements and Unintended Consequences of Batterer Intervention Programs and Discourse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric S. Mankowski; Janice Haaken; Courtenay S. Silvergleid

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews and critiques two prevailing program models for batterer intervention in order to highlight both their valuable achievements and attendant costs and consequences. We analyze these batterer intervention program models at 3 levels. First, we describe the historical development and basic program components of the intervention models. Second, we trace differences in the models to their grounding in

  11. Reporting the Rhetoric, Implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as Represented in Ireland's Second Report to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiersey, Rachel A.; Hayes, Noirin

    2010-01-01

    Ireland's second periodic report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) presents the government's case that it is succeeding in protecting and promoting the rights of all children in Ireland. This article presents a critical discourse analysis of the government's Report to the CRC. Using a refined critical discourse

  12. A Community-Based Treatment for Native American Historical Trauma: Prospects for Evidence-Based Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph P. Gone

    2009-01-01

    Nineteen staff and clients in a Native American healing lodge were interviewed regarding the therapeutic approach used to address the legacy of Native American historical trauma. On the basis of thematic content analysis of interviews, 4 components of healing discourse emerged. First, clients were understood by their counselors to carry pain, leading to adult dysfunction, including substance abuse. Second, counselors

  13. A quantitative and qualitative historical analysis of the scientific discipline of agroecology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Wezel; V. Soldat

    2009-01-01

    At present, agroecology can be interpreted as a scientific discipline, as a movement or as a practice. In this paper we analyse the historical evolution of the scientific discipline of agroecology with a quantitative bibliometric analysis of 711 publications using the term agroecology and the derived term agroecological, as well as a qualitative analysis of definitions, topics and scales, where

  14. Spatially resolved element analysis of historical violin varnishes by use of muPIXE.

    PubMed

    von Bohlen, Alex; Röhrs, Stefan; Salomon, Joseph

    2007-02-01

    External muPIXE has been used for characterisation of small samples of varnish from historical violins, and pieces of varnished wood from historical and modern stringed instruments. To obtain spatially resolved information about the distribution of elements across the varnish layers single-spot analysis, line-scans, and area-mapping were performed. Local resolution of approximately 20 mum was obtained from the 3 MeV, 1 nA proton micro-probe. Results from simultaneous multi-element determination of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Sn, Ba, and Pb in historical varnishes are presented. Semi-quantitative evaluation of line-scans recorded on diverse historical varnishes is reported. The applied method is discussed in detail and the results obtained are critically reviewed and compared with those in the literature. PMID:17047941

  15. Data fusion of ultrasound and GPR signals for analysis of historic walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, A.; Gosalbez, J.; Safont, G.; Vergara, L.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents an application of ultrasounds and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) for analysis of historic walls. The objectives are to characterize the deformation of a historic wall under different levels of load weights and to obtain an enhanced image of the wall. A new method that fuses data from ultrasound and GPR traces is proposed which is based on order statistics digital filters. Application results are presented for non destructive testing (NDT) of two replicates of historic ashlars' masonry walls: the first one homogeneous and the second one containing controlled defects such as cracks and nooks. The walls are measured separately using ultrasounds and GPR at different load steps. Time and frequency parameters extracted from the signals and different B-Scans for each of the NDT techniques are obtained. After this, a new fused representation is obtained, which results demonstrate the improvement of characterization and defect detection in historic walls using data fusion.

  16. The cultural politics of national testing and test result release policy in South Korea: a critical discourse analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youl-Kwan Sung; Mi Ok Kang

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the ideological construction of educational discourses embedded within the South Korean print media. Significantly, these discourses have recently promoted the resurrection of a sweeping national testing and test results release policy. Through careful examination of the “test plus release” policy, the authors show how the government has achieved hegemonic power by shaping public opinion through the national

  17. The Cultural Politics of National Testing and Test Result Release Policy in South Korea: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Youl-Kwan; Kang, Mi Ok

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the ideological construction of educational discourses embedded within the South Korean print media. Significantly, these discourses have recently promoted the resurrection of a sweeping national testing and test results release policy. Through careful examination of the "test plus release" policy, the authors show how the…

  18. An Analysis of Discourse-Pragmatic and Grammatical Constraints on the Acquisition and Development of Referential Choice in Child English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates how discourse-pragmatics informs children's choice of referential forms. Three studies utilizing naturalistic data examine the role that six discourse-pragmatic features play in the acquisition of referential forms in a non-null subject language, English. The influence of child-directed speech on development is also…

  19. Islam Hadhari: An Ideological Discourse Analysis of Selected Speeches by UMNO President and Malaysia Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahaya, Azlan R.

    2012-01-01

    This research study explored the problem the Malay identity and society in the discourse of Malay politics. The purpose of this study was to understand how the discourse of Islam "Hadhari" as spoken by prime minister and UMNO president Abdullah Ahmad Badawi in the years 2004-2008 demonstrated the hegemony of his administration and party.…

  20. Ground truth model, tool, and dataset for layout analysis of historical documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kai; Seuret, Mathias; Wei, Hao; Liwicki, Marcus; Hennebert, Jean; Ingold, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new dataset and a ground-truthing methodology for layout analysis of historical documents with complex layouts. The dataset is based on a generic model for ground-truth presentation of the complex layout structure of historical documents. For the purpose of extracting uniformly the document contents, our model defines five types of regions of interest: page, text block, text line, decoration, and comment. Unconstrained polygons are used to outline the regions. A performance metric is proposed in order to evaluate various page segmentation methods based on this model. We have analysed four state-of-the-art ground-truthing tools: TRUVIZ, GEDI, WebGT, and Aletheia. From this analysis, we conceptualized and developed Divadia, a new tool that overcomes some of the drawbacks of these tools, targeting the simplicity and the efficiency of the layout ground truthing process on historical document images. With Divadia, we have created a new public dataset. This dataset contains 120 pages from three historical document image collections of different styles and is made freely available to the scientific community for historical document layout analysis research.

  1. The "Islamic" in Islamic Education: Assessing the Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panjwani, Farid

    2004-01-01

    The paper assesses the dominant discourse on Islam and education that argues for an education derived from an exclusively "Islamic" vision. In addition to exploring the historical roots of this discourse, the paper analyses it with respect to its (i) arguments for an Islamic vision of education, (ii) conception of Islam, and (iii) proposals for…

  2. A causal analysis relating previous achievement, attitudes, discourse, and intervention to achievement in biology and chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooding, C. Thomas; Swift, J. Nathan; Schell, Robert E.; Swift, Patricia R.; McCroskery, James H.

    This study described the relationship of 38 variates to achievement in high school biology and chemistry classes. Forty-four teachers prepared audio tape recordings of discussions throughout a nine-month period. Equal-sized groups received treatment consisting of wait time feedback and/or supportive intervention, a form of peer coaching. Other variables were initial measures, which included the variates of class size and previous science grade, pre- and posttest scores on student attitudes and perceptions, and prediscourse and discourse analyses, which included the variates of wait times, actions, and response durations. While previous research has shown that wait time feedback and supportive intervention are effective means of changing teacher behavior, the results of the present study revealed that previous student achievement and the attitudes of students accounted for 70% of the variation in the final examination scores (New York State Regents) on the basis of only the first three weeks of data collection on the variables assessed. Generally, little emphasis on higher-level thinking, wait time, or problem solving was found at the beginning of the school year, and only minimal changes resulted from the application of the treatment variables. Pressures for content coverage and preparation for externally imposed statewide examinations that emphasize memory-level learning augured against the changes that the independent variables were designed to produce.

  3. Application of thermal analysis in preservation and restoration of historic masonry materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denis A. Brosnan; John P. Sanders; Stephanie A. Hart

    Thermal analysis techniques have been used in characterizing building materials from significant historic properties in the\\u000a Charleston, South Carolina area. Determining the chemical and physical effects of deterioration resulting from long periods\\u000a of exposure is a first step in formulating preservation strategies. In this regard, simultaneous thermal analysis coupled\\u000a with evolved gas analysis has been used to study reactions between

  4. Getting behind Discourses of Love, Care and Maternalism in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslanian, Teresa K.

    2015-01-01

    Discourses of love, care and maternalism affect the everyday lives of children enrolled in early childhood education. These discourses bear witness to the ontological transformation that has occurred since the Romantic era that birthed the kindergarten movement to today. Reflecting on historical discourses of love, care and maternalism from the…

  5. Improvements to NOAA's Historical Merged LandOcean Surface Temperature Analysis (18802006)

    E-print Network

    Improvements to NOAA's Historical Merged Land­Ocean Surface Temperature Analysis (1880­2006) THOMAS M. SMITH NOAA/NESDIS/STAR/SCSD, and CICS/ESSIC, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park Observations of sea surface and land­near-surface merged temperature anomalies are used to monitor climate

  6. An Historical and Developmental Analysis of Social Model Programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1998-01-01

    This review synthesizes the philosophy, development, history, and current status of the philosophy of social or community model of recovery and of Social Model Programs (SMPs) based on an analysis of the available literature, much of it outside traditional sources. The social-community model of recovery evolved out of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), and has a distinctive program philosophy with different assumptions,

  7. Networks, narratives and territory in anthropological race classification: towards a more comprehensive historical geography of Europe's culture.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to integrate discourse analysis of politically instrumental imagined identity geographies with the relational and territorial geography of the communities of praxis and interpretation that produce them. My case study is the international community of nationalist scientists who classified Europe's biological races in the 1820s-1940s. I draw on network analysis, relational geography, historical sociology and the historical turn to problematize empirically how spatial patterns of this community's shifting disciplinary and political coalitions, communication networks and power relations emerged, were structured, persisted, changed, interacted and disappeared. I focus especially on core-periphery relations. I argue that if local historical spatial patterns affect those of later phenomena, geographies like that of European integration should be understood in the context of Europe's complex historical cultural geography. Unlike discourse deconstruction alone, this complementary relational de-essentialization of geography can identify large-scale, enduring associations of cultural patterns as well as cultural flux and ambiguity. PMID:21488429

  8. Historical development of expertise in forensic chemical analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Vycudilik

    2000-01-01

    The history of forensic chemical analysis shows a development from the mere quotation of a concentration value to an expert\\u000a opinion which helps to explain manifold circumstances of the case under consideration. The development of forensic expertises\\u000a on chemical problems connected to forensic medicine reveals two essential stages: 1. A period, when sensual perceptions were\\u000a the only means of investigation

  9. Historical analysis of US pipeline accidents triggered by natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girgin, Serkan; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, or lightning, can initiate accidents in oil and gas pipelines with potentially major consequences on the population or the environment due to toxic releases, fires and explosions. Accidents of this type are also referred to as Natech events. Many major accidents highlight the risk associated with natural-hazard impact on pipelines transporting dangerous substances. For instance, in the USA in 1994, flooding of the San Jacinto River caused the rupture of 8 and the undermining of 29 pipelines by the floodwaters. About 5.5 million litres of petroleum and related products were spilled into the river and ignited. As a results, 547 people were injured and significant environmental damage occurred. Post-incident analysis is a valuable tool for better understanding the causes, dynamics and impacts of pipeline Natech accidents in support of future accident prevention and mitigation. Therefore, data on onshore hazardous-liquid pipeline accidents collected by the US Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) was analysed. For this purpose, a database-driven incident data analysis system was developed to aid the rapid review and categorization of PHMSA incident reports. Using an automated data-mining process followed by a peer review of the incident records and supported by natural hazard databases and external information sources, the pipeline Natechs were identified. As a by-product of the data-collection process, the database now includes over 800,000 incidents from all causes in industrial and transportation activities, which are automatically classified in the same way as the PHMSA record. This presentation describes the data collection and reviewing steps conducted during the study, provides information on the developed database and data analysis tools, and reports the findings of a statistical analysis of the identified hazardous liquid pipeline incidents in terms of accident dynamics and consequences.

  10. Historical land use and soil analysis guiding corridor landscape design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Renee Keydoszius; S. Knight Cox; Mary B. Haque; Elena Mikhailova; Christopher J. Post; William C. Stringer; Mark A. Schlautman

    2007-01-01

    Changing land use from forested environments to agricultural and\\/or urban spaces dramatically alters soil chemical, physical,\\u000a and biological properties and thereby influences the survivability of landscape plants installed in these areas. This site\\u000a analysis was conducted along New Hope Road, in Pickens County, SC, to develop a sustainable landscape design for the greenway\\u000a corridor to buffer future cuttings of pines

  11. Model Criteria for and Content Analysis of Historical Fiction about the Holocaust for Grades Four through Twelve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muallem, Miriam; Dowd, Frances A.

    1992-01-01

    Establishes components of high-quality books about the Holocaust for children and young adults. Uses these criteria in a content analysis of six historical novels about the Holocaust. Highlights setting, viewpoint, characterization, plot, style, theme, special features, and author. These criteria can be a model for future analysis of historical

  12. Livelihood security, vulnerability and resilience: a historical analysis of Chibuene, southern Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Ekblom, Anneli

    2012-07-01

    A sustainable livelihood framework is used to analyse livelihood security, vulnerability and resilience in the village of Chibuene, Vilanculos, southern Mozambique from a historical and contemporary perspective. Interviews, assessments, archaeology, palaeoecology and written sources are used to address tangible and intangible aspects of livelihood security. The analysis shows that livelihood strategies for building resilience, diversification of resource use, social networks and trade, have long historical continuities. Vulnerability is contingent on historical processes as long-term socio-environmental insecurity and resultant biodiversity loss. These contingencies affect the social capacity to cope with vulnerability in the present. The study concludes that contingency and the extent and strength of social networks should be added as a factor in livelihood assessments. Furthermore, policies for mitigating vulnerability must build on the reality of environmental insecurity, and strengthen local structures that diversify and spread risk. PMID:22544636

  13. Can historic neighborhoods compete? Analysis of and recommendations for local incentives for owner-occupied historic housing 

    E-print Network

    Rowe, Rebecca Elizabeth

    2005-02-17

    This research study sets out to determine what incentives and programs are being utilized throughout the country and in Texas to keep historic residential neighborhoods maintained and vibrant. For this purpose, federal, ...

  14. What does brand mean? historical-analysis method and construct definition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara B. Stern

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the meaning of the term brand means by presenting a method of historical analysis and construct definition\\u000a based on information in theOxford English Dictionary. The method’s use is demonstrated in an analysis of the original meanings that underlie the term’s usage both as a single\\u000a word and in compounds such as brand competition, brand personality, brand reputation,

  15. Multidimensional interaction analysis: A collaborative approach to the study of medical discourse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rita Charon; Michele G. Greene; Ronald D. Adelman

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the conceptual frameworks of several research approaches to the study of medical interactions. Two methods are discussed: process analysis and microanalysis. Adapted from Robert Bales's study of the behavior of small groups, process analysis sorts and tallies such interviewing processes as questioning and informing, achieving analysis of large numbers of interviews at the expense of attention to

  16. Aims, Modes, and the Continuum of Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Walter H.

    A framework for the study of discourse, based on the analysis of three superordinate features of discourse (asymmetry, hierarchy, and continuum), is proposed in this paper. The paper begins by noting the confusion in terminology that exists in the world of composition pedagogy and theory; pointing to the need for a framework for testing,…

  17. Corporate Discourse and the Academy: A Polemic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Gary

    2003-01-01

    Critical analysis of vocabulary, imagery, and rhetoric in business texts shows that higher education is adopting a free-market discourse depicting the academy in terms of a knowledge industry or revenue generator in which intellectual resources are "leveraged" and knowledge is a "commodity." This discourse is characterized as management centered,…

  18. Monitoring of historical frescoes by timed infrared imaging analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadelano, G.; Bison, P.; Bortolin, A.; Ferrarini, G.; Peron, F.; Girotto, M.; Volinia, M.

    2015-03-01

    The subflorescence and efflorescence phenomena are widely acknowledged as the major causes of permanent damage to fresco wall paintings. They are related to the occurrence of cycles of dry/wet conditions inside the walls. Therefore, it is essential to identify the presence of water on the decorated surfaces and inside the walls. Nondestructive testing in industrial applications have confirmed that active infrared thermography with continuous timed images acquisition can improve the outcomes of thermal analysis aimed to moisture identification. In spite of that, in cultural heritage investigations these techniques have not been yet used extensively on a regular basis. This paper illustrates an application of these principles in order to evaluate the decay of fresco mural paintings in a medieval chapel located in North-West of Italy. One important feature of this study is the use of a robotic system called aIRview that can be utilized to automatically acquire and process thermal images. Multiple accurate thermal views of the inside walls of the building have been produced in a survey that lasted several days. Signal processing algorithms based on Fast Fourier Transform analysis have been applied to the acquired data in order to formulate trustworthy hypotheses about the deterioration mechanisms.

  19. Persuasive Discourse Impairments in Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ghayoumi, Zahra; Yadegari, Fariba; Mahmoodi-Bakhtiari, Behrooz; Fakharian, Esmaeil; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Rasouli, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considering the cognitive and linguistic complexity of discourse production, it is expected that individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) should face difficulties in this task. Therefore, clinical examination of discourse has become a useful tool for studying and assessment of communication skills of people suffering from TBI. Among different genres of discourse, persuasive discourse is considered as a more cognitively demanding task. However, little is known about persuasive discourse in individuals suffering from TBI. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of adults with TBI on a task of spoken persuasive discourse to determine the impaired linguistic measures. Patients and Methods: Thirteen TBI nonaphasic Persian speaking individuals, ranged between 19 to 40 years (Mean = 25.64 years; SD = 6.10) and 59 healthy adults matched by age, were asked to perform the persuasive discourse task. The task included asking the participants to express their opinion on a topic, and after the analysis of the produced discourse, the two groups were compared on the basis of their language productivity, sentential complexity, maze ratio and cohesion ratio. Results: The TBI group produced discourses with less productivity, sentential complexity, cohesion ratio and more maze ratio compared the control group. Conclusions: As it is important to consider acquired communication disorders particularly discourse impairment of brain injured patients along with their other clinical impairments and regarding the fact that persuasive discourse is crucial in academic and social situations, the persuasive discourse task presented in this study could be a useful tool for speech therapists, intending to evaluate communication disorders in patients with TBI. PMID:25798418

  20. Finding the WRITE Stuff: Automatic Identification of Discourse Structure in Student Essays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill Burstein; Daniel Marcu; Kevin Knight

    2003-01-01

    An essay-based discourse analysis system can help students improve their writing by identifying relevant essay-based discourse elements in their essays. Our discourse analysis software, which is embedded in Criterion, an online essay evaluation application, uses machine learning to identify discourse elements in student essays. The system makes decisions that exemplify how teachers perform this task. For instance, when grading student

  1. Exploring the interplay of gender, discourse, and (im)politeness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chit Cheung Matthew Sung

    2012-01-01

    Drawing upon the method of discourse analysis, this article explores the complex relationship between gender, discourse, and (im)politeness. By examining an extended excerpt of interaction taken from the popular US reality TV show The Apprentice, I examine the role of gender stereotyping and gender assumptions in the assessment of (im)politeness by the discourse participants. Following Mills (2002), I shall argue

  2. Response-Comment Elements in Yorùbá Conversational Discourse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adeleke A. Fakoya

    The application of discourse analysis to Yorùbá discourse is expected to add a new perspective to the understanding of the language and its usage in context, and also give the learner or analyst new tools with which to cater for certain pragmatic as well as discourse needs. Since the central aim of much language use is understanding or communication, then

  3. An Integrated 3S and Historical Materials Analysis of the Keriya Paleoriver, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Lei; Wang, Xinyuan; Cai, Heng

    2014-03-01

    Combining analysis of 3S (RS, GIS and GPS) and historical materials (historical records, ancient map and academic and literary writings) allows mapping of the Keriya Paleoriver of Southern Xinjiang, NW China. Keriya Paleoriver, one of the ancient Four Green Corridors which passes through the Taklimakan Desert from south to north in the Tarim Basin, recorded changes of the climate-environment in the ancient Silk Road of the region. According to the archaeological data, historical materials and paleoclimates information, its eco-environment and climate have had great changes since the 1.09Ma B.P., especially during the last 2,000 years, which has led to many famous ancient cities to be abandoned and the route of the ancient Silk Road to be moved southward. Using RS (optical and radar imagery), GIS (mapping and spatial analysis) and GPS (study area investigation), we mapped a major paleodrainage system of Keriya River, which have linked the Kunlun Mountains to the Tienshan Mountains through the Taklimakan Desert, possibly as far back as the early Pleistocene. This study illustrates the capability of the 3S and historical materials, in mapping the Keriya Paleoriver drainage networks and archaeological study on the ancient Silk Road.

  4. A Historical Analysis of Desegregation and Racism in a Racially Polarized Region: Implications for the Historical Construct, a Diversity Problem, and Transforming Teacher Education toward Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, K. Dara

    2009-01-01

    This study chronicles the historical divisions of race and class between Detroit and its suburban neighbor as an explanation for current tensions in the communities and schools. This analysis poses implications for educational apartheid and stark disparities between urban and suburban boundaries and consequent discomfort among practitioners when…

  5. The Making of Paranormal Belief: History, Discourse Analysis and the Object of Belief 

    E-print Network

    White, Lewis

    2013-05-24

    The present study comprises a discursive analysis of a cognitive phenomenon, paranormal beliefs. A discursive psychological approach to belief highlights that an important component of the cognitivist work has been how the object of paranormal...

  6. submitted to Special Issue on Analysis of Historical Documents, International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition, Springer, 2006.

    E-print Network

    Kedem, Klara

    such as document structure extraction, printed character or handwriting recognition. Many techniques have been Analysis and Recognition, Springer, 2006. Text Line Segmentation of Historical Documents: a Survey Laurence of this paper is to present a survey of existing methods, developed during the last decade, and dedicated

  7. Introduction: Morality in Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergmann, Jorg R.

    1998-01-01

    Introduces a special issue containing a series of articles on the relation of social interaction and morality. The articles analyze actual instances of moral discourse, elucidating the nature and dynamics of the relationship. This introduction discusses morality, discourse, and social science; proto-mortality as a substructure of discourse;…

  8. Higher Education Financial Perspective amidst Crisis: A Historical Analysis of Public Opinion through Social Media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Varun Vasudeo; Kathleen K King

    2011-01-01

    Student: Varun Vasudeo\\u000aFaculty Sponsor: Dr Kathleen P King, Professor, Higher Education, COE, ACHE Department\\u000a \\u000aAbstract\\u000aTitle- Higher Education Financial Perspective amidst Crisis: A Historical Analysis of Public Opinion through Social Media\\u000aPurpose - To identify, collect and analyze a higher education trend in images by collecting results from different search engines and graphing the trend due to economic recession

  9. An objective change-point analysis of historical Atlantic hurricane numbers

    E-print Network

    Jewson, S; Jewson, Stephen; Penzer, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    We perform an objective change-point analysis on 106 years of historical hurricane number data. The algorithm we use looks at all possible combinations of change-points and compares them in terms of the variances of the differences between real and modelled numbers. Overfitting is avoided by using cross-validation. We identify four change-points, and show that the presence of temporal structure in the hurricane number time series is highly statistically significant.

  10. Analysis of natural red dyes (cochineal) in textiles of historical importance using HPLC and multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Ana; Sousa, Micaela M; Hallett, Jessica; Lopes, João A; Oliveira, M Conceição

    2011-08-01

    A new analytical approach based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and multivariate data analysis was applied and assessed for analyzing the red dye extracted from cochineal insects, used in precious historical textiles. The most widely used method of analysis involves quantification of specific minor compounds (markers), using HPLC-DAD. However, variation in the cochineal markers concentration, use of aggressive dye extraction methods and poor resolution of HPLC chromatograms can compromise the identification of the precise insect species used in the textiles. In this study, a soft extraction method combined with a new dye recovery treatment was developed, capable of yielding HPLC chromatograms with good resolution, for the first time, for historical cochineal-dyed textiles. After principal components analysis (PCA) and mass spectrometry (MS), it was possible to identify the cochineal species used in these textiles, in contrast to the accepted method of analysis. In order to compare both methodologies, 7 cochineal species and 63 historical cochineal insect specimens were analyzed using the two approaches, and then compared with the results for 15 historical textiles in order to assess their applicability to real complex samples. The methodology developed here was shown to provide more accurate and consistent information than the traditional method. Almost all of the historical textiles were dyed with Porphyrophora sp. insects. These results emphasize the importance of adopting the proposed methodology for future research on cochineal (and related red dyes). Mild extraction methods and HPLC-DAD/MS(n) analysis yield distinctive profiles, which, in combination with a PCA reference database, are a powerful tool for identifying red insect dyes. PMID:21626194

  11. Analysis of Classroom Discourse and Instructor's Awareness of Speech in a Spanish College Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rondon-Pari, Graziela

    2011-01-01

    This is an instrumental case study and consists of the description, analysis and interpretation of the teaching practices of a Spanish college instructor. The aim of this research project is to find answers to the following questions: What is the ratio of L1-L2 spoken in class? For what functions is each language used? And, are there…

  12. The Main Concept Analysis in Cantonese Aphasic Oral Discourse: External Validation and Monitoring Chronic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The 1st aim of this study was to further establish the external validity of the main concept (MC) analysis by examining its relationship with the Cantonese Linguistic Communication Measure (CLCM; Kong, 2006; Kong & Law, 2004)--an established quantitative system for narrative production--and the Cantonese version of the Western Aphasia…

  13. Cowboy and misanthrope: a critical (discourse) analysis of Bush and bin Laden cartoons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bahaa-Eddin M. Mazid

    2008-01-01

    The article investigates the political cartoon construction of two major `players' on the contemporary political stage, and the semio-linguistic and visual rhetorical tools used to achieve this construction, through an analysis of semiotic-discursive aspects of a small corpus of political cartoons in English and Arabic, all about the two `players' — George W. Bush and Osama bin Laden — in

  14. Racism in the News: A Critical Discourse Analysis of News Reporting in Two Australian Newspapers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER TEO

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study is to probe for ideological construction of racism imbricated within the structure of newspaper reporting. The study focuses on news reports relating to a Vietnamese gang in Australia whose violent and drug-dealing activities have received publicity in two Sydney-based newspapers: The Sydney Morning Herald and The Daily Telegraph. The analysis of these reports adheres to

  15. Wildlife-Based Recreation as Economic Windfall: A Rhetorical Analysis of Public Discourse on Birding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Steven G.; Cable, Ted T.; Scott, David

    2010-01-01

    Symbolic convergence theory posits that groups of like-minded people use linguistic symbols to construct a shared reality and form rhetorical visions (ways of viewing and communicating about an issue). To see how rhetorical visions might help shape public tourism policy, the authors used fantasy theme analysis to examine 206 Kansas newspaper…

  16. Analyzing the Cohesion of English Text and Discourse with Automated Computer Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Moongee

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the lexical and discourse features of English text and discourse with automated computer technologies. Specifically, this article examines the cohesion of English text and discourse with automated computer tools, Coh-Metrix and TEES. Coh-Metrix is a text analysis computer tool that can analyze English text and discourse

  17. Quantitative characterisation of historic paper using THz spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trafela, Tanja; Mizuno, Maya; Fukunaga, Kaori; Strli?, Matija

    2013-04-01

    THz spectroscopy in the time domain was explored in combination with multivariate data analysis, for quantitative determination of chemical and mechanical properties of historic paper, such as lignin content, tensile strength, and ash content. Using partial least squares (PLS) regression, it was shown that quantitative prediction of the material properties is possible, which indicates the potential of THz spectroscopy for chemical characterisation of complex organic materials of natural origin. In addition, the results demonstrate that THz spectra and PLS loading weights for lignin content differ significantly, which leads to the conclusion that THz spectra of composite macromolecular materials do not represent sums of spectra of the individual components. This supports the premise that THz spectra reflect intermolecular interactions. The study was carried out using 250 historical paper samples from the sixteenth century to present. Although the measurements were performed in vacuum to improve the quality of spectra, THz spectroscopy is in principle non-destructive. This research therefore reinforces the role of THz spectroscopy in characterisation of valuable historic materials, where invasive analysis is often not possible.

  18. Exploring the Discourse on Communication Modality after Cochlear Implantation: A Foucauldian Analysis of Parents' Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruin, Marieke; Nevøy, Anne

    2014-01-01

    After pediatric cochlear implantation, parents have to make decisions concerning which communication modality the child and the child's family will use. The choice has to be made against a background of opposing views on communication modality in follow-up after pediatric cochlear implantation. The opposing views form a discourse that has…

  19. Public Discourse on HIV and AIDS: An Archival Analysis of National Newspaper Reporting in Uganda, 1996-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagone, Elizabeth; Mathur, Sanyukta; Nakyanjo, Neema; Nalugoda, Fred; Santelli, John

    2014-01-01

    Uganda is recognised as an early success story in the HIV epidemic at least in part due to an open and vigorous national dialogue about HIV prevention. This study examined the national discourse about HIV, AIDS, and young people in New Vision, Uganda's leading national newspaper between 1996 and 2011, building from a previous archival…

  20. Social Aspects of Classroom Learning: Results of a Discourse Analysis in an Inquiry-Oriented Physical Chemistry Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Engaging students in classroom discourse offers opportunities for students to participate in the construction of joint understandings, to negotiate relationships between different types of evidence, and to practice making evidence-based claims about science content. However, close attention to social aspects of learning is critical to creating…

  1. An Analysis of Peer Interaction Patterns as Discoursed by On-Line Small Group Problem-Solving Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chen-Chung; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2008-01-01

    Currently, numerous on-line discussion forums have been developed for educational purposes; therefore, a better understanding about peer student discussion or discourse interactions is quite important. Through gathering peer learning interactions on 57 college computer science students, who were randomly assigned into 14 small groups for solving…

  2. Flood frequency analysis of historical flood data under stationary and non-stationary modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M. J.; Botero, B. A.; López, J.; Francés, F.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Benito, G.

    2015-06-01

    Historical records are an important source of information on extreme and rare floods and fundamental to establish a reliable flood return frequency. The use of long historical records for flood frequency analysis brings in the question of flood stationarity, since climatic and land-use conditions can affect the relevance of past flooding as a predictor of future flooding. In this paper, a detailed 400 yr flood record from the Tagus River in Aranjuez (central Spain) was analysed under stationary and non-stationary flood frequency approaches, to assess their contribution within hazard studies. Historical flood records in Aranjuez were obtained from documents (Proceedings of the City Council, diaries, chronicles, memoirs, etc.), epigraphic marks, and indirect historical sources and reports. The water levels associated with different floods (derived from descriptions or epigraphic marks) were computed into discharge values using a one-dimensional hydraulic model. Secular variations in flood magnitude and frequency, found to respond to climate and environmental drivers, showed a good correlation between high values of historical flood discharges and a negative mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. Over the systematic gauge record (1913-2008), an abrupt change on flood magnitude was produced in 1957 due to constructions of three major reservoirs in the Tagus headwaters (Bolarque, Entrepeñas and Buendia) controlling 80% of the watershed surface draining to Aranjuez. Two different models were used for the flood frequency analysis: (a) a stationary model estimating statistical distributions incorporating imprecise and categorical data based on maximum likelihood estimators, and (b) a time-varying model based on "generalized additive models for location, scale and shape" (GAMLSS) modelling, which incorporates external covariates related to climate variability (NAO index) and catchment hydrology factors (in this paper a reservoir index; RI). Flood frequency analysis using documentary data (plus gauged records) improved the estimates of the probabilities of rare floods (return intervals of 100 yr and higher). Under non-stationary modelling flood occurrence associated with an exceedance probability of 0.01 (i.e. return period of 100 yr) has changed over the last 500 yr due to decadal and multi-decadal variability of the NAO. Yet, frequency analysis under stationary models was successful in providing an average discharge around which value flood quantiles estimated by non-stationary models fluctuate through time.

  3. Flood frequency analysis of historical flood data under stationary and non-stationary modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M. J.; Botero, B. A.; López, J.; Francés, F.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Benito, G.

    2015-01-01

    Historical records are an important source of information about extreme and rare floods with a great value to establish a reliable flood return frequency. The use of long historic records for flood frequency analysis brings in the question of flood stationarity, since climatic and land-use conditions can affect the relevance of past flooding as a predictor of future flooding. In this paper, a detailed 400 year flood record from the Tagus River in Aranjuez (Central Spain) was analysed under stationary and non-stationary flood frequency approaches, to assess their implications on hazard studies. Historical flood records in Aranjuez were obtained from documents (Proceedings of the City Council, diaries, chronicles, memoirs, etc.), epigraphic marks, and indirect historical sources and reports. The water levels associated with different floods (derived from descriptions or epigraphic marks) were computed into discharge values using a one-dimensional hydraulic model. Secular variations on flood magnitude and frequency, found to respond to climate and environmental drivers, showed a good correlation between high values of historical flood discharges and a negative mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO index). Over the systematic gauge record (1913-2008), an abrupt change on flood magnitude was produced in 1957 due to constructions of three major reservoirs in the Tagus headwaters (Bolarque, Entrepeñas and Buendia) controlling 80% of the watershed surface draining to Aranjuez. Two different models were used for the flood frequency analysis: (a) a stationary model estimating statistical distributions incorporating imprecise and categorical data based on maximum likelihood estimators; (b) a time-varying model based on "generalized additive models for location, scale and shape" (GAMLSS) modelling, that incorporates external covariates related to climate variability (NAO index) and catchment hydrology factors (in this paper a reservoir index; RI). Flood frequency analysis using documentary data (plus gauged record) improved the estimates of the probabilities of rare floods (return intervals of 100 year and higher). Under non-stationary modelling flood occurrence associated with an exceedance probability of 0.01 (i.e. return period of 100 year) has changed over the last 500 year due to decadal and multi-decadal variability of the NAO. Yet, frequency analysis under stationary models was successful on providing an average discharge around which value flood quantiles estimated by non-stationary models fluctuate through time.

  4. Streamflow Flashiness in the Mid-Atlantic Region: A Historical Analysis of Flashiness and Population Density, Imperviousness and Urban Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between stream flashiness and watershed-scale estimates of percent imperviousness, urban development, and population density were used in an historic landscape analysis at the individual watershed spatial scale. GIS technology was employed to spatially associate...

  5. A Historical Perspective on the Role of Collaboration in Teacher Education Reform: Making Good on the Promise of Teaching All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugach, Marleen C.; Blanton, Linda P.; Correa, Vivian I.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of how collaborative teacher education has developed in terms of practice, discourse, and the relationship between general and special education across three historical stages. It explores how collaborative teacher education between general and special education has been positioned over time in relationship to…

  6. Wintering and breeding bird monitoring data analysis 2010-2013: San Antonio Missions National Historical Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Following guidance issued within the Avian Inventory and Monitoring in National Parks of the Gulf Coast Network: Gulf Coast Network Avian Monitoring Plan, 40 point locations were established and monitored within San Antonio Missions National Historical Park. During three breeding seasons (May – Jun) and winters (Dec – Feb) between 2010 and 2013, birds were monitored at 20 or 30 of these point locations via time-distance point counts (breeding) or area searches (winter). To ensure data from all 40 random locations were included in analyses, monitoring data from two consecutive years were combined. As a result, some points were monitored twice during the period of analysis. Even so, I have treated each survey as an independent monitoring event, thereby assuming each visit to be equally representative of the bird community for the entirety of San Antonio Missions National Historical Park. When translating avian densities to park-wide populations, I used an area of 334 ha to represent San Antonio Missions National Historical Park including the Rancho de las Cabras unit.

  7. Ideology and discourse analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TEUN A. VAN DIJK

    2006-01-01

    Contrary to most traditional approaches, ideologies are defined here within a multidisciplinary framework that combines a social, cognitive and discursive component. As ‘systems of ideas’, ideologies are sociocognitively defined as shared representations of social groups, and more specifically as the ‘axiomatic’ principles of such representations. As the basis of a social group's self-image, ideologies organize its identity, actions, aims, norms

  8. Data analysis in oral history: A new approach in historical research

    PubMed Central

    Firouzkouhi, Mohammadreza; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Historical research has limitations in applying proper and credit-worthy chronology to clarify the data. In this methodology, the application of oral history is one of the ways in which answers to questions addressed by the research theme are elicited. Oral history, as a clear and transparent tool, needs to be applied with guidelines for qualitative researchers regarding data analysis limitations from oral evidence and face-to-face contact. Therefore, the development of a systematic method for data analysis is needed to obtain accurate answers, based on which a credit-worthy narration can be produced. The aim of this study was to introduce an ethical and objective approach for the analysis of data obtained from oral history. Materials and Methods: This is a methodological article that suggests an analysis method based on qualitative approach and experiences of the authors. Results: A systematic method of data analysis for oral history research, based on common qualitative data analysis methods, has been suggested as the result of this article. Conclusions: This new technique is equipped with measures that would assist qualitative researchers in the nursing field and other disciplines regarding analysis of qualitative data resulting from oral history studies. PMID:25878689

  9. DISCOURSE MARKERS IN WRITING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osman DÜLGER

    Developing writing skills is an important and complex part of language learning. Literature on writing specifies in general terms that discourse markers constitute an indispensable component of writing quality. This study aimed at identifying the discourse marker usage of Turkish EFL learners. The study was conducted on 76 second grade students of Konya Selçuk University, Education Faculty, English Language Teaching

  10. Analysis and Discourse. Response to An Analysis of the Forum: Issues in Education of the Severely and Profoundly Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Thomas A.; Hirshoren, Alfred

    1981-01-01

    In another response to criticism regarding state of the art analysis in the education of severely and profoundly retarded students, the article states that the criticism is a red herring, and that the differences cited are ones of style rather than interpretation. For related information, see EC 133 831-832. (CL)

  11. Age transcended: a semiotic and rhetorical analysis of the discourse of agelessness in North American anti-aging skin care advertisements.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Kirsten L

    2014-04-01

    Drawing from a collection of over 160 North American print advertisements for anti-aging skin care products from January to December of 2009, this paper examines the discourse of agelessness, a vision of esthetic perfection and optimal health that is continually referred to by gerontologists, cultural theorists, and scientific researchers as a state of being to which humankind can aspire. Employing critical discourse analysis through the use of semiotics and visual rhetoric, this paper explores the means through which anti-aging skin care advertisements present to their viewers a particular object of desire, looking, more specifically, at how agelessness is presented as a way out and ultimate transcendence of age. Through the analytical tools of semiotics and visual rhetoric, four visions of agelessness are identified and explored in this paper: Agelessness as Scientific Purity, Agelessness as Genetic Impulse, Agelessness as Nature's Essence, and Agelessness as Myth. Whether found in the heights of scientific purity, the inner core of our genetic impulse, the depths of nature's essence, or whether agelessness itself has reached its own, untouchable, mythic status, the advertisements in this study represent one of the most pervasive vehicles through which our current vision(s) of ageless perfection are reflected, reinforced, and suspended in a drop of cream. PMID:24655670

  12. Visual Analysis of Historic Hotel Visitation Patterns Chris Weaver David Fyfe Anthony Robinson Deryck Holdsworth Donna Peuquet

    E-print Network

    Klippel, Alexander

    collection and plans to expand exploration to include historic weather records and railroad schedules views, travel pattern analysis. Index Terms: D.2.2 [Software Engineering]: Design Tools and Techniques of integrated software for rapid con- struction of visual data analysis tools is a recent focus of research

  13. Dominant Discourses, Problem Setting, and Teacher Education Pedagogies: A Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Hal A.

    1993-01-01

    Criticizes Richard Tinning's analysis of dominant discourses, problem setting, and teacher education pedagogies, and extends the analysis of selected concepts that Tinning has employed, particularly in the way he connects discourses to the process of problem setting. New avenues for research on problem setting are discussed. (GLR)

  14. Naming Giftedness: Whiteness and Ability Discourse in US Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a conceptual analysis of ability discourse using the theoretical lens of critical whiteness studies and the methodological framework of critical discourse analysis. From its origins in the Progressive Era to contemporary debates on tracking, the concept of giftedness has been formed through racial projects throughout US history.…

  15. Deconstructing traditional discourses of schooling: An example of school reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen A. May

    1995-01-01

    Recent developments in critical discourse analysis and critical ethnography have argued for a broader institutional perspective in the study of schools. In this view, the concerns of micro?linguistics and micro?ethnography are broadened to include an examination of how school discourses are situated within wider societal discourses and power relations. The dialectical nature of this process—which allows for the possibility of

  16. A Legal Discourse Community: Text Centered and Interdisciplinary in Social and Political Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Karen

    1996-01-01

    Reviews recent studies of legal discourse and nonacademic writing and presents the results of a historical case study on an environmental public policy. Finds that a dynamic discourse community changed writing roles among government employees, lay members of the audience, and water pollution control board members. States that controversial…

  17. Talk in Interaction in the Speech-Language Pathology Clinic: Bringing Theory to Practice through Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaby, Margaret M.; Walsh, Irene P.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of learning about and applying clinical discourse analysis to enhance the talk in interaction in the speech-language pathology clinic is discussed. The benefits of analyzing clinical discourse to explicate therapy dynamics are described.

  18. Photomorphic analysis techniques: An interim spatial analysis using satellite remote sensor imagery and historical data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keuper, H. R.; Peplies, R. W.; Gillooly, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    The use of machine scanning and/or computer-based techniques to provide greater objectivity in the photomorphic approach was investigated. Photomorphic analysis and its application in regional planning are discussed. Topics included: delineation of photomorphic regions; inadequacies of existing classification systems; tonal and textural characteristics and signature analysis techniques; pattern recognition and Fourier transform analysis; and optical experiments. A bibliography is included.

  19. Informational database methodology for urban risk analysis.Case study: the historic centre of Bucharest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armas, I.; Dumitrascu, S.

    2009-04-01

    The urban environment often deals with issues concerning the deterioration of the constructed space and the quality of the environmental factors, in general terms meaning an unsatisfactory quality of life. Taking into account the complexity of the urban environment and the strong human impact, this ambience can be considered the ideal place for a varied range of risks to appear, being favoured by the external interventions and the dynamics of the internal changes that occur in the urban system, often unexpectedly. In this context, historic centre areas are even more vulnerable because of the age of the buildings and their socio-cultural value. The present study focuses on the development of a rapid assessment system of urban risks, putting emphasis on earthquakes. The importance of the study is shown by the high vulnerability that defines urban settlements, which can be considered socio-ecological systems characterized by a maximum risk level. In general, cities are highly susceptible areas because of their compactness and elevated degree of land occupancy, the Bucharest municipality being no exception. The street and sewerage networks disorganized the natural system resulted from the evolution of the lake-river system in Superior Pleistocene-Holocene and the intense construction activity represents a pressure that hasn't been measured and that is in need for a methodological interdisciplinary approach. In particular, the specific of Bucharest is given by the seismic risk based on an explosive urban evolution and the advanced state of degradation of the buildings. In this context, the Lipscani sector from the historic centre of the capital city is a maximum seismic vulnerability area, this being the result of its location in the Dâmbovita River meadow, on the brow and 80 m terrace, but more precisely because of the degradation of the buildings that cumulated the effects of the repeated earthquakes. The historic centre of Bucharest has not only a cultural function, but is also a very populated area, this being factors that favour a high susceptibility level. In addition, the majority of the buildings are included in the first and second categories of seismic risk, being built between 1875 and 1940, the age of the buildings establishing an increased vulnerability to natural hazards. The methodology was developed through the contribution of three partner universities from Bucharest: the University of Bucharest, the Academy for Economic Studies and the Technical University of Constructions. The method suggested was based on the analysis and processing of digital and statistical spatial information resulted from 1:500 topographical plans, satellite pictures, archives and historical maps used for the identification of the age of the buildings. Also, an important stage was represented by the field investigations that resulted with the data used in the assessment of the buildings: year of construction, location and vicinity, height, number of floors, state and function of the building, equipment and construction type. The information collected from the field together with the data resulted from the digitization of the ortophotoplans were inserted in ArcGIS in order to compile the database. Furthermore, the team from the Cybernetics Faculty developed a special software package in Visual Studio and SQL server in order to insert the sheets in GIS so that they could be statistically processed. The final product of the study is a program that includes as main functions editing, the analysis based on selected factors (individual or group) and viewing of building information in the shape of maps or 3D visualization. The strengths of the informational system resulted are given by the extended range of applicability, the short processing period, accessibility, capacity of support for a large amount of information and, thus, standing out as an adequate instrument to fit the needs of a susceptible population.

  20. Analysis of historical residential air-conditioning equipment sizing using monitored data

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, R.G.

    1993-02-01

    Monitored data were analyzed to determine whether residential air conditioners in the Pacific Northwest historically have been sized properly to meet or slightly exceed actual cooling requirements. Oversizing air-conditioning equipment results in a loss of efficiency because of increased cycling and also lowers humidity control. On the other hand, the penalty of undersizing air-conditioning equipment may be some loss of comfort during extremely hot weather. The monitored data consist of hourly space-conditioning electrical energy use and internal air temperature data collected during the past 7 years from 75 residences in the Pacific Northwest. These residences are equipped with central air conditioners or heat pumps. The periods with the highest cooling energy use were analyzed for each site. A standard industry sizing methodology was used for each site to determine a sizing estimate. Both the sizing recommendation based on Manual J and peak monitored loads are compared to the capacity of the installed equipment for each site to study how the actual capacity differed from both the estimate of proper sizing and from actual demands. Characteristics of the maximum cooling loads are analyzed here to determine which conditions put the highest demand on the air conditioner. Specifically, internal air temperature data are used to determine when the highest cooling loads occur, at constant thermostat settings or when the thermostat was set down. This analysis of monitored data also provides insight into the extent that occupant comfort may be affected by undersizing air conditioners. The findings of this research indicate that cooling equipment historically has often but not always been oversized beyond industry-recommended levels. However, some occupants in homes with undersized, properly sized, and, in rare occasions, even oversized cooling equipment appear to suffer because the cooling equipment cannot always provide adequate cooling. Key findings are summarized.

  1. Discourses of Writing and Learning to Write

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanic, Roz

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a meta-analysis of theory and research about writing and writing pedagogy, identifying six discourses--configurations of beliefs and practices in relation to the teaching of writing. It introduces and explains a framework for the analysis of educational data about writing pedagogy in which the connections are drawn across views…

  2. Discourses of Exclusion: Sexuality Education's Silencing of Sexual Others

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. Elia; Mickey Eliason

    2010-01-01

    This article begins with a broad historical overview detailing how school-based sexuality education has been taught from a specific kind of heterosexual perspective that has excluded lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer-identified (LGBTQ) students as well as heterosexual students who do not fall along culturally dominant heterosexual lines. To illustrate such exclusionary sexuality education, we examine the discourses of exclusion

  3. Modeling, Analysis, and Preservation Techniques for Historic Reinforced Concrete Structures in Seismic Prone Regions Case Study: Augusta Airship Hangar, Sicily

    SciTech Connect

    Cronin, Kelly; Whyte, Catherine [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 760 Davis Hall (United States); Reiner, Tom [Graduate Engineer, Buro Happold Consulting Engineers, Inc., 9601 Jefferson Blvd., Suite B, Culver City, CA 90232 (United States)

    2008-07-08

    Throughout the world there are hundreds of historic monuments and structures considered to be invaluable and irreplaceable. They are symbols of cultural identity and a means of educating people about history. Preservation of historic monuments and structures is therefore an important part of safeguarding these cultural heritage sites so that they retain their value for future generations.This report discusses a procedure for the investigation of seismic hazards in existing buildings and possible steps that can be taken to avoid damage caused by these hazards. The Augusta Airship Hangar located in Sicily, will be used as a case study however the topics addressed in this paper can be applied to other structures of historic value around the world.First state-of-the-art scanning procedures were used to create scale digital models that were imported into a structural analysis program. Within this program dynamic analyses were performed on the model based on actual ground motions taken close to the site. This data was used to determine the period and mode shapes of the structure. Then a nonlinear analysis, including a static pushover analysis, was implemented on a two-dimensional model of the structural frame. From this analysis the failure mechanisms of the structure were revealed with relation to an allowable roof displacement. The structural integrity of the structure was evaluated based on pre-defined performance goals. Finally multiple suggestions were made how the Augusta Airship Hangar might be repaired and strengthened so that this structure will not be destroyed should an earthquake occur.The results of our study show that historic structures, despite their age, can still be strong and ductile. Also there are a multitude of effective preservation and retrofit techniques that can be used to strengthen these historic structures, should an earthquake occur. Through this study, the Augusta Airship Hangar has proven to be not only a historic symbol for Sicily but also can be used as an example for the rehabilitation of other historic structures. The techniques and processes discussed in this paper can be applied to other historic reinforced concrete structures and can be expanded upon in future investigations.

  4. Discourse Factors in the Evaluation of Language Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litteral, Robert

    Features of connected discourse that have been identified by discourse analysis may be applied to the evaluation of oral proficiency in a second language. For example, in the area of semantics, a speaker's control of the cause-result relationship involves, among other things, the ability to produce the different grammatical and lexical…

  5. Discourses of Gender in the Contemporary British Army

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel Woodward; Patricia Winter

    2004-01-01

    This article is about the discourses of gender which circulate within debates about the inclusion of women in the British Army. Drawing on material from elite policy debates within the British Ministry of Defence, Army, and Parliament, the article uses a methodology informed by theories of discourse analysis to examine how the figures of the male and female soldier are

  6. Educational Policy-Making in Post-Communist Ukraine as an Example of Emerging Governmentality: Discourse Analysis of Curriculum Choice and Assessment Policy Documents (1999-2003)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fimyar, Olena

    2008-01-01

    Educational policy-making in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is still building upon the ambivalences and uncertainties of post-communist transformation. The international support, expertise and discourses--coupled with communist legacies, stalled democratic developments and national discourses--produce unique effects on education in…

  7. `We are Dealing with People Whose Origins One can Clearly Tell Just by Looking': Critical Discourse Analysis and the Study of Neo-Racism in Contemporary Austria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Wodak; Bernd Matouschek

    1993-01-01

    This article focuses on the discourse of neo-racism towards foreigners in Austria between 1989 and 1991. It summarizes the preliminary results of an ongoing interdisciplinary project, and offers illustrative examples of official discourse (politicians), newspaper texts and anonymous conversations on the street recorded during the Waldheim campaign of 1987 and the Viennese municipal election of 1991. The study suggests that

  8. Historical Trends

    Cancer.gov

    Close Window State Cancer Profiles Quick Reference Guides ? Back to Historical Trends Reference Guide Historical Trends This graphic shows the Historical Trends Graph for female breast cancer mortality in the United States, 1975-2011. There are various

  9. DiZer: An Automatic Discourse Analyzer for Brazilian Portuguese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thiago Alexandre Salgueiro Pardo; Maria Das Graças Volpe Nunes; Lucia Helena Machado Rino

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents DiZer, an automatic DIscourse analyZER for Brazilian Portuguese. Given a source text, the system automatically produces its corresponding rhetorical analysis, following Rhetorical Structure Theory - RST (Mann and Thompson, 1987). A rhetorical repository, which is DiZer main component, makes the automatic analysis possible. This repository, produced by means of a corpus analysis, includes discourse analysis patterns that

  10. Running Title: An APOS analysis of infinity issues Some historical issues and paradoxes regarding the concept of infinity: An APOS analysis, Part 2

    E-print Network

    Dubinsky, Ed

    Running Title: An APOS analysis of infinity issues Some historical issues and paradoxes regarding the concept of infinity: An APOS analysis, Part 2 Ed Dubinsky, Kent State University Kirk Weller, University REGARDING THE CONCEPT OF INFINITY: PART 2 Abstract This is Part 2 of a two-part study of how APOS Theory may

  11. How Has Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Therapy Changed?: An Historical Analysis of Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donohue, William; Fryling, Mitch

    2007-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis and behavior therapy are now nearly a half century old. It is interesting to ask if and how these disciplines have changed over time, particularly regarding some of their key internal controversies (e.g., role of cognitions). We examined the first five years and the 2000-2004 five year period of the "Journal of Applied…

  12. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis of accessions in the US historic sweet sorghum collection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming L; Zhu, Chengsong; Barkley, Noelle A; Chen, Zhenbang; Erpelding, John E; Murray, Seth C; Tuinstra, Mitchell R; Tesso, Tesfaye; Pederson, Gary A; Yu, Jianming

    2009-12-01

    Sweet sorghum has the potential to become a versatile feedstock for large-scale bioenergy production given its sugar from stem juice, cellulose/hemicellulose from stalks, and starch from grain. However, for researchers to maximize its feedstock potential a first step includes additional evaluations of the 2,180 accessions with varied origins in the US historic sweet sorghum collection. To assess genetic diversity of this collection for bioenergy breeding and population structure for association mapping, we selected 96 accessions and genotyped them with 95 simple sequence repeat markers. Subsequent genetic diversity and population structure analysis methods identified four subpopulations in this panel, which correlated well with the geographic locations where these accessions originated or were collected. Model comparisons for three quantitative traits revealed different levels of population structure effects on flowering time, plant height, and brix. Our results suggest that diverse germplasm accessions curated from different geographical regions should be considered for plant breeding programs to develop sweet sorghum cultivars or hybrids, and that this sweet sorghum panel can be further explored for association mapping. PMID:19760215

  13. Teaching Discourse Study To Resist General Discourse Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarbrough, Stephen R.

    If an instructor teaches in a rhetoric and composition program, one of the most important ways to teach discourse study as a resistance to discourse theory is by tracing the fundamental founding dichotomies of discourse theory through the history of rhetorical theory, examining how assumptions of the legitimacy of such founding dichotomies has…

  14. Accessibility Marking: Discourse Functions, Discourse Profiles, and Processing Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariel, Mira

    2004-01-01

    When accounting for the usage of some linguistic form, one can refer to its discourse profile, all concomitant features frequently co-occurring with that form in discourse, or abstract a more general claim about its discourse function, referring only to the necessary and sufficient conditions for the proper occurrence of the form. This article…

  15. PSYCHOLOGY AND THE POLITICS OF SAME-SEX DESIRE IN THE UNITED STATES: An Analysis of Three Cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip L. Hammack; Eric P. Windell

    2011-01-01

    Psychological science has assumed an increasingly explicit role in public policies related to same-sex desire in the United States. In this article, we present a historical analysis of the relationship between policy discourse and scientific discourse on homosexuality produced within U.S. psychology over the 20th and early 21st centuries through the lens of three cases: Bowers v. Hardwick (1986), Lawrence

  16. Chasing the illusive American dream: an historical analysis of Mexican-American education, employment, and culture 

    E-print Network

    Ham, Arwen Eugene

    2013-02-22

    The objectives of this study include the identification of the effects of history on contemporary Mexican immigration in the areas of education, employment and culture. Beginning with a detailed historical background of ...

  17. Discourse Tracing as Qualitative Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeGreco, Marianne; Tracy, Sarah J.

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces a qualitative research method called "discourse tracing". Discourse tracing draws from contributions made by ethnographers, discourse critics, case study scholars, and process tracers. The approach offers new insights and an attendant language about how we engage in research designed specifically for the…

  18. Historical Analysis for the Realistic Representation of Time in Combat Simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Tilley; D Rowland; P Pearce

    The main subject of this paper examines historical evidence to determine if it is possible to provide quantified guidelines to war-gaming analysts and model developers on the representation of realistic battle times within war-games and models of land combat. Data from a number of historical case studies (WWII-Gulf War) were extracted and used to understand the realistic pace of events

  19. Structuring Conversation: Discourse Markers in Cervantes's "Entremeses"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Due to the recent shift in the linguistic pragmatics literature from the analysis of isolated speech acts to the focus on phenomena which affect the global meaning of a message, discourse markers (DMs) have become a frequent research topic. Despite their popularity, the evolution and development of these forms is often neglected in investigations…

  20. Elaboration and Simplification in Spanish Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granena, Gisela

    2008-01-01

    This article compares spoken discourse models in Spanish as a second language textbooks and online language learning resources with naturally occurring conversations. Telephone service encounters are analyzed from the point of view of three different dimensions of authenticity: linguistic, sociolinguistic, and psycholinguistic. An analysis of 20…

  1. Discourse and the Denial of Racism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teun A. van Dijk

    1992-01-01

    Within the broader framework of a research programme on the reproduction of racism in discourse and communication, the present article examines the prominent role of the denial of racism, especially among the elites, in much contemporary text and talk about ethnic relations. After a conceptual analysis of denial strategies in interpersonal impression formation on the one hand, and within the

  2. Discourse Devices in Telugu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rani, A. Usha

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss some of the productive discourse devices and markers noted in 50 spoken narratives elicited from Telugu native speakers. Since most of them are college students and residents of Hyderabad, they are also exposed to English as well as Hindi-Urdu (Dakkhini). After presenting certain salient features of Telugu…

  3. Configuring Listserv, configuring discourse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurie Cubbison

    1999-01-01

    Listserv electronic mailing lists have become popular with teachers and scholars in computers and composition for their ability to bring students and professionals together to discuss issues in a written medium. Listservs are perceived as allowing a more egalitarian discourse than might take place in person, as characteristics of status, color, gender, and class are not readily visible. This article

  4. Spread of the Chinese mitten crab ( Eriocheir sinensis H. Milne Edwards) in Continental Europe: analysis of a historical data set

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L.-M. Herborg; S. P. Rushton; A. S. Clare; M. G. Bentley

    2003-01-01

    The Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis(H. Milne Edwards), is an invasive species that lives as an adult predominantly in freshwater but migrates seawards to breed. It has spread via ballast water and\\/or intentional introduction to Continental Europe, Southern France, U.S.A. (San Francisco Bay) and the United Kingdom. Analysis of detailed historic data from the outbreak in Europe was digitised and

  5. The inter-section of political history and health policy in Asia--the historical foundations for health policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Grundy, John; Hoban, Elizabeth; Allender, Steve; Annear, Peter

    2014-09-01

    One of the challenges for health reform in Asia is the diverse set of socio-economic and political structures, and the related variability in the direction and pace of health systems and policy reform. This paper aims to make comparative observations and analysis of health policy reform in the context of historical change, and considers the implications of these findings for the practice of health policy analysis. We adopt an ecological model for analysis of policy development, whereby health systems are considered as dynamic social constructs shaped by changing political and social conditions. Utilizing historical, social scientific and health literature, timelines of health and history for five countries (Cambodia, Myanmar, Mongolia, North Korea and Timor Leste) are mapped over a 30-50 year period. The case studies compare and contrast key turning points in political and health policy history, and examines the manner in which these turning points sets the scene for the acting out of longer term health policy formation, particularly with regard to the managerial domains of health policy making. Findings illustrate that the direction of health policy reform is shaped by the character of political reform, with countries in the region being at variable stages of transition from monolithic and centralized administrations, towards more complex management arrangements characterized by a diversity of health providers, constituency interest and financing sources. The pace of reform is driven by a country's institutional capability to withstand and manage transition shocks of post conflict rehabilitation and emergence of liberal economic reforms in an altered governance context. These findings demonstrate that health policy analysis needs to be informed by a deeper understanding and questioning of the historical trajectory and political stance that sets the stage for the acting out of health policy formation, in order that health systems function optimally along their own historical pathways. PMID:25066947

  6. Historical DNA analysis reveals living descendants of an extinct species of Galápagos tortoise.

    PubMed

    Poulakakis, Nikos; Glaberman, Scott; Russello, Michael; Beheregaray, Luciano B; Ciofi, Claudio; Powell, Jeffrey R; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2008-10-01

    Giant tortoises, a prominent symbol of the Galápagos archipelago, illustrate the influence of geological history and natural selection on the diversification of organisms. Because of heavy human exploitation, 4 of the 15 known species (Geochelone spp.) have disappeared. Charles Darwin himself detailed the intense harvesting of one species, G. elephantopus, which once was endemic to the island of Floreana. This species was believed to have been exterminated within 15 years of Darwin's historic visit to the Galápagos in 1835. The application of modern DNA techniques to museum specimens combined with long-term study of a system creates new opportunities for identifying the living remnants of extinct taxa in the wild. Here, we use mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite data obtained from museum specimens to show that the population on Floreana was evolutionarily distinct from all other Galápagos tortoise populations. It was demonstrated that some living individuals on the nearby island of Isabela are genetically distinct from the rest of the island's inhabitants. Surprisingly, we found that these "non-native" tortoises from Isabela are of recent Floreana ancestry and closely match the genetic data provided by the museum specimens. Thus, we show that the genetic line of G. elephantopus has not been completely extinguished and still exists in an intermixed population on Isabela. With enough individuals to commence a serious captive breeding program, this finding may help reestablish a species that was thought to have gone extinct more than a century ago and illustrates the power of long-term genetic analysis and the critical role of museum specimens in conservation biology. PMID:18809928

  7. From Food Insufficiency towards Trade Dependency: A Historical Analysis of Global Food Availability

    PubMed Central

    Porkka, Miina; Kummu, Matti; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

    2013-01-01

    Achieving global food security is one of the major challenges of the coming decades. In order to tackle future food security challenges we must understand the past. This study presents a historical analysis of global food availability, one of the key elements of food security. By calculating national level dietary energy supply and production for nine time steps during 1965–2005 we classify countries based on their food availability, food self-sufficiency and food trade. We also look at how diets have changed during this period with regard to supply of animal based calories. Our results show that food availability has increased substantially both in absolute and relative terms. The percentage of population living in countries with sufficient food supply (>2500 kcal/cap/d) has almost doubled from 33% in 1965 to 61% in 2005. The population living with critically low food supply (<2000 kcal/cap/d) has dropped from 52% to 3%. Largest improvements are seen in the MENA region, Latin America, China and Southeast Asia. Besides, the composition of diets has changed considerably within the study period: the world population living with high supply of animal source food (>15% of dietary energy supply) increased from 33% to over 50%. While food supply has increased globally, food self-sufficiency (domestic production>2500 kcal/cap/d) has not changed remarkably. In the beginning of the study period insufficient domestic production meant insufficient food supply, but in recent years the deficit has been increasingly compensated by rising food imports. This highlights the growing importance of food trade, either for food supply in importing countries or as a source of income for exporters. Our results provide a basis for understanding past global food system dynamics which, in turn, can benefit research on future food security. PMID:24367545

  8. Analysis of historical residential air-conditioning equipment sizing using monitored data

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, R.G.

    1992-08-01

    Monitored data were analyzed to determine whether residential air conditioners in the Pacific Northwest historically have been sized properly to meet or slightly exceed actual cooling requirements. Oversizing air-conditioning equipment results in a loss of efficiency because of increased cycling and also lowers humidity control. Larger air conditioners are also more expensive to purchase. On the other hand, the penalty of undersizing air-conditioning equipment may be some loss of comfort during extremely hot weather. of comfort during extremely hot weather. The monitored data consist of hourly space-conditioning electrical energy use and internal air temperature data collected during the past 7 years from 75 residences in the Pacific Northwest. These residence are equipped with central air conditioners or heat pumps. The periods with the highest cooling energy use were analyzed for each site. A standard industry sizing methodology (Manual J published by Air Conditioning Contractors of America) was used for each site to determine a sizing estimate. Both the sizing the recommendation based on Manual J and peak monitored loads are compared to capacity of the installed equipment for each site to study how the actual capacities differed from both the estimate of proper sizing and from actual demands. The characteristics of the maximum cooling loads are analyzed here to determine which conditions put the highest demand on the air conditioner. Specifically, internal air temperature data are used to determine when the highest cooling loads occur, at constant thermostat settings or when the thermostat was set down. This analysis of monitored data also provides insight into the extent occupant comfort may be affected by undersizing air conditioners.

  9. Historical DNA analysis reveals living descendants of an extinct species of Galápagos tortoise

    PubMed Central

    Poulakakis, Nikos; Glaberman, Scott; Russello, Michael; Beheregaray, Luciano B.; Ciofi, Claudio; Powell, Jeffrey R.; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2008-01-01

    Giant tortoises, a prominent symbol of the Galápagos archipelago, illustrate the influence of geological history and natural selection on the diversification of organisms. Because of heavy human exploitation, 4 of the 15 known species (Geochelone spp.) have disappeared. Charles Darwin himself detailed the intense harvesting of one species, G. elephantopus, which once was endemic to the island of Floreana. This species was believed to have been exterminated within 15 years of Darwin's historic visit to the Galápagos in 1835. The application of modern DNA techniques to museum specimens combined with long-term study of a system creates new opportunities for identifying the living remnants of extinct taxa in the wild. Here, we use mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite data obtained from museum specimens to show that the population on Floreana was evolutionarily distinct from all other Galápagos tortoise populations. It was demonstrated that some living individuals on the nearby island of Isabela are genetically distinct from the rest of the island's inhabitants. Surprisingly, we found that these “non-native” tortoises from Isabela are of recent Floreana ancestry and closely match the genetic data provided by the museum specimens. Thus, we show that the genetic line of G. elephantopus has not been completely extinguished and still exists in an intermixed population on Isabela. With enough individuals to commence a serious captive breeding program, this finding may help reestablish a species that was thought to have gone extinct more than a century ago and illustrates the power of long-term genetic analysis and the critical role of museum specimens in conservation biology. PMID:18809928

  10. The Evolution of a Bilingual Discourse Marking System: Modal Particles and English Markers in German-American Dialects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Emily L.; Salmons, Joseph C.

    2000-01-01

    Lays out some historical background to the replacement of a system of discourse marking in German dialects spoken in the United States, exploring a number of implications for theories of language contact and codeswithing. Data suggest that discourse markers first entered German speech as emblematic codeswitches and eventually became borrowings,…

  11. How far can Foucault take us?: an analysis of the changing discourses and limitations of the medical treatment of apoplexy and stroke.

    PubMed

    Daneski, Katharine; Higgs, Paul; Morgan, Myfanwy

    2011-07-01

    This article examines the conditions under which epistemological shifts in medicine have shaped the history of apoplexy and stroke. Our intention is to understand how stroke medicine as a distinct branch of bio-medicine has emerged in its current form. In doing so, we draw on aspects of the work of Michel Foucault as they relate to fabrication of biomedical discourses. The past 300 years of the transformation of the condition is examined using Michel Foucault's analysis of medical history as instances of the changing spatialization of disease. While the adoption of this approach helped explain how medical practice was shaped by changing interpretations of the causes of apoplexy and stroke over the past few centuries, we also found that there were certain limitations to such an approach. Overall, however, we hope to show that an examination of the history of stroke medicine through a Foucauldian influenced lens can provide a useful understanding of its current circumstances as well as throw light on gaps in Foucauldian approaches themselves. PMID:21169207

  12. Reaching out to people struggling with their lives: a discourse analysis of answers from Internet-based services in Norway and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Anders Johan W; Svensson, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    The Internet has enlarged the scope of human communication, opening new avenues for connecting with people who are struggling with their lives. This article presents a discourse analysis of 101 responses to 98 questions that were posted on 14 different Internet-based mental health services in Norway and Sweden. We aimed to examine and describe the dominant understandings and favored recommendations in the services’ answers, and we reflected upon the social consequences of those answers. The services generally understood life struggles as an abnormal state of mind, life rhythms, or self-reinforcing loops. Internet-based mental health services primarily counsel service users to seek help, talk to health care professionals face-to-face, and discuss their life struggles openly and honestly. They also urge service users to take better care of themselves and socialize with other people. However, such answers might enhance the individualization of life problems, masking social origin and construction. Consequently, the services are challenged to include social explanations in their answers and strengthen their responsibility to amplify peoples’ messages at a societal level. Potentially, such answers could strengthen democratic structures and put pressure on social equity. PMID:23049282

  13. Analyzing Discourse: Text and Talk. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics (Washington, D.C., 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannen, Deborah, Ed.

    The Georgetown Round Table on discourse analysis dealt with the following aspects of the topic: Emerson's essay on language; oral remembering and narrative structures; persuasive discourse; social construction of topical cohesion; discourse as an interactional achievement; the place of intonation; topic as the unit of analysis in a criminal law…

  14. Tensions between Discourses of Development, Religion, and Human Capital in Early Childhood Education Policy Texts: The Case of Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Formen, Ali; Nuttall, Joce

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider how particular discourses have come to dominate early childhood education (ECE) policy in Indonesia. We briefly explain the governance of Indonesian ECE and then our approach to policy analysis using critical discourse analysis. Three prevalent discourses are identified and discussed: "developmentalism",…

  15. Comprehensive Sexuality Education: A Historical and Comparative Analysis of Public Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrman, Judith W.; Solano, Paul; Stotz, Lauren; McDuffie, Mary Joan

    2013-01-01

    This research clarifies the public support of comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) in terms of acceptance, content, timing, and effectiveness as it may inform practice in the United States. The historical context of public opinion, as well as a summary of the efficacy of abstinence only education (AOE) versus CSE in the scientific literature,…

  16. A Historical Analysis of Post-Genocide Rwandan Special Education: Lessons Derived and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyarambi, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this postcolonial historical study was to investigate the following: prevalence and nature of disabilities, programs, and services of special education in Rwanda before and after the 1994 genocide; and the utility, effectiveness, and importation of western-based special education models, programs, and services in Rwanda; and lastly…

  17. Collective Skill Formation: A Historical Analysis of the Least-Likely Case New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trampusch, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article is the first study investigating New Zealand's early legislation in apprenticeship from the perspective of historical institutionalism. It shows that, between 1865 and the 1940s, New Zealand's apprenticeship system was less liberal in character than it is today, because a collective skill formation regime, involving dual…

  18. Analysis of historical residential air-conditioning equipment sizing using monitored data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1993-01-01

    Monitored data were analyzed to determine whether residential air conditioners in the Pacific Northwest historically have been sized properly to meet or slightly exceed actual cooling requirements. Oversizing air-conditioning equipment results in a loss of efficiency because of increased cycling and also lowers humidity control. On the other hand, the penalty of undersizing air-conditioning equipment may be some loss of

  19. Analysis of historical residential air-conditioning equipment sizing using monitored data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1992-01-01

    Monitored data were analyzed to determine whether residential air conditioners in the Pacific Northwest historically have been sized properly to meet or slightly exceed actual cooling requirements. Oversizing air-conditioning equipment results in a loss of efficiency because of increased cycling and also lowers humidity control. Larger air conditioners are also more expensive to purchase. On the other hand, the penalty

  20. Science Pedagogy as a Category of Historical Analysis: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olesko, Kathryn M.

    2006-01-01

    Historical studies of science pedagogy have flourished in recent years. This essay offers an assessment of the literature on science pedagogy from the 1930s to the present. It argues that rather than focusing on the work of Thomas Kuhn and Michel Foucault, historians of science pedagogy could with profit turn to the work of Ludwik Fleck. Fleck…

  1. A Historical Analysis of the Educational Modalities of Inequalities Management in Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulot, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a historical and comparative study of the role that management of inequalities has played in the formation and evolution of educational institutions in three countries: Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala. This particular focus shows that this function has played a determining role, even if its organization has varied deeply in…

  2. Integrating Wikis in the Support and Practice of Historical Analysis Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabiness, Catherine; Donovan, Loretta; Green, Tim D.

    2013-01-01

    This case study examines the benefits of integrating wikis into the World History curriculum. Six middle school students chosen because of their designation in relevant subgroups--GATE, AVID, and RSP--participated in this 20-week study. Abstract historical concepts can be difficult to grasp; therefore, students collaborated via a wiki on topics…

  3. A Historical Analysis of the Daniell Cell and Electrochemistry Teaching in French and Tunisian Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulabiar, Ahlem; Bouraoui, Kamel; Chastrette, Maurice; Abderrabba, Manef

    2004-01-01

    The condition in which the Daniell Cell was historically constructed is examined and the evolution of its presentation in French and Tunisian chemistry textbooks is analyzed. Based on the studies, several innovations to facilitate the teaching of the cell, and more generally, the teaching of electrochemistry and of ionic conduction are proposed.

  4. Reduced space optimal analysis for historical data sets: 136 years of Atlantic sea surface temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexey Kaplan; Yochanan Kushnir; Mark A. Cane; M. Benno Blumenthal

    1997-01-01

    A computationally efficient method for analyzing meteorological and oceanographic historical data sets has been developed. The method combines data reduction and least squares optimal estimation. The data reduction involves computing empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of the data based on their recent, high-quality portion and using a leading EOF subset as a basis for the analyzed solution and for fitting a

  5. Social-Cultural-Historical Contradictions in an L2 Listening Lesson: A Joint Activity System Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Informed and inspired by neo-Vygotskian theory, this article outlines a study exploiting a contemporary conceptualization of Wells's (2002) joint activity system model as an exploratory framework for examining and depicting the social-cultural-historical contradictions in second-language (L2) learners' joint activity. The participants were a pair…

  6. [Gender discourses and bioethics].

    PubMed

    Aparisi Miralles, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present some of the contributions of the gender discourse to the bioethical debate, specifically in the field of nursing. At the same time, it will explain the contribution of the different feminist theories to the recognition and respect of human dignity. Basically, it will describe the three fundamental models in the gender discourse: the egalitarian model, the difference model, and the model of reciprocity or complementarity. The starting point is that even though the first two models have made significant contributions in the field of bioethics, they have nonetheless brought with them some deficiencies and reductionisms inherent in their thinking. The complementarity model, on the contrary, when properly understood, allows for the combination of the principles of equality and difference between man and woman, which places it at a much more enriching standpoint within the bioethical debate. PMID:25329418

  7. Ellipsis and discourse coherence

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles

    2006-01-01

    VP-ellipsis generally requires a syntactically matching antecedent. However, many documented examples exist where the antecedent is not appropriate. Kehler (2000, 2002) proposed an elegant theory which predicts a syntactic antecedent for an elided VP is required only for a certain discourse coherence relation (resemblance) not for cause-effect relations. Most of the data Kehler used to motivate his theory come from corpus studies and thus do not consist of true minimal pairs. We report five experiments testing predictions of the coherence theory, using standard minimal pair materials. The results raise questions about the empirical basis for coherence theory because parallelism is preferred for all coherence relations, not just resemblance relations. Further, strict identity readings, which should not be available when a syntactic antecedent is required, are influenced by parallelism per se, holding the discourse coherence relation constant. This draws into question the causal role of coherence relations in processing VP ellipsis. PMID:16896367

  8. Computer-Supported Collaborative Inquiry on Buoyancy: A Discourse Analysis Supporting the "Pieces" Position on Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turcotte, Sandrine

    2012-01-01

    This article describes in detail a conversation analysis of conceptual change in a computer-supported collaborative learning environment. Conceptual change is an essential learning process in science education that has yet to be fully understood. While many models and theories have been developed over the last three decades, empirical data to…

  9. Small Talk at Work: A Corpus Based Discourse Analysis of AAC and Non-AAC Device Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Ferrante, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This work is an analysis of small talk in the workplace. The study is intended to fill two main research gaps in the relatively young field of small talk in the workplace studies: On one hand, the lack of quantitative data that would account for the dimensions and the proportions of the elements of small talk interactions; on the other hand, the…

  10. Quantifying historic landscape heterogeneity from aerial photographs using object-based analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica L. MorganSarah; Sarah E. Gergel

    2010-01-01

    Spatial landscape heterogeneity is routinely used to characterize ecological processes, particularly over time. Critical to\\u000a the use of landscape heterogeneity as an ecological indicator, is a consistent and quantitative definition, especially in\\u000a terms of a baseline description. As the oldest and most frequently used form of remotely sensed data, aerial photographs are\\u000a a unique source of detailed, historic landscape information

  11. The reliability of the premodern Korean household register data for an historical demography analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, H

    1989-12-01

    The author examines the reliability of premodern Korean household register data from the Hyonnae-Myon sub-county for the period 1606-1789. The focus is on underreporting of household members less than 15 years of age, females, and slaves. The author reconstructs the population by age and sex and discusses methods of compensating for data errors and omissions in historical demography. (SUMMARY IN KOR) PMID:12342754

  12. Loose women or lost women? The re-emergence of the myth of white slavery in contemporary discourses of trafficking in women.

    PubMed

    Doezema, J

    2000-01-01

    This article compares current concerns about "trafficking in women" with turn of the century discourses about "white slavery". It traces the emergence of narratives on "white slavery" and their reemergence in the moral panics and boundary crises of contemporary discourses on "trafficking in women". Drawing on historical analysis and contemporary representations of sex worker migration, the paper argues that the narratives of innocent, virginal victims purveyed in the "trafficking in women" discourse are a modern version of the myth of "white slavery". These narratives, the article argues, reflect persisting anxieties about female sexuality and women's autonomy. Racialized representations of the migrant "Other" as helpless, child-like, victims strips sex workers of their agency. This article argues that while the myth of "trafficking in women"/"white slavery" is ostensibly about protecting women, the underlying moral concern is with the control of "loose women". Through the denial of migrant sex workers' agency, these discourses serve to reinforce notions of female dependence and purity that serve to further marginalize sex workers and undermine their human rights. PMID:12296110

  13. THE ROLE OF ANNOTATION IN UNDERSTANDING DISCOURSE

    E-print Network

    Bozsahin, Cem

    Corpus. 2 What Are Discourse Connectives? 2.1 Discourse Relations Theories of discourse describe a text `neither nor'), and a range of complex (-A ramen `although', -dAn dolayi `since') and simplex subordinators

  14. Discourse Science Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunathan, Harmon; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Four papers on science instruction are presented: "Science as a Human Activity" (Harmon Dunathan); "Science as a Historical Process" (Robert Proctor); "Science as a Creative Process" (Robert Pollack); and "Making Science Assessible" (Walter E. Massey). (MSE)

  15. The discourse of digital deceptions and ‘419’ emails

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Innocent Chiluwa

    2009-01-01

    This study applies a computer-mediated discourse analysis (CMDA) to the study of discourse structures and functions of ‘419’ emails — the Nigerian term for online\\/financial fraud. The hoax mails are in the form of online lottery winning announcements, and email ‘business proposals’ involving money transfers\\/claims of dormant bank accounts overseas. Data comprise 68 email samples collected from the researcher’s inboxes

  16. An historical, biographical, literary, and clinical consideration of Freud's 'Analysis Terminable and Interminable' on its fiftieth birthday.

    PubMed

    Loewenberg, P

    1988-01-01

    Freud's paper is re-examined and placed in biographical and historical context, Moses and monotheism (1934-1938) is treated as a parallel text. Freud's ironic scepticism is viewed against the background of Thomas Mann's 1936 idealization of psychoanalysis. Freud was a sick and dying man in 1937 with every reason for personal pessimism. The political setting was the triumph of fascism in Austria and the impending seizure of Austria by Hitler. Freud fantasized the protection of psychoanalysis by the Roman Catholic Church. The paper is a polemic against the theories of Ferenczi, Adler, and Rank. Contemporaneous defence of prophylactic analysis by Fenichel is reviewed. Freud's political judgement of the moral equivalence of Social Democracy and fascism is critiqued. Freud's injunction to periodic re-analysis and his vision of analysis as 'unending' is supported. The possibility of intergenerational prophylaxis is presented. PMID:3042656

  17. Exploring Students' Mapping Behaviors and Interactive Discourses in a Case Diagnosis Problem: Sequential Analysis of Collaborative Causal Map Drawing Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Woon Jee

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the nature of students' mapping and discourse behaviors while constructing causal maps to articulate their understanding of a complex, ill-structured problem. In this study, six graduate-level students were assigned to one of three pair groups, and each pair used the causal mapping software program,…

  18. Conceptual Change cum Discourse Analysis to Understand Cognition in a Unit on Chaotic Systems: Towards an Integrative Perspective on Learning in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duit, Reinders; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Komorek, Michael; Wilbers, Jens

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates how a well-designed curriculum can lead students to construct an unwanted conception. Concludes that the conceptual-change-cum-discourse perspective has the potential to integrate the affordances of both methodological approaches and past empirical accomplishments. Contains 33 references. (DDR)

  19. Coming out discourses of Asian American lesbians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lusha Li; Myron Orleans

    2001-01-01

    The authors examined the accounts of a small group of Asian American lesbians regarding their experiences forming their sexual\\u000a identities. Discourse analysis and the social constructionist approach were applied to the subjects’ accounts of their coming\\u000a out. Focus group subjects’ discussions were transcribed in order to depict the practices they employed to render their experiences\\u000a meaningful to themselves and others.

  20. The Anatomy of Critical Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfield, Lawrence W.

    1968-01-01

    Critical discourse is best understood when its logical features are identified. An examination of the basic elements and modes of rhetorical criticism (a form of critical discourse) produces a finite set of options for the critic, thus enabling him to develop a system of alternatives in his critical efforts. For example, by selecting from among…

  1. Promoting Civil Discourse on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Rita

    2010-01-01

    During the past several decades, off campus and on, much of the discourse on controversial issues has been personal, vicious, and divisive. On the national scene, politics has become permeated with incivility. It now appears that Americans have been naive about their ability and willingness to engage in civil discourse and compromise. How can…

  2. Dynamic Analysis of Historic Railway Bridges in Poland in the Context of Adjusting Them to Pendolino Trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gr?bowski, K.; Zieli?ska, M.

    2015-05-01

    The article presents the dynamic analysis of the historic railway bridge in Tczew as an example of the usefulness of such type of bridge for high-speed trains. The model of the bridge and the simulation of rolling stock passage was performed in SOFISTIK program. The scope of work includes experimental studies, the solution of the problem concerning the correct solution features of the dynamic model which takes into account the dependencies between the bridge, track and rolling - stock (RBT). The verification of the model was performed by comparing the results obtained on site during the passage of ET-22 locomotive and twenty (20) open goods wagons with the results obtained in the program for the identical type of rolling stock used to the simulation Pendolino train. Then, after the verification, the simulation of high-speed train passage was performed. The speed of the train passage varied from 150 [km/h] to the max. possible speed of 250 [km/h] which PENDOLINO train, approved for the simulation, may reach. Under the analysis of obtained results it was possible to define the conditions for adjusting the historic bridge to high-speed train passage.

  3. Efficient Analysis of Live and Historical Streaming Data and itsApplication to Cybersecurity

    SciTech Connect

    Reiss, Frederick; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng; Shoshani, Arie; Hellerstein, Joseph M.

    2007-04-06

    Applications that query data streams in order to identifytrends, patterns, or anomalies can often benefit from comparing the livestream data with archived historical stream data. However, searching thishistorical data in real time has been considered so far to beprohibitively expensive. One of the main bottlenecks is the update costsof the indices over the archived data. In this paper, we address thisproblem by using our highly-efficient bitmap indexing technology (calledFastBit) and demonstrate that the index update operations aresufficiently efficient for this bottleneck to be removed. We describe ourprototype system based on the TelegraphCQ streaming query processor andthe FastBit bitmap index. We present a detailed performance evaluation ofour system using a complex query workload for analyzing real networktraffic data. The combined system uses TelegraphCQ to analyze streams oftraffic information and FastBit to correlate current behaviors withhistorical trends. We demonstrate that our system can simultaneouslyanalyze (1) live streams with high data rates and (2) a large repositoryof historical stream data.

  4. Historical Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schick, James B. M.

    1988-01-01

    States that history instruction can be made meaningful and enlightening only by examining historical choices and their results against available options and likely consequences. Presenting examples, the author argues that well-crafted historical simulations focusing on such elements as choice and consequence, strategy and tactics provide a useful…

  5. An innovative method for nondestructive analysis of cast iron artifacts at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Martin f. Helmke

    2014-01-01

    Sampling cast iron produced by the furnace posed two problems. First, verification that the iron was actually cast at Hopewell Furnace was necessary, as some iron objects found at Hopewell may not have originated there. This was accomplished by using artifacts on display at the Hopewell visitor center (fig. 2). All artifacts on display have been positively attributed to the furnace, and stoves produced by the furnace are easily recognized by the name “Hopewell” cast into them. The second problem was the analysis of the trace metal content of the cast iron, because it was not possible to break off part of a historically important artifact and send it to a laboratory for analysis. This problem was solved when the USGS collaborated with West Chester University, which owns a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer.

  6. Spatial variability of sediment erosion processes using GIS analysis within watersheds in a historically mined region, Patagonia Mountains, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, Laura M.; Gray, Floyd; Wissler, Craig A.; Guertin, D. Phillip

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a geographic information system (GIS) is used to integrate and accurately map field studies, information from remotely sensed data, watershed models, and the dispersion of potentially toxic mine waste and tailings. The purpose of this study is to identify erosion rates and net sediment delivery of soil and mine waste/tailings to the drainage channel within several watershed regions to determine source areas of sediment delivery as a method of quantifying geo-environmental analysis of transport mechanisms in abandoned mine lands in arid climate conditions. Users of this study are the researchers interested in exploration of approaches to depicting historical activity in an area which has no baseline data records for environmental analysis of heavily mined terrain.

  7. Queering Literacy Teaching: Analyzing Gay-Themed Discourses in a Fifth-Grade Class in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moita-Lopes, Luiz Paulo

    2006-01-01

    Following queer theory and critical discourse analysis principles, my aims in this article are to analyze gay-themed discourses in literacy contexts and to suggest a way of queering literacy teaching. In the first part, I focus on ethnographically generated data from a class of fifth-graders in Brazil. The analysis shows that homoeroticism was…

  8. Expanding Discourse Options through Computer-Mediated Communication: Guiding Learners toward Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Lee B.; Williams, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a multiliteracies-based pedagogical framework for the analysis of computer-mediated discourse (CMD) in order to give students increased access to expanded discourse options that are available in online communication environments and communities (i.e., beyond the classroom). Through the analysis of excerpts and a corpus of…

  9. Good, Bad or Absent: Discourses of Parents with Disabilities in Australian News Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Vikki; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth

    2015-01-01

    Background: News media frames public perceptions. As such, news media becomes a useful source of analysis to understand the presence (or otherwise) of people with disabilities, particularly intellectual disabilities, within parenting discourses in Australia. Method: Using Critical Discourse Analysis, this article examines major Australian…

  10. Gramsci, Theory, and Modernity: A Historical Analysis of Antonio Gramsci's Conception of Race, Sex, Culture, and Politics 

    E-print Network

    Carley, Robert

    2012-07-16

    The goal of this dissertation is to investigate the impact that historical (and cultural) contexts have on the production of theories and concepts. In specific, I am interested in the relationship between historical and ...

  11. Water Resources Sustainability in Northwest Mexico: Analysis of Regional Infrastructure Plans under Historical and Climate Change Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, D.; Robles-Morua, A.; Mayer, A. S.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    The arid state of Sonora, Mexico, has embarked on a large water infrastructure project to provide additional water supply and improved sanitation to the growing capital of Hermosillo. The main component of the Sonora SI project involves an interbasin transfer from rural to urban water users that has generated conflicts over water among different social sectors. Through interactions with regional stakeholders from agricultural and water management agencies, we ascertained the need for a long-term assessment of the water resources of one of the system components, the Sonora River Basin (SRB). A semi-distributed, daily watershed model that includes current and proposed reservoir infrastructure was applied to the SRB. This simulation framework allowed us to explore alternative scenarios of water supply from the SRB to Hermosillo under historical (1980-2010) and future (2031-2040) periods that include the impact of climate change. We compared three precipitation forcing scenarios for the historical period: (1) a network of ground observations from Mexican water agencies; (2) gridded fields from the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) at 12 km resolution; and (3) gridded fields from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at 10 km resolution. These were compared to daily historical observations at two stream gauging stations and two reservoirs to generate confidence in the simulation tools. We then tested the impact of climate change through the use of the A2 emissions scenario and HadCM3 boundary forcing on the WRF simulations of a future period. Our analysis is focused on the combined impact of existing and proposed reservoir infrastructure at two new sites on the water supply management in the SRB under historical and future climate conditions. We also explore the impact of climate variability and change on the bimodal precipitation pattern from winter frontal storms and the summertime North American monsoon and its consequences on water management. Our results are presented in the form of flow duration, reliability and exceedence frequency curves that are commonly used in the water management agencies. Through this effort, we anticipate to build confidence among regional stakeholders in utilizing hydrological models in the development of water infrastructure plans and to foster conversations that address water sustainability issues.

  12. Analysis of pigments and inks on oil paintings and historical manuscripts using total reflection x?ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Klockenkämper; A. von Bohlen; L. Moens

    2000-01-01

    Old oil paintings and illuminated historical manuscripts are valuable objects of cultural heritage. Pigments and inks once used for these artefacts today allow insights of art historical or archaeological relevance. For their identification, a number of non-destructive spectroanalytical methods can be applied. This paper first gives a historical review and describes fundamentals of optical and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry including instrumentation

  13. The Power of Discourse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Torbjorn Wandel

    The debate that contrasts Marxism and the work of Michel Foucault often overlooks that both projects share a political and ethical commitment. Both have moreover engaged that commitment by challeng- ing what Marx called 'traditional ideas', viewing them as historically complicit with the exercise of power. This 'radical rupture' with tradi- tional ideas has been the hallmark of the critical

  14. A Discourse on Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the historical context of mathematics education research methodologies, describes methodological trends through the "Journal for Research in Mathematics Education" focusing on the domain of teacher knowledge and practice, and considers theoretical and methodological issues of the present and future. (25 references) (MKR)

  15. The Biomedical Discourse Relation Bank

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rashmi Prasad; Susan McRoy; Nadya Frid; Aravind K. Joshi; Hong Yu

    2011-01-01

    Background  Identification of discourse relations, such as causal and contrastive relations, between situations mentioned in text is an\\u000a important task for biomedical text-mining. A biomedical text corpus annotated with discourse relations would be very useful\\u000a for developing and evaluating methods for biomedical discourse processing. However, little effort has been made to develop\\u000a such an annotated resource.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  We have developed the Biomedical

  16. Historical Trends

    Cancer.gov

    Close Window State Cancer Profiles Quick Reference Guides ? Quick Reference Guides Index Historical Trends Send to Printer Text description of this image. Site Home Policies Accessibility Viewing Files FOIA Contact Us U.S. Department of Health and Human

  17. The Malaysian Intellectual: A Brief Historical Overview of the Discourse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DEBORAH JOHNSON

    ABSTRAK Kertas ini memperkatakan wacana yang melibatkan intelektual di Malaysia. Ia menegaskan bahawa sesuai dengan perubahan sosio-politik, 'bidang makna' yang berkaitan konsep 'intelektual' dan lokasi sosial sebenar para intelektual itu sudah mengalami perubahan besar sepanjang abad dua puluh. Ini menimbulkan cabaran kepada sejarahwan yang ingin melihat masa lampau dengan kaca mata masa kini tetapi yang sepatutnya perlu difahami dengan tanggapan

  18. Statistical methods for pavement performance curve building, historical analysis, data sampling and storage. Final report, May 1997--July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, K.A.; Bahulkar, A.M.

    1998-08-01

    The use of a pavement management system provides a state highway agency with the tools necessary to conduct a multi-year analysis of the maintenance and rehabilitation needs within the state based on both current needs and expected future conditions. In order to adequately predict future conditions, pavement performance models must be developed to reflect the deterioration trends of the agency`s pavements. At the time the SDDOT pavement management system was implemented in 1994, the Department developed a new condition rating system to evaluate the existing conditions of the state maintained pavements. At the same time, expert-based pavement performance models were developed to approximate the deterioration patterns of the highways based on pavement families (groupings of pavements with similar characteristics). A recommendation from that study (SD93-14) was to update the curves based on historical performance once sufficient data had been collected.

  19. Historical data and analysis for the first five years of KSC STS payload processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragusa, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    General and specific quantitative and qualitative results were identified from a study of actual operational experience while processing 186 science, applications, and commercial payloads for the first 5 years of Space Transportation System (STS) operations at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC). All non-Department of Defense payloads from STS-2 through STS-33 were part of the study. Historical data and cumulative program experiences from key personnel were used extensively. Emphasis was placed on various program planning and events that affected KSC processing, payload experiences and improvements, payload hardware condition after arrival, services to customers, and the impact of STS operations and delays. From these initial considerations, operational drivers were identified, data for selected processing parameters collected and analyzed, processing criteria and options determined, and STS payload results and conclusions reached. The study showed a significant reduction in time and effort needed by STS customers and KSC to process a wide variety of payload configurations. Also of significance is the fact that even the simplest payloads required more processing resources than were initially assumed. The success to date of payload integration, testing, and mission operations, however, indicates the soundness of the approach taken and the methods used.

  20. Historical analysis of water quantity and quality in the Elbow River watershed, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bladon, K. D.; Dixon, J.; Silins, U.; Emelko, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    The Elbow River watershed (1235 km2) originates in the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta and represents ~40% of the water supply to the City of Calgary, the third largest municipality in Canada (1.1-million residents). The majority of runoff originates from snowmelt in the alpine zone and forested sub-alpine; it then flows down through parkland and foothills regions before entering the Glenmore Reservoir and/or merging with the Bow River. Historically, the watershed has provided an abundant supply of high quality water. However, there are recent indications that water quality (phosphorus, nitrogen, total suspended solids) in the lower reaches has deteriorated. We present ~13-23 years of water quality and associated hydrologic data for several sub-watersheds within the Elbow River basin. We use this data to characterize the temporal variability of river discharge and key water quality parameters among the dominant hydrologic seasons (pre-melt freshet, rising limb of the annual hydrograph, recession limb of the annual hydrograph, and late summer / fall baseflows). We then characterize the spatial variation in discharge and water quality along a gradient of increasing human impact from the Rocky Mountain headwaters to the City of Calgary.

  1. Well, Now, Okey Dokey: English Discourse Markers in Spanish Language Medical Consultations

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Caroline H.; Goble, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine use of English discourse markers in otherwise Spanish language consultations. Data is derived from an audio-recorded corpus of Spanish language consultations that took place in a small community clinic in the United States as well as post-consultation interviews with patients and providers. Through quantification of the use of discourse makers in the corpus and discourse analysis of transcripts, we demonstrate that English-speaking dominant medical providers use English discourse markers more frequently and with a broader range of functions than do Spanish-speaking dominant medical providers and patients. We argue that such use of English discourse markers serves to exacerbate the power relationship between providers and patients even though the use of English discourse markers does not cause overt miscommunication in the ongoing interaction. Implications for providers who use a second language in their medical consultations are discussed. PMID:24347670

  2. Competence: Analysis, Critique, Reassessment. A Report of a Conference Held May 18-20, 1980, under the Auspices of the College of Education, the Pennsylvania State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Edmund C.

    A report provides summaries of 10 papers presented at a conference about teacher competence and effectiveness. In the first session, two speakers, Nel Noddings and Edward R. Fagan, present an analysis of the prevailing rhetoric in educational discourse and practice. The second session provides historical perspectives on the use of the term…

  3. Understanding Sun-Climate Connection by Analysis of Historical Sunspot, Auroral and Weather Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, K. D.; Yau, K. K.

    2005-12-01

    Fifty years of galactic cosmic ray data show changes with the solar cycle. Deflection of the highly energetic particles from exploding supernovae by the solar wind and associated magnetic field also modulates cosmogenic radioisotope production high in the atmosphere. The same trends are seen in carbon-14 and beryllium-10 abundances from long-lived trees and polar ice cores, respectively. Total solar irradiances measured by satellite radiometers show a 0.1% variance over the last two solar cycles, with only a small effect on global temperatures. A longer view is obviously needed. During the Maunder Minimum (1645-1715) sunspots were rarely seen. Total solar irradiances, reconstructed from historical sunspot data, were 0.24% lower, correlating nicely with an estimated 0.5-degree drop in Northern Hemisphere surface temperatures during the Little Ice Age [Lean and Rind, J. Clim. 11, 3069, 1998]. A longer time series has been reconstructed from even earlier records. From the frequencies of sunspot and auroral sightings in East Asian and European chronicles, C-14 and Be-10 abundances we have reconstructed the recent history of a variable Sun. In the past 1800 years the Sun has gone through nine cycles of brightness change. Although these long-term changes were <1% they have clearly affected the climate [Pang and Yau, Eos 83, No. 43, 481, 2002]. We have also analyzed Chinese historical weather records for comparison. Reports of unseasonable cold are classified by their degree of severity: (1) Late (April-June) or early (July-Sept.) killing frosts; (2) Bitter cold/heavy snowfall; and (3) Heavy sustained snowfall, bitter cold with frozen wells, lakes, rivers and icebound seas. The latter cases were often widespread and multi-year. All categories occurred most often during Maunder Minimum. The Category 3 episodes were in 1652-54, 1656, 1664, 1670-72, 1676-77, 1683, 1688-91, 1716 and 1718-19. The coldest time 1670-1697 coincides with lows in aurora sightings and numerical model simulated temperatures, and highs in radioisotope production. There was only one Category 3 episode between the Maunder and Dalton Minima-in 1761 (due to a big eruption); and two in the Dalton Minimum (1795-1825)-in 1796 and 1814-17. The 1815 Tambora eruption, with the reduced solar luminosity, seem to have been responsible for the "year without summer" and long-cold spell. The Sun has brightened since the Dalton Minimum, but the climate of China stayed cold through the 19th century. However there were only two Category 3 episodes: in 1841 and 1877. The onset of global warming reduced that to just once in the 20th century: 1955. The climate of China seems to have been warm during the Late 14th-Century Maximum (1350-1410). We have found only one Category 1 episode: in 1393. It then turned cold during the Sporer Minimum (1410-1590). Category 3 episodes occurred in 1453-54, 1493, 1513, 1569, and 1577-78. The early 1453 great Kuwae eruption apparently deepened and prolonged the first [Pang, Eos 74, No. 43, 106, 1993; Simarski, Aramco World 47, No.6, 8, 1996]. We conclude that the climate of China in the past 650 years generally follows world trend. The major forcing seems to have been changing solar luminosity, as all but four severe weather episodes coincide with solar minimum. The exact mechanism remains unknown, but could have been increased cloudiness.

  4. Geohazard assessment through the analysis of historical alluvial events in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Eliana; Violante, Crescenzo

    2015-04-01

    The risk associated with extreme water events such as flash floods, results from a combination of overflows and landslides hazards. A multi-hazard approach have been utilized to analyze the 1773 flood that occurred in conjunction with heavy rainfall, causing major damage in terms of lost lives and economic cost over an area of 200 km2, including both the coastal strip between Salerno and Maiori and the Apennine hinterland, Campania region - Southern Italy. This area has been affected by a total of 40 flood events over the last five centuries, 26 of them occurred between 1900 and 2000. Streamflow events have produced severe impacts on Cava de' Tirreni (SA) and its territory and in particular four catastrophic floods in 1581, 1773, 1899 and 1954, caused a pervasive pattern of destruction. In the study area, rainstorm events typically occur in small and medium-sized fluvial system, characterized by small catchment areas and high-elevation drainage basins, causing the detachment of large amount of volcaniclastic and siliciclastic covers from the carbonate bedrock. The mobilization of these deposits (slope debris) mixed with rising floodwaters along the water paths can produce fast-moving streamflows of large proportion with significant hazardous implications (Violante et al., 2009). In this context the study of 1773 historical flood allows the detection and the definition of those areas where catastrophic events repeatedly took place over the time. Moreover, it improves the understanding of the phenomena themselves, including some key elements in the management of risk mitigation, such as the restoration of the damage suffered by the buildings and/or the environmental effects caused by the floods.

  5. Negotiating Contested Discourses of Learning Technologies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, John; Bretag, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the way that learning technologies frame teaching practice in higher education using both autoethnography and discourse analysis (interpretative repertoires). The analysis juxtaposes our own experience in the form of data from two interviews, with teaching and learning policy documents from the group of five Australian…

  6. Historical analysis of airborne beryllium concentrations at a copper beryllium machining facility (1964-2000).

    PubMed

    McAtee, B L; Donovan, E P; Gaffney, S H; Frede, W; Knutsen, J S; Paustenbach, D J

    2009-06-01

    Copper beryllium alloys are the most commonly used form of beryllium; however, there have been few studies assessing occupational exposure in facilities that worked exclusively with this alloy versus those where pure metal or beryllium oxide may also have been present. In this paper, we evaluated the airborne beryllium concentrations at a machining plant using historical industrial hygiene samples collected between 1964 and 2000. With the exception of a few projects conducted in the 1960s, it is believed that >95% of the operations used copper beryllium alloy exclusively. Long-term (>120 min) and short-term (<120 min) personal and area samples were collected during a variety of activities including machining of copper beryllium-containing parts, as well as finishing operations (e.g., deburring and polishing) and decontamination of machinery. A total of 580 beryllium air samples were analyzed (311 personal and 269 area samples). The average concentration based on area samples (1964-2000) was 0.021 microg m(-3) (SD 0.17 microg m(-3); range 0.00012-2.5 microg m(-3)); 68.8% were below the analytical limit of detection (LOD). The average airborne beryllium concentration, based on all personal samples available from 1964 through the end of 2000 (n = 311), was 0.026 microg m(-3) (SD 0.059 microg m(-3); range 0.019-0.8 microg m(-3)); 97.4% were below the LOD. Personal samples collected from machinists (n = 78) had an average airborne concentration of 0.021 microg m(-3) (SD 0.014 microg m(-3); range 0.019-0.14 microg m(-3)); 97.4% were below the LOD. Airborne concentrations were consistently below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit for beryllium (2 microg m(-3)). Overall, the data indicate that for machining operations involving copper beryllium, the airborne concentrations for >95% of the samples were below the contemporaneous occupational exposure limits or the 1999 Department of Energy action level of 0.2 microg m(-3) and, in most cases, were below the LOD. PMID:19383942

  7. Circulating Discourses of Minority Education: The Linguistic Construction of Modernity in Globalizing Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shumin

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on 15 months of fieldwork in Taiwan, this article analyzes circulating discourses and practices across heterogeneous scales that conflate Taiwanese minority-language elders with foreign brides as nonmodern and childlike. The assiduous production and reproduction of historically and geographically displaced linguistic Others is part and…

  8. Affirmative Action and Education in Fiji: Legitimation, Contestation, and Colonial Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Carmen M.

    2001-01-01

    As in the United States, affirmative action policies in Fiji were intended to correct past injustices. However, their proponents' use of colonial discourse fails to acknowledge the historical roots of the lower educational attainment of Fijians, which is a legacy of colonial policies. (SK)

  9. English 283: Rhetorical Theory and Applications--"Rhetorical Theory, Mass Media, and Public Discourse"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grettano, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a course design of English 283: Rhetorical Theory and Applications. The course is described in the undergraduate catalogue as offering a "critical and analytical examination of the nature and historical development of rhetorical theory and its applications to contemporary discourse." The course fulfills requirements for the…

  10. Principled, Transformational Leadership: Analyzing the Discourse of Leadership in the Development of Librarianship's Core Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Deborah; Given, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Using discourse analysis, this article explores three questions: (a) Why was "principled, transformational leadership" the leadership style added to Core Competences? (b) What was the discourse of leadership in the profession surrounding the development of the Core Competences? (c) How might this competence affect LIS education? And what measures,…

  11. Discourse Strategies in Professional E-Mail Negotiation: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Astrid

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to report on some of the preliminary results of an on-going study on the use of discourse strategies in e-mail negotiation. The analysis aims at showing how relations between the participants develop through the use of specific discourse strategies in their e-mail communication which covers a period of three months,…

  12. Semantic Systems, Discourse Structure, and the Ecology of Language. Working Papers in Sociolinguistics, No. 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherzer, Joel

    This analysis seeks to link discourse structure and semantic or lexical systems. The example is given of a Cuna curing chant named "the way of the pepper," in which 53 names for pepper ("kapur") are used in a projection of a paradigmatic axis (the lexical taxonomy) onto a syntagmatic axis. A corollary of the principle of viewing discourse from…

  13. Characteristics of Pre-Service Teachers' Online Discourse: The Study of Local Streams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Ling L.; Ebenezer, Jazlin; Yost, Deborah S.

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the characteristics of pre-service teachers' discourse on a WebCT Bulletin Board in their investigations of local streams in an integrated mathematics and science course. A qualitative analysis of data revealed that the pre-service teachers conducted collaborative discourse in framing their research questions, conducting…

  14. Turkish Language Teachers' Stance Taking Movements in the Discourse on Globalization and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coskun, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how Turkish teachers take and give stances in the discourse on globalization and language by using linguistic resources. According to the findings obtained through the discourse analysis of the corpus that consisted of 36 h of recording of the discussion among 4 teachers with 5 to 10 years of teaching experience, the…

  15. "Are They Just Checking Our Obesity or What?" The Healthism Discourse and Rural Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jessica; Macdonald, Doune

    2010-01-01

    This paper makes use of critical discourse analysis and Bourdieu's theoretical framework to explore rural young women's meanings of health and fitness and how the healthism discourse is perpetuated through their experiences in school physical education (PE). The young women's own meanings are explored alongside interview data from their school PE…

  16. Discourse coalitions and consumer understanding of organic and pesticide free vegetables in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett Wyatt

    2009-01-01

    This paper will demonstrate how discourse coalitions promote and institutionalize regulations, communicating the meanings of certified, alternative agricultural production processes through the labeling of vegetable produce. This analysis introduces the concepts of discourse coalitions as a way to evaluate the power and linkages constituting an alternative agricultural commodity network. The actors constituting these networks will be shown to work as

  17. Beyond Teachers' Sight Lines: Using Video Modeling to Examine Peer Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotsopoulos, Donna

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces readers to various examples of discourse analysis in mathematics education. Highlighted is interactional sociolinguistics, used in a present study to investigate peer discourse in a middle-school setting. Key findings from this study include the benefits of video modeling as a mechanism for fostering inclusive peer group…

  18. A Foucaultian Critique of Learning Disability Discourses: Personal Narratives and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazher, Waseem

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I present a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of two discourses in learning disabilities (LD)--the academic research literature on emotions of students labeled as LD and retrospective autobiographies from adults labeled as LD writing about their emotions as students. Drawing mainly on Foucaultian explanations of power, I…

  19. Pathology Case Study: Lash's Bitters - Biochemical Analysis of a Historic Proprietary Medicine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Beiler, Bonnie

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology. This case examines the history of medicine by tracing the origins and development of proprietary medications. Visitors will find a collection of bottle and advertisement images, analysis procedures results from medications, discussion of those results, and references for further reading. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to understand the history of medicine, the development of proprietary medications, and the biochemical analysis of them. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical chemistry.

  20. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 102, NO. C13, PAGES 27,835-27,860, DECEMBER 15, 1997 Reduced space optimal analysis for historical data sets'

    E-print Network

    Kaplan, Alexey

    space optimal analysis for historical data sets' 136 years of Atlantic sea surface temperatures Alexey usinga reducedspacefor data set analyses. Difficultiesof methodswhich simply fit EOF patternsto controland otherstatistics(e.g., Comprehen- siveOcean-AtmosphereData Set (COADS) [Woodruff Copyright 1997

  1. Evaluating Review Content for Book Selection: An Analysis of American History Reviews in "Choice,""American Historical Review," and "Journal of American History."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natowitz, Allen; Carlo, Paula Wheeler

    1997-01-01

    Applies content analysis to compare assessments of 153 titles in U.S. history, each reviewed in "Choice,""American Historical Review," and "Journal of American History" between 1988 and 1995. A numerical rating system is used to quantify reviewers' overall opinions and their use of specific evaluative criteria. (Author/LRW)

  2. An Historical Analysis of the United States Naval Academy Graduates in the United States Air Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, William E.

    The purpose of the study is to provide an analysis of the Naval Academy graduates who were commissioned in the Air Force upon graduation. Active duty personnel records were searched to determine retention, rank, professional military education, education level and career field assignments. Comparisons were made between this group and the regular…

  3. The application of cross?sections in the analysis of historic textiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cordelia Rogerson; Dinah Eastop

    1999-01-01

    Cross?sections are widely used in documenting and examining many types of artefact except textiles. Limited previous use with painted textiles already indicated the utility of the technique within textile conservation. This paper is based on a project undertaken to investigate the potential of the technique. The type of information generated by this type of analysis is characterised and case histories

  4. Energy flow on Georges Bank revisited: the energy modeling and analysis exercise (EMAX) in historical contexts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Link; John O'Reilly; Michael Fogarty; David Dow; Joseph Vitaliano; Chris Legault; William Overholtz; Jack Green; Debra Palka; Vincent Guida; Jon Brodziak; Elizabeth Methratta; William T. Stockhausen

    2008-01-01

    We developed a mass balance ecosystem network model for Georges Bank, a highly productive and intensively studied marine system located off the New England coast. This effort is part of a broader initiative, the Energy Modeling and Analysis eXercise (EMAX), to describe ecosystem char- acteristics of major ecoregions of the Northeast Continental Shelf of the United States. Energy bud- gets

  5. Translational research in behavior analysis: historical traditions and imperative for the future.

    PubMed

    Mace, F Charles; Critchfield, Thomas S

    2010-05-01

    "Pure basic" science can become detached from the natural world that it is supposed to explain. "Pure applied" work can become detached from fundamental processes that shape the world it is supposed to improve. Neither demands the intellectual support of a broad scholarly community or the material support of society. Translational research can do better by seeking innovation in theory or practice through the synthesis of basic and applied questions, literatures, and methods. Although translational thinking has always occurred in behavior analysis, progress often has been constrained by a functional separation of basic and applied communities. A review of translational traditions in behavior analysis suggests that innovation is most likely when individuals with basic and applied expertise collaborate. Such innovation may have to accelerate for behavior analysis to be taken seriously as a general-purpose science of behavior. We discuss the need for better coordination between the basic and applied sectors, and argue that such coordination compromises neither while benefiting both. PMID:21119847

  6. Historical eclipses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. R. Stephenson

    1982-01-01

    A historical overview of solar and lunar eclipses is presented in relation to calculating the change in diameter of the sun and the rate of spin of the earth. A 1979 estimate of change in the sun's diameter, based on daily observations since 1750, is calculated to be a 2 arcsec shrinkage, or about .1% per century. Based on solar

  7. Assessing reference conditions according to the European Water Framework Directive using modelling and analysis of historical data: an example from Randers Fjord, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Kurt; Sømod, Bent; Ellegaard, Christina; Krause-Jensen, Dorte

    2003-06-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires the definition of reference conditions, i.e. pristine conditions, for all surface waters. As the present state of Danish coastal waters cannot be referred to as pristine, reference conditions have to be assessed by analysis of historical data or by the use of models. Using Randers Fjord as an example, the aim of this work was i) to demonstrate possibilities and restrictions of assessing reference conditions by historical data and by modelling; and ii) to demonstrate how ecological conditions have changed along with eutrophication. The ample historical data from Randers Fjord allowed us to assess reference conditions with respect to benthic macrophytes and benthic fauna. Models of varying complexity enabled us to assess reference conditions for nutrients, chlorophyll a, Secchi depth, and eelgrass. We conclude that models can be a useful supplement to assess reference conditions, though they are presently restricted by the lack of quantitative links between eutrophication and species composition. PMID:12956595

  8. Statistical methods for pavement performance curve building, historical analysis, data sampling and storage: Appendix D. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The technical memorandum is intended to discuss the detailed procedure required for carrying out the statistical analyses of historical pavement condition data for building pavement performance curves. This chapter assumes the availability of the historical data in a spreadsheet format (Microsoft{trademark} Excel) that has been retrieved from the master (pavement management system) database.

  9. A Vegetation Analysis on Horn Island Mississippi, ca. 1940 using Habitat Characteristic Dimensions Derived from Historical Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeter, G. W.; Carter, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Guy (Will) Wilburn Jeter Jr., Gregory A. Carter University of Southern Mississippi Geography and Geology Gulf Coast Geospatial Center The over-arching goal of this research is to assess habitat change over a seventy year period to better understand the combined effects of global sea level rise and storm impacts on the stability of Horn Island, MS habitats. Historical aerial photography is often overlooked as a resource for use in determining habitat change. However, the spatial information provided even by black and white imagery can give insight into past habitat composition via textural analysis. This research will evaluate characteristic dimensions; most notably patch size of habitat types using simple geo-statistics and textures of brightness values of historical aerial imagery. It is assumed that each cover type has an identifiable patch size that can be used as a unique classifier of each habitat type. Analytical methods applied to the 1940 imagery were developed using 2010 field data and USDA aerial imagery. Textural moving window methods and basic geo-statistics were used to estimate characteristic dimensions of each cover type in 1940 aerial photography. The moving window texture analysis was configured with multiple window sizes to capture the characteristic dimensions of six habitat types; water, bare sand , dune herb land, estuarine shrub land, marsh land and slash pine woodland. Coefficient of variation (CV), contrast, and entropy texture filters were used to analyze the spatial variability of the 1940 and 2010 imagery. (CV) was used to depict the horizontal variability of each habitat characteristic dimension. Contrast was used to represent the variability of bright versus dark pixel values; entropy was used to show the variation in the slash pine woodland habitat type. Results indicate a substantial increase in marshland habitat relative to other habitat types since 1940. Results also reveal each habitat-type, such as dune herb-land, marsh-land, estuarine shrub-land, bare sand, slash pine woodland, and water exhibit a characteristic dimension that may be estimated from horizontal variability in image brightness values. These characteristic dimensions are estimated at less than one 1 meter for marsh-land bare sand and water, 3 meters for estuarine shrub-land and dune herb-land, and 5 to 7 meters for slash pine woodland.

  10. Landscape Vulnerability Analysis from Historic Lower Mississippi River Flood in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwell, A. E.; Zhu, Z.; Dutta, D.; Greenberg, J.; Kumar, P.; Garcia, M. H.; Rhoads, B. L.; Parker, G.; Berretta, D.; Holmes, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    This study presents the results of a landscape vulnerability analysis of the Birds Point New Madrid Floodway in southeastern Missouri. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers intentionally inundated 500 square kilometers of agricultural floodplain in May of 2011 as an emergency flood control measure. We use pre-flood (2005) and post-flood (2011) high resolution Lidar data to establish the landscape impact of the levee breach on the floodplain. The Lidar DEMs were corrected for flight line errors using a Fourier filtering technique, and then subtracted to obtain a differential DEM of erosion and deposition patterns. We use soil erosion characteristics, AVIRIS remote sensing data, and 2D floodplain modeling to analyze the three components of vulnerability: sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity. HydroSed2D (Liu, Landry and García 2008), a 2D flow model, is implemented to simulate flow depths and speeds, or flood exposure, over the entire floodway, as well as smaller sections at increased resolution using a nested grid. We classify woody vegetation based on AVIRIS remote sensing data, and represent vegetated regions in the model as varied values of the Manning's n coefficient. Soil erodibility, vegetation, topography, and flow characteristics are compared to observed landscape changes within the floodplain. Overall, the floodway showed a remarkable resilience to an extreme flood event. When compared to levee breaches on similar rivers in other floods, the lack of newly deposited sediment is noticeable and likely attributable to the presence of a substantial riparian corridor between the main channel of the Mississippi River and the floodway. Although many meander scars indicating former channels of the Mississippi River are apparent in the topography, only one, known as O'Bryan Ridge, experienced high volumes of erosion and deposition due to the flooding. The vulnerability analysis supports the hypothesis this high impact is due to a combination of vulnerability factors such as high flow speed, few localized patches of vegetation, and high soil erodibility at this ridge compared to other similar meander scars. The methodology of this analysis can be used to locate regions of high vulnerability in future floodplain management and flood control, and mitigate potentially catastrophic landscape change.

  11. Uncertainty in LOCA (loss-of-coolant accident) analysis historical discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, L.H.

    1988-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Commissioners approved the proposed change to 10 CFR Part 50 Appendix K in July 1988. The change allows reactor vendors to use either the previous Appendix K requirements or a best-estimate analysis with defined uncertainties. This change to Appendix K has led NRC to investigate and the nuclear industry to develop an acceptable method to evaluate the uncertainty in design-base thermal-hydraulic codes. Uncertainty methods suitable for the design-base codes have been investigated by both the NRC and nuclear industry since the late 1970's. This early work provides a good base for the current work and will allow the nuclear industry to use the advantages that the recently approved change to Appendix K offers. 11 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. A historical review and bibliometric analysis of research on estuary pollution.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jinshui; Wang, Ming-Huang; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2012-01-01

    A bibliometric method based on Science Citation Index-Expanded published by the Thomson Reuters was used to quantitatively assess the global estuary pollution research from 1991 to 2010. The main results were as follows: there had been a notable growth trend in publication outputs. Marine Pollution Bulletin was the most active journal. Environmental sciences were top popular subject categories. USA produced the most single, internationally collaborative, first authored and corresponding authored articles. The Chinese Academy of Sciences was the most productive institute for the total articles. Sediment was the most active research topic, which ranked 1st in article title, article abstract, author keyword, and KeyWords Plus analysis, respectively. Heavy metals received stable focus on a high degree in the field of estuary pollution research. Mostly refractory organic compounds (e.g. PAHs) became more active. Biomarkers and bioaccumulation both were active issues. Eutrophication of estuarine waters receives increasing concern in estuary pollution research. PMID:22119413

  13. Negotiating discourses: Sixth-grade students’ use of multiple science discourses during a science fair presentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberley Gomez

    2007-01-01

    This study offers important insights into the coexistence of multiple discourses and the link between these discourses and science understanding. It offers concrete examples of students’ movement between multiple discourses in sixth-grade science fair presentations, and shows how those multiple discourses in science practices illuminate students’ understanding of science and offer insights into how they engage in the complex thinking

  14. Negotiating Discourses: Sixth-Grade Students' Use of Multiple Science Discourses during a Science Fair Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Kimberley

    2007-01-01

    This study offers important insights into the coexistence of multiple discourses and the link between these discourses and science understanding. It offers concrete examples of students' movement between multiple discourses in sixth-grade science fair presentations, and shows how those multiple discourses in science practices illuminate students'…

  15. Tree-ring analysis by pixe for a historical record of soil chemistry response to acidic air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legge, Allan H.; Kaufmann, Henry C.; Winchester, John W.

    1984-04-01

    Tree cores have been analyzed intact in 1 mm steps, corresponding to time intervals in the rings as short as half a growing season, providing a chronological record of 16 elemental concentrations extending over thirty years back to 1950. Samples were collected in a forested region of western Canada in sandy soil which was impacted by acid-forming gases released by a sulfur recovery sour natural gas plant. Tree core samples of the hybrid lodgepole-Jack pine ( Pinns contorta Loud. × Pinus banksiana Lamb.) were taken in five ecologically similar locations between 1.2 and 9.6 km from the gas plant stacks. Concentrations of some elements showed patterns suggesting that the annual rings preserved a record of changing soil chemistry in response both to natural environmental conditions and to deposition from sulfur gas emissions, commencing after plant start-up in 1959 and modified by subsequent modifications in plant operating procedures. These patterns were most pronounced nearest the gas plant. Certain other elements did not exhibit these patterns, probably reflecting greater importance of biological than of soil chemical properties. The high time resolution of tree-ring analysis, which can be achieved by PIXE, demonstrates that the rings preserve a historical record of elemental composition which may reflect changes in soil chemistry during plant growth as it may be affected by both natural ecological processes and acidic deposition from the atmosphere.

  16. Which lesson can be learnt from a historical contamination analysis of the most polluted river in Europe?

    PubMed

    Lofrano, Giusy; Libralato, Giovanni; Acanfora, Floriana Giuseppina; Pucci, Luca; Carotenuto, Maurizio

    2015-08-15

    The Sarno River trend analysis during the last 60 years was traced focusing on the socio-economic and environmental issues. The river, originally worshiped as a god by Romans, is affected by an extreme level of environmental degradation, being sadly reputed as the most polluted river in Europe. This is the "not to be followed" example of the worst way a European river can be managed. Data about water, sediment, soil, biota and air contamination were collected from scientific papers, monitoring surveys, and technical reports depicting a sick river. Originally, the river was reputed as a source of livelihood, now it is considered a direct threat for human health. Wastewater can still flow through the river partially or completely untreated, waste production associated with the manufacture of metal products and leather tanning continues to suffer from the historical inadequacy of regional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), associated with the partial or no reuse of effluents. All efforts should be devoted to solving the lack of wastewater and waste management, the gap in land planning, improving the capacity of existing WWTPs also via the construction of new sewer sections, restoring Sarno River minimum vital-flow, keeping to a minimum uncontrolled discharges as well as supporting river contracts. The 2015 goal stated by the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) is still far to be reached. The lesson has not been learnt yet. PMID:25897731

  17. Analysis of mercury levels in historical bone material from syphilitic subjects--pilot studies (short report).

    PubMed

    Kepa, Ma?gorzata; Koz?owski, Tomasz; Szostek, Krzysztof; Drozd, Alicja; Walas, Stanis?aw; Mrowiec, Halina; Stepa?czak, Beata; G?ab, Henryk; Grupa, Ma?gorzata

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the remains of seven individuals with typical symptoms of tertiary syphilis in terms of mercury content in bones, thereby verifying whether they were subjected to treatment and, if they were, how long their organisms were exposed to toxic mercury fumes. Mercury was used, mainly in the Middle Ages and in the early modern period, as a preventive measure in case of individuals suffering from syphilis, a venereal disease, and also leprosy. Syphilitic patients treated this way should demonstrate increased concentration of mercury in their bones. The skeletons studied in the present work originate from various archaeological sites in southern and north-central Poland. The analyses concerned individuals with diagnosed syphilis as well as healthy individuals who constituted the control group. The analyses were performed by the LA-ICP-MS technique, with the use of laser Nd: YAG, Macro, 266 nm, New Wave, USA, coupled with Spectrometer Elan DRC-e Perkin Elmer, USA. The content analysis of the studied bone material revealed with high probability that the contact method of mercurial treatment was used only in the case of two women from north-central Poland, deceased at the turn of the 15th century at the earliest. PMID:22928357

  18. Wavelength resolved neutron transmission analysis to identify single crystal particles in historical metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzagli, E.; Grazzi, F.; Salvemini, F.; Scherillo, A.; Sato, H.; Shinohara, T.; Kamiyama, T.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Tremsin, A.; Zoppi, Marco

    2014-07-01

    The phase composition and the microstructure of four ferrous Japanese arrows of the Edo period (17th-19th century) has been determined through two complementary neutron techniques: Position-sensitive wavelength-resolved neutron transmission analysis (PS-WRNTA) and time-of-flight neutron diffraction (ToF-ND). Standard ToF-ND technique has been applied by using the INES diffractometer at the ISIS pulsed neutron source in the UK, while the innovative PS-WRNTA one has been performed at the J-PARC neutron source on the BL-10 NOBORU beam line using the high spatial high time resolution neutron imaging detector. With ToF-ND we were able to reach information about the quantitative distribution of the metal and non-metal phases, the texture level, the strain level and the domain size of each of the samples, which are important parameters to gain knowledge about the technological level of the Japanese weapon. Starting from this base of data, the more complex PS-WRNTA has been applied to the same samples. This experimental technique exploits the presence of the so-called Bragg edges, in the time-of-flight spectrum of neutrons transmitted through crystalline materials, to map the microstructural properties of samples. The two techniques are non-invasive and can be easily applied to archaeometry for an accurate microstructure mapping of metal and ceramic artifacts.

  19. Historic treasures 

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    tx H2O | pg. 24 Story by Kathy Wythe historic experimental watershed in the Blackland Prairie of Central Texas is providing a treasure trove of information that the water resource community throughout the United States is using. For more... manually from the 40 small watersheds and 57 rain gauges. They were on call 24/7 to collect runoff water quality data during storms. Now the staff handles collection electronically with state-of-the-art instrumentation. Harmel explained...

  20. Discourse Segmentation by Human and Automated Means

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca J. Passonneau; Diane J. Litman

    1997-01-01

    The need to model the relation between discourse structure and linguistic features of utterances is almost universally acknowledged in the literature on discourse. However, there is only weak consensus on what the units of discourse structure are, or the criteria for recognizing and generating them. We present quantitative results of a two-part study using a corpus of spontaneous, narrative monologues.

  1. The Complexity of Chinese Pedagogic Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Liang; Xu, Nan

    2011-01-01

    This is one of the commentaries on Wu's "Interpretation, autonomy, and transformation: Chinese pedagogic discourse in a cross-cultural perspective" ("JCS", 43(5), 569-590). It highlights the paper's demystification of Western pedagogic discourse and recovery of the meaning of Chinese traditional pedagogic discourse as a response to the…

  2. Complementary use of the Raman and XRF techniques for non-destructive analysis of historical paint layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawczak, M.; Kami?ska, A.; Rabczuk, G.; Ferretti, M.; Jendrzejewski, R.; ?liwi?ski, G.

    2009-03-01

    The portable XRF spectrometer has been applied in situ for the non-destructive elemental mapping of the pigment components of the XV c. mural painting and frescos of the Little Christopher chamber in the Main Town Hall of Gda?sk, Poland. For a sufficiently large data collection the principal component analysis (PCA) was applied in order to associate the most intense lines of the elements Ca, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Hg in the XRF spectra with the palette of colors: white, brown, green, blue, red, yellow, and black observed in the painting. This allowed to limit the number of extractions of the micro-samples for the complementary Raman measurements thus assuring the practically non-destructive character of the entire analysis. The reliable identification of the pigment compositions was based on coincidence of the XRF, PCA and the Raman results which confirmed the presence of the chalk, malachite, azurite, red lead, mars red, mars yellow and candle black in the historical paints, except of the carbon-based black pigment being out of the XRF detection range. Different hues of the green paint were specified and the variety of the red and brown ones was ascribed to compositions of the Pb- and Fe-based red pigments (Fe 2O 3 and Pb 3O 4) with addition of the vermilion (HgS) and carbon black, in agreement with literature. The traces of elements: Ba and Sr, Sb and Mo, and also Cd, were ascribed to the impurities of Ca, those of some ochre pigments, and to the soluble Cd salts, respectively.

  3. Writing on the Margins: Narrative as a Border Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Candace

    2008-01-01

    In this article the author analyzes a composition written by an 18-year-old student from Puerto Rico fluent in Spanish and English, who struggled with writing in both languages. She analyzes the student's work from a framework of discourse and narrative analysis and the tenets of oral culture. Her intent is to clarify the structural complexity of…

  4. Social scripts and stark realities: Kenyan adolescents' abortion discourse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen M. H. Mitchell; Carolyn Tucker Halpern; Eva Muthuuri Kamathi; Shirley Owino

    2006-01-01

    This study explores students' narratives and discourses about adolescent pregnancy and abortion elicited via internet?based open?ended questions posed in response to a cartoon vignette. We report on content analysis of recommendations and strategies for how to manage the unplanned pregnancy of a fictional young couple and in their own personal lives. The responses of 614 young people were analysed. Strategies

  5. Children and Reading Tests. Advances in Discourse Processes. Volume 65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Clifford; Larsen, Eric

    This book makes a scholarly contribution to the debate about standardized testing in American education by using the methods of discourse analysis to examine not only representative material from reading tests but also children's responses to it. The book is particularly attentive to the role of culture in shaping children's understanding of what…

  6. The Scientization of Physical Education: Discourses of Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Whitson; Donald Macintosh

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the content and context of changes in the dominant discourses of physical education. It begins with an analysis of the role of language in publicly defining a role for new professions and defining the nature of that profession's expertise. It then briefly traces the reconstruction of university physical education as sports studies, sport sciences, and sport management

  7. Historical perspective, economic analysis, and regulatory analysis of the impacts of waste partitioning-transmutation on the disposal of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Croff, A.G.; Kocher, D.C.

    1990-10-01

    Partitioning-transmutation, sometimes called actinide burning, is an alternative approach to high-level radioactive waste management. It consists of removing long-lived radionuclides from wastes and destroying those radionuclides, thus reducing the long-term hazards of radioactive waste. It was studied in detail in the 1970's. New developments in technology and other factors are resulting in a reexamination of this waste management option. This report consists of three papers which summarize the historical work, update the analysis of the costs of waste disposal, and describe current regulatory requirements which might be impacted by P-T. The papers provide a starting point for future research on P-T. 152 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs.

  8. Comprehensive investigation into historical pipeline construction costs and engineering economic analysis of Alaska in-state gas pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Zhenhua

    This study analyzes historical cost data of 412 pipelines and 220 compressor stations. On the basis of this analysis, the study also evaluates the feasibility of an Alaska in-state gas pipeline using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Analysis of pipeline construction costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary by diameter, length, volume, year, and location. Overall average learning rates for pipeline material and labor costs are 6.1% and 12.4%, respectively. Overall average cost shares for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, and right of way (ROW) are 31%, 40%, 23%, and 7%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate pipeline component costs for different lengths, cross-sectional areas, and locations. An analysis of inaccuracy in pipeline cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation of pipeline cost components is biased except for in the case of total costs. Overall overrun rates for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, ROW, and total costs are 4.9%, 22.4%, -0.9%, 9.1%, and 6.5%, respectively, and project size, capacity, diameter, location, and year of completion have different degrees of impacts on cost overruns of pipeline cost components. Analysis of compressor station costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary in terms of capacity, year, and location. Average learning rates for compressor station material and labor costs are 12.1% and 7.48%, respectively. Overall average cost shares of material, labor, miscellaneous, and ROW are 50.6%, 27.2%, 21.5%, and 0.8%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate compressor station component costs in different capacities and locations. An investigation into inaccuracies in compressor station cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation for compressor stations is biased except for in the case of material costs. Overall average overrun rates for compressor station material, labor, miscellaneous, land, and total costs are 3%, 60%, 2%, -14%, and 11%, respectively, and cost overruns for cost components are influenced by location and year of completion to different degrees. Monte Carlo models are developed and simulated to evaluate the feasibility of an Alaska in-state gas pipeline by assigning triangular distribution of the values of economic parameters. Simulated results show that the construction of an Alaska in-state natural gas pipeline is feasible at three scenarios: 500 million cubic feet per day (mmcfd), 750 mmcfd, and 1000 mmcfd.

  9. The Louisiana State Museum Vessel: a historical and archaeological analysis of an American Civil War-era submersible boat 

    E-print Network

    Wills, Richard Keith

    2000-01-01

    PRO RG SCIAA SHSP SFLM UCV USNA USNIP VHS VSL PRO Admiralty Office Series U. S. Navy Bureau of Construction snd Repair U. S. Navy Bureau of Ordnance Connecticut Historical Society Confederate Veteran Magazine Civil IVar Naval Chronology... as possible by identifying, surveying, and synthesizing the scatter of historical documentation (both written and visual) that has been generated since the vessel's discovery in 1878. In the process of doing this, the thesis seeks to identify and dispose...

  10. Participant Perspectives of Classroom Discourse. Part IV: How Do We Know? (Alternative Descriptions of Classroom Discourse). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morine-Dershimer, Greta; And Others

    Part of a year-long sociolinguistic study of teacher and pupil perceptions of classroom discourse, this study focused on the following methodological question: how might the approach selected for analysis of language as a linguistic system affect what is learned about language in a given social situation? Subjects were 165 children and their…

  11. Pronoun resolution and discourse models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven B. Greene; Gail McKoon; Roger Ratcliff

    1992-01-01

    Psychological investigations of pronoun resolution have implicitly assumed that the processes involved automatically provide a unique referent for every pronoun. We challenge this assump- tion and propose a new framework for studying pronoun resolution. Drawing on advances in discourse representation and global memory modeling, this framework suggests that automatic processes may not always identify a unique referent for a pronoun.

  12. Cyberethics, Discourse and Campus Community

    E-print Network

    with college regulations to govern conduct on computers (see above). Cyberethics and internet safety are issues Edward Pittman, Ed.D Associate Dean of the College Vassar #12;Goals of Session Overview of Case Study of one college's effort to encourage environments for civil discourse in the cyber world Dialogue

  13. Discourse Fields across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Robert O.

    In order to explore the rhetorical components of instruction at the undergraduate level and determine whether differences and similarities exist among the discourse fields represented by instructors in the kind of talk which they regard as desirable in their classroom, formal interviews were conducted with teaching faculty representing l5…

  14. The Discourse of Dog Fighting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Kalof; Carl Taylor

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, we discuss dog fighting as a blood sport with a history embedded in the status-driven display of masculinity, power and violence. Based on published reports and interviews with those living and working in dog fighting neighborhoods, we show that the contemporary cultural knowledge of dog fighting is a discourse with multiple meanings: for those who pit dogs

  15. Teaching the Universe of Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, James

    Addressed to teachers, educators, and other specialists in language learning, this volume sketches a pedagogical theory of discourse for a language arts curriculum (see "A Student-Centered Language Arts Curriculum, Grades K-13: A Handbook for Teachers," TE 001 468). The emphasis is upon mastering the art of communication through the everyday use…

  16. Global Health Care-seeking Discourses Facing Local Clinical Realities: Exploring the Case of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Rikke Sand; Tørring, Marie Louise; Vedsted, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Using cancer as an example and drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's concepts of field and on prolonged fieldwork in Danish general medical practice settings, we examine how discourses about what counts as legitimate help-seeking practices are negotiated in local clinical encounters. Overall, we identify competition between two discourses on help-seeking practices. This competition is present most when people seek help with unspecific, vague, or diffuse illness complaints, voicing uncertainty as to what counts as signs of illness, characteristic of proactive discourses emanating from global, scientific biomedicine. Such indistinct help-seeking conflicts with the dominant discourse in the local clinical setting and is characterized by an overt focus on identification of the chief complaint. The analysis illustrates how competing discourses may result in conflicting expectations to the clinical encounter and prove counterproductive to ensuring early diagnosis of cancer. PMID:25355457

  17. Historical Supernovae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Green; F. Richard Stephenson

    The available historical records of supernovae occurring in our own Galaxy over the past two thousand years are reviewed.\\u000a These accounts include the well-recorded supernovae of AD1604 (Kepler’s SN), AD1572 (Tycho’s SN), AD1181 AD1054 (which produced\\u000a the Crab Nebula) and AD1006, together with less certain events dating back to AD185. In the case of the supernovae of AD1604\\u000a and AD1572

  18. (In press, 2012). In D. Tannen & A. M. Tester (Eds.), Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 2011: Discourse 2.0: Language and new media. Washington, DC: Georgetown Univ. Press.

    E-print Network

    Herring, Susan

    . Press. Discourse in Web 2.0: Familiar, Reconfigured, and Emergent Susan C. Herring Indiana University, the computer-mediated discourse analysis (CMDA) paradigm developed by the author (Herring 2004) is briefly (Herring, Scheidt, Bonus, and Wright 2004) and on

  19. Understanding Historical Thinking at Historic Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the interpretive processes historians engage in when "reading" historic buildings and examines what qualifies as historical thinking about historic buildings and sites. To gather evidence of what historical thinking looks like as it pertains to buildings, 5 practicing historians were recorded as they toured the Old North…

  20. Creativity in theoretical physics: A situational analysis of the fifth Solvay Council on Physics, 1927

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    First, Leili K.

    This dissertation investigates the intersections and interactions of factors which enhance and inhibit creativity in theoretical physics research, using a situational analysis of the fifth Solvay Council on Physics of 1927 (Solvay 1927), a pivotal point in the history of quantum physics. Situational analysis is a postmodern variant of the grounded theory method which views a situation as the unit of analysis and adds situational mapping as an analytic tool. This method specifically works against normalizing or simplifying the points of view, instead drawing out diversity, complexity, and contradiction. It results in "theorizing" rather than theory. This research differs from other analyses of the development of quantum mechanics in looking at technical issues as well as individual, collective, and societal factors. Data examined in this historical analysis includes theoretical papers, conference proceedings, personal letters, and commentary and analysis, both contemporaneous and modern. Literature related to scientific creativity was also consulted. Mapping the situation as a master discourse of Niels Bohr overlapping and interacting with co-existent major discourses on matrix mechanics/Copenhagen interpretation, wave mechanics, and the pilot-wave theory resulted in the most descriptive illustration of the factors influencing scientific creativity before and after Solvay 1927. The master discourse strongly influenced the major discourses and generated the "Copenhagen spirit" which effectively marginalized discourses other than matrix mechanics/Copenhagen interpretation after Solvay 1927.

  1. Discourse on safe drug use: symbolic logics and ethical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fainzang, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Drug safety is not a matter for healthcare professionals alone. As actors, patients are also concerned, at three different levels: 1) with regard to their behaviour and choices of drugs, with a view to reducing adverse reactions, 2) with regard to the discourse sometimes used by doctors in relation to prescribed drugs, 3) with regard to the discourses of the pharmaceutical industry concerning how they use their drugs within the framework of self-medication. We will examine these aspects on the basis of data gathered in France during anthropological studies on drug use. Patients’ concerns about reducing adverse effects give rise to a series of behaviours relating to drug use. They start with the identification of what they regard as a risk inherent in the substances or linked to uncontrolled use of drugs and try to neutralize their risks by modifying or modulating the prescriptions in line with various parameters. They take into account dimensions as varied as: the nature of the prescribed drugs, the quantity, the dosage and the preservation of certain functions or organs, and follow their own rules of conduct in order to reduce risks. These dimensions bring into play both representations of the drug and representations of the person, and consider the effects or the risks of drugs in their physical, psychic, behavioural and social aspects.We consider here doctors’ discourse towards patients regarding the risks and possible effects of drugs, in particular the discourse of those who choose to hide the undesirable effects of drugs from their patients – or even to lie to them on this subject – with the aim of not jeopardizing the patient’s compliance. This situation involves comparing two logics: ethics of care versus ethics of information.Regarding the pharmaceutical industry’s discourse on self-medication and risks. Although it promotes self-medication on the basis of patients’ growing desire for autonomy and competency, the pharmaceutical industry has a discourse which stigmatizes the home medicine cabinet for reasons of safety, which in fact questions patients’ ability to use drugs properly. This analysis shows that the various behaviours and discourses relating to the risks of drugs are impregnated with symbolic, ethical and cultural logics. As a consequence, above and beyond works carried out on the question of pharmacovigilance, examining the issue of safe drug use involves studying the human (social and cultural) aspects which govern part of the discourses and practices relating to drug safety. PMID:20635820

  2. Barriers to online critical discourse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liam Rourke; Heather Kanuka

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative case study illustrates barriers to informal argumentation and reasoned debate, i.e., critical discourse, in online forums. The case is the computer conference of a 15-week, graduate-level humanities course offered entirely at\\u000a a distance. Twelve students, all with families and careers, were enrolled in the course. We read all messages as they were\\u000a posted and interviewed five of the

  3. Moral Discourse in Economic Contexts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebekah P. Massengill; Amy Reynolds

    \\u000a The connection between morals and markets, once a central concern of the discipline of sociology, now finds itself the focus\\u000a of renewed popular and academic interest. We consider these relationships between moral codes and various aspects of market\\u000a society through the lens of language, specifically the different forms of moral discourse that perpetually surround economic\\u000a activity. Our review focuses on

  4. Value-Chain Dynamics of the West Point Foundry, 1817-1911: A Historical Case Analysis in Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This case provides the opportunity for students to explore marketing and value/supply-chain dynamics in a unique historical context. The West Point Foundry (WPF), located in Cold Spring, New York, was one of the most important manufacturing ventures in the United States from 1817 to 1911. The case outlines the supply-chain details of the WPF as…

  5. A Historical Analysis of the Leadership and Strategic Plan of Chancellor Stephen R. Portch in the University System of Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild-Pierce, Jennifer Elis

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation provides historical insight into the design and implementation of one strategic plan of a public higher education system in an effort to inform future similar strategic planning processes. On July 1, 1994, the Board of Regents appointed Stephen R. Portch the ninth Chancellor of the University System of Georgia. The timing was…

  6. Building a Database for the Historical Analysis of the General Chemistry Curriculum Using ACS General Chemistry Exams as Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luxford, Cynthia J.; Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Baluyut, John Y.; Reed, Jessica J.; De Silva, Chamila; Holme, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    As a discipline, chemistry enjoys a unique position. While many academic areas prepared "cooperative examinations" in the 1930s, only chemistry maintained the activity within what has become the ACS Examinations Institute. As a result, the long-term existence of community-built, norm-referenced, standardized exams provides a historical

  7. Stability and Change in New York State Regents Mathematics Examinations, 1866-2009: A Socio-Historical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Robert Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation illuminates relationships between micro-level practices of schools and macro-level structures of society through the socio-historical lens of New York State Regents mathematics examinations, which were administered to public school students throughout the State of New York between 1866 and 2009, inclusive. Fundamental research…

  8. An Analysis of the Historical Regression Method of Predicting Posttest Grade Equivalents for Categorically-Aided Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hick, Thomas L.; Irvine, David J.

    To eliminate maturation as a factor in the pretest-posttest design, pretest scores can be converted to anticipate posttest scores using grade equivalent scores from standardized tests. This conversion, known as historical regression, assumes that without specific intervention, growth will continue at the rate (grade equivalents per year of…

  9. Historical Research: A Thematic Analysis of Convention and Conference Themes for Selected Professional Health Education Associations from 1975 to 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Jill M.; Ubbes, Valerie A.

    2009-01-01

    Many professional organizations and associations hold conventions and conferences on an annual basis. Health Education professional associations take part in this process. Using a historical research perspective, this article delineates conference themes for four prominent professional Health Education associations: the American Association for…

  10. Parametric and Probabilistic Analysis of Historical Chlorpyrifos Surface Water Monitoring Data from the San Joaquin River Watershed: 1991–2001

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald D. Anderson

    2003-01-01

    The goals of this study were to use both parametric and probabilistic procedures to: (1) analyze historical chlorpyrifos water column monitoring from the San Joaquin River watershed from 1991 to 2001 to assess possible spatial and temporal trends; and (2) determine the probability of exceeding Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) water quality targets for chlorpyrifos established by Calfornia's Central Regional

  11. Sit Down! You're Rocking the Boat!: Asian Americans, Racial Manipulation, and the Discourse of the Denial of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Anna K.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation seeks to rearticulate racial formations in the United States and expand the discourse on race in higher education by placing Asian Americans at the center of the discussion. Through the use of genealogy and discourse analysis, this research presents a broader description of the Asian American racial experience in higher education…

  12. Learner Subjects in Study Abroad: Discourse of Immersion, Hierarchy of Experience and Their Subversion through Situated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, Neriko Musha

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates different kinds of learner subjects that study-abroad programs produce. It is based on discourse analysis and ethnographic fieldwork in May-September 2011, involving three students from a US college studying abroad short term in Europe. The discourse of immersion in study abroad valorizes a learning-by-doing, individual,…

  13. Lighting the Way Through Scientific Discourse

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Li-hsuan Yang

    2008-12-01

    This article describes a thought-provoking lesson that compares various arrangements of lamp-battery circuits to help students develop the motivation and competence to participate in scientific discourse for knowledge construction. Through experimentation and discourse, students explore concepts about voltage, current, resistance, and Ohm's law. The discourse encourages students to become deeply engaged in the process of making sense of their own observations and ideas.

  14. Historical Superbolides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamora, S.; Ocaña, F.; Tapia, C.; de Burgos, A.; Herráiz, G.; Petrova, M.

    2015-05-01

    The amount of impacts of 50 m -- 1 cm asteroid with the Earth is a typical issue of controversy. Explosions in upper atmosphere and lunar impacts suggest that could have more impacts than is currently accepted. A ``new'' information source data can be fireballs appeared in historical press. Some of these reports indicate the presence of pressure waves or damage that may help estimate the energy of the event. We analysed more than 50 years of the archive of the New York Times and found a number of abnormally clustered events that can not be explained by a Poisson distribution. We have found at least two big concentrations not associated to any major meteor shower. One around the actual 23rd of July and other on the 14th of February. This second major concentration it is really close to the Chelyabinsk event date, so it is probable that there they are related. The preliminary results were published in Sánchez de Miguel, A., Ocaña, F., Zamora, S., et al. 2014, in Garzón Guerrero J. A., López Sánchez A. R., eds, Libro de Actas del XXI Congreso Estatal de Astronomía. Granada, Spain.

  15. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.

    2012-02-01

    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  16. Discourse Markers in Turn-Initial Positions in Interruptive Speech in a Malaysian Radio Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nor, Siti Nurbaya Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Discourse markers play significant roles in any spoken interaction. This research examines the functions of the discourse markers (DMs) well, now and and used as turn-initial interruptive devices in a Malaysian radio discourse. Using Schegloff's (2002) framework of what constitutes an interruption in turn-taking and previous studies on the…

  17. Self and Other representations in contemporary Russian discourse on migration 

    E-print Network

    Popova, Ekaterina

    2012-06-28

    This thesis is a discourse-analytical study of SELF and OTHER representations in contemporary Russian discourse on migration. The overall aim of this thesis is to explore how SELF and OTHER discourse participants are ...

  18. Analysis of timber weathering and wind velocity at Cape Adare, with comments on other historic sites in Antarctica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Harrowfield

    2006-01-01

    At Cape Adare, there are three wooden historic huts in varying condition. Two are the first permanent structures erected in Antarctica for human habitation and were occupied in 1899 by the British Antarctic Expedition (1898-1900) led by C.E. Borchgrevink. The third hut was built in 1911 by the northern party of R.F. Scott's British Antarctic Expedition (1910-13) led by V.L.A.

  19. A Study of Online Discourse at The Chronicle of Higher Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katrina A. Meyer

    2010-01-01

    Given the explosive growth of online communications, new forms of discourse are an intriguing topic of study. This research\\u000a focused on ten online discussions hosted by The Chronicle of Higher Education, using content and discourse analysis of the postings to answer several questions. What is the “conversational scaffolding”\\u000a used by posters in higher education-related online discussions? Are academic online discussions

  20. An Analysis of Historical Records of Solar Variability, Volcanic Eruptions, and Climate Change in the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, K. D.

    2003-12-01

    Studying past climate changes can help us better understand present natural variations and predict future trends. However, various reconstructions of the climate of the last 1000 years have given only broad similarities [Briffa, JGR 106, 2929, 2001]. The variances are partly due to uncertainties in the past radiative and aerosol forcing, and gaps in regional coverage. Another outstanding question is whether we are in a time similar to the Medieval Warm Period. From the frequencies of sunspot and aurora sightings, abundance of carbon-14 in the rings of long-lived trees, and beryllium-10 in the annual layers of polar ice cores, we have reconstructed the recent history of a variable Sun. In the past 1800 years the Sun has gone through nine cycles of changes in brightness. While these long-term changes account for less than 1% of the total irradiance, there is clear evidence that they affect the climate [Pang and Yau, Eos, 83, No. 43, 481, 2002]. We have analyzed Chinese historical weather records to fill the data void in this region. Reports of unseasonable cold are classified by the degree of severity: (1) Late (April-June) or early (July-Sept) killing frosts; (2) Bitter cold/heavy snowfall; and (3) heavy sustained snowfall, bitter cold with frozen wells, lakes, rivers, and icebound seas. The latter cases were often widespread and multi-year. All categories occurred most frequently during the coldest part of the Little Ice Age, with the coldest episodes in 1652-54, 1656, 1664, 1670-72, 1676-77, 1683, 1688-91, 1716 and 1718-19. They thus coincide with Maunder Minimum (1645-1715), when very few sunspots were seen-about one in ten years from China or Europe-indicative of a weakened Sun. There was only one Category 3 episode between the Maunder and Dalton Minima-in 1761, and two in the Dalton Minimum (1795-1825)-in 1796 and 1814-7. Analysis of proxy data has shown that the 1810's were among the coldest years in Europe [Briffa and Jones, in ``The Year Without a Summer,'' C.R. Harrignton, ed., 1992]. Large eruptions, of an unknown volcano in 1809 [Dai, JGR 96, 17361, 1991], at Mayon in 1814, and at Tambora in 1815, with the reduced solar luminosity seem to have been responsible. The Sun has slowly brightened since the Dalton Minimum. However, the climate of China remained cold through the 19th century, consistent with world climate trend [Bradley and Jones, Holocene 3, 367, 1993], possibly due to increased volcanic aerosol loading of the atmosphere [Sato, JGR 98, 22987, 1993]. In the 200 years prior to the Maunder Minimum, there was at least one other major planetwide volcanically forced cold episode-in 1453-54. The climate of China appears to have been warm during the Late 14th-Century Solar Maximum (1350-1410). We have found only one report of early killing frost-in May, 1993. It then turned cold during the Sporer Minimum (140-1590) [Pang and Yau, op. cit.]. Category 3 cold episodes occurred in 1453-54, 1513, 1569, and 1577-78. Lesser ones were also more common. The coldest was in 1453-54, due to a Tamboran class eruption that broke a big island in New Hebrides Arc in two, separated by a 12X6X1 km submarine caldera Kuwae. The volcanic chill was felt worldwide, with extensive reporting in China [Pang, Eos 74, No. 43, 196, 1993]. Reduced solar luminosity may have also contributed to the cold climate of that decade, as was the case in the 1810's. We conclude that the climate of China in the past 650 years generally follows world trend. The major forcing seems to have been changing solar luminosity, perturbed by frequent volcanic eruptions.

  1. Diatom DNA as historical information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. Stoof; L. S. Epp; M. H. Trauth; R. Tiedemann

    2009-01-01

    This survey is about the reconstruction of paleo environmental conditions in East Africa using recent and historic lakes sediments of shallow lakes in Kenya. This interdisciplinary approach combines the molecular analysis of ancient diatom DNA and the morphological analysis of diatom assemblages of short sediment cores to reveal the potential of molecular genetics in geosciences. This study comprises the investigation

  2. Supportive Discourse Moves in Persian Requests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Allami, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study designed to investigate the types of supportive discourse moves employed by Persian speakers in their Requestive Speech Acts. 372 respondents took a Discourse Completion Test (DCT) with six scenarios ranging from formal to informal degrees of Perceived Situational Seriousness, and returned 2232 Requestive…

  3. Reading Coaching Discourse: Exploring Coaching Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heineke, Sally Frances

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the discourse of elementary school reading coaches and teachers during coaching interactions in four Alabama schools. Coach/teacher dyads recorded naturally occurring coaching dialogue over periods of 3 to 6 weeks. Each participant shared her views on coaching and commented on the recorded discourse during post-interviews…

  4. The Structure of Discourse in Collaborative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Clark A.; O'Donnell, Angela M.; Jinks, Theresa S.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the types of discourse structures emerging during peer learning and the ways in which these structures were related to learning for 105 fifth graders working in groups of 4 to learn about writing conclusions. Characterizes the discourse structure as a network of arguments and counterarguments, with argument quality positively related to…

  5. Unit 1204: The Evaluation of Persuasive Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English.

    This unit for grade 12 is intended to provide an introduction to the criticism of persuasive discourse. After a brief discussion of the definition of criticism, the unit proceeds to the establishment of standards for evaluating persuasive discourse, standards involving Kenneth Burke's pentad: act, scene, agent, agency, and purpose. The unit then…

  6. Conflict Talk: A Discourse Analytical Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santoi Leung

    This paper surveys research in the area of conflict talk, focusing on discourse analytical studies of actual, naturally occurring conflict talk. The paper begins with a brief discussion on how conflict talk has been conceptualized. Then the scope of the paper is defined as focusing on discourse analytical studies that examine actual instances of conflict talk within a framework of

  7. What Kind of Discourse? Thinking It through.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parfitt, Matthew

    Composition instructors are particularly interested in the fact that hypertext, as the mode of discourse that computers promote and prefer, introduces a new problematic for those concerned with teaching critical thinking. What kind of discourse is hypertext, and to what extent does it encourage, enable and demand critical thinking? The issue is…

  8. Ideological Uptakes: Discourses on Raising Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Hidy

    2010-01-01

    Advice literature is ubiquitous. Chouliaraki and Fairclough (1999) argue that our modern lives motivate if not require us to consult the experts. In many fields, experts have negotiated a discourse accessible to the public in handbooks, guidebooks, self-help manuals, etc. As I discover in this study, these public discourses can reinscribe both…

  9. Reciprocal anaphora resolution in Pashto discourse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahman Ali; M. A. Khan; M. Bilal; Ihsan Rabbi

    2008-01-01

    It is very important for an effective machine translation system to transform the multi-sentential discourses, of a source language, into simple and cohesion free discourses. Anaphora resolution is the predicament in computational linguistics that is responsible for the alleged problem. This paper is about the lexical (reciprocal) anaphora resolution in Pashto language and presents an algorithm that is based on

  10. Participial Constructions as Discourse Markers in Hindi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukherjee, Aditi

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of participial constructions in Hindi as discourse strategies for cohesion in speech. The data from the "Analyzing Narratives" project indicates that participial constructions are used fairly extensively as discourse connectors. The conjunctive participle is used more extensively than the others. Some of the major…

  11. Cue Effectiveness in Communicatively Efficient Discourse Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Ting; Jaeger, T. Florian

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a surge in accounts motivated by information theory that consider language production to be partially driven by a preference for communicative efficiency. Evidence from discourse production (i.e., production beyond the sentence level) has been argued to suggest that speakers distribute information across discourse so as to…

  12. Lighting the Way through Scientific Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Li-hsuan

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a thought-provoking lesson that compares various arrangements of lamp-battery circuits to help students develop the motivation and competence to participate in scientific discourse for knowledge construction. Through experimentation and discourse, students explore concepts about voltage, current, resistance, and Ohm's law.…

  13. Online Peer Discourse in a Writing Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jessie

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to explore the interaction discourse of second language undergraduate learners in the online peer review process of a writing classroom in Hong Kong. Specifically, the writer sought to investigate the types of online discourse learners have in the peer discussions on their writing, and to examine the role of explicit…

  14. The analysis of the statistical and historical information gathered during the development of the Shuttle Orbiter Primary Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, D. B.; Marchbanks, M. P., Jr.; Quick, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of an effort to thoroughly and objectively analyze the statistical and historical information gathered during the development of the Shuttle Orbiter Primary Flight Software are given. The particular areas of interest include cost of the software, reliability of the software, requirements for the software and how the requirements changed during development of the system. Data related to the current version of the software system produced some interesting results. Suggestions are made for the saving of additional data which will allow additional investigation.

  15. Reflective discourse techniques: From in-class discussions to out-of-classroom problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wampler, Wendi; Demaree, Dedra; Gilbert, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Instructors often give prompts that encourage students to articulate their beliefs and conceptions, as well as encourage students to understand the thoughts of their peers. This reflective discourse is used in a calculus-based introductory physics class at Lane Community College, where the instructor explicitly has discourse goals integrated into his course structure. We investigate whether students utilize this discourse when solving problems outside of the classroom context. We interviewed groups of students after the end of spring term, 2012. The students were asked to solve open-ended problems, with analysis focused on whether students applied this reflective discourse. Students were asked a series of follow-up questions to reflect upon their experiences in the course.

  16. Historical Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, F. R.; Morrison, L. V.

    2005-07-01

    Analysis of ancient and medieval observations of solar and lunar eclipses from between 700 BC and AD 1600 provides an intriguing illustration of long-term O - C investigation. These measurements are from several different eras and cultures: principally ancient Babylon; ancient and medieval China; medieval Europe; and the medieval Arab world. Such diverse observations have proved of great value in studying long-term changes in the Earth's rate of rotation -- as produced by tides and other mechanisms.

  17. Microsatellite Analysis of Museum Specimens Reveals Historical Differences in Genetic Diversity between Declining and More Stable Bombus Species

    PubMed Central

    Maebe, Kevin; Meeus, Ivan; Ganne, Maarten; De Meulemeester, Thibaut; Biesmeijer, Koos; Smagghe, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide most pollinators, e.g. bumblebees, are undergoing global declines. Loss of genetic diversity can play an essential role in these observed declines. In this paper, we investigated the level of genetic diversity of seven declining Bombus species and four more stable species with the use of microsatellite loci. Hereto we genotyped a unique collection of museum specimens. Specimens were collected between 1918 and 1926, in 6 provinces of the Netherlands which allowed us to make interspecific comparisons of genetic diversity. For the stable species B. pascuorum, we also selected populations from two additional time periods: 1949–1955 and 1975–1990. The genetic diversity and population structure in B. pascuorum remained constant over the three time periods. However, populations of declining bumblebee species showed a significantly lower genetic diversity than co-occurring stable species before their major declines. This historical difference indicates that the repeatedly observed reduced genetic diversity in recent populations of declining bumblebee species is not caused solely by the decline itself. The historically low genetic diversity in the declined species may be due to the fact that these species were already rare, making them more vulnerable to the major drivers of bumblebee decline. PMID:26061732

  18. “ I might, I might go I mean it depends on money things and stuff”. A preliminary analysis of general extenders in British teenagers’ discourse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ignacio M. Palacios Martínez

    2011-01-01

    The language of teenagers is of particular interest to linguists, in that adolescents and young people introduce important innovations and changes into language use, as compared to the stability typical of adult language.This paper is concerned with the analysis of the spoken language of British teenagers, taken from the Bergen Corpus of London Teenage Language (COLT), and looks specifically at

  19. Sexy Words, Iconic Phrases and slippery terms - it's all newspaper talk: a theoretical analysis of the language used by the newspaper industry to manifest and perpetuate discourse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alpesh Maisuria

    This paper explores the range of discursive positions adopted by newspapers to perceive issues. Through the application of a theoretical analysis on the commentaries' language, this paper speculates on who profits from the underlying message that is deduced. This paper advocates the need to apply critical thought to apparatuses such as the media, because they seek to establish a particular

  20. Fatherhood, smoking, and secondhand smoke in North America: an historical analysis with a view to contemporary practice.

    PubMed

    White, Cameron; Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L

    2012-03-01

    In the context of concerns about the effects of secondhand smoke on fetal health and the health of children, North American health promotion interventions have focused on reducing tobacco consumption among women to a greater extent than men. This is problematic when the health effects of men's secondhand smoke in family environments are considered. This article examines this gendered phenomenon in terms of a history of cigarette consumption that positions smoking as masculine. Furthermore, it demonstrates the value of addressing men's smoking using a gendered methodology, with an emphasis on fatherhood as an expression of masculine identity. Garnering health promotion programs to promote a culture of masculinity that is less individualistic, and defined in terms of responsibility and care for others, in addition to the self, has the potential to render men's smoking problematic and challenge the historic linkages between smoking and masculinity. PMID:22178901

  1. Homosexuality: a dilemma in discourse!

    PubMed

    Gulia, K K; Mallick, H N

    2010-01-01

    Homosexuality has been in practice even prior to its recorded history. In the Indian cultural context, discourse on sexuality had never gained an agreeable consensus from any platform. However, in the recent past, efforts were made by governmental and nongovernmental organizations to bring sex-related issues to the masses after speculation on presumably the fast spread of AIDS (acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome) particularly through illegal homosexual activities. Nevertheless, strong cultural and religious ideologies discouraged any valid discussions on homosexuality. In light of the given scenario, the present essay aimed to highlight several aspects of homosexuality that include a brief history, biological basis, effect of nature versus nurture, evolutionary perspective and related issues concerning general well-being and health. PMID:21046915

  2. Water quality of the lower Columbia River basin; analysis of current and historical water-quality data through 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuhrer, Gregory J.; Tanner, Dwight Q.; Morace, Jennifer L.; McKenzie, Stuart W.; Skach, Kenneth A.

    1996-01-01

    This report, done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Lower Columbia River Bi-State Water-Quality Program, describes the water-quality conditions in the lower Columbia River Basin by interpreting data collected historically and in 1994. In 1994, arsenic, a human carcinogen, was detected in 15 of 16 samples in the lower Columbia River, but was not detected in any of the sampled tributaries. All 15 arsenic detections had concentrations that exceeded both the EPA ambient water-quality criteria for the protection of human health and the EPA human-health advisories for drinking water. Twenty organic compounds were detected of the 47 compounds analyzed for this study. None of the organic compounds detected exceeded EPA's ambient water-quality criteria or drinking-water guidelines. The largest concen- trations of the agricultural pesticides atrazine, metolachlor, and simazine were detected in the Willamette River, where they were detected in 85 to 90 percent of the samples collected. The largest concentrations of atrazine in the Willamette River were associated with the spring application and fall runoff periods. Both historical and current water-temperature data from the lower Columbia River Basin showed exceedances of the "special condition" criterion for the State of Washington (20 degrees Celsius) during August. Trend tests using data from 1974 to 1994 showed significant (p < 0.05) upward trends for water temperature at the Columbia River at Warrendale and the Willamette River at Portland. Trend tests showed significant (p < 0.05) downward trends from 1973 to 1994 for three constituents at the Columbia River at Warrendale: phosphorus in unfiltered water, total dissolved solids, and specific conductance.

  3. Service Life Assessment of Historical Building Envelopes Constructed Using Different Types of Sandstone: A Computational Analysis Based on Experimental Input Data

    PubMed Central

    Ko?í, Václav; Mad?ra, Ji?í; Fo?t, Jan; Žumár, Jaromír; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek; ?erný, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Service life assessment of three historical building envelopes constructed using different types of sandstone is presented. At first, experimental measurements of material parameters of sandstones are performed to provide the necessary input data for a subsequent computational analysis. In the second step, the moisture and temperature fields across the studied envelopes are calculated for a representative period of time. The computations are performed using dynamic climatic data as the boundary conditions on the exterior side of building envelope. The climatic data for three characteristic localities are experimentally determined by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and contain hourly values of temperature, relative humidity, rainfalls, wind velocity and direction, and sun radiation. Using the measured durability properties of the analyzed sandstones and the calculated numbers of freeze/thaw cycles under different climatic conditions, the service life of the investigated building envelopes is assessed. The obtained results show that the climatic conditions can play a very significant role in the service life assessment of historical buildings, even in the conditions of such a small country as the Czech Republic. In addition, the investigations reveal the importance of the material characteristics of sandstones, in particular the hygric properties, on their service life in a structure. PMID:25114972

  4. Service life assessment of historical building envelopes constructed using different types of sandstone: a computational analysis based on experimental input data.

    PubMed

    Ko?í, Václav; Mad?ra, Ji?í; Fo?t, Jan; Žumár, Jaromír; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek; ?erný, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Service life assessment of three historical building envelopes constructed using different types of sandstone is presented. At first, experimental measurements of material parameters of sandstones are performed to provide the necessary input data for a subsequent computational analysis. In the second step, the moisture and temperature fields across the studied envelopes are calculated for a representative period of time. The computations are performed using dynamic climatic data as the boundary conditions on the exterior side of building envelope. The climatic data for three characteristic localities are experimentally determined by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and contain hourly values of temperature, relative humidity, rainfalls, wind velocity and direction, and sun radiation. Using the measured durability properties of the analyzed sandstones and the calculated numbers of freeze/thaw cycles under different climatic conditions, the service life of the investigated building envelopes is assessed. The obtained results show that the climatic conditions can play a very significant role in the service life assessment of historical buildings, even in the conditions of such a small country as the Czech Republic. In addition, the investigations reveal the importance of the material characteristics of sandstones, in particular the hygric properties, on their service life in a structure. PMID:25114972

  5. The role of historical fire disturbance in the carbon dynamics of the pan-boreal region: A process-based analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balshi, M. S.; McGuire, A.D.; Zhuang, Q.; Melillo, J.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Kasischke, E.; Wirth, C.; Flannigan, M.; Harden, J.; Clein, J.S.; Burnside, T.J.; McAllister, J.; Kurz, W.A.; Apps, M.; Shvidenko, A.

    2007-01-01

    Wildfire is a common occurrence in ecosystems of northern high latitudes, and changes in the fire regime of this region have consequences for carbon feedbacks to the climate system. To improve our understanding of how wildfire influences carbon dynamics of this region, we used the process-based Terrestrial Ecosystem Model to simulate fire emissions and changes in carbon storage north of 45??N from the start of spatially explicit historically recorded fire records in the twentieth century through 2002, and evaluated the role of fire in the carbon dynamics of the region within the context of ecosystem responses to changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate. Our analysis indicates that fire plays an important role in interannual and decadal scale variation of source/sink relationships of northern terrestrial ecosystems and also suggests that atmospheric CO2 may be important to consider in addition to changes in climate and fire disturbance. There are substantial uncertainties in the effects of fire on carbon storage in our simulations. These uncertainties are associated with sparse fire data for northern Eurasia, uncertainty in estimating carbon consumption, and difficulty in verifying assumptions about the representation of fires that occurred prior to the start of the historical fire record. To improve the ability to better predict how fire will influence carbon storage of this region in the future, new analyses of the retrospective role of fire in the carbon dynamics of northern high latitudes should address these uncertainties. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. [Aesthetic surgery, medical discourse and health].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Francisco Romão

    2011-05-01

    The increase in plastic surgery interventions in Brazil and the growth of the beauty industry, as well as care of the body and corporal enhancement, are part of a broader process of medical and aesthetic preoccupation with health. According to the Brazilian Plastic Surgery Association there has been a substantial increase in the number of plastic surgery procedures in Brazil. Every year, approximately 350,000 aesthetic surgical interventions are performed in the country. Our work investigated the construction of meaning and value, the use of aesthetic parameters in this construction and how those meanings are appropriated and treated by those representatives of the medical profession who work in the body transformation process, namely plastic surgeons. In this respect, an analysis of the pronouncements and discourse posted on the Brazilian Plastic Surgery Association website was conducted, as it is the regulatory body of the field and is responsible for training professionals and supervising the sector. Analysis of the official content of the website page posted on September 26, 2005 was the basis for this research. PMID:21655710

  7. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum 1884 - Hibernia Savings & Loan Society Buildings, Historic View, Montgomery & Post Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. Mothers, Teachers, Maternalism and Early Childhood Education and Care: Some Historical Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ailwood, Jo

    2007-01-01

    Many current debates in Australia regarding the policy, politics and practicalities of childcare provision are embedded in dominant discourses of maternalism. This article places these debates within some historical contexts, emphasising the long history of these debates and the enduring centrality of maternalism--where the most revered of roles…

  9. Mitochondrial analysis of a Byzantine population reveals the differential impact of multiple historical events in South Anatolia

    PubMed Central

    Ottoni, Claudio; Ricaut, François-X; Vanderheyden, Nancy; Brucato, Nicolas; Waelkens, Marc; Decorte, Ronny

    2011-01-01

    The archaeological site of Sagalassos is located in Southwest Turkey, in the western part of the Taurus mountain range. Human occupation of its territory is attested from the late 12th millennium BP up to the 13th century AD. By analysing the mtDNA variation in 85 skeletons from Sagalassos dated to the 11th–13th century AD, this study attempts to reconstruct the genetic signature potentially left in this region of Anatolia by the many civilizations, which succeeded one another over the centuries until the mid-Byzantine period (13th century BC). Authentic ancient DNA data were determined from the control region and some SNPs in the coding region of the mtDNA in 53 individuals. Comparative analyses with up to 157 modern populations allowed us to reconstruct the origin of the mid-Byzantine people still dwelling in dispersed hamlets in Sagalassos, and to detect the maternal contribution of their potential ancestors. By integrating the genetic data with historical and archaeological information, we were able to attest in Sagalassos a significant maternal genetic signature of Balkan/Greek populations, as well as ancient Persians and populations from the Italian peninsula. Some contribution from the Levant has been also detected, whereas no contribution from Central Asian population could be ascertained. PMID:21224890

  10. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of historical vegetation iodine-131 for measurements in 1945--1947; Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, R.O.; Mart, E.I.; Strenge, D.L.; Miley, T.B.

    1994-03-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is developing environmental transport and dose models to estimate the doses to individuals and populations from exposure to radionuclides released from Hanford nuclear facilities since 1944. The validity of these models will be assessed in part by comparing model predictions with environmental measurements of radionuclides. One potentially important set of environmental radionuclide measurements is those made on vegetation samples that, beginning in 1945, were collected on and around the Hanford Site. However, from October 1945 through mid-1948, the available technology permitted the vegetation samples to be measured only for total radioactivity rather than for specific radionuclides. At that time, the factors needed to convert total radioactivities to concentrations ({mu}Ci/kg) of iodine-131, the predominant radionuclide that was released into the air from Hanford stacks in the mid-1940s, were not well known or accurately quantified. A search of historical Hanford records by HEDR Project staff uncovered the original background-corrected radiation measurements, made using a Geiger-Mueller (GM) detector system, for vegetation samples that were collected from October 1945 through early August 1946. HEDR Project staff have developed a model that can be used to convert these radiation measurements to iodine-131 concentrations ({mu}Ci/kg). It is anticipated that this equation will be used to obtain more accurate concentrations of iodine-131 for vegetation for the purpose of validating vegetation iodine-131 concentrations that will be estimated by HEDR Project air-pathway transport models.

  11. Computer simulation is an undervalued tool for genetic analysis: a historical view and presentation of SHIMSHON--a Web-based genetic simulation package.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, David A

    2011-01-01

    Computer simulation methods are under-used tools in genetic analysis because simulation approaches have been portrayed as inferior to analytic methods. Even when simulation is used, its advantages are not fully exploited. Here, I present SHIMSHON, our package of genetic simulation programs that have been developed, tested, used for research, and used to generated data for Genetic Analysis Workshops (GAW). These simulation programs, now web-accessible, can be used by anyone to answer questions about designing and analyzing genetic disease studies for locus identification. This work has three foci: (1) the historical context of SHIMSHON's development, suggesting why simulation has not been more widely used so far. (2) Advantages of simulation: computer simulation helps us to understand how genetic analysis methods work. It has advantages for understanding disease inheritance and methods for gene searches. Furthermore, simulation methods can be used to answer fundamental questions that either cannot be answered by analytical approaches or cannot even be defined until the problems are identified and studied, using simulation. (3) I argue that, because simulation was not accepted, there was a failure to grasp the meaning of some simulation-based studies of linkage. This may have contributed to perceived weaknesses in linkage analysis; weaknesses that did not, in fact, exist. PMID:22189467

  12. Computer Simulation Is an Undervalued Tool for Genetic Analysis: A Historical View and Presentation of SHIMSHON – A Web-Based Genetic Simulation Package

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Computer simulation methods are under-used tools in genetic analysis because simulation approaches have been portrayed as inferior to analytic methods. Even when simulation is used, its advantages are not fully exploited. Here, I present SHIMSHON, our package of genetic simulation programs that have been developed, tested, used for research, and used to generated data for Genetic Analysis Workshops (GAW). These simulation programs, now web-accessible, can be used by anyone to answer questions about designing and analyzing genetic disease studies for locus identification. This work has three foci: (1) the historical context of SHIMSHON's development, suggesting why simulation has not been more widely used so far. (2) Advantages of simulation: computer simulation helps us to understand how genetic analysis methods work. It has advantages for understanding disease inheritance and methods for gene searches. Furthermore, simulation methods can be used to answer fundamental questions that either cannot be answered by analytical approaches or cannot even be defined until the problems are identified and studied, using simulation. (3) I argue that, because simulation was not accepted, there was a failure to grasp the meaning of some simulation-based studies of linkage. This may have contributed to perceived weaknesses in linkage analysis; weaknesses that did not, in fact, exist. PMID:22189467

  13. A historical review and bibliometric analysis of research on lead in drinking water field from 1991 to 2007

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Hu; Yuwei Ma; Liang Zhang; Fuxing Gan; Yuh-Shan Ho

    2010-01-01

    A bibliometric analysis based on Science Citation Index (SCI) published by Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) was carried out to identify the global research related to lead in drinking water field from 1991 to 2007 and to improve the understanding of research trends in the same period. The results from this analysis indicate that there have been an increasing number

  14. Mathematics in the Making: Mapping Verbal Discourse in Polya's "Let Us Teach Guessing" Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truxaw, Mary P.; DeFranco, Thomas C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a detailed analysis of verbal discourse within an exemplary mathematics lesson--that is, George Polya teaching in the Mathematics Association of America [MAA] video classic, "Let Us Teach Guessing" (1966). The results of the analysis reveal an inductive model of teaching that represents recursive cycles rather than linear…

  15. The power to shape policy: charting sport for development and peace policy discourses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lyndsay M. C. Hayhurst

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses findings from a development policy discourse analysis that was conducted using six key sport for development and peace (SDP) policy documents. The research was guided by a theoretical framework combining postcolonial theory and actor-oriented sociology in order to critically analyse SDP policies. Based on this analysis, three theses are proposed: (1) SDP policies are unclear, circuitous and

  16. Formulation of work stress in 1960-2000: analysis of scientific works from the perspective of historical sociology.

    PubMed

    Väänänen, Ari; Anttila, Erkko; Turtiainen, Jussi; Varje, Pekka

    2012-09-01

    During the latter part of the 20th century, work stress became an important societal issue and a huge amount of scientific attention went to studying it. This paper examines the process of formulating and defining the concept of work stress in the occupational health sciences and in industrial and organizational psychology from the early 1960s to the late 1990s. The empirical material of the study encompasses 108 scientific articles, books, book chapters, 'state of the art' reviews, book reviews, and written conference presentations. The data are analysed in the frameworks of historical sociology, critical psychology, and the anthropology of knowledge. We argue that work stress as a life-structuring concept gained ground in psychosocial and occupational health sciences (and also in lay understanding) in the 1960s simultaneously with the rise of social reformist movements that called for fundamental changes emphasizing democratic and human-orientated work organizations and socially responsible values. With the passing of time, however, the focus on structural improvement of work life waned and the emphasis shifted towards the apolitical occupational health aspects of work stress. Researchers with a psychological orientation emphasized micro-level characteristics as factors affecting work stress, whereas stress-orientated epidemiologists turned to the study of specific occupational stress models and/or risk factors. The emergence and development of work stress research can be seen as a chain of attempts to define and identify new risks and experiences occurring in work life. The process, driven by a gradual shift from industrial environments towards organizational frameworks characterized by social and psychological dimensions, reflected the overall shift towards modern democratic work life and the information society in which employees' emotions and well-being became an issue. PMID:22658625

  17. Gendered Language in Interactive Discourse.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Karen A; Katz, Albert N; Leith, Scott A

    2015-08-01

    Over two studies, we examined the nature of gendered language in interactive discourse. In the first study, we analyzed gendered language from a chat corpus to see whether tokens of gendered language proposed in the gender-as-culture hypothesis (Maltz and Borker in Language and social identity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 196-216, 1982) can be found in interactive language. Of the eight tokens examined only three were found to differ in the hypothesized direction, and these only in male-male dyads. In the second study, we trained a male and a female confederate to use either male or female gendered tokens found to be reliable in Study One in their chats with participants. Our design permits disentangling of effects due to knowledge of the gender of the interlocutors and use of specific language tokens. We find that use of language tokens by the confederate promoted use of the same token by their interlocutor, regardless of knowledge of the confederate's gender. Moreover use of tokens consistent or inconsistent with visible gender influenced how the interlocutor perceived the confederate. Taken together these data are inconsistent with either the notion that gendered language is context independent (as suggested in the gender-as-culture hypothesis) or the notion that gendered language only emerges when gender is made salient, as would, in these studies, occur in mixed-gendered groups. PMID:24664126

  18. A Synoptic Climatological Approach to Assess Climatic Impact on Air Quality in South-central Canada. Part I: Historical Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chad Shouquan Cheng; Monica Campbell; Qian Li; Guilong Li; Heather Auld; Nancy Day; David Pengelly; Sarah Gingrich; David Yap

    2007-01-01

    Automated synoptic weather typing and robust orthogonal stepwise regression analysis (via principal components analysis) were\\u000a applied together to develop within-weather-type air pollution prediction models for a variety of pollutants (specifically,\\u000a carbon monoxide – CO, nitrogen dioxide – NO2, ozone – O3, sulphur dioxide – SO2, and suspended particles – SP) for the period 1974–2000 in south-central Canada. The SAS robust

  19. Narrative and the Origins of Discourse: Patterns of Discourse in Stories around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, David

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarises findings of discourse analyses of traditional stories from eleven language phyla around the world. The aim is a preliminary exploration of relationships amongst diverse languages in patterns of discourse, using a systemic functional language model. Several techniques were developed for managing and displaying the analyses,…

  20. Moving Between Discourses: From Learning-As-Acquisition To Learning-As-Participation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfard, Anna

    2009-11-01

    In this paper I address the question of how to talk about learning so as to be able to cope with at least some of the longstanding quandaries and to arrive at new insights. After a very brief historical review, I concentrate on two basic metaphors for learning in which current educational research seems to be grounded: the metaphors of learning-as-acquisition and of learning-as-participation. After stating the importance of both of these approaches and arguing that researches should be adjusting their leading metaphors to the questions they ask, I present my own choice: a brand of participationist discourse which is grounded in the vision of thinking as a form of communication and of physics and mathematics as types of discourses. The usefulness of the proposed way of talking about learning is then illustrated with the help of empirical materials taken from my recent study on a 7th grade class just introduced to negative numbers.

  1. Men's discourses of help-seeking in the context of depression.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Joy L; Oliffe, John L; Kelly, Mary T; Galdas, Paul; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2012-03-01

    Depression is an illness increasingly constructed as a gendered mood disorder and consequently diagnosed in women more than men. The diagnostic criteria used for its assessment often perpetrate and reproduce gender stereotypes. The stigma associated with mental illness and the gendered elements of depression suggest there are likely numerous discourses that position, explain, and justify help-seeking practices. This qualitative study explored men's discourses of seeking help for depression. The methodological approach was informed by a social constructionist perspective of language, discourse and gender that drew on methods from discourse analysis. We conducted individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 38 men with depression, either formally diagnosed or self reported. The analysis revealed five discursive frames that influenced the men's talk about help-seeking and depression: manly self-reliance; treatment-seeking as responsible independent action; guarded vulnerability; desperation; and genuine connection. The findings are discussed within a broader context of social discourses of gender, the limitations of current help-seeking literature and the evidence for how men seek help in ways that extend traditional notions of medical treatment. PMID:21707661

  2. Does Prayer Heal?: A Discourse Analysis 

    E-print Network

    Purvis, Jerry

    2009-07-03

    Abstract Intro: Clinical experiments on intercessory prayer and distant healing produce very mixed and inconclusive results. With modern advancements in experimental techniques, methodology is more stringent than ever. ...

  3. Discourse Analysis of Encouragement in Healthcare Manga

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuoka, Rieko; Smith, Ian; Uchimura, Mari

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how healthcare professionals use encouragement. Focusing on GAMBARU ["to try hard"], forty-one scenes were collected from healthcare manga. Each scene of encouragement was analyzed from three perspectives; the contextual background of the communication, the relationship with the patients and the patients' response to the…

  4. Agent based Genetic Algorithm Employing Financial Technical Analysis for Making Trading Decisions Using Historical Equity Market Data

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    Agent based Genetic Algorithm Employing Financial Technical Analysis for Making Trading Decisions of Nottingham czs@cs.nott.ac.uk Abstract This paper investigates the effectiveness of an agent based trading system. The system developed employs a simple genetic algorithm to evolve an optimized trading approach

  5. A Historical Analysis of the Presentation of Abortion and Adoption in Marriage and Family Textbooks: 1950-1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Elaine J.; Stolley, Kathy Shepherd

    1997-01-01

    Presents a content analysis of the depiction of abortion and adoption in 62 marriage and family textbooks. Findings show that books devote more attention to abortion than to adoption and cast abortion as a macro, societal issue while depicting adoption as a micro issue. (Author/MKA)

  6. Moving forward in Canada–United States transboundary water management: an analysis of historical and emerging concerns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brittany Flaherty; Raul Pacheco-Vega; Judy Isaac-Renton

    2011-01-01

    Co-operative management of transboundary environmental resources is critical for peaceful relations between bordering nations. This article examines the current body of literature on Canada–United States transboundary water resources, specifically focusing this analysis on the level of attention given to (1) water quality vs. quantity and (2) groundwater vs. surface water concerns. These issues are discussed under the policy regime framework,

  7. Analysis of eicosanoids by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS: a historical retrospect and a discussion.

    PubMed

    Tsikas, Dimitrios; Zoerner, Alexander A

    2014-08-01

    Eicosanoids are a large family that derives from arachidonic acid, i.e., eicosatetraenoic acid. Prominent members include prostaglandins, thromboxane and leukotrienes. They are biologically highly active lipid mediators and play multiple physiological roles. GC-MS/MS has played a pivotal role in the identification and quantification of eicosanoids in biological samples. This technology generated a solid knowledge of their analytical chemistry, biochemistry, physiology and pharmacology. Since about a decade, GC-MS and GC-MS/MS are increasingly displaced by the seemingly more simple, rapid and powerful LC-MS/MS in the area of instrumental analysis of physiological substances, drugs and their metabolites. In this article, we review and discuss LC-MS/MS methods published over the last decade from the perspective of the GC-MS/MS user. Our analysis revealed that the shift from the adult GC-MS/MS to the youthful emerging LC-MS/MS technology in eicosanoid analysis is associated with several important challenges. Known pitfalls and problematic issues discovered by eicosanoid pioneers by using GC-MS/MS are often ignored by LC-MS/MS users. Established reference values and intervals provided by GC-MS-based methods are not considered properly in developing and validating LC-MS/MS methods. Virtually, there is a belief in the unlimited capability of the LC-MS/MS technique in eicosanoid analysis, a thought that simulates analytical certainty. LC-MS/MS users should profit from the plethora of solid knowledge acquired from the use of GC-MS/MS in eicosanoid analysis in basic and clinical research. PMID:24742369

  8. Quantifying gully erosion contribution from morphodynamic analysis of historical aerial photographs in a large catchment SW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayas, Antonio; Giráldez, Juan V.; Laguna, Ana; Peña, Peña; Vanwalleghem, Tom

    2015-04-01

    Gully erosion is widely recognized as an important erosion process and source of sediment, especially in Mediterranean basins. Recent advances in monitoring techniques, such as ground-based LiDAR, drone-bounded cameras or photoreconstruction, allow quantifying gully erosion rates with unprecedented accuracy. However, many studies only focus on gully growth during a short period. In agricultural areas, farmers frequently erase gullies artificially. Over longer time scales, this results in an important dynamic of gully growth and infilling. Also, given the significant temporal variability of precipitation, land use and the proper gully erosion processes, gully growth is non-linear over time. This study therefore aims at analyzing gully morphodynamics over a long time scale (1957-2011) in a large catchment in order to quantify gully erosion processes and its contribution to overall sediment dynamics. The 20 km2 study area is located in SW Spain. The extension of the gully network was digitized by photographic interpretation based on aerial photographs from 1957, 1981, 1985, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2011. Gully width was measured at representative control points for each of these years. During this period, the dominant land use changed considerably from herbaceous crops to olive orchards. A field campaign was conducted in 2014 to measure current gully width and depth. Total gully volume and uncertainty was determined by Monte Carlo-based simulations of gully cross-sectional area for unmeasured sections. The extension of the gully network both increased and decreased in the study period. Gully density varied between 1.93 km km-2 in 1957, with a minimum of 1.37 km km-2 in 1981 and a maximum of 5.40 km km-2 in 2011. Gully width estimated in selected points from the orthophotos range between 0.9 m and 59.2 m, and showed a good lognormal fit. Field campaigns results in a collection of cross-section measures with gullies widths between 1.87 and 28.5 m and depths from 0.55 m to 5.02 m. A gully width-depth relation was established according to a logarithm expression with an overall r2 of 0.82. As no historical information on gully depth was available, this relation was assumed to be constant over time. Monte Carlo simulation was then used to generate width and depth values for the different gully segments, based on different lognormal distributions fitted to the estimated gully widths from 1957-2011 and on the width-depth regression. The calculated mean gully volume between 1953 and 2011 varied between 145.103 m3 and 2454.103 m3. The contribution of gully erosion to the overall sediment budget was found to be relatively stable between 1957-2008 with a mean value of 11.2 ton ha-1 year-1, while in the period 2008-2011 which includes frequent rainy days winter resulted in a mean value of 604 ton ha-1 year-1. Uncertainty estimates by Monte Carlo place the estimated contribution of gully erosion for this last period between 523-694 ton ha-1 year-1. The relation between gully erosion rates and driving factors such as land use change and rainfall was analysed in order to explain this variation. The high gully erosion rates of the period 2008-2011 could be linked to extreme rainfall events. This study has determined gully erosion rates with a high temporal resolution over several decades. The results show that gully erosion rates are highly variable and therefore that a simple interpolation between the start and end date would highly underestimate gully contribution during certain years, such as for example between 2005-2011. Overall, gully erosion is shown to be an important process of sediment generation in Mediterranean basins.

  9. Phylogeographical analysis on Squalidus argentatus recapitulates historical landscapes and drainage evolution on the island of Taiwan and mainland China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Quan; Tang, Wen-Qiao; Liao, Te-Yu; Sun, Yang; Zhou, Zhuo-Cheng; Han, Chiao-Chuan; Liu, Dong; Lin, Hung-Du

    2012-01-01

    Phylogeographical analyses on Squalidus argentatus samples from thirteen localities within mainland China and Taiwan were conducted for biogeographic studies, as their dispersal strictly depends on geological evolution of the landmasses. A total of 95 haplotypes were genotyped for mtDNA cyt b gene in 160 specimens from nine river systems. Relatively high levels of haplotype diversity (h = 0.984) and low levels of nucleotide diversity (? = 0.020) were detected in S. argentatus. Two major phylogenetic haplotype groups, A and B, were revealed via phylogenetic analysis. The degree of intergroup divergence (3.96%) indicates that these groups diverged about 4.55 myr (million years) ago. Haplotype network and population analyses indicated significant genetic structure (F(ST) = 0.775), largely concordant with the geographical location of the populations. According to SAMOVA analysis, we divided these populations into four units: Yangtze-Pearl, Qiantang-Minjiang, Jiulong-Beijiang and Taiwan groups. Mismatch distribution analysis, neutrality tests and Bayesian skyline plots indicated a significant population expansion for lineage A and B, approximately dated 0.35 and 0.04 myr ago, respectively. We found strong geographical organization of the haplotype clades across different geographic scales that can be explained by episodes of dispersal and population expansion followed by population fragmentation and restricted gene flow. PMID:22408398

  10. Biomedical Ethics Policy in Korea: Characteristics and Historical Development

    PubMed Central

    Hahm, Ki-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Ethical consideration is an inseparable part of policy-making in modern society. Biomedical ethics is an interdisciplinary study of ethical issues that result from advances in medical practices and research. Because these issues often arise at the bedside, society must provide solutions or judgments that are effective and applicable. Thus, the development and progress of biomedical ethics has been made possible via the cooperation of experts from diverse backgrounds. The biomedical ethics discourse should not be seen as a conflict between values but as a collective activity for problem-solving. To support this perspective on ethics discourse, a historical perspective on biomedical ethics in Korea was given emphasis on the participants and their perspectives. Major cases and the changes resulting therefrom were discussed with the agenda proposed. The Korean situation with respect to ethics development shows the interactions between groups participating in policy development and its collaborative nature. PMID:22661876

  11. The neural architecture of discourse compression.

    PubMed

    Lillywhite, L M; Saling, M M; Demutska, A; Masterton, R; Farquharson, S; Jackson, G D

    2010-03-01

    Re-telling a story is thought to produce a progressive refinement in the mental representation of the discourse. A neuroanatomical substrate for this compression effect, however, has yet to be identified. We used a discourse re-listening task and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify brain regions responsive to repeated discourse in twenty healthy volunteers. We found a striking difference in the pattern of activation associated with the first and subsequent presentations of the same story relative to rest. The first presentation was associated with a highly significant increase in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in a bilateral perisylvian distribution, including auditory cortex. Listening to the same story on subsequent occasions revealed a wider network with activation extending into frontal, parietal, and subcortical structures. When the first and final presentations of the same story were directly compared, significant increments in activation were found in the middle frontal gyrus bilaterally, and the right inferior parietal lobule, suggesting that the spread of activation with re-listening reflected an active neural process over and above that required for comprehension of the text. Within the right inferior parietal region the change in BOLD signal was highly correlated with a behavioural index of discourse compression based in re-telling, providing converging evidence for the role of the right inferior parietal region in the representation of discourse. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, the existence of a neural network underlying discourse compression, showing that parts of this network are common to re-telling and re-listening effects. PMID:19914263

  12. Michigan Historic Sites Online

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    How does a state tell others about its history? Through a careful preservation of a historic church? Or an old factory? There are a number of ways to do this and the Michigan Historic Sites Online website provides information on over 3,500 historic sites throughout the Wolverine State. First-time visitors can use the Find Historic Sites tab to get started or perform a variety of detailed searches. Additionally, a Community Search can be performed, which allows users to search by city, township, village, or county name. Users can also Browse the Map to explore this great state from Grand Rapids to Lapeer.

  13. Development of a Relational-Design Database for Preservation and Analysis of Historic Measurements of Radionuclides in Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Anne White, et al.

    2008-03-01

    Between 1981 and 1986, in situ spectral gamma measurements were made from tracked vehicles as part of the Radionuclide Inventory and Distribution Program (RIDP) to document the distribution and develop inventories of 16 man-made radionuclides in surface soil from nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site. To preserve and permit more precise geospatial and other electronic analysis of the data, the raw spectral gamma measurements (units of nanocuries/m2) were recovered from nine-track magnetic tapes, transferred to a flat-file database, and finally converted into a relational-design, desktop application in Microsoft Access 2000. To test the reliability of the measurement locations, the Nevada Grid Coordinate information was imported into Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ArcMap to compare against plots in the 1991 RIDP summary report and against known field points. The resulting RIDP Database allows users to create files of the location and concentration where each radionuclide was detected, or files of all gamma measurements associated with a particular nuclear test. Maps can be generated showing where particular radionuclides were detected. For additional analysis, datasets can be exported to a hypertext markup language (HTML) format. Extensive use has been made of RIDP data prior to development of this database. However, there have been some inconsistencies in results because of use of interim results published prior to 1991, and because some half lives used when the data was collected are different than those used today. Two major steps were taken to standardize analysis using the RIDP database. First, only spectral gamma data decay corrected to January 1, 1990 was used. Second, currently accepted half lives for the radionuclides were incorporated into an option that allows decay correction of inventory and activity values since 1990. For long-lived radionuclides, changes in inventory have been inconsequential. However, for short-lived fission products (e.g., 60Co, half life of 5.27 years), changes because of radioactive decay were found to be significant. Comparison of spectral gamma data collected in 1994 from fixed winged aircraft to RIDP shows good correlation between areas of high contaminant concentration.

  14. Mitochondrial D-loop analysis reveals low diversity in Mangalica pigs and their relationship to historical specimens.

    PubMed

    Molnár, J; Tóth, G; Stéger, V; Zsolnai, A; Jánosi, A; Mohr, A; Szántó-Egész, R; Tóth, P; Micsinai, A; Rátky, J; Marincs, F

    2013-08-01

    The genetic relationship between 195 Mangalica and 79 non-Mangalica pigs was studied using mitochondrial D-loop SNP genotyping. Altogether, 35 polymorphic sites and 27 haplotypes were identified. Of the haplotypes, eight and 16 are Mangalica and non-Mangalica specific, respectively, while three contain both Mangalica and non-Mangalica individuals. Genetic distance values and phylogenetic analysis indicate that Mangalica individuals are very closely related, and five haplotypes represent approximately 92% of the Mangalica pigs involved in the study, thus determining the major maternal lineages. In contrast to previous microsatellite studies, individuals of Mangalica could not be distinguished as three separate breeds using mtDNA genotyping. Comparing modern and archaeological mtDNA sequences revealed that present day Mangalica is related to pigs that lived in the Carpathian basin where postulated ancestors of Mangalica also lived. This is the first DNA-based genetic evidence to support the described breeding history of Mangalica. PMID:23855633

  15. Risky, early, controversial. Puberty in medical discourses.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Donatella; Vinel, Virginie

    2014-11-11

    This article comes within the compass of a research program (entitled CorAge. Bodily Experiences and AgePassages among 9-13 year-olds (ANR-09-ENFT-017) conducted between 2009 and 2013 about the emergence of a "new" age in life -"preadolescence"- as instanced in France (Alsace, Lorraine) and Italy (Venetia). The impressive amount of references to "early puberty" and "precocious puberty", in a context of feeling of a premature end of childhood, led us to make an in-depth study of this issue: first, through an analysis of international and French and Italian medical journals; second, through interviews with health professionals. Following the thesis of Foucault, we assume that the discourses on puberty timing participate of classifications of the child body drenched with moral representations of childhood, especially on gender and age issue. Our results: the question of whether a secular trend in puberty timing even exists continues to be debated between American and European scientists. Second, the terms "puberty", "precocious puberty", "early puberty" have been used to indicate a variety of puberty markers, increasing confusion. A controversy has focused on early breast development in girls, because this attribute is questioning the order of ages and gender. Moreover, psychosocial factors presented as accelerating early puberty, do not demonstrate the relation between earliness and risk behavior. The literature, as it is moved by the female precocity, creates a medical category to objectify the complex and flexible process of puberty and invent female child precocity. These differences between American and European scholars and the interviews with French and Italian health professional show a gap between the international literature and practitioners, clinicians and nurses who regularly work with children: they neither find pubertal advancement, nor increase of "true precocious puberty", although they share concerns about premature feminization of girls (France) or environmental toxicity (Italy) on children. PMID:25467882

  16. [Out of natural order: nature in discourses about cloning and stem cell research in Brazilian newspapers].

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Flavia Natércia da Silva

    2013-11-30

    Different conceptions of nature influence media coverage and public opinion about biotechnology. This study reports on a discourse analysis of the ideas about nature and what is natural expressed in Brazilian media coverage of cloning and stem cell research. In the discourse against this research, the biotechnologies in question are placed outside the natural order of things and deemed immoral. In the discourse of those who defend it, nature is portrayed as indifferent to the fate of humans or even cruel, or else a barrier to be overcome, while cloning and embryonic stem cells are naturalized and Dolly the sheep is anthropomorphized. The mythifying or transcendental representations of nature do not just influence public opinion, but also have ethical and political implications. PMID:24346197

  17. Epidemiology as discourse: the politics of development institutions in the Epidemiological Profile of El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Aviles, L

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To determine the ways in which institutions devoted to international development influence epidemiological studies.?DESIGN—This article takes a descriptive epidemiological study of El Salvador, Epidemiological Profile, conducted in 1994 by the US Agency for International Development, as a case study. The methods include discourse analysis in order to uncover the ideological basis of the report and its characteristics as a discourse of development.?SETTING—El Salvador.?RESULTS—The Epidemiological Profile theoretical basis, the epidemiological transition theory, embodies the ethnocentrism of a "colonizer's model of the world." This report follows the logic of a discourse of development by depoliticising development, creating abnormalities, and relying on the development consulting industry. The epidemiological transition theory serves as an ideology that legitimises and dissimulates the international order.?CONCLUSIONS—Even descriptive epidemiological assessments or epidemiological profiles are imbued with theoretical assumptions shaped by the institutional setting under which epidemiological investigations are conducted.???Keywords: El Salvador; politics PMID:11160170

  18. The Language and Politics of Exclusion: Others in Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggins, Stephen Harold, Ed.

    A collection of essays on "the other" in discourse includes: "The Rhetoric of Othering" (Stephen Harold Riggins); "Political Discourse and Racism: Describing Others in Western Parliaments" (Teun A. van Dijk); "'Das Ausland' and Anti-Semitic Discourse: The Discursive Construction of the Other" (Ruth Wodak); "Who Are They? The Rhetoric of…

  19. HRM and the irresistible rise of the discourse of competence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Len Holmes

    1995-01-01

    Despite debate and criticism, the notion of “competence” has risen to prominence very rapidly and now has an important place in the vocabulary of human resource management (HRM). Seeks to explain such a rapid rise by drawing on discourse theory. The discourse of competence may be seen to arise through the convergence of discourses in four separate domains, and thereby

  20. A Sexuality Education Discourses Framework: Conservative, Liberal, Critical, and Postmodern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tiffany

    2011-01-01

    Sexuality education debates are layered with discourses based on markedly different constructions of sexuality. Rather than seeing these discourses as purely oppositional, this article frames them as complex and varied. It provides a new framework for understanding sexuality education which differentiates 28 discourses by orientation to education,…