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Sample records for historical discourse analysis

  1. The Politics of Historical Discourse Analysis: A Qualitative Research Method?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannesson, Ingolfur Asgeir

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the ways in which historical discourse analysis is at once different from and similar to research described as qualitative or quantitative. It discusses the consequences of applying the standards of such methods to historical discourse analysis. It is pointed out that although the merit of research using historical…

  2. Ancestors of two-spirits: Historical depictions of Native North American gender-crossing women through critical discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Hemmilä, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Letters written by Christian men of European origin during the sixteenth-nineteenth centuries contain brief descriptions of gender-crossing individuals among indigenous Americans. Although now considered ethnocentrically biased because of the etic positioning of their authors, these historical sources are invaluable because they offer a glimpse of the ancestors of modern-day two-spirits. An application of critical discourse analysis to three depictions of gender-crossing females from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries demonstrates that such women were favorably portrayed. These results differ dramatically from those obtained from my similar analysis of depictions of gender-crossing males. It also became evident that the three descriptions of gender-crossing women were not based on actual observations, but only on hearsay, which makes their use as primary sources questionable. PMID:27254764

  3. Discourse Analysis Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheu, Dagmar, Ed.; Lopez-Maestre, M. D., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This collection of articles includes: "Introduction: Discourse Analysis Today" (Dagmar Schue and M.D. Lopez-Maestre); "The Metaphorical and Metonymic Understanding of the Trinitarian Dogma" (Antonio Barcelona); "Symmetry as Conceptual Metaphor in Walker's The Color Purple" (Elena Tapia); "And She's Like it's Terrible, Like: Spoken Discourse,…

  4. A historical discourse analysis of the cancerous and non-cancerous body in secondary biology textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Neil Thomas

    This dissertation applies the archeological concepts developed by Michel Foucault to a study of thirteen biology textbooks (1993-2004) in order to develop an understanding of 'purchased truths' concerning cancer. This study focuses on the construction of the health/illness dialogue concerning cancer within the textbooks and not the meaning that the individual makes from reading the text; as such this study concerns itself with social truths rather than the search for an individual awareness of names, dates, or places. This study investigates the practices that allow the creation of dialogues that are inserted into a biology textbook and looks at how discursive formations create the 'truth regime' from which the biology textbook is said to speak. Using the Foucaultian themes of 'event', 'emergence', 'enunciation', and 'exteriority' a new reading of topics concerning cancer emerge from biology textbooks. Cancer is a disease that will impact the lives of countless individuals but coverage devoted to the pathology of cancer in secondary biology textbooks is very limited and no study textbook devoted a whole chapter to the discussion of cancer. There is an identified reduction in the number of pages and depth of coverage devoted to cancer in the newer biology texts compared to the older texts. Humans are pictured more than plants or animals in presentations concerning cancer with emphasis being placed on the digitalization of human cells via the scanning electron microscope. When the whole body is presented it is seldom located within the technology of disease diagnosis and treatment but rather is posed for specific social control. Just as each digitized picture of the cancerous cell in the texts is used to create a story so too are the pictures of the whole body in action. Possible story lines offered by the publishing houses concerning the reaction of the body to cancer are shown to intermingle with risk factor analysis to project a sense of Foucaultian

  5. Lexical Discourse Analysis in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khotaba, Eissa; Al Tarawneh, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Lexical Discourse very often depend on lexis. Lexical Discourse analysis, however, has not yet been given enough consideration of the phenomenon of translation. This paper investigates lexical discourse analysis in translation from one language to another. This qualitative study comprises 15 text translated by M.A. students at the Department of…

  6. Changing social and scientific discourses on type 2 diabetes between 1800 and 1950: a socio-historical analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Shane

    2015-09-01

    Since the emergence of type 2 diabetes as a public health threat around the middle of the 20(th) century, accounts of disease causation have focused predominately on lifestyle or genetics, or both, while the role of broader structural issues such as psychosocial distress has been downplayed. Yet in the years prior to this emergence, when diabetes remained the preserve of the upper classes, medical experts drew upon multiple narratives when considering the condition, the most popular of which being the role of social organisation and the interplay between mind, body and environment. This article is based on a discourse analysis of the writings of the most prominent diabetes experts between 1800 and 1950 about both the causes and management of the illness. It highlights how, although the connection between lifestyle and diabetes was well established among physicians, individual-level explanations only fully supplanted the emphasis on social organisation as diabetes began to make the transition from being a disease of the rich to one of the poor. It argues that this discursive shift was shaped by the dynamics of class relations rather than any new forms of scientific evidence developed at the time. PMID:26094811

  7. Discourse Analysis Procedures: Reliability Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hux, Karen; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A study evaluated and compared four methods of assessing reliability on one discourse analysis procedure--a modified version of Damico's Clinical Discourse Analysis. The methods were Pearson product-moment correlations; interobserver agreement; Cohen's kappa; and generalizability coefficients. The strengths and weaknesses of the methods are…

  8. Perezhivanie and classroom discourse: a cultural-historical perspective on "Discourse of design based science classroom activities"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Megan; March, Sue

    2015-06-01

    Flavio Azevedo, Peggy Martalock and Tugba Keser challenge the `argumentation focus of science lessons' and propose that through a `design-based approach' emergent conversations with the teacher offer possibilities for different types of discussions to enhance pedagogical discourse in science classrooms. This important paper offers a "preliminary contribution to a general theory" regarding the link between activity types and discourse practices. Azevedo, Martalock and Keser offer a general perspective with a sociocultural framing for analysis of classroom discourse. Interestingly the specific concepts drawn upon are from conversation analysis; there are few sociocultural concepts explored in detail. Therefore, in this article we focus on a cultural historical (Vygotsky in The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky. The history and development of higher mental functions, vol 4. Plenum Press, New York, 1987; The Vygotsky reader. Black, Cambridge, 1994) methodology to explore, analyse and explain how we would use a different theoretical lens. We argue that a cultural historical reading of argumentation in science lessons and design based activity will expand Azevedo, Martalock and Keser's proposed general theory of activity types and discourse practices. Specifically, we use Lev Vygotksy's idea of perezhivanie as the unit of analysis to reconceptualise this important paper. We focus on the holistic category of students' emotional experience through discourse while developing scientific awareness.

  9. Discourse Analysis and the Translator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Margaret

    Discourse analysis, as an approach to text, provides the teacher, student, and professional translator with resources for achieving objectivity and for making and justifying translation decisions. It offers a strategy for relating the problems and processes and discourse and the specific concerns to the objectives of the translator. It can be…

  10. Critical Discourse Analysis and Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriaza, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the need of infusing critical discourse analysis into the preparation and support of prospective school leaders. It argues that in the process of school transformation, the school leader must possess the ability to self-reflect on his/her language and understand the potential power of language as a means that may support or…

  11. Discourse Analysis in Career Counseling and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stead, Graham B.; Bakker, Terri M.

    2010-01-01

    Discourse analysis can be used to understand and interpret culturally and socially produced meanings regarding work and to outline how specific rules and conventions can configure meaning production of work in context. The implications of some core concepts in discourse analysis pertinent to career counseling are explored, including discourse,…

  12. Critical Instance Analysis of News English Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Hongmei; Wu, Sijun

    2009-01-01

    Critical discourse analysis (CDA) thought that the discourse was concrete social practice, and the language served for the potency, and the discourse embodied the ideology. Two presses about the case that the US Mattel Toy Company recalled toys "Made in China" in Washington Post (newspaper) and New York Times (newspaper) were taken as…

  13. Governmentality as a Genealogical Toolbox in Historical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Janicke

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show how governmentality may be used to analyze historical events and discourses, and how this historical analysis can be used as a perspective to problematize contemporary discourses. The example used in this article is from my research on life-extension handbooks published in Sweden 1700-1930, and by this I stress…

  14. An Overview of Discourse Analysis and Its Usefulness in TESOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Geraldine Veronica

    This paper provides an overview of discourse analysis from a linguistic point of view, discussing why it is relevant to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL). It focuses on the following: discourse and discourse analysis; discourse analysis and TESOL; approaches to discourse analysis; systemic functional linguistics; theme and…

  15. Discourse analysis and social constructionism.

    PubMed

    White, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Discourse analysis (DA) is underpinned by a social constructionist orientation to knowledge. Social constructionism rests on the philosophical assumptions that multiple versions of the world are legitimate; that texts are open to multiple readings; and that language is non-representational. As social constructionism is relativistic, the status of 'evidence' generated by DA is questionable from more traditional research perspectives. On a common-sense level, people obviously construct meaning in relation to their lives. Thus, DA can help us to examine constructions of meaning in relation to nursing care. Equally the discourse analyst constructs one possible meaning in relation to a phenomenon that may compete with other versions. Multiplicity does not necessarily entail anarchy and competing versions prevent authoritarianism and loss of freedom. However, judgements have to be made about competing versions, for example, by assessing the level of 'facticity', or referring to the ethics embedded in the cultural context. In this paper, Bob White discusses DA as a form of qualitative research that offers promise for nursing research. Subsequent papers will examine the methodology and methods of DA and its application to nursing research. PMID:15636002

  16. A cultural historical theoretical perspective of discourse and design in the science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Megan

    2015-06-01

    Flavio Azevedo, Peggy Martalock and Tugba Keser have initiated an important conversation in science education as they use sociocultural theory to introduce design based scenarios into the science classroom. This response seeks to expand Azevedo, Martalock and Keser's article The discourse of design- based science classroom activities by using a specific perspective within a sociocultural framework. Through using a cultural historical (Vygotsky in The history and development of higher mental functions, Plenum Press, New York, 1987) reading of design based activity and discourse in the science classroom, it is proposed that learning should be an integral part of these processes. Therefore, everyday and scientific concepts are explained and expanded in relation to Inventing Graphing and discourse presented in Azevedo, Martalock and Keser's article. This response reports on the importance of teacher's being explicit in relation to connecting everyday and scientific concepts alongside design based activity and related science concepts when teaching students. It is argued that explicit teaching of concepts should be instigated prior to analysis of discourse in the science classroom as it is only with experience and understanding these processes that students have the resources to call upon to argue like practicing scientists.

  17. Racialized Spaces in Teacher Discourse: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Place-Based Identities in Roche Bois, Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiehe, Elsa M.

    2013-01-01

    This eleven-month ethnographic study puts critical discourse analysis in dialogue with postmodern conceptualizations of space and place to explore how eight educators talk about space and in the process, produce racialized spaces in Roche Bois, Mauritius. The macro-historical context of racialization of this urban marginalized community informs…

  18. Methodology in the Analysis of Classroom Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberta, Celia; Rampton, Ben; Leung, Constant; Harris, Roxy

    2002-01-01

    Considers the ethnography of communication, conversation analysis and systemic functional linguistics as frameworks for the analysis of classroom discourse. Discusses their basic assumptions, some of the similarities and differences between them, and their different strengths and weaknesses as resources for applied linguistic problem solving.…

  19. The historical context in conversation: Lexical differentiation and memory for the discourse history.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Si On; Benjamin, Aaron S; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    When designing a definite referring expression, speakers take into account both the local context and certain aspects of the historical context, including whether similar referents have been mentioned in the past. When a similar item has been mentioned previously, speakers tend to elaborate their referring expression in order to differentiate the two items, a phenomenon called lexical differentiation. The present research examines the locus of the lexical differentiation effect and its relationship with memory for the discourse. In three experiments, we demonstrate that speakers differentiate to distinguish current from past referents; there was no evidence that speakers differentiate in order to avoid giving two items the same label. Post-task memory tests also revealed a high level of memory for the discourse history, a finding that is inconsistent with the view that failures of memory underlie low differentiation rates. Instead, memory for the discourse history, while necessary, is not sufficient for speakers to design language with respect to the historical context. Speakers must additionally view the discourse history as relevant to design language with respect to this broader context. Finally, measures of memory for past referents point to asymmetries between speakers and listeners in their memory for the discourse, with speakers typically remembering the discourse history better. PMID:27258780

  20. Discourse Analysis of Teaching Computing Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Matt

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the teaching and learning of computing in a Web-conferencing environment. A discourse analysis of three introductory programming learning episodes is presented to demonstrate issues and effects that arise when teaching computing using such an approach. The subject of discussion, the interactive nature of discussion and any…

  1. Critical Discourse Analysis and Rhetoric and Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huckin, Thomas; Andrus, Jennifer; Clary-Lemon, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, critical discourse analysis has emerged as a major new multidisciplinary approach to the study of texts and contexts in the public sphere. Developed in Europe, CDA has lately become increasingly popular in North America, where it is proving especially congenial to new directions in rhetoric and composition. This essay…

  2. Superintendent Leadership Style: A Gendered Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallin, Dawn C.; Crippen, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Using a blend of social constructionism, critical feminism, and dialogue theory, the discourse of nine Manitoba superintendents is examined to determine if it illustrates particular gendered assumptions regarding superintendents' leadership style. Qualitative inquiry and analysis methods were utilized to identify emerging themes, or topics of…

  3. Greenpeace Greenspeak: A Transcultural Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Bettina; Cheng, Hsin-I; Inuzuka, Ako

    2007-01-01

    This cross-cultural discourse analysis examines the construction of environmental issues on Greenpeace web pages in China, Japan and Germany. To uncover the semantic representation of environmental activism on these sites, the authors sought to identify discursive homogeneity and divergence and to bring to light embedded cultural assumptions. The…

  4. Principles of Discourse Analysis: Explanation and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.

    Discourse analysis attempts to identify and describe the semantic relationships among units of thought larger than a word (predications). Two basic types of these relationships exist between predications, conceptual and nonconceptual. A conceptual relationship exists between two predications when they share a concept or when a concept in one…

  5. Critical Discourse Analysis, Adult Education and "Fitba"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Player, John

    2013-01-01

    In this article I will use an example of current adult education practice, the Glory and Dismay Football Literacies Programme (GDFLP) to appraise the value of critical discourse analysis (CDA) for adult learners, both individually and collectively, and for adult education practitioners with an interest in developing critical literacy skills. The…

  6. Discourse Analysis and the Study of Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Gary; Mungal, Angus Shiva

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the current and past work using discourse analysis in the field of educational administration and of discourse analysis as a methodology. Design/Methodology/Approach: Authors reviewed research in educational leadership that uses discourse analysis as a methodology. Findings: While…

  7. Assessing the Validity of Discourse Analysis: Transdisciplinary Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaipal-Jamani, Kamini

    2014-01-01

    Research studies using discourse analysis approaches make claims about phenomena or issues based on interpretation of written or spoken text, which includes images and gestures. How are findings/interpretations from discourse analysis validated? This paper proposes transdisciplinary convergence as a way to validate discourse analysis approaches to…

  8. Discourse on Discourse. Workshop Reports from the Macquarie Workshop on Discourse Analysis (Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, February 21-25, 1983). Occasional Papers Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Ruqaiya, Ed.

    Four group summary papers from an Australian national workshop on discourse analysis discuss verbal and written discourse and the classroom. Papers reflect the four workshop discussion groups of casual conversation, classroom discourse, expository discourse, and literary narrative. They include: "On Casual Conversation" (M. A. K. Halliday and G.…

  9. A Discourse Analysis of Teacher-Student Classroom Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Michael Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation explores the role of classroom discourse in balancing teacher control over lesson content and student participation in educational interactions. The results of a discourse analysis of teacher-student interactions in video-recordings of eight third-grade math and language arts lessons reveal that the role of discourse in this…

  10. Assessing the validity of discourse analysis: transdisciplinary convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaipal-Jamani, Kamini

    2014-12-01

    Research studies using discourse analysis approaches make claims about phenomena or issues based on interpretation of written or spoken text, which includes images and gestures. How are findings/interpretations from discourse analysis validated? This paper proposes transdisciplinary convergence as a way to validate discourse analysis approaches to research. The argument is made that discourse analysis explicitly grounded in semiotics, systemic functional linguistics, and critical theory, offers a credible research methodology. The underlying assumptions, constructs, and techniques of analysis of these three theoretical disciplines can be drawn on to show convergence of data at multiple levels, validating interpretations from text analysis.

  11. Manufacturing Consent: A Corpus-Based Critical Discourse Analysis of New Labour's Educational Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulderrig, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents selected findings from a historical analysis of change in the discursive construction of social identity in UK education policy discourse from 1972-2005. My chief argument is that through its linguistic forms of self-identification the government construes educational roles, relations and responsibilities not only for itself,…

  12. Discourses of disease, discourses of disadvantage: a critical analysis of National Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Plans.

    PubMed

    Garoon, Joshua P; Duggan, Patrick S

    2008-10-01

    Growing recognition of the threat of pandemic influenza to global health has led to increased emphasis on pandemic influenza preparedness planning. Previous analysis of national pandemic preparedness plans has revealed that those plans paid scant attention to the needs and interests of the disadvantaged. This paper investigates those findings via critical discourse analysis of the same plans as well as World Health Organization guidance documents. The analysis reveals that the texts operate within and as parts of an ordered universe of discourse. Among the six discourses which emerge from the analysis the scientific, political, and legal dominate the social, cultural, and ethical. This order of discourse delineates a specific regime of truths within which the lives, needs, and interests of the disadvantaged are masked or neglected. Unless the plans recognize their discursive construction, implementation of the policies and practices they prescribe runs the risk of further disadvantaging those very populations most likely to require protection. PMID:18656294

  13. Challenging social cognition models of adherence: cycles of discourse, historical bodies, and interactional order.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, Jamie; Salter, Charlotte; Poland, Fiona; Cross, Jane

    2015-02-01

    Attempts to model individual beliefs as a means of predicting how people follow clinical advice have dominated adherence research, but with limited success. In this article, we challenge assumptions underlying this individualistic philosophy and propose an alternative formulation of context and its relationship with individual actions related to illness. Borrowing from Scollon and Scollon's three elements of social action—historical body, interaction order, and discourses in place—we construct an alternative set of research methods and demonstrate their application with an example of a person talking about asthma management. We argue that talk- or illness-related behavior, both viewed as forms of social action, manifest themselves as an intersection of cycles of discourse, shifting as individuals move through these cycles across time and space. We conclude by discussing how these dynamics of social action can be studied and how clinicians might use this understanding when negotiating treatment with patients. PMID:25231944

  14. A quoi peut servir l'analyse de discours? (Of What Use is Discourse Analysis?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumpf, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Presents a survey of opinions on the nature and usefulness of discourse analysis. The following topics are addressed: (1) discourse analysis and ideologies of power, (2) epistemological considerations, and (3) discourse analysis and interdisciplinary endeavors. (AMH)

  15. Discourse Analysis: Part I, Information Management and Cohesion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovejoy, Kim Brian; Lance, Donald M.

    Combining linguistics and composition studies, this paper (part 1 of a two-part article) proposes a model for the analysis of information management and cohesion in written discourse. It defines concepts of discourse analysis--specifically information management, syntax, semantic reference, lexicon, cohesion, and intonation, with examples taken…

  16. Emotional inhibition: a discourse analysis of disclosure.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Darren; Cromby, John

    2012-01-01

    Evidence generated within the emotional disclosure paradigm (EDP) suggests that talking or writing about emotional experiences produces health benefits, but recent meta-analyses have questioned its efficacy. Studies within the EDP typically rely upon a unidimensional and relatively unsophisticated notion of emotional inhibition, and tend to use quantitative forms of content analysis to identify associations between percentages of word types and positive or negative health outcomes. In this article, we use a case study to show how a qualitative discourse analysis has the potential to identify more of the complexity linking the disclosure practices and styles that may be associated with emotional inhibition. This may illuminate the apparent lack of evidence for efficacy of the EDP by enabling more comprehensive theorisations of the variations within it. PMID:21678182

  17. Understanding Resistance: An Analysis of Discourses in Academic Staff Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Using social realist theory and critical discourse analysis, this article examines a number of discourses which construct academic staff attitudes to teaching and learning in their disciplines. It seeks to explain academics' resistance to engaging in activities aimed at professionalising academic practice. The research described in the article…

  18. Critical Discourse Analysis Research Methods for the English Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is an approach to analysing the discourses that operate in social contexts, such as classrooms in schools, and their material effects on people, such as teachers and learners. CDA offers a range of ways of engaging with the relationship between texts in context and the power they exercise. In this article, I…

  19. A Discourse Analysis of Student Perceptions of Their Communication Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Eugenie P.

    This paper presents the conclusions of a study of student perceptions of communication competence. Discourse analysis data was collected on students in university systems in six different American states in the East, Midwest, and South. Student discourse was analyzed for differences in the ways in which students described their perceptions of…

  20. A Multimodal Discourse Analysis of Tmall's Double Eleven Advertisement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chunyu; Luo, Mengxi

    2016-01-01

    From the 1990s, the multimodal turn in discourse studies makes multimodal discourse analysis a popular topic in linguistics and communication studies. An important approach to applying Systemic Functional Linguistics to non-verbal modes is Visual Grammar initially proposed by Kress and van Leeuwen (1996). Considering that commercial advertisement…

  1. Self in Career Theory and Counselling: A Discourse Analysis Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stead, Graham B.; Bakker, Terri M.

    2010-01-01

    A rapidly changing postmodern working world demands revised conceptualisations of the self. Recent scholarship in discourse analysis invites an investigation into how selves are constructed and fabricated within a complex matrix of social discourses, and how this may impact on the field of career counselling and development. This paper examines…

  2. Ideology, Rationality and Reproduction in Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Leonel

    2014-01-01

    In undertaking a critical discourse analysis of the professed aims and objectives of one of the most influential curricula in the teaching of thinking, this article foregrounds issues of power and ideology latent in curricular discourses of rationality. Specifically, it documents the subtle but powerful ways in which political and class…

  3. A Discourse Structure Analysis of the Comprehension of Rapid Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Dorothy Morrison

    The Modified Packard method of discourse analysis, based on eight functional aspects of discourse relationships--elaboration, reason, comparison/contrast, temporal, emphasis, coordination, subordination, and superordination--was applied to the open-ended recalls of randomly selected honors students trained in the Evelyn Wood method and to a…

  4. Sociologists' Discourse on Students: An Impressionistic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Dean S.

    1990-01-01

    Presents an impressionistic commentary about the discourse of sociologists on students based on a random sample of sociologists' statements written between 1972 and 1988. Categorizes the commentary into: the incomplete, the defective, the empowered, and the unmotivated. Suggests that even though the discourse concerns students, it is really about…

  5. Discourse analysis in general practice: a sociolinguistic approach.

    PubMed

    Nessa, J; Malterud, K

    1990-06-01

    It is a simple but important fact that as general practitioners we talk to our patients. The quality of the conversation is of vital importance for the outcome of the consultation. The purpose of this article is to discuss a methodological tool borrowed from sociolinguistics--discourse analysis. To assess the suitability of this method for analysis of general practice consultations, the authors have performed a discourse analysis of one single consultation. Our experiences are presented here. PMID:2369986

  6. Discourse Analysis: Its Development and Application to the Structure of News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijk, Teun A. van

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes basic principles for analyzing discourse. Focuses on discourse in the press, analyzing various levels, units, dimensions, modes, and social contexts. Discusses the relevance of discourse analysis to mass communication research. (PD)

  7. Discourses of Linguistic dominance: A Historical Consideration of French Language Ideology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasuya, Keisuke

    2001-07-01

    The paper offers a historical perspective on the linguistic and cultural imperialism embedded in the struggle to maintain French as a leading international language. France was the nation-state where the ideology of national language was first clearly formulated and directly extended to overseas colonies. This shows the close relationship between linguistic nationalism and imperialism. It was believed that French was the language of universal human reason and had the power to civilize people who spoke it. This myth of the "clarté française" and the "mission civilisatrice" had a strong influence on various kinds of metalinguistic discourses that created the taken-for-granted representation of French as dominant language. It is the essential strategy of language dominance to establish the hierarchy of languages as if it were natural order of things. When French was obliged to yield the status of international language to English, there emerged the ideology of "Francophonie" which tried to defend its privilege against the monopoly of English, but the same ideology is also directed against minorities' claims for their own linguistic human right. It could be said that these discourses form a recursive prototype of language dominance whose variations are to be found in other shapes almost all over the world.

  8. Drugs, Discourses and Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis of a High School Drug Education Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tupper, Kenneth W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines a high school drug education text using critical discourse analysis (CDA) to discern its underlying ideological commitments and political dispositions. I begin with an overview of CDA and why it is a suitable methodology for my work, and then provide a brief history of drug education in North America. Next, I consider some of…

  9. Doing Foucault: inquiring into nursing knowledge with Foucauldian discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Springer, Rusla Anne; Clinton, Michael E

    2015-04-01

    Foucauldian discourse analysis (FDA) is a methodology that is well suited to inquiring into nursing knowledge and its organization. It is a critical analytic approach derived from Foucault's histories of science, madness, medicine, incarceration and sexuality, all of which serve to exteriorize or make visible the 'positive unconscious of knowledge' penetrating bodies and minds. Foucauldian discourse analysis (FDA) holds the potential to reveal who we are today as nurses and as a profession of nursing by facilitating our ability to identify and trace the effects of the discourses that determine the conditions of possibility for nursing practice that are continuously shaping and (re)shaping the knowledge of nursing and the profession of nursing as we know it. In making visible the chain of knowledge that orders the spaces nurses occupy, no less than their subjectivities, FDA is a powerful methodology for inquiring into nursing knowledge based on its provocation of deep critical reflection on the normalizing power of discourse. PMID:25683171

  10. Microethnographic Discourse Analysis in an Inquiry Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the relationship among theories related to classroom language and literacy events by first examining the researcher's theoretical perspective on discourse and sociocultural theories of learning development. The analytical heuristic for a microethnographic approach using a variety of theoretical tools is discussed and…

  11. Perezhivanie and Classroom Discourse: A Cultural-Historical Perspective on "Discourse of Design Based Science Classroom Activities"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Megan; March, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Flavio Azevedo, Peggy Martalock and Tugba Keser challenge the "argumentation focus of science lessons" and propose that through a 'design-based approach' emergent conversations with the teacher offer possibilities for different types of discussions to enhance pedagogical discourse in science classrooms. This important paper offers a…

  12. Power in clinical teachers' discourses of a curriculum-in-action. Critical discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jennifer; Dornan, Tim

    2013-12-01

    "Curricula-in-action" generally differ from "official" curricula. That is particularly true of clerkship curricula because the practising doctors who supervise medical students' clinical activities are only secondarily educators. Clerkship education is evaluated, however, according to benchmarks set by official curricula. As a result, clerkship evaluations are important points of contact between clinical teachers and medical schools. We reasoned that an evaluation instrument is part of a medical school's official curriculum discourse and clinical teachers' reactions to it are a discourse of curriculum-in-action. We set out to answer the questions: What are clinical teachers' discourses of curriculum-in-action and how do they relate to an official curriculum discourse? Nineteen clerkship placement leads from two hospitals contributing to a single undergraduate medical programme participated. The evaluation instrument was the Manchester Clinical Placement Index, for which validity evidence has been published. Respondents were asked to say how they would react to junior students giving their placements low or high scores for each of 12 items from the Index. After transcription, we conducted a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of their audio-recorded answers. We purposefully selected the six items that elicited the widest spectrum of responses for analysis because quantity of material can compromise the quality of CDA. A dominant discourse of curriculum-in-action defined how teachers should "really" teach and junior students should learn. It deconstructed the need for teachers to be present when students performed clinical tasks because teachers' role was to give critical feedback on case presentations that were coincidental to clinical care. It positioned students at the bottom of a power hierarchy so they had to "struggle" to be taught. It placed respondents in a powerful position relative to "the hospital" and "the university", though there were tensions between

  13. Uniting postcolonial, discourse, and linguistic theory to explore participation of African Americans in cancer research as an effect of social and historical race relationships.

    PubMed

    Somayaji, Darryl; Cloyes, Kristin Gates

    2014-01-01

    This article uses a historical framework of postcolonialism; discourse analytic concepts (significance, identity, and relationships); and 5 social and cultural linguistic principles of emergence, positionality, indexicality, relationality, and partialness as a theoretical and methodological triangulation approach to data analysis of focus group discussion. Exemplars of focus group data from a study exploring African American participation in research demonstrate the application of this combined framework as a useful tool for analysis. This approach allows for examination of identity and interaction and generates a more rigorous and complete understanding of how individuals use language to construct identity as participants or nonparticipants in research. PMID:24469087

  14. Some Sociolinguistic and Discourse Analysis Considerations in Oral Proficiency Interviewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John L. D.

    If sociolinguistics involves the specification and analysis of sociological, interpersonal, and pragmatic variables at issue in given language-use situations, and discourse anaysis is the observation and analysis of both linguistic and paralinguistic features of speech events within these situations, there are at least three areas in these…

  15. The organising vision for telehealth and telecare: discourse analysis

    PubMed Central

    Procter, Rob; Wherton, Joe; Sugarhood, Paul; Shaw, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Objective To (1) map how different stakeholders understand telehealth and telecare technologies and (2) explore the implications for development and implementation of telehealth and telecare services. Design Discourse analysis. Sample 68 publications representing diverse perspectives (academic, policy, service, commercial and lay) on telehealth and telecare plus field notes from 10 knowledge-sharing events. Method Following a familiarisation phase (browsing and informal interviews), we studied a systematic sample of texts in detail. Through repeated close reading, we identified assumptions, metaphors, storylines, scenarios, practices and rhetorical positions. We added successive findings to an emerging picture of the whole. Main findings Telehealth and telecare technologies featured prominently in texts on chronic illness and ageing. There was no coherent organising vision. Rather, four conflicting discourses were evident and engaged only minimally with one another's arguments. Modernist discourse presented a futuristic utopian vision in which assistive technologies, implemented at scale, would enable society to meet its moral obligations to older people by creating a safe ‘smart’ home environment where help was always at hand, while generating efficiency savings. Humanist discourse emphasised the uniqueness and moral worth of the individual and tailoring to personal and family context; it considered that technologies were only sometimes fit for purpose and could create as well as solve problems. Political economy discourse envisaged a techno-economic complex of powerful vested interests driving commodification of healthcare and diversion of public funds into private business. Change management discourse recognised the complicatedness of large-scale technology programmes and emphasised good project management and organisational processes. Conclusion Introduction of telehealth and telecare is hampered because different stakeholders hold different assumptions

  16. Educator Discourses on ICT in Education: A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bladergroen, Moira; Chigona, Wallace; Bytheway, Andy; Cox, Sanet; Dumas, Chris; van Zyl, Izak

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) of Primary School Educators' dialogue on the use of ICT in an under-resourced schooling context. Educators play a pivotal role in the education system. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) interventions in schools will be effective only if educators are willing and able to…

  17. A Discourse Analysis of School Counseling Supervisory E-Mail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Melissa; Gordon, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    This article is a discourse analysis of weekly computer-mediated communications between 8 school counseling interns and their e-mail supervisor over a 16-week semester. Course-required e-mail supervision was provided as an adjunct to traditional face-to-face individual and group supervision. School counselor supervisees and supervisor enacted 3…

  18. A Cognitive Dimension in the Analysis of Classroom Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michell, Lynn; Peel, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of the way students analyze and interpret experience, this research incorporates a cognitive dimension into the analysis of classroom discourse. Monitors both the levels of thinking of individual students and their social interactions during discussion in formal and informal classroom contexts. Results…

  19. A Semiotic Reading and Discourse Analysis of Postmodern Street Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mimi Miyoung; Chung, Sheng Kuan

    2009-01-01

    Postmodern street art operates under a set of references that requires art educators and researchers to adopt alternative analytical frameworks in order to understand its meanings. In this article, we describe social semiotics, critical discourse analysis, and postmodern street performance as well as the relevance of the former two in interpreting…

  20. A Jamesonian Analysis of "Flat World" Imagery in Education Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin, Ross

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a discourse analysis of Kylene Beers' presidential address to the 2009 conference of the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE-USA). The address, titled "Sailing over the Edge: Navigating the Uncharted Waters of a World Gone Flat," calls teachers to reject the standardized education of the industrial order…

  1. Discourse Analysis and Cultivation of Conversational Competence in English Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    The essay is to discuss in perspective of teaching how to apply the results of Discourse Analysis study to English class to train students for successful communication through taking turns, controlling turns, teaching exchange, organizing transaction, spreading topic and taking into account contextual factors as well in order to cultivate…

  2. Storytelling: Discourse Analysis for Understanding Collective Perceptions of Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vovides, Yianna; Inman, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Using discourse analysis, the goal of this exploratory project was to determine what practitioners of medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa considered key achievements, within the scope of their Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) activities, after their initial two-year implementation efforts. To do so, a series of 58 video stories…

  3. A Frame-Reflective Discourse Analysis of Serious Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Igor; Warmelink, Harald; Zhou, Qiqi

    2016-01-01

    The authors explore how framing theory and the method of frame-reflective discourse analysis provide foundations for the emerging discipline of serious games (SGs) research. Starting with Wittgenstein's language game and Berger and Luckmann's social constructivist view on science, the authors demonstrate why a definitional or taxonomic approach to…

  4. Competency Discourses: An Analysis of Secondary and Tertiary Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of a sample of assessment tasks used in New Zealand first-year clinical and final-year secondary school Biology and Chemistry National Certificate of Educational Achievement summative assessments was conducted to assess whether similarities and differences existed in secondary and tertiary competency discourses. Findings suggested…

  5. A Multimodal Discourse Analysis of a Yoruba Song-Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olateju, Moji. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multimodal discourse analysis of a story that has been turned into a Yoruba song-drama, highlighting the ideational, interpersonal and textual aspects of the song-drama. The data is a short song-drama meant to teach children importunity, determination and hard work through persistence. The multimodal and narrative conventions…

  6. A Contrapuntal Analysis of Discourses of Desire in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Implicated in contributing to the problems youth today face in trying to claim an education, an informed active participation in the social order, dominant discourses of desire in education foreclose formal, critical analysis of social structures that construct, police, entreat, and deny desire. Looking at the ways in which desire is encoded in…

  7. Analysing Professional Discourse in Interactive Learning: Integrating Historical and Situational Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torras, Eulalia; Barbera, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Written environments in online learning enable professional discourse to be analysed in depth and provide greater knowledge for improving learning and for planning and delivering courses aimed at professional development. Until now, research into professional discourse has highlighted the importance of interaction in the development of…

  8. Discourses of Linguistic Dominance: A Historical Consideration of French Language Ideology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasuya, Keisuke

    2001-01-01

    Reports that for centuries French language ideology has elaborated various types of discourses in order to establish linguistic dominance and hierarchy. Asserts that if these discourses could be recognized as a recursive prototype, counter-strategies could be developed to combat linguistic dominance, wherever it may be found. (Contains 30…

  9. Critical Narrative Analysis: The Interplay of Critical Discourse and Narrative Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souto-Manning, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I question the micro-macro separation in discourse analysis, the separation of personal and institutional discourses. I apply a mostly macroanalytic perspective (critical discourse analysis [CDA]) to inform a predominantly microanalytic perspective (analysis of conversational narratives) and vice versa. In the combination of these…

  10. Discourse Analysis for Language Learners. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, Vol. 1, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, R. R. K.

    Discourse analysis, a field that reflects an interest in language as text and social interaction, is discussed. Discourse analysis deals with the way language varies from one communicative situation to another; textological analysis deals with the internal organization of such discourse in terms of grammar and vocabulary. Assumptions in…

  11. The Construction of Cultural Values and Beliefs in Chinese Language Textbooks: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yongbing

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the discourses of cultural values and beliefs constructed in Chinese language textbooks currently used for primary school students nationwide in China. By applying story grammar analysis in the framework of critical discourse analysis, the article critically investigates how the discourses are constructed and what ideological…

  12. "Generation 1.5" and Its Discourses of Partiality: A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benesch, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This is a critical discourse analysis of "generation 1.5," a term used to refer to students born outside the United States who received part, or most, of their formal education in the United States. The analysis reveals that surrounding "generation 1.5" are 3 interconnected discourses of partiality: a discourse of demographic partiality, a…

  13. Using Discourse Analysis as a Research Tool for Understanding User Navigation Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voithofer, Richard J.

    This paper examines how discourse analysis can be used as a methodology for understanding the mental models that influence how people navigate the Internet. Discourse analysis provides a methodology with which to articulate the relationships between language, social context, and the cognitive processes that underlie discourse perception and…

  14. Counter-Memory and Race: An Examination of African American Scholars' Challenges to Early Twentieth Century K-12 Historical Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony L.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how African American scholars during the early twentieth century employed the genre of curriculum writing to challenge existing discourses of race. Drawing from the findings of a qualitative document analysis of textbooks created by Carter G. Woodson and Charles H. Wesley, this article illustrates how these authors used texts…

  15. Discourse, Cultural Knowledge and Ideology: A Critical Analysis of Chinese Language Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yongbing

    2005-01-01

    This article examines discourses of cultural knowledge and ideology in Chinese language textbooks currently used for primary school students nationwide in China. Within the framework of critical curriculum theory and using critical discourse analysis, this article critically investigates how discourses of cultural knowledge are constructed and…

  16. Traitement discursif et conversationnel des representations sociales (Discourse and Conversational Analysis of Social Representations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serra, Cecilia

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the interpretive process of social representations of bilingualism by means of discourse and conversational analysis. Representations are to be understood as an interpretive set of assumptions conveyed by discourse, creating recurrent and habitual systems of dispositions and expectations. The article shows how discourse is…

  17. From Moves to Sequences: Expanding the Unit of Analysis in the Study of Classroom Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefstein, Adam; Snell, Julia; Israeli, Mirit

    2015-01-01

    What is the appropriate unit of analysis for the study of classroom discourse? One common analytic strategy employs individual discourse moves, which are coded, counted and used as indicators of the quality of classroom talk. In this article we question this practice, arguing that discourse moves are positioned within sequences that critically…

  18. Acceptance of dying: a discourse analysis of palliative care literature.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Camilla

    2012-07-01

    The subject of death denial in the West has been examined extensively in the sociological literature. However, there has not been a similar examination of its "opposite", the acceptance of death. In this study, I use the qualitative method of discourse analysis to examine the use of the term "acceptance" of dying in the palliative care literature from 1970 to 2001. A Medline search was performed by combining the text words "accept or acceptance" with the subject headings "terminal care or palliative care or hospice care", and restricting the search to English language articles in clinical journals discussing acceptance of death in adults. The 40 articles were coded and analysed using a critical discourse analysis method. This paper focuses on the theme of acceptance as integral to palliative care, which had subthemes of acceptance as a goal of care, personal acceptance of healthcare workers, and acceptance as a facilitator of care. For patients and families, death acceptance is a goal that they can be helped to attain; for palliative care staff, acceptance of dying is a personal quality that is a precondition for effective practice. Acceptance not only facilitates the dying process for the patient and family, but also renders care easier. The analysis investigates the intertextuality of these themes with each other and with previous texts. From a Foucauldian perspective, I suggest that the discourse on acceptance of dying represents a productive power, which disciplines patients through apparent psychological and spiritual gratification, and encourages participation in a certain way to die. PMID:22513246

  19. Discourse analysis and the impact of the philosophy of Enlightenment in nursing research.

    PubMed

    Beedholm, Kirsten; Lomborg, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2014-06-01

    Discourse analysis has been introduced into nursing research as an approach which has the potential to offer new perspectives and to pose new questions to taken-for-granted assumptions. However, critique has arisen that when applied to nursing studies, the epistemological foundation of the discourse analysis is often overlooked. It is furthermore claimed that the methodological inspiration does not lead to any new insights and that these studies can hardly be differentiated from more traditional studies. This study supports this critique, arguing that the challenges of implementing discourse analysis in nursing research reflect a dominant pattern of thought in the discourse of the nursing profession that have held sway throughout the last century. We argue that this pattern of thought stems from the Western philosophy of consciousness and the conception of the sovereign subject. By applying a discourse analytical perspective to the discourse of the nursing profession itself, this study elucidates the challenges of applying discourse analysis in nursing research. PMID:23679133

  20. Critical Discourse Analysis and Science Education Texts: Employing Foucauldian Notions of Discourse and Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    This article supports critical, social justice oriented science education research by providing a theoretical and methodological basis for examining how subjectivities may be constituted through discourses found in science education texts. Such research explores how discourses orient teachers and students to the world, others, and themselves, as…

  1. Gutter to Garden: Historical Discourses of Risk in Interventions in Working Class Children's Street Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates interventions in the gutter play of British working class children in the first decade of the 20th century through their re-location within Free Kindergartens. In contemporary literature, the street child was viewed through a binary lens, as both "at risk" and "as risk", reflecting wider societal discourses in a period of…

  2. Deaf Culture and Competing Discourses in a Residential School for the Deaf: "Can Do" versus "Can't Do"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Catherine A.; Placier, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    From an ethnographic case study of a state-funded residential school for the Deaf, the authors employed Critical Discourse Analysis to identify competing discourses in the talk of educators. These discourses are embedded in the historical oppression and labeling of deaf people as disabled and the development of Deaf culture as a counter-discourse.…

  3. Homelessness, a state of mind?: a discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Phyllis; McCauley, Karen; Bailey, Patricia Hill

    2009-10-01

    This article presents a discourse analysis of a woman's written account of mental illness and homelessness. In her preparation as a co-presenter at a conference for decision- and policy-makers, Anna wrote eight distinct drafts of her speaking notes; each time emphasizing different aspects of her experiences with mental illness and homelessness. By sharing her preparatory writings, Anna offers a rare insight into the 'evolution' of the thinking that went into representing her story to an audience of professionals. In addition, this analysis represents an interpretation and alternative forum to learn from Anna's story. PMID:19742372

  4. Caring control: methodological issues in a discourse analysis of waterbirth texts.

    PubMed

    Redwood, R

    1999-04-01

    This paper describes a study where the discourses surrounding waterbirth were identified by an analysis of texts in professional journals and broadsheet newspapers. While one particular discourse, caring control, will be discussed, the focus of the paper is on the method of discourse analysis. What discourse analysis can offer nurses and midwives is a position from which to analyse systematically and to arrive at some understanding of how oppression and inequality of power relations, which are inherent in many forms of health care provision, are created and sustained. PMID:10215983

  5. A discourse analysis of male sexuality in the magazine Intimacy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The World Health Organization's publication, Developing sexual health programmes, states that the media is an important source of information about sexuality. Although the media can promote awareness of sexual health issues, it also acts as a vehicle for defining and regulating sex norms. In other words, the standards of ‘normal’ sex are in part defined by the media. Accordingly, it has become imperative to analyse the media's construction of sexual norms in order to reveal how they are related to specific ideological views. For the purposes of this study, the focus will be limited to analysing the South African publication Intimacy. Aim The study aims to reveal how the sex advice articles written in Intimacy for women in regard to their male partner's sexuality reflect patriarchal and phallocentric ideologies. Method A discourse analysis of the sex advice articles in the magazine Intimacy was conducted. It was informed by feminist theories of sexuality that seek to examine the ways in which texts are associated with male-centred versions of sexual pleasure. Results The discourse analysis identified a number of key themes regarding male sexuality. These include: (1) biological accounts of male sexuality; (2) phallocentric scripting of the sex act; and (3) the melodramatic penis. Conclusion Constructions of male sexuality require the inclusion of alternative modes of male erotic pleasure. This requires texts that encourage men to explore and also to experiment with pleasurable feelings associated with non-genital erogenous zones of the body. PMID:26245621

  6. Studying Agency in Literacy Teacher Education: A Layered Approach to Positive Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Rebecca; Wetzel, Melissa Mosley

    2013-01-01

    Critically oriented forms of discourse analysis have focused largely on oppression and injustice. Signaling a new turn in the field, scholars have called for an analytic focus on moments of liberation and agency, referring to this orientation as "positive discourse analysis" (PDA). In this research, we turn our attention to a case study of agency…

  7. "Genre Means...": A Critical Discourse Analysis of Fourth Grade Talk about Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaenen, Inda

    2010-01-01

    This action research study investigates how genre theory can be integrated into the practice of a writing enrichment program and how the frameworks of Critical Discourse Analysis and Multimodal Analysis can help assess and improve both student learning and teacher practice. A multilayered exploration of teacher-student discourse in an urban public…

  8. A Corpus-Based Discourse Analysis of the Vision and Mission Statements of Universities in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efe, Ibrahim; Ozer, Omer

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from a corpus-assisted discourse analysis of mission and vision statements of 105 state and 66 private/foundation universities in Turkey. The paper combines a corpus-based approach with critical discourse analysis to interpret the data in relation to its institutional as well as socio-political context. It argues…

  9. Climate Change Discourse in Mass Media: Application of Computer-Assisted Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirilenko, Andrei P.; Stepchenkova, Svetlana O.

    2012-01-01

    Content analysis of mass media publications has become a major scientific method used to analyze public discourse on climate change. We propose a computer-assisted content analysis method to extract prevalent themes and analyze discourse changes over an extended period in an objective and quantifiable manner. The method includes the following: (1)…

  10. Psychometrics and its discontents: an historical perspective on the discourse of the measurement tradition.

    PubMed

    Schoenherr, Jordan Richard; Hamstra, Stanley J

    2016-08-01

    Psychometrics has recently undergone extensive criticism within the medical education literature. The use of quantitative measurement using psychometric instruments such as response scales is thought to emphasize a narrow range of relevant learner skills and competencies. Recent reviews and commentaries suggest that a paradigm shift might be presently underway. We argue for caution, in that the psychometrics approach and the quantitative account of competencies that it reflects is based on a rich discussion regarding measurement and scaling that led to the establishment of this paradigm. Rather than reflecting a homogeneous discipline focused on core competencies devoid of consideration of context, the psychometric community has a history of discourse and debate within the field, with an acknowledgement that the techniques and instruments developed within psychometrics are heuristics that must be used pragmatically. PMID:26303112

  11. Knowledge Building Discourse Explorer: A Social Network Analysis Application for Knowledge Building Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshima, Jun; Oshima, Ritsuko; Matsuzawa, Yoshiaki

    2012-01-01

    In recent studies of learning theories, a new methodology that integrates two prevailing metaphors of learning (acquisition and participation) has been discussed. However, current analytical techniques are insufficient for analyzing how social knowledge develops through learners' discourse and how individual learners contribute to this…

  12. The Discourses of Discourse Analysis: A Response to Ninnes and Burnett.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    The field of comparative education has been slow to incorporate poststructuralist concerns due to theoretical bias, the linguistic barrier of postmodernist discourses, and the critique of postmodernism as indifferent to social issues. Debates on key questions of epistemology, ontology, and ethics in social research are needed to further…

  13. Causal Discourse and the Teaching of History. How Do Teachers Explain Historical Causality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanero, Manuel; Lucero, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we aim to describe how secondary school teachers explain multicausal historical events. To that end, we recorded and analyzed seven classes on "The discovery and colonization of America". The results show that secondary school teachers do not simply deal with history as a catalog of actions, characters and dates. On the contrary,…

  14. The British and Curriculum Development in West Africa: A Historical Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofori-Attah, Kwabena Dei

    2006-01-01

    Only recently have African nations begun to make their way towards establishing genuinely autonomous education systems incorporating elements of indigenous culture. The present study examines the historical development of curriculum in British West Africa in its links with the educational activities of the early Christian missionaries and the…

  15. Discourse Analysis and Development of English Listening for Non-English Majors in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Yinxiu

    2015-01-01

    Traditional approach of listening teaching mainly focuses on the sentence level and regards the listening process in a passive and static way. To compensate for this deficiency, a new listening approach, that is, discourse-oriented approach has been introduced into the listening classroom. Although discourse analysis is a comparatively new field…

  16. Ideologies of English in a Chinese High School EFL Textbook: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiong, Tao; Qian, Yamin

    2012-01-01

    In this article we examine ideologies of English in present-day China with a special focus on textbook discourse. The research framework is informed by critical theories on language and education. Critical discourse analysis is applied as a methodological approach characterized by a socially committed attitude in the explanation and interpretation…

  17. Critical Discourse Analysis and Inclusive Educational Policies: The Power to Exclude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liasidou, Anastasia

    2008-01-01

    The legislative shift towards an inclusive education policy in Cyprus has allegedly been fragmented and contradictory. The textual hybridity of the ostensibly more inclusive policy documents prevents the realization of an inclusive discourse. Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is proposed as an emancipatory research tool that has the potential to…

  18. A Discourse Analysis of Master's Theses across Disciplines with a Focus on Introductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samraj, Betty

    2008-01-01

    There have been a growing number of discourse studies in recent years on written academic genres produced by students. However, the master's thesis has not received as much attention as the PhD dissertation. This investigation of master's theses from three disciplines, biology, philosophy and linguistics, employs both discourse analysis and…

  19. Academic Discussions: An Analysis of Instructional Discourse and an Argument for an Integrative Assessment Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elizabeth, Tracy; Ross Anderson, Trisha L.; Snow, Elana H.; Selman, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the structure of academic discussions during the implementation of a literacy curriculum in the upper elementary grades. The authors examine the quality of academic discussion, using existing discourse analysis frameworks designed to evaluate varying attributes of classroom discourse. To integrate the overlapping qualities…

  20. Discourse-Based Methods across Texts and Semiotic Modes: Three Tools for Micro-Rhetorical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oddo, John

    2013-01-01

    As the scope of rhetorical inquiry broadens to cover intersemiotic and intertextual phenomena, scholars are increasingly in need of new, defensible analytic procedures. Several scholars have suggested that methods of discourse analysis could enhance rhetorical criticism. Here, I introduce a discourse-based method that is empirical, delicate, and…

  1. Intellectual Disabilities, Challenging Behaviour and Referral Texts: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunkoosing, Karl; Haydon-Laurelut, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The texts of referrals written by workers in residential services for people with learning difficulties constitute sites where contemporary discourses of intellectual disabilities are being constructed. This paper uses Critical Discourse Analysis to examine referrals made to a Community Learning Disability Team (CLDT). The study finds referral…

  2. Critical Discourse Analysis of Religious Sermons in Egypt--Case Study of Amr Khalid's Sermons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldin, Ahmad Abdel Tawwab Sharaf

    2014-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide an ideological approach within a critical discourse analysis (CDA) in order to investigate the Islamic discourse and to trace the ideological devices in Amr Khalid's sermons. In so doing, this paper tries to show how language, employed in Khalid's sermons, reflects the common conceptual structures and…

  3. Guidance Matters: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Race-Related Policy Vocabularies Shaping Leadership Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Bradley W.; Diem, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Despite the federal government's historical effort to ensure educational equity via policies targeting issues critical to U.S. urban cities, a transformation has taken place in the discourses shaping educational policy solutions. While policies targeting educational equity have not completely vanquished, they have been largely re-written by…

  4. Analyse linguistique du discours jauresien (A Linguistic Analysis of Jaures' Discourse).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauveau, Genevieve

    1978-01-01

    Traces the development of discourse analysis in modern linguistics, and presents a semantic analysis, based on a comparative word frequency count, of two political speeches made by the socialist Jean Jaures. (AM)

  5. The British and curriculum development in West Africa: A historical discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofori-Attah, Kwabena Dei

    2006-09-01

    THE BRITISH AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT IN WEST AFRICA: A HISTORICAL STUDY - Only recently have African nations begun to make their way towards establishing genuinely autonomous education systems incorporating elements of indigenous culture. The present study examines the historical development of curriculum in British West Africa in its links with the educational activities of the early Christian missionaries and the imposition of British colonial rule. For over 300 years, the curriculum content was essentially European in nature. African interests and cultural practices were largely excluded, as "bookwork" was favored over "handwork". The colonial curriculum also helped introduce a new social order to West Africa, leading to the rise of new local elites reading, writing, and speaking foreign European languages. This study explores how the idea of a "civilized" person, promoted through the colonial school curriculum, developed new local elites with different sets of values and expectations that often made them strangers in their own societies. It also describes the connection between this curriculum and the repeated failure of education-reform efforts.

  6. Expanding the Notion of Historical Text through Historic Building Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Christine; Dobbs, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Among the disciplinary skills necessary for understanding in the social studies classroom is the ability to determine context and build meaning from past events. Historical buildings are an important component of historical study, and they serve as a type of nontraditional text that students can decode and use to construct meaning about multiple…

  7. Discourse analysis of an 'observation levels' nursing policy.

    PubMed

    Horsfall, J; Cleary, M

    2000-11-01

    The practice of special observation (or constant observation) is widely used in inpatient psychiatric facilities for the care of people who are suicidal. In this study, the policy of special observation was examined using a discourse analysis method to discern prevailing ideas and practices highlighted within the policy. After reading, studying and analysing the special observation nursing policy, the authors briefly describe the document and outline the terms and phrases prevalent within the document. These recurrent ideas are then organized into five categories: professional responsibilities, suicidality, the patient's immediate context, the patient's observable behaviour and the nursing checklist. In discussion of the policy document, the invisibility of the authors, target audience and patients is noted. The authors attempt to elicit evidence for the therapeutic nurse-patient relationship in the document. In the analysis of patient, nurse and doctor roles and responsibilities, it is evident that the policy document reinforces the traditional medical hierarchy of power relations. Some assumptions that underpin the document are postulated. Questions regarding the nature of risk assessment and the evidence base for the medical prescription of special observation are raised. As well as ideas and themes evident in the document, the absence of some relevant issues is explored. While the need for succinctness and clarity in policy documents is acknowledged, the fact that patient rights, therapeutic processes and ethical dilemmas are absent is deemed significant. PMID:11115015

  8. Highlighting hybridity: A critical discourse analysis of teacher talk in science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanrahan, Mary U.

    2006-01-01

    There is evidence that alienation from science is linked to the dominant discourse practices of science classrooms (cf. Lemke, J. L. (1990). Talking Science: Language, Learning, and Values. Norwood, NJ: Ablex). Yet, in secondary science education it is particularly hard to find evidence of curriculum reform that includes explicit changes in pedagogic discourses to accommodate the needs of students from a wide range of backgrounds. However, such evidence does exist and needs to be highlighted wherever it is found to help address social justice concerns in science education. In this article, I show how critical discourse analysis can be used to explore a way of challenging the dominant discourse in teacher - student interactions in science classrooms. My findings suggest a new way of moving toward more socially just science curricula in middle years and secondary classrooms by using hybrid discourses that can serve emancipatory purposes.

  9. Doing accountability: a discourse analysis of research ethics committee letters.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Michelle; Dixon-Woods, Mary; Angell, Emma; Ashcroft, Richard; Bryman, Alan

    2009-03-01

    Research ethics committees (RECs) are charged with adjudicating the ethical status of research projects, and determining the conditions necessary for such projects to proceed. Both because of their position in the research process and because of the controversial nature of ethical judgements, RECs' views and decisions need to be accountable. In this paper we use techniques of discourse analysis to show how REC decision letters 'do' accountability. Using a sample of 260 letters from three datasets, we identify a range of discursive devices used in letters written by RECs. These include drawing attention to: the process behind the decision, including its collaborative nature; holding the applicants accountable, by implying that any decision made by the REC can be attributed to the performance of the applicants; referring to specialist expertise; and calling upon external authorities. These tactics 'do' accountability by showing that routines of ethical assessment have been enacted, by establishing the factuality of claims, and by managing questions of fault and blame attribution. They may, however, also risk undermining legitimacy by failing to acknowledge the inherent contestability of ethical decision making or the limited nature of the cultural authority accorded to RECs, and thus may appear as an illegitimate exercise of power. PMID:18983419

  10. Comparative Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA): Interplay of discourses (D/D1) as third grade urban and suburban science students engage in hypothesis formulation and observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Carmen Irene Reyes

    This qualitative research project is a comparative analysis of Discourses (D/D1) while focused upon the science processes of hypothesis generation and observation in an urban versus suburban elementary science classroom. D designates the instructional and formal academic science Discourse and D1 represents the students' informal, social or home language D1iscourses. In particular, this research study is a critical discourse analysis that examines how the science processes of hypothesis formulation and observation are constituted through the interplay of classroom Discourses (D/D1) as two third grade science teachers teach the same kit-based, inquiry science lessons with their respective urban and suburban students. The research also considers ethnicity, social class, language, and the central role science teachers play mediating between children's everyday world and the world of science. Communicative approach and distinctive patterns of interaction between the European American teachers and their respective students are analyzed through a critical lens to examine underlying issues of equity and power embedded in the instructional Discourse of science. Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) provides both the theoretical framework and analytical lens. The research informs development of linguistic-based "best" practices to contribute toward promoting greater science teacher awareness in creating linguistic environments that support all students' learning science Discourse and to serve as a springboard for future educational science researchers' use of CDA.

  11. Teaching Historical Analysis and Thinking Using the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2008-01-01

    Historical thinking and historical analysis have become significant themes within the ranks of social studies educators. In this article, the author talks about the importance of teaching historical analysis and historical thinking using the Internet. He presents websites that both explain the two concepts and also provide lesson plans,…

  12. Exploring the discourse on communication modality after cochlear implantation: a Foucauldian analysis of parents' narratives.

    PubMed

    Bruin, Marieke; Nevøy, Anne

    2014-07-01

    After pediatric cochlear implantation, parents have to make decisions concerning which communication modality the child and the child's family will use. The choice has to be made against a background of opposing views on communication modality in follow-up after pediatric cochlear implantation. The opposing views form a discourse that has been a core issue in the international body of literature for a long time. For hearing parents caught up in this ongoing controversy, the choice can be a difficult one. The study reported in this article explores the discourse on communication modality and is based on 27 written parental accounts on experiences with follow-up. From the perspective of Foucault's thinking, discourses exert knowledge and power. Drawing on Foucault, the study explores how the discourse on communication modality is constructed, how it operates, and how it governs thinking and acting. The Foucauldian analysis brings to the fore the complex nature of the discourse and states that follow-up, which is intended to be helpful for parents, may induce insecurity and frustration. The study brings into conversation a broader understanding of the discourse on communication modality and addresses a need for increased awareness on how the discourse governs thinking and acting in follow-up. PMID:24558057

  13. The Chronic Responsibility: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Danish Chronic Care Policies.

    PubMed

    Ravn, Iben M; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten

    2016-03-01

    This article reports on the results of a Fairclough-inspired critical discourse analysis aiming to clarify how chronically ill patients are presented in contemporary Danish chronic care policies. Drawing on Fairclough's three-dimensional framework for analyzing discourse, and using Dean's concepts of governmentality as an interpretative lens, we analyzed and explained six policies published by the Danish Health and Medicines Authority between 2005 and 2013. The analysis revealed that discourses within the policy vision of chronic care consider chronically ill patients' active role, lifestyle, and health behavior to be the main factors influencing susceptibility to chronic diseases. We argue that this discursive construction naturalizes a division between people who can actively manage responsible self-care and those who cannot. Such discourses may serve the interests of those patients who are already activated, while others remain subjugated to certain roles. For example, they may be labeled as "vulnerable." PMID:25662943

  14. Disciplining Professionals: A Feminist Discourse Analysis of Public Preschool Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisson, Jamie Huff; Iverson, Susan V.

    2014-01-01

    Educational reforms across the globe have had implications for the work of preschool teachers and thus their professional identities. This article draws on a feminist discourse lens to examine data collected from a recent narrative inquiry focused on understanding the professional identities of five public preschool teachers in the USA. This…

  15. Sex Differences In Intercultural Discourse: An Empirical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Michael J.; Jordan, William J.

    Previous interpretations of male/female discourse were examined in light of new data generated from a study of intercultural mixed-sex dyads. Eleven dyads, each consisting of a Chinese and an American subject, were videotaped in 30-minute conversations about courtship in different cultures. The tapes were content analyzed to obtain information on…

  16. Presenting the Iterative Curriculum Discourse Analysis (ICDA) Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iversen, Lars Laird

    2014-01-01

    The article presents a method for analysing recurring curriculum documents using discourse theory inspired by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe. The article includes a presentation of the method in seven practical steps, and is illustrated and discussed throughout using the author's recent case study on religion, identity and values in…

  17. Media Reports of Links between MMR and Autism: A Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Lindsay; Brownlow, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    This paper details an analysis of BBC reporting of the proposed links between MMR and autism. The study aimed to identify main issues arising from the media reports into the link between MMR and the development of autism, and how these contribute to common understandings about people with autism. The study employed a form of discourse analysis to…

  18. David Coleman and the Technologisation of the Common Core: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lindy L.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on sociocultural perspectives and New Literacies Studies this study uses Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as a tool to closely analyse one way the Common Core State Standards in the United States are being produced, disseminated and consumed. The analysis focuses on a section of the CCSS, a model lesson given by one of the primary…

  19. Sequestering of suffering: critical discourse analysis of natural disaster media coverage.

    PubMed

    Cox, Robin S; Long, Bonita C; Jones, Megan I; Handler, Risa J

    2008-05-01

    This article is a critical discourse analysis of the local print-news media coverage of the recovery process in two rural communities following a devastating forest fire. Two hundred and fifty fire-related articles from the North Thompson Star Journal (2003) were analyzed. Results revealed a neoliberal discursive framing of recovery, emphasizing the economic-material aspects of the process and a reliance on experts. A sequestering of suffering discourse promoted psychological functionalism and focused attention on a return to normalcy through the compartmentalization of distress. The dominant 'voice' was male, authoritative, and institutionalized. Implications for disaster recovery and potential health consequences are discussed. PMID:18420755

  20. Unethical conduct by the nurse: a critical discourse analysis of Nurses Tribunal inquiries.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Kathleen A

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to uncover and critically examine hidden assumptions that underpin the findings of nurses' unethical conduct arising from inquiries conducted by the Nurses Tribunal in New South Wales. This was a qualitative study located within a post-structural theoretical framework. Transcripts of five inquiries conducted between 1998 and 2003 were analysed using critical discourse analysis. The findings revealed two dominant discourses that were drawn upon in the inquiries to construct nurses' conduct as unethical. These were discourses of trust and accountability. The way the nurses were spoken about during the inquiries was shaped by normalising judgements that were used to discursively position the nurse through narrative. PMID:23378542

  1. A Historical Analysis of the Relationship of Faith and Science and its Significance within Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yegge, John G.

    Science curriculum and pedagogy are at the center of a centuries-long debate concerning the appropriate relationship of faith and science. The difficulties that science educators face seem to be based in misinformation about the historical roots of this conflict. To address that conflict, the goals of this research were to separate myth from reality and to provide a necessary context to the current tensions that are disrupting science pedagogy and curriculum content within American public schools. Working within a theoretical framework of historical literacy, this qualitative, historical analysis was a comprehensive examination of the relationship of faith and science from ancient times through the Renascence to the emergence and development of Darwinism. The historical approach methodology was utilized as a means to document the systematic examination of past events, in order to illuminate and interpret the meaning of those events. The historical record revealed that science and religion are not necessarily incompatible and that the early Christian religion provided a fertile environment in which modern science could emerge. Also noted were many instances where the record was inconsistent with what educators have commonly taught as historical fact. Finally, the complex sources of tension between modern fundamentalist Christianity and Darwinism, which has appeared as a flashpoint in public discourse within science education, were examined in depth. Based on this analysis, the study includes recommendations for educators in their approach to addressing these challenges and teaching science. This analysis can produce positive social change for educators and their students, as this information is advanced as a means to enhance historical literacy among educators and their students.

  2. A Taiwanese Mandarin Main Concept Analysis (TM-MCA) for Quantification of Aphasic Oral Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Yeh, Chun-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Background: Various quantitative systems have been proposed to examine aphasic oral narratives in English. A clinical tool for assessing discourse produced by Cantonese-speaking persons with aphasia (PWA), namely Main Concept Analysis (MCA), was developed recently for quantifying the presence, accuracy and completeness of a narrative. Similar…

  3. A New Tool for Discourse Analysis: The Vocabulary-Management Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youmans, Gilbert

    1991-01-01

    Proposes the Vocabulary-Management Profile, a tool for discourse analysis. The number of new words introduced in a moving interval of text 35 words long is counted and a curve created by plotting the number of new words in a successive interval at the midpoint of the interval. Analyses of text by George Orwell and James Joyce are presented. (JL)

  4. A Discourse Analysis of Collaboration between Academic and Student Affairs in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulley, Needham Yancey

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the nature of collaboration between academic affairs and student affairs units in the community college context from a qualitative perspective. A discourse analysis study was conducted to explore the ways in which collaborative practice was discussed and understood by chief and midlevel academic and…

  5. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Gisela's Family Story: A Construal of Deportation, Illegal Immigrants, and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I use critical discourse analysis to analyze a student's narrative about the arrest, incarceration, and deportation of her mother to Mexico. The student, Gisela, was a fifth grader in my classroom during the 2008/2009 school year, and I encouraged the students to collect family stories from their relatives. Gisela created this…

  6. Meaning Making through Multiple Modalities in a Biology Classroom: A Multimodal Semiotics Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaipal, Kamini

    2010-01-01

    The teaching of science is a complex process, involving the use of multiple modalities. This paper illustrates the potential of a multimodal semiotics discourse analysis framework to illuminate meaning-making possibilities during the teaching of a science concept. A multimodal semiotics analytical framework is developed and used to (1) analyze the…

  7. Using Semantic Feature Analysis to Improve Contextual Discourse in Adults with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rider, Jill Davis; Wright, Heather Harris; Marshall, Robert C.; Page, Judith L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Semantic feature analysis (SFA) was used to determine whether training contextually related words would improve the discourse of individuals with nonfluent aphasia in preselected contexts. Method: A modified multiple-probes-across-behaviors design was used to train target words using SFA in 3 adults with nonfluent aphasia. Pretreatment,…

  8. Analysing Complex Policy Change in Hong Kong: What Role for Critical Discourse Analysis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Annie Y. N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The Hong Kong government recently reformed pre-primary education with the introduction of a voucher scheme. At the time this policy caused considerable opposition from across Hong Kong Society. This paper seeks to use Fairclough's model of critical discourse analysis to explore a key policy text and seeks to assess to what extent such an…

  9. A Study of Ideational Metafunction in Joseph Conrad's "Heart of Darkness": A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaei, Mahya; Ahangari, Saeideh

    2016-01-01

    The linguistic study of literature or critical analysis of literary discourse is no different from any other textual description; it is not a new branch or a new level or a new kind of linguistics but the application of existing theories and methods (Halliday, 2002). This study intends to determine how ideology or opinion is expressed in Joseph…

  10. Critical Discourse Analysis in Literacy Education: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Rebecca; Schaenen, Inda

    2014-01-01

    This article is a critical, integrative literature review of scholarship in literacy studies from 2004 to 2012 that draws on critical discourse analysis (CDA). We discuss key issues, trends, and criticisms in the field. Our methodology was carried out in three stages. First, we searched educational databases to locate literacy-focused CDA…

  11. A Cognitive Analysis of the Written Judgments and Spoken Discourse of Adolescent Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michell, Lynn

    1979-01-01

    A cognitive-based system of analysis of spoken discourse was designed to provide details about the way pupils think and talk about issues arising from prose material. Written and spoken responses were analyzed to examine the effects of intellectual ability, differences in the stimulus passage, and prior small group discussion. (Note: Page…

  12. Accreditation and Power: A Discourse Analysis of a New Regime of Governance in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engebretsen, Eivind; Heggen, Kristin; Eilertsen, Heidi Annett

    2012-01-01

    This article studies discourses within the accreditation of Norwegian higher education conducted by the Norwegian Agency for Quality Assurance in Education (NOKUT), using one concrete case (the accreditation of bachelor programs in nursing). Analysis of policy documents and accreditation reports are influenced by two of Foucault's concepts of…

  13. The Newfoundland School Society (1830-1840): A Critical Discourse Analysis of Its Religious Education Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Leona M.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses the lens of critical discourse analysis to examine the religious education efforts of the Newfoundland School Society (NSS), the main provider of religious education in Newfoundland in the 19th century. Although its focus was initially this colony, the NSS quickly broadened its reach to the whole British empire, making it one of…

  14. Using Critical Discourse Analysis to Understand and Facilitate Identification Processes of Bilingual Adults Becoming Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahnmann, Melisa; Rymes, Betsy; Souto-Manning, Mariana

    2005-01-01

    Our research focuses on bilingual adults enrolled in the Teachers for English Language Learners (TELL) program. TELL is a scholarship program whose goal is to increase the number of critically-minded bilingual educators in the state of Georgia in the United States. In this paper, we use critical discourse analysis to inform theoretical and…

  15. With the Best of Intentions: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Physical Education Curriculum Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Tony; Tinning, Richard; McCuaig, Louise; Sirna, Karen; Hunter, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Much of physical education curriculum in the developed world and specifically in Australia tends to be guided in principle by syllabus documents that represent, in varying degrees, some form of government education priorities. Through the use of critical discourse analysis we analyze one such syllabus example (an official syllabus document of one…

  16. What We All (Supposedly) Know about the Poor: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Ruby Payne's "Framework"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworin, Joel E.; Bomer, Randy

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a professional development text by Ruby Payne that claims to inform teachers about the lives and minds of children from poor households. We use Critical Discourse Analysis (Fairclough, 1995; Gee, 2005; Rogers, Malancharuvil-Berkes, & Mosley, 2005) to examine how the author enlists readers' participation in deficit discourses…

  17. Critical Discourse Analysis of Moderated Discussion Board of Virtual University of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perveen, Ayesha

    2015-01-01

    The paper critically evaluated the discursive practices on the Moderated Discussion Board (MDB) of Virtual University of Pakistan (VUP). The paramount objective of the study was to conduct a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of the MDB on the Learning Management System (LMS) of VUP. For this purpose, the academic power relations of the students…

  18. Comparative Critical Discourse Analysis of Student and Teacher Editions of Secondary Christian American Literature Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agiro, Christa Preston

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the comparative application of critical discourse analysis to student and teacher editions of the two most widely used high school American literature textbooks by Christian publishers, examining them through the lens of critical theory. The study examined all parts of the student and teacher editions, excepting literary…

  19. Using Key Part-of-Speech Analysis to Examine Spoken Discourse by Taiwanese EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yen-Liang

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on a corpus analysis of samples of spoken discourse between a group of British and Taiwanese adolescents, with the aim of exploring the statistically significant differences in the use of grammatical categories between the two groups of participants. The key word method extended to a part-of-speech level using the web-based…

  20. The Analysis of Demagogic Discourse: Huey Long's "Every Man a King" Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaske, Paul C.

    The characteristics of demagogic discourse and a methodology appropriate for its analysis can be illustrated by examining Huey Long's "Every Man a King" radio address on February 20, 1934. The demagogue is similar to the revered public figure in that both are mass leaders, charismatic, and heroic. But the demagogue elicits powerful antithetical…

  1. Reproducing Gender Inequality: A Critical Discourse Analysis of a Turkish Adult Literacy Textbook. Research Brief #7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gungor, Ramazan; Prins, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Adult education curricula such as literacy textbooks present blueprints for living, including different ways of being and relating as men and women. However, educators and scholars seldom consider the underlying assumptions about gender in literacy workbooks, especially in international settings. This study used Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)…

  2. Analysis of Narrative Discourse Structure as an Ecologically Relevant Measure of Executive Function in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannizzaro, Michael S.; Coelho, Carl A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the narrative discourse production and executive function (EF) abilities of 46 neuro-typical adults (18-98 years old). Two questions were addressed: Is the analysis of narrative structure sensitive to changes associated with aging? & What is the relationship between measures of narrative structure and EF? Narratives were…

  3. Exposing Ideology within University Policies: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Faculty Hiring, Promotion and Remuneration Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzuner-Smith, Sedef; Englander, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Using critical discourse analysis (CDA), this paper exposes the neoliberal ideology of the knowledge-based economy embedded within university policies, specifically those that regulate faculty hiring, promotion, and remuneration in two national contexts: Turkey and Mexico. The paper follows four stages of CDA: (1) focus upon a social wrong in its…

  4. A Discourse Analytic Approach to Video Analysis of Teaching: Aligning Desired Identities with Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieble, Melissa; Vetter, Amy; Meacham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The authors present findings from a qualitative study of an experience that supports teacher candidates to use discourse analysis and positioning theory to analyze videos of their practice during student teaching. The research relies on the theoretical concept that learning to teach is an identity process. In particular, teachers construct and…

  5. Postmodernism Debates and Comparative Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis. Essay Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Sonia; Ninnes, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Detailed discourse analysis is presented for two articles that suggest that postmodernism has little to offer comparative education and should be resisted. The two texts, focusing on postmodernism as the antithesis of comparative education and on the "lost promise" of postmodernism, demonstrate the use of language to convey messages that limit or…

  6. A Critical Discourse Analysis of "No Promo Homo" Policies in US Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Brian; Bound, Arron M.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a critical discourse analysis of "no promo homo" policies and their effects in US schools. "No promo homo"--short for "no promotion of homosexuality" (Eskridge, 2000, p. 1329)--polices have been adopted across nine states and several local school districts in the United States. They direct…

  7. Experiences and Outcomes of Preschool Physical Education: An Analysis of Developmental Discourses in Scottish Curricular Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvilly, Nollaig

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of developmental discourses underpinning preschool physical education in Scotland's Curriculum for Excellence. Implementing a post-structural perspective, the article examines the preschool experiences and outcomes related to physical education as presented in the Curriculum for Excellence "health and…

  8. Going Beyond the Sentence: Implications of Discourse Analysis for the Teaching of the Writing Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghadessy, Mohsen

    1984-01-01

    Questions the prevalent attitude of English as a second language teachers regarding the teaching of writing skills. Weaknesses in syllabi and teaching strategies are cited, indicating deficiencies in the teaching of discourse analysis--the manipulation of words, structures, and ideas--all skills necessary for the development and production of a…

  9. A Discourse Analysis of Trainee Teacher Identity in Online Discussion Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Brian; Hramiak, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Teacher education involves an identity transformation for trainees from being a student to being a teacher. This discourse analysis examined the online discussion board communications of a cohort of trainee teachers to better understand the situated identities of the trainees and how they were presented online. Their discussion board posts were…

  10. EFL Reading as Seen through Translation and Discourse Analysis: Narrative vs. Expository Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensoussan, Marsha

    1990-01-01

    Proposes to examine reading problems by means of discourse analysis of students' translations. The study is based on two previous experiments in which first-year university students translated English texts into their native language (Hebrew or Arabic). (37 references) (Author/VWL)

  11. A Quantitative Discourse Analysis of Student-Initiated Checks of Understanding during Teacher-Fronted Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research highlights the paradoxical importance of students' being able to check their understanding with teachers and of teachers' constraining student participation. Using quantitative discourse analysis, this paper examines third graders' discursive strategies in initiating such checks and teachers' strategies in constraining them. The…

  12. Problemes d'analyse du discours. Essai de description du discours francais sur la Chine (Problems in Discourse Analysis. An Attempt to Describe French Discourse on China).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marindin, Jean-Marie

    1979-01-01

    The following topics are developed: (1) the problematic aspect of the analysis of French discourse, an introduction to methods, theories and applications; (2) the proposals of M. Pecheux; (3) precisions to render operative definitions derived in the proposals; (4) the Macciocchi manner of speaking; and (5) the Peyrefitte manner of speaking. (AMH)

  13. How to Identify E-Learning Trends in Academic Teaching: Methodological Approaches and the Analysis of Scientific Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Helge; Heise, Linda; Heinz, Matthias; Moebius, Kathrin; Koehler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce methodology and findings of a trend study in the field of e-learning. The overall interest of the study was the analysis of scientific e-learning discourses. What comes next in the field of academic e-learning? Which e-learning trends dominate the discourse at universities? Answering such…

  14. Pushing up against the Limit-Horizon of Educational Change: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Popular Education Reform Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ashlee; Aronson, Brittany; Ellison, Scott; Fairchild-Keyes, Sherrie

    2015-01-01

    With this article, we work to identify the limit-horizon of possible ideas, practices, and ways of talking about education reform and schooling via a critical discourse analysis of selected popular political and governmental texts. To do so, we explore the popular discourse of education reform in the United States through our analyses of three…

  15. A Sequential Analysis of Classroom Discourse in Italian Primary Schools: The Many Faces of the IRF Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinari, Luisa; Mameli, Consuelo; Gnisci, Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Background: A sequential analysis of classroom discourse is needed to investigate the conditions under which the triadic initiation-response-feedback (IRF) pattern may host different teaching orientations. Aim: The purpose of the study is twofold: first, to describe the characteristics of classroom discourse and, second, to identify and explore…

  16. Impacting Policy Discourse? An Analysis of Discourses and Rhetorical Devices Deployed in the Case of the Academies Commission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Becky

    2015-01-01

    Academisation of the English secondary school system has been extremely rapid and represents significant changes to the governance of the English school system. However, there has been a relative scarcity of attention to the rationales, rhetorics and discourses underpinning the academies programme. Seeking to address this gap, a poststructuralist…

  17. Analysis of landfills with historic airphotos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erb, T. L.; Philipson, W. R.; Teng, W. L.; Liang, T.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation is conducted regarding the value of existing aerial photographs for waste management, including landfill monitoring. The value of historic aerial photographs for documenting landfill boundaries is shown in a graph in which the expansion of an active landfill is traced over a 40-year period. Historic aerial photographs can also be analyzed to obtain general or detailed land-use and land-cover information. In addition, the photographs provide information regarding other elements of the physical environment, including geology, soils, and surface and subsurface drainage. The value of historic photos is discussed, taking into account applications for inventory, assessing contamination/health hazards, planning corrective measures, planning waste collection and facilities, developing inactive landfills, and research concerning improved land-filling operations.

  18. Multi-level Discourse Analysis in a Physics Teaching Methods Course from the Psychological Perspective of Activity Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumond Vieira, Rodrigo; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we present and apply a multi-level method for discourse analysis in science classrooms. This method is based on the structure of human activity (activity, actions, and operations) and it was applied to study a pre-service physics teacher methods course. We argue that such an approach, based on a cultural psychological perspective, affords opportunities for analysts to perform a theoretically based detailed analysis of discourse events. Along with the presentation of analysis, we show and discuss how the articulation of different levels offers interpretative criteria for analyzing instructional conversations. We synthesize the results into a model for a teacher's practice and discuss the implications and possibilities of this approach for the field of discourse analysis in science classrooms. Finally, we reflect on how the development of teachers' understanding of their activity structures can contribute to forms of progressive discourse of science education.

  19. Simple Analysis of Historical Lime Mortars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pires, Joa~o

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described in which a simple characterization of a historical lime mortar is made by the determination of its approximate composition by a gravimetric method. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are also used for the qualitative characterization of the lime mortar components. These…

  20. Uncertainty Analysis of Historical Hurricane Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was conducted for historical hurricane data dating back to 1851 that was obtained from the U. S. Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The data set was chosen because it is a large, publicly available collection of information, exhibiting great variability which has made the forecasting of future states, from current and previous states, difficult. The availability of substantial, high-fidelity validation data, however, made for an excellent uncertainty assessment study. Several factors (independent variables) were identified from the data set, which could potentially influence the track and intensity of the storms. The values of these factors, along with the values of responses of interest (dependent variables) were extracted from the data base, and provided to a commercial software package for processing via the ANOVA technique. The primary goal of the study was to document the ANOVA modeling uncertainty and predictive errors in making predictions about hurricane location and intensity 24 to 120 hours beyond known conditions, as reported by the data set. A secondary goal was to expose the ANOVA technique to a broader community within NASA. The independent factors considered to have an influence on the hurricane track included the current and starting longitudes and latitudes (measured in degrees), and current and starting maximum sustained wind speeds (measured in knots), and the storm starting date, its current duration from its first appearance, and the current year fraction of each reading, all measured in years. The year fraction and starting date were included in order to attempt to account for long duration cyclic behaviors, such as seasonal weather patterns, and years in which the sea or atmosphere were unusually warm or cold. The effect of short duration weather patterns and ocean conditions could not be examined with the current data set. The responses analyzed were the storm

  1. Retrospective Analysis of Communication Events - Understanding the Dynamics of Collaborative Multi-Party Discourse

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Haack, Jereme N.; McColgin, Dave W.

    2006-06-08

    This research is aimed at understanding the dynamics of collaborative multi-party discourse across multiple communication modalities. Before we can truly make sig-nificant strides in devising collaborative communication systems, there is a need to understand how typical users utilize com-putationally supported communications mechanisms such as email, instant mes-saging, video conferencing, chat rooms, etc., both singularly and in conjunction with traditional means of communication such as face-to-face meetings, telephone calls and postal mail. Attempting to un-derstand an individual’s communications profile with access to only a single modal-ity is challenging at best and often futile. Here, we discuss the development of RACE – Retrospective Analysis of Com-munications Events – a test-bed prototype to investigate issues relating to multi-modal multi-party discourse.

  2. Industrial relations reform and the occupational transition of Australian workers: a critical discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Lo Bartolo, Luciano; Sheahan, Marie

    2009-01-01

    The 2005 WorkChoices legislation delivered a significant diminution of Australian workers' rights in the form of choice and control over numerous aspects of working life. WorkChoices extended previous neoliberal reforms and consolidated the negative impacts of those reforms on marginalized groups of workers, especially those in precarious employment. This paper reports on the findings of an occupational science-based, critical discourse analysis of a government newspaper advertisement that promotes the reforms. The construction of a WorkChoices discourse, one that was based on and sought to extend neoliberal hegemony, is identified by exploring the ways that particular ideas are presented as natural and mutually beneficial and, in response, the development of a counter-hegemonic argument, based on occupational justice theory, is discussed. The broader application of critical social research is also recommended in extending the occupational justice paradigm. PMID:19478412

  3. An Analysis of Argumentation Discourse Patterns in Elementary Teachers' Science Classroom Discussions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungho; Hand, Brian

    2015-04-01

    This multiple case study investigated how six elementary teachers' argumentation discourse patterns related to students' discussions in the science classroom. Four categories of classroom characteristics emerged through the analysis of the teachers' transcripts and recorded class periods: Structure of teacher and student argumentation, directionality, movement, and structure of student talk. Results showed that the differences between the teachers' discourse patterns were related to their modified reformed teaching observation protocol (RTOP) scores and to how the interaction of those differences affected student learning. Teachers with high RTOP scores were more likely to challenge their students' claims, explanations, and defenses and to provide less guidance and more waiting time for their students' responses than teachers with medium- and low-level RTOP scores. Students in the high-level teachers' classes challenged, defended, rejected, and supported each other's ideas with evidence and required less guidance than students in the medium-level and low-level teachers' classes.

  4. Networks of Power and Privilege: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the US Next Generation Science Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satchithananthamoorthy, Hindurika

    Science holds significant power in shaping many of our everyday choices. Thus, it is important for science education to foster the development of scientific literacy for all students, so that they can navigate science-related issues in their daily lives. This study carries out a critical discourse analysis of the US Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) through an actor network theory framework to explore how the NGSS document is shaping the discourse of science education. The findings of this study show that the NGSS delivers a highly technocratic document that leaves little room for democratic engagement. It seems to place an emphasis on science education that is necessary for entry into STEM fields. The NGSS appears to have co-opted the notion of a "science for all" approach to push a neoliberal agenda of science education that serves to fuel the economic market and privileges a select few.

  5. Denial of impending death: a discourse analysis of the palliative care literature.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Camilla

    2004-10-01

    Terminally ill patients and their families are often referred to as being "in denial" of impending death. This study uses the qualitative method of discourse analysis to investigate the usage of the term "denial" in the contemporary hospice and palliative care literature. A Medline search (1970-2001) was performed combining the text words "deny" and "denial" with the subject headings "terminal care", "palliative care" and "hospice care," and restricted to English articles discussing death denial in adults. The 30 articles were analysed using a constant comparison technique and emerging themes regarding the meaning and usage of the words "deny" and "denial" identified. This paper focusses on the theme of denial as an individual psychological process. Three dominant subthemes were distinguished: denial as an unconscious "defence mechanism", denial as "healthy" and denial as temporary. The analysis focusses on the intertextuality of these themes with each other and with previous texts on the denial of death. Elements of the psychoanalytic definition of denial as an unconscious defence mechanism are retained in the literature but are interwoven with new themes on patient choice. The result is an overall discourse that is conflictual and at times self-contradictory but overall consistent with the biomedical model of illness. I suggest that the representation of death denial elaborated in these articles may be related to a larger discourse on dying in contemporary Western society, which both invites patients to participate in the planning of their death and labels those who do not comply. PMID:15279932

  6. Exploring the communication between telenurse and caller—A critical discourse analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hakimnia, Roya; Holmström, Inger K.; Carlsson, Marianne; Höglund, Anna T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Telenursing is an expanding service in most Western societies. Sweden is a front-line country, with all of its 21 counties connected to Swedish Healthcare Direct (SHD) 1177. The intention of the service is twofold: to make health care more efficient, while also making it more accessible and safe for patients. Previous research has shown, however, that the service is not used equitably. Gender, age, socio-economic, and ethnicity differences have been reported as determining factors for the use of the service and the advice given. Aim The aim of the study was to explore the communication between telenurses and callers in authentic calls to SHD 1177. Methodology A qualitative method, using critical discourse analysis (CDA), was chosen. The approach was deductive, that is, the analysis was made in view of a predetermined framework of theory. Twenty calls were strategically chosen and included in the study. Results The CDA resulted in five types of calls, namely a gatekeeping call, a gendered call, a call marked by impersonal traits, a call with voices of the life world, and finally a counter discourse call. The dominating patterns in the calls were of gatekeeping and biomedical character. Patterns of the societal gender order were found, in that representations of the reluctant male caller and the ideal female caller were identified, but also a call representing a counter discourse. The service seemed difficult to use for patients with low language proficiency. Conclusion Telenursing could potentially challenge inequalities in health care. However, the discourse of telenursing is dialectically related to neoliberal ideology and the ideology of medicine. It is also situated in a gendered context of ideal femininity and hegemonic masculinity. Through better awareness of gender biases and the callers’ different resources for making themselves heard, the communication between telenurse and caller might become more equal and thereby better suitable for all

  7. Analysis of Japanese banks’ historical tree diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Hiromichi; Mizuno, Takayuki; Takayasu, Misako

    2007-09-01

    By using the historical data from the Japanese banks’ database at “The Bankers Library” of Japanese Banker Association, we analyze the historical network of banks from 1868 to 2006. Firstly, we define a bank every year by a particle and draw a space-time evolution process of merger, division, establishment, and failure by a tree diagram structure. We found that the distribution of the tree basin size of real data and simulation result are mostly fitting well. Secondly, we analyze the raw data of financial statements of banks collected by the National Diet library. We confirm that the distributions of the amount of deposits have fat-tail every year, however, small deviations are observed relating to governmental policy.

  8. HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS: A USEFUL EDUCATIONAL TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An historical analysis that presents the ecological consequences of development can be a valuable educational tool for citizens, students, and environmental managers. In highly impacted areas, the cumulative impacts of multiple stressors can result in complex environmental condit...

  9. Successful ageing: a historical overview and critical analysis of a successful concept.

    PubMed

    Bülow, Morten Hillgaard; Söderqvist, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Since the late 1980s, the concept of 'successful ageing' has set the frame for discourse about contemporary ageing research. Through an analysis of the reception to John W. Rowe and Robert L. Kahn's launch of the concept of 'successful ageing' in 1987, this article maps out the important themes and discussions that have emerged from the interdisciplinary field of ageing research. These include an emphasis on interdisciplinarity; the interaction between biology, psycho-social contexts and lifestyle choices; the experiences of elderly people; life-course perspectives; optimisation and prevention strategies; and the importance of individual, societal and scientific conceptualisations and understandings of ageing. By presenting an account of the recent historical uses, interpretations and critiques of the concept, the article unfolds the practical and normative complexities of 'successful ageing'. PMID:25456631

  10. Nursing leadership in the US 1950s-1970s: a discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Davis, J; Cushing, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper proposes that the development of nursing leadership and the struggle for professionalisation from the time of the early nineteenth century to the late twentieth century may be conceived as a series of products of constituent discourses. However, particular attention is focused on the concept of leadership as it pertains to the nursing profession in the US between the 1950s-1970s. This time-frame is an important period in the discursive formation of the idea of leadership and professionalisation as the US literature on these subjects in the areas of sociology, psychology, education and business administration exercised a strong influence on the microsocial world of professional nursing practice in the US and, indeed elsewhere, for example, Australia and the UK. The sociological complexity of the concept of leadership ultimately meant that it came to be regarded as a dynamic process pervading the existence of all people; their interrelationships, their morale, their confidence and their capacity to achieve. These features are reflected through the perceptions, beliefs and experiences of the American nursing profession as its constituent discourse appeared during the 1950s-1970s. Thus the paper is a discourse analysis on leadership in nursing with particular attention given to the bureaucratic authority of the hospital, the drive for the creation of a profession and the idea of leadership itself. PMID:11624211

  11. Perspectives on contextual vulnerability in discourses of climate conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okpara, U. T.; Stringer, L. C.; Dougill, A. J.

    2016-02-01

    The science of climate security and conflict is replete with controversies. Yet the increasing vulnerability of politically fragile countries to the security consequences of climate change is widely acknowledged. Although climate conflict reflects a continuum of conditional forces that coalesce around the notion of vulnerability, how different portrayals of vulnerability influence the discursive formation of climate conflict relations remains an exceptional but under-researched issue. This paper combines a systematic discourse analysis with a vulnerability interpretation diagnostic tool to explore (i) how discourses of climate conflict are constructed and represented, (ii) how vulnerability is communicated across discourse lines, and (iii) the strength of contextual vulnerability against a deterministic narrative of scarcity-induced conflict, such as that pertaining to land. Systematically characterising climate conflict discourses based on the central issues constructed, assumptions about mechanistic relationships, implicit normative judgements and vulnerability portrayals, provides a useful way of understanding where discourses differ. While discourses show a wide range of opinions "for" and "against" climate conflict relations, engagement with vulnerability has been less pronounced - except for the dominant context centrism discourse concerned about human security (particularly in Africa). In exploring this discourse, we observe an increasing sense of contextual vulnerability that is oriented towards a concern for complexity rather than predictability. The article concludes by illustrating that a turn towards contextual vulnerability thinking will help advance a constructivist theory-informed climate conflict scholarship that recognises historicity, specificity, and variability as crucial elements of contextual totalities of any area affected by climate conflict.

  12. Perspectives on contextual vulnerability in discourses of climate conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okpara, U. T.; Stringer, L. C.; Dougill, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The science of climate security and conflict is replete with controversies. Yet the increasing vulnerability of politically fragile countries to the security consequences of climate change is widely acknowledged. Although climate conflict reflects a continuum of conditional forces that coalesce around the notion of vulnerability, how different portrayals of vulnerability influence the discursive formation of climate conflict relations remains an exceptional but under-researched issue. This paper combines a systematic discourse analysis with a vulnerability interpretation diagnostic tool to explore: (i) how discourses of climate conflict are constructed and represented, (ii) how vulnerability is communicated across discourse lines, and (iii) the strength of contextual vulnerability against a deterministic narrative of scarcity-induced conflict, such as that pertaining to land. Systematically characterising climate conflict discourses based on the central issues constructed, assumptions about mechanistic relationships, implicit normative judgements and vulnerability portrayals, provides a useful way of understanding where discourses differ. While discourses show a wide range of opinions "for" and "against" climate conflict relations, engagement with vulnerability has been less pronounced - except for the dominant context centrism discourse concerned about human security (particularly in Africa). In exploring this discourse, we observe an increasing sense of contextual vulnerability that is oriented towards a concern for complexity rather than predictability. The article concludes by illustrating that a turn towards contextual vulnerability thinking will help advance a constructivist theory-informed climate conflict scholarship that recognises historicity, specificity and variability as crucial elements of contextual totalities of any area affected by climate conflict.

  13. Accounting for Accountability: A Discourse Analysis of Psychiatric Nurses’ Experience of a Patient Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Maggie; Paterson, Brodie; Lauder, Billy; Fenton, Rosemary; Gavin, John

    2010-01-01

    Whilst the experience of a patient suicide is likely to have a significant impact upon the nurses who had been providing care, little work has actually explored this experience in any depth. In this article we explore how two psychiatric nurses construct and orient to accountability when talking of their experiences of a patient suicide. Discourse analysis was used to explore particular phases that the nurses oriented to in their accounts: scene setting; risk assessment; attributing for the suicide. Findings highlight the different, sometimes contradictory, ways the nurses attended to interactional concerns relating to implicit accountability and potential inferences of blame. Analysis of the nurses’ talk can make a valuable contribution to understanding the nature and the impact of ‘accountability’ in a mental health setting and so help nurses and other professionals gain an insight into their practice. The results from this study suggest that as a consequence of internalising fundamentally unrealisable expectations regarding suicide prevention, nurses can hold themselves to blame raising significant concerns around their needs in terms of support, which may not be recognised. This paper also makes a valuable contribution to our methodological understanding and the value of using discourse analysis in this setting. PMID:20305746

  14. Normative Discourse and Persuasion: An Analysis of Ga'dang Informal Litigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walrod, Michael R.

    A study of the discourse of Ga'dang, a Philippine language, focuses on normative discourse and persuasion, especially the ways in which the former is used to accomplish the latter. The first five chapters outline the theoretical framework of the study, placing normative and persuasive discourse in a philosophical context and relating them to the…

  15. Scientific Versus Experiential Evidence: Discourse Analysis of the Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency Debate in a Multiple Sclerosis Forum

    PubMed Central

    Weibezahl, Lara; Friede, Tim; Himmel, Wolfgang; Makedonski, Philip; Grabowski, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Background The vascular hypothesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), called chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI), and its treatment (known as liberation therapy) was immediately rejected by experts but enthusiastically gripped by patients who shared their experiences with other patients worldwide by use of social media, such as patient online forums. Contradictions between scientific information and lay experiences may be a source of distress for MS patients, but we do not know how patients perceive and deal with these contradictions. Objective We aimed to understand whether scientific and experiential knowledge were experienced as contradictory in MS patient online forums and, if so, how these contradictions were resolved and how patients tried to reconcile the CCSVI debate with their own illness history and experience. Methods By using critical discourse analysis, we studied CCSVI-related posts in the patient online forum of the German MS Society in a chronological order from the first post mentioning CCSVI to the time point when saturation was reached. For that time period, a total of 117 CCSVI-related threads containing 1907 posts were identified. We analyzed the interaction and communication practices of and between individuals, looked for the relation between concrete subtopics to identify more abstract discourse strands, and tried to reveal discourse positions explaining how users took part in the CCSVI discussion. Results There was an emotionally charged debate about CCSVI which could be generalized to 2 discourse strands: (1) the “downfall of the professional knowledge providers” and (2) the “rise of the nonprofessional treasure trove of experience.” The discourse strands indicated that the discussion moved away from the question whether scientific or experiential knowledge had more evidentiary value. Rather, the question whom to trust (ie, scientists, fellow sufferers, or no one at all) was of fundamental significance. Four discourse

  16. Defining applied behavior analysis: An historical analogy

    PubMed Central

    Deitz, Samuel M.

    1982-01-01

    This article examines two criteria for a definition of applied behavior analysis. The criteria are derived from a 19th century attempt to establish medicine as a scientific field. The first criterion, experimental determinism, specifies the methodological boundaries of an experimental science. The second criterion, philosophic doubt, clarifies the tentative nature of facts and theories derived from those facts. Practices which will advance the science of behavior are commented upon within each criteria. To conclude, the problems of a 19th century form of empiricism in medicine are related to current practices in applied behavior analysis. PMID:22478557

  17. "That Racism Thing": A Critical Race Discourse Analysis of a Conflict over the Proposed Closure of a Black High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Felecia M.; Khalifa, Muhammad A.

    2015-01-01

    Using critical race discourse analysis, this study examines descriptions of a heated controversy over the proposed closure of the only primarily black high school in a large urban city. Participants included community members and the district and school leaders who were key in the controversy. Based on Foucault's analysis of power we looked for…

  18. Dean of Women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: A Story Left Untold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herdlein, Richard; Cali, Christine Frezza; Dina, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    There is a paucity of historical discourse on the distinct contributions of African American women serving as deans of women at historically Black colleges and universities. Using historical research and the case study approach, the analysis focused on three deans of women: Lucy Diggs Slowe--Howard University, Owena Hunter Davis--Johnson C. Smith…

  19. Perpetuating 'New Public Management' at the expense of nurses' patient education: a discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Bergh, Anne-Louise; Friberg, Febe; Persson, Eva; Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the conditions for nurses' daily patient education work by focusing on managers' way of speaking about the patient education provided by nurses in hospital care. An explorative, qualitative design with a social constructionist perspective was used. Data were collected from three focus group interviews and analysed by means of critical discourse analysis. Discursive practice can be explained by the ideology of hegemony. Due to a heavy workload and lack of time, managers could 'see' neither their role as a supporter of the patient education provided by nurses, nor their role in the development of nurses' pedagogical competence. They used organisational, financial, medical and legal reasons for explaining their failure to support nurses' provision of patient education. The organisational discourse was an umbrella term for 'things' such as cost-effectiveness, which were prioritised over patient education. There is a need to remove managerial barriers to the professional development of nurses' patient education. Managers should be responsible for ensuring and overseeing that nurses have the prerequisites necessary for providing patient education as well as for enabling continuous reflective dialogue and opportunities for learning in practice. PMID:25327764

  20. American Catholic nursing. An historical analysis.

    PubMed

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the nursing activities of religious sister nurses as spiritual agents of care during wartime, in railroad and mining centers, and in cities in the United States in the 19th century. This is a story about the workings of religion, gender, social class, ethnicity, and nursing. The sisters' work demonstrates how an analysis of professional nursing is incomplete without an understanding of the roles that a number of Catholic religious women took in reaching out to both Catholics and non-Catholics in the United States. PMID:23802345

  1. "Confused by Multiple Deities, Ancient Egyptians Embraced Monotheism": Analysing Historical Thinking and Inclusion in Egyptian History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdou, Ehaab D.

    2016-01-01

    Egyptian history textbooks are examined through the prism of historical thinking dimensions and skills, utilizing a critical discourse analysis. The analysis focuses on how the textbooks portray two historically significant events: the advent of Christianity (ca. 33 CE) and Islam (ca. 641 CE) to Egypt. It reveals that the historical narrative…

  2. An Historical Analysis of Related Services Litigation for Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Joyce B.

    1988-01-01

    This study gathered information on services related to special education that are provided to meet the needs of students with disabilities. The study utilized an historical and legal approach, through analysis of: related services litigation at the judicial and state education administrative level; policy interpretations by the State Policy and…

  3. How nurses understand and care for older people with delirium in the acute hospital: a Critical Discourse Analysis.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Irene; Tolson, Debbie; Fleming, Valerie

    2012-06-01

    Delirium is a common presentation of deteriorating health in older people. It is potentially deleterious in terms of patient experience and clinical outcomes. Much of what is known about delirium is through positivist research, which forms the evidence base for disease-based classification systems and clinical guidelines. There is little systematic study of nurses' day-to-day practice of nursing patients with delirium. The aim was to uncover the kinds of knowledge that informs nurses' care and to explicate the basis of that knowledge. Critical Discourse Analysis is underpinned by the premise that powerful interests within society mediate how social practices are constructed. Links were made between the grammatical and lexical features of nurses' language about care in interviews and naturalistic settings, and the healthcare context. Care focused on the continuous surveillance of patients with delirium by nurses themselves or vicariously through other patients, and containment. Nurses influenced by major discourses of risk reduction and safety, constructed patients with delirium as risk objects. The philosophy of person-centred and dignified care advocated in nursing literature and government policy is an emerging discourse, though little evident in the data. The current dominant discourses on safety must give space to discourses of dignity and compassion. PMID:22530864

  4. a Psycholinguistic Model for Simultaneous Translation, and Proficiency Assessment by Automated Acoustic Analysis of Discourse.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaghi, Hussein M.

    Two separate but related issues are addressed: how simultaneous translation (ST) works on a cognitive level and how such translation can be objectively assessed. Both of these issues are discussed in the light of qualitative and quantitative analyses of a large corpus of recordings of ST and shadowing. The proposed ST model utilises knowledge derived from a discourse analysis of the data, many accepted facts in the psychology tradition, and evidence from controlled experiments that are carried out here. This model has three advantages: (i) it is based on analyses of extended spontaneous speech rather than word-, syllable-, or clause -bound stimuli; (ii) it draws equally on linguistic and psychological knowledge; and (iii) it adopts a non-traditional view of language called 'the linguistic construction of reality'. The discourse-based knowledge is also used to develop three computerised systems for the assessment of simultaneous translation: one is a semi-automated system that treats the content of the translation; and two are fully automated, one of which is based on the time structure of the acoustic signals whilst the other is based on their cross-correlation. For each system, several parameters of performance are identified, and they are correlated with assessments rendered by the traditional, subjective, qualitative method. Using signal processing techniques, the acoustic analysis of discourse leads to the conclusion that quality in simultaneous translation can be assessed quantitatively with varying degrees of automation. It identifies as measures of performance (i) three content-based standards; (ii) four time management parameters that reflect the influence of the source on the target language time structure; and (iii) two types of acoustical signal coherence. Proficiency in ST is shown to be directly related to coherence and speech rate but inversely related to omission and delay. High proficiency is associated with a high degree of simultaneity and

  5. Islamists in the Headlines: Critical Discourse Analysis of the Representation of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egyptian Newspapers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasha, Talaat

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how Islamists are socially, discursively and linguistically represented in the Egyptian newspaper "al-Ahram." The main question of this study is what would the Egyptian government do to halt the Brothers' political growth and potential threat? To answer this question, the study uses Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) to examine…

  6. Calling Integration into Question: A Discourse Analysis of English and "Humash" Classes at a Modern Orthodox Yeshiva High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Devra

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on discourse analysis and critical literacy, this study calls into question prevailing assumptions about integration by examining talk in English and "Humash" classrooms as windows into the two worlds of a Modern Orthodox high school. The study found that the two subjects presented very different models of teaching and learning. "Humash"…

  7. Multi-Level Discourse Analysis in a Physics Teaching Methods Course from the Psychological Perspective of Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieira, Rodrigo Drumond; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present and apply a multi-level method for discourse analysis in science classrooms. This method is based on the structure of human activity (activity, actions, and operations) and it was applied to study a pre-service physics teacher methods course. We argue that such an approach, based on a cultural psychological perspective,…

  8. About Your Color, That's Personal: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Race and Resistance in Urban Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutro, Elizabeth; Kazemi, Elham; Balf, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a critical discourse analysis of a classroom event in which fourth and fifth grade students in a highly diverse urban school interpreted, discussed and responded to a district survey intended to illuminate the social climate of the city's schools, with a particular focus on race and racism. We drew on the three-dimensional…

  9. Constructing Teaching and Research Relations from the Top: An Analysis of Senior Manager Discourses on Research-Led Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayson, Susan; Schapper, Jan

    2012-01-01

    To show how research and teaching, core academic activities are discursively shaped through policy discussion we critically identify and examine the institutional effects of senior academics' discourses on research-led teaching. The analysis sheds light on the interrelationship between university policy and the powerful and productive effects of…

  10. A Critical Discourse Analysis of ELT Materials in Gender Representation: A Comparison of "Summit" and "Top Notch"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samadikhah, Mehran; Shahrokhi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the crucial importance of textbooks, their increasing development day by day, and their significant effects on saving time, energy, and budgets, only few studies have been done on textbooks evaluation from a critical discourse analysis perspective. This study aimed to analyze and compare the gender representation in "Top…

  11. What Is Normal, True, and Right: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Students' Written Resistance Strategies on LGBTQ Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaekel, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how students perform resistance to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer topics in their written reflections in a higher education diversity course. Using a three-tiered critical discourse analysis , this article maps students' resistant textual devices in their written reflections, analyzes the institutional setting…

  12. Politeness Strategies in Healthcare Communication at "Difficult Times": A Pragmatic Analysis of the "Manga" Discourse in "Nurse Aoi"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuoka, Rieko; Poole, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the ways in which healthcare professionals interact with patients' family members, and/or colleagues. The data are from healthcare discourses at difficult times found in the manga series entitled Nurse AOI. As the first step, we selected several communication scenes for analysis in terms of politeness strategies. From these…

  13. From Choice to Change: An Analysis of the "Choice" Discourse in Canada's 2006 Federal Election

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Brooke; Langford, Rachel; Friendly, Martha; Rauhala, Ann

    2013-01-01

    A critical discourse analysis (CDA) was used to analyze the representation of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) in the 2006 federal election in Canada. Guided by Fairclough's approach to CDA, this study analyzed written documents including newspaper articles from "The Globe and Mail" and "The National Post", the…

  14. Use of historical information in extreme storm surges frequency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, Yasser; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Deville, Yves; Bardet, Lise; Rebour, Vincent

    2013-04-01

    The prevention of storm surge flood risks is critical for protection and design of coastal facilities to very low probabilities of failure. The effective protection requires the use of a statistical analysis approach having a solid theoretical motivation. Relating extreme storm surges to their frequency of occurrence using probability distributions has been a common issue since 1950s. The engineer needs to determine the storm surge of a given return period, i.e., the storm surge quantile or design storm surge. Traditional methods for determining such a quantile have been generally based on data from the systematic record alone. However, the statistical extrapolation, to estimate storm surges corresponding to high return periods, is seriously contaminated by sampling and model uncertainty if data are available for a relatively limited period. This has motivated the development of approaches to enlarge the sample extreme values beyond the systematic period. The nonsystematic data occurred before the systematic period is called historical information. During the last three decades, the value of using historical information as a nonsystematic data in frequency analysis has been recognized by several authors. The basic hypothesis in statistical modeling of historical information is that a perception threshold exists and that during a giving historical period preceding the period of tide gauging, all exceedances of this threshold have been recorded. Historical information prior to the systematic records may arise from high-sea water marks left by extreme surges on the coastal areas. It can also be retrieved from archives, old books, earliest newspapers, damage reports, unpublished written records and interviews with local residents. A plotting position formula, to compute empirical probabilities based on systematic and historical data, is used in this communication paper. The objective of the present work is to examine the potential gain in estimation accuracy with the

  15. Metaphors of Distress: Photo-Elicitation Enhances a Discourse Analysis of Parents' Accounts.

    PubMed

    Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira; Vandermause, Roxanne

    2016-07-01

    In research on sensitive topics, photo-elicitation can be a profound aid to data collection and interpretation processes. Photo-elicitation methods were used in this manner in a discourse analysis of parents' distress at least 6 months after preterm birth. After an initial interview, participants were asked to take digital photographs representing their distress and to return for a second interview to discuss the photographs. The elicited photo representations supported participants' engagement with their current or past distress and generated new meanings from the reappraisal of old photographs. Photo-elicitation demonstrated the embodiment of parents' distress in the child and the placement of distress in specific locations. Photographs of documents showed the power of the written word in generating and maintaining distress. Participants used existing photographs from their child's photo history to generate rich metaphors for their distress as parents. These findings have implications for enhancing interpretive health research by incorporating photo-elicitation methods. PMID:25792488

  16. Food security and food insecurity in Europe: An analysis of the academic discourse (1975-2013).

    PubMed

    Borch, Anita; Kjærnes, Unni

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we address the academic discourse on food insecurity and food security in Europe as expressed in articles published in scientific journals in the period 1975 to 2013. The analysis indicates that little knowledge has been produced on this subject, and that the limited research that has been produced tends to focus on the production of food rather than on people's access to food. The lack of knowledge about European food insecurity is particularly alarming in these times, which are characterised by increasing social inequalities and poverty, as well as shifting policy regimes. More empirical, comparative and longitudinal research is needed to survey the extent of food security problems across European countries over time. There is also a need to identify groups at risk of food insecurity as well as legal, economic, practical, social, and psychological constraints hindering access to appropriate and sufficient food. PMID:27067740

  17. An Analysis of the Discourses on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in US Special Education Textbooks, with Implications for Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Justin E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the discourses on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) found in textbooks used in pre-service special education programmes in the USA. Five textbooks are examined with the intent of discovering how ADHD is portrayed to future teachers. A discourse analysis framework is utilised, revealing five…

  18. A Quantitative Multimodal Discourse Analysis of Teaching and Learning in a Web-Conferencing Environment--The Efficacy of Student-Centred Learning Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Matt; Hedberg, John G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative approach to multimodal discourse analysis for analyzing online collaborative learning. The coding framework draws together the fields of systemic functional linguistics and Activity Theory to analyze interactions between collaborative-, content- and technology-related discourse. The approach is used to examine…

  19. Discourse Analysis and the Testing of Reading Comprehension by Cloze Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenston, E.A.; And Others

    The discourse cloze, an alternative cloze procedure, is described. It is argued that in the regular cloze procedure many of the words can be supplied from the "micro" context, and thus the regular cloze is not necessarily a test of reading comprehension on the "macro" level. In the discourse cloze approach, all words deleted from a passage of…

  20. A New Measure of Text Formality: An Analysis of Discourse of Mao Zedong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Haiying; Graesser, Arthur C.; Conley, Mark; Cai, Zhiqiang; Pavlik, Philip I., Jr.; Pennebaker, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Formality has long been of interest in the study of discourse, with periodic discussions of the best measure of formality and the relationship between formality and text categories. In this research, we explored what features predict formality as humans perceive the construct. We categorized a corpus consisting of 1,158 discourse samples published…

  1. Classroom Discourse Analysis and Educational Outcomes in the Era of Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Shui-fong; Law, Yin-kum; Shum, Mark Shiu-kee

    2009-01-01

    Background: In the era of education reform when new teaching approaches are being advocated, it is important to investigate how different classroom discourse patterns are related to different educational outcomes. Aim: The purpose of the study was to analyse the whole classroom discourse of two teacher interns' writing classes. It was conducted…

  2. Learning to Read: Discourse Analysis and the Study and Practice of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Arthur L.

    2009-01-01

    Educators are inclined to think that the words they use in their discourses about policy, research, and practice mean what they mean them to mean. It is just as clear, however, that such discourses ideologically produce and reproduce relations of power that benefit some and disadvantage others. This essay begins an argument that educators need to…

  3. Physicians and euthanasia: a Canadian print-media discourse analysis of physician perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David Kenneth; Karsoho, Hadi; Sandham, Sarah; Macdonald, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent events in Canada have mobilized public debate concerning the controversial issue of euthanasia. Physicians represent an essential stakeholder group with respect to the ethics and practice of euthanasia. Further, their opinions can hold sway with the public, and their public views about this issue may further reflect back upon the medical profession itself. Methods We conducted a discourse analysis of print media on physicians’ perspectives about end-of-life care. Print media, in English and French, that appeared in Canadian newspapers from 2008 to 2012 were retrieved through a systematic database search. We analyzed the content of 285 articles either authored by a physician or directly referencing a physician’s perspective. Results We identified 3 predominant discourses about physicians’ public views toward euthanasia: 1) contentions about integrating euthanasia within the basic mission of medicine, 2) assertions about whether euthanasia can be distinguished from other end-of-life medical practices and 3) palliative care advocacy. Interpretation Our data showed that although some medical professional bodies appear to be supportive in the media of a movement toward the legalization of euthanasia, individual physicians are represented as mostly opposed. Professional physician organizations and the few physicians who have engaged with the media are de facto representing physicians in public contemporary debates on medical aid in dying, in general, and euthanasia, in particular. It is vital for physicians to be aware of this public debate, how they are being portrayed within it and its potential effects on impending changes to provincial and national policies. PMID:26389090

  4. Appendix E: Research papers. Analysis of landfills with historic airphotos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, T.; Philipson, W. R. (Principal Investigator); Erb, T. L.; Teng, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    The nature of landfill-related information that can be derived from existing, or historic, aerial photographs, is reviewed. This information can be used for conducting temporal assessments of landfill existence, land use and land cover, and the physical environment. As such, analysis of low cost, readily available aerial photographs can provide important, objective input to landfill inventories, assessing contamination or health hazards, planning corrective measures, planning waste collection and facilities, and developing on inactive landfills.

  5. Expanding discourse repertoires with hybridity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Gregory J.

    2012-09-01

    In "Hybrid discourse practice and science learning" Kamberelis and Wehunt present a theoretically rich argument about the potential of hybrid discourses for science learning. These discourses draw from different forms of "talk, social practice, and material practices" to create interactions that are "intertextually complex" and "interactionally dynamic." The hybrid discourse practices are described as involving the dynamic interplay of at least three key elements: "the lamination of multiple cultural frames, the shifting relations between people and their discourse, and the shifting power relations between and among people." Each of these elements requires a respective unit of analysis and are often mutually reinforcing. The authors present a theoretically cogent argument for the study of hybrid discourse practices and identify the potential such discourses may have for science education. This theoretical development leads to an analysis of spoken and written discourse around a set of educational events concerning the investigation of owl pellets by two fifth grade students, their classmates, and teacher. Two discourse segments are presented and analyzed by the authors in detail. The first is a discourse analysis of the dissection of the owl pellet by two students, Kyle and Max. The second analysis examines the science report of these same two students. In this article, I pose a number of questions about the study with the hope that by doing so I expand the conversation around the insightful analysis presented.

  6. A Study of the Relationship between Historical Analysis and Student Achievement in Eighth Grade American History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this action research project was to study the relationship between Historical Analysis and student performance on the California Standards Test (CSTs), both English Language Arts and History, as well as to study the relationship between Historical Analysis and Reading Comprehension. It was believed that Historical Analysis required…

  7. Mapping Mathematics in Classroom Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth A.; Otten, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a particular analytic method from systemic functional linguistics, "thematic analysis," which reveals the mathematical meaning potentials construed in discourse. Addressing concerns that discourse analysis is too often content-free, thematic analysis provides a way to represent semantic structures of mathematical content,…

  8. Lending Credence to a Borrowing Analysis: Lone English-Origin Incorporations in Igbo Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eze, Ejike

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes data from natural Igbo-English bilingual discourse that demonstrates how the two most important manifestations of language contact--codeswitching and borrowing--can be unambiguously and consistently distinguished. (Author/VWL)

  9. Use of cartography in historical seismicity analysis: a reliable tool to better apprehend the contextualization of the historical documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, Fradet; Grégory, Quenet; Kevin, Manchuel

    2014-05-01

    Historical studies, including historical seismicity analysis, deal with historical documents. Numerous factors, such as culture, social condition, demography, political situations and opinions or religious ones influence the way the events are transcribed in the archives. As a consequence, it is crucial to contextualize and compare the historical documents reporting on a given event in order to reduce the uncertainties affecting their analysis and interpretation. When studying historical seismic events it is often tricky to have a global view of all the information provided by the historical documents. It is also difficult to extract cross-correlated information from the documents and draw a precise historical context. Use of cartographic and geographic tools in GIS software is the best tool for the synthesis, interpretation and contextualization of the historical material. The main goal is to produce the most complete dataset of available information, in order to take into account all the components of the historical context and consequently improve the macroseismic analysis. The Entre-Deux-Mers earthquake (1759, Iepc= VII-VIII) [SISFRANCE 2013 - EDF-IRSN-BRGM] is well documented but has never benefited from a cross-analysis of historical documents and historical context elements. The map of available intensity data from SISFRANCE highlights a gap in macroseismic information within the estimated epicentral area. The aim of this study is to understand the origin of this gap by making a cartographic compilation of both, archive information and historical context elements. The results support the hypothesis that the lack of documents and macroseismic data in the epicentral area is related to a low human activity rather than low seismic effects in this zone. Topographic features, geographical position, flood hazard, roads and pathways locations, vineyards distribution and the forester coverage, mentioned in the archives and reported on the Cassini's map confirm this

  10. Non-destructive compositional analysis of historic organ reed pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manescu, A.; Fiori, F.; Giuliani, A.; Kardjilov, N.; Kasztovszky, Z.; Rustichelli, F.; Straumal, B.

    2008-03-01

    In order to be able to reproduce historic organ reed pipes, a bulk non-destructive chemical composition analysis was performed on the tongues and shallots, focusing mainly on the ratio between copper and zinc and on the presence of lead. Prompt gamma activation analysis results allowed us to observe for the first time that the ratio between the two main components of the brass alloy changed from Cu:Zn = 3:1 for the old tongues and shallots to Cu:Zn = 2:1 around the middle of the 18th century, which is typical also for the modern alloys offered to the organ builders nowadays. We also discovered that the Pb content in the old historic brass alloy diminished until the middle of 18th century when the brass alloy became mainly Pb free. The non-uniform lead distribution inside one of the shallots obtained from a prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) experiment was studied by neutron tomography. It gave us a three-dimensonal (3D) distribution of the lead inclusions inside the shallots. The lead particles are concentrated towards the base of the shallot.

  11. Environmental assessment in The Netherlands: Effectively governing environmental protection? A discourse analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Runhaar, Hens; Laerhoven, Frank van; Driessen, Peter; Arts, Jos

    2013-02-15

    Environmental assessment (EA) aims to enhance environmental awareness and to ensure that environmental values are fully considered in decision-making. In the EA arena, different discourses exist on what EA should aim for and how it functions. We hypothesise that these discourses influence its application in practice as well as its effectiveness in terms of achieving the above goals. For instance, actors who consider EA as a hindrance to fast implementation of their projects will probably apply it as a mandatory checklist, whereas actors who believe that EA can help to develop more environmentally sound decisions will use EIA as a tool to design their initiatives. In this paper we explore discourses on EA in The Netherlands and elaborate on their implications for EA effectiveness. Based on an innovative research design comprising an online survey with 443 respondents and 20 supplementary semi-structured interviews we conclude that the dominant discourse is that EA is mainly a legal requirement; EAs are conducted because they have to be conducted, not because actors choose to do so. EA effectiveness however seems reasonably high, as a majority of respondents perceive that it enhances environmental awareness and contributes to environmental protection. However, the 'legal requirement' discourse also results in decision-makers seldom going beyond what is prescribed by EA and environmental law. Despite its mandatory character, the predominant attitude towards EA is quite positive. For most respondents, EA is instrumental in providing transparency of decision-making and in minimising the legal risks of not complying with environmental laws. Differences in discourses seldom reflect extreme opposites. The 'common ground' regarding EA provides a good basis for working with EA in terms of meeting legal requirements but at the same time does not stimulate creativity in decision-making or optimisation of environmental values. In countries characterised by less consensual

  12. 'I just want to be normal': An analysis of discourses of normality among recovering heroin users.

    PubMed

    Nettleton, Sarah; Neale, Joanne; Pickering, Lucy

    2013-03-01

    Research that has explored the lives of men and women recovering from heroin addiction has reported that users often claim that they 'just want to be normal'. Working within a Foucauldian tradition, we argue in this article that the notions of 'governmentality' and the 'norm' are especially apposite to understanding the ubiquity of this aspiration. Here we focus not on the formal institutions of governance that encourage individuals to adhere to social, cultural and political norms, but rather seek to explore recovering users' accounts of normality as they are envisaged and expressed. The reported empirical data were generated from interviews with 40 men and women in England at various stages of recovery from heroin use. The analytic focus is upon the accounts of normality articulated during the interviews in order to identify the ways in which being normal is presented by the participants. In keeping with the methodological tradition of discourse analysis we identify six discursive repertoires of 'normality talk' that transcend the accounts. It is concluded that the negotiation of normality is a precarious route for this social group. Articulations of a desire to be normal are replete with tensions; there are expressions of both resistance and resignation. Despite claims by some contemporary social theorists that diversity is the 'new normality', the accepted bounds of 'difference' are limited for those who have been addicted to heroin. PMID:22763795

  13. [Discourses on the nursing and psychiatric nurse models, published in the Annals of Nursing (1933-1951)].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Michelle de Macedo; Padilha, Maria Itayra; de Oliveira, Alexandre Barbosa; Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco; Filho, Antonio José de Almeida; Peres, Maria Angélica de Almeida

    2014-06-01

    Social-historical study aimed at discussing the nursing and psychiatric nurse models, from the discourses published in the Annals of Nursing.The historical sources were articles published in the Annals of Nursing journal, from 1933 to 1951. An analysis of the discourse was subsidized by the genealogy of power by Michel Foucault.The analysis showed that the discourse on nursing and the psychiatric nurse, in the first half of the 20th century, is set, on one side, by the propositions used by psychiatrists, who sought to reiterate stereotypes and vocations to practice nursing, and, on the other side, by the active participation of nurses seeking to legitimize expertise for psychiatric nursing. It was concluded that the discourses analyzed defined a psychiatric care focused on the nurse and not the rest of the nursing staff, at that time. PMID:25158460

  14. Terahertz analysis of an East Asian historical mural painting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukunaga, K.; Hosako, I.; Kohdzuma, Y.; Koezuka, T.; Kim, M.-J.; Ikari, T.; Du, X.

    2010-05-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and THz and imaging techniques are expected to have great potential for the non-invasive analysis of artworks. We have applied THz imaging to analyse the historic mural painting of a Lamaism temple by using a transportable time-domain THz imaging system; such an attempt is the first in the world. The reflection image revealed that there are two orange colours in the painting, although they appear the same to the naked eye. THz imaging can also estimate the depth of cracks. The colours were examined by X-ray fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy, and the results were found to be in good agreement. This work proved that THz imaging can contribute to the non-invasive analysis of cultural heritage.

  15. The Historical Necessity for--and Difficulties with--New Historical Analysis in Introductory Literature Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Brook

    1987-01-01

    Reflects on the role of New Historicism in teaching literature and remarks on the lack of historical awareness in students today. Offers suggestions for connecting history, as well as other disciplines, to literature to combat currently fragmented college educations. (JC)

  16. Discourse-voice regulatory strategies in the psychotherapeutic interaction: a state-space dynamics analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tomicic, Alemka; Martínez, Claudio; Pérez, J. Carola; Hollenstein, Tom; Angulo, Salvador; Gerstmann, Adam; Barroux, Isabelle; Krause, Mariane

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to provide evidence of the dynamics associated with the configurations of discourse-voice regulatory strategies in patient–therapist interactions in relevant episodes within psychotherapeutic sessions. Its central assumption is that discourses manifest themselves differently in terms of their prosodic characteristics according to their regulatory functions in a system of interactions. The association between discourse and vocal quality in patients and therapists was analyzed in a sample of 153 relevant episodes taken from 164 sessions of five psychotherapies using the state space grid (SSG) method, a graphical tool based on the dynamic systems theory (DST). The results showed eight recurrent and stable discourse-voice regulatory strategies of the patients and three of the therapists. Also, four specific groups of these discourse-voice strategies were identified. The latter were interpreted as regulatory configurations, that is to say, as emergent self-organized groups of discourse-voice regulatory strategies constituting specific interactional systems. Both regulatory strategies and their configurations differed between two types of relevant episodes: Change Episodes and Rupture Episodes. As a whole, these results support the assumption that speaking and listening, as dimensions of the interaction that takes place during therapeutic conversation, occur at different levels. The study not only shows that these dimensions are dependent on each other, but also that they function as a complex and dynamic whole in therapeutic dialog, generating relational offers which allow the patient and the therapist to regulate each other and shape the psychotherapeutic process that characterizes each type of relevant episode. PMID:25932014

  17. Discourse-voice regulatory strategies in the psychotherapeutic interaction: a state-space dynamics analysis.

    PubMed

    Tomicic, Alemka; Martínez, Claudio; Pérez, J Carola; Hollenstein, Tom; Angulo, Salvador; Gerstmann, Adam; Barroux, Isabelle; Krause, Mariane

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to provide evidence of the dynamics associated with the configurations of discourse-voice regulatory strategies in patient-therapist interactions in relevant episodes within psychotherapeutic sessions. Its central assumption is that discourses manifest themselves differently in terms of their prosodic characteristics according to their regulatory functions in a system of interactions. The association between discourse and vocal quality in patients and therapists was analyzed in a sample of 153 relevant episodes taken from 164 sessions of five psychotherapies using the state space grid (SSG) method, a graphical tool based on the dynamic systems theory (DST). The results showed eight recurrent and stable discourse-voice regulatory strategies of the patients and three of the therapists. Also, four specific groups of these discourse-voice strategies were identified. The latter were interpreted as regulatory configurations, that is to say, as emergent self-organized groups of discourse-voice regulatory strategies constituting specific interactional systems. Both regulatory strategies and their configurations differed between two types of relevant episodes: Change Episodes and Rupture Episodes. As a whole, these results support the assumption that speaking and listening, as dimensions of the interaction that takes place during therapeutic conversation, occur at different levels. The study not only shows that these dimensions are dependent on each other, but also that they function as a complex and dynamic whole in therapeutic dialog, generating relational offers which allow the patient and the therapist to regulate each other and shape the psychotherapeutic process that characterizes each type of relevant episode. PMID:25932014

  18. Finding Inquiry in Discourses of Audit and Reform in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Julian; Corbin, Brian; McNamara, Olwen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we examine the discourses of Primary school numeracy coordinators responsible for auditing, monitoring and supporting their colleagues in relation to the introduction and embedding of the National Numeracy Strategy (NNS) in the UK. Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) focuses our analysis on the contradictory coupling of…

  19. "Behind the Doors of Learning": The Transmission of Racist and Sexist Discourses in a History Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmot, Mark; Naidoo, Devika

    2011-01-01

    Now that the doors of historically white schools have officially been opened to Black learners, this paper presents a critical analysis of discourses of domination transmitted behind the doors of learning in a History classroom. While the official History curriculum (NCS, 2002) advocates multi-perspectival epistemological approaches, this paper…

  20. Gendered Discourse about Family Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danes, Sharon M.; Haberman, Heather R.; McTavish, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Language patterns of family business owners were explored by identifying discourse styles and emphasized ideas in four presenting contexts: business, family, intersection of family and business, and business success. The content analysis supports the existence of a general discourse style within family businesses and of similarities and…

  1. Citizenship Discourses: Production and Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Maria; Fejes, Andreas; Dahlstedt, Magnus; Nicoll, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores citizenship discourses empirically through upper secondary school student's understandings, as these emerge in and through their everyday experiences. Drawing on a post-structuralist theorisation inspired by the work of Michel Foucault, a discourse analysis of data from interviews with students is carried out. This analysis…

  2. Towards proteomic analysis of milk proteins in historical building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuckova, S.; Crhova, M.; Vankova, L.; Hnizda, A.; Hynek, R.; Kodicek, M.

    2009-07-01

    The addition of proteinaceous binders to mortars and plasters has a long tradition. The protein additions were identified in many sacral and secular historical buildings. For this method of peptide mass mapping, three model mortar samples with protein additives were prepared. These samples were analysed fresh (1-2 weeks old) and after 9 months of natural ageing. The optimal duration of tryptic cleavage (2 h) and the lowest amount of material needed for relevant analysis of fresh and weathered samples were found; the sufficient amounts of weathered and fresh mortars were set to 0.05 and 0.005 g. The list of main tryptic peptides coming from milk additives (bovine milk, curd, and whey), their relative intensities and theoretical amino acid sequences assignment is presented. Several sequences have been "de novo" confirmed by mass spectrometry.

  3. Disrupting Neoliberal Discourse in Critical Sustainability Education: A Qualitative Analysis of Intentional Language Framing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cachelin, Adrienne; Rose, Jeff; Paisley, Karen

    2015-01-01

    While education for sustainability is a critical task that is gaining ground in a plethora of educational contexts, it is frequently rendered ineffective in the face of neoliberal practice and discourse. Here we examine the pervasive impacts of neoliberalism on education for sustainability, looking specifically at discursive formations that shape…

  4. Structural Characteristics of Computer-Mediated Language: A Comparative Analysis of InterChange Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Kwang-Kyu

    1996-01-01

    Compares one form of synchronous computer-mediated communication, Daedalus InterChange, with analogous spoken and written corpora. Finds that the InterChange discourse mode is not merely intermediate between speaking and writing; rather the electronic medium uniquely fosters some behaviors and inhibits others, in support of the view that physical…

  5. Students' Experiences in Interdisciplinary Problembased Learning: A Discourse Analysis of Group Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imafuku, Rintaro; Kataoka, Ryuta; Mayahara, Mitsuori; Suzuki, Hisayoshi; Saiki, Takuya

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary problem-based learning (PBL) aims to provide students with opportunities to develop the necessary skills to work with different health professionals in a collaborative manner. This discourse study examined the processes of collective knowledge construction in Japanese students in the tutorials. Analyses of video-recorded data…

  6. Investigating the Geometry Curriculum in Palestinian Textbooks: Towards Multimodal Analysis of Arabic Mathematics Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshwaikh, Jehad

    2016-01-01

    The analytical scheme used in the project The Evolution of the Discourse of School Mathematics (EDSM) was developed to analyse the change over time in examination texts. An adapted version of the EDSM scheme has been deployed to analyse the nature of mathematics construed in Palestinian schools' textbooks and the mathematical activity expected of…

  7. (Un)Earthing a Vocabulary of Values: A Discourse Analysis for Ecocomposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author aims to propose an analytic method through which composition students and others might discover and understand the ecological complexities of prevailing environmental terminology that create "wicked problems." Through this method, students engage in "discursive ecology" by exploring the connections among discourse,…

  8. Contrastive Analysis of Turkish and English in Turkish EFL Learners' Spoken Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at finding whether L1 Turkish caused interference errors on Turkish EFL learners' spoken English discourse. Whether English proficiency level had any effect on the number of errors learners made was further investigated. The participants were given the chance to choose one of the two alternative topics to speak about. The…

  9. Identification and Disidentification in Organizational Discourse: A Metaphor Analysis of E-Mail Communication at Enron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnage, Anna K.

    2010-01-01

    This project is situated within the interpretive tradition in organizational communication research, focusing on organizational discourse. It goes further by bringing the discussion into the 21st century through examining how communication technology--specifically e-mail--plays a role in the linguistic practices that help create, maintain and…

  10. Pedagogising Poverty Alleviation: A Discourse Analysis of Educational and Social Policies in Argentina and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambla, Xavier; Veger, Antoni

    2009-01-01

    For the past decades international organisations and governments have promoted and implemented analogous education policies on the grounds that education is the key factor to foster development and fight poverty. This article sets the context of these educational programmes and analyses their discourse on poverty in Argentina and Chile. Then, it…

  11. Speak, Review, Change, Repeat: An Analysis of Discourse Surrounding Dilemmas at Admission, Review and Dismissal Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews-Perez, Amy Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the ways in which three parents of students with disabilities and three public school campus administrators negotiated dilemmas through discourse during Admission, Review, and Dismissal (ARD) meetings in a South Texas public school district. The participants in this study included the stakeholders in ARD…

  12. Citizenship and Citizenship Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Zimbabwe Presidential Commission Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigauke, Aaron T.

    2011-01-01

    Educational discourse, like other fields, is not neutral. Through policy documents it has ideological functions of transmitting dominant cultures and serving certain sectional interest groups. In Zimbabwe 1998 was characterized by radical political discontent as witnessed by a rise in student activism and the formation of the main political…

  13. Making Explicit the Analysis of Students' Mathematical Discourses--Revisiting a Newly Developed Methodological Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryve, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Sfard and Kieran [Kieran, C., Educational Studies in Mathematics 46, 2001, 187-228; Sfard, A., Educational Studies in Mathematics 46, 2001, 13-57; Sfard, A. and Kieran, C., Mind, Culture, and Activity 8, 2001, 42-76] have developed a methodological framework, which aims at characterizing the students' mathematical discourses while they are working…

  14. Managing Victim Status in Group Therapy for Men: A Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zverina, Michaela; Stam, Henderikus J.; Babins-Wagner, Robbie

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the abundance of research on women victims, this article sheds light on the discourse of men who are self-identified as victims of their female partners' abuse. The purpose of this study was to investigate the most salient identity constructions and abuse conceptualizations among participants of group psychotherapy for men who have…

  15. Analysis of Student-Instructor Interaction Patterns in Real-Time, Scientific Online Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epp, Erik M.; Green, Kellie F.; Rahman, Aliya M.; Weaver, Gabriela C.

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of the online environment alter how students and instructors interact. Scientific discourse among students and instructors in an online text-only synchronous environment was analyzed. In converting dialogue to text, many of the nonverbal cues, such as facial expression and tone of voice, which instructors use to gauge student…

  16. Literacy Models and the Reconstruction of History Education: A Comparative Discourse Analysis of Two Lesson Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin, Ross; Reich, Gabriel A.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents discourse analyses of two lesson plans designed for secondary school history classes. Although the plans focus on the same topic, they rely on different models of content area literacy: disciplinary literacy, or reading and writing like experts in a given domain, and critical literacy, or reading and writing to address…

  17. Earning One's Inheritance: Rhetorical Criticism, Everyday Talk, and the Analysis of Public Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Samuel

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes a transcribed speech in which an African American community member engaged a panel of school board officials on the topic of racial stereotypes in an elementary school science experiment. Concludes that the force of public discourse may reside less in a speaker's ability to persuade an audience than in an audience's willingness to recycle…

  18. Researching Writing Events: Using Mediated Discourse Analysis to Explore How Students Write Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rish, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses how mediated discourse theory and related analytical tools can be used to explore how students write together. Considered within a sociocultural framework that conceptualises writing as involving distributed, mediated and dialogic processes of invention, this article presents an investigation of how three high school…

  19. Synoptic and Dynamic Analysis of Classroom Discourse: The Role of Meta Language in Teaching Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Jennifer

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between teachers' theories of language and learning and the nature of classroom discourse is explored. Data from two classes on Aborigine lifestyles suggest that there are three components functioning in all lessons: interpersonal, content, and metalanguage. The quality of the metalanguage component influences the overall quality…

  20. Transgender People at Four Big Ten Campuses: A Policy Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirks, Doris Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the language used to discuss transgender people on university campuses. This study asks how, despite seemingly benefitting transgender people, the discourses carried by the documents that discuss trans people may actually undermine the intended goals of policy initiatives. For example, a report on the status of transgender…

  1. Semio-Pragmatic Analysis of Cartoons Discourse: A Step towards Semiotranslation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlBzour, Naser Naif

    2011-01-01

    The primary concern of this study is to explore the subtle implications of the "Semiotranslation Approach vis-a-vis" analyzing the semiotic elements of discourse in Jordanian cartoons as creative artistic texts in which various signs manifest simultaneous interaction, thus achieving both entertainment and purposeful satire. Therefore, the…

  2. Discourse Cohesion in Sign and Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of discourse cohesion in bilingual children through an analysis of narrative discourses produced by hearing children of deaf parents (HCDP) in both British Sign Language (BSL) and spoken English. Reference mechanisms in both languages are described in the context of recent work on narrative and discourse organization…

  3. Becoming Discourse Analysts: Constructing Meanings and Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Discourse analysts are concerned with how language both reflects and constructs the social world. As a field of study, there are scores of books, journals, and conferences devoted to the theoretical and methodological issues among the varieties of discourse analysis. Less discussed in the field of discourse studies is how one learns to become a…

  4. Teaching ethics in engineering education through historical analysis.

    PubMed

    Billington, David P

    2006-04-01

    The goal of this paper is to stress the significance of ethics for engineering education and to illustrate how it can be brought into the mainstream of higher education in a natural way that is integrated with the teaching objectives of enriching the core meaning of engineering. Everyone will agree that the practicing engineer should be virtuous, should be a good colleague, and should use professional understanding for the common good. But these injunctions to virtue do not reach closely enough the ethic of the engineer as engineer, as someone acting in a uniquely engineering situation, and it is to such conditions that I wish to speak through a set of specific examples from recent history. I shall briefly refer to four controversies between engineers. Then, in some detail I shall narrate three historical cases that directly involve the actions of one engineer, and finally I would like to address some common contemporary issues. The first section, Engineering Ethics and the History of Innovation, includes four cases involving professional controversy. Each controversy sets two people against each other in disputes over who invented the telegraph, the radio, the automobile, and the airplane. In each dispute, it is possible to identify ethical and unethical behavior or ambiguous ethical behavior that serves as a basis for educational discussion. The first two historical cases described in "Crises and the Engineer" involve the primary closure dam systems in The Netherlands, each one the result of the actions of one engineer. The third tells of an American engineer who took his political boss, a big city mayor, to court over the illegal use of a watershed. The challenges these engineers faced required, in the deepest sense, a commitment to ethical behavior that is unique to engineering and instructive to our students. Finally, the cases in "Professors and Comparative Critical Analysis" illuminate the behavior of engineers in the design of structures and also how

  5. Identification of historical Veziragasi aqueduct using the operational modal analysis.

    PubMed

    Ercan, E; Nuhoglu, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a model updating study conducted on a historical aqueduct, called Veziragasi, in Turkey. The output-only modal identification results obtained from ambient vibration measurements of the structure were used to update a finite element model of the structure. For the purposes of developing a solid model of the structure, the dimensions of the structure, defects, and material degradations in the structure were determined in detail by making a measurement survey. For evaluation of the material properties of the structure, nondestructive and destructive testing methods were applied. The modal analysis of the structure was calculated by FEM. Then, a nondestructive dynamic test as well as operational modal analysis was carried out and dynamic properties were extracted. The natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes were determined from both theoretical and experimental modal analyses and compared with each other. A good harmony was attained between mode shapes, but there were some differences between natural frequencies. The sources of the differences were introduced and the FEM model was updated by changing material parameters and boundary conditions. Finally, the real analytical model of the aqueduct was put forward and the results were discussed. PMID:24511287

  6. Identification of Historical Veziragasi Aqueduct Using the Operational Modal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, E.; Nuhoglu, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a model updating study conducted on a historical aqueduct, called Veziragasi, in Turkey. The output-only modal identification results obtained from ambient vibration measurements of the structure were used to update a finite element model of the structure. For the purposes of developing a solid model of the structure, the dimensions of the structure, defects, and material degradations in the structure were determined in detail by making a measurement survey. For evaluation of the material properties of the structure, nondestructive and destructive testing methods were applied. The modal analysis of the structure was calculated by FEM. Then, a nondestructive dynamic test as well as operational modal analysis was carried out and dynamic properties were extracted. The natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes were determined from both theoretical and experimental modal analyses and compared with each other. A good harmony was attained between mode shapes, but there were some differences between natural frequencies. The sources of the differences were introduced and the FEM model was updated by changing material parameters and boundary conditions. Finally, the real analytical model of the aqueduct was put forward and the results were discussed. PMID:24511287

  7. Dealing with pollution from conflict: Analysis of discourses around the 2006 Lebanon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Takshe, Aseel A; Huby, Meg; Frantzi, Sofia; Lovett, Jon C

    2010-01-01

    In July 2006 a war between Lebanon and Israel resulted in severe environmental damage in Lebanon from Israeli bombing raids. An attack on the Lebanese Jiyyeh Power Plant released 15,000 tons of heavy fuel oil into the Mediterranean Sea. Remarkably, a clean-up operation was effected despite a continued state of war and lack of capacity in the Lebanese government. Civil society environmentalists played a key role in dealing with the pollution and complying with pollution-control legislation. In this study we use Q-methodology to analyse discourses on the effectiveness of pollution legislation during times of conflict using the Jiyyeh oil spill as an example. We interviewed 35 people from eight different stakeholder groups involved in environmental issues. Five distinct discourses were generated covering compensation schemes, need for new legislation, role of stakeholders during wartime and strengthening government ministries. PMID:20018427

  8. Innocent Victims, Fighter Cells, and White Uncles: A Discourse Analysis of Children's Books about AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenreich, Megan; Siegel, Marjorie

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we examine a set of 26 children's books on HIV/AIDS published between 1989-1999 to identify the ways in which these texts construct HIV/AIDS and people living with HIV/AIDS. We explore how this marginalized group is depicted in these books, and how well-meaning teachers may in fact be reproducing dominant discourses about HIV/AIDS…

  9. Isogeometric analysis: a powerful numerical tool for the elastic analysis of historical masonry arches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzani, Antonio; Malagù, Marcello; Turco, Emilio

    2016-03-01

    We illustrate a numerical tool for analyzing plane arches such as those frequently used in historical masonry heritage. It is based on a refined elastic mechanical model derived from the isogeometric approach. In particular, geometry and displacements are modeled by means of non-uniform rational B-splines. After a brief introduction, outlining the basic assumptions of this approach and the corresponding modeling choices, several numerical applications to arches, which are typical of masonry structures, show the performance of this novel technique. These are discussed in detail to emphasize the advantage and potential developments of isogeometric analysis in the field of structural analysis of historical masonry buildings with complex geometries.

  10. Classroom Discourse Frames.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha C.

    An analysis of classroom discourse proposes four frames, modeled as concentric circles. The inner most circle is the lesson frame, removed or sheltered from outside influences and most likely, in a language class, to maintain second-language usage. The next frame from the center is the lesson-support frame, an intermediate layer of classroom…

  11. Capitalizing on Synergies—A Discourse Analysis of the Process of Collaboration Among Providers of Integrative Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Andermo, Susanne; Sundberg, Tobias; Forsberg, Christina; Falkenberg, Torkel

    2015-01-01

    Background Integrative health care (IHC) combines therapies and providers from complementary and conventional health care. Previous studies on IHC have shown power relations between providers but few studies have explored how the interaction develops over time. The objective of this study was to explore the development of IHC collaboration and interaction among participating providers during a series of consensus case conferences for managing patients with back and neck pain. Methods This qualitative study was conducted within a pragmatic randomized controlled clinical trial in primary care. Patients' treatment plans were developed based on IHC provider consensus conferences (n = 26) of which 15 (5 of the first, 5 in the middle, and 5 of the last in the clinical trial) were selected for analysis. Findings were derived by means of discourse analysis, focusing on the participants’ use of subject positions during the conferences. Findings The IHC team in this study gradually formed a group identity, moving their subject positions from individual treating subjects to members of a team and were able to make consensus-based decisions about patients’ individual treatment plans. In the discourse, the IHC team identified collaborative shortcomings and problematized the provision of IHC. They were able to capitalize on the synergies in their collaboration and developed a shared vision of IHC provision. Conclusions The process of IHC collaboration involved the gradual formation of an IHC team identity, which facilitated interdisciplinary, non-hierarchical consensus-based decision-making in the team. The discourse further suggests that a reform of some legal and organizational health sector barriers might be needed to realize sustainable implementation of IHC services in Sweden. PMID:25793967

  12. Disclosing discourses: biomedical and hospitality discourses in patient education materials.

    PubMed

    Öresland, Stina; Friberg, Febe; Määttä, Sylvia; Öhlen, Joakim

    2015-09-01

    Patient education materials have the potential to strengthen the health literacy of patients. Previous studies indicate that readability and suitability may be improved. The aim of this study was to explore and analyze discourses inherent in patient education materials since analysis of discourses could illuminate values and norms inherent in them. Clinics in Sweden that provided colorectal cancer surgery allowed access to written information and 'welcome letters' sent to patients. The material was analysed by means of discourse analysis, embedded in Derrida's approach of deconstruction. The analysis revealed a biomedical discourse and a hospitality discourse. In the biomedical discourse, the subject position of the personnel was interpreted as the messenger of medical information while that of the patients as the carrier of diagnoses and recipients of biomedical information. In the hospitality discourse, the subject position of the personnel was interpreted as hosts who invite and welcome the patients as guests. The study highlights the need to eliminate paternalism and fosters a critical reflective stance among professionals regarding power and paternalism inherent in health care communication. PMID:25847051

  13. Identity-Forming Discourses: A Critical Discourse Analysis on Policy Making Processes Concerning English Language Teaching in Colombia (Discursos que forjan identidades: un análisis crítico de discursos en la formulación de políticas sobre la enseñanza del inglés en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar Alméciga, Wilder Yesid

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses a critical problem about asymmetrical power relationships and uneven conditions in English language education exerted via identity shaping discourses in the document Educación: "Visión 2019" issued by the Colombian Ministry of National Education. The study follows the critical discourse analysis method. It…

  14. Perfect harmony: a mathematical analysis of four historical tunings.

    PubMed

    Page, Michael F

    2004-10-01

    In Western music, a musical interval defined by the frequency ratio of two notes is generally considered consonant when the ratio is composed of small integers. Perfect harmony or an "ideal just scale," which has no exact solution, would require the division of an octave into 12 notes, each of which would be used to create six other consonant intervals. The purpose of this study is to analyze four well-known historical tunings to evaluate how well each one approximates perfect harmony. The analysis consists of a general evaluation in which all consonant intervals are given equal weighting and a specific evaluation for three preludes from Bach's "Well-Tempered Clavier," for which intervals are weighted in proportion to the duration of their occurrence. The four tunings, 5-limit just intonation, quarter-comma meantone temperament, well temperament (Werckmeister III), and equal temperament, are evaluated by measures of centrality, dispersion, distance, and dissonance. When all keys and consonant intervals are equally weighted, equal temperament demonstrates the strongest performance across a variety of measures, although it is not always the best tuning. Given C as the starting note for each tuning, equal temperament and well temperament perform strongly for the three "Well-Tempered Clavier" preludes examined. PMID:15532672

  15. Going South: Analysis of an Historic Project Engineering Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John H.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's successful conduct of the Apollo Program greatly enhanced the prestige of the United States and remains broadly accepted as America's gift to all Mankind. NASA's accomplishments continue to amaze the world. With the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) Americans once again tasked NASA to carry out a project that is expected to provide inspiration and economic stimulus to the United States and to the world. In preparation NASA has thoroughly examined space program precedents. There is, however, another precedent which has not been examined in this context but whose scope and environment in many ways parallel the VSE. This project was initiated by a team that had, ten years before, successfully completed an effort that, at a cost of $173 billion (in 2008 dollars), had pushed the envelope of technology, brought economic growth, established their country as the world leader in engineering, and been broadly accepted as that country's gift to all Mankind. The new project was again inspired by popular desire to enhance national prestige and make yet another major contribution to Humanity. This effort was predicted to require eight years and $156 billion (2008 dollars). However, after nine years and expenditures of 96% beyond the baseline, the project collapsed amid bankruptcy, political scandal, and criminal prosecution. This paper applies current project management metrics, such as earned value analysis, to review the strategic decisions in this historic failure and describe its ultimate collapse. Key mistakes are identified, and lessons are drawn which may prove useful in guiding the VSE.

  16. Perfect harmony: A mathematical analysis of four historical tunings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Michael F.

    2004-10-01

    In Western music, a musical interval defined by the frequency ratio of two notes is generally considered consonant when the ratio is composed of small integers. Perfect harmony or an ``ideal just scale,'' which has no exact solution, would require the division of an octave into 12 notes, each of which would be used to create six other consonant intervals. The purpose of this study is to analyze four well-known historical tunings to evaluate how well each one approximates perfect harmony. The analysis consists of a general evaluation in which all consonant intervals are given equal weighting and a specific evaluation for three preludes from Bach's ``Well-Tempered Clavier,'' for which intervals are weighted in proportion to the duration of their occurrence. The four tunings, 5-limit just intonation, quarter-comma meantone temperament, well temperament (Werckmeister III), and equal temperament, are evaluated by measures of centrality, dispersion, distance, and dissonance. When all keys and consonant intervals are equally weighted, equal temperament demonstrates the strongest performance across a variety of measures, although it is not always the best tuning. Given C as the starting note for each tuning, equal temperament and well temperament perform strongly for the three ``Well-Tempered Clavier'' preludes examined. .

  17. The Critical Policy Discourse Analysis Frame: Helping Doctoral Students Engage with the Educational Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses an issue of increasing significance in the context of taught educational doctorates and argues that this may have wider applicability for doctoral students across a range of social science disciplines. It identifies the need to engage with policy analysis as a key element of such programmes and attempts to address…

  18. A Discourse Approach to Theorising HRD: Opening a Discursive Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Aileen; Sambrook, Sally; Garavan, Tom; Valentin, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how a discourse approach to theorising human resource development (HRD) can open a "discursive space" to challenge dominant discourses within the field; enabling a more critical discourse to emerge. Design/methodology/approach: Discusses two approaches to discourse analysis, a "practice" and a…

  19. The Discourse of "Environmentalist Hysteria."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killingsworth, M. Jimmie; Palmer, Jacqueline S.

    1995-01-01

    Fleshes out a model of hysterical discourse, and applies it to an analysis of the charges and countercharges of "environmentalist hysteria." Gives special attention to the book that drew the earliest accusations of hysteria, Rachel Carson's "Silent Spring." (SR)

  20. Mises au point et perspectives a propos de l'analyse automatique du discours (Focuses and Perspectives with Regard to Machine Discourse Analysis)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecheux, Michel; Fuchs, Catherine

    1975-01-01

    Part One discusses social formation, language, discourse, and ideology, and linguistics as a theory of syntactic mechanisms and processes of enunciation. Part Two deals with new criticisms of program design, linguistic analysis, and discursive process analysis. (Text is in French.) (Author/MSE)

  1. The world as the new local clinic: a critical analysis of three discourses of global medical competency.

    PubMed

    Martimianakis, Maria Athina Tina; Hafferty, Frederic W

    2013-06-01

    The effects of globalization on health are the focus of administrators, educators, policy makers and researchers as they work to consider how best to train and regulate health professionals to practice in a globalized world. This study explores what happens to constructs such as medical competence when the context of medical practice is discursively expanded to include the whole world. An archive of texts was assembled (1970-2011) totaling 1100 items and analyzed using a governmentality approach. Texts were included that articulated rationales for pursuing global education activities, and/or that implicitly or explicitly took a position on medical competencies in relation to practicing medicine in international or culturally diverse contexts, or in dealing with health issues as global concerns. The analysis revealed three distinct visions, representative of a primarily western mentality, for preparing physicians to practice in a globalized world: the universal global physician, the culturally versed global physician and the global physician advocate. Each has its own epistemological relationship to globalization and is supported by an evidence base. All three discourses are active and productive, sometimes within the same context. However, the discourse of the universal global physician is currently the most established. The challenge to policy makers and educators in evolving regulatory frameworks and curricula that are current and relevant necessitates a better understanding of the socio-political effects of globalization on medical education, and the ethical, political, cultural and scientific issues underlying efforts to prepare students to practice competently in a globalized world. PMID:23631776

  2. Explanation, motivation and question posing routines in university mathematics teachers' pedagogical discourse: a commognitive analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viirman, Olov

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the teaching practices used by university mathematics teachers when lecturing, a topic within university mathematics education research which is gaining an increasing interest. In the study, a view of mathematics teaching as a discursive practice is taken, and Sfard's commognitive framework is used to investigate the teaching practices of seven Swedish university mathematics teachers on the topic of functions. The present paper looks at the discourse of mathematics teaching, presenting a categorization of the didactical routines into three categories - explanation, motivation and question posing routines. All of these are present in the discourses of all seven teachers, but within these general categories, a number of different sub-categories of routines are found, used in different ways and to different extent by the various teachers. The explanation routines include known mathematical facts, summary and repetition, different representations, everyday language, and concretization and metaphor; the motivation routines include reference to utility, the nature of mathematics, humour and result focus; and the question posing routines include control questions, asking for facts, enquiries and rhetorical questions. This categorization of question posing routines, for instance, complements those already found in the literature. In addition to providing a valuable insight into the teaching of functions at the university level, the categorizations presented in the study can also be useful for investigating the teaching of other mathematical topics.

  3. Discourse as Social Interaction. Discourse Studies: A Multidisciplinary Introduction. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dijk, Teun A., Ed.

    The collection of essays on discourse as a form of social interaction includes: "Discourse as Interaction in Society" (Teun A. van Dijk); "Discourse Pragmatics" (Shoshana Blum-Kulka); "Conversation Analysis: An Approach to the Study of Social Action as Sense Making Practices" (Anita Pomerantz, B. J. Fehr); "Institutional Dialogue" (Paul Drew,…

  4. Computer-Supported Collaborative Inquiry on Buoyancy: A Discourse Analysis Supporting the "Pieces" Position on Conceptual Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcotte, Sandrine

    2012-12-01

    This article describes in detail a conversation analysis of conceptual change in a computer-supported collaborative learning environment. Conceptual change is an essential learning process in science education that has yet to be fully understood. While many models and theories have been developed over the last three decades, empirical data to support them are scarce. The present paper aims to provide such evidence. To this end, the article first reviews seven proposed models of conceptual change before it recalls the main ideas behind the two different positions on conceptual change, the pieces (diSessa 2008) versus coherence (Vosniadou et al. 2008) positions. Then, the article presents and discusses how a close discourse analysis of asynchronous collaborative conversations between grade 5 and 6 students on buoyancy and relative density provides further empirical evidence of the knowledge in pieces position.

  5. The (Bio)politics of Engagement: Shifts in Singapore's Policy and Public Discourse on Civics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weninger, Csilla; Kho, Ee Moi

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a historical overview of civic educational policy and political discourse in Singapore from 1959 to 2011, focusing on changes in the role attributed to students in the education process. A review of educational programmes and analysis of political speeches reveals that an earlier transmissionist approach that focused on value…

  6. Professional caregivers' work with the dying in nursing homes--a Foucault-inspired analysis of discourses in the last decade in a Danish context.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Karen T; Glasdam, Stinne

    2013-12-01

    International studies on the death of elderly nursing home residents show the complexity in the understanding of the professionals who care for the dying. The aim of this study is to explore the discourses about professional caregivers caring for those dying in Denmark in the last decade. A discourse analysis inspired by Foucault was constructed. The material consists of different source documents: research articles, newspaper articles, theses, books, websites - 35 sources in total. There are constructed six positions of speech, five discourses and three themes: (1) 'the work of the professional caregivers - a complex low-status work'; (2) 'the education of the professionals - the way to ensure a good death or possessing the right qualifications' and (3) 'the vulnerable professionals'. The study concludes that an economical/political discourse is dominating and sets up the frames within which the professionals care for dying residents, although the medical, the social/critical and the religious discourses attempt to speak against it. All positions articulate that the professional caregivers' job has a low status and that it is not possible to provide an optimal care due to lack of time, resources and education. Psychical or mental demands make the professionals vulnerable. The meaning of optimal care varies according to the positions of speech. PMID:23336738

  7. HISTORICAL ANALYSIS, A VALUABLE TOOL IN COMMUNITY-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A historical analysis of the ecological consequences of development can be a valuable tool in community-based environmental protection. These studies can engage the public in environmental issues and lead to informed decision making. Historical studies provide an understanding of...

  8. Analysis of Student-Instructor Interaction Patterns in Real-Time, Scientific Online Discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epp, Erik M.; Green, Kellie F.; Rahman, Aliya M.; Weaver, Gabriela C.

    2010-02-01

    The characteristics of the online environment alter how students and instructors interact. Scientific discourse among students and instructors in an online text-only synchronous environment was analyzed. In converting dialogue to text, many of the nonverbal cues, such as facial expression and tone of voice, which instructors use to gauge student understanding are lost. The participants adapt their communication style to the medium, and we present a new interaction pattern for student-instructor communication found prevalent in the synchronous, text-only, online environment. This study has implications for instructors who use synchronous, text-based communication for their courses, namely the value of posing additional questions from the instructor to verify student understanding.

  9. The Meanings Embedded within Childcare Regulations: A Historical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacini-Ketchabaw, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    In response to current discussions about a universal Canadian childcare system (affordable childcare for "all" families), this article deconstructs the position that childcare occupies in the province of Ontario through the examination, from a historical perspective, of a document that outlines regulations for childcare programs: the Day…

  10. Teacher Recertification: A Historical Analysis of the Illinois Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodbeck, Nancy Negley

    2009-01-01

    License renewal and recertification have long been standard practice in service professions. Ten years ago, a new law called for policy revision and mandated that Illinois teachers acquire continuing professional development to maintain certification. This study provides a historical perspective of the Illinois teacher recertification process,…

  11. The Historical Development of Affirmative Action: An Aggregated Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhouse, Shawn

    2002-01-01

    Reconstructs the development of equal employment opportunities for African Americans after the Civil War, recapitulating historical accounts of the integration of African Americans into mainstream society, beginning with the Civil War and including legal precedents such as Brown v. Board of Education. Racial discrimination in employment was…

  12. Crime and Punishment in the Schooling Process: A Historical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Joan; Newman, Graeme

    One of 52 theoretical papers on school crime and its relation to poverty, this chapter examines the historical validity of two popular beliefs concerning the "crisis of discipline" in schools. One is that it is something special to this turbulent age, and the other is that school violence and crime have increased because we have relaxed our…

  13. Whose Education Policies in Aid-Receiving Countries? A Critical Discourse Analysis of Quality and Normative Transfer through Cambodia and Laos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Critical discourse analysis of policy contexts and documents has been employed in this research to analyze the role of language in promoting normative positions affecting the quality of education in Cambodia and Laos. The article examines the ways institutional normative influences at multiple levels within the Education for All (EFA) program have…

  14. Preserving Respectability or Blatant Disrespect? A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Morehouse Appropriate Attire Policy and Implications for Intersectional Approaches to Examining Campus Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Lori D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I conduct a critical discourse analysis of the Morehouse College Appropriate Attire Policy and discuss how issues of race, gender, and sexuality converge to reveal both overt and hidden meanings embedded in the policy. I also consider how power is used towards "other" black college men who neither fit neatly into…

  15. The Challenges of Contrastive Discourse Analysis: Reflecting on a Study into the Influence of English on Students' Written Spanish on a Bilingual Education Program in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell-Reid, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses challenges involved in contrastive discourse analysis that emerged while carrying out a follow-up study into a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) program in Spain. Reversing the focus on English of much contrastive rhetoric work, the study investigates the effect of second-language-English on…

  16. Historical analysis of Newfoundland dog fur colour genetics

    PubMed Central

    Bondeson, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article makes use of digitized historic newspapers to analyze Newfoundland dog fur colour genetics, and fur colour variations over time. The results indicate that contrary to the accepted view, the ‘Solid’ gene was introduced into the British population of Newfoundland dogs in the 1840s. Prior to that time, the dogs were white and black (Landseer) or white and brown, and thus spotted/spotted homozygotes. Due to ‘Solid’ being dominant over ‘spotted’, and selective breeding, today the majority of Newfoundland dogs are solid black. Whereas small white marks on the chest and/or paw appears to be a random event, the historical data supports the existence of an ‘Irish spotted’ fur colour pattern, with white head blaze, breast, paws and tail tip, in spotted/spotted homozygotes. PMID:26623371

  17. Multifractal analysis for the historic set in topological dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaoyao; Chen, Ercai

    2013-07-01

    In this paper the historic set is divided into different level sets and we use topological pressure to describe the size of these level sets. We give an application of these results to dimension theory. Our primary focus is using topological pressure to describe the relative multifractal spectrum of ergodic averages and to give a positive answer to the conjecture posed by Olsen (2003 J. Math. Pures Appl. 82 1591-649).

  18. The Neo-Liberal Turn in Understanding Teachers' and School Leaders' Work Practices in Curriculum Innovation and Change: A Critical Discourse Analysis of a Newly Proposed Reform Policy in Lower Secondary Education in the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmie, Geraldine Mooney

    2014-01-01

    The study in this article involved a critical discourse analysis of five policy documents in relation to a curriculum reform proposed for lower secondary education in the Republic of Ireland. It examined the (re)positioning of governance in relation to curriculum and teacher education. Findings indicate a predominant clinical discourse closely…

  19. Pratique des relations internationales en francais. Deuxieme partie: Ecrit: de l'analyse de discours aux pratiques pedagogiques (The Practice of International Relations in French. Part Two: Writing: From Discourse Analysis to Pedagogical Practice).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelides, Maro P.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the use of discourse analysis with students who are familiar with international relations and interested in understanding discourse organization in greater depth. The discussion indicates how such a procedure can help students understand and produce texts in their field. Several examples are included. (MSE)

  20. Enseignement et analyse de discours: Un rendez-vous prometteur. Entretien avec Sophie Moirand et Jean Peytard (Teaching and Discourse Analysis: A Promising Meeting. Interview with Sophie Moirand and Jean Peytard).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecheur, Jacques

    1992-01-01

    The authors of a new book on the relationship of discourse and French language instruction, bringing different language backgrounds and professional perspectives to the issue of language teaching theory and practice, are interviewed. Discussion focuses on the role of discourse analysis in language teaching. (MSE)

  1. An Analysis of Discourse-Pragmatic and Grammatical Constraints on the Acquisition and Development of Referential Choice in Child English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates how discourse-pragmatics informs children's choice of referential forms. Three studies utilizing naturalistic data examine the role that six discourse-pragmatic features play in the acquisition of referential forms in a non-null subject language, English. The influence of child-directed speech on development is also…

  2. Textual Silences and the (Re)Presentation of Black Undergraduate Women in Higher Education Journals: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Kimberly Deion

    2015-01-01

    Academic journals serve as a discipline's official discourse reflecting what has been deemed important in that discipline at a specific point in time. For the better part of 20 years, discourses in the field of student affairs have constructed Black men as a population in need of specific attention. The proliferation of scholarship on Black men…

  3. A Corpus-Based Analysis of Discourse Anaphora in English and Korean: A Neo-Gricean Pragmatic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sok-Hun

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores discourse anaphora in English and Korean by using a neo-Gricean pragmatic approach with corpus-based data. Very little study of Korean discourse anaphora has yet taken place at the inter-sentential level, except works looking at zero anaphor and a logophoric reflexive pronoun "caki" "self." This…

  4. The Cultural Politics of National Testing and Test Result Release Policy in South Korea: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Youl-Kwan; Kang, Mi Ok

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the ideological construction of educational discourses embedded within the South Korean print media. Significantly, these discourses have recently promoted the resurrection of a sweeping national testing and test results release policy. Through careful examination of the "test plus release" policy, the authors show how the…

  5. Analyses des discours non strictement mathematiques accompagnant des cours de mathematiques (Analysis of Not Strictly Mathematical Discourse in Mathematics Classes).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Aline

    1995-01-01

    Examines discourse, not strictly mathematical, that teachers might adopt in a mathematics class and presents three major functions of such discourse: communication; structuring and labeling; and reflection. Develops lines for further inquiry, notably on the third function, the most likely focus for specific preparation by the teacher. (13…

  6. Islam Hadhari: An Ideological Discourse Analysis of Selected Speeches by UMNO President and Malaysia Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahaya, Azlan R.

    2012-01-01

    This research study explored the problem the Malay identity and society in the discourse of Malay politics. The purpose of this study was to understand how the discourse of Islam "Hadhari" as spoken by prime minister and UMNO president Abdullah Ahmad Badawi in the years 2004-2008 demonstrated the hegemony of his administration and party.…

  7. The Discourse of Parent Involvement in Special Education: A Critical Analysis Linking Policy Documents to the Experiences of Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Yuan; Vadeboncoeur, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Parent involvement is acknowledged as a crucial aspect of the education of students with special needs. However, the discourse of parent involvement represents parent involvement in limited ways, thereby controlling how and the extent to which parents can be involved in the education of their children. In this article, critical discourse analysis…

  8. A Cultural Analysis of the Achievement Gap Discourse: Challenging the Language and Labels Used in the Work of School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Roderick L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I critique the labels and terms used to frame practices aimed at closing the achievement gap. I examine how an unacknowledged "achievement gap Discourse" has emerged from the language that informs practices and policies of contemporary school reform. I use Gee's uppercase "Discourse" and a cultural…

  9. Flood frequency analysis - the challenge of using historical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engeland, Kolbjorn

    2015-04-01

    Estimates of high flood quantiles are needed for many applications, .e.g. dam safety assessments are based on the 1000 years flood, whereas the dimensioning of important infrastructure requires estimates of the 200 year flood. The flood quantiles are estimated by fitting a parametric distribution to a dataset of high flows comprising either annual maximum values or peaks over a selected threshold. Since the record length of data is limited compared to the desired flood quantile, the estimated flood magnitudes are based on a high degree of extrapolation. E.g. the longest time series available in Norway are around 120 years, and as a result any estimation of a 1000 years flood will require extrapolation. One solution is to extend the temporal dimension of a data series by including information about historical floods before the stream flow was systematically gaugeded. Such information could be flood marks or written documentation about flood events. The aim of this study was to evaluate the added value of using historical flood data for at-site flood frequency estimation. The historical floods were included in two ways by assuming: (1) the size of (all) floods above a high threshold within a time interval is known; and (2) the number of floods above a high threshold for a time interval is known. We used a Bayesian model formulation, with MCMC used for model estimation. This estimation procedure allowed us to estimate the predictive uncertainty of flood quantiles (i.e. both sampling and parameter uncertainty is accounted for). We tested the methods using 123 years of systematic data from Bulken in western Norway. In 2014 the largest flood in the systematic record was observed. From written documentation and flood marks we had information from three severe floods in the 18th century and they were likely to exceed the 2014 flood. We evaluated the added value in two ways. First we used the 123 year long streamflow time series and investigated the effect of having several

  10. Approaches to Supporting the Analysis of Historical Medication Datasets with RxNorm

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Lee B.; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate approaches to supporting the analysis of historical medication datasets with RxNorm. Methods We created two sets of National Drug Codes (NDCs). One is based on historical NDCs harvested from versions of RxNorm from 2007 to present. The other comprises all sources of NDCs in the current release of RxNorm, including proprietary sources. We evaluated these two resources against four sets of NDCs obtained from various sources. Results: In two historical medication datasets, 14–19% of the NDCs were obsolete, but 91–96% of these obsolete NDCs could be recovered and mapped to active drug concepts. Conclusion: Adding historical data significantly increases NDC mapping to active RxNorm drugs. A service for mapping historical NDC datasets leveraging RxNorm was added to the RxNorm API and is available at https://rxnav.nlm.nih.gov/. PMID:26958241

  11. Uncertainty Analysis of Historic Water Resources Availability in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, A.; Arsenault, K. R.; Narapusetty, B.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    Seeing how current agrometerological conditions measure up to historic events helps analysts and decision-makers judge the potential impact that anomalous rainfall and temperatures will have on the availability and accessibility of food and water resources. We present results from the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS), which is used to produce multi-model and rainfall ensembles of the water balance over semi-arid Africa from 1982-2014. The ensemble approach allows us to assess confidence in our estimates, which is critical given that food and water insecure regions in Africa are data-poor are characterized by complex interactions and feedbacks that cause deterministic hydrologic modeling approaches to fall short. We then use the ensemble of water balance estimates to calculate drought severity (derived from modeled soil moisture), and the Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (a function of atmospheric water demand). We compare these indices to the GIMMS 30-year vegetation data product from AVHRR, and the ESA ECV 30 year microwave soil moisture. These historical time series (with confidence bounds) allow us to improve our quantitative understanding of drought thresholds, to explore sources of parameter and model uncertainty, and to better contextualize current operational drought monitoring efforts in Africa.

  12. SI Engine Trends: A Historical Analysis with Future Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlowski, Alexander; Splitter, Derek A

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that spark ignited engine performance and efficiency is closely coupled to fuel octane number. The present work combines historical and recent trends in spark ignition engines to build a database of engine design, performance, and fuel octane requirements over the past 80 years. The database consists of engine compression ratio, required fuel octane number, peak mean effective pressure, specific output, and combined unadjusted fuel economy for passenger vehicles and light trucks. Recent trends in engine performance, efficiency, and fuel octane number requirement were used to develop correlations of fuel octane number utilization, performance, specific output. The results show that historically, engine compression ratio and specific output have been strongly coupled to fuel octane number. However, over the last 15 years the sales weighted averages of compression ratios, specific output, and fuel economy have increased, while the fuel octane number requirement has remained largely unchanged. Using the developed correlations, 10-year-out projections of engine performance, design, and fuel economy are estimated for various fuel octane numbers, both with and without turbocharging. The 10-year-out projection shows that only by keeping power neutral while using 105 RON fuel will allow the vehicle fleet to meet CAFE targets if only the engine is relied upon to decrease fuel consumption. If 98 RON fuel is used, a power neutral fleet will have to reduce vehicle weight by 5%.

  13. Pedagogic discourse in introductory classes: Multi-dimensional analysis of textbooks and lectures in biology and macroeconomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carkin, Susan

    The broad goal of this study is to represent the linguistic variation of textbooks and lectures, the primary input for student learning---and sometimes the sole input in the large introductory classes which characterize General Education at many state universities. Computer techniques are used to analyze a corpus of textbooks and lectures from first-year university classes in macroeconomics and biology. These spoken and written variants are compared to each other as well as to benchmark texts from other multi-dimensional studies in order to examine their patterns, relations, and functions. A corpus consisting of 147,000 words was created from macroeconomics and biology lectures at a medium-large state university and from a set of nationally "best-selling" textbooks used in these same introductory survey courses. The corpus was analyzed using multi-dimensional methodology (Biber, 1988). The analysis consists of both empirical and qualitative phases. Quantitative analyses are undertaken on the linguistic features, their patterns of co-occurrence, and on the contextual elements of classrooms and textbooks. The contextual analysis is used to functionally interpret the statistical patterns of co-occurrence along five dimensions of textual variation, demonstrating patterns of difference and similarity with reference to text excerpts. Results of the analysis suggest that academic discourse is far from monolithic. Pedagogic discourse in introductory classes varies by modality and discipline, but not always in the directions expected. In the present study the most abstract texts were biology lectures---more abstract than written genres of academic prose and more abstract than introductory textbooks. Academic lectures in both disciplines, monologues which carry a heavy informational load, were extremely interactive, more like conversation than academic prose. A third finding suggests that introductory survey textbooks differ from those used in upper division classes by being

  14. The "Islamic" in Islamic Education: Assessing the Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panjwani, Farid

    2004-01-01

    The paper assesses the dominant discourse on Islam and education that argues for an education derived from an exclusively "Islamic" vision. In addition to exploring the historical roots of this discourse, the paper analyses it with respect to its (i) arguments for an Islamic vision of education, (ii) conception of Islam, and (iii) proposals for…

  15. A Theory of Direct Discourse: Its Semantics and Pragmatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsusaka, Youichi

    2013-01-01

    The dissertation presents a new account of how direct discourse works in natural language. After presenting preliminary discussions of the views of quotation given by Tarski, Quine, and Davidson in Chapter 1, Chapter 2 is devoted to historical investigations into Frege's theory of quotation and direct discourse. Although Frege's theory is often…

  16. Practical discourse in nursing: going beyond empiricism and historicism.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J L

    1985-07-01

    This discussion presents a critical appraisal of recent works in Advances in Nursing Science that have dealt with metatheoretical concerns. In metatheoretical analysis, such as that presented by Silva and Rothbart, nurses are beginning to focus on the traditions that have guided research. This process should be extended by reviewing historical stages of development in empiricist and postempiricist philosophy. Recent work in postempiricist philosophy is especially important since it can help nursing transcend historicist insights. Continental philosophy goes beyond historicist critique by focusing on practical discourse within a community of investigators. This is a stage of development that can be rationally decisive for the scientific development of nursing. PMID:3927830

  17. Getting behind Discourses of Love, Care and Maternalism in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslanian, Teresa K.

    2015-01-01

    Discourses of love, care and maternalism affect the everyday lives of children enrolled in early childhood education. These discourses bear witness to the ontological transformation that has occurred since the Romantic era that birthed the kindergarten movement to today. Reflecting on historical discourses of love, care and maternalism from the…

  18. Historical Material Analysis of DC745U Pressure Pads

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz-Acosta, Denisse

    2012-07-30

    As part of the Enhance Surveillance mission, it is the goal to provide suitable lifetime assessment of stockpile materials. This report is an accumulation of historical publication on the DC745U material and their findings. It is the intention that the B61 LEP program uses this collection of data to further develop their understanding and potential areas of study. DC745U is a commercially available silicone elastomer consisting of dimethyl, methyl-phenyl, and methyl-vinyl siloxane repeat units. Originally, this material was manufactured by Dow Corning as Silastic{reg_sign} DC745U at their manufacturing facility in Kendallville, IN. Recently, Dow Corning shifted this material to the Xiameter{reg_sign} brand product line. Currently, DC745U is available through Xiameter{reg_sign} or Dow Corning's distributor R. D. Abbott Company. DC745U is cured using 0.5 wt% vinyl-specific peroxide curing agent known as Luperox 101 or Varox DBPH-50. This silicone elastomer is used in numerous parts, including two major components (outer pressure pads and aft cap support) in the W80 and as pressure pads on the B61. DC745U is a proprietary formulation, thus Dow Corning provides limited information on its composition and properties. Based on past experience with Dow Corning, DC745U is at risk of formulation changes without notification to the costumer. A formulation change for DC745U may have a significant impact because the network structure is a key variable in determining material properties. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of historical DC745U studies and identify gaps that need to be addressed in future work. Some of the previous studies include the following: 1. Spectroscopic characterization of raw gum stock. 2. Spectroscopic, thermal, and mechanical studies on cured DC745U. 3. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and solvent swelling studies on DC745U with different crosslink densities. 4. NMR, solvent swelling, thermal, and mechanical studies on thermally aged

  19. A Community-Based Treatment for Native American Historical Trauma: Prospects for Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gone, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    Nineteen staff and clients in a Native American healing lodge were interviewed regarding the therapeutic approach used to address the legacy of Native American historical trauma. On the basis of thematic content analysis of interviews, 4 components of healing discourse emerged. First, clients were understood by their counselors to carry pain,…

  20. Analyzing Public Discourse: Using Media Content Analysis to Understand the Policy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saraisky, Nancy Green

    2016-01-01

    One of the most basic and obvious sources of data for education policy analysis is text. This article discusses content analysis as an important part of the methodological toolbox for elucidating patterns and trends about education policy. Focusing specifically on media, I show how media content analysis can produce nuanced insights about the ways…

  1. Spatially resolved element analysis of historical violin varnishes by use of muPIXE.

    PubMed

    von Bohlen, Alex; Röhrs, Stefan; Salomon, Joseph

    2007-02-01

    External muPIXE has been used for characterisation of small samples of varnish from historical violins, and pieces of varnished wood from historical and modern stringed instruments. To obtain spatially resolved information about the distribution of elements across the varnish layers single-spot analysis, line-scans, and area-mapping were performed. Local resolution of approximately 20 mum was obtained from the 3 MeV, 1 nA proton micro-probe. Results from simultaneous multi-element determination of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Sn, Ba, and Pb in historical varnishes are presented. Semi-quantitative evaluation of line-scans recorded on diverse historical varnishes is reported. The applied method is discussed in detail and the results obtained are critically reviewed and compared with those in the literature. PMID:17047941

  2. Les travaux des 'Colloques de Neuchatel' (1972-1975) sur le theme: Analyse du discours, processus interpretatifs et enseignement de la competence de communication (The Colloquia of Neuchatel (1972-1975) on Discourse Analysis, Interpretive Processes and Teaching Communicative Competence)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widdowson, H. G.

    1976-01-01

    This article reports on the first four colloquia at Neuchatel. Research in the areas of discourse analysis, the discovery of interpretive processes, and communicative competence should shape the evolution of second language teaching. (Text is in French.) (CDSH/CLK)

  3. Discourse Patterns during Children's Collaborative Online Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Il-Hee; Anderson, Richard C.; Nguyen-Jahiel, Kim; Archodidou, Anthi

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the discourse of 10 groups of children during text-based online discussions. Analysis of the discourse in the discussions showed that 8 different rhetorical moves, or argument stratagems, were used by most groups of children, whereas 3 other stratagems were used by 1 group. The use of argument stratagems snowballed; that is,…

  4. Aims, Modes, and the Continuum of Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Walter H.

    A framework for the study of discourse, based on the analysis of three superordinate features of discourse (asymmetry, hierarchy, and continuum), is proposed in this paper. The paper begins by noting the confusion in terminology that exists in the world of composition pedagogy and theory; pointing to the need for a framework for testing,…

  5. Particles as Fundaments of Discourse Structuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Vest, M. M. Jocelyne

    A serious study of discourse particles (DIPs) must be founded on the analysis of orality in its two main dimensions: oral communication in its ordinary functioning (i.e., discourse, conversation, enunciation), but also in expression ritualized by the oral tradition of cultures that do not have a writing system. The association of the two…

  6. [Industrial first aid equipment: a historical analysis (1840-1914) ].

    PubMed

    Porro, Alessandro; Franchini, Antonia Francesca; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Falconi, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Even if references to the tools required to intervene after an accident can be found in the works of Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714) or Johann Peter Frank (1745-1821), it was only with the development of industrial manufacturing that the need to study means to prevent and intervene in cases of accident became evident. In October 1894 the III Congrés International des Accidents du Travail et des Assurances Sociales was held in Milan. The following year, the Milanese trade union movement acknowledged the necessity to address the problem of industrial accidents. In 1896 the Association for Medical Assistance in  Industrial Accidents was founded in Milan. A specific medical institute was set up, appropriate first aid tools were collected and first aid rooms in the main Milanese factories were inaugurated. Nevertheless, few data seem to be available regarding the manufacture and use of this equipment in industry. We analyzed more than fifty catalogs of European industrial products, between 1843 and 1914, to study the evolution of first aid equipment for industrial use. They reflect and attest to the evolution of medicine and surgery, although some models seem to be related to certain industrial categories (railways, electrical appliances), some were similar to ordinary first aid boxes, others were strictly related to surgery; some could only be used by physicians, and others only by workers. Identification, conservation, and reappraisal of these tools is essential for historians of occupational health because these objects were normally not preserved. The catalogues of industrial production are also precious sources, since they are rarely preserved in public libraries and deserve to be used for historical studies. PMID:25607287

  7. Changing gender relations in Thailand: a historical and cultural analysis.

    PubMed

    Tantiwiramanond, D

    1997-01-01

    In response to the stereotyping of Thai women in the media as either modern businesswomen or victims of male oppression, this article studies the changing gender roles and status of women in Thailand to identify the various roles played by Thai women and the ways these roles are linked to key cultural, economic, and political mechanisms in Thai society. After an introduction, the first section of the paper analyzes pre-modern Thai history from the mid-13th century with a look at the traditional social, political, and economic structure of feudal society to determine how women's status was affected by Thai Buddhism, absolute monarchy (the affect of the legal system on upper-class women), and matrifocal kinship (the effect of subsistence agriculture on lower-class women). This section also compares the historic status of upper- and lower-class Thai women. The second section of the article considers the effects of 1) the encroachment of Western colonialism in Southeast Asia during the period 1850-1925 and attendant criticisms of polygamy, 2) the post-1932 revolution that resulted in a constitutional monarchy, and 3) the post 1950s period of economic nationalism that has resulted in globalization. The article concludes that lower-class women have certain rights under the feudal system (before 1932) but were forced into certain roles by economic necessity and motherhood. Upper-class women enjoyed high status, but all women were victims of the Buddhist patriarchy and hierarchical systems. Western modernization caused a decline in polygamy and new opportunities for educated women but the status of Thai women has not changed substantially, and class-specific forms of female oppression continues unabated making lower-class women vulnerable to sexual exploitation. PMID:12321345

  8. Tractographic Analysis of Historical Lesion Surgery for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Schoene-Bake, Jan-Christoph; Parpaley, Yaroslav; Weber, Bernd; Panksepp, Jaak; Hurwitz, Trevor A; Coenen, Volker A

    2010-01-01

    Various surgical brain ablation procedures for the treatment of refractory depression were developed in the twentieth century. Most notably, key target sites were (i) the anterior cingulum, (ii) the anterior limb of the internal capsule, and (iii) the subcaudate white matter, which were regarded as effective targets. Long-term symptom remissions were better following lesions of the anterior internal capsule and subcaudate white matter than of the cingulum. It is possible that the observed clinical improvements of these various surgical procedures may reflect shared influences on presently unspecified brain affect-regulating networks. Such possibilities can now be analyzed using modern brain connectivity procedures such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography. We determined whether the shared connectivities of the above lesion sites in healthy volunteers might explain the therapeutic effects of the various surgical approaches. Accordingly, modestly sized historical lesions, especially of the anatomical overlap areas, were ‘implanted' in brain-MRI scans of 53 healthy subjects. These were entered as seed regions for probabilistic DTI connectivity reconstructions. We analyzed for the shared connectivities of bilateral anterior capsulotomy, anterior cingulotomy, subcaudate tractotomy, and stereotactic limbic leucotomy (a combination of the last two lesion sites). Shared connectivities between the four surgical approaches mapped onto the most mediobasal aspects of bilateral frontal lobe fibers, including the forceps minor and the anterior thalamic radiations that contacted subgenual cingulate regions. Anatomically, convergence of these shared connectivities may derive from the superolateral branch of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB), a structure that connects these frontal areas to the origin of the mesolimbic dopaminergic ‘reward' system in the midbrain ventral tegmental area. Thus, all four surgical anti-depressant approaches may be promoting positive

  9. Technology's Role in Shaping Literacy Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowder, Deborah Stephens

    2009-01-01

    Philosophical examinations untie question "What is literacy?" lie at the center of many, if not most, educational debates. Current Discourse surrounding literacy practices is a result of the history and theories surrounding reading instruction. This philosophical inquiry examines, through the careful examination of historical events and theories…

  10. Research into Practice: The Influence of Discourse Studies on Language Descriptions and Task Design in Published ELT Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Discourse studies is a vast, multidisciplinary, and rapidly expanding area of research, embracing a range of approaches including discourse analysis, corpus analysis, conversation analysis, interactional sociolinguistics, critical discourse analysis, genre analysis and multimodal discourse analysis. Each approach offers its own unique perspective…

  11. Conversation Analysis--A Discourse Approach to Teaching Oral English Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores a pedagocial approach to teaching oral English---Conversation Analysis. First, features of spoken language is described in comparison to written language. Second, Conversation Analysis theory is elaborated in terms of adjacency pairs, turn-taking, repairs, sequences, openings and closings, and feedback. Third, under the…

  12. Clinicians as Communication Partners: Developing a Mediated Discourse Elicitation Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hengst, Julie A.; Duff, Melissa C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the development and piloting of a mediated discourse elicitation protocol. Grounded in situated theories of communication and informed by mediated discourse analysis, this protocol selectively samples familiar discourse types in a manner designed to preserve interactional aspects of communication. Critically, the mediated…

  13. Discourse Connectives in L1 and L2 Argumentative Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chunyu; Li, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    Discourse connectives (DCs) are multi-functional devices used to connect discourse segments and fulfill interpersonal levels of discourse. This study investigates the use of selected 80 DCs within 11 categories in the argumentative essays produced by L1 and L2 university students. The analysis is based on the International Corpus Network of Asian…

  14. Discourse Markers across Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Bruce

    This paper discusses discourse markers (e.g., "and, so, anyway") and offers an overview of their characteristics and occurrence, using English for illustration. The role of discourse markers is to signal speaker comment on the current utterance. The discourse marker is not part of the sentence's propositional content. While absence of markers does…

  15. Introduction: Morality in Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergmann, Jorg R.

    1998-01-01

    Introduces a special issue containing a series of articles on the relation of social interaction and morality. The articles analyze actual instances of moral discourse, elucidating the nature and dynamics of the relationship. This introduction discusses morality, discourse, and social science; proto-mortality as a substructure of discourse;…

  16. Reconstruals of the Past: Settlement or Invasion? The Role of JUDGEMENT Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Caroline

    While little attention has been given in historiography to the language of historical narrative, and the role language plays in portraying history, the discipline of linguistics, and particularly the subdisciplines of discourse analysis and functional linguistics, have given increasing attention to the discourse of history. Recently, a group of…

  17. Historical remarks on exponential product and quantum analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Masuo

    2015-03-10

    The exponential product formula [1, 2] was substantially introduced in physics by the present author [2]. Its systematic applications to quantum Monte Carlo Methods [3] were preformed [4, 5] first in 1977. Many interesting applications [6] of the quantum-classical correspondence (namely S-T transformation) have been reported. Systematic higher-order decomposition formulae were also discovered by the present author [7-11], using the recursion scheme [7, 9]. Physically speaking, these exponential product formulae play a conceptual role of separation of procedures [3,14]. Mathematical aspects of these formulae have been integrated in quantum analysis [15], in which non-commutative differential calculus is formulated and a general quantum Taylor expansion formula is given. This yields many useful operator expansion formulae such as the Feynman expansion formula and the resolvent expansion. Irreversibility and entropy production are also studied using quantum analysis [15].

  18. Historical analysis of US pipeline accidents triggered by natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girgin, Serkan; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, or lightning, can initiate accidents in oil and gas pipelines with potentially major consequences on the population or the environment due to toxic releases, fires and explosions. Accidents of this type are also referred to as Natech events. Many major accidents highlight the risk associated with natural-hazard impact on pipelines transporting dangerous substances. For instance, in the USA in 1994, flooding of the San Jacinto River caused the rupture of 8 and the undermining of 29 pipelines by the floodwaters. About 5.5 million litres of petroleum and related products were spilled into the river and ignited. As a results, 547 people were injured and significant environmental damage occurred. Post-incident analysis is a valuable tool for better understanding the causes, dynamics and impacts of pipeline Natech accidents in support of future accident prevention and mitigation. Therefore, data on onshore hazardous-liquid pipeline accidents collected by the US Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) was analysed. For this purpose, a database-driven incident data analysis system was developed to aid the rapid review and categorization of PHMSA incident reports. Using an automated data-mining process followed by a peer review of the incident records and supported by natural hazard databases and external information sources, the pipeline Natechs were identified. As a by-product of the data-collection process, the database now includes over 800,000 incidents from all causes in industrial and transportation activities, which are automatically classified in the same way as the PHMSA record. This presentation describes the data collection and reviewing steps conducted during the study, provides information on the developed database and data analysis tools, and reports the findings of a statistical analysis of the identified hazardous liquid pipeline incidents in terms of accident dynamics and

  19. Re-Framing Teacher Evaluation Discourse in the Media: An Analysis and Narrative-Based Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulmer, Jasmine B.

    2016-01-01

    Recent publications by major newspapers in the USA have reinforced the perception that teacher quality represents a national crisis. By releasing individual teacher evaluation data in online, searchable databases, several newspapers have influenced public perceptions of teachers and teaching. A framing analysis of selected media events and…

  20. Measuring Discourse-Level Processes with Verbal Protocols and Latent Semantic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millis, Keith; Magliano, Joseph; Todaro, Stacey

    2006-01-01

    The present study used latent semantic analysis (LSA) to analyze verbal protocols that were collected while participants read expository passages. In the study, participants were asked to type their thoughts after reading each sentence of 2 scientific texts. The semantic similarity between the protocols and the current sentence and prior causal…

  1. Technology for Empowering or Subjugating Teachers: Analysis of Ethiopia's Education Reform Discourse Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birbirso, Dereje Tadesse

    2013-01-01

    In the wake of national educational reform, the author discovered a secondary education style where all students were taught through centrally aired TV-lessons beaming from a studio in the capital city. In order to understand the motive behind the reform and its impacts on teaching, the author collected qualitative data for critical analysis.…

  2. Wildlife-Based Recreation as Economic Windfall: A Rhetorical Analysis of Public Discourse on Birding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Steven G.; Cable, Ted T.; Scott, David

    2010-01-01

    Symbolic convergence theory posits that groups of like-minded people use linguistic symbols to construct a shared reality and form rhetorical visions (ways of viewing and communicating about an issue). To see how rhetorical visions might help shape public tourism policy, the authors used fantasy theme analysis to examine 206 Kansas newspaper…

  3. Application of Critical Classroom Discourse Analysis (CCDA) in Analyzing Classroom Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeghi, Sima; Ketabi, Saeed; Tavakoli, Mansoor; Sadeghi, Moslem

    2012-01-01

    As an area of classroom research, Interaction Analysis developed from the need and desire to investigate the process of classroom teaching and learning in terms of action-reaction between individuals and their socio-cultural context (Biddle, 1967). However, sole reliance on quantitative techniques could be problematic, since they conceal more than…

  4. An Exploratory Analysis of Communication in Peer-Directed Educational Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, William J.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory analysis examined the nature of asynchronous, text-based communication in peer-directed educational discussions. The nature of communication changed over time and women exhibited greater tendency for epistolary communication than men. Initial posts, which were expository in nature, focused on disseminating information whereas…

  5. The Main Concept Analysis in Cantonese Aphasic Oral Discourse: External Validation and Monitoring Chronic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The 1st aim of this study was to further establish the external validity of the main concept (MC) analysis by examining its relationship with the Cantonese Linguistic Communication Measure (CLCM; Kong, 2006; Kong & Law, 2004)--an established quantitative system for narrative production--and the Cantonese version of the Western Aphasia…

  6. Analysis of Classroom Discourse and Instructor's Awareness of Speech in a Spanish College Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rondon-Pari, Graziela

    2011-01-01

    This is an instrumental case study and consists of the description, analysis and interpretation of the teaching practices of a Spanish college instructor. The aim of this research project is to find answers to the following questions: What is the ratio of L1-L2 spoken in class? For what functions is each language used? And, are there…

  7. A network-base analysis of CMIP5 "historical" experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracco, A.; Foudalis, I.; Dovrolis, C.

    2012-12-01

    In computer science, "complex network analysis" refers to a set of metrics, modeling tools and algorithms commonly used in the study of complex nonlinear dynamical systems. Its main premise is that the underlying topology or network structure of a system has a strong impact on its dynamics and evolution. By allowing to investigate local and non-local statistical interaction, network analysis provides a powerful, but only marginally explored, framework to validate climate models and investigate teleconnections, assessing their strength, range, and impacts on the climate system. In this work we propose a new, fast, robust and scalable methodology to examine, quantify, and visualize climate sensitivity, while constraining general circulation models (GCMs) outputs with observations. The goal of our novel approach is to uncover relations in the climate system that are not (or not fully) captured by more traditional methodologies used in climate science and often adopted from nonlinear dynamical systems analysis, and to explain known climate phenomena in terms of the network structure or its metrics. Our methodology is based on a solid theoretical framework and employs mathematical and statistical tools, exploited only tentatively in climate research so far. Suitably adapted to the climate problem, these tools can assist in visualizing the trade-offs in representing global links and teleconnections among different data sets. Here we present the methodology, and compare network properties for different reanalysis data sets and a suite of CMIP5 coupled GCM outputs. With an extensive model intercomparison in terms of the climate network that each model leads to, we quantify how each model reproduces major teleconnections, rank model performances, and identify common or specific errors in comparing model outputs and observations.

  8. Teaching Discourse Intonation with Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaken, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Brazil's system of discourse intonation (DI) is critically appraised, and some shortcomings are described. Modifications to DI are suggested, the most important being to recognize that tones have meanings derived from two functions: firstly to indicate the distribution of knowledge between speaker and listener--the analysis of tone in yes/no…

  9. Monitoring of historical frescoes by timed infrared imaging analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadelano, G.; Bison, P.; Bortolin, A.; Ferrarini, G.; Peron, F.; Girotto, M.; Volinia, M.

    2015-03-01

    The subflorescence and efflorescence phenomena are widely acknowledged as the major causes of permanent damage to fresco wall paintings. They are related to the occurrence of cycles of dry/wet conditions inside the walls. Therefore, it is essential to identify the presence of water on the decorated surfaces and inside the walls. Nondestructive testing in industrial applications have confirmed that active infrared thermography with continuous timed images acquisition can improve the outcomes of thermal analysis aimed to moisture identification. In spite of that, in cultural heritage investigations these techniques have not been yet used extensively on a regular basis. This paper illustrates an application of these principles in order to evaluate the decay of fresco mural paintings in a medieval chapel located in North-West of Italy. One important feature of this study is the use of a robotic system called aIRview that can be utilized to automatically acquire and process thermal images. Multiple accurate thermal views of the inside walls of the building have been produced in a survey that lasted several days. Signal processing algorithms based on Fast Fourier Transform analysis have been applied to the acquired data in order to formulate trustworthy hypotheses about the deterioration mechanisms.

  10. Cultural-Historical Activity Theory and Domain Analysis: Metatheoretical Implications for Information Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cultural-historical activity theory is an important theory in modern psychology. In recent years, it has drawn more attention from related disciplines including information science. Argument: This paper argues that activity theory and domain analysis which uses the theory as one of its bases could bring about some important…

  11. The Historical and Situated Nature Design Experiments--Implications for Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krange, I.; Ludvigsen, Sten

    2009-01-01

    This article is a methodological contribution to the use of design experiments in educational research. We will discuss the implications of a historical and situated interpretation to design experiments, the consequences this has for the analysis of the collected data and empirically based suggestions to improve the designs of the computer-based…

  12. Analysis of genetic data on Jewish populations. I. Historical background, demographic features, and genetic markers.

    PubMed Central

    Bonné-Tamir, B; Karlin, S; Kenett, R

    1979-01-01

    Part I describes the data sets on which the analysis of Part II is based. This covers the nature of the populations sampled, the extent to which the samples are representative, and a brief review of historical and demographic facts on the populations involved. PMID:380329

  13. Prospects for Teaching Historical Analysis and Interpretation: National Curriculum Standards for History Meet Current History Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Stuart; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines to what extent representative history textbooks used in American high schools encourage development of historical analysis and interpretation, one of five standards issued by the National Center for History in the Schools. Treatment of the Aztec Empire and the Cold War varied widely in the four textbooks studied. All texts failed the new…

  14. Ottawa to Bangkok: changing health promotion discourse.

    PubMed

    Porter, Christine

    2007-03-01

    The discourse of the 2005 Bangkok Charter for Health Promotion in a Globalized World represents a radical departure from that of the Ottawa Charter that, in 1986, staked a place for the health promotion field in mainstream public health. Via a critical analysis of the discourse in these two Charters, this paper illustrates a shift from a 'new social movements' discourse of ecosocial justice in Ottawa to a 'new capitalist' discourse of law and economics in Bangkok. The Bangkok Charter's content may identify 'actions, commitments and pledges required to address the determinants of health in a globalized world through health promotion', but this paper shows how its discourse works to naturalize and perpetuate many of detrimental determinants associated with 'globalization'. PMID:17015407

  15. Using historical wafermap data for automated yield analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, K.W.; Karnowski, T.P.; Gleason, S.S.; Jensen, D.; Lakhani, F.

    1999-07-01

    To be productive and profitable in a modern semiconductor fabrication environment, large amounts of manufacturing data must be collected, analyzed, and maintained. This includes data collected from in- and off-line wafer inspection systems and from the process equipment itself. This data is increasingly being used to design new processes, control and maintain tools, and to provide the information needed for rapid yield learning and prediction. Because of increasing device complexity, the amount of data being generated is outstripping the yield engineer{close_quote}s ability to effectively monitor and correct unexpected trends and excursions. The 1997 SIA National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors highlights a need to address these issues through {open_quotes}automated data reduction algorithms to source defects from multiple data sources and to reduce defect sourcing time.{close_quotes} SEMATECH and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been developing new strategies and technologies for providing the yield engineer with higher levels of assisted data reduction for the purpose of automated yield analysis. In this article, we will discuss the current state of the art and trends in yield management automation. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Vacuum Society.}

  16. Exploring the Discourse on Communication Modality after Cochlear Implantation: A Foucauldian Analysis of Parents' Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruin, Marieke; Nevøy, Anne

    2014-01-01

    After pediatric cochlear implantation, parents have to make decisions concerning which communication modality the child and the child's family will use. The choice has to be made against a background of opposing views on communication modality in follow-up after pediatric cochlear implantation. The opposing views form a discourse that has…

  17. "Everyone's Got Room to Grow": A Discourse Analysis of Service-Learning Rhetoric in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladousa, Chaise

    2013-01-01

    This article explores representations emergent in discourse about service learning in an effort to understand what gives the notion special value. A job presentation of a candidate for dean of faculty, articles published in a college newspaper, descriptions posted on a college website and commentary offered in an interview with a student…

  18. First-Year College Student Beliefs about Writing Embedded in Online Discourse: An Analysis and Its Implications for Literacy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkart, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Online discourse has become a common mode of communication for the Twenty-First Century. Many businesses now use electronic networking sites such as Facebook to communicate with customers through online posts and electronic updates through Twitter. With these recent trends in electronic communication, some educators have begun implementing…

  19. Public Discourse on HIV and AIDS: An Archival Analysis of National Newspaper Reporting in Uganda, 1996-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagone, Elizabeth; Mathur, Sanyukta; Nakyanjo, Neema; Nalugoda, Fred; Santelli, John

    2014-01-01

    Uganda is recognised as an early success story in the HIV epidemic at least in part due to an open and vigorous national dialogue about HIV prevention. This study examined the national discourse about HIV, AIDS, and young people in New Vision, Uganda's leading national newspaper between 1996 and 2011, building from a previous archival…

  20. An Analysis of Peer Interaction Patterns as Discoursed by On-Line Small Group Problem-Solving Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chen-Chung; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2008-01-01

    Currently, numerous on-line discussion forums have been developed for educational purposes; therefore, a better understanding about peer student discussion or discourse interactions is quite important. Through gathering peer learning interactions on 57 college computer science students, who were randomly assigned into 14 small groups for solving…

  1. Towards an Analysis of the Discourse of Arabic Song: A Case Study--Umm Kulthoum's Song "AlAtlal"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussein, Gameel Abdelmageed

    2015-01-01

    Arabic song has always played an important role in the life of Arabs. It reflects cultural attitudes and influences them. However, this major expressive discourse has been almost completely neglected in Arabic literary and critical studies. For this reason, this paper focuses on Arabic song, in the hope that my study will encourage other scholars…

  2. Keeping up with the Class: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Teacher Interactions in a Co-Teaching Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Jennifer Randhare

    2016-01-01

    Co-teaching is a model of inclusive instruction that has become increasingly popular throughout schools as a way to meet the needs of students with disabilities in general education settings. Despite being the focus of significant educational research for more than two decades, traditional deficit discourses of disability persist in educational…

  3. Teachers in the News: A Critical Analysis of One US Newspaper's Discourse on Education, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Public education discourse in the USA has been characterized by messages of crisis shaping education policies across national contexts. Education policy solutions target a lack of qualified teachers and insufficient oversight of teacher practice as central factors in the crisis, placing teacher identity as knowledgeable, authoritative…

  4. Social Aspects of Classroom Learning: Results of a Discourse Analysis in an Inquiry-Oriented Physical Chemistry Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Engaging students in classroom discourse offers opportunities for students to participate in the construction of joint understandings, to negotiate relationships between different types of evidence, and to practice making evidence-based claims about science content. However, close attention to social aspects of learning is critical to creating…

  5. Analysis of historical delta values for IAEA/LANL NDA training courses

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William; Santi, Peter; Swinhoe, Martyn; Bonner, Elisa

    2009-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supports the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) by providing training for IAEA inspectors in neutron and gamma-ray Nondestructive Assay (NDA) of nuclear material. Since 1980, all new IAEA inspectors attend this two week course at LANL gaining hands-on experience in the application of NDA techniques, procedures and analysis to measure plutonium and uranium nuclear material standards with well known pedigrees. As part of the course the inspectors conduct an inventory verification exercise. This exercise provides inspectors the opportunity to test their abilities in performing verification measurements using the various NDA techniques. For an inspector, the verification of an item is nominally based on whether the measured assay value agrees with the declared value to within three times the historical delta value. The historical delta value represents the average difference between measured and declared values from previous measurements taken on similar material with the same measurement technology. If the measurement falls outside a limit of three times the historical delta value, the declaration is not verified. This paper uses measurement data from five years of IAEA courses to calculate a historical delta for five non-destructive assay methods: Gamma-ray Enrichment, Gamma-ray Plutonium Isotopics, Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting, Active Neutron Coincidence Counting and the Neutron Coincidence Collar. These historical deltas provide information as to the precision and accuracy of these measurement techniques under realistic conditions.

  6. Networks, narratives and territory in anthropological race classification: towards a more comprehensive historical geography of Europe's culture.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to integrate discourse analysis of politically instrumental imagined identity geographies with the relational and territorial geography of the communities of praxis and interpretation that produce them. My case study is the international community of nationalist scientists who classified Europe's biological races in the 1820s-1940s. I draw on network analysis, relational geography, historical sociology and the historical turn to problematize empirically how spatial patterns of this community's shifting disciplinary and political coalitions, communication networks and power relations emerged, were structured, persisted, changed, interacted and disappeared. I focus especially on core-periphery relations. I argue that if local historical spatial patterns affect those of later phenomena, geographies like that of European integration should be understood in the context of Europe's complex historical cultural geography. Unlike discourse deconstruction alone, this complementary relational de-essentialization of geography can identify large-scale, enduring associations of cultural patterns as well as cultural flux and ambiguity. PMID:21488429

  7. An Integrated 3S and Historical Materials Analysis of the Keriya Paleoriver, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Lei; Wang, Xinyuan; Cai, Heng

    2014-03-01

    Combining analysis of 3S (RS, GIS and GPS) and historical materials (historical records, ancient map and academic and literary writings) allows mapping of the Keriya Paleoriver of Southern Xinjiang, NW China. Keriya Paleoriver, one of the ancient Four Green Corridors which passes through the Taklimakan Desert from south to north in the Tarim Basin, recorded changes of the climate-environment in the ancient Silk Road of the region. According to the archaeological data, historical materials and paleoclimates information, its eco-environment and climate have had great changes since the 1.09Ma B.P., especially during the last 2,000 years, which has led to many famous ancient cities to be abandoned and the route of the ancient Silk Road to be moved southward. Using RS (optical and radar imagery), GIS (mapping and spatial analysis) and GPS (study area investigation), we mapped a major paleodrainage system of Keriya River, which have linked the Kunlun Mountains to the Tienshan Mountains through the Taklimakan Desert, possibly as far back as the early Pleistocene. This study illustrates the capability of the 3S and historical materials, in mapping the Keriya Paleoriver drainage networks and archaeological study on the ancient Silk Road.

  8. An emerging discourse: toward epistemic diversity in nursing.

    PubMed

    Georges, Jane M

    2003-01-01

    Grounded in a postmodern feminist methodology, this article undertakes an initial analysis of a newly emerging discourse in contemporary nursing academia in the United States. Two currently prominent discourses in nursing, a dominant discourse informed by the processes and values of "science" in the Enlightenment sense and a concurrent marginalized discourse informed by postmodernism, are described as a context for the emerging discourse. A genealogy informed by the work of Foucault is presented as a basis for an analysis of the power effects resulting from the conflict between these 2 discourses. Finally, 3 recent texts in nursing are analyzed and common themes identified as indicative of a new intertextual discourse, termed "epistemic diversity," emerging from this discursive conflict. PMID:12611429

  9. A Historical Analysis of Desegregation and Racism in a Racially Polarized Region: Implications for the Historical Construct, a Diversity Problem, and Transforming Teacher Education toward Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, K. Dara

    2009-01-01

    This study chronicles the historical divisions of race and class between Detroit and its suburban neighbor as an explanation for current tensions in the communities and schools. This analysis poses implications for educational apartheid and stark disparities between urban and suburban boundaries and consequent discomfort among practitioners when…

  10. HPLC-APCI-MS analysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in historical pharmaceutical ointments from the eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    Saliu, Francesco; Modugno, Francesca; Orlandi, Marco; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2011-10-01

    The lipid fractions of residues from historical pharmaceutical ointments were analysed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and mass spectrometer detection. The residues were contained in a series of historical apothecary jars, dating from the eighteenth century and conserved at the "Aboca Museum" in Sansepolcro (Arezzo, Italy) and at the pharmacy of the "Real Cartuja de Valldemossa" in Palma de Majorca (Spain). The analytical protocol was set up using a comparative study based on the evaluation of triacylglycerol (TAG) compositions in raw natural lipid materials and in laboratory-reproduced ointments. These ointments were prepared following pharmaceutical recipes reported in historical treatises and used as reference materials. The reference materials were also subjected to stress treatments in order to evaluate the modification occurring in the TAG profiles as an effect of ageing. TAGs were successfully detected in the reproduced formulations even in mixtures of up to ten ingredients and after harsh degradative treatments, and also in real historical samples. No particular interferences were detected from other non-lipid ingredients of the formulations. The TAG compositions detected in the historical ointments indicated a predominant use of olive oil and pig adipose material as lipid ingredients. The detection of a high level of tristearine and myristyl-palmitoyl-stearyl glycerol in two of the samples suggested the presence of a fatty material of a different origin (maybe a ruminant). On the basis of the positional isomer ratio, sn-PPO/sn-POP, it was possible to hypothesize an exclusive use of pig fat in one sample. We also evaluated the application of principal component analysis of TAG profiles as an approach for the multivariate statistical comparison of the reference and historical ointments. PMID:21713420

  11. Some historical relationships between science and technology with implications for behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moxley, Roy A.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between science and technology is examined in terms of some implications for behavior analysis. Problems result when this relationship is seen as one in which science generally begets technology in a one-way, or hierarchical, relationship. These problems are not found when the relationship between science and technology is seen as two-way, or symmetrical, within a larger context of relationships. Some historical examples are presented. Collectively, these and other examples in the references weaken the case for a prevailing one-way, hierarchical relationship and strengthen the case for a two-way, symmetrical relationship. In addition to being more accurate historically, the symmetrical relationship is also more consistent with the principles of behavior analysis. PMID:22478016

  12. Examining Classroom Interactions & Mathematical Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Melva R.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examined interactions in three classrooms to determine how they influenced Discourses related to mathematics learning and teaching. Mathematics education literature suggests that effective mathematics instruction includes mathematical Discourses. However, effective mathematical Discourses within mathematics classrooms vary…

  13. Hector Berlioz and his Vesuvius: an analysis of historical evidence from an epileptological perspective.

    PubMed

    Altenmüller, Dirk-Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The epileptologically informed in-depth analysis of auto- and heteroanamnestic historical sources supports the hypothesis that Hector Berlioz (1803-1869) might have suffered from a photosensitive idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndrome with absences, absence status, myoclonic seizures, and bilateral tonic-clonic seizures. The study outlines the possible influence of the composer's probable epilepsy on his literary and musical oeuvre, including the Symphonie fantastique en cinq parties. PMID:25684290

  14. [Tropical spastic paraparesis in the tropics and Brazil. A historical analysis].

    PubMed

    de Castro-Costa, C M; Carton, H; Goubau, P; de Figueiredo, E G; Giffoni, S D

    1994-03-01

    The tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) is a chronic myelopathy, predominant in the tropics, recently known to be of retroviral origin (HTLV-I). This paper aims at delineating the clinico-etiological evolution of this entity. The historical analysis of it showed that the TSP has had, along decades, many different denominations and the discovery of the retroviral origin for some of them has stimulated new paths of research and epidemiological interest in the tropics and Brazil. PMID:8002798

  15. Analysis of natural red dyes (cochineal) in textiles of historical importance using HPLC and multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Ana; Sousa, Micaela M; Hallett, Jessica; Lopes, João A; Oliveira, M Conceição

    2011-08-01

    A new analytical approach based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and multivariate data analysis was applied and assessed for analyzing the red dye extracted from cochineal insects, used in precious historical textiles. The most widely used method of analysis involves quantification of specific minor compounds (markers), using HPLC-DAD. However, variation in the cochineal markers concentration, use of aggressive dye extraction methods and poor resolution of HPLC chromatograms can compromise the identification of the precise insect species used in the textiles. In this study, a soft extraction method combined with a new dye recovery treatment was developed, capable of yielding HPLC chromatograms with good resolution, for the first time, for historical cochineal-dyed textiles. After principal components analysis (PCA) and mass spectrometry (MS), it was possible to identify the cochineal species used in these textiles, in contrast to the accepted method of analysis. In order to compare both methodologies, 7 cochineal species and 63 historical cochineal insect specimens were analyzed using the two approaches, and then compared with the results for 15 historical textiles in order to assess their applicability to real complex samples. The methodology developed here was shown to provide more accurate and consistent information than the traditional method. Almost all of the historical textiles were dyed with Porphyrophora sp. insects. These results emphasize the importance of adopting the proposed methodology for future research on cochineal (and related red dyes). Mild extraction methods and HPLC-DAD/MS(n) analysis yield distinctive profiles, which, in combination with a PCA reference database, are a powerful tool for identifying red insect dyes. PMID:21626194

  16. Captive on a carousel: discourses of 'new' in medical education 1910-2010.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Cynthia R; Hodges, Brian D; Austin, Zubin

    2013-10-01

    Medical educators aim to train physicians with sound scientific knowledge, expert clinical skills and an ability to work effectively with patients, colleagues and health systems. Over the past century, educators have devoted considerable thought and effort to how medical education might be improved. Analysing the language used to describe these initiatives provides insight into assumptions and practices. The authors conducted a Foucauldian critical discourse analysis of prominent recurrent themes in the North American medical education literature. The assembled archive of texts included works of Abraham Flexner, articles from the journal Academic Medicine (including its predecessor journals) and major medical education reports. A series of recurring themes were identified, including the need to avoid over-specialization, the importance of generalism, and the need to broaden criteria for medical student selection. Analysis of these recurring themes allowed identification of a prominent and recurrent discourse of 'new.' This discourse places focus on the future, ignores the ongoing historical nature of issues, suggests a sense of urgency and enables the proposal of modest solutions. It emphasizes changes for individual future doctors, thereby limiting consideration of institutional and systemic factors. Using the image of a carousel, the regular return of themes can be seen as carousel ponies circling around repeatedly in medical education. Identification of this medical education carousel provides an opportunity for medical educators to understand the historical nature of calls for change, and to consider what kinds of reform might be required if they wish to avoid this repetition in the future. PMID:23053873

  17. Post-ecological discourse in the making.

    PubMed

    Zeyer, Albert; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses the discourse of 15- to16-year-old Swiss junior high school students in order to understand public discourse on the environment and environmental protection. Discourse analysis reveals four interpretive repertoires as the building blocks for the so-called post-ecological discourse, which can be used to describe important aspects of current ways of talking about ecological issues in Europe. We show that 10 theoretically identifiable dimensions of this discourse can be understood in terms of a mutual interplay between the four interpretive repertoires. Post-ecological discourse in today's (Swiss) society appears to be at its core a loss-of-control-discourse, which leads (in our students) to a latent eco-depression. Thus, the public understanding of science can be affected by unintended consequences of the talk itself (in this case an unintended environmental depression), that is, by the inherent characteristics of the involved repertoires, here especially the so-called folk science repertoire. Fostering public understanding of science is thus not merely a question of providing the public with scientific 'facts'. It is also an issue of paying attention to the available discursive repertoires. If necessary, viable alternative repertoires may have to be offered. In school, for example, conversations about the nature of science, and about complexity and applied ethics might help students learn new interpretive repertoires and how to mobilize these in talking about the environment and environmental protection. PMID:23832883

  18. [Establishment of transsphenoidal approach in skull base surgery: a historical analysis].

    PubMed

    Seo, In-Sok; Kim, Ock-Joo; Hwang, Sang-Ik

    2002-06-01

    Many approaches are being used for exposure of the anterior cranial base regions, ranging from extracranial to intracranial, such as transsphenoidal approach. This intracranial approach, developed in the beginning of the twentieth century, has recently become one of the most commonly used approaches after many incremental improvements. This thesis aims at examining the development of the approach and those who contributed to this procedure. The author also contemplate problems which may occur in the historical analysis. From the nineteenth century, advances have been made in anesthesiology, sterilization, cerebral localization and knowledge of anatomical and physiologic aspects of the skull base. The development of new knowledge and technique has helped to overcome obstacles, making surgery of the skull base through extracranial approach both technically feasible and therapeutically effective. To avoid serious postoperative complications after the extracranial approach, transsphenoidal approach had been developed in the beginning of the twentieth century. Transsphenoidal approach had been widely used right after its introduction. But it had not been used popularly since late 1920s in the United States. In early 1960s, this technique, spread from Europe, has regained popularity and become one of the most widely-used approaches. In the history of the transsphenoidal approach, it has been though that the effort of Harvey Cushing and Oskar Hirsch, the endeavor of Cushing's scholars, several new attempts of otolaryngologists played an important role. However, comparing to great appreciation of neurosurgeons, especially Harvey Cushing on their significant contribution to the further development of this technique, the role of other pioneering doctors have been underestimated in previous historical studies on the transsphenoidal approach. It was because dynamical relationships among several specialties had influence on the historical analysis. This cases shows that

  19. Discourses of Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Leeuwen, Theo

    2009-01-01

    This lecture discusses the concept of lifestyle, which emerged in the field of marketing in the 1970s, as a new, and increasingly pervasive, discourse of identity cutting through older "demographic" discourses. Distributed by mediated experts and role models, and realized through the semiotics of "composites of connotation", it redraws the…

  20. Modeling Narrative Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elson, David K.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes new approaches to the formal modeling of narrative discourse. Although narratives of all kinds are ubiquitous in daily life, contemporary text processing techniques typically do not leverage the aspects that separate narrative from expository discourse. We describe two approaches to the problem. The first approach considers…

  1. THE THREAD OF DISCOURSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRIMES, JOSEPH E.

    A COMPREHENSIVE MODEL OF LANGUAGE SHOULD ACCOUNT FOR ENTIRE DISCOURSES. BY REGARDING THE UNDERLYING STRUCTURE OF DISCOURSE AS A COLLECTION OF TREES GENERATED BY A PREDICATE GRAMMAR AND RELATED TO EACH OTHER ON THE BASIS OF FOCUS, IT APPEARS POSSIBLE TO FIT A MODEL TO LINGUISTIC BEHAVIOR BOTH ABOVE AND BELOW THE LEVEL OF THE SENTENCE. THE BASE OF…

  2. Envisioning the Third Sector's Welfare Role: Critical Discourse Analysis of ‘Post-Devolution’ Public Policy in the UK 1998–2012

    PubMed Central

    Chaney, Paul; Wincott, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Welfare state theory has struggled to come to terms with the role of the third sector. It has often categorized welfare states in terms of the pattern of interplay between state social policies and the structure of the labour market. Moreover, it has frequently offered an exclusive focus on state policy – thereby failing to substantially recognize the role of the formally organized third sector. This study offers a corrective view. Against the backdrop of the international shift to multi-level governance, it analyses the policy discourse of third sector involvement in welfare governance following devolution in the UK. It reveals the changing and contrasting ways in which post-devolution territorial politics envisions the sector's role as a welfare provider. The mixed methods analysis compares policy framing and the structural narratives associated with the development of the third sector across the four constituent polities of the UK since 1998. The findings reveal how devolution has introduced a new spatial policy dynamic. Whilst there are elements of continuity between polities – such as the increasing salience of the third sector in welfare provision – policy narratives also provide evidence of the territorialization of third sector policy. From a methodological standpoint, this underlines the distinctive and complementary role discourse-based analysis can play in understanding contemporary patterns and processes shaping welfare governance. PMID:25574063

  3. Detailed Analysis of Solar Data Related to Historical Extreme Geomagnetic Storms: 1868 - 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefèvre, Laure; Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Dumbović, Mateja; Vršnak, Bojan; Sudar, Davor; Arlt, Rainer; Clette, Frédéric; Crosby, Norma

    2016-05-01

    An analysis of historical Sun-Earth connection events in the context of the most extreme space weather events of the last ˜150 years is presented. To identify the key factors leading to these extreme events, a sample of the most important geomagnetic storms was selected based mainly on the well-known aa index and on geomagnetic parameters described in the accompanying paper (Vennerstrøm et al., Solar Phys. in this issue, 2016, hereafter Paper I). This part of the analysis focuses on associating and characterizing the active regions (sunspot groups) that are most likely linked to these major geomagnetic storms.

  4. Sustaining Critically Reflective Practitioners: Competing with the Dominant Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Eades, Elaine

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that discourse analysis can be utilized in conjunction with other forms of analysis to develop a more critical teaching and research agenda for Human Resource Development (HRD); in particular this article suggests that the introduction of a discourse analysis perspective can support and facilitate the development of critically…

  5. Men and talk about legal abortion in South Africa: equality, support and rights discourses undermining reproductive 'choice'.

    PubMed

    Macleod, Catriona Ida; Hansjee, Jateen

    2013-01-01

    Discursive constructions of abortion are embedded in the social and gendered power relations of a particular socio-historical space. As part of research on public discourses concerning abortion in South Africa where there has been a radical liberalisation of abortion legislation, we collected data from male group discussions about a vignette concerning abortion, and newspaper articles written by men about abortion. Our analysis revealed how discourses of equality, support and rights may be used by men to subtly undermine women's reproductive right to 'choose' an abortion. Within an Equal Partnership discourse, abortion, paired with the assumption of foetal personhood, was equated with violating an equal heterosexual partnership and a man's patriarchal duty to protect a child. A New Man discourse, which positions men as supportive of women, was paired with the assumption of men as rational and women as irrational in decision-making, to allow for the possibility of men dissuading women from terminating a pregnancy. A Rights discourse was invoked to suggest that abortion violates men's paternal rights. PMID:23768420

  6. Flood frequency analysis of historical flood data under stationary and non-stationary modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M. J.; Botero, B. A.; López, J.; Francés, F.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Benito, G.

    2015-06-01

    Historical records are an important source of information on extreme and rare floods and fundamental to establish a reliable flood return frequency. The use of long historical records for flood frequency analysis brings in the question of flood stationarity, since climatic and land-use conditions can affect the relevance of past flooding as a predictor of future flooding. In this paper, a detailed 400 yr flood record from the Tagus River in Aranjuez (central Spain) was analysed under stationary and non-stationary flood frequency approaches, to assess their contribution within hazard studies. Historical flood records in Aranjuez were obtained from documents (Proceedings of the City Council, diaries, chronicles, memoirs, etc.), epigraphic marks, and indirect historical sources and reports. The water levels associated with different floods (derived from descriptions or epigraphic marks) were computed into discharge values using a one-dimensional hydraulic model. Secular variations in flood magnitude and frequency, found to respond to climate and environmental drivers, showed a good correlation between high values of historical flood discharges and a negative mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. Over the systematic gauge record (1913-2008), an abrupt change on flood magnitude was produced in 1957 due to constructions of three major reservoirs in the Tagus headwaters (Bolarque, Entrepeñas and Buendia) controlling 80% of the watershed surface draining to Aranjuez. Two different models were used for the flood frequency analysis: (a) a stationary model estimating statistical distributions incorporating imprecise and categorical data based on maximum likelihood estimators, and (b) a time-varying model based on "generalized additive models for location, scale and shape" (GAMLSS) modelling, which incorporates external covariates related to climate variability (NAO index) and catchment hydrology factors (in this paper a reservoir index; RI). Flood frequency

  7. Flood frequency analysis of historical flood data under stationary and non-stationary modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M. J.; Botero, B. A.; López, J.; Francés, F.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Benito, G.

    2015-01-01

    Historical records are an important source of information about extreme and rare floods with a great value to establish a reliable flood return frequency. The use of long historic records for flood frequency analysis brings in the question of flood stationarity, since climatic and land-use conditions can affect the relevance of past flooding as a predictor of future flooding. In this paper, a detailed 400 year flood record from the Tagus River in Aranjuez (Central Spain) was analysed under stationary and non-stationary flood frequency approaches, to assess their implications on hazard studies. Historical flood records in Aranjuez were obtained from documents (Proceedings of the City Council, diaries, chronicles, memoirs, etc.), epigraphic marks, and indirect historical sources and reports. The water levels associated with different floods (derived from descriptions or epigraphic marks) were computed into discharge values using a one-dimensional hydraulic model. Secular variations on flood magnitude and frequency, found to respond to climate and environmental drivers, showed a good correlation between high values of historical flood discharges and a negative mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO index). Over the systematic gauge record (1913-2008), an abrupt change on flood magnitude was produced in 1957 due to constructions of three major reservoirs in the Tagus headwaters (Bolarque, Entrepeñas and Buendia) controlling 80% of the watershed surface draining to Aranjuez. Two different models were used for the flood frequency analysis: (a) a stationary model estimating statistical distributions incorporating imprecise and categorical data based on maximum likelihood estimators; (b) a time-varying model based on "generalized additive models for location, scale and shape" (GAMLSS) modelling, that incorporates external covariates related to climate variability (NAO index) and catchment hydrology factors (in this paper a reservoir index; RI). Flood frequency

  8. A Historical Analysis of the Relationship Between Rice Production and PDSI Values in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, J. H.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    As world population grows, there are ever increasing demands being placed on the food production systems throughout the world. Climate change is complicating these stressors even further through more frequent severe weather events. In the developing world, where there are fewer resources to mitigate the effects of climate change, the combination of these two factors can have drastic consequences. In Sri Lanka, farmers in major rice production areas of the country are already struggling to produce enough rice, a staple food of the local diet, and a severe wet or dry spell could be ruinous. Faced with a changing climate and a growing demand for rice, it is important to be able to anticipate how climatic changes will affect rice production. By examining how extreme wet and dry spells have historically affected rice production, decision makers may be better able to predict and prepare for potential food shortages. We conducted an analysis of historic temperature, precipitation, and rice production statistics in order to determine the effects of extreme wet and dry spells on rice production. We also created a timeline of major developments in Sri Lankan agriculture in order to compare effects on rice production due to changes in agricultural practices with meteorological changes. Historical temperature and precipitation data were used to calculate the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for a number of stations distributed throughout the Mahaweli river basin. The basin, the largest in the country, contains three different climatic regions - dry, intermediate, and wet - that all receive different amounts of annual precipitation. The PDSI values were used to quantify drought and wetness during the Yala (April-September) and Maha (October-March) growing seasons. Analysis of historical PDSI values, agricultural advances, and rice production statistics shows great promise for anticipating and mitigating future food shortages.

  9. Analysis and Discourse. Response to An Analysis of the Forum: Issues in Education of the Severely and Profoundly Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Thomas A.; Hirshoren, Alfred

    1981-01-01

    In another response to criticism regarding state of the art analysis in the education of severely and profoundly retarded students, the article states that the criticism is a red herring, and that the differences cited are ones of style rather than interpretation. For related information, see EC 133 831-832. (CL)

  10. Streamflow Flashiness in the Mid-Atlantic Region: A Historical Analysis of Flashiness and Population Density, Imperviousness and Urban Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between stream flashiness and watershed-scale estimates of percent imperviousness, urban development, and population density were used in an historic landscape analysis at the individual watershed spatial scale. GIS technology was employed to spatially associate...

  11. Age transcended: a semiotic and rhetorical analysis of the discourse of agelessness in North American anti-aging skin care advertisements.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Kirsten L

    2014-04-01

    Drawing from a collection of over 160 North American print advertisements for anti-aging skin care products from January to December of 2009, this paper examines the discourse of agelessness, a vision of esthetic perfection and optimal health that is continually referred to by gerontologists, cultural theorists, and scientific researchers as a state of being to which humankind can aspire. Employing critical discourse analysis through the use of semiotics and visual rhetoric, this paper explores the means through which anti-aging skin care advertisements present to their viewers a particular object of desire, looking, more specifically, at how agelessness is presented as a way out and ultimate transcendence of age. Through the analytical tools of semiotics and visual rhetoric, four visions of agelessness are identified and explored in this paper: Agelessness as Scientific Purity, Agelessness as Genetic Impulse, Agelessness as Nature's Essence, and Agelessness as Myth. Whether found in the heights of scientific purity, the inner core of our genetic impulse, the depths of nature's essence, or whether agelessness itself has reached its own, untouchable, mythic status, the advertisements in this study represent one of the most pervasive vehicles through which our current vision(s) of ageless perfection are reflected, reinforced, and suspended in a drop of cream. PMID:24655670

  12. Health risks, social relations and class: an analysis of occupational health discourse in Finnish newspaper and women's magazine articles 1961-2008.

    PubMed

    Varje, Pekka; Väänänen, Ari

    2016-03-01

    In this article we examine the treatment of psychosocial risks in public occupational health discourse in Finnish newspaper and magazine articles between the 1960s and 2000s, using discourse analysis. Building on class theories, our aim is to investigate how class expectations have been linked with the redefinition of occupational health risks during this period. Our results suggest that as social relations at the workplace became problematised in the occupational health discussions after the 1970s, the image of the hierarchical and naturally conflictual organisation was replaced by idealised middle-class notions of smoothly functioning, harmonious organisations that offered rewarding work experiences. However, this same period since the late 1970s has also been characterised by increasing economic competition and neoliberal market ideology. We conclude that the concern about work-related psychosocial risks and health problems expressed in Finnish newspaper and magazine articles during the last three decades has been shaped in many respects by a collision between the dominant middle-class expectations of harmony and equality and the neoliberal production of competition and inequality. PMID:26547280

  13. Problems and Cautions With Sequence Mismatch Analysis and Bayesian Skyline Plots to Infer Historical Demography.

    PubMed

    Grant, William Stewart

    2015-01-01

    Sequence mismatch analysis (MMA) and Bayesian skyline plots (BSP) are commonly used to reconstruct historical demography. A survey of 173 research articles (2009-2014), which included estimates of historical population sizes from mtDNA or cpDNA, shows a widespread genetic signature of demographic or spatial population expansion in species of all major taxonomic groups. Associating these expansions with climatic events can provide insights into the origins of lineage diversity, range expansions (or contractions), and speciation. However, several variables can introduce error into reconstructions of demographic history, including levels of sequence polymorphism, sampling scheme, sample size, natural selection, and estimates of mutation rate. Most researchers use substitution rates estimated from divergences in phylogenetic trees dated with fossils, or geological events. Recent studies show that molecular clocks calibrated with phylogenetic divergences can overestimate the timings of population-level events by an order of magnitude. Overestimates disconnect historical population reconstructions from climatic history and confound our understanding of the factors influencing genetic variability. If mismatch distributions and BSPs largely reflect demographic history, the widespread signature of population expansion in vertebrate, invertebrate, and plant populations appears to reflect responses to postglacial climate warming. PMID:25926628

  14. Wintering and breeding bird monitoring data analysis 2010-2013: San Antonio Missions National Historical Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Following guidance issued within the Avian Inventory and Monitoring in National Parks of the Gulf Coast Network: Gulf Coast Network Avian Monitoring Plan, 40 point locations were established and monitored within San Antonio Missions National Historical Park. During three breeding seasons (May – Jun) and winters (Dec – Feb) between 2010 and 2013, birds were monitored at 20 or 30 of these point locations via time-distance point counts (breeding) or area searches (winter). To ensure data from all 40 random locations were included in analyses, monitoring data from two consecutive years were combined. As a result, some points were monitored twice during the period of analysis. Even so, I have treated each survey as an independent monitoring event, thereby assuming each visit to be equally representative of the bird community for the entirety of San Antonio Missions National Historical Park. When translating avian densities to park-wide populations, I used an area of 334 ha to represent San Antonio Missions National Historical Park including the Rancho de las Cabras unit.

  15. Defining a social problem: socio-historical analysis of the antinuclear weapons movement

    SciTech Connect

    McCrea, F.B.

    1988-01-01

    This dissertation is a socio-historical analysis of the anti-nuclear weapons movement in the United States. This work conceptualizes social movements in advanced industrial societies by synthesizing certain aspects of social constructionism, resource mobilization, and new class theory. The research design is a socio-historical, comparative case study. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are employed for data analysis. Extensive content analysis of documents and interviews with key actors are supplemented with a critical analysis of a wide variety of primary and secondary data. All major antinuclear weapons protest, particularly the Atomic Scientists Movement of the 1940s, the Ban-the-Bomb Movement of the 1950s and 1960s, and the Freeze Movement of the 1980s, shared similar characteristics, and experienced similar problems. The findings are congruent with the theoretical synthesis. Antinuclear weapons protest is best understood as a new class phenomenon, in which intellectuals have mobilized resources to challenge the ruling elite. Yet, though the protest has succeeded in challenging the legitimacy of the ruling apparatus, successes of the movement have been mostly symbolic.

  16. A Historical Perspective on the Role of Collaboration in Teacher Education Reform: Making Good on the Promise of Teaching All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugach, Marleen C.; Blanton, Linda P.; Correa, Vivian I.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of how collaborative teacher education has developed in terms of practice, discourse, and the relationship between general and special education across three historical stages. It explores how collaborative teacher education between general and special education has been positioned over time in relationship to…

  17. Medical discourse in pathological anatomy.

    PubMed

    Moskalenko, R; Tatsenko, N; Romanyuk, A; Perelomova, O; Moskalenko, Yu

    2012-05-01

    The paper is devoted to the peculiarities of medical discourse in pathological anatomy as coherent speech and as a linguistic correlate of medical practice taking into account the analysis of its strategies and tactics. The purpose of the paper is to provide a multifaceted analysis of the speech strategies and tactics of pathological anatomy discourse and ways of their implementation. The main strategies of medical discourse in pathological anatomy are an anticipating strategy, a diagnosing strategy and an explaining one. The supporting strategies are pragmatic, conversational and a rhetorical one. The pragmatic strategy is implemented through contact establishing tactics, the conversational one - with the help of control tactics, the rhetorical one - with the help of attention correction tactics. The above mentioned tactics and strategies are used in the distinguishing of major, closely interrelated strategies: "the contact strategy" (to establish contact with a patient's relatives - phatic replicas of greeting and addressing) and "the strategy of explanation" (used in the practice of a pathologist for a detailed explanation of the reasons of a patient's death). The ethic aspect of speech conduct of a doctor-pathologist is analyzed. PMID:22870841

  18. Binding and Hoche's "Life Unworthy of Life": A Historical and Ethical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Brody, Howard; Cooper, M Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The 1920 essay by German attorney Karl Binding and psychiatrist Alfred Hoche, "Permitting the Destruction of Life Unworthy of Life," is often characterized as a stepping-stone toward the Nazi genocide policies. A careful review of Binding and Hoche's arguments does reveal elements that foreshadow Nazi thinking, but it also contains points that fail to parallel--or that directly contradict--Nazi death practices. A proper ethical and historical analysis of this work requires a more nuanced discussion than it often receives. PMID:26497237

  19. Social aspects of classroom learning: Results of a discourse analysis in an inquiry-oriented physical chemistry class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Nicole M.

    Engaging students in classroom discourse offers opportunities for students to participate in the construction of joint understandings, to negotiate relationships between different types of evidence, and to practice making evidence-based claims about science content. However, close attention to social aspects of learning is critical to creating inquiry-oriented classroom environments in which students learn with understanding. This study examined the social influences that contribute to classroom learning in an inquiry-oriented undergraduate physical chemistry class using the Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) approach. A qualitative approach to analyzing classroom discourse derived from Toulmin's (1968) model of argumentation was used to document patterns in classroom reasoning that reflect normative aspects of social interaction. Adapting the constructs of social and sociomathematical norms from the work of Yackel and Cobb (1996), I describe social aspects of the classroom environment by discussing normative aspects of social interaction (social norms) and discipline-specific criteria related to reasoning and justification in chemistry contexts, referred to here as sociochemical norms. This work discusses four social norms and two sociochemical norms that were documented over a five-week period of observation in Dr. Black's POGIL physical chemistry class. In small group activities, the socially established expectations that students explain reasoning, negotiate understandings of terminology and symbolic representations, and arrive at a consensus on critical thinking questions shaped small group interactions and reasoning. In whole class discussion, there was an expectation that students share reasoning with the class, and that the instructor provide feedback on student reasoning in ways that extended student contributions and elaborated relationships between macroscopic, particulate, and symbolic-level ideas. The ways in which the class constructed

  20. "I Wanted to Rebel, But There They Hit Me Even Harder": Discourse Analysis of Israeli Women Offenders' Accounts of Their Pathways to Substance Abuse and Crime.

    PubMed

    Gueta, Keren; Chen, Gila

    2016-05-01

    This study examined women offenders' accounts of their pathways to substance abuse and crime and the intersection between them, to reach a holistic understanding that captures the dynamics of victimization, agency, and gender. Discourse analyses of the accounts of 11 Israeli women offenders indicated differential use of two discourses. Five participants used the victimization discourse, which viewed substance abuse as an attempt to medicate the self that was injured following victimization experiences; two used the agency discourse, which viewed substance abuse as a way to experience pleasure, leisure, and control over their destiny. Four of the participants used these two contradictory discourses simultaneously. The findings indicate the absence of a cultural discourse that encompasses women's complex experience of gender, victimization, and agency. Possible implications for intervention are discussed. PMID:26188345

  1. Naming Giftedness: Whiteness and Ability Discourse in US Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a conceptual analysis of ability discourse using the theoretical lens of critical whiteness studies and the methodological framework of critical discourse analysis. From its origins in the Progressive Era to contemporary debates on tracking, the concept of giftedness has been formed through racial projects throughout US history.…

  2. Education and Nationalism: The Discourse of Education Policy in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnott, Margaret; Ozga, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    The paper draws on critical discourse analysis to examine and discuss some of the key developments in the governing of education in Scotland since the election of the Scottish National Party (SNP) government in May 2007. It analyses these developments, drawing on a study of key policy texts and suggests that discourse analysis has much to…

  3. [Micro and nondestructive analysis of blue dyes from silk fabrics and decorative painting of historic building].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Wei, Xi-Ning; Lei, Yong; Cheng, Xiao-Lin; Zhou, Yang

    2010-12-01

    Dye analysis is important to the understanding of fabric color degradation and technical development of ancient printing and dyeing. In the present study, thin layer chromatography and Raman spectroscopy were used for the analysis of blue dyes from 6 silk fabric of Tang dynasty and decorative painting of Jian Fu Gong, Forbidden City. The applicability of these two methods in the cultural heritages was also studied. The results indicate that all these blue substances are indigo; indigo was not only used as dye in ancient fabrics, but also as pigment in decorative painting of historic building, so it is used widely. Both analytic methods have advantages and disadvantages; Raman spectroscopy is nondestructive analysis; thin layer chromatography needs small amount of sample, but could give more information. PMID:21322217

  4. Science learning in the context of discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    do Nascimento, Silvania Sousa

    2013-06-01

    The original article by Kamberelis and Wehunt (2012) discusses an interesting and important research subject in science education as it focus on classroom interactions and the characteristics of the discourse production of interlocutors. The authors start from the premise that discourse heterogeneity is constitutive of social activities, which is supported by others like Mikhail Bakhtin (Speech genres and other late essays. University of Texas Press, Austin, 1981) and Erving Goffman (Frame analysis: an essay on the organization of experience. Harper and Row, London, 1974). They also present the definitions of three key elements that organize hybrid discourse: (a) lamination of multiple cultural frames, (b) shifting relations between people and their discourse, and (c) shifting power relations between people. Finally, the authors analyze how these three elements organize students' science discourse in the classroom and how it contributes to the creation of a micro-community of practice capable of helping the emergence of a disciplinary knowledge that is legitimized by and strengthens the identity of the group. In the present commentary, I discuss how Michael Foucault's (1970) concept of discursive procedure may help us to analyze the (often neglected) teacher's role in the development of hybrid discourse practices.

  5. Application of LC-MS to the analysis of dyes in objects of historical interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xian; Laursen, Richard

    2009-07-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array and mass spectrometric detection permits dyes extracted from objects of historical interest or from natural plant or animal dyestuffs to be characterized on the basis of three orthogonal properties: HPLC retention time, UV-visible spectrum and molecular mass. In the present study, we have focused primarily on yellow dyes, the bulk of which are flavonoid glycosides that would be almost impossible to characterize without mass spectrometric detection. Also critical for this analysis is a method for mild extraction of the dyes from objects (e.g., textiles) without hydrolyzing the glycosidic linkages. This was accomplished using 5% formic acid in methanol, rather than the more traditional 6 M HCl. Mass spectroscopy, besides providing the molecular mass of the dye molecule, sometimes yields additional structural data based on fragmentation patterns. In addition, coeluting compounds can often be detected using extracted ion chromatography. The utility of mass spectrometry is illustrated by the analysis of historical specimens of silk that had been dyed yellow with flavonoid glycosides from Sophora japonica (pagoda tree) and curcumins from Curcuma longa (turmeric). In addition, we have used these techniques to identify the dye type, and sometimes the specific dyestuff, in a variety of objects, including a yellow varnish from a 19th century Tibetan altar and a 3000-year-old wool mortuary textiles, from Xinjiang, China. We are using HPLC with diode array and mass spectrometric detection to create a library of analyzed dyestuffs (>200 so far; mostly plants) to serve as references for identification of dyes in objects of historical interest.

  6. The Role of Gender in Making Meaning of Texts: Bodies, Discourses, and Ways of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender-Slack, Delane

    2009-01-01

    Studies on gender discourses in classrooms have specifically examined how students negotiate their individual gender identities while disregarding their lived realities within a historical context. Nevertheless, although it is difficult and uncomfortable for them, students' responses to discussing gender reveal that the discourse positively…

  7. Reporting the Rhetoric, Implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as Represented in Ireland's Second Report to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiersey, Rachel A.; Hayes, Noirin

    2010-01-01

    Ireland's second periodic report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) presents the government's case that it is succeeding in protecting and promoting the rights of all children in Ireland. This article presents a critical discourse analysis of the government's Report to the CRC. Using a refined critical discourse…

  8. The HIV/AIDS caregiver identity as a double-edged sword: a discourse analysis on HIV/AIDS caregiving in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Vania

    2014-09-01

    This article discusses the identity of HIV/AIDS caregivers as constructed by a group of HIV/AIDS caregivers at a non-profit organisation in South Africa. During a 12-month period data were collected through interviews with the organisation's staff and volunteers. Using discourse analysis, the study identified a caregiver identity constructed by participants. This caregiving identity acts as a double-edged sword: while the rewards of caregiving act as a buffer against stressful experiences, the prescriptive nature of the caregiver identity is taxing, and may explain burnout among HIV/AIDS caregivers. The study concludes that for support systems for HIV/AIDS caregivers to be effective, the social culture and identity of HIV/AIDS caregivers must be considered. PMID:25388980

  9. The role of genes in talking about overweight: An analysis of discourse on genetics, overweight and health risks in relation to nutrigenomics.

    PubMed

    Komduur, Rixt; Te Molder, Hedwig

    2014-11-01

    This study examines whether the assumptions embedded in nutrigenomics, especially the alleged relation between information about personal health risks and healthy behaviour, match how people account for the relation between food, health and genes in everyday life. We draw on discourse analysis to study accounts of overweight in six group interviews with people who are and who are not overweight. The results show potentially contradictory normative orientations towards behavioural explanations of (over)weight. Overt gene accounts are interactionally problematic (in contrast to more indirect accounts such as 'build'), indicating that participants treat 'behaviour' as the normatively appropriate explanation for overweight. At the same time, however, healthy behaviour is an accountable matter, i.e. it is dealt with in interaction as behaviour that is not self-evidently right but requires an explanation. It is discussed how bringing these interactional concerns to the surface is essential for understanding future users' response to nutrigenomics and emergent technologies more in general. PMID:23825280

  10. Talk in Interaction in the Speech-Language Pathology Clinic: Bringing Theory to Practice through Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaby, Margaret M.; Walsh, Irene P.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of learning about and applying clinical discourse analysis to enhance the talk in interaction in the speech-language pathology clinic is discussed. The benefits of analyzing clinical discourse to explicate therapy dynamics are described.

  11. Physiotherapy: a historical analysis of the transformation from an occupation to a profession in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ana L. O.; Nunes, Everardo D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Analyzing the historical and social path of an occupation using the sociology of professions and the perspective of scientific knowledge promotes an understanding of the origin of physical therapy in Brazil and of discussions of the profession in its contemporary context. Objective: The aim of this paper was to discuss the professionalization process of physical therapy in São Paulo. The authors tried to analyze bath therapy, massage therapy, and physical therapy as occupations involving distinct expertise and as part of the group of occupations that evolved into the profession of physiotherapy in the first half of the twentieth century. Method: The analysis undertaken was a qualitative study based on an analysis of historical documents. Eighty-six professional records from the Service of Inspection of Professional Practice in the state of São Paulo and healthcare legislation from the 1930s and 1940s were analyzed. Results: The distinction between physical therapy practitioner and profession of physiotherapy can be seen by examining registration requirements for rank-and-file nurses with expertise in interactions; this distinction suggests the emergence of specialized expertise that was clearly a part of neither medicine nor nursing and contributed to expertise in physical therapy since the 1950s. Conclusion: The regulation of physiotherapy practices, the recognition of expertise, the accreditation of practical nurses by the State, and the institutionalization of a course for physical therapy practitioners in 1951 are key elements of the professionalization process for the physical therapy profession in Brazil. PMID:26443976

  12. Historic climate variability of wetness in East China (960-1992): A wavelet analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jianmin Jiang; Zhang, De`er; Fraedrich, K.

    1997-11-01

    In this paper, a dataset of historic wetness is analyzed with the wavelet transform technique. A previous dataset was derived from historic documents, and consists of annual dryness/wetness grades from 1 to 5 at 120 stations in the China mainland for the period from 1470 to 1979. This dataset was extended back to AD 960 for six regions in East China in a previous study, and the extended dataset is used in this paper. The Mexican Hat wavelet transform technique and descriptive statistical analysis were used to analyze each of the six regional time series. The wavelet analysis of climatic fluctuation displayed variations of different time scales at particular time points, as well as persistent anomalies. The climatic variations occuring on longer time scales may cover a larger area; these are the outstanding persistent dry and wet stages during the last 1033 years. The variations on longer time scales coincide roughly with those previously identified. On shorter time scales, some synchronous fluctations are also observed but in fewer years. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Integrating Social Activity Theory and Critical Discourse Analysis: A Multilayered Methodological Model for Examining Knowledge Mediation in Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becher, Ayelet; Orland-Barak, Lily

    2016-01-01

    This study suggests an integrative qualitative methodological framework for capturing complexity in mentoring activity. Specifically, the model examines how historical developments of a discipline direct mentors' mediation of professional knowledge through the language that they use. The model integrates social activity theory and a framework of…

  14. The American abortion debate: culture war or normal discourse?

    PubMed

    Dillon, M

    1995-01-01

    This paper investigates whether James Hunter's culture war thesis is an apt characterization of the American abortion debate. The author focuses on three arguments central to Hunter's analysis: 1) that the abortion debate involves two paradigmatically opposed world views; 2) that debate about abortion, since it involves moral discourse, is structurally different than other political debates; and 3) that the new alignments in abortion politics are culturally significant. Examining existing research in each of these three domains, the author finds that the debate over abortion is more complex than suggested by Hunter. World views of pro-life and pro-choice activists, for example, share a commitment to some overlapping values; the argumentative structure of abortion discourse has a pattern rather similar to that of political debate more generally, and new alignments on abortion, such as that between the Catholic Church and the Southern Baptist Convention, do not displace historically embedded differences in symbolic resources and cultural orientation. As suggested by the author, it may be more helpful, therefore, to think of the abortion debate as an ongoing public conversation about America's cultural tradition and how it should be variously expressed in contemporary laws and practices. PMID:12320388

  15. Data analysis in oral history: A new approach in historical research

    PubMed Central

    Firouzkouhi, Mohammadreza; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Historical research has limitations in applying proper and credit-worthy chronology to clarify the data. In this methodology, the application of oral history is one of the ways in which answers to questions addressed by the research theme are elicited. Oral history, as a clear and transparent tool, needs to be applied with guidelines for qualitative researchers regarding data analysis limitations from oral evidence and face-to-face contact. Therefore, the development of a systematic method for data analysis is needed to obtain accurate answers, based on which a credit-worthy narration can be produced. The aim of this study was to introduce an ethical and objective approach for the analysis of data obtained from oral history. Materials and Methods: This is a methodological article that suggests an analysis method based on qualitative approach and experiences of the authors. Results: A systematic method of data analysis for oral history research, based on common qualitative data analysis methods, has been suggested as the result of this article. Conclusions: This new technique is equipped with measures that would assist qualitative researchers in the nursing field and other disciplines regarding analysis of qualitative data resulting from oral history studies. PMID:25878689

  16. Quantitative analysis of saltwater-freshwater relationships in groundwater systems-A historical perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, T.E.; Goodman, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    Although much progress has been made toward the mathematical description of saltwater-freshwater relationships in groundwater systems since the late 19th century, the advective and dispersive mechanisms involved are still incompletely understood. This article documents the major historical advances in this subject and summarizes the major direction of current studies. From the time of Badon Ghyben and Herzberg, it has been recognized that density is important in mathematically describing saltwater-freshwater systems. Other mechanisms, such as hydrodynamic dispersion, were identified later and are still not fully understood. Quantitative analysis of a saltwater-freshwater system attempts to mathematically describe the physical system and the important mechanisms using reasonable simplifications and assumptions. This paper, in developing the history of quantitative analysis discusses many of these simplifications and assumptions and their effect on describing and understanding the phenomenon. ?? 1985.

  17. Educational Policy-Making in Post-Communist Ukraine as an Example of Emerging Governmentality: Discourse Analysis of Curriculum Choice and Assessment Policy Documents (1999-2003)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fimyar, Olena

    2008-01-01

    Educational policy-making in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is still building upon the ambivalences and uncertainties of post-communist transformation. The international support, expertise and discourses--coupled with communist legacies, stalled democratic developments and national discourses--produce unique effects on education in…

  18. Effects of Using Historical Microworlds on Conceptual Change: A P-Prim Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, Steve; Legendre, Marie-Francoise

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the effects of using historical microworlds on conceptual change in mechanics. Historical microworlds combine history of science and microworld through a computer based interactive learning environment that respects and represents historic conceptions or theories. Six grade 5 elementary students participated individually to…

  19. Doing, talking and writing science: A discourse analysis of the process of resemiotization in a middle school lab-based science class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Laura J.

    This study examines students' sense making practices in a middle school science class from a discourse analytic perspective. Using Mediated Discourse Analysis (MDA) (Scollon 1998, 2001) and interactional sociolinguistics (Gumperz 1999, 2001, Schiffrin 1994), my research seeks to enrich findings from recent sociocultural studies of science classrooms that focus on doing, talking and writing science (Roth 2005, Kress, et al. 2002, Halliday & Martin 1993, Lemke 1990). Within a middle school science classroom, these fundamental activities form a nexus of practice (Scollon 1998, 2001) basic to science literacy (AAAS 1989) and reflective of the work of practicing scientists. Moreover, students' engagement in these practices provides insight into the cultural production and reproduction of science and scientist. I first examine how the students' curriculum text encourages these three scientific practices and then trace students' uptake; that is, how they subsequently do, talk, and write science throughout the course of the unit. I argue that learning science with this curriculum unit requires students to resemiotize (Iedema 2001, 2003) first hand experience so they can represent their knowledge cohesively and coherently in evaluable forms. Ultimately, students must transform language from the curriculum text and their teacher into action in their laboratory activities and action in their laboratory activities into language. In addition, I show how students are apprenticed to the conventionalized practices and voices (Bakhtin 1986) of science (i.e. the scientific register), and how their figures of personhood (Agha 2005) reflect the development of their scientific identities. Overall, I argue that the microanalytic methods I use illuminate how students draw upon curricular resources to become scientifically literate and develop scientific identities.

  20. Science Pedagogy as a Category of Historical Analysis: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesko, Kathryn M.

    2006-11-01

    Historical studies of science pedagogy have flourished in recent years. This essay offers an assessment of the literature on science pedagogy from the 1930s to the present. It argues that rather than focusing on the work of Thomas Kuhn and Michel Foucault, historians of science pedagogy could with profit turn to the work of Ludwik Fleck. Fleck offers three categories of historical analysis - experience, sensation, and cognition - that are embedded in science pedagogy. He furthermore argues unequivocally for the central importance of considering the cultural context of science pedagogy. Fleck’s interpretation of the role of publishing in science is used in the final section of this essay to assess scientific publishing and textbook culture, topics that are the principal concern of the articles in this volume. Among the novelties of the articles in this volume on textbooks are (1) the connections they draw between textbooks and social structure; (2) the relationships they suggest between textbooks and the public sphere; and (3) their identification of the eighteenth century as the crucial transformative century in textbook production.

  1. Historical flood analysis of the Eistlenbach and Farnigraben torrents in the Hasli Valley (Bernese Alps) inferred from sedimentary records, historical maps and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monterrubio, Glòria; Schulte, Lothar

    2016-04-01

    Historical sources report that in 1624 the village of Hofstetten was ravaged by a major debris flow from the Eistlenbach torrent, and in 1797 another event erupted from the Lammbach, Schwanderbach and Eistlenbach torrents, demolishing 37 buildings (Eisbacher and Clague,1984). Years later there occurred more debris flows and floods in the area, which also affected buildings and farmlands in the valley. Every debris flow and flood leaves its footprint and shapes the morphology of the landscape causing aggradation in the distal area. The knowledge how landforms such as alluvial fans develop and which areas have been repeatedly affected by geomorphic dynamics is crucial for the assessment and management of hydrological hazards in mountain regions. The study aims to reconstruct historical floods and changes in the geomorphology of the distal areas of Eistlenbach and Farnigraben fans. First results show distinct flood layers which can be related to debris flow and flood events during the last 700 years. Peaks of Log (Zr/Ti) and Ca/Ti correlate with coarse-grained flood layers which can be compared with historical sources, whereas the organic-rich beds and soils indicate higher land surface stability and lower flood activity. In addition a spatial analysis is conducted to identify geomorphological dynamics and changes of the alluvial fan, particularly those which are related to the village of Hofstetten. Thus, survey of aerial photographs and satellite images as well as the interpolation of historical maps from 1797 to present, provide essential information of landform (e.g channels, levees and debris flow lobes) and land cover changes (vegetation, land-use, reforestation). For example, one of the most remarkable observations is the flow change of the Eistlenbach torrent. Previously to 1949 the channel path was straight to the watercourse of Fulbach in the valley bottom and was blocked by the rock drumlin Ballenberg in the south. But since then the channel started to

  2. An Alternative Analysis of the Discourse by Descartes, Kant and Hegel in terms of the Ethical Structure of the Kanun.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

    2015-06-01

    The ethical structure of the Albanian customary code, the Kanun, is deemed to represent the ethical value system of a society without state power. In spite of the appearance of civilizations and the resultant advent of an incipient state power, humans seemed to have known only the ethical value system of a society without state power until Gotama, Socrates, Plato and Jesus proposed new religious and philosophical doctrines. The basic trait of these religious and philosophical doctrines, which try to antagonize the ethical value system of a society without state power by eliminating the emotional aspect of humanity from the ethical value system, has been inherited by western philosophers such as Descartes, Kant and Hegel. The discourses by Descartes, Kant and Hegel were reviewed while paying attention to how they dealt with the sensuous and emotional aspects of humanity. The metaphysical implications of the ethical structure of the Kanun surfaced through the critical reviewing of their philosophy, and a hypothesis concerning its origin was presented. PMID:26753448

  3. Historical Literacy in a Context of Patriotic History: An Analysis of Zimbabwean History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maposa, Marshall Tamuka; Wassermann, Johan

    2014-01-01

    History is one of the five compulsory subjects in Zimbabwe since 2001. This compulsion speaks to the value with which the government regards the subject especially in teaching the youth about the Chimurenga (War of Liberation). The discourses of war have intensified in Zimbabwe since the late 1990s leading to the growth of a historiography of…

  4. Discourse Structure and Mental Models. Technical Report No. 343.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, J. Kathryn; Brewer, William F.

    Discourse comprehension involves readers or listeners in constructing mental models using local text information, global text structures, and their general knowledge of the world. An analysis of the literature on children's understanding of spoken discourse reveals that young children are capable of forming mental models from texts, but that their…

  5. The Discourses of OERs: How "Flat" Is This World?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dos Santos, Andreia Inamorato

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes Critical Discourse Analysis (Fairclough, 2000) as a tool for identifying the various discourses that can be found in the provision of open educational resources. The argument will be built upon the concept of a "flat world", a powerful metaphor used by Friedman in his famous book "The World is Flat" (2005). The discussion will…

  6. Pluralist Discourses of Bilingualism and Translanguaging Talk in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durán, Leah; Palmer, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines student and teacher talk in a first grade classroom in a two-way immersion school in Central Texas. Drawing on audio and video data from a year-long study in a first grade two-way classroom and using a methodology that fuses ethnography and discourse analysis, the authors explore how pluralist discourses are constructed and…

  7. Discourse Factors in the Evaluation of Language Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litteral, Robert

    Features of connected discourse that have been identified by discourse analysis may be applied to the evaluation of oral proficiency in a second language. For example, in the area of semantics, a speaker's control of the cause-result relationship involves, among other things, the ability to produce the different grammatical and lexical…

  8. Management of Discourse in Group Therapy for Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Elman, Roberta J.; Holland, Audrey L.; Damico, Jack S.

    2007-01-01

    A qualitative study of group therapy for aphasia was undertaken in order to discover interaction patterns and discourse management strategies that help define "social" or "conversation" group therapy for aphasia. Specifically, an analysis of the discourse of clients and therapists was conducted to identify patterns across therapists and settings.…

  9. Model Criteria for and Content Analysis of Historical Fiction about the Holocaust for Grades Four through Twelve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muallem, Miriam; Dowd, Frances A.

    1992-01-01

    Establishes components of high-quality books about the Holocaust for children and young adults. Uses these criteria in a content analysis of six historical novels about the Holocaust. Highlights setting, viewpoint, characterization, plot, style, theme, special features, and author. These criteria can be a model for future analysis of historical…

  10. Teaching Discourse Study To Resist General Discourse Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarbrough, Stephen R.

    If an instructor teaches in a rhetoric and composition program, one of the most important ways to teach discourse study as a resistance to discourse theory is by tracing the fundamental founding dichotomies of discourse theory through the history of rhetorical theory, examining how assumptions of the legitimacy of such founding dichotomies has…

  11. Troubling Discourse: Basic Writing and Computer-Mediated Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonaitis, Leigh A.

    2012-01-01

    Through an examination of literature in the fields of Basic Writing and developmental education, this essay provides some historical perspective and examines the prevalent discourses on the use of computer-mediated technologies in the basic writing classroom. The author uses Bertram Bruce's (1997) framework of various "stances" on…

  12. A Raman, IR and XRD analysis of the deterioration on historical monuments: case study from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ostrooumov, Mikhail

    2009-08-01

    Raman, infrared and XRD analysis have been applied to the examination of deterioration on historical monuments (Morelia, Mexico). Forty-three samples pyroclastic volcanic rocks (ignimbrites) have been studied, all originating from two ex-convents San Francisco and San Agustin, which were the first architectonic complexes in the city of Morelia. Several new mineral neoformation such as sulfates, carbonates, halides, and phosphates were identified in these samples with spectrometric and XRD technique. The observed Raman and infrared spectra are reported and some mineral compound assignments in unaltered and deteriorated volcanic rocks have been made. This survey is the first Raman and infrared spectrometric examination of the environmental mineralogy in Mexico under conditions of urban weathering that are characterized mainly by one secondary alteration formations of low scale. PMID:19201254

  13. Historical Epidemics Cartography Generated by Spatial Analysis: Mapping the Heterogeneity of Three Medieval "Plagues" in Dijon

    PubMed Central

    Galanaud, Pierre; Galanaud, Anne; Giraudoux, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This work was designed to adapt Geographical Information System-based spatial analysis to the study of historical epidemics. We mapped "plague" deaths during three epidemics of the early 15th century, analyzed spatial distributions by applying the Kulldorff's method, and determined their relationships with the distribution of socio-professional categories in the city of Dijon. Materials and Methods Our study was based on a database including 50 annual tax registers (established from 1376 to 1447) indicating deaths and survivors among the heads of households, their home location, tax level and profession. The households of the deceased and survivors during 6 years with excess mortality were individually located on a georeferenced medieval map, established by taking advantage of the preserved geography of the historical center of Dijon. We searched for clusters of heads of households characterized by shared tax levels (high-tax payers, the upper decile; low-tax payers, the half charged at the minimum level) or professional activities and for clusters of differential mortality. Results High-tax payers were preferentially in the northern intramural part, as well as most wealthy or specialized professionals, whereas low-tax payers were preferentially in the southern part. During two epidemics, in 1400–1401 and 1428, areas of higher mortality were found in the northern part whereas areas of lower mortality were in the southern one. A high concentration of housing and the proximity to food stocks were common features of the most affected areas, creating suitable conditions for rats to pullulate. A third epidemic, lasting from 1438 to 1440 had a different and evolving geography: cases were initially concentrated around the southern gate, at the confluence of three rivers, they were then diffuse, and ended with residual foci of deaths in the northern suburb. Conclusion Using a selected historical source, we designed an approach allowing spatial analysis of

  14. The expositive discourse as pedagogical discourse: studying recontextualization in the production of a science museum exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Cheryl A.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper I report on the sociological and educational particulars of The Biodiscovery Space exhibition of the Life Museum of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using Basil Bernstein's framework of pedagogic discourse and recontextualization. Data for analysis was obtained from interviews with the exhibition developers, field observations of museum visitors and analysis of exhibition documents. Using the ideas of power, classification and framework, among others, I analyzed the recontextualization process of the production of expositive discourse. Thus, working with Bernstein's idea of classification, I explain the relationship between the discourses of the science of biology, history of science, museology, education, and communication in order to produce an expositive discourse. I also make explicit how agents of the Official Recontextualization Field of the Museum and the Pedagogic Recontextualization Field "....of the Museum determine partly the final expositive discourse of an exhibition". Using the idea of a pedagogic discourse framework, I discuss how the constraints imposed by objects and texts in exhibitions help to create a specific manner of visitor interaction with these elements, "even if they have some autonomy". Considerations about the audience and the intended process of acquisition are presented, when I discuss the control strategies of the exhibition. I propose that the Biodiscovery Space exhibit has a visible pedagogy. Finally, using the collected data I discuss the power tensions created in the production of expositive discourse showing how distributive, recontextualization and evaluation rules work in the context of exhibitions. The study of the dynamics in forming the expositive discourse using Bernstein's framework reveals the individuals and institutions, the selection criteria, the negotiations and the power relations involved. It has the potential to assist both educators and researchers in the museum education

  15. The expositive discourse as pedagogical discourse: studying recontextualization in the production of a science museum exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marandino, Martha

    2016-06-01

    In this paper I report on the sociological and educational particulars of The Biodiscovery Space exhibition of the Life Museum of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using Basil Bernstein's framework of pedagogic discourse and recontextualization. Data for analysis was obtained from interviews with the exhibition developers, field observations of museum visitors and analysis of exhibition documents. Using the ideas of power, classification and framework, among others, I analyzed the recontextualization process of the production of expositive discourse. Thus, working with Bernstein's idea of classification, I explain the relationship between the discourses of the science of biology, history of science, museology, education, and communication in order to produce an expositive discourse. I also make explicit how agents of the Official Recontextualization Field of the Museum and the Pedagogic Recontextualization Field "....of the Museum determine partly the final expositive discourse of an exhibition". Using the idea of a pedagogic discourse framework, I discuss how the constraints imposed by objects and texts in exhibitions help to create a specific manner of visitor interaction with these elements, "even if they have some autonomy". Considerations about the audience and the intended process of acquisition are presented, when I discuss the control strategies of the exhibition. I propose that the Biodiscovery Space exhibit has a visible pedagogy. Finally, using the collected data I discuss the power tensions created in the production of expositive discourse showing how distributive, recontextualization and evaluation rules work in the context of exhibitions. The study of the dynamics in forming the expositive discourse using Bernstein's framework reveals the individuals and institutions, the selection criteria, the negotiations and the power relations involved. It has the potential to assist both educators and researchers in the museum education

  16. Photomorphic analysis techniques: An interim spatial analysis using satellite remote sensor imagery and historical data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keuper, H. R.; Peplies, R. W.; Gillooly, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    The use of machine scanning and/or computer-based techniques to provide greater objectivity in the photomorphic approach was investigated. Photomorphic analysis and its application in regional planning are discussed. Topics included: delineation of photomorphic regions; inadequacies of existing classification systems; tonal and textural characteristics and signature analysis techniques; pattern recognition and Fourier transform analysis; and optical experiments. A bibliography is included.

  17. Constructing Childhood: Discourses about School Violence in the Greek Daily Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avgitidou, Sofia; Stamou, Anastasia G.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the construction of discourses about childhood in the Greek daily press. It employs the theoretical frameworks of the new sociology of childhood and critical discourse analysis to question which discourses of childhood are constructed in the daily press presenting cases where children were the victimisers in school violent…

  18. The Construction of Pro-Science and Technology Discourse in Chinese Language Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yongbing

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the pro-science and technology discourse constructed in Chinese language textbooks currently used for primary school students nationwide in China. By applying analytical techniques of critical discourse analysis (CDA), the paper critically investigates how the discourse is constructed and what ideological forces are manifested…

  19. The Common Topoi of STEM Discourse: An Apologia and Methodological Proposal, with Pilot Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Lynda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes a methodology for the rhetorical analysis of scientific, technical, mathematical, and engineering (STEM) discourse based on the common topics (topoi) of this discourse. Beginning with work by Miller, Prelli, and other rhetoricians of STEM discourse--but factoring in related studies in cognitive linguistics--she…

  20. Analyzing the Cohesion of English Text and Discourse with Automated Computer Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Moongee

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the lexical and discourse features of English text and discourse with automated computer technologies. Specifically, this article examines the cohesion of English text and discourse with automated computer tools, Coh-Metrix and TEES. Coh-Metrix is a text analysis computer tool that can analyze English text and discourse…

  1. Generals, Colonels, and Captains: Discourses of Militarism, Education, and Learning in the Canadian University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a feminist discourse analysis that explores the ways in which discourses of learning interact with discourses of militarism at four Canadian civilian universities named for military leaders. I discuss how this particular research topic became apparent to me and explore the current national context where it can be argued that…

  2. Discourse Tracing as Qualitative Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeGreco, Marianne; Tracy, Sarah J.

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces a qualitative research method called "discourse tracing". Discourse tracing draws from contributions made by ethnographers, discourse critics, case study scholars, and process tracers. The approach offers new insights and an attendant language about how we engage in research designed specifically for the…

  3. Expanding Discourse Repertoires with Hybridity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    In "Hybrid discourse practice and science learning" Kamberelis and Wehunt present a theoretically rich argument about the potential of hybrid discourses for science learning. These discourses draw from different forms of "talk, social practice, and material practices" to create interactions that are "intertextually complex" and "interactionally…

  4. Informational database methodology for urban risk analysis.Case study: the historic centre of Bucharest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armas, I.; Dumitrascu, S.

    2009-04-01

    , but is also a very populated area, this being factors that favour a high susceptibility level. In addition, the majority of the buildings are included in the first and second categories of seismic risk, being built between 1875 and 1940, the age of the buildings establishing an increased vulnerability to natural hazards. The methodology was developed through the contribution of three partner universities from Bucharest: the University of Bucharest, the Academy for Economic Studies and the Technical University of Constructions. The method suggested was based on the analysis and processing of digital and statistical spatial information resulted from 1:500 topographical plans, satellite pictures, archives and historical maps used for the identification of the age of the buildings. Also, an important stage was represented by the field investigations that resulted with the data used in the assessment of the buildings: year of construction, location and vicinity, height, number of floors, state and function of the building, equipment and construction type. The information collected from the field together with the data resulted from the digitization of the ortophotoplans were inserted in ArcGIS in order to compile the database. Furthermore, the team from the Cybernetics Faculty developed a special software package in Visual Studio and SQL server in order to insert the sheets in GIS so that they could be statistically processed. The final product of the study is a program that includes as main functions editing, the analysis based on selected factors (individual or group) and viewing of building information in the shape of maps or 3D visualization. The strengths of the informational system resulted are given by the extended range of applicability, the short processing period, accessibility, capacity of support for a large amount of information and, thus, standing out as an adequate instrument to fit the needs of a susceptible population.

  5. A feminist critique of psychiatric nursing discourse.

    PubMed

    Keddy, B

    1996-01-01

    This theoretical research explores the discourse, language, texts, and practices that are part of the everyday work world of psychiatric nursing. How information is created, what becomes established knowledge, and how it is disseminated are the foci of this particular discourse. Psychiatric nursing "science" has developed from the work of nursing theorists and researchers in an attempt to raise the status of nursing. The result has been that this knowledge wields power. Most of this knowledge is based on positivist assumptions to predict and control patients' behavior. Drawing upon the work of postmodernists and the sociology of knowledge experts in discourse analysis, this paper concludes that, because information is humanly constructed, nurses have the power to alter knowledge, and thereby to bring about alternative ways of knowing and subsequent social and political change. PMID:8920338

  6. Discourse, Opinions, and Ideologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dijk, Teun A.

    1995-01-01

    Attempts to demonstrate the linkage between opinions, attitudes, and ideologies and to look for ways of explaining variation in opinions as well as in shared social dimensions of evaluative beliefs. The article argues that theories of discourse and ideologies, as well as the cognitive aspects of ideologies, should not be reduced to any partial…

  7. Discourse Devices in Telugu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rani, A. Usha

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss some of the productive discourse devices and markers noted in 50 spoken narratives elicited from Telugu native speakers. Since most of them are college students and residents of Hyderabad, they are also exposed to English as well as Hindi-Urdu (Dakkhini). After presenting certain salient features of Telugu…

  8. Experts, Dialects, and Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatt, Rakesh Mohan

    2002-01-01

    Examines "expert" discourse--complexes of signs and practices that organize and legitimize social existence and social reproduction--to demonstrate the ideological process involved in the manufacture of Standard English ideology and its continual duplication as necessitated by the three axiomatic conceptions of the English-sacred imagined…

  9. Using Simple Statistical Analysis of Historical Data to Understand Wind Ramp Events

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, C

    2010-01-29

    As renewable resources start providing an increasingly larger percentage of our energy needs, we need to improve our understanding of these intermittent resources so we can manage them better. In the case of wind resources, large unscheduled changes in the energy output, called ramp events, make it challenging to keep the load and the generation balanced. In this report, we show that simple statistical analysis of the historical data on wind energy generation can provide insights into these ramp events. In particular, this analysis can help answer questions such as the time period during the day when these events are likely to occur, the relative severity of positive and negative ramps, and the frequency of their occurrence. As there are several ways in which ramp events can be defined and counted, we also conduct a detailed study comparing different options. Our results indicate that the statistics are relatively insensitive to these choices, but depend on utility-specific factors, such as the magnitude of the ramp and the time interval over which this change occurs. These factors reflect the challenges faced by schedulers and operators in keeping the load and generation balanced and can change over the years. We conduct our analysis using data from wind farms in the Tehachapi Pass region in Southern California and the Columbia Basin region in Northern Oregon; while the results for other regions are likely to be different, the report describes the benefits of conducting simple statistical analysis on wind generation data and the insights that can be gained through such analysis.

  10. Structuring Conversation: Discourse Markers in Cervantes's "Entremeses"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Due to the recent shift in the linguistic pragmatics literature from the analysis of isolated speech acts to the focus on phenomena which affect the global meaning of a message, discourse markers (DMs) have become a frequent research topic. Despite their popularity, the evolution and development of these forms is often neglected in investigations…

  11. Functions of Discourse Markers in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujita, Yasuko

    2001-01-01

    Through an examination of the discourse markers "ano" and "sono" in Japanese (commonly characterized as demonstrative adjectives but which cannot be used interchangeably in a context), this paper explores how these linguistic devices function in conversation found in Japanese writings. The focus of this analysis is the mental and social functions…

  12. A Comparison of "Popular Music Pedagogy" Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantie, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to interrogate discourses of "popular music pedagogy" in order to better understand music education practices generally and specifically those in the United States. Employing a conceptual framework based on the work of Jan Blommaert (2005), a content analysis was conducted on a sample of 81 articles related…

  13. Toward the modeling of land use change: A spatial analysis using remote sensing and historical data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honea, R. B.

    1976-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the chronological observation of land use change could be shown to follow a predictable pattern and these patterns could be correlated with other statistical data to develop transition probabilities suitable for modeling purposes. A literature review and preliminary research, however, indicated a totally stochastic approach was not practical for simulating land use change and thus a more deterministic approach was adopted. The approach used assumes the determinants of the land use conversion process are found in the market place, where land transactions among buyers and sellers occur. Only one side of the market transaction process is studied, however, namely, the purchaser's desires in securing an ideal or suitable site. The problem was to identify the ideal qualities, quantities or attributes desired in an industrial site (or housing development), and to formulate a general algorithmic statement capable of identifying potential development sites. Research procedures involved developing a list of variables previously noted in the literature to be related to site selection and streamlining the list to a set suitable for statistical testing. A sample of 157 industries which have located (or relocated) in the 16-county Knoxville metropolitan region since 1950 was selected for industrial location analysis. Using NASA color infrared photography and Tennessee Valley Authority historical aerial photography, data were collected on the spatial characteristics of each industrial location event. These data were then subjected to factor analysis to determine the interrelations of variables.

  14. An Historical Analysis of HRD Knowledge: A Critical Review of "The Foreman: Master and Victim of Doubletalk"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storberg-Walker, Julia; Bierema, Laura L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyze the historical development of HRD knowledge. The analysis aims to use the qualitative research technique of text deconstruction on an important management text from the human relations phase of organization theory. Deconstruction is not a common method to HRD. In this paper, HRD scholars…

  15. An Historical Analysis of the Chicago Public Schools Policy on the Requirements for the Selection of Principals, 1983-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cafferty, Siobhan

    2010-01-01

    This historical analysis provided an opportunity to appreciate Chicago's course in the national school reform landscape. This study helped to understand the effects school reform efforts had on school leadership policy in Chicago. It verified a roster of superintendents in Chicago during 1983-2008, established a chronology of school reform events…

  16. A Historical Materialist Analysis of the Debate in Swedish Print Media on Mobile Phones in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Torbjörn

    2014-01-01

    The use of mobile phones for teaching and learning in schools has been a controversial matter. In this paper the debate in two Swedish newspapers on the use of mobile phones in schools is analysed using a historical materialist framework. The results are discussed in relation to contemporary research on mobile learning. The analysis reveals that…

  17. Studies in Historical Replication in Psychology VII: The Relative Utility of "Ancestor Analysis" from Scientific and Educational Vantages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranney, Michael Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses, from various vantages, Ryan Tweney's (this issue) pedagogical technique of employing historical replications of psychological experiments with graduate students in psychology. A "prima facie" perspective suggests great promise for this sort of academic "ancestor analysis," particularly given the enthusiasm and skill…

  18. Modeling, Analysis, and Preservation Techniques for Historic Reinforced Concrete Structures in Seismic Prone Regions Case Study: Augusta Airship Hangar, Sicily

    SciTech Connect

    Cronin, Kelly; Whyte, Catherine; Reiner, Tom

    2008-07-08

    Throughout the world there are hundreds of historic monuments and structures considered to be invaluable and irreplaceable. They are symbols of cultural identity and a means of educating people about history. Preservation of historic monuments and structures is therefore an important part of safeguarding these cultural heritage sites so that they retain their value for future generations.This report discusses a procedure for the investigation of seismic hazards in existing buildings and possible steps that can be taken to avoid damage caused by these hazards. The Augusta Airship Hangar located in Sicily, will be used as a case study however the topics addressed in this paper can be applied to other structures of historic value around the world.First state-of-the-art scanning procedures were used to create scale digital models that were imported into a structural analysis program. Within this program dynamic analyses were performed on the model based on actual ground motions taken close to the site. This data was used to determine the period and mode shapes of the structure. Then a nonlinear analysis, including a static pushover analysis, was implemented on a two-dimensional model of the structural frame. From this analysis the failure mechanisms of the structure were revealed with relation to an allowable roof displacement. The structural integrity of the structure was evaluated based on pre-defined performance goals. Finally multiple suggestions were made how the Augusta Airship Hangar might be repaired and strengthened so that this structure will not be destroyed should an earthquake occur.The results of our study show that historic structures, despite their age, can still be strong and ductile. Also there are a multitude of effective preservation and retrofit techniques that can be used to strengthen these historic structures, should an earthquake occur. Through this study, the Augusta Airship Hangar has proven to be not only a historic symbol for Sicily but

  19. Modeling, Analysis, and Preservation Techniques for Historic Reinforced Concrete Structures in Seismic Prone Regions Case Study: Augusta Airship Hangar, Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, Kelly; Reiner, Tom; Whyte, Catherine

    2008-07-01

    Throughout the world there are hundreds of historic monuments and structures considered to be invaluable and irreplaceable. They are symbols of cultural identity and a means of educating people about history. Preservation of historic monuments and structures is therefore an important part of safeguarding these cultural heritage sites so that they retain their value for future generations. This report discusses a procedure for the investigation of seismic hazards in existing buildings and possible steps that can be taken to avoid damage caused by these hazards. The Augusta Airship Hangar located in Sicily, will be used as a case study however the topics addressed in this paper can be applied to other structures of historic value around the world. First state-of-the-art scanning procedures were used to create scale digital models that were imported into a structural analysis program. Within this program dynamic analyses were performed on the model based on actual ground motions taken close to the site. This data was used to determine the period and mode shapes of the structure. Then a nonlinear analysis, including a static pushover analysis, was implemented on a two-dimensional model of the structural frame. From this analysis the failure mechanisms of the structure were revealed with relation to an allowable roof displacement. The structural integrity of the structure was evaluated based on pre-defined performance goals. Finally multiple suggestions were made how the Augusta Airship Hangar might be repaired and strengthened so that this structure will not be destroyed should an earthquake occur. The results of our study show that historic structures, despite their age, can still be strong and ductile. Also there are a multitude of effective preservation and retrofit techniques that can be used to strengthen these historic structures, should an earthquake occur. Through this study, the Augusta Airship Hangar has proven to be not only a historic symbol for Sicily but

  20. How Has Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Therapy Changed?: An Historical Analysis of Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donohue, William; Fryling, Mitch

    2007-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis and behavior therapy are now nearly a half century old. It is interesting to ask if and how these disciplines have changed over time, particularly regarding some of their key internal controversies (e.g., role of cognitions). We examined the first five years and the 2000-2004 five year period of the "Journal of Applied…

  1. Reaching out to people struggling with their lives: a discourse analysis of answers from Internet-based services in Norway and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Anders Johan W; Svensson, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    The Internet has enlarged the scope of human communication, opening new avenues for connecting with people who are struggling with their lives. This article presents a discourse analysis of 101 responses to 98 questions that were posted on 14 different Internet-based mental health services in Norway and Sweden. We aimed to examine and describe the dominant understandings and favored recommendations in the services’ answers, and we reflected upon the social consequences of those answers. The services generally understood life struggles as an abnormal state of mind, life rhythms, or self-reinforcing loops. Internet-based mental health services primarily counsel service users to seek help, talk to health care professionals face-to-face, and discuss their life struggles openly and honestly. They also urge service users to take better care of themselves and socialize with other people. However, such answers might enhance the individualization of life problems, masking social origin and construction. Consequently, the services are challenged to include social explanations in their answers and strengthen their responsibility to amplify peoples’ messages at a societal level. Potentially, such answers could strengthen democratic structures and put pressure on social equity. PMID:23049282

  2. Reaching out to people struggling with their lives: a discourse analysis of answers from Internet-based services in Norway and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Anders Johan W; Svensson, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    The Internet has enlarged the scope of human communication, opening new avenues for connecting with people who are struggling with their lives. This article presents a discourse analysis of 101 responses to 98 questions that were posted on 14 different Internet-based mental health services in Norway and Sweden. We aimed to examine and describe the dominant understandings and favored recommendations in the services' answers, and we reflected upon the social consequences of those answers. The services generally understood life struggles as an abnormal state of mind, life rhythms, or self-reinforcing loops. Internet-based mental health services primarily counsel service users to seek help, talk to health care professionals face-to-face, and discuss their life struggles openly and honestly. They also urge service users to take better care of themselves and socialize with other people. However, such answers might enhance the individualization of life problems, masking social origin and construction. Consequently, the services are challenged to include social explanations in their answers and strengthen their responsibility to amplify peoples' messages at a societal level. Potentially, such answers could strengthen democratic structures and put pressure on social equity. PMID:23049282

  3. Stress discourse and Western biomedical ideology: rewriting stress.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Tam T; Long, Bonita C

    2003-06-01

    Popular psychosocial theories of stress and coping are based on an empiricist paradigm and a Western biomedical framework that reflect Western ideologies and values about health and illness. Problems associated with this discourse lie mainly in the ideologies that emphasize naturalism, individualism, rationalism, and objectivity. We suggest that stress and coping theory should be concerned with the ways in which power relations and social institutions produce the meaning of stress. The inclusion of alternative discourses that attend to the micro and macro social and historical factors is necessary for the further development of stress and coping theory and practice. PMID:12746181

  4. Acquisition and Analysis of Dynamic Responses of a Historic Pedestrian Bridge using Video Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Byrne, Michael; Ghosh, Bidisha; Schoefs, Franck; O'Donnell, Deirdre; Wright, Robert; Pakrashi, Vikram

    2015-07-01

    Video based tracking is capable of analysing bridge vibrations that are characterised by large amplitudes and low frequencies. This paper presents the use of video images and associated image processing techniques to obtain the dynamic response of a pedestrian suspension bridge in Cork, Ireland. This historic structure is one of the four suspension bridges in Ireland and is notable for its dynamic nature. A video camera is mounted on the river-bank and the dynamic responses of the bridge have been measured from the video images. The dynamic response is assessed without the need of a reflector on the bridge and in the presence of various forms of luminous complexities in the video image scenes. Vertical deformations of the bridge were measured in this regard. The video image tracking for the measurement of dynamic responses of the bridge were based on correlating patches in time-lagged scenes in video images and utilisinga zero mean normalised cross correlation (ZNCC) metric. The bridge was excited by designed pedestrian movement and by individual cyclists traversing the bridge. The time series data of dynamic displacement responses of the bridge were analysedto obtain the frequency domain response. Frequencies obtained from video analysis were checked against accelerometer data from the bridge obtained while carrying out the same set of experiments used for video image based recognition.

  5. Acquisition and Analysis of Dynamic Responses of a Historic Pedestrian Bridge using Video Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Byrne, Michael; Ghosh, Bidisha; Schoefs, Franck; O'Donnell, Deirdre; Wright, Robert; Pakrashi, Vikram

    2015-07-01

    Video based tracking is capable of analysing bridge vibrations that are characterised by large amplitudes and low frequencies. This paper presents the use of video images and associated image processing techniques to obtain the dynamic response of a pedestrian suspension bridge in Cork, Ireland. This historic structure is one of the four suspension bridges in Ireland and is notable for its dynamic nature. A video camera is mounted on the river-bank and the dynamic responses of the bridge have been measured from the video images. The dynamic response is assessed without the need of a reflector on the bridge and in the presence of various forms of luminous complexities in the video image scenes. Vertical deformations of the bridge were measured in this regard. The video image tracking for the measurement of dynamic responses of the bridge were based on correlating patches in time-lagged scenes in video images and utilisinga zero mean normalisedcross correlation (ZNCC) metric. The bridge was excited by designed pedestrian movement and by individual cyclists traversing the bridge. The time series data of dynamic displacement responses of the bridge were analysedto obtain the frequency domain response. Frequencies obtained from video analysis were checked against accelerometer data from the bridge obtained while carrying out the same set of experiments used for video image based recognition.

  6. Social network analysis in the study of nonhuman primates: A historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brent, Lauren J.N.; Lehmann, Julia; Ramos-Fernández, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Advances over the last fifteen years have made social network analysis (SNA) a powerful tool for the study of nonhuman primate social behavior. Although many SNA-based techniques have been only very recently adopted in primatological research, others have been commonly used by primatologists for decades. The roots of SNA also stem from some of the same conceptual frameworks as the majority of nonhuman primate behavioral research. The rapid development of SNA in recent years has led to questions within the primatological community of where and how SNA fits within this field. We aim to address these questions by providing an overview of the historical relationship between SNA and the study of nonhuman primates. We begin with a brief history of the development of SNA, followed by a detailed description of the network-based visualization techniques, analytical methods and conceptual frameworks which have been employed by primatologists since as early as the 1960s. We also introduce some of the latest advances to SNA, thereby demonstrating that this approach contains novel tools for study of nonhuman primate social behavior which may be used to shed light on questions that cannot be addressed fully using more conventional methods. PMID:21433047

  7. Stationarity analysis of historical flood series in France and Spain (14th-20th centuries)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriendos, M.; Coeur, D.; Lang, M.; Llasat, M. C.; Naulet, R.; Lemaitre, F.; Barrera, A.

    Interdisciplinary frameworks for studying natural hazards and their temporal trends have an important potential in data generation for risk assessment, land use planning, and therefore the sustainable management of resources. This paper focuses on the adjustments required because of the wide variety of scientific fields involved in the reconstruction and characterisation of flood events for the past 1000 years. The aim of this paper is to describe various methodological aspects of the study of flood events in their historical dimension, including the critical evaluation of old documentary and instrumental sources, flood-event classification and hydraulic modelling, and homogeneity and quality control tests. Standardized criteria for flood classification have been defined and applied to the Isère and Drac floods in France, from 1600 to 1950, and to the Ter, the Llobregat and the Segre floods, in Spain, from 1300 to 1980. The analysis on the Drac and Isère data series from 1600 to the present day showed that extraordinary and catastrophic floods were not distributed uniformly in time. However, the largest floods (general catastrophic floods) were homogeneously distributed in time within the period 1600-1900. No major flood occurred during the 20th century in these rivers. From 1300 to the present day, no homogeneous behaviour was observed for extraordinary floods in the Spanish rivers. The largest floods were uniformly distributed in time within the period 1300-1900, for the Segre and Ter rivers.

  8. Semi-automatic system for UV images analysis of historical musical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondi, Piercarlo; Invernizzi, Claudia; Licchelli, Maurizio; Lombardi, Luca; Malagodi, Marco; Rovetta, Tommaso

    2015-06-01

    The selection of representative areas to be analyzed is a common problem in the study of Cultural Heritage items. UV fluorescence photography is an extensively used technique to highlight specific surface features which cannot be observed in visible light (e.g. restored parts or treated with different materials), and it proves to be very effective in the study of historical musical instruments. In this work we propose a new semi-automatic solution for selecting areas with the same perceived color (a simple clue of similar materials) on UV photos, using a specifically designed interactive tool. The proposed method works in two steps: (i) users select a small rectangular area of the image; (ii) program automatically highlights all the areas that have the same color of the selected input. The identification is made by the analysis of the image in HSV color model, the most similar to the human perception. The achievable result is more accurate than a manual selection, because it can detect also points that users do not recognize as similar due to perception illusion. The application has been developed following the rules of usability, and Human Computer Interface has been improved after a series of tests performed by expert and non-expert users. All the experiments were performed on UV imagery of the Stradivari violins collection stored by "Museo del Violino" in Cremona.

  9. An analysis of ozone damage to historical maize and soybean yields in the United States

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Justin M.; Betzelberger, Amy M.; Wang, Shaowen; Shook, Eric; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Long, Stephen P.; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous controlled experiments find that elevated ground-level ozone concentrations ([O3]) damage crops and reduce yield. There have been no estimates of the actual yield losses in the field in the United States from [O3], even though such estimates would be valuable for projections of future food production and for cost–benefit analyses of reducing ground-level [O3]. Regression analysis of historical yield, climate, and [O3] data for the United States were used to determine the loss of production due to O3 for maize (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) from 1980 to 2011, showing that over that period production of rain-fed fields of soybean and maize were reduced by roughly 5% and 10%, respectively, costing approximately $9 billion annually. Maize, thought to be inherently resistant to O3, was at least as sensitive as soybean to O3 damage. Overcoming this yield loss with improved emission controls or more tolerant germplasm could substantially increase world food and feed supply at a time when a global yield jump is urgently needed. PMID:26578785

  10. An analysis of ozone damage to historical maize and soybean yields in the United States.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Justin M; Betzelberger, Amy M; Wang, Shaowen; Shook, Eric; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Long, Stephen P; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2015-11-17

    Numerous controlled experiments find that elevated ground-level ozone concentrations ([O3]) damage crops and reduce yield. There have been no estimates of the actual yield losses in the field in the United States from [O3], even though such estimates would be valuable for projections of future food production and for cost-benefit analyses of reducing ground-level [O3]. Regression analysis of historical yield, climate, and [O3] data for the United States were used to determine the loss of production due to O3 for maize (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) from 1980 to 2011, showing that over that period production of rain-fed fields of soybean and maize were reduced by roughly 5% and 10%, respectively, costing approximately $9 billion annually. Maize, thought to be inherently resistant to O3, was at least as sensitive as soybean to O3 damage. Overcoming this yield loss with improved emission controls or more tolerant germplasm could substantially increase world food and feed supply at a time when a global yield jump is urgently needed. PMID:26578785

  11. A historical light curve of ON 231 and its periodic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F. K.; Xie, G. Z.; Bai, J. M.

    1995-03-01

    All data in the B band for BL Lac object ON 231 have been compiled into a light curve from twenty-six publications, dating back to 1982; 560 values are available. The light curve shows that ON 231 is very active and exhibits very complicated non-sinusoidal variations. The light curve probably consists of three kinds of behaviors. The first may be non-periodic or with a period at least longer than the duration of historical observations. In this case, the source seems to maintain two states of intensities, changing in mean behavior from a bright level with mean B magnitude 15.45 to a faint level with about 16.45 mag between 1969 and 1972. After detailed Jurkevich V2m test analysis, we found that the second is periodic, with a period of 13.6 +/- 1.3 years (or 26.6 +/- 0.8 years) with outburst structure of one magnitude with total width of about 6 years. The third one is sporadic, superposing on the previous two behaviors. The periods of 0.981 +/- 0.005 years (or 2.02, 3.01, ... years) and of a few days are not significant and may be spurious.

  12. [Gender discourses and bioethics].

    PubMed

    Aparisi Miralles, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present some of the contributions of the gender discourse to the bioethical debate, specifically in the field of nursing. At the same time, it will explain the contribution of the different feminist theories to the recognition and respect of human dignity. Basically, it will describe the three fundamental models in the gender discourse: the egalitarian model, the difference model, and the model of reciprocity or complementarity. The starting point is that even though the first two models have made significant contributions in the field of bioethics, they have nonetheless brought with them some deficiencies and reductionisms inherent in their thinking. The complementarity model, on the contrary, when properly understood, allows for the combination of the principles of equality and difference between man and woman, which places it at a much more enriching standpoint within the bioethical debate. PMID:25329418

  13. A Tutorial on Multiblock Discriminant Correspondence Analysis (MUDICA): A New Method for Analyzing Discourse Data from Clinical Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lynne J.; Abdi, Herve; French, Rebecca; Orange, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In communication disorders research, clinical groups are frequently described based on patterns of performance, but researchers often study only a few participants described by many quantitative and qualitative variables. These data are difficult to handle with standard inferential tools (e.g., analysis of variance or factor analysis)…

  14. Lifelong Learning and the Counter/Professionalisation of Childcare: A Case Study of Local Hybridizations of Global European Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenbroeck, Michel; Peeters, Jan; Bouverne-De Bie, Maria

    2013-01-01

    We provide a historical (genealogical) study of the changes in discourses on adult education since the famous UNESCO conference in Montreal, to present day texts of the European Union on lifelong learning. We also analyse how these changing global discourses on lifelong learning have travelled--through the hegemony of English language--to local…

  15. [Psychotherapy as cultural discourse].

    PubMed

    Józefik, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    It is impossible to think about psychotherapy without reference to the cultural context. In order to understand the development of this domain it is helpful to apply the concept of cultural discourse. When we think about the over one hundred years' history of psychotherapy it becomes clear that understanding of a person, his/her difficulties, psychopathology, the role of a psychotherapist, psychotherapy and its limitations have been changing. It depended on the acknowledged epistemological horizon. Therefore it is important to observe the process of creating discourses related to psychotherapeutic "reality". These discourses are not simply descriptive but they participate in creation of reality. They are not neutral, on the contrary, their application has broad practical, theoretical, ethical and legal consequences. An attempt to describe the culture, or better cultures, we are immersed in, is an attempt to describe the identity of contemporary psychotherapists. This article, referring to the constructionists' perspective and works of Michael Foucault, presents how cultural changes influence psychotherapists' ways of thinking, their practice and presence in social space. PMID:22220490

  16. Rethinking historical trauma.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Gone, Joseph P; Moses, Joshua

    2014-06-01

    Recent years have seen the rise of historical trauma as a construct to describe the impact of colonization, cultural suppression, and historical oppression of Indigenous peoples in North America (e.g., Native Americans in the United States, Aboriginal peoples in Canada). The discourses of psychiatry and psychology contribute to the conflation of disparate forms of violence by emphasizing presumptively universal aspects of trauma response. Many proponents of this construct have made explicit analogies to the Holocaust as a way to understand the transgenerational effects of genocide. However, the social, cultural, and psychological contexts of the Holocaust and of post-colonial Indigenous "survivance" differ in many striking ways. Indeed, the comparison suggests that the persistent suffering of Indigenous peoples in the Americas reflects not so much past trauma as ongoing structural violence. The comparative study of genocide and other forms of massive, organized violence can do much to illuminate both common mechanisms and distinctive features, and trace the looping effects from political processes to individual experience and back again. The ethics and pragmatics of individual and collective healing, restitution, resilience, and recovery can be understood in terms of the self-vindicating loops between politics, structural violence, public discourse, and embodied experience. PMID:24855142

  17. Tensions between Discourses of Development, Religion, and Human Capital in Early Childhood Education Policy Texts: The Case of Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Formen, Ali; Nuttall, Joce

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider how particular discourses have come to dominate early childhood education (ECE) policy in Indonesia. We briefly explain the governance of Indonesian ECE and then our approach to policy analysis using critical discourse analysis. Three prevalent discourses are identified and discussed: "developmentalism",…

  18. Analyzing Discourse: Text and Talk. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics (Washington, D.C., 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannen, Deborah, Ed.

    The Georgetown Round Table on discourse analysis dealt with the following aspects of the topic: Emerson's essay on language; oral remembering and narrative structures; persuasive discourse; social construction of topical cohesion; discourse as an interactional achievement; the place of intonation; topic as the unit of analysis in a criminal law…

  19. Shifting Identity Positions in the Development of Language Education for Immigrants: An Analysis of Discourses Associated with "Swedish for Immigrants"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Jenny Karin; Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta

    2013-01-01

    The study presented in this paper focuses upon conceptualisations of language and identity in the institutionalised arena that emerged in the post-Second World War period with the specific intention of teaching Swedish to adult immigrants in the nation-state of Sweden. Our analysis focuses upon the development of the educational programme "Swedish…

  20. Small Talk at Work: A Corpus Based Discourse Analysis of AAC and Non-AAC Device Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Ferrante, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This work is an analysis of small talk in the workplace. The study is intended to fill two main research gaps in the relatively young field of small talk in the workplace studies: On one hand, the lack of quantitative data that would account for the dimensions and the proportions of the elements of small talk interactions; on the other hand, the…

  1. "Joyful Learning" in Rural Indian Primary Schools: An Analysis of Social Control in the Context of Child-Centred Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriprakash, Arathi

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to improve the "quality" of education for all in government primary schools in India have seen a shift towards child-centred teaching. This paper examines the "Joyful Learning" programme, an example of a pedagogic reform implemented in rural primary schools in the southern Indian state of Karnataka. Through an empirical analysis of…

  2. Paradoxical Inscriptions of Global Subjects: Critical Discourse Analysis of International Schools' Websites in the Asia-Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamatea, Laurence; Hardy, Joy; Ninnes, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of Asia-Pacific international school web pages, and explores the expressed purposes of schooling, with regard to the kinds of students/subjects that the schools purport to produce. Using the concept of globalization as a "master" analytical frame, it is argued that despite claims to offering students unique…

  3. Detailed Analysis of Solar Data Related to Historical Extreme Geomagnetic Storms: 1868 - 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefèvre, Laure; Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Dumbović, Mateja; Vršnak, Bojan; Sudar, Davor; Arlt, Rainer; Clette, Frédéric; Crosby, Norma

    2016-04-01

    An analysis of historical Sun-Earth connection events in the context of the most extreme space weather events of the last ˜150 years is presented. To identify the key factors leading to these extreme events, a sample of the most important geomagnetic storms was selected based mainly on the well-known aa index and on geomagnetic parameters described in the accompanying paper (Vennerstrøm et al., Solar Phys. in this issue, 2016, hereafter Paper I). This part of the analysis focuses on associating and characterizing the active regions (sunspot groups) that are most likely linked to these major geomagnetic storms. For this purpose, we used detailed sunspot catalogs as well as solar images and drawings from 1868 to 2010. We have systematically collected the most pertinent sunspot parameters back to 1868, gathering and digitizing solar drawings from different sources such as the Greenwich archives, and extracting the missing sunspot parameters. We present a detailed statistical analysis of the active region parameters (sunspots, flares) relative to the geomagnetic parameters developed in Paper I. In accordance with previous studies, but focusing on a much larger statistical sample, we find that the level of the geomagnetic storm is highly correlated to the size of the active regions at the time of the flare and correlated with the size of the flare itself. We also show that the origin at the Sun is most often a complex active region that is also most of the time close to the central meridian when the event is identified at the Sun. Because we are dealing with extremely severe storms, and not the usual severe storm sample, there is also a strong correlation between the size of the linked active region, the estimated transit speed, and the level of the geomagnetic event. In addition, we confirm that the geomagnetic events studied here and the associated events at the Sun present a low probability of occurring at low sunspot number value

  4. Historical DNA analysis reveals living descendants of an extinct species of Galápagos tortoise

    PubMed Central

    Poulakakis, Nikos; Glaberman, Scott; Russello, Michael; Beheregaray, Luciano B.; Ciofi, Claudio; Powell, Jeffrey R.; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2008-01-01

    Giant tortoises, a prominent symbol of the Galápagos archipelago, illustrate the influence of geological history and natural selection on the diversification of organisms. Because of heavy human exploitation, 4 of the 15 known species (Geochelone spp.) have disappeared. Charles Darwin himself detailed the intense harvesting of one species, G. elephantopus, which once was endemic to the island of Floreana. This species was believed to have been exterminated within 15 years of Darwin's historic visit to the Galápagos in 1835. The application of modern DNA techniques to museum specimens combined with long-term study of a system creates new opportunities for identifying the living remnants of extinct taxa in the wild. Here, we use mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite data obtained from museum specimens to show that the population on Floreana was evolutionarily distinct from all other Galápagos tortoise populations. It was demonstrated that some living individuals on the nearby island of Isabela are genetically distinct from the rest of the island's inhabitants. Surprisingly, we found that these “non-native” tortoises from Isabela are of recent Floreana ancestry and closely match the genetic data provided by the museum specimens. Thus, we show that the genetic line of G. elephantopus has not been completely extinguished and still exists in an intermixed population on Isabela. With enough individuals to commence a serious captive breeding program, this finding may help reestablish a species that was thought to have gone extinct more than a century ago and illustrates the power of long-term genetic analysis and the critical role of museum specimens in conservation biology. PMID:18809928

  5. From Food Insufficiency towards Trade Dependency: A Historical Analysis of Global Food Availability

    PubMed Central

    Porkka, Miina; Kummu, Matti; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

    2013-01-01

    Achieving global food security is one of the major challenges of the coming decades. In order to tackle future food security challenges we must understand the past. This study presents a historical analysis of global food availability, one of the key elements of food security. By calculating national level dietary energy supply and production for nine time steps during 1965–2005 we classify countries based on their food availability, food self-sufficiency and food trade. We also look at how diets have changed during this period with regard to supply of animal based calories. Our results show that food availability has increased substantially both in absolute and relative terms. The percentage of population living in countries with sufficient food supply (>2500 kcal/cap/d) has almost doubled from 33% in 1965 to 61% in 2005. The population living with critically low food supply (<2000 kcal/cap/d) has dropped from 52% to 3%. Largest improvements are seen in the MENA region, Latin America, China and Southeast Asia. Besides, the composition of diets has changed considerably within the study period: the world population living with high supply of animal source food (>15% of dietary energy supply) increased from 33% to over 50%. While food supply has increased globally, food self-sufficiency (domestic production>2500 kcal/cap/d) has not changed remarkably. In the beginning of the study period insufficient domestic production meant insufficient food supply, but in recent years the deficit has been increasingly compensated by rising food imports. This highlights the growing importance of food trade, either for food supply in importing countries or as a source of income for exporters. Our results provide a basis for understanding past global food system dynamics which, in turn, can benefit research on future food security. PMID:24367545

  6. PIXE analysis of historical paintings: Is the gain worth the risk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaro, T.; Gonzalez, V.; Pichon, L.

    2015-11-01

    The PIXE analysis of easel paintings constitutes a challenging task. Despite recognized merits and a few emblematic applications, PIXE has never been routinely applied to these fragile, complex and precious targets. The present work discusses the place of PIXE in the study of easel paintings and opens up perspectives for a more systematic usage of this analytical technique. Progress achieved since decades in the implementation of PIXE to study such fragile cultural heritage artefacts is reviewed, notably at the LABEC laboratory in Italy and at the AGLAE facility of the C2RMF in France. Two specific techniques developed for paintings are detailed and exemplified on Renaissance painting masterpieces: differential PIXE for paint layers depth profiling and multi-scale elemental mapping for the imaging of pigment distribution. Beam-induced damage, a major concern, notably depends on the employed beam fluence in particle/cm2 or μC/cm2. After recalling previous works on damage induced in chemical products comparable to pigments, we present the behaviour under different fluences of protons of a few MeV (1-300 μC/cm2) of targets having high resemblance to historical easel paintings: pellets of specially synthesized lead white pigments, layers of lead white mixed with linseed oil and areas containing lead white of two 19th century paintworks. The results shed new lights on the behaviour of paintworks under the beam and pave the way to strategies for damage mitigation. In particular, the lowering of PIXE performance induced by the decrease of the beam fluence sets a trade-off between risk of damage and gained information which also impacts the PIXE scanning protocol for paintings. As an illustration of an adequate adjustment of this balance, we report the exploratory application of PIXE mapping to a large area of a 19th century easel painting without damage. The recorded elemental maps are compared to elemental maps collected on the same area using laboratory-based scanning

  7. Can historical controls be used in current clinical trials in osteosarcoma. Analysis of prognostic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Brostroem, L.A.; Aparisi, T.; Ingimarsson, S.; Lagergren, C.; Nilsonne, U.; Strander, H.; Soederberg, G.

    1980-12-01

    A comparison with respect to possible prognostic factors has been made between a contemporary group of 44 patients with osteosarcoma in Sweden, who received treatment since 1971, and a historical group of 35 such patients treated prior to 1972. Only patients with no evidence of metastases on admission were included in the material. The female/male ratio was lower, but not significantly so, for the contemporary group. The mean age was similar in the two groups. Pain was the most common symptom in both groups. The site patterns differed slightly, although not significantly so, in the two groups, there was a higher ratio of frequency of femoral and lower leg tumors for the historical group than for the contemporary group. The variability in tumor size was greater for the historical group, as was the tumor diameter. The historical group had a greater proportion of osteoblastic tumors and these tended to be more malignant. On the whole the prognosis would be expected to be less favorable for the historical group and there would seem to be a definite risk in using this group as a control group to the adjuvant interferon treated patients.

  8. NIMBY syndrome and public consultation policy: the implications of a discourse analysis of local responses to the establishment of a community mental health facility.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Sue

    2003-09-01

    The relocation of mental health services from an institutional to community base in different parts of the UK has witnessed incidents of public opposition in relation to the establishment of community mental health projects. It has been argued that this not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) syndrome is partly a result of the attitudes held by the public towards people with mental health problems. The present paper reports some findings from a study of community attitudes towards individuals with mental health problems in a Scottish community, and discusses their implications for the development of public consultation guidelines with respect to the establishment of community mental health facilities. Discourse analysis was used to explore people's views about individuals with mental health problems. The study examined the ways in which their views were expressed in letters to the local press, and in subsequent discussions and interviews, when arguing for or against a supported accommodation project in their neighbourhood. Participants formulated their arguments around a number of issues which they claimed were of public concern. One of these related to the way in which the project was set up. In particular, participants argued that it had been established without any prior consultation with local people and in circumstances of secrecy. The findings demonstrate that, while consultation is relatively unproblematically defined in terms of its function, the specific nature of consultation is more problematic. The implications of these findings for mental health policy and practice are considered in the light of current official guidelines on public consultation relating to the establishment of community mental health facilities. It is argued that existing guidelines fail to take account of the concerns of local people, and therefore, that any intervention based on such guidelines is likely to be ineffective. It is suggested that the findings of this study will be of interest to

  9. It cuts both ways: an analysis of the psychological discourse on self-injury from a linguistic point of view.

    PubMed

    Bar-On, Vered

    2014-10-01

    This article proposes an analysis of the phenomenon of self-injury through the prism of current linguistic theories. The author uses the clinical distinctions made by Roman Jakobson between metonymic and metaphoric aphasia to suggest that the psychological community and those who harm themselves are participating in separate "language games." While the clinical "language game" is characterized by the dominance of metaphor and a conception stressing the hierarchy between metaphor and metonymy, the "language game" of self-mutilators is dominated by metonymy. The author explores the clinical implications of understanding the language game of those who injure themselves as metonymic. PMID:25247287

  10. The inter-section of political history and health policy in Asia--the historical foundations for health policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Grundy, John; Hoban, Elizabeth; Allender, Steve; Annear, Peter

    2014-09-01

    One of the challenges for health reform in Asia is the diverse set of socio-economic and political structures, and the related variability in the direction and pace of health systems and policy reform. This paper aims to make comparative observations and analysis of health policy reform in the context of historical change, and considers the implications of these findings for the practice of health policy analysis. We adopt an ecological model for analysis of policy development, whereby health systems are considered as dynamic social constructs shaped by changing political and social conditions. Utilizing historical, social scientific and health literature, timelines of health and history for five countries (Cambodia, Myanmar, Mongolia, North Korea and Timor Leste) are mapped over a 30-50 year period. The case studies compare and contrast key turning points in political and health policy history, and examines the manner in which these turning points sets the scene for the acting out of longer term health policy formation, particularly with regard to the managerial domains of health policy making. Findings illustrate that the direction of health policy reform is shaped by the character of political reform, with countries in the region being at variable stages of transition from monolithic and centralized administrations, towards more complex management arrangements characterized by a diversity of health providers, constituency interest and financing sources. The pace of reform is driven by a country's institutional capability to withstand and manage transition shocks of post conflict rehabilitation and emergence of liberal economic reforms in an altered governance context. These findings demonstrate that health policy analysis needs to be informed by a deeper understanding and questioning of the historical trajectory and political stance that sets the stage for the acting out of health policy formation, in order that health systems function optimally along their own

  11. Creating Rhetorical Stability in Corporate University Discourse: Discourse Technologies and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Brenton

    2003-01-01

    Written communication scholarship has shown that successful social change requires discursive stability. This study was designed to investigate how this stability is created. Critical discourse analysis of 30 corporate university articles investigated claims authors made about the expansion of market-based values into contexts of organizational…

  12. The Expositive Discourse as Pedagogical Discourse: Studying Recontextualization in the Production of a Science Museum Exhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marandino, Martha

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I report on the sociological and educational particulars of "The Biodiscovery Space" exhibition of the Life Museum of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using Basil Bernstein's framework of pedagogic discourse and recontextualization. Data for analysis was obtained from interviews with the exhibition…

  13. More? Great? Childcare? A Discourse Analysis of Two Recent Social Policy Documents Relating to the Care and Education of Young Children in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Mary; Silberfeld, Carolyn; Nightingale, Beverley

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the overt and covert discourses in two contemporary policy documents in England and Wales, "The Nutbrown Review: Foundations for Quality" ([DfE] Department for Education Department for Education. 2012. "The Nutbrown Review: Foundations for Quality: The Independent Review of Early Education and Childcare…

  14. Conceptual Change cum Discourse Analysis to Understand Cognition in a Unit on Chaotic Systems: Towards an Integrative Perspective on Learning in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duit, Reinders; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Komorek, Michael; Wilbers, Jens

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates how a well-designed curriculum can lead students to construct an unwanted conception. Concludes that the conceptual-change-cum-discourse perspective has the potential to integrate the affordances of both methodological approaches and past empirical accomplishments. Contains 33 references. (DDR)

  15. An Analysis of the Impact of Second Grade Students' Self-Selection of Text on Their Engagement, Discourse, and Reading Strategies during Guided Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurley, Jackie L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of self-selection of text on literacy behaviors in guided reading instruction. Four second grade students were observed during guided reading instruction. Literacy behaviors were defined as engagement, oral and written discourse, and strategies used to problem-solve unknown words or breaks in comprehension.…

  16. A Syntactic Analysis of the Oral Classroom Language and Written Discourse of Twenty-One Student Teachers of English in Five Secondary Grade Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Martha R.

    To determine the variety of syntactic patterns that potential English teachers would normally use and the possible differences in their oral and written discourse, 1000-word oral and written language samples were collected from 21 student teachers. These samples were divided into T-units and classified according to 23 sentence patterns based on…

  17. Making a Difference in the Lives of Young Children: A Critical Analysis of a Pedagogical Discourse for Motivating Young Women to Become Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langford, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Findings in this article indicate that training programs use a key pedagogical and ideological discourse of "teachers make a difference" to motivate female early childhood education students to enter and stay in the field. However, research in the area of workforce retention maintains that many graduates are not willing to enter and stay in a…

  18. Exploring Students' Mapping Behaviors and Interactive Discourses in a Case Diagnosis Problem: Sequential Analysis of Collaborative Causal Map Drawing Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Woon Jee

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the nature of students' mapping and discourse behaviors while constructing causal maps to articulate their understanding of a complex, ill-structured problem. In this study, six graduate-level students were assigned to one of three pair groups, and each pair used the causal mapping software program,…

  19. Historical analyses by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusko, B. H.; Schwab, R. N.

    1987-03-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is ideally suited for the elemental analysis of the papers, parchment, and inks of books, manuscripts, and other historical documents. This paper will describe the general kinds of historical and bibliographical issues that can be addressed by PIXE, and it discusses two specific historical applications of the technique: to the Gutenberg Bible and the Calov Bible owned by Johann Sebastian Bach.

  20. The Anatomy of Critical Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfield, Lawrence W.

    1968-01-01

    Critical discourse is best understood when its logical features are identified. An examination of the basic elements and modes of rhetorical criticism (a form of critical discourse) produces a finite set of options for the critic, thus enabling him to develop a system of alternatives in his critical efforts. For example, by selecting from among…

  1. Discourse: Simple Moves that Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawding, Molly Rothermel; Wills, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    Just as students need plenty of time to practice skills such as solving fraction problems, they also need time to practice the skills of discourse to become better communicators and stronger mathematicians. Embedded within discourse strategies are specific ways to maximize communication. When repeatedly practiced, students learn to listen to one…

  2. What Counts as Mathematical Discourse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moschkovich, Judit

    2003-01-01

    In this paper I use situated and socio-cultural perspective (Gee, 1996 & 1999) to examine descriptions of mathematical discourse and an example of student talk in a mathematics classroom. Using this example, I discuss how the distinction between everyday and mathematical discourse can help or hinder us in hearing the mathematical content in…

  3. Promoting Civil Discourse on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Rita

    2010-01-01

    During the past several decades, off campus and on, much of the discourse on controversial issues has been personal, vicious, and divisive. On the national scene, politics has become permeated with incivility. It now appears that Americans have been naive about their ability and willingness to engage in civil discourse and compromise. How can…

  4. Bayesian Statistical Analysis of Historical and Late Holocene Rates of Sea-Level Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Niamh; Parnell, Andrew; Kemp, Andrew; Horton, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    A fundamental concern associated with climate change is the rate at which sea levels are rising. Studies of past sea level (particularly beyond the instrumental data range) allow modern sea-level rise to be placed in a more complete context. Considering this, we perform a Bayesian statistical analysis on historical and late Holocene rates of sea-level change. The data that form the input to the statistical model are tide-gauge measurements and proxy reconstructions from cores of coastal sediment. The aims are to estimate rates of sea-level rise, to determine when modern rates of sea-level rise began and to observe how these rates have been changing over time. Many of the current methods for doing this use simple linear regression to estimate rates. This is often inappropriate as it is too rigid and it can ignore uncertainties that arise as part of the data collection exercise. This can lead to over confidence in the sea-level trends being characterized. The proposed Bayesian model places a Gaussian process prior on the rate process (i.e. the process that determines how rates of sea-level are changing over time). The likelihood of the observed data is the integral of this process. When dealing with proxy reconstructions, this is set in an errors-in-variables framework so as to take account of age uncertainty. It is also necessary, in this case, for the model to account for glacio-isostatic adjustment, which introduces a covariance between individual age and sea-level observations. This method provides a flexible fit and it allows for the direct estimation of the rate process with full consideration of all sources of uncertainty. Analysis of tide-gauge datasets and proxy reconstructions in this way means that changing rates of sea level can be estimated more comprehensively and accurately than previously possible. The model captures the continuous and dynamic evolution of sea-level change and results show that not only are modern sea levels rising but that the rates

  5. Integrating Wikis in the Support and Practice of Historical Analysis Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabiness, Catherine; Donovan, Loretta; Green, Tim D.

    2013-01-01

    This case study examines the benefits of integrating wikis into the World History curriculum. Six middle school students chosen because of their designation in relevant subgroups--GATE, AVID, and RSP--participated in this 20-week study. Abstract historical concepts can be difficult to grasp; therefore, students collaborated via a wiki on topics…

  6. History of Science in the Physics Curriculum: A Directed Content Analysis of Historical Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seker, Hayati; Guney, Burcu G.

    2012-01-01

    Although history of science is a potential resource for instructional materials, teachers do not have a tendency to use historical materials in their lessons. Studies showed that instructional materials should be adaptable and consistent with curriculum. This study purports to examine the alignment between history of science and the curriculum in…

  7. A Historical Analysis of the Curriculum of Organic Chemistry Using ACS Exams as Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Standardized examinations, such as those developed and disseminated by the ACS Examinations Institute, are artifacts of the teaching of a course and over time may provide a historical perspective on how curricula have changed and evolved. This study investigated changes in organic chemistry curricula across a 60-year period by evaluating 18 ACS…

  8. Collective Skill Formation: A Historical Analysis of the Least-Likely Case New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trampusch, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article is the first study investigating New Zealand's early legislation in apprenticeship from the perspective of historical institutionalism. It shows that, between 1865 and the 1940s, New Zealand's apprenticeship system was less liberal in character than it is today, because a collective skill formation regime, involving dual…

  9. A Historical Analysis of the Educational Modalities of Inequalities Management in Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulot, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a historical and comparative study of the role that management of inequalities has played in the formation and evolution of educational institutions in three countries: Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala. This particular focus shows that this function has played a determining role, even if its organization has varied deeply in…

  10. Comprehensive Sexuality Education: A Historical and Comparative Analysis of Public Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrman, Judith W.; Solano, Paul; Stotz, Lauren; McDuffie, Mary Joan

    2013-01-01

    This research clarifies the public support of comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) in terms of acceptance, content, timing, and effectiveness as it may inform practice in the United States. The historical context of public opinion, as well as a summary of the efficacy of abstinence only education (AOE) versus CSE in the scientific literature,…

  11. A Historical Analysis of the Daniell Cell and Electrochemistry Teaching in French and Tunisian Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulabiar, Ahlem; Bouraoui, Kamel; Chastrette, Maurice; Abderrabba, Manef

    2004-01-01

    The condition in which the Daniell Cell was historically constructed is examined and the evolution of its presentation in French and Tunisian chemistry textbooks is analyzed. Based on the studies, several innovations to facilitate the teaching of the cell, and more generally, the teaching of electrochemistry and of ionic conduction are proposed.

  12. Social-Cultural-Historical Contradictions in an L2 Listening Lesson: A Joint Activity System Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Informed and inspired by neo-Vygotskian theory, this article outlines a study exploiting a contemporary conceptualization of Wells's (2002) joint activity system model as an exploratory framework for examining and depicting the social-cultural-historical contradictions in second-language (L2) learners' joint activity. The participants were a pair…

  13. Accessibility and Mobility of Persons Who Are Visually Impaired: A Historical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasch, B. B.; Stuckey, K. A.

    1995-01-01

    This article traces the historical development of two movements to improve the mobility of people with visual impairments--environmental modifications to increase accessibility, and orientation and mobility training. It also notes how changes in attitudes, effected to a large degree by the introduction of dog guides, have led to greater acceptance…

  14. Historical Models and Science Instruction: A Cross-Cultural Analysis Based on Students' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shu-Chiu

    2006-01-01

    The paper is an extended work from a previous study on Taiwanese and German students' conceptions of the universe (Liu, 2005). The study revealed that students discuss astronomical events and entities based on a mental model of universe and their models of the universe seem to have similar underlying principles with historical ones. In present…

  15. A Historical Analysis of Post-Genocide Rwandan Special Education: Lessons Derived and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyarambi, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this postcolonial historical study was to investigate the following: prevalence and nature of disabilities, programs, and services of special education in Rwanda before and after the 1994 genocide; and the utility, effectiveness, and importation of western-based special education models, programs, and services in Rwanda; and lastly…

  16. Science Pedagogy as a Category of Historical Analysis: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olesko, Kathryn M.

    2006-01-01

    Historical studies of science pedagogy have flourished in recent years. This essay offers an assessment of the literature on science pedagogy from the 1930s to the present. It argues that rather than focusing on the work of Thomas Kuhn and Michel Foucault, historians of science pedagogy could with profit turn to the work of Ludwik Fleck. Fleck…

  17. Accrediting Culture: An Analysis of Tribal and Historically Black College Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Wade M.

    2006-01-01

    Using data gleaned from catalogs and bulletins for a sample of 28 tribal, 33 historically black, and 30 "mainstream" colleges, the author analyzes the number of courses that focus explicitly and exclusively on African American or American Indian cultural perspectives--"ethnocentric" content--in 1992 and 2002. Negative binomial regression analyses…

  18. A Historical Analysis of Library Access for Death Row Inmates in Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrolenk, Lisa

    A historical study was conducted to determine what type of access to the prison legal library is received by prisoners now housed on death row at the Mansfield Correctional Institution (MaCI) (Mansfield, Ohio) that were formerly housed at the Southern Ohio Correctional Facility (SOCF) (Lucasville, Ohio). A satellite law library had been created…

  19. National and Post-National Discourses and the Construction of Linguistic Identities by Students of Albanian Origin in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archakis, Argiris

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on Critical Discourse Analysis and, more specifically, on the relationship between the macro-level of dominant discourses and the micro-level of individual positionings, we examine the way linguistic identities are constructed by immigrant students of Albanian origin in Greece. We elaborate on two "competitive" discourses: the…

  20. Neoliberal Common Sense and Race-Neutral Discourses: A Critique of "Evidence-Based" Policy-Making in School Policing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    The author of this paper uses critical discourse analysis and draws on critical social theory and policy studies to analyze the interdiscursivity between neoliberal common sense discourses around crime and safety and race-neutral discourses, "evidence-based" policy, and the research that supports school policing programs. The author…