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1

The politics of historical discourse analysis: a qualitative research method?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the ways in which historical discourse analysis is at once different from and similar to research described as qualitative or quantitative. It discusses the consequences of applying the standards of such methods to historical discourse analysis. It is pointed out that although the merit of research using historical discourse analysis must not be judged by the

Ingólfur Ásgeir Jóhannesson

2010-01-01

2

Discourse Analysis Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of articles includes: "Introduction: Discourse Analysis Today" (Dagmar Schue and M.D. Lopez-Maestre); "The Metaphorical and Metonymic Understanding of the Trinitarian Dogma" (Antonio Barcelona); "Symmetry as Conceptual Metaphor in Walker's The Color Purple" (Elena Tapia); "And She's Like it's Terrible, Like: Spoken Discourse,…

Scheu, Dagmar, Ed.; Lopez-Maestre, M. D., Ed.

2003-01-01

3

Cultural approaches to discourse analysis: A theoretical and methodological conversation with special focus on Donal Carbaugh's Cultural Discourse Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay opens a conversation in the Journal of Multicultural Discourses on cultural approaches to discourse analysis. Culturally-inclusive approaches to discourse analysis and communication that critique Western-biased theories and methods are covered including Jan Blommaert's Critical Discourse Analysis, Shi-xu's Cultural Approach to Discourse, and Asian communication theories. An extensive review of the historical development of Donal Carbaugh's Cultural Discourse Theory

Michelle Scollo

2011-01-01

4

A Call to Arms at the End of History: A Discourse–Historical Analysis of George W. Bush’s Declaration of War on Terror  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we take a discourse–historical approach to illustrate the significance of George W. Bush’s (2001) declaration of a ‘war on terror’. We present four exemplary ‘call to arms’ speeches by Pope Urban II (1095), Queen Elizabeth I (1588), Adolf Hitler (1938) and George W. Bush (2001) to exemplify the structure, function, and historical significance of such texts in

Phil Graham; Thomas Keenan; Anne-Maree Dowd

2004-01-01

5

Apologizing for historical injustice: Emotion, truth and identity in political discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent apology by the Australian Prime Minister to Indigenous Australians demonstrates the increasing willingness of nation states to apologize for historical injustices. In this critical discursive analysis of Rudd’s apology, we analyse the pragmatic and linguistic features of the apology in light of recent research on political apologies as a generic type of discourse. We demonstrate how the act

Martha Augoustinos; Brianne Hastie; Monique Wright

2011-01-01

6

Understanding Teachers: The Potential and Possibility of Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the ways in which teachers make sense of what they do and why is critical to a broader understanding of pedagogy. Historically, teachers have been understood through the thematic and content analysis of their beliefs or philosophies. In this paper, we argue that discourse analysis (DA) involves a much finer-grained analysis of the…

Barker, Dean M.; Rossi, Anthony

2011-01-01

7

Governmentality as a Genealogical Toolbox in Historical Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this article is to show how governmentality may be used to analyze historical events and discourses, and how this historical analysis can be used as a perspective to problematize contemporary discourses. The example used in this article is from my research on life-extension handbooks published in Sweden 1700-1930, and by this I stress…

Andersson, Janicke

2014-01-01

8

Discourse Analysis in Career Counseling and Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discourse analysis can be used to understand and interpret culturally and socially produced meanings regarding work and to outline how specific rules and conventions can configure meaning production of work in context. The implications of some core concepts in discourse analysis pertinent to career counseling are explored, including discourse,…

Stead, Graham B.; Bakker, Terri M.

2010-01-01

9

NEOLIBERALISM AND THE INDIAN VERNACULAR PRESS: A CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF NEOLIBERAL DISCOURSES AMONG KANNADA JOURNALISTS.  

E-print Network

??The discourses of neoliberalism among journalists working for two Kannada newspapers were examined using critical discourse analysis. Seventeen journalists were interviewed with regard to their… (more)

Chandrashekar, Santhosh

2009-01-01

10

An Overview of Discourse Analysis and Its Usefulness in TESOL.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides an overview of discourse analysis from a linguistic point of view, discussing why it is relevant to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL). It focuses on the following: discourse and discourse analysis; discourse analysis and TESOL; approaches to discourse analysis; systemic functional linguistics; theme and…

Milne, Geraldine Veronica

11

A Mapping of Historical Discourses in STEM Advocacy Literature.  

E-print Network

??Efforts to privilege STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) disciplines, initiatives, and industries in American discourse are arguably the foremost expressions of scientific authority in… (more)

Geldis, Christopher Scott

2014-01-01

12

Why Critical Discourse Analysis in Literacy Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

engagements with institutionalized discourses or the creation of alternative ones. We associate this language study and language praxis with the term critical discourse analysis (CDA). This article considers new directions for CDA in literacy research as well as additional purposes for the methodological and analytic tool in literacy pedagogy, literacy policy, and literacy praxis. We begin by theorizing CDA. We

Leslie Burns; Ernest Morrell

13

Heterogeneous knowledge: Trends in German discourse analysis against an international background  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution maps the complex field of discourse analysis in Germany by situating its major currents and putting them in historical perspective. In a first step, it presents the major intellectual sources, such as (post-)structuralism, pragmatism\\/interactionism as well as hermeneutics, which have served as a backdrop for the establishment of discourse analysis as an interdisciplinary field since the 1980s. In

Johannes Angermüller

2011-01-01

14

Critical discourse analysis: new possibilities for scientific research in the mental health area.  

PubMed

The present study aims to get to know the philosophical, conceptual and methodological aspects of Critical Discourse Analysis, as a theoretical-methodological framework for research in the mental health area. Initially, the study presents a reflection on psychiatric discourse in history and at present, with the goal of introducing concepts and presuppositions that would guide the analysis of discursive processes. Discussions are presented about the historical milestones of Critical Discourse Analysis as an analytical framework in social sciences. Finally, the study presents its conceptual and methodological applications to research in the mental health area. PMID:19377818

de Pinho, Leandro Barbosa; Kantorski, Luciane Prado; Bañon Hernández, Antonio Miguel

2009-01-01

15

A critical discourse analysis of geoengineering advocacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I examine the discursive field of geoengineering by unpacking how particular members, associates and academics allied with private institutes frame, treat and discursively construct a justification of geoengineering technologies. I begin with a brief introduction to geoengineering, followed by a discussion of relevant international agreements and an overview of critical discourse analysis. I outline several discursive strategies

Tina Sikka

2012-01-01

16

Critical Discourse Analysis, Adult Education and "Fitba"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article I will use an example of current adult education practice, the Glory and Dismay Football Literacies Programme (GDFLP) to appraise the value of critical discourse analysis (CDA) for adult learners, both individually and collectively, and for adult education practitioners with an interest in developing critical literacy skills. The…

Player, John

2013-01-01

17

Classroom Discourse Of Malay Language Lesson: A Critical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the teaching and learning process of the Malay language in the classroom usually focuses on the method, content, strategy and teaching aids. Moving away from this norm, this research article examines the process from the discourse analysis perspective called pedagogic discourse analysis, with an adaptation of Fairclough\\\\{$\\\\backslash$textquoteright\\\\}s Critical Discourse Analysis Framework (1992; 1995). The discussion is based on

Idris Aman; Rosniah Mustaffa

2006-01-01

18

Analysis of normal discourse patterns.  

PubMed

Twenty-five normal young adult college students provided speaking and writing samples using two elicitation procedures: picture description and personal narrative. Patterns of productivity, efficiency, and coherence were investigated while considering the demands imposed by mode of expression, task elicitation, cognitive distance, and verbal working memory. Samples were divided into top (S1) and bottom (S2) halves. Within group (S1/S2) and between group (pictured activity description/personal narrative) comparisons were made for oral vs. written samples, and performance measures were correlated with verbal working memory scores. Results indicated that the productivity measure was influenced by the type of elicitation task and was not related to verbal working memory scores. Efficiency was influenced by mode of expression and demonstrated a low correlation with verbal working memory scores. Coherence ratings were not influenced by type of elicitation task, mode of expression, or length of sample, and were not related to verbal working memory scores. Results are discussed in terms of the clinical utility of these discourse measures. PMID:14607183

Smith, Rebecca; Heuerman, Maranda; Wilson, Brenda M; Proctor, Adele

2003-11-01

19

Discourse Analysis: Openings. Paper Presented at a Workshop on Discourse Analysis (Jyvaskyla, Finland, October 18-19, 1985). Reports from the Department of English, University of Jyvaskyla, No. 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Topics covered in papers presented at a Finnish workshop on discourse analysis include, in English: the situational code in conversation; persuasive strategies and face-work in impromptu speech; historical aspects of complex behavioral strategies in politeness; the implications of predictability and unpredictability for negotiation discourse; and…

Sajavaara, Kari, Ed.

20

CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS: IRANIAN BANKS ADVERTISEMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study tried to analyze an array of banks advertisements in an Iranian socio-cultural context. The selected commercials are analyzed critically from a top-down as well as a bottom-up point of view. The framework is that of the Fairclough's (1992) which embraces three aspects of discourse presenting some closely-related layers called 1) description of textual analysis 2) interpretation of

Soheila Tahmasbi; Abadan Branch; Ahvaz Jundishapur

2013-01-01

21

Interpreting the Discourse of H.G. Widdowson: A Corpus-based Critical Discourse Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The discourse of a recent position paper by H.G. Widdowson is analyzed by using three methods criticized in Widdowson's paper. The paper was converted into a miniature data corpus and analyzed with the concepts of systemic functional linguistics, corpus linguistics, and critical discourse analysis. (Author/VWL)

de Beaugrande, Robert

2001-01-01

22

Assessing the validity of discourse analysis: transdisciplinary convergence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research studies using discourse analysis approaches make claims about phenomena or issues based on interpretation of written or spoken text, which includes images and gestures. How are findings/interpretations from discourse analysis validated? This paper proposes transdisciplinary convergence as a way to validate discourse analysis approaches to research. The argument is made that discourse analysis explicitly grounded in semiotics, systemic functional linguistics, and critical theory, offers a credible research methodology. The underlying assumptions, constructs, and techniques of analysis of these three theoretical disciplines can be drawn on to show convergence of data at multiple levels, validating interpretations from text analysis.

Jaipal-Jamani, Kamini

2014-01-01

23

A quoi peut servir l'analyse de discours? (Of What Use is Discourse Analysis?).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a survey of opinions on the nature and usefulness of discourse analysis. The following topics are addressed: (1) discourse analysis and ideologies of power, (2) epistemological considerations, and (3) discourse analysis and interdisciplinary endeavors. (AMH)

Sumpf, Joseph

1979-01-01

24

Classroom Discourse in Mathematics: A Multisemiotic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of the multisemiotic nature of mathematics on classroom discourse is examined from a systemic functional linguistic perspective. Mathematical discourse is multisemiotic because it involves the use of the semiotic resources of mathematical symbolism, visual display and language. There is constant movement between the three resources as the primary code and with shifts between spoken and written modes in

Kay L O'Halloran

1998-01-01

25

Some Observations on the Critique of Critical Discourse Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the publication in 1989 of Norman Fairclough's Language and Power and Ruth Wodak's Language, Power and Ideology, and the launch in 1990 of Teun van Dijk's journal, Discourse & Society, Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) has not only grown into a major field of research in its own right but has also been widely adopted by researchers in a range

Edward Haig

26

Understanding Resistance: An Analysis of Discourses in Academic Staff Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using social realist theory and critical discourse analysis, this article examines a number of discourses which construct academic staff attitudes to teaching and learning in their disciplines. It seeks to explain academics' resistance to engaging in activities aimed at professionalising academic practice. The research described in the article…

Quinn, Lynn

2012-01-01

27

Ideology, Rationality and Reproduction in Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In undertaking a critical discourse analysis of the professed aims and objectives of one of the most influential curricula in the teaching of thinking, this article foregrounds issues of power and ideology latent in curricular discourses of rationality. Specifically, it documents the subtle but powerful ways in which political and class…

Lim, Leonel

2014-01-01

28

Self in Career Theory and Counselling: A Discourse Analysis Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A rapidly changing postmodern working world demands revised conceptualisations of the self. Recent scholarship in discourse analysis invites an investigation into how selves are constructed and fabricated within a complex matrix of social discourses, and how this may impact on the field of career counselling and development. This paper examines…

Stead, Graham B.; Bakker, Terri M.

2010-01-01

29

Discourses of Linguistic dominance: A Historical Consideration of French Language Ideology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper offers a historical perspective on the linguistic and cultural imperialism embedded in the struggle to maintain French as a leading international language. France was the nation-state where the ideology of national language was first clearly formulated and directly extended to overseas colonies. This shows the close relationship between linguistic nationalism and imperialism. It was believed that French was the language of universal human reason and had the power to civilize people who spoke it. This myth of the "clarté française" and the "mission civilisatrice" had a strong influence on various kinds of metalinguistic discourses that created the taken-for-granted representation of French as dominant language. It is the essential strategy of language dominance to establish the hierarchy of languages as if it were natural order of things. When French was obliged to yield the status of international language to English, there emerged the ideology of "Francophonie" which tried to defend its privilege against the monopoly of English, but the same ideology is also directed against minorities' claims for their own linguistic human right. It could be said that these discourses form a recursive prototype of language dominance whose variations are to be found in other shapes almost all over the world.

Kasuya, Keisuke

2001-07-01

30

Uniting postcolonial, discourse, and linguistic theory to explore participation of African Americans in cancer research as an effect of social and historical race relationships.  

PubMed

This article uses a historical framework of postcolonialism; discourse analytic concepts (significance, identity, and relationships); and 5 social and cultural linguistic principles of emergence, positionality, indexicality, relationality, and partialness as a theoretical and methodological triangulation approach to data analysis of focus group discussion. Exemplars of focus group data from a study exploring African American participation in research demonstrate the application of this combined framework as a useful tool for analysis. This approach allows for examination of identity and interaction and generates a more rigorous and complete understanding of how individuals use language to construct identity as participants or nonparticipants in research. PMID:24469087

Somayaji, Darryl; Cloyes, Kristin Gates

2014-01-01

31

Power in clinical teachers' discourses of a curriculum-in-action. Critical discourse analysis.  

PubMed

"Curricula-in-action" generally differ from "official" curricula. That is particularly true of clerkship curricula because the practising doctors who supervise medical students' clinical activities are only secondarily educators. Clerkship education is evaluated, however, according to benchmarks set by official curricula. As a result, clerkship evaluations are important points of contact between clinical teachers and medical schools. We reasoned that an evaluation instrument is part of a medical school's official curriculum discourse and clinical teachers' reactions to it are a discourse of curriculum-in-action. We set out to answer the questions: What are clinical teachers' discourses of curriculum-in-action and how do they relate to an official curriculum discourse? Nineteen clerkship placement leads from two hospitals contributing to a single undergraduate medical programme participated. The evaluation instrument was the Manchester Clinical Placement Index, for which validity evidence has been published. Respondents were asked to say how they would react to junior students giving their placements low or high scores for each of 12 items from the Index. After transcription, we conducted a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of their audio-recorded answers. We purposefully selected the six items that elicited the widest spectrum of responses for analysis because quantity of material can compromise the quality of CDA. A dominant discourse of curriculum-in-action defined how teachers should "really" teach and junior students should learn. It deconstructed the need for teachers to be present when students performed clinical tasks because teachers' role was to give critical feedback on case presentations that were coincidental to clinical care. It positioned students at the bottom of a power hierarchy so they had to "struggle" to be taught. It placed respondents in a powerful position relative to "the hospital" and "the university", though there were tensions between respondents, patients, and nurses. Respondents dismissed criticism that was invalid according to their curriculum-in-action, which included most items in an evaluation instrument. There was a contrasting, non-dominant discourse of responding reflectively to feedback, which generated realistic ways of improving students' learning. The strength of respondents' emotions shows just how committed doctors are to students' learning. The strength of their expressions of power, however, explains why many of them teach in their own way rather than according to official curricula. Changes to clinical curricula, our findings suggest, will not be successful unless they are carefully negotiated with practising doctors. PMID:23283572

Graham, Jennifer; Dornan, Tim

2013-12-01

32

Historical concept analysis of empathy.  

PubMed

An analysis of the concept empathy was performed on archival, narrative accounts of Civil War nursing care using concept analysis strategies. Archival model cases are presented with elucidation of critical attributes, antecedents and consequences, and empirical referents of the concept. The antecedent phenomena of patient cues and consequent phenomena of patient responses serve to clarify instances of nurse empathy and establish preliminary and terminal boundaries of the concept. Empirical referents of the critical attributes identification, introjection, and intervention further explicate this abstract construct. Analysis of contrary, related, and borderline cases extracted from the historical accounts serve to clarify empathy. Most notable to the analysis is the existence of nursing interventions as a critical attribute and the nature of patient responses. Preliminary examination of the model cases indicates patient outcomes improve when empathy is extant in the interaction. PMID:7499122

Sutherland, J A

1995-01-01

33

Experiences and constructions of art: a narrative-discourse analysis.  

PubMed

A narrative-discourse analysis was conducted to study the narratives of mental health service users talking about their engagement with art. The sample was drawn from a group of people who had attended arts workshops organized by a mental health service provider. Eleven people were interviewed and were asked to tell the story of their involvement in art and its significance to their lives. The data were analysed using a discourse analysis approach. Art is constructed as therapeutic within an illness repertoire. Emotions are inseparable from creative expression and identity claims are made in relation to being an artist. PMID:18039303

Stickley, T; Hui, A; Morgan, J; Bertram, G

2007-12-01

34

The organising vision for telehealth and telecare: discourse analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To (1) map how different stakeholders understand telehealth and telecare technologies and (2) explore the implications for development and implementation of telehealth and telecare services. Design Discourse analysis. Sample 68 publications representing diverse perspectives (academic, policy, service, commercial and lay) on telehealth and telecare plus field notes from 10 knowledge-sharing events. Method Following a familiarisation phase (browsing and informal interviews), we studied a systematic sample of texts in detail. Through repeated close reading, we identified assumptions, metaphors, storylines, scenarios, practices and rhetorical positions. We added successive findings to an emerging picture of the whole. Main findings Telehealth and telecare technologies featured prominently in texts on chronic illness and ageing. There was no coherent organising vision. Rather, four conflicting discourses were evident and engaged only minimally with one another's arguments. Modernist discourse presented a futuristic utopian vision in which assistive technologies, implemented at scale, would enable society to meet its moral obligations to older people by creating a safe ‘smart’ home environment where help was always at hand, while generating efficiency savings. Humanist discourse emphasised the uniqueness and moral worth of the individual and tailoring to personal and family context; it considered that technologies were only sometimes fit for purpose and could create as well as solve problems. Political economy discourse envisaged a techno-economic complex of powerful vested interests driving commodification of healthcare and diversion of public funds into private business. Change management discourse recognised the complicatedness of large-scale technology programmes and emphasised good project management and organisational processes. Conclusion Introduction of telehealth and telecare is hampered because different stakeholders hold different assumptions, values and world views, ‘talk past’ each other and compete for recognition and resources. If investments in these technologies are to bear fruit, more effective inter-stakeholder dialogue must occur to establish an organising vision that better accommodates competing discourses. PMID:22815469

Procter, Rob; Wherton, Joe; Sugarhood, Paul; Shaw, Sara

2012-01-01

35

Why there is no such thing as “critical discourse analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article argues that there is no such thing as Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) in the sense of a method of political or ideological critique based on the application of conventional linguistic constructs. All of us, as language users and makers, are continuously engaged in the critical examination of and response to communication in our everyday lives. The article argues

Peter E. Jones

2007-01-01

36

A Discourse Analysis of School Counseling Supervisory E-Mail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a discourse analysis of weekly computer-mediated communications between 8 school counseling interns and their e-mail supervisor over a 16-week semester. Course-required e-mail supervision was provided as an adjunct to traditional face-to-face individual and group supervision. School counselor supervisees and supervisor enacted 3…

Luke, Melissa; Gordon, Cynthia

2011-01-01

37

Competency Discourses: An Analysis of Secondary and Tertiary Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of a sample of assessment tasks used in New Zealand first-year clinical and final-year secondary school Biology and Chemistry National Certificate of Educational Achievement summative assessments was conducted to assess whether similarities and differences existed in secondary and tertiary competency discourses. Findings suggested…

McNaughton, Susan M.

2013-01-01

38

Critical discourse analysis: understanding change in maternity services.  

PubMed

This paper provides an example of the use of critical discourse analysis (CDA) in the area of maternity care policy and describes the process of CDA as an effective research method for understanding the influences of change in the context of Australian maternity services. CDA is a methodological approach that examines how discourse is formed and given power, as a result of how power is used, who uses it and the context within which this usage takes place. The application of CDA is described in this study for the purpose of examining key-stakeholder use of knowledge and power for the purpose of influencing the direction of the maternity services reform. The CDA theoretical framework guided discourse identification and analysis of the purpose behind the discourse through examination of power relationships between key stakeholders. The use of a theoretical lens in the form of neoliberalism to supplement the theoretical framework facilitated the exposure of forces intrinsic to the maternity care context driving change. PMID:22257329

McIntyre, Meredith; Francis, Karen; Chapman, Ysanne

2012-02-01

39

"Generation 1.5" and Its Discourses of Partiality: A Critical Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a critical discourse analysis of "generation 1.5," a term used to refer to students born outside the United States who received part, or most, of their formal education in the United States. The analysis reveals that surrounding "generation 1.5" are 3 interconnected discourses of partiality: a discourse of demographic partiality, a…

Benesch, Sarah

2008-01-01

40

Counter-Memory and Race: An Examination of African American Scholars' Challenges to Early Twentieth Century K-12 Historical Discourses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines how African American scholars during the early twentieth century employed the genre of curriculum writing to challenge existing discourses of race. Drawing from the findings of a qualitative document analysis of textbooks created by Carter G. Woodson and Charles H. Wesley, this article illustrates how these authors used texts…

Brown, Anthony L.

2010-01-01

41

Presupposition in Lexical Analysis and Discourse  

E-print Network

Recent research in linguistic analysis of presuppositions has provided numerous indications of the role of presupposition in lexical analysis. Still others have argued there is no distinction between meaning and the ...

Bullwinkle, Candace L.

42

At Last: "What's Discourse Got to Do with It?" A Meditation on Critical Discourse Analysis in Literacy Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lewis explains why critical discourse analysis (CDA) has become an indispensable method for many researchers trying to understand how ideologies and social structures are reflected in and reified by language. The critical linguistic turn that has occurred in the humanities and social sciences for the last three decade has finally taken hold in the…

Lewis, Cynthia

2006-01-01

43

Genuine versus Simulated Suicide Notes: An Issue Revisited Through Discourse Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a method of discourse analysis applied to the discrimination of genuine from simulated suicide notes used in previous studies. Reported significant differences among language measures as well as the results of a multiple discriminant analysis using the discourse analysis. A language profile of the suicidal individual is given. (JAC)

Edelman, Ann M.; Renshaw, Steven L.

1982-01-01

44

The British and Curriculum Development in West Africa: A Historical Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Only recently have African nations begun to make their way towards establishing genuinely autonomous education systems incorporating elements of indigenous culture. The present study examines the historical development of curriculum in British West Africa in its links with the educational activities of the early Christian missionaries and the…

Ofori-Attah, Kwabena Dei

2006-01-01

45

Studying Agency in Literacy Teacher Education: A Layered Approach to Positive Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critically oriented forms of discourse analysis have focused largely on oppression and injustice. Signaling a new turn in the field, scholars have called for an analytic focus on moments of liberation and agency, referring to this orientation as "positive discourse analysis" (PDA). In this research, we turn our attention to a case study of agency…

Rogers, Rebecca; Wetzel, Melissa Mosley

2013-01-01

46

Insights beyond Neo-Liberal Educational Practices: The Value of Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the nature, power and effects of neo-liberal rationale in educational settings. By introducing discourse analysis of two cases, the influence of neo-liberal ideology on contemporary curricula and school programs were examined. The analysis showed that dominant discourses based on neo-liberal rationale presented themselves as…

Turunen, Tuija A.; Rafferty, John

2013-01-01

47

Critical Discourse Analysis and the Corpus-Informed Interpretation of Metaphor at the Register Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One aspect of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) involves examining how metaphors in texts, particularly hard news texts (reports of very recent conflicts, crimes, etc.), imply certain values. The usual theoretical basis for such analysis is Lakoff and Johnson (1980). My article shows problems with transplanting Lakoff and Johnson's discourse-level…

O'Halloran, Kieran

2007-01-01

48

“GENRE MEANS …”: A CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF FOURTH GRADE TALK ABOUT GENRE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This action research study investigates how genre theory can be integrated into the practice of a writing enrichment program and how the frameworks of Critical Discourse Analysis and Multimodal Analysis can help assess and improve both student learning and teacher practice. A multilayered exploration of teacher-student discourse in an urban public elementary school in the Midwest United States discloses the

Inda Schaenen

2010-01-01

49

Discourse Analysis and Grammar Above the Sentence. Specialised Bibliography A4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography is divided into three main sections. The first section cites one bibliography relevant to discourse analysis. The second section cites books pertaining to discourse analysis, language structure, and transformational generative grammar. The third section refers to articles in the same areas. Entries include both American and…

British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

50

"Genre Means...": A Critical Discourse Analysis of Fourth Grade Talk about Genre  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action research study investigates how genre theory can be integrated into the practice of a writing enrichment program and how the frameworks of Critical Discourse Analysis and Multimodal Analysis can help assess and improve both student learning and teacher practice. A multilayered exploration of teacher-student discourse in an urban public…

Schaenen, Inda

2010-01-01

51

Climate Change Discourse in Mass Media: Application of Computer-Assisted Content Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Content analysis of mass media publications has become a major scientific method used to analyze public discourse on climate change. We propose a computer-assisted content analysis method to extract prevalent themes and analyze discourse changes over an extended period in an objective and quantifiable manner. The method includes the following: (1)…

Kirilenko, Andrei P.; Stepchenkova, Svetlana O.

2012-01-01

52

The Discourses of Discourse Analysis: A Response to Ninnes and Burnett.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field of comparative education has been slow to incorporate poststructuralist concerns due to theoretical bias, the linguistic barrier of postmodernist discourses, and the critique of postmodernism as indifferent to social issues. Debates on key questions of epistemology, ontology, and ethics in social research are needed to further…

Welch, Anthony

2003-01-01

53

Knowledge Building Discourse Explorer: A Social Network Analysis Application for Knowledge Building Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent studies of learning theories, a new methodology that integrates two prevailing metaphors of learning (acquisition and participation) has been discussed. However, current analytical techniques are insufficient for analyzing how social knowledge develops through learners' discourse and how individual learners contribute to this…

Oshima, Jun; Oshima, Ritsuko; Matsuzawa, Yoshiaki

2012-01-01

54

Empowering Discourse: Discourse Analysis as Method and Practice in the Sociology Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collaborative learning and critical pedagogy are widely recognized as "empowering" pedagogies for higher education. Yet, the practical implementation of both has a mixed record. The question, then, is: How could collaborative and critical pedagogies be empowered themselves? This paper makes a primarily theoretical case for discourse

Hjelm, Titus

2013-01-01

55

An analysis of discourses shaping mental health practitioners.  

PubMed

A mental health practitioner (MHP) role was introduced to health services in southern England in 2003. The paper will discuss the initial phase within a longitudinal research study. A discursive approach will be adopted in order to understand how healthcare discourses constrain and provide possibilities for the emergence of a new worker role in mental health. The manner in which MHPs understand and talk about their work is socially constructed in interaction and constantly being modified by competing discourses. This paper will analyse three overarching health discourses, namely, the biomedical, person-centred and psychological discourses that have shaped MHP trainees. Discourses intersect to inform the role, where practices of nursing, psychology, medicine and occupational therapy are combined. Thus, the inclusion of physical, psychological and person-centred components of care serve as a multifaceted approach to care. This form of interprofessionalism leads MHPs one step closer in the advance towards an interdisciplinary discourse of holistic care. PMID:21896114

Zeeman, L; Simons, L

2011-10-01

56

Discourse analysis and the doctor-patient relationship.  

PubMed

This article describes a system of discourse analysis, called a "taxonomy of verbal response modes," which can be applied to medical interviews. The taxonomy identifies eight basic categories: disclosure, question, edification, acknowledgement, advisement, interpretation, confirmation, and reflection, which are defined by three principles of classification. The categories are mutually exclusive and exhaustive. Each mode conveys a particular interpersonal intent and also has a characteristic grammatical form. With eight forms and eight intents, the taxonomy includes sixty-four possible verbal response modes, eight "pure modes," in which form and intent coincide, and fifty-six "mixed modes," in which form and intent differ. The taxonomy has yielded fine-grained descriptions of patient-physician interaction and has identified particular types of utterances and verbal exchanges that are associated with patients' satisfaction with their medical interviews. The system provides a detailed descriptive vocabulary that may be useful for teaching interviewing skills. PMID:757215

Stiles, W B

57

A Conversational Analysis of Computer-Mediated Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Excerpts from a transcript of computer "conversations" provide the basis for a study of how people manage ongoing interaction, given the constraints of computer-mediated discourse, and whether any unusual conventions are used in doing so. The discourse was analyzed using address, topical references, and adjacency pairs to link the messages.…

Holmes, Michael E.

58

A cultural and rhetoric analysis of internationalized human rights discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study is to theorize oppositional discourse that has not yet been conceptualized within existing composition studies. The study examines the discourse of Amnesty International, a prestigious human rights organization drawing its mandate from the UN Declaration of Human Rights. Amnesty International delineates and defines human rights, providing forums in which victims and witnesses may speak

Karen Ruth Dwyer

1997-01-01

59

A Discourse Analysis of the Online Mathematics Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirteen online mathematics classes were analyzed using a discourse coding system created by Bellack et al. (1966). Findings suggest that the ratio of teacher-to-student discourse is far lower in online than in face-to-face classes and varies widely from instructor to instructor. A strong positive correlation was shown between instructor posts and…

Offenholley, Kathleen H.

2012-01-01

60

Intellectual Disabilities, Challenging Behaviour and Referral Texts: A Critical Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The texts of referrals written by workers in residential services for people with learning difficulties constitute sites where contemporary discourses of intellectual disabilities are being constructed. This paper uses Critical Discourse Analysis to examine referrals made to a Community Learning Disability Team (CLDT). The study finds referral…

Nunkoosing, Karl; Haydon-Laurelut, Mark

2011-01-01

61

Scaling discourse analysis: Experiences from Hermanus, South Africa and Walvis Bay, Namibia1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scaling discourse analysis refers to the necessity to consider environmental discourse a multi-dimensional and diversified practice. Depending on the various levels of state and society at which environmental policies are applied and depending on the geographical scale at which their solution is sought, we have to differentiate both policy processes and outcomes in environmental politics. We introduce the importance of

Roger Keil; Anne-Marie Debbané

2005-01-01

62

Discourse-Based Methods across Texts and Semiotic Modes: Three Tools for Micro-Rhetorical Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the scope of rhetorical inquiry broadens to cover intersemiotic and intertextual phenomena, scholars are increasingly in need of new, defensible analytic procedures. Several scholars have suggested that methods of discourse analysis could enhance rhetorical criticism. Here, I introduce a discourse-based method that is empirical, delicate, and…

Oddo, John

2013-01-01

63

Analyse linguistique du discours jauresien (A Linguistic Analysis of Jaures' Discourse).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the development of discourse analysis in modern linguistics, and presents a semantic analysis, based on a comparative word frequency count, of two political speeches made by the socialist Jean Jaures. (AM)

Chauveau, Genevieve

1978-01-01

64

Marketization in the language of UK university recruitment: a critical discourse analysis and corpus comparison of university and finance industry job advertisements.  

E-print Network

??This thesis investigates the marketization of universities’ recruitment discourse, using critical discourse analysis and corpus linguistic methodology. University and financial job advertisements were compared synchronically… (more)

Kheovichai, Baramee

2014-01-01

65

Health promotion in nursing: a Derridean discourse analysis.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to identify the current position of health promotion in nursing as it relates to its practice, theory and policy and, where possible as a secondary aim, compare and contrast this against the health promotion position of other health professional groups. This was achieved using the framework of a Derridean-derived discourse analysis of existing health promotion literature specific to nurses and nursing practice. The overall process examined a 'corpus' of the literature considered exemplary texts of that kind and classification. A number of binary oppositions and tensions, in the Derridean tradition, were uncovered. Strong themes to emerge were that nursing has yet to clearly contextualize and differentiate health promotion and health education and the specific role and function of nursing. Also evident was the view that nursing-related clinical practice is yet to universally reflect the theory and language of 'general' health promotion. Furthermore, nursing has not yet demonstrated a clear and notable wider health policy/political role in formulating and implementing health promotion agendas. Although this state of affairs has existed for some time now, there is evidence that nursing knowledge and practice is changing-even if this is not a universal phenomenon. Studies, like this one, are part of the step towards a more widespread reform for health promotion in nursing. PMID:21131628

Whitehead, Dean

2011-03-01

66

A methodology for streamlining historical research: the analysis of technical and scientific publications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article provides a framework for organizing and structuring the research of historical researchers who analyze technical and scientific publications. Because historical research spans both decades and centuries, an effective research methodology is essential. The framework consists of a multifaceted 10-step method for studying the written discourse of scientific and technical communication, specifically for interpreting historical data obtained from articles

J. T. Battalio

2002-01-01

67

Disciplining Professionals: A Feminist Discourse Analysis of Public Preschool Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational reforms across the globe have had implications for the work of preschool teachers and thus their professional identities. This article draws on a feminist discourse lens to examine data collected from a recent narrative inquiry focused on understanding the professional identities of five public preschool teachers in the USA. This…

Sisson, Jamie Huff; Iverson, Susan V.

2014-01-01

68

Sex Differences In Intercultural Discourse: An Empirical Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous interpretations of male/female discourse were examined in light of new data generated from a study of intercultural mixed-sex dyads. Eleven dyads, each consisting of a Chinese and an American subject, were videotaped in 30-minute conversations about courtship in different cultures. The tapes were content analyzed to obtain information on…

Schneider, Michael J.; Jordan, William J.

69

Negotiating a pathological identity in the clinical dialogue: discourse analysis of a family therapy.  

PubMed

Within the framework of social constructionism, psychotherapy has been re-conceptualized as a semiotic process, which consists of the creative generation of new meanings in the context of collaborative discourse. In recent years, research approaches that draw from social constructionism, such as discourse analysis, have been fruitfully employed in the study of psychotherapy processes, whilst being in line with the contemporary emphasis on language, narrative, and meaning making. This paper aims to further the exploration of the usefulness of discourse analysis in the study of psychotherapy processes, and in particular, in situations where the medical discourse is powerfully implicated in the construction of a person's identity. It is based on the analysis of a family therapy with a family whose child has a diagnosis of autism. The analysis focuses on two features of the family's talk, namely shifts in the flexibility of employment of a diverse range of discourses and subject positions, and shifts in the ways agency is constructed and discursively negotiated in the clinical conversations. It is suggested that these shifts can be used as indications of change in the family's network of meanings. The analysis suggests that an important aspect in clinical work with families with a member with a psychiatric diagnosis lies in decentring, or deconstructing, the dominant, pathology-maintaining accounts, and allowing for a wider range of less problematic narratives and subject positions to emerge. PMID:16354441

Avdi, Evrinomy

2005-12-01

70

Resources for Historical Landscape Analysis: Toronto  

E-print Network

Master or online Fire Insurance Plans City Directories Internet resources Toronto Public Library (Historicity) City Toronto Public Library digital atlas versions 1884, 1890, 1892, 1893, 1899, 1910 (Historicity) Library (see Library Catalogue) McMaster original 1912 (Map Collection) Toronto Public Library digital

Haykin, Simon

71

Social Construction of Gender and Sexuality in Online HIV/AIDS Discourses in China: A Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis  

E-print Network

to gender inequalities, especially for women in developing countries like China. Discourse is one for women's vulnerability to HIV/AIDS, what are often overlooked are gender inequalities in socioSocial Construction of Gender and Sexuality in Online HIV/AIDS Discourses in China: A Feminist

Kvasny, Lynette

72

Beyond the divide between cognition and discourse: Using interpretative phenomenological analysis in health psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces interpretative phenomenological analysis (PA) and discusses the particular contribution it can make to health psychology. This is contextualized within current debates, particularly in social psychology, between social cognition and discourse analysis and the significance for health psychology of such debates is considered. The paper outlines the theoretical roots of PA in phenomenology and symbolic interactionism and argues

Jonathan A. Smith

1996-01-01

73

Constructing the "Ideal Learner": A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Adult Numeracy Core Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A critical discourse analysis of the Adult Numeracy Core Curriculum is used to expose and challenge the underlying assumptions of the Skills for Life strategy, and to examine the way in which the text constructs subject positions for adult numeracy teachers and learners. The analysis finds that presuppositions include the unproblematic transfer of…

Oughton, Helen

2007-01-01

74

Prisoners signify: a political discourse analysis of mental illness in a prison control unit.  

PubMed

Increasingly, US prisoners diagnosed with mental illness are housed in control units, the most restrictive form of confinement in the US prison system. This situation has led to intense debate over the legal, ethical and clinical status of mental illness. This is a semiotic struggle with profound effects, yet most related work treats mental illness as a neutral, individual variable. Few analyses locate mental illness within a larger sociopolitical context. Fewer still focus on discursive practice. None critically analyze the accounts of control unit prisoners, who talk about extreme marginality and risk for victimization. This paper has two aims: (i) to develop a systematic method of analysis that accounts for signification as discourse-in-action; and (ii) to show how prisoners' signification of mental illness articulates agency through and against marginalizing discourse. Political discourse analysis demonstrates how control unit prisoners with psychiatric diagnoses signify mental illness, and articulate safer identifications in the process. PMID:17718746

Cloyes, Kristin Gates

2007-09-01

75

Historical landslides in Nicaragua—collection and analysis of data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the first investigation on historical landslides that occurred in Nicaragua before 1990 are presented. The\\u000a paper shows how the analysis of historical documents can provide important information about the type and the temporal and\\u000a spatial distribution of landslide events, especially for countries where landslide investigation is a young discipline. The\\u000a methodology included research of historical sources at

Graziella Devoli; Alejandro Morales; Kaare Høeg

2007-01-01

76

Sequestering of suffering: critical discourse analysis of natural disaster media coverage.  

PubMed

This article is a critical discourse analysis of the local print-news media coverage of the recovery process in two rural communities following a devastating forest fire. Two hundred and fifty fire-related articles from the North Thompson Star Journal (2003) were analyzed. Results revealed a neoliberal discursive framing of recovery, emphasizing the economic-material aspects of the process and a reliance on experts. A sequestering of suffering discourse promoted psychological functionalism and focused attention on a return to normalcy through the compartmentalization of distress. The dominant 'voice' was male, authoritative, and institutionalized. Implications for disaster recovery and potential health consequences are discussed. PMID:18420755

Cox, Robin S; Long, Bonita C; Jones, Megan I; Handler, Risa J

2008-05-01

77

Experiments in Discourse Analysis Impact on Information Classification and Retrieval Algorithms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the inclusion of contextual information in indexing and retrieval systems to improve results and the ability to carry out text analysis by means of linguistic knowledge. Presents research that investigated whether discourse variables have an impact on information and retrieval and classification algorithms. (Author/LRW)

Morato, Jorge; Llorens, J.; Genova, G.; Moreiro, J. A.

2003-01-01

78

Whom Should We Serve? A Discourse Analysis of Social Workers’ Commentary on Undocumented Immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a discourse analysis of social work practitioners’ commentaries on undocumented immigrants that were collected from a survey of practicing social workers’ attitudes toward immigration and immigrants. Analyzing 198 open-ended comments, we explore the discursive mechanisms practitioners employ to construct undocumented immigrants, and their professional responsibilities toward them. These views are illustrative of the ways in which the profession

Rupaleem Bhuyan

2012-01-01

79

Analysis of Narrative Discourse Structure as an Ecologically Relevant Measure of Executive Function in Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the narrative discourse production and executive function (EF) abilities of 46 neuro-typical adults (18-98 years old). Two questions were addressed: Is the analysis of narrative structure sensitive to changes associated with aging? & What is the relationship between measures of narrative structure and EF? Narratives were…

Cannizzaro, Michael S.; Coelho, Carl A.

2013-01-01

80

A discourse analysis of trainee teacher identity in online discussion forums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teacher education involves an identity transformation for trainees from being a student to being a teacher. This discourse analysis examined the online discussion board communications of a cohort of trainee teachers to better understand the situated identities of the trainees and how they were presented online. Their discussion board posts were the primary method of communication during placement periods and,

Brian Irwin; Alison Hramiak

2010-01-01

81

The Analysis of Demagogic Discourse: Huey Long's "Every Man a King" Address.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The characteristics of demagogic discourse and a methodology appropriate for its analysis can be illustrated by examining Huey Long's "Every Man a King" radio address on February 20, 1934. The demagogue is similar to the revered public figure in that both are mass leaders, charismatic, and heroic. But the demagogue elicits powerful antithetical…

Gaske, Paul C.

82

Meaning Making through Multiple Modalities in a Biology Classroom: A Multimodal Semiotics Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teaching of science is a complex process, involving the use of multiple modalities. This paper illustrates the potential of a multimodal semiotics discourse analysis framework to illuminate meaning-making possibilities during the teaching of a science concept. A multimodal semiotics analytical framework is developed and used to (1) analyze the…

Jaipal, Kamini

2010-01-01

83

Postmodernism Debates and Comparative Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis. Essay Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Detailed discourse analysis is presented for two articles that suggest that postmodernism has little to offer comparative education and should be resisted. The two texts, focusing on postmodernism as the antithesis of comparative education and on the "lost promise" of postmodernism, demonstrate the use of language to convey messages that limit or…

Mehta, Sonia; Ninnes, Peter

2003-01-01

84

An analysis of the international discourse about women in information technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently there is a declining participation of women in Information Technology (IT) education and profession. In this article a critical interpretive analysis of the international discourse about women in IT is performed. The aim is to understand why women experience such a low level of career satisfaction in IT by taking their experiences and the context of the IT industry

H. W. Pretorius; C. De Villiers

2009-01-01

85

Accreditation and Power: A Discourse Analysis of a New Regime of Governance in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article studies discourses within the accreditation of Norwegian higher education conducted by the Norwegian Agency for Quality Assurance in Education (NOKUT), using one concrete case (the accreditation of bachelor programs in nursing). Analysis of policy documents and accreditation reports are influenced by two of Foucault's concepts of…

Engebretsen, Eivind; Heggen, Kristin; Eilertsen, Heidi Annett

2012-01-01

86

Reproducing Gender Inequality: A Critical Discourse Analysis of a Turkish Adult Literacy Textbook. Research Brief #7  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult education curricula such as literacy textbooks present blueprints for living, including different ways of being and relating as men and women. However, educators and scholars seldom consider the underlying assumptions about gender in literacy workbooks, especially in international settings. This study used Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)…

Gungor, Ramazan; Prins, Esther

2011-01-01

87

More Than a Game: A Critical Discourse Analysis of a Racial Inequality Exercise in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a critical discourse analysis of Japanese English as a foreign language (EFL) students' written reflections on their experience of a simulated racial inequality exercise at a university in Japan. Initially, the reflections were compared thematically with previously published narratives by people who had experienced racism.…

Hammond, Kay

2006-01-01

88

Using Semantic Feature Analysis to Improve Contextual Discourse in Adults with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Semantic feature analysis (SFA) was used to determine whether training contextually related words would improve the discourse of individuals with nonfluent aphasia in preselected contexts. Method: A modified multiple-probes-across-behaviors design was used to train target words using SFA in 3 adults with nonfluent aphasia. Pretreatment,…

Rider, Jill Davis; Wright, Heather Harris; Marshall, Robert C.; Page, Judith L.

2008-01-01

89

Celebrity advertising in the case of negative associations: discourse analysis of weblogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine celebrity advertising in the case of negative associations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In total, 451 posts were captured permanently from randomly selected weblogs, and analyzed by discourse analysis. The basic emerging themes therein have been isolated and interpreted, and a model of celebrity endorsement in the case of negative information has been

Ulun Akturan

2011-01-01

90

Problemes d'analyse du discours. Essai de description du discours francais sur la Chine (Problems in Discourse Analysis. An Attempt to Describe French Discourse on China).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The following topics are developed: (1) the problematic aspect of the analysis of French discourse, an introduction to methods, theories and applications; (2) the proposals of M. Pecheux; (3) precisions to render operative definitions derived in the proposals; (4) the Macciocchi manner of speaking; and (5) the Peyrefitte manner of speaking. (AMH)

Marindin, Jean-Marie

1979-01-01

91

Uncertainty Analysis of Historical Hurricane Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was conducted for historical hurricane data dating back to 1851 that was obtained from the U. S. Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The data set was chosen because it is a large, publicly available collection of information, exhibiting great variability which has made the forecasting of future states, from current and previous states, difficult. The availability of substantial, high-fidelity validation data, however, made for an excellent uncertainty assessment study. Several factors (independent variables) were identified from the data set, which could potentially influence the track and intensity of the storms. The values of these factors, along with the values of responses of interest (dependent variables) were extracted from the data base, and provided to a commercial software package for processing via the ANOVA technique. The primary goal of the study was to document the ANOVA modeling uncertainty and predictive errors in making predictions about hurricane location and intensity 24 to 120 hours beyond known conditions, as reported by the data set. A secondary goal was to expose the ANOVA technique to a broader community within NASA. The independent factors considered to have an influence on the hurricane track included the current and starting longitudes and latitudes (measured in degrees), and current and starting maximum sustained wind speeds (measured in knots), and the storm starting date, its current duration from its first appearance, and the current year fraction of each reading, all measured in years. The year fraction and starting date were included in order to attempt to account for long duration cyclic behaviors, such as seasonal weather patterns, and years in which the sea or atmosphere were unusually warm or cold. The effect of short duration weather patterns and ocean conditions could not be examined with the current data set. The responses analyzed were the storm latitude, longitude and intensity, as recorded in the data set, 24 or 120 hours beyond the current state. Several ANOVA modeling schemes were examined. Two forms of validation were used: 1) comparison with official hurricane prediction performance metrics and 2) cases studies conducted on hurricanes from the 2005 season, which were not included within the model construction and ANOVA assessment. In general, the ANOVA technique did not perform as well as the established official prediction performance metrics published by NOAA; still, the technique did remarkably well in this demonstration with a difficult data set and could probably be made to perform better with more knowledge of hurricane development and dynamics applied to the problem. The technique provides a repeatable prediction process that eliminates the need for judgment in the forecast.

Green, Lawrence L.

2007-01-01

92

Analyzing psychotherapy process as intersubjective sensemaking: an approach based on discourse analysis and neural networks.  

PubMed

The authors propose a method for analyzing the psychotherapy process: discourse flow analysis (DFA). DFA is a technique representing the verbal interaction between therapist and patient as a discourse network, aimed at measuring the therapist-patient discourse ability to generate new meanings through time. DFA assumes that the main function of psychotherapy is to produce semiotic novelty. DFA is applied to the verbatim transcript of the psychotherapy. It defines the main meanings active within the therapeutic discourse by means of the combined use of text analysis and statistical techniques. Subsequently, it represents the dynamic interconnections among these meanings in terms of a "discursive network." The dynamic and structural indexes of the discursive network have been shown to provide a valid representation of the patient-therapist communicative flow as well as an estimation of its clinical quality. Finally, a neural network is designed specifically to identify patterns of functioning of the discursive network and to verify the clinical validity of these patterns in terms of their association with specific phases of the psychotherapy process. An application of the DFA to a case of psychotherapy is provided to illustrate the method and the kinds of results it produces. PMID:20665338

Nitti, Mariangela; Ciavolino, Enrico; Salvatore, Sergio; Gennaro, Alessandro

2010-09-01

93

Computer-assisted analysis of public discourse: a case study of the precautionary principle in the US and UK press  

Microsoft Academic Search

Content analysis of newspaper publications has become a major scientific method of the analysis of public discourse. Within\\u000a the framework of content analysis, we suggest a computer-assisted method to extract the most important topics of this discourse\\u000a in an objective, quantifiable manner. The method combines frequency and proximity analysis of the text population, selection\\u000a of the key words, text modification

Andrei Kirilenko; Svetlana Stepchenkova; Rebecca Romsdahl; Kristine Mattis

2012-01-01

94

The middle-class nature of identity and its implications for education: a genealogical analysis and reevaluation of a culturally and historically bounded concept.  

PubMed

We consider identity as a historically emerging discourse that requires genealogical analysis - not to discover the roots of our identity but to commit [ourselves] to its dissipation (Foucault 1977, p. 162). We suggest analyzing identity through the history of socio-economic classes, their life struggles, ambitions, development, and reproduction. We see learning not as a project of transformation of identity, but rather as developing access to socially valuable practices and developing one's own voice within these practices (through addressing and responding to other voices). The access and voice projects free agents from unnecessary finalization and objectivization by oneself and others (Bakhtin 1999; Bakhtin 1990). In education, we should develop indigenous discourses of learning and develop a conceptual framework that makes analysis of diverse discourses possible. We argue that learning, as transformation of participation in a sociocultural practice to gain more access, is a better conceptual framework than learning as transformation of identity. PMID:22307777

Matusov, Eugene; Smith, Mark Philip

2012-09-01

95

Leadership succession: a discourse analysis of governance dialectics in two nonprofit organizations  

E-print Network

LEADERSHIP SUCCESSION: A DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF GOVERNANCE DIALECTICS IN TWO NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS A Dissertation by ANDREI CONSTANTIN DUTA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... by ANDREI CONSTANTIN DUTA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Co-Chairs of Committee, Linda Putnam Joel Iverson...

Duta, Andrei Constantin

2008-10-10

96

Marketing Senegal through hip-hop – a discourse analysis of Akon's music and lyrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to highlight hip-hop's contribution to the entrepreneurship and place marketing literature. Hip-hop is taken from the lens of an individual artist, Akon, whose music and lyrics – a “hybrid of silky, West African-styled vocals mixed with North America's East Coast and Southern beats” – provides fresh insights for place marketers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A “discourse analysis

Nnamdi O. Madichie

2011-01-01

97

Learning about the problem in problem-based learning (PBL) by listening to students’ talk in tutorials: a critical discourse analysis study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fact that student discourse in problem-based learning (PBL) tutorials is central to PBL there is a scarcity of discourse anlysis studies of PBL. This concept of the problem as a provoker of a liminal space was derived from a critical discourse analysis study of how PBL students talked about the problem in the naturally occuring talk in PBL

Terry Barrett

2012-01-01

98

Metagesture ? An Analysis of Theoretical Discourse about Multimodal Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter explores a particular gesture characteristically produced by David McNeill, a major figure in the world of multimodal language research. While the primary purpose of the analysis is an affectionate tribute to this great thinker, the phenomenon discussed gives rise to questions which are of general interest. I claim that this gesture is an example of a speaker-specific gesture.

Fey Parrill

99

Teachers and Secondary School Bullying: A Postmodern Discourse Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses a set of accounts from within a postmodern discursive framework. Interviews were conducted with secondary school teachers and were semi-structured, focusing on school bullying. The aim of analysis was to tackle the problem of bullying at a discursive level. This marks a shift away from seeing bullying as something situated within the interpersonal relations of pupils, or

Alexa Hepburn

1997-01-01

100

Exploring the communication between telenurse and caller--A critical discourse analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Telenursing is an expanding service in most Western societies. Sweden is a front-line country, with all of its 21 counties connected to Swedish Healthcare Direct (SHD) 1177. The intention of the service is twofold: to make health care more efficient, while also making it more accessible and safe for patients. Previous research has shown, however, that the service is not used equitably. Gender, age, socio-economic, and ethnicity differences have been reported as determining factors for the use of the service and the advice given. Aim The aim of the study was to explore the communication between telenurses and callers in authentic calls to SHD 1177. Methodology A qualitative method, using critical discourse analysis (CDA), was chosen. The approach was deductive, that is, the analysis was made in view of a predetermined framework of theory. Twenty calls were strategically chosen and included in the study. Results The CDA resulted in five types of calls, namely a gatekeeping call, a gendered call, a call marked by impersonal traits, a call with voices of the life world, and finally a counter discourse call. The dominating patterns in the calls were of gatekeeping and biomedical character. Patterns of the societal gender order were found, in that representations of the reluctant male caller and the ideal female caller were identified, but also a call representing a counter discourse. The service seemed difficult to use for patients with low language proficiency. Conclusion Telenursing could potentially challenge inequalities in health care. However, the discourse of telenursing is dialectically related to neoliberal ideology and the ideology of medicine. It is also situated in a gendered context of ideal femininity and hegemonic masculinity. Through better awareness of gender biases and the callers’ different resources for making themselves heard, the communication between telenurse and caller might become more equal and thereby better suitable for all callers. PMID:24964860

Hakimnia, Roya; Holmstrom, Inger K.; Carlsson, Marianne; Hoglund, Anna T.

2014-01-01

101

A discourse on sensitivity analysis for discretely-modeled structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A descriptive review is presented of the most recent methods for performing sensitivity analysis of the structural behavior of discretely-modeled systems. The methods are generally but not exclusively aimed at finite element modeled structures. Topics included are: selections of finite difference step sizes; special consideration for finite difference sensitivity of iteratively-solved response problems; first and second derivatives of static structural response; sensitivity of stresses; nonlinear static response sensitivity; eigenvalue and eigenvector sensitivities for both distinct and repeated eigenvalues; and sensitivity of transient response for both linear and nonlinear structural response.

Adelman, Howard M.; Haftka, Raphael T.

1991-01-01

102

A historical review of gait analysis.  

PubMed

Healthcare professionals have long been concerned with the assessment of human gait, but only recently were they able to utilize instrumental gait analysis in routine clinical practice for diagnosis, and to guide the selection of treatment methods for complex musculo-skeletal and neurological disorders. The development of motion analysis systems has progressed through several stages from simple to more sophisticated, versatile, multimodal, and accurate equipment. Several computerized motion analysis systems are now commercially available for the measurement of human gait. These vary in their design and performance. The purpose of this review is to summarize briefly the history and advances in the technology of instrumental gait analysis, especially during the past 3 decades. Further, it is hoped that this review will give clinical practitioners and researchers a general insight into the variety of measurement systems that are currently available for gait analysis and enable them to make an informed choice of the motion analysis system that best suits their clinical needs. PMID:21063300

Al-Zahrani, Khaled S; Bakheit, Magid O

2008-04-01

103

Tell me what's wrong with me: a discourse analysis approach to the concept of patient autonomy.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Patient autonomy has gradually replaced physician paternalism as an ethical ideal. However, in a medical context, the principle of individual autonomy has different meanings. More knowledge is needed about what is and should be an appropriate understanding of the concept of patient autonomy in clinical practice. AIM: To challenge the traditional concept of patient autonomy by applying a discourse analysis to the issue. METHOD: A qualitative case study approach with material from one consultation. The discourse is interpreted according to pragmatic and text-linguistic principles and provides the basis of a theoretical discussion of different concepts of patient autonomy. RESULTS: The consultation transcript illustrates how the patient's wishes can be respected in real life. The patient, her husband and the doctor are all involved in the discourse dynamics, governed by the subject matter, namely her mental illness. CONCLUSION: We suggest a dynamic and dialogue-based conception of autonomy as adequate for clinical purposes. These perspectives, based on mutual understanding, take communication between patient and doctor as their starting point. According to this approach, autonomy requires a genuine dialogue, an interpersonal mode of being which we choose to call "authentic interaction". PMID:9873980

Nessa, J; Malterud, K

1998-01-01

104

American Catholic nursing. An historical analysis.  

PubMed

This study analyzes the nursing activities of religious sister nurses as spiritual agents of care during wartime, in railroad and mining centers, and in cities in the United States in the 19th century. This is a story about the workings of religion, gender, social class, ethnicity, and nursing. The sisters' work demonstrates how an analysis of professional nursing is incomplete without an understanding of the roles that a number of Catholic religious women took in reaching out to both Catholics and non-Catholics in the United States. PMID:23802345

Wall, Barbra Mann

2012-01-01

105

HAZARDOUS MATERIAL SPILLS: A DOCUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF HISTORICAL DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

The ultimate goal of this study was the prevention of hazardous material spills through application of research effort. The immediate objective was to provide guidance for the choice of research priorities for spill prevention through documentation and analysis of historical inci...

106

Historical Range of Variability and Current Landscape Condition Analysis  

E-print Network

Historical Range of Variability and Current Landscape Condition Analysis: South Central Highlands structures C. Legacies of Euro-American Settlement and Current Conditions ... p 67 1. Logging ("High and Composition ... p 92 B. Reference Conditions ... p 96 1. High-Elevation Fire Regimes: General 2. Fire History

107

Vaginal birth after cesarean delivery: An historic cohort cost analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative cost-effectiveness of attempted vaginal birth after cesarean delivery compared with elective repeat cesarean delivery. Study Design: We performed an historic cohort analysis of women with a single prior cesarean delivery who were delivered at our institution during 1999. Inclusion criteria were ?36 weeks' gestation and carrying a live, singleton

Heather DiMaio; Rodney K. Edwards; Tammy Y. Euliano; R. William Treloar; Amelia C. Cruz

2002-01-01

108

Fostering Analysis in Historical Inquiry through Multimedia Embedded Scaffolding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on the findings of a study designed to assess the utility of a multimedia tutorial intended to scaffold the development of historical source analysis through the use of the SCIM strategy. Seventy-seven undergraduate students (29 males, 48 females) with a mean age of 19.4 years engaged in a 2.5-hour tutorial across three…

Hicks, David; Doolittle, Peter E.

2008-01-01

109

Historical energy analysis of the Norwegian dwelling stock  

Microsoft Academic Search

The building sector is a big consumer of energy and is responsible for a considerable share of the greenhouse gas emissions within most developed countries. Based on the development in underlying drivers and using system analysis methods, the historical development in energy flows in the Norwegian residential building stock, the associated costs and greenhouse gas emissions are estimated. The results

Nina Holck Sandberg; Håvard Bergsdal; Helge Brattebø

2011-01-01

110

Conference on Historical Analysis and Research in Marketing Proceedings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently, the Conference on Historical Analysis and Research in Marketing (CHARM) decided to digitize their annual proceedings. They have placed them online here, and scholars in this field and others will enjoy wandering through past issues. The conference is held biennially, and visitors can start things off by looking over the first volume, which was published in 1983. Articles from this first meeting include "Cultural Materialism: The Role of Goods and Societal Symbolism As Research in Marketing" and "A Note on the Varieties and Vagaries of Historical Data". Visitors are also able to search the contents by keyword or author. Taken as a whole, this archive allows users to track changes in the field of marketing and its study as a historical subject.

111

Studying circular questioning "in situ": discourse analysis of a first systemic family therapy session.  

PubMed

The present article focuses on the study of circular questioning "in situ," that is, in the context of the discursive arena of an actual first systemic family therapy session. Two typical circular questions are selected, and discourse analysis heavily drawing from the discursive action model is deployed with the aim to highlight their function in the context of therapist and family members' problem talk. The analysis demonstrates the gradual building of two respective patterns, which both exhibit signs of shifts toward the instillment of a systemic epistemology in relation to problem talk: a shift from homogeneity to heterogeneity in family members' voices, which legitimizes the existence of different viewpoints within a system, and a shift from the construction of an accusation toward its deconstruction, which challenges the linear perception of causality underlying the accusation, thus introducing a more circular perspective. Implications are discussed in relation to contemporary, constructionist systemic family therapy practice, and reference is made to the methodological "promises" and challenges of the deployment of discourse analysis for the scrutiny of systemic family therapy therapeutic techniques and tools under a discursively informed light. PMID:25059415

Diorinou, Maria; Tseliou, Eleftheria

2014-01-01

112

Use of historical information in extreme storm surges frequency analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prevention of storm surge flood risks is critical for protection and design of coastal facilities to very low probabilities of failure. The effective protection requires the use of a statistical analysis approach having a solid theoretical motivation. Relating extreme storm surges to their frequency of occurrence using probability distributions has been a common issue since 1950s. The engineer needs to determine the storm surge of a given return period, i.e., the storm surge quantile or design storm surge. Traditional methods for determining such a quantile have been generally based on data from the systematic record alone. However, the statistical extrapolation, to estimate storm surges corresponding to high return periods, is seriously contaminated by sampling and model uncertainty if data are available for a relatively limited period. This has motivated the development of approaches to enlarge the sample extreme values beyond the systematic period. The nonsystematic data occurred before the systematic period is called historical information. During the last three decades, the value of using historical information as a nonsystematic data in frequency analysis has been recognized by several authors. The basic hypothesis in statistical modeling of historical information is that a perception threshold exists and that during a giving historical period preceding the period of tide gauging, all exceedances of this threshold have been recorded. Historical information prior to the systematic records may arise from high-sea water marks left by extreme surges on the coastal areas. It can also be retrieved from archives, old books, earliest newspapers, damage reports, unpublished written records and interviews with local residents. A plotting position formula, to compute empirical probabilities based on systematic and historical data, is used in this communication paper. The objective of the present work is to examine the potential gain in estimation accuracy with the use of historical information (to the Brest tide gauge located in the French Atlantic coast). In addition, the present work contributes to addressing the problem of the presence of outliers in data sets. Historical data are generally imprecise, and their inaccuracy should be properly accounted for in the analysis. However, as several authors believe, even with substantial uncertainty in the data, the use of historical information is a viable mean to improve estimates of rare events related to extreme environmental conditions. The preliminary results of this study suggest that the use of historical information increases the representativity of an outlier in the systematic data. It is also shown that the use of historical information, specifically the perception sea water level, can be considered as a reliable solution for the optimal planning and design of facilities to withstand extreme environmental conditions, which will occur during its lifetime, with an appropriate optimum of risk level. Findings are of practical relevance for applications in storm surge risk analysis and flood management.

Hamdi, Yasser; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Deville, Yves; Bardet, Lise; Rebour, Vincent

2013-04-01

113

Normative Discourse and Persuasion: An Analysis of Ga'dang Informal Litigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the discourse of Ga'dang, a Philippine language, focuses on normative discourse and persuasion, especially the ways in which the former is used to accomplish the latter. The first five chapters outline the theoretical framework of the study, placing normative and persuasive discourse in a philosophical context and relating them to the…

Walrod, Michael R.

114

Dancing with Difference: An Auto/ethnographic Analysis of Dominant Discourses in Integrated Dance .  

E-print Network

??Through six months of ethnographic and autoethnographic fieldwork, which included participant observation and ten individual semi-structured interviews, I sought to determine how dominant discourses in… (more)

Irving, Hannah

2011-01-01

115

The Rhetoric of War and Remembrance: An Analysis of President Bill Clinton's 1994 D-Day Discourses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This close textual analysis of President Clinton's discourses in ceremonies commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of D-Day, held on June 6, 1994, considers the rhetorical context and discursive strategies of the president on an international stage. It argues that Clinton employed generational comparisons to emphasize the gifts bequeathed by an older generation and the obligation to advance the goals of democracy

Mary L. Kahl; Michael Leff

2006-01-01

116

The new imperialism: Using critical discourse analysis and articulation theory to study George W. Bush's freedom doctrine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I examine how Articulation Theory and Critical Discourse Analysis can be used to examine the Bush administration's ‘Freedom Doctrine’ as it appears in official speeches, press releases, and interviews. I also look at possible alternatives to the dominant militaristic interpretation of international events and foreign policy, and recommend other areas of research and study related to the

Tina Sikka

2006-01-01

117

Multi-Level Discourse Analysis in a Physics Teaching Methods Course from the Psychological Perspective of Activity Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we present and apply a multi-level method for discourse analysis in science classrooms. This method is based on the structure of human activity (activity, actions, and operations) and it was applied to study a pre-service physics teacher methods course. We argue that such an approach, based on a cultural psychological perspective,…

Vieira, Rodrigo Drumond; Kelly, Gregory J.

2014-01-01

118

The framing of Calvin Klein: A frame analysis of media discourse about the August 1995 Calvin Klein Jeans advertising campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the media discourse about the August 1995 Calvin Klein jeans campaign which media critics characterized as “kiddie porn.” Though media placement of the campaign was limited, mainstream media reports of the nascent controversy surrounding the campaign brought it into the national spotlight. A frame analysis is used to deconstruct the kiddie?porn media frame which the industry and

Lauren R. Tucker

1998-01-01

119

Use of cartography in historical seismicity analysis: a reliable tool to better apprehend the contextualization of the historical documents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historical studies, including historical seismicity analysis, deal with historical documents. Numerous factors, such as culture, social condition, demography, political situations and opinions or religious ones influence the way the events are transcribed in the archives. As a consequence, it is crucial to contextualize and compare the historical documents reporting on a given event in order to reduce the uncertainties affecting their analysis and interpretation. When studying historical seismic events it is often tricky to have a global view of all the information provided by the historical documents. It is also difficult to extract cross-correlated information from the documents and draw a precise historical context. Use of cartographic and geographic tools in GIS software is the best tool for the synthesis, interpretation and contextualization of the historical material. The main goal is to produce the most complete dataset of available information, in order to take into account all the components of the historical context and consequently improve the macroseismic analysis. The Entre-Deux-Mers earthquake (1759, Iepc= VII-VIII) [SISFRANCE 2013 - EDF-IRSN-BRGM] is well documented but has never benefited from a cross-analysis of historical documents and historical context elements. The map of available intensity data from SISFRANCE highlights a gap in macroseismic information within the estimated epicentral area. The aim of this study is to understand the origin of this gap by making a cartographic compilation of both, archive information and historical context elements. The results support the hypothesis that the lack of documents and macroseismic data in the epicentral area is related to a low human activity rather than low seismic effects in this zone. Topographic features, geographical position, flood hazard, roads and pathways locations, vineyards distribution and the forester coverage, mentioned in the archives and reported on the Cassini's map confirm this hypothesis. The location of the recently explored documentary sources evidence that there was no notarial activity in this particular area at that time. The importance of the economic and political dominance of Bordeaux during the XVIIth-XVIIIth centuries has to be taken into account in order to apprehend the way the earthquake was reported by the population at the regional scale. Elements related to chimneys forms or construction techniques could in turn help in identifying regional peculiarities allowing better quantifying the vulnerability aspects of the region.

Thibault, Fradet; Grégory, Quenet; Kevin, Manchuel

2014-05-01

120

Death penalty discourses, the printed media, and the UK public sphere: a critical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I investigate the lack of full public participation and consequent democratic deficit on the issue of capital punishment in the UK. In so doing I critically analyse the media institutions and practices of the UK public sphere within which the death penalty discourses unfold, and several printed media contributions to the capital punishment discourses around abolition in

Eugene Flanagan

2010-01-01

121

Learning to Read: Discourse Analysis and the Study and Practice of Adult Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators are inclined to think that the words they use in their discourses about policy, research, and practice mean what they mean them to mean. It is just as clear, however, that such discourses ideologically produce and reproduce relations of power that benefit some and disadvantage others. This essay begins an argument that educators need to…

Wilson, Arthur L.

2009-01-01

122

Image, measure, figure: a critical discourse analysis of nursing practices that develop children.  

PubMed

Motivated by discourses that link early child development and health, nurses engage in seemingly benign surveillance of children. These practices are based on knowledge claims and technologies of developmental science, which remain anchored in assumptions of the child body as an incomplete form with a universal developmental trajectory and inherent potentiality. This paper engages in a critical discursive analysis, drawing on Donna Haraway's conceptualizations of technoscience and figuration. Using a contemporary developmental screening tool from nursing practice, this analysis traces the effects of this tool through production, transformation, distribution, and consumption. It reveals how the techniques of imaging, abstraction, and measurement collide to fix the open, transformative child body in a figuration of the developing child. This analysis also demonstrates how technobiopower infuses nurses' understandings of children and structures developmentally appropriate expectations for children, parents, and nurses. Furthermore, it describes how practices that claim to facilitate healthy child development may inversely deprive children of agency and foster the production of normal or ideal children. An alternative ontological perspective is offered as a challenge to the individualism of developmental models and other dominant ideologies of development, as well as practices associated with these ideologies. In summary, this analysis argues that nurses must pay closer attention to how technobiopower infuses practices that monitor and promote child development. Fostering a critical understanding of the harmful implications of these practices is warranted and offers the space to conceive of human development in alternate and exciting ways. PMID:23745662

Einboden, Rochelle; Rudge, Trudy; Varcoe, Colleen

2013-07-01

123

Expanding discourse repertoires with hybridity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In "Hybrid discourse practice and science learning" Kamberelis and Wehunt present a theoretically rich argument about the potential of hybrid discourses for science learning. These discourses draw from different forms of "talk, social practice, and material practices" to create interactions that are "intertextually complex" and "interactionally dynamic." The hybrid discourse practices are described as involving the dynamic interplay of at least three key elements: "the lamination of multiple cultural frames, the shifting relations between people and their discourse, and the shifting power relations between and among people." Each of these elements requires a respective unit of analysis and are often mutually reinforcing. The authors present a theoretically cogent argument for the study of hybrid discourse practices and identify the potential such discourses may have for science education. This theoretical development leads to an analysis of spoken and written discourse around a set of educational events concerning the investigation of owl pellets by two fifth grade students, their classmates, and teacher. Two discourse segments are presented and analyzed by the authors in detail. The first is a discourse analysis of the dissection of the owl pellet by two students, Kyle and Max. The second analysis examines the science report of these same two students. In this article, I pose a number of questions about the study with the hope that by doing so I expand the conversation around the insightful analysis presented.

Kelly, Gregory J.

2012-09-01

124

Mapping Mathematics in Classroom Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a particular analytic method from systemic functional linguistics, "thematic analysis," which reveals the mathematical meaning potentials construed in discourse. Addressing concerns that discourse analysis is too often content-free, thematic analysis provides a way to represent semantic structures of mathematical content,…

Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth A.; Otten, Samuel

2011-01-01

125

Towards proteomic analysis of milk proteins in historical building materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The addition of proteinaceous binders to mortars and plasters has a long tradition. The protein additions were identified in many sacral and secular historical buildings. For this method of peptide mass mapping, three model mortar samples with protein additives were prepared. These samples were analysed fresh (1-2 weeks old) and after 9 months of natural ageing. The optimal duration of tryptic cleavage (2 h) and the lowest amount of material needed for relevant analysis of fresh and weathered samples were found; the sufficient amounts of weathered and fresh mortars were set to 0.05 and 0.005 g. The list of main tryptic peptides coming from milk additives (bovine milk, curd, and whey), their relative intensities and theoretical amino acid sequences assignment is presented. Several sequences have been "de novo" confirmed by mass spectrometry.

Kuckova, S.; Crhova, M.; Vankova, L.; Hnizda, A.; Hynek, R.; Kodicek, M.

2009-07-01

126

Dose-response analysis for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: an historical perspective  

SciTech Connect

Historical review of 118 patients with nasopharyngeal cancer treated in our institution from 1950--1978 showed a 20% improvement in tumor control for patients irradiated during the most recent period (1974--1978). This improvement was attributed to prescription of higher doses of radiation as well as improvements in technical accuracy and dose delivery to the tumor during that period. Rates of severe and mild complications were comparable and survival was not significantly altered over time despite improved tumor control. Within the range of doses delivered, there was no improvement in tumor control with increasing doses of radiation for small or large nasopharyngeal carcinomas. The dose-response analysis for tumor control was less than ideal because a number of prerequisites were lacking and because the study extended over a 28-year span during which there were significant changes in technology and physician orientation.

Marks, J.E.; Bedwinek, J.M.; Lee, F.; Purdy, J.A.; Perez, C.A.

1982-09-15

127

Discourses of Education and Constitutions of Class: Public Discourses on Education in Swedish PBS Television  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on post-structural perspectives and analysis of television programs on education, the article investigates the public educational discourse in Sweden. It shows how a dominant neoliberal educational discourse is articulated together with a discourse of equal education, where the two discourses influence and subvert each other so that…

Reimers, Eva

2014-01-01

128

Organizational Discourse: Domains, Debates and Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in the analysis of organizational discourse has expanded rapidly over the last two decades. In this article, we reflect critically on organizational discourse analysis as an approach to the study of organizations and management, highlighting both its strengths and areas of challenge. We begin with an explanation of the nature of organizational discourse analysis and outline some of the

Nelson Phillips; Cliff Oswick

2012-01-01

129

Organizational Discourse: Domains, Debates, and Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in the analysis of organizational discourse has expanded rapidly over the last two decades. In this article, we reflect critically on organizational discourse analysis as an approach to the study of organizations and management, highlighting both its strengths and areas of challenge. We begin with an explanation of the nature of organizational discourse analysis and outline some of the

Nelson Phillips; Cliff Oswick

2012-01-01

130

[Discourses on the nursing and psychiatric nurse models, published in the Annals of Nursing (1933-1951)].  

PubMed

Social-historical study aimed at discussing the nursing and psychiatric nurse models, from the discourses published in the Annals of Nursing.The historical sources were articles published in the Annals of Nursing journal, from 1933 to 1951. An analysis of the discourse was subsidized by the genealogy of power by Michel Foucault.The analysis showed that the discourse on nursing and the psychiatric nurse, in the first half of the 20th century, is set, on one side, by the propositions used by psychiatrists, who sought to reiterate stereotypes and vocations to practice nursing, and, on the other side, by the active participation of nurses seeking to legitimize expertise for psychiatric nursing. It was concluded that the discourses analyzed defined a psychiatric care focused on the nurse and not the rest of the nursing staff, at that time. PMID:25158460

Pereira, Michelle de Macedo; Padilha, Maria Itayra; de Oliveira, Alexandre Barbosa; Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco; Filho, Antonio José de Almeida; Peres, Maria Angélica de Almeida

2014-06-01

131

Identification of Historical Veziragasi Aqueduct Using the Operational Modal Analysis  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the results of a model updating study conducted on a historical aqueduct, called Veziragasi, in Turkey. The output-only modal identification results obtained from ambient vibration measurements of the structure were used to update a finite element model of the structure. For the purposes of developing a solid model of the structure, the dimensions of the structure, defects, and material degradations in the structure were determined in detail by making a measurement survey. For evaluation of the material properties of the structure, nondestructive and destructive testing methods were applied. The modal analysis of the structure was calculated by FEM. Then, a nondestructive dynamic test as well as operational modal analysis was carried out and dynamic properties were extracted. The natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes were determined from both theoretical and experimental modal analyses and compared with each other. A good harmony was attained between mode shapes, but there were some differences between natural frequencies. The sources of the differences were introduced and the FEM model was updated by changing material parameters and boundary conditions. Finally, the real analytical model of the aqueduct was put forward and the results were discussed. PMID:24511287

Ercan, E.; Nuhoglu, A.

2014-01-01

132

Discourse Structure  

E-print Network

An essential step in understanding connected discourse is the ability to link the meanings of successive sentences together. Given a growing database to which new sentence meanings must be linked, which out of many possible ...

Rosenberg, Steven T.

1976-08-17

133

Changing Policy Discourses: Constructing Literacy Inequalities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the ways in which policy discourses have constructed rationales for addressing adult literacy over the last 50 years. In particular, we examine how policy positions the literacy learner as citizen within discourses of rights and equity. Taking the case of the UK, we compare two key documents produced at different historical

Hamilton, Mary; Pitt, Kathy

2011-01-01

134

"Behind the Doors of Learning": The Transmission of Racist and Sexist Discourses in a History Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Now that the doors of historically white schools have officially been opened to Black learners, this paper presents a critical analysis of discourses of domination transmitted behind the doors of learning in a History classroom. While the official History curriculum (NCS, 2002) advocates multi-perspectival epistemological approaches, this paper…

Wilmot, Mark; Naidoo, Devika

2011-01-01

135

Ideological collocation and the recontexualization of Wahhabi-Saudi Islam post-9\\/11: A synergy of corpus linguistics and critical discourse analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study proposes what is termed a ‘methodological synergy’ (Baker et al., 2008) of corpus linguistics and critical discourse analysis (CDA) for exploring how clashing ideologies have been actualized at collocation level across opposing discourses on Wahhabi-Saudi Islam\\/Wahhabism since 9\\/11. The discursive competition over Wahhabi-Saudi Islam reached a new extreme in the USA, when the 9\\/11 attacks called attention to

Amir H. Y. Salama

2011-01-01

136

Identification and Disidentification in Organizational Discourse: A Metaphor Analysis of E-Mail Communication at Enron  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project is situated within the interpretive tradition in organizational communication research, focusing on organizational discourse. It goes further by bringing the discussion into the 21st century through examining how communication technology--specifically e-mail--plays a role in the linguistic practices that help create, maintain and…

Turnage, Anna K.

2010-01-01

137

Managing Victim Status in Group Therapy for Men: A Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In contrast to the abundance of research on women victims, this article sheds light on the discourse of men who are self-identified as victims of their female partners' abuse. The purpose of this study was to investigate the most salient identity constructions and abuse conceptualizations among participants of group psychotherapy for men who have…

Zverina, Michaela; Stam, Henderikus J.; Babins-Wagner, Robbie

2011-01-01

138

Semio-Pragmatic Analysis of Cartoons Discourse: A Step towards Semiotranslation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary concern of this study is to explore the subtle implications of the "Semiotranslation Approach vis-a-vis" analyzing the semiotic elements of discourse in Jordanian cartoons as creative artistic texts in which various signs manifest simultaneous interaction, thus achieving both entertainment and purposeful satire. Therefore, the…

AlBzour, Naser Naif

2011-01-01

139

Discourse Analysis and Second Language Teaching. Language in Education: Theory and Practice, No. 37.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concentration on the formal features of language and on developing speaking skills in a second language fails to provide the language student with the necessary level of conversational ability. The concept of communicative competence has resulted in a new emphasis on the nature of interaction and the rules of discourse. Interest has shifted from…

Kramsch, Claire J.

140

(Un)Earthing a Vocabulary of Values: A Discourse Analysis for Ecocomposition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author aims to propose an analytic method through which composition students and others might discover and understand the ecological complexities of prevailing environmental terminology that create "wicked problems." Through this method, students engage in "discursive ecology" by exploring the connections among discourse,…

Walker, Paul

2010-01-01

141

Earning One's Inheritance: Rhetorical Criticism, Everyday Talk, and the Analysis of Public Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes a transcribed speech in which an African American community member engaged a panel of school board officials on the topic of racial stereotypes in an elementary school science experiment. Concludes that the force of public discourse may reside less in a speaker's ability to persuade an audience than in an audience's willingness to recycle…

McCormick, Samuel

2003-01-01

142

Conceptual change cum discourse analysis: Towards an integrative perspective on learning in science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Illustrates how a well-designed curriculum can lead students to construct an unwanted conception. Concludes that the conceptual-change-cum-discourse perspective has the potential to integrate the affordances of both methodological approaches and past empirical accomplishments. Contains 33 references.

Duit, Reinders; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Komorek, Michael; Wilbers, Jens

2006-05-23

143

Performing Gender: A Discourse Analysis of Theatre-Based Sexual Violence Prevention Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the numerous approaches that are employed to prevent sexual violence, the performance of scenarios has become one of the "promising practices" in U.S. postsecondary education. This article describes findings from a pilot study to analyze scripts used for theatre-based sexual violence prevention programs. Employing the method of discourse

Iverson, Susan V.

2006-01-01

144

Professional Mathematics Teacher Identity: Analysis of Reflective Narratives from Discourses and Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the methodological use of reflective narratives from discourses and activities of an experienced primary teacher as evidence of her professional identity. The teacher's reflective narratives emerge from her participation in a 3-year developmental and research project, Learning Communities in Mathematics, conducted at the…

Bjuland, Raymond; Cestari, Maria Luiza; Borgersen, Hans Erik

2012-01-01

145

The Leader-Member Exchange Patterns of Women Leaders in Industry: A Discourse Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the communicatively constructed nature of Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) and gender. Analyzes actual routine work conversations to produce 12 discourse patterns that discriminated between high, medium, and low LMX relationships. Focuses on the functioning of the patterns and the influence of gender in the construction of high, medium, and…

Fairhurst, Gail T.

1993-01-01

146

Pedagogising Poverty Alleviation: A Discourse Analysis of Educational and Social Policies in Argentina and Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the past decades international organisations and governments have promoted and implemented analogous education policies on the grounds that education is the key factor to foster development and fight poverty. This article sets the context of these educational programmes and analyses their discourse on poverty in Argentina and Chile. Then, it…

Rambla, Xavier; Veger, Antoni

2009-01-01

147

Framing and Face: The Relevance of "The Presentation of Self" to Linguistic Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although Erving Goffman did not turn his analytic focus specifically toward language until later in his career, his work, beginning with "The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life," has been crucial for discourse analysts and interactional sociolinguists who study language in social context. Perhaps most influential have been his concepts of…

Tannen, Deborah

2009-01-01

148

Americans in Paris: A Discourse Analysis of Student Accounts of Study Abroad  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, I provide a discourse analytical and narrative-theoretical examination of four American undergraduate students' interview accounts of study abroad in France. The key finding is that all of these students accounted for the significance of their experiences studying abroad in terms that transcended the institutionally sanctioned…

Wolcott, Timothy Paul

2010-01-01

149

Students' interaction with computer representations: analysis of discourse in laboratory groups  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Language use in student laboratory groups makes apparent students' conceptions in science, their interpretation of the activity or task, and the negotiation of the roles of the members. This article reports on a methodological approach to analyze student discourse systematically. Four Grade 12 lab groups working on microcomputer-based laboratories (MBL) are the focus of the study. The MBL experiences were used to help students link oscillatory motion to graphical representations. Study of student discourse reveals the role the computer plays in the group context and the ways that this context is shaped by the computer. Developing a better understanding of the role of the computer in student conversations suggests ways to fruitfully construct contexts for learning physics.

Kelly, Gregory; Crawford, Teresa

2005-11-23

150

An Analysis of Teacher Discourse that Introduces Real Science Activities to High School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most academic science educators encourage teachers to provide their students with access to more authentic science activities.\\u000a What can and do teachers say to increase students’ interests in participating in opportunities to do real science? What are\\u000a the discursive resources they draw on to introduce authentic science to students? The purpose of this ethnographic and discourse-analytic study is\\u000a to investigate

Pei-Ling Hsu; Wolff-Michael Roth

2009-01-01

151

Innocent Victims, Fighter Cells, and White Uncles: A Discourse Analysis of Children's Books about AIDS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we examine a set of 26 children's books on HIV/AIDS published between 1989-1999 to identify the ways in which these texts construct HIV/AIDS and people living with HIV/AIDS. We explore how this marginalized group is depicted in these books, and how well-meaning teachers may in fact be reproducing dominant discourses about HIV/AIDS…

Blumenreich, Megan; Siegel, Marjorie

2006-01-01

152

Analysis of Student–Instructor Interaction Patterns in Real-Time, Scientific Online Discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of the online environment alter how students and instructors interact. Scientific discourse among students\\u000a and instructors in an online text-only synchronous environment was analyzed. In converting dialogue to text, many of the nonverbal\\u000a cues, such as facial expression and tone of voice, which instructors use to gauge student understanding are lost. The participants\\u000a adapt their communication style to

Erik M. Epp; Kellie F. Green; Aliya M. Rahman; Gabriela C. Weaver

2010-01-01

153

Exploring news media representations of women’s exercise and subjectivity through critical discourse analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the importance of media work from a critical perspective being established, much is to be learned about how women’s exercise is (re)presented within news media discourses and the implications for women’s health promotion. Health promotion researchers need to further consider the media environment in which health-related meanings are constructed and compete. Building on media research from a critical perspective,

Kerry R. McGannon; John C. Spence

2012-01-01

154

Historical Analysis, a Valuable Tool in Community-Based Environmental Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A historical analysis of the ecological consequences of development can be a valuable tool in community-based environmental protection. These studies can engage the public in environmental issues and lead to informed decision making. Historical studies provide an understanding of how current ecological conditions arose, provide information to identify past pollutant inputs, identify modification or loss of habitat, help identify changes

Carol E Pesch; Jonathan Garber

2001-01-01

155

HISTORICAL ANALYSIS, A VALUABLE TOOL IN COMMUNITY-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION  

EPA Science Inventory

A historical analysis of the ecological consequences of development can be a valuable tool in community-based environmental protection. These studies can engage the public in environmental issues and lead to informed decision making. Historical studies provide an understanding of...

156

Secondary students using expert heuristics in the analysis of digitalized historical documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In time, more historical documents have become accessible through various technological modes including the Internet, CD-ROMs, and local databases. Teachers are now able to infuse a rich variety of resources into lessons with relative ease. This study measured expert historian heuristics in secondary students engaged in analysis of technologically-enhanced historical documents relating to women in the early United States republic.

Daniel W Stuckart

2004-01-01

157

Understanding discourses of the worried well.  

PubMed

This paper undertakes a deconstruction of the discourses of the 'worried well' population, a population argued to be particularly affected by the biomedical discourse. This deconstruction highlights the 'naturalized, glossed-over, unarticulated presuppositions' supported by hegemonic discourses of medicine. The historical development of the biomedical framework, the assumptions underpinning scientific discourse, and in particular its treatment of women, are examined. Issues pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment of this population are also discussed. The paper concludes with the recognition that the impetus rests with nurses to be agents of change in the reconstruction of discourses surrounding the worried well, to view clients labelled within biomedical discourse as worried well in a new light. Clients' subjective experiences of health must be valued, recognized and contextualized, thereby converting the rhetoric of holistic care into reality. PMID:9086943

Eade, G; Bradshaw, J

1995-06-01

158

Historical Analysis: Using the Past to Design the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ubicomp developers are increasingly borrowing from other disciplines, such as anthropology and creative design, to inform their design process. In this paper, we demonstrate that the discipline of history similarly has much to offer ubicomp research. Specifically, we describe a historically- grounded approach to designing ubicomp systems and applications for the home. We present findings from a study examining aging

Susan Wyche; Phoebe Sengers; Rebecca E. Grinter

2006-01-01

159

Crime and Punishment in the Schooling Process: A Historical Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of 52 theoretical papers on school crime and its relation to poverty, this chapter examines the historical validity of two popular beliefs concerning the "crisis of discipline" in schools. One is that it is something special to this turbulent age, and the other is that school violence and crime have increased because we have relaxed our…

Newman, Joan; Newman, Graeme

160

Dose-response analysis for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: an historical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical review of 118 patients with nasopharyngeal cancer treated in our institution from 1950--1978 showed a 20% improvement in tumor control for patients irradiated during the most recent period (1974--1978). This improvement was attributed to prescription of higher doses of radiation as well as improvements in technical accuracy and dose delivery to the tumor during that period. Rates of severe

James E. Marks; John M. Bedwinek; Fransiska Lee; James A. Purdy; Carlos A. Perez

1982-01-01

161

Relations between community theory and community analysis in vegetation science: some historical perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relations between community theory and community analysis are elucidated from a historical viewpoint. Four groups of relevant aspects are distinguished. This paper concentrates on aspects of spatial variation in species composition and species distribution relations.

Imanuel Noy-Meir I; Eddy van der Maarel

1987-01-01

162

Mises au point et perspectives a propos de l'analyse automatique du discours (Focuses and Perspectives with Regard to Machine Discourse Analysis)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part One discusses social formation, language, discourse, and ideology, and linguistics as a theory of syntactic mechanisms and processes of enunciation. Part Two deals with new criticisms of program design, linguistic analysis, and discursive process analysis. (Text is in French.) (Author/MSE)

Pecheux, Michel; Fuchs, Catherine

1975-01-01

163

Historical analysis of pewter spoons recovered from the sunken city of Port Royal, Jamaica  

E-print Network

HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF PEWTER SPOONS RECOVERED FROM THE SUNKEN CITY OF PORT ROYAL, JAMAICA A Thesis by CATHRYN ANN WADLEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...(ttee) L. Stavenhagen (Member) J. R. Steffy (Member) V. M. Bryant (Head of Department) December l985 ABSTRACT Historical Analysis of Pewter Spoons Recovered from the Sunken City of Port Royal, Jamaica. (December 1985) Cathryn Ann Wadley, B. A...

Wadley, Cathryn Ann

2012-06-07

164

The feds and enviros can't tell us who we are: a discourse analysis of identity resistance strategies of public lands ranchers  

E-print Network

THE FEDS AND ENVIROS CAN'T TELL US WHO WE ARE: A DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF IDENTITY RESISTANCE STRATEGIES OF PUBLIC LANDS RANCHERS A Thesis by REBECCA JANELL ROYER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS May 2003 Major Subject: Speech Communication THE FEDS AND ENVIROS CAN'T TELL US WHO WE ARE: A DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF IDENTITY RESISTANCE STRATEGIES OF PUBLIC LANDS RANCHERS A Thesis...

Royer, Rebecca Janell

2012-06-07

165

Loose women or lost women? The re-emergence of the myth of white slavery in contemporary discourses of trafficking in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares current concerns about “trafficking in women” with turn of the century discourses about “white slavery.”\\u000a It traces the emergence of narratives on “white slavery” and their re-emergence in the moral panics and boundary crises of\\u000a contemporary discourses on “trafficking in women.” Drawing on historical analysis and contemporary representations of sex\\u000a worker migration, the paper argues that the

Jo Doezema

1999-01-01

166

A Discourse Approach to Theorising HRD: Opening a Discursive Space  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how a discourse approach to theorising human resource development (HRD) can open a "discursive space" to challenge dominant discourses within the field; enabling a more critical discourse to emerge. Design/methodology/approach: Discusses two approaches to discourse analysis, a "practice" and a…

Lawless, Aileen; Sambrook, Sally; Garavan, Tom; Valentin, Claire

2011-01-01

167

HSUNSPOTS: A tool for the analysis of historical sunspot drawings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Valuable information about the evolution of solar activity is recorded in early sunspot drawings, especially during 17th-19th centuries. In this context, we have developed a computer program to analyze historical drawings showing the trajectories of sunspots across the solar disk. As an example, we have analysed the drawings published in the book De heliometri structura et usu by Zucconi (1760). These drawings span the period from April 1754 to June 1760. We present the Butterfly diagram for those years. The ending of solar cycle 0 and the beginning of solar cycle 1 are clearly noted in this diagram.

Cristo, A.; Vaquero, J. M.; Sánchez-Bajo, F.

2011-02-01

168

Analysis of Student-Instructor Interaction Patterns in Real-Time, Scientific Online Discourse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristics of the online environment alter how students and instructors interact. Scientific discourse among students and instructors in an online text-only synchronous environment was analyzed. In converting dialogue to text, many of the nonverbal cues, such as facial expression and tone of voice, which instructors use to gauge student understanding are lost. The participants adapt their communication style to the medium, and we present a new interaction pattern for student-instructor communication found prevalent in the synchronous, text-only, online environment. This study has implications for instructors who use synchronous, text-based communication for their courses, namely the value of posing additional questions from the instructor to verify student understanding.

Epp, Erik M.; Green, Kellie F.; Rahman, Aliya M.; Weaver, Gabriela C.

2010-02-01

169

In the shadow of a new smoke free policy: A discourse analysis of health care providers' engagement in tobacco control in community mental health  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of tobacco use among individuals with mental illness remains a serious public health concern. Tobacco control has received little attention in community mental health despite the fact that many individuals with mental illness are heavy smokers and experience undue tobacco-related health consequences. METHODS: This qualitative study used methods of discourse analysis to examine the perceptions of health

Joy L. Johnson; Barbara M. Moffat; Leslie A. Malchy

2010-01-01

170

Preserving Respectability or Blatant Disrespect? A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Morehouse Appropriate Attire Policy and Implications for Intersectional Approaches to Examining Campus Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I conduct a critical discourse analysis of the Morehouse College Appropriate Attire Policy and discuss how issues of race, gender, and sexuality converge to reveal both overt and hidden meanings embedded in the policy. I also consider how power is used towards "other" black college men who neither fit neatly into…

Patton, Lori D.

2014-01-01

171

Historical Material Analysis of DC745U Pressure Pads  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Enhance Surveillance mission, it is the goal to provide suitable lifetime assessment of stockpile materials. This report is an accumulation of historical publication on the DC745U material and their findings. It is the intention that the B61 LEP program uses this collection of data to further develop their understanding and potential areas of study. DC745U is a commercially available silicone elastomer consisting of dimethyl, methyl-phenyl, and methyl-vinyl siloxane repeat units. Originally, this material was manufactured by Dow Corning as Silastic{reg_sign} DC745U at their manufacturing facility in Kendallville, IN. Recently, Dow Corning shifted this material to the Xiameter{reg_sign} brand product line. Currently, DC745U is available through Xiameter{reg_sign} or Dow Corning's distributor R. D. Abbott Company. DC745U is cured using 0.5 wt% vinyl-specific peroxide curing agent known as Luperox 101 or Varox DBPH-50. This silicone elastomer is used in numerous parts, including two major components (outer pressure pads and aft cap support) in the W80 and as pressure pads on the B61. DC745U is a proprietary formulation, thus Dow Corning provides limited information on its composition and properties. Based on past experience with Dow Corning, DC745U is at risk of formulation changes without notification to the costumer. A formulation change for DC745U may have a significant impact because the network structure is a key variable in determining material properties. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of historical DC745U studies and identify gaps that need to be addressed in future work. Some of the previous studies include the following: 1. Spectroscopic characterization of raw gum stock. 2. Spectroscopic, thermal, and mechanical studies on cured DC745U. 3. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and solvent swelling studies on DC745U with different crosslink densities. 4. NMR, solvent swelling, thermal, and mechanical studies on thermally aged DC745U. 5. NMR, solvent swelling, thermal, and mechanical studies on radiolytically aged DC745U. Each area is reviewed and further work is suggested to improve our understanding of DC745U for systems engineering, surveillance, aging assessments, and lifetime assessment.

Ortiz-Acosta, Denisse [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-30

172

Analysis of Natural and Anthropogenic Climate Change: Historical and Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Parallel Climate Model (PCM) has been used to study the separate and combined effects of both natural and anthropogenic forcing on the climate system. The PCM is a comprehensive coupled atmosphere, ocean, land surface, and sea ice model. It has been integrated from 1870 to 2200 with various forcings that include those of greenhouse gases, sulfate aerosols, ozone, and solar radiation. Volcanic and solar forcing has been included from 1870 to the present. In order to determine which forcing or combination of forcing explains most of the observed recent climate changes, we have analyzed both the global average and geographical patterns. In addition, we have used some simulations to study the role of historical land cover changes on regional climate. For most of the simulations we have made use of ensembles of four or more members. In the future scenarios (from 2002 to 2200), we conducted several different stabilization simulations and compared them to business-as-usual. Some of the key results of these simulations both globally and geographically will be discussed. The model data are available to the community at http://www.earthsystemgrid.org or at Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) http://www-pcmdi.llnl.gov/modeldata/.

Washington, W.

2003-04-01

173

Historical review on genetic analysis in hemophilia a.  

PubMed

Molecular genetic analysis is widely applied in inherited bleeding disorders. The outcome of genetic analysis allows genetic counselling in affected families and helps to find a link between the genotype and phenotype. Genetic analysis in hemophilia A (HA) has tremendously improved in the past decades. Many new techniques and modifications as well as analysis software have become available, which has enabled genetic analysis and interpretation of data to become faster and more accurate. The advances in mutation detection strategies facilitate the identification of the causal mutation in up to 97% of patients with HA. This review discusses the milestones in genetic analysis of HA and highlights the importance of identification of the causative mutations for genetic counseling and particularly for the interpretation of the clinical presentation of HA patients. PMID:25377322

Oldenburg, Johannes; Pezeshkpoor, Behnaz; Pavlova, Anna

2014-11-01

174

Role Models or Normalizing Agents? A Genealogical Analysis of Popular Written News Media Discourse regarding Male Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author examines popular written news media discourse from the United States concerning the "boy crisis," the gender gap, and male teachers as role models employing genealogical methodologies and theoretical concepts suggested by Foucault (1984, 1990, 1995). It is argued that such discourses reveal how "common sense" beliefs…

Sternod, Brandon M.

2011-01-01

175

Analyses des discours non strictement mathematiques accompagnant des cours de mathematiques (Analysis of Not Strictly Mathematical Discourse in Mathematics Classes).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines discourse, not strictly mathematical, that teachers might adopt in a mathematics class and presents three major functions of such discourse: communication; structuring and labeling; and reflection. Develops lines for further inquiry, notably on the third function, the most likely focus for specific preparation by the teacher. (13…

Robert, Aline

1995-01-01

176

An analysis of peer interaction patterns as discoursed by on-line small group problem-solving activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, numerous on-line discussion forums have been developed for educational purposes; therefore, a better under- standing about peer student discussion or discourse interactions is quite important. Through gathering peer learning inter- actions on 57 college computer science students, who were randomly assigned into 14 small groups for solving programming problems, this study analyzed the content of their discourse interactions. First,

Chen-chung Liu; Chin-chung Tsai

2008-01-01

177

Reporting the Rhetoric, Implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as Represented in Ireland's Second Report to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child: A Critical Discourse Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ireland's second periodic report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) presents the government's case that it is succeeding in protecting and promoting the rights of all children in Ireland. This article presents a critical discourse analysis of the government's Report to the CRC. Using a refined critical discourse

Kiersey, Rachel A.; Hayes, Noirin

2010-01-01

178

A causal analysis relating previous achievement, attitudes, discourse, and intervention to achievement in biology and chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study described the relationship of 38 variates to achievement in high school biology and chemistry classes. Forty-four teachers prepared audio tape recordings of discussions throughout a nine-month period. Equal-sized groups received treatment consisting of wait time feedback and/or supportive intervention, a form of peer coaching. Other variables were initial measures, which included the variates of class size and previous science grade, pre- and posttest scores on student attitudes and perceptions, and prediscourse and discourse analyses, which included the variates of wait times, actions, and response durations. While previous research has shown that wait time feedback and supportive intervention are effective means of changing teacher behavior, the results of the present study revealed that previous student achievement and the attitudes of students accounted for 70% of the variation in the final examination scores (New York State Regents) on the basis of only the first three weeks of data collection on the variables assessed. Generally, little emphasis on higher-level thinking, wait time, or problem solving was found at the beginning of the school year, and only minimal changes resulted from the application of the treatment variables. Pressures for content coverage and preparation for externally imposed statewide examinations that emphasize memory-level learning augured against the changes that the independent variables were designed to produce.

Gooding, C. Thomas; Swift, J. Nathan; Schell, Robert E.; Swift, Patricia R.; McCroskery, James H.

179

Pap smear brochures, misogyny and language: a discourse analysis and feminist critique.  

PubMed

Text from a public health brochure on pap smears was analysed with particular reference to ways in which the language used conveys particular messages about women and their bodies. In the text, 'humans' were found to be excluded as such. Both the pap smear service provider and the women who are the recipients of this service--and at whom such brochures are targeted--are objectified and their characteristics of human existence (i.e. ontological capacities) were restricted. The language of the pamphlet invokes an image for women associated with vaginal (penile penetrative) sex. The discourse also is found to be didactic, biomedical and written in the voice of the service provider. Further, the encounter of pap smear events is contextualized as procedural such that not only is the woman 'done to' in the process of having a cervical smear test but the woman's and provider's experiences of the encounter are silenced. It is concluded that the texts may be viewed as misogynist and that such texts do not take account of the complexity of women's decisions to 'submit to' or comply with cervical cancer screening. PMID:9437963

Lane, V; Lawler, J

1997-12-01

180

Meta-analysis: Historical Origins and Contemporary Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The early and recent history of meta-analysis is outlined. After providing a definition of meta-analysis and listing its major characteristics, developments in statistics and research are described that influenced the formulation of modern meta-analytic methods. Major meta-analytic methods currently in use are described. Statistical and other…

Kulik, James A.; Kulik, Chen-Lin C.

181

Biogeography of Human Infectious Diseases: A Global Historical Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives Human pathogen richness and prevalence vary widely across the globe, yet we know little about whether global patterns found in other taxa also predict diversity in this important group of organisms. This study (a) assesses the relative importance of temperature, precipitation, habitat diversity, and population density on the global distributions of human pathogens and (b) evaluates the species-area predictions of island biogeography for human pathogen distributions on oceanic islands. Methods Historical data were used in order to minimize the influence of differential access to modern health care on pathogen prevalence. The database includes coded data (pathogen, environmental and cultural) for a worldwide sample of 186 non-industrial cultures, including 37 on islands. Prevalence levels for 10 pathogens were combined into a pathogen prevalence index, and OLS regression was used to model the environmental determinants of the prevalence index and number of pathogens. Results Pathogens (number and prevalence index) showed the expected latitudinal gradient, but predictors varied by latitude. Pathogens increased with temperature in high-latitude zones, while mean annual precipitation was a more important predictor in low-latitude zones. Other environmental factors associated with more pathogens included seasonal dry extremes, frost-free climates, and human population density outside the tropics. Islands showed the expected species-area relationship for all but the smallest islands, and the relationship was not mediated by habitat diversity. Although geographic distributions of free-living and parasitic taxa typically have different determinants, these data show that variables that influence the distribution of free-living organisms also shape the global distribution of human pathogens. Understanding the cause of these distributions is potentially important, since geographical variation in human pathogens has an important influence on global disparities in human welfare. PMID:25271730

Cashdan, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

182

Historical Analysis of Marine Sea Level Pressure and Wind Components  

E-print Network

#3 #4 #12;Darwin marine SLP OI NINO3 Darwin land station COADS U OI #12;COMPARISON FOR TROPICAL PACIFIC WINDS FOR 4 PRODUCTS: Our OI; Da Silva (DS); NCEP-NCAR reanalysis (RA); and FSU subjective pseudo (2000) Pacific sea level analysis #12;U 1961-1993 monthly correlations OI-DS OI-FSU DS-FSU OI-RA FSU

183

Risk analysis and risk management: an historical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the history of risk analysis and risk management, giving special emphasis to the neglected period prior to the 20th century. The overall objective of the paper is to: (1) dampen the prevailing tendency to view present-day concerns about risk in an ahistorical context; (2) shed light on the intellectual antecedents of current thinking about risk; (3) clarify

Vincent T. Covello; Jeryl Mumpower

1985-01-01

184

Pedagogic discourse in introductory classes: Multi-dimensional analysis of textbooks and lectures in biology and macroeconomics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The broad goal of this study is to represent the linguistic variation of textbooks and lectures, the primary input for student learning---and sometimes the sole input in the large introductory classes which characterize General Education at many state universities. Computer techniques are used to analyze a corpus of textbooks and lectures from first-year university classes in macroeconomics and biology. These spoken and written variants are compared to each other as well as to benchmark texts from other multi-dimensional studies in order to examine their patterns, relations, and functions. A corpus consisting of 147,000 words was created from macroeconomics and biology lectures at a medium-large state university and from a set of nationally "best-selling" textbooks used in these same introductory survey courses. The corpus was analyzed using multi-dimensional methodology (Biber, 1988). The analysis consists of both empirical and qualitative phases. Quantitative analyses are undertaken on the linguistic features, their patterns of co-occurrence, and on the contextual elements of classrooms and textbooks. The contextual analysis is used to functionally interpret the statistical patterns of co-occurrence along five dimensions of textual variation, demonstrating patterns of difference and similarity with reference to text excerpts. Results of the analysis suggest that academic discourse is far from monolithic. Pedagogic discourse in introductory classes varies by modality and discipline, but not always in the directions expected. In the present study the most abstract texts were biology lectures---more abstract than written genres of academic prose and more abstract than introductory textbooks. Academic lectures in both disciplines, monologues which carry a heavy informational load, were extremely interactive, more like conversation than academic prose. A third finding suggests that introductory survey textbooks differ from those used in upper division classes by being relatively less marked for information density, abstraction, and non-overt argumentation. In addition to the findings mentioned here, numerous other relationships among the texts exhibit complex patterns of variation related to a number of situational variables. Pedagogical implications are discussed in relation to General Education courses, differing student populations, and the reading and listening demands which students encounter in large introductory classes in the university.

Carkin, Susan

185

A Community-Based Treatment for Native American Historical Trauma: Prospects for Evidence-Based Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen staff and clients in a Native American healing lodge were interviewed regarding the therapeutic approach used to address the legacy of Native American historical trauma. On the basis of thematic content analysis of interviews, 4 components of healing discourse emerged. First, clients were understood by their counselors to carry pain, leading to adult dysfunction, including substance abuse. Second, counselors

Joseph P. Gone

2009-01-01

186

The "Islamic" in Islamic Education: Assessing the Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper assesses the dominant discourse on Islam and education that argues for an education derived from an exclusively "Islamic" vision. In addition to exploring the historical roots of this discourse, the paper analyses it with respect to its (i) arguments for an Islamic vision of education, (ii) conception of Islam, and (iii) proposals for…

Panjwani, Farid

2004-01-01

187

Can historic neighborhoods compete? Analysis of and recommendations for local incentives for owner-occupied historic housing  

E-print Network

This research study sets out to determine what incentives and programs are being utilized throughout the country and in Texas to keep historic residential neighborhoods maintained and vibrant. For this purpose, federal, state and local programs...

Rowe, Rebecca Elizabeth

2005-02-17

188

From the King's deer to a capitalist commodity: A social historical analysis of the poaching law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laws prohibiting the illegal taking of wildlife resources have a long history. This research provides a social historical analysis of the poaching law over time. Using a critical Marxist theoretical perspective, it argues that poaching laws have gone through three phases that correspond to the respective level of societal industrialization and dominant social class interests of the time. Poaching laws

Stephen Eliason

2012-01-01

189

Analysis of genetic data on Jewish populations. I. Historical background, demographic features, and genetic markers.  

PubMed Central

Part I describes the data sets on which the analysis of Part II is based. This covers the nature of the populations sampled, the extent to which the samples are representative, and a brief review of historical and demographic facts on the populations involved. PMID:380329

Bonne-Tamir, B; Karlin, S; Kenett, R

1979-01-01

190

NASA/SP-2013-605 An Analysis and a Historical Review  

E-print Network

NASA/SP-2013-605 An Analysis and a Historical Review of the Apollo Program Lunar Module Touchdown Dynamics George A. Zupp, PhD Engineering Directorate, Retired Structural Engineering Division NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058 January 2013 #12;NASA STI Program ... in Profile Since its founding

Rathbun, Julie A.

191

Prospects for Teaching Historical Analysis and Interpretation: National Curriculum Standards for History Meet Current History Textbooks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines to what extent representative history textbooks used in American high schools encourage development of historical analysis and interpretation, one of five standards issued by the National Center for History in the Schools. Treatment of the Aztec Empire and the Cold War varied widely in the four textbooks studied. All texts failed the new…

Foster, Stuart; And Others

1996-01-01

192

An historical and developmental analysis of social model programs.  

PubMed

This review synthesizes the philosophy, development, history, and current status of the philosophy of social or community model of recovery and of Social Model Programs (SMPs) based on an analysis of the available literature, much of it outside traditional sources. The social-community model of recovery evolved out of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), and has a distinctive program philosophy with different assumptions, knowledge, and practice than professionally based treatment models. SMPs began in the 1940s in California, evolving by the 1980s into a continuum of recovery services that are publicly funded, legally incorporated nonprofit organizations. The characteristics of SMPs are described and the range of services are presented, including social setting detoxification, residential recovery homes, non-residential neighborhood recovery centers and sober living houses. SMPs are staffed exclusively by recovering alcoholics and their structure is based on the 12 traditions of AA, which emphasize democratic group processes with shared and rotated leadership and a minimal hierarchy. Cost effectiveness data suggest that residential social model programs average approximately $2,700 per stay versus $4,400 for other residential approaches, yet may offer similar outcomes in terms of substance use and improvement employment or family function. PMID:9534122

Borkman, T J; Kaskutas, L A; Room, J; Bryan, K; Barrows, D

1998-01-01

193

Livelihood security, vulnerability and resilience: a historical analysis of Chibuene, southern Mozambique.  

PubMed

A sustainable livelihood framework is used to analyse livelihood security, vulnerability and resilience in the village of Chibuene, Vilanculos, southern Mozambique from a historical and contemporary perspective. Interviews, assessments, archaeology, palaeoecology and written sources are used to address tangible and intangible aspects of livelihood security. The analysis shows that livelihood strategies for building resilience, diversification of resource use, social networks and trade, have long historical continuities. Vulnerability is contingent on historical processes as long-term socio-environmental insecurity and resultant biodiversity loss. These contingencies affect the social capacity to cope with vulnerability in the present. The study concludes that contingency and the extent and strength of social networks should be added as a factor in livelihood assessments. Furthermore, policies for mitigating vulnerability must build on the reality of environmental insecurity, and strengthen local structures that diversify and spread risk. PMID:22544636

Ekblom, Anneli

2012-07-01

194

Analysis of historical delta values for IAEA/LANL NDA training courses  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supports the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) by providing training for IAEA inspectors in neutron and gamma-ray Nondestructive Assay (NDA) of nuclear material. Since 1980, all new IAEA inspectors attend this two week course at LANL gaining hands-on experience in the application of NDA techniques, procedures and analysis to measure plutonium and uranium nuclear material standards with well known pedigrees. As part of the course the inspectors conduct an inventory verification exercise. This exercise provides inspectors the opportunity to test their abilities in performing verification measurements using the various NDA techniques. For an inspector, the verification of an item is nominally based on whether the measured assay value agrees with the declared value to within three times the historical delta value. The historical delta value represents the average difference between measured and declared values from previous measurements taken on similar material with the same measurement technology. If the measurement falls outside a limit of three times the historical delta value, the declaration is not verified. This paper uses measurement data from five years of IAEA courses to calculate a historical delta for five non-destructive assay methods: Gamma-ray Enrichment, Gamma-ray Plutonium Isotopics, Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting, Active Neutron Coincidence Counting and the Neutron Coincidence Collar. These historical deltas provide information as to the precision and accuracy of these measurement techniques under realistic conditions.

Geist, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Santi, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bonner, Elisa [FORMER N-4 STUDENT

2009-01-01

195

Contending Discourse and Ideologies: English and Agency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historically and increasingly around the world, English carries ideologies and discourses that conflict with each other, ranging from the liberation struggles in Africa to different nations' international radio broadcasts. In multi-sided and often ambivalent ways, English serves as the medium for forces on different sides of significant world…

Cooke, David

1999-01-01

196

Predominant discourses in Swedish nursing.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to elucidate the predominant discourse in the field of Swedish nursing in 2000, 25 years after nursing was introduced as an academic discipline in Sweden. The method used was content analysis and deconstructive analysis of discourses. Laws, statutes, regulations, and examination requirements, including official reports, recruitment campaigns, and media coverage, were analyzed. The findings uncovered competing discourses striving to gain hegemony. In the public sector, official requirements competed against the media fixation on gender stereotypes and the realities of local recruitment campaigns. Media has a major role in disseminating prevailing conceptions and conventions pertaining to the nursing profession. As a result, decision makers, students, patients, and family members could get lower expectations of the professional competence of nursing practitioners than would otherwise have been the case in the absence of media exposure. PMID:19783537

Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth; Pilhammar-Anderson, Ewa

2009-05-01

197

Reconstructing Eastern paradigms of discourse studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current scholarship on language and communication has largely been culturally monological rather than dialogical and diversified. In this paper, I respond to this sorry state by arguing for the reconstruction of Eastern paradigms in favour of multiculturalism in discourse research. To that end, I first critique the ethnocentrism of Discourse Analysis, then point to the cultural realities of the Eastern

2009-01-01

198

Particles as Fundaments of Discourse Structuring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A serious study of discourse particles (DIPs) must be founded on the analysis of orality in its two main dimensions: oral communication in its ordinary functioning (i.e., discourse, conversation, enunciation), but also in expression ritualized by the oral tradition of cultures that do not have a writing system. The association of the two…

Fernandez-Vest, M. M. Jocelyne

199

Corporate Discourse and the Academy: A Polemic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical analysis of vocabulary, imagery, and rhetoric in business texts shows that higher education is adopting a free-market discourse depicting the academy in terms of a knowledge industry or revenue generator in which intellectual resources are "leveraged" and knowledge is a "commodity." This discourse is characterized as management centered,…

Webster, Gary

2003-01-01

200

Race discourse and the US Confederate Flag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research reveals that racial hierarchies and ‘color?blind’ racism is maintained through discourse. The current study utilizes exploratory data from focus groups in a predominantly white southern university in the United States to examine race talk, the Confederate Flag, and the construction of southern white identity. Drawing from critical discourse analysis, we answer the following questions: first, to what extent do

Lori Holyfield; Matthew Ryan Moltz; Mindy S. Bradley

2009-01-01

201

Discourse Patterns During Children's Collaborative Online Discussions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the discourse of 10 groups of children during text-based online discussions. Analysis of the discourse in the discussions showed that 8 different rhetorical moves, or argument stratagems, were used by most groups of children, whereas 3 other stratagems were used by 1 group. The use of argument stratagems snowballed; that is, once an argument stratagem emerged in

Il-Hee Kim; Richard C. Anderson; Kim Nguyen-Jahiel; Anthi Archodidou

2007-01-01

202

A Historical Analysis of Desegregation and Racism in a Racially Polarized Region: Implications for the Historical Construct, a Diversity Problem, and Transforming Teacher Education toward Culturally Relevant Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study chronicles the historical divisions of race and class between Detroit and its suburban neighbor as an explanation for current tensions in the communities and schools. This analysis poses implications for educational apartheid and stark disparities between urban and suburban boundaries and consequent discomfort among practitioners when…

Hill, K. Dara

2009-01-01

203

Reconstruals of the Past: Settlement or Invasion? The Role of JUDGEMENT Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While little attention has been given in historiography to the language of historical narrative, and the role language plays in portraying history, the discipline of linguistics, and particularly the subdisciplines of discourse analysis and functional linguistics, have given increasing attention to the discourse of history. Recently, a group of…

Coffin, Caroline

204

The Discourse of Retrospective Miscue Analysis: Links with Adult Learning Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the appropriateness of retrospective miscue analysis (RMA) for post-secondary developmental readers through the perspective of adult learning theory. Emphasizes the suitability of RMA as an instructional strategy for college readers through analyzing the process and effectiveness of two RMA sessions with a young adult college…

Paulson, Eric

2001-01-01

205

Wildlife-Based Recreation as Economic Windfall: A Rhetorical Analysis of Public Discourse on Birding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Symbolic convergence theory posits that groups of like-minded people use linguistic symbols to construct a shared reality and form rhetorical visions (ways of viewing and communicating about an issue). To see how rhetorical visions might help shape public tourism policy, the authors used fantasy theme analysis to examine 206 Kansas newspaper…

Hill, Steven G.; Cable, Ted T.; Scott, David

2010-01-01

206

The Main Concept Analysis in Cantonese Aphasic Oral Discourse: External Validation and Monitoring Chronic Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The 1st aim of this study was to further establish the external validity of the main concept (MC) analysis by examining its relationship with the Cantonese Linguistic Communication Measure (CLCM; Kong, 2006; Kong & Law, 2004)--an established quantitative system for narrative production--and the Cantonese version of the Western Aphasia…

Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin

2011-01-01

207

Measuring Discourse-Level Processes with Verbal Protocols and Latent Semantic Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study used latent semantic analysis (LSA) to analyze verbal protocols that were collected while participants read expository passages. In the study, participants were asked to type their thoughts after reading each sentence of 2 scientific texts. The semantic similarity between the protocols and the current sentence and prior causal…

Millis, Keith; Magliano, Joseph; Todaro, Stacey

2006-01-01

208

Racism in the News: A Critical Discourse Analysis of News Reporting in Two Australian Newspapers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to probe for ideological construction of racism imbricated within the structure of newspaper reporting. The study focuses on news reports relating to a Vietnamese gang in Australia whose violent and drug-dealing activities have received publicity in two Sydney-based newspapers: The Sydney Morning Herald and The Daily Telegraph. The analysis of these reports adheres to

PETER TEO

2000-01-01

209

An Exploratory Analysis of Communication in Peer-Directed Educational Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory analysis examined the nature of asynchronous, text-based communication in peer-directed educational discussions. The nature of communication changed over time and women exhibited greater tendency for epistolary communication than men. Initial posts, which were expository in nature, focused on disseminating information whereas…

Gibbs, William J.

2009-01-01

210

Exploring the interplay of gender, discourse, and (im)politeness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing upon the method of discourse analysis, this article explores the complex relationship between gender, discourse, and (im)politeness. By examining an extended excerpt of interaction taken from the popular US reality TV show The Apprentice, I examine the role of gender stereotyping and gender assumptions in the assessment of (im)politeness by the discourse participants. Following Mills (2002), I shall argue

Chit Cheung Matthew Sung

2012-01-01

211

An objective change-point analysis of historical Atlantic hurricane numbers  

E-print Network

We perform an objective change-point analysis on 106 years of historical hurricane number data. The algorithm we use looks at all possible combinations of change-points and compares them in terms of the variances of the differences between real and modelled numbers. Overfitting is avoided by using cross-validation. We identify four change-points, and show that the presence of temporal structure in the hurricane number time series is highly statistically significant.

Jewson, S; Jewson, Stephen; Penzer, Jeremy

2006-01-01

212

Higher Education Financial Perspective amidst Crisis: A Historical Analysis of Public Opinion through Social Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Student: Varun Vasudeo\\u000aFaculty Sponsor: Dr Kathleen P King, Professor, Higher Education, COE, ACHE Department\\u000a \\u000aAbstract\\u000aTitle- Higher Education Financial Perspective amidst Crisis: A Historical Analysis of Public Opinion through Social Media\\u000aPurpose - To identify, collect and analyze a higher education trend in images by collecting results from different search engines and graphing the trend due to economic recession

Varun Vasudeo; Kathleen K King

2011-01-01

213

Historical and Spatial Analysis of High-Value Crop Production in the U.S  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the complex relationship between urbanization and high-value crops production in the US. High-value products (HVPs) are defined to include farms producing fruit, vegetable, and greenhouse and nursery crops. Analysis of historical (1949-2002) shifts in production and redefinitions of metropolitan counties shows that HVPs production has been highly concentrated in metropolitan counties but in stable proportions, especially in

Mei-luan Cheng; Nelson L. Bills; Joseph Francis

2006-01-01

214

Selling patients and other metaphors: a discourse analysis of the interpretive frames that shape emergency department admission handoffs.  

PubMed

This paper reports a discourse analysis of the language doctors used as they talked about and engaged in patient handoffs between the emergency department (ED) and various inpatient services at one highly specialized academic tertiary teaching and referral hospital in the Midwest United States. Although interest in handoff improvement has grown considerably in recent years, progress has been hampered, perhaps in part, because of a widely used but limiting conceptual model of handoff as an information transmission. The purpose of the study reported here is to analyze the way doctors make sense of handoff interactions, including uncovering the interpretive frames they use, in order to provide empirical findings to expand conceptual models of handoff. All data reported were drawn from a two-year ethnographic study (2009-2011) and include semi-structured interviews (n = 48), non-participant observations (349 h), and recorded telephone handoff conversations (n = 48). A total of eighty-six individuals participated, including resident and attending doctors from the ED, internal medicine and surgical services, as well as hospital administrators. Findings are organized around four metaphors doctors used: sales, sports and games, packaging, and teamwork. Each metaphor, in turn, reveals an underlying interpretive frame that appears to be influenced by organizational and social structures and to shape the possibilities for action that doctors perceive. The four underlying interpretive frames are: handoff as persuasion, handoff as competition, handoff as expectation matching, and handoff as collaboration. Taken together, these interpretive frames highlight the complex, socially interactive nature of handoff and provide an empirical basis for grounding and enriching the conceptual model of handoff that guides research and practice improvement efforts. PMID:24565149

Hilligoss, Brian

2014-02-01

215

First-Year College Student Beliefs about Writing Embedded in Online Discourse: An Analysis and Its Implications for Literacy Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online discourse has become a common mode of communication for the Twenty-First Century. Many businesses now use electronic networking sites such as Facebook to communicate with customers through online posts and electronic updates through Twitter. With these recent trends in electronic communication, some educators have begun implementing…

Burkart, Gina

2010-01-01

216

Teachers in the News: A Critical Analysis of One US Newspaper's Discourse on Education, 2006-2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public education discourse in the USA has been characterized by messages of crisis shaping education policies across national contexts. Education policy solutions target a lack of qualified teachers and insufficient oversight of teacher practice as central factors in the crisis, placing teacher identity as knowledgeable, authoritative…

Cohen, Jennifer L.

2010-01-01

217

Healthy Living and Keeping BusyA Discourse Analysis of Mid-Aged Women's Attributions for Menopausal Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Menopause is a complex time in the lives of mid-aged women, and this contributes to the diversity of attributions of menopausal experience. In this study, participants' comments on a survey of attitudes about menopause were analyzed discursively to consider how mid-aged women account for their own and other women's experience of menopause. Two discourses drawn upon to make attributions about

Mary Breheny; Christine Stephens

2003-01-01

218

Exploring the Discourse on Communication Modality after Cochlear Implantation: A Foucauldian Analysis of Parents' Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After pediatric cochlear implantation, parents have to make decisions concerning which communication modality the child and the child's family will use. The choice has to be made against a background of opposing views on communication modality in follow-up after pediatric cochlear implantation. The opposing views form a discourse that has…

Bruin, Marieke; Nevøy, Anne

2014-01-01

219

"Everyone's Got Room to Grow": A Discourse Analysis of Service-Learning Rhetoric in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores representations emergent in discourse about service learning in an effort to understand what gives the notion special value. A job presentation of a candidate for dean of faculty, articles published in a college newspaper, descriptions posted on a college website and commentary offered in an interview with a student…

Ladousa, Chaise

2013-01-01

220

An Analysis of Peer Interaction Patterns as Discoursed by On-Line Small Group Problem-Solving Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Currently, numerous on-line discussion forums have been developed for educational purposes; therefore, a better understanding about peer student discussion or discourse interactions is quite important. Through gathering peer learning interactions on 57 college computer science students, who were randomly assigned into 14 small groups for solving…

Liu, Chen-Chung; Tsai, Chin-Chung

2008-01-01

221

Public Discourse on HIV and AIDS: An Archival Analysis of National Newspaper Reporting in Uganda, 1996-2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uganda is recognised as an early success story in the HIV epidemic at least in part due to an open and vigorous national dialogue about HIV prevention. This study examined the national discourse about HIV, AIDS, and young people in New Vision, Uganda's leading national newspaper between 1996 and 2011, building from a previous archival…

Lagone, Elizabeth; Mathur, Sanyukta; Nakyanjo, Neema; Nalugoda, Fred; Santelli, John

2014-01-01

222

The climatic effect of explosive volcanic activity: Analysis of the historical data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By using the most complete available records of direct beam radiation and volcanic eruptions, an historical analysis of the role of the latter in modulating the former was made. A very simple fallout and dispersion model was applied to the historical chronology of explosive eruptions. The resulting time series explains about 77 percent of the radiation variance, as well as suggests that tropical and subpolar eruptions are more important than mid-latitude eruptions in their impact on the stratospheric aerosol optical depth. The simpler climatic models indicate that past hemispheric temperature can be stimulated very well with volcanic and CO2 inputs and suggest that climate forecasting will also require volcano forecasting. There is some evidence that this is possible some years in advance.

Bryson, R. A.; Goodman, B. M.

1982-01-01

223

A Historical Analysis of the Relationship Between Rice Production and PDSI Values in Sri Lanka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As world population grows, there are ever increasing demands being placed on the food production systems throughout the world. Climate change is complicating these stressors even further through more frequent severe weather events. In the developing world, where there are fewer resources to mitigate the effects of climate change, the combination of these two factors can have drastic consequences. In Sri Lanka, farmers in major rice production areas of the country are already struggling to produce enough rice, a staple food of the local diet, and a severe wet or dry spell could be ruinous. Faced with a changing climate and a growing demand for rice, it is important to be able to anticipate how climatic changes will affect rice production. By examining how extreme wet and dry spells have historically affected rice production, decision makers may be better able to predict and prepare for potential food shortages. We conducted an analysis of historic temperature, precipitation, and rice production statistics in order to determine the effects of extreme wet and dry spells on rice production. We also created a timeline of major developments in Sri Lankan agriculture in order to compare effects on rice production due to changes in agricultural practices with meteorological changes. Historical temperature and precipitation data were used to calculate the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for a number of stations distributed throughout the Mahaweli river basin. The basin, the largest in the country, contains three different climatic regions - dry, intermediate, and wet - that all receive different amounts of annual precipitation. The PDSI values were used to quantify drought and wetness during the Yala (April-September) and Maha (October-March) growing seasons. Analysis of historical PDSI values, agricultural advances, and rice production statistics shows great promise for anticipating and mitigating future food shortages.

Jacobi, J. H.; Hornberger, G. M.

2011-12-01

224

Linking Discourse and Space: Towards a Cultural Sociology of Space in Analysing Spatial Policy Discourses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The aim of this paper is to explore how spatialities are 'constructed' in spatial policy discourses and to explore how these construction processes might be conceptualised and analysed. To do this, we discuss a theoretical and analytical framework for the discourse analysis of socio-spatial relations. Our approach follows the path emerging within planning research focusing on the relations between

Tim Richardson; Ole B. Jensen

2003-01-01

225

Defining a social problem: socio-historical analysis of the antinuclear weapons movement  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation is a socio-historical analysis of the anti-nuclear weapons movement in the United States. This work conceptualizes social movements in advanced industrial societies by synthesizing certain aspects of social constructionism, resource mobilization, and new class theory. The research design is a socio-historical, comparative case study. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are employed for data analysis. Extensive content analysis of documents and interviews with key actors are supplemented with a critical analysis of a wide variety of primary and secondary data. All major antinuclear weapons protest, particularly the Atomic Scientists Movement of the 1940s, the Ban-the-Bomb Movement of the 1950s and 1960s, and the Freeze Movement of the 1980s, shared similar characteristics, and experienced similar problems. The findings are congruent with the theoretical synthesis. Antinuclear weapons protest is best understood as a new class phenomenon, in which intellectuals have mobilized resources to challenge the ruling elite. Yet, though the protest has succeeded in challenging the legitimacy of the ruling apparatus, successes of the movement have been mostly symbolic.

McCrea, F.B.

1988-01-01

226

An emerging discourse: toward epistemic diversity in nursing.  

PubMed

Grounded in a postmodern feminist methodology, this article undertakes an initial analysis of a newly emerging discourse in contemporary nursing academia in the United States. Two currently prominent discourses in nursing, a dominant discourse informed by the processes and values of "science" in the Enlightenment sense and a concurrent marginalized discourse informed by postmodernism, are described as a context for the emerging discourse. A genealogy informed by the work of Foucault is presented as a basis for an analysis of the power effects resulting from the conflict between these 2 discourses. Finally, 3 recent texts in nursing are analyzed and common themes identified as indicative of a new intertextual discourse, termed "epistemic diversity," emerging from this discursive conflict. PMID:12611429

Georges, Jane M

2003-01-01

227

Contextualizing the Pliny/Trajan Letters: A Case for Critiquing the (American) Myth of Deliberative Discourse in (Roman) Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the letter writing of two Romans, Pliny and Trajan, as examples of deliberative discourse. Suggests that their discourse may come closer to the discourse of United States corporations than to that of the United States Congress. Draws on theories of management communication. Looks at specific letters in addition to reviewing historical

Farnsworth, Rodney

1996-01-01

228

Adolescent pregnancies and girls' sexual and reproductive rights in the amazon basin of Ecuador: an analysis of providers' and policy makers' discourses  

PubMed Central

Background Adolescent pregnancies are a common phenomenon that can have both positive and negative consequences. The rights framework allows us to explore adolescent pregnancies not just as isolated events, but in relation to girls' sexual and reproductive freedom and their entitlement to a system of health protection that includes both health services and the so called social determinants of health. The aim of this study was to explore policy makers' and service providers' discourses concerning adolescent pregnancies, and discuss the consequences that those discourses have for the exercise of girls' sexual and reproductive rights' in the province of Orellana, located in the amazon basin of Ecuador. Methods We held six focus-group discussions and eleven in-depth interviews with 41 Orellana's service providers and policy makers. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using discourse analysis, specifically looking for interpretative repertoires. Results Four interpretative repertoires emerged from the interviews. The first repertoire identified was "sex is not for fun" and reflected a moralistic construction of girls' sexual and reproductive health that emphasized abstinence, and sent contradictory messages regarding contraceptive use. The second repertoire -"gendered sexuality and parenthood"-constructed women as sexually uninterested and responsible mothers, while men were constructed as sexually driven and unreliable. The third repertoire was "professionalizing adolescent pregnancies" and lead to patronizing attitudes towards adolescents and disregard of the importance of non-medical expertise. The final repertoire -"idealization of traditional family"-constructed family as the proper space for the raising of adolescents while at the same time acknowledging that sexual abuse and violence within families was common. Conclusions Providers' and policy makers' repertoires determined the areas that the array of sexual and reproductive health services should include, leaving out the ones more prone to cause conflict and opposition, such as gender equality, abortion provision and welfare services for pregnant adolescents. Moralistic attitudes and sexism were present - even if divergences were also found-, limiting services' capability to promote girls' sexual and reproductive health and rights. PMID:20525405

2010-01-01

229

Discourses of Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This lecture discusses the concept of lifestyle, which emerged in the field of marketing in the 1970s, as a new, and increasingly pervasive, discourse of identity cutting through older "demographic" discourses. Distributed by mediated experts and role models, and realized through the semiotics of "composites of connotation", it redraws the…

Van Leeuwen, Theo

2009-01-01

230

Technocratic Discourse: A Primer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes linguistic and semantic features of technocratic discourse using a Systemic Functional Linguistics framework. Asserts that the function of technocratic discourse in public policy is to advocate and promulgate a highly contentious political and economic agenda under the guise of scientific objectivity and political impartiality. Provides…

McKenna, Bernard J.; Graham, Philip

2000-01-01

231

One sense per discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well-known that there are polysemous words like appears two or more times in a well-written discourse, it is extremely likely that they will all share the same sense. This paper describes an experiment which confirmed this hypothesis and found that the tendency to share sense in the same discourse is extremely strong (98%). This result can be used

William A. Gale; Kenneth W. Church; David Yarowsky

1992-01-01

232

Profiles of Discourse Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discourse recognition theory derived from more general memory formulations would be broad in its psychological implications. This study compared discourse recognition with some established profiles of item recognition. Participants read 10 stories either once or twice each. They then rated their confidence in recognizing explicit, paraphrased,…

Singer, Murray

2013-01-01

233

Quantitative analysis of saltwater-freshwater relationships in groundwater systems-A historical perspective  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although much progress has been made toward the mathematical description of saltwater-freshwater relationships in groundwater systems since the late 19th century, the advective and dispersive mechanisms involved are still incompletely understood. This article documents the major historical advances in this subject and summarizes the major direction of current studies. From the time of Badon Ghyben and Herzberg, it has been recognized that density is important in mathematically describing saltwater-freshwater systems. Other mechanisms, such as hydrodynamic dispersion, were identified later and are still not fully understood. Quantitative analysis of a saltwater-freshwater system attempts to mathematically describe the physical system and the important mechanisms using reasonable simplifications and assumptions. This paper, in developing the history of quantitative analysis discusses many of these simplifications and assumptions and their effect on describing and understanding the phenomenon. ?? 1985.

Reilly, T.E.; Goodman, A.S.

1985-01-01

234

A Historical Perspective on the Role of Collaboration in Teacher Education Reform: Making Good on the Promise of Teaching All Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an analysis of how collaborative teacher education has developed in terms of practice, discourse, and the relationship between general and special education across three historical stages. It explores how collaborative teacher education between general and special education has been positioned over time in relationship to…

Pugach, Marleen C.; Blanton, Linda P.; Correa, Vivian I.

2011-01-01

235

Introduction. Types de discours, ou fonctionnement discursif (Introduction. Types of Discourse, or Discursive Function)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the limits of Harris' and Chomsky's models for discourse analysis and questions their epistemological basis. Also discusses the "French school of discourse analysis." (Text is in French.) (AM)

Guespin, L.

1976-01-01

236

The competing discourses of HIV\\/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa: Discourses of rights and empowerment vs discourses of control and exclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The competing discourses of HIV\\/AIDS circulating in sub-Saharan Africa are identified. These are medical, medico-moral, developmental (distinguishing between 'women in development' and gender and development perspectives), legal, ethical, and the rights discourse of groups living with HIV\\/AIDS and of African pressure groups. The analytical framework is that of discourse analysis as exemplified by Michel Foucault. The medical and medico-moral are

Gill Seidel

1993-01-01

237

Effects of Using Historical Microworlds on Conceptual Change: A P-Prim Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the effects of using historical microworlds on conceptual change in mechanics. Historical microworlds combine history of science and microworld through a computer based interactive learning environment that respects and represents historic conceptions or theories. Six grade 5 elementary students participated individually to…

Masson, Steve; Legendre, Marie-Francoise

2008-01-01

238

Meeting the health and social needs of pregnant asylum seekers, midwifery students' perspectives: part 1; dominant discourses and midwifery students.  

PubMed

Current literature has indicated a concern about standards of maternity care experienced by pregnant women who are seeking asylum. As the next generation of midwives, it is important that students are educated in a way that prepares them to effectively care for these women. To understand how this can be achieved, it is important to explore what asylum seeking means to midwifery students. This article is the first of three parts and reports on one objective from a wider doctorate study. It identifies dominant discourses that influenced the perceptions of a group of midwifery students' about the pregnant asylum seeking woman. The study was designed from a social constructivist perspective, with contextual knowledge being constructed by groups of people, influenced by underpinning dominant discourses, depending on their social, cultural and historical positions in the world. In a United Kingdom University setting, during year two of a pre-registration midwifery programme, eleven midwifery students participated in the study. Two focus group interviews using a problem based learning scenario as a trigger for discussion were conducted. In addition, three students were individually interviewed to explore issues in more depth and two students' written reflections on practice were used to generate data. Following a critical discourse analysis, dominant discourses were identified which appeared to influence the way in which asylum seekers were perceived. The findings suggested an underpinning ideology around the asylum seeker being different and of a criminal persuasion. Although the pregnant woman seeking asylum was considered as deserving of care, the same discourses appeared to influence the way in which she was constructed. However, as the study progressed, through reading alternative sources of literature, some students appeared to question these discourses. These findings have implications for midwifery education in encouraging students to challenge negative discourses and construct positive perceptions of asylum seeking. PMID:22698756

Haith-Cooper, Melanie; Bradshaw, Gwendolen

2013-09-01

239

The Inequity in Illinois School Finance. An Analysis of: The Current Situation, the Historical Record, and Alternative Solutions. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides an analysis of current inequities in school finance in Illinois, the historical roots of those inequities, and an analysis of alternative options for funding primary and secondary education. An introduction briefly describes the basis for the constitutional challenge to the current funding system. The next section describes…

Hess, G. Alfred, Jr.; And Others

240

The role of genes in talking about overweight: An analysis of discourse on genetics, overweight and health risks in relation to nutrigenomics.  

PubMed

This study examines whether the assumptions embedded in nutrigenomics, especially the alleged relation between information about personal health risks and healthy behaviour, match how people account for the relation between food, health and genes in everyday life. We draw on discourse analysis to study accounts of overweight in six group interviews with people who are and who are not overweight. The results show potentially contradictory normative orientations towards behavioural explanations of (over)weight. Overt gene accounts are interactionally problematic (in contrast to more indirect accounts such as 'build'), indicating that participants treat 'behaviour' as the normatively appropriate explanation for overweight. At the same time, however, healthy behaviour is an accountable matter, i.e. it is dealt with in interaction as behaviour that is not self-evidently right but requires an explanation. It is discussed how bringing these interactional concerns to the surface is essential for understanding future users' response to nutrigenomics and emergent technologies more in general. PMID:23825280

Komduur, Rixt; Te Molder, Hedwig

2014-11-01

241

Discourse and Identity Construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We describe and discuss discursive approaches emerging over the last 50 years that in one way or another have contributed\\u000a to identity studies. Approaching identities as constructed in and through discourse, we start by differentiating between two competing views of construction: one that moves progressively\\u000a from existing “capital-D” social discourses to the domain of identity and sense of self and

Michael Bamberg; Anna De Fina; Deborah Schiffrin

242

Constructing Czechoslovakia: the meaning of "intelligence" in Czechoslovak educational discourse, 1900-1939.  

PubMed

Before World War II, Czechoslovakia went through its constituting process, including the development of an educational system. We made an analysis of Czechoslovak discussions about educational uses of intelligence tests from a discourse-theoretic and social constructionist perspective. In particular, we examined which connotations became associated with the concept "intelligence" in educational scientific publications about possible educational uses of the newly introduced tests in the years 1900-1939. Results substantiate the inextricable entwining of the meaning of "intelligence" with the unique characteristics of the historical situation in Czechoslovakia before World War II. PMID:15635700

Lepková, Katerina; Heyting, Frieda; Mulder, Ernst

2005-01-01

243

Informational database methodology for urban risk analysis.Case study: the historic centre of Bucharest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The urban environment often deals with issues concerning the deterioration of the constructed space and the quality of the environmental factors, in general terms meaning an unsatisfactory quality of life. Taking into account the complexity of the urban environment and the strong human impact, this ambience can be considered the ideal place for a varied range of risks to appear, being favoured by the external interventions and the dynamics of the internal changes that occur in the urban system, often unexpectedly. In this context, historic centre areas are even more vulnerable because of the age of the buildings and their socio-cultural value. The present study focuses on the development of a rapid assessment system of urban risks, putting emphasis on earthquakes. The importance of the study is shown by the high vulnerability that defines urban settlements, which can be considered socio-ecological systems characterized by a maximum risk level. In general, cities are highly susceptible areas because of their compactness and elevated degree of land occupancy, the Bucharest municipality being no exception. The street and sewerage networks disorganized the natural system resulted from the evolution of the lake-river system in Superior Pleistocene-Holocene and the intense construction activity represents a pressure that hasn't been measured and that is in need for a methodological interdisciplinary approach. In particular, the specific of Bucharest is given by the seismic risk based on an explosive urban evolution and the advanced state of degradation of the buildings. In this context, the Lipscani sector from the historic centre of the capital city is a maximum seismic vulnerability area, this being the result of its location in the Dâmbovita River meadow, on the brow and 80 m terrace, but more precisely because of the degradation of the buildings that cumulated the effects of the repeated earthquakes. The historic centre of Bucharest has not only a cultural function, but is also a very populated area, this being factors that favour a high susceptibility level. In addition, the majority of the buildings are included in the first and second categories of seismic risk, being built between 1875 and 1940, the age of the buildings establishing an increased vulnerability to natural hazards. The methodology was developed through the contribution of three partner universities from Bucharest: the University of Bucharest, the Academy for Economic Studies and the Technical University of Constructions. The method suggested was based on the analysis and processing of digital and statistical spatial information resulted from 1:500 topographical plans, satellite pictures, archives and historical maps used for the identification of the age of the buildings. Also, an important stage was represented by the field investigations that resulted with the data used in the assessment of the buildings: year of construction, location and vicinity, height, number of floors, state and function of the building, equipment and construction type. The information collected from the field together with the data resulted from the digitization of the ortophotoplans were inserted in ArcGIS in order to compile the database. Furthermore, the team from the Cybernetics Faculty developed a special software package in Visual Studio and SQL server in order to insert the sheets in GIS so that they could be statistically processed. The final product of the study is a program that includes as main functions editing, the analysis based on selected factors (individual or group) and viewing of building information in the shape of maps or 3D visualization. The strengths of the informational system resulted are given by the extended range of applicability, the short processing period, accessibility, capacity of support for a large amount of information and, thus, standing out as an adequate instrument to fit the needs of a susceptible population.

Armas, I.; Dumitrascu, S.

2009-04-01

244

Science learning in the context of discourse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The original article by Kamberelis and Wehunt (2012) discusses an interesting and important research subject in science education as it focus on classroom interactions and the characteristics of the discourse production of interlocutors. The authors start from the premise that discourse heterogeneity is constitutive of social activities, which is supported by others like Mikhail Bakhtin (Speech genres and other late essays. University of Texas Press, Austin, 1981) and Erving Goffman (Frame analysis: an essay on the organization of experience. Harper and Row, London, 1974). They also present the definitions of three key elements that organize hybrid discourse: (a) lamination of multiple cultural frames, (b) shifting relations between people and their discourse, and (c) shifting power relations between people. Finally, the authors analyze how these three elements organize students' science discourse in the classroom and how it contributes to the creation of a micro-community of practice capable of helping the emergence of a disciplinary knowledge that is legitimized by and strengthens the identity of the group. In the present commentary, I discuss how Michael Foucault's (1970) concept of discursive procedure may help us to analyze the (often neglected) teacher's role in the development of hybrid discourse practices.

do Nascimento, Silvania Sousa

2013-06-01

245

The Role of Gender in Making Meaning of Texts: Bodies, Discourses, and Ways of Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies on gender discourses in classrooms have specifically examined how students negotiate their individual gender identities while disregarding their lived realities within a historical context. Nevertheless, although it is difficult and uncomfortable for them, students' responses to discussing gender reveal that the discourse positively…

Bender-Slack, Delane

2009-01-01

246

Teachers and public engagement: an argument for rethinking teacher professionalism to challenge deficit discourses in the public sphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of public debates on teacher quality, both media and education policy texts construct deficit discourses about teachers, discourses that work together to inform public, commonsense understandings of teacher quality. This paper explores the interrelationships between discourses on teachers constructed on television and in policies in the Australian policy context. Critical discourse analysis was employed to trace the

Sue Thomas

2011-01-01

247

Talk in Interaction in the Speech-Language Pathology Clinic: Bringing Theory to Practice through Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of learning about and applying clinical discourse analysis to enhance the talk in interaction in the speech-language pathology clinic is discussed. The benefits of analyzing clinical discourse to explicate therapy dynamics are described.

Leaby, Margaret M.; Walsh, Irene P.

2008-01-01

248

Toward the modeling of land use change: A spatial analysis using remote sensing and historical data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was hypothesized that the chronological observation of land use change could be shown to follow a predictable pattern and these patterns could be correlated with other statistical data to develop transition probabilities suitable for modeling purposes. A literature review and preliminary research, however, indicated a totally stochastic approach was not practical for simulating land use change and thus a more deterministic approach was adopted. The approach used assumes the determinants of the land use conversion process are found in the market place, where land transactions among buyers and sellers occur. Only one side of the market transaction process is studied, however, namely, the purchaser's desires in securing an ideal or suitable site. The problem was to identify the ideal qualities, quantities or attributes desired in an industrial site (or housing development), and to formulate a general algorithmic statement capable of identifying potential development sites. Research procedures involved developing a list of variables previously noted in the literature to be related to site selection and streamlining the list to a set suitable for statistical testing. A sample of 157 industries which have located (or relocated) in the 16-county Knoxville metropolitan region since 1950 was selected for industrial location analysis. Using NASA color infrared photography and Tennessee Valley Authority historical aerial photography, data were collected on the spatial characteristics of each industrial location event. These data were then subjected to factor analysis to determine the interrelations of variables.

Honea, R. B.

1976-01-01

249

Educational Policy-Making in Post-Communist Ukraine as an Example of Emerging Governmentality: Discourse Analysis of Curriculum Choice and Assessment Policy Documents (1999-2003)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational policy-making in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is still building upon the ambivalences and uncertainties of post-communist transformation. The international support, expertise and discourses--coupled with communist legacies, stalled democratic developments and national discourses--produce unique effects on education in…

Fimyar, Olena

2008-01-01

250

`We are Dealing with People Whose Origins One can Clearly Tell Just by Looking': Critical Discourse Analysis and the Study of Neo-Racism in Contemporary Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the discourse of neo-racism towards foreigners in Austria between 1989 and 1991. It summarizes the preliminary results of an ongoing interdisciplinary project, and offers illustrative examples of official discourse (politicians), newspaper texts and anonymous conversations on the street recorded during the Waldheim campaign of 1987 and the Viennese municipal election of 1991. The study suggests that

Ruth Wodak; Bernd Matouschek

1993-01-01

251

The Quantitative Analysis of Family Names: Historic Migration and the Present Day Neighborhood Structure of Middlesbrough, United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the way in which a unique new quantitative data resource and evidence base has been used to relate historic measures of U.K. migration flows to the contemporary socioeconomic patterning of neighborhoods. The resource enables generalized analysis of the regional origins of British and Irish people from their family names, and makes it possible to relate the current

Paul A. Longley; Richard Webber; Daryl Lloyd

2007-01-01

252

Case Study of Rape in Contemporary ChinaA Cultural-Historical Analysis of Gender and Power Differentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rape is a rarely reported event in contemporary China. In this article, two distinct narratives provided by a victim allow for deconstruction and analysis within sociocultural and historical frames. Analyses are purposely framed within the contexts of culture and history and contextualized within the realities of the victim's life. The authors argue that this rape has as much to do

VINCENT E. GIL; ALLEN F. ANDERSON

1999-01-01

253

Inductive data mining based on genetic programming: Automatic generation of decision trees from data for process historical data analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inductive data mining algorithm based on genetic programming, GPForest, is introduced for automatic construction of decision trees and applied to the analysis of process historical data. GPForest not only outperforms traditional decision tree generation methods that are based on a greedy search strategy therefore necessarily miss regions of the search space, but more importantly generates multiple trees in each

Chao Y. Ma; Xue Z. Wang

2009-01-01

254

HISTORIC AMERICAN THEATRES: AN ANALYSIS OF THE OPERATION AND MANAGEMENT OF RESTORED THEATRES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing efforts to restore and reuse historic American theatres as performing arts facilities stem largely from interest in historic preservation, increased participation in the performing arts and attendance growth at cultural events. Restored theatres are unique facilities, and their continued operation depends on effective management. There is little information available concerning the management and operation of restored theatres.^ The purposes

PATRICIA JEAN BENJAMIN

1981-01-01

255

The creation of the concept of an antidepressant: An historical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of an “antidepressant” implies a drug that acts in a disease specific way to reverse the neuropathological basis of the symptoms of depression. However, there is little scientific research that could confirm this view. This paper reports an historical study of the emergence of the concept of the antidepressant and the social forces that influenced its adoption. Historical

Joanna Moncrieff

2008-01-01

256

Comparative Advertising Wars: An Historical Analysis of Their Causes and Consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This historical study contributes to the extensive literature on comparative advertising by examining the causes and consequences of comparative advertising wars; that is, when one advertiser responds to a direct or implied attack by another advertiser. Primary and secondary sources consist of articles published in historic and contemporary marketing and advertising trade journals, such as Printers’ Ink, Advertising & Selling,

Fred Beard

2010-01-01

257

How Has Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Therapy Changed?: An Historical Analysis of Journals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Applied behavior analysis and behavior therapy are now nearly a half century old. It is interesting to ask if and how these disciplines have changed over time, particularly regarding some of their key internal controversies (e.g., role of cognitions). We examined the first five years and the 2000-2004 five year period of the "Journal of Applied…

O'Donohue, William; Fryling, Mitch

2007-01-01

258

Pedagogy, Power, and Discourse: Transformation of Islamic Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historically, Islamic discourse excluded non-Islamic forms of knowledge and supported political power and social control. Recently, traditional Muslims seek hegemony over political, economic, and educational domains, and the arrest of secularization and modernization of knowledge. In Pakistan, Islamization and ideological education have…

Talbani, Aziz

1996-01-01

259

Combining multiway principal component analysis (MPCA) and clustering for efficient data mining of historical data sets of SBR processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and clustering is evaluated for process monitoring and process analysis of a pilot-scale SBR removing nitrogen and phosphorus. The first step of this method is to build a multi-way PCA (MPCA) model using the historical process data. In the second step, the principal scores and the Q-statistics resulting from the MPCA model

Kris Villez; Magda Ruiz; Gürkan Sin; Joan Colomer; Christian Rosén; Peter A. Vanrolleghem

2008-01-01

260

Social network analysis in the study of nonhuman primates: A historical perspective  

PubMed Central

Advances over the last fifteen years have made social network analysis (SNA) a powerful tool for the study of nonhuman primate social behavior. Although many SNA-based techniques have been only very recently adopted in primatological research, others have been commonly used by primatologists for decades. The roots of SNA also stem from some of the same conceptual frameworks as the majority of nonhuman primate behavioral research. The rapid development of SNA in recent years has led to questions within the primatological community of where and how SNA fits within this field. We aim to address these questions by providing an overview of the historical relationship between SNA and the study of nonhuman primates. We begin with a brief history of the development of SNA, followed by a detailed description of the network-based visualization techniques, analytical methods and conceptual frameworks which have been employed by primatologists since as early as the 1960s. We also introduce some of the latest advances to SNA, thereby demonstrating that this approach contains novel tools for study of nonhuman primate social behavior which may be used to shed light on questions that cannot be addressed fully using more conventional methods. PMID:21433047

Brent, Lauren J.N.; Lehmann, Julia; Ramos-Fernández, Gabriel

2011-01-01

261

The Discourses of OERs: How "Flat" Is This World?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes Critical Discourse Analysis (Fairclough, 2000) as a tool for identifying the various discourses that can be found in the provision of open educational resources. The argument will be built upon the concept of a "flat world", a powerful metaphor used by Friedman in his famous book "The World is Flat" (2005). The discussion will…

dos Santos, Andreia Inamorato

2008-01-01

262

Clashes of Discourse: The Representations of Immigrants in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The text presents the analysis of representations of immigrants published in the period 1993–2003 in the largest dailies in Poland. The analysed material allows the identification of four main discourses, which can be described as separate and relatively coherent systems of statements on immigrants, characterized by their argumentation structure and rhetorical figures, recurrent images and topics. These discourses may be

Aleksandra Grzyma?a-Kaz?owska

2009-01-01

263

Discourses of Gender in the Contemporary British Army  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is about the discourses of gender which circulate within debates about the inclusion of women in the British Army. Drawing on material from elite policy debates within the British Ministry of Defence, Army, and Parliament, the article uses a methodology informed by theories of discourse analysis to examine how the figures of the male and female soldier are

Rachel Woodward; Patricia Winter

2004-01-01

264

'Use' discourses in system development: Can communication be improved?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to provide a basis for renewed talk about ‘use’ in computing. Four current ‘discourse arenas’ are described. Different intentions manifest in each arena are linked to failures in ‘translation’, different terminologies crossing disciplinary and national boundaries non-reflexively. Analysis of transnational use discourse dynamics shows much miscommunication. Conflicts like that between the ‘Scandinavian System Development School’ and the

Carl Martin Allwood; David Hakken

2001-01-01

265

Speaking of "Disorderly" Objects: A Poetics of Pedagogical Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To interrogate pedagogical discourses relating to child behaviour as "practices that systematically form the objects of which they speak" this paper features the analysis of three texts through the development and deployment of what might be called a poetics of pedagogical discourse. The principal text is a statement describing "problematic"…

Graham, Linda J.

2007-01-01

266

From Interaction to Intersubjectivity: Facilitating Online Group Discourse Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the online discourse that took place in representative threads from two classes, seeking to document indicators that students did or did not engage in co-construction of knowledge. Stahl's (2006) social theory of computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) is used along with discourse analysis methods to examine these…

Dennen, Vanessa Paz; Wieland, Kristina

2007-01-01

267

A critical discourse perspective on managers' experiences of HRM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The discourse of human resource management (HRM) is increasingly dominated by a normative, consensus-oriented perspective on managing the employment relationship. This paper aims to explore the potential of critical discourse analysis (CDA) to provide new and different understandings of HRM and processes of organisational change, and which highlights the creative role of language in the shaping of organisation

Helen Francis

2006-01-01

268

Running Title: An APOS analysis of infinity issues Some historical issues and paradoxes regarding the concept of infinity: An APOS analysis, Part 2  

E-print Network

Running Title: An APOS analysis of infinity issues Some historical issues and paradoxes regarding the concept of infinity: An APOS analysis, Part 2 Ed Dubinsky, Kent State University Kirk Weller, University REGARDING THE CONCEPT OF INFINITY: PART 2 Abstract This is Part 2 of a two-part study of how APOS Theory may

Dubinsky, Ed

269

Econometric analysis of the historical growth and volatility trends of various metals  

E-print Network

Post Malthusian economics, there is growing recognition of the impact technological change and advance has on market activity. By studying historical production and price trends, boundaries of feasible growth can be ...

Jones, Brittany Laurél

2012-01-01

270

Conflicting Discourses: Functional Linguistic and Discourse Analyses of Pocahontas Texts in Bilingual Third-Grade Social Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides micro analysis of one representative incident from a larger qualitative study to examine how third-grade bilingual students and their teacher negotiated academic disciplinary and popular culture discourses in a social studies unit on Jamestown and Pocahontas. Informed by discourse and linguistic analyses, this study explores…

Ciechanowski, Kathryn

2012-01-01

271

Approche du discours politique: "socialisme" et "socialiste" chez Jaures (An Approach to Political Discourse: "Socialism" and "Socialist" in Jaures' Discourse).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a linguistic and sociolinguistic analysis of the use of the words "socialism" and "socialist" in Jean Jaures' discourse, with a view to answering the following questions: (1) what is the process of semantic change, from a philosophical term to a political one; and (2) what is the nature of "political discourse?" (AM)

Chauveau, Genevieve

1978-01-01

272

Expanding Discourse Repertoires with Hybridity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Hybrid discourse practice and science learning" Kamberelis and Wehunt present a theoretically rich argument about the potential of hybrid discourses for science learning. These discourses draw from different forms of "talk, social practice, and material practices" to create interactions that are "intertextually complex" and "interactionally…

Kelly, Gregory J.

2012-01-01

273

Discourse Comprehension and Early Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary goal of early reading instruction, according to this paper, should be to teach children to comprehend written discourse in a manner similar to that for oral discourse because both types of discourse require decoding ability--graphic or acoustic. The paper asserts that to simply design reading instruction to achieve the subgoal of…

Frederiksen, Carl H.

274

The Common Topoi of STEM Discourse: An Apologia and Methodological Proposal, with Pilot Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author proposes a methodology for the rhetorical analysis of scientific, technical, mathematical, and engineering (STEM) discourse based on the common topics (topoi) of this discourse. Beginning with work by Miller, Prelli, and other rhetoricians of STEM discourse--but factoring in related studies in cognitive linguistics--she…

Walsh, Lynda

2010-01-01

275

Generals, Colonels, and Captains: Discourses of Militarism, Education, and Learning in the Canadian University Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses a feminist discourse analysis that explores the ways in which discourses of learning interact with discourses of militarism at four Canadian civilian universities named for military leaders. I discuss how this particular research topic became apparent to me and explore the current national context where it can be argued that…

Taber, Nancy

2014-01-01

276

“Somethin' Tells Me It's All Happening at the Zoo”: Discourse, Power, and Conservationism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how certain Western institutional discourses reproduce particular human relationships with nature. The analysis focuses upon the institutional setting of the zoo, examining long-standing multi-voiced debates about zoos and exploring the contemporary zoo's conservation discourses and cultural, lexical, and spatial elements of gaze and power. The author contextualizes zoo discourses within Western ideological environmental dialectics, including those of

Tema Milstein

2009-01-01

277

Historical DNA analysis reveals living descendants of an extinct species of Galápagos tortoise.  

PubMed

Giant tortoises, a prominent symbol of the Galápagos archipelago, illustrate the influence of geological history and natural selection on the diversification of organisms. Because of heavy human exploitation, 4 of the 15 known species (Geochelone spp.) have disappeared. Charles Darwin himself detailed the intense harvesting of one species, G. elephantopus, which once was endemic to the island of Floreana. This species was believed to have been exterminated within 15 years of Darwin's historic visit to the Galápagos in 1835. The application of modern DNA techniques to museum specimens combined with long-term study of a system creates new opportunities for identifying the living remnants of extinct taxa in the wild. Here, we use mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite data obtained from museum specimens to show that the population on Floreana was evolutionarily distinct from all other Galápagos tortoise populations. It was demonstrated that some living individuals on the nearby island of Isabela are genetically distinct from the rest of the island's inhabitants. Surprisingly, we found that these "non-native" tortoises from Isabela are of recent Floreana ancestry and closely match the genetic data provided by the museum specimens. Thus, we show that the genetic line of G. elephantopus has not been completely extinguished and still exists in an intermixed population on Isabela. With enough individuals to commence a serious captive breeding program, this finding may help reestablish a species that was thought to have gone extinct more than a century ago and illustrates the power of long-term genetic analysis and the critical role of museum specimens in conservation biology. PMID:18809928

Poulakakis, Nikos; Glaberman, Scott; Russello, Michael; Beheregaray, Luciano B; Ciofi, Claudio; Powell, Jeffrey R; Caccone, Adalgisa

2008-10-01

278

Typological and Topological Meaning in Diagnostic Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the discourse of a problem-based learning group in medicine. Uses a conceptual distinction between linguistic (and other semiotic) resources for making typological (or categorical) versus topological (or continuous variation) meanings as part of a multimedia semiotic analysis of the data episode. (SR)

Lemke, J. L.

1999-01-01

279

Approaches to Gender and Spoken Classroom Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender is a hotly debated topic in the field of education. The role that language plays in educational contexts especially in the classroom has long been acknowledged. Innovatively combining approaches in the analysis of classroom discourse, this book offers rich empirical findings as well as being theoretically interesting and valuable. (Contains…

Sauntson, Helen

2012-01-01

280

A Comparison of "Popular Music Pedagogy" Discourses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to interrogate discourses of "popular music pedagogy" in order to better understand music education practices generally and specifically those in the United States. Employing a conceptual framework based on the work of Jan Blommaert (2005), a content analysis was conducted on a sample of 81 articles related…

Mantie, Roger

2013-01-01

281

Divergent Discourses, Children and Forced Migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiences of refugee, internally displaced and migrant children in different contexts (such as post-conflict and resettlement) are often considered separately, yet closer analysis points to the existence of commonalities across transnational locations and a need to articulate the ways in which global systems, state policies and migration processes impact on the lives of these children. Current discourses, policies and practices

Giorgia Doná; Angela Veale

2011-01-01

282

Discourse and the Denial of Racism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the broader framework of a research programme on the reproduction of racism in discourse and communication, the present article examines the prominent role of the denial of racism, especially among the elites, in much contemporary text and talk about ethnic relations. After a conceptual analysis of denial strategies in interpersonal impression formation on the one hand, and within the

Teun A. van Dijk

1992-01-01

283

Spread of the Chinese mitten crab ( Eriocheir sinensis H. Milne Edwards) in Continental Europe: analysis of a historical data set  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis(H. Milne Edwards), is an invasive species that lives as an adult predominantly in freshwater but migrates seawards to breed. It has spread via ballast water and\\/or intentional introduction to Continental Europe, Southern France, U.S.A. (San Francisco Bay) and the United Kingdom. Analysis of detailed historic data from the outbreak in Europe was digitised and

L.-M. Herborg; S. P. Rushton; A. S. Clare; M. G. Bentley

2003-01-01

284

Reaching out to people struggling with their lives: a discourse analysis of answers from Internet-based services in Norway and Sweden  

PubMed Central

The Internet has enlarged the scope of human communication, opening new avenues for connecting with people who are struggling with their lives. This article presents a discourse analysis of 101 responses to 98 questions that were posted on 14 different Internet-based mental health services in Norway and Sweden. We aimed to examine and describe the dominant understandings and favored recommendations in the services’ answers, and we reflected upon the social consequences of those answers. The services generally understood life struggles as an abnormal state of mind, life rhythms, or self-reinforcing loops. Internet-based mental health services primarily counsel service users to seek help, talk to health care professionals face-to-face, and discuss their life struggles openly and honestly. They also urge service users to take better care of themselves and socialize with other people. However, such answers might enhance the individualization of life problems, masking social origin and construction. Consequently, the services are challenged to include social explanations in their answers and strengthen their responsibility to amplify peoples’ messages at a societal level. Potentially, such answers could strengthen democratic structures and put pressure on social equity. PMID:23049282

Andersen, Anders Johan W; Svensson, Tommy

2012-01-01

285

How far can Foucault take us?: an analysis of the changing discourses and limitations of the medical treatment of apoplexy and stroke.  

PubMed

This article examines the conditions under which epistemological shifts in medicine have shaped the history of apoplexy and stroke. Our intention is to understand how stroke medicine as a distinct branch of bio-medicine has emerged in its current form. In doing so, we draw on aspects of the work of Michel Foucault as they relate to fabrication of biomedical discourses. The past 300 years of the transformation of the condition is examined using Michel Foucault's analysis of medical history as instances of the changing spatialization of disease. While the adoption of this approach helped explain how medical practice was shaped by changing interpretations of the causes of apoplexy and stroke over the past few centuries, we also found that there were certain limitations to such an approach. Overall, however, we hope to show that an examination of the history of stroke medicine through a Foucauldian influenced lens can provide a useful understanding of its current circumstances as well as throw light on gaps in Foucauldian approaches themselves. PMID:21169207

Daneski, Katharine; Higgs, Paul; Morgan, Myfanwy

2011-07-01

286

Power discourses of fish death: case of linnunsuo peat production.  

PubMed

This article explores the peat production impacts on Jukajoki river in Finland by implementing discourse analysis. Four discourses are explored: state truth statements; company statements that are in close proximity of state power; discourses provided by the local community Selkie, who provided counter-narratives to the official views; and finally media and related discourses. In conclusion, the discourses by the state and closely related actors (A-B) comprised implementation of their power and justifying it at the expense of those who are excluded from such power, in this case the village. The village narrative (C) contains elements that strongly contradict the statements provided by those with power. The results indicate local communities should be taken more seriously. The systematic denial of local peoples' rights should be reviewed, and local participation in environmental permit assessments implemented. PMID:23852881

Mustonen, Tero

2014-03-01

287

Do Historically Black Institutions of Higher Education Confer Unique Advantages on Black Students: An Initial Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do Historically Black Institutions (HBIs)of Higher Education confer unique advantages on black students? Our paper consists of two separate analyses that begin 10 address this issue. The first uses data from the ?National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972? to ascertain whether black college students who attended HBIs in the early 1970s had higher graduation rates. improved

Ronald G. Ehrenberg; Donna S. Rothstein

1993-01-01

288

A Historical Analysis of Library Access for Death Row Inmates in Ohio.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A historical study was conducted to determine what type of access to the prison legal library is received by prisoners now housed on death row at the Mansfield Correctional Institution (MaCI) (Mansfield, Ohio) that were formerly housed at the Southern Ohio Correctional Facility (SOCF) (Lucasville, Ohio). A satellite law library had been created…

Ostrolenk, Lisa

289

Collective Skill Formation: A Historical Analysis of the Least-Likely Case New Zealand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the first study investigating New Zealand's early legislation in apprenticeship from the perspective of historical institutionalism. It shows that, between 1865 and the 1940s, New Zealand's apprenticeship system was less liberal in character than it is today, because a collective skill formation regime, involving dual…

Trampusch, Christine

2014-01-01

290

An Historically-Grounded Critical Analysis of Research Articles in MIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to explore scientific writing in Information Systems (IS) journals, we adopt a combination of historical and rhetorical approaches. We first investigate the history of universities, business schools, learned societies and scientific articles. This perspective allows us to capture the legacy of scientific writing standards, which emerged in the 18th and 19th centuries. Then, we focus on two leading

François-Xavier De Vaujany; Isabelle Walsh; Nathalie Mitev

2011-01-01

291

Reduced space optimal analysis for historical data sets: 136 years of Atlantic sea surface temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computationally efficient method for analyzing meteorological and oceanographic historical data sets has been developed. The method combines data reduction and least squares optimal estimation. The data reduction involves computing empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of the data based on their recent, high-quality portion and using a leading EOF subset as a basis for the analyzed solution and for fitting a

Alexey Kaplan; Yochanan Kushnir; Mark A. Cane; M. Benno Blumenthal

1997-01-01

292

Spatial analysis of urban edges in Arab historic walled cities: Alexandria as a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defensive walls in historic cities represent an urban edge between the old fabric and adjacent urban growth layers. Through history, the wall functioned as a main defensive element of the city, forming an urban edge for both accessibility and socio-cultural activities. It is only comparatively recently that its function has been altered. Despite this fact, walls continue to influence the

Nabil Mohareb; Robert Kronenburg

2012-01-01

293

A Historical Analysis of the Educational Modalities of Inequalities Management in Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a historical and comparative study of the role that management of inequalities has played in the formation and evolution of educational institutions in three countries: Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala. This particular focus shows that this function has played a determining role, even if its organization has varied deeply in…

Mulot, Eric

2004-01-01

294

Public Policy and Legitimacy: A historical policy analysis of the interplay of public policy and legitimacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the interplay of local government policy and legitimacy from a broad postpositivist perspective where historical accounts and narratives are used in a complementary fashion. The basic assumption is that legitimacy is the product of satisfying felt needs and solving perceived problems. Health and social malaise problems and related policies of the past 120 years are analyzed in

Anders Hanberger

2003-01-01

295

A Historical Analysis of Post-Genocide Rwandan Special Education: Lessons Derived and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this postcolonial historical study was to investigate the following: prevalence and nature of disabilities, programs, and services of special education in Rwanda before and after the 1994 genocide; and the utility, effectiveness, and importation of western-based special education models, programs, and services in Rwanda; and lastly…

Nyarambi, Arnold

2009-01-01

296

Integrating Wikis in the Support and Practice of Historical Analysis Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study examines the benefits of integrating wikis into the World History curriculum. Six middle school students chosen because of their designation in relevant subgroups--GATE, AVID, and RSP--participated in this 20-week study. Abstract historical concepts can be difficult to grasp; therefore, students collaborated via a wiki on topics…

Cabiness, Catherine; Donovan, Loretta; Green, Tim D.

2013-01-01

297

Analysis of XXI Century Disasters in the National Geophysical Data Center Historical Natural Hazard Event Databases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) maintains a global historical event database of tsunamis, significant earthquakes, and significant volcanic eruptions. The database includes all tsunami events, regardless of intensity, as well as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions that caused fatalities, moderate damage, or generated a tsunami. Event date, time, location, magnitude of the phenomenon, and socio-economic information are included in the database. Analysis of the NGDC event database reveals that the 21st century began with earthquakes in Gujarat, India (magnitude 7.7, 2001) and Bam, Iran (magnitude 6.6, 2003) that killed over 20,000 and 31,000 people, respectively. These numbers were dwarfed by the numbers of earthquake deaths in Pakistan (magnitude 7.6, 2005-86,000 deaths), Wenchuan, China (magnitude 7.9, 2008-87,652 deaths), and Haiti (magnitude 7.0, 2010-222,000 deaths). The Haiti event also ranks among the top ten most fatal earthquakes. The 21st century has observed the most fatal tsunami in recorded history-the 2004 magnitude 9.1 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami that caused over 227,000 deaths and 10 billion damage in 14 countries. Six years later, the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami, although not the most fatal (15,000 deaths and 5,000 missing), could cost Japan's government in excess of 300 billion-the most expensive tsunami in history. Volcanic eruptions can cause disruptions and economic impact to the airline industry, but due to their remote locations, fatalities and direct economic effects are uncommon. Despite this fact, the second most expensive eruption in recorded history occurred in the 21st century-the 2010 Merapi, Indonesia volcanic eruption that resulted in 324 deaths, 427 injuries, and $600 million in damage. NGDC integrates all natural hazard event datasets into one search interface. Users can find fatal tsunamis generated by earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. The user can then link to information about the related runup observations (e.g. maximum wave height) and the source earthquake or volcano. If available, damage photographs and plots of water level data can also be viewed. The data are accessible online via tables, reports, and a new state-of-the-art interactive map viewer. These data and access capabilities help coastal communities assess their risks, identify hazards, and promote public awareness of tsunamis and earthquakes.

Dunbar, P. K.; McCullough, H. L.

2011-12-01

298

Longitudinal changes in discourse production in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a multisystem disease that significantly impacts communication as a function of changes in motor speech, cognition, and language skills. Although discourse tasks have been used to assess language in a variety of acquired disorders, little work to date has been published on changes in discourse in ALS and even less work has evaluated these changes with disease progression. In the present study, discourse samples (gained from a picture description task) as well as standardized language test measures obtained from 16 individuals with ALS without dementia and 12 healthy controls (collected over a duration of 24 months). Discourse samples were analyzed for both productivity and content. Results indicate that there were no differences for ALS versus controls for any of the standardized language tests. However, findings suggest that discourse analysis methods may be more sensitive for identifying subtle language deficits in ALS. Overall, discourse productivity appears less impaired than discourse content for individuals with ALS. Although there was a general trend for decline in language performance over the study duration, there was the suggestion of subgroups of language performance among ALS participants. The results suggest that subtle cognitive language deficits that affect discourse emerge early in ALS and progress with disease progression. PMID:22362326

Roberts-South, Angela; Findlater, Kate; Strong, Michael J; Orange, J B

2012-02-01

299

Global Warming Wars: Rhetorical and Discourse Analytic Approaches to ExxonMobil's Corporate Public Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes texts published by ExxonMobil on the issue of climate change, employing both rhetorical analysis and discourse analysis to show their uses and potential value in business communication research. Shows how both reveal the socially constructed nature "reality" and the social effects of language, but are never the less distinct in their…

Livesey, Sharon M.

2002-01-01

300

[Gender discourses and bioethics].  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to present some of the contributions of the gender discourse to the bioethical debate, specifically in the field of nursing. At the same time, it will explain the contribution of the different feminist theories to the recognition and respect of human dignity. Basically, it will describe the three fundamental models in the gender discourse: the egalitarian model, the difference model, and the model of reciprocity or complementarity. The starting point is that even though the first two models have made significant contributions in the field of bioethics, they have nonetheless brought with them some deficiencies and reductionisms inherent in their thinking. The complementarity model, on the contrary, when properly understood, allows for the combination of the principles of equality and difference between man and woman, which places it at a much more enriching standpoint within the bioethical debate. PMID:25329418

Aparisi Miralles, Angela

2014-01-01

301

[Psychotherapy as cultural discourse].  

PubMed

It is impossible to think about psychotherapy without reference to the cultural context. In order to understand the development of this domain it is helpful to apply the concept of cultural discourse. When we think about the over one hundred years' history of psychotherapy it becomes clear that understanding of a person, his/her difficulties, psychopathology, the role of a psychotherapist, psychotherapy and its limitations have been changing. It depended on the acknowledged epistemological horizon. Therefore it is important to observe the process of creating discourses related to psychotherapeutic "reality". These discourses are not simply descriptive but they participate in creation of reality. They are not neutral, on the contrary, their application has broad practical, theoretical, ethical and legal consequences. An attempt to describe the culture, or better cultures, we are immersed in, is an attempt to describe the identity of contemporary psychotherapists. This article, referring to the constructionists' perspective and works of Michael Foucault, presents how cultural changes influence psychotherapists' ways of thinking, their practice and presence in social space. PMID:22220490

Józefik, Barbara

2011-01-01

302

Critical Thinking and the Historical Imagination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most educators' ideas about academic discourse and critical thinking are confined by social constructionist assumptions. Working with historical texts, in such a way that these texts empower students to imagine alternative futures, opens up the freshman writing course to three-dimensional critical thinking. Freshmen at one particular college must…

Parfitt, Matthew

303

The Race Issue in Mississippi Politics; A Content Analysis of Campaign Discourse in Mississippi's 1971 Gubernatorial Campaign.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Racial attitudes were an issue in the 1972 Mississippi gubernatorial campaign between Charles Evers and William Waller. This conclusion is supported by test evidence consisting of content analysis of candidate speeches, news coverage of speeches in the form of direct quotations, printed issue position papers, and printed campaign advertising. A…

King, Emma Lou

304

Shifting Identity Positions in the Development of Language Education for Immigrants: An Analysis of Discourses Associated with "Swedish for Immigrants"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study presented in this paper focuses upon conceptualisations of language and identity in the institutionalised arena that emerged in the post-Second World War period with the specific intention of teaching Swedish to adult immigrants in the nation-state of Sweden. Our analysis focuses upon the development of the educational programme "Swedish…

Rosen, Jenny Karin; Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta

2013-01-01

305

Computer-Supported Collaborative Inquiry on Buoyancy: A Discourse Analysis Supporting the "Pieces" Position on Conceptual Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes in detail a conversation analysis of conceptual change in a computer-supported collaborative learning environment. Conceptual change is an essential learning process in science education that has yet to be fully understood. While many models and theories have been developed over the last three decades, empirical data to…

Turcotte, Sandrine

2012-01-01

306

DOE Integrated Safeguards and Security (DISS) historical document archival and retrieval analysis, requirements and recommendations  

SciTech Connect

The overall primary Objective of HDAR is to create a repository of historical personnel security documents and provide the functionality needed for archival and retrieval use by other software modules and application users of the DISS/ET system. The software product to be produced from this specification is the Historical Document Archival and Retrieval Subsystem The product will provide the functionality to capture, retrieve and manage documents currently contained in the personnel security folders in DOE Operations Offices vaults at various locations across the United States. The long-term plan for DISS/ET includes the requirement to allow for capture and storage of arbitrary, currently undefined, clearance-related documents that fall outside the scope of the ``cradle-to-grave`` electronic processing provided by DISS/ET. However, this requirement is not within the scope of the requirements specified in this document.

Guyer, H.B.; McChesney, C.A.

1994-10-07

307

Historical analysis of the Ebola virus: prospective implications for primary care nursing today.  

PubMed

Ebola continues to attract worldwide attention as a highly lethal virus of unknown origin that leaves victims bleeding to death and has no known vaccine or cure. The purpose of this historical research was to review and analyze the primary and secondary sources available on Ebola for use by primary care nurses in the event of future outbreaks. A rich resource of history has been well documented by some of the original physicians, virologists, and members of international teams, but nothing was found to be documented by nurses during these outbreaks. Multiple themes emerged including the origins of the viral strains of Ebola, transmission factors, epidemiology, virology, nonhuman and genetic research, treatment, and clinical implications. This research will provide primary care nurses with historical information about Ebola to help in future treatment options and algorithm development. PMID:12596837

Amundsen, S B

1998-11-01

308

Convulsion of the lung: an historical analysis of the cause of Dr Johnson's fatal emphysema.  

PubMed

Of Johnson's fatal emphysema, it appears probable, on available historical and anatomic evidence, that it resulted from bronchiectasis, a diagnosis favoured by the pattern of illness: a protracted and severe respiratory infection succeeded by annual episodes of severe winter bronchitis, remitting in summer, and culminating in respiratory insufficiency; and by the findings of pleural adhesion and cor pulmonale at necropsy. That is resulted from chronic bronchitis is a proposition both plausible and irrefutable without the specimen. PMID:7853296

Reich, J M

1994-12-01

309

Tensions between Discourses of Development, Religion, and Human Capital in Early Childhood Education Policy Texts: The Case of Indonesia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we consider how particular discourses have come to dominate early childhood education (ECE) policy in Indonesia. We briefly explain the governance of Indonesian ECE and then our approach to policy analysis using critical discourse analysis. Three prevalent discourses are identified and discussed: "developmentalism",…

Formen, Ali; Nuttall, Joce

2014-01-01

310

Discourses Surrounding Prostitution Policies in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines discourses invoked in the UK debates about prostitution and trafficking in women. The authors suggest that there are three striking features about these discourses: (1) the absence of the sex work discourse, (2) the dominance of the public nuisance discourse in relation to kerb-crawling and (3) the dominance of moral order discourses in relation to trafficking. At

Johanna Kantola; Judith Squires

2004-01-01

311

Critical language and discourse study: their transformative relevance for critical nursing inquiry.  

PubMed

A pragmatic view of language and a critical study of discourse can advance nursing inquiry toward the study of racism, heterosexism, classism, and health. In critical language inquiry notions about humans, health and illness are seen as constructed in societal discourses. Critical language inquiry challenges nurse researchers to theorize not which research questions to ask, but how to ask research questions that broaden knowledge about the interconnections among language, discourse, health, and society. Critical discourse analysis, as a methodology, can be of significant utility in exploring the relationships among health, discourse, power, and society. PMID:10416853

Boutain, D M

1999-03-01

312

It cuts both ways: an analysis of the psychological discourse on self-injury from a linguistic point of view.  

PubMed

This article proposes an analysis of the phenomenon of self-injury through the prism of current linguistic theories. The author uses the clinical distinctions made by Roman Jakobson between metonymic and metaphoric aphasia to suggest that the psychological community and those who harm themselves are participating in separate "language games." While the clinical "language game" is characterized by the dominance of metaphor and a conception stressing the hierarchy between metaphor and metonymy, the "language game" of self-mutilators is dominated by metonymy. The author explores the clinical implications of understanding the language game of those who injure themselves as metonymic. PMID:25247287

Bar-On, Vered

2014-10-01

313

ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE DISCOURSES IN INTERNATIONAL  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE DISCOURSES IN INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL ECONOMY Edited by JOHN BYRNE LEIGH. This process is not socially or ecologically neutral, instead producing environmental degradation and social

Delaware, University of

314

Social responsibility in French engineering education: a historical and sociological analysis.  

PubMed

In France, some institutions seem to call for the engineer's sense of social responsibility. However, this call is scarcely heard. Still, engineering students have been given the opportunity to gain a general education through courses in literature, law, economics, since the nineteenth century. But, such courses have long been offered only in the top ranked engineering schools. In this paper, we intend to show that the wish to increase engineering students' social responsibility is an old concern. We also aim at highlighting some macro social factors which shaped the answer to the call for social responsibility in the French engineering "Grandes Ecoles". In the first part, we provide an overview of the scarce attention given to the engineering curriculum in the scholarly literature in France. In the second part, we analyse one century of discourses about the definition of the "complete engineer" and the consequent role of non technical education. In the third part, we focus on the characteristics of the corpus which has been institutionalized. Our main finding is that despite the many changes which occurred in engineering education during one century, the "other formation" remains grounded on a non academic "way of knowing", and aims at increasing the reputation of the schools, more than enhancing engineering students' social awareness. PMID:22183421

Didier, Christelle; Derouet, Antoine

2013-12-01

315

Comparing public discourses in stem cell policy debates.  

PubMed

Public policy debates surrounding stem cell research are becoming increasingly more complex as governance considerations move beyond the moral status of human embryos. This complexity is evident in the public discourses surrounding these debates globally. This article draws on the results of an analysis conducted on the media coverage of a recent stem cell policy episode in the United States to demonstrate the complexity of public discourses surrounding stem cell research and to reflect upon similar debates in Australia. Observations made from the public discourses in California are reframed within the Australian context to discuss ways in which future public policy debates surrounding stem cell research may be enriched. PMID:17571787

Lysaght, Tamra

2007-05-01

316

A Corpus-Based Analysis of the Discourse Functions of "Ser/Estar" + Adjective in Three Levels of Spanish as FL Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the acquisition of Spanish's two copulas, "ser" and "estar," provides an understanding of the interaction among syntax, semantics, pragmatics, morphology, and vocabulary during development (e.g., Geeslin, 2003a, 2003b; Gunterman, 1992; Ryan & Lafford, 1992). Recent research suggests that linguistic features in the surrounding discourse

Collentine, Joe; Asencion-Delaney, Yuly

2010-01-01

317

Galactic Discourse Issue 3  

E-print Network

fanzine, edited and produced by: Contents: Title Laurie Huff 208 W. Cro\\'J Eureka, IL 61530 Price: $9.50--by hand $ll--UPS $12--1st class $10.55--book GALACTIC DISCOURSE 3--Ju1y 1980 Copy No. S27 Contributor Page Art C re d i ts...: front cover. Nan Lewis: folio, p. 152. Mary Stacy-t1acDonald: pp. 94, 134. lena Plenty: 98, 99. Eval10u Richardson: p. 9. Gloria-Ann Rovelstad: pp. 40, 159. Carrie Rowles: inside front cover, folio. Pat Stall: p. 165. Harriet Stallings: pp. 3...

Multiple Contributors

1980-01-01

318

Analysis of Historical Changes in Extreme Temperature and Precipitation on the Great Plains of North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Great Plains of North America produces a substantial portion of the worlds food supply. The sustainability of intensive agricultural operations is contingent upon favorable growing conditions and an adequate supply of fresh water. Water resources are coming under increasing pressure from many societal demands related in large part to the growing population of Western North America. Global climate change is expected to alter the hydrologic cycle and place much additional stress on water supplies and demands, and associated food production. Changing precipitation patterns and intensities, coupled with warming temperatures, could eventually spell disaster for agricultural productivity due to increased risk of both drought and flooding in sensitive prairie environments. The goal of this research is to analyze historical climate data to determine the extent to which global warming has altered the climatology of the Great Plains over the last 60 years. Daily temperature and precipitation data have been collected from over 1500 stations across Canada and the United States. Trends are calculated using indicators that focus primarily on extremes related to the hydrologic cycle. Climate change indices developed by the WMO’s Expert Team on Climate Change Detection, Monitoring and Indices (ETCCDMI) are applied to evaluate historical change. Station-specific statistical output is then integrated into a GIS to identify spatially coherent trends in temperature and precipitation across the interior of North America.

Booth, E.; Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Kienzle, S. W.

2009-12-01

319

Analysis of degradation phenomena in ancient, traditional and improved building materials of historical monuments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review is presented on constructive techniques plus materials and the processes involved in degradation phenomena observed in two historical monuments: the Zambujeiro dolmen (Portugal) and the Roman Aqueduct of Carthage (Tunisia). Dolmens are particularly impressive megalithic constructions for the dimensions of granite blocks. At Zambujeiro, the upright stones have undergone a catastrophic evolution after the archaeological exploitation due to accelerated weathering through a process apparently distinct from natural granite decay in nearby outcrops. The biological attack of granite minerals by lichen exudates has emphasized the hazardous character of bromine and more has been learnt about construction techniques, namely, the insertion in the mound of an impermeable clay stratum that hinders water penetration into the dolmen chamber. The characterization of original Roman ashlar blocks, including masonry and the diagnosis of Byzantine and medieval reconstruction testimonies in the Aqueduct of Carthage were the object of a detailed study by X-ray diffraction and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence. Traditional constructive techniques and local construction materials were studied and successive historical, modern and recent rehabilitations were reappraised.

Figueiredo, M. O.; Silva, T. P.; Veiga, J. P.

2008-07-01

320

"Implicit action": Understanding discourse management in modeling instruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We present "Implicit Action", a discourse management tool, through a qualitative video analysis of a Florida International University Modeling Instruction Introductory Physics I class. Implicit Action in Modeling Instruction is where instructors deliberately create intellectual space in which students ideally see value and need for the construction of new classroom norms and tools that are productive in developing a learning community. This space is created by the implications expressed through the instructors' deliberate actions. Discourse Management is a technique to moderate student discourse in Modeling Instruction classes at the university level that was initially described by Desbien. Implicit Action is one of 9 Modeling Discourse Management tools that we have identified. By means of qualitative analysis we illustrate the effectiveness of Implicit Action in implementing the Modeling Theory of Instruction.

Durden, Jared; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird H.

2012-05-15

321

"Implicit action": Understanding discourse management in modeling instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present "Implicit Action", a discourse management tool, through a qualitative video analysis of a Florida International University Modeling Instruction Introductory Physics I class. Implicit Action in Modeling Instruction is where instructors deliberately create intellectual space in which students ideally see value and need for the construction of new classroom norms and tools that are productive in developing a learning community. This space is created by the implications expressed through the instructors' deliberate actions. Discourse Management is a technique to moderate student discourse in Modeling Instruction classes at the university level that was initially described by Desbien [1]. Implicit Action is one of 9 Modeling Discourse Management tools that we have identified. By means of qualitative analysis we illustrate the effectiveness of Implicit Action in implementing the Modeling Theory of Instruction.

Durden, Jared; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird

2012-02-01

322

Phelps?Stokes in Congo: Transferring Educational Policy Discourse to Govern Metropole and Colony  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article combines a historical with a social\\/political anthropological framework to examine the role played by the transfer of educational discourse between the United States?based Phelps?Stokes Fund and the Belgian Ministry of Colonies in the formulation of the colonial education policy of “adapted education” in the 1920s. The author argues that the transfer of racialized discourses of education and educational

Maud Seghers

2004-01-01

323

Classroom Interaction and Discourse Options.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the interaction of teachers and learners in their various activities along a continuum that extends from instructional to natural discourses and is determined by the way participants present themselves to one another and negotiate turns-at-talk, topics, and repairs. Suggests ways to broaden and diversify discourse options in the…

Kramsch, Claire J.

1985-01-01

324

Religious Discourse as Public Rhetoric.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses recent work in literary criticism to examine the structure of religious discourse. Suggests religious discourse is the use of a certain rhetorical style that conforms to certain rules of underlying structure, but which communicates only to the extent that this structure is appropriate for the application in question. (MS)

Wuthnow, Robert

1988-01-01

325

Discourse: Simple Moves that Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Just as students need plenty of time to practice skills such as solving fraction problems, they also need time to practice the skills of discourse to become better communicators and stronger mathematicians. Embedded within discourse strategies are specific ways to maximize communication. When repeatedly practiced, students learn to listen to one…

Rawding, Molly Rothermel; Wills, Theresa

2012-01-01

326

The Anatomy of Critical Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critical discourse is best understood when its logical features are identified. An examination of the basic elements and modes of rhetorical criticism (a form of critical discourse) produces a finite set of options for the critic, thus enabling him to develop a system of alternatives in his critical efforts. For example, by selecting from among…

Rosenfield, Lawrence W.

1968-01-01

327

Doctoral Discourses in South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the South African context, three doctoral discourses are heard, each with their own assumptions about the purpose of doctoral education and the kinds of people who undertake doctoral study, and with their own implications for the practice of doctoral education. Two of the three discourses are familiar and well documented in the local and…

Backhouse, Judy

2011-01-01

328

Resisting an Isolated Learning Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary objective of this paper is to suggest that researchers on workplace learning avoid an isolated learning discourse. The point at issue is that being a learner is just one aspect of people's sometimes complicated lives in the workplace, and that people may sometimes--for good reasons--resist a learning discourse if it is linked…

Tanggaard, Lene

2009-01-01

329

Historic Cities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Jointly sponsored by the Historic Cities Center within the Department of Geography at Hebrew University and the Jewish National and University Library, the Historic Cities Web site is intended to contain maps, literature, documents, books, and other relevant material concerning the past, present, and future of historic cities While some of these documents and ephemera are still forthcoming to the site, visitors will find a wide array of historic city maps and views dating from 1486 to 1720. The scanned maps are searchable alphabetically, by date, and by individual cartographer. Additionally, a bit of information is provided about each cartographer. Overall, the site contains close to two hundred individual city maps and renderings, ranging from medieval Heidelberg to Casablanca. For persons with an interest in urban morphology and the history of cartography, the Historic Cities site will be a good place to start.

330

Historic Scotland  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Scotland is well-known for its efforts to preserve its fantastic range of historic sites, buildings, and monuments and much of this work happens under the auspices of Historic Scotland. Historic Scotland is an agency with the Scottish Executive Education Department and as such, is largely responsible for developing long-range plans for the preservation of the built heritage of the country. To get a sense of the broad range of properties within Historic Scotland, visitors would do well to look through the interactive map of Scotland offered within the "Places to Visit" area. Those persons with a penchant for historic preservation and planning will also want to take a look at the organization's long-range preservation program and some of its free online publications such as "Archaeological Information and Advice in Scotland" and "Conserving the Underwater Heritage."

331

Vesuvius: A historical approach to the 1631 eruption “cold data” from the analysis of three contemporary treatises  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1631 Vesuvius eruption is one of its best known and most studied of its type. However, the historical approach performed within the framework of the Exploris project highlighted new evidence from previously unused or unknown historical sources. These consist of three treatises that were contemporary to the event; although written in Latin, they have been fully translated and analysed. To guarantee systematic use and open access to the large amount of information they contain, they have been provided as a small database. These treatises have provided new information on phenomena that preceded and accompanied the eruption of 1631, making possible the formation of a complex chronological profile, starting from around 6 months before the eruption. The anthropic impact is also outlined. The method applied has produced a chronology of "cold data", which are not interpreted from the volcanological standpoint, but only derived directly from the analysed history and sequence of the texts. The analysis of the three treatises has not, however, solved all of the problems connected with the detailed knowledge of the event in 1631. Indeed, problems of two kinds persist: a) linguistic correspondence between the volcanological terms of today and those used in the texts; b) the lack of precision of the measures indicated. Here, the main results obtained from this analysis method are presented, along with a discussion of their limitations and some new perspectives.

Guidoboni, Emanuela

2008-12-01

332

Tropes of the crusades in Indonesian Muslim discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns the ways in which tropes of the Crusades are used in contemporary Indonesian Islamic discourse. It is\\u000a based on the analysis of contemporary textual materials and on ethnographic research conducted between 1978 and 2009. It is\\u000a argued that tropes of the Crusades and now linked to an Islamist discourse that is Anti-Western and Anti-Semitic and that\\u000a they

Mark Woodward

2010-01-01

333

Phytochemical analysis of young fustic (Cotinus coggygria heartwood) and identification of isolated colourants in historical textiles.  

PubMed

Young fustic (Cotinus coggygria Scop.; Anacardiaceae) has been used as a dyestuff since antiquity. Phytochemical investigation of the methanol extract of the heartwood has led to the isolation and structure elucidation by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry (MS) of 3',4',6-trihydroxyaurone (sulfuretin) and 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavonol (fisetin) as well as 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavanol (fustin), 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavonol (quercetin), 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavanol (taxifolin), 4',7-dihydroxyflavanol, 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavanone (butin), 4',7-dihydroxyflavanone (liquiritigenin), trans-2',3,4,4'-tetrahydroxychalcone (butein), 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone and trans-2',4,4'-trihydroxychalcone (isoliquiritigenin). The isolated compounds were used as reference materials for the development of a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-MS method, which was then applied to analyse (1) fresh silk samples dyed with young fustic, (2) dyed silk subjected to artificially accelerated light ageing and (3) historical silk micro-samples, extracted from ecclesiastical post-Byzantine garments (fifteenth to eighteenth century), which belong to monasteries of Mount Athos. Sulfuretin and fisetin, which are usually used as markers for the identification of the yellow dye and, for the first time, some of the aforementioned flavonoid components of young fustic were identified in the historical extracts. Furthermore, preliminary experiments suggested that although the amounts of the dye components decrease with light ageing, the relative ratio of fisetin and sulfuretin, after a first step of ageing, seems to be almost unaffected by such degradation processes raised by light. The effect of the latter on the morphology of the dyed silk fibres is briefly investigated by scanning electron microscopy. PMID:19352635

Valianou, Lemonia; Stathopoulou, Konstantina; Karapanagiotis, Ioannis; Magiatis, Prokopios; Pavlidou, Eleni; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Chryssoulakis, Yannis

2009-06-01

334

The creation of the concept of an antidepressant: an historical analysis.  

PubMed

The concept of an "antidepressant" implies a drug that acts in a disease specific way to reverse the neuropathological basis of the symptoms of depression. However, there is little scientific research that could confirm this view. This paper reports an historical study of the emergence of the concept of the antidepressant and the social forces that influenced its adoption. Historical literature documents the increasing importance of the specificity of medical treatments in the 20th century and the increased power that they conferred on medical practitioners. In the case of depression, stimulants were used as treatment from the 1940s. During the 1950s the anti-tuberculous drugs iproniazid and isoniazid started to be portrayed as more specific than stimulants, even though their stimulant effects were well documented. When imipramine was suggested to be effective in depression, it was presented solely as acting in a disease specific way and it was soon referred to as an "antidepressant". The idea that some drugs have a specific action on the underlying basis of depression caught on rapidly and was well established by the 1960s before any evidence was available to support this view. Forces that could have driven the adoption of this view include the psychiatric profession's desire to integrate with general medicine to improve its social status and to move away from the asylum into the community. Physical interventions and drug treatments helped to boost its medical credentials and antidepressant drugs provided a convenient form of medical treatment for community-based distress. They also helped the profession to counter attacks from the antipsychiatry movement. The pharmaceutical industry too helped to establish and disseminate the view of antidepressants as disease specific treatments in order to distinguish them from non-specific drugs. This study raises questions about the view that psychiatry was transformed into a modern medical enterprise in the 1950s and 1960s by the introduction of disease specific drugs. PMID:18321627

Moncrieff, Joanna

2008-06-01

335

Loose women or lost women? The re-emergence of the myth of white slavery in contemporary discourses of trafficking in women.  

PubMed

This article compares current concerns about "trafficking in women" with turn of the century discourses about "white slavery". It traces the emergence of narratives on "white slavery" and their reemergence in the moral panics and boundary crises of contemporary discourses on "trafficking in women". Drawing on historical analysis and contemporary representations of sex worker migration, the paper argues that the narratives of innocent, virginal victims purveyed in the "trafficking in women" discourse are a modern version of the myth of "white slavery". These narratives, the article argues, reflect persisting anxieties about female sexuality and women's autonomy. Racialized representations of the migrant "Other" as helpless, child-like, victims strips sex workers of their agency. This article argues that while the myth of "trafficking in women"/"white slavery" is ostensibly about protecting women, the underlying moral concern is with the control of "loose women". Through the denial of migrant sex workers' agency, these discourses serve to reinforce notions of female dependence and purity that serve to further marginalize sex workers and undermine their human rights. PMID:12296110

Doezema, J

2000-01-01

336

Analysis of historical water-quality data and description of plan for a sampling network in central and southern Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historical water quality data from about 100 sampling stations on streams, canals and lakes in central and southern Florida were analyzed for areal and temporal variations in water quality , statistical measures of the data, relationships between water quality variables, and long term changes or trends in water quality. Included in the analysis were data on the major inorganic chemical constituents, temperature, nitrogen and phosphorus species, trace metals, pesticides, organic carbon and biochemical oxygen demand. Based on the results of the analysis, a network was designed which would provide data to meet six specific objectives: (1) water quality accounting, (2) areal assessments (3) detection of gross long-term trends, (4) detection of toxic and deleterious substances, (5) establish a limnological data base on lakes and (6) furnish data on chemical inputs from the atmosphere. (Woodard-USGS)

Goolsby, D. A.; Mattraw, H. C., Jr.; Lamonds, A. G.; Maddy, D. V.; Rollo, J. R.

1976-01-01

337

The Malaysian Intellectual: A Brief Historical Overview of the Discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRAK Kertas ini memperkatakan wacana yang melibatkan intelektual di Malaysia. Ia menegaskan bahawa sesuai dengan perubahan sosio-politik, 'bidang makna' yang berkaitan konsep 'intelektual' dan lokasi sosial sebenar para intelektual itu sudah mengalami perubahan besar sepanjang abad dua puluh. Ini menimbulkan cabaran kepada sejarahwan yang ingin melihat masa lampau dengan kaca mata masa kini tetapi yang sepatutnya perlu difahami dengan tanggapan

DEBORAH JOHNSON

338

Understanding change in global health policy: ideas, discourse and networks.  

PubMed

How is radical change in global health policy possible? Material factors such as economics or human resources are important, but ideational factors such as ideas and discourse play an important role as well. In this paper, I apply a theoretical framework to show how discourse made it possible for public and private actors to fundamentally change their way of working together--to shift from international public and private interactions to global health partnerships (GHPs)--and in the process create a new institutional mechanism for governing global health. Drawing on insights from constructivist analysis, I demonstrate how discourse justified, legitimised, communicated and coordinated ideas about the practice of GHPs through a concentrated network of partnership pioneers. As attention from health policy analysts turns increasingly to ideational explanations for answers to global health problems, this paper contributes to the debate by showing how, precisely, discourse makes change possible. PMID:20924870

Harmer, Andrew

2011-01-01

339

A Discourse on Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the historical context of mathematics education research methodologies, describes methodological trends through the "Journal for Research in Mathematics Education" focusing on the domain of teacher knowledge and practice, and considers theoretical and methodological issues of the present and future. (25 references) (MKR)

Schoenfeld, Alan H.

1994-01-01

340

Water Resources Sustainability in Northwest Mexico: Analysis of Regional Infrastructure Plans under Historical and Climate Change Scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The arid state of Sonora, Mexico, has embarked on a large water infrastructure project to provide additional water supply and improved sanitation to the growing capital of Hermosillo. The main component of the Sonora SI project involves an interbasin transfer from rural to urban water users that has generated conflicts over water among different social sectors. Through interactions with regional stakeholders from agricultural and water management agencies, we ascertained the need for a long-term assessment of the water resources of one of the system components, the Sonora River Basin (SRB). A semi-distributed, daily watershed model that includes current and proposed reservoir infrastructure was applied to the SRB. This simulation framework allowed us to explore alternative scenarios of water supply from the SRB to Hermosillo under historical (1980-2010) and future (2031-2040) periods that include the impact of climate change. We compared three precipitation forcing scenarios for the historical period: (1) a network of ground observations from Mexican water agencies; (2) gridded fields from the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) at 12 km resolution; and (3) gridded fields from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at 10 km resolution. These were compared to daily historical observations at two stream gauging stations and two reservoirs to generate confidence in the simulation tools. We then tested the impact of climate change through the use of the A2 emissions scenario and HadCM3 boundary forcing on the WRF simulations of a future period. Our analysis is focused on the combined impact of existing and proposed reservoir infrastructure at two new sites on the water supply management in the SRB under historical and future climate conditions. We also explore the impact of climate variability and change on the bimodal precipitation pattern from winter frontal storms and the summertime North American monsoon and its consequences on water management. Our results are presented in the form of flow duration, reliability and exceedence frequency curves that are commonly used in the water management agencies. Through this effort, we anticipate to build confidence among regional stakeholders in utilizing hydrological models in the development of water infrastructure plans and to foster conversations that address water sustainability issues.

Che, D.; Robles-Morua, A.; Mayer, A. S.; Vivoni, E. R.

2012-12-01

341

Studies in Historical Replication in Psychology VII: The Relative Utility of ``Ancestor Analysis'' from Scientific and Educational Vantages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article discusses, from various vantages, Ryan Tweney’s (this issue) pedagogical technique of employing historical replications of psychological experiments with graduate students in psychology. A prima facie perspective suggests great promise for this sort of academic “ancestor analysis,” particularly given the enthusiasm and skill represented in the activities that culminated in the replicators’ articles. It is suggested that such activities might be enhanced by requiring a contextualization that makes contact with more modern psychological research—particularly regarding expositions of the replications. From a scientific/cognitive methods perspective, the original experimenters’ inexplicit, ambiguous, descriptions provide both challenges and opportunities for students seeking to improve their understandings of their field. Three practical questions are posed herein regarding the general utility of this—or any—proposed instructional intervention. Ultimately, determining and integrating the diverse objectives that essential stakeholders have in graduate psychological training represent critical prerequisites in comprehensively assessing the relative advantages of such historical replications with respect to alternative experiences.

Ranney, Michael Andrew

2008-05-01

342

Generation and discourse in working life stories.  

PubMed

Following Mannheim's (1970) Problem of Generations, many scholars have warned of the analytical and political risks of conflating generation with cohort. Yet the temptation persists, as relying on cohort is a convenient method of dividing a population to study it. This article proposes that cohort is only convenient if the objective is understanding generations as definitive groups of people. It suggests a supplementary objective: understanding generation as a matter of discourse. Qualitative data from interviews with 52 Canadians illustrates how the discursive forms of generation in their stories render difference, human agency and social change in atomistic or voluntaristic terms. The most extreme manifestations of this theme appear related to the perception of generational conflict. Guided by James' principle of pragmatism, this article maintains that understanding generation as a discursive, historically contingent 'thought' with 'effects' is as important as understanding its structural form and contents. PMID:23713556

Foster, Karen

2013-06-01

343

Reconstruction and analysis of historical changes in carbon storage in arctic tundra  

SciTech Connect

Surface air temperature in arctic regions has increased since pre-industrial times, raising concerns that warmer and possibly drier conditions have increased soil decomposition rates, thereby stimulating the release to the atmosphere of the large stores of carbon (C) in arctic soils. We used a model (MBL-GEM, Marine Biological Laboratory General Ecosystem Model) of ecosystem C and nitrogen (N) dynamics to predict and analyze historical (1829-1990) changes in C storage in a N-limited, tussock-tundra ecosystem near Toolik Lake on the North Slope of Alaska. The model simulates stand-level photosynthesis and N uptake by plants, allocation of C and N to foliage, stems, and fine roots, respiration in these tissues, turnover of biomass through litterfall, and decomposition of litter and soil organic matter. We first calibrated the model by deriving a single parameter set that closely simulated the response of tussock tundra to decade-long experimental manipulations of nutrients, temperature, light, and atmospheric CO{sub 2}. 60 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

McKane, R.B.; Rastetter, E.B.; Shaver, G.R. [Ecosystems Center, Woods Hole, MA (United States)] [and others

1997-06-01

344

Understanding Scientific Methodology in the Historical and Experimental Sciences via Language Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A key focus of current science education reforms involves developing inquiry-based learning materials. However, without an understanding of how working scientists actually do science, such learning materials cannot be properly developed. Until now, research on scientific reasoning has focused on cognitive studies of individual scientific fields. However, the question remains as to whether scientists in different fields fundamentally rely on different methodologies. Although many philosophers and historians of science do indeed assert that there is no single monolithic scientific method, this has never been tested empirically. We therefore approach this problem by analyzing patterns of language used by scientists in their published work. Our results demonstrate systematic variation in language use between types of science that are thought to differ in their characteristic methodologies. The features of language use that were found correspond closely to a proposed distinction between Experimental Sciences (e.g., chemistry) and Historical Sciences (e.g., paleontology); thus, different underlying rhetorical and conceptual mechanisms likely operate for scientific reasoning and communication in different contexts.

Dodick, Jeff; Argamon, Shlomo; Chase, Paul

2009-08-01

345

Astronomical orientation analysis of three proto-historical sites in Friuli - Italy  

E-print Network

In this paper we present the results of an archaeoastronomical survey of three proto-historical sites located in the high Friulian plain (Galleriano, Gradisca and Savalons), dating from the end of the Early Bronze Age (1900 B.C.) to the end of the Late Bronze Age (950 B.C.). These structures, commonly indicated as castellieri, are earthworks of quadrangular shape, with sides ranging from 140 to 250 m. At present the perimetrical earthen embankments reach a maximum base width of 18 m and an elevation of more than 5 m the surrounding plain in their best preserved parts. These three sites were often reported in the literature to have the corners aligned to the cardinal directions. Aveni and Romano (1986) included two of them (Galleriano and Gradisca) in their study of earthworks in Veneto and Friuli (Italy), tentatively proposing astronomically relevant alignments for some sides and diagonals. Inspired by this pioneering work and by the renovated archaeological interest for these sites, we obtained digital eleva...

Patat, Ferdinando

2014-01-01

346

Fire in the Belly and the Professionalization of Nurses: A Historical Analysis of Crohn Disease Care  

PubMed Central

Today professional nurses around the world are stepping up to meet the needs of individuals with Crohn disease using their specialized knowledge and skills that demonstrate areas of expertise that have not always existed. The gastrointestinal-specific knowledge being used by these 21st century nurses exists today because progressive efforts of nurses in previous decades moved the profession of nursing forward. The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the development of the role of nurses in responding to new challenges patients with Crohn disease face since the emergence of the disease in the early 1900s. The authors used traditional historic research methods to conduct the study. Primary sources include nursing journals and textbooks published in the 20th and 21st centuries and documents archived at The Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City, where Burrill B. Crohn conducted his seminal work. The significance of the findings is that the changing role of nurses in caring for patients with Crohn disease mirrors the professionalization of nursing during the 20th and early 21st centuries. PMID:23364362

Brotherton, Carol S.; Taylor, Ann Gill; Keeling, Arlene

2012-01-01

347

Analysis of historical meteor and meteor shower records: Korea, China, and Japan  

E-print Network

We have compiled and analyzed historical Korean meteor and meteor shower records in three Korean official history books, Samguksagi which covers the three Kingdoms period (57 B.C -- A.D. 935), Goryeosa of Goryeo dynasty (A.D. 918 -- 1392), and Joseonwangjosillok of Joseon dynasty (A.D. 1392 -- 1910). We have found 3861 meteor and 31 meteor shower records. We have confirmed the peaks of Perseids and an excess due to the mixture of Orionids, north-Taurids, or Leonids through the Monte-Carlo test. The peaks persist from the period of Goryeo dynasty to that of Joseon dynasty, for almost one thousand years. Korean records show a decrease of Perseids activity and an increase of Orionids/north-Taurids/Leonids activity. We have also analyzed seasonal variation of sporadic meteors from Korean records. We confirm the seasonal variation of sporadic meteors from the records of Joseon dynasty with the maximum number of events being roughly 1.7 times the minimum. The Korean records are compared with Chinese and Japanese records for the same periods. Major features in Chinese meteor shower records are quite consistent with those of Korean records, particularly for the last millennium. Japanese records also show Perseids feature and Orionids/north-Taurids/Leonids feature, although they are less prominent compared to those of Korean or Chinese records.

Hong-Jin Yang; Changbom Park; Myeong-Gu Park

2005-01-12

348

Historical data and analysis for the first five years of KSC STS payload processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

General and specific quantitative and qualitative results were identified from a study of actual operational experience while processing 186 science, applications, and commercial payloads for the first 5 years of Space Transportation System (STS) operations at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC). All non-Department of Defense payloads from STS-2 through STS-33 were part of the study. Historical data and cumulative program experiences from key personnel were used extensively. Emphasis was placed on various program planning and events that affected KSC processing, payload experiences and improvements, payload hardware condition after arrival, services to customers, and the impact of STS operations and delays. From these initial considerations, operational drivers were identified, data for selected processing parameters collected and analyzed, processing criteria and options determined, and STS payload results and conclusions reached. The study showed a significant reduction in time and effort needed by STS customers and KSC to process a wide variety of payload configurations. Also of significance is the fact that even the simplest payloads required more processing resources than were initially assumed. The success to date of payload integration, testing, and mission operations, however, indicates the soundness of the approach taken and the methods used.

Ragusa, J. M.

1986-01-01

349

Generating Embedded Discourse Markers from Rhetorical Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand a discourse, the reader needs to recover the relations between the discourse elements as intended by the writer. Writers can, and very often do, help the reader along by providing explicit lexical signals of the intended discourse relations through the use of lexi- calised discourse markers. In this paper we present a novel approach for generating texts con-

Richard Power; Christine Doran; Donia Scott

1999-01-01

350

Where Are the Women? And Other Questions, Asked within an Historical Analysis of Sociology of Music Education Research Publications: Being a Self-Reflective Ethnographic Path  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a meta-analysis of one area of sociological literature in music education: Where are the women and "others"? Where do we raise concerns about social values? Institutional Ethnography provides the basis for the meta-analysis, presented in two historical periods, pre-1960 and 2007-2012. A short story of an actual…

Lamb, Roberta

2014-01-01

351

A SIMPLE DESCRIPTION OF AN ALGORITHM FOR TRANSFORMATIONAL ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH SENTENCES. TRANSFORMATIONS AND DISCOURSE ANALYSIS PAPERS, NUMBER 67, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PRESENTED IN THIS PAPER IS A SIMPLIFIED DESCRIPTION OF AN ALGORITHM FOR TRANSFORMATIONAL ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH SENTENCES. IT IS NEITHER ASSUMED NOR IMPLIED IN THIS ALGORITHM THAT ANY KIND OF PRIOR ANALYSIS (EITHER STRING OR CONSTITUENT ANALYSIS) IS REQUIRED AS A PREREQUISITE. IN ORDER TO DEFINE THE SET OF ALL TRANSFORMS, THE AUTHORS FIRST DEFINE A…

HIZ, DANUTA; JOSHI, ARAVIND K.

352

The Discourse of Official Violence: Anti-Japanese North American Discourse and the American Internment Camps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mainstream discourse about Japanese North Americans has been less thoroughly analysed than discourse towards more populous North American minorities. The racist nature of this discourse became obvious during the Second World War and the discourse about their incarceration, despite their being citizens, in internment camps. There are three types of data for this political discourse: (a) the official orders by

Lynn Thiesmeyer

1995-01-01

353

Investigating Regional Disparities of China's Human Development with Cluster Analysis: A Historical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper adopts both one-dimensional and multi-dimensional cluster analysis to analyze China's HDI data for 1982, 1995, 1999, and 2003, and to classify China's provinces into four tiers based on the three basic developmental aspects embedded in HDI. The classifications by cluster analysis depends on the observations' similarities with respect to…

Yang, Yongheng; Hu, Angang

2008-01-01

354

Understanding Sun-Climate Connection by Analysis of Historical Sunspot, Auroral and Weather Records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fifty years of galactic cosmic ray data show changes with the solar cycle. Deflection of the highly energetic particles from exploding supernovae by the solar wind and associated magnetic field also modulates cosmogenic radioisotope production high in the atmosphere. The same trends are seen in carbon-14 and beryllium-10 abundances from long-lived trees and polar ice cores, respectively. Total solar irradiances measured by satellite radiometers show a 0.1% variance over the last two solar cycles, with only a small effect on global temperatures. A longer view is obviously needed. During the Maunder Minimum (1645-1715) sunspots were rarely seen. Total solar irradiances, reconstructed from historical sunspot data, were 0.24% lower, correlating nicely with an estimated 0.5-degree drop in Northern Hemisphere surface temperatures during the Little Ice Age [Lean and Rind, J. Clim. 11, 3069, 1998]. A longer time series has been reconstructed from even earlier records. From the frequencies of sunspot and auroral sightings in East Asian and European chronicles, C-14 and Be-10 abundances we have reconstructed the recent history of a variable Sun. In the past 1800 years the Sun has gone through nine cycles of brightness change. Although these long-term changes were <1% they have clearly affected the climate [Pang and Yau, Eos 83, No. 43, 481, 2002]. We have also analyzed Chinese historical weather records for comparison. Reports of unseasonable cold are classified by their degree of severity: (1) Late (April-June) or early (July-Sept.) killing frosts; (2) Bitter cold/heavy snowfall; and (3) Heavy sustained snowfall, bitter cold with frozen wells, lakes, rivers and icebound seas. The latter cases were often widespread and multi-year. All categories occurred most often during Maunder Minimum. The Category 3 episodes were in 1652-54, 1656, 1664, 1670-72, 1676-77, 1683, 1688-91, 1716 and 1718-19. The coldest time 1670-1697 coincides with lows in aurora sightings and numerical model simulated temperatures, and highs in radioisotope production. There was only one Category 3 episode between the Maunder and Dalton Minima-in 1761 (due to a big eruption); and two in the Dalton Minimum (1795-1825)-in 1796 and 1814-17. The 1815 Tambora eruption, with the reduced solar luminosity, seem to have been responsible for the "year without summer" and long-cold spell. The Sun has brightened since the Dalton Minimum, but the climate of China stayed cold through the 19th century. However there were only two Category 3 episodes: in 1841 and 1877. The onset of global warming reduced that to just once in the 20th century: 1955. The climate of China seems to have been warm during the Late 14th-Century Maximum (1350-1410). We have found only one Category 1 episode: in 1393. It then turned cold during the Sporer Minimum (1410-1590). Category 3 episodes occurred in 1453-54, 1493, 1513, 1569, and 1577-78. The early 1453 great Kuwae eruption apparently deepened and prolonged the first [Pang, Eos 74, No. 43, 106, 1993; Simarski, Aramco World 47, No.6, 8, 1996]. We conclude that the climate of China in the past 650 years generally follows world trend. The major forcing seems to have been changing solar luminosity, as all but four severe weather episodes coincide with solar minimum. The exact mechanism remains unknown, but could have been increased cloudiness.

Pang, K. D.; Yau, K. K.

2005-12-01

355

A historical and socioeconomic analysis of occupational safety and health in India.  

PubMed

Workers in poor countries of the so-called Third World are more likely to be affected by the dangers of high technology than their counterparts in wealthier countries. Owing to their lack of education, most workers in the "developing" world are unaware of the hazards of their occupations. Moreover, their general backwardness in sanitation and nutrition and climatic proneness of their geographic region to epidemics cause diseases contracted from the work environment to be aggravated. occupational diseases are often misconstrued as diseases resulting from the general environment. Since unemployment in underdeveloped countries is of a very high order, workers are prepared to accept any job, irrespective of the dangers involved. Labor is cheap and easily replaceable, so employers see no need for improving occupational safety and health. Labor unions are mostly controlled by full-time politicians who consider health a political issue, especially when their party controls the country's government. The seriousness of all these factors is heightened by the existing socioeconomic order in poor countries, in which national medievalism and multinational modernism play a crucial role. In order to understand the prevailing socioeconomic order, one has to analyze the social structures of poor countries in the context of today's world economic structure. India is taken as an example of a "developing" country where all the above-mentioned factors and many others are in operation: backwardness of the worker; poor nutrition; lack of concern for public health; proneness to epidemics; and indifference on the part of employers, politicians, and unions toward occupational health; high unemployment, control of the local economy by multinational corporations; and control of the mass media by feudalistic vested interests. This article attempts to analyze the occupational health and safety issue in India from a historical perspective, and stresses the vital need of structural changes in various fields so that workers can have a safe and healthy working environment. PMID:7372383

Vilanilam, J V

1980-01-01

356

Statistical methods for pavement performance curve building, historical analysis, data sampling and storage. Final report, May 1997--July 1998  

SciTech Connect

The use of a pavement management system provides a state highway agency with the tools necessary to conduct a multi-year analysis of the maintenance and rehabilitation needs within the state based on both current needs and expected future conditions. In order to adequately predict future conditions, pavement performance models must be developed to reflect the deterioration trends of the agency`s pavements. At the time the SDDOT pavement management system was implemented in 1994, the Department developed a new condition rating system to evaluate the existing conditions of the state maintained pavements. At the same time, expert-based pavement performance models were developed to approximate the deterioration patterns of the highways based on pavement families (groupings of pavements with similar characteristics). A recommendation from that study (SD93-14) was to update the curves based on historical performance once sufficient data had been collected.

Zimmerman, K.A.; Bahulkar, A.M.

1998-08-01

357

ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE DISCOURSES IN INTERNATIONAL  

E-print Network

261 ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE DISCOURSES IN INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL ECONOMY Edited by JOHN BYRNE LEIGH with and dependent on the mastery of nature. Hence, in a landmark work of modernist environmental consciousness

Delaware, University of

358

Electroal Rhetoric in Israel--The Televised Debates. A Study in Political Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of the communicative setting of televised electoral debates in Israel focused on the stylistic features of the political candidates' discourse. The analysis identified and described such rhetorical strategies as figurative expressions and intensifiers, irony and rhetorical questions, repetition and parallelism, and meta-discoursive

Nir, Raphael

1988-01-01

359

The Political Discourse of the Campaign against Bilingual Education: From "Proposition 227" to "Horne v. Flores"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the frameworks of critical discourse analysis, representation theory, and legitimization theory, this study examines the political discourse of the campaign for Proposition 227 in California--particularly, the key social representations of languages, their speakers, and the main political actors in the campaign. The analysis examines the…

Yamagami, Mai

2012-01-01

360

Expanding Discourse Options through Computer-Mediated Communication: Guiding Learners toward Autonomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes a multiliteracies-based pedagogical framework for the analysis of computer-mediated discourse (CMD) in order to give students increased access to expanded discourse options that are available in online communication environments and communities (i.e., beyond the classroom). Through the analysis of excerpts and a corpus of…

Abraham, Lee B.; Williams, Lawrence

2011-01-01

361

The biomedical discourse relation bank  

PubMed Central

Background Identification of discourse relations, such as causal and contrastive relations, between situations mentioned in text is an important task for biomedical text-mining. A biomedical text corpus annotated with discourse relations would be very useful for developing and evaluating methods for biomedical discourse processing. However, little effort has been made to develop such an annotated resource. Results We have developed the Biomedical Discourse Relation Bank (BioDRB), in which we have annotated explicit and implicit discourse relations in 24 open-access full-text biomedical articles from the GENIA corpus. Guidelines for the annotation were adapted from the Penn Discourse TreeBank (PDTB), which has discourse relations annotated over open-domain news articles. We introduced new conventions and modifications to the sense classification. We report reliable inter-annotator agreement of over 80% for all sub-tasks. Experiments for identifying the sense of explicit discourse connectives show the connective itself as a highly reliable indicator for coarse sense classification (accuracy 90.9% and F1 score 0.89). These results are comparable to results obtained with the same classifier on the PDTB data. With more refined sense classification, there is degradation in performance (accuracy 69.2% and F1 score 0.28), mainly due to sparsity in the data. The size of the corpus was found to be sufficient for identifying the sense of explicit connectives, with classifier performance stabilizing at about 1900 training instances. Finally, the classifier performs poorly when trained on PDTB and tested on BioDRB (accuracy 54.5% and F1 score 0.57). Conclusion Our work shows that discourse relations can be reliably annotated in biomedical text. Coarse sense disambiguation of explicit connectives can be done with high reliability by using just the connective as a feature, but more refined sense classification requires either richer features or more annotated data. The poor performance of a classifier trained in the open domain and tested in the biomedical domain suggests significant differences in the semantic usage of connectives across these domains, and provides robust evidence for a biomedical sublanguage for discourse and the need to develop a specialized biomedical discourse annotated corpus. The results of our cross-domain experiments are consistent with related work on identifying connectives in BioDRB. PMID:21605399

2011-01-01

362

An Historical Perspective on the Theory and Practice of Soil Mechanical Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the history of soil mechanical analysis. Evaluates this history in order to place current concepts in perspective, from both a research and teaching viewpoint. Alternatives to traditional separation techniques for use in soils teaching laboratories are discussed. (TW)

Miller, W. P.; And Others

1988-01-01

363

An objective change point analysis of landfalling historical Atlantic hurricane numbers  

E-print Network

In previous work we have analysed the Atlantic basin hurricane number time-series to identify decadal time-scale change points. We now repeat the analysis but for US landfalling hurricanes. The results are very different.

Jewson, S; Jewson, Stephen; Penzer, Jeremy

2006-01-01

364

Clint Eastwood's US audience 1964–2009: a reception-oriented approach to star analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Clint Eastwood and his American audience as an example, this essay argues for the importance of a reception-oriented approach to star analysis. Empirical data is presented (surveys, box office revenues, discourse examples) as a methodological suggestion for how a star's historical audience might be studied empirically. The data reveals with what and with whom Eastwood was popular, and on

Annemone Ligensa

2012-01-01

365

The discourse of causal explanations in school science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Researchers and educators working from a systemic functional linguistic perspective have provided a body of work on science discourse which offers an excellent starting point for examining the linguistic aspects of the development of causal discourse in school science, discourse which Derewianka (1995) claimed is critical to success in secondary school. No work has yet described the development of causal language by identifying the linguistic features present in oral discourse or by comparing the causal discourse of native and non-native (ESL) speakers of English. The current research responds to this gap by examining the oral discourse collected from ESL and non-ESL students at the primary and high school grades. Specifically, it asks the following questions: (1) How do the teachers and students in these four contexts develop causal explanations and their relevant taxonomies through classroom interactions? (2) What are the causal discourse features being used by the students in these four contexts to construct oral causal explanations? The findings of the social practice analysis showed that the teachers in the four contexts differed in their approaches to teaching, with the primary school mainstream teacher focusing largely on the hands-on practice , the primary school ESL teacher moving from practice to theory, the high school mainstream teacher moving from theory to practice, and the high school ESL teacher relying primarily on theory. The findings from the quantitative, small corpus approach suggest that the developmental path of cause which has been identified in the writing of experts shows up not only in written texts but also in the oral texts which learners construct. Moreover, this move appears when the discourse of high school ESL and non-ESL students is compared, suggesting a developmental progression in the acquisition of these features by these students. The findings also reveal that the knowledge constructed, as shown by the concept maps created from the discourse, follows a developmental path similar to the linguistic causal path, from the concrete, hands-on, observable items to more abstract, theoretical concepts. This study is the first systemic functional comparison of the oral discourse of primary and secondary learners as well as the first to compare ESL and non-ESL speakers in this way, and as such it helps map general trends in causal discourse development. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Slater, Tammy Jayne Anne

366

Pathology Case Study: Lash's Bitters - Biochemical Analysis of a Historic Proprietary Medicine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology. This case examines the history of medicine by tracing the origins and development of proprietary medications. Visitors will find a collection of bottle and advertisement images, analysis procedures results from medications, discussion of those results, and references for further reading. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to understand the history of medicine, the development of proprietary medications, and the biochemical analysis of them. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical chemistry.

Beiler, Bonnie; Cropcho, Lorna; Kelly, Robert; Moraca, Michael; Rao, K. N.; Torbenson, Michael

2007-12-05

367

From the portfolio to the diagram : architectural discourse and the transformation of the discipline of architecture in America, 1918-1943  

E-print Network

This dissertation is an historical inquiry into the concomitant transformations of architectural discourse and the discipline of architecture in America. It proceeds on the theoretical assumption that the documents produced ...

Pae, Hy?ng-min.

1993-01-01

368

A Critical Analysis of Literature on Social Justice Curriculum: Avoiding Historical Amnesia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this critical analysis is to gain quantitatively greater statistical accuracy synthesizing past empirical studies conducted on the topic of social justice curriculum (hereafter SJC) with similar research foci, but dissimilar research questions. Currently there is a clarion call for further quantitative research to be conducted on…

Hartlep, Nicholas D., Ed.

2009-01-01

369

The Effects of War on Iraq's Food System: A Historical Analysis and Proposal for Future Direction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine the changes to Iraq's food system and the subsequent effects on citizens' health as a result of the Iraq War in comparison to the food rationing system under Saddam Hussein. An analysis of available data shows that crop production and food imports have increased since the occupation but the food is not

Mindi S. Picotte; Christina G. Campbell

2010-01-01

370

Political influence on historical ESA listings by state: a count data analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use count data analysis to examine the influence that a state’s congressional subcommittee representation (with oversight\\u000a of the US Fish and Wildlife Service) has on the number of species that are added to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) list\\u000a in each state each year (1973–2004). Explanatory variables include: (1) ecological—species type, NatureServe’s “at-risk” assessment,\\u000a federal land area, rainfall, and

Bonnie Harllee; Myungsup Kim; Michael Nieswiadomy

2009-01-01

371

Translational Research in Behavior Analysis: Historical Traditions and Imperative for the Future  

PubMed Central

“Pure basic” science can become detached from the natural world that it is supposed to explain. “Pure applied” work can become detached from fundamental processes that shape the world it is supposed to improve. Neither demands the intellectual support of a broad scholarly community or the material support of society. Translational research can do better by seeking innovation in theory or practice through the synthesis of basic and applied questions, literatures, and methods. Although translational thinking has always occurred in behavior analysis, progress often has been constrained by a functional separation of basic and applied communities. A review of translational traditions in behavior analysis suggests that innovation is most likely when individuals with basic and applied expertise collaborate. Such innovation may have to accelerate for behavior analysis to be taken seriously as a general-purpose science of behavior. We discuss the need for better coordination between the basic and applied sectors, and argue that such coordination compromises neither while benefiting both. PMID:21119847

Mace, F. Charles; Critchfield, Thomas S

2010-01-01

372

Optimizing Air Transportation Service to Metroplex Airports. Part 1; Analysis of Historical Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The air transportation system is a significant driver of the U.S. economy, providing safe, affordable, and rapid transportation. During the past three decades airspace and airport capacity has not grown in step with demand for air transportation (+4% annual growth), resulting in unreliable service and systemic delays. Estimates of the impact of delays and unreliable air transportation service on the economy range from $32B to $41B per year. This report describes the results of an analysis of airline strategic decision-making with regards to: (1) geographic access, (2) economic access, and (3) airline finances. This analysis evaluated markets-served, scheduled flights, aircraft size, airfares, and profit from 2005-2009. During this period, airlines experienced changes in costs of operation (due to fluctuations in hedged fuel prices), changes in travel demand (due to changes in the economy), and changes in infrastructure capacity (due to the capacity limits at EWR, JFK, and LGA). This analysis captures the impact of the implementation of capacity limits at airports, as well as the effect of increased costs of operation (i.e. hedged fuel prices). The increases in costs of operation serve as a proxy for increased costs per flight that might occur if auctions or congestion pricing are imposed.

Donohue, George; Hoffman, Karla; Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Kara, Abdul Qadar

2010-01-01

373

Historical Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of historic U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps is useful for research purposes and for comparison with modern data to study changes over time. It covers 14 states in the Eastern United States and New England. The collection is searchable by 7.5-minute quadrangle list, town index, or by an interactive image map.

374

Historical truth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author, dismissing the feasibility of attaining the real facts of history, proposes to define historical truth as the set of all possible worlds that agree with all the sources available to the historian. He remarks that this conception is very close to that necessairly assumed today by cosmologists, when describing the evolution of the phisical universe.

Guliano Toraldo di Francia

1995-01-01

375

Historical Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author presents a historical overview of four decades of scholarship and changing public policy on family and informal caregiving for older adults. Families are changing at a dizzying pace. Changes in family composition, cultural diversity, geographic mobility, and societal norms, coupled with increasing numbers of older…

Scharlach, Andrew

2008-01-01

376

Historic Houses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews some of the efforts of the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities (SPNEA) to preserve, conserve, and interpret historic houses to the public. Examines the history and some of the specific preservation problems concerning the Beauport Cottage, the Sayward-Wheeler House, and the Gropius House. (MJP)

Curtis, Nancy

1997-01-01

377

Safety assessment of historical masonry churches based on pre-assigned kinematic limit analysis, FE limit and pushover analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents some results of a comprehensive numerical analysis on three masonry churches damaged by the recent Emilia-Romagna (Italy) seismic events occurred in May 2012. The numerical study comprises: (a) pushover analyses conducted with a commercial code, standard nonlinear material models and two different horizontal load distributions; (b) FE kinematic limit analyses performed using a non-commercial software based on a preliminary homogenization of the masonry materials and a subsequent limit analysis with triangular elements and interfaces; (c) kinematic limit analyses conducted in agreement with the Italian code and based on the a-priori assumption of preassigned failure mechanisms, where the masonry material is considered unable to withstand tensile stresses. All models are capable of giving information on the active failure mechanism and the base shear at failure, which, if properly made non-dimensional with the weight of the structure, gives also an indication of the horizontal peak ground acceleration causing the collapse of the church. The results obtained from all three models indicate that the collapse is usually due to the activation of partial mechanisms (apse, façade, lateral walls, etc.). Moreover the horizontal peak ground acceleration associated to the collapse is largely lower than that required in that seismic zone by the Italian code for ordinary buildings. These outcomes highlight that structural upgrading interventions would be extremely beneficial for the considerable reduction of the seismic vulnerability of such kind of historical structures.

Milani, Gabriele; Valente, Marco

2014-10-01

378

Combined SERS and Raman analysis for the identification of red pigments in cross-sections from historic oil paintings.  

PubMed

The analysis of paint cross-sections can reveal a remarkable amount of information about the layers and materials in a painting without visibly altering the artwork. Although a variety of analytical approaches are used to detect inorganic pigments as well as organic binders, proteins, and lipids in cross-sections, they do not provide for the unambiguous identification of natural, organic colorants. Here, we develop a novel combined surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), light microscopy, and normal Raman scattering (NRS) approach for the identification of red organic and inorganic pigments in paint cross-sections obtained from historic 18th and 19th century oil paintings. In particular, Ag nanoparticles are directly applied to localized areas of paint cross-sections mounted in polyester resin for SERS analysis of the organic pigments. This combined extractionless non-hydrolysis SERS and NRS approach provides for the definitive identification of carmine lake, madder lake, and vermilion in multiple paint layers. To our knowledge, this study represents the first in situ identification of natural, organic pigments within paint cross-sections from oil paintings. Furthermore, the combination of SERS and normal Raman, with light microscopy provides conservators with a more comprehensive understanding of a painting from a single sample and without the need for sample pretreatment. PMID:25340987

Frano, Kristen A; Mayhew, Hannah E; Svoboda, Shelley A; Wustholz, Kristin L

2014-11-10

379

The "Prediflood" database of historical floods in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula) AD 1035-2013, and its potential applications in flood analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Prediflood" is a database of historical floods occurred in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula), between 10th Century and 21th Century. More than 2700 flood cases are catalogued, and more than 1100 flood events. This database contains information acquired under modern historiographical criteria and it is, therefore, apt to be used in multidisciplinary flood analysis techniques, as meteorological or hydraullic reconstructions.

Barriendos, M.; Ruiz-Bellet, J. L.; Tuset, J.; Mazón, J.; Balasch, J. C.; Pino, D.; Ayala, J. L.

2014-07-01

380

A FULLY COUPLED THERMO-HYDRO MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY VARIATION ON THE STATE OF HISTORICAL STONE  

E-print Network

VARIATION ON THE STATE OF HISTORICAL STONE BULDINGS Dashnor Hoxha , Duc-Phi Do, Naima Belayachi Institut an inverse analysis on measured data on temperature and humidity variation in various depth of a stone wall transport in the stone pores such as relative permeability, effective Flick's coefficient, thermal expansion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

381

Statistical methods for pavement performance curve building, historical analysis, data sampling and storage: Appendix D. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The technical memorandum is intended to discuss the detailed procedure required for carrying out the statistical analyses of historical pavement condition data for building pavement performance curves. This chapter assumes the availability of the historical data in a spreadsheet format (Microsoft{trademark} Excel) that has been retrieved from the master (pavement management system) database.

NONE

1998-08-01

382

Vesuvius: A historical approach to the 1631 eruption “cold data” from the analysis of three contemporary treatises  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1631 Vesuvius eruption is one of its best known and most studied of its type. However, the historical approach performed within the framework of the Exploris project highlighted new evidence from previously unused or unknown historical sources. These consist of three treatises that were contemporary to the event; although written in Latin, they have been fully translated and analysed.

Emanuela Guidoboni

2008-01-01

383

A historical review and bibliometric analysis of research on estuary pollution.  

PubMed

A bibliometric method based on Science Citation Index-Expanded published by the Thomson Reuters was used to quantitatively assess the global estuary pollution research from 1991 to 2010. The main results were as follows: there had been a notable growth trend in publication outputs. Marine Pollution Bulletin was the most active journal. Environmental sciences were top popular subject categories. USA produced the most single, internationally collaborative, first authored and corresponding authored articles. The Chinese Academy of Sciences was the most productive institute for the total articles. Sediment was the most active research topic, which ranked 1st in article title, article abstract, author keyword, and KeyWords Plus analysis, respectively. Heavy metals received stable focus on a high degree in the field of estuary pollution research. Mostly refractory organic compounds (e.g. PAHs) became more active. Biomarkers and bioaccumulation both were active issues. Eutrophication of estuarine waters receives increasing concern in estuary pollution research. PMID:22119413

Sun, Jinshui; Wang, Ming-Huang; Ho, Yuh-Shan

2012-01-01

384

Uncertainty in LOCA (loss-of-coolant accident) analysis historical discussion  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Commissioners approved the proposed change to 10 CFR Part 50 Appendix K in July 1988. The change allows reactor vendors to use either the previous Appendix K requirements or a best-estimate analysis with defined uncertainties. This change to Appendix K has led NRC to investigate and the nuclear industry to develop an acceptable method to evaluate the uncertainty in design-base thermal-hydraulic codes. Uncertainty methods suitable for the design-base codes have been investigated by both the NRC and nuclear industry since the late 1970's. This early work provides a good base for the current work and will allow the nuclear industry to use the advantages that the recently approved change to Appendix K offers. 11 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Sullivan, L.H.

1988-01-01

385

The ghost of genetic diversity past: historical DNA analysis of the greater prairie chicken.  

PubMed

Most, if not all, of the "classic," often-cited examples illustrating the genetic effects of a population bottleneck are open to alternative explanations due to the lack of adequate control populations, that is, low levels of genetic variability are often assumed to be the result of a past population bottleneck without having any prebottleneck measures. Here we provide the first clear case history where both prebottleneck and postbottleneck measures of genetic variability have been collected from a natural system. Analysis of DNA from museum specimens of the greater prairie chicken Tympanuchus cupido from central Illinois revealed the loss of specific alleles (known to have been present earlier in this century) following a demographic contraction. Lost alleles included common ones present in all other populations sampled and others unique to the Illinois population. PMID:18811397

Bouzat, J L; Lewin, H A; Paige, K N

1998-07-01

386

English 283: Rhetorical Theory and Applications--"Rhetorical Theory, Mass Media, and Public Discourse"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a course design of English 283: Rhetorical Theory and Applications. The course is described in the undergraduate catalogue as offering a "critical and analytical examination of the nature and historical development of rhetorical theory and its applications to contemporary discourse." The course fulfills requirements for the…

Grettano, Teresa

2008-01-01

387

Phelps-Stokes in Congo: Transferring Educational Policy Discourse to Govern Metropole and Colony  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article combines a historical with a social/political anthropological framework to examine the role played by the transfer of educational discourse between the United States-based Phelps-Stokes Fund and the Belgian Ministry of Colonies in the formulation of the colonial education policy of "adapted education" in the 1920s. The author argues…

Seghers, Maud

2004-01-01

388

Analysis of AVHRR, CZCS and historical in situ data off the Oregon Coast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The original scientific objectives of this grant were to: (1) characterize the seasonal cycles and interannual variability for phytoplankton concentrations and sea surface temperature (SST) in the California Current using satellite data; and (2) to explore the spatial and temporal relationship between these variables and surface wind forcing. An additional methodological objective was to develop statistical methods for forming mean fields, which minimize the effects of random data gaps and errors in the irregularly sampled CZCS (Coastal Zone Color Scanner) and AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) satellite data. A final task was to evaluate the level of uncertainty in the wind fields used for the statistical analysis. Funding in the first year included part of the cost of an image processing system to enable this and other projects to process and analyze satellite data. This report consists of summaries of the major projects carried out with all or partial support from this grant. The appendices include a list of papers and professional presentations supported by the grant, as well as reprints of the major papers and reports.

Strub, P. Ted; Chelton, Dudley B.

1990-01-01

389

An analysis of the physical, chemical, optical, and historical impacts of the 1908 Tunguska meteor fall  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis is presented of the physical characteristics and photochemical aftereffects of the 1908 Tunguska explosive cometary meteor, whose physical manifestations are consistent with a five million ton object's entry into the earth's atmosphere at 40 km/sec. Aerodynamic calculations indicate that the shock waves emanating from the falling meteor could have generated up to 30 million tons of nitric oxide in the stratosphere and mesosphere. A fully interactive one-dimensional chemical-kinetics model of atmospheric trace constituents is used to estimate the photochemical consequences of such a large NO injection. The 35-45% hemispherical ozone depletion predicted by the model is in keeping with the 30 + or - 15% ozone variation reported for the first year after the Tunguska fall. Attention is also given to the optical anomalies which followed the event for indications of NO(x)-O(x) chemiluminescent emissions, NO2 solar absorption, and meteoric dust turbidity, along with possible climate changes due to the nearly one million tons of pulverized dust deposited in the mesosphere and stratosphere by the meteor.

Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Park, C.; Whitten, R. C.; Pollack, J. B.; Noerdlinger, P.

1982-01-01

390

Toys as discourse: children's war toys and the war on terror  

Microsoft Academic Search

War toys of different eras realize the dominant discourses of war of the time, and they do so in a way which allows children to enact these discourses and values in play. This paper examines war toys over the past 100 years before providing a detailed multimodal analysis of contemporary war toys distributed around the planet, mainly by global American

David Machin; Theo Van Leeuwen

2009-01-01

391

Classroom Discourse and Teacher Talk Influences on English Language Learner Students' Mathematics Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the features of the classroom discourse in eight Algebra I classes from two urban high schools with diverse student populations. In particular, by using the discursive analysis perspective, the type of communication between teachers and students was examined. The study investigated to what extent teachers' patterns of discourse

Petkova, Mariana M.

2009-01-01

392

The design of a theoretical, methodological, analytical framework to analyse hegemony in discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper includes a detailed discursive analysis of the discourse of the former President Salinas de Gortari (Mexico, 1988–1994) and that of the Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (EZLN). This study contextualises the EZLN struggle as a local response to the global policy shift of the Mexican government. It considered the discourses of both parties as narratives which played a

Nicolina Montesano Montessori

2011-01-01

393

Exercices de grammaire et discours rapporte (Grammar Exercises and Reported Discourse)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis of exercises concerning indirect, direct and free discourse appearing in tests of the "premier cycle," from both pedagogical and linguistic points of view. The thesis is that a method giving primacy to manipulative exercises based on prefabricated sentences militates against discourse and communication. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

Authier, Jacqueline; Meunier, Andre

1977-01-01

394

Impersonal, General, and Social: The Use of Metonymy versus Passive Voice in Medical Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impersonalizing role passive voice plays in scientific discourse is well known. Analysis of the Methods sections of nine medical research articles shows that metonymy is another frequent strategy used to create anonymous authors/agents. Discourse agents were categorized into four semantic domains: familial lay, nonfamilial lay, authorial…

Rundblad, Gabriella

2007-01-01

395

Epidemiology as discourse: the politics of development institutions in the Epidemiological Profile of El Salvador  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVETo determine the ways in which institutions devoted to international development influence epidemiological studies.DESIGNThis article takes a descriptive epidemiological study of El Salvador,Epidemiological Profile, conducted in 1994 by the US Agency for International Development, as a case study. The methods include discourse analysis in order to uncover the ideological basis of the report and its characteristics as a discourse

L A Avilés

2001-01-01

396

Turkish Language Teachers' Stance Taking Movements in the Discourse on Globalization and Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates how Turkish teachers take and give stances in the discourse on globalization and language by using linguistic resources. According to the findings obtained through the discourse analysis of the corpus that consisted of 36 h of recording of the discussion among 4 teachers with 5 to 10 years of teaching experience, the…

Coskun, Ibrahim

2013-01-01

397

"Are They Just Checking Our Obesity or What?" The Healthism Discourse and Rural Young Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper makes use of critical discourse analysis and Bourdieu's theoretical framework to explore rural young women's meanings of health and fitness and how the healthism discourse is perpetuated through their experiences in school physical education (PE). The young women's own meanings are explored alongside interview data from their school PE…

Lee, Jessica; Macdonald, Doune

2010-01-01

398

A Study of Online Discourse at "The Chronicle of Higher Education"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the explosive growth of online communications, new forms of discourse are an intriguing topic of study. This research focused on ten online discussions hosted by "The Chronicle of Higher Education," using content and discourse analysis of the postings to answer several questions. What is the "conversational scaffolding" used by posters in…

Meyer, Katrina A.

2010-01-01

399

`Like an Animal I was Treated': Anti-Immigrant Metaphor in US Public Discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contemporary framing in American public discourse on immigrants is examined through a data-driven metaphor analysis. The print media texts of the 1994 political debate and campaign in California over an anti-immigrant referendum, Proposition 187, is analyzed. An ongoing cataloguing of metaphors from hundreds of Los Angeles Times articles displays the discourse that reflects and informs California public opinion. The

OTTO SANTA ANA

1999-01-01

400

Disciplinary Discourses: Rates of Cesarean Section Explained by Medicine, Midwifery, and Feminism  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of international concern about increasing rates of cesarean sections, we used discourse analysis to examine explanations arising from feminism and the disciplines of medicine and midwifery, and found that each was positioned differently in relation to the rising rates. Medical discourses asserted that doctors are authorities on birth and that, although cesareans are sometimes medically necessary, women

Amy Su May Lee; Maggie Kirkman

2008-01-01

401

[Critical trajectories of female victims of gender violence: discourse analysis of women and staff professionals in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].  

PubMed

This qualitative study aims to describe the trajectories of female victims of gender violence in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The methodology included in-depth interviews with women and staff, attempting to map the critical paths of women when they made the decision to seek professional help. We interviewed 21 women victims of gender violence and 25 professionals, including law enforcement officials, health and social workers, and nongovernmental organizations. The women's trajectories in the services were mapped, identifying facilitating factors and obstacles in the process of breaking with gender violence. The victims reported: pressure by professional staff to return to their marriages and police inefficiency in providing protection. The discourse of law enforcement officials and health and social workers showed a range of different concepts regarding violence, medicalization of violence, and network fragmentation. PMID:21603757

Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Bairros, Fernanda; Mueller, Betânia; Monteiro, Débora; Oliveira, Lidiane Pellenz de; Collaziol, Marceli Emer

2011-04-01

402

Migraine therapeutics in adolescents: a systematic analysis and historic perspectives of triptan trials in adolescents.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES To conduct a systematic review and analysis of trial data submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to identify possible causes for the failure of pediatric trials of triptans for treatment of migraines. DATA SOURCE The FDA website for drug information and published literature. STUDY SELECTION All pediatric efficacy and pharmacokinetics trial data of drugs used for abortive treatment of migraine submitted to the FDA from January 1, 1999, through December 31, 2011. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Patient demographic baseline characteristics, inclusion and exclusion criteria, trial designs, efficacy end points, and pharmacokinetic profiles were analyzed and compared across drug products. RESULTS We analyzed data for sumatriptan succinate nasal spray and zolmitriptan, eletriptan hydrobromide, almotriptan malate, and rizatriptan benzoate tablets. Seven efficacy trials had a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial design. In 4 trials, patients were required to have a history of migraine attacks lasting at least 4 hours. High response rates for placebo were observed in all trials, with pain relief at 2 hours ranging from 53% to 57.5%. Nonrandomization of patients with an early placebo response design was used in the rizatriptan trial in 2011. Compared with the rizatriptan trial conducted in 1999, the 2011 rizatriptan trial reduced the placebo response rate by 6% for headache freedom at the 2-hour posttreatment end point owing to study design. The pharmacokinetic profiles between adolescents and adults were statistically similar. CONCLUSIONS High placebo response rates are consistent across all trials and may represent the principal challenge in pediatric trials of drugs for abortive treatment of migraine. Enrichment with selection of subjects with long-lasting migraine attacks is not sufficient to overcome high placebo response rates. Another enrichment strategy, the nonrandomization of patients with an early placebo response, successfully reduces the high placebo response rate for rizatriptan and is a trial design that should be considered for future pediatric trials of abortive migraine therapeutics. PMID:23359002

Sun, Haihao; Bastings, Eric; Temeck, Jean; Smith, P Brian; Men, Angela; Tandon, Veneeta; Murphy, Dianne; Rodriguez, William

2013-03-01

403

Historic Pelham  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pelham, New York is a city rich with history, dating back to 1654 when Thomas Pell purchased the land from the Siwanoy Native American Indian tribe. The history of the city is detailed in a timeline that begins in the 1500s and includes significant event such as the Battle of Pelham fought in 1776 and the Pelhamville Train Wreck in 1885. This site also highlights some of the more famous people who have ties to Pelham. For example, it is rumored that Aaron Burr, the man who killed Alexander Hamilton in an infamous duel in 1804, spent a couple summers in Pelham with his wife. In addition to historical information on the city of Pelham, the Web site includes a section with ghost stories and legends, photographs of the city, and descriptions of historical landmarks.

404

Historical series and Near Real Time data analysis produced within ASI-SRV project infrastructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ASI-Sistema Rischio Vulcanico (SRV) project is devoted to the development of a pre-operative integrated system managing different Earth Observation (EO) and Non EO data to respond to specific needs of the Italian Civil Protection Department (DPC) and improve the monitoring of Italian active volcanoes. The project provides the capability to maintain a repository where the acquired data are stored and generates products offering a support to risk managers during the different volcanic activity phases. All the products are obtained considering technical choices and developments of ASI-SRV based on flexible and scalable modules which take into account also the new coming space sensors and new processing algorithms. An important step of the project development regards the technical and scientific feasibility of the provided products that depends on the data availability, accuracy algorithms and models used in the processing and of course the possibility to validate the results by means of comparison with non-EO independent measurements. The ASI-SRV infrastrucutre is based on a distributed client/server architecture which implies that different processors need to ingest data set characterized by a constant and common structure. ASI-SRV will develop, in its final version, a centralized HW-SW system located at INGV which will control two complete processing chains, one located at INGV for Optical data, and the other located at IREA for SAR data. The produced results will be disseminated through a WEB-GIS interface which will allow the DPC to overview and assimilate the products in a compatible format respect to their local monitoring system in order to have an immediate use of the provided information. In this paper the first results producing ground deformation measurement via Differential Interferometric SAR (DInSAR) techniques by using SAR data and via the application of the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) technique developed at IREA, are reported. Moreover different products obtained using optical data (ASTER, MODIS, HYPERION, and AVHRR) are also reported. The processing modules for EO Optical sensors data are based on procedures those allow to estimate a number of parameters which include: surface thermal proprieties, concentration and flux of sulphur dioxide (SO2), water vapor and volcanic aerosol optical thickness, ash emissions and to characterize the volcanic products in terms of composition and geometry. For the analysis of the surface thermal characteristics, the available algorithms allow to extract information useful to detect small changes in the retrieved parameters. ASI-SRV foresees the generation of significant information also for the definition of the new lava and ash cover distribution after the end of an eruption.

Silvestri, M.; Musacchio, M.; Buongiorno, M.; Corradini, S.; Lombardo, V.; Merucci, L.; Spinetti, C.; Sansosti, E.; Pugnaghi, S.; Teggi, S.; Vignoli, S.; Amodio, A.; Dini, L.

2009-12-01

405

Silver colloidal pastes for dye analysis of reference and historical textile fibers using direct, extractionless, non-hydrolysis surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an ideal tool for analyzing dyes on historical textiles because it requires very little sample compared to other available analytical methods and analysis can be done directly on the fiber. This paper reports on the first systematic study of the use of citrate-reduced silver colloidal pastes for the direct, extractionless, non-hydrolysis detection of dyes directly on wool, silk, cotton, and flax fibers. This type of study provides greater insight into the optimal conditions required for accurate analysis of dyes in historical samples. In this work, Ag colloidal pastes were characterized using localized surface plasmon resonance and scanning electron microscopy. The pastes were then employed for SERS analysis of twelve reference samples of different vegetal and animal fibers dyed with cochineal and eleven dyed with brazilwood. Furthermore, six historical textiles from an important collection of Mariano Fortuny (1871-1949) textiles at the Art Institute of Chicago were also examined, to test the efficacy of the paste on aged samples, and to shed light on Fortuny's fascinating production techniques. A mixture of cochineal and brazilwood was detected in some of the historical samples demonstrating, for the first time, simultaneous identification of these colorants used in combination. In addition, the findings give substance to the claim that Fortuny kept using natural dyes at a time when many new and attractive synthetic products became available. PMID:23905159

Idone, Ambra; Gulmini, Monica; Henry, Anne-Isabelle; Casadio, Francesca; Chang, Lauren; Appolonia, Lorenzo; Van Duyne, Richard P; Shah, Nilam C

2013-10-21

406

Evaluation of eutrophication variables and thresholds in the Dutch North Sea in a historical context - A model analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents an evaluation of eutrophication variables and thresholds in the Dutch North Sea in a historical context by means of a model analysis. An ecosystem model (Delft3D-GEM for the North Sea) was used to simulate four different years, representing periods with little anthropogenic input (1930), medium anthropogenic input (1960), and high anthropogenic input (1985), as well as current (2007) conditions. Model runs differed with respect to nutrient inputs (riverine input and atmospheric deposition) but physical and hydrodynamic conditions were kept unchanged, to enable a clear assessment of the impact of changes in nutrient inputs. Model results showed that current (2007) dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) concentrations along the Dutch North Sea coast are similar to levels in 1930, while dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations have been reduced to levels that were present in 1960. Chl a concentrations did not show clear differences between 2007, 1930 and 1960, but Phaeocystis levels were higher in 2007 than in 1930 and 1960 in all areas, although these differences were not statistically significant. Furthermore, model results indicate that DIN (rather than DIP) should be the focus of nutrient reduction efforts, since reducing nitrogen will cause a shift from a P-limited coastal ecosystem towards a more pristine, N-limited coastal ecosystem. Finally, it was found that assessment parameters and threshold levels should be revised and the harmonization between them should be improved, for which several recommendations are given.

Troost, T. A.; de Kluijver, A.; Los, F. J.

2014-06-01

407

Generating Discourse Structures for Written Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a system for automati- cally generating discourse structures from written text. The system is divided into two levels: sentence-level and text-level. The sentence-level discourse parser uses syntactic information and cue phrases to segment sen- tences into elementary discourse units and to generate discourse structures of sentences. At the text-level, constraints about textual adja- cency and textual organization

Huong LeThanh; Geetha Abeysinghe; Christian Huyck

2004-01-01

408

Complementary use of the Raman and XRF techniques for non-destructive analysis of historical paint layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The portable XRF spectrometer has been applied in situ for the non-destructive elemental mapping of the pigment components of the XV c. mural painting and frescos of the Little Christopher chamber in the Main Town Hall of Gda?sk, Poland. For a sufficiently large data collection the principal component analysis (PCA) was applied in order to associate the most intense lines of the elements Ca, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Hg in the XRF spectra with the palette of colors: white, brown, green, blue, red, yellow, and black observed in the painting. This allowed to limit the number of extractions of the micro-samples for the complementary Raman measurements thus assuring the practically non-destructive character of the entire analysis. The reliable identification of the pigment compositions was based on coincidence of the XRF, PCA and the Raman results which confirmed the presence of the chalk, malachite, azurite, red lead, mars red, mars yellow and candle black in the historical paints, except of the carbon-based black pigment being out of the XRF detection range. Different hues of the green paint were specified and the variety of the red and brown ones was ascribed to compositions of the Pb- and Fe-based red pigments (Fe 2O 3 and Pb 3O 4) with addition of the vermilion (HgS) and carbon black, in agreement with literature. The traces of elements: Ba and Sr, Sb and Mo, and also Cd, were ascribed to the impurities of Ca, those of some ochre pigments, and to the soluble Cd salts, respectively.

Sawczak, M.; Kami?ska, A.; Rabczuk, G.; Ferretti, M.; Jendrzejewski, R.; ?liwi?ski, G.

2009-03-01

409

Attention, Intentions, and the Structure of Discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we explore a new theory of discourse structure that stresses the role of purpose and processing in discourse. In this theory, discourse structure is composed of three separate but interrelated components: the structure of the sequence of utterances (called the linguistic structure), a structure of purposes (called the intentional structure), and the state of focus of attention

Barbara J. Grosz; Candace L. Sidner

1986-01-01

410

The Louisiana State Museum Vessel: a historical and archaeological analysis of an American Civil War-era submersible boat  

E-print Network

, and, as it cannot presently be identified, to establish likely historical candidates for potential association with it. In this process, the boat is used as a lens through which to view the larger picture of submersible watercraft development efforts...

Wills, Richard Keith

2012-06-07

411

Nervous system cancer : analysis of historical mortality rates in the United States and Japan indicate sudden increases in environmental risk  

E-print Network

Nervous System cancer age-specific mortality rates began being recorded for European and Non-European Americans in 1930 and for Japanese in 1952. All ethnic groups show significant historical increases in mortality rates. ...

Alhassani, Ali K

2008-01-01

412

Markers of topical discourse in child-directed speech.  

PubMed

Although the language we encounter is typically embedded in rich discourse contexts, many existing models of processing focus largely on phenomena that occur sentence-internally. Similarly, most work on children's language learning does not consider how information can accumulate as a discourse progresses. Research in pragmatics, however, points to ways in which each subsequent utterance provides new opportunities for listeners to infer speaker meaning. Such inferences allow the listener to build up a representation of the speakers' intended topic and more generally to identify relationships, structures, and messages that extend across multiple utterances. We address this issue by analyzing a video corpus of child-caregiver interactions. We use topic continuity as an index of discourse structure, examining how caregivers introduce and discuss objects across utterances. For the analysis, utterances are grouped into topical discourse sequences using three annotation strategies: raw annotations of speakers' referents, the output of a model that groups utterances based on those annotations, and the judgments of human coders. We analyze how the lexical, syntactic, and social properties of caregiver-child interaction change over the course of a sequence of topically related utterances. Our findings suggest that many cues used to signal topicality in adult discourse are also available in child-directed speech. PMID:24731080

Rohde, Hannah; Frank, Michael C

2014-11-01

413

Comprehensive investigation into historical pipeline construction costs and engineering economic analysis of Alaska in-state gas pipeline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzes historical cost data of 412 pipelines and 220 compressor stations. On the basis of this analysis, the study also evaluates the feasibility of an Alaska in-state gas pipeline using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Analysis of pipeline construction costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary by diameter, length, volume, year, and location. Overall average learning rates for pipeline material and labor costs are 6.1% and 12.4%, respectively. Overall average cost shares for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, and right of way (ROW) are 31%, 40%, 23%, and 7%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate pipeline component costs for different lengths, cross-sectional areas, and locations. An analysis of inaccuracy in pipeline cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation of pipeline cost components is biased except for in the case of total costs. Overall overrun rates for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, ROW, and total costs are 4.9%, 22.4%, -0.9%, 9.1%, and 6.5%, respectively, and project size, capacity, diameter, location, and year of completion have different degrees of impacts on cost overruns of pipeline cost components. Analysis of compressor station costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary in terms of capacity, year, and location. Average learning rates for compressor station material and labor costs are 12.1% and 7.48%, respectively. Overall average cost shares of material, labor, miscellaneous, and ROW are 50.6%, 27.2%, 21.5%, and 0.8%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate compressor station component costs in different capacities and locations. An investigation into inaccuracies in compressor station cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation for compressor stations is biased except for in the case of material costs. Overall average overrun rates for compressor station material, labor, miscellaneous, land, and total costs are 3%, 60%, 2%, -14%, and 11%, respectively, and cost overruns for cost components are influenced by location and year of completion to different degrees. Monte Carlo models are developed and simulated to evaluate the feasibility of an Alaska in-state gas pipeline by assigning triangular distribution of the values of economic parameters. Simulated results show that the construction of an Alaska in-state natural gas pipeline is feasible at three scenarios: 500 million cubic feet per day (mmcfd), 750 mmcfd, and 1000 mmcfd.

Rui, Zhenhua

414

Historical perspective, economic analysis, and regulatory analysis of the impacts of waste partitioning-transmutation on the disposal of radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

Partitioning-transmutation, sometimes called actinide burning, is an alternative approach to high-level radioactive waste management. It consists of removing long-lived radionuclides from wastes and destroying those radionuclides, thus reducing the long-term hazards of radioactive waste. It was studied in detail in the 1970's. New developments in technology and other factors are resulting in a reexamination of this waste management option. This report consists of three papers which summarize the historical work, update the analysis of the costs of waste disposal, and describe current regulatory requirements which might be impacted by P-T. The papers provide a starting point for future research on P-T. 152 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs.

Forsberg, C.W.; Croff, A.G.; Kocher, D.C.

1990-10-01

415

DISCOURSES IN INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL ECONOMY  

E-print Network

© 2002 Transaction Publishers Pp. 3-17 Chapter 1 A Brief on Environmental Justice John Byrne, Cecilia Martinez, and Leigh Glover Introduction Contemporary usage of the term `environmental justice' arose from structure. Learning from the environmental justice debate, the discourse of political economy is presently

Delaware, University of

416

Police Discourse on Racial Profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

As central actors in the phenomenon, the police view is noticeably absent from research on racial profiling. Given the prominence of “color-blind” racial ideology in the face of disparate opinions about the police between minorities and Whites in the United States, police discourse on racial profiling bears examination. The author employs in-depth interviews of patrol officers in the Novad (a

Karen S. Glover

2007-01-01

417

The Discourse of Dog Fighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this essay, we discuss dog fighting as a blood sport with a history embedded in the status-driven display of masculinity, power and violence. Based on published reports and interviews with those living and working in dog fighting neighborhoods, we show that the contemporary cultural knowledge of dog fighting is a discourse with multiple meanings: for those who pit dogs

Linda Kalof; Carl Taylor

2007-01-01

418

Multimodal science teachers' discourse in modeling the water cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents an intensive study of a micro-event aiming at the characterization of teacher's discourse from a multimodal communication perspective in a secondary school science classroom dealing with the topic of water cycle. The research addresses the following questions: (a) What communicative modes are used by the teacher?, (b) what role do the different communicative modes play within teacher's discourse?, and (c) what are the relationships among communicative modes being used by the teacher? Theoretical framework is developed based on three strands: multimodal communication, science teaching and learning as modeling, and social semotics and Halliday's functional grammar. An analytic scheme guiding teachers' discourse analysis is presented and results discussed. Implications for science teacher education are drawn that would contribute to the improvement of science teacher education.

Márquez, Conxita; Izquierdo, Mercè; Espinet, Mariona

2006-03-01

419

From colonial policing to community policing in Bahrain: The historical persistence of sectarianism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the history of policing in the Kingdom of Bahrain, a small Arab, Muslim country. The historical discourse about Bahraini policing, though scant, has not adequately confronted the role the police have had in protecting Sunni hegemony in a majority Sh?'á majority nation, a residual feature of colonialism. Through colonial records, press accounts, and Bahraini historical sources,

Staci Strobl

2011-01-01

420

Frameworks for Examining Comprehension and Discourse: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Overviews of schema theory, which focuses on the cognitive operations engaged in by the reader, and discourse analysis, which focuses on structural characteristics of the text itself, are presented in this paper. The first section explains the notion of cognitive schemata (patterns of expectations that are applied to incoming information) and…

Carey, Robert F.; Smith, Sharon L.

421

Discourse Processes and Products: Land Surveyors in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study reported in this paper aims to provide a description of professional communication pertaining to land surveying project management in Hong Kong, achieved through a comprehensive analysis of both workplace discourse processes and products. The study, situated in Hong Kong, represents a collaborative effort between English and Land…

Cheng, Winnie; Mok, Esmond

2008-01-01

422

Discourse coalitions and the Australian climate change policy network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ever since the agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, climate change has become the most prominent global environmental issue on domestic political agendas. The author examines how a policy-network approach can contribute to the analysis of domestic climate change responses. Consideration is given to the role of advocacy coalitions and discourse coalitions within policy networks. It

Harriet Bulkeley

2000-01-01

423

The Organization of Narrative Discourse in Lewy Body Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Narrative discourse is an essential component of day-to-day communication, but little is known about narrative in Lewy body spectrum disorder (LBSD), including Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We performed a detailed analysis of a semi-structured speech sample in 32 non-aphasic…

Ash, Sharon; McMillan, Corey; Gross, Rachel G.; Cook, Philip; Morgan, Brianna; Boller, Ashley; Dreyfuss, Michael; Siderowf, Andrew; Grossman, Murray

2011-01-01

424

Discourse Production Following Injury to the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals with damage to the prefrontal cortex, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in particular, often demonstrate difficulties with the formulation of complex language not attributable to aphasia. The present study employed a discourse analysis procedure to characterize the language of individuals with left (L) or right (R) DLPFC…

Coelho, Carl; Le, Karen; Mozeiko, Jennifer; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

2012-01-01

425

A New Discourse Structure Model for Spontaneous Spoken Dialogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new discourse structure model is proposed, and based on the model, we report the results of an analysis on Japanese-language dialogues over the telephone. As a result, a method for describing and analyzing the structure of spontaneous spoken dialogue is provided, and some characteristics of spontaneous spoken dialogue over the telephone were clarified.

Tetsuro CHINO Hiroyuki TSUBOI; Toshiba Kansai

1996-01-01

426

Complexity of Secondary Scientific Data Sources and Students' Argumentative Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the learning opportunities provided to students through the use of complex geological data supporting scientific inquiry. Through analysis of argumentative discourse in a high school Earth science classroom, uses of US Geological Survey (USGS) data were contrasted with uses of geoscience textbook data. To examine these…

Kerlin, Steven C.; McDonald, Scott P.; Kelly, Gregory J.

2010-01-01

427

Measuring Lexical Diversity in Narrative Discourse of People with Aphasia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: A microlinguistic content analysis for assessing lexical semantics in people with aphasia (PWA) is lexical diversity (LD). Sophisticated techniques have been developed to measure LD. However, validity evidence for these methodologies when applied to the discourse of PWA is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four measures…

Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather H.; West, Thomas M.

2013-01-01

428

Navigating discourses in place in the world of Webkinz  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geosemiotics (Scollon and Scollon, 2003) frames this analysis of play, multimodal collaboration, and peer mediation as players navigate barriers to online connectivity in a children’s social network and gaming site. A geosemiotic perspective enables examination of children’s web play as discourses in place: fluidly converging and diverging interactions among four factors: (1) social actors, (2) interaction order, (3) visual semiotics,

Karen E. Wohlwend; Sarah Vander Zanden; Nicholas E. Husbye; Candace R. Kuby

2011-01-01

429

Navigating Discourses in Place in the World of Webkinz  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Geosemiotics (Scollon and Scollon, 2003) frames this analysis of play, multimodal collaboration, and peer mediation as players navigate barriers to online connectivity in a children's social network and gaming site. A geosemiotic perspective enables examination of children's web play as "discourses in place": fluidly converging and diverging…

Wohlwend, Karen E.; Zanden, Sarah Vander; Husbye, Nicholas E.; Kuby, Candace R.

2011-01-01

430

Multi-Locus Phylogeographic and Population Genetic Analysis of Anolis carolinensis: Historical Demography of a Genomic Model Species  

PubMed Central

The green anole (Anolis carolinensis) has been widely used as an animal model in physiology and neurobiology but has recently emerged as an important genomic model. The recent sequencing of its genome has shed new light on the evolution of vertebrate genomes and on the process that govern species diversification. Surprisingly, the patterns of genetic diversity within natural populations of this widespread and abundant North American lizard remain relatively unknown. In the present study, we use 10 novel nuclear DNA sequence loci (N?=?62 to 152) and one mitochondrial locus (N?=?226) to delimit green anole populations and infer their historical demography. We uncovered four evolutionarily distinct and geographically restricted lineages of green anoles using phylogenetics, Bayesian clustering, and genetic distance methods. Molecular dating indicates that these lineages last shared a common ancestor ?2 million years ago. Summary statistics and analysis of the frequency distributions of DNA polymorphisms strongly suggest range-wide expansions in population size. Using Bayesian Skyline Plots, we inferred the timing of population size expansions, which differ across lineages, and found evidence for a relatively recent and rapid westward expansion of green anoles across the Gulf Coastal Plain during the mid-Pleistocene. One surprising result is that the distribution of genetic diversity is not consistent with a latitudinal shift caused by climatic oscillations as is observed for many co-distributed taxa. This suggests that the most recent Pleistocene glacial cycles had a limited impact on the geographic distribution of the green anole at the northern limits of its range. PMID:22685573

Tollis, Marc; Ausubel, Gavriel; Ghimire, Dhruba; Boissinot, Stephane

2012-01-01

431

Multi-locus phylogeographic and population genetic analysis of Anolis carolinensis: historical demography of a genomic model species.  

PubMed

The green anole (Anolis carolinensis) has been widely used as an animal model in physiology and neurobiology but has recently emerged as an important genomic model. The recent sequencing of its genome has shed new light on the evolution of vertebrate genomes and on the process that govern species diversification. Surprisingly, the patterns of genetic diversity within natural populations of this widespread and abundant North American lizard remain relatively unknown. In the present study, we use 10 novel nuclear DNA sequence loci (N?=?62 to 152) and one mitochondrial locus (N?=?226) to delimit green anole populations and infer their historical demography. We uncovered four evolutionarily distinct and geographically restricted lineages of green anoles using phylogenetics, bayesian clustering, and genetic distance methods. Molecular dating indicates that these lineages last shared a common ancestor ?2 million years ago. Summary statistics and analysis of the frequency distributions of DNA polymorphisms strongly suggest range-wide expansions in population size. Using Bayesian Skyline Plots, we inferred the timing of population size expansions, which differ across lineages, and found evidence for a relatively recent and rapid westward expansion of green anoles across the Gulf Coastal Plain during the mid-Pleistocene. One surprising result is that the distribution of genetic diversity is not consistent with a latitudinal shift caused by climatic oscillations as is observed for many co-distributed taxa. This suggests that the most recent Pleistocene glacial cycles had a limited impact on the geographic distribution of the green anole at the northern limits of its range. PMID:22685573

Tollis, Marc; Ausubel, Gavriel; Ghimire, Dhruba; Boissinot, Stéphane

2012-01-01

432

Understanding Historical Thinking at Historic Sites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the interpretive processes historians engage in when "reading" historic buildings and examines what qualifies as historical thinking about historic buildings and sites. To gather evidence of what historical thinking looks like as it pertains to buildings, 5 practicing historians were recorded as they toured the Old North…

Baron, Christine

2012-01-01

433

Differential and combined impacts of extreme temperatures and air pollution on human mortality in south–central Canada. Part I: historical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper forms the first part of an introduction to a synoptic weather typing approach to assess differential and combined\\u000a impacts of extreme temperatures and air pollution on human mortality in south–central Canada, focusing on historical analysis\\u000a (a companion paper—Part II focusing on future estimates). In this study, an automated synoptic weather typing procedure was\\u000a used to identify weather types

Chad Shouquan Cheng; Monica Campbell; Qian Li; Guilong Li; Heather Auld; Nancy Day; David Pengelly; Sarah Gingrich; Joan Klaassen; Don MacIver; Neil Comer; Yang Mao; Wendy Thompson; Hong Lin

2008-01-01

434

Seasonal-storage solar-energy heating system for the Charlestown, Boston Navy Yard National Historic Park. Phase II. Analysis with heat pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Phase II study provides further analysis for a seasonal-storage solar-heating system utilizing two existing underground, concrete tanks in the National Historic Park of the Charlestown Navy Yard in Boston. The initial Phase I study was reported in ANL-82-90. The new results focus on the effect of including a heat pump in the system to extend the useful heat-storage capacity

D. S. Breger; A. I. Michaels

1983-01-01

435

Aerial Photographic Analysis of Historic Riparian Vegetation Growth and Channel Change at Canyon de Chelly National Monument, Arizona: Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerial photographs over the past 70 years show that a profound alteration in the channels of Canyon de Chelly National Monument has coincided with the establishment and expansion of riparian vegetation, in particular invasive tamarisk ( Tamarix ssp.) and Russian olive ( Elaeagnus angustifolia). Rectification of the air photos, using GIS, enabled detailed mapping of the extent and density of vegetation in the canyon bottom, and analysis of stream channel geometry for each photo set. Photo sets from 1934, 1989, and 2004 were used to track changes in vegetation and channel morphology through time. In 1934, scattered riparian vegetation, including cottonwood ( Populus ssp.) and willow ( Salix ssp.), covered <1% of the canyon bottom. By 2004 the full length of the channel was lined with a riparian vegetation belt, with vegetation covering as much as 40% of the canyon bottom in some 1 km long study reaches . However the width of the riparian belt was spatially discontinuous, with other study reaches having less than 10% coverage of the canyon bottom. Riparian vegetation growth has coincided with an alteration in the hydrology of the streams within the canyon. Air photos from 1934 show a wide sandy wash throughout the extent of the study area. By 1989, some reaches had narrowed, with the channel becoming a single, meandering thread, and with woody riparian vegetation well established on much of the former wash. By 2004, long reaches of the study area were single thread, and dense Russian olive and tamarisk stands filled much of the former wash. While in some reaches the channel changed from a wide braided system to a single thread, other areas remain a sandy wash. Additionally, some reaches of the channel had become deeply incised, as much as 3 meters below the 1934 floodplain, as indicated by persistent cottonwood individuals. Field work indicates that incision was still very active in 2005. However, quantitative analysis of incision through time throughout the study area was not possible using air photos. Instead, incision in discrete reaches was qualitatively described, using historic ground photos to constrain the timing of incision. Vegetation establishment is ubiquitous; however incision is limited to discrete reaches.

Cadol, D. D.; Rathburn, S. L.

2005-12-01

436

An Analysis of Historical Impacts of Water Resources Development on Water Levels of the Mekong River (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid rate of water resources development in the Mekong basin of Southeast Asia is a cause for concern due to potential impacts on highly valued fisheries and natural ecosystems. Historical water levels of the Mekong were analyzed by comparing pre and post 1991 daily data of 6 stations along the mainstream from Chiang Sean, in northern Lao PDR and Thailand, to Stung Treng, in Cambodia, and the Pre Kdam station near the Tonle Sap Lake in the lower Mekong floodplain using the Indicators of Hydrological Alteration (IHA) software. The year 1991 marks a turning point in the rate of development in the basin, with the start of development of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong and accelerated hydropower and irrigation development in key tributaries. Observed changes in water level patterns along the Mekong were linked to temporal and spatial water resources development from 1960 to 2010. Variations in climate were accounted for and are important, but they were not observed to be the main causes of changes in key hydrological indicators related to ecosystem productivity. The development of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong basin in the post 1991 period resulted in a significant change of seasonal water levels, raise rates, fall rates, and the number of water level fluctuations at Chiang Sean. This effect diminishes downstream until it becomes negligible at the Mukdahan monitoring station in Thailand, which represents a drainage area of over 50% of the total Mekong Basin. Further downstream at Pakse station in Southern Lao PDR, changes in hydrological indicators post 1991 were observed to be significant again, which can be directly attributed to water resource development in the Chi and Mun River basins in Northeastern Thailand. A reduction of 23% and 11% in water level raising rates and fall rates, respectively at Prek Kdam, provides clear evidence of a diminished flood pulse of the Tonle Sap Lake in the post 1991 period. Given the observed water level alterations from 1991 to 2010 as a result of water infrastructure development, we can extrapolate that future proposed development in the key transboundary Srepok, Sesan and Sekong basins of the Lower Mekong will have an even greater effect on the flood pulse of the Tonle Sap. Although much focus has been placed on impacts of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong, our analysis clearly shows that tributary development in the lower Mekong has already affected water level patterns significantly, particularly in the dry season. Through subsequent modeling we infer how future development could further impact water flows and livelihoods, and thus improve regional impact assessments. The analysis and methods can be translated to other river systems around the world undergoing rapid water resources development.

Cochrane, T. A.; Arias, M. E.; Piman, T.

2013-12-01

437

Narrative, Biography and Prosopography: Historical  

E-print Network

Analysis of average individuals common to the historical period #12;Name George Martin James Holden Thomas Hayes George Piers William Lang James Holden Jr Peter Waddacor Ann Attenbury John Cooper Public House

438

Safe sex or safe love: competing discourses?  

PubMed

The way in which sex may be constructed as safe through its relationship with 'love' is the concern of this study. Interviews with 112 heterosexual women and men from discos and bars in Melbourne, Australia, catering to single adults revealed the pervasive construction of sex within the discourses of 'love' and 'romance'. The relationship of these discourses to unsafe practices is discussed and the article presents an analysis of the normative function of the sex-as-love/sex-as-desire opposition in terms of safe sex and HIV/AIDS prevention. We conclude that health messages which emphasize that 'sex is unsafe' may be counterproductive. We illustrate how women and some men construct casual sex as a strategy for obtaining the possibility of 'love'. For these women and men, 'safe sex' as 'unprotected sex' is viewed as a strategy for maximizing the possibility that the casual encounter will result in a longer term relationship. On the other hand, 'unsafe sex' as 'unprotected sex' is viewed as a strategy that is more likely to interrupt the construction of romance in the causal encounter thus risking the possibility of love as the desired outcome. PMID:9536200

Rosenthal, D; Gifford, S; Moore, S

1998-02-01

439

Talk as a tool for thinking: Using professional discourse practices to frame children's design-technology talk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research project involved viewing elementary children's (ages 11–13) design?technology talk through the theoretical perspective of Bucciarelli's (1988) description of professional discourse practices. Analysis centred on two structured lessons, in which four children (two male; two female) constructed, modified, and tested model parachutes. Analysis of audiotaped transcripts of children's talk showed that Bucciarelli's framework of constraining, naming, and decision discourse

Brenda J. Gustafson; Dougal MacDonald

2004-01-01

440

The Discourse of Sibling Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study sought to identify the discourses that exist with regard to physical violence among siblings. The sample\\u000a consisted of 200 college students (60.5% female, 39.5% male) who completed a revised version of the Conflict Tactics Scales\\u000a and a self-labeling measure of sibling violence. Findings indicated that while the vast majority of the sample had experienced\\u000a sibling violence, they

Heather Hensman Kettrey; Beth C. Emery

2006-01-01

441

Professional development, practice, and teacher discourse communities: How an urban high school science teacher negotiated inquiry practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an ethnographic case study of one urban high school science teacher who was attempting to use inquiry-based teaching in her practice. Rather than focusing on pedagogy, the study examines the social networks and communities of practice in which Marie Gonzalez participated. I make the argument that science teaching is a Discourse (Gee, 1990), and that teaching inquiry science means constructing an identity as a participant in what I call the Discourse of Inquiry. I also use discourse analysis to tease out a Discourse of Traditional Science Teaching. I conclude that the Traditional and Inquiry Discourses mediate a teacher's ideas of what it means to teach, and that, while Inquiry teachers are "bilingual", that is, able to participate in both Discourses, Traditional teachers are deaf to the Discourse of Inquiry. Moreover, in my study there is convincing evidence that administrators charged with evaluation were also unfamiliar with the Discourse of Inquiry and were therefore unable to provide support for Marie's inquiry practice. In light of these findings, it is not at all surprising that Marie found it quite difficult to use inquiry-based pedagogy. In order for teachers to adopt discourse-based reforms such as inquiry, the Discourse must be available to teachers in their workplaces.

Deneroff, Victoria Matzenauer

442

The Changing Roles of Adult and Continuing Education Practitioners in Hong Kong: Analysis from a Historical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the role of adult and continuing education practitioners in Hong Kong as a function of contexts and conceptions of practice. A historical evolutionary approach is used to analyze how roles of practitioners differ in three periods--adult education, continuing education, and lifelong learning. It is revealed that practitioners…

Chan, Benjamin Tak-Yuen

2010-01-01

443

The Construction of "Female Citizens": A Socio-Historical Analysis of Girls' Education in Luxembourg  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This paper will empirically investigate female education in Luxembourg from a historical perspective. A special focus will be laid on the question of how women in Luxembourgian society were constructed as female "citizens", even though they were, rather, considered as a homogeneous category limited to a private sphere…

Schreiber, Catherina

2014-01-01

444

Value-Chain Dynamics of the West Point Foundry, 1817-1911: A Historical Case Analysis in Marketing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case provides the opportunity for students to explore marketing and value/supply-chain dynamics in a unique historical context. The West Point Foundry (WPF), located in Cold Spring, New York, was one of the most important manufacturing ventures in the United States from 1817 to 1911. The case outlines the supply-chain details of the WPF as…

Petkus, Ed, Jr.

2013-01-01

445

GENETIC ANALYSIS OF KILLER WHALE (ORCINUS ORCA) HISTORICAL BONE AND TOOTH SAMPLES TO IDENTIFY WESTERN U.S. ECOTYPES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the historical range of killer whale ecotypes in the eastern North Pacific (ENP). It is possible that ranges have shifted in the last few decades be- cause of changes in availability of food. In particular, the southern resident ecotype, currently found primarily in the inland waters of Washington State, is known to prey extensively on salmon,

Phillip A. Morin; Richard G. LeDuc; Kelly M. Robertson; Nicole M. Hedrick; William F. Perrin; Michael Etnier; Paul Wade; Barbara L. Taylor

2006-01-01

446

Teaching [and] Historical Understanding: Disciplining Historical Imagination with Historical Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that history is a distinctive discipline that is distinct as a form of inquiry and mode of understanding, exploring contemporary currents and discussing history's distinguishing characteristics (historical context and its discipline of historical imagination and historical understanding). The discussion highlights research and teaching,…

Graff, Harvey J.

1999-01-01

447

Cognitive and Emotive Empathy in Discourse: Towards an Integrated Theory of Mind.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents an empirical qualitative analysis of eliciting, giving and receiving empathy in discourse. The study identifies discursive and linguistic features, which realize cognitive, emotive, parallel and reactive empathy and suggests that imita...

B. Martinovsky

2006-01-01

448

Historical perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was a pleasure to learn, from a recent (May 4) issue of Eos, of the formation of a permanent Committee on History of Geophysics. There is a dire need for reference material, books, and articles on geophysical history.Let me recommend to them that they take a good look at the Dictionary of the History of Science (W.F. Bynum, E.J. Browne, Roy Porter (Eds.), Princeton University Press, 494 pp., 1981). What follows is not a book review, although it may appear so. It is meant to be a challenge to place geophysics on the map in historical context. In this book, hydrology is dealt with in one sentence under the heading ‘cycle,’ geomagnetism under ‘declination and dip,’ and its history ends with Edward Sabine. Seismology appears under earthquakes. No important seismologist is mentioned. In the biographical index, Wiechert is included only for a contribution to physics. Where are Sir Harold Jeffreys, Galitzin, Gutenberg, Mohorovi?i?, Lehman, and many others? Meteorology ends with V. Bjerknes and Solberg; Köppen, Richardson, Rossby, and other notables [of] the last century do not seem to exist.

Landsberg, H. E.

449

Pedagogic discourse and sex education: myths, science and subversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper elaborates possibilities and limitations for sex education in schools by mapping the consequence of introducing the topic ‘sex’ within a range of scientific and informal discursive settings. The organising and regulating structures of the school maintain the boundaries between common?sense and scientific discourses. Bernstein made a distinction between vertical discourse and horizontal discourses. Vertical discourses characterise scientific discourses

Gabrielle Ivinson

2007-01-01

450

Lighting the Way Through Scientific Discourse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a thought-provoking lesson that compares various arrangements of lamp-battery circuits to help students develop the motivation and competence to participate in scientific discourse for knowledge construction. Through experimentation and discourse, students explore concepts about voltage, current, resistance, and Ohm's law. The discourse encourages students to become deeply engaged in the process of making sense of their own observations and ideas.

Yang, Li-Hsuan

2008-12-01

451

Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; Mckagan, Sarah B.

2012-05-15

452

Linking dissent, incivility, the trickster myth, and outlaw discourse: Exploring and expanding outlaw discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to clarify and expand the relatively new rhetorical framework, outlaw discourse. The concepts of dissent, incivility, and the trickster myth all serve as a foundation for an expanded and improved outlaw discourse. This dissertation explores these four bodies of literature, highlighting the connections between them. Using a new conceptualization of outlaw discourse, it takes

Sarah Catherine Hagedorn

2006-01-01

453

Lexical Bundles in Discourse Structure: A Corpus-Based Study of Classroom Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study applies corpus-based methods to document the distributional patterns of previously reported lexical bundle functions as they relate to discourse structure. Specifically, 84 lexical bundles and their discourse functions (Biber "et al." 2004a) were tracked in 1,176 discourse units extracted from the initial phases of 196 university…

Csomay, Eniko

2013-01-01

454

When discourses collide: creationism and evolution in the public sphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review essay focuses on Özgür Ta?k?n's discussion of the theory of evolution (TOE), intelligent design (ID) and the convictions of fundamentalist science educators and students in his paper entitled: An exploratory examination of Islamic values in science education: Islamization of science teaching and learning via constructivism. It examines the competing social discourses of evolution and creationism in the United States, which is partially maintained by national public opinion polls and states' legislation about the TOE in the science curricula. The examination of US social discourses presented here is framed by James Gee's (2008) theory that Discourses with a capital "D," are unconscious and uncritical socially accepted ways of speaking/listening and writing/reading that are merged with "distinctive ways of acting, interacting, valuing, feeling, dressing, thinking, [and] believing…so as to enact specific socially recognizable identities…" (p. 155). Such Discourses identify insiders of and outsiders to religious affiliations and other social or cultural groups. The context of this examination is unique in that is draws from the national conversation about the inclusion of ID alongside of the TOE in the public school science programs. Gee's (2011) concept that Discourses serve as tools of inquiry guides the analysis of video recorded public messages from Bill Nye and Lawrence Krauss as well as Creation Museum president Ken Ham. The analysis and discussion of the national conversation about creationism and public education suggests that the education community must consider the global landscape of science literacy both locally and internationally. It also indicates that preservice and practicing science educators may require special training and support. In order to provide unbiased, religious-resistant, evidence-based science instruction, science educators must understand how to separate church from state regardless of their personal beliefs. They must also know how to navigate conversations about the TOE among diverse communities of learners that include both religiously and non-religiously affiliated students.

Dávila, Denise

2014-02-01

455

Lay theories of anorexia nervosa: a discourse analytic study.  

PubMed

Previous studies on lay theories of anorexia nervosa have examined the 'accuracy' of lay knowledge, and the identification of factors by family and friends that would encourage early interventions (Huon, Brown, & Morris, 1988, 7, 239-252; Murray, Touyz, & Beumont, 1990, 9, 87-93). In contrast to these approaches, we examine lay theories of anorexia nervosa using a critical psychology perspective. We argue that the use of a discourse analysis methodology enables the examination of the construction of lay theories through dominant concepts and ideas. Ten semi-structured interviews with five women and five men aged between 15 and 25 years were carried out. Participants were asked questions about three main aspects of anorexia nervosa: aetiology, treatment and relationship to gender. Each interview was analysed in terms of the structure, function and variability of discourse. Three discourses: sociocultural, individual and femininity, are discussed in relation to the interview questions. We conclude that, in this study, lay theories of anorexia nervosa were structured through key discourses that maintained a separation between sociocultural aspects of anorexia nervosa and individual psychology. This separation exists in dominant psychomedical conceptualizations of anorexia nervosa, reinforcing the concept that it is a form of psychopathology. PMID:22021434

Benveniste, J; Lecouteur, A; Hepworth, J

1999-01-01

456

An Analysis of Historical Records of Solar Variability, Volcanic Eruptions, and Climate Change in the Last Millennium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studying past climate changes can help us better understand present natural variations and predict future trends. However, various reconstructions of the climate of the last 1000 years have given only broad similarities [Briffa, JGR 106, 2929, 2001]. The variances are partly due to uncertainties in the past radiative and aerosol forcing, and gaps in regional coverage. Another outstanding question is whether we are in a time similar to the Medieval Warm Period. From the frequencies of sunspot and aurora sightings, abundance of carbon-14 in the rings of long-lived trees, and beryllium-10 in the annual layers of polar ice cores, we have reconstructed the recent history of a variable Sun. In the past 1800 years the Sun has gone through nine cycles of changes in brightness. While these long-term changes account for less than 1% of the total irradiance, there is clear evidence that they affect the climate [Pang and Yau, Eos, 83, No. 43, 481, 2002]. We have analyzed Chinese historical weather records to fill the data void in this region. Reports of unseasonable cold are classified by the degree of severity: (1) Late (April-June) or early (July-Sept) killing frosts; (2) Bitter cold/heavy snowfall; and (3) heavy sustained snowfall, bitter cold with frozen wells, lakes, rivers, and icebound seas. The latter cases were often widespread and multi-year. All categories occurred most frequently during the coldest part of the Little Ice Age, with the coldest episodes in 1652-54, 1656, 1664, 1670-72, 1676-77, 1683, 1688-91, 1716 and 1718-19. They thus coincide with Maunder Minimum (1645-1715), when very few sunspots were seen-about one in ten years from China or Europe-indicative of a weakened Sun. There was only one Category 3 episode between the Maunder and Dalton Minima-in 1761, and two in the Dalton Minimum (1795-1825)-in 1796 and 1814-7. Analysis of proxy data has shown that the 1810's were among the coldest years in Europe [Briffa and Jones, in ``The Year Without a Summer,'' C.R. Harrignton, ed., 1992]. Large eruptions, of an unknown volcano in 1809 [Dai, JGR 96, 17361, 1991], at Mayon in 1814, and at Tambora in 1815, with the reduced solar luminosity seem to have been responsible. The Sun has slowly brightened since the Dalton Minimum. However, the climate of China remained cold through the 19th century, consistent with world climate trend [Bradley and Jones, Holocene 3, 367, 1993], possibly due to increased volcanic aerosol loading of the atmosphere [Sato, JGR 98, 22987, 1993]. In the 200 years prior to the Maunder Minimum, there was at least one other major planetwide volcanically forced cold episode-in 1453-54. The climate of China appears to have been warm during the Late 14th-Century Solar Maximum (1350-1410). We have found only one report of early killing frost-in May, 1993. It then turned cold during the Sporer Minimum (140-1590) [Pang and Yau, op. cit.]. Category 3 cold episodes occurred in 1453-54, 1513, 1569, and 1577-78. Lesser ones were also more common. The coldest was in 1453-54, due to a Tamboran class eruption that broke a big island in New Hebrides Arc in two, separated by a 12X6X1 km submarine caldera Kuwae. The volcanic chill was felt worldwide, with extensive reporting in China [Pang, Eos 74, No. 43, 196, 1993]. Reduced solar luminosity may have also contributed to the cold climate of that decade, as was the case in the 1810's. We conclude that the climate of China in the past 650 years generally follows world trend. The major forcing seems to have been changing solar luminosity, perturbed by frequent volcanic eruptions.

Pang, K. D.

2003-12-01

457

Determining Historical Pesticide Deposition on Cape Cod through Sediment Core Analysis:A Validation of GIS as An Exposure Assessment Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has emerged as a powerful tool to assess current and historical exposure to environmental pollutants. GIS aids in the visualization and understanding of associations between exposure to contaminants and disease. This study is an example of the bridge between environmental science and public health and of how new technology such as GIS can be incorporated into these fields to strengthen both the research and the communication of scientific results. It attempts to validate a GIS-based aerial drift model which predicts the residential exposure to and boundaries of historical organochlorine pesticide (OCP) drift from applications on cranberry bogs, tree pest sprayings and others by analytically quantifying the historical pesticide deposition in a transect of lakes radiating from a distinct spray source. This model was previously used to assess historical residential exposure to OCPs in an environmental epidemiological case-control study of breast cancer incidence on Cape Cod, MA, where the incidence rate of the disease is significantly higher than in the rest of the state. The model's validation in this current study is essential to establishing its predictive ability and thus, its further use. Ground truthing of the model was done through the collection and analysis of sediment cores along a transect of five hydrologically independent kettle ponds radiating from a distinct OCP tree-pest spray area. Measurements of OCP concentrations, total carbon and total organic carbon were determined, and dating of the sediments was completed using 210Pb and verified using 137Cs. Each 50-cm core was sliced into 25 2- cm sections for the analyses, creating a fine-scale depositional history in each pond. Information gathered from each core allows for the determination of the extent and degree of dissipation of individual spray events of a known source area and determine how well the model fits the actual data.

Feingold, B. J.; Benoit, G.; Rudel, R.

2006-12-01

458

Sit Down! You're Rocking the Boat!: Asian Americans, Racial Manipulation, and the Discourse of the Denial of Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation seeks to rearticulate racial formations in the United States and expand the discourse on race in higher education by placing Asian Americans at the center of the discussion. Through the use of genealogy and discourse analysis, this research presents a broader description of the Asian American racial experience in higher education…

Gonzalez, Anna K.

2011-01-01

459

"This Is Our Freedom Bus Going Home Right Now": Producing and Hybridizing Space-Time Contexts in Pedagogical Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advances an approach to analysis of discursive intercontextuality through theories of space-time production. Argues management of multiple contexts within school-related discourse is an important means of discursively producing identity, agency, and power relations. Draws data from an ethnographic and discourse-based study of an extended school…

Leander, Kevin M.

2001-01-01

460

The analysis of the statistical and historical information gathered during the development of the Shuttle Orbiter Primary Flight Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an effort to thoroughly and objectively analyze the statistical and historical information gathered during the development of the Shuttle Orbiter Primary Flight Software are given. The particular areas of interest include cost of the software, reliability of the software, requirements for the software and how the requirements changed during development of the system. Data related to the current version of the software system produced some interesting results. Suggestions are made for the saving of additional data which will allow additional investigation.

Simmons, D. B.; Marchbanks, M. P., Jr.; Quick, M. J.

1982-01-01

461

The Nature of Discourse throughout 5E Lessons in a Large Enrolment College Biology Course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large enrolment science courses play a significant role in educating undergraduate students. The discourse in these classes usually involves an instructor lecturing with little or no student participation, despite calls from current science education reform documents to elicit and utilize students' ideas in teaching. In this study, we used the 5E instructional model to develop and implement four lessons in a large enrolment introductory biology course with multiple opportunities for teacher-student and student-student interaction. Data consisted of video and audio recordings of whole-class and small-group discussions that took place throughout the study. We then used a science classroom discourse framework developed by Mortimer and Scott (2003) to characterize the discursive interactions in each 5E lesson phase. Analysis of the data resulted in two assertions. First, the purpose, communicative approach, patterns of discourse, and teaching interventions were unique to each 5E lesson phase. Second, the type of lesson topic influenced the content of the discourse. We discuss how the findings help characterize the discourse of each phase in a 5E college science lesson and propose a model to understand internalization through discursive interaction using this reform-based approach. We conclude with implications for facilitating discourse in college science lessons and future research. This study provides support for using the discourse framework to characterize discursive interaction in college science courses.

Sickel, Aaron J.; Witzig, Stephen B.; Vanmali, Binaben H.; Abell, Sandra K.

2013-04-01

462

Contributing to Meaning Making: Facilitating Discourse in the High School Physics Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) identify eight practices as essential to science and engineering, and these practices include asking students to construct explanations, to engage in argumentation, and to communicate scientific information. However, few teacher-training programs instruct teachers how to facilitate such discourse in the classroom. Modeling Instruction is one movement in physics education that organizes high school physics content around a small number of student-derived scientific models, and it relies on student discourse for the design, development, and deployment of these models. This research is a self-study of one high school physics teacher's experience facilitating large group discourse in the high school modeling physics classroom. Whiteboard meetings and graded discussions were examined by applying the analytical framework created by Mortimer and Scott (2003) to characterize the classroom talk and the discourse facilitation moves that I employed. In addition, elements of discourse analysis were used to examine some of the tensions that I experienced in the facilitation of this discourse. The findings suggest that deliberate identification of the teaching purposes for the discussion can help determine the scaffolding needed for students to enter the Discourse (Gee, 2011) of being a participant in these large group conversations. In addition, connecting the dialogic dimension of exploring student ideas with the authoritative dimension of introducing the scientific view and supporting the internalization of that view is necessary to contribute to meaning making in the science classroom.

Hovan, Scot Alan

463

Science Learning in the Context of Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The original article by Kamberelis and Wehunt (2012) discusses an interesting and important research subject in science education as it focus on classroom interactions and the characteristics of the discourse production of interlocutors. The authors start from the premise that discourse heterogeneity is constitutive of social activities, which is…

do Nascimento, Silvania Sousa

2013-01-01

464

Discourse structure annotation: Creating reference corpora  

E-print Network

metamodel. The approach is illustrated by an on-going campaign devoted to both topical and rhetorical, discourse moves � la Swales (Swales, 2004), discourse framing, rhetorical struc- ture within models-term availability and in- teroperability of resources. As well as LRT workshop, let us just mention, for example

Boyer, Edmond

465

Centering, Anaphora Resolution, and Discourse Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Centering was formulated as a model of the relationship between attentional state, the form of referring expressions, and the coherence of an utterance within a discourse segment (Grosz, Joshi and Weinstein, 1986; Grosz, Joshi and Weinstein, 1995). In this chapter, I argue that the restriction of centering to operating within a discourse segment should be abandoned in order to integrate

Marilyn A. Walker

1997-01-01

466

Centering, Anaphora Resolution, and Discourse Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Centering was formulated as a model of the relationship between attentional state, the form of referring expressions, and the coherence of an utterance within a discourse segment (Grosz, Joshi and Weinstein, 1986; Grosz, Joshi and Wein- stein, 1995). In this chapter, I argue that the restriction of centering to operating within a discourse segment should be abandoned in order to

Marilyn A. Walker

1997-01-01

467

Asking Good Questions & Promoting Discourse (Part 1)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief NCTM article ( and Part 2 cataloged separately) presents tips on asking good questions and promoting discourse, which is an integral part of the teaching and learning in a classroom. The article includes suggestions on how teachers can improve their questioning techniques as well as how they respond to student discourse.

2013-01-01

468

Using Threaded Discussions as a Discourse Support.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students construct meaning from text through conversation and social interaction. This research examines how the use of an online, threaded discussion, as a discourse support, can facilitate deeper levels of student understanding. The basic assumption being tested is that using discourse supports, applying various discussion strategies like…

Gray, Gregory

469

Cue Effectiveness in Communicatively Efficient Discourse Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent years have seen a surge in accounts motivated by information theory that consider language production to be partially driven by a preference for communicative efficiency. Evidence from discourse production (i.e., production beyond the sentence level) has been argued to suggest that speakers distribute information across discourse so as to…

Qian, Ting; Jaeger, T. Florian

2012-01-01

470

Lawbreaking Jokers: Tricksters Using Outlaw Discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to enrich Sloop and Ono's (1997) theory of outlaw discourse, this article draws from the more extensive literature on the trickster to demonstrate how the two concepts have a shared heritage. First, the nature of outlaw discourse is reviewed, and then the myth of the trickster is discussed. Following these overviews, the similarities and differences between the

Sarah Hagedorn VanSlette; Josh Boyd

2011-01-01

471

Planning causes and consequences in discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the planning of cause and consequence in language production by examining participants’ continuations to discourse fragments in four experiments. Our studies indicate how the content of the continuation, and the association between the continuation and prior text, are influenced by the nature of prior discourse. People tend to anchor upcoming utterances to information that is both temporally recent

Julia Simner; Martin J. Pickering

2005-01-01

472

Democratic Pedagogy and the Discourse of Containment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses application of a discourse of containment in pedagogical practice, asserting that this discourse limits democratic possibilities in the classroom. Analyzes the stakes in political struggles over control of the production of meaning within the classroom, examining the mythologized version of Rosa Parks' story and the current agenda of…

Popen, Shari

2002-01-01

473

Supportive Discourse Moves in Persian Requests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the findings of a study designed to investigate the types of supportive discourse moves employed by Persian speakers in their Requestive Speech Acts. 372 respondents took a Discourse Completion Test (DCT) with six scenarios ranging from formal to informal degrees of Perceived Situational Seriousness, and returned 2232 Requestive…

Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Allami, Hamid

2011-01-01

474

Participial Constructions as Discourse Markers in Hindi  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with the use of participial constructions in Hindi as discourse strategies for cohesion in speech. The data from the "Analyzing Narratives" project indicates that participial constructions are used fairly extensively as discourse connectors. The conjunctive participle is used more extensively than the others. Some of the major…

Mukherjee, Aditi

2010-01-01

475

Empirical Studies in Discourse Marilyn A. Walker  

E-print Network

and interpretation. Section 2 gives a general overview of empirical studies in discourse and describes an empiricalEmpirical Studies in Discourse Marilyn A. Walker & Johanna D. Moore ¡ 1. Introduction this approachledtomanytheoreticaladvances,modelsdevelopedinthismanneraredifficult to evaluate because it is hard to tell whether

Moore, Johanna D.

476

Tracking evaluation in discourse Matthieu Vernier  

E-print Network

of evaluation in discourse Evaluation has recently been studied in the field of corpus linguistics. For instance. Opinion is here considered as a sort of expression of evaluation. A first study has been realised and interpretate parts of discourse reflecting evaluation, we had to rate texts one by one, with a score reflecting

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

477

Teaching the Conventions of Academic Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the current emphasis on disciplinary discourses, it's not surprising that so little recent attention has been devoted to identifying conventions that are universal in academic discourse. In this essay, the author argues that there are shared features that unite academic writing, and that by introducing these features to first-year students…

Thonney, Teresa

2011-01-01

478

Reciprocal anaphora resolution in Pashto discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is very important for an effective machine translation system to transform the multi-sentential discourses, of a source language, into simple and cohesion free discourses. Anaphora resolution is the predicament in computational linguistics that is responsible for the alleged problem. This paper is about the lexical (reciprocal) anaphora resolution in Pashto language and presents an algorithm that is based on

Rahman Ali; M. A. Khan; M. Bilal; Ihsan Rabbi

2008-01-01

479

Development of the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Gynecologic Applicators for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer: Historical Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To provide historical background on the development and initial studies of the gynecological (gyn) applicators developed by Dr. Gilbert H. Fletcher, a radiation oncologist and chairperson from 1948 to 1981 of the department at the M.D. Anderson Hospital (MDAH) for Cancer Research in Houston, TX, and to acknowledge the previously unrecognized contribution that Dr. Leonard G. Grimmett, a radiation physicist and chairperson from 1949 to 1951 of the physics department at MDAH, made to the development of the gynecological applicators. Methods and Materials: We reviewed archival materials from the Historical Resource Center and from the Department of Radiation Physics at University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, as well as contemporary published papers, to trace the history of the applicators. Conclusions: Dr. Fletcher's work was influenced by the work on gynecologic applicators in the 1940s in Europe, especially work done at the Royal Cancer Hospital in London. Those efforts influenced not only Dr. Fletcher's approach to the design of the applicators but also the methods used to perform in vivo measurements and determine the dose distribution. Much of the initial development of the dosimetry techniques and measurements at MDAH were carried out by Dr. Grimmett.

Yordy, John S., E-mail: john.yordy@utsouthwestern.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Almond, Peter R. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Delclos, Luis [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2012-03-15

480

Historical Analysis of Genetic Variation Reveals Low Effective Population Size in a Northern Pike (Esox Lucius) Population  

PubMed Central

Effective population size (N(e)) of a natural fish population was estimated from temporal changes in allele frequencies at seven microsatellite loci. Use of a historical collection of fish scales made it possible to increase the precision of estimates by increasing the time interval between samples and to use an equation developed for discrete generations without correcting for demographic parameters. Estimates of N(e) for the time intervals 1961-1977 and 1977-1993 were 35 and 72, respectively. For the entire interval, 1961-1993, the estimate of N(e) was 48 when based on a weighted mean derived from the above two estimates or 125 when calculated from 1961 and 1993 samples only. Corresponding ratios of effective size to adult census size ranged from 0.03 to 0.14. An N(e) of 48 over a 32-year period would imply that this population lost as much as 8% of its heterozygosity in that time. Results suggest the potential for using genetic methods based on microsatellite loci data to compare historical trends in N(e) with population dynamic parameters. Such comparisons will help to evaluate the relationship between genetic diversity and long-term persistence of natural populations. PMID:9383067

Miller, L. M.; Kapuscinski, A. R.

1997-01-01

481

Sexy Words, Iconic Phrases and slippery terms - it's all newspaper talk: a theoretical analysis of the language used by the newspaper industry to manifest and perpetuate discourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the range of discursive positions adopted by newspapers to perceive issues. Through the application of a theoretical analysis on the commentaries' language, this paper speculates on who profits from the underlying message that is deduced. This paper advocates the need to apply critical thought to apparatuses such as the media, because they seek to establish a particular

Alpesh Maisuria

482

The discourse of the male gaze: a critical analysis of the feature section 'The beauty of sport' in SA Sports Illustrated  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article demonstrates, through critical analysis, how words and pictures are manip- ulated in 'The beauty of sport', a regular feature section in SA Sports Illustrated (hereafter SASI), to construe images of sportswomen that resonate with female stereotypes shaped by the male gaze. Three stereotypes of women seem to dominate in the media, namely the 'sex object', 'person trying to

Mandie Brandt; Adelia Carstens

2005-01-01

483

A textual enactment of community: On discourse analysis, the news media and a social housing project in Tunisia in the 1990s  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regimes like the post-colonial Tunisian government have often been qualified as ‘neo-patriarchal’ with little analysis of actual state practices. Focusing on a specific aspect of government policy in the 1990s in Tunisia, the present article examines a housing programme which removed over a thousand families from unsafe housing in old central neighbourhoods of Tunis to new estates on the western

Justin Mcguinness

2005-01-01

484

Disciplinary discourses: rates of cesarean section explained by medicine, midwifery, and feminism.  

PubMed

In the context of international concern about increasing rates of cesarean sections, we used discourse analysis to examine explanations arising from feminism and the disciplines of medicine and midwifery, and found that each was positioned differently in relation to the rising rates. Medical discourses asserted that doctors are authorities on birth and that, although cesareans are sometimes medically necessary, women recklessly choose unnecessary cesareans against medical advice. Midwifery discourses portrayed medicine as paternalistic toward both women and midwifery, and feminist discourses situated birth and women's bodies in the context of a patriarchally structured society. The findings illustrate the complex ways in which this intervention in birth is discursively constructed, and demonstrate its significance as a site of disciplinary conflict. PMID:18437594

Lee, Amy Su May; Kirkman, Maggie

2008-05-01

485

Assumptions about culture in discourse on ethnic minority health.  

PubMed

This paper is interested in the way the concept of culture is deployed in documents aimed at investigating, informing on and promoting aspects of ethnic minority health. Within a health-political discourse focusing increasingly on individual lifestyles, ethnic minority health became subject to increased political and professional interest in the last decades of the twentieth and the first decade of the twenty-first century. Analysis of the discourse on ethnic minority health emerging in five texts addressing health professionals shows that the culture of ethnic minority citizens is primarily seen as contributing to low levels of knowledge about health and to adverse health behavior. Thus, the texts present cultural beliefs and practices as contributing to the high prevalence of lifestyle diseases among ethnic minority population groups. The analysis, however, demonstrates that a more nuanced discourse is evolving, taking the complexity of the culture concept into account. In accordance with Danish health-political priorities, the most recent text analyzed in this study promotes an individualistic approach to both ethnic minority and Danish ethnic majority citizens. PMID:24851509

Jaeger, Kirsten

2013-01-01

486

Problematizing special observation in psychiatry: Foucault, archaeology, genealogy, discourse and power/knowledge.  

PubMed

Special observation by mental health professionals is the recommended approach for those people deemed as at risk or risky. Recent research and academic writing have challenged the benefits of observing people/patients who are defined as 'at risk', and a more human engagement process is being recommended. Despite this assault, practice has not changed substantively, suggesting a need for a thorough exploration and questioning of the practices and process. The paper outlines three Foucaultian approaches to historical analysis. It applies aspects of Foucault's archaeology/genealogy, discourse and power/knowledge to explore the practices of special observation as a means of controlling risk, especially suicide risk. We identify the regulatory function of the 'gaze', professional codes and government policy in relation to restricting professional practices. We argue that observation can be related to moral therapy, wherein the person relinquishes madness for responsibility through a disciplinary process and, in governing risk, a 'professional industry' is created. The regulation of statements about people with mental health issues are exposed and related to what can be said and done by professionals. Finally, we look at productive power in relation to observation, and how it is intimately related to resistance. We conclude with 'soft' recommendations for practice discursively produced through the writing of the paper. PMID:17087674

Stevenson, C; Cutcliffe, J

2006-12-01

487

Reading Historically in a Historically Illiterate Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how parallel reading of literary and historical texts from the same period offers insight into both. Experience in classes using this technique indicates that students learn history more easily when it is connected to and personalized by literature, and that they read literature in a more profound way when they know its historical

Schultz, Daniel F.; Felter, Maryanne

2001-01-01

488

AphasiaBank: Methods for Studying Discourse.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: AphasiaBank is a computerized database of interviews between persons with aphasia (PWAs) and clinicians. By February 2011, the database had grown to include 145 PWAs and 126 controls from 12 sites across the United States. The data and related analysis programs are available free over the web. AIMS: The overall goal of AphasiaBank is the construction of a system for accumulating and sharing data on language usage by PWAs. To achieve this goal, we have developed a standard elicitation protocol and systematic automatic and manual methods for transcription, coding, and analysis. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: We present sample analyses of transcripts from the retelling of the Cinderella story. These analyses illustrate the application of our methods for the study of phonological, lexical, semantic, morphological, syntactic, temporal, prosodic, gestural, and discourse features. MAIN CONTRIBUTION: AphasiaBank will allow researchers access to a large, shared database that can facilitate hypothesis testing and increase methodological replicability, precision, and transparency. CONCLUSIONS: AphasiaBank will provide researchers with an important new tool in the study of aphasia. PMID:22923879

Macwhinney, Brian; Fromm, Davida; Forbes, Margaret; Holland, Audrey

2011-01-01

489

AphasiaBank: Methods for Studying Discourse  

PubMed Central

Background AphasiaBank is a computerized database of interviews between persons with aphasia (PWAs) and clinicians. By February 2011, the database had grown to include 145 PWAs and 126 controls from 12 sites across the United States. The data and related analysis programs are available free over the web. Aims The overall goal of AphasiaBank is the construction of a system for accumulating and sharing data on language usage by PWAs. To achieve this goal, we have developed a standard elicitation protocol and systematic automatic and manual methods for transcription, coding, and analysis. Methods & Procedures We present sample analyses of transcripts from the retelling of the Cinderella story. These analyses illustrate the application of our methods for the study of phonological, lexical, semantic, morphological, syntactic, temporal, prosodic, gestural, and discourse features. Main Contribution AphasiaBank will allow researchers access to a large, shared database that can facilitate hypothesis testing and increase methodological replicability, precision, and transparency. Conclusions AphasiaBank will provide researchers with an important new tool in the study of aphasia. PMID:22923879

MacWhinney, Brian; Fromm, Davida; Forbes, Margaret; Holland, Audrey

2011-01-0