Science.gov

Sample records for historical discourse analysis

  1. A historical discourse analysis of the cancerous and non-cancerous body in secondary biology textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Neil Thomas

    This dissertation applies the archeological concepts developed by Michel Foucault to a study of thirteen biology textbooks (1993-2004) in order to develop an understanding of 'purchased truths' concerning cancer. This study focuses on the construction of the health/illness dialogue concerning cancer within the textbooks and not the meaning that the individual makes from reading the text; as such this study concerns itself with social truths rather than the search for an individual awareness of names, dates, or places. This study investigates the practices that allow the creation of dialogues that are inserted into a biology textbook and looks at how discursive formations create the 'truth regime' from which the biology textbook is said to speak. Using the Foucaultian themes of 'event', 'emergence', 'enunciation', and 'exteriority' a new reading of topics concerning cancer emerge from biology textbooks. Cancer is a disease that will impact the lives of countless individuals but coverage devoted to the pathology of cancer in secondary biology textbooks is very limited and no study textbook devoted a whole chapter to the discussion of cancer. There is an identified reduction in the number of pages and depth of coverage devoted to cancer in the newer biology texts compared to the older texts. Humans are pictured more than plants or animals in presentations concerning cancer with emphasis being placed on the digitalization of human cells via the scanning electron microscope. When the whole body is presented it is seldom located within the technology of disease diagnosis and treatment but rather is posed for specific social control. Just as each digitized picture of the cancerous cell in the texts is used to create a story so too are the pictures of the whole body in action. Possible story lines offered by the publishing houses concerning the reaction of the body to cancer are shown to intermingle with risk factor analysis to project a sense of Foucaultian 'governmentality' based on assumed control and self regulation by the informed reader. In conclusion a procedure is suggested to further analyze additional textbooks concerning biological/educational issues that have been recast as social problems.

  2. Psychotherapeutic discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Lewis, B

    1995-01-01

    Psychotherapeutic discourse analysis is a significant, largely unexplored, tool for psychotherapist and an ideal data sight for linguists. Increased multidisciplinary research in this area would be particularly fruitful. Conversations, including therapeutic conversations, are far from transparent conduits of information from one person to another. Complicating surface communication is "metacommunication," which takes the form of unconscious conversational styles--culturally influenced rules, norms, and expectations of how a conversation should proceed. If the therapist and the patient are working with different conversational styles, then blocks in communication and understanding are inevitable. Through discourse analysis conversational styles can become more available to awareness for use in the service of therapeutic goals. This paper is an example of a discourse analysis of an individual therapy session. I attempt to bridge the gap between broad psychodynamic treatment strategies and minute micro-conversational strategies that can be used to enhance the therapeutic process. PMID:8546235

  3. Lexical Discourse Analysis in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khotaba, Eissa; Al Tarawneh, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Lexical Discourse very often depend on lexis. Lexical Discourse analysis, however, has not yet been given enough consideration of the phenomenon of translation. This paper investigates lexical discourse analysis in translation from one language to another. This qualitative study comprises 15 text translated by M.A. students at the Department of…

  4. Globalisation and policy borrowing in education : a discourse-historical analysis of HIV/AIDS prevention in Uganda 

    E-print Network

    Barnowe-Meyer, Brooke; Meyer, Brooke Barnowe

    2014-07-04

    Educational discourses, practices and institutions are increasingly shaped today by forces and envoys of a globalised world. Research suggests that functional integration into a neo-liberal world economy compels many ...

  5. Changing social and scientific discourses on type 2 diabetes between 1800 and 1950: a socio-historical analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Shane

    2015-09-01

    Since the emergence of type 2 diabetes as a public health threat around the middle of the 20(th) century, accounts of disease causation have focused predominately on lifestyle or genetics, or both, while the role of broader structural issues such as psychosocial distress has been downplayed. Yet in the years prior to this emergence, when diabetes remained the preserve of the upper classes, medical experts drew upon multiple narratives when considering the condition, the most popular of which being the role of social organisation and the interplay between mind, body and environment. This article is based on a discourse analysis of the writings of the most prominent diabetes experts between 1800 and 1950 about both the causes and management of the illness. It highlights how, although the connection between lifestyle and diabetes was well established among physicians, individual-level explanations only fully supplanted the emphasis on social organisation as diabetes began to make the transition from being a disease of the rich to one of the poor. It argues that this discursive shift was shaped by the dynamics of class relations rather than any new forms of scientific evidence developed at the time. PMID:26094811

  6. Perezhivanie and classroom discourse: a cultural-historical perspective on "Discourse of design based science classroom activities"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Megan; March, Sue

    2015-06-01

    Flavio Azevedo, Peggy Martalock and Tugba Keser challenge the `argumentation focus of science lessons' and propose that through a `design-based approach' emergent conversations with the teacher offer possibilities for different types of discussions to enhance pedagogical discourse in science classrooms. This important paper offers a "preliminary contribution to a general theory" regarding the link between activity types and discourse practices. Azevedo, Martalock and Keser offer a general perspective with a sociocultural framing for analysis of classroom discourse. Interestingly the specific concepts drawn upon are from conversation analysis; there are few sociocultural concepts explored in detail. Therefore, in this article we focus on a cultural historical (Vygotsky in The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky. The history and development of higher mental functions, vol 4. Plenum Press, New York, 1987; The Vygotsky reader. Black, Cambridge, 1994) methodology to explore, analyse and explain how we would use a different theoretical lens. We argue that a cultural historical reading of argumentation in science lessons and design based activity will expand Azevedo, Martalock and Keser's proposed general theory of activity types and discourse practices. Specifically, we use Lev Vygotksy's idea of perezhivanie as the unit of analysis to reconceptualise this important paper. We focus on the holistic category of students' emotional experience through discourse while developing scientific awareness.

  7. Discourse Analysis and the Translator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Margaret

    Discourse analysis, as an approach to text, provides the teacher, student, and professional translator with resources for achieving objectivity and for making and justifying translation decisions. It offers a strategy for relating the problems and processes and discourse and the specific concerns to the objectives of the translator. It can be…

  8. Critical Discourse Analysis and Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriaza, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the need of infusing critical discourse analysis into the preparation and support of prospective school leaders. It argues that in the process of school transformation, the school leader must possess the ability to self-reflect on his/her language and understand the potential power of language as a means that may support or…

  9. Governmentality as a Genealogical Toolbox in Historical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Janicke

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show how governmentality may be used to analyze historical events and discourses, and how this historical analysis can be used as a perspective to problematize contemporary discourses. The example used in this article is from my research on life-extension handbooks published in Sweden 1700-1930, and by this I stress…

  10. Discourse Analysis in Career Counseling and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stead, Graham B.; Bakker, Terri M.

    2010-01-01

    Discourse analysis can be used to understand and interpret culturally and socially produced meanings regarding work and to outline how specific rules and conventions can configure meaning production of work in context. The implications of some core concepts in discourse analysis pertinent to career counseling are explored, including discourse,…

  11. Ancient Greek "Logos": An Invitation to Historical-Comparative Discourse on Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calogiannakis, Pella

    1998-01-01

    Presents aspects of the methodological and epistemological encounter of contemporary historical-comparative discourse on education with the ancient Greek historical comparative "logos": (1) technology/methodology; (2) historiology; (3) epistemology; and (4) synkritilogy. The historical context discourse of education can always be placed in a…

  12. An Overview of Discourse Analysis and Its Usefulness in TESOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Geraldine Veronica

    This paper provides an overview of discourse analysis from a linguistic point of view, discussing why it is relevant to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL). It focuses on the following: discourse and discourse analysis; discourse analysis and TESOL; approaches to discourse analysis; systemic functional linguistics; theme and…

  13. A cultural historical theoretical perspective of discourse and design in the science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Megan

    2015-06-01

    Flavio Azevedo, Peggy Martalock and Tugba Keser have initiated an important conversation in science education as they use sociocultural theory to introduce design based scenarios into the science classroom. This response seeks to expand Azevedo, Martalock and Keser's article The discourse of design- based science classroom activities by using a specific perspective within a sociocultural framework. Through using a cultural historical (Vygotsky in The history and development of higher mental functions, Plenum Press, New York, 1987) reading of design based activity and discourse in the science classroom, it is proposed that learning should be an integral part of these processes. Therefore, everyday and scientific concepts are explained and expanded in relation to Inventing Graphing and discourse presented in Azevedo, Martalock and Keser's article. This response reports on the importance of teacher's being explicit in relation to connecting everyday and scientific concepts alongside design based activity and related science concepts when teaching students. It is argued that explicit teaching of concepts should be instigated prior to analysis of discourse in the science classroom as it is only with experience and understanding these processes that students have the resources to call upon to argue like practicing scientists.

  14. Racialized Spaces in Teacher Discourse: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Place-Based Identities in Roche Bois, Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiehe, Elsa M.

    2013-01-01

    This eleven-month ethnographic study puts critical discourse analysis in dialogue with postmodern conceptualizations of space and place to explore how eight educators talk about space and in the process, produce racialized spaces in Roche Bois, Mauritius. The macro-historical context of racialization of this urban marginalized community informs…

  15. Discourse Analysis and Structuring Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Ann Jaffe

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the kinds of discourse analyses that are currently being undertaken, summarizes research findings, and makes suggestions based on these findings for structuring texts to be used for instructional or informational purposes. (Author/MER)

  16. Discourse Analysis and the Study of Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Gary; Mungal, Angus Shiva

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the current and past work using discourse analysis in the field of educational administration and of discourse analysis as a methodology. Design/Methodology/Approach: Authors reviewed research in educational leadership that uses discourse analysis as a methodology. Findings: While…

  17. Critical Discourse Analysis, Adult Education and "Fitba"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Player, John

    2013-01-01

    In this article I will use an example of current adult education practice, the Glory and Dismay Football Literacies Programme (GDFLP) to appraise the value of critical discourse analysis (CDA) for adult learners, both individually and collectively, and for adult education practitioners with an interest in developing critical literacy skills. The…

  18. Discourse Analysis of Teaching Computing Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Matt

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the teaching and learning of computing in a Web-conferencing environment. A discourse analysis of three introductory programming learning episodes is presented to demonstrate issues and effects that arise when teaching computing using such an approach. The subject of discussion, the interactive nature of discussion and any…

  19. Greenpeace Greenspeak: A Transcultural Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Bettina; Cheng, Hsin-I; Inuzuka, Ako

    2007-01-01

    This cross-cultural discourse analysis examines the construction of environmental issues on Greenpeace web pages in China, Japan and Germany. To uncover the semantic representation of environmental activism on these sites, the authors sought to identify discursive homogeneity and divergence and to bring to light embedded cultural assumptions. The…

  20. Discourse Analysis: Openings. Paper Presented at a Workshop on Discourse Analysis (Jyvaskyla, Finland, October 18-19, 1985). Reports from the Department of English, University of Jyvaskyla, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari, Ed.

    Topics covered in papers presented at a Finnish workshop on discourse analysis include, in English: the situational code in conversation; persuasive strategies and face-work in impromptu speech; historical aspects of complex behavioral strategies in politeness; the implications of predictability and unpredictability for negotiation discourse; and…

  1. Assessing the validity of discourse analysis: transdisciplinary convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaipal-Jamani, Kamini

    2014-12-01

    Research studies using discourse analysis approaches make claims about phenomena or issues based on interpretation of written or spoken text, which includes images and gestures. How are findings/interpretations from discourse analysis validated? This paper proposes transdisciplinary convergence as a way to validate discourse analysis approaches to research. The argument is made that discourse analysis explicitly grounded in semiotics, systemic functional linguistics, and critical theory, offers a credible research methodology. The underlying assumptions, constructs, and techniques of analysis of these three theoretical disciplines can be drawn on to show convergence of data at multiple levels, validating interpretations from text analysis.

  2. Discoursing Mathematically: Using Discourse Analysis to Develop a Sociocritical Perspective of Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razfar, Aria

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how the concepts of discourse and its methodological extension discourse analysis can help mathematics educators re-conceptualize their practices using a sociocultural view of learning. It provides conceptual and methodological tools as well as activities that can be helpful in mathematics methods courses and professional…

  3. Ideology, Rationality and Reproduction in Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Leonel

    2014-01-01

    In undertaking a critical discourse analysis of the professed aims and objectives of one of the most influential curricula in the teaching of thinking, this article foregrounds issues of power and ideology latent in curricular discourses of rationality. Specifically, it documents the subtle but powerful ways in which political and class…

  4. Ghost Stories: A discourse analysis of accounts of ghostly experiences 

    E-print Network

    Murray, David

    2012-06-27

    ) or on how individuals warrant their belief in the paranormal (Lamont, 2007b; Lamont et al. 2009). This project uses discourse analysis to investigate how accounts of ghostly experiences are constructed. It aims to show how individuals justify the facticity...

  5. Belief in extraordinary psychological feats: a discourse analysis 

    E-print Network

    Jones, Lisa

    2012-06-27

    This study aimed to investigate how belief in extraordinary psychological feats is warranted and maintained, and how the lack of an explanation is justified. Discourse analysis was used to examine online newspaper articles on Derren Brown...

  6. Discourses of Linguistic dominance: A Historical Consideration of French Language Ideology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasuya, Keisuke

    2001-07-01

    The paper offers a historical perspective on the linguistic and cultural imperialism embedded in the struggle to maintain French as a leading international language. France was the nation-state where the ideology of national language was first clearly formulated and directly extended to overseas colonies. This shows the close relationship between linguistic nationalism and imperialism. It was believed that French was the language of universal human reason and had the power to civilize people who spoke it. This myth of the "clarté française" and the "mission civilisatrice" had a strong influence on various kinds of metalinguistic discourses that created the taken-for-granted representation of French as dominant language. It is the essential strategy of language dominance to establish the hierarchy of languages as if it were natural order of things. When French was obliged to yield the status of international language to English, there emerged the ideology of "Francophonie" which tried to defend its privilege against the monopoly of English, but the same ideology is also directed against minorities' claims for their own linguistic human right. It could be said that these discourses form a recursive prototype of language dominance whose variations are to be found in other shapes almost all over the world.

  7. Doing Foucault: inquiring into nursing knowledge with Foucauldian discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Springer, Rusla Anne; Clinton, Michael E

    2015-04-01

    Foucauldian discourse analysis (FDA) is a methodology that is well suited to inquiring into nursing knowledge and its organization. It is a critical analytic approach derived from Foucault's histories of science, madness, medicine, incarceration and sexuality, all of which serve to exteriorize or make visible the 'positive unconscious of knowledge' penetrating bodies and minds. Foucauldian discourse analysis (FDA) holds the potential to reveal who we are today as nurses and as a profession of nursing by facilitating our ability to identify and trace the effects of the discourses that determine the conditions of possibility for nursing practice that are continuously shaping and (re)shaping the knowledge of nursing and the profession of nursing as we know it. In making visible the chain of knowledge that orders the spaces nurses occupy, no less than their subjectivities, FDA is a powerful methodology for inquiring into nursing knowledge based on its provocation of deep critical reflection on the normalizing power of discourse. PMID:25683171

  8. Uniting postcolonial, discourse, and linguistic theory to explore participation of African Americans in cancer research as an effect of social and historical race relationships.

    PubMed

    Somayaji, Darryl; Cloyes, Kristin Gates

    2014-01-01

    This article uses a historical framework of postcolonialism; discourse analytic concepts (significance, identity, and relationships); and 5 social and cultural linguistic principles of emergence, positionality, indexicality, relationality, and partialness as a theoretical and methodological triangulation approach to data analysis of focus group discussion. Exemplars of focus group data from a study exploring African American participation in research demonstrate the application of this combined framework as a useful tool for analysis. This approach allows for examination of identity and interaction and generates a more rigorous and complete understanding of how individuals use language to construct identity as participants or nonparticipants in research. PMID:24469087

  9. Power in clinical teachers' discourses of a curriculum-in-action. Critical discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jennifer; Dornan, Tim

    2013-12-01

    "Curricula-in-action" generally differ from "official" curricula. That is particularly true of clerkship curricula because the practising doctors who supervise medical students' clinical activities are only secondarily educators. Clerkship education is evaluated, however, according to benchmarks set by official curricula. As a result, clerkship evaluations are important points of contact between clinical teachers and medical schools. We reasoned that an evaluation instrument is part of a medical school's official curriculum discourse and clinical teachers' reactions to it are a discourse of curriculum-in-action. We set out to answer the questions: What are clinical teachers' discourses of curriculum-in-action and how do they relate to an official curriculum discourse? Nineteen clerkship placement leads from two hospitals contributing to a single undergraduate medical programme participated. The evaluation instrument was the Manchester Clinical Placement Index, for which validity evidence has been published. Respondents were asked to say how they would react to junior students giving their placements low or high scores for each of 12 items from the Index. After transcription, we conducted a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of their audio-recorded answers. We purposefully selected the six items that elicited the widest spectrum of responses for analysis because quantity of material can compromise the quality of CDA. A dominant discourse of curriculum-in-action defined how teachers should "really" teach and junior students should learn. It deconstructed the need for teachers to be present when students performed clinical tasks because teachers' role was to give critical feedback on case presentations that were coincidental to clinical care. It positioned students at the bottom of a power hierarchy so they had to "struggle" to be taught. It placed respondents in a powerful position relative to "the hospital" and "the university", though there were tensions between respondents, patients, and nurses. Respondents dismissed criticism that was invalid according to their curriculum-in-action, which included most items in an evaluation instrument. There was a contrasting, non-dominant discourse of responding reflectively to feedback, which generated realistic ways of improving students' learning. The strength of respondents' emotions shows just how committed doctors are to students' learning. The strength of their expressions of power, however, explains why many of them teach in their own way rather than according to official curricula. Changes to clinical curricula, our findings suggest, will not be successful unless they are carefully negotiated with practising doctors. PMID:23283572

  10. Perezhivanie and Classroom Discourse: A Cultural-Historical Perspective on "Discourse of Design Based Science Classroom Activities"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Megan; March, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Flavio Azevedo, Peggy Martalock and Tugba Keser challenge the "argumentation focus of science lessons" and propose that through a 'design-based approach' emergent conversations with the teacher offer possibilities for different types of discussions to enhance pedagogical discourse in science classrooms. This important paper offers a…

  11. Some Sociolinguistic and Discourse Analysis Considerations in Oral Proficiency Interviewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John L. D.

    If sociolinguistics involves the specification and analysis of sociological, interpersonal, and pragmatic variables at issue in given language-use situations, and discourse anaysis is the observation and analysis of both linguistic and paralinguistic features of speech events within these situations, there are at least three areas in these…

  12. The organising vision for telehealth and telecare: discourse analysis

    PubMed Central

    Procter, Rob; Wherton, Joe; Sugarhood, Paul; Shaw, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Objective To (1) map how different stakeholders understand telehealth and telecare technologies and (2) explore the implications for development and implementation of telehealth and telecare services. Design Discourse analysis. Sample 68 publications representing diverse perspectives (academic, policy, service, commercial and lay) on telehealth and telecare plus field notes from 10 knowledge-sharing events. Method Following a familiarisation phase (browsing and informal interviews), we studied a systematic sample of texts in detail. Through repeated close reading, we identified assumptions, metaphors, storylines, scenarios, practices and rhetorical positions. We added successive findings to an emerging picture of the whole. Main findings Telehealth and telecare technologies featured prominently in texts on chronic illness and ageing. There was no coherent organising vision. Rather, four conflicting discourses were evident and engaged only minimally with one another's arguments. Modernist discourse presented a futuristic utopian vision in which assistive technologies, implemented at scale, would enable society to meet its moral obligations to older people by creating a safe ‘smart’ home environment where help was always at hand, while generating efficiency savings. Humanist discourse emphasised the uniqueness and moral worth of the individual and tailoring to personal and family context; it considered that technologies were only sometimes fit for purpose and could create as well as solve problems. Political economy discourse envisaged a techno-economic complex of powerful vested interests driving commodification of healthcare and diversion of public funds into private business. Change management discourse recognised the complicatedness of large-scale technology programmes and emphasised good project management and organisational processes. Conclusion Introduction of telehealth and telecare is hampered because different stakeholders hold different assumptions, values and world views, ‘talk past’ each other and compete for recognition and resources. If investments in these technologies are to bear fruit, more effective inter-stakeholder dialogue must occur to establish an organising vision that better accommodates competing discourses. PMID:22815469

  13. Critical Narrative Analysis: The Interplay of Critical Discourse and Narrative Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souto-Manning, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I question the micro-macro separation in discourse analysis, the separation of personal and institutional discourses. I apply a mostly macroanalytic perspective (critical discourse analysis [CDA]) to inform a predominantly microanalytic perspective (analysis of conversational narratives) and vice versa. In the combination of these…

  14. A Multimodal Discourse Analysis of a Yoruba Song-Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olateju, Moji. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multimodal discourse analysis of a story that has been turned into a Yoruba song-drama, highlighting the ideational, interpersonal and textual aspects of the song-drama. The data is a short song-drama meant to teach children importunity, determination and hard work through persistence. The multimodal and narrative conventions…

  15. Competency Discourses: An Analysis of Secondary and Tertiary Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of a sample of assessment tasks used in New Zealand first-year clinical and final-year secondary school Biology and Chemistry National Certificate of Educational Achievement summative assessments was conducted to assess whether similarities and differences existed in secondary and tertiary competency discourses. Findings suggested…

  16. A Semiotic Reading and Discourse Analysis of Postmodern Street Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mimi Miyoung; Chung, Sheng Kuan

    2009-01-01

    Postmodern street art operates under a set of references that requires art educators and researchers to adopt alternative analytical frameworks in order to understand its meanings. In this article, we describe social semiotics, critical discourse analysis, and postmodern street performance as well as the relevance of the former two in interpreting…

  17. Analysing Professional Discourse in Interactive Learning: Integrating Historical and Situational Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torras, Eulalia; Barbera, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Written environments in online learning enable professional discourse to be analysed in depth and provide greater knowledge for improving learning and for planning and delivering courses aimed at professional development. Until now, research into professional discourse has highlighted the importance of interaction in the development of…

  18. Presupposition in Lexical Analysis and Discourse

    E-print Network

    Bullwinkle, Candace L.

    Recent research in linguistic analysis of presuppositions has provided numerous indications of the role of presupposition in lexical analysis. Still others have argued there is no distinction between meaning and the ...

  19. Discourse analysis and the impact of the philosophy of Enlightenment in nursing research.

    PubMed

    Beedholm, Kirsten; Lomborg, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2014-06-01

    Discourse analysis has been introduced into nursing research as an approach which has the potential to offer new perspectives and to pose new questions to taken-for-granted assumptions. However, critique has arisen that when applied to nursing studies, the epistemological foundation of the discourse analysis is often overlooked. It is furthermore claimed that the methodological inspiration does not lead to any new insights and that these studies can hardly be differentiated from more traditional studies. This study supports this critique, arguing that the challenges of implementing discourse analysis in nursing research reflect a dominant pattern of thought in the discourse of the nursing profession that have held sway throughout the last century. We argue that this pattern of thought stems from the Western philosophy of consciousness and the conception of the sovereign subject. By applying a discourse analytical perspective to the discourse of the nursing profession itself, this study elucidates the challenges of applying discourse analysis in nursing research. PMID:23679133

  20. Deaf Culture and Competing Discourses in a Residential School for the Deaf: "Can Do" versus "Can't Do"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Catherine A.; Placier, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    From an ethnographic case study of a state-funded residential school for the Deaf, the authors employed Critical Discourse Analysis to identify competing discourses in the talk of educators. These discourses are embedded in the historical oppression and labeling of deaf people as disabled and the development of Deaf culture as a counter-discourse.…

  1. Approaches to the Analysis of Literary Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventola, Eija, Ed.

    Articles included in this compilation represent functional approaches to literary analysis. Most of these papers were presented at the Sixteenth International Systemics Congress held in Helsinki, Finland, in 1989. The aim of the congress was to establish dialogue between various functional approaches to the theoretical study of language, to…

  2. Critical Discourse Analysis and Science Education Texts: Employing Foucauldian Notions of Discourse and Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    This article supports critical, social justice oriented science education research by providing a theoretical and methodological basis for examining how subjectivities may be constituted through discourses found in science education texts. Such research explores how discourses orient teachers and students to the world, others, and themselves, as…

  3. Gutter to Garden: Historical Discourses of Risk in Interventions in Working Class Children's Street Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates interventions in the gutter play of British working class children in the first decade of the 20th century through their re-location within Free Kindergartens. In contemporary literature, the street child was viewed through a binary lens, as both "at risk" and "as risk", reflecting wider societal discourses in a period of…

  4. Insights beyond Neo-Liberal Educational Practices: The Value of Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turunen, Tuija A.; Rafferty, John

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, power and effects of neo-liberal rationale in educational settings. By introducing discourse analysis of two cases, the influence of neo-liberal ideology on contemporary curricula and school programs were examined. The analysis showed that dominant discourses based on neo-liberal rationale presented themselves as…

  5. Climate Change Discourse in Mass Media: Application of Computer-Assisted Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirilenko, Andrei P.; Stepchenkova, Svetlana O.

    2012-01-01

    Content analysis of mass media publications has become a major scientific method used to analyze public discourse on climate change. We propose a computer-assisted content analysis method to extract prevalent themes and analyze discourse changes over an extended period in an objective and quantifiable manner. The method includes the following: (1)…

  6. A Corpus-Based Discourse Analysis of the Vision and Mission Statements of Universities in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efe, Ibrahim; Ozer, Omer

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from a corpus-assisted discourse analysis of mission and vision statements of 105 state and 66 private/foundation universities in Turkey. The paper combines a corpus-based approach with critical discourse analysis to interpret the data in relation to its institutional as well as socio-political context. It argues…

  7. "Genre Means...": A Critical Discourse Analysis of Fourth Grade Talk about Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaenen, Inda

    2010-01-01

    This action research study investigates how genre theory can be integrated into the practice of a writing enrichment program and how the frameworks of Critical Discourse Analysis and Multimodal Analysis can help assess and improve both student learning and teacher practice. A multilayered exploration of teacher-student discourse in an urban public…

  8. Critical Discourse Analysis and the Corpus-Informed Interpretation of Metaphor at the Register Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Halloran, Kieran

    2007-01-01

    One aspect of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) involves examining how metaphors in texts, particularly hard news texts (reports of very recent conflicts, crimes, etc.), imply certain values. The usual theoretical basis for such analysis is Lakoff and Johnson (1980). My article shows problems with transplanting Lakoff and Johnson's discourse-level…

  9. Studying Agency in Literacy Teacher Education: A Layered Approach to Positive Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Rebecca; Wetzel, Melissa Mosley

    2013-01-01

    Critically oriented forms of discourse analysis have focused largely on oppression and injustice. Signaling a new turn in the field, scholars have called for an analytic focus on moments of liberation and agency, referring to this orientation as "positive discourse analysis" (PDA). In this research, we turn our attention to a case study of agency…

  10. Methodology for social accountability: multiple methods and feminist, poststructural, psychoanalytic discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Phillips, D A

    2001-06-01

    Bridging the gap between the individual and social context, methodology that aims to surface and explore the regulatory function of discourse on subjectivity production moves nursing research beyond the individual level in order to theorize social context and its influence on health and well-being. This article describes the feminist, poststructural, psychoanalytic discourse analysis and multiple methods used in a recent study exploring links between cultural discourses of masculinity, performativity of masculinity, and practices of male violence. PMID:11393249

  11. Knowledge Building Discourse Explorer: A Social Network Analysis Application for Knowledge Building Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshima, Jun; Oshima, Ritsuko; Matsuzawa, Yoshiaki

    2012-01-01

    In recent studies of learning theories, a new methodology that integrates two prevailing metaphors of learning (acquisition and participation) has been discussed. However, current analytical techniques are insufficient for analyzing how social knowledge develops through learners' discourse and how individual learners contribute to this…

  12. Discourse Analysis and Development of English Listening for Non-English Majors in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Yinxiu

    2015-01-01

    Traditional approach of listening teaching mainly focuses on the sentence level and regards the listening process in a passive and static way. To compensate for this deficiency, a new listening approach, that is, discourse-oriented approach has been introduced into the listening classroom. Although discourse analysis is a comparatively new field…

  13. Physical Education for Health and Wellbeing: A Discourse Analysis of Scottish Physical Education Curricular Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvilly, Nollaig; Verheul, Martine; Atencio, Matthew; Jess, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the discourses associated with physical education in Scotland's "Curriculum for Excellence". We implement a poststructural perspective in order to identify the discourses that underpin the physical education sections of the "Curriculum for Excellence" "health and well-being"…

  14. Critical Discourse Analysis and Inclusive Educational Policies: The Power to Exclude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liasidou, Anastasia

    2008-01-01

    The legislative shift towards an inclusive education policy in Cyprus has allegedly been fragmented and contradictory. The textual hybridity of the ostensibly more inclusive policy documents prevents the realization of an inclusive discourse. Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is proposed as an emancipatory research tool that has the potential to…

  15. A Discourse Analysis of Master's Theses across Disciplines with a Focus on Introductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samraj, Betty

    2008-01-01

    There have been a growing number of discourse studies in recent years on written academic genres produced by students. However, the master's thesis has not received as much attention as the PhD dissertation. This investigation of master's theses from three disciplines, biology, philosophy and linguistics, employs both discourse analysis and…

  16. What We All (Supposedly) Know about the Poor: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Ruby Payne's "Framework"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworin, Joel E.; Bomer, Randy

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a professional development text by Ruby Payne that claims to inform teachers about the lives and minds of children from poor households. We use Critical Discourse Analysis (Fairclough, 1995; Gee, 2005; Rogers, Malancharuvil-Berkes, & Mosley, 2005) to examine how the author enlists readers' participation in deficit discourses

  17. Analyse linguistique du discours jauresien (A Linguistic Analysis of Jaures' Discourse).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauveau, Genevieve

    1978-01-01

    Traces the development of discourse analysis in modern linguistics, and presents a semantic analysis, based on a comparative word frequency count, of two political speeches made by the socialist Jean Jaures. (AM)

  18. The Discourse of 'Distortion' and Health and Medical News Reports: A Genre Analysis Perspective 

    E-print Network

    McDermott (nee Suhardja), Imelda

    2009-01-01

    more context-sensitive analysis, using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) for example, could fruitfully be pursued. This thesis draws on four types of data. The main data set consists of Health and Medical News Reports published in The Herald...

  19. Causal Discourse and the Teaching of History. How Do Teachers Explain Historical Causality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanero, Manuel; Lucero, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we aim to describe how secondary school teachers explain multicausal historical events. To that end, we recorded and analyzed seven classes on "The discovery and colonization of America". The results show that secondary school teachers do not simply deal with history as a catalog of actions, characters and dates. On the contrary,…

  20. Latina/o Health Discourses in Newsprint Media from 2006-2010: A Content Analysis of Four Syndicated Newspapers 

    E-print Network

    Ortega, Frank J

    2013-12-11

    Latina/o health discourses stem from historical and social notions of biological, cultural, and racial inferiority. Popular U.S. newspapers pay scant attention to Latina/o health concerns and often inaccurately portray Latinas/os as undeserving...

  1. Expanding the Notion of Historical Text through Historic Building Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Christine; Dobbs, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Among the disciplinary skills necessary for understanding in the social studies classroom is the ability to determine context and build meaning from past events. Historical buildings are an important component of historical study, and they serve as a type of nontraditional text that students can decode and use to construct meaning about multiple…

  2. Highlighting hybridity: A critical discourse analysis of teacher talk in science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanrahan, Mary U.

    2006-01-01

    There is evidence that alienation from science is linked to the dominant discourse practices of science classrooms (cf. Lemke, J. L. (1990). Talking Science: Language, Learning, and Values. Norwood, NJ: Ablex). Yet, in secondary science education it is particularly hard to find evidence of curriculum reform that includes explicit changes in pedagogic discourses to accommodate the needs of students from a wide range of backgrounds. However, such evidence does exist and needs to be highlighted wherever it is found to help address social justice concerns in science education. In this article, I show how critical discourse analysis can be used to explore a way of challenging the dominant discourse in teacher - student interactions in science classrooms. My findings suggest a new way of moving toward more socially just science curricula in middle years and secondary classrooms by using hybrid discourses that can serve emancipatory purposes.

  3. Discourse Analysis: The UFO scientists’ Construction of the UFO Phenomenon in Relation to Science 

    E-print Network

    Raw, Kathleen

    2012-06-01

    This study aims to show how UFO scientists have constructed the UFO phenomenon in relation to science, by using discourse analysis. This work expands on the existing literature concerning the social construction of scientific knowledge. Several...

  4. Constructing parapsychology : a discourse analysis of the accounts of experimental parapsychologists 

    E-print Network

    Coelho, Claudia Carvalho De Matos Teixeira

    2005-11-20

    This thesis is concerned with parapsychology as a field of experimental science. It is based on the discourse analysis of interviews with experimental parapsychologists, in which they provide accounts of their field, ...

  5. Comparative Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA): Interplay of discourses (D/D1) as third grade urban and suburban science students engage in hypothesis formulation and observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Carmen Irene Reyes

    This qualitative research project is a comparative analysis of Discourses (D/D1) while focused upon the science processes of hypothesis generation and observation in an urban versus suburban elementary science classroom. D designates the instructional and formal academic science Discourse and D1 represents the students' informal, social or home language D1iscourses. In particular, this research study is a critical discourse analysis that examines how the science processes of hypothesis formulation and observation are constituted through the interplay of classroom Discourses (D/D1) as two third grade science teachers teach the same kit-based, inquiry science lessons with their respective urban and suburban students. The research also considers ethnicity, social class, language, and the central role science teachers play mediating between children's everyday world and the world of science. Communicative approach and distinctive patterns of interaction between the European American teachers and their respective students are analyzed through a critical lens to examine underlying issues of equity and power embedded in the instructional Discourse of science. Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) provides both the theoretical framework and analytical lens. The research informs development of linguistic-based "best" practices to contribute toward promoting greater science teacher awareness in creating linguistic environments that support all students' learning science Discourse and to serve as a springboard for future educational science researchers' use of CDA.

  6. Exploring the discourse on communication modality after cochlear implantation: a Foucauldian analysis of parents' narratives.

    PubMed

    Bruin, Marieke; Nevøy, Anne

    2014-07-01

    After pediatric cochlear implantation, parents have to make decisions concerning which communication modality the child and the child's family will use. The choice has to be made against a background of opposing views on communication modality in follow-up after pediatric cochlear implantation. The opposing views form a discourse that has been a core issue in the international body of literature for a long time. For hearing parents caught up in this ongoing controversy, the choice can be a difficult one. The study reported in this article explores the discourse on communication modality and is based on 27 written parental accounts on experiences with follow-up. From the perspective of Foucault's thinking, discourses exert knowledge and power. Drawing on Foucault, the study explores how the discourse on communication modality is constructed, how it operates, and how it governs thinking and acting. The Foucauldian analysis brings to the fore the complex nature of the discourse and states that follow-up, which is intended to be helpful for parents, may induce insecurity and frustration. The study brings into conversation a broader understanding of the discourse on communication modality and addresses a need for increased awareness on how the discourse governs thinking and acting in follow-up. PMID:24558057

  7. Overcoming the dialectic of solitude: historical and narrative discourses in the works of Tomas Rivera 

    E-print Network

    Cole, Kevin Lee

    1993-01-01

    analysis of Rivera's novel, And the earth did not devour him. The third and final chapter proposes that a dialectic exists between the works of Rivera and Octavio Paz and explores how Rivera's works are a "response" to Paz's monumental book, The Labyrinth...

  8. Understanding Telecollaboration through an Analysis of Intercultural Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaw, Meei-Ling; Bunn-Le Master, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This study examines if and how collaboration and intercultural learning took place during telecollaboration by exploring the linguistic features of the discourse used by the participants, as well as the patterns and types of interactions between intercultural interlocutors. EFL students in Taiwan were paired up with pre-service teacher education…

  9. Presenting the Iterative Curriculum Discourse Analysis (ICDA) Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iversen, Lars Laird

    2014-01-01

    The article presents a method for analysing recurring curriculum documents using discourse theory inspired by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe. The article includes a presentation of the method in seven practical steps, and is illustrated and discussed throughout using the author's recent case study on religion, identity and values in…

  10. Sex Differences In Intercultural Discourse: An Empirical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Michael J.; Jordan, William J.

    Previous interpretations of male/female discourse were examined in light of new data generated from a study of intercultural mixed-sex dyads. Eleven dyads, each consisting of a Chinese and an American subject, were videotaped in 30-minute conversations about courtship in different cultures. The tapes were content analyzed to obtain information on…

  11. A Historical Analysis of the Relationship of Faith and Science and its Significance within Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yegge, John G.

    Science curriculum and pedagogy are at the center of a centuries-long debate concerning the appropriate relationship of faith and science. The difficulties that science educators face seem to be based in misinformation about the historical roots of this conflict. To address that conflict, the goals of this research were to separate myth from reality and to provide a necessary context to the current tensions that are disrupting science pedagogy and curriculum content within American public schools. Working within a theoretical framework of historical literacy, this qualitative, historical analysis was a comprehensive examination of the relationship of faith and science from ancient times through the Renascence to the emergence and development of Darwinism. The historical approach methodology was utilized as a means to document the systematic examination of past events, in order to illuminate and interpret the meaning of those events. The historical record revealed that science and religion are not necessarily incompatible and that the early Christian religion provided a fertile environment in which modern science could emerge. Also noted were many instances where the record was inconsistent with what educators have commonly taught as historical fact. Finally, the complex sources of tension between modern fundamentalist Christianity and Darwinism, which has appeared as a flashpoint in public discourse within science education, were examined in depth. Based on this analysis, the study includes recommendations for educators in their approach to addressing these challenges and teaching science. This analysis can produce positive social change for educators and their students, as this information is advanced as a means to enhance historical literacy among educators and their students.

  12. Media Reports of Links between MMR and Autism: A Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Lindsay; Brownlow, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    This paper details an analysis of BBC reporting of the proposed links between MMR and autism. The study aimed to identify main issues arising from the media reports into the link between MMR and the development of autism, and how these contribute to common understandings about people with autism. The study employed a form of discourse analysis to…

  13. Othering the Chronically Ill: A Discourse Analysis of New Zealand Health Policy Documents.

    PubMed

    Walton, Jo Ann; Lazzaro-Salazar, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    It is widely recognized that chronic illnesses pose significant challenges for health care systems around the world. In response, most governments have set health policies in order to manage (or better, reduce) demand and improve the health of their populations. A discourse analysis of four policy documents that shape these strategies in New Zealand reveals that the policies construct the chronically ill as "others," that is, as deviant or different from the "normal" population. The discourse further serves to blame the chronically ill both for being sick, and for placing a serious financial burden on society. We identify problems that arise from this discourse. They relate to (a) the fact that chronic illnesses are so prevalent, (b) the fallacy of categorizing all chronic illnesses as the same, PMID:26422127

  14. Experiments in Discourse Analysis Impact on Information Classification and Retrieval Algorithms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morato, Jorge; Llorens, J.; Genova, G.; Moreiro, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the inclusion of contextual information in indexing and retrieval systems to improve results and the ability to carry out text analysis by means of linguistic knowledge. Presents research that investigated whether discourse variables have an impact on information and retrieval and classification algorithms. (Author/LRW)

  15. EFL (English as a Foreign Language) Classroom Discourse Analysis of a Vocational College and Some Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xin, Liu; Luzheng, Lou; Biru, Shi

    2011-01-01

    The application of classroom discourse analysis of foreign language teaching and learning can reveal much about how teachers perform in their teaching practice and how to make improvement. In this paper, the author tries to reveal the present state of EFL (English as a foreign language) classrooms in a vocational college from the angle of…

  16. A Quantitative Discourse Analysis of Student-Initiated Checks of Understanding during Teacher-Fronted Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research highlights the paradoxical importance of students' being able to check their understanding with teachers and of teachers' constraining student participation. Using quantitative discourse analysis, this paper examines third graders' discursive strategies in initiating such checks and teachers' strategies in constraining them. The…

  17. A Discourse Analytic Approach to Video Analysis of Teaching: Aligning Desired Identities with Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieble, Melissa; Vetter, Amy; Meacham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The authors present findings from a qualitative study of an experience that supports teacher candidates to use discourse analysis and positioning theory to analyze videos of their practice during student teaching. The research relies on the theoretical concept that learning to teach is an identity process. In particular, teachers construct and…

  18. The Analysis of Demagogic Discourse: Huey Long's "Every Man a King" Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaske, Paul C.

    The characteristics of demagogic discourse and a methodology appropriate for its analysis can be illustrated by examining Huey Long's "Every Man a King" radio address on February 20, 1934. The demagogue is similar to the revered public figure in that both are mass leaders, charismatic, and heroic. But the demagogue elicits powerful antithetical…

  19. The Newfoundland School Society (1830-1840): A Critical Discourse Analysis of Its Religious Education Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Leona M.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses the lens of critical discourse analysis to examine the religious education efforts of the Newfoundland School Society (NSS), the main provider of religious education in Newfoundland in the 19th century. Although its focus was initially this colony, the NSS quickly broadened its reach to the whole British empire, making it one of…

  20. Exposing Ideology within University Policies: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Faculty Hiring, Promotion and Remuneration Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzuner-Smith, Sedef; Englander, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Using critical discourse analysis (CDA), this paper exposes the neoliberal ideology of the knowledge-based economy embedded within university policies, specifically those that regulate faculty hiring, promotion, and remuneration in two national contexts: Turkey and Mexico. The paper follows four stages of CDA: (1) focus upon a social wrong in its…

  1. Accreditation and Power: A Discourse Analysis of a New Regime of Governance in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engebretsen, Eivind; Heggen, Kristin; Eilertsen, Heidi Annett

    2012-01-01

    This article studies discourses within the accreditation of Norwegian higher education conducted by the Norwegian Agency for Quality Assurance in Education (NOKUT), using one concrete case (the accreditation of bachelor programs in nursing). Analysis of policy documents and accreditation reports are influenced by two of Foucault's concepts of…

  2. Comparative Critical Discourse Analysis of Student and Teacher Editions of Secondary Christian American Literature Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agiro, Christa Preston

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the comparative application of critical discourse analysis to student and teacher editions of the two most widely used high school American literature textbooks by Christian publishers, examining them through the lens of critical theory. The study examined all parts of the student and teacher editions, excepting literary…

  3. Analysing Complex Policy Change in Hong Kong: What Role for Critical Discourse Analysis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Annie Y. N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The Hong Kong government recently reformed pre-primary education with the introduction of a voucher scheme. At the time this policy caused considerable opposition from across Hong Kong Society. This paper seeks to use Fairclough's model of critical discourse analysis to explore a key policy text and seeks to assess to what extent such an…

  4. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Gisela's Family Story: A Construal of Deportation, Illegal Immigrants, and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I use critical discourse analysis to analyze a student's narrative about the arrest, incarceration, and deportation of her mother to Mexico. The student, Gisela, was a fifth grader in my classroom during the 2008/2009 school year, and I encouraged the students to collect family stories from their relatives. Gisela created this…

  5. Analysis of Narrative Discourse Structure as an Ecologically Relevant Measure of Executive Function in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannizzaro, Michael S.; Coelho, Carl A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the narrative discourse production and executive function (EF) abilities of 46 neuro-typical adults (18-98 years old). Two questions were addressed: Is the analysis of narrative structure sensitive to changes associated with aging? & What is the relationship between measures of narrative structure and EF? Narratives were…

  6. A Critical Discourse Analysis of "No Promo Homo" Policies in US Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Brian; Bound, Arron M.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a critical discourse analysis of "no promo homo" policies and their effects in US schools. "No promo homo"--short for "no promotion of homosexuality" (Eskridge, 2000, p. 1329)--polices have been adopted across nine states and several local school districts in the United States. They direct…

  7. Postmodernism Debates and Comparative Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis. Essay Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Sonia; Ninnes, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Detailed discourse analysis is presented for two articles that suggest that postmodernism has little to offer comparative education and should be resisted. The two texts, focusing on postmodernism as the antithesis of comparative education and on the "lost promise" of postmodernism, demonstrate the use of language to convey messages that limit or…

  8. A Taiwanese Mandarin Main Concept Analysis (TM-MCA) for Quantification of Aphasic Oral Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Yeh, Chun-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Background: Various quantitative systems have been proposed to examine aphasic oral narratives in English. A clinical tool for assessing discourse produced by Cantonese-speaking persons with aphasia (PWA), namely Main Concept Analysis (MCA), was developed recently for quantifying the presence, accuracy and completeness of a narrative. Similar…

  9. Review of Research: A Review of Discourse Analysis in Literacy Research--Equitable Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rex, Lesley A.; Bunn, Mike; Davila, Bethany A.; Dickinson, Hannah A.; Ford, Amy Carpenter; Gerben, Chris; Orzulak, Melinda J. McBee; Thomson, Heather

    2010-01-01

    This review represents research employing discourse analysis conducted by scholars interested in literacy issues in education across the age span--preschool to adult--during the last 10 years. Drawing from more than 300 studies, we discerned that a common theme was understanding how the literacy education of all students can be successfully…

  10. Defining and Measuring Parenting for Educational Success: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Parent Education Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, Esther; Toso, Blaire Willson

    2008-01-01

    The Parent Education Profile (PEP) is an instrument used by family literacy programs to rate parents' support for children's literacy development. This article uses Critical Discourse Analysis to examine how the PEP constructs the ideal parent, the text's underlying assumptions about parenting and education, and its ideological effects. The…

  11. Going beneath the Surface: A Discourse-to-Voice-Centered Analysis of Teaching Philosophies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauboeuf-Lafontant, Tamara M.

    In this paper, the author maintains that there are two interrelated levels at which one can analyze data: the political and the psychological. By bringing together the language and concepts of critical theory and relational psychology, the author proposes a method of qualitative data analysis--a discourse-to- voice-centered method--which seeks to…

  12. Pushing up against the Limit-Horizon of Educational Change: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Popular Education Reform Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ashlee; Aronson, Brittany; Ellison, Scott; Fairchild-Keyes, Sherrie

    2015-01-01

    With this article, we work to identify the limit-horizon of possible ideas, practices, and ways of talking about education reform and schooling via a critical discourse analysis of selected popular political and governmental texts. To do so, we explore the popular discourse of education reform in the United States through our analyses of three…

  13. How to Identify E-Learning Trends in Academic Teaching: Methodological Approaches and the Analysis of Scientific Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Helge; Heise, Linda; Heinz, Matthias; Moebius, Kathrin; Koehler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce methodology and findings of a trend study in the field of e-learning. The overall interest of the study was the analysis of scientific e-learning discourses. What comes next in the field of academic e-learning? Which e-learning trends dominate the discourse at universities? Answering such…

  14. Discursive strategies used by political parties in the Bahraini Council of Representatives: a critical discourse analysis of religious ideologies in politic language 

    E-print Network

    Al-Kooheji, Lamya Abdulmajeed Mohammed; Alkooheji, Lamya

    2013-07-02

    This study attempts to present the relations between discourse and ideology in debates taking place in the Bahraini Council of Representatives. It uses critical discourse analysis (CDA) and the Sociocognitive Approach ...

  15. HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS: A USEFUL EDUCATIONAL TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An historical analysis that presents the ecological consequences of development can be a valuable educational tool for citizens, students, and environmental managers. In highly impacted areas, the cumulative impacts of multiple stressors can result in complex environmental condit...

  16. Uncertainty Analysis of Historical Hurricane Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was conducted for historical hurricane data dating back to 1851 that was obtained from the U. S. Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The data set was chosen because it is a large, publicly available collection of information, exhibiting great variability which has made the forecasting of future states, from current and previous states, difficult. The availability of substantial, high-fidelity validation data, however, made for an excellent uncertainty assessment study. Several factors (independent variables) were identified from the data set, which could potentially influence the track and intensity of the storms. The values of these factors, along with the values of responses of interest (dependent variables) were extracted from the data base, and provided to a commercial software package for processing via the ANOVA technique. The primary goal of the study was to document the ANOVA modeling uncertainty and predictive errors in making predictions about hurricane location and intensity 24 to 120 hours beyond known conditions, as reported by the data set. A secondary goal was to expose the ANOVA technique to a broader community within NASA. The independent factors considered to have an influence on the hurricane track included the current and starting longitudes and latitudes (measured in degrees), and current and starting maximum sustained wind speeds (measured in knots), and the storm starting date, its current duration from its first appearance, and the current year fraction of each reading, all measured in years. The year fraction and starting date were included in order to attempt to account for long duration cyclic behaviors, such as seasonal weather patterns, and years in which the sea or atmosphere were unusually warm or cold. The effect of short duration weather patterns and ocean conditions could not be examined with the current data set. The responses analyzed were the storm latitude, longitude and intensity, as recorded in the data set, 24 or 120 hours beyond the current state. Several ANOVA modeling schemes were examined. Two forms of validation were used: 1) comparison with official hurricane prediction performance metrics and 2) cases studies conducted on hurricanes from the 2005 season, which were not included within the model construction and ANOVA assessment. In general, the ANOVA technique did not perform as well as the established official prediction performance metrics published by NOAA; still, the technique did remarkably well in this demonstration with a difficult data set and could probably be made to perform better with more knowledge of hurricane development and dynamics applied to the problem. The technique provides a repeatable prediction process that eliminates the need for judgment in the forecast.

  17. Simple Analysis of Historical Lime Mortars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pires, Joa~o

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described in which a simple characterization of a historical lime mortar is made by the determination of its approximate composition by a gravimetric method. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are also used for the qualitative characterization of the lime mortar components. These…

  18. An Analysis of Argumentation Discourse Patterns in Elementary Teachers' Science Classroom Discussions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungho; Hand, Brian

    2015-04-01

    This multiple case study investigated how six elementary teachers' argumentation discourse patterns related to students' discussions in the science classroom. Four categories of classroom characteristics emerged through the analysis of the teachers' transcripts and recorded class periods: Structure of teacher and student argumentation, directionality, movement, and structure of student talk. Results showed that the differences between the teachers' discourse patterns were related to their modified reformed teaching observation protocol (RTOP) scores and to how the interaction of those differences affected student learning. Teachers with high RTOP scores were more likely to challenge their students' claims, explanations, and defenses and to provide less guidance and more waiting time for their students' responses than teachers with medium- and low-level RTOP scores. Students in the high-level teachers' classes challenged, defended, rejected, and supported each other's ideas with evidence and required less guidance than students in the medium-level and low-level teachers' classes.

  19. Retrospective Analysis of Communication Events - Understanding the Dynamics of Collaborative Multi-Party Discourse

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Haack, Jereme N.; McColgin, Dave W.

    2006-06-08

    This research is aimed at understanding the dynamics of collaborative multi-party discourse across multiple communication modalities. Before we can truly make sig-nificant strides in devising collaborative communication systems, there is a need to understand how typical users utilize com-putationally supported communications mechanisms such as email, instant mes-saging, video conferencing, chat rooms, etc., both singularly and in conjunction with traditional means of communication such as face-to-face meetings, telephone calls and postal mail. Attempting to un-derstand an individual’s communications profile with access to only a single modal-ity is challenging at best and often futile. Here, we discuss the development of RACE – Retrospective Analysis of Com-munications Events – a test-bed prototype to investigate issues relating to multi-modal multi-party discourse.

  20. Identity-Forming Discourses: A Critical Discourse Analysis on Policy Making Processes Concerning English Language Teaching in Colombia (Discursos que forjan identidades: un análisis crítico de discursos en la formulación de políticas sobre la enseñanza del inglés en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar Alméciga, Wilder Yesid

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses a critical problem about asymmetrical power relationships and uneven conditions in English language education exerted via identity shaping discourses in the document Educación: "Visión 2019" issued by the Colombian Ministry of National Education. The study follows the critical discourse analysis method. It…

  1. Exploring the communication between telenurse and caller—A critical discourse analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hakimnia, Roya; Holmström, Inger K.; Carlsson, Marianne; Höglund, Anna T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Telenursing is an expanding service in most Western societies. Sweden is a front-line country, with all of its 21 counties connected to Swedish Healthcare Direct (SHD) 1177. The intention of the service is twofold: to make health care more efficient, while also making it more accessible and safe for patients. Previous research has shown, however, that the service is not used equitably. Gender, age, socio-economic, and ethnicity differences have been reported as determining factors for the use of the service and the advice given. Aim The aim of the study was to explore the communication between telenurses and callers in authentic calls to SHD 1177. Methodology A qualitative method, using critical discourse analysis (CDA), was chosen. The approach was deductive, that is, the analysis was made in view of a predetermined framework of theory. Twenty calls were strategically chosen and included in the study. Results The CDA resulted in five types of calls, namely a gatekeeping call, a gendered call, a call marked by impersonal traits, a call with voices of the life world, and finally a counter discourse call. The dominating patterns in the calls were of gatekeeping and biomedical character. Patterns of the societal gender order were found, in that representations of the reluctant male caller and the ideal female caller were identified, but also a call representing a counter discourse. The service seemed difficult to use for patients with low language proficiency. Conclusion Telenursing could potentially challenge inequalities in health care. However, the discourse of telenursing is dialectically related to neoliberal ideology and the ideology of medicine. It is also situated in a gendered context of ideal femininity and hegemonic masculinity. Through better awareness of gender biases and the callers’ different resources for making themselves heard, the communication between telenurse and caller might become more equal and thereby better suitable for all callers. PMID:24964860

  2. Examining Bilingual Children's Gender Ideologies through Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Roldan, Carmen M.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a case study of young bilingual students' discussions of literature in a second-grade Spanish/English bilingual classroom in the US. Sociocultural, critical, and Chicana feminist perspectives informed an analysis of the ways the children worked at understanding, marking, and resisting gender boundaries. This critical…

  3. HAZARDOUS MATERIAL SPILLS: A DOCUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF HISTORICAL DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ultimate goal of this study was the prevention of hazardous material spills through application of research effort. The immediate objective was to provide guidance for the choice of research priorities for spill prevention through documentation and analysis of historical inci...

  4. Normative Discourse and Persuasion: An Analysis of Ga'dang Informal Litigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walrod, Michael R.

    A study of the discourse of Ga'dang, a Philippine language, focuses on normative discourse and persuasion, especially the ways in which the former is used to accomplish the latter. The first five chapters outline the theoretical framework of the study, placing normative and persuasive discourse in a philosophical context and relating them to the…

  5. American Catholic nursing. An historical analysis.

    PubMed

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the nursing activities of religious sister nurses as spiritual agents of care during wartime, in railroad and mining centers, and in cities in the United States in the 19th century. This is a story about the workings of religion, gender, social class, ethnicity, and nursing. The sisters' work demonstrates how an analysis of professional nursing is incomplete without an understanding of the roles that a number of Catholic religious women took in reaching out to both Catholics and non-Catholics in the United States. PMID:23802345

  6. Scientific Versus Experiential Evidence: Discourse Analysis of the Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency Debate in a Multiple Sclerosis Forum

    PubMed Central

    Weibezahl, Lara; Friede, Tim; Himmel, Wolfgang; Makedonski, Philip; Grabowski, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Background The vascular hypothesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), called chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI), and its treatment (known as liberation therapy) was immediately rejected by experts but enthusiastically gripped by patients who shared their experiences with other patients worldwide by use of social media, such as patient online forums. Contradictions between scientific information and lay experiences may be a source of distress for MS patients, but we do not know how patients perceive and deal with these contradictions. Objective We aimed to understand whether scientific and experiential knowledge were experienced as contradictory in MS patient online forums and, if so, how these contradictions were resolved and how patients tried to reconcile the CCSVI debate with their own illness history and experience. Methods By using critical discourse analysis, we studied CCSVI-related posts in the patient online forum of the German MS Society in a chronological order from the first post mentioning CCSVI to the time point when saturation was reached. For that time period, a total of 117 CCSVI-related threads containing 1907 posts were identified. We analyzed the interaction and communication practices of and between individuals, looked for the relation between concrete subtopics to identify more abstract discourse strands, and tried to reveal discourse positions explaining how users took part in the CCSVI discussion. Results There was an emotionally charged debate about CCSVI which could be generalized to 2 discourse strands: (1) the “downfall of the professional knowledge providers” and (2) the “rise of the nonprofessional treasure trove of experience.” The discourse strands indicated that the discussion moved away from the question whether scientific or experiential knowledge had more evidentiary value. Rather, the question whom to trust (ie, scientists, fellow sufferers, or no one at all) was of fundamental significance. Four discourse positions could be identified by arranging them into the dimensions “trust in evidence-based knowledge,” “trust in experience-based knowledge,” and “subjectivity” (ie, the emotional character of contributions manifested by the use of popular rhetoric that seemed to mask a deep personal involvement). Conclusions By critical discourse analysis of the CCSVI discussion in a patient online forum, we reconstruct a lay discourse about the evidentiary value of knowledge. We detected evidence criteria in this lay discourse that are different from those in the expert discourse. But we should be cautious to interpret this dissociation as a sign of an intellectual incapability to understand scientific evidence or a naïve trust in experiential knowledge. Instead, it might be an indication of cognitive dissonance reduction to protect oneself against contradictory information. PMID:26133525

  7. "That Racism Thing": A Critical Race Discourse Analysis of a Conflict over the Proposed Closure of a Black High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Felecia M.; Khalifa, Muhammad A.

    2015-01-01

    Using critical race discourse analysis, this study examines descriptions of a heated controversy over the proposed closure of the only primarily black high school in a large urban city. Participants included community members and the district and school leaders who were key in the controversy. Based on Foucault's analysis of power we looked for…

  8. Perpetuating 'New Public Management' at the expense of nurses' patient education: a discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Bergh, Anne-Louise; Friberg, Febe; Persson, Eva; Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the conditions for nurses' daily patient education work by focusing on managers' way of speaking about the patient education provided by nurses in hospital care. An explorative, qualitative design with a social constructionist perspective was used. Data were collected from three focus group interviews and analysed by means of critical discourse analysis. Discursive practice can be explained by the ideology of hegemony. Due to a heavy workload and lack of time, managers could 'see' neither their role as a supporter of the patient education provided by nurses, nor their role in the development of nurses' pedagogical competence. They used organisational, financial, medical and legal reasons for explaining their failure to support nurses' provision of patient education. The organisational discourse was an umbrella term for 'things' such as cost-effectiveness, which were prioritised over patient education. There is a need to remove managerial barriers to the professional development of nurses' patient education. Managers should be responsible for ensuring and overseeing that nurses have the prerequisites necessary for providing patient education as well as for enabling continuous reflective dialogue and opportunities for learning in practice. PMID:25327764

  9. A Study of the Relationship between Historical Analysis and Student Achievement in Eighth Grade American History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this action research project was to study the relationship between Historical Analysis and student performance on the California Standards Test (CSTs), both English Language Arts and History, as well as to study the relationship between Historical Analysis and Reading Comprehension. It was believed that Historical Analysis required…

  10. About Your Color, That's Personal: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Race and Resistance in Urban Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutro, Elizabeth; Kazemi, Elham; Balf, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a critical discourse analysis of a classroom event in which fourth and fifth grade students in a highly diverse urban school interpreted, discussed and responded to a district survey intended to illuminate the social climate of the city's schools, with a particular focus on race and racism. We drew on the three-dimensional…

  11. Multi-Level Discourse Analysis in a Physics Teaching Methods Course from the Psychological Perspective of Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieira, Rodrigo Drumond; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present and apply a multi-level method for discourse analysis in science classrooms. This method is based on the structure of human activity (activity, actions, and operations) and it was applied to study a pre-service physics teacher methods course. We argue that such an approach, based on a cultural psychological perspective,…

  12. A Critical Discourse Analysis of ELT Materials in Gender Representation: A Comparison of "Summit" and "Top Notch"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samadikhah, Mehran; Shahrokhi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the crucial importance of textbooks, their increasing development day by day, and their significant effects on saving time, energy, and budgets, only few studies have been done on textbooks evaluation from a critical discourse analysis perspective. This study aimed to analyze and compare the gender representation in "Top…

  13. Islamists in the Headlines: Critical Discourse Analysis of the Representation of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egyptian Newspapers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasha, Talaat

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how Islamists are socially, discursively and linguistically represented in the Egyptian newspaper "al-Ahram." The main question of this study is what would the Egyptian government do to halt the Brothers' political growth and potential threat? To answer this question, the study uses Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) to examine…

  14. Constructing religious identity and accounting for the relationship between religion and well-being: A discourse analysis

    E-print Network

    Ballantyne, Sylvia

    2011-06-29

    -structured interviews to allow eleven participants to provide their own construction of religion which can then be considered in relation to well-being. Using discourse analysis in the responses to the questions, ‘Are you religious?’, ‘Is there a relationship between...

  15. From Choice to Change: An Analysis of the "Choice" Discourse in Canada's 2006 Federal Election

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Brooke; Langford, Rachel; Friendly, Martha; Rauhala, Ann

    2013-01-01

    A critical discourse analysis (CDA) was used to analyze the representation of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) in the 2006 federal election in Canada. Guided by Fairclough's approach to CDA, this study analyzed written documents including newspaper articles from "The Globe and Mail" and "The National Post", the…

  16. Constructing Teaching and Research Relations from the Top: An Analysis of Senior Manager Discourses on Research-Led Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayson, Susan; Schapper, Jan

    2012-01-01

    To show how research and teaching, core academic activities are discursively shaped through policy discussion we critically identify and examine the institutional effects of senior academics' discourses on research-led teaching. The analysis sheds light on the interrelationship between university policy and the powerful and productive effects of…

  17. A Quantitative Multimodal Discourse Analysis of Teaching and Learning in a Web-Conferencing Environment--The Efficacy of Student-Centred Learning Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Matt; Hedberg, John G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative approach to multimodal discourse analysis for analyzing online collaborative learning. The coding framework draws together the fields of systemic functional linguistics and Activity Theory to analyze interactions between collaborative-, content- and technology-related discourse. The approach is used to examine…

  18. An Analysis of the Discourses on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in US Special Education Textbooks, with Implications for Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Justin E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the discourses on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) found in textbooks used in pre-service special education programmes in the USA. Five textbooks are examined with the intent of discovering how ADHD is portrayed to future teachers. A discourse analysis framework is utilised, revealing five…

  19. Cleft constructions in discourse 

    E-print Network

    Delin, Judith Lesley

    1990-01-01

    This thesis presents an analysis of the structure and function of cleft constructions in discourse. Drawing on a corpus of naturally-occurring spoken and written data, we present a multi-layered explanation of how ...

  20. Physicians and euthanasia: a Canadian print-media discourse analysis of physician perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David Kenneth; Karsoho, Hadi; Sandham, Sarah; Macdonald, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent events in Canada have mobilized public debate concerning the controversial issue of euthanasia. Physicians represent an essential stakeholder group with respect to the ethics and practice of euthanasia. Further, their opinions can hold sway with the public, and their public views about this issue may further reflect back upon the medical profession itself. Methods We conducted a discourse analysis of print media on physicians’ perspectives about end-of-life care. Print media, in English and French, that appeared in Canadian newspapers from 2008 to 2012 were retrieved through a systematic database search. We analyzed the content of 285 articles either authored by a physician or directly referencing a physician’s perspective. Results We identified 3 predominant discourses about physicians’ public views toward euthanasia: 1) contentions about integrating euthanasia within the basic mission of medicine, 2) assertions about whether euthanasia can be distinguished from other end-of-life medical practices and 3) palliative care advocacy. Interpretation Our data showed that although some medical professional bodies appear to be supportive in the media of a movement toward the legalization of euthanasia, individual physicians are represented as mostly opposed. Professional physician organizations and the few physicians who have engaged with the media are de facto representing physicians in public contemporary debates on medical aid in dying, in general, and euthanasia, in particular. It is vital for physicians to be aware of this public debate, how they are being portrayed within it and its potential effects on impending changes to provincial and national policies. PMID:26389090

  1. Discourse Synthesis, Analysis and Their Application to CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Stanley Y. W.; Moore, Robert L.

    This paper deals with the computer's production and recognition of sentences in a connected discourse and its application to computer assisted instruction. Studies of textual properties in real discourses have been carried out at the paragraph level. The theoretical concepts of representing paragraph content in terms of (1) the factual data…

  2. Childcare Workforce Reform in England and "The Early Years Professional": A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osgood, Jayne

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the ways in which nursery workers are constructed through government discourse in England. This is done by offering a deconstruction of key policy texts. The discursive construction of "the nursery worker" within government discourses has shifted over time but currently occupies a highly politicised position. It is…

  3. Thinking, Writing, Talking: A Discourse Analysis of Writing Instruction for Boys with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madigan, Timothy P.

    2007-01-01

    This article illustrates the importance of classroom discourse and its effect on the writing of students with dyslexia; specifically, this article examines the nature of discourse that took place within the context of two writing classrooms at The Garden School (pseudonym). When teaching students with dyslexia, the teachers in this study followed…

  4. Use of cartography in historical seismicity analysis: a reliable tool to better apprehend the contextualization of the historical documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, Fradet; Grégory, Quenet; Kevin, Manchuel

    2014-05-01

    Historical studies, including historical seismicity analysis, deal with historical documents. Numerous factors, such as culture, social condition, demography, political situations and opinions or religious ones influence the way the events are transcribed in the archives. As a consequence, it is crucial to contextualize and compare the historical documents reporting on a given event in order to reduce the uncertainties affecting their analysis and interpretation. When studying historical seismic events it is often tricky to have a global view of all the information provided by the historical documents. It is also difficult to extract cross-correlated information from the documents and draw a precise historical context. Use of cartographic and geographic tools in GIS software is the best tool for the synthesis, interpretation and contextualization of the historical material. The main goal is to produce the most complete dataset of available information, in order to take into account all the components of the historical context and consequently improve the macroseismic analysis. The Entre-Deux-Mers earthquake (1759, Iepc= VII-VIII) [SISFRANCE 2013 - EDF-IRSN-BRGM] is well documented but has never benefited from a cross-analysis of historical documents and historical context elements. The map of available intensity data from SISFRANCE highlights a gap in macroseismic information within the estimated epicentral area. The aim of this study is to understand the origin of this gap by making a cartographic compilation of both, archive information and historical context elements. The results support the hypothesis that the lack of documents and macroseismic data in the epicentral area is related to a low human activity rather than low seismic effects in this zone. Topographic features, geographical position, flood hazard, roads and pathways locations, vineyards distribution and the forester coverage, mentioned in the archives and reported on the Cassini's map confirm this hypothesis. The location of the recently explored documentary sources evidence that there was no notarial activity in this particular area at that time. The importance of the economic and political dominance of Bordeaux during the XVIIth-XVIIIth centuries has to be taken into account in order to apprehend the way the earthquake was reported by the population at the regional scale. Elements related to chimneys forms or construction techniques could in turn help in identifying regional peculiarities allowing better quantifying the vulnerability aspects of the region.

  5. Reduced Space Optimal Analysis for Historical Data Sets: 136 years of Atlantic Sea Surface Temperatures

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Reduced Space Optimal Analysis for Historical Data Sets: 136 years of Atlantic Sea Surface meteorological and oceanographic historical data sets has been developed. The method combines data gaps, correct sampling errors, and produce spatially and temporally coherent analyzed data sets

  6. Expanding discourse repertoires with hybridity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Gregory J.

    2012-09-01

    In "Hybrid discourse practice and science learning" Kamberelis and Wehunt present a theoretically rich argument about the potential of hybrid discourses for science learning. These discourses draw from different forms of "talk, social practice, and material practices" to create interactions that are "intertextually complex" and "interactionally dynamic." The hybrid discourse practices are described as involving the dynamic interplay of at least three key elements: "the lamination of multiple cultural frames, the shifting relations between people and their discourse, and the shifting power relations between and among people." Each of these elements requires a respective unit of analysis and are often mutually reinforcing. The authors present a theoretically cogent argument for the study of hybrid discourse practices and identify the potential such discourses may have for science education. This theoretical development leads to an analysis of spoken and written discourse around a set of educational events concerning the investigation of owl pellets by two fifth grade students, their classmates, and teacher. Two discourse segments are presented and analyzed by the authors in detail. The first is a discourse analysis of the dissection of the owl pellet by two students, Kyle and Max. The second analysis examines the science report of these same two students. In this article, I pose a number of questions about the study with the hope that by doing so I expand the conversation around the insightful analysis presented.

  7. Non-destructive compositional analysis of historic organ reed pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manescu, A.; Fiori, F.; Giuliani, A.; Kardjilov, N.; Kasztovszky, Z.; Rustichelli, F.; Straumal, B.

    2008-03-01

    In order to be able to reproduce historic organ reed pipes, a bulk non-destructive chemical composition analysis was performed on the tongues and shallots, focusing mainly on the ratio between copper and zinc and on the presence of lead. Prompt gamma activation analysis results allowed us to observe for the first time that the ratio between the two main components of the brass alloy changed from Cu:Zn = 3:1 for the old tongues and shallots to Cu:Zn = 2:1 around the middle of the 18th century, which is typical also for the modern alloys offered to the organ builders nowadays. We also discovered that the Pb content in the old historic brass alloy diminished until the middle of 18th century when the brass alloy became mainly Pb free. The non-uniform lead distribution inside one of the shallots obtained from a prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) experiment was studied by neutron tomography. It gave us a three-dimensonal (3D) distribution of the lead inclusions inside the shallots. The lead particles are concentrated towards the base of the shallot.

  8. Mapping Mathematics in Classroom Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth A.; Otten, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a particular analytic method from systemic functional linguistics, "thematic analysis," which reveals the mathematical meaning potentials construed in discourse. Addressing concerns that discourse analysis is too often content-free, thematic analysis provides a way to represent semantic structures of mathematical content,…

  9. [Discourses on the nursing and psychiatric nurse models, published in the Annals of Nursing (1933-1951)].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Michelle de Macedo; Padilha, Maria Itayra; de Oliveira, Alexandre Barbosa; Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco; Filho, Antonio José de Almeida; Peres, Maria Angélica de Almeida

    2014-06-01

    Social-historical study aimed at discussing the nursing and psychiatric nurse models, from the discourses published in the Annals of Nursing.The historical sources were articles published in the Annals of Nursing journal, from 1933 to 1951. An analysis of the discourse was subsidized by the genealogy of power by Michel Foucault.The analysis showed that the discourse on nursing and the psychiatric nurse, in the first half of the 20th century, is set, on one side, by the propositions used by psychiatrists, who sought to reiterate stereotypes and vocations to practice nursing, and, on the other side, by the active participation of nurses seeking to legitimize expertise for psychiatric nursing. It was concluded that the discourses analyzed defined a psychiatric care focused on the nurse and not the rest of the nursing staff, at that time. PMID:25158460

  10. Terahertz analysis of an East Asian historical mural painting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukunaga, K.; Hosako, I.; Kohdzuma, Y.; Koezuka, T.; Kim, M.-J.; Ikari, T.; Du, X.

    2010-05-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and THz and imaging techniques are expected to have great potential for the non-invasive analysis of artworks. We have applied THz imaging to analyse the historic mural painting of a Lamaism temple by using a transportable time-domain THz imaging system; such an attempt is the first in the world. The reflection image revealed that there are two orange colours in the painting, although they appear the same to the naked eye. THz imaging can also estimate the depth of cracks. The colours were examined by X-ray fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy, and the results were found to be in good agreement. This work proved that THz imaging can contribute to the non-invasive analysis of cultural heritage.

  11. Discourses of Education and Constitutions of Class: Public Discourses on Education in Swedish PBS Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimers, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on post-structural perspectives and analysis of television programs on education, the article investigates the public educational discourse in Sweden. It shows how a dominant neoliberal educational discourse is articulated together with a discourse of equal education, where the two discourses influence and subvert each other so that…

  12. Gene Ontology density estimation and discourse analysis for automatic GeneRiF extraction

    PubMed Central

    Gobeill, Julien; Tbahriti, Imad; Ehrler, Frédéric; Mottaz, Anaïs; Veuthey, Anne-Lise; Ruch, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Background This paper describes and evaluates a sentence selection engine that extracts a GeneRiF (Gene Reference into Functions) as defined in ENTREZ-Gene based on a MEDLINE record. Inputs for this task include both a gene and a pointer to a MEDLINE reference. In the suggested approach we merge two independent sentence extraction strategies. The first proposed strategy (LASt) uses argumentative features, inspired by discourse-analysis models. The second extraction scheme (GOEx) uses an automatic text categorizer to estimate the density of Gene Ontology categories in every sentence; thus providing a full ranking of all possible candidate GeneRiFs. A combination of the two approaches is proposed, which also aims at reducing the size of the selected segment by filtering out non-content bearing rhetorical phrases. Results Based on the TREC-2003 Genomics collection for GeneRiF identification, the LASt extraction strategy is already competitive (52.78%). When used in a combined approach, the extraction task clearly shows improvement, achieving a Dice score of over 57% (+10%). Conclusions Argumentative representation levels and conceptual density estimation using Gene Ontology contents appear complementary for functional annotation in proteomics. PMID:18426554

  13. Environmental assessment in The Netherlands: Effectively governing environmental protection? A discourse analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Runhaar, Hens; Laerhoven, Frank van; Driessen, Peter; Arts, Jos

    2013-02-15

    Environmental assessment (EA) aims to enhance environmental awareness and to ensure that environmental values are fully considered in decision-making. In the EA arena, different discourses exist on what EA should aim for and how it functions. We hypothesise that these discourses influence its application in practice as well as its effectiveness in terms of achieving the above goals. For instance, actors who consider EA as a hindrance to fast implementation of their projects will probably apply it as a mandatory checklist, whereas actors who believe that EA can help to develop more environmentally sound decisions will use EIA as a tool to design their initiatives. In this paper we explore discourses on EA in The Netherlands and elaborate on their implications for EA effectiveness. Based on an innovative research design comprising an online survey with 443 respondents and 20 supplementary semi-structured interviews we conclude that the dominant discourse is that EA is mainly a legal requirement; EAs are conducted because they have to be conducted, not because actors choose to do so. EA effectiveness however seems reasonably high, as a majority of respondents perceive that it enhances environmental awareness and contributes to environmental protection. However, the 'legal requirement' discourse also results in decision-makers seldom going beyond what is prescribed by EA and environmental law. Despite its mandatory character, the predominant attitude towards EA is quite positive. For most respondents, EA is instrumental in providing transparency of decision-making and in minimising the legal risks of not complying with environmental laws. Differences in discourses seldom reflect extreme opposites. The 'common ground' regarding EA provides a good basis for working with EA in terms of meeting legal requirements but at the same time does not stimulate creativity in decision-making or optimisation of environmental values. In countries characterised by less consensual political cultures we may expect more extreme discourses on EA, the consequences of which are reflected upon in this paper. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effectiveness of environmental assessment (EA) depends in part on meanings associated with EA (i.e., discourse). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our results suggest that the general discourse in The Netherlands is that EA is a legal requirement, nothing more. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This discourse makes EA effective in protecting the environment, but not in the optimisation of environmental values. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EA has a limited contribution to the development of policy alternatives or innovative solutions to environmental problems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a high consensus among EA professionals, providing a common ground for working with EA.

  14. Towards proteomic analysis of milk proteins in historical building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuckova, S.; Crhova, M.; Vankova, L.; Hnizda, A.; Hynek, R.; Kodicek, M.

    2009-07-01

    The addition of proteinaceous binders to mortars and plasters has a long tradition. The protein additions were identified in many sacral and secular historical buildings. For this method of peptide mass mapping, three model mortar samples with protein additives were prepared. These samples were analysed fresh (1-2 weeks old) and after 9 months of natural ageing. The optimal duration of tryptic cleavage (2 h) and the lowest amount of material needed for relevant analysis of fresh and weathered samples were found; the sufficient amounts of weathered and fresh mortars were set to 0.05 and 0.005 g. The list of main tryptic peptides coming from milk additives (bovine milk, curd, and whey), their relative intensities and theoretical amino acid sequences assignment is presented. Several sequences have been "de novo" confirmed by mass spectrometry.

  15. Changing Policy Discourses: Constructing Literacy Inequalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mary; Pitt, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the ways in which policy discourses have constructed rationales for addressing adult literacy over the last 50 years. In particular, we examine how policy positions the literacy learner as citizen within discourses of rights and equity. Taking the case of the UK, we compare two key documents produced at different historical

  16. Isogeometric analysis: a powerful numerical tool for the elastic analysis of historical masonry arches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzani, Antonio; Malagù, Marcello; Turco, Emilio

    2014-12-01

    We illustrate a numerical tool for analyzing plane arches such as those frequently used in historical masonry heritage. It is based on a refined elastic mechanical model derived from the isogeometric approach. In particular, geometry and displacements are modeled by means of non-uniform rational B-splines. After a brief introduction, outlining the basic assumptions of this approach and the corresponding modeling choices, several numerical applications to arches, which are typical of masonry structures, show the performance of this novel technique. These are discussed in detail to emphasize the advantage and potential developments of isogeometric analysis in the field of structural analysis of historical masonry buildings with complex geometries.

  17. Discourse-voice regulatory strategies in the psychotherapeutic interaction: a state-space dynamics analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tomicic, Alemka; Martínez, Claudio; Pérez, J. Carola; Hollenstein, Tom; Angulo, Salvador; Gerstmann, Adam; Barroux, Isabelle; Krause, Mariane

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to provide evidence of the dynamics associated with the configurations of discourse-voice regulatory strategies in patient–therapist interactions in relevant episodes within psychotherapeutic sessions. Its central assumption is that discourses manifest themselves differently in terms of their prosodic characteristics according to their regulatory functions in a system of interactions. The association between discourse and vocal quality in patients and therapists was analyzed in a sample of 153 relevant episodes taken from 164 sessions of five psychotherapies using the state space grid (SSG) method, a graphical tool based on the dynamic systems theory (DST). The results showed eight recurrent and stable discourse-voice regulatory strategies of the patients and three of the therapists. Also, four specific groups of these discourse-voice strategies were identified. The latter were interpreted as regulatory configurations, that is to say, as emergent self-organized groups of discourse-voice regulatory strategies constituting specific interactional systems. Both regulatory strategies and their configurations differed between two types of relevant episodes: Change Episodes and Rupture Episodes. As a whole, these results support the assumption that speaking and listening, as dimensions of the interaction that takes place during therapeutic conversation, occur at different levels. The study not only shows that these dimensions are dependent on each other, but also that they function as a complex and dynamic whole in therapeutic dialog, generating relational offers which allow the patient and the therapist to regulate each other and shape the psychotherapeutic process that characterizes each type of relevant episode. PMID:25932014

  18. Teaching ethics in engineering education through historical analysis.

    PubMed

    Billington, David P

    2006-04-01

    The goal of this paper is to stress the significance of ethics for engineering education and to illustrate how it can be brought into the mainstream of higher education in a natural way that is integrated with the teaching objectives of enriching the core meaning of engineering. Everyone will agree that the practicing engineer should be virtuous, should be a good colleague, and should use professional understanding for the common good. But these injunctions to virtue do not reach closely enough the ethic of the engineer as engineer, as someone acting in a uniquely engineering situation, and it is to such conditions that I wish to speak through a set of specific examples from recent history. I shall briefly refer to four controversies between engineers. Then, in some detail I shall narrate three historical cases that directly involve the actions of one engineer, and finally I would like to address some common contemporary issues. The first section, Engineering Ethics and the History of Innovation, includes four cases involving professional controversy. Each controversy sets two people against each other in disputes over who invented the telegraph, the radio, the automobile, and the airplane. In each dispute, it is possible to identify ethical and unethical behavior or ambiguous ethical behavior that serves as a basis for educational discussion. The first two historical cases described in "Crises and the Engineer" involve the primary closure dam systems in The Netherlands, each one the result of the actions of one engineer. The third tells of an American engineer who took his political boss, a big city mayor, to court over the illegal use of a watershed. The challenges these engineers faced required, in the deepest sense, a commitment to ethical behavior that is unique to engineering and instructive to our students. Finally, the cases in "Professors and Comparative Critical Analysis" illuminate the behavior of engineers in the design of structures and also how professors can make public criticisms of designs that seem wasteful. PMID:16609709

  19. Discourse Structure

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Steven T.

    1976-08-17

    An essential step in understanding connected discourse is the ability to link the meanings of successive sentences together. Given a growing database to which new sentence meanings must be linked, which out of many possible ...

  20. Discourse comprehension.

    PubMed

    Graesser, A C; Millis, K K; Zwaan, R A

    1997-01-01

    The field of discourse processing has dissected many of the levels of representation that are constructed when individuals read or listen to connected discourse. These levels include the surface code, the propositional textbase, the referential situation model, the communication context, and the discourse genre. Discourse psychologists have developed models that specify how these levels are mentally represented and how they are dynamically built during comprehension. This chapter focuses on the meaning representations that are constructed when adults read written text, such as literary stories, technical expository text, and experimenter-generated "textoids." Recent psychological models have attempted to account for the identification of referents of referring expressions (e.g. which person in the text does she refer to), the connection of explicit text segments, the establishment of local and global coherence, and the encoding of knowledge-based inferences. PMID:15012477

  1. Genetic analysis of modern and historical burned human remains.

    PubMed

    von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole; Ringleb, Arne; Gebühr, Michael; Simeoni, Eva

    2005-03-01

    Burning of corpses is a well-known funeral procedure that has been performed for a long time in many cultures. Nowadays more and more corpses are burned in crematories and buried in urns, often for practical and financial reasons. In some scientific, criminal or civil cases even after cremation there is the need of genetic investigations for identification or paternity testing. Furthermore, burned remains are the only remains left in North Europe from 1200 BC to 500 AD. This makes genetic investigation of those materials interesting for anthropological reasons. We present on one hand a systematic investigation of 10 corpses before and after the cremation and on the other hand the analysis of seven historical remains representing the bronze age. We chose the ground bone powder and the less destroyed bone parts respectively and employed a slightly modified commercially available DNA extraction method. The presence of human nuclear and mitochondrial DNA was tested by a simple but highly sensitive Duplex-PCR. DNA quantification was done using real time PCR, and genetic typing was tried out using the AmpFISTR Identifiler Multiplex Kit, followed by an automatic analysis on an AbiPrism310. PMID:15830583

  2. Identification of historical Veziragasi aqueduct using the operational modal analysis.

    PubMed

    Ercan, E; Nuhoglu, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a model updating study conducted on a historical aqueduct, called Veziragasi, in Turkey. The output-only modal identification results obtained from ambient vibration measurements of the structure were used to update a finite element model of the structure. For the purposes of developing a solid model of the structure, the dimensions of the structure, defects, and material degradations in the structure were determined in detail by making a measurement survey. For evaluation of the material properties of the structure, nondestructive and destructive testing methods were applied. The modal analysis of the structure was calculated by FEM. Then, a nondestructive dynamic test as well as operational modal analysis was carried out and dynamic properties were extracted. The natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes were determined from both theoretical and experimental modal analyses and compared with each other. A good harmony was attained between mode shapes, but there were some differences between natural frequencies. The sources of the differences were introduced and the FEM model was updated by changing material parameters and boundary conditions. Finally, the real analytical model of the aqueduct was put forward and the results were discussed. PMID:24511287

  3. Identification of Historical Veziragasi Aqueduct Using the Operational Modal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, E.; Nuhoglu, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a model updating study conducted on a historical aqueduct, called Veziragasi, in Turkey. The output-only modal identification results obtained from ambient vibration measurements of the structure were used to update a finite element model of the structure. For the purposes of developing a solid model of the structure, the dimensions of the structure, defects, and material degradations in the structure were determined in detail by making a measurement survey. For evaluation of the material properties of the structure, nondestructive and destructive testing methods were applied. The modal analysis of the structure was calculated by FEM. Then, a nondestructive dynamic test as well as operational modal analysis was carried out and dynamic properties were extracted. The natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes were determined from both theoretical and experimental modal analyses and compared with each other. A good harmony was attained between mode shapes, but there were some differences between natural frequencies. The sources of the differences were introduced and the FEM model was updated by changing material parameters and boundary conditions. Finally, the real analytical model of the aqueduct was put forward and the results were discussed. PMID:24511287

  4. Students' Experiences in Interdisciplinary Problembased Learning: A Discourse Analysis of Group Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imafuku, Rintaro; Kataoka, Ryuta; Mayahara, Mitsuori; Suzuki, Hisayoshi; Saiki, Takuya

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary problem-based learning (PBL) aims to provide students with opportunities to develop the necessary skills to work with different health professionals in a collaborative manner. This discourse study examined the processes of collective knowledge construction in Japanese students in the tutorials. Analyses of video-recorded data…

  5. Literacy Models and the Reconstruction of History Education: A Comparative Discourse Analysis of Two Lesson Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin, Ross; Reich, Gabriel A.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents discourse analyses of two lesson plans designed for secondary school history classes. Although the plans focus on the same topic, they rely on different models of content area literacy: disciplinary literacy, or reading and writing like experts in a given domain, and critical literacy, or reading and writing to address…

  6. A Discourse Analysis: How Politicians and Citizens talk about their own Carbon Footprints 

    E-print Network

    Freeden, Elspeth E. R.

    2010-06-30

    the impact human activity is having on our planet. Several discourse analyses, including that by Kurz, Donaghue, Rapley & Walker (2005), have looked into how people talk about their impact on the environment in reference to specific areas, in Kurz et al...

  7. Citizenship and Citizenship Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Zimbabwe Presidential Commission Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigauke, Aaron T.

    2011-01-01

    Educational discourse, like other fields, is not neutral. Through policy documents it has ideological functions of transmitting dominant cultures and serving certain sectional interest groups. In Zimbabwe 1998 was characterized by radical political discontent as witnessed by a rise in student activism and the formation of the main political…

  8. (Un)Earthing a Vocabulary of Values: A Discourse Analysis for Ecocomposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author aims to propose an analytic method through which composition students and others might discover and understand the ecological complexities of prevailing environmental terminology that create "wicked problems." Through this method, students engage in "discursive ecology" by exploring the connections among discourse,…

  9. The Constraints of Metaphor: An Analysis of Three Centuries of American Indian Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German, Kathleen M.

    The use of figurative language permeates American Indian discourse, across differences in time, geography, and tribal culture. Traditionally, the presence of figurative language has been attributed to a compulsion for decoration and to a need for mnemonic devices. However, neither of these explanations accounts for changes in the rich tapestry of…

  10. Semio-Pragmatic Analysis of Cartoons Discourse: A Step towards Semiotranslation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlBzour, Naser Naif

    2011-01-01

    The primary concern of this study is to explore the subtle implications of the "Semiotranslation Approach vis-a-vis" analyzing the semiotic elements of discourse in Jordanian cartoons as creative artistic texts in which various signs manifest simultaneous interaction, thus achieving both entertainment and purposeful satire. Therefore, the…

  11. Pedagogising Poverty Alleviation: A Discourse Analysis of Educational and Social Policies in Argentina and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambla, Xavier; Veger, Antoni

    2009-01-01

    For the past decades international organisations and governments have promoted and implemented analogous education policies on the grounds that education is the key factor to foster development and fight poverty. This article sets the context of these educational programmes and analyses their discourse on poverty in Argentina and Chile. Then, it…

  12. Researching Writing Events: Using Mediated Discourse Analysis to Explore How Students Write Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rish, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses how mediated discourse theory and related analytical tools can be used to explore how students write together. Considered within a sociocultural framework that conceptualises writing as involving distributed, mediated and dialogic processes of invention, this article presents an investigation of how three high school…

  13. Identification and Disidentification in Organizational Discourse: A Metaphor Analysis of E-Mail Communication at Enron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnage, Anna K.

    2010-01-01

    This project is situated within the interpretive tradition in organizational communication research, focusing on organizational discourse. It goes further by bringing the discussion into the 21st century through examining how communication technology--specifically e-mail--plays a role in the linguistic practices that help create, maintain and…

  14. Perfect harmony: A mathematical analysis of four historical tunings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Michael F.

    2004-10-01

    In Western music, a musical interval defined by the frequency ratio of two notes is generally considered consonant when the ratio is composed of small integers. Perfect harmony or an ``ideal just scale,'' which has no exact solution, would require the division of an octave into 12 notes, each of which would be used to create six other consonant intervals. The purpose of this study is to analyze four well-known historical tunings to evaluate how well each one approximates perfect harmony. The analysis consists of a general evaluation in which all consonant intervals are given equal weighting and a specific evaluation for three preludes from Bach's ``Well-Tempered Clavier,'' for which intervals are weighted in proportion to the duration of their occurrence. The four tunings, 5-limit just intonation, quarter-comma meantone temperament, well temperament (Werckmeister III), and equal temperament, are evaluated by measures of centrality, dispersion, distance, and dissonance. When all keys and consonant intervals are equally weighted, equal temperament demonstrates the strongest performance across a variety of measures, although it is not always the best tuning. Given C as the starting note for each tuning, equal temperament and well temperament perform strongly for the three ``Well-Tempered Clavier'' preludes examined. .

  15. Going South: Analysis of an Historic Project Engineering Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John H.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's successful conduct of the Apollo Program greatly enhanced the prestige of the United States and remains broadly accepted as America's gift to all Mankind. NASA's accomplishments continue to amaze the world. With the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) Americans once again tasked NASA to carry out a project that is expected to provide inspiration and economic stimulus to the United States and to the world. In preparation NASA has thoroughly examined space program precedents. There is, however, another precedent which has not been examined in this context but whose scope and environment in many ways parallel the VSE. This project was initiated by a team that had, ten years before, successfully completed an effort that, at a cost of $173 billion (in 2008 dollars), had pushed the envelope of technology, brought economic growth, established their country as the world leader in engineering, and been broadly accepted as that country's gift to all Mankind. The new project was again inspired by popular desire to enhance national prestige and make yet another major contribution to Humanity. This effort was predicted to require eight years and $156 billion (2008 dollars). However, after nine years and expenditures of 96% beyond the baseline, the project collapsed amid bankruptcy, political scandal, and criminal prosecution. This paper applies current project management metrics, such as earned value analysis, to review the strategic decisions in this historic failure and describe its ultimate collapse. Key mistakes are identified, and lessons are drawn which may prove useful in guiding the VSE.

  16. Latino Educational Opportunity in Discourse and Policy: A Critical and Policy Discourse Analysis of the White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Susana

    2013-01-01

    This study interrogates how federal policy discursively shapes Latino educational opportunity and equity. The White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanics (WHIEEH) represents the pre-eminent federal discourse on Latino educational opportunity, and sets the parameters by which institutions are able to be informed and respond to…

  17. Capitalizing on Synergies—A Discourse Analysis of the Process of Collaboration Among Providers of Integrative Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Andermo, Susanne; Sundberg, Tobias; Forsberg, Christina; Falkenberg, Torkel

    2015-01-01

    Background Integrative health care (IHC) combines therapies and providers from complementary and conventional health care. Previous studies on IHC have shown power relations between providers but few studies have explored how the interaction develops over time. The objective of this study was to explore the development of IHC collaboration and interaction among participating providers during a series of consensus case conferences for managing patients with back and neck pain. Methods This qualitative study was conducted within a pragmatic randomized controlled clinical trial in primary care. Patients' treatment plans were developed based on IHC provider consensus conferences (n = 26) of which 15 (5 of the first, 5 in the middle, and 5 of the last in the clinical trial) were selected for analysis. Findings were derived by means of discourse analysis, focusing on the participants’ use of subject positions during the conferences. Findings The IHC team in this study gradually formed a group identity, moving their subject positions from individual treating subjects to members of a team and were able to make consensus-based decisions about patients’ individual treatment plans. In the discourse, the IHC team identified collaborative shortcomings and problematized the provision of IHC. They were able to capitalize on the synergies in their collaboration and developed a shared vision of IHC provision. Conclusions The process of IHC collaboration involved the gradual formation of an IHC team identity, which facilitated interdisciplinary, non-hierarchical consensus-based decision-making in the team. The discourse further suggests that a reform of some legal and organizational health sector barriers might be needed to realize sustainable implementation of IHC services in Sweden. PMID:25793967

  18. Choice and compassion at the end of life: A critical analysis of recent English policy discourse.

    PubMed

    Borgstrom, Erica; Walter, Tony

    2015-07-01

    End of life care in England has recently been framed by two very different discourses. One (connected to advance care planning) promotes personal choice, the other promotes compassionate care; both are prominent in professional, policy and media settings. The article outlines the history of who promoted each discourse from 2008 to early 2015, when, why and how and this was done. Each discourse is then critically analysed from a standpoint that takes account of bodily decline, structural constraints, and human relationality. We focus on the biggest group of those nearing the end of their life, namely frail very old people suffering multiple conditions. In their care within contemporary healthcare organisations, choice becomes a tick box and compassion a commodity. Informed choice, whether at the end of life or in advance of it, does not guarantee the death the person wants, especially for those dying of conditions other than cancer and in the absence of universally available skilled and compassionate care. Enabling healthcare staff to provide compassionate, relational care, however, implies reversing the philosophical, political and financial direction of healthcare in the UK and most other Anglophone countries. PMID:25989003

  19. [Communication, discourse and dementia].

    PubMed

    Ska, Bernadette; Duong, Anh

    2005-06-01

    The construction-integration model (Kintsch, 1988) offers a frame for discourse analysis. This model defines four representation levels: the surface level or linguistic form, the base text or semantic level, the situation model built by combining information from the text and personal world knowledge, and the organization level. This study describes discourse produced by 46 Alzheimer patients and 53 normal elderly subjects in two picture-elicited production tasks: a single picture and a sequence of pictures. Globally, the single picture task is a more difficult situation for Alzheimer patients. The impaired levels in dementia are surface level, situation model and organization. Therefore, Kintsch model allows a distinction among discourse productions by normal elderly and mild to moderate Alzheimer patients. PMID:15929926

  20. HISTORICAL ANALYSIS, A VALUABLE TOOL IN COMMUNITY-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A historical analysis of the ecological consequences of development can be a valuable tool in community-based environmental protection. These studies can engage the public in environmental issues and lead to informed decision making. Historical studies provide an understanding of...

  1. Improvements to NOAA's Historical Merged LandOcean Surface Temperature Analysis (18802006)

    E-print Network

    Improvements to NOAA's Historical Merged Land­Ocean Surface Temperature Analysis (1880­2006) THOMAS Observations of sea surface and land­near-surface merged temperature anomalies are used to monitor climate the historical period. This manuscript documents recent improvements in NOAA's merged global surface temperature

  2. Reduced Space Optimal Analysis for Historical Data Sets: 136 years of Atlantic Sea Surface Temperatures

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    Reduced Space Optimal Analysis for Historical Data Sets: 136 years of Atlantic Sea Surface and oceanographic historical data sets has been developed. The method combines data-reduction and least squares, correct sampling errors, and produce spatially and temporally coherent analyzed data sets

  3. Mises au point et perspectives a propos de l'analyse automatique du discours (Focuses and Perspectives with Regard to Machine Discourse Analysis)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecheux, Michel; Fuchs, Catherine

    1975-01-01

    Part One discusses social formation, language, discourse, and ideology, and linguistics as a theory of syntactic mechanisms and processes of enunciation. Part Two deals with new criticisms of program design, linguistic analysis, and discursive process analysis. (Text is in French.) (Author/MSE)

  4. The (Bio)politics of Engagement: Shifts in Singapore's Policy and Public Discourse on Civics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weninger, Csilla; Kho, Ee Moi

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a historical overview of civic educational policy and political discourse in Singapore from 1959 to 2011, focusing on changes in the role attributed to students in the education process. A review of educational programmes and analysis of political speeches reveals that an earlier transmissionist approach that focused on value…

  5. Disclosing discourses: biomedical and hospitality discourses in patient education materials.

    PubMed

    Öresland, Stina; Friberg, Febe; Määttä, Sylvia; Öhlen, Joakim

    2015-09-01

    Patient education materials have the potential to strengthen the health literacy of patients. Previous studies indicate that readability and suitability may be improved. The aim of this study was to explore and analyze discourses inherent in patient education materials since analysis of discourses could illuminate values and norms inherent in them. Clinics in Sweden that provided colorectal cancer surgery allowed access to written information and 'welcome letters' sent to patients. The material was analysed by means of discourse analysis, embedded in Derrida's approach of deconstruction. The analysis revealed a biomedical discourse and a hospitality discourse. In the biomedical discourse, the subject position of the personnel was interpreted as the messenger of medical information while that of the patients as the carrier of diagnoses and recipients of biomedical information. In the hospitality discourse, the subject position of the personnel was interpreted as hosts who invite and welcome the patients as guests. The study highlights the need to eliminate paternalism and fosters a critical reflective stance among professionals regarding power and paternalism inherent in health care communication. PMID:25847051

  6. The Discourse of "Environmentalist Hysteria."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killingsworth, M. Jimmie; Palmer, Jacqueline S.

    1995-01-01

    Fleshes out a model of hysterical discourse, and applies it to an analysis of the charges and countercharges of "environmentalist hysteria." Gives special attention to the book that drew the earliest accusations of hysteria, Rachel Carson's "Silent Spring." (SR)

  7. Teacher Recertification: A Historical Analysis of the Illinois Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodbeck, Nancy Negley

    2009-01-01

    License renewal and recertification have long been standard practice in service professions. Ten years ago, a new law called for policy revision and mandated that Illinois teachers acquire continuing professional development to maintain certification. This study provides a historical perspective of the Illinois teacher recertification process,…

  8. Public discourse on HIV/AIDS: an archival analysis of national newspaper reporting in Uganda, 1996–2011

    PubMed Central

    Lagone, Elizabeth; Mathur, Sanyukta; Nakyanjo, Neema; Nalugoda, Fred; Santelli, John

    2014-01-01

    Uganda is recognised as an early success story in the HIV epidemic at least in part due to an open and vigorous national dialogue about HIV prevention. This study examined the national discourse about HIV, AIDS, and young people in New Vision, Uganda's leading national newspaper between 1996 and 2011, building from a previous archival analysis of New Vision reporting by Kirby (1986-1995). We examined the continuing evolution in the public discourse in Uganda, focusing on reporting about young people. An increase in reporting on HIV and AIDS occurred after 2003, as antiretroviral treatment was becoming available. While the emphasis in newspaper reporting about adults and the population at large evolved to reflect the development of new HIV treatment and prevention methods, the majority of the articles focused on young people did not change. Articles about young people continued to emphasise HIV acquisition due to early and premarital sexual activity and the need for social support services for children affected by HIV and AIDS. Articles often did not report on the complex social conditions that shape HIV-related risk among young people, or address young people who are sexually active, married, and/or HIV infected. With HIV prevalence now increasing among young people and adults in Uganda, greater attention to HIV prevention is needed. PMID:25132802

  9. Computer-Supported Collaborative Inquiry on Buoyancy: A Discourse Analysis Supporting the "Pieces" Position on Conceptual Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcotte, Sandrine

    2012-12-01

    This article describes in detail a conversation analysis of conceptual change in a computer-supported collaborative learning environment. Conceptual change is an essential learning process in science education that has yet to be fully understood. While many models and theories have been developed over the last three decades, empirical data to support them are scarce. The present paper aims to provide such evidence. To this end, the article first reviews seven proposed models of conceptual change before it recalls the main ideas behind the two different positions on conceptual change, the pieces (diSessa 2008) versus coherence (Vosniadou et al. 2008) positions. Then, the article presents and discusses how a close discourse analysis of asynchronous collaborative conversations between grade 5 and 6 students on buoyancy and relative density provides further empirical evidence of the knowledge in pieces position.

  10. Flood Frequency Analysis supported by the largest historical flood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strupczewski, W. G.; Kochanek, K.; Bogdanowicz, E.

    2013-11-01

    The use of non-systematic flood data for statistical purposes depends on reliability of assessment both flood magnitudes and their return period. The earliest known extreme flood year is usually the beginning of the historical record. Even if one properly assess the magnitudes of historic floods, the problem of their return periods remains unsolved. The matter in hand is that the only largest flood (XM) is known during whole historical period and its occurrence marks the beginning of the historical period and defines its length (L). It is the common practice of using the earliest known flood year as the beginning of the record. It means that the L value selected is an empirical estimate of the lower bound on the effective historical length M. The estimation of the return period of XM based on its occurrence (L), i.e. M = L, gives the severe upward bias. Problem arises to estimate the time period (M) representative of the largest observed flood XM. From the discrete uniform distribution with support 1,2, ... , M of the probability of the L position of XM one gets L = M/2. Therefore M = 2L has been taken as the return period of XM and as the effective historical record length as well this time. As in the systematic period (N) all its elements are smaller than XM, one can get M =2(L+N). The efficiency of using the largest historical flood (XM) for large quantile estimation (i.e. one with return period T = 100 yr has been assessed using ML method with various length of systematic record (N) and various estimates of historical period length M comparing accuracy with the case when systematic records alone (N) are used only. The simulation procedure used for the purpose incorporates N systematic record and one largest historic flood (XMi) in the period M which appeared in the Li year backward from the end of historical period. The simulation result for selected distributions, values of their parameters, different N and M values are presented in terms of bias and RMSE of the quantile of interest and widely discussed.

  11. Discourse as Social Interaction. Discourse Studies: A Multidisciplinary Introduction. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dijk, Teun A., Ed.

    The collection of essays on discourse as a form of social interaction includes: "Discourse as Interaction in Society" (Teun A. van Dijk); "Discourse Pragmatics" (Shoshana Blum-Kulka); "Conversation Analysis: An Approach to the Study of Social Action as Sense Making Practices" (Anita Pomerantz, B. J. Fehr); "Institutional Dialogue" (Paul Drew,…

  12. Historical analysis of Newfoundland dog fur colour genetics

    PubMed Central

    Bondeson, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article makes use of digitized historic newspapers to analyze Newfoundland dog fur colour genetics, and fur colour variations over time. The results indicate that contrary to the accepted view, the ‘Solid’ gene was introduced into the British population of Newfoundland dogs in the 1840s. Prior to that time, the dogs were white and black (Landseer) or white and brown, and thus spotted/spotted homozygotes. Due to ‘Solid’ being dominant over ‘spotted’, and selective breeding, today the majority of Newfoundland dogs are solid black. Whereas small white marks on the chest and/or paw appears to be a random event, the historical data supports the existence of an ‘Irish spotted’ fur colour pattern, with white head blaze, breast, paws and tail tip, in spotted/spotted homozygotes. PMID:26623371

  13. The Challenges of Contrastive Discourse Analysis: Reflecting on a Study into the Influence of English on Students' Written Spanish on a Bilingual Education Program in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell-Reid, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses challenges involved in contrastive discourse analysis that emerged while carrying out a follow-up study into a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) program in Spain. Reversing the focus on English of much contrastive rhetoric work, the study investigates the effect of second-language-English on…

  14. Whose Education Policies in Aid-Receiving Countries? A Critical Discourse Analysis of Quality and Normative Transfer through Cambodia and Laos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Critical discourse analysis of policy contexts and documents has been employed in this research to analyze the role of language in promoting normative positions affecting the quality of education in Cambodia and Laos. The article examines the ways institutional normative influences at multiple levels within the Education for All (EFA) program have…

  15. Analysis of Student-Instructor Interaction Patterns in Real-Time, Scientific Online Discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epp, Erik M.; Green, Kellie F.; Rahman, Aliya M.; Weaver, Gabriela C.

    2010-02-01

    The characteristics of the online environment alter how students and instructors interact. Scientific discourse among students and instructors in an online text-only synchronous environment was analyzed. In converting dialogue to text, many of the nonverbal cues, such as facial expression and tone of voice, which instructors use to gauge student understanding are lost. The participants adapt their communication style to the medium, and we present a new interaction pattern for student-instructor communication found prevalent in the synchronous, text-only, online environment. This study has implications for instructors who use synchronous, text-based communication for their courses, namely the value of posing additional questions from the instructor to verify student understanding.

  16. SI Engine Trends: A Historical Analysis with Future Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlowski, Alexander; Splitter, Derek A

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that spark ignited engine performance and efficiency is closely coupled to fuel octane number. The present work combines historical and recent trends in spark ignition engines to build a database of engine design, performance, and fuel octane requirements over the past 80 years. The database consists of engine compression ratio, required fuel octane number, peak mean effective pressure, specific output, and combined unadjusted fuel economy for passenger vehicles and light trucks. Recent trends in engine performance, efficiency, and fuel octane number requirement were used to develop correlations of fuel octane number utilization, performance, specific output. The results show that historically, engine compression ratio and specific output have been strongly coupled to fuel octane number. However, over the last 15 years the sales weighted averages of compression ratios, specific output, and fuel economy have increased, while the fuel octane number requirement has remained largely unchanged. Using the developed correlations, 10-year-out projections of engine performance, design, and fuel economy are estimated for various fuel octane numbers, both with and without turbocharging. The 10-year-out projection shows that only by keeping power neutral while using 105 RON fuel will allow the vehicle fleet to meet CAFE targets if only the engine is relied upon to decrease fuel consumption. If 98 RON fuel is used, a power neutral fleet will have to reduce vehicle weight by 5%.

  17. Uncertainty Analysis of Historic Water Resources Availability in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, A.; Arsenault, K. R.; Narapusetty, B.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    Seeing how current agrometerological conditions measure up to historic events helps analysts and decision-makers judge the potential impact that anomalous rainfall and temperatures will have on the availability and accessibility of food and water resources. We present results from the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS), which is used to produce multi-model and rainfall ensembles of the water balance over semi-arid Africa from 1982-2014. The ensemble approach allows us to assess confidence in our estimates, which is critical given that food and water insecure regions in Africa are data-poor are characterized by complex interactions and feedbacks that cause deterministic hydrologic modeling approaches to fall short. We then use the ensemble of water balance estimates to calculate drought severity (derived from modeled soil moisture), and the Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (a function of atmospheric water demand). We compare these indices to the GIMMS 30-year vegetation data product from AVHRR, and the ESA ECV 30 year microwave soil moisture. These historical time series (with confidence bounds) allow us to improve our quantitative understanding of drought thresholds, to explore sources of parameter and model uncertainty, and to better contextualize current operational drought monitoring efforts in Africa.

  18. Postcolonial analysis of educational research discourse: creating (Mexican) American children as the 

    E-print Network

    Rivas, Araceli

    2006-04-12

    . 6 contest Western science?s Eurocentric, hegemonic, racist, and gender biased frameworks. The significance of the historical implications and lived consequences of research in the social and natural sciences lies in the necessity of a continuous..., the sciences of difference that evolved under imperialism did not remain static. Categorization and classification as an inherited structure of modern research had, within its internal Eurocentric tradition, major shifts of thought at the end...

  19. A Corpus-Based Analysis of Discourse Anaphora in English and Korean: A Neo-Gricean Pragmatic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sok-Hun

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores discourse anaphora in English and Korean by using a neo-Gricean pragmatic approach with corpus-based data. Very little study of Korean discourse anaphora has yet taken place at the inter-sentential level, except works looking at zero anaphor and a logophoric reflexive pronoun "caki" "self." This…

  20. Role Models or Normalizing Agents? A Genealogical Analysis of Popular Written News Media Discourse regarding Male Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternod, Brandon M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author examines popular written news media discourse from the United States concerning the "boy crisis," the gender gap, and male teachers as role models employing genealogical methodologies and theoretical concepts suggested by Foucault (1984, 1990, 1995). It is argued that such discourses reveal how "common sense" beliefs…

  1. A Community-Based Treatment for Native American Historical Trauma: Prospects for Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gone, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    Nineteen staff and clients in a Native American healing lodge were interviewed regarding the therapeutic approach used to address the legacy of Native American historical trauma. On the basis of thematic content analysis of interviews, 4 components of healing discourse emerged. First, clients were understood by their counselors to carry pain,…

  2. Historical Material Analysis of DC745U Pressure Pads

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz-Acosta, Denisse

    2012-07-30

    As part of the Enhance Surveillance mission, it is the goal to provide suitable lifetime assessment of stockpile materials. This report is an accumulation of historical publication on the DC745U material and their findings. It is the intention that the B61 LEP program uses this collection of data to further develop their understanding and potential areas of study. DC745U is a commercially available silicone elastomer consisting of dimethyl, methyl-phenyl, and methyl-vinyl siloxane repeat units. Originally, this material was manufactured by Dow Corning as Silastic{reg_sign} DC745U at their manufacturing facility in Kendallville, IN. Recently, Dow Corning shifted this material to the Xiameter{reg_sign} brand product line. Currently, DC745U is available through Xiameter{reg_sign} or Dow Corning's distributor R. D. Abbott Company. DC745U is cured using 0.5 wt% vinyl-specific peroxide curing agent known as Luperox 101 or Varox DBPH-50. This silicone elastomer is used in numerous parts, including two major components (outer pressure pads and aft cap support) in the W80 and as pressure pads on the B61. DC745U is a proprietary formulation, thus Dow Corning provides limited information on its composition and properties. Based on past experience with Dow Corning, DC745U is at risk of formulation changes without notification to the costumer. A formulation change for DC745U may have a significant impact because the network structure is a key variable in determining material properties. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of historical DC745U studies and identify gaps that need to be addressed in future work. Some of the previous studies include the following: 1. Spectroscopic characterization of raw gum stock. 2. Spectroscopic, thermal, and mechanical studies on cured DC745U. 3. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and solvent swelling studies on DC745U with different crosslink densities. 4. NMR, solvent swelling, thermal, and mechanical studies on thermally aged DC745U. 5. NMR, solvent swelling, thermal, and mechanical studies on radiolytically aged DC745U. Each area is reviewed and further work is suggested to improve our understanding of DC745U for systems engineering, surveillance, aging assessments, and lifetime assessment.

  3. Pedagogic discourse in introductory classes: Multi-dimensional analysis of textbooks and lectures in biology and macroeconomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carkin, Susan

    The broad goal of this study is to represent the linguistic variation of textbooks and lectures, the primary input for student learning---and sometimes the sole input in the large introductory classes which characterize General Education at many state universities. Computer techniques are used to analyze a corpus of textbooks and lectures from first-year university classes in macroeconomics and biology. These spoken and written variants are compared to each other as well as to benchmark texts from other multi-dimensional studies in order to examine their patterns, relations, and functions. A corpus consisting of 147,000 words was created from macroeconomics and biology lectures at a medium-large state university and from a set of nationally "best-selling" textbooks used in these same introductory survey courses. The corpus was analyzed using multi-dimensional methodology (Biber, 1988). The analysis consists of both empirical and qualitative phases. Quantitative analyses are undertaken on the linguistic features, their patterns of co-occurrence, and on the contextual elements of classrooms and textbooks. The contextual analysis is used to functionally interpret the statistical patterns of co-occurrence along five dimensions of textual variation, demonstrating patterns of difference and similarity with reference to text excerpts. Results of the analysis suggest that academic discourse is far from monolithic. Pedagogic discourse in introductory classes varies by modality and discipline, but not always in the directions expected. In the present study the most abstract texts were biology lectures---more abstract than written genres of academic prose and more abstract than introductory textbooks. Academic lectures in both disciplines, monologues which carry a heavy informational load, were extremely interactive, more like conversation than academic prose. A third finding suggests that introductory survey textbooks differ from those used in upper division classes by being relatively less marked for information density, abstraction, and non-overt argumentation. In addition to the findings mentioned here, numerous other relationships among the texts exhibit complex patterns of variation related to a number of situational variables. Pedagogical implications are discussed in relation to General Education courses, differing student populations, and the reading and listening demands which students encounter in large introductory classes in the university.

  4. Reconstruals of the Past: Settlement or Invasion? The Role of JUDGEMENT Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Caroline

    While little attention has been given in historiography to the language of historical narrative, and the role language plays in portraying history, the discipline of linguistics, and particularly the subdisciplines of discourse analysis and functional linguistics, have given increasing attention to the discourse of history. Recently, a group of…

  5. Changing gender relations in Thailand: a historical and cultural analysis.

    PubMed

    Tantiwiramanond, D

    1997-01-01

    In response to the stereotyping of Thai women in the media as either modern businesswomen or victims of male oppression, this article studies the changing gender roles and status of women in Thailand to identify the various roles played by Thai women and the ways these roles are linked to key cultural, economic, and political mechanisms in Thai society. After an introduction, the first section of the paper analyzes pre-modern Thai history from the mid-13th century with a look at the traditional social, political, and economic structure of feudal society to determine how women's status was affected by Thai Buddhism, absolute monarchy (the affect of the legal system on upper-class women), and matrifocal kinship (the effect of subsistence agriculture on lower-class women). This section also compares the historic status of upper- and lower-class Thai women. The second section of the article considers the effects of 1) the encroachment of Western colonialism in Southeast Asia during the period 1850-1925 and attendant criticisms of polygamy, 2) the post-1932 revolution that resulted in a constitutional monarchy, and 3) the post 1950s period of economic nationalism that has resulted in globalization. The article concludes that lower-class women have certain rights under the feudal system (before 1932) but were forced into certain roles by economic necessity and motherhood. Upper-class women enjoyed high status, but all women were victims of the Buddhist patriarchy and hierarchical systems. Western modernization caused a decline in polygamy and new opportunities for educated women but the status of Thai women has not changed substantially, and class-specific forms of female oppression continues unabated making lower-class women vulnerable to sexual exploitation. PMID:12321345

  6. [Industrial first aid equipment: a historical analysis (1840-1914) ].

    PubMed

    Porro, Alessandro; Franchini, Antonia Francesca; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Falconi, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Even if references to the tools required to intervene after an accident can be found in the works of Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714) or Johann Peter Frank (1745-1821), it was only with the development of industrial manufacturing that the need to study means to prevent and intervene in cases of accident became evident. In October 1894 the III Congrés International des Accidents du Travail et des Assurances Sociales was held in Milan. The following year, the Milanese trade union movement acknowledged the necessity to address the problem of industrial accidents. In 1896 the Association for Medical Assistance in  Industrial Accidents was founded in Milan. A specific medical institute was set up, appropriate first aid tools were collected and first aid rooms in the main Milanese factories were inaugurated. Nevertheless, few data seem to be available regarding the manufacture and use of this equipment in industry. We analyzed more than fifty catalogs of European industrial products, between 1843 and 1914, to study the evolution of first aid equipment for industrial use. They reflect and attest to the evolution of medicine and surgery, although some models seem to be related to certain industrial categories (railways, electrical appliances), some were similar to ordinary first aid boxes, others were strictly related to surgery; some could only be used by physicians, and others only by workers. Identification, conservation, and reappraisal of these tools is essential for historians of occupational health because these objects were normally not preserved. The catalogues of industrial production are also precious sources, since they are rarely preserved in public libraries and deserve to be used for historical studies. PMID:25607287

  7. Biogeography of Human Infectious Diseases: A Global Historical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cashdan, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Human pathogen richness and prevalence vary widely across the globe, yet we know little about whether global patterns found in other taxa also predict diversity in this important group of organisms. This study (a) assesses the relative importance of temperature, precipitation, habitat diversity, and population density on the global distributions of human pathogens and (b) evaluates the species-area predictions of island biogeography for human pathogen distributions on oceanic islands. Methods Historical data were used in order to minimize the influence of differential access to modern health care on pathogen prevalence. The database includes coded data (pathogen, environmental and cultural) for a worldwide sample of 186 non-industrial cultures, including 37 on islands. Prevalence levels for 10 pathogens were combined into a pathogen prevalence index, and OLS regression was used to model the environmental determinants of the prevalence index and number of pathogens. Results Pathogens (number and prevalence index) showed the expected latitudinal gradient, but predictors varied by latitude. Pathogens increased with temperature in high-latitude zones, while mean annual precipitation was a more important predictor in low-latitude zones. Other environmental factors associated with more pathogens included seasonal dry extremes, frost-free climates, and human population density outside the tropics. Islands showed the expected species-area relationship for all but the smallest islands, and the relationship was not mediated by habitat diversity. Although geographic distributions of free-living and parasitic taxa typically have different determinants, these data show that variables that influence the distribution of free-living organisms also shape the global distribution of human pathogens. Understanding the cause of these distributions is potentially important, since geographical variation in human pathogens has an important influence on global disparities in human welfare. PMID:25271730

  8. Getting behind Discourses of Love, Care and Maternalism in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslanian, Teresa K.

    2015-01-01

    Discourses of love, care and maternalism affect the everyday lives of children enrolled in early childhood education. These discourses bear witness to the ontological transformation that has occurred since the Romantic era that birthed the kindergarten movement to today. Reflecting on historical discourses of love, care and maternalism from the…

  9. Education or Educación? A Comparative Analysis of the Discourses of Latino/A Students and Three Community Colleges 

    E-print Network

    Flacy, Kathleen Anne

    2014-12-18

    The main question addressed in this dissertation relates to the discourses that Latino/a students and community colleges bring to the educational table. From this question come corollary questions concerning the concept of education...

  10. Lemon-aid: using Lemon to aid quantitative historical linguistic analysis Steven Moran

    E-print Network

    Lemon-aid: using Lemon to aid quantitative historical linguistic analysis Steven Moran University the lexical data into an RDF model that is specified by Lemon. The resulting new Linked Data re- source, what specified in Lemon (McCrae et al., 2010; McCrae et al., 2011). The resulting resource allows users to query

  11. NASA/SP-2013-605 An Analysis and a Historical Review

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    NASA/SP-2013-605 An Analysis and a Historical Review of the Apollo Program Lunar Module Touchdown Dynamics George A. Zupp, PhD Engineering Directorate, Retired Structural Engineering Division NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058 January 2013 #12;NASA STI Program ... in Profile Since its founding

  12. Analysis of Workload Behavior in Scientific and Historical Long-Term Data Repositories

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    this knowledge gap and provide relevant input for the design of effective long-term data storage systems, we6 Analysis of Workload Behavior in Scientific and Historical Long-Term Data Repositories IAN F, content archives have become a means of providing the public with fast, cheap access to long-term data

  13. Analysis of genetic data on Jewish populations. I. Historical background, demographic features, and genetic markers.

    PubMed Central

    Bonné-Tamir, B; Karlin, S; Kenett, R

    1979-01-01

    Part I describes the data sets on which the analysis of Part II is based. This covers the nature of the populations sampled, the extent to which the samples are representative, and a brief review of historical and demographic facts on the populations involved. PMID:380329

  14. Cultural-Historical Activity Theory and Domain Analysis: Metatheoretical Implications for Information Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cultural-historical activity theory is an important theory in modern psychology. In recent years, it has drawn more attention from related disciplines including information science. Argument: This paper argues that activity theory and domain analysis which uses the theory as one of its bases could bring about some important…

  15. The Historical and Situated Nature Design Experiments--Implications for Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krange, I.; Ludvigsen, Sten

    2009-01-01

    This article is a methodological contribution to the use of design experiments in educational research. We will discuss the implications of a historical and situated interpretation to design experiments, the consequences this has for the analysis of the collected data and empirically based suggestions to improve the designs of the computer-based…

  16. A Content Analysis and Historical Comparison of Bibliotherapy Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piercy, Brenda A.

    Treatment characteristics and methods were analyzed for 103 empirical studies of reading therapy, or bibliotherapy, from the United States and Canada conducted over the past two decades and retrieved from the PsychInfo database. A content analysis was performed on each study, and quantified data was reported and compared within and between two…

  17. Historical analysis of professionalism in western societies: implications for interprofessional education and collaborative practice.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Hossein; Hall, Jodi; DeLuca, Sandra

    2014-03-01

    Health care systems around the world are under tremendous pressure to change their models of health care delivery - from the current multiprofessional health care delivery into interprofessional collaborative care models with the ultimate goal of improving patient/client outcomes. The growing diversity of the population, the increasing number of vulnerable persons (elderly, homeless, those living with chronic health conditions), the complexity of health problems, and the shortage of health care providers have forced health policymakers to call for sweeping revisions to how health care is provided, impacting how health care program students are educated. However, in professional training emphasis is placed on uniprofessional education. Learners are socialized in isolation from those in other related professions to ensure the development of a shared professional identity. Consequently, by program completion each student will not only master the knowledge, skills and norms of his/her own profession, but will also develop a silo identity, called "uniprofessional identity". This isolationist identity creates a lack of understanding of others. In limiting their exposure to learning about the roles and value of other health care professionals, persistent negative stereotypical attitudes towards other professionals are reinforced. In this paper, we present the historical evolution(s) of the discourse of professionalism to assist us to develop a deeper understanding of socio-historical context within which interprofessional education (IPE) is embedded within, and collaborative person-centered practice (CPCP). With greater insight, we can (re)conceptualize the possibilities, and advance research on, interprofessional education and practice in the present. PMID:24383410

  18. Historical remarks on exponential product and quantum analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Masuo

    2015-03-10

    The exponential product formula [1, 2] was substantially introduced in physics by the present author [2]. Its systematic applications to quantum Monte Carlo Methods [3] were preformed [4, 5] first in 1977. Many interesting applications [6] of the quantum-classical correspondence (namely S-T transformation) have been reported. Systematic higher-order decomposition formulae were also discovered by the present author [7-11], using the recursion scheme [7, 9]. Physically speaking, these exponential product formulae play a conceptual role of separation of procedures [3,14]. Mathematical aspects of these formulae have been integrated in quantum analysis [15], in which non-commutative differential calculus is formulated and a general quantum Taylor expansion formula is given. This yields many useful operator expansion formulae such as the Feynman expansion formula and the resolvent expansion. Irreversibility and entropy production are also studied using quantum analysis [15].

  19. Historical analysis of US pipeline accidents triggered by natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girgin, Serkan; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, or lightning, can initiate accidents in oil and gas pipelines with potentially major consequences on the population or the environment due to toxic releases, fires and explosions. Accidents of this type are also referred to as Natech events. Many major accidents highlight the risk associated with natural-hazard impact on pipelines transporting dangerous substances. For instance, in the USA in 1994, flooding of the San Jacinto River caused the rupture of 8 and the undermining of 29 pipelines by the floodwaters. About 5.5 million litres of petroleum and related products were spilled into the river and ignited. As a results, 547 people were injured and significant environmental damage occurred. Post-incident analysis is a valuable tool for better understanding the causes, dynamics and impacts of pipeline Natech accidents in support of future accident prevention and mitigation. Therefore, data on onshore hazardous-liquid pipeline accidents collected by the US Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) was analysed. For this purpose, a database-driven incident data analysis system was developed to aid the rapid review and categorization of PHMSA incident reports. Using an automated data-mining process followed by a peer review of the incident records and supported by natural hazard databases and external information sources, the pipeline Natechs were identified. As a by-product of the data-collection process, the database now includes over 800,000 incidents from all causes in industrial and transportation activities, which are automatically classified in the same way as the PHMSA record. This presentation describes the data collection and reviewing steps conducted during the study, provides information on the developed database and data analysis tools, and reports the findings of a statistical analysis of the identified hazardous liquid pipeline incidents in terms of accident dynamics and consequences.

  20. Conversation Analysis--A Discourse Approach to Teaching Oral English Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores a pedagocial approach to teaching oral English---Conversation Analysis. First, features of spoken language is described in comparison to written language. Second, Conversation Analysis theory is elaborated in terms of adjacency pairs, turn-taking, repairs, sequences, openings and closings, and feedback. Third, under the…

  1. Technology's Role in Shaping Literacy Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowder, Deborah Stephens

    2009-01-01

    Philosophical examinations untie question "What is literacy?" lie at the center of many, if not most, educational debates. Current Discourse surrounding literacy practices is a result of the history and theories surrounding reading instruction. This philosophical inquiry examines, through the careful examination of historical events and theories…

  2. A network-base analysis of CMIP5 "historical" experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracco, A.; Foudalis, I.; Dovrolis, C.

    2012-12-01

    In computer science, "complex network analysis" refers to a set of metrics, modeling tools and algorithms commonly used in the study of complex nonlinear dynamical systems. Its main premise is that the underlying topology or network structure of a system has a strong impact on its dynamics and evolution. By allowing to investigate local and non-local statistical interaction, network analysis provides a powerful, but only marginally explored, framework to validate climate models and investigate teleconnections, assessing their strength, range, and impacts on the climate system. In this work we propose a new, fast, robust and scalable methodology to examine, quantify, and visualize climate sensitivity, while constraining general circulation models (GCMs) outputs with observations. The goal of our novel approach is to uncover relations in the climate system that are not (or not fully) captured by more traditional methodologies used in climate science and often adopted from nonlinear dynamical systems analysis, and to explain known climate phenomena in terms of the network structure or its metrics. Our methodology is based on a solid theoretical framework and employs mathematical and statistical tools, exploited only tentatively in climate research so far. Suitably adapted to the climate problem, these tools can assist in visualizing the trade-offs in representing global links and teleconnections among different data sets. Here we present the methodology, and compare network properties for different reanalysis data sets and a suite of CMIP5 coupled GCM outputs. With an extensive model intercomparison in terms of the climate network that each model leads to, we quantify how each model reproduces major teleconnections, rank model performances, and identify common or specific errors in comparing model outputs and observations.

  3. Analysis of historical delta values for IAEA/LANL NDA training courses

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William; Santi, Peter; Swinhoe, Martyn; Bonner, Elisa

    2009-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supports the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) by providing training for IAEA inspectors in neutron and gamma-ray Nondestructive Assay (NDA) of nuclear material. Since 1980, all new IAEA inspectors attend this two week course at LANL gaining hands-on experience in the application of NDA techniques, procedures and analysis to measure plutonium and uranium nuclear material standards with well known pedigrees. As part of the course the inspectors conduct an inventory verification exercise. This exercise provides inspectors the opportunity to test their abilities in performing verification measurements using the various NDA techniques. For an inspector, the verification of an item is nominally based on whether the measured assay value agrees with the declared value to within three times the historical delta value. The historical delta value represents the average difference between measured and declared values from previous measurements taken on similar material with the same measurement technology. If the measurement falls outside a limit of three times the historical delta value, the declaration is not verified. This paper uses measurement data from five years of IAEA courses to calculate a historical delta for five non-destructive assay methods: Gamma-ray Enrichment, Gamma-ray Plutonium Isotopics, Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting, Active Neutron Coincidence Counting and the Neutron Coincidence Collar. These historical deltas provide information as to the precision and accuracy of these measurement techniques under realistic conditions.

  4. Monitoring of historical frescoes by timed infrared imaging analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadelano, G.; Bison, P.; Bortolin, A.; Ferrarini, G.; Peron, F.; Girotto, M.; Volinia, M.

    2015-03-01

    The subflorescence and efflorescence phenomena are widely acknowledged as the major causes of permanent damage to fresco wall paintings. They are related to the occurrence of cycles of dry/wet conditions inside the walls. Therefore, it is essential to identify the presence of water on the decorated surfaces and inside the walls. Nondestructive testing in industrial applications have confirmed that active infrared thermography with continuous timed images acquisition can improve the outcomes of thermal analysis aimed to moisture identification. In spite of that, in cultural heritage investigations these techniques have not been yet used extensively on a regular basis. This paper illustrates an application of these principles in order to evaluate the decay of fresco mural paintings in a medieval chapel located in North-West of Italy. One important feature of this study is the use of a robotic system called aIRview that can be utilized to automatically acquire and process thermal images. Multiple accurate thermal views of the inside walls of the building have been produced in a survey that lasted several days. Signal processing algorithms based on Fast Fourier Transform analysis have been applied to the acquired data in order to formulate trustworthy hypotheses about the deterioration mechanisms.

  5. Persuasive Discourse Impairments in Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ghayoumi, Zahra; Yadegari, Fariba; Mahmoodi-Bakhtiari, Behrooz; Fakharian, Esmaeil; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Rasouli, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considering the cognitive and linguistic complexity of discourse production, it is expected that individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) should face difficulties in this task. Therefore, clinical examination of discourse has become a useful tool for studying and assessment of communication skills of people suffering from TBI. Among different genres of discourse, persuasive discourse is considered as a more cognitively demanding task. However, little is known about persuasive discourse in individuals suffering from TBI. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of adults with TBI on a task of spoken persuasive discourse to determine the impaired linguistic measures. Patients and Methods: Thirteen TBI nonaphasic Persian speaking individuals, ranged between 19 to 40 years (Mean = 25.64 years; SD = 6.10) and 59 healthy adults matched by age, were asked to perform the persuasive discourse task. The task included asking the participants to express their opinion on a topic, and after the analysis of the produced discourse, the two groups were compared on the basis of their language productivity, sentential complexity, maze ratio and cohesion ratio. Results: The TBI group produced discourses with less productivity, sentential complexity, cohesion ratio and more maze ratio compared the control group. Conclusions: As it is important to consider acquired communication disorders particularly discourse impairment of brain injured patients along with their other clinical impairments and regarding the fact that persuasive discourse is crucial in academic and social situations, the persuasive discourse task presented in this study could be a useful tool for speech therapists, intending to evaluate communication disorders in patients with TBI. PMID:25798418

  6. An analysis of conceptual metaphor in the professional and academic discourse of technical communication 

    E-print Network

    Sherwood, Matthew Aaron

    2005-02-17

    that conceptual metaphor theory as formulated by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson is a viable lens through which to engage in rhetorical (in addition to linguistic) analysis, the dissertation shows that academics and practitioners engage in radically different...

  7. The Making of Paranormal Belief: History, Discourse Analysis and the Object of Belief 

    E-print Network

    White, Lewis

    2013-05-24

    The present study comprises a discursive analysis of a cognitive phenomenon, paranormal beliefs. A discursive psychological approach to belief highlights that an important component of the cognitivist work has been how the ...

  8. ReportTechnical Image -Film -Discourse / Bild -Film -Diskurs

    E-print Network

    ReportTechnical 68 Image - Film - Discourse / Bild - Film - Diskurs John Bateman Marion G. Müller ­ Film ­ Discourse / Bild ­ Film ­ Diskurs Final Report of the BMBF-funded cooperation project Bild­Film-funded cooperation project Bild­Film­Diskurs (Image­Film­Discourse). The interpretation and analysis of images

  9. Discourse Connectives in L1 and L2 Argumentative Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chunyu; Li, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    Discourse connectives (DCs) are multi-functional devices used to connect discourse segments and fulfill interpersonal levels of discourse. This study investigates the use of selected 80 DCs within 11 categories in the argumentative essays produced by L1 and L2 university students. The analysis is based on the International Corpus Network of Asian…

  10. An Integrated 3S and Historical Materials Analysis of the Keriya Paleoriver, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Lei; Wang, Xinyuan; Cai, Heng

    2014-03-01

    Combining analysis of 3S (RS, GIS and GPS) and historical materials (historical records, ancient map and academic and literary writings) allows mapping of the Keriya Paleoriver of Southern Xinjiang, NW China. Keriya Paleoriver, one of the ancient Four Green Corridors which passes through the Taklimakan Desert from south to north in the Tarim Basin, recorded changes of the climate-environment in the ancient Silk Road of the region. According to the archaeological data, historical materials and paleoclimates information, its eco-environment and climate have had great changes since the 1.09Ma B.P., especially during the last 2,000 years, which has led to many famous ancient cities to be abandoned and the route of the ancient Silk Road to be moved southward. Using RS (optical and radar imagery), GIS (mapping and spatial analysis) and GPS (study area investigation), we mapped a major paleodrainage system of Keriya River, which have linked the Kunlun Mountains to the Tienshan Mountains through the Taklimakan Desert, possibly as far back as the early Pleistocene. This study illustrates the capability of the 3S and historical materials, in mapping the Keriya Paleoriver drainage networks and archaeological study on the ancient Silk Road.

  11. Measuring Discourse-Level Processes with Verbal Protocols and Latent Semantic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millis, Keith; Magliano, Joseph; Todaro, Stacey

    2006-01-01

    The present study used latent semantic analysis (LSA) to analyze verbal protocols that were collected while participants read expository passages. In the study, participants were asked to type their thoughts after reading each sentence of 2 scientific texts. The semantic similarity between the protocols and the current sentence and prior causal…

  12. Wildlife-Based Recreation as Economic Windfall: A Rhetorical Analysis of Public Discourse on Birding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Steven G.; Cable, Ted T.; Scott, David

    2010-01-01

    Symbolic convergence theory posits that groups of like-minded people use linguistic symbols to construct a shared reality and form rhetorical visions (ways of viewing and communicating about an issue). To see how rhetorical visions might help shape public tourism policy, the authors used fantasy theme analysis to examine 206 Kansas newspaper…

  13. Professional Standards in Teacher Education: Tracing Discourses of Professionalism through the Analysis of Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tummons, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This article explores aspects of the relationship between professional standards for teachers and the curriculum for teacher education in the lifelong learning sector in the United Kingdom. Drawing on an analysis of different editions of three core textbooks for teacher education in the lifelong learning sector, which are positioned as acting as…

  14. Technology for Empowering or Subjugating Teachers: Analysis of Ethiopia's Education Reform Discourse Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birbirso, Dereje Tadesse

    2013-01-01

    In the wake of national educational reform, the author discovered a secondary education style where all students were taught through centrally aired TV-lessons beaming from a studio in the capital city. In order to understand the motive behind the reform and its impacts on teaching, the author collected qualitative data for critical analysis.…

  15. A Historical Analysis of Desegregation and Racism in a Racially Polarized Region: Implications for the Historical Construct, a Diversity Problem, and Transforming Teacher Education toward Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, K. Dara

    2009-01-01

    This study chronicles the historical divisions of race and class between Detroit and its suburban neighbor as an explanation for current tensions in the communities and schools. This analysis poses implications for educational apartheid and stark disparities between urban and suburban boundaries and consequent discomfort among practitioners when…

  16. HPLC-APCI-MS analysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in historical pharmaceutical ointments from the eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    Saliu, Francesco; Modugno, Francesca; Orlandi, Marco; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2011-10-01

    The lipid fractions of residues from historical pharmaceutical ointments were analysed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and mass spectrometer detection. The residues were contained in a series of historical apothecary jars, dating from the eighteenth century and conserved at the "Aboca Museum" in Sansepolcro (Arezzo, Italy) and at the pharmacy of the "Real Cartuja de Valldemossa" in Palma de Majorca (Spain). The analytical protocol was set up using a comparative study based on the evaluation of triacylglycerol (TAG) compositions in raw natural lipid materials and in laboratory-reproduced ointments. These ointments were prepared following pharmaceutical recipes reported in historical treatises and used as reference materials. The reference materials were also subjected to stress treatments in order to evaluate the modification occurring in the TAG profiles as an effect of ageing. TAGs were successfully detected in the reproduced formulations even in mixtures of up to ten ingredients and after harsh degradative treatments, and also in real historical samples. No particular interferences were detected from other non-lipid ingredients of the formulations. The TAG compositions detected in the historical ointments indicated a predominant use of olive oil and pig adipose material as lipid ingredients. The detection of a high level of tristearine and myristyl-palmitoyl-stearyl glycerol in two of the samples suggested the presence of a fatty material of a different origin (maybe a ruminant). On the basis of the positional isomer ratio, sn-PPO/sn-POP, it was possible to hypothesize an exclusive use of pig fat in one sample. We also evaluated the application of principal component analysis of TAG profiles as an approach for the multivariate statistical comparison of the reference and historical ointments. PMID:21713420

  17. Some historical relationships between science and technology with implications for behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moxley, Roy A.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between science and technology is examined in terms of some implications for behavior analysis. Problems result when this relationship is seen as one in which science generally begets technology in a one-way, or hierarchical, relationship. These problems are not found when the relationship between science and technology is seen as two-way, or symmetrical, within a larger context of relationships. Some historical examples are presented. Collectively, these and other examples in the references weaken the case for a prevailing one-way, hierarchical relationship and strengthen the case for a two-way, symmetrical relationship. In addition to being more accurate historically, the symmetrical relationship is also more consistent with the principles of behavior analysis. PMID:22478016

  18. An objective change-point analysis of historical Atlantic hurricane numbers

    E-print Network

    Jewson, S; Jewson, Stephen; Penzer, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    We perform an objective change-point analysis on 106 years of historical hurricane number data. The algorithm we use looks at all possible combinations of change-points and compares them in terms of the variances of the differences between real and modelled numbers. Overfitting is avoided by using cross-validation. We identify four change-points, and show that the presence of temporal structure in the hurricane number time series is highly statistically significant.

  19. Hector Berlioz and his Vesuvius: an analysis of historical evidence from an epileptological perspective.

    PubMed

    Altenmüller, Dirk-Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The epileptologically informed in-depth analysis of auto- and heteroanamnestic historical sources supports the hypothesis that Hector Berlioz (1803-1869) might have suffered from a photosensitive idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndrome with absences, absence status, myoclonic seizures, and bilateral tonic-clonic seizures. The study outlines the possible influence of the composer's probable epilepsy on his literary and musical oeuvre, including the Symphonie fantastique en cinq parties. PMID:25684290

  20. Exploring the Discourse on Communication Modality after Cochlear Implantation: A Foucauldian Analysis of Parents' Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruin, Marieke; Nevøy, Anne

    2014-01-01

    After pediatric cochlear implantation, parents have to make decisions concerning which communication modality the child and the child's family will use. The choice has to be made against a background of opposing views on communication modality in follow-up after pediatric cochlear implantation. The opposing views form a discourse that has…

  1. First-Year College Student Beliefs about Writing Embedded in Online Discourse: An Analysis and Its Implications for Literacy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkart, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Online discourse has become a common mode of communication for the Twenty-First Century. Many businesses now use electronic networking sites such as Facebook to communicate with customers through online posts and electronic updates through Twitter. With these recent trends in electronic communication, some educators have begun implementing…

  2. Public Discourse on HIV and AIDS: An Archival Analysis of National Newspaper Reporting in Uganda, 1996-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagone, Elizabeth; Mathur, Sanyukta; Nakyanjo, Neema; Nalugoda, Fred; Santelli, John

    2014-01-01

    Uganda is recognised as an early success story in the HIV epidemic at least in part due to an open and vigorous national dialogue about HIV prevention. This study examined the national discourse about HIV, AIDS, and young people in New Vision, Uganda's leading national newspaper between 1996 and 2011, building from a previous archival…

  3. Teachers in the News: A Critical Analysis of One US Newspaper's Discourse on Education, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Public education discourse in the USA has been characterized by messages of crisis shaping education policies across national contexts. Education policy solutions target a lack of qualified teachers and insufficient oversight of teacher practice as central factors in the crisis, placing teacher identity as knowledgeable, authoritative…

  4. Analyzing the Cohesion of English Text and Discourse with Automated Computer Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Moongee

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the lexical and discourse features of English text and discourse with automated computer technologies. Specifically, this article examines the cohesion of English text and discourse with automated computer tools, Coh-Metrix and TEES. Coh-Metrix is a text analysis computer tool that can analyze English text and discourse

  5. Quantitative characterisation of historic paper using THz spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trafela, Tanja; Mizuno, Maya; Fukunaga, Kaori; Strli?, Matija

    2013-04-01

    THz spectroscopy in the time domain was explored in combination with multivariate data analysis, for quantitative determination of chemical and mechanical properties of historic paper, such as lignin content, tensile strength, and ash content. Using partial least squares (PLS) regression, it was shown that quantitative prediction of the material properties is possible, which indicates the potential of THz spectroscopy for chemical characterisation of complex organic materials of natural origin. In addition, the results demonstrate that THz spectra and PLS loading weights for lignin content differ significantly, which leads to the conclusion that THz spectra of composite macromolecular materials do not represent sums of spectra of the individual components. This supports the premise that THz spectra reflect intermolecular interactions. The study was carried out using 250 historical paper samples from the sixteenth century to present. Although the measurements were performed in vacuum to improve the quality of spectra, THz spectroscopy is in principle non-destructive. This research therefore reinforces the role of THz spectroscopy in characterisation of valuable historic materials, where invasive analysis is often not possible.

  6. Flood frequency analysis of historical flood data under stationary and non-stationary modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M. J.; Botero, B. A.; López, J.; Francés, F.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Benito, G.

    2015-01-01

    Historical records are an important source of information about extreme and rare floods with a great value to establish a reliable flood return frequency. The use of long historic records for flood frequency analysis brings in the question of flood stationarity, since climatic and land-use conditions can affect the relevance of past flooding as a predictor of future flooding. In this paper, a detailed 400 year flood record from the Tagus River in Aranjuez (Central Spain) was analysed under stationary and non-stationary flood frequency approaches, to assess their implications on hazard studies. Historical flood records in Aranjuez were obtained from documents (Proceedings of the City Council, diaries, chronicles, memoirs, etc.), epigraphic marks, and indirect historical sources and reports. The water levels associated with different floods (derived from descriptions or epigraphic marks) were computed into discharge values using a one-dimensional hydraulic model. Secular variations on flood magnitude and frequency, found to respond to climate and environmental drivers, showed a good correlation between high values of historical flood discharges and a negative mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO index). Over the systematic gauge record (1913-2008), an abrupt change on flood magnitude was produced in 1957 due to constructions of three major reservoirs in the Tagus headwaters (Bolarque, Entrepeñas and Buendia) controlling 80% of the watershed surface draining to Aranjuez. Two different models were used for the flood frequency analysis: (a) a stationary model estimating statistical distributions incorporating imprecise and categorical data based on maximum likelihood estimators; (b) a time-varying model based on "generalized additive models for location, scale and shape" (GAMLSS) modelling, that incorporates external covariates related to climate variability (NAO index) and catchment hydrology factors (in this paper a reservoir index; RI). Flood frequency analysis using documentary data (plus gauged record) improved the estimates of the probabilities of rare floods (return intervals of 100 year and higher). Under non-stationary modelling flood occurrence associated with an exceedance probability of 0.01 (i.e. return period of 100 year) has changed over the last 500 year due to decadal and multi-decadal variability of the NAO. Yet, frequency analysis under stationary models was successful on providing an average discharge around which value flood quantiles estimated by non-stationary models fluctuate through time.

  7. Flood frequency analysis of historical flood data under stationary and non-stationary modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M. J.; Botero, B. A.; López, J.; Francés, F.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Benito, G.

    2015-06-01

    Historical records are an important source of information on extreme and rare floods and fundamental to establish a reliable flood return frequency. The use of long historical records for flood frequency analysis brings in the question of flood stationarity, since climatic and land-use conditions can affect the relevance of past flooding as a predictor of future flooding. In this paper, a detailed 400 yr flood record from the Tagus River in Aranjuez (central Spain) was analysed under stationary and non-stationary flood frequency approaches, to assess their contribution within hazard studies. Historical flood records in Aranjuez were obtained from documents (Proceedings of the City Council, diaries, chronicles, memoirs, etc.), epigraphic marks, and indirect historical sources and reports. The water levels associated with different floods (derived from descriptions or epigraphic marks) were computed into discharge values using a one-dimensional hydraulic model. Secular variations in flood magnitude and frequency, found to respond to climate and environmental drivers, showed a good correlation between high values of historical flood discharges and a negative mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. Over the systematic gauge record (1913-2008), an abrupt change on flood magnitude was produced in 1957 due to constructions of three major reservoirs in the Tagus headwaters (Bolarque, Entrepeñas and Buendia) controlling 80% of the watershed surface draining to Aranjuez. Two different models were used for the flood frequency analysis: (a) a stationary model estimating statistical distributions incorporating imprecise and categorical data based on maximum likelihood estimators, and (b) a time-varying model based on "generalized additive models for location, scale and shape" (GAMLSS) modelling, which incorporates external covariates related to climate variability (NAO index) and catchment hydrology factors (in this paper a reservoir index; RI). Flood frequency analysis using documentary data (plus gauged records) improved the estimates of the probabilities of rare floods (return intervals of 100 yr and higher). Under non-stationary modelling flood occurrence associated with an exceedance probability of 0.01 (i.e. return period of 100 yr) has changed over the last 500 yr due to decadal and multi-decadal variability of the NAO. Yet, frequency analysis under stationary models was successful in providing an average discharge around which value flood quantiles estimated by non-stationary models fluctuate through time.

  8. Captive on a carousel: discourses of 'new' in medical education 1910-2010.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Cynthia R; Hodges, Brian D; Austin, Zubin

    2013-10-01

    Medical educators aim to train physicians with sound scientific knowledge, expert clinical skills and an ability to work effectively with patients, colleagues and health systems. Over the past century, educators have devoted considerable thought and effort to how medical education might be improved. Analysing the language used to describe these initiatives provides insight into assumptions and practices. The authors conducted a Foucauldian critical discourse analysis of prominent recurrent themes in the North American medical education literature. The assembled archive of texts included works of Abraham Flexner, articles from the journal Academic Medicine (including its predecessor journals) and major medical education reports. A series of recurring themes were identified, including the need to avoid over-specialization, the importance of generalism, and the need to broaden criteria for medical student selection. Analysis of these recurring themes allowed identification of a prominent and recurrent discourse of 'new.' This discourse places focus on the future, ignores the ongoing historical nature of issues, suggests a sense of urgency and enables the proposal of modest solutions. It emphasizes changes for individual future doctors, thereby limiting consideration of institutional and systemic factors. Using the image of a carousel, the regular return of themes can be seen as carousel ponies circling around repeatedly in medical education. Identification of this medical education carousel provides an opportunity for medical educators to understand the historical nature of calls for change, and to consider what kinds of reform might be required if they wish to avoid this repetition in the future. PMID:23053873

  9. A Declaration on Learning--A Commentary Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, John S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper subjects "A Declaration on Learning" published in the UK in 2000 to a critical review. A brief synopsis of the text is followed by a commentary discourse drawing upon critical discourse analysis (Fairclough 2001) and incorporating meta content analysis, rhetorical analysis and genre analysis. Conclusions are drawn related to the…

  10. Problems and Cautions With Sequence Mismatch Analysis and Bayesian Skyline Plots to Infer Historical Demography.

    PubMed

    Grant, William Stewart

    2015-01-01

    Sequence mismatch analysis (MMA) and Bayesian skyline plots (BSP) are commonly used to reconstruct historical demography. A survey of 173 research articles (2009-2014), which included estimates of historical population sizes from mtDNA or cpDNA, shows a widespread genetic signature of demographic or spatial population expansion in species of all major taxonomic groups. Associating these expansions with climatic events can provide insights into the origins of lineage diversity, range expansions (or contractions), and speciation. However, several variables can introduce error into reconstructions of demographic history, including levels of sequence polymorphism, sampling scheme, sample size, natural selection, and estimates of mutation rate. Most researchers use substitution rates estimated from divergences in phylogenetic trees dated with fossils, or geological events. Recent studies show that molecular clocks calibrated with phylogenetic divergences can overestimate the timings of population-level events by an order of magnitude. Overestimates disconnect historical population reconstructions from climatic history and confound our understanding of the factors influencing genetic variability. If mismatch distributions and BSPs largely reflect demographic history, the widespread signature of population expansion in vertebrate, invertebrate, and plant populations appears to reflect responses to postglacial climate warming. PMID:25926628

  11. Wintering and breeding bird monitoring data analysis 2010-2013: San Antonio Missions National Historical Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Following guidance issued within the Avian Inventory and Monitoring in National Parks of the Gulf Coast Network: Gulf Coast Network Avian Monitoring Plan, 40 point locations were established and monitored within San Antonio Missions National Historical Park. During three breeding seasons (May – Jun) and winters (Dec – Feb) between 2010 and 2013, birds were monitored at 20 or 30 of these point locations via time-distance point counts (breeding) or area searches (winter). To ensure data from all 40 random locations were included in analyses, monitoring data from two consecutive years were combined. As a result, some points were monitored twice during the period of analysis. Even so, I have treated each survey as an independent monitoring event, thereby assuming each visit to be equally representative of the bird community for the entirety of San Antonio Missions National Historical Park. When translating avian densities to park-wide populations, I used an area of 334 ha to represent San Antonio Missions National Historical Park including the Rancho de las Cabras unit.

  12. Envisioning the Third Sector's Welfare Role: Critical Discourse Analysis of ‘Post-Devolution’ Public Policy in the UK 1998–2012

    PubMed Central

    Chaney, Paul; Wincott, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Welfare state theory has struggled to come to terms with the role of the third sector. It has often categorized welfare states in terms of the pattern of interplay between state social policies and the structure of the labour market. Moreover, it has frequently offered an exclusive focus on state policy – thereby failing to substantially recognize the role of the formally organized third sector. This study offers a corrective view. Against the backdrop of the international shift to multi-level governance, it analyses the policy discourse of third sector involvement in welfare governance following devolution in the UK. It reveals the changing and contrasting ways in which post-devolution territorial politics envisions the sector's role as a welfare provider. The mixed methods analysis compares policy framing and the structural narratives associated with the development of the third sector across the four constituent polities of the UK since 1998. The findings reveal how devolution has introduced a new spatial policy dynamic. Whilst there are elements of continuity between polities – such as the increasing salience of the third sector in welfare provision – policy narratives also provide evidence of the territorialization of third sector policy. From a methodological standpoint, this underlines the distinctive and complementary role discourse-based analysis can play in understanding contemporary patterns and processes shaping welfare governance. PMID:25574063

  13. Information Structure in Discourse 

    E-print Network

    Traat, Maarika

    The present dissertation proposes integrating Discourse Representation Theory (DRT), information structure (IS) and Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG) into a single framework. It achieves this by making two new ...

  14. Computational analyses of multilevel discourse comprehension.

    PubMed

    Graesser, Arthur C; McNamara, Danielle S

    2011-04-01

    The proposed multilevel framework of discourse comprehension includes the surface code, the textbase, the situation model, the genre and rhetorical structure, and the pragmatic communication level. We describe these five levels when comprehension succeeds and also when there are communication misalignments and comprehension breakdowns. A computer tool has been developed, called Coh-Metrix, that scales discourse (oral or print) on dozens of measures associated with the first four discourse levels. The measurement of these levels with an automated tool helps researchers track and better understand multilevel discourse comprehension. Two sets of analyses illustrate the utility of Coh-Metrix in discourse theory and educational practice. First, Coh-Metrix was used to measure the cohesion of the text base and situation model, as well as potential extraneous variables, in a sample of published studies that manipulated text cohesion. This analysis helped us better understand what was precisely manipulated in these studies and the implications for discourse comprehension mechanisms. Second, Coh-Metrix analyses are reported for samples of narrative and science texts in order to advance the argument that traditional text difficulty measures are limited because they fail to accommodate most of the levels of the multilevel discourse comprehension framework. PMID:25164300

  15. Application of LC-MS to the analysis of dyes in objects of historical interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xian; Laursen, Richard

    2009-07-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array and mass spectrometric detection permits dyes extracted from objects of historical interest or from natural plant or animal dyestuffs to be characterized on the basis of three orthogonal properties: HPLC retention time, UV-visible spectrum and molecular mass. In the present study, we have focused primarily on yellow dyes, the bulk of which are flavonoid glycosides that would be almost impossible to characterize without mass spectrometric detection. Also critical for this analysis is a method for mild extraction of the dyes from objects (e.g., textiles) without hydrolyzing the glycosidic linkages. This was accomplished using 5% formic acid in methanol, rather than the more traditional 6 M HCl. Mass spectroscopy, besides providing the molecular mass of the dye molecule, sometimes yields additional structural data based on fragmentation patterns. In addition, coeluting compounds can often be detected using extracted ion chromatography. The utility of mass spectrometry is illustrated by the analysis of historical specimens of silk that had been dyed yellow with flavonoid glycosides from Sophora japonica (pagoda tree) and curcumins from Curcuma longa (turmeric). In addition, we have used these techniques to identify the dye type, and sometimes the specific dyestuff, in a variety of objects, including a yellow varnish from a 19th century Tibetan altar and a 3000-year-old wool mortuary textiles, from Xinjiang, China. We are using HPLC with diode array and mass spectrometric detection to create a library of analyzed dyestuffs (>200 so far; mostly plants) to serve as references for identification of dyes in objects of historical interest.

  16. Age transcended: a semiotic and rhetorical analysis of the discourse of agelessness in North American anti-aging skin care advertisements.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Kirsten L

    2014-04-01

    Drawing from a collection of over 160 North American print advertisements for anti-aging skin care products from January to December of 2009, this paper examines the discourse of agelessness, a vision of esthetic perfection and optimal health that is continually referred to by gerontologists, cultural theorists, and scientific researchers as a state of being to which humankind can aspire. Employing critical discourse analysis through the use of semiotics and visual rhetoric, this paper explores the means through which anti-aging skin care advertisements present to their viewers a particular object of desire, looking, more specifically, at how agelessness is presented as a way out and ultimate transcendence of age. Through the analytical tools of semiotics and visual rhetoric, four visions of agelessness are identified and explored in this paper: Agelessness as Scientific Purity, Agelessness as Genetic Impulse, Agelessness as Nature's Essence, and Agelessness as Myth. Whether found in the heights of scientific purity, the inner core of our genetic impulse, the depths of nature's essence, or whether agelessness itself has reached its own, untouchable, mythic status, the advertisements in this study represent one of the most pervasive vehicles through which our current vision(s) of ageless perfection are reflected, reinforced, and suspended in a drop of cream. PMID:24655670

  17. Historic climate variability of wetness in East China (960-1992): A wavelet analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jianmin Jiang; Zhang, De`er; Fraedrich, K.

    1997-11-01

    In this paper, a dataset of historic wetness is analyzed with the wavelet transform technique. A previous dataset was derived from historic documents, and consists of annual dryness/wetness grades from 1 to 5 at 120 stations in the China mainland for the period from 1470 to 1979. This dataset was extended back to AD 960 for six regions in East China in a previous study, and the extended dataset is used in this paper. The Mexican Hat wavelet transform technique and descriptive statistical analysis were used to analyze each of the six regional time series. The wavelet analysis of climatic fluctuation displayed variations of different time scales at particular time points, as well as persistent anomalies. The climatic variations occuring on longer time scales may cover a larger area; these are the outstanding persistent dry and wet stages during the last 1033 years. The variations on longer time scales coincide roughly with those previously identified. On shorter time scales, some synchronous fluctations are also observed but in fewer years. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Physiotherapy: a historical analysis of the transformation from an occupation to a profession in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ana L. O.; Nunes, Everardo D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Analyzing the historical and social path of an occupation using the sociology of professions and the perspective of scientific knowledge promotes an understanding of the origin of physical therapy in Brazil and of discussions of the profession in its contemporary context. Objective: The aim of this paper was to discuss the professionalization process of physical therapy in São Paulo. The authors tried to analyze bath therapy, massage therapy, and physical therapy as occupations involving distinct expertise and as part of the group of occupations that evolved into the profession of physiotherapy in the first half of the twentieth century. Method: The analysis undertaken was a qualitative study based on an analysis of historical documents. Eighty-six professional records from the Service of Inspection of Professional Practice in the state of São Paulo and healthcare legislation from the 1930s and 1940s were analyzed. Results: The distinction between physical therapy practitioner and profession of physiotherapy can be seen by examining registration requirements for rank-and-file nurses with expertise in interactions; this distinction suggests the emergence of specialized expertise that was clearly a part of neither medicine nor nursing and contributed to expertise in physical therapy since the 1950s. Conclusion: The regulation of physiotherapy practices, the recognition of expertise, the accreditation of practical nurses by the State, and the institutionalization of a course for physical therapy practitioners in 1951 are key elements of the professionalization process for the physical therapy profession in Brazil. PMID:26443976

  19. Profiles of Discourse Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Murray

    2013-01-01

    A discourse recognition theory derived from more general memory formulations would be broad in its psychological implications. This study compared discourse recognition with some established profiles of item recognition. Participants read 10 stories either once or twice each. They then rated their confidence in recognizing explicit, paraphrased,…

  20. Said-Huntington Discourse Analyzer : a machine-learning tool for classifying and analyzing discourse

    E-print Network

    Hashmi, Muhammad Ali, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2015-01-01

    Critical discourse analysis (CDA) aims to understand the link "between language and the social" (Mautner and Baker, 2009), and attempts to demystify social construction and power relations (Gramsci, 1999). On the other ...

  1. Quantitative analysis of saltwater-freshwater relationships in groundwater systems-A historical perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, T.E.; Goodman, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    Although much progress has been made toward the mathematical description of saltwater-freshwater relationships in groundwater systems since the late 19th century, the advective and dispersive mechanisms involved are still incompletely understood. This article documents the major historical advances in this subject and summarizes the major direction of current studies. From the time of Badon Ghyben and Herzberg, it has been recognized that density is important in mathematically describing saltwater-freshwater systems. Other mechanisms, such as hydrodynamic dispersion, were identified later and are still not fully understood. Quantitative analysis of a saltwater-freshwater system attempts to mathematically describe the physical system and the important mechanisms using reasonable simplifications and assumptions. This paper, in developing the history of quantitative analysis discusses many of these simplifications and assumptions and their effect on describing and understanding the phenomenon. ?? 1985.

  2. Models of processing: discourse.

    PubMed

    Garnham, Alan

    2010-11-01

    This article discusses models of discourse processing, primarily from a psycholinguistic perspective, though considerations from the other cognitive sciences are mentioned where appropriate. It also touches on issues of discourse representation, because questions about representation and questions about process are closely intertwined. The origins of an interest in questions about discourse are identified in Bransford's ideas from the early 1970s. Their development into more detailed models of discourse processing is discussed, and detailed descriptions are given of, in particular, anaphor processing and, to a lesser extent the establishment of coherence. Some issues that arise in connection with the production of discourse are briefly discussed, as are their relation to dialog rather than to monolog. WIREs Cogn Sci 2010 1 845-853 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26271782

  3. Education and Nationalism: The Discourse of Education Policy in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnott, Margaret; Ozga, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    The paper draws on critical discourse analysis to examine and discuss some of the key developments in the governing of education in Scotland since the election of the Scottish National Party (SNP) government in May 2007. It analyses these developments, drawing on a study of key policy texts and suggests that discourse analysis has much to…

  4. Science Pedagogy as a Category of Historical Analysis: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesko, Kathryn M.

    2006-11-01

    Historical studies of science pedagogy have flourished in recent years. This essay offers an assessment of the literature on science pedagogy from the 1930s to the present. It argues that rather than focusing on the work of Thomas Kuhn and Michel Foucault, historians of science pedagogy could with profit turn to the work of Ludwik Fleck. Fleck offers three categories of historical analysis - experience, sensation, and cognition - that are embedded in science pedagogy. He furthermore argues unequivocally for the central importance of considering the cultural context of science pedagogy. Fleck’s interpretation of the role of publishing in science is used in the final section of this essay to assess scientific publishing and textbook culture, topics that are the principal concern of the articles in this volume. Among the novelties of the articles in this volume on textbooks are (1) the connections they draw between textbooks and social structure; (2) the relationships they suggest between textbooks and the public sphere; and (3) their identification of the eighteenth century as the crucial transformative century in textbook production.

  5. The role of genes in talking about overweight: An analysis of discourse on genetics, overweight and health risks in relation to nutrigenomics.

    PubMed

    Komduur, Rixt; Te Molder, Hedwig

    2014-11-01

    This study examines whether the assumptions embedded in nutrigenomics, especially the alleged relation between information about personal health risks and healthy behaviour, match how people account for the relation between food, health and genes in everyday life. We draw on discourse analysis to study accounts of overweight in six group interviews with people who are and who are not overweight. The results show potentially contradictory normative orientations towards behavioural explanations of (over)weight. Overt gene accounts are interactionally problematic (in contrast to more indirect accounts such as 'build'), indicating that participants treat 'behaviour' as the normatively appropriate explanation for overweight. At the same time, however, healthy behaviour is an accountable matter, i.e. it is dealt with in interaction as behaviour that is not self-evidently right but requires an explanation. It is discussed how bringing these interactional concerns to the surface is essential for understanding future users' response to nutrigenomics and emergent technologies more in general. PMID:23825280

  6. Talk in Interaction in the Speech-Language Pathology Clinic: Bringing Theory to Practice through Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaby, Margaret M.; Walsh, Irene P.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of learning about and applying clinical discourse analysis to enhance the talk in interaction in the speech-language pathology clinic is discussed. The benefits of analyzing clinical discourse to explicate therapy dynamics are described.

  7. Science learning in the context of discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    do Nascimento, Silvania Sousa

    2013-06-01

    The original article by Kamberelis and Wehunt (2012) discusses an interesting and important research subject in science education as it focus on classroom interactions and the characteristics of the discourse production of interlocutors. The authors start from the premise that discourse heterogeneity is constitutive of social activities, which is supported by others like Mikhail Bakhtin (Speech genres and other late essays. University of Texas Press, Austin, 1981) and Erving Goffman (Frame analysis: an essay on the organization of experience. Harper and Row, London, 1974). They also present the definitions of three key elements that organize hybrid discourse: (a) lamination of multiple cultural frames, (b) shifting relations between people and their discourse, and (c) shifting power relations between people. Finally, the authors analyze how these three elements organize students' science discourse in the classroom and how it contributes to the creation of a micro-community of practice capable of helping the emergence of a disciplinary knowledge that is legitimized by and strengthens the identity of the group. In the present commentary, I discuss how Michael Foucault's (1970) concept of discursive procedure may help us to analyze the (often neglected) teacher's role in the development of hybrid discourse practices.

  8. Historical Epidemics Cartography Generated by Spatial Analysis: Mapping the Heterogeneity of Three Medieval "Plagues" in Dijon

    PubMed Central

    Galanaud, Pierre; Galanaud, Anne; Giraudoux, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This work was designed to adapt Geographical Information System-based spatial analysis to the study of historical epidemics. We mapped "plague" deaths during three epidemics of the early 15th century, analyzed spatial distributions by applying the Kulldorff's method, and determined their relationships with the distribution of socio-professional categories in the city of Dijon. Materials and Methods Our study was based on a database including 50 annual tax registers (established from 1376 to 1447) indicating deaths and survivors among the heads of households, their home location, tax level and profession. The households of the deceased and survivors during 6 years with excess mortality were individually located on a georeferenced medieval map, established by taking advantage of the preserved geography of the historical center of Dijon. We searched for clusters of heads of households characterized by shared tax levels (high-tax payers, the upper decile; low-tax payers, the half charged at the minimum level) or professional activities and for clusters of differential mortality. Results High-tax payers were preferentially in the northern intramural part, as well as most wealthy or specialized professionals, whereas low-tax payers were preferentially in the southern part. During two epidemics, in 1400–1401 and 1428, areas of higher mortality were found in the northern part whereas areas of lower mortality were in the southern one. A high concentration of housing and the proximity to food stocks were common features of the most affected areas, creating suitable conditions for rats to pullulate. A third epidemic, lasting from 1438 to 1440 had a different and evolving geography: cases were initially concentrated around the southern gate, at the confluence of three rivers, they were then diffuse, and ended with residual foci of deaths in the northern suburb. Conclusion Using a selected historical source, we designed an approach allowing spatial analysis of urban medieval epidemics. Our results fit with the view that the 1400–1401 epidemic was a Black Death recurrence. They suggest that this was also the case in 1428, whereas in 1438–1440 a different, possibly waterborne, disease was involved. PMID:26625117

  9. Object-oriented analysis of multi-temporal panchromatic images for creation of historical landslide inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martha, Tapas R.; Kerle, Norman; van Westen, Cees J.; Jetten, Victor; Vinod Kumar, K.

    2012-01-01

    Object-oriented analysis (OOA) has been demonstrated to produce more accurate results than pixel-based image processing. Studies carried out by previous researchers have shown how landslide inventories can be prepared from multispectral satellite images using OOA. However, panchromatic images are frequently the only data available after a landslide event. Furthermore, preparation of historical inventories relies on the analysis of satellite images and aerial photographs acquired over past few decades that are also mostly only available in black and white. In such cases the methodology developed using multispectral data cannot be used directly due to limited spectral information, in particular in near-infrared bands. In this paper we present a new methodology that addresses some of these issues. Using high resolution panchromatic images from Cartosat-1 (2.5 m) and IRS-1D (5.8 m), and a 10 m gridded DTM extracted from Cartosat-1, we developed a new approach which uses change detection techniques and a global contextual criteria in an object-based environment to detect and classify landslides into five different types. Continuous time series images from 1998 to 2006 were used to prepare annual landslide inventories in a highly rugged Himalayan terrain. The maximum and minimum detection percentages achieved for all landslides are 96.7% and 71.5%, respectively, with corresponding quality percentages of 88.1% and 55.3%, respectively. However, the lack of spectral information proved to be a hurdle resulting in a high branching factor that indicates that further work is required to eliminate false positives. Nevertheless, the method was able to create much needed historical landslide inventories, which are critical for landslide hazard and risk assessment studies.

  10. Photomorphic analysis techniques: An interim spatial analysis using satellite remote sensor imagery and historical data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keuper, H. R.; Peplies, R. W.; Gillooly, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    The use of machine scanning and/or computer-based techniques to provide greater objectivity in the photomorphic approach was investigated. Photomorphic analysis and its application in regional planning are discussed. Topics included: delineation of photomorphic regions; inadequacies of existing classification systems; tonal and textural characteristics and signature analysis techniques; pattern recognition and Fourier transform analysis; and optical experiments. A bibliography is included.

  11. Statistical Analysis of Historical State-Level Residential Energy Consumption Trends

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2004-08-01

    Developing an accurate picture of the major trends in energy consumption in the nation’s stock of residential buildings can serve a variety of national and regional program planning and policy needs related to energy use. This paper employs regression analysis and uses the PRISM (Princeton Scorekeeping Method) approach with historical data to provide some insight into overall changes in the thermal integrity of the residential building stock by state. Although national energy use intensity estimates exist in aggregate, these numbers shed little light on what drives building consumption, as opposing influences are hidden within the measurement (e.g., more appliances that increase energy use while shell improvements reduce it). This study addresses this issue by estimating changes in the reference temperatures that best characterize the existing residential building stock on a state basis. Improvements in building thermal integrity are reflected by declines in the heating reference temperature, holding other factors constant. Heating and cooling-day estimates to various reference temperatures were computed from monthly average temperature data for approximately 350 climatic divisions in the U.S. A simple cross-sectional analysis is employed to try to explain the differential impacts across states. Among other factors, this analysis considers the impact that the relative growth in the number of residential buildings and the stringency of building energy codes has had on residential building energy use. This paper describes the methodology used, presents results, and suggests directions for future research.

  12. Educational Policy-Making in Post-Communist Ukraine as an Example of Emerging Governmentality: Discourse Analysis of Curriculum Choice and Assessment Policy Documents (1999-2003)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fimyar, Olena

    2008-01-01

    Educational policy-making in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is still building upon the ambivalences and uncertainties of post-communist transformation. The international support, expertise and discourses--coupled with communist legacies, stalled democratic developments and national discourses--produce unique effects on education in…

  13. Informational database methodology for urban risk analysis.Case study: the historic centre of Bucharest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armas, I.; Dumitrascu, S.

    2009-04-01

    The urban environment often deals with issues concerning the deterioration of the constructed space and the quality of the environmental factors, in general terms meaning an unsatisfactory quality of life. Taking into account the complexity of the urban environment and the strong human impact, this ambience can be considered the ideal place for a varied range of risks to appear, being favoured by the external interventions and the dynamics of the internal changes that occur in the urban system, often unexpectedly. In this context, historic centre areas are even more vulnerable because of the age of the buildings and their socio-cultural value. The present study focuses on the development of a rapid assessment system of urban risks, putting emphasis on earthquakes. The importance of the study is shown by the high vulnerability that defines urban settlements, which can be considered socio-ecological systems characterized by a maximum risk level. In general, cities are highly susceptible areas because of their compactness and elevated degree of land occupancy, the Bucharest municipality being no exception. The street and sewerage networks disorganized the natural system resulted from the evolution of the lake-river system in Superior Pleistocene-Holocene and the intense construction activity represents a pressure that hasn't been measured and that is in need for a methodological interdisciplinary approach. In particular, the specific of Bucharest is given by the seismic risk based on an explosive urban evolution and the advanced state of degradation of the buildings. In this context, the Lipscani sector from the historic centre of the capital city is a maximum seismic vulnerability area, this being the result of its location in the Dâmbovita River meadow, on the brow and 80 m terrace, but more precisely because of the degradation of the buildings that cumulated the effects of the repeated earthquakes. The historic centre of Bucharest has not only a cultural function, but is also a very populated area, this being factors that favour a high susceptibility level. In addition, the majority of the buildings are included in the first and second categories of seismic risk, being built between 1875 and 1940, the age of the buildings establishing an increased vulnerability to natural hazards. The methodology was developed through the contribution of three partner universities from Bucharest: the University of Bucharest, the Academy for Economic Studies and the Technical University of Constructions. The method suggested was based on the analysis and processing of digital and statistical spatial information resulted from 1:500 topographical plans, satellite pictures, archives and historical maps used for the identification of the age of the buildings. Also, an important stage was represented by the field investigations that resulted with the data used in the assessment of the buildings: year of construction, location and vicinity, height, number of floors, state and function of the building, equipment and construction type. The information collected from the field together with the data resulted from the digitization of the ortophotoplans were inserted in ArcGIS in order to compile the database. Furthermore, the team from the Cybernetics Faculty developed a special software package in Visual Studio and SQL server in order to insert the sheets in GIS so that they could be statistically processed. The final product of the study is a program that includes as main functions editing, the analysis based on selected factors (individual or group) and viewing of building information in the shape of maps or 3D visualization. The strengths of the informational system resulted are given by the extended range of applicability, the short processing period, accessibility, capacity of support for a large amount of information and, thus, standing out as an adequate instrument to fit the needs of a susceptible population.

  14. Using Simple Statistical Analysis of Historical Data to Understand Wind Ramp Events

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, C

    2010-01-29

    As renewable resources start providing an increasingly larger percentage of our energy needs, we need to improve our understanding of these intermittent resources so we can manage them better. In the case of wind resources, large unscheduled changes in the energy output, called ramp events, make it challenging to keep the load and the generation balanced. In this report, we show that simple statistical analysis of the historical data on wind energy generation can provide insights into these ramp events. In particular, this analysis can help answer questions such as the time period during the day when these events are likely to occur, the relative severity of positive and negative ramps, and the frequency of their occurrence. As there are several ways in which ramp events can be defined and counted, we also conduct a detailed study comparing different options. Our results indicate that the statistics are relatively insensitive to these choices, but depend on utility-specific factors, such as the magnitude of the ramp and the time interval over which this change occurs. These factors reflect the challenges faced by schedulers and operators in keeping the load and generation balanced and can change over the years. We conduct our analysis using data from wind farms in the Tehachapi Pass region in Southern California and the Columbia Basin region in Northern Oregon; while the results for other regions are likely to be different, the report describes the benefits of conducting simple statistical analysis on wind generation data and the insights that can be gained through such analysis.

  15. An Historical Analysis of the Chicago Public Schools Policy on the Requirements for the Selection of Principals, 1983-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cafferty, Siobhan

    2010-01-01

    This historical analysis provided an opportunity to appreciate Chicago's course in the national school reform landscape. This study helped to understand the effects school reform efforts had on school leadership policy in Chicago. It verified a roster of superintendents in Chicago during 1983-2008, established a chronology of school reform events…

  16. Studies in Historical Replication in Psychology VII: The Relative Utility of "Ancestor Analysis" from Scientific and Educational Vantages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranney, Michael Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses, from various vantages, Ryan Tweney's (this issue) pedagogical technique of employing historical replications of psychological experiments with graduate students in psychology. A "prima facie" perspective suggests great promise for this sort of academic "ancestor analysis," particularly given the enthusiasm and skill…

  17. Discourse Factors in the Evaluation of Language Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litteral, Robert

    Features of connected discourse that have been identified by discourse analysis may be applied to the evaluation of oral proficiency in a second language. For example, in the area of semantics, a speaker's control of the cause-result relationship involves, among other things, the ability to produce the different grammatical and lexical…

  18. Pluralist Discourses of Bilingualism and Translanguaging Talk in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durán, Leah; Palmer, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines student and teacher talk in a first grade classroom in a two-way immersion school in Central Texas. Drawing on audio and video data from a year-long study in a first grade two-way classroom and using a methodology that fuses ethnography and discourse analysis, the authors explore how pluralist discourses are constructed and…

  19. Some Observations on the Syntactic Development of Discourse beyond Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wald, Benji

    A study of the syntactic development of discourse in and after adolescence among fluent English speakers in a bilingual community of East Los Angeles focused on subordinate devices not observed until adolescence, such as the relative clause using "which" and clauses using "even though/although." Discourse analysis of these types of clauses…

  20. Management of Discourse in Group Therapy for Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Elman, Roberta J.; Holland, Audrey L.; Damico, Jack S.

    2007-01-01

    A qualitative study of group therapy for aphasia was undertaken in order to discover interaction patterns and discourse management strategies that help define "social" or "conversation" group therapy for aphasia. Specifically, an analysis of the discourse of clients and therapists was conducted to identify patterns across therapists and settings.…

  1. Toward the modeling of land use change: A spatial analysis using remote sensing and historical data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honea, R. B.

    1976-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the chronological observation of land use change could be shown to follow a predictable pattern and these patterns could be correlated with other statistical data to develop transition probabilities suitable for modeling purposes. A literature review and preliminary research, however, indicated a totally stochastic approach was not practical for simulating land use change and thus a more deterministic approach was adopted. The approach used assumes the determinants of the land use conversion process are found in the market place, where land transactions among buyers and sellers occur. Only one side of the market transaction process is studied, however, namely, the purchaser's desires in securing an ideal or suitable site. The problem was to identify the ideal qualities, quantities or attributes desired in an industrial site (or housing development), and to formulate a general algorithmic statement capable of identifying potential development sites. Research procedures involved developing a list of variables previously noted in the literature to be related to site selection and streamlining the list to a set suitable for statistical testing. A sample of 157 industries which have located (or relocated) in the 16-county Knoxville metropolitan region since 1950 was selected for industrial location analysis. Using NASA color infrared photography and Tennessee Valley Authority historical aerial photography, data were collected on the spatial characteristics of each industrial location event. These data were then subjected to factor analysis to determine the interrelations of variables.

  2. Modeling, Analysis, and Preservation Techniques for Historic Reinforced Concrete Structures in Seismic Prone Regions Case Study: Augusta Airship Hangar, Sicily

    SciTech Connect

    Cronin, Kelly; Whyte, Catherine; Reiner, Tom

    2008-07-08

    Throughout the world there are hundreds of historic monuments and structures considered to be invaluable and irreplaceable. They are symbols of cultural identity and a means of educating people about history. Preservation of historic monuments and structures is therefore an important part of safeguarding these cultural heritage sites so that they retain their value for future generations.This report discusses a procedure for the investigation of seismic hazards in existing buildings and possible steps that can be taken to avoid damage caused by these hazards. The Augusta Airship Hangar located in Sicily, will be used as a case study however the topics addressed in this paper can be applied to other structures of historic value around the world.First state-of-the-art scanning procedures were used to create scale digital models that were imported into a structural analysis program. Within this program dynamic analyses were performed on the model based on actual ground motions taken close to the site. This data was used to determine the period and mode shapes of the structure. Then a nonlinear analysis, including a static pushover analysis, was implemented on a two-dimensional model of the structural frame. From this analysis the failure mechanisms of the structure were revealed with relation to an allowable roof displacement. The structural integrity of the structure was evaluated based on pre-defined performance goals. Finally multiple suggestions were made how the Augusta Airship Hangar might be repaired and strengthened so that this structure will not be destroyed should an earthquake occur.The results of our study show that historic structures, despite their age, can still be strong and ductile. Also there are a multitude of effective preservation and retrofit techniques that can be used to strengthen these historic structures, should an earthquake occur. Through this study, the Augusta Airship Hangar has proven to be not only a historic symbol for Sicily but also can be used as an example for the rehabilitation of other historic structures. The techniques and processes discussed in this paper can be applied to other historic reinforced concrete structures and can be expanded upon in future investigations.

  3. Conflicting Discourses: Functional Linguistic and Discourse Analyses of Pocahontas Texts in Bilingual Third-Grade Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciechanowski, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This article provides micro analysis of one representative incident from a larger qualitative study to examine how third-grade bilingual students and their teacher negotiated academic disciplinary and popular culture discourses in a social studies unit on Jamestown and Pocahontas. Informed by discourse and linguistic analyses, this study explores…

  4. Approche du discours politique: "socialisme" et "socialiste" chez Jaures (An Approach to Political Discourse: "Socialism" and "Socialist" in Jaures' Discourse).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauveau, Genevieve

    1978-01-01

    Presents a linguistic and sociolinguistic analysis of the use of the words "socialism" and "socialist" in Jean Jaures' discourse, with a view to answering the following questions: (1) what is the process of semantic change, from a philosophical term to a political one; and (2) what is the nature of "political discourse?" (AM)

  5. Generals, Colonels, and Captains: Discourses of Militarism, Education, and Learning in the Canadian University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a feminist discourse analysis that explores the ways in which discourses of learning interact with discourses of militarism at four Canadian civilian universities named for military leaders. I discuss how this particular research topic became apparent to me and explore the current national context where it can be argued that…

  6. The Common Topoi of STEM Discourse: An Apologia and Methodological Proposal, with Pilot Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Lynda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes a methodology for the rhetorical analysis of scientific, technical, mathematical, and engineering (STEM) discourse based on the common topics (topoi) of this discourse. Beginning with work by Miller, Prelli, and other rhetoricians of STEM discourse--but factoring in related studies in cognitive linguistics--she…

  7. Running Title: An APOS analysis of infinity issues Some historical issues and paradoxes regarding the concept of infinity: An APOS analysis, Part 2

    E-print Network

    Dubinsky, Ed

    the concept of infinity: An APOS analysis, Part 2 Ed Dubinsky, Kent State University Kirk Weller, UniversityRunning Title: An APOS analysis of infinity issues Some historical issues and paradoxes regarding of North Texas Michael A. McDonald, Occidental College Anne Brown, Indiana University South Bend

  8. The expositive discourse as pedagogical discourse: studying recontextualization in the production of a science museum exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Cheryl A.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper I report on the sociological and educational particulars of The Biodiscovery Space exhibition of the Life Museum of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using Basil Bernstein's framework of pedagogic discourse and recontextualization. Data for analysis was obtained from interviews with the exhibition developers, field observations of museum visitors and analysis of exhibition documents. Using the ideas of power, classification and framework, among others, I analyzed the recontextualization process of the production of expositive discourse. Thus, working with Bernstein's idea of classification, I explain the relationship between the discourses of the science of biology, history of science, museology, education, and communication in order to produce an expositive discourse. I also make explicit how agents of the Official Recontextualization Field of the Museum and the Pedagogic Recontextualization Field "....of the Museum determine partly the final expositive discourse of an exhibition". Using the idea of a pedagogic discourse framework, I discuss how the constraints imposed by objects and texts in exhibitions help to create a specific manner of visitor interaction with these elements, "even if they have some autonomy". Considerations about the audience and the intended process of acquisition are presented, when I discuss the control strategies of the exhibition. I propose that the Biodiscovery Space exhibit has a visible pedagogy. Finally, using the collected data I discuss the power tensions created in the production of expositive discourse showing how distributive, recontextualization and evaluation rules work in the context of exhibitions. The study of the dynamics in forming the expositive discourse using Bernstein's framework reveals the individuals and institutions, the selection criteria, the negotiations and the power relations involved. It has the potential to assist both educators and researchers in the museum education field, as well as designers to understand the teaching and learning processes that occur during a visit and to establish relevant criteria to evaluate quality to best produce exhibitions in science museums.

  9. How Has Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Therapy Changed?: An Historical Analysis of Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donohue, William; Fryling, Mitch

    2007-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis and behavior therapy are now nearly a half century old. It is interesting to ask if and how these disciplines have changed over time, particularly regarding some of their key internal controversies (e.g., role of cognitions). We examined the first five years and the 2000-2004 five year period of the "Journal of Applied…

  10. Applicative Structures and Immediate Discourse in the Turkish Discourse Bank

    E-print Network

    Bozsahin, Cem

    Applicative Structures and Immediate Discourse in the Turkish Discourse Bank Iin Demirahin, Adnan annotated in the multiple- genre Turkish Discourse Bank (TDB). The de- pendencies that violate tree function compositions and graph reductions, which are known to require more computational power. 2 Turkish

  11. Discourse Relations versus Discourse Marker Relations Jacques Jayez

    E-print Network

    Discourse Relations versus Discourse Marker Relations Jacques Jayez EHESS 54, Bid Raspail 75006 Paris FRANCE jjayez~dial, oleane, corn Corinne Rossari Universit~ de Gen~ve D4partement de Linguistique obvious that many dis- course markers (DMs) are able to express discourse relations (DRs) which exist

  12. An analysis of ozone damage to historical maize and soybean yields in the United States.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Justin M; Betzelberger, Amy M; Wang, Shaowen; Shook, Eric; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Long, Stephen P; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2015-11-17

    Numerous controlled experiments find that elevated ground-level ozone concentrations ([O3]) damage crops and reduce yield. There have been no estimates of the actual yield losses in the field in the United States from [O3], even though such estimates would be valuable for projections of future food production and for cost-benefit analyses of reducing ground-level [O3]. Regression analysis of historical yield, climate, and [O3] data for the United States were used to determine the loss of production due to O3 for maize (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) from 1980 to 2011, showing that over that period production of rain-fed fields of soybean and maize were reduced by roughly 5% and 10%, respectively, costing approximately $9 billion annually. Maize, thought to be inherently resistant to O3, was at least as sensitive as soybean to O3 damage. Overcoming this yield loss with improved emission controls or more tolerant germplasm could substantially increase world food and feed supply at a time when a global yield jump is urgently needed. PMID:26578785

  13. An analysis of ozone damage to historical maize and soybean yields in the United States

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Justin M.; Betzelberger, Amy M.; Wang, Shaowen; Shook, Eric; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Long, Stephen P.; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous controlled experiments find that elevated ground-level ozone concentrations ([O3]) damage crops and reduce yield. There have been no estimates of the actual yield losses in the field in the United States from [O3], even though such estimates would be valuable for projections of future food production and for cost–benefit analyses of reducing ground-level [O3]. Regression analysis of historical yield, climate, and [O3] data for the United States were used to determine the loss of production due to O3 for maize (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) from 1980 to 2011, showing that over that period production of rain-fed fields of soybean and maize were reduced by roughly 5% and 10%, respectively, costing approximately $9 billion annually. Maize, thought to be inherently resistant to O3, was at least as sensitive as soybean to O3 damage. Overcoming this yield loss with improved emission controls or more tolerant germplasm could substantially increase world food and feed supply at a time when a global yield jump is urgently needed. PMID:26578785

  14. Semi-automatic system for UV images analysis of historical musical instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondi, Piercarlo; Invernizzi, Claudia; Licchelli, Maurizio; Lombardi, Luca; Malagodi, Marco; Rovetta, Tommaso

    2015-06-01

    The selection of representative areas to be analyzed is a common problem in the study of Cultural Heritage items. UV fluorescence photography is an extensively used technique to highlight specific surface features which cannot be observed in visible light (e.g. restored parts or treated with different materials), and it proves to be very effective in the study of historical musical instruments. In this work we propose a new semi-automatic solution for selecting areas with the same perceived color (a simple clue of similar materials) on UV photos, using a specifically designed interactive tool. The proposed method works in two steps: (i) users select a small rectangular area of the image; (ii) program automatically highlights all the areas that have the same color of the selected input. The identification is made by the analysis of the image in HSV color model, the most similar to the human perception. The achievable result is more accurate than a manual selection, because it can detect also points that users do not recognize as similar due to perception illusion. The application has been developed following the rules of usability, and Human Computer Interface has been improved after a series of tests performed by expert and non-expert users. All the experiments were performed on UV imagery of the Stradivari violins collection stored by "Museo del Violino" in Cremona.

  15. Acquisition and Analysis of Dynamic Responses of a Historic Pedestrian Bridge using Video Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Byrne, Michael; Ghosh, Bidisha; Schoefs, Franck; O'Donnell, Deirdre; Wright, Robert; Pakrashi, Vikram

    2015-07-01

    Video based tracking is capable of analysing bridge vibrations that are characterised by large amplitudes and low frequencies. This paper presents the use of video images and associated image processing techniques to obtain the dynamic response of a pedestrian suspension bridge in Cork, Ireland. This historic structure is one of the four suspension bridges in Ireland and is notable for its dynamic nature. A video camera is mounted on the river-bank and the dynamic responses of the bridge have been measured from the video images. The dynamic response is assessed without the need of a reflector on the bridge and in the presence of various forms of luminous complexities in the video image scenes. Vertical deformations of the bridge were measured in this regard. The video image tracking for the measurement of dynamic responses of the bridge were based on correlating patches in time-lagged scenes in video images and utilisinga zero mean normalised cross correlation (ZNCC) metric. The bridge was excited by designed pedestrian movement and by individual cyclists traversing the bridge. The time series data of dynamic displacement responses of the bridge were analysedto obtain the frequency domain response. Frequencies obtained from video analysis were checked against accelerometer data from the bridge obtained while carrying out the same set of experiments used for video image based recognition.

  16. Acquisition and Analysis of Dynamic Responses of a Historic Pedestrian Bridge using Video Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Byrne, Michael; Ghosh, Bidisha; Schoefs, Franck; O'Donnell, Deirdre; Wright, Robert; Pakrashi, Vikram

    2015-07-01

    Video based tracking is capable of analysing bridge vibrations that are characterised by large amplitudes and low frequencies. This paper presents the use of video images and associated image processing techniques to obtain the dynamic response of a pedestrian suspension bridge in Cork, Ireland. This historic structure is one of the four suspension bridges in Ireland and is notable for its dynamic nature. A video camera is mounted on the river-bank and the dynamic responses of the bridge have been measured from the video images. The dynamic response is assessed without the need of a reflector on the bridge and in the presence of various forms of luminous complexities in the video image scenes. Vertical deformations of the bridge were measured in this regard. The video image tracking for the measurement of dynamic responses of the bridge were based on correlating patches in time-lagged scenes in video images and utilisinga zero mean normalisedcross correlation (ZNCC) metric. The bridge was excited by designed pedestrian movement and by individual cyclists traversing the bridge. The time series data of dynamic displacement responses of the bridge were analysedto obtain the frequency domain response. Frequencies obtained from video analysis were checked against accelerometer data from the bridge obtained while carrying out the same set of experiments used for video image based recognition.

  17. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis of accessions in the US historic sweet sorghum collection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming L; Zhu, Chengsong; Barkley, Noelle A; Chen, Zhenbang; Erpelding, John E; Murray, Seth C; Tuinstra, Mitchell R; Tesso, Tesfaye; Pederson, Gary A; Yu, Jianming

    2009-12-01

    Sweet sorghum has the potential to become a versatile feedstock for large-scale bioenergy production given its sugar from stem juice, cellulose/hemicellulose from stalks, and starch from grain. However, for researchers to maximize its feedstock potential a first step includes additional evaluations of the 2,180 accessions with varied origins in the US historic sweet sorghum collection. To assess genetic diversity of this collection for bioenergy breeding and population structure for association mapping, we selected 96 accessions and genotyped them with 95 simple sequence repeat markers. Subsequent genetic diversity and population structure analysis methods identified four subpopulations in this panel, which correlated well with the geographic locations where these accessions originated or were collected. Model comparisons for three quantitative traits revealed different levels of population structure effects on flowering time, plant height, and brix. Our results suggest that diverse germplasm accessions curated from different geographical regions should be considered for plant breeding programs to develop sweet sorghum cultivars or hybrids, and that this sweet sorghum panel can be further explored for association mapping. PMID:19760215

  18. Historical Trends

    Cancer.gov

    Close Window State Cancer Profiles Quick Reference Guides ? Back to Historical Trends Reference Guide Historical Trends This graphic shows the Historical Trends Graph for female breast cancer mortality in the United States, 1975-2011. There are various

  19. Typological and Topological Meaning in Diagnostic Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the discourse of a problem-based learning group in medicine. Uses a conceptual distinction between linguistic (and other semiotic) resources for making typological (or categorical) versus topological (or continuous variation) meanings as part of a multimedia semiotic analysis of the data episode. (SR)

  20. Promoting Scientific Understanding through Electronic Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soo-Young; Songer, Nancy Butler

    2001-01-01

    Study of the effect of middle-school Internet-enhanced atmospheric science program on student learning. Uses results of verbal analysis of discourse between students and scientists in electronic messages and data from teacher survey and interviews. Finds that student's understanding of atmospheric science is enhanced. (Contains 37 references.)…

  1. Structuring Conversation: Discourse Markers in Cervantes's "Entremeses"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Due to the recent shift in the linguistic pragmatics literature from the analysis of isolated speech acts to the focus on phenomena which affect the global meaning of a message, discourse markers (DMs) have become a frequent research topic. Despite their popularity, the evolution and development of these forms is often neglected in investigations…

  2. Elaboration and Simplification in Spanish Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granena, Gisela

    2008-01-01

    This article compares spoken discourse models in Spanish as a second language textbooks and online language learning resources with naturally occurring conversations. Telephone service encounters are analyzed from the point of view of three different dimensions of authenticity: linguistic, sociolinguistic, and psycholinguistic. An analysis of 20…

  3. Historic dye analysis: method development and new applications in cultural heritage 

    E-print Network

    Troalen, Lore Gertrud

    2013-06-29

    A review of the main natural dyes (particularly yellow flavonoids and red anthraquinones) and proteinaceous substrates used in Historical Tapestries and North American porcupine quill work was undertaken, and is summarised ...

  4. Chasing the illusive American dream: an historical analysis of Mexican-American education, employment, and culture 

    E-print Network

    Ham, Arwen Eugene

    2013-02-22

    The objectives of this study include the identification of the effects of history on contemporary Mexican immigration in the areas of education, employment and culture. Beginning with a detailed historical background of ...

  5. Analysis of Burnt Schist Outcrops in the Alps: Relation to Historical Archaeology

    E-print Network

    Dorn, Ron

    ), and Raman Spectroscopic data do not provide an age for the burnt rock, compositional evidence be initiated with some prospect of recovering artifacts of interest to historical archaeologists. Of all

  6. Econometric analysis of the historical growth and volatility trends of various metals

    E-print Network

    Jones, Brittany Laurél

    2012-01-01

    Post Malthusian economics, there is growing recognition of the impact technological change and advance has on market activity. By studying historical production and price trends, boundaries of feasible growth can be ...

  7. Experts, Dialects, and Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatt, Rakesh Mohan

    2002-01-01

    Examines "expert" discourse--complexes of signs and practices that organize and legitimize social existence and social reproduction--to demonstrate the ideological process involved in the manufacture of Standard English ideology and its continual duplication as necessitated by the three axiomatic conceptions of the English-sacred imagined…

  8. The Discourse on Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    1997-01-01

    Examines technology as a current professional issue and suggests strategies of interpretation from anthropology, history, sociology, and the humanities that will promote understanding. Highlights include a review of education and technology over the last century; interactions between society and technology; and recommended reading on the discourse

  9. Discourse Devices in Telugu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rani, A. Usha

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss some of the productive discourse devices and markers noted in 50 spoken narratives elicited from Telugu native speakers. Since most of them are college students and residents of Hyderabad, they are also exposed to English as well as Hindi-Urdu (Dakkhini). After presenting certain salient features of Telugu…

  10. Power discourses of fish death: case of linnunsuo peat production.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Tero

    2014-03-01

    This article explores the peat production impacts on Jukajoki river in Finland by implementing discourse analysis. Four discourses are explored: state truth statements; company statements that are in close proximity of state power; discourses provided by the local community Selkie, who provided counter-narratives to the official views; and finally media and related discourses. In conclusion, the discourses by the state and closely related actors (A-B) comprised implementation of their power and justifying it at the expense of those who are excluded from such power, in this case the village. The village narrative (C) contains elements that strongly contradict the statements provided by those with power. The results indicate local communities should be taken more seriously. The systematic denial of local peoples' rights should be reviewed, and local participation in environmental permit assessments implemented. PMID:23852881

  11. The inter-section of political history and health policy in Asia--the historical foundations for health policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Grundy, John; Hoban, Elizabeth; Allender, Steve; Annear, Peter

    2014-09-01

    One of the challenges for health reform in Asia is the diverse set of socio-economic and political structures, and the related variability in the direction and pace of health systems and policy reform. This paper aims to make comparative observations and analysis of health policy reform in the context of historical change, and considers the implications of these findings for the practice of health policy analysis. We adopt an ecological model for analysis of policy development, whereby health systems are considered as dynamic social constructs shaped by changing political and social conditions. Utilizing historical, social scientific and health literature, timelines of health and history for five countries (Cambodia, Myanmar, Mongolia, North Korea and Timor Leste) are mapped over a 30-50 year period. The case studies compare and contrast key turning points in political and health policy history, and examines the manner in which these turning points sets the scene for the acting out of longer term health policy formation, particularly with regard to the managerial domains of health policy making. Findings illustrate that the direction of health policy reform is shaped by the character of political reform, with countries in the region being at variable stages of transition from monolithic and centralized administrations, towards more complex management arrangements characterized by a diversity of health providers, constituency interest and financing sources. The pace of reform is driven by a country's institutional capability to withstand and manage transition shocks of post conflict rehabilitation and emergence of liberal economic reforms in an altered governance context. These findings demonstrate that health policy analysis needs to be informed by a deeper understanding and questioning of the historical trajectory and political stance that sets the stage for the acting out of health policy formation, in order that health systems function optimally along their own historical pathways. PMID:25066947

  12. Global Warming Wars: Rhetorical and Discourse Analytic Approaches to ExxonMobil's Corporate Public Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livesey, Sharon M.

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes texts published by ExxonMobil on the issue of climate change, employing both rhetorical analysis and discourse analysis to show their uses and potential value in business communication research. Shows how both reveal the socially constructed nature "reality" and the social effects of language, but are never the less distinct in their…

  13. From Food Insufficiency towards Trade Dependency: A Historical Analysis of Global Food Availability

    PubMed Central

    Porkka, Miina; Kummu, Matti; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

    2013-01-01

    Achieving global food security is one of the major challenges of the coming decades. In order to tackle future food security challenges we must understand the past. This study presents a historical analysis of global food availability, one of the key elements of food security. By calculating national level dietary energy supply and production for nine time steps during 1965–2005 we classify countries based on their food availability, food self-sufficiency and food trade. We also look at how diets have changed during this period with regard to supply of animal based calories. Our results show that food availability has increased substantially both in absolute and relative terms. The percentage of population living in countries with sufficient food supply (>2500 kcal/cap/d) has almost doubled from 33% in 1965 to 61% in 2005. The population living with critically low food supply (<2000 kcal/cap/d) has dropped from 52% to 3%. Largest improvements are seen in the MENA region, Latin America, China and Southeast Asia. Besides, the composition of diets has changed considerably within the study period: the world population living with high supply of animal source food (>15% of dietary energy supply) increased from 33% to over 50%. While food supply has increased globally, food self-sufficiency (domestic production>2500 kcal/cap/d) has not changed remarkably. In the beginning of the study period insufficient domestic production meant insufficient food supply, but in recent years the deficit has been increasingly compensated by rising food imports. This highlights the growing importance of food trade, either for food supply in importing countries or as a source of income for exporters. Our results provide a basis for understanding past global food system dynamics which, in turn, can benefit research on future food security. PMID:24367545

  14. PIXE analysis of historical paintings: Is the gain worth the risk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calligaro, T.; Gonzalez, V.; Pichon, L.

    2015-11-01

    The PIXE analysis of easel paintings constitutes a challenging task. Despite recognized merits and a few emblematic applications, PIXE has never been routinely applied to these fragile, complex and precious targets. The present work discusses the place of PIXE in the study of easel paintings and opens up perspectives for a more systematic usage of this analytical technique. Progress achieved since decades in the implementation of PIXE to study such fragile cultural heritage artefacts is reviewed, notably at the LABEC laboratory in Italy and at the AGLAE facility of the C2RMF in France. Two specific techniques developed for paintings are detailed and exemplified on Renaissance painting masterpieces: differential PIXE for paint layers depth profiling and multi-scale elemental mapping for the imaging of pigment distribution. Beam-induced damage, a major concern, notably depends on the employed beam fluence in particle/cm2 or ?C/cm2. After recalling previous works on damage induced in chemical products comparable to pigments, we present the behaviour under different fluences of protons of a few MeV (1-300 ?C/cm2) of targets having high resemblance to historical easel paintings: pellets of specially synthesized lead white pigments, layers of lead white mixed with linseed oil and areas containing lead white of two 19th century paintworks. The results shed new lights on the behaviour of paintworks under the beam and pave the way to strategies for damage mitigation. In particular, the lowering of PIXE performance induced by the decrease of the beam fluence sets a trade-off between risk of damage and gained information which also impacts the PIXE scanning protocol for paintings. As an illustration of an adequate adjustment of this balance, we report the exploratory application of PIXE mapping to a large area of a 19th century easel painting without damage. The recorded elemental maps are compared to elemental maps collected on the same area using laboratory-based scanning XRF.

  15. Analysis of historical residential air-conditioning equipment sizing using monitored data

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, R.G.

    1992-08-01

    Monitored data were analyzed to determine whether residential air conditioners in the Pacific Northwest historically have been sized properly to meet or slightly exceed actual cooling requirements. Oversizing air-conditioning equipment results in a loss of efficiency because of increased cycling and also lowers humidity control. Larger air conditioners are also more expensive to purchase. On the other hand, the penalty of undersizing air-conditioning equipment may be some loss of comfort during extremely hot weather. of comfort during extremely hot weather. The monitored data consist of hourly space-conditioning electrical energy use and internal air temperature data collected during the past 7 years from 75 residences in the Pacific Northwest. These residence are equipped with central air conditioners or heat pumps. The periods with the highest cooling energy use were analyzed for each site. A standard industry sizing methodology (Manual J published by Air Conditioning Contractors of America) was used for each site to determine a sizing estimate. Both the sizing the recommendation based on Manual J and peak monitored loads are compared to capacity of the installed equipment for each site to study how the actual capacities differed from both the estimate of proper sizing and from actual demands. The characteristics of the maximum cooling loads are analyzed here to determine which conditions put the highest demand on the air conditioner. Specifically, internal air temperature data are used to determine when the highest cooling loads occur, at constant thermostat settings or when the thermostat was set down. This analysis of monitored data also provides insight into the extent occupant comfort may be affected by undersizing air conditioners.

  16. Petrogenesis of Vesuvius historical lavas constrained by Pearce element ratios analysis and experimental phase equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigila, Raffaello; De Benedetti, Arnaldo A.

    1993-11-01

    Petrogenesis of Vesuvius historical lavas erupted in the interval 1631-1944 was investigated by petrological methods and experimental phase equilibria. Lavas are strongly porphyritic with principal phenocrysts of clinopyroxene, leucite and calcic plagioclase. Olivine, biotite, Fe?Ti oxides and apatite are present occasionally. Their bulk composition defines a chemical group spanning the leucite-tephrite and phonolite-tephrite regions of the TAS (total alkalies vs. silica) diagram. Through PERs (Pearce element ratios) analysis it has been possible to determine the lava differentiation relationships (controlled by cpx joined by minor lc, plag and Ti-mt) and to estimate the extent of differentiation processes (about 25% of initial mass). Chemistry of cpx indicates a multistage crystallization process in the upper crust. The crystallization environmental parameters deduced from the experimental cpx and liquids are consistent with the existence of a shallow magma chamber within the carbonate rocks of the Triassic basement where the nearly dry Vesuvius magma becomes CO 2 saturated. The generally small volume of the products from single eruptions, and Vesuvius lavas geochemical and petrographic features suggest magma reservoir is zoned with respect to temperature and phenocrysts abundance. The dynamics of magma withdrawal controls mixing of the melt fractions proceeding from different areas of the magma chamber and, therefore, it produces the within-flow chemical differences. Chemical variations among the lavas of different eruptive cycles are instead believed to be controlled essentially by the speed of magma ascent through the upper crust allowing differential removals of cpx phenocrysts crystallized from the magma on its way to the surface.

  17. Rethinking historical trauma.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Gone, Joseph P; Moses, Joshua

    2014-06-01

    Recent years have seen the rise of historical trauma as a construct to describe the impact of colonization, cultural suppression, and historical oppression of Indigenous peoples in North America (e.g., Native Americans in the United States, Aboriginal peoples in Canada). The discourses of psychiatry and psychology contribute to the conflation of disparate forms of violence by emphasizing presumptively universal aspects of trauma response. Many proponents of this construct have made explicit analogies to the Holocaust as a way to understand the transgenerational effects of genocide. However, the social, cultural, and psychological contexts of the Holocaust and of post-colonial Indigenous "survivance" differ in many striking ways. Indeed, the comparison suggests that the persistent suffering of Indigenous peoples in the Americas reflects not so much past trauma as ongoing structural violence. The comparative study of genocide and other forms of massive, organized violence can do much to illuminate both common mechanisms and distinctive features, and trace the looping effects from political processes to individual experience and back again. The ethics and pragmatics of individual and collective healing, restitution, resilience, and recovery can be understood in terms of the self-vindicating loops between politics, structural violence, public discourse, and embodied experience. PMID:24855142

  18. Analyzing Discourse: Text and Talk. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics (Washington, D.C., 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannen, Deborah, Ed.

    The Georgetown Round Table on discourse analysis dealt with the following aspects of the topic: Emerson's essay on language; oral remembering and narrative structures; persuasive discourse; social construction of topical cohesion; discourse as an interactional achievement; the place of intonation; topic as the unit of analysis in a criminal law…

  19. Tensions between Discourses of Development, Religion, and Human Capital in Early Childhood Education Policy Texts: The Case of Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Formen, Ali; Nuttall, Joce

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider how particular discourses have come to dominate early childhood education (ECE) policy in Indonesia. We briefly explain the governance of Indonesian ECE and then our approach to policy analysis using critical discourse analysis. Three prevalent discourses are identified and discussed: "developmentalism",…

  20. Characterizing Successful Classroom Discourse for NNS Teaching Assistant Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rounds, Patricia L.

    1987-01-01

    Suggests a more specific-purpose instructional model for English as a second language that is based on a quantitative and qualitative discourse analysis of videotapes of native and non-native speaking teaching assistants. (Author/CB)

  1. "Joyful Learning" in Rural Indian Primary Schools: An Analysis of Social Control in the Context of Child-Centred Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriprakash, Arathi

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to improve the "quality" of education for all in government primary schools in India have seen a shift towards child-centred teaching. This paper examines the "Joyful Learning" programme, an example of a pedagogic reform implemented in rural primary schools in the southern Indian state of Karnataka. Through an empirical analysis of…

  2. Computer-Supported Collaborative Inquiry on Buoyancy: A Discourse Analysis Supporting the "Pieces" Position on Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turcotte, Sandrine

    2012-01-01

    This article describes in detail a conversation analysis of conceptual change in a computer-supported collaborative learning environment. Conceptual change is an essential learning process in science education that has yet to be fully understood. While many models and theories have been developed over the last three decades, empirical data to…

  3. Small Talk at Work: A Corpus Based Discourse Analysis of AAC and Non-AAC Device Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Ferrante, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This work is an analysis of small talk in the workplace. The study is intended to fill two main research gaps in the relatively young field of small talk in the workplace studies: On one hand, the lack of quantitative data that would account for the dimensions and the proportions of the elements of small talk interactions; on the other hand, the…

  4. Shifting Identity Positions in the Development of Language Education for Immigrants: An Analysis of Discourses Associated with "Swedish for Immigrants"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Jenny Karin; Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta

    2013-01-01

    The study presented in this paper focuses upon conceptualisations of language and identity in the institutionalised arena that emerged in the post-Second World War period with the specific intention of teaching Swedish to adult immigrants in the nation-state of Sweden. Our analysis focuses upon the development of the educational programme "Swedish…

  5. Ellipsis and discourse coherence

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles

    2006-01-01

    VP-ellipsis generally requires a syntactically matching antecedent. However, many documented examples exist where the antecedent is not appropriate. Kehler (2000, 2002) proposed an elegant theory which predicts a syntactic antecedent for an elided VP is required only for a certain discourse coherence relation (resemblance) not for cause-effect relations. Most of the data Kehler used to motivate his theory come from corpus studies and thus do not consist of true minimal pairs. We report five experiments testing predictions of the coherence theory, using standard minimal pair materials. The results raise questions about the empirical basis for coherence theory because parallelism is preferred for all coherence relations, not just resemblance relations. Further, strict identity readings, which should not be available when a syntactic antecedent is required, are influenced by parallelism per se, holding the discourse coherence relation constant. This draws into question the causal role of coherence relations in processing VP ellipsis. PMID:16896367

  6. [Gender discourses and bioethics].

    PubMed

    Aparisi Miralles, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present some of the contributions of the gender discourse to the bioethical debate, specifically in the field of nursing. At the same time, it will explain the contribution of the different feminist theories to the recognition and respect of human dignity. Basically, it will describe the three fundamental models in the gender discourse: the egalitarian model, the difference model, and the model of reciprocity or complementarity. The starting point is that even though the first two models have made significant contributions in the field of bioethics, they have nonetheless brought with them some deficiencies and reductionisms inherent in their thinking. The complementarity model, on the contrary, when properly understood, allows for the combination of the principles of equality and difference between man and woman, which places it at a much more enriching standpoint within the bioethical debate. PMID:25329418

  7. Work and family roles of Soviet women: historical trends and cross-section analysis.

    PubMed

    Ofer, G; Vinokur, A

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the way of life of USSR women over the last 2 generations are very similar to those experienced by women in most industrialized and industializing societies. The rate of participation of women in the labor force increased substantially, and this movement was accompanied by a marked rise in the level of women's general and professional education. As a result, women occupy more white collar positions than they did in older generations, but these developments have created a double burden for most women who complain that increased resonsibilities outside the home have not been synchronized with an adequate increase in men's sharing household responsibilities. Historical explanations for changes in women's role particularly emphasize the nature of relationships between participation, wages, incomes, fertility, education and labor market conditions. The long term changes of these major variables, since the 1920s, along with an investigation based on an income survey of 1000 immigrant families, are studied in this paper. Cross sectional analysis examines a longer life cycle, participation decisions, and relates them to decisions on fertility and education. Fertility rates among the Jewish immigrants are much higher and labor participation rates of women much lower than for the rest of the population. Some of the main features of the long trends since 1926 are: 1) of the overall measures of participation of women, only those in the 15-54 and 20-54 age ranges show some increase over the 1926-1980 period, 2) sharp rises in specific participation rates for 25-44 and 45-54 age groups since 1950, and for urban women overall, 3) only a small fraction of the total increase in participation can be attributed to the increase in the proportion of single women, and 4) by 1980 the overall female participation figure rose to 80%--and 88% for the 20-54 age group--the difference reflecting the sharp decline in 15-19 age group participation. While the short run decision about participation is heavily determined by the expected wage, other family income, and the presence of small children, longer term decisions about participation are influenced by the level of education and by fertility--decisions normally made early in life. Although women's schooling is rapidly catching up with men's, their relative wages have hardly increased because the extra pressure of home and work responsibilities results in high divorce rates, lower fertility, and lower investment in human capital and effort on the job. PMID:12267651

  8. Analysis of XXI Century Disasters in the National Geophysical Data Center Historical Natural Hazard Event Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; McCullough, H. L.

    2011-12-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) maintains a global historical event database of tsunamis, significant earthquakes, and significant volcanic eruptions. The database includes all tsunami events, regardless of intensity, as well as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions that caused fatalities, moderate damage, or generated a tsunami. Event date, time, location, magnitude of the phenomenon, and socio-economic information are included in the database. Analysis of the NGDC event database reveals that the 21st century began with earthquakes in Gujarat, India (magnitude 7.7, 2001) and Bam, Iran (magnitude 6.6, 2003) that killed over 20,000 and 31,000 people, respectively. These numbers were dwarfed by the numbers of earthquake deaths in Pakistan (magnitude 7.6, 2005-86,000 deaths), Wenchuan, China (magnitude 7.9, 2008-87,652 deaths), and Haiti (magnitude 7.0, 2010-222,000 deaths). The Haiti event also ranks among the top ten most fatal earthquakes. The 21st century has observed the most fatal tsunami in recorded history-the 2004 magnitude 9.1 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami that caused over 227,000 deaths and 10 billion damage in 14 countries. Six years later, the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami, although not the most fatal (15,000 deaths and 5,000 missing), could cost Japan's government in excess of 300 billion-the most expensive tsunami in history. Volcanic eruptions can cause disruptions and economic impact to the airline industry, but due to their remote locations, fatalities and direct economic effects are uncommon. Despite this fact, the second most expensive eruption in recorded history occurred in the 21st century-the 2010 Merapi, Indonesia volcanic eruption that resulted in 324 deaths, 427 injuries, and $600 million in damage. NGDC integrates all natural hazard event datasets into one search interface. Users can find fatal tsunamis generated by earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. The user can then link to information about the related runup observations (e.g. maximum wave height) and the source earthquake or volcano. If available, damage photographs and plots of water level data can also be viewed. The data are accessible online via tables, reports, and a new state-of-the-art interactive map viewer. These data and access capabilities help coastal communities assess their risks, identify hazards, and promote public awareness of tsunamis and earthquakes.

  9. A Historical Analysis of the Daniell Cell and Electrochemistry Teaching in French and Tunisian Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulabiar, Ahlem; Bouraoui, Kamel; Chastrette, Maurice; Abderrabba, Manef

    2004-01-01

    The condition in which the Daniell Cell was historically constructed is examined and the evolution of its presentation in French and Tunisian chemistry textbooks is analyzed. Based on the studies, several innovations to facilitate the teaching of the cell, and more generally, the teaching of electrochemistry and of ionic conduction are proposed.

  10. Historical Models and Science Instruction: A Cross-Cultural Analysis Based on Students' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shu-Chiu

    2006-01-01

    The paper is an extended work from a previous study on Taiwanese and German students' conceptions of the universe (Liu, 2005). The study revealed that students discuss astronomical events and entities based on a mental model of universe and their models of the universe seem to have similar underlying principles with historical ones. In present…

  11. Collective Skill Formation: A Historical Analysis of the Least-Likely Case New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trampusch, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article is the first study investigating New Zealand's early legislation in apprenticeship from the perspective of historical institutionalism. It shows that, between 1865 and the 1940s, New Zealand's apprenticeship system was less liberal in character than it is today, because a collective skill formation regime, involving dual…

  12. Integrating Wikis in the Support and Practice of Historical Analysis Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabiness, Catherine; Donovan, Loretta; Green, Tim D.

    2013-01-01

    This case study examines the benefits of integrating wikis into the World History curriculum. Six middle school students chosen because of their designation in relevant subgroups--GATE, AVID, and RSP--participated in this 20-week study. Abstract historical concepts can be difficult to grasp; therefore, students collaborated via a wiki on topics…

  13. Comprehensive Sexuality Education: A Historical and Comparative Analysis of Public Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrman, Judith W.; Solano, Paul; Stotz, Lauren; McDuffie, Mary Joan

    2013-01-01

    This research clarifies the public support of comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) in terms of acceptance, content, timing, and effectiveness as it may inform practice in the United States. The historical context of public opinion, as well as a summary of the efficacy of abstinence only education (AOE) versus CSE in the scientific literature,…

  14. Science Pedagogy as a Category of Historical Analysis: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olesko, Kathryn M.

    2006-01-01

    Historical studies of science pedagogy have flourished in recent years. This essay offers an assessment of the literature on science pedagogy from the 1930s to the present. It argues that rather than focusing on the work of Thomas Kuhn and Michel Foucault, historians of science pedagogy could with profit turn to the work of Ludwik Fleck. Fleck…

  15. Social-Cultural-Historical Contradictions in an L2 Listening Lesson: A Joint Activity System Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Informed and inspired by neo-Vygotskian theory, this article outlines a study exploiting a contemporary conceptualization of Wells's (2002) joint activity system model as an exploratory framework for examining and depicting the social-cultural-historical contradictions in second-language (L2) learners' joint activity. The participants were a pair…

  16. History of Science in the Physics Curriculum: A Directed Content Analysis of Historical Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seker, Hayati; Guney, Burcu G.

    2012-01-01

    Although history of science is a potential resource for instructional materials, teachers do not have a tendency to use historical materials in their lessons. Studies showed that instructional materials should be adaptable and consistent with curriculum. This study purports to examine the alignment between history of science and the curriculum in…

  17. A Historical Analysis of the Curriculum of Organic Chemistry Using ACS Exams as Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Holme, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Standardized examinations, such as those developed and disseminated by the ACS Examinations Institute, are artifacts of the teaching of a course and over time may provide a historical perspective on how curricula have changed and evolved. This study investigated changes in organic chemistry curricula across a 60-year period by evaluating 18 ACS…

  18. A Historical Analysis of the Educational Modalities of Inequalities Management in Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulot, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a historical and comparative study of the role that management of inequalities has played in the formation and evolution of educational institutions in three countries: Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala. This particular focus shows that this function has played a determining role, even if its organization has varied deeply in…

  19. Accessibility and Mobility of Persons Who Are Visually Impaired: A Historical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasch, B. B.; Stuckey, K. A.

    1995-01-01

    This article traces the historical development of two movements to improve the mobility of people with visual impairments--environmental modifications to increase accessibility, and orientation and mobility training. It also notes how changes in attitudes, effected to a large degree by the introduction of dog guides, have led to greater acceptance…

  20. It cuts both ways: an analysis of the psychological discourse on self-injury from a linguistic point of view.

    PubMed

    Bar-On, Vered

    2014-10-01

    This article proposes an analysis of the phenomenon of self-injury through the prism of current linguistic theories. The author uses the clinical distinctions made by Roman Jakobson between metonymic and metaphoric aphasia to suggest that the psychological community and those who harm themselves are participating in separate "language games." While the clinical "language game" is characterized by the dominance of metaphor and a conception stressing the hierarchy between metaphor and metonymy, the "language game" of self-mutilators is dominated by metonymy. The author explores the clinical implications of understanding the language game of those who injure themselves as metonymic. PMID:25247287

  1. Geophysical techniques in the historical center of Venice (Italy): preliminary results from HVSR and multichannel analysis of surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevisani, Sebastiano; Rocca, Michele; Boaga, Jacopo

    2014-05-01

    This presentation aims to outline the preliminary findings related to an extensive seismic survey conducted in the historical center of Venice, Italy. The survey was conducted via noninvasive and low-cost seismic techniques based on surface waves analysis and microtremor methods, mainly using single station horizontal to vertical spectral ratio techninques (HVSR) and multichannel analysis of surface waves in passive (ReMI) and active (MASW) configurations. The importance and the fragility of the cultural heritage of Venice, coupled with its peculiar geological and geotechnical characteristics, stress the importance of a good knowledge of its geological architecture and seismic characteristics as an opportunity to improve restoration and conservation planning. Even if Venice is located in a relatively low seismic hazard zone, a local characterization of soil resonance frequencies and surficial shear waves velocities could improve the planning of engineering interventions, furnishing important information on possible local effects related to seismic amplification and possible coupling within buildings and soil resonance frequencies. In the specific we collected more than 50 HVSR single station noise measurements and several passive and active multichannel analysis of surface waves located in the historical center. In this work we report the characteristics of the conducted seismic surveys (instrumentation, sampling geometry, etc.) and the preliminary findings of our analysis. Moreover, we discuss briefly the practical issues, mainly of logistic nature, of conducting this kind of surveys in a peculiar and crowed historical center as represented by Venice urban contest. Acknowledgments Instrumentation acquired in relation to the project co-financed by Regione Veneto, POR-CRO, FESR, 2007-2013, action 1.1.1. "Supporto ad attività di ricerca, processi e reti di innovazione e alla creazione di imprese in settori a elevato contenuto tecnologico"

  2. A pilot study of Hungarian discourse markers.

    PubMed

    Dér, Csilla Ilona; Markó, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    This study is the first attempt at detecting formal and positional characteristics of single-word simple discourse markers in a spontaneous speech sample of Hungarian. In the first part of the research, theoretical claims made in the relevant literature were tested. The data did not confirm or only partially confirmed the claims that Hungarian discourse markers (i) occur in turn-initial position and (ii) are prosodically independent, that is, are flanked by a pause on either side. In the second part, we looked at word forms both occurring as discourse markers and having syntactic functions in order to determine the features and cues which help us during speech perception to identify and distinguish between syntactic and discourse marking functions. The points of analysis were as follows: the position of the given word form in the clause, the degree of lenition in its articulation, the duration of the word form, the modulation of fundamental frequency, and the occurrence of sentence stress, if any, on the word form at hand. The results show that one or the other, or some combination, of these various factors may play a role in the perception process in certain instances only; this suggests that other parameters, yet to be explored, are also involved in the identification of these functions. PMID:20583728

  3. Loose women or lost women? The re-emergence of the myth of white slavery in contemporary discourses of trafficking in women.

    PubMed

    Doezema, J

    2000-01-01

    This article compares current concerns about "trafficking in women" with turn of the century discourses about "white slavery". It traces the emergence of narratives on "white slavery" and their reemergence in the moral panics and boundary crises of contemporary discourses on "trafficking in women". Drawing on historical analysis and contemporary representations of sex worker migration, the paper argues that the narratives of innocent, virginal victims purveyed in the "trafficking in women" discourse are a modern version of the myth of "white slavery". These narratives, the article argues, reflect persisting anxieties about female sexuality and women's autonomy. Racialized representations of the migrant "Other" as helpless, child-like, victims strips sex workers of their agency. This article argues that while the myth of "trafficking in women"/"white slavery" is ostensibly about protecting women, the underlying moral concern is with the control of "loose women". Through the denial of migrant sex workers' agency, these discourses serve to reinforce notions of female dependence and purity that serve to further marginalize sex workers and undermine their human rights. PMID:12296110

  4. A Corpus-Based Analysis of the Discourse Functions of "Ser/Estar" + Adjective in Three Levels of Spanish as FL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collentine, Joe; Asencion-Delaney, Yuly

    2010-01-01

    Research on the acquisition of Spanish's two copulas, "ser" and "estar," provides an understanding of the interaction among syntax, semantics, pragmatics, morphology, and vocabulary during development (e.g., Geeslin, 2003a, 2003b; Gunterman, 1992; Ryan & Lafford, 1992). Recent research suggests that linguistic features in the surrounding discourse

  5. Exploring Students' Mapping Behaviors and Interactive Discourses in a Case Diagnosis Problem: Sequential Analysis of Collaborative Causal Map Drawing Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Woon Jee

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the nature of students' mapping and discourse behaviors while constructing causal maps to articulate their understanding of a complex, ill-structured problem. In this study, six graduate-level students were assigned to one of three pair groups, and each pair used the causal mapping software program,…

  6. An Analysis of Written Discourse of North Korean Second Language Speakers of English: Its Linguistic Features and Their Discursive Functions with Pragmatic Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seung Hwa

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examined linguistic and pragmatic characteristics of written discourse of North Korean second language speakers of English comparing it with that of North American native speakers of English by analyzing linguistic features used in the two sets of texts and their discursive functions based on Biber's (1995) and Hinkel's…

  7. More? Great? Childcare? A Discourse Analysis of Two Recent Social Policy Documents Relating to the Care and Education of Young Children in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wild, Mary; Silberfeld, Carolyn; Nightingale, Beverley

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the overt and covert discourses in two contemporary policy documents in England and Wales, "The Nutbrown Review: Foundations for Quality" ([DfE] Department for Education Department for Education. 2012. "The Nutbrown Review: Foundations for Quality: The Independent Review of Early Education and Childcare…

  8. DOE Integrated Safeguards and Security (DISS) historical document archival and retrieval analysis, requirements and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Guyer, H.B.; McChesney, C.A.

    1994-10-07

    The overall primary Objective of HDAR is to create a repository of historical personnel security documents and provide the functionality needed for archival and retrieval use by other software modules and application users of the DISS/ET system. The software product to be produced from this specification is the Historical Document Archival and Retrieval Subsystem The product will provide the functionality to capture, retrieve and manage documents currently contained in the personnel security folders in DOE Operations Offices vaults at various locations across the United States. The long-term plan for DISS/ET includes the requirement to allow for capture and storage of arbitrary, currently undefined, clearance-related documents that fall outside the scope of the ``cradle-to-grave`` electronic processing provided by DISS/ET. However, this requirement is not within the scope of the requirements specified in this document.

  9. The reliability of the premodern Korean household register data for an historical demography analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, H

    1989-12-01

    The author examines the reliability of premodern Korean household register data from the Hyonnae-Myon sub-county for the period 1606-1789. The focus is on underreporting of household members less than 15 years of age, females, and slaves. The author reconstructs the population by age and sex and discusses methods of compensating for data errors and omissions in historical demography. (SUMMARY IN KOR) PMID:12342754

  10. National and Post-National Discourses and the Construction of Linguistic Identities by Students of Albanian Origin in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archakis, Argiris

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on Critical Discourse Analysis and, more specifically, on the relationship between the macro-level of dominant discourses and the micro-level of individual positionings, we examine the way linguistic identities are constructed by immigrant students of Albanian origin in Greece. We elaborate on two "competitive" discourses: the…

  11. Machine Comprehension with Discourse Relations Karthik Narasimhan

    E-print Network

    Machine Comprehension with Discourse Relations Karthik Narasimhan CSAIL, MIT karthikn for incorporating discourse information into machine comprehension applications. Traditionally, such information demonstrate that the discourse aware model outperforms state-of-the-art machine comprehension systems.1 1

  12. Benefits of applying combined diffuse reflectance FTIR spectroscopy and principal component analysis for the study of blue tempera historical painting.

    PubMed

    Navas, Natalia; Romero-Pastor, Julia; Manzano, Eloisa; Cardell, Carolina

    2008-12-23

    This paper explores the application of diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) to the examination of historic blue pigments and blue tempera paintings commonly found on works of art. The discussion is mainly focused on the practical benefits of using this technique joined to principal component analysis (PCA), a powerful multivariate analysis tool. Thanks to the study of several replica samples that contain either pure blue pigments (azurite, lapis lazuli and smalt), or pure binder (rabbit glue) and mixtures of each of the pigments with the binder (tempera samples), different aspects of these benefits are highlighted. Comparative results of direct spectra and multivariate analysis using transmittance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (T-FTIR) are discussed throughout this study. Results showed an excellent ability of PCA on DRIFT spectra for discriminating replica samples according to differing composition. Several IR regions were tested with this aim; the fingerprint IR region exhibited the best ability for successfully clustering the samples. The presence of the binder was also discriminated. Only using this approach it was possible to completely separate all the studied replica samples. This demonstrates the potential benefits of this approach in identifying historical pigments and binders for conservation and restoration purposes in the field of Cultural Heritage. PMID:19012825

  13. Social responsibility in French engineering education: a historical and sociological analysis.

    PubMed

    Didier, Christelle; Derouet, Antoine

    2013-12-01

    In France, some institutions seem to call for the engineer's sense of social responsibility. However, this call is scarcely heard. Still, engineering students have been given the opportunity to gain a general education through courses in literature, law, economics, since the nineteenth century. But, such courses have long been offered only in the top ranked engineering schools. In this paper, we intend to show that the wish to increase engineering students' social responsibility is an old concern. We also aim at highlighting some macro social factors which shaped the answer to the call for social responsibility in the French engineering "Grandes Ecoles". In the first part, we provide an overview of the scarce attention given to the engineering curriculum in the scholarly literature in France. In the second part, we analyse one century of discourses about the definition of the "complete engineer" and the consequent role of non technical education. In the third part, we focus on the characteristics of the corpus which has been institutionalized. Our main finding is that despite the many changes which occurred in engineering education during one century, the "other formation" remains grounded on a non academic "way of knowing", and aims at increasing the reputation of the schools, more than enhancing engineering students' social awareness. PMID:22183421

  14. Promoting Civil Discourse on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Rita

    2010-01-01

    During the past several decades, off campus and on, much of the discourse on controversial issues has been personal, vicious, and divisive. On the national scene, politics has become permeated with incivility. It now appears that Americans have been naive about their ability and willingness to engage in civil discourse and compromise. How can…

  15. The Anatomy of Critical Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfield, Lawrence W.

    1968-01-01

    Critical discourse is best understood when its logical features are identified. An examination of the basic elements and modes of rhetorical criticism (a form of critical discourse) produces a finite set of options for the critic, thus enabling him to develop a system of alternatives in his critical efforts. For example, by selecting from among…

  16. Resisting an Isolated Learning Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to suggest that researchers on workplace learning avoid an isolated learning discourse. The point at issue is that being a learner is just one aspect of people's sometimes complicated lives in the workplace, and that people may sometimes--for good reasons--resist a learning discourse if it is linked…

  17. Relationship between selected discourse strategies and student critical thinking.

    PubMed

    Rossignol, M

    1997-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between use of selected discourse strategies and level of student critical thinking in nursing clinical post-conferences. Selected discourse strategies included: (a) teacher high-level questions, (b) teacher elaboration of student ideas, (c) teacher probing questions, (d) student participation, and (e) student-to-student participation. The level of student critical thinking was defined as the quartile ranking of students (N = 57) on the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal summative measure. It was hypothesized that greater use of discourse strategies would be associated with high-levels of student critical thinking. All discourse strategies were significantly associated (p < .0001) to student quartile ranking for one taping session (Conference II). Further analysis, however, revealed ambiguous patterns of two-way associations. The more consistent findings suggested a conceptual relationship between less student talk and student-to-student talk and high-levels of student critical thinking. PMID:9413817

  18. Efficient Analysis of Live and Historical Streaming Data and itsApplication to Cybersecurity

    SciTech Connect

    Reiss, Frederick; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng; Shoshani, Arie; Hellerstein, Joseph M.

    2007-04-06

    Applications that query data streams in order to identifytrends, patterns, or anomalies can often benefit from comparing the livestream data with archived historical stream data. However, searching thishistorical data in real time has been considered so far to beprohibitively expensive. One of the main bottlenecks is the update costsof the indices over the archived data. In this paper, we address thisproblem by using our highly-efficient bitmap indexing technology (calledFastBit) and demonstrate that the index update operations aresufficiently efficient for this bottleneck to be removed. We describe ourprototype system based on the TelegraphCQ streaming query processor andthe FastBit bitmap index. We present a detailed performance evaluation ofour system using a complex query workload for analyzing real networktraffic data. The combined system uses TelegraphCQ to analyze streams oftraffic information and FastBit to correlate current behaviors withhistorical trends. We demonstrate that our system can simultaneouslyanalyze (1) live streams with high data rates and (2) a large repositoryof historical stream data.

  19. Analysis of degradation phenomena in ancient, traditional and improved building materials of historical monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, M. O.; Silva, T. P.; Veiga, J. P.

    2008-07-01

    A review is presented on constructive techniques plus materials and the processes involved in degradation phenomena observed in two historical monuments: the Zambujeiro dolmen (Portugal) and the Roman Aqueduct of Carthage (Tunisia). Dolmens are particularly impressive megalithic constructions for the dimensions of granite blocks. At Zambujeiro, the upright stones have undergone a catastrophic evolution after the archaeological exploitation due to accelerated weathering through a process apparently distinct from natural granite decay in nearby outcrops. The biological attack of granite minerals by lichen exudates has emphasized the hazardous character of bromine and more has been learnt about construction techniques, namely, the insertion in the mound of an impermeable clay stratum that hinders water penetration into the dolmen chamber. The characterization of original Roman ashlar blocks, including masonry and the diagnosis of Byzantine and medieval reconstruction testimonies in the Aqueduct of Carthage were the object of a detailed study by X-ray diffraction and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence. Traditional constructive techniques and local construction materials were studied and successive historical, modern and recent rehabilitations were reappraised.

  20. An innovative method for nondestructive analysis of cast iron artifacts at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Martin f. Helmke

    2014-01-01

    Sampling cast iron produced by the furnace posed two problems. First, verification that the iron was actually cast at Hopewell Furnace was necessary, as some iron objects found at Hopewell may not have originated there. This was accomplished by using artifacts on display at the Hopewell visitor center (fig. 2). All artifacts on display have been positively attributed to the furnace, and stoves produced by the furnace are easily recognized by the name “Hopewell” cast into them. The second problem was the analysis of the trace metal content of the cast iron, because it was not possible to break off part of a historically important artifact and send it to a laboratory for analysis. This problem was solved when the USGS collaborated with West Chester University, which owns a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer.

  1. Analysis of historical water-quality data and description of plan for a sampling network in central and southern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goolsby, D.A.; Mattraw, H.C., Jr.; Lamonds, A.G.; Maddy, D.V.; Rollo, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Historical water quality data from about 100 sampling stations on streams, canals and lakes in central and southern Florida were analyzed for areal and temporal variations in water quality , statistical measures of the data, relationships between water quality variables, and long term changes or trends in water quality. Included in the analysis were data on the major inorganic chemical constituents, temperature, nitrogen and phosphorus species, trace metals, pesticides, organic carbon and biochemical oxygen demand. Based on the results of the analysis, a network was designed which would provide data to meet six specific objectives: (1) water quality accounting, (2) areal assessments (3) detection of gross long-term trends, (4) detection of toxic and deleterious substances, (5) establish a limnological data base on lakes and (6) furnish data on chemical inputs from the atmosphere. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. The Discourse of Whole Class Teaching: A Comparative Study of Kenyan and Nigerian Primary English Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd-Kadir, Jan; Hardman, Frank

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the discourse of whole class teaching in Kenyan and Nigerian primary school English lessons. Twenty lessons were analysed using a system of discourse analysis focusing on the teacher-led three-part exchange sequence of Initiation-Response-Feedback (IRF). The focus of the analysis was on the first and third part of the IRF…

  3. The Political Discourse of the Campaign against Bilingual Education: From "Proposition 227" to "Horne v. Flores"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamagami, Mai

    2012-01-01

    Using the frameworks of critical discourse analysis, representation theory, and legitimization theory, this study examines the political discourse of the campaign for Proposition 227 in California--particularly, the key social representations of languages, their speakers, and the main political actors in the campaign. The analysis examines the…

  4. Imagining A Monocultural Community: Racialization of Cultural Practice in Educational Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackledge, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    Reports of racist violence in Britain identified a prevailing institutionalized racism and social segregation. Presents an analysis of authoritative educational discourse in the form of school inspection reports, focusing the cultural practice of minority ethnic families visiting their heritage country. Using critical discourse analysis, suggests…

  5. Good, Bad or Absent: Discourses of Parents with Disabilities in Australian News Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Vikki; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth

    2015-01-01

    Background: News media frames public perceptions. As such, news media becomes a useful source of analysis to understand the presence (or otherwise) of people with disabilities, particularly intellectual disabilities, within parenting discourses in Australia. Method: Using Critical Discourse Analysis, this article examines major Australian…

  6. Exploring Evolving Media Discourse Through Event Cueing.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yafeng; Steptoe, Michael; Burke, Sarah; Wang, Hong; Tsai, Jiun-Yi; Davulcu, Hasan; Montgomery, Douglas; Corman, Steven R; Maciejewski, Ross

    2016-01-01

    Online news, microblogs and other media documents all contain valuable insight regarding events and responses to events. Underlying these documents is the concept of framing, a process in which communicators act (consciously or unconsciously) to construct a point of view that encourages facts to be interpreted by others in a particular manner. As media discourse evolves, how topics and documents are framed can undergo change, shifting the discussion to different viewpoints or rhetoric. What causes these shifts can be difficult to determine directly; however, by linking secondary datasets and enabling visual exploration, we can enhance the hypothesis generation process. In this paper, we present a visual analytics framework for event cueing using media data. As discourse develops over time, our framework applies a time series intervention model which tests to see if the level of framing is different before or after a given date. If the model indicates that the times before and after are statistically significantly different, this cues an analyst to explore related datasets to help enhance their understanding of what (if any) events may have triggered these changes in discourse. Our framework consists of entity extraction and sentiment analysis as lenses for data exploration and uses two different models for intervention analysis. To demonstrate the usage of our framework, we present a case study on exploring potential relationships between climate change framing and conflicts in Africa. PMID:26529702

  7. The use of digital stereo photogrammetric methods in historical photo analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frano, Glenn; Edwards, Daniel; Pierson, Mitchell; Roos, Maurits; Barwick, Michael

    1994-01-01

    A historical, temporal photointerpretation method is presented for combining the use of a current digital stereo photogrammetric system with manual photointerpretation techniques. The U.S. Army Topographic Engineering Center was tasked to provide products showing the current three-dimensional position of certain features present on a 1918 photomosaic. This mosaic is over a former chemical munitions test area in Washington, D.C.. In order to provide this data, aerial photography from 1918, 1927, 1991 and 1993 was used in the process. This paper will discuss the front end research and collection of textual and photographic data, the manual photo interpretation process, the photogrammetric process and its accuracies, the problems encountered, the digital mapping process and the final products.

  8. Where Are the Women? And Other Questions, Asked within an Historical Analysis of Sociology of Music Education Research Publications: Being a Self-Reflective Ethnographic Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a meta-analysis of one area of sociological literature in music education: Where are the women and "others"? Where do we raise concerns about social values? Institutional Ethnography provides the basis for the meta-analysis, presented in two historical periods, pre-1960 and 2007-2012. A short story of an actual…

  9. The creation of the concept of an antidepressant: an historical analysis.

    PubMed

    Moncrieff, Joanna

    2008-06-01

    The concept of an "antidepressant" implies a drug that acts in a disease specific way to reverse the neuropathological basis of the symptoms of depression. However, there is little scientific research that could confirm this view. This paper reports an historical study of the emergence of the concept of the antidepressant and the social forces that influenced its adoption. Historical literature documents the increasing importance of the specificity of medical treatments in the 20th century and the increased power that they conferred on medical practitioners. In the case of depression, stimulants were used as treatment from the 1940s. During the 1950s the anti-tuberculous drugs iproniazid and isoniazid started to be portrayed as more specific than stimulants, even though their stimulant effects were well documented. When imipramine was suggested to be effective in depression, it was presented solely as acting in a disease specific way and it was soon referred to as an "antidepressant". The idea that some drugs have a specific action on the underlying basis of depression caught on rapidly and was well established by the 1960s before any evidence was available to support this view. Forces that could have driven the adoption of this view include the psychiatric profession's desire to integrate with general medicine to improve its social status and to move away from the asylum into the community. Physical interventions and drug treatments helped to boost its medical credentials and antidepressant drugs provided a convenient form of medical treatment for community-based distress. They also helped the profession to counter attacks from the antipsychiatry movement. The pharmaceutical industry too helped to establish and disseminate the view of antidepressants as disease specific treatments in order to distinguish them from non-specific drugs. This study raises questions about the view that psychiatry was transformed into a modern medical enterprise in the 1950s and 1960s by the introduction of disease specific drugs. PMID:18321627

  10. Troubling Discourses on Gender and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahelma, Elina

    2014-01-01

    Background: In educational policies, two discourses on gender have existed since the 1980s. I call them the "gender equality discourse" and the "boy discourse". The gender equality discourse in education is based on international and national declarations and plans, and is focused predominantly on the position of girls and…

  11. Water Resources Sustainability in Northwest Mexico: Analysis of Regional Infrastructure Plans under Historical and Climate Change Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, D.; Robles-Morua, A.; Mayer, A. S.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    The arid state of Sonora, Mexico, has embarked on a large water infrastructure project to provide additional water supply and improved sanitation to the growing capital of Hermosillo. The main component of the Sonora SI project involves an interbasin transfer from rural to urban water users that has generated conflicts over water among different social sectors. Through interactions with regional stakeholders from agricultural and water management agencies, we ascertained the need for a long-term assessment of the water resources of one of the system components, the Sonora River Basin (SRB). A semi-distributed, daily watershed model that includes current and proposed reservoir infrastructure was applied to the SRB. This simulation framework allowed us to explore alternative scenarios of water supply from the SRB to Hermosillo under historical (1980-2010) and future (2031-2040) periods that include the impact of climate change. We compared three precipitation forcing scenarios for the historical period: (1) a network of ground observations from Mexican water agencies; (2) gridded fields from the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) at 12 km resolution; and (3) gridded fields from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at 10 km resolution. These were compared to daily historical observations at two stream gauging stations and two reservoirs to generate confidence in the simulation tools. We then tested the impact of climate change through the use of the A2 emissions scenario and HadCM3 boundary forcing on the WRF simulations of a future period. Our analysis is focused on the combined impact of existing and proposed reservoir infrastructure at two new sites on the water supply management in the SRB under historical and future climate conditions. We also explore the impact of climate variability and change on the bimodal precipitation pattern from winter frontal storms and the summertime North American monsoon and its consequences on water management. Our results are presented in the form of flow duration, reliability and exceedence frequency curves that are commonly used in the water management agencies. Through this effort, we anticipate to build confidence among regional stakeholders in utilizing hydrological models in the development of water infrastructure plans and to foster conversations that address water sustainability issues.

  12. Discourse in Flux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sfard, Anna

    2005-01-01

    More than 2 decades have passed since Geoffrey Saxe's first visit to Papua New Guinea, when he began his inquiry into the highly idiosyncratic counting system of Oksapmin's people. As evidenced by his account, a quarter of a century is a period long enough to make historical shifts visible. The point of departure for this commentary on "Cognition…

  13. From the portfolio to the diagram : architectural discourse and the transformation of the discipline of architecture in America, 1918-1943

    E-print Network

    Pae, Hy?ng-min.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation is an historical inquiry into the concomitant transformations of architectural discourse and the discipline of architecture in America. It proceeds on the theoretical assumption that the documents produced ...

  14. The discourse of causal explanations in school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Tammy Jayne Anne

    Researchers and educators working from a systemic functional linguistic perspective have provided a body of work on science discourse which offers an excellent starting point for examining the linguistic aspects of the development of causal discourse in school science, discourse which Derewianka (1995) claimed is critical to success in secondary school. No work has yet described the development of causal language by identifying the linguistic features present in oral discourse or by comparing the causal discourse of native and non-native (ESL) speakers of English. The current research responds to this gap by examining the oral discourse collected from ESL and non-ESL students at the primary and high school grades. Specifically, it asks the following questions: (1) How do the teachers and students in these four contexts develop causal explanations and their relevant taxonomies through classroom interactions? (2) What are the causal discourse features being used by the students in these four contexts to construct oral causal explanations? The findings of the social practice analysis showed that the teachers in the four contexts differed in their approaches to teaching, with the primary school mainstream teacher focusing largely on the hands-on practice , the primary school ESL teacher moving from practice to theory, the high school mainstream teacher moving from theory to practice, and the high school ESL teacher relying primarily on theory. The findings from the quantitative, small corpus approach suggest that the developmental path of cause which has been identified in the writing of experts shows up not only in written texts but also in the oral texts which learners construct. Moreover, this move appears when the discourse of high school ESL and non-ESL students is compared, suggesting a developmental progression in the acquisition of these features by these students. The findings also reveal that the knowledge constructed, as shown by the concept maps created from the discourse, follows a developmental path similar to the linguistic causal path, from the concrete, hands-on, observable items to more abstract, theoretical concepts. This study is the first systemic functional comparison of the oral discourse of primary and secondary learners as well as the first to compare ESL and non-ESL speakers in this way, and as such it helps map general trends in causal discourse development. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  15. Well, Now, Okey Dokey: English Discourse Markers in Spanish Language Medical Consultations

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Caroline H.; Goble, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine use of English discourse markers in otherwise Spanish language consultations. Data is derived from an audio-recorded corpus of Spanish language consultations that took place in a small community clinic in the United States as well as post-consultation interviews with patients and providers. Through quantification of the use of discourse makers in the corpus and discourse analysis of transcripts, we demonstrate that English-speaking dominant medical providers use English discourse markers more frequently and with a broader range of functions than do Spanish-speaking dominant medical providers and patients. We argue that such use of English discourse markers serves to exacerbate the power relationship between providers and patients even though the use of English discourse markers does not cause overt miscommunication in the ongoing interaction. Implications for providers who use a second language in their medical consultations are discussed. PMID:24347670

  16. Statistical methods for pavement performance curve building, historical analysis, data sampling and storage. Final report, May 1997--July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, K.A.; Bahulkar, A.M.

    1998-08-01

    The use of a pavement management system provides a state highway agency with the tools necessary to conduct a multi-year analysis of the maintenance and rehabilitation needs within the state based on both current needs and expected future conditions. In order to adequately predict future conditions, pavement performance models must be developed to reflect the deterioration trends of the agency`s pavements. At the time the SDDOT pavement management system was implemented in 1994, the Department developed a new condition rating system to evaluate the existing conditions of the state maintained pavements. At the same time, expert-based pavement performance models were developed to approximate the deterioration patterns of the highways based on pavement families (groupings of pavements with similar characteristics). A recommendation from that study (SD93-14) was to update the curves based on historical performance once sufficient data had been collected.

  17. Historical data and analysis for the first five years of KSC STS payload processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragusa, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    General and specific quantitative and qualitative results were identified from a study of actual operational experience while processing 186 science, applications, and commercial payloads for the first 5 years of Space Transportation System (STS) operations at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC). All non-Department of Defense payloads from STS-2 through STS-33 were part of the study. Historical data and cumulative program experiences from key personnel were used extensively. Emphasis was placed on various program planning and events that affected KSC processing, payload experiences and improvements, payload hardware condition after arrival, services to customers, and the impact of STS operations and delays. From these initial considerations, operational drivers were identified, data for selected processing parameters collected and analyzed, processing criteria and options determined, and STS payload results and conclusions reached. The study showed a significant reduction in time and effort needed by STS customers and KSC to process a wide variety of payload configurations. Also of significance is the fact that even the simplest payloads required more processing resources than were initially assumed. The success to date of payload integration, testing, and mission operations, however, indicates the soundness of the approach taken and the methods used.

  18. Understanding Scientific Methodology in the Historical and Experimental Sciences via Language Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodick, Jeff; Argamon, Shlomo; Chase, Paul

    2009-08-01

    A key focus of current science education reforms involves developing inquiry-based learning materials. However, without an understanding of how working scientists actually do science, such learning materials cannot be properly developed. Until now, research on scientific reasoning has focused on cognitive studies of individual scientific fields. However, the question remains as to whether scientists in different fields fundamentally rely on different methodologies. Although many philosophers and historians of science do indeed assert that there is no single monolithic scientific method, this has never been tested empirically. We therefore approach this problem by analyzing patterns of language used by scientists in their published work. Our results demonstrate systematic variation in language use between types of science that are thought to differ in their characteristic methodologies. The features of language use that were found correspond closely to a proposed distinction between Experimental Sciences (e.g., chemistry) and Historical Sciences (e.g., paleontology); thus, different underlying rhetorical and conceptual mechanisms likely operate for scientific reasoning and communication in different contexts.

  19. Analysis of historical meteor and meteor shower records: Korea, China, and Japan

    E-print Network

    Hong-Jin Yang; Changbom Park; Myeong-Gu Park

    2005-01-12

    We have compiled and analyzed historical Korean meteor and meteor shower records in three Korean official history books, Samguksagi which covers the three Kingdoms period (57 B.C -- A.D. 935), Goryeosa of Goryeo dynasty (A.D. 918 -- 1392), and Joseonwangjosillok of Joseon dynasty (A.D. 1392 -- 1910). We have found 3861 meteor and 31 meteor shower records. We have confirmed the peaks of Perseids and an excess due to the mixture of Orionids, north-Taurids, or Leonids through the Monte-Carlo test. The peaks persist from the period of Goryeo dynasty to that of Joseon dynasty, for almost one thousand years. Korean records show a decrease of Perseids activity and an increase of Orionids/north-Taurids/Leonids activity. We have also analyzed seasonal variation of sporadic meteors from Korean records. We confirm the seasonal variation of sporadic meteors from the records of Joseon dynasty with the maximum number of events being roughly 1.7 times the minimum. The Korean records are compared with Chinese and Japanese records for the same periods. Major features in Chinese meteor shower records are quite consistent with those of Korean records, particularly for the last millennium. Japanese records also show Perseids feature and Orionids/north-Taurids/Leonids feature, although they are less prominent compared to those of Korean or Chinese records.

  20. Reconstruction and analysis of historical changes in carbon storage in arctic tundra

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, R.B.; Rastetter, E.B.; Shaver, G.R.

    1997-06-01

    Surface air temperature in arctic regions has increased since pre-industrial times, raising concerns that warmer and possibly drier conditions have increased soil decomposition rates, thereby stimulating the release to the atmosphere of the large stores of carbon (C) in arctic soils. We used a model (MBL-GEM, Marine Biological Laboratory General Ecosystem Model) of ecosystem C and nitrogen (N) dynamics to predict and analyze historical (1829-1990) changes in C storage in a N-limited, tussock-tundra ecosystem near Toolik Lake on the North Slope of Alaska. The model simulates stand-level photosynthesis and N uptake by plants, allocation of C and N to foliage, stems, and fine roots, respiration in these tissues, turnover of biomass through litterfall, and decomposition of litter and soil organic matter. We first calibrated the model by deriving a single parameter set that closely simulated the response of tussock tundra to decade-long experimental manipulations of nutrients, temperature, light, and atmospheric CO{sub 2}. 60 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. The Formalisation Of Discourse Production 

    E-print Network

    Davey, Anthony

    1974-01-01

    This paper describes a computer program which produces English discourse. The program is capable of describing in a sequence of English sentences any game of noughts-&-crosses (tic-tac-toe), whether given or actually ...

  2. Investigating Regional Disparities of China's Human Development with Cluster Analysis: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yongheng; Hu, Angang

    2008-01-01

    This paper adopts both one-dimensional and multi-dimensional cluster analysis to analyze China's HDI data for 1982, 1995, 1999, and 2003, and to classify China's provinces into four tiers based on the three basic developmental aspects embedded in HDI. The classifications by cluster analysis depends on the observations' similarities with respect to…

  3. Understanding Sun-Climate Connection by Analysis of Historical Sunspot, Auroral and Weather Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, K. D.; Yau, K. K.

    2005-12-01

    Fifty years of galactic cosmic ray data show changes with the solar cycle. Deflection of the highly energetic particles from exploding supernovae by the solar wind and associated magnetic field also modulates cosmogenic radioisotope production high in the atmosphere. The same trends are seen in carbon-14 and beryllium-10 abundances from long-lived trees and polar ice cores, respectively. Total solar irradiances measured by satellite radiometers show a 0.1% variance over the last two solar cycles, with only a small effect on global temperatures. A longer view is obviously needed. During the Maunder Minimum (1645-1715) sunspots were rarely seen. Total solar irradiances, reconstructed from historical sunspot data, were 0.24% lower, correlating nicely with an estimated 0.5-degree drop in Northern Hemisphere surface temperatures during the Little Ice Age [Lean and Rind, J. Clim. 11, 3069, 1998]. A longer time series has been reconstructed from even earlier records. From the frequencies of sunspot and auroral sightings in East Asian and European chronicles, C-14 and Be-10 abundances we have reconstructed the recent history of a variable Sun. In the past 1800 years the Sun has gone through nine cycles of brightness change. Although these long-term changes were <1% they have clearly affected the climate [Pang and Yau, Eos 83, No. 43, 481, 2002]. We have also analyzed Chinese historical weather records for comparison. Reports of unseasonable cold are classified by their degree of severity: (1) Late (April-June) or early (July-Sept.) killing frosts; (2) Bitter cold/heavy snowfall; and (3) Heavy sustained snowfall, bitter cold with frozen wells, lakes, rivers and icebound seas. The latter cases were often widespread and multi-year. All categories occurred most often during Maunder Minimum. The Category 3 episodes were in 1652-54, 1656, 1664, 1670-72, 1676-77, 1683, 1688-91, 1716 and 1718-19. The coldest time 1670-1697 coincides with lows in aurora sightings and numerical model simulated temperatures, and highs in radioisotope production. There was only one Category 3 episode between the Maunder and Dalton Minima-in 1761 (due to a big eruption); and two in the Dalton Minimum (1795-1825)-in 1796 and 1814-17. The 1815 Tambora eruption, with the reduced solar luminosity, seem to have been responsible for the "year without summer" and long-cold spell. The Sun has brightened since the Dalton Minimum, but the climate of China stayed cold through the 19th century. However there were only two Category 3 episodes: in 1841 and 1877. The onset of global warming reduced that to just once in the 20th century: 1955. The climate of China seems to have been warm during the Late 14th-Century Maximum (1350-1410). We have found only one Category 1 episode: in 1393. It then turned cold during the Sporer Minimum (1410-1590). Category 3 episodes occurred in 1453-54, 1493, 1513, 1569, and 1577-78. The early 1453 great Kuwae eruption apparently deepened and prolonged the first [Pang, Eos 74, No. 43, 106, 1993; Simarski, Aramco World 47, No.6, 8, 1996]. We conclude that the climate of China in the past 650 years generally follows world trend. The major forcing seems to have been changing solar luminosity, as all but four severe weather episodes coincide with solar minimum. The exact mechanism remains unknown, but could have been increased cloudiness.

  4. Negotiating Contested Discourses of Learning Technologies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, John; Bretag, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the way that learning technologies frame teaching practice in higher education using both autoethnography and discourse analysis (interpretative repertoires). The analysis juxtaposes our own experience in the form of data from two interviews, with teaching and learning policy documents from the group of five Australian…

  5. Geohazard assessment through the analysis of historical alluvial events in Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Eliana; Violante, Crescenzo

    2015-04-01

    The risk associated with extreme water events such as flash floods, results from a combination of overflows and landslides hazards. A multi-hazard approach have been utilized to analyze the 1773 flood that occurred in conjunction with heavy rainfall, causing major damage in terms of lost lives and economic cost over an area of 200 km2, including both the coastal strip between Salerno and Maiori and the Apennine hinterland, Campania region - Southern Italy. This area has been affected by a total of 40 flood events over the last five centuries, 26 of them occurred between 1900 and 2000. Streamflow events have produced severe impacts on Cava de' Tirreni (SA) and its territory and in particular four catastrophic floods in 1581, 1773, 1899 and 1954, caused a pervasive pattern of destruction. In the study area, rainstorm events typically occur in small and medium-sized fluvial system, characterized by small catchment areas and high-elevation drainage basins, causing the detachment of large amount of volcaniclastic and siliciclastic covers from the carbonate bedrock. The mobilization of these deposits (slope debris) mixed with rising floodwaters along the water paths can produce fast-moving streamflows of large proportion with significant hazardous implications (Violante et al., 2009). In this context the study of 1773 historical flood allows the detection and the definition of those areas where catastrophic events repeatedly took place over the time. Moreover, it improves the understanding of the phenomena themselves, including some key elements in the management of risk mitigation, such as the restoration of the damage suffered by the buildings and/or the environmental effects caused by the floods.

  6. An objective change point analysis of landfalling historical Atlantic hurricane numbers

    E-print Network

    Jewson, S; Jewson, Stephen; Penzer, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    In previous work we have analysed the Atlantic basin hurricane number time-series to identify decadal time-scale change points. We now repeat the analysis but for US landfalling hurricanes. The results are very different.

  7. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis of house paint and wallpaper samples from an 18th century historic property.

    PubMed

    Harroun, S G; Bergman, J; Jablonski, E; Brosseau, C L

    2011-09-01

    Conservation efforts for heritage buildings require a substantial knowledge of the chemical makeup of materials that were used throughout the lifetime of the property. In particular, conservators are often concerned with the identification of colorants used in both interior and exterior wall treatments (paint, wallpaper, etc.) in order to gain perspective into how the building may have appeared during a certain time period in its existence. Ideally, such an analysis requires a technique that provides molecular level information as to the identity of the colorant as well as other sample components (binders, fillers, etc.), which is useful for dating purposes. In addition, the technique should be easily applied to paint layer samples which can be extremely thin and fragile. Herein we report the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) analysis of paint and wallpaper samples taken from exterior and interior surfaces of a historic building. Several pigments were identified in the samples, which ranged from early inorganic pigments (lead white, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, anhydrous chromium(III) oxide) which have been used in house paints for centuries, to a more modern pigment (phthalocyanine blue), developed in the middle of the 20th century. This analysis highlights the usefulness of SERS in such a conservation effort, and demonstrates for the first time pigment identification in house paints and wallpaper using SERS, which has far-reaching implications not only in the field of conservation, but also in forensics, industrial process control, and environmental health and safety. PMID:21267481

  8. Primary Discourse and Expressive Oral Language in a Kindergarten Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiano, Darcy A.

    2014-01-01

    This seven-month ethnographic case study elucidated a kindergarten student's navigation through her first formal schooling experience with relation to expressive oral language. Gee's theory of Discourses and methodology of discourse analysis were used to examine expressive oral language in use. Two discursive contexts germane to…

  9. Principled, Transformational Leadership: Analyzing the Discourse of Leadership in the Development of Librarianship's Core Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Deborah; Given, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Using discourse analysis, this article explores three questions: (a) Why was "principled, transformational leadership" the leadership style added to Core Competences? (b) What was the discourse of leadership in the profession surrounding the development of the Core Competences? (c) How might this competence affect LIS education? And what measures,…

  10. Latina Mothers' Enactments of Agency: Achieving Desires through Discourses in Family Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toso, Blaire Willson

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study used a post-structural feminist framework to examine how the literacy and mothering discourses women encountered in a family literacy program assisted or constrained them in enacting agency. Employing a narrative approach, combined with other methodological strategies (ethnographic observations, discourse analysis of program…

  11. Turkish Language Teachers' Stance Taking Movements in the Discourse on Globalization and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coskun, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how Turkish teachers take and give stances in the discourse on globalization and language by using linguistic resources. According to the findings obtained through the discourse analysis of the corpus that consisted of 36 h of recording of the discussion among 4 teachers with 5 to 10 years of teaching experience, the…

  12. A Study of Online Discourse at "The Chronicle of Higher Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Katrina A.

    2010-01-01

    Given the explosive growth of online communications, new forms of discourse are an intriguing topic of study. This research focused on ten online discussions hosted by "The Chronicle of Higher Education," using content and discourse analysis of the postings to answer several questions. What is the "conversational scaffolding" used by posters in…

  13. "Are They Just Checking Our Obesity or What?" The Healthism Discourse and Rural Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jessica; Macdonald, Doune

    2010-01-01

    This paper makes use of critical discourse analysis and Bourdieu's theoretical framework to explore rural young women's meanings of health and fitness and how the healthism discourse is perpetuated through their experiences in school physical education (PE). The young women's own meanings are explored alongside interview data from their school PE…

  14. Exercices de grammaire et discours rapporte (Grammar Exercises and Reported Discourse)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Authier, Jacqueline; Meunier, Andre

    1977-01-01

    An analysis of exercises concerning indirect, direct and free discourse appearing in tests of the "premier cycle," from both pedagogical and linguistic points of view. The thesis is that a method giving primacy to manipulative exercises based on prefabricated sentences militates against discourse and communication. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  15. Impersonal, General, and Social: The Use of Metonymy versus Passive Voice in Medical Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rundblad, Gabriella

    2007-01-01

    The impersonalizing role passive voice plays in scientific discourse is well known. Analysis of the Methods sections of nine medical research articles shows that metonymy is another frequent strategy used to create anonymous authors/agents. Discourse agents were categorized into four semantic domains: familial lay, nonfamilial lay, authorial…

  16. Deconstructing Adults' and Children's Discourse on Children's Play: Listening to Children's Voices to Destabilise Deficit Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Julie; Kurnik, Jean; Jevgjovikj, Maja; Ufoegbune, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    This study used discourse analysis to compare the language adults use to discuss contemporary children's play and children's narratives of their own play experiences. Adult discourse was analysed to determine whether they positioned children through deficit or strength and the attributions of responsibility embedded within their language choices…

  17. Historical Trends

    Cancer.gov

    Close Window State Cancer Profiles Quick Reference Guides ? Quick Reference Guides Index Historical Trends Send to Printer Text description of this image. Site Home Policies Accessibility Viewing Files FOIA Contact Us U.S. Department of Health and Human

  18. Completeness period analysis of SisFrance macroseismic database and interpretation in the light of historical context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, José; Fradet, Thibault; Traversa, Paola; Tuleau-Malot, Christine; Reynaud-Bouret, Patricia; Laloe, Thomas; Manchuel, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    In metropolitan France the deformation rates are slow, implying low to moderate seismic activity. Therefore, earthquakes observed during the instrumental period (since 1962), and associated catalogs, cannot be representative of the seismic cycle for the French metropolitan territory. In such context it is necessary, when performing seismic hazard studies, to consider historical seismic data in order to extend the observation period and to be more representative of the seismogenic behavior of geological structures. The French macroseismic database SisFrance is jointly developed by EDF (Electricité de France), BRGM (Bureau de Recherche Géologique et Minière) and IRSN (Institut de Radioprotection et Sureté Nucléaire). It contains more than 6,000 events inventoried between 217 BC and 2007 and more than 100,000 macroseismic observations. SisFrance is the reference macroseismic database for metropolitan France. The aim of this study is to determine, over the whole catalog, the completeness periods for different epicentral intensity (Iepc) classes?IV. Two methods have been used: 1) the method of Albarello et al. [2001], which has been adapted to best suit the French catalog, and 2) a mathematical method based on change points estimation, proposed by Muggeo et al. [2003], which has been adapted to the analysis of seismic datasets. After a brief theoretical description, both methods are tested and validated using synthetic catalogs, before being applied to the French catalog. The results show that completeness periods estimated using these two methods are coherent with each other for events with Iepc ?IV (1876 using Albarello et al. [2001] method and 1872 using Muggeo et al. [2003] method) and events with Iepc ?V (1852 using Albarello et al. [2001] method and 1855 using Muggeo et al. [2003] method). Larger differences in estimated completeness period appear when considering events with Iepc ?VI (around 30 years difference) and events with Iepc ?VII (around 50 years difference). These could be explained (1) by the differences in the way each method approaches the data; Muggeo et al. [2003] method estimates all change points within data series, whereas the method of Albarello et al. [2001] focus on the last one, and (2) by a more limited number of data for these epicentral intensity classes (2056 events with Iepc ?IV and 1252 events with Iepc ?V vs. 486 events with Iepc ?VI and 199 events with Iepc ?VII). Results obtained for epicentral intensity classes greater than VIII are considered not reliable due to the short number of existing data (around 30 events). The completeness periods determined in this study are discussed in the light of their contemporary historical context, and in particular of the evolution of the information available from historical archives since the 17th century.

  19. Historical analysis of airborne beryllium concentrations at a copper beryllium machining facility (1964-2000).

    PubMed

    McAtee, B L; Donovan, E P; Gaffney, S H; Frede, W; Knutsen, J S; Paustenbach, D J

    2009-06-01

    Copper beryllium alloys are the most commonly used form of beryllium; however, there have been few studies assessing occupational exposure in facilities that worked exclusively with this alloy versus those where pure metal or beryllium oxide may also have been present. In this paper, we evaluated the airborne beryllium concentrations at a machining plant using historical industrial hygiene samples collected between 1964 and 2000. With the exception of a few projects conducted in the 1960s, it is believed that >95% of the operations used copper beryllium alloy exclusively. Long-term (>120 min) and short-term (<120 min) personal and area samples were collected during a variety of activities including machining of copper beryllium-containing parts, as well as finishing operations (e.g., deburring and polishing) and decontamination of machinery. A total of 580 beryllium air samples were analyzed (311 personal and 269 area samples). The average concentration based on area samples (1964-2000) was 0.021 microg m(-3) (SD 0.17 microg m(-3); range 0.00012-2.5 microg m(-3)); 68.8% were below the analytical limit of detection (LOD). The average airborne beryllium concentration, based on all personal samples available from 1964 through the end of 2000 (n = 311), was 0.026 microg m(-3) (SD 0.059 microg m(-3); range 0.019-0.8 microg m(-3)); 97.4% were below the LOD. Personal samples collected from machinists (n = 78) had an average airborne concentration of 0.021 microg m(-3) (SD 0.014 microg m(-3); range 0.019-0.14 microg m(-3)); 97.4% were below the LOD. Airborne concentrations were consistently below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit for beryllium (2 microg m(-3)). Overall, the data indicate that for machining operations involving copper beryllium, the airborne concentrations for >95% of the samples were below the contemporaneous occupational exposure limits or the 1999 Department of Energy action level of 0.2 microg m(-3) and, in most cases, were below the LOD. PMID:19383942

  20. Class Readings: Story and Discourse among Girls in Working-Poor America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a four-year ethnographic and pedagogical project set in an urban community with historical ties to rural Appalachia. It begins with a close reading of pedagogical discourse situated in an after-school reading project for preteen girls. It then traces the deep roots of language seeped in class meanings--words such as "nasty"…

  1. Circulating Discourses of Minority Education: The Linguistic Construction of Modernity in Globalizing Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shumin

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on 15 months of fieldwork in Taiwan, this article analyzes circulating discourses and practices across heterogeneous scales that conflate Taiwanese minority-language elders with foreign brides as nonmodern and childlike. The assiduous production and reproduction of historically and geographically displaced linguistic Others is part and…

  2. Public Discourse versus Public Policy: Latinas/os, Affirmative Action, and the Court of Public Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledesma, María C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the power of popular discourse in shaping public policy debates concerning educational access and opportunity for historically marginalized and minoritized students, especially for Latinas/os. I argue that proponents of race-conscious policies would do well to challenge the elimination of affirmative…

  3. Metabolomic and high-throughput sequencing analysis—modern approach for the assessment of biodeterioration of materials from historic buildings

    PubMed Central

    Gutarowska, Beata; Celikkol-Aydin, Sukriye; Bonifay, Vincent; Otlewska, Anna; Aydin, Egemen; Oldham, Athenia L.; Brauer, Jonathan I.; Duncan, Kathleen E.; Adamiak, Justyna; Sunner, Jan A.; Beech, Iwona B.

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of cultural heritage is of paramount importance worldwide. Microbial colonization of construction materials, such as wood, brick, mortar, and stone in historic buildings can lead to severe deterioration. The aim of the present study was to give modern insight into the phylogenetic diversity and activated metabolic pathways of microbial communities colonized historic objects located in the former Auschwitz II–Birkenau concentration and extermination camp in O?wiecim, Poland. For this purpose we combined molecular, microscopic and chemical methods. Selected specimens were examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), metabolomic analysis and high-throughput Illumina sequencing. FESEM imaging revealed the presence of complex microbial communities comprising diatoms, fungi and bacteria, mainly cyanobacteria and actinobacteria, on sample surfaces. Microbial diversity of brick specimens appeared higher than that of the wood and was dominated by algae and cyanobacteria, while wood was mainly colonized by fungi. DNA sequences documented the presence of 15 bacterial phyla representing 99 genera including Halomonas, Halorhodospira, Salinisphaera, Salinibacterium, Rubrobacter, Streptomyces, Arthrobacter and nine fungal classes represented by 113 genera including Cladosporium, Acremonium, Alternaria, Engyodontium, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Aureobasidium. Most of the identified sequences were characteristic of organisms implicated in deterioration of wood and brick. Metabolomic data indicated the activation of numerous metabolic pathways, including those regulating the production of primary and secondary metabolites, for example, metabolites associated with the production of antibiotics, organic acids and deterioration of organic compounds. The study demonstrated that a combination of electron microscopy imaging with metabolomic and genomic techniques allows to link the phylogenetic information and metabolic profiles of microbial communities and to shed new light on biodeterioration processes. PMID:26483760

  4. Metabolomic and high-throughput sequencing analysis-modern approach for the assessment of biodeterioration of materials from historic buildings.

    PubMed

    Gutarowska, Beata; Celikkol-Aydin, Sukriye; Bonifay, Vincent; Otlewska, Anna; Aydin, Egemen; Oldham, Athenia L; Brauer, Jonathan I; Duncan, Kathleen E; Adamiak, Justyna; Sunner, Jan A; Beech, Iwona B

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of cultural heritage is of paramount importance worldwide. Microbial colonization of construction materials, such as wood, brick, mortar, and stone in historic buildings can lead to severe deterioration. The aim of the present study was to give modern insight into the phylogenetic diversity and activated metabolic pathways of microbial communities colonized historic objects located in the former Auschwitz II-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp in O?wiecim, Poland. For this purpose we combined molecular, microscopic and chemical methods. Selected specimens were examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), metabolomic analysis and high-throughput Illumina sequencing. FESEM imaging revealed the presence of complex microbial communities comprising diatoms, fungi and bacteria, mainly cyanobacteria and actinobacteria, on sample surfaces. Microbial diversity of brick specimens appeared higher than that of the wood and was dominated by algae and cyanobacteria, while wood was mainly colonized by fungi. DNA sequences documented the presence of 15 bacterial phyla representing 99 genera including Halomonas, Halorhodospira, Salinisphaera, Salinibacterium, Rubrobacter, Streptomyces, Arthrobacter and nine fungal classes represented by 113 genera including Cladosporium, Acremonium, Alternaria, Engyodontium, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Aureobasidium. Most of the identified sequences were characteristic of organisms implicated in deterioration of wood and brick. Metabolomic data indicated the activation of numerous metabolic pathways, including those regulating the production of primary and secondary metabolites, for example, metabolites associated with the production of antibiotics, organic acids and deterioration of organic compounds. The study demonstrated that a combination of electron microscopy imaging with metabolomic and genomic techniques allows to link the phylogenetic information and metabolic profiles of microbial communities and to shed new light on biodeterioration processes. PMID:26483760

  5. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 102, NO. C13, PAGES 27,835-27,860, DECEMBER 15, 1997 Reduced space optimal analysis for historical data sets'

    E-print Network

    Kaplan, Alexey

    space optimal analysis for historical data sets' 136 years of Atlantic sea surface temperatures Alexey usinga reducedspacefor data set analyses. Difficultiesof methodswhich simply fit EOF patternsto controland otherstatistics(e.g., Comprehen- siveOcean-AtmosphereData Set (COADS) [Woodruff Copyright 1997

  6. Historical Analysis of the Brazilian Cervical Cancer Screening Program from 2006 to 2013: A Time for Reflection

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Ricardo Filipe Alves; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Pinheiro, Céline; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos; Fregnani, José Humberto

    2015-01-01

    Background The Cervical Cancer Database of the Brazilian National Health Service (SISCOLO) contains information regarding all cervical cytological tests and, if properly explored, can be used as a tool for monitoring and managing the cervical cancer screening program. The aim of this study was to perform a historical analysis of the cervical cancer screening program in Brazil from 2006 to 2013. Material and Methods The data necessary to calculate quality indicators were obtained from the SISCOLO, a Brazilian health system tool. Joinpoint analysis was used to calculate the annual percentage change. Results We observed important trends showing decreased rates of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and an increased rate of rejected exams from 2009 to 2013. The index of positivity was maintained at levels below those indicated by international standards; very low frequencies of unsatisfactory cases were observed over the study period, which partially contradicts the low rate of positive cases. The number of positive cytological diagnoses was below that expected, considering that developed countries with low frequencies of cervical cancer detect more lesions annually. Conclusions The evolution of indicators from 2006 to 2013 suggests that actions must be taken to improve the effectiveness of cervical cancer control in Brazil. PMID:26402737

  7. Safety assessment of historical masonry churches based on pre-assigned kinematic limit analysis, FE limit and pushover analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Milani, Gabriele Valente, Marco

    2014-10-06

    This study presents some results of a comprehensive numerical analysis on three masonry churches damaged by the recent Emilia-Romagna (Italy) seismic events occurred in May 2012. The numerical study comprises: (a) pushover analyses conducted with a commercial code, standard nonlinear material models and two different horizontal load distributions; (b) FE kinematic limit analyses performed using a non-commercial software based on a preliminary homogenization of the masonry materials and a subsequent limit analysis with triangular elements and interfaces; (c) kinematic limit analyses conducted in agreement with the Italian code and based on the a-priori assumption of preassigned failure mechanisms, where the masonry material is considered unable to withstand tensile stresses. All models are capable of giving information on the active failure mechanism and the base shear at failure, which, if properly made non-dimensional with the weight of the structure, gives also an indication of the horizontal peak ground acceleration causing the collapse of the church. The results obtained from all three models indicate that the collapse is usually due to the activation of partial mechanisms (apse, façade, lateral walls, etc.). Moreover the horizontal peak ground acceleration associated to the collapse is largely lower than that required in that seismic zone by the Italian code for ordinary buildings. These outcomes highlight that structural upgrading interventions would be extremely beneficial for the considerable reduction of the seismic vulnerability of such kind of historical structures.

  8. Age inclusive services or separate old age and working age services? A historical analysis from the formative years of old age psychiatry c.1940–1989

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Claire

    2015-01-01

    The Equality Act 2010 made it unlawful to discriminate in the provision of services on the grounds of age. This legislation is open to interpretation, but it is affecting the way older people’s services are defined and provided. Historical evidence indicates that, since the 1940s, apart from psychiatrists working in dedicated old age services, most were unenthusiastic about working with mentally unwell older people and unsupportive of those who chose to do so. A historical analysis might shed light on current dilemmas about ‘all age’ or ‘old age’ services and inform decision-making on future mental health services. PMID:26191440

  9. Optimizing Air Transportation Service to Metroplex Airports. Part 1; Analysis of Historical Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, George; Hoffman, Karla; Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Kara, Abdul Qadar

    2010-01-01

    The air transportation system is a significant driver of the U.S. economy, providing safe, affordable, and rapid transportation. During the past three decades airspace and airport capacity has not grown in step with demand for air transportation (+4% annual growth), resulting in unreliable service and systemic delays. Estimates of the impact of delays and unreliable air transportation service on the economy range from $32B to $41B per year. This report describes the results of an analysis of airline strategic decision-making with regards to: (1) geographic access, (2) economic access, and (3) airline finances. This analysis evaluated markets-served, scheduled flights, aircraft size, airfares, and profit from 2005-2009. During this period, airlines experienced changes in costs of operation (due to fluctuations in hedged fuel prices), changes in travel demand (due to changes in the economy), and changes in infrastructure capacity (due to the capacity limits at EWR, JFK, and LGA). This analysis captures the impact of the implementation of capacity limits at airports, as well as the effect of increased costs of operation (i.e. hedged fuel prices). The increases in costs of operation serve as a proxy for increased costs per flight that might occur if auctions or congestion pricing are imposed.

  10. Translational Research in Behavior Analysis: Historical Traditions and Imperative for the Future

    PubMed Central

    Mace, F. Charles; Critchfield, Thomas S

    2010-01-01

    “Pure basic” science can become detached from the natural world that it is supposed to explain. “Pure applied” work can become detached from fundamental processes that shape the world it is supposed to improve. Neither demands the intellectual support of a broad scholarly community or the material support of society. Translational research can do better by seeking innovation in theory or practice through the synthesis of basic and applied questions, literatures, and methods. Although translational thinking has always occurred in behavior analysis, progress often has been constrained by a functional separation of basic and applied communities. A review of translational traditions in behavior analysis suggests that innovation is most likely when individuals with basic and applied expertise collaborate. Such innovation may have to accelerate for behavior analysis to be taken seriously as a general-purpose science of behavior. We discuss the need for better coordination between the basic and applied sectors, and argue that such coordination compromises neither while benefiting both. PMID:21119847

  11. Productive vocabulary across discourse types

    PubMed Central

    Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather Harris; Capilouto, Gilson J.

    2011-01-01

    Aims The goals of the study were (a) to examine the effect of discourse type on lexical diversity by testing whether there are significant differences among language samples elicited using four discourse tasks (procedures, eventcasts, story telling, and recounts); and (b) to assess the extent to which age influences lexical diversity when different types of discourse are elicited. Methods & Procedures A total of 86 cognitively healthy adults participated in the study and comprised two groups – young adults (20–29 years old) and older adults (70–89 years old). Participants completed the discourse tasks and their language samples were analysed using dedicated software (voc-D) to obtain estimates of their lexical diversity. Outcomes & Results A mixed 2 × 4 ANOVA was conducted and followed by an investigation of simple main effects. A lexical diversity hierarchy was established that was similar for both age groups. The study also uncovered age-related differences that were evident when the stimuli were verbally presented but were eliminated when the language samples were elicited using pictorial stimuli. Conclusions Results indicated that lexical diversity is one of the microlinguistic indices that are influenced by discourse type and age, a finding that carries important methodological implications. Future investigations are warranted to explore the patterns of lexical diversity in individuals with neurogenic language disorders and assess the clinical utility of measures of lexical diversity. PMID:22904592

  12. Woodland Composition Inertia Affected by Disturbance and Climate Assessed by Dimensional Analysis of Historical Landcover Change Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sides, M.; White, J. D.; Murray, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    Woodlands are transient communities that provide a significant reservoir of stored nutrients, particularly carbon, in many areas around the world. Alterations in the amount of woody biomass has an impact on carbon stores, but changes in the community composition of these areas can also have significant impacts on carbon stocks, particularly in the soils. In a longitudinal study using historical aerial photographs ranging from 1939 to 2004, changes in the proportion of broad vegetation types were analyzed for sites located in the Balcones Canyonlands National Wildlife Refuge near Austin, TX. Historical aerial photographs with a 1-m spatial resolution were classified according to vegetation type (evergreen, deciduous, and herbaceous). A sample of 50 sites was chosen using location data collected on fallen trees utilized for dendrochronological analysis of fire history. For each site, a 20-m by 20-m sample of pixels was extracted from each of the classified images. Changes in the proportion of each vegetation type were analyzed by applying spherical statistics to a three-dimensional change vector analysis. In addition, landscape trajectories were analyzed based on displacement, velocity, acceleration, and divergence to compare areas impacted by fire versus those not impacted by fire. Results indicate that areas with a history of fire exhibit smaller mean resultant vector lengths, indicating more variance in the direction of the change vectors overall. In addition, fire-impacted sites exhibit larger magnitudes of change in displacement and greater variations in velocity and acceleration. No significant differences were detected in displacement, velocity, or acceleration when comparing vegetation types. The results of both studies revealed sharp changes between the data for 1951 and 1964 in areas not impacted by fire. A possible explanation for the significant changes noted between these years could be a severe, multi-year drought that occurred in the region during the 1950s. These results indicate that fire does play a significant role in shaping the composition of woodland/savannah communities in the Central Texas region, but other factors such as climate shape community composition in the absence of fire.

  13. A Vegetation Analysis on Horn Island Mississippi, ca. 1940 using Habitat Characteristic Dimensions Derived from Historical Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeter, G. W.; Carter, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Guy (Will) Wilburn Jeter Jr., Gregory A. Carter University of Southern Mississippi Geography and Geology Gulf Coast Geospatial Center The over-arching goal of this research is to assess habitat change over a seventy year period to better understand the combined effects of global sea level rise and storm impacts on the stability of Horn Island, MS habitats. Historical aerial photography is often overlooked as a resource for use in determining habitat change. However, the spatial information provided even by black and white imagery can give insight into past habitat composition via textural analysis. This research will evaluate characteristic dimensions; most notably patch size of habitat types using simple geo-statistics and textures of brightness values of historical aerial imagery. It is assumed that each cover type has an identifiable patch size that can be used as a unique classifier of each habitat type. Analytical methods applied to the 1940 imagery were developed using 2010 field data and USDA aerial imagery. Textural moving window methods and basic geo-statistics were used to estimate characteristic dimensions of each cover type in 1940 aerial photography. The moving window texture analysis was configured with multiple window sizes to capture the characteristic dimensions of six habitat types; water, bare sand , dune herb land, estuarine shrub land, marsh land and slash pine woodland. Coefficient of variation (CV), contrast, and entropy texture filters were used to analyze the spatial variability of the 1940 and 2010 imagery. (CV) was used to depict the horizontal variability of each habitat characteristic dimension. Contrast was used to represent the variability of bright versus dark pixel values; entropy was used to show the variation in the slash pine woodland habitat type. Results indicate a substantial increase in marshland habitat relative to other habitat types since 1940. Results also reveal each habitat-type, such as dune herb-land, marsh-land, estuarine shrub-land, bare sand, slash pine woodland, and water exhibit a characteristic dimension that may be estimated from horizontal variability in image brightness values. These characteristic dimensions are estimated at less than one 1 meter for marsh-land bare sand and water, 3 meters for estuarine shrub-land and dune herb-land, and 5 to 7 meters for slash pine woodland.

  14. Statistical methods for pavement performance curve building, historical analysis, data sampling and storage: Appendix D. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The technical memorandum is intended to discuss the detailed procedure required for carrying out the statistical analyses of historical pavement condition data for building pavement performance curves. This chapter assumes the availability of the historical data in a spreadsheet format (Microsoft{trademark} Excel) that has been retrieved from the master (pavement management system) database.

  15. Historical changes in Australian temperature extremes as inferred from extreme value distribution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolan L.; Trewin, Blair; Feng, Yang; Jones, David

    2013-02-01

    Abstract This study develops a generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution <span class="hlt">analysis</span> approach, namely, a GEV tree approach that allows for both stationary and nonstationary cases. This approach is applied to a century-long homogenized daily temperature data set for Australia to assess changes in temperature extremes from 1910 to 2010. Changes in 20 year return values are estimated from the most suitable GEV distribution chosen from a GEV tree. Twenty year return values of extreme low minimum temperature are found to have warmed strongly over the century in most parts of the continent. There is also a tendency toward warming of extreme high maximum temperatures, but it is weaker than that for minimum temperatures, with the majority of stations not showing significant trends. The observed changes in extreme temperatures are broadly consistent with observed changes in mean temperatures and in the frequency of temperatures above the ninetieth and below the tenth percentile (i.e., extreme indices). The GEV tree <span class="hlt">analysis</span> provides insight into behavior of extremes with re-occurrence times of several years to decades that are of importance to engineering design/applications, while extreme indices represent moderately extreme events with re-occurrence times of a year or shorter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=science+AND+fair&pg=4&id=EJ782986','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=science+AND+fair&pg=4&id=EJ782986"><span id="translatedtitle">Negotiating <span class="hlt">Discourses</span>: Sixth-Grade Students' Use of Multiple Science <span class="hlt">Discourses</span> during a Science Fair Presentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gomez, Kimberley</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This study offers important insights into the coexistence of multiple <span class="hlt">discourses</span> and the link between these <span class="hlt">discourses</span> and science understanding. It offers concrete examples of students' movement between multiple <span class="hlt">discourses</span> in sixth-grade science fair presentations, and shows how those multiple <span class="hlt">discourses</span> in science practices illuminate students'…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23552650','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23552650"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Historical</span> <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of oil and gas well plugging in New York: is the regulatory system working?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bishop, Ronald E</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this work was to evaluate New York State's regulatory program for plugging inactive oil and gas wells. <span class="hlt">Analysis</span> of reports from the Division of Mineral Resources, Department of Environmental Conservation, reveals that three-fourths of the state's abandoned oil and gas wells were never plugged. Inadequate enforcement efforts have resulted in steady increases of unplugged oil and gas wells abandoned since 1992. Further, no program exists or is proposed to monitor abandoned wells which were plugged. These results strongly suggest that comprehensive reform and increased agency resources would be required to effectively regulate conventional oil and gas development in New York. Industrial expansion into shale oil and gas development should be postponed to avoid adding stress to an already compromised regulatory system. PMID:23552650</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24731080','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24731080"><span id="translatedtitle">Markers of topical <span class="hlt">discourse</span> in child-directed speech.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rohde, Hannah; Frank, Michael C</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Although the language we encounter is typically embedded in rich <span class="hlt">discourse</span> contexts, many existing models of processing focus largely on phenomena that occur sentence-internally. Similarly, most work on children's language learning does not consider how information can accumulate as a <span class="hlt">discourse</span> progresses. Research in pragmatics, however, points to ways in which each subsequent utterance provides new opportunities for listeners to infer speaker meaning. Such inferences allow the listener to build up a representation of the speakers' intended topic and more generally to identify relationships, structures, and messages that extend across multiple utterances. We address this issue by analyzing a video corpus of child-caregiver interactions. We use topic continuity as an index of <span class="hlt">discourse</span> structure, examining how caregivers introduce and discuss objects across utterances. For the <span class="hlt">analysis</span>, utterances are grouped into topical <span class="hlt">discourse</span> sequences using three annotation strategies: raw annotations of speakers' referents, the output of a model that groups utterances based on those annotations, and the judgments of human coders. We analyze how the lexical, syntactic, and social properties of caregiver-child interaction change over the course of a sequence of topically related utterances. Our findings suggest that many cues used to signal topicality in adult <span class="hlt">discourse</span> are also available in child-directed speech. PMID:24731080</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1557665','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1557665"><span id="translatedtitle">The process of <span class="hlt">discourse</span>: usages of a Japanese medical term.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rosenberger, N R</p> <p>1992-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Analysis</span> of the usages of the term "autonomic nervous disorder" among Japanese physicians and patients suggests that medical terms lack essential meanings. Their meanings vary according to speaker, addressee, and context. Autonomic nervous disorder is a term employed to give different perspectives on the origins and treatment of menopausal problems in Japan. Through its changing meanings, it demonstrates aspects of the process of <span class="hlt">discourse</span>, the shifts language undergoes because it is embedded in power relations. Through <span class="hlt">discourse</span>, autonomic nervous disorder serves the purposes of both the powerful and the powerless, creating a debate concerning middle-aged women and the control of biomedicine over them. The Japanese case highlights the importance of separate contexts to the process of <span class="hlt">discourse</span>. Groups with varying degrees of power establish their points of view in contexts of formal respect at one extreme or informal intimacy at the other, thus enabling sharp debate while maintaining surface harmony. PMID:1557665</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25897731','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25897731"><span id="translatedtitle">Which lesson can be learnt from a <span class="hlt">historical</span> contamination <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of the most polluted river in Europe?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lofrano, Giusy; Libralato, Giovanni; Acanfora, Floriana Giuseppina; Pucci, Luca; Carotenuto, Maurizio</p> <p>2015-08-15</p> <p>The Sarno River trend <span class="hlt">analysis</span> during the last 60 years was traced focusing on the socio-economic and environmental issues. The river, originally worshiped as a god by Romans, is affected by an extreme level of environmental degradation, being sadly reputed as the most polluted river in Europe. This is the "not to be followed" example of the worst way a European river can be managed. Data about water, sediment, soil, biota and air contamination were collected from scientific papers, monitoring surveys, and technical reports depicting a sick river. Originally, the river was reputed as a source of livelihood, now it is considered a direct threat for human health. Wastewater can still flow through the river partially or completely untreated, waste production associated with the manufacture of metal products and leather tanning continues to suffer from the <span class="hlt">historical</span> inadequacy of regional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), associated with the partial or no reuse of effluents. All efforts should be devoted to solving the lack of wastewater and waste management, the gap in land planning, improving the capacity of existing WWTPs also via the construction of new sewer sections, restoring Sarno River minimum vital-flow, keeping to a minimum uncontrolled discharges as well as supporting river contracts. The 2015 goal stated by the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) is still far to be reached. The lesson has not been learnt yet. PMID:25897731</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMS...134...45T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMS...134...45T"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of eutrophication variables and thresholds in the Dutch North Sea in a <span class="hlt">historical</span> context - A model <span class="hlt">analysis</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Troost, T. A.; de Kluijver, A.; Los, F. J.</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>This study presents an evaluation of eutrophication variables and thresholds in the Dutch North Sea in a <span class="hlt">historical</span> context by means of a model <span class="hlt">analysis</span>. An ecosystem model (Delft3D-GEM for the North Sea) was used to simulate four different years, representing periods with little anthropogenic input (1930), medium anthropogenic input (1960), and high anthropogenic input (1985), as well as current (2007) conditions. Model runs differed with respect to nutrient inputs (riverine input and atmospheric deposition) but physical and hydrodynamic conditions were kept unchanged, to enable a clear assessment of the impact of changes in nutrient inputs. Model results showed that current (2007) dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) concentrations along the Dutch North Sea coast are similar to levels in 1930, while dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations have been reduced to levels that were present in 1960. Chl a concentrations did not show clear differences between 2007, 1930 and 1960, but Phaeocystis levels were higher in 2007 than in 1930 and 1960 in all areas, although these differences were not statistically significant. Furthermore, model results indicate that DIN (rather than DIP) should be the focus of nutrient reduction efforts, since reducing nitrogen will cause a shift from a P-limited coastal ecosystem towards a more pristine, N-limited coastal ecosystem. Finally, it was found that assessment parameters and threshold levels should be revised and the harmonization between them should be improved, for which several recommendations are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984NIMPB...3..507L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984NIMPB...3..507L"><span id="translatedtitle">Tree-ring <span class="hlt">analysis</span> by pixe for a <span class="hlt">historical</span> record of soil chemistry response to acidic air pollution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Legge, Allan H.; Kaufmann, Henry C.; Winchester, John W.</p> <p>1984-04-01</p> <p>Tree cores have been analyzed intact in 1 mm steps, corresponding to time intervals in the rings as short as half a growing season, providing a chronological record of 16 elemental concentrations extending over thirty years back to 1950. Samples were collected in a forested region of western Canada in sandy soil which was impacted by acid-forming gases released by a sulfur recovery sour natural gas plant. Tree core samples of the hybrid lodgepole-Jack pine ( Pinns contorta Loud. × Pinus banksiana Lamb.) were taken in five ecologically similar locations between 1.2 and 9.6 km from the gas plant stacks. Concentrations of some elements showed patterns suggesting that the annual rings preserved a record of changing soil chemistry in response both to natural environmental conditions and to deposition from sulfur gas emissions, commencing after plant start-up in 1959 and modified by subsequent modifications in plant operating procedures. These patterns were most pronounced nearest the gas plant. Certain other elements did not exhibit these patterns, probably reflecting greater importance of biological than of soil chemical properties. The high time resolution of tree-ring <span class="hlt">analysis</span>, which can be achieved by PIXE, demonstrates that the rings preserve a <span class="hlt">historical</span> record of elemental composition which may reflect changes in soil chemistry during plant growth as it may be affected by both natural ecological processes and acidic deposition from the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820056827&hterms=physical+chemical+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dphysical%2Bchemical%2Bchange','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820056827&hterms=physical+chemical+change&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dphysical%2Bchemical%2Bchange"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of the physical, chemical, optical, and <span class="hlt">historical</span> impacts of the 1908 Tunguska meteor fall</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Park, C.; Whitten, R. C.; Pollack, J. B.; Noerdlinger, P.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">analysis</span> is presented of the physical characteristics and photochemical aftereffects of the 1908 Tunguska explosive cometary meteor, whose physical manifestations are consistent with a five million ton object's entry into the earth's atmosphere at 40 km/sec. Aerodynamic calculations indicate that the shock waves emanating from the falling meteor could have generated up to 30 million tons of nitric oxide in the stratosphere and mesosphere. A fully interactive one-dimensional chemical-kinetics model of atmospheric trace constituents is used to estimate the photochemical consequences of such a large NO injection. The 35-45% hemispherical ozone depletion predicted by the model is in keeping with the 30 + or - 15% ozone variation reported for the first year after the Tunguska fall. Attention is also given to the optical anomalies which followed the event for indications of NO(x)-O(x) chemiluminescent emissions, NO2 solar absorption, and meteoric dust turbidity, along with possible climate changes due to the nearly one million tons of pulverized dust deposited in the mesosphere and stratosphere by the meteor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EPJP..129..158B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EPJP..129..158B"><span id="translatedtitle">Wavelength resolved neutron transmission <span class="hlt">analysis</span> to identify single crystal particles in <span class="hlt">historical</span> metallurgy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barzagli, E.; Grazzi, F.; Salvemini, F.; Scherillo, A.; Sato, H.; Shinohara, T.; Kamiyama, T.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Tremsin, A.; Zoppi, Marco</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The phase composition and the microstructure of four ferrous Japanese arrows of the Edo period (17th-19th century) has been determined through two complementary neutron techniques: Position-sensitive wavelength-resolved neutron transmission <span class="hlt">analysis</span> (PS-WRNTA) and time-of-flight neutron diffraction (ToF-ND). Standard ToF-ND technique has been applied by using the INES diffractometer at the ISIS pulsed neutron source in the UK, while the innovative PS-WRNTA one has been performed at the J-PARC neutron source on the BL-10 NOBORU beam line using the high spatial high time resolution neutron imaging detector. With ToF-ND we were able to reach information about the quantitative distribution of the metal and non-metal phases, the texture level, the strain level and the domain size of each of the samples, which are important parameters to gain knowledge about the technological level of the Japanese weapon. Starting from this base of data, the more complex PS-WRNTA has been applied to the same samples. This experimental technique exploits the presence of the so-called Bragg edges, in the time-of-flight spectrum of neutrons transmitted through crystalline materials, to map the microstructural properties of samples. The two techniques are non-invasive and can be easily applied to archaeometry for an accurate microstructure mapping of metal and ceramic artifacts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ930291.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ930291.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">From Tragedy to Comedy: Reframing Contemporary <span class="hlt">Discourses</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Broom, Catherine</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This paper argues that environmental destruction arises from a <span class="hlt">discourse</span> rooted in Western Economic and Scientific Theory. This <span class="hlt">discourse</span> artificially separates individuals from our natural world and argues that competition and utilitarian actions are beneficial to society. It is however, a <span class="hlt">discourse</span> that is taking us to a Shakespearean tragic…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pedagogics&id=EJ953354','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pedagogics&id=EJ953354"><span id="translatedtitle">The Complexity of Chinese Pedagogic <span class="hlt">Discourse</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cheng, Liang; Xu, Nan</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This is one of the commentaries on Wu's "Interpretation, autonomy, and transformation: Chinese pedagogic <span class="hlt">discourse</span> in a cross-cultural perspective" ("JCS", 43(5), 569-590). It highlights the paper's demystification of Western pedagogic <span class="hlt">discourse</span> and recovery of the meaning of Chinese traditional pedagogic <span class="hlt">discourse</span> as a response to the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=body+AND+regions&pg=3&id=EJ937726','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=body+AND+regions&pg=3&id=EJ937726"><span id="translatedtitle">The Organization of Narrative <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> in Lewy Body Spectrum Disorder</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ash, Sharon; McMillan, Corey; Gross, Rachel G.; Cook, Philip; Morgan, Brianna; Boller, Ashley; Dreyfuss, Michael; Siderowf, Andrew; Grossman, Murray</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Narrative <span class="hlt">discourse</span> is an essential component of day-to-day communication, but little is known about narrative in Lewy body spectrum disorder (LBSD), including Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We performed a detailed <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of a semi-structured speech sample in 32 non-aphasic…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=international+AND+journal+AND+recent&pg=3&id=EJ1080098','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=international+AND+journal+AND+recent&pg=3&id=EJ1080098"><span id="translatedtitle">Effective Mathematics Teaching in Finnish and Swedish Teacher Education <span class="hlt">Discourses</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hemmi, Kirsti; Ryve, Andreas</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This article explores effective mathematics teaching as constructed in Finnish and Swedish teacher educators' <span class="hlt">discourses</span>. Based on interview data from teacher educators as well as data from feedback discussions between teacher educators and prospective teachers in Sweden and Finland, the <span class="hlt">analysis</span> shows that several aspects of the recent…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=geoscience&pg=2&id=EJ884185','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=geoscience&pg=2&id=EJ884185"><span id="translatedtitle">Complexity of Secondary Scientific Data Sources and Students' Argumentative <span class="hlt">Discourse</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kerlin, Steven C.; McDonald, Scott P.; Kelly, Gregory J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This study examined the learning opportunities provided to students through the use of complex geological data supporting scientific inquiry. Through <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of argumentative <span class="hlt">discourse</span> in a high school Earth science classroom, uses of US Geological Survey (USGS) data were contrasted with uses of geoscience textbook data. To examine these…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Spiritualism&id=EJ591049','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Spiritualism&id=EJ591049"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Discourses</span> of Corporate Spiritualism and Evangelical Capitalism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nadesan, Majia Holmer</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Explores the growth of literature proposing corporate spirituality as a means of motivating employees. Suggests that critical <span class="hlt">analysis</span> articulates and advocates two entrepreneurial views of subjecthood that obscure contemporary corporate power by centering the individual as an autonomous agent. Concludes that these <span class="hlt">discourses</span> reinforce social…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=genre+AND+analysis&pg=4&id=EJ667717','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=genre+AND+analysis&pg=4&id=EJ667717"><span id="translatedtitle">Materiality and Genre in the Study of <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> Communities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Devitt, Amy J.; Bawarshi, Anis; Reiff, Mary Jo</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Presents three connected essays that use the idea of genre to study <span class="hlt">discourse</span> communities. Examines several contexts of language exchange in which the use of genre theory may yield insight into teaching, research, and social interaction: legal practice, medical practice, and classrooms. Suggests how genre <span class="hlt">analysis</span> contributes to the use of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mc+AND+kee&id=EJ1005639','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mc+AND+kee&id=EJ1005639"><span id="translatedtitle">Measuring Lexical Diversity in Narrative <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> of People with Aphasia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather H.; West, Thomas M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: A microlinguistic content <span class="hlt">analysis</span> for assessing lexical semantics in people with aphasia (PWA) is lexical diversity (LD). Sophisticated techniques have been developed to measure LD. However, validity evidence for these methodologies when applied to the <span class="hlt">discourse</span> of PWA is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate four measures…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=prefrontal+AND+cortex+AND+study&pg=2&id=EJ991245','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=prefrontal+AND+cortex+AND+study&pg=2&id=EJ991245"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Discourse</span> Production Following Injury to the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Coelho, Carl; Le, Karen; Mozeiko, Jennifer; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Individuals with damage to the prefrontal cortex, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in particular, often demonstrate difficulties with the formulation of complex language not attributable to aphasia. The present study employed a <span class="hlt">discourse</span> <span class="hlt">analysis</span> procedure to characterize the language of individuals with left (L) or right (R) DLPFC…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22project+management%22&pg=7&id=EJ784500','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22project+management%22&pg=7&id=EJ784500"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Discourse</span> Processes and Products: Land Surveyors in Hong Kong</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cheng, Winnie; Mok, Esmond</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The study reported in this paper aims to provide a description of professional communication pertaining to land surveying project management in Hong Kong, achieved through a comprehensive <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of both workplace <span class="hlt">discourse</span> processes and products. The study, situated in Hong Kong, represents a collaborative effort between English and Land…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=happening+AND+research&pg=5&id=EJ643827','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=happening+AND+research&pg=5&id=EJ643827"><span id="translatedtitle">Research on <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> in the Mathematics Classroom: A Commentary.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Seeger, Falk</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Comments on the papers presented in this special edition of this journal. The papers present a major step in conceptualizing what is happening in mathematics classrooms. Suggests that research on <span class="hlt">discourse</span> in the mathematics classroom should proceed on the present high level of empirical <span class="hlt">analysis</span>. (Author/MM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Axiological&pg=3&id=EJ456515','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Axiological&pg=3&id=EJ456515"><span id="translatedtitle">Production of Elaborated Argumentative <span class="hlt">Discourse</span>: The Role of Cooperativeness.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Golder, Caroline</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Presents <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of argumentative <span class="hlt">discourse</span> by students, revealing that it involves both dialogical and argumentative operations. Reports that dialogical and argumentative operations are functionally linked. Concludes that the percentage of markers of utterance involvement, axiological forms, and modalizations is much higher in argumentative…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=structure+AND+health+AND+care+AND+system&pg=6&id=EJ987352','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=structure+AND+health+AND+care+AND+system&pg=6&id=EJ987352"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Historical</span> Overview</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Scharlach, Andrew</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In this article, the author presents a <span class="hlt">historical</span> overview of four decades of scholarship and changing public policy on family and informal caregiving for older adults. Families are changing at a dizzying pace. Changes in family composition, cultural diversity, geographic mobility, and societal norms, coupled with increasing numbers of older…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=architectural+AND+heritage&pg=5&id=EJ543751','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=architectural+AND+heritage&pg=5&id=EJ543751"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Historic</span> Houses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Curtis, Nancy</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Reviews some of the efforts of the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities (SPNEA) to preserve, conserve, and interpret <span class="hlt">historic</span> houses to the public. Examines the history and some of the specific preservation problems concerning the Beauport Cottage, the Sayward-Wheeler House, and the Gropius House. (MJP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6402235','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6402235"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Historical</span> perspective, economic <span class="hlt">analysis</span>, and regulatory <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of the impacts of waste partitioning-transmutation on the disposal of radioactive wastes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Forsberg, C.W.; Croff, A.G.; Kocher, D.C.</p> <p>1990-10-01</p> <p>Partitioning-transmutation, sometimes called actinide burning, is an alternative approach to high-level radioactive waste management. It consists of removing long-lived radionuclides from wastes and destroying those radionuclides, thus reducing the long-term hazards of radioactive waste. It was studied in detail in the 1970's. New developments in technology and other factors are resulting in a reexamination of this waste management option. This report consists of three papers which summarize the <span class="hlt">historical</span> work, update the <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of the costs of waste disposal, and describe current regulatory requirements which might be impacted by P-T. The papers provide a starting point for future research on P-T. 152 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ApSS..255.5542S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ApSS..255.5542S"><span id="translatedtitle">Complementary use of the Raman and XRF techniques for non-destructive <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of <span class="hlt">historical</span> paint layers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sawczak, M.; Kami?ska, A.; Rabczuk, G.; Ferretti, M.; Jendrzejewski, R.; ?liwi?ski, G.</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>The portable XRF spectrometer has been applied in situ for the non-destructive elemental mapping of the pigment components of the XV c. mural painting and frescos of the Little Christopher chamber in the Main Town Hall of Gda?sk, Poland. For a sufficiently large data collection the principal component <span class="hlt">analysis</span> (PCA) was applied in order to associate the most intense lines of the elements Ca, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Hg in the XRF spectra with the palette of colors: white, brown, green, blue, red, yellow, and black observed in the painting. This allowed to limit the number of extractions of the micro-samples for the complementary Raman measurements thus assuring the practically non-destructive character of the entire <span class="hlt">analysis</span>. The reliable identification of the pigment compositions was based on coincidence of the XRF, PCA and the Raman results which confirmed the presence of the chalk, malachite, azurite, red lead, mars red, mars yellow and candle black in the <span class="hlt">historical</span> paints, except of the carbon-based black pigment being out of the XRF detection range. Different hues of the green paint were specified and the variety of the red and brown ones was ascribed to compositions of the Pb- and Fe-based red pigments (Fe 2O 3 and Pb 3O 4) with addition of the vermilion (HgS) and carbon black, in agreement with literature. The traces of elements: Ba and Sr, Sb and Mo, and also Cd, were ascribed to the impurities of Ca, those of some ochre pigments, and to the soluble Cd salts, respectively.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......250M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......250M"><span id="translatedtitle">The paradigm that always was: Scientific <span class="hlt">discourse</span> in Young-Earth Creationist textbooks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maynard, Travis</p> <p></p> <p>Bob Jones University Press (BJU Press) is a publishing house owned by the Greenville, South Carolina university of the same name. Fulfilling Bob Jones' mission beyond the college classroom, BJU Press prints a full K-12 educational program that spans all subjects and meets national core content standards. These materials are nationally circulated in homeschooling environments and conservative Christian private schools, a growing portion of America's educational landscape: according to a Department of Education 2009 report, enrollment in these schools represented 885,000 students. Research in rhetoric facilitates our understanding of various <span class="hlt">discourse</span> communities, especially those that appropriate the <span class="hlt">discourse</span> of a separate community to forward an argument that runs counter to the purposes of the original community. An interesting example of this rhetorical strategy is BJU Press' educational philosophy called Biblical Integration, in which teachers are invoked to "call into question the secular assumptions of each subject and then encourage the student to rebuild the discipline from biblical presuppositions." Using this technique, teachers using BJU Press materials attempt to shape students' ideologies by teaching a literal reading of the Bible dictating a 6,000-year-old Earth. The most interesting subject area in which BJU Press deploys Biblical Integration is the natural sciences, wherein to achieve this goal, textbook authors must make two rhetorical moves: first, re-frame a biblical ideology as being equally scientific to its secular counterparts; and, second, argue for the superiority of a science based in the Bible. This thesis analyzes a science textbook produced by BJU Press, exploring how the authors meet these exigencies. Specifically, I argue that the authors of the eighth grade title Earth Science both adopt and adapt the <span class="hlt">discourse</span> of science in order to validate Evangelical Christian Science as being legitimately engaged in scientific endeavors. Within the context of natural sciences, Biblical Integration is particularly compelling: in formulating an alternative view of science and arguing for its superiority over secular science, the authors at BJU Press are implicitly employing the <span class="hlt">discourse</span> of Kuhnian scientific revolution, adding a layer of scientific credibility to their efforts by mimicking the <span class="hlt">historical</span> progress of the sciences. In adopting a Kuhnian approach, the authors craft a hybrid <span class="hlt">discourse</span> that blends science with scripture, working against the secular status quo of the sciences. Accordingly, to analyze this hybrid <span class="hlt">discourse</span>, this thesis draws upon work within the rhetoric of science directly influenced by Thomas Kuhn. This <span class="hlt">analysis</span> is conducted via two case studies. The first focuses on the textbook's introductory chapter, highlighting how the chapter appropriates the epistemological practices of scientific research by presenting an overarching argument that forwards a threefold purpose: (1) establishing the purpose of Christian Science; (2) highlighting the inherently ideological nature of scientific epistemology; and (3) providing a dualistic definition that polarizes Christian and secular science. By emphasizing the ideological nature of science, the authors of this textbook create a rhetorical space in which they can articulate their alternative view of science as being theoretically valid. The second case study analyzes a discipline-specific application of Christian Science: two textbook chapters that focus on geology. When the textbook attempts to operationalize Christian Science, this view falls short of the standards of science due to Evangelical faith in the infallibility of scripture. Despite this shortcoming, these two chapters still employ strategies indicative of Kuhnian paradigmatic arguments: highlighting fundamental anomalies in scientific consensus and utilizing arguments from familiarity to gain audiences' tentative acceptance. In using these argumentative strategies, the textbook authors mimic scientific argument, but do not fully meet the criteria of science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CoGG...40..121G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010CoGG...40..121G"><span id="translatedtitle">Inclusion of <span class="hlt">historical</span> information in flood frequency <span class="hlt">analysis</span> using a Bayesian MCMC technique: a case study for the power dam Orlík, Czech Republic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gaál, Ladislav; Szolgay, Ján; Kohnová, Silvia; Hlav?ová, Kamila; Viglione, Alberto</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The paper deals with at-site flood frequency estimation in the case when also information on hydrological events from the past with extraordinary magnitude are available. For the joint frequency <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of systematic observations and <span class="hlt">historical</span> data, respectively, the Bayesian framework is chosen, which, through adequately defined likelihood functions, allows for incorporation of different sources of hydrological information, e.g., maximum annual flood peaks, <span class="hlt">historical</span> events as well as measurement errors. The distribution of the parameters of the fitted distribution function and the confidence intervals of the flood quantiles are derived by means of the Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation (MCMC) technique. The paper presents a sensitivity <span class="hlt">analysis</span> related to the choice of the most influential parameters of the statistical model, which are the length of the <span class="hlt">historical</span> period <italic>h</italic> and the perception threshold <italic>X</italic>0. These are involved in the statistical model under the assumption that except for the events termed as ‘<span class="hlt">historical</span>’ ones, none of the (unknown) peak discharges from the <span class="hlt">historical</span> period <italic>h</italic> should have exceeded the threshold <italic>X</italic>0. Both higher values of <italic>h</italic> and lower values of <italic>X</italic>0 lead to narrower confidence intervals of the estimated flood quantiles; however, it is emphasized that one should be prudent of selecting those parameters, in order to avoid making inferences with wrong assumptions on the unknown hydrological events having occurred in the past. The Bayesian MCMC methodology is presented on the example of the maximum discharges observed during the warm half year at the station Vltava-Kamýk (Czech Republic) in the period 1877-2002. Although the 2002 flood peak, which is related to the vast flooding that affected a large part of Central Europe at that time, occurred in the near past, in the <span class="hlt">analysis</span> it is treated virtually as a ‘<span class="hlt">historical</span>’ event in order to illustrate some crucial aspects of including information on extreme <span class="hlt">historical</span> floods into at-site flood frequency analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sex+AND+therapists&pg=5&id=EJ779451','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sex+AND+therapists&pg=5&id=EJ779451"><span id="translatedtitle">The Missing <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> of Gender?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gilbert, Lucia Albino; Rader, Jill</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Gender theories provide a critical framework for considerations of heterosexual identity. Patriarchal power rests on the social meanings given to biological sex differences and to their reproduction as societal <span class="hlt">discourses</span> regarding what it means to be a woman or a man. This is a crucial point and one that we believe is not fully recognized in the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://aclweb.org/anthology-new/P/P93/P93-1013.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://aclweb.org/anthology-new/P/P93/P93-1013.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">PLANNING MULTIMODAL <span class="hlt">DISCOURSE</span> Wolfgang Wahlster</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>PLANNING MULTIMODAL <span class="hlt">DISCOURSE</span> Wolfgang Wahlster German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence the structure and content of multimodal communi- cations, that integrate natural language, pointing, graphics, and animations. The central claim of this talk is that the generation of multimodal dis- course can be considered</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ceep.udel.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/2002_ej_production_unequal_nature_5.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://ceep.udel.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/2002_ej_production_unequal_nature_5.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE <span class="hlt">DISCOURSES</span> IN INTERNATIONAL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Delaware, University of</p> <p></p> <p>261 ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE <span class="hlt">DISCOURSES</span> IN INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL ECONOMY Edited by JOHN BYRNE LEIGH' nature and apply that knowledge to shape a better future. Human progress, in this view, is identical, 1996a, and 2000). But even in this instance, discussion of the social and political organization</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=maes&pg=6&id=EJ682763','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=maes&pg=6&id=EJ682763"><span id="translatedtitle">Reference Management in Instructive <span class="hlt">Discourse</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Maes, Alfons; Arts, Anja; Noordman, Leo</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This article investigates the effect of 2 language-in-use factors on the introduction and maintenance of referents in instructive <span class="hlt">discourse</span>. These factors, implemented as conditions in an instructive production task, were the assumed visual identity for the reader of the objects or referents to be referred to in the instructions (visually same vs.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=chat&pg=6&id=EJ1065085','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=chat&pg=6&id=EJ1065085"><span id="translatedtitle">Gendered Language in Interactive <span class="hlt">Discourse</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hussey, Karen A.; Katz, Albert N.; Leith, Scott A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Over two studies, we examined the nature of gendered language in interactive <span class="hlt">discourse</span>. In the first study, we analyzed gendered language from a chat corpus to see whether tokens of gendered language proposed in the gender-as-culture hypothesis (Maltz and Borker in "Language and social identity." Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/45459','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/45459"><span id="translatedtitle">Nervous system cancer : <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of <span class="hlt">historical</span> mortality rates in the United States and Japan indicate sudden increases in environmental risk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Alhassani, Ali K</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Nervous System cancer age-specific mortality rates began being recorded for European and Non-European Americans in 1930 and for Japanese in 1952. All ethnic groups show significant <span class="hlt">historical</span> increases in mortality rates. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3854005','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3854005"><span id="translatedtitle">Honeymoon, medical treatment or big business? An <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of the meanings of the term “reproductive tourism” in German and Israeli public media <span class="hlt">discourses</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background/Introduction Infertile couples that travel to another country for reproductive treatment do not refer to themselves as “reproductive tourists”. They might even be offended by this term. “Tourism” is a metaphor with hidden connotations. We will analyze these connotations in public media <span class="hlt">discourses</span> on “reproductive tourism” in Israel and Germany. We chose to focus on these two countries since legal, ethical and religious restrictions give couples a similar motivation to travel for reproductive care, while the cultural backgrounds and conceptions of reproduction are different. Results Our research shows that the use of the metaphor “reproductive treatment” and its hidden messages depends on the writers’ intention and the target population. Although the phenomenon of patients travelling for reproductive treatment can fit into the definitions of tourism, the term emphasizes aspects that do not reflect patients’ reality. In both the German and the Israeli public media debate the term “reproductive tourism” is either used to criticize the economic aspects of the phenomenon or to attract patients as potential clients. Conclusions Ethicists should be cautious when borrowing metaphors like “reproductive tourism” from the public debate. Our findings support Penning’s suggestion to use instead an unloaded term like cross-border reproductive care to describe the phenomenon in a more neutral way and to make it explicit whenever criticism is necessary. PMID:23962355</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........93F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........93F"><span id="translatedtitle">Creativity in theoretical physics: A situational <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of the fifth Solvay Council on Physics, 1927</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>First, Leili K.</p> <p></p> <p>This dissertation investigates the intersections and interactions of factors which enhance and inhibit creativity in theoretical physics research, using a situational <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of the fifth Solvay Council on Physics of 1927 (Solvay 1927), a pivotal point in the history of quantum physics. Situational <span class="hlt">analysis</span> is a postmodern variant of the grounded theory method which views a situation as the unit of <span class="hlt">analysis</span> and adds situational mapping as an analytic tool. This method specifically works against normalizing or simplifying the points of view, instead drawing out diversity, complexity, and contradiction. It results in "theorizing" rather than theory. This research differs from other analyses of the development of quantum mechanics in looking at technical issues as well as individual, collective, and societal factors. Data examined in this <span class="hlt">historical</span> <span class="hlt">analysis</span> includes theoretical papers, conference proceedings, personal letters, and commentary and <span class="hlt">analysis</span>, both contemporaneous and modern. Literature related to scientific creativity was also consulted. Mapping the situation as a master <span class="hlt">discourse</span> of Niels Bohr overlapping and interacting with co-existent major <span class="hlt">discourses</span> on matrix mechanics/Copenhagen interpretation, wave mechanics, and the pilot-wave theory resulted in the most descriptive illustration of the factors influencing scientific creativity before and after Solvay 1927. The master <span class="hlt">discourse</span> strongly influenced the major <span class="hlt">discourses</span> and generated the "Copenhagen spirit" which effectively marginalized <span class="hlt">discourses</span> other than matrix mechanics/Copenhagen interpretation after Solvay 1927.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22685573','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22685573"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-locus phylogeographic and population genetic <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of Anolis carolinensis: <span class="hlt">historical</span> demography of a genomic model species.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tollis, Marc; Ausubel, Gavriel; Ghimire, Dhruba; Boissinot, Stéphane</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The green anole (Anolis carolinensis) has been widely used as an animal model in physiology and neurobiology but has recently emerged as an important genomic model. The recent sequencing of its genome has shed new light on the evolution of vertebrate genomes and on the process that govern species diversification. Surprisingly, the patterns of genetic diversity within natural populations of this widespread and abundant North American lizard remain relatively unknown. In the present study, we use 10 novel nuclear DNA sequence loci (N?=?62 to 152) and one mitochondrial locus (N?=?226) to delimit green anole populations and infer their <span class="hlt">historical</span> demography. We uncovered four evolutionarily distinct and geographically restricted lineages of green anoles using phylogenetics, bayesian clustering, and genetic distance methods. Molecular dating indicates that these lineages last shared a common ancestor ?2 million years ago. Summary statistics and <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of the frequency distributions of DNA polymorphisms strongly suggest range-wide expansions in population size. Using Bayesian Skyline Plots, we inferred the timing of population size expansions, which differ across lineages, and found evidence for a relatively recent and rapid westward expansion of green anoles across the Gulf Coastal Plain during the mid-Pleistocene. One surprising result is that the distribution of genetic diversity is not consistent with a latitudinal shift caused by climatic oscillations as is observed for many co-distributed taxa. This suggests that the most recent Pleistocene glacial cycles had a limited impact on the geographic distribution of the green anole at the northern limits of its range. PMID:22685573</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3369884','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3369884"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-Locus Phylogeographic and Population Genetic <span class="hlt">Analysis</span> of Anolis carolinensis: <span class="hlt">Historical</span> Demography of a Genomic Model Species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tollis, Marc; Ausubel, Gavriel; Ghimire, Dhruba; Boissinot, Stéphane</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The green anole (Anolis carolinensis) has been widely used as an animal model in physiology and neurobiology but has recently emerged as an important genomic model. The recent sequencing of its genome has shed new light on the evolution of vertebrate genomes and on the process that govern species diversification. Surprisingly, the patterns of genetic diversity within natural populations of this widespread and abundant North American lizard remain relatively unknown. In the present study, we use 10 novel nuclear DNA sequence loci (N?=?62 to 152) and one mitochondrial locus (N?=?226) to delimit green anole populations and infer their <span class="hlt">historical</span> demography. We uncovered four evolutionarily distinct and geographically restricted lineages of green anoles using phylogenetics, Bayesian clustering, and genetic distance methods. Molecular dating indicates that these lineages last shared a common ancestor ?2 million years ago. Summary statistics and <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of the frequency distributions of DNA polymorphisms strongly suggest range-wide expansions in population size. Using Bayesian Skyline Plots, we inferred the timing of population size expansions, which differ across lineages, and found evidence for a relatively recent and rapid westward expansion of green anoles across the Gulf Coastal Plain during the mid-Pleistocene. One surprising result is that the distribution of genetic diversity is not consistent with a latitudinal shift caused by climatic oscillations as is observed for many co-distributed taxa. This suggests that the most recent Pleistocene glacial cycles had a limited impact on the geographic distribution of the green anole at the northern limits of its range. PMID:22685573</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhDT........32T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhDT........32T"><span id="translatedtitle">Women in physics? Identity and <span class="hlt">discourse</span> in Taiwan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsai, Li-Ling</p> <p></p> <p>This dissertation argues that the deeply held hope for gender equity in science can no longer be simply realized as a project to increase women's participation in science. Understanding women's vexed relations with science requires a reconceptualization of the terms women and science, not as given categories to signal how "women" are coping with their disadvantaged positions in "science," but rather as two <span class="hlt">discourses</span> formed in relation to each other, in institutional practices and in particular social and <span class="hlt">historical</span> contexts. This dissertation investigates <span class="hlt">discourses</span> of women and science by focusing on women in physics in Taiwan. This focus extends debates about gender and science by showing that the intervention of a particular <span class="hlt">discourse</span>---in this case, the <span class="hlt">discourse</span> of "women in physics"---into an existing discursive field exposed the contested terrain of the gender politics of physics and the identity politics of women physicists in Taiwan. "Women in physics" emerged as an internationally legitimate subject position in Taiwan in 1999 following a call to form a local working team on women in physics. The participants I interviewed utilized this internationally legitimate subject position to reconstruct, in different ways, their gendered identities in physics. Scholarship in the field of gender and science education studies has, over the past three decades, focused on equity and inclusion to address gender inequalities in science. This dissertation suggests, by contrast, that a focus on identity is necessary for understanding gendered career decisions in science. The term identity refers to how individuals perceive themselves and how others respond to their claims; identity involves the purposes, interests and contexts of particular naming processes. In the structural inequalities of gender and science, a focus on identity aims to track individual and collective forms of agency exercised in changing discursive fields. This dissertation concludes by viewing curriculum as a discursive field where various <span class="hlt">discourses</span> provide subject positions and produce potential meanings through teaching and learning. Hope for social transformation can be situated in the interventionary power of new <span class="hlt">discourses</span> and the subsequent reconfiguration of gendered identities in existing institutional practices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H44F..02C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H44F..02C"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">Analysis</span> of <span class="hlt">Historical</span> Impacts of Water Resources Development on Water Levels of the Mekong River (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cochrane, T. A.; Arias, M. E.; Piman, T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The rapid rate of water resources development in the Mekong basin of Southeast Asia is a cause for concern due to potential impacts on highly valued fisheries and natural ecosystems. <span class="hlt">Historical</span> water levels of the Mekong were analyzed by comparing pre and post 1991 daily data of 6 stations along the mainstream from Chiang Sean, in northern Lao PDR and Thailand, to Stung Treng, in Cambodia, and the Pre Kdam station near the Tonle Sap Lake in the lower Mekong floodplain using the Indicators of Hydrological Alteration (IHA) software. The year 1991 marks a turning point in the rate of development in the basin, with the start of development of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong and accelerated hydropower and irrigation development in key tributaries. Observed changes in water level patterns along the Mekong were linked to temporal and spatial water resources development from 1960 to 2010. Variations in climate were accounted for and are important, but they were not observed to be the main causes of changes in key hydrological indicators related to ecosystem productivity. The development of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong basin in the post 1991 period resulted in a significant change of seasonal water levels, raise rates, fall rates, and the number of water level fluctuations at Chiang Sean. This effect diminishes downstream until it becomes negligible at the Mukdahan monitoring station in Thailand, which represents a drainage area of over 50% of the total Mekong Basin. Further downstream at Pakse station in Southern Lao PDR, changes in hydrological indicators post 1991 were observed to be significant again, which can be directly attributed to water resource development in the Chi and Mun River basins in Northeastern Thailand. A reduction of 23% and 11% in water level raising rates and fall rates, respectively at Prek Kdam, provides clear evidence of a diminished flood pulse of the Tonle Sap Lake in the post 1991 period. Given the observed water level alterations from 1991 to 2010 as a result of water infrastructure development, we can extrapolate that future proposed development in the key transboundary Srepok, Sesan and Sekong basins of the Lower Mekong will have an even greater effect on the flood pulse of the Tonle Sap. Although much focus has been placed on impacts of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong, our <span class="hlt">analysis</span> clearly shows that tributary development in the lower Mekong has already affected water level patterns significantly, particularly in the dry season. Through subsequent modeling we infer how future development could further impact water flows and livelihoods, and thus improve regional impact assessments. The <span class="hlt">analysis</span> and methods can be translated to other river systems around the world undergoing rapid water resources development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21062667','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21062667"><span id="translatedtitle">Reversing the <span class="hlt">historical</span> tide of iatrogenic harm: A therapeutic jurisprudence <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of increases in arrests of domestic batterers and rapists.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Simon, Leonore M J; Ellwanger, Steven J; Haggerty, John</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) proposes that the law is a social force that can heal or cause harm to parties in a legal action. <span class="hlt">Historically</span>, women victims of intimate partner rape and domestic violence could not seek justice in the legal system because police, like other actors in the justice system, treated these offenses as private matters or fabrications. In domestic violence and intimate rape cases, TJ is concerned with the needs of the victims, and how the law and police play a role in increasing their well-being. In this article, we use a TJ approach to the study of police responsiveness to victims of these offenses by investigating arrests of the offenders pursuant to law reforms that encourage or mandate arrest. Given that in these offenses, victims have the lowest reporting rates of any violent crime, the victim decision to call the police represents an expectation that the mere physical presence of a police officer may redefine the nature of the violence from a private conflict to a societal wrong that will not be tolerated. Police partnership with and treatment of the victim with respect and dignity can change the dynamics of the violence, terminate the violence, and set the criminal justice process in motion by arresting the offender in most cases. Police arrest, and subsequent prosecution and conviction, sends a message to offenders that society does not tolerate their violence, and allows the victim to begin to heal. Yet, past research indicates that police are less likely to arrest intimates than acquaintances and strangers in misdemeanor and aggravated assault, rape, and sexual assault cases. Using the National Incidence Reporting System (NIBRS) for the year 2000, we examine police arrests of intimate partner rape and domestic violence in jurisdictions with mandatory and presumptive arrest policies compared to police arrests in full discretion jurisdictions. We also ascertain whether arrest rates are higher for strangers and acquaintances than for intimates in misdemeanor and aggravated assault, kidnapping, and rape and sexual assault. Third, we determine whether police arrests of intimate partner rape is more likely if there is evidence of violence, injury to the victim, and use of a weapon. Our multivariate findings suggest that both the rape and the domestic violence reform movements have reversed the tide of <span class="hlt">historical</span> negative treatment of female victims of these offenses. Logistic regression <span class="hlt">analysis</span> indicates that police agencies in mandatory and preferred arrest jurisdictions increase the odds of arrest for domestic violence incidents and violations of orders of protection, compared to police agencies in jurisdictions with permissive/discretionary arrest policies. In addition, intimate violence increases the odds of arrest by 98%; forcible rape accompanied by simple assault or kidnapping increases the odds of arrest by 467 and 222%, respectively whereas forcible fondling accompanied by simple assault increases the odds of arrest by 293%. We discuss the implications of our findings for future law reform as well as TJ. PMID:21062667</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=building&pg=5&id=EJ993892','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=building&pg=5&id=EJ993892"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding <span class="hlt">Historical</span> Thinking at <span class="hlt">Historic</span> Sites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Baron, Christine</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This article describes the interpretive processes historians engage in when "reading" <span class="hlt">historic</span> buildings and examines what qualifies as <span class="hlt">historical</span> thinking about <span class="hlt">historic</span> buildings and sites. To gather evidence of what <span class="hlt">historical</span> thinking looks like as it pertains to buildings, 5 practicing historians were recorded as they toured the Old North…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616628S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1616628S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Analysis</span> of Stream Channel Geometry Temporal and Spatial Evolution after <span class="hlt">Historic</span> Dam Removal - two French case studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Slawson, Deborah; Manière, Louis; Marchandeau, Florent</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>IRSTEA, in partnership with the French Office national de l'eau et des milieux aquatiques (ONEMA), has begun a study of channel geomorphology in small streams where dams have been removed or breached between two and 200 years ago, without any subsequent restoration of the channel in the legacy sediments. A preliminary <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of two sites in the Morvan, Burgundy, will be presented; a dam breached at the beginning of the 20th century and another in the last decade. Using ergodic reasoning, <span class="hlt">historical</span> and recent upstream and downstream channel geometry is being used to predict the future temporal and spatial scales of channel physical habitat restoration. With the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), dam removal has become a more frequently used method for restoring stream ecological continuity. In France, these obstacles are ubiquitous in medium and small streams and considerably reduce lateral and longitudinal connectivity. Improvement in the hydromorphologically controlled, physical habitat, particularly flow and sediment transport regimes, is often essential to improvement in stream biology. However, dam removal may cause long-term disturbances in flow and sediment transport regimes. In the absence of channel restoration measures in addition to dam removal, these disturbances may result in long-term negative impacts on fish, macroinvertebrate, and riparian plant physical habitat. These negative impacts may include channel incision and lowering of the water table, disconnection from floodplains, increased stream power and bed scouring, and increased sediment load from headcutting and bank erosion. Over time, these negative impacts may resolve themselves. However, the time frame necessary for reestablishing adequate physical habitat is not well-known. Some studies have indicated that many decades or longer may be required, depending on a variety of factors. Under the WFD, the REstoring rivers FOR effective catchment Management (REFORM) project is stressing the use of reference condition benchmarks when identifying objectives for and designing stream restoration projects. To identify appropriate reference condition benchmarks, it is important to understand over what temporal and spatial scales physical habitat improvement may take place after dam removal, including: 1. defining the spatial and temporal objectives for physical habitat restoration as a result of dam removal and 2. determining if dam removal alone will be sufficient to achieve those objectives or if additional channel restoration measures might be required.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pedagogics&pg=4&id=EJ921611','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=pedagogics&pg=4&id=EJ921611"><span id="translatedtitle">Variations in Science Teaching Modalities and Students' Pedagogic Subject Positioning through the <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> Register and Language Code</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Maeng, Seungho; Kim, Chan-Jong</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated the modalities of science teaching practice and students' pedagogic subject positioning through the linguistic features of science classroom <span class="hlt">discourse</span> and the discursive interaction. For this purpose, this study sought to develop a methodology for classroom <span class="hlt">discourse</span> <span class="hlt">analysis</span>, the TMARC (Triangular Model of Analyzing…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Genealogy&pg=4&id=ED528035','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Genealogy&pg=4&id=ED528035"><span id="translatedtitle">Sit Down! You're Rocking the Boat!: Asian Americans, Racial Manipulation, and the <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> of the Denial of Success</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gonzalez, Anna K.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This dissertation seeks to rearticulate racial formations in the United States and expand the <span class="hlt">discourse</span> on race in higher education by placing Asian Americans at the center of the discussion. Through the use of genealogy and <span class="hlt">discourse</span> <span class="hlt">analysis</span>, this research presents a broader description of the Asian American racial experience in higher education…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=spacetime&pg=3&id=EJ650316','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=spacetime&pg=3&id=EJ650316"><span id="translatedtitle">"This Is Our Freedom Bus Going Home Right Now": Producing and Hybridizing Space-Time Contexts in Pedagogical <span class="hlt">Discourse</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Leander, Kevin M.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Advances an approach to <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of discursive intercontextuality through theories of space-time production. Argues management of multiple contexts within school-related <span class="hlt">discourse</span> is an important means of discursively producing identity, agency, and power relations. Draws data from an ethnographic and <span class="hlt">discourse</span>-based study of an extended school…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=continuing+AND+education&pg=2&id=EJ933133','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=continuing+AND+education&pg=2&id=EJ933133"><span id="translatedtitle">The Changing Roles of Adult and Continuing Education Practitioners in Hong Kong: <span class="hlt">Analysis</span> from a <span class="hlt">Historical</span> Perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chan, Benjamin Tak-Yuen</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This article explores the role of adult and continuing education practitioners in Hong Kong as a function of contexts and conceptions of practice. A <span class="hlt">historical</span> evolutionary approach is used to analyze how roles of practitioners differ in three periods--adult education, continuing education, and lifelong learning. It is revealed that practitioners…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=foundry&id=EJ1034483','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=foundry&id=EJ1034483"><span id="translatedtitle">Value-Chain Dynamics of the West Point Foundry, 1817-1911: A <span class="hlt">Historical</span> Case <span class="hlt">Analysis</span> in Marketing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Petkus, Ed, Jr.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This case provides the opportunity for students to explore marketing and value/supply-chain dynamics in a unique <span class="hlt">historical</span> context. The West Point Foundry (WPF), located in Cold Spring, New York, was one of the most important manufacturing ventures in the United States from 1817 to 1911. The case outlines the supply-chain details of the WPF as…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED160632.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED160632.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">Analysis</span> of the <span class="hlt">Historical</span> Regression Method of Predicting Posttest Grade Equivalents for Categorically-Aided Programs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hick, Thomas L.; Irvine, David J.</p> <p></p> <p>To eliminate maturation as a factor in the pretest-posttest design, pretest scores can be converted to anticipate posttest scores using grade equivalent scores from standardized tests. This conversion, known as <span class="hlt">historical</span> regression, assumes that without specific intervention, growth will continue at the rate (grade equivalents per year of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ851858.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ851858.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Historical</span> Research: A Thematic <span class="hlt">Analysis</span> of Convention and Conference Themes for Selected Professional Health Education Associations from 1975 to 2009</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Black, Jill M.; Ubbes, Valerie A.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Many professional organizations and associations hold conventions and conferences on an annual basis. Health Education professional associations take part in this process. Using a <span class="hlt">historical</span> research perspective, this article delineates conference themes for four prominent professional Health Education associations: the American Association for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ847774.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ847774.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Reconstruction of the Past through Images: An Iconographic <span class="hlt">Analysis</span> on the <span class="hlt">Historical</span> Imagination Usage Skills of Primary School Pupils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dilek, Dursun</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The aim of this research is to understand how sixth grade students use their imagination skills in the <span class="hlt">historical</span> thinking process and, by doing so, how they construct the past. In this respect, first, an exhibition/museum was visited in the context of social studies during history lessons in a primary school in Kadikoy district in Istanbul. Then,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Basil&pg=4&id=ED523620','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Basil&pg=4&id=ED523620"><span id="translatedtitle">Stability and Change in New York State Regents Mathematics Examinations, 1866-2009: A Socio-<span class="hlt">Historical</span> <span class="hlt">Analysis</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Watson, Robert Stephen</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This dissertation illuminates relationships between micro-level practices of schools and macro-level structures of society through the socio-<span class="hlt">historical</span> lens of New York State Regents mathematics examinations, which were administered to public school students throughout the State of New York between 1866 and 2009, inclusive. Fundamental research…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Luxembourg&id=EJ1025026','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Luxembourg&id=EJ1025026"><span id="translatedtitle">The Construction of "Female Citizens": A Socio-<span class="hlt">Historical</span> <span class="hlt">Analysis</span> of Girls' Education in Luxembourg</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schreiber, Catherina</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: This paper will empirically investigate female education in Luxembourg from a <span class="hlt">historical</span> perspective. A special focus will be laid on the question of how women in Luxembourgian society were constructed as female "citizens", even though they were, rather, considered as a homogeneous category limited to a private sphere…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=STEM%2c+AND+%22+Education+Policy%22&pg=4&id=EJ666049','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=STEM%2c+AND+%22+Education+Policy%22&pg=4&id=EJ666049"><span id="translatedtitle">Education Policy, Comprehensive Schooling and Devolution in the DisUnited Kingdom: An <span class="hlt">Historical</span> 'Home International' <span class="hlt">Analysis</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Phillips, Robert</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Places educational devolution in the UK within an <span class="hlt">historical</span> context. Starts from premise that differences within the current educational systems of England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland stem not only from the changed educational/political context following devolution, but also from established contrasting histories and traditions.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=grass&pg=2&id=EJ868890','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=grass&pg=2&id=EJ868890"><span id="translatedtitle">Working on the Short Grass: A Qualitative <span class="hlt">Analysis</span> of Fundraiser Roles and Experiences at Public <span class="hlt">Historically</span> Black Colleges and Universities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tindall, Natalie T. J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The former president of Morehouse College, Dr Benjamin E. Mays, once said, "Higher education for Blacks has always been in a precarious position. These institutions were founded on short grass financially, and they live today on short grass." Today, many public and private <span class="hlt">historically</span> Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) have found success in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=acs+AND+chemistry&id=EJ1062149','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=acs+AND+chemistry&id=EJ1062149"><span id="translatedtitle">Building a Database for the <span class="hlt">Historical</span> <span class="hlt">Analysis</span> of the General Chemistry Curriculum Using ACS General Chemistry Exams as Artifacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Luxford, Cynthia J.; Linenberger, Kimberly J.; Raker, Jeffrey R.; Baluyut, John Y.; Reed, Jessica J.; De Silva, Chamila; Holme, Thomas A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>As a discipline, chemistry enjoys a unique position. While many academic areas prepared "cooperative examinations" in the 1930s, only chemistry maintained the activity within what has become the ACS Examinations Institute. As a result, the long-term existence of community-built, norm-referenced, standardized exams provides a <span class="hlt">historical</span>…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www-5.unipv.it/labdidst/download/pirec%20project.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www-5.unipv.it/labdidst/download/pirec%20project.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">LLP: KA1 COMPARATIVE STUDIES AND RESEARCH PROJECT TITLE: <span class="hlt">ANALYSIS</span> OF GEO-<span class="hlt">HISTORIC</span>-LITERARY-LANGUAGE CURRICULA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Gilardi, Gianni</p> <p></p> <p>is based b) Defining the school knowledge related to geo-<span class="hlt">historical</span> - linguistic - literary axis and exposing arguments for epistemological choices of reference's archetypes in relation to the construction : ANALYSE DES CURRICULA GEO-HISTORICO-LINGUISTIQUE- LITTERAIRES DANS L'ENSEIGNEMENT (ENTRE 9 ET 15 ANS) DE</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CSSE....9..877D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CSSE....9..877D"><span id="translatedtitle">When <span class="hlt">discourses</span> collide: creationism and evolution in the public sphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dávila, Denise</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>This review essay focuses on Özgür Ta?k?n's discussion of the theory of evolution (TOE), intelligent design (ID) and the convictions of fundamentalist science educators and students in his paper entitled: An exploratory examination of Islamic values in science education: Islamization of science teaching and learning via constructivism. It examines the competing social <span class="hlt">discourses</span> of evolution and creationism in the United States, which is partially maintained by national public opinion polls and states' legislation about the TOE in the science curricula. The examination of US social <span class="hlt">discourses</span> presented here is framed by James Gee's (2008) theory that <span class="hlt">Discourses</span> with a capital "D," are unconscious and uncritical socially accepted ways of speaking/listening and writing/reading that are merged with "distinctive ways of acting, interacting, valuing, feeling, dressing, thinking, [and] believing…so as to enact specific socially recognizable identities…" (p. 155). Such <span class="hlt">Discourses</span> identify insiders of and outsiders to religious affiliations and other social or cultural groups. The context of this examination is unique in that is draws from the national conversation about the inclusion of ID alongside of the TOE in the public school science programs. Gee's (2011) concept that <span class="hlt">Discourses</span> serve as tools of inquiry guides the <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of video recorded public messages from Bill Nye and Lawrence Krauss as well as Creation Museum president Ken Ham. The <span class="hlt">analysis</span> and discussion of the national conversation about creationism and public education suggests that the education community must consider the global landscape of science literacy both locally and internationally. It also indicates that preservice and practicing science educators may require special training and support. In order to provide unbiased, religious-resistant, evidence-based science instruction, science educators must understand how to separate church from state regardless of their personal beliefs. They must also know how to navigate conversations about the TOE among diverse communities of learners that include both religiously and non-religiously affiliated students.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1413..347S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1413..347S"><span id="translatedtitle">Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational <span class="hlt">discourse</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, <span class="hlt">discourse</span> patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an <span class="hlt">analysis</span> methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=knuth&id=EJ708073','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=knuth&id=EJ708073"><span id="translatedtitle">The Teacher's <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> Moves: A Framework for Analyzing <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> in Mathematics Classrooms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Krussel, Libby; Springer, G. T.; Edwards, Barbara</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>In this paper a framework is proposed for analyzing the deliberate actions taken by a teacher to participate in or influence the <span class="hlt">discourse</span> in mathematics classrooms, and such actions are referred to as the teacher's <span class="hlt">discourse</span> moves. This work synthesizes elements of several other <span class="hlt">discourse</span> frameworks, including those of Richards, Sfard, Cobb, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.comp.leeds.ac.uk/markert/Papers/LREC2010-LADTB.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.comp.leeds.ac.uk/markert/Papers/LREC2010-LADTB.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Leeds Arabic <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> Treebank: Annotating <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> Connectives for Amal Al-Saif, Katja Markert</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Markert, Katja</p> <p></p> <p>The Leeds Arabic <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> Treebank: Annotating <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> Connectives for Arabic Amal Al-Saif, Katja Markert School of Computing University of Leeds, Leeds, UK, LS2 9JT assaif@comp.leeds.ac.uk, markert@comp.leeds.ac.uk Abstract We present the first effort towards producing an Arabic <span class="hlt">Discourse</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Radio&pg=5&id=EJ976773','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Radio&pg=5&id=EJ976773"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Discourse</span> Markers in Turn-Initial Positions in Interruptive Speech in a Malaysian Radio <span class="hlt">Discourse</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nor, Siti Nurbaya Mohd</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Discourse</span> markers play significant roles in any spoken interaction. This research examines the functions of the <span class="hlt">discourse</span> markers (DMs) well, now and and used as turn-initial interruptive devices in a Malaysian radio <span class="hlt">discourse</span>. Using Schegloff's (2002) framework of what constitutes an interruption in turn-taking and previous studies on the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=phase&pg=4&id=EJ1003599','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=phase&pg=4&id=EJ1003599"><span id="translatedtitle">Lexical Bundles in <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> Structure: A Corpus-Based Study of Classroom <span class="hlt">Discourse</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Csomay, Eniko</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The present study applies corpus-based methods to document the distributional patterns of previously reported lexical bundle functions as they relate to <span class="hlt">discourse</span> structure. Specifically, 84 lexical bundles and their <span class="hlt">discourse</span> functions (Biber "et al." 2004a) were tracked in 1,176 <span class="hlt">discourse</span> units extracted from the initial phases of 196 university…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RScEd..42..233A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012RScEd..42..233A"><span id="translatedtitle">Science Students' Classroom <span class="hlt">Discourse</span>: Tasha's Umwelt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arnold, Jenny</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Over the past twenty-five years researchers have been concerned with understanding the science student. The need for such research is still grounded in contemporary issues including providing opportunities for all students to develop scientific literacy and the failure of school science to connect with student's lives, interests and personal identities. The research reported here is unusual in its use of <span class="hlt">discourse</span> <span class="hlt">analysis</span> in social psychology to contribute to an understanding of the way students make meaning in secondary school science. Data constructed for the study was drawn from videotapes of nine consecutive lessons in a year-seven science classroom in Melbourne, post-lesson video-stimulated interviews with students and the teacher, classroom observation and the students' written work. The classroom videotapes were recorded using four cameras and seven audio tracks by the International Centre for Classroom Research at the University of Melbourne. Student talk within and about their science lessons was analysed from a discursive perspective. Classroom episodes in which students expressed their sense of personal identity and agency, knowledge, attitude or emotion in relation to science were identified for detailed <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of the function of the <span class="hlt">discourse</span> used by students, and in particular the way students were positioned by others or positioned themselves. This article presents the discursive Umwelt or life-space of one middle years science student, Tasha. Her case is used here to highlight the complex social process of meaning making in science classrooms and the need to attend to local moral orders of rights and duties in research on student language use, identity and learning in science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013RScEd..43..637S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013RScEd..43..637S"><span id="translatedtitle">The Nature of <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> throughout 5E Lessons in a Large Enrolment College Biology Course</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sickel, Aaron J.; Witzig, Stephen B.; Vanmali, Binaben H.; Abell, Sandra K.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Large enrolment science courses play a significant role in educating undergraduate students. The <span class="hlt">discourse</span> in these classes usually involves an instructor lecturing with little or no student participation, despite calls from current science education reform documents to elicit and utilize students' ideas in teaching. In this study, we used the 5E instructional model to develop and implement four lessons in a large enrolment introductory biology course with multiple opportunities for teacher-student and student-student interaction. Data consisted of video and audio recordings of whole-class and small-group discussions that took place throughout the study. We then used a science classroom <span class="hlt">discourse</span> framework developed by Mortimer and Scott (2003) to characterize the discursive interactions in each 5E lesson phase. <span class="hlt">Analysis</span> of the data resulted in two assertions. First, the purpose, communicative approach, patterns of <span class="hlt">discourse</span>, and teaching interventions were unique to each 5E lesson phase. Second, the type of lesson topic influenced the content of the <span class="hlt">discourse</span>. We discuss how the findings help characterize the <span class="hlt">discourse</span> of each phase in a 5E college science lesson and propose a model to understand internalization through discursive interaction using this reform-based approach. We conclude with implications for facilitating <span class="hlt">discourse</span> in college science lessons and future research. This study provides support for using the <span class="hlt">discourse</span> framework to characterize discursive interaction in college science courses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26209190','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26209190"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimization of headspace solid phase microextraction for the <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of microbial volatile organic compounds emitted by fungi: Application to <span class="hlt">historical</span> objects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sawoszczuk, Tomasz; Sygu?a-Cholewi?ska, Justyna; del Hoyo-Meléndez, Julio M</p> <p>2015-08-28</p> <p>The main goal of this work was to optimize the SPME sampling method for measuring microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) emitted by active molds that may deteriorate <span class="hlt">historical</span> objects. A series of artificially aged model materials that resemble those found in <span class="hlt">historical</span> objects was prepared and evaluated after exposure to four different types of fungi. The investigated pairs consisted of: Alternaria alternata on silk, Aspergillus niger on parchment, Chaetomium globosum on paper and wool, and Cladosporium herbarum on paper. First of all, a selection of the most efficient SPME fibers was carried out as there are six different types of fibers commercially available. It was important to find a fiber that absorbs the biggest number and the highest amount of MVOCs. The results allowed establishing and selecting the DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber as the most effective SPME fiber for this kind of an <span class="hlt">analysis</span>. Another task was to optimize the time of MVOCs extraction on the fiber. It was recognized that a time between 12 and 24h is adequate for absorbing a high enough amount of MVOCs. In the last step the temperature of MVOCs desorption in the GC injection port was optimized. It was found that desorption at a temperature of 250°C allowed obtaining chromatograms with the highest abundances of compounds. To the best of our knowledge this work constitutes the first attempt of the SPME method optimization for sampling MVOCs emitted by molds growing on <span class="hlt">historical</span> objects. PMID:26209190</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGE.....8S...1Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGE.....8S...1Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term deformation <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of <span class="hlt">historical</span> buildings through the advanced SBAS-DInSAR technique: the case study of the city of Rome, Italy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zeni, G.; Bonano, M.; Casu, F.; Manunta, M.; Manzo, M.; Marsella, M.; Pepe, A.; Lanari, R.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Monitoring of deformation phenomena affecting urban areas and man-made structures is of key relevance for the preservation of the artistic, archaeological and architectural heritage. The differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) technique has already been demonstrated to be an effective tool for non-invasive deformation analyses over large areas by producing spatially dense deformation maps with centimetre to millimetre accuracy. Moreover, by exploiting long sequences of SAR data acquired by different sensors, the advanced DInSAR technique referred to as the small baseline subset (SBAS) approach allows providing long-term deformation time series, which are strategic for guaranteeing the monitoring of urban area displacements. In this work, we investigate the effectiveness of the two-scale multi-sensor SBAS-DInSAR approach to detect and monitor displacements affecting <span class="hlt">historical</span> and artistic monuments. The presented results, achieved by applying the full resolution SBAS technique to a huge set of ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT data, spanning the 1992-2010 time interval and relevant to the city of Rome (Italy), show the capability of this approach to detect and analyse the temporal evolution of possible deformation phenomena affecting <span class="hlt">historical</span> buildings and archaeological sites. Accordingly, our <span class="hlt">analysis</span> demonstrates the effectiveness of the full resolution multi-sensor SBAS approach to operate as a surface deformation tool for supporting the study and conservation strategies of the <span class="hlt">historical</span>, cultural and artistic heritage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMPA31A0820F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMPA31A0820F"><span id="translatedtitle">Determining <span class="hlt">Historical</span> Pesticide Deposition on Cape Cod through Sediment Core <span class="hlt">Analysis</span>:A Validation of GIS as An Exposure Assessment Tool</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feingold, B. J.; Benoit, G.; Rudel, R.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has emerged as a powerful tool to assess current and <span class="hlt">historical</span> exposure to environmental pollutants. GIS aids in the visualization and understanding of associations between exposure to contaminants and disease. This study is an example of the bridge between environmental science and public health and of how new technology such as GIS can be incorporated into these fields to strengthen both the research and the communication of scientific results. It attempts to validate a GIS-based aerial drift model which predicts the residential exposure to and boundaries of <span class="hlt">historical</span> organochlorine pesticide (OCP) drift from applications on cranberry bogs, tree pest sprayings and others by analytically quantifying the <span class="hlt">historical</span> pesticide deposition in a transect of lakes radiating from a distinct spray source. This model was previously used to assess <span class="hlt">historical</span> residential exposure to OCPs in an environmental epidemiological case-control study of breast cancer incidence on Cape Cod, MA, where the incidence rate of the disease is significantly higher than in the rest of the state. The model's validation in this current study is essential to establishing its predictive ability and thus, its further use. Ground truthing of the model was done through the collection and <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of sediment cores along a transect of five hydrologically independent kettle ponds radiating from a distinct OCP tree-pest spray area. Measurements of OCP concentrations, total carbon and total organic carbon were determined, and dating of the sediments was completed using 210Pb and verified using 137Cs. Each 50-cm core was sliced into 25 2- cm sections for the analyses, creating a fine-scale depositional history in each pond. Information gathered from each core allows for the determination of the extent and degree of dissipation of individual spray events of a known source area and determine how well the model fits the actual data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26409421','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26409421"><span id="translatedtitle">The Israeli Medical Association's <span class="hlt">discourse</span> on health inequity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Avni, Shlomit; Filc, Dani; Davidovitch, Nadav</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The present paper analyses the emergence and characteristics of Israeli Medical Association (IMA) <span class="hlt">discourse</span> on health inequality in Israel during the years 1977-2010. The IMA addressed the issue of health inequality at a relatively late stage in time (2000), as compared to other OECD countries such as the UK, and did so in a relatively limited way, focusing primarily on professional or economic interests. The dominant <span class="hlt">discourses</span> on health inequalities within the IMA are biomedical and behavioral, characterized by a focus on medical and/or cultural and behavioral differences, the predominant use of medical terminology, and an individualistic rather than a structural conceptualization of the social characteristics of health differences. Additionally, IMA <span class="hlt">discourses</span> emphasize certain aspects of health inequality such as the geographical and material inequities, and in doing so overlook the role played by class, nationality and the unequal structure of citizenship. Paradoxically, by disregarding the latter, the IMA's <span class="hlt">discourse</span> on health inequality has the potential to reinforce the structural causes of these inequities. Our research is based on a textual critical <span class="hlt">discourse</span> <span class="hlt">analysis</span> (CDA) of hundreds of documents from the IMA's scientific medical journal, the IMA's members journal and public IMA documents such as press-releases, Knesset protocols, publications, and public surveys. By providing knowledge on the different ways in which the IMA, a key stakeholder in the health field, de-codifies, understands, explains, and attempts to deal with health inequality, the article illuminates possible implications on health policy and seeks to evaluate the direct interventions carried out by the IMA, or by other actors influenced by it, pertaining to health inequality. PMID:26409421</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFMPP52A0951P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AGUFMPP52A0951P"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">Analysis</span> of <span class="hlt">Historical</span> Records of Solar Variability, Volcanic Eruptions, and Climate Change in the Last Millennium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pang, K. D.</p> <p>2003-12-01</p> <p>Studying past climate changes can help us better understand present natural variations and predict future trends. However, various reconstructions of the climate of the last 1000 years have given only broad similarities [Briffa, JGR 106, 2929, 2001]. The variances are partly due to uncertainties in the past radiative and aerosol forcing, and gaps in regional coverage. Another outstanding question is whether we are in a time similar to the Medieval Warm Period. From the frequencies of sunspot and aurora sightings, abundance of carbon-14 in the rings of long-lived trees, and beryllium-10 in the annual layers of polar ice cores, we have reconstructed the recent history of a variable Sun. In the past 1800 years the Sun has gone through nine cycles of changes in brightness. While these long-term changes account for less than 1% of the total irradiance, there is clear evidence that they affect the climate [Pang and Yau, Eos, 83, No. 43, 481, 2002]. We have analyzed Chinese <span class="hlt">historical</span> weather records to fill the data void in this region. Reports of unseasonable cold are classified by the degree of severity: (1) Late (April-June) or early (July-Sept) killing frosts; (2) Bitter cold/heavy snowfall; and (3) heavy sustained snowfall, bitter cold with frozen wells, lakes, rivers, and icebound seas. The latter cases were often widespread and multi-year. All categories occurred most frequently during the coldest part of the Little Ice Age, with the coldest episodes in 1652-54, 1656, 1664, 1670-72, 1676-77, 1683, 1688-91, 1716 and 1718-19. They thus coincide with Maunder Minimum (1645-1715), when very few sunspots were seen-about one in ten years from China or Europe-indicative of a weakened Sun. There was only one Category 3 episode between the Maunder and Dalton Minima-in 1761, and two in the Dalton Minimum (1795-1825)-in 1796 and 1814-7. <span class="hlt">Analysis</span> of proxy data has shown that the 1810's were among the coldest years in Europe [Briffa and Jones, in ``The Year Without a Summer,'' C.R. Harrignton, ed., 1992]. Large eruptions, of an unknown volcano in 1809 [Dai, JGR 96, 17361, 1991], at Mayon in 1814, and at Tambora in 1815, with the reduced solar luminosity seem to have been responsible. The Sun has slowly brightened since the Dalton Minimum. However, the climate of China remained cold through the 19th century, consistent with world climate trend [Bradley and Jones, Holocene 3, 367, 1993], possibly due to increased volcanic aerosol loading of the atmosphere [Sato, JGR 98, 22987, 1993]. In the 200 years prior to the Maunder Minimum, there was at least one other major planetwide volcanically forced cold episode-in 1453-54. The climate of China appears to have been warm during the Late 14th-Century Solar Maximum (1350-1410). We have found only one report of early killing frost-in May, 1993. It then turned cold during the Sporer Minimum (140-1590) [Pang and Yau, op. cit.]. Category 3 cold episodes occurred in 1453-54, 1513, 1569, and 1577-78. Lesser ones were also more common. The coldest was in 1453-54, due to a Tamboran class eruption that broke a big island in New Hebrides Arc in two, separated by a 12X6X1 km submarine caldera Kuwae. The volcanic chill was felt worldwide, with extensive reporting in China [Pang, Eos 74, No. 43, 196, 1993]. Reduced solar luminosity may have also contributed to the cold climate of that decade, as was the case in the 1810's. We conclude that the climate of China in the past 650 years generally follows world trend. The major forcing seems to have been changing solar luminosity, perturbed by frequent volcanic eruptions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED517970.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED517970.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Supportive <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> Moves in Persian Requests</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Allami, Hamid</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This paper reports the findings of a study designed to investigate the types of supportive <span class="hlt">discourse</span> moves employed by Persian speakers in their Requestive Speech Acts. 372 respondents took a <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> Completion Test (DCT) with six scenarios ranging from formal to informal degrees of Perceived Situational Seriousness, and returned 2232 Requestive…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Parks+AND+Rosa&pg=2&id=EJ656744','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Parks+AND+Rosa&pg=2&id=EJ656744"><span id="translatedtitle">Democratic Pedagogy and the <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> of Containment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Popen, Shari</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Discusses application of a <span class="hlt">discourse</span> of containment in pedagogical practice, asserting that this <span class="hlt">discourse</span> limits democratic possibilities in the classroom. Analyzes the stakes in political struggles over control of the production of meaning within the classroom, examining the mythologized version of Rosa Parks' story and the current agenda of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=coaching+AND+school+AND+students&pg=4&id=ED530856','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=coaching+AND+school+AND+students&pg=4&id=ED530856"><span id="translatedtitle">Reading Coaching <span class="hlt">Discourse</span>: Exploring Coaching Processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Heineke, Sally Frances</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This study investigates the <span class="hlt">discourse</span> of elementary school reading coaches and teachers during coaching interactions in four Alabama schools. Coach/teacher dyads recorded naturally occurring coaching dialogue over periods of 3 to 6 weeks. Each participant shared her views on coaching and commented on the recorded <span class="hlt">discourse</span> during post-interviews…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mathematical+AND+logic&pg=7&id=EJ1047760','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mathematical+AND+logic&pg=7&id=EJ1047760"><span id="translatedtitle">Launching a <span class="hlt">Discourse</span>-Rich Mathematics Lesson</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Trocki, Aaron; Taylor, Christine; Starling, Tina; Sztajn, Paola; Heck, Daniel</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The idea of elementary school students working together on mathematical tasks is not new, but recent attention to creating purposeful <span class="hlt">discourse</span> in mathematics classrooms prompts teachers to revisit <span class="hlt">discourse</span>-promoting strategies for mathematics lessons. The Common Core's Standards for Mathematical Practice (CCSSI 2010) encourage teachers to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=butterworth&id=EJ764959','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=butterworth&id=EJ764959"><span id="translatedtitle">Mathematical <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> in Shared Storybook Reading</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Anderson, Ann; Anderson, Jim; Shapiro, Jon</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of the study reported in this article was to explore the mathematical <span class="hlt">discourse</span> in which four dyads engaged while sharing the storybook "One Snowy Night" (Butterworth, 1989) while at home or in other locations (e.g., day care centers). Each dyad consisted of a mother and her four-year-old child. Various <span class="hlt">discourse</span> patterns were evident,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ973375.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ973375.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Discourse</span> Updating after Reading a Counterfactual Event</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>de Vega, Manuel; Urrutia, Mabel</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper explores the temporal course of <span class="hlt">discourse</span> updating after reading counterfactual events. To test the accessibility to <span class="hlt">discourse</span> information, readers were asked to identify probes related to initial events in the text, previous to the counterfactual, or probes related to the critical counterfactual events. Experiment 1 showed that 500 ms…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=human+AND+memory&pg=4&id=EJ991355','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=human+AND+memory&pg=4&id=EJ991355"><span id="translatedtitle">Cue Effectiveness in Communicatively Efficient <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> Production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Qian, Ting; Jaeger, T. Florian</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Recent years have seen a surge in accounts motivated by information theory that consider language production to be partially driven by a preference for communicative efficiency. Evidence from <span class="hlt">discourse</span> production (i.e., production beyond the sentence level) has been argued to suggest that speakers distribute information across <span class="hlt">discourse</span> so as to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ohms+AND+Law&id=EJ824871','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ohms+AND+Law&id=EJ824871"><span id="translatedtitle">Lighting the Way through Scientific <span class="hlt">Discourse</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Yang, Li-hsuan</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This article describes a thought-provoking lesson that compares various arrangements of lamp-battery circuits to help students develop the motivation and competence to participate in scientific <span class="hlt">discourse</span> for knowledge construction. Through experimentation and <span class="hlt">discourse</span>, students explore concepts about voltage, current, resistance, and Ohm's law.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hindi&id=EJ965825','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hindi&id=EJ965825"><span id="translatedtitle">Participial Constructions as <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> Markers in Hindi</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mukherjee, Aditi</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This paper deals with the use of participial constructions in Hindi as <span class="hlt">discourse</span> strategies for cohesion in speech. The data from the "Analyzing Narratives" project indicates that participial constructions are used fairly extensively as <span class="hlt">discourse</span> connectors. The conjunctive participle is used more extensively than the others. Some of the major…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fracture+OR+compression&pg=6&id=EJ877576','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fracture+OR+compression&pg=6&id=EJ877576"><span id="translatedtitle">The Neural Architecture of <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> Compression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lillywhite, L. M.; Saling, M. M.; Demutska, A.; Masterton, R.; Farquharson, S.; Jackson, G. D.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Re-telling a story is thought to produce a progressive refinement in the mental representation of the <span class="hlt">discourse</span>. A neuroanatomical substrate for this compression effect, however, has yet to be identified. We used a <span class="hlt">discourse</span> re-listening task and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify brain regions responsive to repeated…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cell+AND+biology&pg=6&id=EJ927071','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cell+AND+biology&pg=6&id=EJ927071"><span id="translatedtitle">Teaching the Conventions of Academic <span class="hlt">Discourse</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Thonney, Teresa</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Given the current emphasis on disciplinary <span class="hlt">discourses</span>, it's not surprising that so little recent attention has been devoted to identifying conventions that are universal in academic <span class="hlt">discourse</span>. In this essay, the author argues that there are shared features that unite academic writing, and that by introducing these features to first-year students…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982EOSTr..63..586L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982EOSTr..63..586L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Historical</span> perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Landsberg, H. E.</p> <p></p> <p>It was a pleasure to learn, from a recent (May 4) issue of Eos, of the formation of a permanent Committee on History of Geophysics. There is a dire need for reference material, books, and articles on geophysical history.Let me recommend to them that they take a good look at the Dictionary of the History of Science (W.F. Bynum, E.J. Browne, Roy Porter (Eds.), Princeton University Press, 494 pp., 1981). What follows is not a book review, although it may appear so. It is meant to be a challenge to place geophysics on the map in <span class="hlt">historical</span> context. In this book, hydrology is dealt with in one sentence under the heading ‘cycle,’ geomagnetism under ‘declination and dip,’ and its history ends with Edward Sabine. Seismology appears under earthquakes. No important seismologist is mentioned. In the biographical index, Wiechert is included only for a contribution to physics. Where are Sir Harold Jeffreys, Galitzin, Gutenberg, Mohorovi?i?, Lehman, and many others? Meteorology ends with V. Bjerknes and Solberg; Köppen, Richardson, Rossby, and other notables [of] the last century do not seem to exist.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015hsa8.conf..658S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015hsa8.conf..658S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Historical</span> Superbolides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamora, S.; Ocaña, F.; Tapia, C.; de Burgos, A.; Herráiz, G.; Petrova, M.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The amount of impacts of 50 m -- 1 cm asteroid with the Earth is a typical issue of controversy. Explosions in upper atmosphere and lunar impacts suggest that could have more impacts than is currently accepted. A ``new'' information source data can be fireballs appeared in <span class="hlt">historical</span> press. Some of these reports indicate the presence of pressure waves or damage that may help estimate the energy of the event. We analysed more than 50 years of the archive of the New York Times and found a number of abnormally clustered events that can not be explained by a Poisson distribution. We have found at least two big concentrations not associated to any major meteor shower. One around the actual 23rd of July and other on the 14th of February. This second major concentration it is really close to the Chelyabinsk event date, so it is probable that there they are related. The preliminary results were published in Sánchez de Miguel, A., Ocaña, F., Zamora, S., et al. 2014, in Garzón Guerrero J. A., López Sánchez A. R., eds, Libro de Actas del XXI Congreso Estatal de Astronomía. Granada, Spain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820022084','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820022084"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of the statistical and <span class="hlt">historical</span> information gathered during the development of the Shuttle Orbiter Primary Flight Software</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Simmons, D. B.; Marchbanks, M. P., Jr.; Quick, M. J.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The results of an effort to thoroughly and objectively analyze the statistical and <span class="hlt">historical</span> information gathered during the development of the Shuttle Orbiter Primary Flight Software are given. The particular areas of interest include cost of the software, reliability of the software, requirements for the software and how the requirements changed during development of the system. Data related to the current version of the software system produced some interesting results. Suggestions are made for the saving of additional data which will allow additional investigation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/6983','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/6983"><span id="translatedtitle">Ancestors, Avotaynu, Roots: An Inquiry into American Genealogy <span class="hlt">Discourse</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Sweeney, Michael S.</p> <p>2010-07-20</p> <p>are interpreted through textual and <span class="hlt">historical</span> <span class="hlt">analysis</span>. When the various formulations of the assumption uncovered in the case studies are placed side-by-side, the genealogical assumption is "opened-up" and its surface essentialism is brought into question...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24855143','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24855143"><span id="translatedtitle">Historicizing <span class="hlt">historical</span> trauma theory: troubling the trans-generational transmission paradigm.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maxwell, Krista</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The premise that "trauma" is transmitted across generations is central to the <span class="hlt">historical</span> trauma <span class="hlt">discourse</span> currently circulating in indigenous communities and professional networks in Canada. <span class="hlt">Historical</span> trauma may be understood as the offspring of two older and apparently antithetical <span class="hlt">discourses</span>: Native healing, and colonial professional critiques of indigenous family life. While the former has maintained a therapeutic focus on restoring intergenerational social relations, the latter has pathologized indigenous parenting and child-rearing practices. The emergence of <span class="hlt">historical</span> trauma marks a global shift in the moral economy by which victimhood status, acquired through individual experiences of physical and especially sexual abuse, has come to wield greater currency than collective struggles against colonialism. Providers of contemporary indigenous healing programmes are drawing simultaneously on trauma <span class="hlt">discourse</span>, which is seen to legitimate individual social suffering, and older therapeutic forms centred on sharing local social histories to restore intergenerational continuities and collective identity. But these invocations of <span class="hlt">historical</span> trauma may continue the colonial <span class="hlt">discourse</span> of mental health and social welfare professionals, who blamed indigenous parenting practices for children's social problems and failure to assimilate. Some contemporary mental health and child development professionals have invoked parents' and grandparents' transmission of <span class="hlt">historical</span> trauma in ways which construct indigenous families as pathological, promote an oversimplified, universalizing understanding of Canadian colonialism, and divert attention from the contemporary continuation of colonial structures and relations. PMID:24855143</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4464549','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4464549"><span id="translatedtitle">Microsatellite <span class="hlt">Analysis</span> of Museum Specimens Reveals <span class="hlt">Historical</span> Differences in Genetic Diversity between Declining and More Stable Bombus Species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Maebe, Kevin; Meeus, Ivan; Ganne, Maarten; De Meulemeester, Thibaut; Biesmeijer, Koos; Smagghe, Guy</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Worldwide most pollinators, e.g. bumblebees, are undergoing global declines. Loss of genetic diversity can play an essential role in these observed declines. In this paper, we investigated the level of genetic diversity of seven declining Bombus species and four more stable species with the use of microsatellite loci. Hereto we genotyped a unique collection of museum specimens. Specimens were collected between 1918 and 1926, in 6 provinces of the Netherlands which allowed us to make interspecific comparisons of genetic diversity. For the stable species B. pascuorum, we also selected populations from two additional time periods: 1949–1955 and 1975–1990. The genetic diversity and population structure in B. pascuorum remained constant over the three time periods. However, populations of declining bumblebee species showed a significantly lower genetic diversity than co-occurring stable species before their major declines. This <span class="hlt">historical</span> difference indicates that the repeatedly observed reduced genetic diversity in recent populations of declining bumblebee species is not caused solely by the decline itself. The <span class="hlt">historically</span> low genetic diversity in the declined species may be due to the fact that these species were already rare, making them more vulnerable to the major drivers of bumblebee decline. PMID:26061732</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22056171','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22056171"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Gynecologic Applicators for the Treatment of Cervical Cancer: <span class="hlt">Historical</span> <span class="hlt">Analysis</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yordy, John S.; Almond, Peter R.; Delclos, Luis</p> <p>2012-03-15</p> <p>Purpose: To provide <span class="hlt">historical</span> background on the development and initial studies of the gynecological (gyn) applicators developed by Dr. Gilbert H. Fletcher, a radiation oncologist and chairperson from 1948 to 1981 of the department at the M.D. Anderson Hospital (MDAH) for Cancer Research in Houston, TX, and to acknowledge the previously unrecognized contribution that Dr. Leonard G. Grimmett, a radiation physicist and chairperson from 1949 to 1951 of the physics department at MDAH, made to the development of the gynecological applicators. Methods and Materials: We reviewed archival materials from the <span class="hlt">Historical</span> Resource Center and from the Department of Radiation Physics at University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, as well as contemporary published papers, to trace the history of the applicators. Conclusions: Dr. Fletcher's work was influenced by the work on gynecologic applicators in the 1940s in Europe, especially work done at the Royal Cancer Hospital in London. Those efforts influenced not only Dr. Fletcher's approach to the design of the applicators but also the methods used to perform in vivo measurements and determine the dose distribution. Much of the initial development of the dosimetry techniques and measurements at MDAH were carried out by Dr. Grimmett.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H43G1301B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H43G1301B"><span id="translatedtitle">The role of fluvial geomorphic <span class="hlt">analysis</span> and <span class="hlt">historical</span> ecology in support of flood control channel management in the Livermore Valley, California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beagle, J. R.; Pearce, S.; Stanford, B.; McKee, L. J.; Grossinger, R. M.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Julie Beagle, Sarah Pearce, Bronwen Stanford, Lester McKee, Robin Grossinger Flood control, city, and county managers are under increasing pressure to include improved habitat and water quality function, in addition to normal flood control function, to operating procedures for flood channels. Obtaining permits for routine maintenance, such as sediment removal, is now more challenging unless management agencies can demonstrate high level understanding of modern channel processes in the context of <span class="hlt">historical</span> ecosystem functions. To address this issue, San Francisco Estuary Institute has been working with local agencies throughout the Bay Area to measure and understand sediment supply, the causes and rates of sedimentation in facilities, the impacts of maintenance activities to habitat and species of interest, and to identify mitigation opportunities within the context of <span class="hlt">historical</span> watershed functions. Ongoing research in the Alameda Creek watershed provides an example of the intersection between <span class="hlt">historical</span> ecology and modern geomorphic <span class="hlt">analysis</span> as a developed approach for informing local resource management decisions. Zone 7 Water Agency, in the northern area of the Alameda Creek watershed, maintains 37 miles of channels that receive and convey urban drainage from Livermore, Dublin, and Pleasanton, California; and runoff and eroded sediment from the watersheds of Arroyo Mocho, Arroyo Las Positas and tributaries to the north (~220 sq mi). In the last three decades, population has doubled, accompanied by changing land uses in Livermore Valley. As a result, the flow of sediment and water has evolved such that, in some reaches, a combination of loss of capacity from sedimentation coupled with increased peak flows has led to channels that may not pass design flows. Previous sediment budget work by SFEI showed that the majority of sediment supply to the Alameda Flood Control Channel on the San Francisco Bay margin is supplied from the northern tributaries. SFEI's wider reaching Alameda Creek <span class="hlt">Historical</span> Ecology Study has assessed overall watershed conditions prior to significant Euro-American modification, including <span class="hlt">historical</span> patterns of sediment transport and storage in the Livermore Valley. These two studies provide context for a focused three-year study to determine the flow of water and sediment into and out of Zone 7 facilities; determine characteristics, rates, and causes of sedimentation; and map and characterize channel modification and mitigation opportunities. The program has begun measuring suspended load and bedload during high flow events at three sites that constrain the management area which will continue into water year 2012, and has begun mapping hillslope sediment processes. Next phases will include an assessment of channel depositional processes and causes and a more detailed evaluation of <span class="hlt">historical</span> channel function at the reach scale building upon the existing watershed scale knowledge. This study provides further opportunity to integrate <span class="hlt">historical</span> understanding of watershed functions with current geomorphic research to more effectively inform resource management decisions and can be and has been a model for other watersheds in California and beyond.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.metu.edu.tr/~bozsahin/acl2010law4.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.metu.edu.tr/~bozsahin/acl2010law4.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Discourse</span> Relation Configurations in Turkish and an Annotation Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Bozsahin, Cem</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Discourse</span> Relation Configurations in Turkish and an Annotation Environment Berfin Akta¸s and Cem structures in Turkish, and the kinds of <span class="hlt">discourse</span> relation configurations that led to its design. 1 are encoded. Turkish <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> Bank Project (TDB) aims to produce a large-scale <span class="hlt">discourse</span> level an- notation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CSSE....9..729H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CSSE....9..729H"><span id="translatedtitle">From authoritative <span class="hlt">discourse</span> to internally persuasive <span class="hlt">discourse</span>: discursive evolution in teaching and learning the language of science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hsu, Pei-Ling; Roth, Wolff-Michael</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Learning science interpreted in existing theoretical frameworks often means that students are assimilated, accommodated or enculturated from the entity of the vernacular world to the entity of the scientific world. However, there are some unsolved questions as to how students can best learn purely a new language or new knowledge of science. The purpose of this study is to conduct microanalysis of moment-to-moment interactions in order to understand how science language is taught and learned in details. Informed by Bakhtin's dialogism, the <span class="hlt">analysis</span> indicates that learning science is a process of appropriating authoritative <span class="hlt">discourse</span> into internally persuasive <span class="hlt">discourse</span>. Based on our <span class="hlt">analysis</span> and findings, we propose the framework of discursive evolution to describe the process of teaching and learning the language of science. Four different stages of discursive evolution are identified to demonstrate the discursive changes during the course of science teaching and learning <span class="hlt">discourse</span>: (a) using deictic references to connect scientific terminologies, (b) understanding science terminologies through its derivatives, (c) communicating science practices conventionally through science terminologies, and (d) communicating science practices innovatively through mutated science terminologies. The findings suggest that science teaching and learning comprise a heterogeneous process which draws on both science and non-science language and is a constantly evolving process. Understanding teaching and learning as a heterogeneous and constantly evolving process allows us to reunite the roles of teachers and students as mutually responsible collaborators rather than science knowledge givers and consumers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AAS...22525024S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AAS...22525024S"><span id="translatedtitle">Taking the Radio Blinders Off of M83: A Wide Spectrum <span class="hlt">Analysis</span> of the <span class="hlt">Historical</span> Point Source Population</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stockdale, Christopher; Keefe, Clayton; Nichols, Michael; Rujevcan, Colton; Blair, William P.; Cowan, John J.; Godfrey, Leith; Miller-Jones, James; Kuntz, K. D.; Long, Knox S.; Maddox, Larry A.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Pritchard, Tyler A.; Soria, Roberto; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Winkler, P. Frank</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We present low frequency observations of the grand design spiral galaxy, M83, using the C and L bands of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). With recent optical (HST) and X-ray (Chandra) observations and utilizing the newly expanded bandwidth of the VLA, we are exploring the radio spectral properties of the <span class="hlt">historical</span> radio point sources in M83. These observations allow us to probe the evolution of supernova remnants (SNRs) and to find previously undiscovered SNRs. These observations represent the fourth epoch of deep VLA observations of M83. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Civil+AND+Rights+AND+Act+AND+of+AND+1964&pg=2&id=ED516278','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Civil+AND+Rights+AND+Act+AND+of+AND+1964&pg=2&id=ED516278"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">Historical</span> <span class="hlt">Analysis</span> of the Chicago Public Schools Desegregation Consent Decree (1980-2006): Establishing Its Relationship with the "Brown v. Board" Case of 1954 and the Implications of Its Implementation on Educational Leadership</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jackson, Shawn L.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This study provides an <span class="hlt">historical</span> <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of the Chicago Public School Desegregation Consent Decree, while illustrating its relationship with the "Brown v. Board" of 1954. It provides an <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of the mission and objectives of all three versions of the Consent Decree which include: The Original Consent Decree 1980, The Modified Consent Decree…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1051496.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1051496.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards a <span class="hlt">Discourse</span> for Criticism in Language Teaching: <span class="hlt">Analysis</span> of Sociocultural Representations in Mass Media (Hacia un discurso para la crítica en la enseñanza de la lengua: análisis de representaciones socioculturales en medios de comunicación)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Vargas Torres, Margarita Rosa</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This article states that in order to exercise citizenship with responsibility, language teachers need to popularize a <span class="hlt">discourse</span> for criticism in which students and teachers transcend tacit knowledge and common sense due to meta-cognition and argumentation and reach systematic knowledge and procedures posed by experts in the different disciplines.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21655710','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21655710"><span id="translatedtitle">[Aesthetic surgery, medical <span class="hlt">discourse</span> and health].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ferreira, Francisco Romão</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>The increase in plastic surgery interventions in Brazil and the growth of the beauty industry, as well as care of the body and corporal enhancement, are part of a broader process of medical and aesthetic preoccupation with health. According to the Brazilian Plastic Surgery Association there has been a substantial increase in the number of plastic surgery procedures in Brazil. Every year, approximately 350,000 aesthetic surgical interventions are performed in the country. Our work investigated the construction of meaning and value, the use of aesthetic parameters in this construction and how those meanings are appropriated and treated by those representatives of the medical profession who work in the body transformation process, namely plastic surgeons. In this respect, an <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of the pronouncements and <span class="hlt">discourse</span> posted on the Brazilian Plastic Surgery Association website was conducted, as it is the regulatory body of the field and is responsible for training professionals and supervising the sector. <span class="hlt">Analysis</span> of the official content of the website page posted on September 26, 2005 was the basis for this research. PMID:21655710</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25114972','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25114972"><span id="translatedtitle">Service life assessment of <span class="hlt">historical</span> building envelopes constructed using different types of sandstone: a computational <span class="hlt">analysis</span> based on experimental input data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ko?í, Václav; Mad?ra, Ji?í; Fo?t, Jan; Žumár, Jaromír; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek; ?erný, Robert</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Service life assessment of three <span class="hlt">historical</span> building envelopes constructed using different types of sandstone is presented. At first, experimental measurements of material parameters of sandstones are performed to provide the necessary input data for a subsequent computational <span class="hlt">analysis</span>. In the second step, the moisture and temperature fields across the studied envelopes are calculated for a representative period of time. The computations are performed using dynamic climatic data as the boundary conditions on the exterior side of building envelope. The climatic data for three characteristic localities are experimentally determined by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and contain hourly values of temperature, relative humidity, rainfalls, wind velocity and direction, and sun radiation. Using the measured durability properties of the analyzed sandstones and the calculated numbers of freeze/thaw cycles under different climatic conditions, the service life of the investigated building envelopes is assessed. The obtained results show that the climatic conditions can play a very significant role in the service life assessment of <span class="hlt">historical</span> buildings, even in the conditions of such a small country as the Czech Republic. In addition, the investigations reveal the importance of the material characteristics of sandstones, in particular the hygric properties, on their service life in a structure. PMID:25114972</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4119703','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4119703"><span id="translatedtitle">Service Life Assessment of <span class="hlt">Historical</span> Building Envelopes Constructed Using Different Types of Sandstone: A Computational <span class="hlt">Analysis</span> Based on Experimental Input Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ko?í, Václav; Mad?ra, Ji?í; Fo?t, Jan; Žumár, Jaromír; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek; ?erný, Robert</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Service life assessment of three <span class="hlt">historical</span> building envelopes constructed using different types of sandstone is presented. At first, experimental measurements of material parameters of sandstones are performed to provide the necessary input data for a subsequent computational <span class="hlt">analysis</span>. In the second step, the moisture and temperature fields across the studied envelopes are calculated for a representative period of time. The computations are performed using dynamic climatic data as the boundary conditions on the exterior side of building envelope. The climatic data for three characteristic localities are experimentally determined by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and contain hourly values of temperature, relative humidity, rainfalls, wind velocity and direction, and sun radiation. Using the measured durability properties of the analyzed sandstones and the calculated numbers of freeze/thaw cycles under different climatic conditions, the service life of the investigated building envelopes is assessed. The obtained results show that the climatic conditions can play a very significant role in the service life assessment of <span class="hlt">historical</span> buildings, even in the conditions of such a small country as the Czech Republic. In addition, the investigations reveal the importance of the material characteristics of sandstones, in particular the hygric properties, on their service life in a structure. PMID:25114972</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029779','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029779"><span id="translatedtitle">The role of <span class="hlt">historical</span> fire disturbance in the carbon dynamics of the pan-boreal region: A process-based <span class="hlt">analysis</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Balshi, M. S.; McGuire, A.D.; Zhuang, Q.; Melillo, J.; Kicklighter, D.W.; Kasischke, E.; Wirth, C.; Flannigan, M.; Harden, J.; Clein, J.S.; Burnside, T.J.; McAllister, J.; Kurz, W.A.; Apps, M.; Shvidenko, A.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Wildfire is a common occurrence in ecosystems of northern high latitudes, and changes in the fire regime of this region have consequences for carbon feedbacks to the climate system. To improve our understanding of how wildfire influences carbon dynamics of this region, we used the process-based Terrestrial Ecosystem Model to simulate fire emissions and changes in carbon storage north of 45??N from the start of spatially explicit <span class="hlt">historically</span> recorded fire records in the twentieth century through 2002, and evaluated the role of fire in the carbon dynamics of the region within the context of ecosystem responses to changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate. Our <span class="hlt">analysis</span> indicates that fire plays an important role in interannual and decadal scale variation of source/sink relationships of northern terrestrial ecosystems and also suggests that atmospheric CO2 may be important to consider in addition to changes in climate and fire disturbance. There are substantial uncertainties in the effects of fire on carbon storage in our simulations. These uncertainties are associated with sparse fire data for northern Eurasia, uncertainty in estimating carbon consumption, and difficulty in verifying assumptions about the representation of fires that occurred prior to the start of the <span class="hlt">historical</span> fire record. To improve the ability to better predict how fire will influence carbon storage of this region in the future, new analyses of the retrospective role of fire in the carbon dynamics of northern high latitudes should address these uncertainties. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25407762','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25407762"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling senescence changes of the pubic symphysis in <span class="hlt">historic</span> Italian populations: a comparison of the Rostock and forensic approaches to aging using transition <span class="hlt">analysis</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Godde, Kanya; Hens, Samantha M</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Age-related anatomical changes to the surface of the pubic symphysis are well-documented in the literature. However, aligning these morphological changes with chronological age has proven problematic, often resulting in biased age estimates. Statistical modeling provides an avenue for forensic anthropologists and bioarchaeologists to increase the accuracy of traditional aging methods. Locating appropriate samples to use as a basis for modeling age estimations can be challenging due to differing sample age distributions and potentially varying patterns of senescence. We compared two approaches, Rostock and Forensic, coupled with a Bayesian methodology, to address these issues. Transition <span class="hlt">analysis</span> was run specific to each method (which differ by sample selection). A Gompertz model was derived from an informative prior that yielded the mortality and senescence parameters for constructing highest posterior density ranges, i.e., coverages, which are analogous to age ranges. These age ranges were generated from both approaches and are presented as reference tables useful for <span class="hlt">historic</span> male and female Italian samples. The age ranges produced from each approach were tested on an <span class="hlt">historic</span> Italian sample, using cumulative binomial tests. These two approaches performed similarly, with the Forensic approach showing a slight advantage. However, the Forensic approach is unable to identify varying senescence patterns between populations, thus preference for one approach over the other will depend on research design. Finally, we demonstrate that while populations exhibit similar morphological changes with advancing age, there are no significant sex differences in these samples, and the timing of these changes varies from population to population. PMID:25407762</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15659090','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15659090"><span id="translatedtitle">Knowing the nurse practitioner: dominant <span class="hlt">discourses</span> shaping our horizons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rashotte, Judy</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this paper is to examine the various <span class="hlt">discourses</span>, particularly the dominant instrumental and economic <span class="hlt">discourses</span> that have brought the phenomena of the nurse practitioner (NP) into being. It is proposed that NPs have been constituted as an object of nature and therefore understood metaphorically as a tool or instrument within the health care system to be used efficiently and effectively. Heidegger's philosophical <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of the question concerning technology is used to argue that our current ways of knowing the NP through these <span class="hlt">discourses</span>, with their emphasis on calculative logic, have resulted from our modern view of the essence of technology. It is also argued that there is now a need to shape our horizons concerning the NP in new and different ways. There is a need to engage in dialogical forms of research in order to evoke the richness and depth of what it means to be an NP, that is, to reveal the other modes of expression by which we define ourselves, understand others and nursing. PMID:15659090</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/44374','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/44374"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Discourse</span> models for collaboratively edited corpora</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Chen, Erdong, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This thesis focuses on computational <span class="hlt">discourse</span> models for collaboratively edited corpora. Due to the exponential growth rate and significant stylistic and content variations of collaboratively edited corpora, models based ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu//handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-1304','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu//handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-1304"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Discourse</span> indicators of culture in online courses </span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Gazi, Yakut</p> <p>2009-05-15</p> <p>This study examined the electronic <span class="hlt">discourse</span> in an online course to investigate if culture exhibited itself in the communication of students. The researcher also sought to find out if a third culture was built in this ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22189467','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22189467"><span id="translatedtitle">Computer simulation is an undervalued tool for genetic <span class="hlt">analysis</span>: a <span class="hlt">historical</span> view and presentation of SHIMSHON--a Web-based genetic simulation package.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Greenberg, David A</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Computer simulation methods are under-used tools in genetic <span class="hlt">analysis</span> because simulation approaches have been portrayed as inferior to analytic methods. Even when simulation is used, its advantages are not fully exploited. Here, I present SHIMSHON, our package of genetic simulation programs that have been developed, tested, used for research, and used to generated data for Genetic <span class="hlt">Analysis</span> Workshops (GAW). These simulation programs, now web-accessible, can be used by anyone to answer questions about designing and analyzing genetic disease studies for locus identification. This work has three foci: (1) the <span class="hlt">historical</span> context of SHIMSHON's development, suggesting why simulation has not been more widely used so far. (2) Advantages of simulation: computer simulation helps us to understand how genetic <span class="hlt">analysis</span> methods work. It has advantages for understanding disease inheritance and methods for gene searches. Furthermore, simulation methods can be used to answer fundamental questions that either cannot be answered by analytical approaches or cannot even be defined until the problems are identified and studied, using simulation. (3) I argue that, because simulation was not accepted, there was a failure to grasp the meaning of some simulation-based studies of linkage. This may have contributed to perceived weaknesses in linkage <span class="hlt">analysis</span>; weaknesses that did not, in fact, exist. PMID:22189467</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3083616','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3083616"><span id="translatedtitle">Mitochondrial <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of a Byzantine population reveals the differential impact of multiple <span class="hlt">historical</span> events in South Anatolia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ottoni, Claudio; Ricaut, François-X; Vanderheyden, Nancy; Brucato, Nicolas; Waelkens, Marc; Decorte, Ronny</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The archaeological site of Sagalassos is located in Southwest Turkey, in the western part of the Taurus mountain range. Human occupation of its territory is attested from the late 12th millennium BP up to the 13th century AD. By analysing the mtDNA variation in 85 skeletons from Sagalassos dated to the 11th–13th century AD, this study attempts to reconstruct the genetic signature potentially left in this region of Anatolia by the many civilizations, which succeeded one another over the centuries until the mid-Byzantine period (13th century BC). Authentic ancient DNA data were determined from the control region and some SNPs in the coding region of the mtDNA in 53 individuals. Comparative analyses with up to 157 modern populations allowed us to reconstruct the origin of the mid-Byzantine people still dwelling in dispersed hamlets in Sagalassos, and to detect the maternal contribution of their potential ancestors. By integrating the genetic data with <span class="hlt">historical</span> and archaeological information, we were able to attest in Sagalassos a significant maternal genetic signature of Balkan/Greek populations, as well as ancient Persians and populations from the Italian peninsula. Some contribution from the Levant has been also detected, whereas no contribution from Central Asian population could be ascertained. PMID:21224890</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21224890','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21224890"><span id="translatedtitle">Mitochondrial <span class="hlt">analysis</span> of a Byzantine population reveals the differential impact of multiple <span class="hlt">historical</span> events in South Anatolia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ottoni, Claudio; Ricaut, François-X; Vanderheyden, Nancy; Brucato, Nicolas; Waelkens, Marc; Decorte, Ronny</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>The archaeological site of Sagalassos is located in Southwest Turkey, in the western part of the Taurus mountain range. Human occupation of its territory is attested from the late 12th millennium BP up to the 13th century AD. By analysing the mtDNA variation in 85 skeletons from Sagalassos dated to the 11th-13th century AD, this study attempts to reconstruct the genetic signature potentially left in this region of Anatolia by the many civilizations, which succeeded one another over the centuries until the mid-Byzantine period (13th century BC). Authentic ancient DNA data were determined from the control region and some SNPs in the coding region of the mtDNA in 53 individuals. Comparative analyses with up to 157 modern populations allowed us to reconstruct the origin of the mid-Byzantine people still dwelling in dispersed hamlets in Sagalassos, and to detect the maternal contribution of their potential ancestors. By integrating the genetic data with <span class="hlt">historical</span> and archaeological information, we were able to attest in Sagalassos a significant maternal genetic signature of Balkan/Greek populations, as well as ancient Persians and populations from the Italian peninsula. Some contribution from the Levant has been also detected, whereas no contribution from Central Asian population could be ascertained. PMID:21224890</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4552859','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4552859"><span id="translatedtitle">Whole Genome-Sequencing and Phylogenetic <span class="hlt">Analysis</span> of a <span class="hlt">Historical</span> Collection of Bacillus anthracis Strains from Danish Cattle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Derzelle, Sylviane; Girault, Guillaume; Kokotovic, Branko; Angen, Øystein</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is known as one of the most genetically monomorphic species. Canonical single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing and whole-genome sequencing were used to investigate the molecular diversity of eleven B. anthracis strains isolated from cattle in Denmark between 1935 and 1988. Danish strains were assigned into five canSNP groups or lineages, i.e. A.Br.001/002 (n = 4), A.Br.Ames (n = 2), A.Br.008/011 (n = 2), A.Br.005/006 (n = 2) and A.Br.Aust94 (n = 1). The match with the A.Br.Ames lineage is of particular interest as the occurrence of such lineage in Europe is demonstrated for the first time, filling an <span class="hlt">historical</span> gap within the phylogeography of the lineage. Comparative genome analyses of these strains with 41 isolates from other parts of the world revealed that the two Danish A.Br.008/011 strains were related to the heroin-associated strains responsible for outbreaks of injection anthrax in drug users in Europe. Eight novel diagnostic SNPs that specifically discriminate the different sub-groups of Danish strains were identified and developed into PCR-based genotyping assays. PMID:26317972</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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