Sample records for historical discourse analysis

  1. Discourse Analysis Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheu, Dagmar, Ed.; Lopez-Maestre, M. D., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This collection of articles includes: "Introduction: Discourse Analysis Today" (Dagmar Schue and M.D. Lopez-Maestre); "The Metaphorical and Metonymic Understanding of the Trinitarian Dogma" (Antonio Barcelona); "Symmetry as Conceptual Metaphor in Walker's The Color Purple" (Elena Tapia); "And She's Like it's Terrible, Like: Spoken Discourse,…

  2. Cultural approaches to discourse analysis: A theoretical and methodological conversation with special focus on Donal Carbaugh's Cultural Discourse Theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Scollo

    2011-01-01

    This essay opens a conversation in the Journal of Multicultural Discourses on cultural approaches to discourse analysis. Culturally-inclusive approaches to discourse analysis and communication that critique Western-biased theories and methods are covered including Jan Blommaert's Critical Discourse Analysis, Shi-xu's Cultural Approach to Discourse, and Asian communication theories. An extensive review of the historical development of Donal Carbaugh's Cultural Discourse Theory

  3. A historical discourse analysis of the cancerous and non-cancerous body in secondary biology textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Neil Thomas

    This dissertation applies the archeological concepts developed by Michel Foucault to a study of thirteen biology textbooks (1993-2004) in order to develop an understanding of 'purchased truths' concerning cancer. This study focuses on the construction of the health/illness dialogue concerning cancer within the textbooks and not the meaning that the individual makes from reading the text; as such this study concerns itself with social truths rather than the search for an individual awareness of names, dates, or places. This study investigates the practices that allow the creation of dialogues that are inserted into a biology textbook and looks at how discursive formations create the 'truth regime' from which the biology textbook is said to speak. Using the Foucaultian themes of 'event', 'emergence', 'enunciation', and 'exteriority' a new reading of topics concerning cancer emerge from biology textbooks. Cancer is a disease that will impact the lives of countless individuals but coverage devoted to the pathology of cancer in secondary biology textbooks is very limited and no study textbook devoted a whole chapter to the discussion of cancer. There is an identified reduction in the number of pages and depth of coverage devoted to cancer in the newer biology texts compared to the older texts. Humans are pictured more than plants or animals in presentations concerning cancer with emphasis being placed on the digitalization of human cells via the scanning electron microscope. When the whole body is presented it is seldom located within the technology of disease diagnosis and treatment but rather is posed for specific social control. Just as each digitized picture of the cancerous cell in the texts is used to create a story so too are the pictures of the whole body in action. Possible story lines offered by the publishing houses concerning the reaction of the body to cancer are shown to intermingle with risk factor analysis to project a sense of Foucaultian 'governmentality' based on assumed control and self regulation by the informed reader. In conclusion a procedure is suggested to further analyze additional textbooks concerning biological/educational issues that have been recast as social problems.

  4. Globalisation and policy borrowing in education : a discourse-historical analysis of HIV/AIDS prevention in Uganda 

    E-print Network

    Barnowe-Meyer, Brooke; Meyer, Brooke Barnowe

    2014-07-04

    Educational discourses, practices and institutions are increasingly shaped today by forces and envoys of a globalised world. Research suggests that functional integration into a neo-liberal world economy compels many ...

  5. Perezhivanie and classroom discourse: a cultural-historical perspective on "Discourse of design based science classroom activities"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Megan; March, Sue

    2014-12-01

    Flavio Azevedo, Peggy Martalock and Tugba Keser challenge the `argumentation focus of science lessons' and propose that through a `design-based approach' emergent conversations with the teacher offer possibilities for different types of discussions to enhance pedagogical discourse in science classrooms. This important paper offers a "preliminary contribution to a general theory" regarding the link between activity types and discourse practices. Azevedo, Martalock and Keser offer a general perspective with a sociocultural framing for analysis of classroom discourse. Interestingly the specific concepts drawn upon are from conversation analysis; there are few sociocultural concepts explored in detail. Therefore, in this article we focus on a cultural historical (Vygotsky in The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky. The history and development of higher mental functions, vol 4. Plenum Press, New York, 1987; The Vygotsky reader. Black, Cambridge, 1994) methodology to explore, analyse and explain how we would use a different theoretical lens. We argue that a cultural historical reading of argumentation in science lessons and design based activity will expand Azevedo, Martalock and Keser's proposed general theory of activity types and discourse practices. Specifically, we use Lev Vygotksy's idea of perezhivanie as the unit of analysis to reconceptualise this important paper. We focus on the holistic category of students' emotional experience through discourse while developing scientific awareness.

  6. Discourse Analysis and Written Discourse Conventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Dwight

    1990-01-01

    Reviews research that points toward the theoretical consideration of conventionalized written language, proposing that written discourse conventions can usefully be studied from a multifunctional perspective considering the interacting social, cognitive, and textual functions of language. A large unannotated bibliography is included. (CB)

  7. Understanding Teachers: The Potential and Possibility of Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Dean M.; Rossi, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the ways in which teachers make sense of what they do and why is critical to a broader understanding of pedagogy. Historically, teachers have been understood through the thematic and content analysis of their beliefs or philosophies. In this paper, we argue that discourse analysis (DA) involves a much finer-grained analysis of the…

  8. An Overview of Discourse Analysis and Its Usefulness in TESOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Geraldine Veronica

    This paper provides an overview of discourse analysis from a linguistic point of view, discussing why it is relevant to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL). It focuses on the following: discourse and discourse analysis; discourse analysis and TESOL; approaches to discourse analysis; systemic functional linguistics; theme and…

  9. A cultural historical theoretical perspective of discourse and design in the science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Megan

    2014-03-01

    Flavio Azevedo, Peggy Martalock and Tugba Keser have initiated an important conversation in science education as they use sociocultural theory to introduce design based scenarios into the science classroom. This response seeks to expand Azevedo, Martalock and Keser's article The discourse of design-based science classroom activities by using a specific perspective within a sociocultural framework. Through using a cultural historical (Vygotsky in The history and development of higher mental functions, Plenum Press, New York, 1987) reading of design based activity and discourse in the science classroom, it is proposed that learning should be an integral part of these processes. Therefore, everyday and scientific concepts are explained and expanded in relation to Inventing Graphing and discourse presented in Azevedo, Martalock and Keser's article. This response reports on the importance of teacher's being explicit in relation to connecting everyday and scientific concepts alongside design based activity and related science concepts when teaching students. It is argued that explicit teaching of concepts should be instigated prior to analysis of discourse in the science classroom as it is only with experience and understanding these processes that students have the resources to call upon to argue like practicing scientists.

  10. Racialized Spaces in Teacher Discourse: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Place-Based Identities in Roche Bois, Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiehe, Elsa M.

    2013-01-01

    This eleven-month ethnographic study puts critical discourse analysis in dialogue with postmodern conceptualizations of space and place to explore how eight educators talk about space and in the process, produce racialized spaces in Roche Bois, Mauritius. The macro-historical context of racialization of this urban marginalized community informs…

  11. Historical Trend Analysis Analysed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale Shermon

    2011-01-01

    This article describes three alternative approaches to historical trend analysis. First, the study considers the trend over time of the complexities of past systems. This results from the application of a parametric cost model (PRICE H) to the normalisation of historical projects' costs and to the plotting of the complexity over time. Second, the trend over time of the equipment

  12. Discourse Analysis and Foreign Language Teacher Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie A. Belz

    INTRODUCTION: MAKING A CASE FOR DISCOURSE ANALYSIS IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHER EDUCATION The concept of heteroglossia is extremely interesting to me. I recently gave a paper in which I discussed Ingeborg Bachmann's Malina and asserted that the main character had basically two voices: one masculine, one feminine. I found it fascinating after reading the chapter in Fowler [1996] to think

  13. Discourse Analysis of Teaching Computing Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Matt

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the teaching and learning of computing in a Web-conferencing environment. A discourse analysis of three introductory programming learning episodes is presented to demonstrate issues and effects that arise when teaching computing using such an approach. The subject of discussion, the interactive nature of discussion and any…

  14. Critical Discourse Analysis, Adult Education and "Fitba"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Player, John

    2013-01-01

    In this article I will use an example of current adult education practice, the Glory and Dismay Football Literacies Programme (GDFLP) to appraise the value of critical discourse analysis (CDA) for adult learners, both individually and collectively, and for adult education practitioners with an interest in developing critical literacy skills. The…

  15. Using Discourse Analysis and Automatic Text Generation to Study Discourse Cue Usage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan Moser; Johanna D. Moore

    1995-01-01

    Our two stage methodology for the study of cue usage coordinates an exhaustive corpus analysis with a system for text generation. Coding of the corpus uses Relational Discourse Analysis, a syn- thesis of two previous accounts of discourse struc- ture. In the first stage of our study, hypotheses about cue usage are evaluated and refined using the corpus analysis. Several

  16. Discourse on Discourse. Workshop Reports from the Macquarie Workshop on Discourse Analysis (Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, February 21-25, 1983). Occasional Papers Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Ruqaiya, Ed.

    Four group summary papers from an Australian national workshop on discourse analysis discuss verbal and written discourse and the classroom. Papers reflect the four workshop discussion groups of casual conversation, classroom discourse, expository discourse, and literary narrative. They include: "On Casual Conversation" (M. A. K. Halliday and G.…

  17. A Discourse Analysis of Teacher-Student Classroom Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Michael Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation explores the role of classroom discourse in balancing teacher control over lesson content and student participation in educational interactions. The results of a discourse analysis of teacher-student interactions in video-recordings of eight third-grade math and language arts lessons reveal that the role of discourse in this…

  18. Assessing the validity of discourse analysis: transdisciplinary convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaipal-Jamani, Kamini

    2014-12-01

    Research studies using discourse analysis approaches make claims about phenomena or issues based on interpretation of written or spoken text, which includes images and gestures. How are findings/interpretations from discourse analysis validated? This paper proposes transdisciplinary convergence as a way to validate discourse analysis approaches to research. The argument is made that discourse analysis explicitly grounded in semiotics, systemic functional linguistics, and critical theory, offers a credible research methodology. The underlying assumptions, constructs, and techniques of analysis of these three theoretical disciplines can be drawn on to show convergence of data at multiple levels, validating interpretations from text analysis.

  19. Challenging social cognition models of adherence: cycles of discourse, historical bodies, and interactional order.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, Jamie; Salter, Charlotte; Poland, Fiona; Cross, Jane

    2015-02-01

    Attempts to model individual beliefs as a means of predicting how people follow clinical advice have dominated adherence research, but with limited success. In this article, we challenge assumptions underlying this individualistic philosophy and propose an alternative formulation of context and its relationship with individual actions related to illness. Borrowing from Scollon and Scollon's three elements of social action—historical body, interaction order, and discourses in place—we construct an alternative set of research methods and demonstrate their application with an example of a person talking about asthma management. We argue that talk- or illness-related behavior, both viewed as forms of social action, manifest themselves as an intersection of cycles of discourse, shifting as individuals move through these cycles across time and space. We conclude by discussing how these dynamics of social action can be studied and how clinicians might use this understanding when negotiating treatment with patients. PMID:25231944

  20. Is Business Discourse Colonizing Philanthropy? A Critical Discourse Analysis of (PRODUCT) RED

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica S. WirgauKathryn; Kathryn Webb Farley; Courtney Jensen

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly, traditional notions of philanthropy are colonized by a market discourse that promotes consumption as an effective\\u000a way to solve social ills, resulting in what scholars have termed “marketized philanthropy.” This paper examines the implications\\u000a of marketized philanthropy through a discourse analysis of the (PRODUCT) RED campaign benefiting the Global Fund to fight\\u000a HIV\\/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis in Africa through

  1. Emotional inhibition: a discourse analysis of disclosure.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Darren; Cromby, John

    2012-01-01

    Evidence generated within the emotional disclosure paradigm (EDP) suggests that talking or writing about emotional experiences produces health benefits, but recent meta-analyses have questioned its efficacy. Studies within the EDP typically rely upon a unidimensional and relatively unsophisticated notion of emotional inhibition, and tend to use quantitative forms of content analysis to identify associations between percentages of word types and positive or negative health outcomes. In this article, we use a case study to show how a qualitative discourse analysis has the potential to identify more of the complexity linking the disclosure practices and styles that may be associated with emotional inhibition. This may illuminate the apparent lack of evidence for efficacy of the EDP by enabling more comprehensive theorisations of the variations within it. PMID:21678182

  2. Literacy Discourse Analysis: Making Space at the Policy Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blunt, Adrian

    2004-01-01

    Discourse analysis reveals how the meanings of literacy are socially produced, communicated, and mediated. A consultation with university teacher-education and adult education researchers, managed by the National Literacy Secretariat, is used to demonstrate how the outcomes were influenced by the discourses of participants and organizers. An…

  3. Ideology, Rationality and Reproduction in Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Leonel

    2014-01-01

    In undertaking a critical discourse analysis of the professed aims and objectives of one of the most influential curricula in the teaching of thinking, this article foregrounds issues of power and ideology latent in curricular discourses of rationality. Specifically, it documents the subtle but powerful ways in which political and class…

  4. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Racial Literacy in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Rebecca; Mosley, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    What does racial literacy look and sound like in a teacher education book club? Using the tools of critical discourse analysis, we describe, interpret and explain how each member of the group draws on a range of discursive and embodied resources for racial literacy; particularly, how they maneuver the book club discourse to resolve what…

  5. Self in career theory and counselling: a discourse analysis perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham B. Stead; Terri M. Bakker

    2010-01-01

    A rapidly changing postmodern working world demands revised conceptualisations of the self. Recent scholarship in discourse analysis invites an investigation into how selves are constructed and fabricated within a complex matrix of social discourses, and how this may impact on the field of career counselling and development. This paper examines the self in career counselling and development from a Foucauldian

  6. Understanding Resistance: An Analysis of Discourses in Academic Staff Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Using social realist theory and critical discourse analysis, this article examines a number of discourses which construct academic staff attitudes to teaching and learning in their disciplines. It seeks to explain academics' resistance to engaging in activities aimed at professionalising academic practice. The research described in the article…

  7. Belief in extraordinary psychological feats: a discourse analysis 

    E-print Network

    Jones, Lisa

    2012-06-27

    This study aimed to investigate how belief in extraordinary psychological feats is warranted and maintained, and how the lack of an explanation is justified. Discourse analysis was used to examine online newspaper articles on Derren Brown...

  8. A Modern History of Written Discourse Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert B.; Grabe, William

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes written discourse that explores the actual structuring of text via some consistent framework. Highlights efforts to find the structures and linguistic patterns in texts that contribute to how they are understood, interpreted, and used. (Author/VWL)

  9. Doing Foucault: inquiring into nursing knowledge with Foucauldian discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Springer, Rusla Anne; Clinton, Michael E

    2015-04-01

    Foucauldian discourse analysis (FDA) is a methodology that is well suited to inquiring into nursing knowledge and its organization. It is a critical analytic approach derived from Foucault's histories of science, madness, medicine, incarceration and sexuality, all of which serve to exteriorize or make visible the 'positive unconscious of knowledge' penetrating bodies and minds. Foucauldian discourse analysis (FDA) holds the potential to reveal who we are today as nurses and as a profession of nursing by facilitating our ability to identify and trace the effects of the discourses that determine the conditions of possibility for nursing practice that are continuously shaping and (re)shaping the knowledge of nursing and the profession of nursing as we know it. In making visible the chain of knowledge that orders the spaces nurses occupy, no less than their subjectivities, FDA is a powerful methodology for inquiring into nursing knowledge based on its provocation of deep critical reflection on the normalizing power of discourse. PMID:25683171

  10. Uniting postcolonial, discourse, and linguistic theory to explore participation of African Americans in cancer research as an effect of social and historical race relationships.

    PubMed

    Somayaji, Darryl; Cloyes, Kristin Gates

    2014-01-01

    This article uses a historical framework of postcolonialism; discourse analytic concepts (significance, identity, and relationships); and 5 social and cultural linguistic principles of emergence, positionality, indexicality, relationality, and partialness as a theoretical and methodological triangulation approach to data analysis of focus group discussion. Exemplars of focus group data from a study exploring African American participation in research demonstrate the application of this combined framework as a useful tool for analysis. This approach allows for examination of identity and interaction and generates a more rigorous and complete understanding of how individuals use language to construct identity as participants or nonparticipants in research. PMID:24469087

  11. Power in clinical teachers' discourses of a curriculum-in-action. Critical discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jennifer; Dornan, Tim

    2013-12-01

    "Curricula-in-action" generally differ from "official" curricula. That is particularly true of clerkship curricula because the practising doctors who supervise medical students' clinical activities are only secondarily educators. Clerkship education is evaluated, however, according to benchmarks set by official curricula. As a result, clerkship evaluations are important points of contact between clinical teachers and medical schools. We reasoned that an evaluation instrument is part of a medical school's official curriculum discourse and clinical teachers' reactions to it are a discourse of curriculum-in-action. We set out to answer the questions: What are clinical teachers' discourses of curriculum-in-action and how do they relate to an official curriculum discourse? Nineteen clerkship placement leads from two hospitals contributing to a single undergraduate medical programme participated. The evaluation instrument was the Manchester Clinical Placement Index, for which validity evidence has been published. Respondents were asked to say how they would react to junior students giving their placements low or high scores for each of 12 items from the Index. After transcription, we conducted a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of their audio-recorded answers. We purposefully selected the six items that elicited the widest spectrum of responses for analysis because quantity of material can compromise the quality of CDA. A dominant discourse of curriculum-in-action defined how teachers should "really" teach and junior students should learn. It deconstructed the need for teachers to be present when students performed clinical tasks because teachers' role was to give critical feedback on case presentations that were coincidental to clinical care. It positioned students at the bottom of a power hierarchy so they had to "struggle" to be taught. It placed respondents in a powerful position relative to "the hospital" and "the university", though there were tensions between respondents, patients, and nurses. Respondents dismissed criticism that was invalid according to their curriculum-in-action, which included most items in an evaluation instrument. There was a contrasting, non-dominant discourse of responding reflectively to feedback, which generated realistic ways of improving students' learning. The strength of respondents' emotions shows just how committed doctors are to students' learning. The strength of their expressions of power, however, explains why many of them teach in their own way rather than according to official curricula. Changes to clinical curricula, our findings suggest, will not be successful unless they are carefully negotiated with practising doctors. PMID:23283572

  12. The organising vision for telehealth and telecare: discourse analysis

    PubMed Central

    Procter, Rob; Wherton, Joe; Sugarhood, Paul; Shaw, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Objective To (1) map how different stakeholders understand telehealth and telecare technologies and (2) explore the implications for development and implementation of telehealth and telecare services. Design Discourse analysis. Sample 68 publications representing diverse perspectives (academic, policy, service, commercial and lay) on telehealth and telecare plus field notes from 10 knowledge-sharing events. Method Following a familiarisation phase (browsing and informal interviews), we studied a systematic sample of texts in detail. Through repeated close reading, we identified assumptions, metaphors, storylines, scenarios, practices and rhetorical positions. We added successive findings to an emerging picture of the whole. Main findings Telehealth and telecare technologies featured prominently in texts on chronic illness and ageing. There was no coherent organising vision. Rather, four conflicting discourses were evident and engaged only minimally with one another's arguments. Modernist discourse presented a futuristic utopian vision in which assistive technologies, implemented at scale, would enable society to meet its moral obligations to older people by creating a safe ‘smart’ home environment where help was always at hand, while generating efficiency savings. Humanist discourse emphasised the uniqueness and moral worth of the individual and tailoring to personal and family context; it considered that technologies were only sometimes fit for purpose and could create as well as solve problems. Political economy discourse envisaged a techno-economic complex of powerful vested interests driving commodification of healthcare and diversion of public funds into private business. Change management discourse recognised the complicatedness of large-scale technology programmes and emphasised good project management and organisational processes. Conclusion Introduction of telehealth and telecare is hampered because different stakeholders hold different assumptions, values and world views, ‘talk past’ each other and compete for recognition and resources. If investments in these technologies are to bear fruit, more effective inter-stakeholder dialogue must occur to establish an organising vision that better accommodates competing discourses. PMID:22815469

  13. Critical Narrative Analysis: The Interplay of Critical Discourse and Narrative Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souto-Manning, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I question the micro-macro separation in discourse analysis, the separation of personal and institutional discourses. I apply a mostly macroanalytic perspective (critical discourse analysis [CDA]) to inform a predominantly microanalytic perspective (analysis of conversational narratives) and vice versa. In the combination of these…

  14. On Singaporean Authoritarianism: Critical Discourse Analysis and Contextual Dissonance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) has reached a certain degree of canonical status, as it is widely used and applied as a research and analytic tool. However, hitherto it has been taken for granted that CDA can be applied and practised anywhere unproblematically. There is still a dearth of scholarly attention that focuses on the tensions and…

  15. A Discourse Analysis of School Counseling Supervisory E-Mail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Melissa; Gordon, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    This article is a discourse analysis of weekly computer-mediated communications between 8 school counseling interns and their e-mail supervisor over a 16-week semester. Course-required e-mail supervision was provided as an adjunct to traditional face-to-face individual and group supervision. School counselor supervisees and supervisor enacted 3…

  16. Discourse Analysis of Requirements and Knowledge Elicitation Interviews

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosío Alvarez

    2002-01-01

    This paper sets forth a framework for examining the discourse of interviews that take place during requirements analysis and knowledge elicitation. Research has shown that requirements and knowledge elicitation techniques are very similar if not identical in some instances. Moreover, eliciting user requirements is a critical and difficult activity of both information and knowledge based systems development. In this paper,

  17. Discourse Analysis as an Approach to Intercultural Competence in the Advanced EFL Classroom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Norton

    2008-01-01

    In 1991 Michael McCarthy wrote in his Preface to Discourse Analysis for Language Teachers that discourse analysis is ‘not a method of teaching languages; it is a way of describing and understanding how language is used’. By 1994 he had reformulated his position and, with Ronald Carter, published Language as Discourse: Perspectives for Language Teaching, which argued in favour of

  18. 'Debating' Nature Conservation: Policy, Law and Practice in Indonesia : A Discourse Analysis of History and Present

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Arnscheidt

    2008-01-01

    This book is about the politics of nature conservation in late New Order and early Reformasi Indonesia. It approaches the subject through discourse analysis. Understanding politics as a struggle for discourse hegemony it analyses both processes of policy- and lawmaking in Jakarta and of implementation in national parks, and their outcomes, and addresses a number of questions: Which discourses have

  19. 'Debating' nature conservation: policy, law and practice in Indonesia : a discourse analysis of history and present

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Arnscheidt

    2009-01-01

    This book is about the politics of nature conservation in late New Order and early Reformasi Indonesia. It approaches the subject through discourse analysis. Understanding politics as a struggle for discourse hegemony it analyses both processes of policy- and lawmaking in Jakarta and of implementation in national parks, and their outcomes, and addresses a number of questions: Which discourses have

  20. Analyzing psychotherapy process as intersubjective sensemaking: An approach based on discourse analysis and neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariangela Nitti; Enrico Ciavolino; Sergio Salvatore; Alessandro Gennaro

    2010-01-01

    The authors propose a method for analyzing the psychotherapy process: discourse flow analysis (DFA). DFA is a technique representing the verbal interaction between therapist and patient as a discourse network, aimed at measuring the therapist–patient discourse ability to generate new meanings through time. DFA assumes that the main function of psychotherapy is to produce semiotic novelty. DFA is applied to

  1. Critical discourse analysis and inclusive educational policies: the power to exclude

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anastasia Liasidou

    2008-01-01

    The legislative shift towards an inclusive education policy in Cyprus has allegedly been fragmented and contradictory. The textual hybridity of the ostensibly more inclusive policy documents prevents the realization of an inclusive discourse. Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is proposed as an emancipatory research tool that has the potential to destabilize the authoritarian discourses entrenched in educational policy agendas, thereby facilitating

  2. Automatic Slide Generation Based on Discourse Structure Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomohide Shibata; Sadao Kurohashi

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a method of automatically gener- ating summary slides from a text. The slides are generated by itemizing topic\\/non-topic parts that are extracted from the text based on syntac- tic\\/case analysis. The indentations of the items are controlled according to the discourse structure, which is detected by cue phrases, identica- tion of word chain and similarity

  3. Presupposition in Lexical Analysis and Discourse

    E-print Network

    Bullwinkle, Candace L.

    Recent research in linguistic analysis of presuppositions has provided numerous indications of the role of presupposition in lexical analysis. Still others have argued there is no distinction between meaning and the ...

  4. Discourse analysis and the impact of the philosophy of Enlightenment in nursing research.

    PubMed

    Beedholm, Kirsten; Lomborg, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2014-06-01

    Discourse analysis has been introduced into nursing research as an approach which has the potential to offer new perspectives and to pose new questions to taken-for-granted assumptions. However, critique has arisen that when applied to nursing studies, the epistemological foundation of the discourse analysis is often overlooked. It is furthermore claimed that the methodological inspiration does not lead to any new insights and that these studies can hardly be differentiated from more traditional studies. This study supports this critique, arguing that the challenges of implementing discourse analysis in nursing research reflect a dominant pattern of thought in the discourse of the nursing profession that have held sway throughout the last century. We argue that this pattern of thought stems from the Western philosophy of consciousness and the conception of the sovereign subject. By applying a discourse analytical perspective to the discourse of the nursing profession itself, this study elucidates the challenges of applying discourse analysis in nursing research. PMID:23679133

  5. Resources for Historical Landscape Analysis: Toronto

    E-print Network

    Haykin, Simon

    Resources for Historical Landscape Analysis: Toronto Geog 3MF3 October 2010 Cathy Moulder, DirectorMaster or online Fire Insurance Plans City Directories Internet resources Toronto Public Library (Historicity) City of Toronto (Heritage Buildings database) Postcard collections #12;Fire Insurance Plans and Atlases #12;Fire

  6. Genuine versus Simulated Suicide Notes: An Issue Revisited Through Discourse Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelman, Ann M.; Renshaw, Steven L.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a method of discourse analysis applied to the discrimination of genuine from simulated suicide notes used in previous studies. Reported significant differences among language measures as well as the results of a multiple discriminant analysis using the discourse analysis. A language profile of the suicidal individual is given. (JAC)

  7. Leadership succession: a discourse analysis of governance dialectics in two nonprofit organizations

    E-print Network

    Duta, Andrei Constantin

    2008-10-10

    LEADERSHIP SUCCESSION: A DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF GOVERNANCE DIALECTICS IN TWO NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS A Dissertation by ANDREI CONSTANTIN DUTA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2008 Major Subject: Communication LEADERSHIP SUCCESSION: A DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF GOVERNANCE DIALECTICS IN TWO NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS A Dissertation...

  8. Studying Agency in Literacy Teacher Education: A Layered Approach to Positive Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Rebecca; Wetzel, Melissa Mosley

    2013-01-01

    Critically oriented forms of discourse analysis have focused largely on oppression and injustice. Signaling a new turn in the field, scholars have called for an analytic focus on moments of liberation and agency, referring to this orientation as "positive discourse analysis" (PDA). In this research, we turn our attention to a case study of agency…

  9. Insights beyond Neo-Liberal Educational Practices: The Value of Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turunen, Tuija A.; Rafferty, John

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, power and effects of neo-liberal rationale in educational settings. By introducing discourse analysis of two cases, the influence of neo-liberal ideology on contemporary curricula and school programs were examined. The analysis showed that dominant discourses based on neo-liberal rationale presented themselves as…

  10. "Genre Means...": A Critical Discourse Analysis of Fourth Grade Talk about Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaenen, Inda

    2010-01-01

    This action research study investigates how genre theory can be integrated into the practice of a writing enrichment program and how the frameworks of Critical Discourse Analysis and Multimodal Analysis can help assess and improve both student learning and teacher practice. A multilayered exploration of teacher-student discourse in an urban public…

  11. The Return to Messages: Perspectives on Discourse Analysis and Conversational Coherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Stephanie

    Focusing on the increasing attention of communication scholars to the production of conversation, this paper outlines three broad perspectives on discourse analysis: (1) codification, which involves discrete categorizing of discourse and includes work in speech act theory, traditional interaction analysis, and message strategies; (2) coordination,…

  12. Climate Change Discourse in Mass Media: Application of Computer-Assisted Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirilenko, Andrei P.; Stepchenkova, Svetlana O.

    2012-01-01

    Content analysis of mass media publications has become a major scientific method used to analyze public discourse on climate change. We propose a computer-assisted content analysis method to extract prevalent themes and analyze discourse changes over an extended period in an objective and quantifiable manner. The method includes the following: (1)…

  13. Problems with the Critical Posture? Foucault and Critical Discourse Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gavin Kendall; Gary Wickham

    This paper provides a brief analysis of Michel Foucault's work on power and governmentality, and mounts the argument that the treatment of these concepts by Foucault is theoretical rather than empirical or historical. Foucault's approach - a Kantian dialectical approach - allows the social to engulf politics, sovereignty and the state. Ultimately, Foucault follows a Kantian line to a moral

  14. The Discourses of Discourse Analysis: A Response to Ninnes and Burnett.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    The field of comparative education has been slow to incorporate poststructuralist concerns due to theoretical bias, the linguistic barrier of postmodernist discourses, and the critique of postmodernism as indifferent to social issues. Debates on key questions of epistemology, ontology, and ethics in social research are needed to further…

  15. A Study of EFL Discourse Using Corpora: An Analysis of Discourse Completion Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakano, M.; Miyasaka, N.; Yamazaki, T.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the discourse completion data collected through Japanese English-as-a-foreign-language learners with reference to four speech functions--thanking, apology, request, and offering. Compares Japanese learners' expressions with expressions obtained by native speakers of English stored in the London-Lund corpus of Spoken English. (Author/VWL)

  16. Empowering Discourse: Discourse Analysis as Method and Practice in the Sociology Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjelm, Titus

    2013-01-01

    Collaborative learning and critical pedagogy are widely recognized as "empowering" pedagogies for higher education. Yet, the practical implementation of both has a mixed record. The question, then, is: How could collaborative and critical pedagogies be empowered themselves? This paper makes a primarily theoretical case for discourse

  17. Knowledge Building Discourse Explorer: A Social Network Analysis Application for Knowledge Building Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshima, Jun; Oshima, Ritsuko; Matsuzawa, Yoshiaki

    2012-01-01

    In recent studies of learning theories, a new methodology that integrates two prevailing metaphors of learning (acquisition and participation) has been discussed. However, current analytical techniques are insufficient for analyzing how social knowledge develops through learners' discourse and how individual learners contribute to this…

  18. The British and Curriculum Development in West Africa: A Historical Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofori-Attah, Kwabena Dei

    2006-01-01

    Only recently have African nations begun to make their way towards establishing genuinely autonomous education systems incorporating elements of indigenous culture. The present study examines the historical development of curriculum in British West Africa in its links with the educational activities of the early Christian missionaries and the…

  19. Scaling discourse analysis: Experiences from Hermanus, South Africa and Walvis Bay, Namibia1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Keil; Anne-Marie Debbané

    2005-01-01

    Scaling discourse analysis refers to the necessity to consider environmental discourse a multi-dimensional and diversified practice. Depending on the various levels of state and society at which environmental policies are applied and depending on the geographical scale at which their solution is sought, we have to differentiate both policy processes and outcomes in environmental politics. We introduce the importance of

  20. Discourse-Based Methods across Texts and Semiotic Modes: Three Tools for Micro-Rhetorical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oddo, John

    2013-01-01

    As the scope of rhetorical inquiry broadens to cover intersemiotic and intertextual phenomena, scholars are increasingly in need of new, defensible analytic procedures. Several scholars have suggested that methods of discourse analysis could enhance rhetorical criticism. Here, I introduce a discourse-based method that is empirical, delicate, and…

  1. Academic Discussions: An Analysis of Instructional Discourse and an Argument for an Integrative Assessment Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elizabeth, Tracy; Ross Anderson, Trisha L.; Snow, Elana H.; Selman, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the structure of academic discussions during the implementation of a literacy curriculum in the upper elementary grades. The authors examine the quality of academic discussion, using existing discourse analysis frameworks designed to evaluate varying attributes of classroom discourse. To integrate the overlapping qualities…

  2. Iranian University Students' Politics in the Post-Reform Movement Era: A Discourse Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Majid Mohammadi

    2007-01-01

    Based on the discourse analysis of the statements of the university student organizations in the period between 1996–2006, this paper will address the pros and cons of five approaches to politics in the post-reform movement era based on five discourses among university students in the past decade of Iranian politics and their consequences for reshaping the Iranian polity. This article

  3. Physical Education for Health and Wellbeing: A Discourse Analysis of Scottish Physical Education Curricular Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvilly, Nollaig; Verheul, Martine; Atencio, Matthew; Jess, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the discourses associated with physical education in Scotland's "Curriculum for Excellence". We implement a poststructural perspective in order to identify the discourses that underpin the physical education sections of the "Curriculum for Excellence" "health and well-being"…

  4. Intellectual Disabilities, Challenging Behaviour and Referral Texts: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunkoosing, Karl; Haydon-Laurelut, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The texts of referrals written by workers in residential services for people with learning difficulties constitute sites where contemporary discourses of intellectual disabilities are being constructed. This paper uses Critical Discourse Analysis to examine referrals made to a Community Learning Disability Team (CLDT). The study finds referral…

  5. Negotiating Order in Interorganizational Communication: Discourse Analysis of a Meeting of Three Diverse Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennington, Ashley J.; Shetler, Judy C.; Shaw, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes the discourse during a meeting of three diverse organizations as they attempt to resolve conflicting organizational interests. Explains that the three diverse groups were a waste disposal business, a grass-roots community organization, and a state regulatory agency. Notes that discourse analysis suggests that organizations with different…

  6. Ideologies of English in a Chinese High School EFL Textbook: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiong, Tao; Qian, Yamin

    2012-01-01

    In this article we examine ideologies of English in present-day China with a special focus on textbook discourse. The research framework is informed by critical theories on language and education. Critical discourse analysis is applied as a methodological approach characterized by a socially committed attitude in the explanation and interpretation…

  7. A Discourse Analysis of the Online Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offenholley, Kathleen H.

    2012-01-01

    Thirteen online mathematics classes were analyzed using a discourse coding system created by Bellack et al. (1966). Findings suggest that the ratio of teacher-to-student discourse is far lower in online than in face-to-face classes and varies widely from instructor to instructor. A strong positive correlation was shown between instructor posts and…

  8. Latina/o Health Discourses in Newsprint Media from 2006-2010: A Content Analysis of Four Syndicated Newspapers

    E-print Network

    Ortega, Frank J

    2013-12-11

    Latina/o health discourses stem from historical and social notions of biological, cultural, and racial inferiority. Popular U.S. newspapers pay scant attention to Latina/o health concerns and often inaccurately portray Latinas/os as undeserving...

  9. Problem-Based Learning: A Historical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Januszewski, Alan; Pearson, Robert

    This paper examines, through historical analysis, the values and beliefs underpinning the early theories and applications of problem-based learning and contrasts these with current theory and practice. This study focuses on the first three decades of the twentieth century, because, during this time period, the use of projects in education became…

  10. Expanding the Notion of Historical Text through Historic Building Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Christine; Dobbs, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Among the disciplinary skills necessary for understanding in the social studies classroom is the ability to determine context and build meaning from past events. Historical buildings are an important component of historical study, and they serve as a type of nontraditional text that students can decode and use to construct meaning about multiple…

  11. Discourse Analysis: The UFO scientists’ Construction of the UFO Phenomenon in Relation to Science 

    E-print Network

    Raw, Kathleen

    2012-06-01

    This study aims to show how UFO scientists have constructed the UFO phenomenon in relation to science, by using discourse analysis. This work expands on the existing literature concerning the social construction of scientific knowledge. Several...

  12. Defining and defending 'unhealthy' practices: a discourse analysis of chocolate 'addicts" accounts.

    PubMed

    Benford, Rebecca; Gough, Brendan

    2006-05-01

    Contemporary ideals of health and nutrition conspire to render the consumption of chocolate and similar snacks problematic. Individuals who self-define as 'chocoholics' therefore present an ideal opportunity to investigate how ostensibly unhealthy acts are defined, defended and maintained within a health-conscious climate. This article reports on an interview-based study with five self-professed chocoholics. A Foucauldian form of discourse analysis was applied to the interview transcripts and four main discourses identified: chocolate as dirty and dangerous; chocolate as pleasure; self-surveillance; and addiction. The function of such discourses in terms of upholding the moral status of these individuals is discussed. PMID:16774896

  13. Pedagogy and Historical Analysis in the Migration CD-ROM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development of a new pedagogy for world history. Focuses on the historical analysis designed for the multimedia instructional program "Migration in Modern World History." Considers the risks and benefits of formalizing historical analysis. (CMK)

  14. Exploring the discourse on communication modality after cochlear implantation: a Foucauldian analysis of parents' narratives.

    PubMed

    Bruin, Marieke; Nevøy, Anne

    2014-07-01

    After pediatric cochlear implantation, parents have to make decisions concerning which communication modality the child and the child's family will use. The choice has to be made against a background of opposing views on communication modality in follow-up after pediatric cochlear implantation. The opposing views form a discourse that has been a core issue in the international body of literature for a long time. For hearing parents caught up in this ongoing controversy, the choice can be a difficult one. The study reported in this article explores the discourse on communication modality and is based on 27 written parental accounts on experiences with follow-up. From the perspective of Foucault's thinking, discourses exert knowledge and power. Drawing on Foucault, the study explores how the discourse on communication modality is constructed, how it operates, and how it governs thinking and acting. The Foucauldian analysis brings to the fore the complex nature of the discourse and states that follow-up, which is intended to be helpful for parents, may induce insecurity and frustration. The study brings into conversation a broader understanding of the discourse on communication modality and addresses a need for increased awareness on how the discourse governs thinking and acting in follow-up. PMID:24558057

  15. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Amazon.com's Rise in the Media 1995-2008

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy Cukier; Jaigris Hodson; Peter M. Ryan

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses Habermasian Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) to examine the ways Amazon.com was constructed in the top newspapers by circulation in 2000 and 2001. It shows that despite the dot-com bust, and reports of low profitability, Amazon.com was generally constructed in a positive way by company insiders such as CEO Jeff Bezos, who successfully managed to frame news discourse

  16. David Coleman and the Technologisation of the Common Core: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lindy L.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on sociocultural perspectives and New Literacies Studies this study uses Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as a tool to closely analyse one way the Common Core State Standards in the United States are being produced, disseminated and consumed. The analysis focuses on a section of the CCSS, a model lesson given by one of the primary…

  17. A Historical Analysis of the Relationship of Faith and Science and its Significance within Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yegge, John G.

    Science curriculum and pedagogy are at the center of a centuries-long debate concerning the appropriate relationship of faith and science. The difficulties that science educators face seem to be based in misinformation about the historical roots of this conflict. To address that conflict, the goals of this research were to separate myth from reality and to provide a necessary context to the current tensions that are disrupting science pedagogy and curriculum content within American public schools. Working within a theoretical framework of historical literacy, this qualitative, historical analysis was a comprehensive examination of the relationship of faith and science from ancient times through the Renascence to the emergence and development of Darwinism. The historical approach methodology was utilized as a means to document the systematic examination of past events, in order to illuminate and interpret the meaning of those events. The historical record revealed that science and religion are not necessarily incompatible and that the early Christian religion provided a fertile environment in which modern science could emerge. Also noted were many instances where the record was inconsistent with what educators have commonly taught as historical fact. Finally, the complex sources of tension between modern fundamentalist Christianity and Darwinism, which has appeared as a flashpoint in public discourse within science education, were examined in depth. Based on this analysis, the study includes recommendations for educators in their approach to addressing these challenges and teaching science. This analysis can produce positive social change for educators and their students, as this information is advanced as a means to enhance historical literacy among educators and their students.

  18. Unethical conduct by the nurse: a critical discourse analysis of Nurses Tribunal inquiries.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Kathleen A

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to uncover and critically examine hidden assumptions that underpin the findings of nurses' unethical conduct arising from inquiries conducted by the Nurses Tribunal in New South Wales. This was a qualitative study located within a post-structural theoretical framework. Transcripts of five inquiries conducted between 1998 and 2003 were analysed using critical discourse analysis. The findings revealed two dominant discourses that were drawn upon in the inquiries to construct nurses' conduct as unethical. These were discourses of trust and accountability. The way the nurses were spoken about during the inquiries was shaped by normalising judgements that were used to discursively position the nurse through narrative. PMID:23378542

  19. The Conflict over Origins: A Discourse Analysis of the Creationism Controversy in American Newspapers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Shortell

    2011-01-01

    The debate about human origins between creationists and biologists is hardly a new one. In its latest cycle, the dispute concerns the status of Intelligent Design and the teaching of evolutionary theory in public schools. The controversy is primarily political, motivated by deeply held feelings about identity. A discourse analysis using network modeling was applied to newspaper coverage of the

  20. Critical Discourse Analysis and Critical Thinking: An Experimental Study in an EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashemi, Mohammad Reza; Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of critical discourse analysis (CDA) on TEFL students' critical thinking (CT) ability in "Reading Journalistic Texts" classes. In so doing, the study utilized an experimental design with 24 participants in the control group and 29 participants in the experimental group. The results of a pretest indicated…

  1. Using Semantic Feature Analysis to Improve Contextual Discourse in Adults with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rider, Jill Davis; Wright, Heather Harris; Marshall, Robert C.; Page, Judith L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Semantic feature analysis (SFA) was used to determine whether training contextually related words would improve the discourse of individuals with nonfluent aphasia in preselected contexts. Method: A modified multiple-probes-across-behaviors design was used to train target words using SFA in 3 adults with nonfluent aphasia. Pretreatment,…

  2. Critical Discourse Analysis in Literacy Education: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Rebecca; Schaenen, Inda

    2014-01-01

    This article is a critical, integrative literature review of scholarship in literacy studies from 2004 to 2012 that draws on critical discourse analysis (CDA). We discuss key issues, trends, and criticisms in the field. Our methodology was carried out in three stages. First, we searched educational databases to locate literacy-focused CDA…

  3. With the Best of Intentions: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Physical Education Curriculum Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Tony; Tinning, Richard; McCuaig, Louise; Sirna, Karen; Hunter, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Much of physical education curriculum in the developed world and specifically in Australia tends to be guided in principle by syllabus documents that represent, in varying degrees, some form of government education priorities. Through the use of critical discourse analysis we analyze one such syllabus example (an official syllabus document of one…

  4. Accreditation and Power: A Discourse Analysis of a New Regime of Governance in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engebretsen, Eivind; Heggen, Kristin; Eilertsen, Heidi Annett

    2012-01-01

    This article studies discourses within the accreditation of Norwegian higher education conducted by the Norwegian Agency for Quality Assurance in Education (NOKUT), using one concrete case (the accreditation of bachelor programs in nursing). Analysis of policy documents and accreditation reports are influenced by two of Foucault's concepts of…

  5. Confessions of an information worker: a critical analysis of information requirements discourse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ros??o Alvarez

    2002-01-01

    This paper seeks to demonstrate the benefit of critical discourse analysis as a research approach for examining information systems development. Research has shown that eliciting user requirements is a critical activity of information systems development. However, the requirements phase is not only a key activity, it is highly problematic. Requirements determination is considered a process fraught with conflicting, inconsistent and

  6. A Quantitative Discourse Analysis of Student-Initiated Checks of Understanding during Teacher-Fronted Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research highlights the paradoxical importance of students' being able to check their understanding with teachers and of teachers' constraining student participation. Using quantitative discourse analysis, this paper examines third graders' discursive strategies in initiating such checks and teachers' strategies in constraining them. The…

  7. The Newfoundland School Society (1830-1840): A Critical Discourse Analysis of Its Religious Education Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Leona M.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses the lens of critical discourse analysis to examine the religious education efforts of the Newfoundland School Society (NSS), the main provider of religious education in Newfoundland in the 19th century. Although its focus was initially this colony, the NSS quickly broadened its reach to the whole British empire, making it one of…

  8. Exposing Ideology within University Policies: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Faculty Hiring, Promotion and Remuneration Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzuner-Smith, Sedef; Englander, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Using critical discourse analysis (CDA), this paper exposes the neoliberal ideology of the knowledge-based economy embedded within university policies, specifically those that regulate faculty hiring, promotion, and remuneration in two national contexts: Turkey and Mexico. The paper follows four stages of CDA: (1) focus upon a social wrong in its…

  9. Meaning Making through Multiple Modalities in a Biology Classroom: A Multimodal Semiotics Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaipal, Kamini

    2010-01-01

    The teaching of science is a complex process, involving the use of multiple modalities. This paper illustrates the potential of a multimodal semiotics discourse analysis framework to illuminate meaning-making possibilities during the teaching of a science concept. A multimodal semiotics analytical framework is developed and used to (1) analyze the…

  10. Discourse and Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernsten, Linda

    2005-01-01

    This article contends that students whose discourses differ from the dominant academic discourses of school may develop negative writer identities as a result of their language struggles in the academy. Using Critical Discourse analysis, the study explores the writer identities of two college writers in order to understand how embedded ideologies…

  11. The Discourse of Parent Involvement in Special Education: A Critical Analysis Linking Policy Documents to the Experiences of Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Yuan; Vadeboncoeur, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Parent involvement is acknowledged as a crucial aspect of the education of students with special needs. However, the discourse of parent involvement represents parent involvement in limited ways, thereby controlling how and the extent to which parents can be involved in the education of their children. In this article, critical discourse analysis

  12. An analysis of the group process in encounters between Jews and Palestinians using a typology for discourse classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shoshana Steinberg; Dan Bar-On

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the group process in encounters between Jewish and Palestinian Israeli citizens by using a typology for discourse classification. The typology presented here is a sensitive research tool that was developed in the absence of existing instruments, which analyze the developmental process of discourse in groups. It is an instrument that can help in conceptualizing

  13. A Critical Discourse Analysis of a Real-World Problem in Mathematics: Looking for Signs of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Roux, Kate

    2008-01-01

    The concepts of "access" and "relevance" feature prominently in the discourse of change in mathematics education in South Africa. One way in which these concepts have been played out in mathematics classrooms is in the use of mathematical problems with real-world contexts. This paper presents a Critical Discourse Analysis of one such problem,…

  14. A Sequential Analysis of Classroom Discourse in Italian Primary Schools: The Many Faces of the IRF Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinari, Luisa; Mameli, Consuelo; Gnisci, Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Background: A sequential analysis of classroom discourse is needed to investigate the conditions under which the triadic initiation-response-feedback (IRF) pattern may host different teaching orientations. Aim: The purpose of the study is twofold: first, to describe the characteristics of classroom discourse and, second, to identify and explore…

  15. On the economic analysis paradigm of historical materialism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ganqiang He

    2008-01-01

    ??????????????????????????? ?????????????? ???????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????? ????????????????????The economic analysis paradigm of historical materialism is marked by a basic framework that embodies the distinctive features of historical materialism. As a consciously applied scientific method of analysis it is a reflection in the mind of the objective dialectics of the economic realm, consisting of applying the analytical functions of Marxist economic categories and

  16. Psychology and Prejudice: A Historical Analysis and Integrative Framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Duckitt

    1992-01-01

    No adequate general theories or integrative frameworks exist for understanding prejudice. Limited theories have proliferated, and a number of competing paradigms emerged that have been theoretically dominant during quite different historical periods. These systematic shifts do not just represent a systematic evolution of knowledge. A historical analysis focusing on explanations of racial prejudice suggests that different theoretical orientations typically emerged

  17. Designing CIS to improve decisions in depression disease management: a discourse analysis of front line practice.

    PubMed

    Mirel, Barbara; Ackerman, Mark S; Kerber, Kevin; Klinkman, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Clinical care management promises to help diminish the major health problem of depression. To realize this promise, front line clinicians must know which care management interventions are best for which patients and act accordingly. Unfortunately, the detailed intervention data required for such differentiated assessments are missing in most clinical information systems (CIS). To determine frontline clinicians' needs for these data and to identify the data that CIS should keep, we conducted an 18 month ethnographic study and discourse analysis of telehealth depression care management. Results show care managers need data-based evidence to choose best options, and discourse analysis suggests some personalized interventions that CIS should and can feasibly capture for evidence. PMID:17238404

  18. Marketing Senegal through hip-hop – a discourse analysis of Akon's music and lyrics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nnamdi O. Madichie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper seeks to highlight hip-hop's contribution to the entrepreneurship and place marketing literature. Hip-hop is taken from the lens of an individual artist, Akon, whose music and lyrics – a “hybrid of silky, West African-styled vocals mixed with North America's East Coast and Southern beats” – provides fresh insights for place marketers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A “discourse analysis

  19. Defining and Defending ‘Unhealthy’ PracticesA Discourse Analysis of Chocolate ‘Addicts” Accounts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca Benford; Brendan Gough

    2006-01-01

    Contemporary ideals of health and nutrition conspire to render the consumption of chocolate and similar snacks problematic. Individuals who self-define as ‘chocoholics’ therefore present an ideal opportunity to investigate how ostensibly unhealthy acts are defined, defended and maintained within a health-conscious climate. This article reports on an interview-based study with five self-professed chocoholics. A Foucauldian form of discourse analysis was

  20. Uncertainty Analysis of Historical Hurricane Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was conducted for historical hurricane data dating back to 1851 that was obtained from the U. S. Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The data set was chosen because it is a large, publicly available collection of information, exhibiting great variability which has made the forecasting of future states, from current and previous states, difficult. The availability of substantial, high-fidelity validation data, however, made for an excellent uncertainty assessment study. Several factors (independent variables) were identified from the data set, which could potentially influence the track and intensity of the storms. The values of these factors, along with the values of responses of interest (dependent variables) were extracted from the data base, and provided to a commercial software package for processing via the ANOVA technique. The primary goal of the study was to document the ANOVA modeling uncertainty and predictive errors in making predictions about hurricane location and intensity 24 to 120 hours beyond known conditions, as reported by the data set. A secondary goal was to expose the ANOVA technique to a broader community within NASA. The independent factors considered to have an influence on the hurricane track included the current and starting longitudes and latitudes (measured in degrees), and current and starting maximum sustained wind speeds (measured in knots), and the storm starting date, its current duration from its first appearance, and the current year fraction of each reading, all measured in years. The year fraction and starting date were included in order to attempt to account for long duration cyclic behaviors, such as seasonal weather patterns, and years in which the sea or atmosphere were unusually warm or cold. The effect of short duration weather patterns and ocean conditions could not be examined with the current data set. The responses analyzed were the storm latitude, longitude and intensity, as recorded in the data set, 24 or 120 hours beyond the current state. Several ANOVA modeling schemes were examined. Two forms of validation were used: 1) comparison with official hurricane prediction performance metrics and 2) cases studies conducted on hurricanes from the 2005 season, which were not included within the model construction and ANOVA assessment. In general, the ANOVA technique did not perform as well as the established official prediction performance metrics published by NOAA; still, the technique did remarkably well in this demonstration with a difficult data set and could probably be made to perform better with more knowledge of hurricane development and dynamics applied to the problem. The technique provides a repeatable prediction process that eliminates the need for judgment in the forecast.

  1. HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS: A USEFUL EDUCATIONAL TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An historical analysis that presents the ecological consequences of development can be a valuable educational tool for citizens, students, and environmental managers. In highly impacted areas, the cumulative impacts of multiple stressors can result in complex environmental condit...

  2. An Analysis of Argumentation Discourse Patterns in Elementary Teachers' Science Classroom Discussions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungho; Hand, Brian

    2015-02-01

    This multiple case study investigated how six elementary teachers' argumentation discourse patterns related to students' discussions in the science classroom. Four categories of classroom characteristics emerged through the analysis of the teachers' transcripts and recorded class periods: Structure of teacher and student argumentation, directionality, movement, and structure of student talk. Results showed that the differences between the teachers' discourse patterns were related to their modified reformed teaching observation protocol (RTOP) scores and to how the interaction of those differences affected student learning. Teachers with high RTOP scores were more likely to challenge their students' claims, explanations, and defenses and to provide less guidance and more waiting time for their students' responses than teachers with medium- and low-level RTOP scores. Students in the high-level teachers' classes challenged, defended, rejected, and supported each other's ideas with evidence and required less guidance than students in the medium-level and low-level teachers' classes.

  3. Retrospective Analysis of Communication Events - Understanding the Dynamics of Collaborative Multi-Party Discourse

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Haack, Jereme N.; McColgin, Dave W.

    2006-06-08

    This research is aimed at understanding the dynamics of collaborative multi-party discourse across multiple communication modalities. Before we can truly make sig-nificant strides in devising collaborative communication systems, there is a need to understand how typical users utilize com-putationally supported communications mechanisms such as email, instant mes-saging, video conferencing, chat rooms, etc., both singularly and in conjunction with traditional means of communication such as face-to-face meetings, telephone calls and postal mail. Attempting to un-derstand an individual’s communications profile with access to only a single modal-ity is challenging at best and often futile. Here, we discuss the development of RACE – Retrospective Analysis of Com-munications Events – a test-bed prototype to investigate issues relating to multi-modal multi-party discourse.

  4. An Analysis of Argumentation Discourse Patterns in Elementary Teachers' Science Classroom Discussions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungho; Hand, Brian

    2015-04-01

    This multiple case study investigated how six elementary teachers' argumentation discourse patterns related to students' discussions in the science classroom. Four categories of classroom characteristics emerged through the analysis of the teachers' transcripts and recorded class periods: Structure of teacher and student argumentation, directionality, movement, and structure of student talk. Results showed that the differences between the teachers' discourse patterns were related to their modified reformed teaching observation protocol (RTOP) scores and to how the interaction of those differences affected student learning. Teachers with high RTOP scores were more likely to challenge their students' claims, explanations, and defenses and to provide less guidance and more waiting time for their students' responses than teachers with medium- and low-level RTOP scores. Students in the high-level teachers' classes challenged, defended, rejected, and supported each other's ideas with evidence and required less guidance than students in the medium-level and low-level teachers' classes.

  5. Industrial relations reform and the occupational transition of Australian workers: a critical discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Lo Bartolo, Luciano; Sheahan, Marie

    2009-01-01

    The 2005 WorkChoices legislation delivered a significant diminution of Australian workers' rights in the form of choice and control over numerous aspects of working life. WorkChoices extended previous neoliberal reforms and consolidated the negative impacts of those reforms on marginalized groups of workers, especially those in precarious employment. This paper reports on the findings of an occupational science-based, critical discourse analysis of a government newspaper advertisement that promotes the reforms. The construction of a WorkChoices discourse, one that was based on and sought to extend neoliberal hegemony, is identified by exploring the ways that particular ideas are presented as natural and mutually beneficial and, in response, the development of a counter-hegemonic argument, based on occupational justice theory, is discussed. The broader application of critical social research is also recommended in extending the occupational justice paradigm. PMID:19478412

  6. Exploring the communication between telenurse and caller—A critical discourse analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hakimnia, Roya; Holmström, Inger K.; Carlsson, Marianne; Höglund, Anna T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Telenursing is an expanding service in most Western societies. Sweden is a front-line country, with all of its 21 counties connected to Swedish Healthcare Direct (SHD) 1177. The intention of the service is twofold: to make health care more efficient, while also making it more accessible and safe for patients. Previous research has shown, however, that the service is not used equitably. Gender, age, socio-economic, and ethnicity differences have been reported as determining factors for the use of the service and the advice given. Aim The aim of the study was to explore the communication between telenurses and callers in authentic calls to SHD 1177. Methodology A qualitative method, using critical discourse analysis (CDA), was chosen. The approach was deductive, that is, the analysis was made in view of a predetermined framework of theory. Twenty calls were strategically chosen and included in the study. Results The CDA resulted in five types of calls, namely a gatekeeping call, a gendered call, a call marked by impersonal traits, a call with voices of the life world, and finally a counter discourse call. The dominating patterns in the calls were of gatekeeping and biomedical character. Patterns of the societal gender order were found, in that representations of the reluctant male caller and the ideal female caller were identified, but also a call representing a counter discourse. The service seemed difficult to use for patients with low language proficiency. Conclusion Telenursing could potentially challenge inequalities in health care. However, the discourse of telenursing is dialectically related to neoliberal ideology and the ideology of medicine. It is also situated in a gendered context of ideal femininity and hegemonic masculinity. Through better awareness of gender biases and the callers’ different resources for making themselves heard, the communication between telenurse and caller might become more equal and thereby better suitable for all callers. PMID:24964860

  7. Structural Analysis of Masonry Historical Constructions. Classical and Advanced Approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pere Roca; Miguel Cervera; Giuseppe Gariup; Luca Pela’

    2010-01-01

    A review of methods applicable to the study of masonry historical construction, encompassing both classical and advanced ones,\\u000a is presented. Firstly, the paper offers a discussion on the main challenges posed by historical structures and the desirable\\u000a conditions that approaches oriented to the modeling and analysis of this type of structures should accomplish. Secondly, the\\u000a main available methods which are

  8. A discourse on sensitivity analysis for discretely-modeled structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Howard M.; Haftka, Raphael T.

    1991-01-01

    A descriptive review is presented of the most recent methods for performing sensitivity analysis of the structural behavior of discretely-modeled systems. The methods are generally but not exclusively aimed at finite element modeled structures. Topics included are: selections of finite difference step sizes; special consideration for finite difference sensitivity of iteratively-solved response problems; first and second derivatives of static structural response; sensitivity of stresses; nonlinear static response sensitivity; eigenvalue and eigenvector sensitivities for both distinct and repeated eigenvalues; and sensitivity of transient response for both linear and nonlinear structural response.

  9. Dean of Women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: A Story Left Untold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herdlein, Richard; Cali, Christine Frezza; Dina, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    There is a paucity of historical discourse on the distinct contributions of African American women serving as deans of women at historically Black colleges and universities. Using historical research and the case study approach, the analysis focused on three deans of women: Lucy Diggs Slowe--Howard University, Owena Hunter Davis--Johnson C. Smith…

  10. Comparative Historical Analysis, Frank Wright, and Northern Ireland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niall Ó Murchú

    2011-01-01

    Northern Ireland: A Comparative Analysis (F. Wright, 1987, Dublin: Gill and Macmillan) remains the most significant work of comparative historical analysis written on Ireland, yet its reputed difficulty has blunted its impact. This article reconstructs Frank Wright's research design and comparative method and situates the book in the research tradition of configurative macroanalysis pioneered by Barrington Moore. Wright's detailed, processual,

  11. Normative Discourse and Persuasion: An Analysis of Ga'dang Informal Litigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walrod, Michael R.

    A study of the discourse of Ga'dang, a Philippine language, focuses on normative discourse and persuasion, especially the ways in which the former is used to accomplish the latter. The first five chapters outline the theoretical framework of the study, placing normative and persuasive discourse in a philosophical context and relating them to the…

  12. Structural Simulations and Conservation Analysis -Historic Building Information Model (HBIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dore, C.; Murphy, M.; McCarthy, S.; Brechin, F.; Casidy, C.; Dirix, E.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper the current findings to date of the Historic Building Information Model (HBIM) of the Four Courts in Dublin are presented. The Historic Building Information Model (HBIM) forms the basis for both structural and conservation analysis to measure the impact of war damage which still impacts on the building. The laser scan survey was carried out in the summer of 2014 of the internal and external structure. After registration and processing of the laser scan survey, the HBIM was created of the damaged section of the building and is presented as two separate workflows in this paper. The first is the model created from historic data, the second a procedural and segmented model developed from laser scan survey of the war damaged drum and dome. From both models structural damage and decay simulations will be developed for documentation and conservation analysis.

  13. Depression and mental health in neoliberal times: a critical analysis of policy and discourse.

    PubMed

    Teghtsoonian, Katherine

    2009-07-01

    Depression has received increasing attention as a significant public health issue over the past ten years, both in Canada and elsewhere in the industrialized west. During the same period, many of the social and economic policies adopted by governments in these jurisdictions have reflected neoliberal goals and orientations. The purpose of this article is to explore the points of contact between these two features of contemporary social and political life in the industrialized west, using the Canadian province of British Columbia as an empirical site. My analysis draws on the Foucauldian literature on governmentality in presenting a close reading of provincial government documents concerned with depression and mental health literacy that have been produced since the election of the Liberal Party to office in British Columbia in 2001. This analysis identifies discourses of "responsibilization" circulating in these documents, within which individuals, families, communities and workplaces - rather than publicly-funded services - appear as key resources in responding to experiences of mental distress. It also points to a number of strategies visible in the documents that work to align the interests of individuals and their practitioners in pursuing particular approaches to treatment with a governing interest in reducing public spending on services and supports. The article concludes by identifying a number of resistive discourses and proposing further research in a range of empirical contexts within which they may be evident. PMID:19427730

  14. HAZARDOUS MATERIAL SPILLS: A DOCUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF HISTORICAL DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ultimate goal of this study was the prevention of hazardous material spills through application of research effort. The immediate objective was to provide guidance for the choice of research priorities for spill prevention through documentation and analysis of historical inci...

  15. Well Core Analysis: Capstone Activity for Historical Geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robert H. Blodgett

    A final group project in introductory historical geology involving description and analysis of a well core and associated geophysical log. Students apply course knowledge of sedimentary geology and paleontology to interpret the depositional environment. Results of their research are summarized in a group presentation and written report.

  16. The comparative analysis of historical alien introductions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Sol; Montserrat Vilà; Ingolf Kühn

    2008-01-01

    The comparative analysis of past introductions has become a major approach in investigating the rules governing invasions,\\u000a yet their utility to understand the invasion process is not exempt of problems. The relevance of some of these problems has\\u000a not yet been fully appreciated, but it has now become clear that not taking them into account may lead to invalid conclusions.

  17. Conference on Historical Analysis and Research in Marketing Proceedings

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Recently, the Conference on Historical Analysis and Research in Marketing (CHARM) decided to digitize their annual proceedings. They have placed them online here, and scholars in this field and others will enjoy wandering through past issues. The conference is held biennially, and visitors can start things off by looking over the first volume, which was published in 1983. Articles from this first meeting include "Cultural Materialism: The Role of Goods and Societal Symbolism As Research in Marketing" and "A Note on the Varieties and Vagaries of Historical Data". Visitors are also able to search the contents by keyword or author. Taken as a whole, this archive allows users to track changes in the field of marketing and its study as a historical subject.

  18. How nurses understand and care for older people with delirium in the acute hospital: a Critical Discourse Analysis.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Irene; Tolson, Debbie; Fleming, Valerie

    2012-06-01

    Delirium is a common presentation of deteriorating health in older people. It is potentially deleterious in terms of patient experience and clinical outcomes. Much of what is known about delirium is through positivist research, which forms the evidence base for disease-based classification systems and clinical guidelines. There is little systematic study of nurses' day-to-day practice of nursing patients with delirium. The aim was to uncover the kinds of knowledge that informs nurses' care and to explicate the basis of that knowledge. Critical Discourse Analysis is underpinned by the premise that powerful interests within society mediate how social practices are constructed. Links were made between the grammatical and lexical features of nurses' language about care in interviews and naturalistic settings, and the healthcare context. Care focused on the continuous surveillance of patients with delirium by nurses themselves or vicariously through other patients, and containment. Nurses influenced by major discourses of risk reduction and safety, constructed patients with delirium as risk objects. The philosophy of person-centred and dignified care advocated in nursing literature and government policy is an emerging discourse, though little evident in the data. The current dominant discourses on safety must give space to discourses of dignity and compassion. PMID:22530864

  19. Use of historical information in extreme storm surges frequency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, Yasser; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Deville, Yves; Bardet, Lise; Rebour, Vincent

    2013-04-01

    The prevention of storm surge flood risks is critical for protection and design of coastal facilities to very low probabilities of failure. The effective protection requires the use of a statistical analysis approach having a solid theoretical motivation. Relating extreme storm surges to their frequency of occurrence using probability distributions has been a common issue since 1950s. The engineer needs to determine the storm surge of a given return period, i.e., the storm surge quantile or design storm surge. Traditional methods for determining such a quantile have been generally based on data from the systematic record alone. However, the statistical extrapolation, to estimate storm surges corresponding to high return periods, is seriously contaminated by sampling and model uncertainty if data are available for a relatively limited period. This has motivated the development of approaches to enlarge the sample extreme values beyond the systematic period. The nonsystematic data occurred before the systematic period is called historical information. During the last three decades, the value of using historical information as a nonsystematic data in frequency analysis has been recognized by several authors. The basic hypothesis in statistical modeling of historical information is that a perception threshold exists and that during a giving historical period preceding the period of tide gauging, all exceedances of this threshold have been recorded. Historical information prior to the systematic records may arise from high-sea water marks left by extreme surges on the coastal areas. It can also be retrieved from archives, old books, earliest newspapers, damage reports, unpublished written records and interviews with local residents. A plotting position formula, to compute empirical probabilities based on systematic and historical data, is used in this communication paper. The objective of the present work is to examine the potential gain in estimation accuracy with the use of historical information (to the Brest tide gauge located in the French Atlantic coast). In addition, the present work contributes to addressing the problem of the presence of outliers in data sets. Historical data are generally imprecise, and their inaccuracy should be properly accounted for in the analysis. However, as several authors believe, even with substantial uncertainty in the data, the use of historical information is a viable mean to improve estimates of rare events related to extreme environmental conditions. The preliminary results of this study suggest that the use of historical information increases the representativity of an outlier in the systematic data. It is also shown that the use of historical information, specifically the perception sea water level, can be considered as a reliable solution for the optimal planning and design of facilities to withstand extreme environmental conditions, which will occur during its lifetime, with an appropriate optimum of risk level. Findings are of practical relevance for applications in storm surge risk analysis and flood management.

  20. From Choice to Change: An Analysis of the "Choice" Discourse in Canada's 2006 Federal Election

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Brooke; Langford, Rachel; Friendly, Martha; Rauhala, Ann

    2013-01-01

    A critical discourse analysis (CDA) was used to analyze the representation of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) in the 2006 federal election in Canada. Guided by Fairclough's approach to CDA, this study analyzed written documents including newspaper articles from "The Globe and Mail" and "The National Post", the…

  1. The framing of Calvin Klein: A frame analysis of media discourse about the August 1995 Calvin Klein Jeans advertising campaign

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauren R. Tucker

    1998-01-01

    This study analyzes the media discourse about the August 1995 Calvin Klein jeans campaign which media critics characterized as “kiddie porn.” Though media placement of the campaign was limited, mainstream media reports of the nascent controversy surrounding the campaign brought it into the national spotlight. A frame analysis is used to deconstruct the kiddie?porn media frame which the industry and

  2. Paradoxical inscriptions of global subjects: critical discourse analysis of international schools' websites in the Asia–Pacific Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence Tamatea; Joy Hardy; Peter Ninnes

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of Asia–Pacific international school web pages, and explores the expressed purposes of schooling, with regard to the kinds of students\\/subjects that the schools purport to produce. Using the concept of globalization as a ‘master’ analytical frame, it is argued that despite claims to offering students unique experiences, international school web pages reproduce similar discourses in

  3. Constructing Teaching and Research Relations from the Top: An Analysis of Senior Manager Discourses on Research-Led Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayson, Susan; Schapper, Jan

    2012-01-01

    To show how research and teaching, core academic activities are discursively shaped through policy discussion we critically identify and examine the institutional effects of senior academics' discourses on research-led teaching. The analysis sheds light on the interrelationship between university policy and the powerful and productive effects of…

  4. Calling Integration into Question: A Discourse Analysis of English and "Humash" Classes at a Modern Orthodox Yeshiva High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Devra

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on discourse analysis and critical literacy, this study calls into question prevailing assumptions about integration by examining talk in English and "Humash" classrooms as windows into the two worlds of a Modern Orthodox high school. The study found that the two subjects presented very different models of teaching and learning. "Humash"…

  5. A Quantitative Multimodal Discourse Analysis of Teaching and Learning in a Web-Conferencing Environment--The Efficacy of Student-Centred Learning Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Matt; Hedberg, John G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative approach to multimodal discourse analysis for analyzing online collaborative learning. The coding framework draws together the fields of systemic functional linguistics and Activity Theory to analyze interactions between collaborative-, content- and technology-related discourse. The approach is used to examine…

  6. Expanding discourse repertoires with hybridity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Gregory J.

    2012-09-01

    In "Hybrid discourse practice and science learning" Kamberelis and Wehunt present a theoretically rich argument about the potential of hybrid discourses for science learning. These discourses draw from different forms of "talk, social practice, and material practices" to create interactions that are "intertextually complex" and "interactionally dynamic." The hybrid discourse practices are described as involving the dynamic interplay of at least three key elements: "the lamination of multiple cultural frames, the shifting relations between people and their discourse, and the shifting power relations between and among people." Each of these elements requires a respective unit of analysis and are often mutually reinforcing. The authors present a theoretically cogent argument for the study of hybrid discourse practices and identify the potential such discourses may have for science education. This theoretical development leads to an analysis of spoken and written discourse around a set of educational events concerning the investigation of owl pellets by two fifth grade students, their classmates, and teacher. Two discourse segments are presented and analyzed by the authors in detail. The first is a discourse analysis of the dissection of the owl pellet by two students, Kyle and Max. The second analysis examines the science report of these same two students. In this article, I pose a number of questions about the study with the hope that by doing so I expand the conversation around the insightful analysis presented.

  7. A Study of the Relationship between Historical Analysis and Student Achievement in Eighth Grade American History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this action research project was to study the relationship between Historical Analysis and student performance on the California Standards Test (CSTs), both English Language Arts and History, as well as to study the relationship between Historical Analysis and Reading Comprehension. It was believed that Historical Analysis required…

  8. Mapping Mathematics in Classroom Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth A.; Otten, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a particular analytic method from systemic functional linguistics, "thematic analysis," which reveals the mathematical meaning potentials construed in discourse. Addressing concerns that discourse analysis is too often content-free, thematic analysis provides a way to represent semantic structures of mathematical content,…

  9. Forests, discourses, institutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bas Arts; Marleen Buizer

    2009-01-01

    The leading question of this Forest Policy and Economics special issue is whether, how and to what extent forest governance processes can be better understood by means of discourse analysis and the science-policy interface. This article focuses on discourses only, but it does so from an institutional perspective. The reasons to advocate this so-called discursive-institutional approach are threefold: (1) to

  10. Discourses of Education and Constitutions of Class: Public Discourses on Education in Swedish PBS Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimers, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on post-structural perspectives and analysis of television programs on education, the article investigates the public educational discourse in Sweden. It shows how a dominant neoliberal educational discourse is articulated together with a discourse of equal education, where the two discourses influence and subvert each other so that…

  11. Use of cartography in historical seismicity analysis: a reliable tool to better apprehend the contextualization of the historical documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, Fradet; Grégory, Quenet; Kevin, Manchuel

    2014-05-01

    Historical studies, including historical seismicity analysis, deal with historical documents. Numerous factors, such as culture, social condition, demography, political situations and opinions or religious ones influence the way the events are transcribed in the archives. As a consequence, it is crucial to contextualize and compare the historical documents reporting on a given event in order to reduce the uncertainties affecting their analysis and interpretation. When studying historical seismic events it is often tricky to have a global view of all the information provided by the historical documents. It is also difficult to extract cross-correlated information from the documents and draw a precise historical context. Use of cartographic and geographic tools in GIS software is the best tool for the synthesis, interpretation and contextualization of the historical material. The main goal is to produce the most complete dataset of available information, in order to take into account all the components of the historical context and consequently improve the macroseismic analysis. The Entre-Deux-Mers earthquake (1759, Iepc= VII-VIII) [SISFRANCE 2013 - EDF-IRSN-BRGM] is well documented but has never benefited from a cross-analysis of historical documents and historical context elements. The map of available intensity data from SISFRANCE highlights a gap in macroseismic information within the estimated epicentral area. The aim of this study is to understand the origin of this gap by making a cartographic compilation of both, archive information and historical context elements. The results support the hypothesis that the lack of documents and macroseismic data in the epicentral area is related to a low human activity rather than low seismic effects in this zone. Topographic features, geographical position, flood hazard, roads and pathways locations, vineyards distribution and the forester coverage, mentioned in the archives and reported on the Cassini's map confirm this hypothesis. The location of the recently explored documentary sources evidence that there was no notarial activity in this particular area at that time. The importance of the economic and political dominance of Bordeaux during the XVIIth-XVIIIth centuries has to be taken into account in order to apprehend the way the earthquake was reported by the population at the regional scale. Elements related to chimneys forms or construction techniques could in turn help in identifying regional peculiarities allowing better quantifying the vulnerability aspects of the region.

  12. An analysis of conceptual metaphor in the professional and academic discourse of technical communication

    E-print Network

    Sherwood, Matthew Aaron

    2005-02-17

    This dissertation explores the ongoing division between technical communication practitioners and academics by examining the conceptual metaphors that underlie their discourse in professional journals and textbooks. Beginning with a demonstration...

  13. Non-destructive compositional analysis of historic organ reed pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manescu, A.; Fiori, F.; Giuliani, A.; Kardjilov, N.; Kasztovszky, Z.; Rustichelli, F.; Straumal, B.

    2008-03-01

    In order to be able to reproduce historic organ reed pipes, a bulk non-destructive chemical composition analysis was performed on the tongues and shallots, focusing mainly on the ratio between copper and zinc and on the presence of lead. Prompt gamma activation analysis results allowed us to observe for the first time that the ratio between the two main components of the brass alloy changed from Cu:Zn = 3:1 for the old tongues and shallots to Cu:Zn = 2:1 around the middle of the 18th century, which is typical also for the modern alloys offered to the organ builders nowadays. We also discovered that the Pb content in the old historic brass alloy diminished until the middle of 18th century when the brass alloy became mainly Pb free. The non-uniform lead distribution inside one of the shallots obtained from a prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) experiment was studied by neutron tomography. It gave us a three-dimensonal (3D) distribution of the lead inclusions inside the shallots. The lead particles are concentrated towards the base of the shallot.

  14. "Behind the Doors of Learning": The Transmission of Racist and Sexist Discourses in a History Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmot, Mark; Naidoo, Devika

    2011-01-01

    Now that the doors of historically white schools have officially been opened to Black learners, this paper presents a critical analysis of discourses of domination transmitted behind the doors of learning in a History classroom. While the official History curriculum (NCS, 2002) advocates multi-perspectival epistemological approaches, this paper…

  15. Finding Inquiry in Discourses of Audit and Reform in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Julian; Corbin, Brian; McNamara, Olwen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we examine the discourses of Primary school numeracy coordinators responsible for auditing, monitoring and supporting their colleagues in relation to the introduction and embedding of the National Numeracy Strategy (NNS) in the UK. Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) focuses our analysis on the contradictory coupling of…

  16. Language discourses and identity construction in a multilingual South African primary school

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pinky Makoe

    2007-01-01

    This article offers a critical analysis of institutional discourse(s) about English, analysing what discourses dominate, how and why particular discourses come to dominate, and the extent to which these discourses remain endorsed. Furthermore, the paper considers the relationship between language, identity and power relations, specifically how learners are socialised into different identity positions. Discourse is understood as a ‘general mode

  17. Producing children in the 21st century: a critical discourse analysis of the science and techniques of monitoring early child development.

    PubMed

    Einboden, Rochelle; Rudge, Trudy; Varcoe, Colleen

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify the implications of commonly held ideologies within theories of child development. Despite critiques to doing so, developmental theory assumes that children's bodies are unitary, natural and material. The recent explosion of neuroscience illustrates the significance of historical, social and cultural contexts to portrayals of brain development, offering the opportunity for a critical departure in thinking. Instead, this neuroscience research has been taken up in ways that align with biomedical traditions and neoliberal values. This article uses a critical discursive approach, supported by Haraway's ideas of technoscience, to analyse a population-based early child development research initiative. This initiative organises a large-scale surveillance of children's development, operating from the premise that risks to development are best captured early to optimise children's potential. The analysis in this article shows an intermingling of health and economic discourses and clarifies how the child is a figure of significant contemporary social and political interests. In a poignant example of technobiopolitics, the collusion between health research, technologies and the state enrols health professionals to participate in the production of children as subjects of social value, figured as human capital, investments in the future, or alternatively, as waste. The analysis shows how practices that participate in what has become a developmental enterprise also participate in the marginalisation of the very children they intend to serve. Hence, there is the need to rethink practices critically and move towards innovative conceptualisations of child development that hold possibilities to resist these figurations. PMID:23345326

  18. Gendered Discourse about Family Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danes, Sharon M.; Haberman, Heather R.; McTavish, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Language patterns of family business owners were explored by identifying discourse styles and emphasized ideas in four presenting contexts: business, family, intersection of family and business, and business success. The content analysis supports the existence of a general discourse style within family businesses and of similarities and…

  19. Towards proteomic analysis of milk proteins in historical building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuckova, S.; Crhova, M.; Vankova, L.; Hnizda, A.; Hynek, R.; Kodicek, M.

    2009-07-01

    The addition of proteinaceous binders to mortars and plasters has a long tradition. The protein additions were identified in many sacral and secular historical buildings. For this method of peptide mass mapping, three model mortar samples with protein additives were prepared. These samples were analysed fresh (1-2 weeks old) and after 9 months of natural ageing. The optimal duration of tryptic cleavage (2 h) and the lowest amount of material needed for relevant analysis of fresh and weathered samples were found; the sufficient amounts of weathered and fresh mortars were set to 0.05 and 0.005 g. The list of main tryptic peptides coming from milk additives (bovine milk, curd, and whey), their relative intensities and theoretical amino acid sequences assignment is presented. Several sequences have been "de novo" confirmed by mass spectrometry.

  20. The Analysis of Classroom Discourse: Elementary School Science Curricula Advancing Reasoning with Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ilonca; Kloetzer, Birgit; Moeller, Kornelia; Sodian, Beate

    2010-01-01

    Students' ability to participate in scientific discourse and to appropriately use empirical evidence to support beliefs or conclusions has been consistently stated as a core goal of science education. In the present study, we analyzed the quality of scientific reasoning in elementary school science classrooms, using the Evidence-Based Reasoning…

  1. Americans in Paris: A Discourse Analysis of Student Accounts of Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolcott, Timothy Paul

    2010-01-01

    In this study, I provide a discourse analytical and narrative-theoretical examination of four American undergraduate students' interview accounts of study abroad in France. The key finding is that all of these students accounted for the significance of their experiences studying abroad in terms that transcended the institutionally sanctioned…

  2. Pedagogising Poverty Alleviation: A Discourse Analysis of Educational and Social Policies in Argentina and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambla, Xavier; Veger, Antoni

    2009-01-01

    For the past decades international organisations and governments have promoted and implemented analogous education policies on the grounds that education is the key factor to foster development and fight poverty. This article sets the context of these educational programmes and analyses their discourse on poverty in Argentina and Chile. Then, it…

  3. Pedagogising poverty alleviation: a discourse analysis of educational and social policies in Argentina and Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xavier Rambla; Antoni Veger

    2009-01-01

    For the past decades international organisations and governments have promoted and implemented analogous education policies on the grounds that education is the key factor to foster development and fight poverty. This article sets the context of these educational programmes and analyses their discourse on poverty in Argentina and Chile. Then, it shows how they institutionalise strict surveillance, institutional denigration of

  4. Structural Characteristics of Computer-Mediated Language: A Comparative Analysis of InterChange Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Kwang-Kyu

    1996-01-01

    Compares one form of synchronous computer-mediated communication, Daedalus InterChange, with analogous spoken and written corpora. Finds that the InterChange discourse mode is not merely intermediate between speaking and writing; rather the electronic medium uniquely fosters some behaviors and inhibits others, in support of the view that physical…

  5. Identification and Disidentification in Organizational Discourse: A Metaphor Analysis of E-Mail Communication at Enron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnage, Anna K.

    2010-01-01

    This project is situated within the interpretive tradition in organizational communication research, focusing on organizational discourse. It goes further by bringing the discussion into the 21st century through examining how communication technology--specifically e-mail--plays a role in the linguistic practices that help create, maintain and…

  6. Managing Victim Status in Group Therapy for Men: A Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zverina, Michaela; Stam, Henderikus J.; Babins-Wagner, Robbie

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the abundance of research on women victims, this article sheds light on the discourse of men who are self-identified as victims of their female partners' abuse. The purpose of this study was to investigate the most salient identity constructions and abuse conceptualizations among participants of group psychotherapy for men who have…

  7. Discourse and Rare Diseases: Proposals for a Critical Analysis in the Spanish Context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio M. Bañón Hernández

    This paper puts forward proposals for the critical study of discourses pertaining mainly to rare diseases in Spain. It takes as a starting point the characteristics of the hypergenre referred to as social debate , together with legitimation and delegitimation as fundamental ideological functions that help in the examination of the relationship between society and communication. Based on data obtained

  8. Semio-Pragmatic Analysis of Cartoons Discourse: A Step towards Semiotranslation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlBzour, Naser Naif

    2011-01-01

    The primary concern of this study is to explore the subtle implications of the "Semiotranslation Approach vis-a-vis" analyzing the semiotic elements of discourse in Jordanian cartoons as creative artistic texts in which various signs manifest simultaneous interaction, thus achieving both entertainment and purposeful satire. Therefore, the…

  9. Earning One's Inheritance: Rhetorical Criticism, Everyday Talk, and the Analysis of Public Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Samuel

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes a transcribed speech in which an African American community member engaged a panel of school board officials on the topic of racial stereotypes in an elementary school science experiment. Concludes that the force of public discourse may reside less in a speaker's ability to persuade an audience than in an audience's willingness to recycle…

  10. Evaluating the Talking Cure: The Contribution of Narrative, Discourse, and Conversation Analysis to Psychotherapy Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugenie Georgaca; Evrinomy Avdi

    2009-01-01

    This article draws upon an extensive review of narrative, discourse, and conversation analyses of psychotherapy in order to outline, critically discuss, and evaluate claims made by these studies regarding the usefulness of these approaches for psychotherapy assessment. These analytic approaches are seen as compatible with the emphasis on language and meaning that characterises much of contemporary therapy theory. The claims

  11. Citizenship and Citizenship Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Zimbabwe Presidential Commission Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigauke, Aaron T.

    2011-01-01

    Educational discourse, like other fields, is not neutral. Through policy documents it has ideological functions of transmitting dominant cultures and serving certain sectional interest groups. In Zimbabwe 1998 was characterized by radical political discontent as witnessed by a rise in student activism and the formation of the main political…

  12. Isogeometric analysis: a powerful numerical tool for the elastic analysis of historical masonry arches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzani, Antonio; Malagù, Marcello; Turco, Emilio

    2014-12-01

    We illustrate a numerical tool for analyzing plane arches such as those frequently used in historical masonry heritage. It is based on a refined elastic mechanical model derived from the isogeometric approach. In particular, geometry and displacements are modeled by means of non-uniform rational B-splines. After a brief introduction, outlining the basic assumptions of this approach and the corresponding modeling choices, several numerical applications to arches, which are typical of masonry structures, show the performance of this novel technique. These are discussed in detail to emphasize the advantage and potential developments of isogeometric analysis in the field of structural analysis of historical masonry buildings with complex geometries.

  13. Identification of historical Veziragasi aqueduct using the operational modal analysis.

    PubMed

    Ercan, E; Nuhoglu, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a model updating study conducted on a historical aqueduct, called Veziragasi, in Turkey. The output-only modal identification results obtained from ambient vibration measurements of the structure were used to update a finite element model of the structure. For the purposes of developing a solid model of the structure, the dimensions of the structure, defects, and material degradations in the structure were determined in detail by making a measurement survey. For evaluation of the material properties of the structure, nondestructive and destructive testing methods were applied. The modal analysis of the structure was calculated by FEM. Then, a nondestructive dynamic test as well as operational modal analysis was carried out and dynamic properties were extracted. The natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes were determined from both theoretical and experimental modal analyses and compared with each other. A good harmony was attained between mode shapes, but there were some differences between natural frequencies. The sources of the differences were introduced and the FEM model was updated by changing material parameters and boundary conditions. Finally, the real analytical model of the aqueduct was put forward and the results were discussed. PMID:24511287

  14. Identification of Historical Veziragasi Aqueduct Using the Operational Modal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, E.; Nuhoglu, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a model updating study conducted on a historical aqueduct, called Veziragasi, in Turkey. The output-only modal identification results obtained from ambient vibration measurements of the structure were used to update a finite element model of the structure. For the purposes of developing a solid model of the structure, the dimensions of the structure, defects, and material degradations in the structure were determined in detail by making a measurement survey. For evaluation of the material properties of the structure, nondestructive and destructive testing methods were applied. The modal analysis of the structure was calculated by FEM. Then, a nondestructive dynamic test as well as operational modal analysis was carried out and dynamic properties were extracted. The natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes were determined from both theoretical and experimental modal analyses and compared with each other. A good harmony was attained between mode shapes, but there were some differences between natural frequencies. The sources of the differences were introduced and the FEM model was updated by changing material parameters and boundary conditions. Finally, the real analytical model of the aqueduct was put forward and the results were discussed. PMID:24511287

  15. Capitalizing on Synergies—A Discourse Analysis of the Process of Collaboration Among Providers of Integrative Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Andermo, Susanne; Sundberg, Tobias; Forsberg, Christina; Falkenberg, Torkel

    2015-01-01

    Background Integrative health care (IHC) combines therapies and providers from complementary and conventional health care. Previous studies on IHC have shown power relations between providers but few studies have explored how the interaction develops over time. The objective of this study was to explore the development of IHC collaboration and interaction among participating providers during a series of consensus case conferences for managing patients with back and neck pain. Methods This qualitative study was conducted within a pragmatic randomized controlled clinical trial in primary care. Patients' treatment plans were developed based on IHC provider consensus conferences (n = 26) of which 15 (5 of the first, 5 in the middle, and 5 of the last in the clinical trial) were selected for analysis. Findings were derived by means of discourse analysis, focusing on the participants’ use of subject positions during the conferences. Findings The IHC team in this study gradually formed a group identity, moving their subject positions from individual treating subjects to members of a team and were able to make consensus-based decisions about patients’ individual treatment plans. In the discourse, the IHC team identified collaborative shortcomings and problematized the provision of IHC. They were able to capitalize on the synergies in their collaboration and developed a shared vision of IHC provision. Conclusions The process of IHC collaboration involved the gradual formation of an IHC team identity, which facilitated interdisciplinary, non-hierarchical consensus-based decision-making in the team. The discourse further suggests that a reform of some legal and organizational health sector barriers might be needed to realize sustainable implementation of IHC services in Sweden. PMID:25793967

  16. Exploring news media representations of women’s exercise and subjectivity through critical discourse analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerry R. McGannon; John C. Spence

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of media work from a critical perspective being established, much is to be learned about how women’s exercise is (re)presented within news media discourses and the implications for women’s health promotion. Health promotion researchers need to further consider the media environment in which health-related meanings are constructed and compete. Building on media research from a critical perspective,

  17. Going South: Analysis of an Historic Project Engineering Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John H.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's successful conduct of the Apollo Program greatly enhanced the prestige of the United States and remains broadly accepted as America's gift to all Mankind. NASA's accomplishments continue to amaze the world. With the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) Americans once again tasked NASA to carry out a project that is expected to provide inspiration and economic stimulus to the United States and to the world. In preparation NASA has thoroughly examined space program precedents. There is, however, another precedent which has not been examined in this context but whose scope and environment in many ways parallel the VSE. This project was initiated by a team that had, ten years before, successfully completed an effort that, at a cost of $173 billion (in 2008 dollars), had pushed the envelope of technology, brought economic growth, established their country as the world leader in engineering, and been broadly accepted as that country's gift to all Mankind. The new project was again inspired by popular desire to enhance national prestige and make yet another major contribution to Humanity. This effort was predicted to require eight years and $156 billion (2008 dollars). However, after nine years and expenditures of 96% beyond the baseline, the project collapsed amid bankruptcy, political scandal, and criminal prosecution. This paper applies current project management metrics, such as earned value analysis, to review the strategic decisions in this historic failure and describe its ultimate collapse. Key mistakes are identified, and lessons are drawn which may prove useful in guiding the VSE.

  18. The (Bio)politics of Engagement: Shifts in Singapore's Policy and Public Discourse on Civics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weninger, Csilla; Kho, Ee Moi

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a historical overview of civic educational policy and political discourse in Singapore from 1959 to 2011, focusing on changes in the role attributed to students in the education process. A review of educational programmes and analysis of political speeches reveals that an earlier transmissionist approach that focused on value…

  19. Mises au point et perspectives a propos de l'analyse automatique du discours (Focuses and Perspectives with Regard to Machine Discourse Analysis)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecheux, Michel; Fuchs, Catherine

    1975-01-01

    Part One discusses social formation, language, discourse, and ideology, and linguistics as a theory of syntactic mechanisms and processes of enunciation. Part Two deals with new criticisms of program design, linguistic analysis, and discursive process analysis. (Text is in French.) (Author/MSE)

  20. The Critical Policy Discourse Analysis Frame: Helping Doctoral Students Engage with the Educational Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses an issue of increasing significance in the context of taught educational doctorates and argues that this may have wider applicability for doctoral students across a range of social science disciplines. It identifies the need to engage with policy analysis as a key element of such programmes and attempts to address…

  1. Analysis of SX farm leak histories -- Historical leak model (HLM)

    SciTech Connect

    Fredenburg, E.A.

    1998-08-20

    This report uses readily available historical information to better define the volume, chemical composition, and Cs-137/Sr-90 amounts for leaks that have occurred in the past for tanks SX-108, SX-109, SX-111, and SX-112. In particular a Historical Leak Model (HLM) is developed that is a month by month reconciliation of tank levels, fill records, and calculated boil-off rates for these tanks. The HLM analysis is an independent leak estimate that reconstructs the tank thermal histories thereby deriving each tank`s evaporative volume loss and by difference, its unaccounted losses as well. The HLM analysis was meant to demonstrate the viability of its approach, not necessarily to establish the HLM leak estimates as being definitive. Past leak estimates for these tanks have invariably resorted to soil wetting arguments but the extent of soil contaminated by each leak has always been highly uncertain. There is also a great deal of uncertainty with the HLM that was not quantified in this report, but will be addressed later. These four tanks (among others) were used from 1956 to 1975 for storage of high-level waste from the Redox process at Hanford. During their operation, tank waste temperatures were often as high as 150 C (300 F), but were more typically around 130 C. The primary tank cooling was by evaporation of tank waste and therefore periodic replacement of lost volume with water was necessary to maintain each tank`s inventory. This active reflux of waste resulted in very substantial turnovers in tank inventory as well as significant structural degradation of these tanks. As a result of the loss of structural integrity, each of these tanks leaked during their active periods of operation. Unfortunately, the large turnover in tank volume associated with their reflux cooling has made a determination of leak volumes very difficult. During much of these tanks operational histories, inventory losses because of evaporative cooling could have effectively masked any volume loss due to leak. However, careful comparison with reported tank levels during certain periods clearly show unaccounted volume losses for many tanks. As a result of the HLM analysis, SX-108, SX-109, SX-111, and SX-112 all show clear evidence of unaccounted volume losses during the period 1958 to 1975. Likewise, the HLM does not show similar unaccounted volume losses for tank SX-105, a tank with no reported leak history, verifying that the HLM is consistent with SX-105 not leaking. These unaccounted volume losses establish the leak start date and rate, and when propagated over time show that SX-108 lost 203 kgal followed by SX-109 at 111. SX-111 at 55, and SX-112 at 44 kgal.0664 These leak volumes represent maximum or upper bounds estimates of each leak and are in total volume about six times the previous leak estimates.

  2. Financial Risk Analysis and Heavy Tails 1 Historical Discussion of Risk and Return

    E-print Network

    Taqqu, Murad

    Financial Risk Analysis and Heavy Tails 1 Historical Discussion of Risk and Return Brief history of nancial risk Mean-Variance Portfolio Theory by Markowitz Risk and Factor models Value at Risk 2 More on Value at Risk Historical Simulation Parametric VaR present di erent distributional models give overview

  3. Financial Risk Analysis and Heavy Tails 1 Historical Discussion of Risk and Return

    E-print Network

    Taqqu, Murad

    Financial Risk Analysis and Heavy Tails 1 Historical Discussion of Risk and Return ffl Brief history of financial risk ffl Mean­Variance Portfolio Theory by Markowitz ffl Risk and Factor models ffl Value at Risk 2 More on Value at Risk ffl Historical Simulation ffl Parametric VaR -- present different

  4. The American Revolution in Children's Fiction: An Analysis of Historical Meaning and Narrative Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taxel, Joel

    1984-01-01

    A Marxian analysis of the form and content of children's Revolutionary War fiction shows how characteristics of these materials are related to the socioeconomic and historical milieu from which they come. Structural similarities between these novels and Western films reveal historically rooted bourgeois attitudes, social values, and ideologies.…

  5. History of Science in the Physics Curriculum: A Directed Content Analysis of Historical Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seker, Hayati; Guney, Burcu G.

    2012-05-01

    Although history of science is a potential resource for instructional materials, teachers do not have a tendency to use historical materials in their lessons. Studies showed that instructional materials should be adaptable and consistent with curriculum. This study purports to examine the alignment between history of science and the curriculum in the light of the facilitator model on the use of history of science in science teaching, and to expose possible difficulties in preparing historical materials. For this purpose, qualitative content analysis method was employed. Codes and themes were defined beforehand, with respect to levels and their sublevels of the model. The analysis revealed several problems with the alignment of historical sources for the physics curriculum: limited information about scientists' personal lives, the difficulty of linking with content knowledge, the lack of emphasis on scientific process in the physics curriculum, differences between chronology and sequence of topics, the lack of information about scientists' reasoning. Based on the findings of the analysis, it would be difficult to use original historical sources; educators were needed to simplify historical knowledge within a pedagogical perspective. There is a need for historical sources, like Harvard Case Histories in Experimental Science, since appropriate historical information to the curriculum objectives can only be obtained by simplifying complex information at the origin. The curriculum should leave opportunities for educators interested in history of science, even historical sources provides legitimate amount of information for every concepts in the curriculum.

  6. The Meanings Embedded within Childcare Regulations: A Historical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacini-Ketchabaw, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    In response to current discussions about a universal Canadian childcare system (affordable childcare for "all" families), this article deconstructs the position that childcare occupies in the province of Ontario through the examination, from a historical perspective, of a document that outlines regulations for childcare programs: the Day…

  7. Historical Range of Variability and Current Landscape Condition Analysis

    E-print Network

    State University, and Region 2 of the U.S. Forest Service May 12, 2009 #12;2 Table of Contents EXECUTIVE C. Climate Variability in Space and Time ... p 21 1. Geographic Patterns in Climate 2. Long-Term Variability in Climate D. Reference Conditions: Concept and Application ... p 25 1. Historical Range

  8. An Historical Analysis of Instructional Technology in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Vivian H.; Marsh, George E.; Miller, Michael T.

    This paper summarizes the historical growth of technology and the research that has examined this evolution. Important stages of instructional technology are explored, including the development of computer-assisted instruction and the growing use of the Internet in learning. With this medium's growth will come new opportunities for research and…

  9. The Challenges of Contrastive Discourse Analysis: Reflecting on a Study into the Influence of English on Students' Written Spanish on a Bilingual Education Program in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell-Reid, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses challenges involved in contrastive discourse analysis that emerged while carrying out a follow-up study into a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) program in Spain. Reversing the focus on English of much contrastive rhetoric work, the study investigates the effect of second-language-English on…

  10. Preserving Respectability or Blatant Disrespect? A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Morehouse Appropriate Attire Policy and Implications for Intersectional Approaches to Examining Campus Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Lori D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I conduct a critical discourse analysis of the Morehouse College Appropriate Attire Policy and discuss how issues of race, gender, and sexuality converge to reveal both overt and hidden meanings embedded in the policy. I also consider how power is used towards "other" black college men who neither fit neatly into…

  11. Analysis of Student-Instructor Interaction Patterns in Real-Time, Scientific Online Discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epp, Erik M.; Green, Kellie F.; Rahman, Aliya M.; Weaver, Gabriela C.

    2010-02-01

    The characteristics of the online environment alter how students and instructors interact. Scientific discourse among students and instructors in an online text-only synchronous environment was analyzed. In converting dialogue to text, many of the nonverbal cues, such as facial expression and tone of voice, which instructors use to gauge student understanding are lost. The participants adapt their communication style to the medium, and we present a new interaction pattern for student-instructor communication found prevalent in the synchronous, text-only, online environment. This study has implications for instructors who use synchronous, text-based communication for their courses, namely the value of posing additional questions from the instructor to verify student understanding.

  12. Reporting the Rhetoric, Implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as Represented in Ireland's Second Report to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiersey, Rachel A.; Hayes, Noirin

    2010-01-01

    Ireland's second periodic report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) presents the government's case that it is succeeding in protecting and promoting the rights of all children in Ireland. This article presents a critical discourse analysis of the government's Report to the CRC. Using a refined critical discourse

  13. On the vulnerability of historical masonry structures: analysis and mitigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Rosa Valluzzi

    2007-01-01

    This work presents a methodological approach to the study of historical structures in particularly hazardous conditions. Preliminary\\u000a knowledge, diagnostic methods and assessment procedures are selected and proposed for specific structural problems, in order\\u000a to define proper improvement techniques to increase safety levels according to preservation and restoration criteria. Both\\u000a stone and brick masonry structures, and their performance under severe horizontal

  14. The cultural politics of national testing and test result release policy in South Korea: a critical discourse analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youl-Kwan Sung; Mi Ok Kang

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the ideological construction of educational discourses embedded within the South Korean print media. Significantly, these discourses have recently promoted the resurrection of a sweeping national testing and test results release policy. Through careful examination of the “test plus release” policy, the authors show how the government has achieved hegemonic power by shaping public opinion through the national

  15. Islam Hadhari: An Ideological Discourse Analysis of Selected Speeches by UMNO President and Malaysia Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahaya, Azlan R.

    2012-01-01

    This research study explored the problem the Malay identity and society in the discourse of Malay politics. The purpose of this study was to understand how the discourse of Islam "Hadhari" as spoken by prime minister and UMNO president Abdullah Ahmad Badawi in the years 2004-2008 demonstrated the hegemony of his administration and party.…

  16. A Cultural Analysis of the Achievement Gap Discourse: Challenging the Language and Labels Used in the Work of School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Roderick L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I critique the labels and terms used to frame practices aimed at closing the achievement gap. I examine how an unacknowledged "achievement gap Discourse" has emerged from the language that informs practices and policies of contemporary school reform. I use Gee's uppercase "Discourse" and a cultural…

  17. A Corpus-Based Analysis of Discourse Anaphora in English and Korean: A Neo-Gricean Pragmatic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sok-Hun

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores discourse anaphora in English and Korean by using a neo-Gricean pragmatic approach with corpus-based data. Very little study of Korean discourse anaphora has yet taken place at the inter-sentential level, except works looking at zero anaphor and a logophoric reflexive pronoun "caki" "self." This…

  18. An Analysis of Discourse-Pragmatic and Grammatical Constraints on the Acquisition and Development of Referential Choice in Child English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates how discourse-pragmatics informs children's choice of referential forms. Three studies utilizing naturalistic data examine the role that six discourse-pragmatic features play in the acquisition of referential forms in a non-null subject language, English. The influence of child-directed speech on development is also…

  19. Role Models or Normalizing Agents? A Genealogical Analysis of Popular Written News Media Discourse regarding Male Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternod, Brandon M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author examines popular written news media discourse from the United States concerning the "boy crisis," the gender gap, and male teachers as role models employing genealogical methodologies and theoretical concepts suggested by Foucault (1984, 1990, 1995). It is argued that such discourses reveal how "common sense" beliefs…

  20. The Cultural Politics of National Testing and Test Result Release Policy in South Korea: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Youl-Kwan; Kang, Mi Ok

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the ideological construction of educational discourses embedded within the South Korean print media. Significantly, these discourses have recently promoted the resurrection of a sweeping national testing and test results release policy. Through careful examination of the "test plus release" policy, the authors show how the…

  1. A Community-Based Treatment for Native American Historical Trauma: Prospects for Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gone, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    Nineteen staff and clients in a Native American healing lodge were interviewed regarding the therapeutic approach used to address the legacy of Native American historical trauma. On the basis of thematic content analysis of interviews, 4 components of healing discourse emerged. First, clients were understood by their counselors to carry pain,…

  2. A Community-Based Treatment for Native American Historical Trauma: Prospects for Evidence-Based Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph P. Gone

    2009-01-01

    Nineteen staff and clients in a Native American healing lodge were interviewed regarding the therapeutic approach used to address the legacy of Native American historical trauma. On the basis of thematic content analysis of interviews, 4 components of healing discourse emerged. First, clients were understood by their counselors to carry pain, leading to adult dysfunction, including substance abuse. Second, counselors

  3. For a Socio-Historical Approach to the Study of Western Military Culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Wilson

    1980-01-01

    This paper explores the value systems of the military, as well as military values in society at large. Hypotheses and problems are not tested though empirical evidence, but are presented in order to direct the overall agenda and discourse for future research. The author explores military culture and its relationship with civilian society through a cultural- historical analysis, concluding that

  4. The "Islamic" in Islamic Education: Assessing the Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panjwani, Farid

    2004-01-01

    The paper assesses the dominant discourse on Islam and education that argues for an education derived from an exclusively "Islamic" vision. In addition to exploring the historical roots of this discourse, the paper analyses it with respect to its (i) arguments for an Islamic vision of education, (ii) conception of Islam, and (iii) proposals for…

  5. Children as agents of their own health: exploratory analysis of child discourse in Spain.

    PubMed

    Davó-Blanes, María Carmen; La Parra, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    The promotion of children's decision-making is one of the principles of health-promoting schools, and the empowerment of children means that they are enabled to influence their lifestyles and living conditions. The aim of this study was to find out the suggestions of Spanish school pupils in Year 3 and Year 6 of primary education to promote their own health and the health of the people closer to them, through their ideas about health. We analyse the discourse on health in the school environment from focus groups of primary school pupils aged around 8 and 12 of five schools in the town of Alicante (Spain). The groups were organized according to the type of school (public, private), the socioeconomic status of the neighbourhood (residential, working-class) and gender (single-sex, mixed groups) to ensure both the highest intergroup diversity and intra-group homogeneity. The findings show that primary school pupils have a wide and diverse notion of health. The application of the focus group technique has proved useful in eliciting information from groups of primary school pupils, and involving students in health-promoting programmes because it allows them to identify the social and interpersonal determinants of health. There is a firm basis to consider school pupils as health agents, particularly regarding interventions within the school environment itself. With the support of teachers, it is possible to train school pupils as community health agents, and increase their control over their own health. PMID:22669915

  6. Pap smear brochures, misogyny and language: a discourse analysis and feminist critique.

    PubMed

    Lane, V; Lawler, J

    1997-12-01

    Text from a public health brochure on pap smears was analysed with particular reference to ways in which the language used conveys particular messages about women and their bodies. In the text, 'humans' were found to be excluded as such. Both the pap smear service provider and the women who are the recipients of this service--and at whom such brochures are targeted--are objectified and their characteristics of human existence (i.e. ontological capacities) were restricted. The language of the pamphlet invokes an image for women associated with vaginal (penile penetrative) sex. The discourse also is found to be didactic, biomedical and written in the voice of the service provider. Further, the encounter of pap smear events is contextualized as procedural such that not only is the woman 'done to' in the process of having a cervical smear test but the woman's and provider's experiences of the encounter are silenced. It is concluded that the texts may be viewed as misogynist and that such texts do not take account of the complexity of women's decisions to 'submit to' or comply with cervical cancer screening. PMID:9437963

  7. Reconstruals of the Past: Settlement or Invasion? The Role of JUDGEMENT Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Caroline

    While little attention has been given in historiography to the language of historical narrative, and the role language plays in portraying history, the discipline of linguistics, and particularly the subdisciplines of discourse analysis and functional linguistics, have given increasing attention to the discourse of history. Recently, a group of…

  8. Using historical control information for the design and analysis of clinical trials with overdispersed count data.

    PubMed

    Gsteiger, Sandro; Neuenschwander, Beat; Mercier, Francois; Schmidli, Heinz

    2013-09-20

    Results from clinical trials are never interpreted in isolation. Previous studies in a similar setting provide valuable information for designing a new trial. For the analysis, however, the use of trial-external information is challenging and therefore controversial, although it seems attractive from an ethical or efficiency perspective. Here, we consider the formal use of historical control data on lesion counts in a multiple sclerosis trial. The approach to incorporating historical data is Bayesian, in that historical information is captured in a prior that accounts for between-trial variability and hence leads to discounting of historical data. We extend the meta-analytic-predictive approach, a random-effects meta-analysis of historical data combined with the prediction of the parameter in the new trial, from normal to overdispersed count data of individual-patient or aggregate-trial format. We discuss the prior derivation for the lesion mean count in the control group of the new trial for two populations. For the general population (without baseline enrichment), with 1936 control patients from nine historical trials, between-trial variability was moderate to substantial, leading to a prior effective sample size of about 45 control patients. For the more homogenous population (with enrichment), with 412 control patients from five historical trials, the prior effective sample size was approximately 63 patients. Although these numbers are small relative to the historical data, they are fairly typical in settings where between-trial heterogeneity is moderate. For phase II, reducing the number of control patients by 45 or by 63 may be an attractive option in many multiple sclerosis trials. PMID:23722585

  9. Corporate Discourse and the Academy: A Polemic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Gary

    2003-01-01

    Critical analysis of vocabulary, imagery, and rhetoric in business texts shows that higher education is adopting a free-market discourse depicting the academy in terms of a knowledge industry or revenue generator in which intellectual resources are "leveraged" and knowledge is a "commodity." This discourse is characterized as management centered,…

  10. Historical Material Analysis of DC745U Pressure Pads

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz-Acosta, Denisse [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-30

    As part of the Enhance Surveillance mission, it is the goal to provide suitable lifetime assessment of stockpile materials. This report is an accumulation of historical publication on the DC745U material and their findings. It is the intention that the B61 LEP program uses this collection of data to further develop their understanding and potential areas of study. DC745U is a commercially available silicone elastomer consisting of dimethyl, methyl-phenyl, and methyl-vinyl siloxane repeat units. Originally, this material was manufactured by Dow Corning as Silastic{reg_sign} DC745U at their manufacturing facility in Kendallville, IN. Recently, Dow Corning shifted this material to the Xiameter{reg_sign} brand product line. Currently, DC745U is available through Xiameter{reg_sign} or Dow Corning's distributor R. D. Abbott Company. DC745U is cured using 0.5 wt% vinyl-specific peroxide curing agent known as Luperox 101 or Varox DBPH-50. This silicone elastomer is used in numerous parts, including two major components (outer pressure pads and aft cap support) in the W80 and as pressure pads on the B61. DC745U is a proprietary formulation, thus Dow Corning provides limited information on its composition and properties. Based on past experience with Dow Corning, DC745U is at risk of formulation changes without notification to the costumer. A formulation change for DC745U may have a significant impact because the network structure is a key variable in determining material properties. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of historical DC745U studies and identify gaps that need to be addressed in future work. Some of the previous studies include the following: 1. Spectroscopic characterization of raw gum stock. 2. Spectroscopic, thermal, and mechanical studies on cured DC745U. 3. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and solvent swelling studies on DC745U with different crosslink densities. 4. NMR, solvent swelling, thermal, and mechanical studies on thermally aged DC745U. 5. NMR, solvent swelling, thermal, and mechanical studies on radiolytically aged DC745U. Each area is reviewed and further work is suggested to improve our understanding of DC745U for systems engineering, surveillance, aging assessments, and lifetime assessment.

  11. Persuasive Discourse Impairments in Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ghayoumi, Zahra; Yadegari, Fariba; Mahmoodi-Bakhtiari, Behrooz; Fakharian, Esmaeil; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Rasouli, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considering the cognitive and linguistic complexity of discourse production, it is expected that individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) should face difficulties in this task. Therefore, clinical examination of discourse has become a useful tool for studying and assessment of communication skills of people suffering from TBI. Among different genres of discourse, persuasive discourse is considered as a more cognitively demanding task. However, little is known about persuasive discourse in individuals suffering from TBI. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of adults with TBI on a task of spoken persuasive discourse to determine the impaired linguistic measures. Patients and Methods: Thirteen TBI nonaphasic Persian speaking individuals, ranged between 19 to 40 years (Mean = 25.64 years; SD = 6.10) and 59 healthy adults matched by age, were asked to perform the persuasive discourse task. The task included asking the participants to express their opinion on a topic, and after the analysis of the produced discourse, the two groups were compared on the basis of their language productivity, sentential complexity, maze ratio and cohesion ratio. Results: The TBI group produced discourses with less productivity, sentential complexity, cohesion ratio and more maze ratio compared the control group. Conclusions: As it is important to consider acquired communication disorders particularly discourse impairment of brain injured patients along with their other clinical impairments and regarding the fact that persuasive discourse is crucial in academic and social situations, the persuasive discourse task presented in this study could be a useful tool for speech therapists, intending to evaluate communication disorders in patients with TBI.

  12. Ground truth model, tool, and dataset for layout analysis of historical documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kai; Seuret, Mathias; Wei, Hao; Liwicki, Marcus; Hennebert, Jean; Ingold, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new dataset and a ground-truthing methodology for layout analysis of historical documents with complex layouts. The dataset is based on a generic model for ground-truth presentation of the complex layout structure of historical documents. For the purpose of extracting uniformly the document contents, our model defines five types of regions of interest: page, text block, text line, decoration, and comment. Unconstrained polygons are used to outline the regions. A performance metric is proposed in order to evaluate various page segmentation methods based on this model. We have analysed four state-of-the-art ground-truthing tools: TRUVIZ, GEDI, WebGT, and Aletheia. From this analysis, we conceptualized and developed Divadia, a new tool that overcomes some of the drawbacks of these tools, targeting the simplicity and the efficiency of the layout ground truthing process on historical document images. With Divadia, we have created a new public dataset. This dataset contains 120 pages from three historical document image collections of different styles and is made freely available to the scientific community for historical document layout analysis research.

  13. Analysis of CMIP5 Historical Runs for Southwest US Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, S.; Noone, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    Decadal changes in southwest US precipitation may have profound consequences on agriculture and water resource management. Therefore, in order to investigate the potential for future predictability, we examine historical runs from the CMIP5 archive to evaluate model performance against the present climate. We focus on mechanisms linked to decadal variations in southwest US precipitation, and the occurrence of long-term drought. Precipitation in the southwest US is dominated by mesoscale convective activity from the south during the summer monsoon season, and large-scale storms crossing the central US west coast during winter. Precipitation climatology varies between the CMIP5 models in the summer, due to shifts in the location of the monsoon ridge and the timing of the reversal of the low-level winds. Varied results are also seen in 20th Century Reanalysis V2, ECMWF 40 Year Reanalysis, and GPCC gauge precipitation data, due to the difficulty in capturing thunderstorm activity during this season. The CMIP5 models and data sets are more consistent in winter, due to their ability to represent the characteristics of large-scale coastal storms. Higher than average precipitation in the southwest US on decadal timescales is generally associated with low pressure anomalies over the northern Pacific Ocean and southern US, and high pressure anomalies over northern North America. These pressure anomalies are in turn associated with cool north Pacific Ocean SST anomalies, and warmer than usual equatorial Pacific Ocean SSTs. These warm anomalies extend northwards along the west coast of Mexico and the US in winter. This evidence of an atmospheric bridge between SST anomalies in the Pacific Ocean and southwest US precipitation may be useful in predicting decadal drought in the Great Basin region if the SST anomalies are predictable on long timescales.

  14. Tractographic Analysis of Historical Lesion Surgery for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Schoene-Bake, Jan-Christoph; Parpaley, Yaroslav; Weber, Bernd; Panksepp, Jaak; Hurwitz, Trevor A; Coenen, Volker A

    2010-01-01

    Various surgical brain ablation procedures for the treatment of refractory depression were developed in the twentieth century. Most notably, key target sites were (i) the anterior cingulum, (ii) the anterior limb of the internal capsule, and (iii) the subcaudate white matter, which were regarded as effective targets. Long-term symptom remissions were better following lesions of the anterior internal capsule and subcaudate white matter than of the cingulum. It is possible that the observed clinical improvements of these various surgical procedures may reflect shared influences on presently unspecified brain affect-regulating networks. Such possibilities can now be analyzed using modern brain connectivity procedures such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography. We determined whether the shared connectivities of the above lesion sites in healthy volunteers might explain the therapeutic effects of the various surgical approaches. Accordingly, modestly sized historical lesions, especially of the anatomical overlap areas, were ‘implanted' in brain-MRI scans of 53 healthy subjects. These were entered as seed regions for probabilistic DTI connectivity reconstructions. We analyzed for the shared connectivities of bilateral anterior capsulotomy, anterior cingulotomy, subcaudate tractotomy, and stereotactic limbic leucotomy (a combination of the last two lesion sites). Shared connectivities between the four surgical approaches mapped onto the most mediobasal aspects of bilateral frontal lobe fibers, including the forceps minor and the anterior thalamic radiations that contacted subgenual cingulate regions. Anatomically, convergence of these shared connectivities may derive from the superolateral branch of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB), a structure that connects these frontal areas to the origin of the mesolimbic dopaminergic ‘reward' system in the midbrain ventral tegmental area. Thus, all four surgical anti-depressant approaches may be promoting positive affect by converging influences onto the MFB. PMID:20736994

  15. Tractographic analysis of historical lesion surgery for depression.

    PubMed

    Schoene-Bake, Jan-Christoph; Parpaley, Yaroslav; Weber, Bernd; Panksepp, Jaak; Hurwitz, Trevor A; Coenen, Volker A

    2010-12-01

    Various surgical brain ablation procedures for the treatment of refractory depression were developed in the twentieth century. Most notably, key target sites were (i) the anterior cingulum, (ii) the anterior limb of the internal capsule, and (iii) the subcaudate white matter, which were regarded as effective targets. Long-term symptom remissions were better following lesions of the anterior internal capsule and subcaudate white matter than of the cingulum. It is possible that the observed clinical improvements of these various surgical procedures may reflect shared influences on presently unspecified brain affect-regulating networks. Such possibilities can now be analyzed using modern brain connectivity procedures such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography. We determined whether the shared connectivities of the above lesion sites in healthy volunteers might explain the therapeutic effects of the various surgical approaches. Accordingly, modestly sized historical lesions, especially of the anatomical overlap areas, were 'implanted' in brain-MRI scans of 53 healthy subjects. These were entered as seed regions for probabilistic DTI connectivity reconstructions. We analyzed for the shared connectivities of bilateral anterior capsulotomy, anterior cingulotomy, subcaudate tractotomy, and stereotactic limbic leucotomy (a combination of the last two lesion sites). Shared connectivities between the four surgical approaches mapped onto the most mediobasal aspects of bilateral frontal lobe fibers, including the forceps minor and the anterior thalamic radiations that contacted subgenual cingulate regions. Anatomically, convergence of these shared connectivities may derive from the superolateral branch of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB), a structure that connects these frontal areas to the origin of the mesolimbic dopaminergic 'reward' system in the midbrain ventral tegmental area. Thus, all four surgical anti-depressant approaches may be promoting positive affect by converging influences onto the MFB. PMID:20736994

  16. Biogeography of Human Infectious Diseases: A Global Historical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cashdan, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Human pathogen richness and prevalence vary widely across the globe, yet we know little about whether global patterns found in other taxa also predict diversity in this important group of organisms. This study (a) assesses the relative importance of temperature, precipitation, habitat diversity, and population density on the global distributions of human pathogens and (b) evaluates the species-area predictions of island biogeography for human pathogen distributions on oceanic islands. Methods Historical data were used in order to minimize the influence of differential access to modern health care on pathogen prevalence. The database includes coded data (pathogen, environmental and cultural) for a worldwide sample of 186 non-industrial cultures, including 37 on islands. Prevalence levels for 10 pathogens were combined into a pathogen prevalence index, and OLS regression was used to model the environmental determinants of the prevalence index and number of pathogens. Results Pathogens (number and prevalence index) showed the expected latitudinal gradient, but predictors varied by latitude. Pathogens increased with temperature in high-latitude zones, while mean annual precipitation was a more important predictor in low-latitude zones. Other environmental factors associated with more pathogens included seasonal dry extremes, frost-free climates, and human population density outside the tropics. Islands showed the expected species-area relationship for all but the smallest islands, and the relationship was not mediated by habitat diversity. Although geographic distributions of free-living and parasitic taxa typically have different determinants, these data show that variables that influence the distribution of free-living organisms also shape the global distribution of human pathogens. Understanding the cause of these distributions is potentially important, since geographical variation in human pathogens has an important influence on global disparities in human welfare. PMID:25271730

  17. Historical analysis of professionalism in western societies: implications for interprofessional education and collaborative practice.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Hossein; Hall, Jodi; DeLuca, Sandra

    2014-03-01

    Health care systems around the world are under tremendous pressure to change their models of health care delivery - from the current multiprofessional health care delivery into interprofessional collaborative care models with the ultimate goal of improving patient/client outcomes. The growing diversity of the population, the increasing number of vulnerable persons (elderly, homeless, those living with chronic health conditions), the complexity of health problems, and the shortage of health care providers have forced health policymakers to call for sweeping revisions to how health care is provided, impacting how health care program students are educated. However, in professional training emphasis is placed on uniprofessional education. Learners are socialized in isolation from those in other related professions to ensure the development of a shared professional identity. Consequently, by program completion each student will not only master the knowledge, skills and norms of his/her own profession, but will also develop a silo identity, called "uniprofessional identity". This isolationist identity creates a lack of understanding of others. In limiting their exposure to learning about the roles and value of other health care professionals, persistent negative stereotypical attitudes towards other professionals are reinforced. In this paper, we present the historical evolution(s) of the discourse of professionalism to assist us to develop a deeper understanding of socio-historical context within which interprofessional education (IPE) is embedded within, and collaborative person-centered practice (CPCP). With greater insight, we can (re)conceptualize the possibilities, and advance research on, interprofessional education and practice in the present. PMID:24383410

  18. Environmental Discourse & Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Meisner

    The course will consider the relationship between discourse and nature. Through a variety of readings, lectures, discussions, interactive exercises, written work, and presentations, the course will explore the scope and character of a wide range of public discourses around environmental affairs. Combining theoretical material with examples, it will address the following topics: the cultural and social contexts of environmental discourse;

  19. Risk analysis and risk management: an historical perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent T. Covello; Jeryl Mumpower

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of risk analysis and risk management, giving special emphasis to the neglected period prior to the 20th century. The overall objective of the paper is to: (1) dampen the prevailing tendency to view present-day concerns about risk in an ahistorical context; (2) shed light on the intellectual antecedents of current thinking about risk; (3) clarify

  20. Analysis of genetic data on Jewish populations. I. Historical background, demographic features, and genetic markers.

    PubMed Central

    Bonné-Tamir, B; Karlin, S; Kenett, R

    1979-01-01

    Part I describes the data sets on which the analysis of Part II is based. This covers the nature of the populations sampled, the extent to which the samples are representative, and a brief review of historical and demographic facts on the populations involved. PMID:380329

  1. How and When Did We Get Here? An Historical Institutionalist Analysis of EU Biotechnology Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charlotte Burns

    2011-01-01

    EU biotechnology policy is locked into a sub-optimal path, with a fractured regulatory system and limited release of new crops onto the market. An historical institutionalist analysis of this policy area reveals insights into how this state of affairs came to pass and allows predictions about the sector’s future development. The case study also provides insights into how and why

  2. How and When Did We Get Here? An Historical Institutionalist Analysis of EU Biotechnology Policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charlotte Burns

    2012-01-01

    EU biotechnology policy is locked into a sub-optimal path, with a fractured regulatory system and limited release of new crops onto the market. An historical institutionalist analysis of this policy area reveals insights into how this state of affairs came to pass and allows predictions about the sector’s future development. The case study also provides insights into how and why

  3. NASA/SP-2013-605 An Analysis and a Historical Review

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    NASA/SP-2013-605 An Analysis and a Historical Review of the Apollo Program Lunar Module Touchdown Dynamics George A. Zupp, PhD Engineering Directorate, Retired Structural Engineering Division NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 77058 January 2013 #12;NASA STI Program ... in Profile Since its founding

  4. The Role of Historical Resource Constraints in Modern Gender Inequality: A Cross-Country Analysis+

    E-print Network

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    The Role of Historical Resource Constraints in Modern Gender Inequality: A Cross-Country Analysis scarcities played a role in the emergence of gender norms inimical to women, culture that persists prescribing a domestic role for women may be traced to an ancient gender-based division of labor whereby women

  5. Cultural-Historical Activity Theory and Domain Analysis: Metatheoretical Implications for Information Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cultural-historical activity theory is an important theory in modern psychology. In recent years, it has drawn more attention from related disciplines including information science. Argument: This paper argues that activity theory and domain analysis which uses the theory as one of its bases could bring about some important…

  6. Analysis of a Century of Instrumentally Recorded Historical Earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Uhrhammer

    2001-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay Region (SFBR) Historical Earthquake Re-analysis Project (HERP) objective is to characterize spatial and temporal evolution of SFBR seismicity during the initial part of the earthquake cycle as the SFBR emerges from the stress shadow of the great 1906 San Francisco earthquake. The problem is that the existing Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL) seismicity catalog for the SFBR,

  7. The Making of Paranormal Belief: History, Discourse Analysis and the Object of Belief 

    E-print Network

    White, Lewis

    2013-05-24

    The present study comprises a discursive analysis of a cognitive phenomenon, paranormal beliefs. A discursive psychological approach to belief highlights that an important component of the cognitivist work has been how the ...

  8. Teaching Discourse Intonation with Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaken, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Brazil's system of discourse intonation (DI) is critically appraised, and some shortcomings are described. Modifications to DI are suggested, the most important being to recognize that tones have meanings derived from two functions: firstly to indicate the distribution of knowledge between speaker and listener--the analysis of tone in yes/no…

  9. A network-base analysis of CMIP5 "historical" experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracco, A.; Foudalis, I.; Dovrolis, C.

    2012-12-01

    In computer science, "complex network analysis" refers to a set of metrics, modeling tools and algorithms commonly used in the study of complex nonlinear dynamical systems. Its main premise is that the underlying topology or network structure of a system has a strong impact on its dynamics and evolution. By allowing to investigate local and non-local statistical interaction, network analysis provides a powerful, but only marginally explored, framework to validate climate models and investigate teleconnections, assessing their strength, range, and impacts on the climate system. In this work we propose a new, fast, robust and scalable methodology to examine, quantify, and visualize climate sensitivity, while constraining general circulation models (GCMs) outputs with observations. The goal of our novel approach is to uncover relations in the climate system that are not (or not fully) captured by more traditional methodologies used in climate science and often adopted from nonlinear dynamical systems analysis, and to explain known climate phenomena in terms of the network structure or its metrics. Our methodology is based on a solid theoretical framework and employs mathematical and statistical tools, exploited only tentatively in climate research so far. Suitably adapted to the climate problem, these tools can assist in visualizing the trade-offs in representing global links and teleconnections among different data sets. Here we present the methodology, and compare network properties for different reanalysis data sets and a suite of CMIP5 coupled GCM outputs. With an extensive model intercomparison in terms of the climate network that each model leads to, we quantify how each model reproduces major teleconnections, rank model performances, and identify common or specific errors in comparing model outputs and observations.

  10. Can historic neighborhoods compete? Analysis of and recommendations for local incentives for owner-occupied historic housing

    E-print Network

    Rowe, Rebecca Elizabeth

    2005-02-17

    This research study sets out to determine what incentives and programs are being utilized throughout the country and in Texas to keep historic residential neighborhoods maintained and vibrant. For this purpose, federal, state and local programs...

  11. Monitoring of historical frescoes by timed infrared imaging analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadelano, G.; Bison, P.; Bortolin, A.; Ferrarini, G.; Peron, F.; Girotto, M.; Volinia, M.

    2015-03-01

    The subflorescence and efflorescence phenomena are widely acknowledged as the major causes of permanent damage to fresco wall paintings. They are related to the occurrence of cycles of dry/wet conditions inside the walls. Therefore, it is essential to identify the presence of water on the decorated surfaces and inside the walls. Nondestructive testing in industrial applications have confirmed that active infrared thermography with continuous timed images acquisition can improve the outcomes of thermal analysis aimed to moisture identification. In spite of that, in cultural heritage investigations these techniques have not been yet used extensively on a regular basis. This paper illustrates an application of these principles in order to evaluate the decay of fresco mural paintings in a medieval chapel located in North-West of Italy. One important feature of this study is the use of a robotic system called aIRview that can be utilized to automatically acquire and process thermal images. Multiple accurate thermal views of the inside walls of the building have been produced in a survey that lasted several days. Signal processing algorithms based on Fast Fourier Transform analysis have been applied to the acquired data in order to formulate trustworthy hypotheses about the deterioration mechanisms.

  12. Analysis of historical delta values for IAEA/LANL NDA training courses

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Santi, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bonner, Elisa [FORMER N-4 STUDENT

    2009-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supports the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) by providing training for IAEA inspectors in neutron and gamma-ray Nondestructive Assay (NDA) of nuclear material. Since 1980, all new IAEA inspectors attend this two week course at LANL gaining hands-on experience in the application of NDA techniques, procedures and analysis to measure plutonium and uranium nuclear material standards with well known pedigrees. As part of the course the inspectors conduct an inventory verification exercise. This exercise provides inspectors the opportunity to test their abilities in performing verification measurements using the various NDA techniques. For an inspector, the verification of an item is nominally based on whether the measured assay value agrees with the declared value to within three times the historical delta value. The historical delta value represents the average difference between measured and declared values from previous measurements taken on similar material with the same measurement technology. If the measurement falls outside a limit of three times the historical delta value, the declaration is not verified. This paper uses measurement data from five years of IAEA courses to calculate a historical delta for five non-destructive assay methods: Gamma-ray Enrichment, Gamma-ray Plutonium Isotopics, Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting, Active Neutron Coincidence Counting and the Neutron Coincidence Collar. These historical deltas provide information as to the precision and accuracy of these measurement techniques under realistic conditions.

  13. Racism in the News: A Critical Discourse Analysis of News Reporting in Two Australian Newspapers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER TEO

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study is to probe for ideological construction of racism imbricated within the structure of newspaper reporting. The study focuses on news reports relating to a Vietnamese gang in Australia whose violent and drug-dealing activities have received publicity in two Sydney-based newspapers: The Sydney Morning Herald and The Daily Telegraph. The analysis of these reports adheres to

  14. Analysis of Classroom Discourse and Instructor's Awareness of Speech in a Spanish College Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rondon-Pari, Graziela

    2011-01-01

    This is an instrumental case study and consists of the description, analysis and interpretation of the teaching practices of a Spanish college instructor. The aim of this research project is to find answers to the following questions: What is the ratio of L1-L2 spoken in class? For what functions is each language used? And, are there…

  15. An Exploratory Analysis of Communication in Peer-Directed Educational Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, William J.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory analysis examined the nature of asynchronous, text-based communication in peer-directed educational discussions. The nature of communication changed over time and women exhibited greater tendency for epistolary communication than men. Initial posts, which were expository in nature, focused on disseminating information whereas…

  16. Wildlife-Based Recreation as Economic Windfall: A Rhetorical Analysis of Public Discourse on Birding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Steven G.; Cable, Ted T.; Scott, David

    2010-01-01

    Symbolic convergence theory posits that groups of like-minded people use linguistic symbols to construct a shared reality and form rhetorical visions (ways of viewing and communicating about an issue). To see how rhetorical visions might help shape public tourism policy, the authors used fantasy theme analysis to examine 206 Kansas newspaper…

  17. Career Definition and Denial: A Discourse Analysis of Graduate Trainees' Accounts of Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coupland, Christine

    2004-01-01

    The concept of "career" has long been investigated in the social sciences. It has been described as being in relationship with identity and providing a residual trace of the individual's relationship with work. A constructionist approach to research enables a focus on the language of career-talk as an opaque phenomenon. The analysis of 54…

  18. Negotiating Textual Talk: Conversation Analysis, Pedagogy and the Organisation of Online Asynchronous Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Will

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses Conversation Analysis to investigate the ways in which participants in an online asynchronous postgraduate reading group managed and negotiated their contributions within the discussion. Using the conversation analytic concerns with sequential organisation, adjacency pairs and topicality, this article shows the analytic insights…

  19. What does brand mean? historical-analysis method and construct definition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara B. Stern

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the meaning of the term brand means by presenting a method of historical analysis and construct definition\\u000a based on information in theOxford English Dictionary. The method’s use is demonstrated in an analysis of the original meanings that underlie the term’s usage both as a single\\u000a word and in compounds such as brand competition, brand personality, brand reputation,

  20. Analyzing the Cohesion of English Text and Discourse with Automated Computer Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Moongee

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the lexical and discourse features of English text and discourse with automated computer technologies. Specifically, this article examines the cohesion of English text and discourse with automated computer tools, Coh-Metrix and TEES. Coh-Metrix is a text analysis computer tool that can analyze English text and discourse

  1. Retroactive Inhibition of Meaningful Discourse (A Monograph)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Richard C.; Myrow, David L.

    1971-01-01

    This monograph analyzes theoretical and methodological problems that may have prevented previous research from detecting retroactive inhibition with meaningful discourse and reports on two experiments based on the analysis. (Author/TA)

  2. Constructing the experience of chronic pain through discourse.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Katie; Kennedy, Norelee; Harmon, Dominic

    2013-03-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the discourses used by people with chronic pain. Using qualitative interview data from five Irish people with a variety of chronic pain conditions, Foucauldian discourse analysis was undertaken to identify the discourses in operation in participants' accounts. Three discourses were identified: a moral discourse, a discourse of pain as personal tragedy, and a biomedical discourse. A moral discourse was used to construct participants as moral individuals experiencing real pain who try to accomplish activities and fulfil social roles without burdening others. The discourse of chronic pain as personal tragedy describes the multiple negative consequences of chronic pain including activity, relationship, physical, financial, and emotional consequences, and changed expectations of the future. This discourse bolsters the moral discourse through rejecting any benefits associated with chronic pain. Participants rejected a biomedical discourse by proposing their own explanatory models of pain, resisting psychosocial understandings of pain, criticizing medical professionals and healthcare services, and challenging medical expertise, professionalism, and power. These practices allow participants to reject the patient subject-position with its attendant passivity and requirements for adherence and compliance. PMID:23016628

  3. An Integrated 3S and Historical Materials Analysis of the Keriya Paleoriver, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Lei; Wang, Xinyuan; Cai, Heng

    2014-03-01

    Combining analysis of 3S (RS, GIS and GPS) and historical materials (historical records, ancient map and academic and literary writings) allows mapping of the Keriya Paleoriver of Southern Xinjiang, NW China. Keriya Paleoriver, one of the ancient Four Green Corridors which passes through the Taklimakan Desert from south to north in the Tarim Basin, recorded changes of the climate-environment in the ancient Silk Road of the region. According to the archaeological data, historical materials and paleoclimates information, its eco-environment and climate have had great changes since the 1.09Ma B.P., especially during the last 2,000 years, which has led to many famous ancient cities to be abandoned and the route of the ancient Silk Road to be moved southward. Using RS (optical and radar imagery), GIS (mapping and spatial analysis) and GPS (study area investigation), we mapped a major paleodrainage system of Keriya River, which have linked the Kunlun Mountains to the Tienshan Mountains through the Taklimakan Desert, possibly as far back as the early Pleistocene. This study illustrates the capability of the 3S and historical materials, in mapping the Keriya Paleoriver drainage networks and archaeological study on the ancient Silk Road.

  4. The Achievement Gaps and Mathematics Education: An Analysis of the U.S. Political Discourse in Light of Foucault's Governmentality

    E-print Network

    Indiogine, Salvatore Enrico Paolo

    2013-08-06

    The research question that I posed for this investigation is how the principles of Foucault’s governmentality can shed light on the political discourse on the achievement gaps (AGs) at the federal level. The AGs have been for some years now...

  5. An Analysis of Peer Interaction Patterns as Discoursed by On-Line Small Group Problem-Solving Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chen-Chung; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2008-01-01

    Currently, numerous on-line discussion forums have been developed for educational purposes; therefore, a better understanding about peer student discussion or discourse interactions is quite important. Through gathering peer learning interactions on 57 college computer science students, who were randomly assigned into 14 small groups for solving…

  6. A discourse analysis of power in relation to PSYCHLOPS (Psychological outcome profiles) in the context of CBT for psychosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vikki Kelly; Sue Holttum; Chris Evans; Melanie Shepherd

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Outcome measures (OMs) and routine change measurement have developed dramatically in psychological therapies over the last two decades and some therapists have expressed concerns that this, depending on how it is handled by the parties involved, can markedly affect the therapy. However, little research has investigated this. It therefore seemed timely to explore discourses of OMs drawn upon by

  7. Public Discourse on HIV and AIDS: An Archival Analysis of National Newspaper Reporting in Uganda, 1996-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagone, Elizabeth; Mathur, Sanyukta; Nakyanjo, Neema; Nalugoda, Fred; Santelli, John

    2014-01-01

    Uganda is recognised as an early success story in the HIV epidemic at least in part due to an open and vigorous national dialogue about HIV prevention. This study examined the national discourse about HIV, AIDS, and young people in New Vision, Uganda's leading national newspaper between 1996 and 2011, building from a previous archival…

  8. Teachers in the News: A Critical Analysis of One US Newspaper's Discourse on Education, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Public education discourse in the USA has been characterized by messages of crisis shaping education policies across national contexts. Education policy solutions target a lack of qualified teachers and insufficient oversight of teacher practice as central factors in the crisis, placing teacher identity as knowledgeable, authoritative…

  9. Captive on a carousel: discourses of 'new' in medical education 1910-2010.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Cynthia R; Hodges, Brian D; Austin, Zubin

    2013-10-01

    Medical educators aim to train physicians with sound scientific knowledge, expert clinical skills and an ability to work effectively with patients, colleagues and health systems. Over the past century, educators have devoted considerable thought and effort to how medical education might be improved. Analysing the language used to describe these initiatives provides insight into assumptions and practices. The authors conducted a Foucauldian critical discourse analysis of prominent recurrent themes in the North American medical education literature. The assembled archive of texts included works of Abraham Flexner, articles from the journal Academic Medicine (including its predecessor journals) and major medical education reports. A series of recurring themes were identified, including the need to avoid over-specialization, the importance of generalism, and the need to broaden criteria for medical student selection. Analysis of these recurring themes allowed identification of a prominent and recurrent discourse of 'new.' This discourse places focus on the future, ignores the ongoing historical nature of issues, suggests a sense of urgency and enables the proposal of modest solutions. It emphasizes changes for individual future doctors, thereby limiting consideration of institutional and systemic factors. Using the image of a carousel, the regular return of themes can be seen as carousel ponies circling around repeatedly in medical education. Identification of this medical education carousel provides an opportunity for medical educators to understand the historical nature of calls for change, and to consider what kinds of reform might be required if they wish to avoid this repetition in the future. PMID:23053873

  10. Some historical relationships between science and technology with implications for behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moxley, Roy A.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between science and technology is examined in terms of some implications for behavior analysis. Problems result when this relationship is seen as one in which science generally begets technology in a one-way, or hierarchical, relationship. These problems are not found when the relationship between science and technology is seen as two-way, or symmetrical, within a larger context of relationships. Some historical examples are presented. Collectively, these and other examples in the references weaken the case for a prevailing one-way, hierarchical relationship and strengthen the case for a two-way, symmetrical relationship. In addition to being more accurate historically, the symmetrical relationship is also more consistent with the principles of behavior analysis. PMID:22478016

  11. Are patient-centered care values as reflected in teaching scenarios really being taught when implemented by teaching faculty? A discourse analysis on an Indonesian medical school's curriculum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mora Claramita; Adi H Sutomo; Mark A Graber; Albert JJ Scherpbier

    2011-01-01

    Background  According to The Indonesian Medical Council, 2006, Indonesian competence-based medical curriculum should be oriented towards\\u000a family medicine. We aimed to find out if the educational goal of patient-centered care within family medicine (comprehensive\\u000a care and continuous care) were adequately transferred from the expected curriculum to implemented curriculum and teaching\\u000a process.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Discourse analysis was done by 3 general practitioners of scenarios

  12. An objective change-point analysis of historical Atlantic hurricane numbers

    E-print Network

    Jewson, S; Jewson, Stephen; Penzer, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    We perform an objective change-point analysis on 106 years of historical hurricane number data. The algorithm we use looks at all possible combinations of change-points and compares them in terms of the variances of the differences between real and modelled numbers. Overfitting is avoided by using cross-validation. We identify four change-points, and show that the presence of temporal structure in the hurricane number time series is highly statistically significant.

  13. Analysis of natural red dyes (cochineal) in textiles of historical importance using HPLC and multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Ana; Sousa, Micaela M; Hallett, Jessica; Lopes, João A; Oliveira, M Conceição

    2011-08-01

    A new analytical approach based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and multivariate data analysis was applied and assessed for analyzing the red dye extracted from cochineal insects, used in precious historical textiles. The most widely used method of analysis involves quantification of specific minor compounds (markers), using HPLC-DAD. However, variation in the cochineal markers concentration, use of aggressive dye extraction methods and poor resolution of HPLC chromatograms can compromise the identification of the precise insect species used in the textiles. In this study, a soft extraction method combined with a new dye recovery treatment was developed, capable of yielding HPLC chromatograms with good resolution, for the first time, for historical cochineal-dyed textiles. After principal components analysis (PCA) and mass spectrometry (MS), it was possible to identify the cochineal species used in these textiles, in contrast to the accepted method of analysis. In order to compare both methodologies, 7 cochineal species and 63 historical cochineal insect specimens were analyzed using the two approaches, and then compared with the results for 15 historical textiles in order to assess their applicability to real complex samples. The methodology developed here was shown to provide more accurate and consistent information than the traditional method. Almost all of the historical textiles were dyed with Porphyrophora sp. insects. These results emphasize the importance of adopting the proposed methodology for future research on cochineal (and related red dyes). Mild extraction methods and HPLC-DAD/MS(n) analysis yield distinctive profiles, which, in combination with a PCA reference database, are a powerful tool for identifying red insect dyes. PMID:21626194

  14. Family Policy, Welfare, and Single Motherhood in the United States and Denmark: A Cross-National Analysis of Discourse and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polakow, Valerie

    1997-01-01

    Contrasts family and child-care discourse and policies in United States and Denmark, with focus on discourse about the poor, about women and welfare, about single motherhood, and about the role of government in providing for children. Critically analyzes dissolution of U.S. social "safety net" and contrasts it with Danish discourse of universalism…

  15. Discourse theory and analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Molder te H. F. M

    2008-01-01

    Available in both print and electronic formats, the Encyclopedia of Communication Theory provides students and researchers with a comprehensive two-volume overview of contemporary communication theory. Reference librarians report that students frequently approach them seeking a source that will provide them with a quick overview of a particular theory or theorist--just enough to help them grasp the general concept or theory

  16. The competing discourses of HIV\\/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa: Discourses of rights and empowerment vs discourses of control and exclusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gill Seidel

    1993-01-01

    The competing discourses of HIV\\/AIDS circulating in sub-Saharan Africa are identified. These are medical, medico-moral, developmental (distinguishing between 'women in development' and gender and development perspectives), legal, ethical, and the rights discourse of groups living with HIV\\/AIDS and of African pressure groups. The analytical framework is that of discourse analysis as exemplified by Michel Foucault. The medical and medico-moral are

  17. Meeting the health and social needs of pregnant asylum seekers, midwifery students' perspectives: part 1; dominant discourses and midwifery students.

    PubMed

    Haith-Cooper, Melanie; Bradshaw, Gwendolen

    2013-09-01

    Current literature has indicated a concern about standards of maternity care experienced by pregnant women who are seeking asylum. As the next generation of midwives, it is important that students are educated in a way that prepares them to effectively care for these women. To understand how this can be achieved, it is important to explore what asylum seeking means to midwifery students. This article is the first of three parts and reports on one objective from a wider doctorate study. It identifies dominant discourses that influenced the perceptions of a group of midwifery students' about the pregnant asylum seeking woman. The study was designed from a social constructivist perspective, with contextual knowledge being constructed by groups of people, influenced by underpinning dominant discourses, depending on their social, cultural and historical positions in the world. In a United Kingdom University setting, during year two of a pre-registration midwifery programme, eleven midwifery students participated in the study. Two focus group interviews using a problem based learning scenario as a trigger for discussion were conducted. In addition, three students were individually interviewed to explore issues in more depth and two students' written reflections on practice were used to generate data. Following a critical discourse analysis, dominant discourses were identified which appeared to influence the way in which asylum seekers were perceived. The findings suggested an underpinning ideology around the asylum seeker being different and of a criminal persuasion. Although the pregnant woman seeking asylum was considered as deserving of care, the same discourses appeared to influence the way in which she was constructed. However, as the study progressed, through reading alternative sources of literature, some students appeared to question these discourses. These findings have implications for midwifery education in encouraging students to challenge negative discourses and construct positive perceptions of asylum seeking. PMID:22698756

  18. The climatic effect of explosive volcanic activity: Analysis of the historical data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, R. A.; Goodman, B. M.

    1982-01-01

    By using the most complete available records of direct beam radiation and volcanic eruptions, an historical analysis of the role of the latter in modulating the former was made. A very simple fallout and dispersion model was applied to the historical chronology of explosive eruptions. The resulting time series explains about 77 percent of the radiation variance, as well as suggests that tropical and subpolar eruptions are more important than mid-latitude eruptions in their impact on the stratospheric aerosol optical depth. The simpler climatic models indicate that past hemispheric temperature can be stimulated very well with volcanic and CO2 inputs and suggest that climate forecasting will also require volcano forecasting. There is some evidence that this is possible some years in advance.

  19. Flood frequency analysis of historical flood data under stationary and non-stationary modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M. J.; Botero, B. A.; López, J.; Francés, F.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Benito, G.

    2015-01-01

    Historical records are an important source of information about extreme and rare floods with a great value to establish a reliable flood return frequency. The use of long historic records for flood frequency analysis brings in the question of flood stationarity, since climatic and land-use conditions can affect the relevance of past flooding as a predictor of future flooding. In this paper, a detailed 400 year flood record from the Tagus River in Aranjuez (Central Spain) was analysed under stationary and non-stationary flood frequency approaches, to assess their implications on hazard studies. Historical flood records in Aranjuez were obtained from documents (Proceedings of the City Council, diaries, chronicles, memoirs, etc.), epigraphic marks, and indirect historical sources and reports. The water levels associated with different floods (derived from descriptions or epigraphic marks) were computed into discharge values using a one-dimensional hydraulic model. Secular variations on flood magnitude and frequency, found to respond to climate and environmental drivers, showed a good correlation between high values of historical flood discharges and a negative mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO index). Over the systematic gauge record (1913-2008), an abrupt change on flood magnitude was produced in 1957 due to constructions of three major reservoirs in the Tagus headwaters (Bolarque, Entrepeñas and Buendia) controlling 80% of the watershed surface draining to Aranjuez. Two different models were used for the flood frequency analysis: (a) a stationary model estimating statistical distributions incorporating imprecise and categorical data based on maximum likelihood estimators; (b) a time-varying model based on "generalized additive models for location, scale and shape" (GAMLSS) modelling, that incorporates external covariates related to climate variability (NAO index) and catchment hydrology factors (in this paper a reservoir index; RI). Flood frequency analysis using documentary data (plus gauged record) improved the estimates of the probabilities of rare floods (return intervals of 100 year and higher). Under non-stationary modelling flood occurrence associated with an exceedance probability of 0.01 (i.e. return period of 100 year) has changed over the last 500 year due to decadal and multi-decadal variability of the NAO. Yet, frequency analysis under stationary models was successful on providing an average discharge around which value flood quantiles estimated by non-stationary models fluctuate through time.

  20. Envisioning the Third Sector's Welfare Role: Critical Discourse Analysis of ‘Post-Devolution’ Public Policy in the UK 1998–2012

    PubMed Central

    Chaney, Paul; Wincott, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Welfare state theory has struggled to come to terms with the role of the third sector. It has often categorized welfare states in terms of the pattern of interplay between state social policies and the structure of the labour market. Moreover, it has frequently offered an exclusive focus on state policy – thereby failing to substantially recognize the role of the formally organized third sector. This study offers a corrective view. Against the backdrop of the international shift to multi-level governance, it analyses the policy discourse of third sector involvement in welfare governance following devolution in the UK. It reveals the changing and contrasting ways in which post-devolution territorial politics envisions the sector's role as a welfare provider. The mixed methods analysis compares policy framing and the structural narratives associated with the development of the third sector across the four constituent polities of the UK since 1998. The findings reveal how devolution has introduced a new spatial policy dynamic. Whilst there are elements of continuity between polities – such as the increasing salience of the third sector in welfare provision – policy narratives also provide evidence of the territorialization of third sector policy. From a methodological standpoint, this underlines the distinctive and complementary role discourse-based analysis can play in understanding contemporary patterns and processes shaping welfare governance. PMID:25574063

  1. Adolescent pregnancies and girls' sexual and reproductive rights in the amazon basin of Ecuador: an analysis of providers' and policy makers' discourses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Adolescent pregnancies are a common phenomenon that can have both positive and negative consequences. The rights framework allows us to explore adolescent pregnancies not just as isolated events, but in relation to girls' sexual and reproductive freedom and their entitlement to a system of health protection that includes both health services and the so called social determinants of health. The aim of this study was to explore policy makers' and service providers' discourses concerning adolescent pregnancies, and discuss the consequences that those discourses have for the exercise of girls' sexual and reproductive rights' in the province of Orellana, located in the amazon basin of Ecuador. Methods We held six focus-group discussions and eleven in-depth interviews with 41 Orellana's service providers and policy makers. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using discourse analysis, specifically looking for interpretative repertoires. Results Four interpretative repertoires emerged from the interviews. The first repertoire identified was "sex is not for fun" and reflected a moralistic construction of girls' sexual and reproductive health that emphasized abstinence, and sent contradictory messages regarding contraceptive use. The second repertoire -"gendered sexuality and parenthood"-constructed women as sexually uninterested and responsible mothers, while men were constructed as sexually driven and unreliable. The third repertoire was "professionalizing adolescent pregnancies" and lead to patronizing attitudes towards adolescents and disregard of the importance of non-medical expertise. The final repertoire -"idealization of traditional family"-constructed family as the proper space for the raising of adolescents while at the same time acknowledging that sexual abuse and violence within families was common. Conclusions Providers' and policy makers' repertoires determined the areas that the array of sexual and reproductive health services should include, leaving out the ones more prone to cause conflict and opposition, such as gender equality, abortion provision and welfare services for pregnant adolescents. Moralistic attitudes and sexism were present - even if divergences were also found-, limiting services' capability to promote girls' sexual and reproductive health and rights. PMID:20525405

  2. Modeling Narrative Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elson, David K.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes new approaches to the formal modeling of narrative discourse. Although narratives of all kinds are ubiquitous in daily life, contemporary text processing techniques typically do not leverage the aspects that separate narrative from expository discourse. We describe two approaches to the problem. The first approach considers…

  3. Quantitative Discourse Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graesser, Arthur C.; Swamer, Shane S.; Hu, Xiangen

    1997-01-01

    Defines quantitative-discourse psychology. Illustrates its practice in five research projects, all of which examined naturalistic discourse, investigating: reading time; inference generation; construction of multiple agents (narrators, characters) in literary short stories; tutorial dialog; and dialog patterns in two-party conversations. Notes a…

  4. Representing discourse in context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eijck van D. J. N; H. Kamp

    1996-01-01

    This article gives a survey of Discourse Representation Theory (DRT), including recent developments, and with an emphasis on logical issues. Discourse representation structures are defined, and various prespectives on their static and dynamic meaning are discussed. This discussion leads to the study of the process of merging representation structures, a process which can be viewed as a strategy for memory

  5. Representing Discourse in Context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Kamp

    1997-01-01

    This article gives a survey of Discourse Representation Theory (DRT), including recent developments, andwith an emphasis on logical issues. Discourse representation structures are defined, and various prespectives ontheir static and dynamic meaning are discussed. This discussion leads to the study of the process of mergingrepresentation structures, a process which can be viewed as a strategy for memory management. Next, atoy

  6. Age transcended: a semiotic and rhetorical analysis of the discourse of agelessness in North American anti-aging skin care advertisements.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Kirsten L

    2014-04-01

    Drawing from a collection of over 160 North American print advertisements for anti-aging skin care products from January to December of 2009, this paper examines the discourse of agelessness, a vision of esthetic perfection and optimal health that is continually referred to by gerontologists, cultural theorists, and scientific researchers as a state of being to which humankind can aspire. Employing critical discourse analysis through the use of semiotics and visual rhetoric, this paper explores the means through which anti-aging skin care advertisements present to their viewers a particular object of desire, looking, more specifically, at how agelessness is presented as a way out and ultimate transcendence of age. Through the analytical tools of semiotics and visual rhetoric, four visions of agelessness are identified and explored in this paper: Agelessness as Scientific Purity, Agelessness as Genetic Impulse, Agelessness as Nature's Essence, and Agelessness as Myth. Whether found in the heights of scientific purity, the inner core of our genetic impulse, the depths of nature's essence, or whether agelessness itself has reached its own, untouchable, mythic status, the advertisements in this study represent one of the most pervasive vehicles through which our current vision(s) of ageless perfection are reflected, reinforced, and suspended in a drop of cream. PMID:24655670

  7. Education and Nationalism: The Discourse of Education Policy in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnott, Margaret; Ozga, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    The paper draws on critical discourse analysis to examine and discuss some of the key developments in the governing of education in Scotland since the election of the Scottish National Party (SNP) government in May 2007. It analyses these developments, drawing on a study of key policy texts and suggests that discourse analysis has much to…

  8. Analysis and Flame Retarding Design of Combustibles in Nanjing Typical Historical Buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    You Fei; Zhu Shun-bing; Han Xue-feng

    2011-01-01

    Historical buildings are non-renewable cultural resources with important historical, artistic and scientific values. Most of Chinese historical architectural structures are built by combustible wooden components like beams, columns, brackets and floors, and always contain flammable ornaments like paper articles, textiles and plastic products inside. Such buildings are easily endangered by fires. Field investigations were conducted on four typical Nanjing historical

  9. A Legal Discourse Community: Text Centered and Interdisciplinary in Social and Political Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Karen

    1996-01-01

    Reviews recent studies of legal discourse and nonacademic writing and presents the results of a historical case study on an environmental public policy. Finds that a dynamic discourse community changed writing roles among government employees, lay members of the audience, and water pollution control board members. States that controversial…

  10. Talk in Interaction in the Speech-Language Pathology Clinic: Bringing Theory to Practice through Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaby, Margaret M.; Walsh, Irene P.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of learning about and applying clinical discourse analysis to enhance the talk in interaction in the speech-language pathology clinic is discussed. The benefits of analyzing clinical discourse to explicate therapy dynamics are described.

  11. Application of LC-MS to the analysis of dyes in objects of historical interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xian; Laursen, Richard

    2009-07-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array and mass spectrometric detection permits dyes extracted from objects of historical interest or from natural plant or animal dyestuffs to be characterized on the basis of three orthogonal properties: HPLC retention time, UV-visible spectrum and molecular mass. In the present study, we have focused primarily on yellow dyes, the bulk of which are flavonoid glycosides that would be almost impossible to characterize without mass spectrometric detection. Also critical for this analysis is a method for mild extraction of the dyes from objects (e.g., textiles) without hydrolyzing the glycosidic linkages. This was accomplished using 5% formic acid in methanol, rather than the more traditional 6 M HCl. Mass spectroscopy, besides providing the molecular mass of the dye molecule, sometimes yields additional structural data based on fragmentation patterns. In addition, coeluting compounds can often be detected using extracted ion chromatography. The utility of mass spectrometry is illustrated by the analysis of historical specimens of silk that had been dyed yellow with flavonoid glycosides from Sophora japonica (pagoda tree) and curcumins from Curcuma longa (turmeric). In addition, we have used these techniques to identify the dye type, and sometimes the specific dyestuff, in a variety of objects, including a yellow varnish from a 19th century Tibetan altar and a 3000-year-old wool mortuary textiles, from Xinjiang, China. We are using HPLC with diode array and mass spectrometric detection to create a library of analyzed dyestuffs (>200 so far; mostly plants) to serve as references for identification of dyes in objects of historical interest.

  12. Science learning in the context of discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    do Nascimento, Silvania Sousa

    2013-06-01

    The original article by Kamberelis and Wehunt (2012) discusses an interesting and important research subject in science education as it focus on classroom interactions and the characteristics of the discourse production of interlocutors. The authors start from the premise that discourse heterogeneity is constitutive of social activities, which is supported by others like Mikhail Bakhtin (Speech genres and other late essays. University of Texas Press, Austin, 1981) and Erving Goffman (Frame analysis: an essay on the organization of experience. Harper and Row, London, 1974). They also present the definitions of three key elements that organize hybrid discourse: (a) lamination of multiple cultural frames, (b) shifting relations between people and their discourse, and (c) shifting power relations between people. Finally, the authors analyze how these three elements organize students' science discourse in the classroom and how it contributes to the creation of a micro-community of practice capable of helping the emergence of a disciplinary knowledge that is legitimized by and strengthens the identity of the group. In the present commentary, I discuss how Michael Foucault's (1970) concept of discursive procedure may help us to analyze the (often neglected) teacher's role in the development of hybrid discourse practices.

  13. Historic climate variability of wetness in East China (960-1992): A wavelet analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jianmin Jiang; Zhang, De`er [National Climate Center, Beijing (China); Fraedrich, K. [Universitaet Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-11-01

    In this paper, a dataset of historic wetness is analyzed with the wavelet transform technique. A previous dataset was derived from historic documents, and consists of annual dryness/wetness grades from 1 to 5 at 120 stations in the China mainland for the period from 1470 to 1979. This dataset was extended back to AD 960 for six regions in East China in a previous study, and the extended dataset is used in this paper. The Mexican Hat wavelet transform technique and descriptive statistical analysis were used to analyze each of the six regional time series. The wavelet analysis of climatic fluctuation displayed variations of different time scales at particular time points, as well as persistent anomalies. The climatic variations occuring on longer time scales may cover a larger area; these are the outstanding persistent dry and wet stages during the last 1033 years. The variations on longer time scales coincide roughly with those previously identified. On shorter time scales, some synchronous fluctations are also observed but in fewer years. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Social aspects of classroom learning: Results of a discourse analysis in an inquiry-oriented physical chemistry class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Nicole M.

    Engaging students in classroom discourse offers opportunities for students to participate in the construction of joint understandings, to negotiate relationships between different types of evidence, and to practice making evidence-based claims about science content. However, close attention to social aspects of learning is critical to creating inquiry-oriented classroom environments in which students learn with understanding. This study examined the social influences that contribute to classroom learning in an inquiry-oriented undergraduate physical chemistry class using the Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) approach. A qualitative approach to analyzing classroom discourse derived from Toulmin's (1968) model of argumentation was used to document patterns in classroom reasoning that reflect normative aspects of social interaction. Adapting the constructs of social and sociomathematical norms from the work of Yackel and Cobb (1996), I describe social aspects of the classroom environment by discussing normative aspects of social interaction (social norms) and discipline-specific criteria related to reasoning and justification in chemistry contexts, referred to here as sociochemical norms. This work discusses four social norms and two sociochemical norms that were documented over a five-week period of observation in Dr. Black's POGIL physical chemistry class. In small group activities, the socially established expectations that students explain reasoning, negotiate understandings of terminology and symbolic representations, and arrive at a consensus on critical thinking questions shaped small group interactions and reasoning. In whole class discussion, there was an expectation that students share reasoning with the class, and that the instructor provide feedback on student reasoning in ways that extended student contributions and elaborated relationships between macroscopic, particulate, and symbolic-level ideas. The ways in which the class constructed evidence-based claims about chemistry content reflected the influence of sociochemical norms that were enacted through classroom discourse. Two sociochemical norms were documented in both whole class and small group activities: first, the class used particulate-level evidence to make claims about chemical and physical properties; second, particular ways of using mathematical reasoning to justify claims about thermodynamics content became normative for the class. These similarities and differences between social and sociochemical norms in small group and whole class discussion highlight ways in which instructor facilitation can support productive interactions in classroom activities.

  15. The HIV/AIDS caregiver identity as a double-edged sword: a discourse analysis on HIV/AIDS caregiving in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Vania

    2014-09-01

    This article discusses the identity of HIV/AIDS caregivers as constructed by a group of HIV/AIDS caregivers at a non-profit organisation in South Africa. During a 12-month period data were collected through interviews with the organisation's staff and volunteers. Using discourse analysis, the study identified a caregiver identity constructed by participants. This caregiving identity acts as a double-edged sword: while the rewards of caregiving act as a buffer against stressful experiences, the prescriptive nature of the caregiver identity is taxing, and may explain burnout among HIV/AIDS caregivers. The study concludes that for support systems for HIV/AIDS caregivers to be effective, the social culture and identity of HIV/AIDS caregivers must be considered. PMID:25388980

  16. Really old-palaeoimmunology: immunohistochemical analysis of extracellular matrix proteins in historic and pre-historic material.

    PubMed

    Wick, G; Kalischnig, G; Maurer, H; Mayerl, C; Müller, P U

    2001-09-01

    In this review, we summarize data concerning the respective preservation and deterioration of antigenic determinants of various collagenous and non-collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in palaeontologic material of different ages. ECM proteins are the major quantitative constituents of mammalian organisms and were, therefore, selected as important representative proteins for these analyses. The specimens, studied by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical techniques, included the skin of 500-1500 year-old human mummies from Peru, skin and striated muscle from the 5300-year-old glacier mummy ("Iceman") from Tyrol, Austria, and a 50-million-year-old bat with preserved soft body parts from the fossil excavation site of Messel, Germany. In frozen sections of the former two sources, epitopes recognized by specific antibodies for triple-helical antigenic determinants of different types of collagen resistant against conventional proteases were preserved, while non-helical domains, as well as the non-collagenous ECM proteins, could no longer be demonstrated. The fossil bat, although showing evidence of fibrous, collagen-like structures in conventional histology, revealed no collagenous or non-collagenous ECM proteins by any technique. It later turned out that this was due to the replacement of the original soft parts in these fossils by lawns of bacteria. These studies introduced immunological techniques into palaeontology and opened new approaches for studying physiologically- and pathologically-altered structures in tissues of animals and humans of considerable historical age. PMID:11525878

  17. Quantitative analysis of saltwater-freshwater relationships in groundwater systems-A historical perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, T.E.; Goodman, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    Although much progress has been made toward the mathematical description of saltwater-freshwater relationships in groundwater systems since the late 19th century, the advective and dispersive mechanisms involved are still incompletely understood. This article documents the major historical advances in this subject and summarizes the major direction of current studies. From the time of Badon Ghyben and Herzberg, it has been recognized that density is important in mathematically describing saltwater-freshwater systems. Other mechanisms, such as hydrodynamic dispersion, were identified later and are still not fully understood. Quantitative analysis of a saltwater-freshwater system attempts to mathematically describe the physical system and the important mechanisms using reasonable simplifications and assumptions. This paper, in developing the history of quantitative analysis discusses many of these simplifications and assumptions and their effect on describing and understanding the phenomenon. ?? 1985.

  18. Analysis of Workload Behavior in Scientific and Historical Long-Term Data Repositories Ian F. Adams (UCSC), Mark W. Storer (NetApp), Ethan L. Miller (UCSC)

    E-print Network

    Miller, Ethan L.

    , and a historical documents archive Public Archive Content Popularity Public Archive Update Behavior Batch processesAnalysis of Workload Behavior in Scientific and Historical Long-Term Data Repositories Ian F. Adams of personal, historical and scientific data Archival workload behavior is understanding is out of date, or non

  19. Benefits of applying combined diffuse reflectance FTIR spectroscopy and principal component analysis for the study of blue tempera historical painting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalia Navas; Julia Romero-Pastor; Eloisa Manzano; Carolina Cardell

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the application of diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) to the examination of historic blue pigments and blue tempera paintings commonly found on works of art. The discussion is mainly focused on the practical benefits of using this technique joined to principal component analysis (PCA), a powerful multivariate analysis tool. Thanks to the study of several

  20. Hair analysis provides a historical record of cortisol levels in Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thomson, S; Koren, G; Fraser, L-A; Rieder, M; Friedman, T C; Van Uum, S H M

    2010-02-01

    The severity of Cushing's Syndrome (CS) depends on the duration and extent of the exposure to excess glucocorticoids. Current measurements of cortisol in serum, saliva and urine reflect systemic cortisol levels at the time of sample collection, but cannot assess past cortisol levels. Hair cortisol levels may be increased in patients with CS, and, as hair grows about 1 cm/month, measurement of hair cortisol may provide historical information on the development of hypercortisolism. We attempted to measure cortisol in hair in relation to clinical course in six female patients with CS and in 32 healthy volunteers in 1 cm hair sections. Hair cortisol content was measured using a commercially available salivary cortisol immune assay with a protocol modified for use with hair. Hair cortisol levels were higher in patients with CS than in controls, the medians (ranges) were 679 (279-2500) and 116 (26-204) ng/g respectively (P<0.001). Segmental hair analysis provided information for up to 18 months before time of sampling. Hair cortisol concentrations appeared to vary in accordance with the clinical course. Based on these data, we suggest that hair cortisol measurement is a novel method for assessing dynamic systemic cortisol exposure and provides unique historical information on variation in cortisol, and that more research is required to fully understand the utility and limits of this technique. PMID:19609841

  1. Science Pedagogy as a Category of Historical Analysis: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesko, Kathryn M.

    2006-11-01

    Historical studies of science pedagogy have flourished in recent years. This essay offers an assessment of the literature on science pedagogy from the 1930s to the present. It argues that rather than focusing on the work of Thomas Kuhn and Michel Foucault, historians of science pedagogy could with profit turn to the work of Ludwik Fleck. Fleck offers three categories of historical analysis - experience, sensation, and cognition - that are embedded in science pedagogy. He furthermore argues unequivocally for the central importance of considering the cultural context of science pedagogy. Fleck’s interpretation of the role of publishing in science is used in the final section of this essay to assess scientific publishing and textbook culture, topics that are the principal concern of the articles in this volume. Among the novelties of the articles in this volume on textbooks are (1) the connections they draw between textbooks and social structure; (2) the relationships they suggest between textbooks and the public sphere; and (3) their identification of the eighteenth century as the crucial transformative century in textbook production.

  2. Discourse Factors in the Evaluation of Language Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litteral, Robert

    Features of connected discourse that have been identified by discourse analysis may be applied to the evaluation of oral proficiency in a second language. For example, in the area of semantics, a speaker's control of the cause-result relationship involves, among other things, the ability to produce the different grammatical and lexical…

  3. The Discourses of OERs: How "Flat" Is This World?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dos Santos, Andreia Inamorato

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes Critical Discourse Analysis (Fairclough, 2000) as a tool for identifying the various discourses that can be found in the provision of open educational resources. The argument will be built upon the concept of a "flat world", a powerful metaphor used by Friedman in his famous book "The World is Flat" (2005). The discussion will…

  4. Discourses of Gender in the Contemporary British Army

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel Woodward; Patricia Winter

    2004-01-01

    This article is about the discourses of gender which circulate within debates about the inclusion of women in the British Army. Drawing on material from elite policy debates within the British Ministry of Defence, Army, and Parliament, the article uses a methodology informed by theories of discourse analysis to examine how the figures of the male and female soldier are

  5. Speaking of “Disorderly” Objects: A poetics of pedagogical discourse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda J. Graham

    2007-01-01

    To interrogate pedagogical discourses relating to child behaviour as “practices that systematically form the objects of which they speak” this paper features the analysis of three texts through the development and deployment of what might be called a poetics of pedagogical discourse. The principal text is a statement describing “problematic” behaviour in school. Of concern is how this particular statement

  6. Cultivating Discourse: The Social Construction of Agricultural Legislation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah P. Dixon; Holly M. Hapke

    2003-01-01

    In this article we initiate a critical analysis of the discursive geographies from which U.S. agricultural legislation has been constructed. First, we refer to the geography of discourse, which consists of the production, dissemination, and consumption of ideas, concepts, theories, and understandings. Specifically, we trace the emergence and development of an American agrarian discourse, constituted from a wealth of ideas

  7. Power-Discourse Relationship in a Croatian Higher Education Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Renata; Fox, John

    2002-01-01

    Studied the public space of Croatian higher education through a critical analysis of the discourse of a Croatian faculty revealed through the minutes of two faculty council meetings. Both meetings' minutes provide evidence of discourse strategies of deception used by faculty power holders to create an illusion of consent. Also explores…

  8. Educational Policy-Making in Post-Communist Ukraine as an Example of Emerging Governmentality: Discourse Analysis of Curriculum Choice and Assessment Policy Documents (1999-2003)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fimyar, Olena

    2008-01-01

    Educational policy-making in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is still building upon the ambivalences and uncertainties of post-communist transformation. The international support, expertise and discourses--coupled with communist legacies, stalled democratic developments and national discourses--produce unique effects on education in…

  9. `We are Dealing with People Whose Origins One can Clearly Tell Just by Looking': Critical Discourse Analysis and the Study of Neo-Racism in Contemporary Austria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Wodak; Bernd Matouschek

    1993-01-01

    This article focuses on the discourse of neo-racism towards foreigners in Austria between 1989 and 1991. It summarizes the preliminary results of an ongoing interdisciplinary project, and offers illustrative examples of official discourse (politicians), newspaper texts and anonymous conversations on the street recorded during the Waldheim campaign of 1987 and the Viennese municipal election of 1991. The study suggests that

  10. Methodological Reflections: Supervisory Discourses and Practice-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarja, Anneli; Janhonen, Sirpa

    2009-01-01

    The concept of dialogue is often examined apart from the social and historical context in which it is embedded. This paper identifies how dialogue between a superior and a subordinate generates a reorganisation of situated knowledge in the education and training of nurse teachers. We created an analytic method of supervisory discourse founded on…

  11. Pedagogy, Power, and Discourse: Transformation of Islamic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbani, Aziz

    1996-01-01

    Historically, Islamic discourse excluded non-Islamic forms of knowledge and supported political power and social control. Recently, traditional Muslims seek hegemony over political, economic, and educational domains, and the arrest of secularization and modernization of knowledge. In Pakistan, Islamization and ideological education have…

  12. Constructing Childhood: Discourses about School Violence in the Greek Daily Press

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avgitidou, Sofia; Stamou, Anastasia G.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the construction of discourses about childhood in the Greek daily press. It employs the theoretical frameworks of the new sociology of childhood and critical discourse analysis to question which discourses of childhood are constructed in the daily press presenting cases where children were the victimisers in school violent…

  13. The Common Topoi of STEM Discourse: An Apologia and Methodological Proposal, with Pilot Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Lynda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes a methodology for the rhetorical analysis of scientific, technical, mathematical, and engineering (STEM) discourse based on the common topics (topoi) of this discourse. Beginning with work by Miller, Prelli, and other rhetoricians of STEM discourse--but factoring in related studies in cognitive linguistics--she…

  14. The discourses of sexuality in curriculum documents on sexuality education: an Australian case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cathleen Farrelly; Maureen OBrien; Vaughan Prain

    2007-01-01

    This paper identifies three underlying discourses on the nature of sexuality evident in two Department of Education curriculum documents on sexuality education in Victoria, Australia, over the past 15 years. These discourses are a cultural ‘preservation’ perspective, a risk minimisation perspective, and a view that sexual expression should enable cultural and individual enlightenment and emancipation. This analysis of underpinning discourses

  15. The expositive discourse as pedagogical discourse: studying recontextualization in the production of a science museum exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Cheryl A.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper I report on the sociological and educational particulars of The Biodiscovery Space exhibition of the Life Museum of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using Basil Bernstein's framework of pedagogic discourse and recontextualization. Data for analysis was obtained from interviews with the exhibition developers, field observations of museum visitors and analysis of exhibition documents. Using the ideas of power, classification and framework, among others, I analyzed the recontextualization process of the production of expositive discourse. Thus, working with Bernstein's idea of classification, I explain the relationship between the discourses of the science of biology, history of science, museology, education, and communication in order to produce an expositive discourse. I also make explicit how agents of the Official Recontextualization Field of the Museum and the Pedagogic Recontextualization Field "....of the Museum determine partly the final expositive discourse of an exhibition". Using the idea of a pedagogic discourse framework, I discuss how the constraints imposed by objects and texts in exhibitions help to create a specific manner of visitor interaction with these elements, "even if they have some autonomy". Considerations about the audience and the intended process of acquisition are presented, when I discuss the control strategies of the exhibition. I propose that the Biodiscovery Space exhibit has a visible pedagogy. Finally, using the collected data I discuss the power tensions created in the production of expositive discourse showing how distributive, recontextualization and evaluation rules work in the context of exhibitions. The study of the dynamics in forming the expositive discourse using Bernstein's framework reveals the individuals and institutions, the selection criteria, the negotiations and the power relations involved. It has the potential to assist both educators and researchers in the museum education field, as well as designers to understand the teaching and learning processes that occur during a visit and to establish relevant criteria to evaluate quality to best produce exhibitions in science museums.

  16. DiZer: An Automatic Discourse Analyzer for Brazilian Portuguese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thiago Alexandre Salgueiro Pardo; Maria Das Graças Volpe Nunes; Lucia Helena Machado Rino

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents DiZer, an automatic DIscourse analyZER for Brazilian Portuguese. Given a source text, the system automatically produces its corresponding rhetorical analysis, following Rhetorical Structure Theory - RST (Mann and Thompson, 1987). A rhetorical repository, which is DiZer main component, makes the automatic analysis possible. This repository, produced by means of a corpus analysis, includes discourse analysis patterns that

  17. Multiple Discourse Connectives in a Lexicalized Grammar for Discourse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonnie Webber

    2000-01-01

    . Approaches to discourse that directly compute the \\\\discourse relation"that holds between adjacent units of text, have a problem with clauses that containmore than one discourse connective: the situation seems to allow such a clause torelate in more than one way to more than one other unit of text. We show how this isnot a problem for an approach based

  18. Photomorphic analysis techniques: An interim spatial analysis using satellite remote sensor imagery and historical data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keuper, H. R.; Peplies, R. W.; Gillooly, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    The use of machine scanning and/or computer-based techniques to provide greater objectivity in the photomorphic approach was investigated. Photomorphic analysis and its application in regional planning are discussed. Topics included: delineation of photomorphic regions; inadequacies of existing classification systems; tonal and textural characteristics and signature analysis techniques; pattern recognition and Fourier transform analysis; and optical experiments. A bibliography is included.

  19. From Focus Groups to Peer Discourse Sessions: The Evolution of a Method to Capture Language, Meaning, and Negotiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manuel, Tiffany; Kendall-Taylor, Nathaniel

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a unique approach to conducting and analyzing focus groups, described as peer discourse analysis. The primary objective of this analysis is to examine the shape and form of the discourses and negotiations that develop organically among peers in discussions of social issues. Peer discourse analysis has both…

  20. Informational database methodology for urban risk analysis.Case study: the historic centre of Bucharest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armas, I.; Dumitrascu, S.

    2009-04-01

    The urban environment often deals with issues concerning the deterioration of the constructed space and the quality of the environmental factors, in general terms meaning an unsatisfactory quality of life. Taking into account the complexity of the urban environment and the strong human impact, this ambience can be considered the ideal place for a varied range of risks to appear, being favoured by the external interventions and the dynamics of the internal changes that occur in the urban system, often unexpectedly. In this context, historic centre areas are even more vulnerable because of the age of the buildings and their socio-cultural value. The present study focuses on the development of a rapid assessment system of urban risks, putting emphasis on earthquakes. The importance of the study is shown by the high vulnerability that defines urban settlements, which can be considered socio-ecological systems characterized by a maximum risk level. In general, cities are highly susceptible areas because of their compactness and elevated degree of land occupancy, the Bucharest municipality being no exception. The street and sewerage networks disorganized the natural system resulted from the evolution of the lake-river system in Superior Pleistocene-Holocene and the intense construction activity represents a pressure that hasn't been measured and that is in need for a methodological interdisciplinary approach. In particular, the specific of Bucharest is given by the seismic risk based on an explosive urban evolution and the advanced state of degradation of the buildings. In this context, the Lipscani sector from the historic centre of the capital city is a maximum seismic vulnerability area, this being the result of its location in the Dâmbovita River meadow, on the brow and 80 m terrace, but more precisely because of the degradation of the buildings that cumulated the effects of the repeated earthquakes. The historic centre of Bucharest has not only a cultural function, but is also a very populated area, this being factors that favour a high susceptibility level. In addition, the majority of the buildings are included in the first and second categories of seismic risk, being built between 1875 and 1940, the age of the buildings establishing an increased vulnerability to natural hazards. The methodology was developed through the contribution of three partner universities from Bucharest: the University of Bucharest, the Academy for Economic Studies and the Technical University of Constructions. The method suggested was based on the analysis and processing of digital and statistical spatial information resulted from 1:500 topographical plans, satellite pictures, archives and historical maps used for the identification of the age of the buildings. Also, an important stage was represented by the field investigations that resulted with the data used in the assessment of the buildings: year of construction, location and vicinity, height, number of floors, state and function of the building, equipment and construction type. The information collected from the field together with the data resulted from the digitization of the ortophotoplans were inserted in ArcGIS in order to compile the database. Furthermore, the team from the Cybernetics Faculty developed a special software package in Visual Studio and SQL server in order to insert the sheets in GIS so that they could be statistically processed. The final product of the study is a program that includes as main functions editing, the analysis based on selected factors (individual or group) and viewing of building information in the shape of maps or 3D visualization. The strengths of the informational system resulted are given by the extended range of applicability, the short processing period, accessibility, capacity of support for a large amount of information and, thus, standing out as an adequate instrument to fit the needs of a susceptible population.

  1. Efficiently planning coherent visual discourse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle X. Zhou; Steven K Feiner

    1998-01-01

    A visual discourse is a series of connected visual displays. A coherent visual discourse is characterized by smooth transitions between displays, consistent design within and across displays, and successful integration of new information into existing displays. We use a topdown, hierarchical-decomposition, partial order planner to efficiently construct a visual discourse from scratch, taking advantage of parametrized primitive visual objects that

  2. Expanding Discourse Repertoires with Hybridity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    In "Hybrid discourse practice and science learning" Kamberelis and Wehunt present a theoretically rich argument about the potential of hybrid discourses for science learning. These discourses draw from different forms of "talk, social practice, and material practices" to create interactions that are "intertextually complex" and "interactionally…

  3. Using Simple Statistical Analysis of Historical Data to Understand Wind Ramp Events

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, C

    2010-01-29

    As renewable resources start providing an increasingly larger percentage of our energy needs, we need to improve our understanding of these intermittent resources so we can manage them better. In the case of wind resources, large unscheduled changes in the energy output, called ramp events, make it challenging to keep the load and the generation balanced. In this report, we show that simple statistical analysis of the historical data on wind energy generation can provide insights into these ramp events. In particular, this analysis can help answer questions such as the time period during the day when these events are likely to occur, the relative severity of positive and negative ramps, and the frequency of their occurrence. As there are several ways in which ramp events can be defined and counted, we also conduct a detailed study comparing different options. Our results indicate that the statistics are relatively insensitive to these choices, but depend on utility-specific factors, such as the magnitude of the ramp and the time interval over which this change occurs. These factors reflect the challenges faced by schedulers and operators in keeping the load and generation balanced and can change over the years. We conduct our analysis using data from wind farms in the Tehachapi Pass region in Southern California and the Columbia Basin region in Northern Oregon; while the results for other regions are likely to be different, the report describes the benefits of conducting simple statistical analysis on wind generation data and the insights that can be gained through such analysis.

  4. A Comparison of "Popular Music Pedagogy" Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantie, Roger

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to interrogate discourses of "popular music pedagogy" in order to better understand music education practices generally and specifically those in the United States. Employing a conceptual framework based on the work of Jan Blommaert (2005), a content analysis was conducted on a sample of 81 articles related…

  5. Discourse and the Denial of Racism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teun A. van Dijk

    1992-01-01

    Within the broader framework of a research programme on the reproduction of racism in discourse and communication, the present article examines the prominent role of the denial of racism, especially among the elites, in much contemporary text and talk about ethnic relations. After a conceptual analysis of denial strategies in interpersonal impression formation on the one hand, and within the

  6. Elaboration and Simplification in Spanish Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granena, Gisela

    2008-01-01

    This article compares spoken discourse models in Spanish as a second language textbooks and online language learning resources with naturally occurring conversations. Telephone service encounters are analyzed from the point of view of three different dimensions of authenticity: linguistic, sociolinguistic, and psycholinguistic. An analysis of 20…

  7. Structuring Conversation: Discourse Markers in Cervantes's "Entremeses"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Due to the recent shift in the linguistic pragmatics literature from the analysis of isolated speech acts to the focus on phenomena which affect the global meaning of a message, discourse markers (DMs) have become a frequent research topic. Despite their popularity, the evolution and development of these forms is often neglected in investigations…

  8. Divergent Discourses, Children and Forced Migration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giorgia Doná; Angela Veale

    2011-01-01

    Experiences of refugee, internally displaced and migrant children in different contexts (such as post-conflict and resettlement) are often considered separately, yet closer analysis points to the existence of commonalities across transnational locations and a need to articulate the ways in which global systems, state policies and migration processes impact on the lives of these children. Current discourses, policies and practices

  9. Analysis of the impacts of station exposure on the U.S. Historical Climatology Network temperatures and temperature trends

    E-print Network

    Niyogi, Dev

    Analysis of the impacts of station exposure on the U.S. Historical Climatology Network temperatures and temperature trends Souleymane Fall,1 Anthony Watts,2 John NielsenGammon,3 Evan Jones,2 Dev Niyogi,4 John R and temperature trends at national and regional scales and on differences between USHCN temperatures and North

  10. Are patient-centered care values as reflected in teaching scenarios really being taught when implemented by teaching faculty? A discourse analysis on an Indonesian medical school's curriculum

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background According to The Indonesian Medical Council, 2006, Indonesian competence-based medical curriculum should be oriented towards family medicine. We aimed to find out if the educational goal of patient-centered care within family medicine (comprehensive care and continuous care) were adequately transferred from the expected curriculum to implemented curriculum and teaching process. Methods Discourse analysis was done by 3 general practitioners of scenarios and learning objectives of an Indonesian undergraduate medical curriculum. The coders categorized those sentences into two groups: met or unmet the educational goal of patient-centered care. Results Text analysis showed gaps in patient-centered care training between the scenarios and the learning objectives which were developed by both curriculum committee and the block planning groups and the way in which the material was taught. Most sentences in the scenarios were more relevant to patient-centered care while most sentences in the learning objectives were more inclined towards disease-perspectives. Conclusions There is currently a discrepancy between expected patient-centered care values in the scenario and instructional materials that are being used. PMID:21513582

  11. Toward the modeling of land use change: A spatial analysis using remote sensing and historical data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honea, R. B.

    1976-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the chronological observation of land use change could be shown to follow a predictable pattern and these patterns could be correlated with other statistical data to develop transition probabilities suitable for modeling purposes. A literature review and preliminary research, however, indicated a totally stochastic approach was not practical for simulating land use change and thus a more deterministic approach was adopted. The approach used assumes the determinants of the land use conversion process are found in the market place, where land transactions among buyers and sellers occur. Only one side of the market transaction process is studied, however, namely, the purchaser's desires in securing an ideal or suitable site. The problem was to identify the ideal qualities, quantities or attributes desired in an industrial site (or housing development), and to formulate a general algorithmic statement capable of identifying potential development sites. Research procedures involved developing a list of variables previously noted in the literature to be related to site selection and streamlining the list to a set suitable for statistical testing. A sample of 157 industries which have located (or relocated) in the 16-county Knoxville metropolitan region since 1950 was selected for industrial location analysis. Using NASA color infrared photography and Tennessee Valley Authority historical aerial photography, data were collected on the spatial characteristics of each industrial location event. These data were then subjected to factor analysis to determine the interrelations of variables.

  12. Living the Discourses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Check, Ed; Deniston, Grace; Desai, Dipti

    1997-01-01

    Argues that social class, race, gender, and sexuality are often unexplored in art education. Discusses the invisibility of elderly women's art due to aesthetic preferences for originality; racism as an invisible, institutionalized system; and the invisibility of discourse concerning homosexual world views embedded in gay and lesbian art. (DSK)

  13. Modeling, Analysis, and Preservation Techniques for Historic Reinforced Concrete Structures in Seismic Prone Regions Case Study: Augusta Airship Hangar, Sicily

    SciTech Connect

    Cronin, Kelly; Whyte, Catherine [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 760 Davis Hall (United States); Reiner, Tom [Graduate Engineer, Buro Happold Consulting Engineers, Inc., 9601 Jefferson Blvd., Suite B, Culver City, CA 90232 (United States)

    2008-07-08

    Throughout the world there are hundreds of historic monuments and structures considered to be invaluable and irreplaceable. They are symbols of cultural identity and a means of educating people about history. Preservation of historic monuments and structures is therefore an important part of safeguarding these cultural heritage sites so that they retain their value for future generations.This report discusses a procedure for the investigation of seismic hazards in existing buildings and possible steps that can be taken to avoid damage caused by these hazards. The Augusta Airship Hangar located in Sicily, will be used as a case study however the topics addressed in this paper can be applied to other structures of historic value around the world.First state-of-the-art scanning procedures were used to create scale digital models that were imported into a structural analysis program. Within this program dynamic analyses were performed on the model based on actual ground motions taken close to the site. This data was used to determine the period and mode shapes of the structure. Then a nonlinear analysis, including a static pushover analysis, was implemented on a two-dimensional model of the structural frame. From this analysis the failure mechanisms of the structure were revealed with relation to an allowable roof displacement. The structural integrity of the structure was evaluated based on pre-defined performance goals. Finally multiple suggestions were made how the Augusta Airship Hangar might be repaired and strengthened so that this structure will not be destroyed should an earthquake occur.The results of our study show that historic structures, despite their age, can still be strong and ductile. Also there are a multitude of effective preservation and retrofit techniques that can be used to strengthen these historic structures, should an earthquake occur. Through this study, the Augusta Airship Hangar has proven to be not only a historic symbol for Sicily but also can be used as an example for the rehabilitation of other historic structures. The techniques and processes discussed in this paper can be applied to other historic reinforced concrete structures and can be expanded upon in future investigations.

  14. Power discourses of fish death: case of linnunsuo peat production.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Tero

    2014-03-01

    This article explores the peat production impacts on Jukajoki river in Finland by implementing discourse analysis. Four discourses are explored: state truth statements; company statements that are in close proximity of state power; discourses provided by the local community Selkie, who provided counter-narratives to the official views; and finally media and related discourses. In conclusion, the discourses by the state and closely related actors (A-B) comprised implementation of their power and justifying it at the expense of those who are excluded from such power, in this case the village. The village narrative (C) contains elements that strongly contradict the statements provided by those with power. The results indicate local communities should be taken more seriously. The systematic denial of local peoples' rights should be reviewed, and local participation in environmental permit assessments implemented. PMID:23852881

  15. A Discourse of Benefit: technology and school reform in the USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Muffoletto

    1996-01-01

    This paper suggests that the subject of school reform and technology in education needs to be considered as a discourse that needs to be ‘unpacked’ and analyzed from a social, historical, and cultural perspective. Unpacking the historical and current interests in educational reform in light of information and communication technologies is no simple matter. There are two basic challenges. First,

  16. Global Warming Wars: Rhetorical and Discourse Analytic Approaches to ExxonMobil's Corporate Public Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livesey, Sharon M.

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes texts published by ExxonMobil on the issue of climate change, employing both rhetorical analysis and discourse analysis to show their uses and potential value in business communication research. Shows how both reveal the socially constructed nature "reality" and the social effects of language, but are never the less distinct in their…

  17. Analyzing Discourse: Text and Talk. Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics (Washington, D.C., 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannen, Deborah, Ed.

    The Georgetown Round Table on discourse analysis dealt with the following aspects of the topic: Emerson's essay on language; oral remembering and narrative structures; persuasive discourse; social construction of topical cohesion; discourse as an interactional achievement; the place of intonation; topic as the unit of analysis in a criminal law…

  18. Tensions between Discourses of Development, Religion, and Human Capital in Early Childhood Education Policy Texts: The Case of Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Formen, Ali; Nuttall, Joce

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider how particular discourses have come to dominate early childhood education (ECE) policy in Indonesia. We briefly explain the governance of Indonesian ECE and then our approach to policy analysis using critical discourse analysis. Three prevalent discourses are identified and discussed: "developmentalism",…

  19. How Has Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Therapy Changed?: An Historical Analysis of Journals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donohue, William; Fryling, Mitch

    2007-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis and behavior therapy are now nearly a half century old. It is interesting to ask if and how these disciplines have changed over time, particularly regarding some of their key internal controversies (e.g., role of cognitions). We examined the first five years and the 2000-2004 five year period of the "Journal of Applied…

  20. Reaching out to people struggling with their lives: a discourse analysis of answers from Internet-based services in Norway and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Anders Johan W; Svensson, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    The Internet has enlarged the scope of human communication, opening new avenues for connecting with people who are struggling with their lives. This article presents a discourse analysis of 101 responses to 98 questions that were posted on 14 different Internet-based mental health services in Norway and Sweden. We aimed to examine and describe the dominant understandings and favored recommendations in the services’ answers, and we reflected upon the social consequences of those answers. The services generally understood life struggles as an abnormal state of mind, life rhythms, or self-reinforcing loops. Internet-based mental health services primarily counsel service users to seek help, talk to health care professionals face-to-face, and discuss their life struggles openly and honestly. They also urge service users to take better care of themselves and socialize with other people. However, such answers might enhance the individualization of life problems, masking social origin and construction. Consequently, the services are challenged to include social explanations in their answers and strengthen their responsibility to amplify peoples’ messages at a societal level. Potentially, such answers could strengthen democratic structures and put pressure on social equity. PMID:23049282

  1. Rethinking historical trauma.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Gone, Joseph P; Moses, Joshua

    2014-06-01

    Recent years have seen the rise of historical trauma as a construct to describe the impact of colonization, cultural suppression, and historical oppression of Indigenous peoples in North America (e.g., Native Americans in the United States, Aboriginal peoples in Canada). The discourses of psychiatry and psychology contribute to the conflation of disparate forms of violence by emphasizing presumptively universal aspects of trauma response. Many proponents of this construct have made explicit analogies to the Holocaust as a way to understand the transgenerational effects of genocide. However, the social, cultural, and psychological contexts of the Holocaust and of post-colonial Indigenous "survivance" differ in many striking ways. Indeed, the comparison suggests that the persistent suffering of Indigenous peoples in the Americas reflects not so much past trauma as ongoing structural violence. The comparative study of genocide and other forms of massive, organized violence can do much to illuminate both common mechanisms and distinctive features, and trace the looping effects from political processes to individual experience and back again. The ethics and pragmatics of individual and collective healing, restitution, resilience, and recovery can be understood in terms of the self-vindicating loops between politics, structural violence, public discourse, and embodied experience. PMID:24855142

  2. Econometric analysis of the historical growth and volatility trends of various metals

    E-print Network

    Jones, Brittany Laurél

    2012-01-01

    Post Malthusian economics, there is growing recognition of the impact technological change and advance has on market activity. By studying historical production and price trends, boundaries of feasible growth can be ...

  3. An historical analysis of Chinese drugs in the treatment of hormonal diseases, goitre and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Miyasita, S

    1980-01-01

    Through the Chinese drugs appearing in prescriptions for hormonal diseases which were recorded in standard medical collections in Chinese historical texts, we look for the Chinese conception of their empirical cures. PMID:6994476

  4. [Gender discourses and bioethics].

    PubMed

    Aparisi Miralles, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present some of the contributions of the gender discourse to the bioethical debate, specifically in the field of nursing. At the same time, it will explain the contribution of the different feminist theories to the recognition and respect of human dignity. Basically, it will describe the three fundamental models in the gender discourse: the egalitarian model, the difference model, and the model of reciprocity or complementarity. The starting point is that even though the first two models have made significant contributions in the field of bioethics, they have nonetheless brought with them some deficiencies and reductionisms inherent in their thinking. The complementarity model, on the contrary, when properly understood, allows for the combination of the principles of equality and difference between man and woman, which places it at a much more enriching standpoint within the bioethical debate. PMID:25329418

  5. A Tutorial on Multiblock Discriminant Correspondence Analysis (MUDICA): A New Method for Analyzing Discourse Data from Clinical Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lynne J.; Abdi, Herve; French, Rebecca; Orange, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In communication disorders research, clinical groups are frequently described based on patterns of performance, but researchers often study only a few participants described by many quantitative and qualitative variables. These data are difficult to handle with standard inferential tools (e.g., analysis of variance or factor analysis)…

  6. Comparing public discourses in stem cell policy debates.

    PubMed

    Lysaght, Tamra

    2007-05-01

    Public policy debates surrounding stem cell research are becoming increasingly more complex as governance considerations move beyond the moral status of human embryos. This complexity is evident in the public discourses surrounding these debates globally. This article draws on the results of an analysis conducted on the media coverage of a recent stem cell policy episode in the United States to demonstrate the complexity of public discourses surrounding stem cell research and to reflect upon similar debates in Australia. Observations made from the public discourses in California are reframed within the Australian context to discuss ways in which future public policy debates surrounding stem cell research may be enriched. PMID:17571787

  7. From Food Insufficiency towards Trade Dependency: A Historical Analysis of Global Food Availability

    PubMed Central

    Porkka, Miina; Kummu, Matti; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

    2013-01-01

    Achieving global food security is one of the major challenges of the coming decades. In order to tackle future food security challenges we must understand the past. This study presents a historical analysis of global food availability, one of the key elements of food security. By calculating national level dietary energy supply and production for nine time steps during 1965–2005 we classify countries based on their food availability, food self-sufficiency and food trade. We also look at how diets have changed during this period with regard to supply of animal based calories. Our results show that food availability has increased substantially both in absolute and relative terms. The percentage of population living in countries with sufficient food supply (>2500 kcal/cap/d) has almost doubled from 33% in 1965 to 61% in 2005. The population living with critically low food supply (<2000 kcal/cap/d) has dropped from 52% to 3%. Largest improvements are seen in the MENA region, Latin America, China and Southeast Asia. Besides, the composition of diets has changed considerably within the study period: the world population living with high supply of animal source food (>15% of dietary energy supply) increased from 33% to over 50%. While food supply has increased globally, food self-sufficiency (domestic production>2500 kcal/cap/d) has not changed remarkably. In the beginning of the study period insufficient domestic production meant insufficient food supply, but in recent years the deficit has been increasingly compensated by rising food imports. This highlights the growing importance of food trade, either for food supply in importing countries or as a source of income for exporters. Our results provide a basis for understanding past global food system dynamics which, in turn, can benefit research on future food security. PMID:24367545

  8. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), 13 c solid state nmr and micro-thermomechanical studies of historical parchment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Odlyha; N. S. Cohen; G. M. Foster; A. Aliev; E. Verdonck; D. Grandy

    2003-01-01

    DMA and solid state 13C NMR techniques were used to measure historical parchment samples within the framework of the project (MAP) Micro Analysis\\u000a of Parchment (EC contract No. SMT4-96-2101) in collaboration with the School of Conservation in Copenhagen. DMA was used in\\u000a both thermal scan and creep modes. Thermal scans provided information on the transitions associated with the collagen polymer.

  9. Study by thermal analysis of mortars belonging to wall paintings corresponding to some historical buildings of Sevillian art

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Duran; M. D. Robador; M. C. Jimenez de Haro; Veronica Ramirez-Valle

    2008-01-01

    Mortars taken from the walls of three historical buildings in Seville: Pond of Patio de las Doncellas in Real Alcazar of Seville,\\u000a the Monastery of Santa Maria de las Cuevas and the Church of El Salvador were investigated.\\u000a \\u000a The techniques employed were thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), XRD, FTIR, SEM with EDAX, Bernard\\u000a calcimeter, granulometry, mercury intrusion porosimetry and

  10. Small Talk at Work: A Corpus Based Discourse Analysis of AAC and Non-AAC Device Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Ferrante, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This work is an analysis of small talk in the workplace. The study is intended to fill two main research gaps in the relatively young field of small talk in the workplace studies: On one hand, the lack of quantitative data that would account for the dimensions and the proportions of the elements of small talk interactions; on the other hand, the…

  11. "Joyful Learning" in Rural Indian Primary Schools: An Analysis of Social Control in the Context of Child-Centred Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriprakash, Arathi

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to improve the "quality" of education for all in government primary schools in India have seen a shift towards child-centred teaching. This paper examines the "Joyful Learning" programme, an example of a pedagogic reform implemented in rural primary schools in the southern Indian state of Karnataka. Through an empirical analysis of…

  12. Computer-Supported Collaborative Inquiry on Buoyancy: A Discourse Analysis Supporting the "Pieces" Position on Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turcotte, Sandrine

    2012-01-01

    This article describes in detail a conversation analysis of conceptual change in a computer-supported collaborative learning environment. Conceptual change is an essential learning process in science education that has yet to be fully understood. While many models and theories have been developed over the last three decades, empirical data to…

  13. "Implicit action": Understanding discourse management in modeling instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durden, Jared; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird

    2012-02-01

    We present "Implicit Action", a discourse management tool, through a qualitative video analysis of a Florida International University Modeling Instruction Introductory Physics I class. Implicit Action in Modeling Instruction is where instructors deliberately create intellectual space in which students ideally see value and need for the construction of new classroom norms and tools that are productive in developing a learning community. This space is created by the implications expressed through the instructors' deliberate actions. Discourse Management is a technique to moderate student discourse in Modeling Instruction classes at the university level that was initially described by Desbien [1]. Implicit Action is one of 9 Modeling Discourse Management tools that we have identified. By means of qualitative analysis we illustrate the effectiveness of Implicit Action in implementing the Modeling Theory of Instruction.

  14. Creating Rhetorical Stability in Corporate University Discourse: Discourse Technologies and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Brenton

    2003-01-01

    Written communication scholarship has shown that successful social change requires discursive stability. This study was designed to investigate how this stability is created. Critical discourse analysis of 30 corporate university articles investigated claims authors made about the expansion of market-based values into contexts of organizational…

  15. Spanish no, sí: reactive moves to perceived face-threatening acts, part I: discourse relations and cognitive states

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan Busquets; Dale A. Koike; Robert E. Vann

    2001-01-01

    This paper is the first installment of a two-part pragmatic analysis of a previously uninvestigated discourse particle in Spanish, no, sí. In this paper we examine the distribution of the particle in conversational interaction, discussing discourse structure and the discourse relations involved in the use of the particle. Our data show that no, sí is used in response to particular

  16. Segmented Discourse Representation Theory: Dynamic Semantics with Discourse Structure

    E-print Network

    Lascarides, Alex

    Segmented Discourse Representation Theory: Dynamic Semantics with Discourse Structure Alex Lascarides Division of Informatics, University of Edinburgh alex@inf.ed.ac.uk Nicholas Asher Department of the pronouns in (1a) vs. (1b): (1) a. A man walked in. He ordered a beer. b. Every man walked in. ??He ordered

  17. Perceptions of tooth loss and periodontal problems in an independent elderly population: Content-analysis of interview discourse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerardo Maupomé; Aída Borges; Lucía E. Ramírez; Javier Díez-de-Bonilla

    1999-01-01

    Oral health\\/illness and surrounding socio-demographic and behavioral phenomena are poorly documented in the Mexican elderly. To establish the rationales explaining oral health\\/illness and tailor a Health Promotion intervention (1995--1997) accordingly, an interview nested in a questionnaire was done at baseline, with the recording of 228 interviews transcribed verbatim. Every transcript was subsequently assessed by content-analysis. Results showed that lack of

  18. Bayesian Statistical Analysis of Historical and Late Holocene Rates of Sea-Level Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Niamh; Parnell, Andrew; Kemp, Andrew; Horton, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    A fundamental concern associated with climate change is the rate at which sea levels are rising. Studies of past sea level (particularly beyond the instrumental data range) allow modern sea-level rise to be placed in a more complete context. Considering this, we perform a Bayesian statistical analysis on historical and late Holocene rates of sea-level change. The data that form the input to the statistical model are tide-gauge measurements and proxy reconstructions from cores of coastal sediment. The aims are to estimate rates of sea-level rise, to determine when modern rates of sea-level rise began and to observe how these rates have been changing over time. Many of the current methods for doing this use simple linear regression to estimate rates. This is often inappropriate as it is too rigid and it can ignore uncertainties that arise as part of the data collection exercise. This can lead to over confidence in the sea-level trends being characterized. The proposed Bayesian model places a Gaussian process prior on the rate process (i.e. the process that determines how rates of sea-level are changing over time). The likelihood of the observed data is the integral of this process. When dealing with proxy reconstructions, this is set in an errors-in-variables framework so as to take account of age uncertainty. It is also necessary, in this case, for the model to account for glacio-isostatic adjustment, which introduces a covariance between individual age and sea-level observations. This method provides a flexible fit and it allows for the direct estimation of the rate process with full consideration of all sources of uncertainty. Analysis of tide-gauge datasets and proxy reconstructions in this way means that changing rates of sea level can be estimated more comprehensively and accurately than previously possible. The model captures the continuous and dynamic evolution of sea-level change and results show that not only are modern sea levels rising but that the rates of rise are continuously increasing. Analysis of the a global tide-gauge record (Church and White, 2011) indicated that the rate of sea-level rise increased continuously since 1880AD and is currently 2.57mm/yr (95% credible interval of 1.71 to 4.35mm/yr). Application of the model a proxy reconstruction from North Carolina (Kemp et al., 2011) indicated that the mean rate of rise in this locality since the middle of the 19th century (current rate of 2.66 mm/yr with a 95% credible interval of 1.29 to 4.59mm/yr) is in agreement with results from the tide gauge analysis and is unprecedented in at least the last 2000 years.

  19. An Analysis of Written Discourse of North Korean Second Language Speakers of English: Its Linguistic Features and Their Discursive Functions with Pragmatic Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seung Hwa

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examined linguistic and pragmatic characteristics of written discourse of North Korean second language speakers of English comparing it with that of North American native speakers of English by analyzing linguistic features used in the two sets of texts and their discursive functions based on Biber's (1995) and Hinkel's…

  20. A Corpus-Based Analysis of the Discourse Functions of "Ser/Estar" + Adjective in Three Levels of Spanish as FL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collentine, Joe; Asencion-Delaney, Yuly

    2010-01-01

    Research on the acquisition of Spanish's two copulas, "ser" and "estar," provides an understanding of the interaction among syntax, semantics, pragmatics, morphology, and vocabulary during development (e.g., Geeslin, 2003a, 2003b; Gunterman, 1992; Ryan & Lafford, 1992). Recent research suggests that linguistic features in the surrounding discourse

  1. Influence of poll results on the advocates’ political discourse: An application of functional analysis debates to online messages in the 2002 Korean presidential election

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun Jung Choi; Cheolhan Lee; Jong Hyuk Lee

    2004-01-01

    This study examines how online users employed three functional utterances—acclaim, attack, and defense—when they provided support for candidates and criticized opponent candidates during the 2002 presidential election campaign in Korea. The online postings are a forum for political discourse. Overall, the online forum participants rely heavily on attacks when debating the merit of the presidential candidates. The advocates of the

  2. Aspects theoretiques et methodologiques de la recherche sur le traitement discursif des representations sociales (Theoretical and Methodological Aspects of Research on the Discourse Analysis of Social Representations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthey, Marinette

    2000-01-01

    This article presents some theoretical reflections on the relationship between social representations-as they are conceptualized in sociopsychology--and discourse. An interdisciplinary point of view is advocated that accounts for both linguistics and sociopsychology. Methodological comments are presented and a way to convey theoretical reflections…

  3. A Historical Analysis of Post-Genocide Rwandan Special Education: Lessons Derived and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyarambi, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this postcolonial historical study was to investigate the following: prevalence and nature of disabilities, programs, and services of special education in Rwanda before and after the 1994 genocide; and the utility, effectiveness, and importation of western-based special education models, programs, and services in Rwanda; and lastly…

  4. Collective Skill Formation: A Historical Analysis of the Least-Likely Case New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trampusch, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This article is the first study investigating New Zealand's early legislation in apprenticeship from the perspective of historical institutionalism. It shows that, between 1865 and the 1940s, New Zealand's apprenticeship system was less liberal in character than it is today, because a collective skill formation regime, involving dual…

  5. A Historical Analysis of the Educational Modalities of Inequalities Management in Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulot, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a historical and comparative study of the role that management of inequalities has played in the formation and evolution of educational institutions in three countries: Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala. This particular focus shows that this function has played a determining role, even if its organization has varied deeply in…

  6. Reduced space optimal analysis for historical data sets: 136 years of Atlantic sea surface temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexey Kaplan; Yochanan Kushnir; Mark A. Cane; M. Benno Blumenthal

    1997-01-01

    A computationally efficient method for analyzing meteorological and oceanographic historical data sets has been developed. The method combines data reduction and least squares optimal estimation. The data reduction involves computing empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of the data based on their recent, high-quality portion and using a leading EOF subset as a basis for the analyzed solution and for fitting a

  7. History of Science in the Physics Curriculum: A Directed Content Analysis of Historical Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seker, Hayati; Guney, Burcu G.

    2012-01-01

    Although history of science is a potential resource for instructional materials, teachers do not have a tendency to use historical materials in their lessons. Studies showed that instructional materials should be adaptable and consistent with curriculum. This study purports to examine the alignment between history of science and the curriculum in…

  8. Historical Models and Science Instruction: A Cross-Cultural Analysis Based on Students' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shu-Chiu

    2006-01-01

    The paper is an extended work from a previous study on Taiwanese and German students' conceptions of the universe (Liu, 2005). The study revealed that students discuss astronomical events and entities based on a mental model of universe and their models of the universe seem to have similar underlying principles with historical ones. In present…

  9. Lawyers in Corporate Chief Executive Positions: A Historical Analysis of Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, T. B.; Rothman, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    The backgrounds and careers of lawyer-corporate chief executive officers in each of three historical populations of corporate chief executive officers are examined. Data indicate that the backgrounds of lawyer-chief executives frequently include attendance at prestigious undergraduate educational institutions and law schools and initial positions…

  10. Science Pedagogy as a Category of Historical Analysis: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olesko, Kathryn M.

    2006-01-01

    Historical studies of science pedagogy have flourished in recent years. This essay offers an assessment of the literature on science pedagogy from the 1930s to the present. It argues that rather than focusing on the work of Thomas Kuhn and Michel Foucault, historians of science pedagogy could with profit turn to the work of Ludwik Fleck. Fleck…

  11. Integrating Wikis in the Support and Practice of Historical Analysis Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabiness, Catherine; Donovan, Loretta; Green, Tim D.

    2013-01-01

    This case study examines the benefits of integrating wikis into the World History curriculum. Six middle school students chosen because of their designation in relevant subgroups--GATE, AVID, and RSP--participated in this 20-week study. Abstract historical concepts can be difficult to grasp; therefore, students collaborated via a wiki on topics…

  12. Social-Cultural-Historical Contradictions in an L2 Listening Lesson: A Joint Activity System Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Informed and inspired by neo-Vygotskian theory, this article outlines a study exploiting a contemporary conceptualization of Wells's (2002) joint activity system model as an exploratory framework for examining and depicting the social-cultural-historical contradictions in second-language (L2) learners' joint activity. The participants were a pair…

  13. Analysis of XXI Century Disasters in the National Geophysical Data Center Historical Natural Hazard Event Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; McCullough, H. L.

    2011-12-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) maintains a global historical event database of tsunamis, significant earthquakes, and significant volcanic eruptions. The database includes all tsunami events, regardless of intensity, as well as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions that caused fatalities, moderate damage, or generated a tsunami. Event date, time, location, magnitude of the phenomenon, and socio-economic information are included in the database. Analysis of the NGDC event database reveals that the 21st century began with earthquakes in Gujarat, India (magnitude 7.7, 2001) and Bam, Iran (magnitude 6.6, 2003) that killed over 20,000 and 31,000 people, respectively. These numbers were dwarfed by the numbers of earthquake deaths in Pakistan (magnitude 7.6, 2005-86,000 deaths), Wenchuan, China (magnitude 7.9, 2008-87,652 deaths), and Haiti (magnitude 7.0, 2010-222,000 deaths). The Haiti event also ranks among the top ten most fatal earthquakes. The 21st century has observed the most fatal tsunami in recorded history-the 2004 magnitude 9.1 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami that caused over 227,000 deaths and 10 billion damage in 14 countries. Six years later, the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami, although not the most fatal (15,000 deaths and 5,000 missing), could cost Japan's government in excess of 300 billion-the most expensive tsunami in history. Volcanic eruptions can cause disruptions and economic impact to the airline industry, but due to their remote locations, fatalities and direct economic effects are uncommon. Despite this fact, the second most expensive eruption in recorded history occurred in the 21st century-the 2010 Merapi, Indonesia volcanic eruption that resulted in 324 deaths, 427 injuries, and $600 million in damage. NGDC integrates all natural hazard event datasets into one search interface. Users can find fatal tsunamis generated by earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. The user can then link to information about the related runup observations (e.g. maximum wave height) and the source earthquake or volcano. If available, damage photographs and plots of water level data can also be viewed. The data are accessible online via tables, reports, and a new state-of-the-art interactive map viewer. These data and access capabilities help coastal communities assess their risks, identify hazards, and promote public awareness of tsunamis and earthquakes.

  14. Discourse: Simple Moves that Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawding, Molly Rothermel; Wills, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    Just as students need plenty of time to practice skills such as solving fraction problems, they also need time to practice the skills of discourse to become better communicators and stronger mathematicians. Embedded within discourse strategies are specific ways to maximize communication. When repeatedly practiced, students learn to listen to one…

  15. DOE Integrated Safeguards and Security (DISS) historical document archival and retrieval analysis, requirements and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Guyer, H.B.; McChesney, C.A.

    1994-10-07

    The overall primary Objective of HDAR is to create a repository of historical personnel security documents and provide the functionality needed for archival and retrieval use by other software modules and application users of the DISS/ET system. The software product to be produced from this specification is the Historical Document Archival and Retrieval Subsystem The product will provide the functionality to capture, retrieve and manage documents currently contained in the personnel security folders in DOE Operations Offices vaults at various locations across the United States. The long-term plan for DISS/ET includes the requirement to allow for capture and storage of arbitrary, currently undefined, clearance-related documents that fall outside the scope of the ``cradle-to-grave`` electronic processing provided by DISS/ET. However, this requirement is not within the scope of the requirements specified in this document.

  16. Historical analysis of the Ebola virus: prospective implications for primary care nursing today.

    PubMed

    Amundsen, S B

    1998-11-01

    Ebola continues to attract worldwide attention as a highly lethal virus of unknown origin that leaves victims bleeding to death and has no known vaccine or cure. The purpose of this historical research was to review and analyze the primary and secondary sources available on Ebola for use by primary care nurses in the event of future outbreaks. A rich resource of history has been well documented by some of the original physicians, virologists, and members of international teams, but nothing was found to be documented by nurses during these outbreaks. Multiple themes emerged including the origins of the viral strains of Ebola, transmission factors, epidemiology, virology, nonhuman and genetic research, treatment, and clinical implications. This research will provide primary care nurses with historical information about Ebola to help in future treatment options and algorithm development. PMID:12596837

  17. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF HEAT AND MOISTURE TRANSFER IN HISTORICAL CERAMIC MASONRY WALL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dariusz Heim; Sebastian Krawczynski; John Grunewald

    Building physics processes in some parts and elements of revitalized historical buildings play an important role in their future energy efficiency and maintenance. The unique character of 100-years-old post-industrial buildings results from masonry-brick façades with precise ornamentation and sophisticated details which should be retained and reconstructed in renovation works. Any changes in wall properties, such as the addition of new

  18. Discourses of Violence and the Ideological Strategies of the Romanian Communist Party, 1944-1953

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Adamson

    2007-01-01

    Empirical research linking violence and ideology—and using discourse theory and analysis—could provide more nuanced insights into political strategies and social contexts associated with the violent imposition of new political orders. This study addresses one such case, that of the communist takeover in Romania between 1944 and 1953, engaging in an analysis of Romanian Communist Party (PCR) discourse. Using concepts from

  19. Expanding Discourse Options through Computer-Mediated Communication: Guiding Learners toward Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Lee B.; Williams, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a multiliteracies-based pedagogical framework for the analysis of computer-mediated discourse (CMD) in order to give students increased access to expanded discourse options that are available in online communication environments and communities (i.e., beyond the classroom). Through the analysis of excerpts and a corpus of…

  20. The Political Discourse of the Campaign against Bilingual Education: From "Proposition 227" to "Horne v. Flores"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamagami, Mai

    2012-01-01

    Using the frameworks of critical discourse analysis, representation theory, and legitimization theory, this study examines the political discourse of the campaign for Proposition 227 in California--particularly, the key social representations of languages, their speakers, and the main political actors in the campaign. The analysis examines the…

  1. Imagining A Monocultural Community: Racialization of Cultural Practice in Educational Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackledge, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    Reports of racist violence in Britain identified a prevailing institutionalized racism and social segregation. Presents an analysis of authoritative educational discourse in the form of school inspection reports, focusing the cultural practice of minority ethnic families visiting their heritage country. Using critical discourse analysis, suggests…

  2. Universal health care: the changing international discourse.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Ramila

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 34 years ago, in 1978 in the face of a looming crisis in the health of the world's populations and rising health inequality, 134 countries came together to sign the historic Alma Ata Declaration where the idea of primary health care as the chosen path to "Health for All" was formulated. However even before the declaration and more so since, countries have diverse interpretations of Universalism, each setting it in the context of its own health care model. These have ranged from the minimalist to the more comprehensive welfare state. Today, as health statistics reveal, the crisis has deepened, not only in the developing world but also in the developed world. It is important to debate the nature of the crisis and understand current policy initiatives and their ideological legitimations. The paper attempts to trace, clarify and account for the shifts in international discourse on universal health care (UHC). It argues that the idea of UHC is still with us, but there have occurred substantial shifts in discourse and meaning, shaped by changing international and national contexts and social forces impinging on health systems. The current concept of universal health coverage has only a notional allusion to universality of Alma Ata and disregards its fundamental principles. It concludes that the shifts are detrimental and its value in promoting health for all is likely to be severely limited. PMID:24351385

  3. Prevailing discourses among AIDS care professionals about childbearing by couples with HIV in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Y. Ko; M. A. Muecke

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the dynamics of ideology, power and language in the dominant discourses about childbearing by couples with HIV that were expressed by AIDS care professionals in Taiwan. Critical discourse analysis of the interview texts with 11 AIDS care professionals identified three prevailing discourses on childbearing by couples with HIV\\/AIDS: pro-children, conditional pro-choice and

  4. Discourse Comprehension and Sources of Individual Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfetti, Charles A.; Lesgold, Alan M.

    This paper discusses discourse comprehension with respect to individual differences. First, some general principles of discourse structure and the processing of discourse are presented. These principles emphasize the role of sentence and thematic structure. Second, possible sources of individual differences in discourse processing are discussed.…

  5. Troubling Discourses on Gender and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahelma, Elina

    2014-01-01

    Background: In educational policies, two discourses on gender have existed since the 1980s. I call them the "gender equality discourse" and the "boy discourse". The gender equality discourse in education is based on international and national declarations and plans, and is focused predominantly on the position of girls and…

  6. Benefits of applying combined diffuse reflectance FTIR spectroscopy and principal component analysis for the study of blue tempera historical painting.

    PubMed

    Navas, Natalia; Romero-Pastor, Julia; Manzano, Eloisa; Cardell, Carolina

    2008-12-23

    This paper explores the application of diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) to the examination of historic blue pigments and blue tempera paintings commonly found on works of art. The discussion is mainly focused on the practical benefits of using this technique joined to principal component analysis (PCA), a powerful multivariate analysis tool. Thanks to the study of several replica samples that contain either pure blue pigments (azurite, lapis lazuli and smalt), or pure binder (rabbit glue) and mixtures of each of the pigments with the binder (tempera samples), different aspects of these benefits are highlighted. Comparative results of direct spectra and multivariate analysis using transmittance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (T-FTIR) are discussed throughout this study. Results showed an excellent ability of PCA on DRIFT spectra for discriminating replica samples according to differing composition. Several IR regions were tested with this aim; the fingerprint IR region exhibited the best ability for successfully clustering the samples. The presence of the binder was also discriminated. Only using this approach it was possible to completely separate all the studied replica samples. This demonstrates the potential benefits of this approach in identifying historical pigments and binders for conservation and restoration purposes in the field of Cultural Heritage. PMID:19012825

  7. A Discourse on Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the historical context of mathematics education research methodologies, describes methodological trends through the "Journal for Research in Mathematics Education" focusing on the domain of teacher knowledge and practice, and considers theoretical and methodological issues of the present and future. (25 references) (MKR)

  8. The degree of predictability of earthquakes in several regions of China: statistical analysis of historical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chunsheng

    2005-05-01

    The stress release model, a stochastic version of the elastic-rebound theory, is applied to the historical earthquake data from three strong earthquake-prone regions of China, including North China, Southwest China, and the Taiwan seismic regions. The results show that the seismicity along a plate boundary (Taiwan) is more active than in intraplate regions (North and Southwest China). The degree of predictability or regularity of seismic events in these seismic regions, based on both the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and fitted sensitivity parameters, follows the order Taiwan, Southwest China, and North China, which is further identified by numerical simulations.

  9. From the portfolio to the diagram : architectural discourse and the transformation of the discipline of architecture in America, 1918-1943

    E-print Network

    Pae, Hy?ng-min.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation is an historical inquiry into the concomitant transformations of architectural discourse and the discipline of architecture in America. It proceeds on the theoretical assumption that the documents produced ...

  10. Well, Now, Okey Dokey: English Discourse Markers in Spanish Language Medical Consultations.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Caroline H; Goble, Ryan

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine use of English discourse markers in otherwise Spanish language consultations. Data is derived from an audio-recorded corpus of Spanish language consultations that took place in a small community clinic in the United States as well as post-consultation interviews with patients and providers. Through quantification of the use of discourse makers in the corpus and discourse analysis of transcripts, we demonstrate that English-speaking dominant medical providers use English discourse markers more frequently and with a broader range of functions than do Spanish-speaking dominant medical providers and patients. We argue that such use of English discourse markers serves to exacerbate the power relationship between providers and patients even though the use of English discourse markers does not cause overt miscommunication in the ongoing interaction. Implications for providers who use a second language in their medical consultations are discussed. PMID:24347670

  11. Marginalized Discourses and Scientific Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Obed

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the marginalized discourses that have arisen to oppose the racism, sexism, and classism espoused and advocated by mainstream science since its institutionalization up until the first half of the 20th century. Contains 39 references. (Author/PVD)

  12. The biomedical discourse relation bank

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Identification of discourse relations, such as causal and contrastive relations, between situations mentioned in text is an important task for biomedical text-mining. A biomedical text corpus annotated with discourse relations would be very useful for developing and evaluating methods for biomedical discourse processing. However, little effort has been made to develop such an annotated resource. Results We have developed the Biomedical Discourse Relation Bank (BioDRB), in which we have annotated explicit and implicit discourse relations in 24 open-access full-text biomedical articles from the GENIA corpus. Guidelines for the annotation were adapted from the Penn Discourse TreeBank (PDTB), which has discourse relations annotated over open-domain news articles. We introduced new conventions and modifications to the sense classification. We report reliable inter-annotator agreement of over 80% for all sub-tasks. Experiments for identifying the sense of explicit discourse connectives show the connective itself as a highly reliable indicator for coarse sense classification (accuracy 90.9% and F1 score 0.89). These results are comparable to results obtained with the same classifier on the PDTB data. With more refined sense classification, there is degradation in performance (accuracy 69.2% and F1 score 0.28), mainly due to sparsity in the data. The size of the corpus was found to be sufficient for identifying the sense of explicit connectives, with classifier performance stabilizing at about 1900 training instances. Finally, the classifier performs poorly when trained on PDTB and tested on BioDRB (accuracy 54.5% and F1 score 0.57). Conclusion Our work shows that discourse relations can be reliably annotated in biomedical text. Coarse sense disambiguation of explicit connectives can be done with high reliability by using just the connective as a feature, but more refined sense classification requires either richer features or more annotated data. The poor performance of a classifier trained in the open domain and tested in the biomedical domain suggests significant differences in the semantic usage of connectives across these domains, and provides robust evidence for a biomedical sublanguage for discourse and the need to develop a specialized biomedical discourse annotated corpus. The results of our cross-domain experiments are consistent with related work on identifying connectives in BioDRB. PMID:21605399

  13. Efficient Analysis of Live and Historical Streaming Data and itsApplication to Cybersecurity

    SciTech Connect

    Reiss, Frederick; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng; Shoshani, Arie; Hellerstein, Joseph M.

    2007-04-06

    Applications that query data streams in order to identifytrends, patterns, or anomalies can often benefit from comparing the livestream data with archived historical stream data. However, searching thishistorical data in real time has been considered so far to beprohibitively expensive. One of the main bottlenecks is the update costsof the indices over the archived data. In this paper, we address thisproblem by using our highly-efficient bitmap indexing technology (calledFastBit) and demonstrate that the index update operations aresufficiently efficient for this bottleneck to be removed. We describe ourprototype system based on the TelegraphCQ streaming query processor andthe FastBit bitmap index. We present a detailed performance evaluation ofour system using a complex query workload for analyzing real networktraffic data. The combined system uses TelegraphCQ to analyze streams oftraffic information and FastBit to correlate current behaviors withhistorical trends. We demonstrate that our system can simultaneouslyanalyze (1) live streams with high data rates and (2) a large repositoryof historical stream data.

  14. Vesuvius: A historical approach to the 1631 eruption “cold data” from the analysis of three contemporary treatises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidoboni, Emanuela

    2008-12-01

    The 1631 Vesuvius eruption is one of its best known and most studied of its type. However, the historical approach performed within the framework of the Exploris project highlighted new evidence from previously unused or unknown historical sources. These consist of three treatises that were contemporary to the event; although written in Latin, they have been fully translated and analysed. To guarantee systematic use and open access to the large amount of information they contain, they have been provided as a small database. These treatises have provided new information on phenomena that preceded and accompanied the eruption of 1631, making possible the formation of a complex chronological profile, starting from around 6 months before the eruption. The anthropic impact is also outlined. The method applied has produced a chronology of "cold data", which are not interpreted from the volcanological standpoint, but only derived directly from the analysed history and sequence of the texts. The analysis of the three treatises has not, however, solved all of the problems connected with the detailed knowledge of the event in 1631. Indeed, problems of two kinds persist: a) linguistic correspondence between the volcanological terms of today and those used in the texts; b) the lack of precision of the measures indicated. Here, the main results obtained from this analysis method are presented, along with a discussion of their limitations and some new perspectives.

  15. Historical Renovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Describes how two colleges are combining historical renovation with state-of-the-art design. The historic Thompson House on the campus of Austin College, Texas, is now a modern building adapted to the computer age with appropriate restoration to the aesthetic grandeur of the late 19th century. Yale University's Lillian Goldman Law Library now…

  16. A SIMPLE DESCRIPTION OF AN ALGORITHM FOR TRANSFORMATIONAL ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH SENTENCES. TRANSFORMATIONS AND DISCOURSE ANALYSIS PAPERS, NUMBER 67, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HIZ, DANUTA; JOSHI, ARAVIND K.

    PRESENTED IN THIS PAPER IS A SIMPLIFIED DESCRIPTION OF AN ALGORITHM FOR TRANSFORMATIONAL ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH SENTENCES. IT IS NEITHER ASSUMED NOR IMPLIED IN THIS ALGORITHM THAT ANY KIND OF PRIOR ANALYSIS (EITHER STRING OR CONSTITUENT ANALYSIS) IS REQUIRED AS A PREREQUISITE. IN ORDER TO DEFINE THE SET OF ALL TRANSFORMS, THE AUTHORS FIRST DEFINE A…

  17. Analysis of historical water-quality data and description of plan for a sampling network in central and southern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goolsby, D.A.; Mattraw, H.C., Jr.; Lamonds, A.G.; Maddy, D.V.; Rollo, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Historical water quality data from about 100 sampling stations on streams, canals and lakes in central and southern Florida were analyzed for areal and temporal variations in water quality , statistical measures of the data, relationships between water quality variables, and long term changes or trends in water quality. Included in the analysis were data on the major inorganic chemical constituents, temperature, nitrogen and phosphorus species, trace metals, pesticides, organic carbon and biochemical oxygen demand. Based on the results of the analysis, a network was designed which would provide data to meet six specific objectives: (1) water quality accounting, (2) areal assessments (3) detection of gross long-term trends, (4) detection of toxic and deleterious substances, (5) establish a limnological data base on lakes and (6) furnish data on chemical inputs from the atmosphere. (Woodard-USGS)

  18. Spatial variability of sediment erosion processes using GIS analysis within watersheds in a historically mined region, Patagonia Mountains, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, Laura M.; Gray, Floyd; Wissler, Craig A.; Guertin, D. Phillip

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a geographic information system (GIS) is used to integrate and accurately map field studies, information from remotely sensed data, watershed models, and the dispersion of potentially toxic mine waste and tailings. The purpose of this study is to identify erosion rates and net sediment delivery of soil and mine waste/tailings to the drainage channel within several watershed regions to determine source areas of sediment delivery as a method of quantifying geo-environmental analysis of transport mechanisms in abandoned mine lands in arid climate conditions. Users of this study are the researchers interested in exploration of approaches to depicting historical activity in an area which has no baseline data records for environmental analysis of heavily mined terrain.

  19. Historic Cities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jointly sponsored by the Historic Cities Center within the Department of Geography at Hebrew University and the Jewish National and University Library, the Historic Cities Web site is intended to contain maps, literature, documents, books, and other relevant material concerning the past, present, and future of historic cities While some of these documents and ephemera are still forthcoming to the site, visitors will find a wide array of historic city maps and views dating from 1486 to 1720. The scanned maps are searchable alphabetically, by date, and by individual cartographer. Additionally, a bit of information is provided about each cartographer. Overall, the site contains close to two hundred individual city maps and renderings, ranging from medieval Heidelberg to Casablanca. For persons with an interest in urban morphology and the history of cartography, the Historic Cities site will be a good place to start.

  20. Historical climate and stream flow trends and future water demand analysis in the Calgary region, Canada.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Grasby, S E; Osadetz, K G; Fesko, P

    2006-01-01

    The city of Calgary has been one of fastest growing cities in Canada in recent years. Rapid population growth and a warming climate trend have raised concerns about sustainable water supply. In this study, historic climate, stream flow and population data are analyzed in order to develop models of future climate trends and river-water resource availability. Daily water demands for the next 60 years were projected using the relationship between daily maximum temperature and water demand under simulated climate and population growth scenarios. To maintain sustainable growth Calgary will require water conservation efforts that reduce per capita water use to less than half of the current level over the next 60 years, an interval when the civic population is expected to be doubled. PMID:16838683

  1. Phytochemical analysis of young fustic (Cotinus coggygria heartwood) and identification of isolated colourants in historical textiles.

    PubMed

    Valianou, Lemonia; Stathopoulou, Konstantina; Karapanagiotis, Ioannis; Magiatis, Prokopios; Pavlidou, Eleni; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Chryssoulakis, Yannis

    2009-06-01

    Young fustic (Cotinus coggygria Scop.; Anacardiaceae) has been used as a dyestuff since antiquity. Phytochemical investigation of the methanol extract of the heartwood has led to the isolation and structure elucidation by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry (MS) of 3',4',6-trihydroxyaurone (sulfuretin) and 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavonol (fisetin) as well as 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavanol (fustin), 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavonol (quercetin), 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavanol (taxifolin), 4',7-dihydroxyflavanol, 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavanone (butin), 4',7-dihydroxyflavanone (liquiritigenin), trans-2',3,4,4'-tetrahydroxychalcone (butein), 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone and trans-2',4,4'-trihydroxychalcone (isoliquiritigenin). The isolated compounds were used as reference materials for the development of a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-MS method, which was then applied to analyse (1) fresh silk samples dyed with young fustic, (2) dyed silk subjected to artificially accelerated light ageing and (3) historical silk micro-samples, extracted from ecclesiastical post-Byzantine garments (fifteenth to eighteenth century), which belong to monasteries of Mount Athos. Sulfuretin and fisetin, which are usually used as markers for the identification of the yellow dye and, for the first time, some of the aforementioned flavonoid components of young fustic were identified in the historical extracts. Furthermore, preliminary experiments suggested that although the amounts of the dye components decrease with light ageing, the relative ratio of fisetin and sulfuretin, after a first step of ageing, seems to be almost unaffected by such degradation processes raised by light. The effect of the latter on the morphology of the dyed silk fibres is briefly investigated by scanning electron microscopy. PMID:19352635

  2. Principled, Transformational Leadership: Analyzing the Discourse of Leadership in the Development of Librarianship's Core Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Deborah; Given, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Using discourse analysis, this article explores three questions: (a) Why was "principled, transformational leadership" the leadership style added to Core Competences? (b) What was the discourse of leadership in the profession surrounding the development of the Core Competences? (c) How might this competence affect LIS education? And what measures,…

  3. Turkish Language Teachers' Stance Taking Movements in the Discourse on Globalization and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coskun, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how Turkish teachers take and give stances in the discourse on globalization and language by using linguistic resources. According to the findings obtained through the discourse analysis of the corpus that consisted of 36 h of recording of the discussion among 4 teachers with 5 to 10 years of teaching experience, the…

  4. Latina Mothers' Enactments of Agency: Achieving Desires through Discourses in Family Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toso, Blaire Willson

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study used a post-structural feminist framework to examine how the literacy and mothering discourses women encountered in a family literacy program assisted or constrained them in enacting agency. Employing a narrative approach, combined with other methodological strategies (ethnographic observations, discourse analysis of program…

  5. Indiana Center for Intercultural Communication: Translating Health Discourse Research into Action

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Indiana Center for Intercultural Communication: Translating Health Discourse Research into Action in the community as well as international language educators. ICIC's research focuses on health discourse from-management and an intercultural analysis of sources of medical information in Spanish-speaking diabetes patients. Also featured

  6. A Foucaultian Critique of Learning Disability Discourses: Personal Narratives and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazher, Waseem

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I present a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of two discourses in learning disabilities (LD)--the academic research literature on emotions of students labeled as LD and retrospective autobiographies from adults labeled as LD writing about their emotions as students. Drawing mainly on Foucaultian explanations of power, I…

  7. "Are They Just Checking Our Obesity or What?" The Healthism Discourse and Rural Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jessica; Macdonald, Doune

    2010-01-01

    This paper makes use of critical discourse analysis and Bourdieu's theoretical framework to explore rural young women's meanings of health and fitness and how the healthism discourse is perpetuated through their experiences in school physical education (PE). The young women's own meanings are explored alongside interview data from their school PE…

  8. A dance revolution? Responding to dominant discourses in contemporary integrated dance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hannah R. Irving; Audrey R. Giles

    2011-01-01

    This research is informed by 6 months of ethnographic fieldwork and 10 semi-structured interviews with 10 members of an integrated dance company. Through the use of Foucauldian theory and discourse analysis, we found that the discourses of legitimacy circulating in and through contemporary dance have typically excluded the bodies and artistic contributions of dancers with disabilities. The participants in this

  9. A dance revolution? Responding to dominant discourses in contemporary integrated dance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hannah R. Irving; Audrey R. Giles

    2012-01-01

    This research is informed by 6 months of ethnographic fieldwork and 10 semi-structured interviews with 10 members of an integrated dance company. Through the use of Foucauldian theory and discourse analysis, we found that the discourses of legitimacy circulating in and through contemporary dance have typically excluded the bodies and artistic contributions of dancers with disabilities. The participants in this

  10. "Underprepared" and "At-Risk": Disrupting Deficit Discourses in Undergraduate STEM Recruitment and Retention Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Erin L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights deficit-oriented descriptions of underrepresented undergraduate students in STEM intervention programs at large public 4-year universities. Drawing from interview data and using critical discourse analysis, the author identifies how deficit discourses are mobilized among program staff and argues that such descriptions…

  11. Press self-censorship in China: a case study in the transformation of discourse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingrong Tong

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the way in which newspaper discourse gets changed. Original reports of three social problem events that journalists sent to two different newsrooms and reports that were published are compared using critical discourse analysis. It is argued that the practice of self-censorship helps newsrooms bypass political 'minefields', and at the same time increase the possibilities of the publication

  12. Toys as discourse: children's war toys and the war on terror

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Machin; Theo Van Leeuwen

    2009-01-01

    War toys of different eras realize the dominant discourses of war of the time, and they do so in a way which allows children to enact these discourses and values in play. This paper examines war toys over the past 100 years before providing a detailed multimodal analysis of contemporary war toys distributed around the planet, mainly by global American

  13. The design of a theoretical, methodological, analytical framework to analyse hegemony in discourse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolina Montesano Montessori

    2011-01-01

    This paper includes a detailed discursive analysis of the discourse of the former President Salinas de Gortari (Mexico, 1988–1994) and that of the Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (EZLN). This study contextualises the EZLN struggle as a local response to the global policy shift of the Mexican government. It considered the discourses of both parties as narratives which played a

  14. Self-realisation and control in the discourse practice of management coaching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Ellerup Nielsen; Hanne Nørreklit

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the construction of discourses in current popular management models described in the field of management coaching in order to examine the disciplining forms and the type of authority appeal drawn upon in these models. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The authors apply a discourse analysis to two selected works on management coaching in

  15. Curriculum Reform in a Globalised World: The Discourses of Cosmopolitanism and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camicia, Steven P.; Franklin, Barry M.

    2010-01-01

    Under conditions of globalisation, the discourse of cosmopolitanism adds a new dimension to analysis of curriculum reform. We examine the meanings and contentions of curriculum as a regulatory function in rapidly changing, global communities. We examine cosmopolitanism and curriculum through the lenses of two cosmopolitan discourses, neoliberal…

  16. John F. Kennedy's Civil Rights Discourse: The Evolution from "Principled Bystander" to Public Advocate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldzwig, Steven R.; Dionisopoulos, George N.

    1989-01-01

    Argues that President John F. Kennedy's civil rights discourse evidences an important evolutionary pattern marking a transition from legal argument to moral argument. Highlights two speeches as exemplars of this change. Asserts that this analysis is useful in the study of contemporary presidential discourse during times of domestic crisis. (MM)

  17. Primary Discourse and Expressive Oral Language in a Kindergarten Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiano, Darcy A.

    2014-01-01

    This seven-month ethnographic case study elucidated a kindergarten student's navigation through her first formal schooling experience with relation to expressive oral language. Gee's theory of Discourses and methodology of discourse analysis were used to examine expressive oral language in use. Two discursive contexts germane to…

  18. Where Are the Women? And Other Questions, Asked within an Historical Analysis of Sociology of Music Education Research Publications: Being a Self-Reflective Ethnographic Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a meta-analysis of one area of sociological literature in music education: Where are the women and "others"? Where do we raise concerns about social values? Institutional Ethnography provides the basis for the meta-analysis, presented in two historical periods, pre-1960 and 2007-2012. A short story of an actual…

  19. Water Resources Sustainability in Northwest Mexico: Analysis of Regional Infrastructure Plans under Historical and Climate Change Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, D.; Robles-Morua, A.; Mayer, A. S.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    The arid state of Sonora, Mexico, has embarked on a large water infrastructure project to provide additional water supply and improved sanitation to the growing capital of Hermosillo. The main component of the Sonora SI project involves an interbasin transfer from rural to urban water users that has generated conflicts over water among different social sectors. Through interactions with regional stakeholders from agricultural and water management agencies, we ascertained the need for a long-term assessment of the water resources of one of the system components, the Sonora River Basin (SRB). A semi-distributed, daily watershed model that includes current and proposed reservoir infrastructure was applied to the SRB. This simulation framework allowed us to explore alternative scenarios of water supply from the SRB to Hermosillo under historical (1980-2010) and future (2031-2040) periods that include the impact of climate change. We compared three precipitation forcing scenarios for the historical period: (1) a network of ground observations from Mexican water agencies; (2) gridded fields from the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) at 12 km resolution; and (3) gridded fields from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at 10 km resolution. These were compared to daily historical observations at two stream gauging stations and two reservoirs to generate confidence in the simulation tools. We then tested the impact of climate change through the use of the A2 emissions scenario and HadCM3 boundary forcing on the WRF simulations of a future period. Our analysis is focused on the combined impact of existing and proposed reservoir infrastructure at two new sites on the water supply management in the SRB under historical and future climate conditions. We also explore the impact of climate variability and change on the bimodal precipitation pattern from winter frontal storms and the summertime North American monsoon and its consequences on water management. Our results are presented in the form of flow duration, reliability and exceedence frequency curves that are commonly used in the water management agencies. Through this effort, we anticipate to build confidence among regional stakeholders in utilizing hydrological models in the development of water infrastructure plans and to foster conversations that address water sustainability issues.

  20. Studies in Historical Replication in Psychology VII: The Relative Utility of ``Ancestor Analysis'' from Scientific and Educational Vantages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranney, Michael Andrew

    2008-05-01

    This article discusses, from various vantages, Ryan Tweney’s (this issue) pedagogical technique of employing historical replications of psychological experiments with graduate students in psychology. A prima facie perspective suggests great promise for this sort of academic “ancestor analysis,” particularly given the enthusiasm and skill represented in the activities that culminated in the replicators’ articles. It is suggested that such activities might be enhanced by requiring a contextualization that makes contact with more modern psychological research—particularly regarding expositions of the replications. From a scientific/cognitive methods perspective, the original experimenters’ inexplicit, ambiguous, descriptions provide both challenges and opportunities for students seeking to improve their understandings of their field. Three practical questions are posed herein regarding the general utility of this—or any—proposed instructional intervention. Ultimately, determining and integrating the diverse objectives that essential stakeholders have in graduate psychological training represent critical prerequisites in comprehensively assessing the relative advantages of such historical replications with respect to alternative experiences.

  1. Competence: Analysis, Critique, Reassessment. A Report of a Conference Held May 18-20, 1980, under the Auspices of the College of Education, the Pennsylvania State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Edmund C.

    A report provides summaries of 10 papers presented at a conference about teacher competence and effectiveness. In the first session, two speakers, Nel Noddings and Edward R. Fagan, present an analysis of the prevailing rhetoric in educational discourse and practice. The second session provides historical perspectives on the use of the term…

  2. Analysis of pigments and inks on oil paintings and historical manuscripts using total reflection x?ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Klockenkämper; A. von Bohlen; L. Moens

    2000-01-01

    Old oil paintings and illuminated historical manuscripts are valuable objects of cultural heritage. Pigments and inks once used for these artefacts today allow insights of art historical or archaeological relevance. For their identification, a number of non-destructive spectroanalytical methods can be applied. This paper first gives a historical review and describes fundamentals of optical and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry including instrumentation

  3. Circulating Discourses of Minority Education: The Linguistic Construction of Modernity in Globalizing Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shumin

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on 15 months of fieldwork in Taiwan, this article analyzes circulating discourses and practices across heterogeneous scales that conflate Taiwanese minority-language elders with foreign brides as nonmodern and childlike. The assiduous production and reproduction of historically and geographically displaced linguistic Others is part and…

  4. Contraception, Abortion and State Socialism: Categories in Birth Control Discourses and Policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dag STENVOLL

    The article is about the politics of birth control in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). I will map abortion and contraception policies and discourses during and after state socialism, with Russia, Poland and Romania as main cases. Furthermore, historical and contemporary constructions of birth control in these countries are contrasted to western European debates, in order to denaturalise implicit assumptions

  5. Investigating Science Discourse in a High School Science Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Lauren Honeycutt

    Science classrooms in the United States have become more diverse with respect to the variety of languages spoken by students. This qualitative study used ethnographic methods to investigate the discourse and practices of two ninth grade science classrooms. Approximately 44% of students included in the study were designated as English learners. The present work focused on addressing the following questions: 1) In what ways is science discourse taken up and used by students and their teacher? 2) Are there differences in how science discourse is used by students depending on their English language proficiency? Data collection consisted of interviewing the science teacher and the students, filming whole class and small group discussions during two lesson sequences, and collecting lesson plans, curricular materials, and student work. These data were analyzed qualitatively. Findings indicated that the teacher characterized science discourse along three dimensions: 1) the use of evidence-based explanations; 2) the practice of sharing one's science understandings publically; and 3) the importance of using precise language, including both specialized (i.e., science specific) and non-specialized academic words. Analysis of student participation during in-class activities highlighted how students progressed in each of these science discourse skills. However, this analysis also revealed that English learners were less likely to participate in whole class discussions: Though these students participated in small group discussions, they rarely volunteered to share individual or collective ideas with the class. Overall, students were more adept at utilizing science discourse during class discussions than in written assignments. Analysis of students' written work highlighted difficulties that were not visible during classroom interactions. One potential explanation is the increased amount of scaffolding the teacher provided during class discussions as compared to written assignments. In the implications section, I provide science teachers with recommendations regarding how to promote science discourse in their classrooms. Specifically, teachers should provide students structured opportunities to practice science discourse, require students to use both written and oral modalities in assignments, and offer timely feedback to students regarding their progress in developing their science discourse skills. How this study contributes to the research base on the teaching of science and English learners will also be described.

  6. Historical data and analysis for the first five years of KSC STS payload processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragusa, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    General and specific quantitative and qualitative results were identified from a study of actual operational experience while processing 186 science, applications, and commercial payloads for the first 5 years of Space Transportation System (STS) operations at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC). All non-Department of Defense payloads from STS-2 through STS-33 were part of the study. Historical data and cumulative program experiences from key personnel were used extensively. Emphasis was placed on various program planning and events that affected KSC processing, payload experiences and improvements, payload hardware condition after arrival, services to customers, and the impact of STS operations and delays. From these initial considerations, operational drivers were identified, data for selected processing parameters collected and analyzed, processing criteria and options determined, and STS payload results and conclusions reached. The study showed a significant reduction in time and effort needed by STS customers and KSC to process a wide variety of payload configurations. Also of significance is the fact that even the simplest payloads required more processing resources than were initially assumed. The success to date of payload integration, testing, and mission operations, however, indicates the soundness of the approach taken and the methods used.

  7. Reconstruction and analysis of historical changes in carbon storage in arctic tundra

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, R.B.; Rastetter, E.B.; Shaver, G.R. [Ecosystems Center, Woods Hole, MA (United States)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    Surface air temperature in arctic regions has increased since pre-industrial times, raising concerns that warmer and possibly drier conditions have increased soil decomposition rates, thereby stimulating the release to the atmosphere of the large stores of carbon (C) in arctic soils. We used a model (MBL-GEM, Marine Biological Laboratory General Ecosystem Model) of ecosystem C and nitrogen (N) dynamics to predict and analyze historical (1829-1990) changes in C storage in a N-limited, tussock-tundra ecosystem near Toolik Lake on the North Slope of Alaska. The model simulates stand-level photosynthesis and N uptake by plants, allocation of C and N to foliage, stems, and fine roots, respiration in these tissues, turnover of biomass through litterfall, and decomposition of litter and soil organic matter. We first calibrated the model by deriving a single parameter set that closely simulated the response of tussock tundra to decade-long experimental manipulations of nutrients, temperature, light, and atmospheric CO{sub 2}. 60 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Analysis of historical meteor and meteor shower records: Korea, China, and Japan

    E-print Network

    Hong-Jin Yang; Changbom Park; Myeong-Gu Park

    2005-01-12

    We have compiled and analyzed historical Korean meteor and meteor shower records in three Korean official history books, Samguksagi which covers the three Kingdoms period (57 B.C -- A.D. 935), Goryeosa of Goryeo dynasty (A.D. 918 -- 1392), and Joseonwangjosillok of Joseon dynasty (A.D. 1392 -- 1910). We have found 3861 meteor and 31 meteor shower records. We have confirmed the peaks of Perseids and an excess due to the mixture of Orionids, north-Taurids, or Leonids through the Monte-Carlo test. The peaks persist from the period of Goryeo dynasty to that of Joseon dynasty, for almost one thousand years. Korean records show a decrease of Perseids activity and an increase of Orionids/north-Taurids/Leonids activity. We have also analyzed seasonal variation of sporadic meteors from Korean records. We confirm the seasonal variation of sporadic meteors from the records of Joseon dynasty with the maximum number of events being roughly 1.7 times the minimum. The Korean records are compared with Chinese and Japanese records for the same periods. Major features in Chinese meteor shower records are quite consistent with those of Korean records, particularly for the last millennium. Japanese records also show Perseids feature and Orionids/north-Taurids/Leonids feature, although they are less prominent compared to those of Korean or Chinese records.

  9. Productive vocabulary across discourse types

    PubMed Central

    Fergadiotis, Gerasimos; Wright, Heather Harris; Capilouto, Gilson J.

    2011-01-01

    Aims The goals of the study were (a) to examine the effect of discourse type on lexical diversity by testing whether there are significant differences among language samples elicited using four discourse tasks (procedures, eventcasts, story telling, and recounts); and (b) to assess the extent to which age influences lexical diversity when different types of discourse are elicited. Methods & Procedures A total of 86 cognitively healthy adults participated in the study and comprised two groups – young adults (20–29 years old) and older adults (70–89 years old). Participants completed the discourse tasks and their language samples were analysed using dedicated software (voc-D) to obtain estimates of their lexical diversity. Outcomes & Results A mixed 2 × 4 ANOVA was conducted and followed by an investigation of simple main effects. A lexical diversity hierarchy was established that was similar for both age groups. The study also uncovered age-related differences that were evident when the stimuli were verbally presented but were eliminated when the language samples were elicited using pictorial stimuli. Conclusions Results indicated that lexical diversity is one of the microlinguistic indices that are influenced by discourse type and age, a finding that carries important methodological implications. Future investigations are warranted to explore the patterns of lexical diversity in individuals with neurogenic language disorders and assess the clinical utility of measures of lexical diversity. PMID:22904592

  10. Investigating Regional Disparities of China's Human Development with Cluster Analysis: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yongheng; Hu, Angang

    2008-01-01

    This paper adopts both one-dimensional and multi-dimensional cluster analysis to analyze China's HDI data for 1982, 1995, 1999, and 2003, and to classify China's provinces into four tiers based on the three basic developmental aspects embedded in HDI. The classifications by cluster analysis depends on the observations' similarities with respect to…

  11. Understanding Sun-Climate Connection by Analysis of Historical Sunspot, Auroral and Weather Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, K. D.; Yau, K. K.

    2005-12-01

    Fifty years of galactic cosmic ray data show changes with the solar cycle. Deflection of the highly energetic particles from exploding supernovae by the solar wind and associated magnetic field also modulates cosmogenic radioisotope production high in the atmosphere. The same trends are seen in carbon-14 and beryllium-10 abundances from long-lived trees and polar ice cores, respectively. Total solar irradiances measured by satellite radiometers show a 0.1% variance over the last two solar cycles, with only a small effect on global temperatures. A longer view is obviously needed. During the Maunder Minimum (1645-1715) sunspots were rarely seen. Total solar irradiances, reconstructed from historical sunspot data, were 0.24% lower, correlating nicely with an estimated 0.5-degree drop in Northern Hemisphere surface temperatures during the Little Ice Age [Lean and Rind, J. Clim. 11, 3069, 1998]. A longer time series has been reconstructed from even earlier records. From the frequencies of sunspot and auroral sightings in East Asian and European chronicles, C-14 and Be-10 abundances we have reconstructed the recent history of a variable Sun. In the past 1800 years the Sun has gone through nine cycles of brightness change. Although these long-term changes were <1% they have clearly affected the climate [Pang and Yau, Eos 83, No. 43, 481, 2002]. We have also analyzed Chinese historical weather records for comparison. Reports of unseasonable cold are classified by their degree of severity: (1) Late (April-June) or early (July-Sept.) killing frosts; (2) Bitter cold/heavy snowfall; and (3) Heavy sustained snowfall, bitter cold with frozen wells, lakes, rivers and icebound seas. The latter cases were often widespread and multi-year. All categories occurred most often during Maunder Minimum. The Category 3 episodes were in 1652-54, 1656, 1664, 1670-72, 1676-77, 1683, 1688-91, 1716 and 1718-19. The coldest time 1670-1697 coincides with lows in aurora sightings and numerical model simulated temperatures, and highs in radioisotope production. There was only one Category 3 episode between the Maunder and Dalton Minima-in 1761 (due to a big eruption); and two in the Dalton Minimum (1795-1825)-in 1796 and 1814-17. The 1815 Tambora eruption, with the reduced solar luminosity, seem to have been responsible for the "year without summer" and long-cold spell. The Sun has brightened since the Dalton Minimum, but the climate of China stayed cold through the 19th century. However there were only two Category 3 episodes: in 1841 and 1877. The onset of global warming reduced that to just once in the 20th century: 1955. The climate of China seems to have been warm during the Late 14th-Century Maximum (1350-1410). We have found only one Category 1 episode: in 1393. It then turned cold during the Sporer Minimum (1410-1590). Category 3 episodes occurred in 1453-54, 1493, 1513, 1569, and 1577-78. The early 1453 great Kuwae eruption apparently deepened and prolonged the first [Pang, Eos 74, No. 43, 106, 1993; Simarski, Aramco World 47, No.6, 8, 1996]. We conclude that the climate of China in the past 650 years generally follows world trend. The major forcing seems to have been changing solar luminosity, as all but four severe weather episodes coincide with solar minimum. The exact mechanism remains unknown, but could have been increased cloudiness.

  12. “Western discourse” and contemporary Chinese culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Furen Wang

    2007-01-01

    Starting with the differentiation between the basic terms such as discourse and discourse hegemony, and Western culture and\\u000a Western discourse, this paper gives a survey of the relationship between contemporary Chinese culture and Western culture.\\u000a It holds that we should be opposed to the hegemony of the Western discourse while affirming the general tendency that Chinese\\u000a culture is shifting from

  13. Markers of topical discourse in child-directed speech.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Hannah; Frank, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Although the language we encounter is typically embedded in rich discourse contexts, many existing models of processing focus largely on phenomena that occur sentence-internally. Similarly, most work on children's language learning does not consider how information can accumulate as a discourse progresses. Research in pragmatics, however, points to ways in which each subsequent utterance provides new opportunities for listeners to infer speaker meaning. Such inferences allow the listener to build up a representation of the speakers' intended topic and more generally to identify relationships, structures, and messages that extend across multiple utterances. We address this issue by analyzing a video corpus of child-caregiver interactions. We use topic continuity as an index of discourse structure, examining how caregivers introduce and discuss objects across utterances. For the analysis, utterances are grouped into topical discourse sequences using three annotation strategies: raw annotations of speakers' referents, the output of a model that groups utterances based on those annotations, and the judgments of human coders. We analyze how the lexical, syntactic, and social properties of caregiver-child interaction change over the course of a sequence of topically related utterances. Our findings suggest that many cues used to signal topicality in adult discourse are also available in child-directed speech. PMID:24731080

  14. An objective change point analysis of landfalling historical Atlantic hurricane numbers

    E-print Network

    Jewson, S; Jewson, Stephen; Penzer, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    In previous work we have analysed the Atlantic basin hurricane number time-series to identify decadal time-scale change points. We now repeat the analysis but for US landfalling hurricanes. The results are very different.

  15. Homophobic Discourse Surrounding the Female Athlete.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veri, Maria J.

    1999-01-01

    Considers constructs and operation of homophobic discourse surrounding female athletes, employing Foucauldian notions of discipline and discourse and feminist critiques of the gendered body to depict female athletes as nonconformist to the discipline of femininity. The paper argues that homophobic discourse exists in response to this nonconformity…

  16. From Tragedy to Comedy: Reframing Contemporary Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broom, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that environmental destruction arises from a discourse rooted in Western Economic and Scientific Theory. This discourse artificially separates individuals from our natural world and argues that competition and utilitarian actions are beneficial to society. It is however, a discourse that is taking us to a Shakespearean tragic…

  17. The Organization of Narrative Discourse in Lewy Body Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Sharon; McMillan, Corey; Gross, Rachel G.; Cook, Philip; Morgan, Brianna; Boller, Ashley; Dreyfuss, Michael; Siderowf, Andrew; Grossman, Murray

    2011-01-01

    Narrative discourse is an essential component of day-to-day communication, but little is known about narrative in Lewy Body spectrum disorder (LBSD), including Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We performed a detailed analysis of a semi-structured speech sample in 32 non-aphasic patients with LBSD, and we related their narrative impairments to gray matter (GM) atrophy using voxel-based morphometry. We found that patients with PDD and DLB have significant difficulty organizing their narrative speech. This was correlated with deficits on measures of executive functioning and speech fluency. Regression analyses associated this deficit with reduced cortical volume in inferior frontal and anterior cingulate regions. These findings are consistent with a model of narrative discourse that includes executive as well as language components and with an impairment of the organizational component of narrative discourse in patients with PDD and DLB. PMID:21689852

  18. Completeness period analysis of SisFrance macroseismic database and interpretation in the light of historical context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, José; Fradet, Thibault; Traversa, Paola; Tuleau-Malot, Christine; Reynaud-Bouret, Patricia; Laloe, Thomas; Manchuel, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    In metropolitan France the deformation rates are slow, implying low to moderate seismic activity. Therefore, earthquakes observed during the instrumental period (since 1962), and associated catalogs, cannot be representative of the seismic cycle for the French metropolitan territory. In such context it is necessary, when performing seismic hazard studies, to consider historical seismic data in order to extend the observation period and to be more representative of the seismogenic behavior of geological structures. The French macroseismic database SisFrance is jointly developed by EDF (Electricité de France), BRGM (Bureau de Recherche Géologique et Minière) and IRSN (Institut de Radioprotection et Sureté Nucléaire). It contains more than 6,000 events inventoried between 217 BC and 2007 and more than 100,000 macroseismic observations. SisFrance is the reference macroseismic database for metropolitan France. The aim of this study is to determine, over the whole catalog, the completeness periods for different epicentral intensity (Iepc) classes?IV. Two methods have been used: 1) the method of Albarello et al. [2001], which has been adapted to best suit the French catalog, and 2) a mathematical method based on change points estimation, proposed by Muggeo et al. [2003], which has been adapted to the analysis of seismic datasets. After a brief theoretical description, both methods are tested and validated using synthetic catalogs, before being applied to the French catalog. The results show that completeness periods estimated using these two methods are coherent with each other for events with Iepc ?IV (1876 using Albarello et al. [2001] method and 1872 using Muggeo et al. [2003] method) and events with Iepc ?V (1852 using Albarello et al. [2001] method and 1855 using Muggeo et al. [2003] method). Larger differences in estimated completeness period appear when considering events with Iepc ?VI (around 30 years difference) and events with Iepc ?VII (around 50 years difference). These could be explained (1) by the differences in the way each method approaches the data; Muggeo et al. [2003] method estimates all change points within data series, whereas the method of Albarello et al. [2001] focus on the last one, and (2) by a more limited number of data for these epicentral intensity classes (2056 events with Iepc ?IV and 1252 events with Iepc ?V vs. 486 events with Iepc ?VI and 199 events with Iepc ?VII). Results obtained for epicentral intensity classes greater than VIII are considered not reliable due to the short number of existing data (around 30 events). The completeness periods determined in this study are discussed in the light of their contemporary historical context, and in particular of the evolution of the information available from historical archives since the 17th century.

  19. Pathology Case Study: Lash's Bitters - Biochemical Analysis of a Historic Proprietary Medicine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Beiler, Bonnie

    This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology. This case examines the history of medicine by tracing the origins and development of proprietary medications. Visitors will find a collection of bottle and advertisement images, analysis procedures results from medications, discussion of those results, and references for further reading. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to understand the history of medicine, the development of proprietary medications, and the biochemical analysis of them. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in clinical chemistry.

  20. Complexity of Secondary Scientific Data Sources and Students' Argumentative Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerlin, Steven C.; McDonald, Scott P.; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the learning opportunities provided to students through the use of complex geological data supporting scientific inquiry. Through analysis of argumentative discourse in a high school Earth science classroom, uses of US Geological Survey (USGS) data were contrasted with uses of geoscience textbook data. To examine these…

  1. Production of Elaborated Argumentative Discourse: The Role of Cooperativeness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golder, Caroline

    1992-01-01

    Presents analysis of argumentative discourse by students, revealing that it involves both dialogical and argumentative operations. Reports that dialogical and argumentative operations are functionally linked. Concludes that the percentage of markers of utterance involvement, axiological forms, and modalizations is much higher in argumentative…

  2. Building a Tool for Annotating Reference in Discourse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan DeCristofaro; Michael Strube; Kathleen F. McCoy

    We discuss the development of a system for marking several types of reference to facilitate the analysis of reference in discourse. The tool is designed to be used in three applicationsi generating training data for machine learning of co-reference relations, evaluating iheories of referring expression generation and resolu- tion in texts, and developing theories for un- derstanding reference in dialogs.

  3. The Organization of Narrative Discourse in Lewy Body Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Sharon; McMillan, Corey; Gross, Rachel G.; Cook, Philip; Morgan, Brianna; Boller, Ashley; Dreyfuss, Michael; Siderowf, Andrew; Grossman, Murray

    2011-01-01

    Narrative discourse is an essential component of day-to-day communication, but little is known about narrative in Lewy body spectrum disorder (LBSD), including Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We performed a detailed analysis of a semi-structured speech sample in 32 non-aphasic…

  4. Discourse Processes and Products: Land Surveyors in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Winnie; Mok, Esmond

    2008-01-01

    The study reported in this paper aims to provide a description of professional communication pertaining to land surveying project management in Hong Kong, achieved through a comprehensive analysis of both workplace discourse processes and products. The study, situated in Hong Kong, represents a collaborative effort between English and Land…

  5. Towards Building a Math Discourse Community: Investigating Collaborative Information Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nan Zhou; Gerry Stahl

    2007-01-01

    We reported a study that analyzes collaborative information behavior of small groups in an online math discourse community. Taking group as the unit of analysis, we analyzed the social interactions of participants engaged in collaborative math problem solving and examined how they seek for information in such context. Participants look for information oriented to the procedure, problem, context, and social

  6. The Scientization of Physical Education: Discourses of Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Whitson; Donald Macintosh

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the content and context of changes in the dominant discourses of physical education. It begins with an analysis of the role of language in publicly defining a role for new professions and defining the nature of that profession's expertise. It then briefly traces the reconstruction of university physical education as sports studies, sport sciences, and sport management

  7. Navigating Discourses in Place in the World of Webkinz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlwend, Karen E.; Zanden, Sarah Vander; Husbye, Nicholas E.; Kuby, Candace R.

    2011-01-01

    Geosemiotics (Scollon and Scollon, 2003) frames this analysis of play, multimodal collaboration, and peer mediation as players navigate barriers to online connectivity in a children's social network and gaming site. A geosemiotic perspective enables examination of children's web play as "discourses in place": fluidly converging and diverging…

  8. Discourse Production Following Injury to the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Carl; Le, Karen; Mozeiko, Jennifer; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with damage to the prefrontal cortex, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in particular, often demonstrate difficulties with the formulation of complex language not attributable to aphasia. The present study employed a discourse analysis procedure to characterize the language of individuals with left (L) or right (R) DLPFC…

  9. An Analysis of the Historical Development of Ideas about Motion and Its Implications for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    The persistence of students' misconceptions about motion illustrates the enormous difficulty that teachers face in their attempts to overcome these with traditional physics instruction. An understanding of students' ideas about motion and ways to incorporate them into successful instructional approaches can be obtained from an analysis of…

  10. User analysis in HCI - the historical lessons from individual differences research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Dillon; Charles Watson

    1996-01-01

    User analysis is a crucial aspect of user-centered systems design, yet Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) has yet to formulate reliable and valid characterizations of users beyond gross distinctions based on task and experience. Individual differences research from mainstream psychology has identified a stable set of characteristics that would appear to offer potential application in the HCI arena. Furthermore, in its evolution

  11. An Historical Analysis of the United States Naval Academy Graduates in the United States Air Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, William E.

    The purpose of the study is to provide an analysis of the Naval Academy graduates who were commissioned in the Air Force upon graduation. Active duty personnel records were searched to determine retention, rank, professional military education, education level and career field assignments. Comparisons were made between this group and the regular…

  12. AN ANALYSIS OF HISTORIC (1908-1967) WHALING RECORDS FROM BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA

    E-print Network

    . Predictive habitat models were produced at annual and monthly time scales based on an initial analysis,275) and a simple oceanographic mode l were used to build generalized linear models, from which predictions of whale habitat were generated. The catch data were analyzed using annual and monthly mean values. Monthly

  13. Historic Maps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brieske, Joel A.

    2003-01-01

    The first site about historical maps is the US Military Academy at West Point's History Department's Map Library (1). The page contains links to dozens of maps related to warfare from ancient times, the American Revolution, and the Napoleonic wars to the World Wars and other modern conflicts. Although map descriptions are not given and the main page seemed to have a problem loading correctly, the site does give a very interesting glimpse into the geography and history of conflict. The second offering is from The Dalton School called Maps of the Roman Empire (2). Visitors will find dozens of interesting maps with titles such as the Roman Empire circa 120 AD; Trade Routes; 18 Centuries of Roman Empire; and maps of how the empire expanded, barbarian migrations, and more. Next, the History of Cartography (3) Web site is maintained by the University of Wisconsin Geography Department. The well designed page contains six volumes of information relating to cartographic changes from ancient times to the twentieth century. Full descriptions and images are available from this unique research, editorial, and publishing project. The fourth site from the Library of Congress Historical Collections is entitled American Memory Collections (4). The page contains various links to civil war maps, panoramic maps, revolutionary era maps, and other very impressive collections. The Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection: Historical Maps Web site (5) of the University of Texas at Austin is the next offering. This extensive site contains a well organized collection of historical maps of Africa, the Americas, Asia, Australia and the Pacific, Europe, the Middle East, Polar Regions and Oceans, Russia and the Former Soviet Republics, Texas, the US, and the World. The sixth site is maintained by John Hopkins University called Color Landforms Atlas of the United States (6). The main page contains links to maps from all fifty states, which include large historical maps from 1895, county maps, and shaded relief maps. The next site, old-maps.co.uk (7), is provided by Britain's national mapping agency and the Landmark Information Group. The site gives online access to Britain's most extensive digital historical map archive, which can be searched and browsed by a variety of subjects to view maps of Buckingham Palace, Edinburgh Castle, and Oxford University, among others. The last historical maps Web site is the Maps and Geography (8) search engine from National Geographic online. Users can search by general historical maps, Lewis and Clark maps, New England and New York maps, Civil War, and World Maps to find and view an impressive and interesting collection.

  14. A Discourse Theory of Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asen, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This essay calls for a reorientation in scholarly approaches to civic engagement from asking questions of what to asking questions of how. I advance a discourse theory of citizenship as a mode of public engagement. Attending to modalities of citizenship recognizes its fluid and quotidian enactment and considers action that is purposeful,…

  15. Police Discourse on Racial Profiling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen S. Glover

    2007-01-01

    As central actors in the phenomenon, the police view is noticeably absent from research on racial profiling. Given the prominence of “color-blind” racial ideology in the face of disparate opinions about the police between minorities and Whites in the United States, police discourse on racial profiling bears examination. The author employs in-depth interviews of patrol officers in the Novad (a

  16. Therapy Talk: Analyzing Therapeutic Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Margaret M.

    2004-01-01

    Therapeutic discourse is the talk-in-interaction that represents the social practice between clinician and client. This article invites speech-language pathologists to apply their knowledge of language to analyzing therapy talk and to learn how talking practices shape clinical roles and identities. A range of qualitative research approaches,…

  17. Expanding the Discourse through Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    Notes that journal writing can be effective in cultivating formal discourse while respecting cultural differences. Considers how the author modified his introductory composition class to help students to communicate in a context that united or at least respected the diffusion of languages that permeated diverse classrooms. (SG)

  18. Metaphor, Language, and Discourse Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    An evaluation of conceptual metaphor theory (CMT) offered by Raymond W. Gibbs, Jr. in this issue suggests a number of important opportunities for future research that may be based on interesting research findings produced over the past 3 decades in response to CMT. This reply to Gibbs argues that the main question for discourse processing remains…

  19. Locally Contingent Categorization in Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overstreet, Maryann; Yule, George

    1997-01-01

    Investigates creation and interpretation of nonlexicalized categories within discourse, as indicated by the use of general extenders. Shows that such categories are locally contingent, depend on contextually salient features for identifying similarity among members, can be created through contrast or contiguity, and clearly depend on assumptions…

  20. Cyberethics, Discourse and Campus Community

    E-print Network

    of one college's effort to encourage environments for civil discourse in the cyber world Dialogue of candid opinions and points of view that ultimately serve us all to broaden our awareness of certain situations, conflicts, etc. within Vassar. #12;I was very hesitant [about starting the site! however because

  1. Teacher candidates, discourse and diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Fernsten

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews a classroom practice designed to help teacher candidates become more critically reflective practitioners in regard to multiculturalism, language, and practice. The literature on teacher education and multicultural discourse theory serves as theoretical background. A questionnaire was used to collect data about student attitudes and beliefs regarding issues of language and diversity. In light of the more extensive

  2. The paradigm that always was: Scientific discourse in Young-Earth Creationist textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, Travis

    Bob Jones University Press (BJU Press) is a publishing house owned by the Greenville, South Carolina university of the same name. Fulfilling Bob Jones' mission beyond the college classroom, BJU Press prints a full K-12 educational program that spans all subjects and meets national core content standards. These materials are nationally circulated in homeschooling environments and conservative Christian private schools, a growing portion of America's educational landscape: according to a Department of Education 2009 report, enrollment in these schools represented 885,000 students. Research in rhetoric facilitates our understanding of various discourse communities, especially those that appropriate the discourse of a separate community to forward an argument that runs counter to the purposes of the original community. An interesting example of this rhetorical strategy is BJU Press' educational philosophy called Biblical Integration, in which teachers are invoked to "call into question the secular assumptions of each subject and then encourage the student to rebuild the discipline from biblical presuppositions." Using this technique, teachers using BJU Press materials attempt to shape students' ideologies by teaching a literal reading of the Bible dictating a 6,000-year-old Earth. The most interesting subject area in which BJU Press deploys Biblical Integration is the natural sciences, wherein to achieve this goal, textbook authors must make two rhetorical moves: first, re-frame a biblical ideology as being equally scientific to its secular counterparts; and, second, argue for the superiority of a science based in the Bible. This thesis analyzes a science textbook produced by BJU Press, exploring how the authors meet these exigencies. Specifically, I argue that the authors of the eighth grade title Earth Science both adopt and adapt the discourse of science in order to validate Evangelical Christian Science as being legitimately engaged in scientific endeavors. Within the context of natural sciences, Biblical Integration is particularly compelling: in formulating an alternative view of science and arguing for its superiority over secular science, the authors at BJU Press are implicitly employing the discourse of Kuhnian scientific revolution, adding a layer of scientific credibility to their efforts by mimicking the historical progress of the sciences. In adopting a Kuhnian approach, the authors craft a hybrid discourse that blends science with scripture, working against the secular status quo of the sciences. Accordingly, to analyze this hybrid discourse, this thesis draws upon work within the rhetoric of science directly influenced by Thomas Kuhn. This analysis is conducted via two case studies. The first focuses on the textbook's introductory chapter, highlighting how the chapter appropriates the epistemological practices of scientific research by presenting an overarching argument that forwards a threefold purpose: (1) establishing the purpose of Christian Science; (2) highlighting the inherently ideological nature of scientific epistemology; and (3) providing a dualistic definition that polarizes Christian and secular science. By emphasizing the ideological nature of science, the authors of this textbook create a rhetorical space in which they can articulate their alternative view of science as being theoretically valid. The second case study analyzes a discipline-specific application of Christian Science: two textbook chapters that focus on geology. When the textbook attempts to operationalize Christian Science, this view falls short of the standards of science due to Evangelical faith in the infallibility of scripture. Despite this shortcoming, these two chapters still employ strategies indicative of Kuhnian paradigmatic arguments: highlighting fundamental anomalies in scientific consensus and utilizing arguments from familiarity to gain audiences' tentative acceptance. In using these argumentative strategies, the textbook authors mimic scientific argument, but do not fully meet the criteria of science.

  3. Talk as a tool for thinking: Using professional discourse practices to frame children's design-technology talk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brenda J. Gustafson; Dougal MacDonald

    2004-01-01

    This research project involved viewing elementary children's (ages 11–13) design?technology talk through the theoretical perspective of Bucciarelli's (1988) description of professional discourse practices. Analysis centred on two structured lessons, in which four children (two male; two female) constructed, modified, and tested model parachutes. Analysis of audiotaped transcripts of children's talk showed that Bucciarelli's framework of constraining, naming, and decision discourse

  4. Combined SERS and Raman analysis for the identification of red pigments in cross-sections from historic oil paintings.

    PubMed

    Frano, Kristen A; Mayhew, Hannah E; Svoboda, Shelley A; Wustholz, Kristin L

    2014-12-21

    The analysis of paint cross-sections can reveal a remarkable amount of information about the layers and materials in a painting without visibly altering the artwork. Although a variety of analytical approaches are used to detect inorganic pigments as well as organic binders, proteins, and lipids in cross-sections, they do not provide for the unambiguous identification of natural, organic colorants. Here, we develop a novel combined surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), light microscopy, and normal Raman scattering (NRS) approach for the identification of red organic and inorganic pigments in paint cross-sections obtained from historic 18th and 19th century oil paintings. In particular, Ag nanoparticles are directly applied to localized areas of paint cross-sections mounted in polyester resin for SERS analysis of the organic pigments. This combined extractionless non-hydrolysis SERS and NRS approach provides for the definitive identification of carmine lake, madder lake, and vermilion in multiple paint layers. To our knowledge, this study represents the first in situ identification of natural, organic pigments within paint cross-sections from oil paintings. Furthermore, the combination of SERS and normal Raman, with light microscopy provides conservators with a more comprehensive understanding of a painting from a single sample and without the need for sample pretreatment. PMID:25340987

  5. Safety assessment of historical masonry churches based on pre-assigned kinematic limit analysis, FE limit and pushover analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Gabriele; Valente, Marco

    2014-10-01

    This study presents some results of a comprehensive numerical analysis on three masonry churches damaged by the recent Emilia-Romagna (Italy) seismic events occurred in May 2012. The numerical study comprises: (a) pushover analyses conducted with a commercial code, standard nonlinear material models and two different horizontal load distributions; (b) FE kinematic limit analyses performed using a non-commercial software based on a preliminary homogenization of the masonry materials and a subsequent limit analysis with triangular elements and interfaces; (c) kinematic limit analyses conducted in agreement with the Italian code and based on the a-priori assumption of preassigned failure mechanisms, where the masonry material is considered unable to withstand tensile stresses. All models are capable of giving information on the active failure mechanism and the base shear at failure, which, if properly made non-dimensional with the weight of the structure, gives also an indication of the horizontal peak ground acceleration causing the collapse of the church. The results obtained from all three models indicate that the collapse is usually due to the activation of partial mechanisms (apse, façade, lateral walls, etc.). Moreover the horizontal peak ground acceleration associated to the collapse is largely lower than that required in that seismic zone by the Italian code for ordinary buildings. These outcomes highlight that structural upgrading interventions would be extremely beneficial for the considerable reduction of the seismic vulnerability of such kind of historical structures.

  6. Safety assessment of historical masonry churches based on pre-assigned kinematic limit analysis, FE limit and pushover analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Milani, Gabriele, E-mail: milani@stru.polimi.it; Valente, Marco, E-mail: milani@stru.polimi.it [Department of Architecture, Built Environment and Construction Engineering (ABC), Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2014-10-06

    This study presents some results of a comprehensive numerical analysis on three masonry churches damaged by the recent Emilia-Romagna (Italy) seismic events occurred in May 2012. The numerical study comprises: (a) pushover analyses conducted with a commercial code, standard nonlinear material models and two different horizontal load distributions; (b) FE kinematic limit analyses performed using a non-commercial software based on a preliminary homogenization of the masonry materials and a subsequent limit analysis with triangular elements and interfaces; (c) kinematic limit analyses conducted in agreement with the Italian code and based on the a-priori assumption of preassigned failure mechanisms, where the masonry material is considered unable to withstand tensile stresses. All models are capable of giving information on the active failure mechanism and the base shear at failure, which, if properly made non-dimensional with the weight of the structure, gives also an indication of the horizontal peak ground acceleration causing the collapse of the church. The results obtained from all three models indicate that the collapse is usually due to the activation of partial mechanisms (apse, façade, lateral walls, etc.). Moreover the horizontal peak ground acceleration associated to the collapse is largely lower than that required in that seismic zone by the Italian code for ordinary buildings. These outcomes highlight that structural upgrading interventions would be extremely beneficial for the considerable reduction of the seismic vulnerability of such kind of historical structures.

  7. Translational Research in Behavior Analysis: Historical Traditions and Imperative for the Future

    PubMed Central

    Mace, F. Charles; Critchfield, Thomas S

    2010-01-01

    “Pure basic” science can become detached from the natural world that it is supposed to explain. “Pure applied” work can become detached from fundamental processes that shape the world it is supposed to improve. Neither demands the intellectual support of a broad scholarly community or the material support of society. Translational research can do better by seeking innovation in theory or practice through the synthesis of basic and applied questions, literatures, and methods. Although translational thinking has always occurred in behavior analysis, progress often has been constrained by a functional separation of basic and applied communities. A review of translational traditions in behavior analysis suggests that innovation is most likely when individuals with basic and applied expertise collaborate. Such innovation may have to accelerate for behavior analysis to be taken seriously as a general-purpose science of behavior. We discuss the need for better coordination between the basic and applied sectors, and argue that such coordination compromises neither while benefiting both. PMID:21119847

  8. Optimizing Air Transportation Service to Metroplex Airports. Part 1; Analysis of Historical Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, George; Hoffman, Karla; Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Kara, Abdul Qadar

    2010-01-01

    The air transportation system is a significant driver of the U.S. economy, providing safe, affordable, and rapid transportation. During the past three decades airspace and airport capacity has not grown in step with demand for air transportation (+4% annual growth), resulting in unreliable service and systemic delays. Estimates of the impact of delays and unreliable air transportation service on the economy range from $32B to $41B per year. This report describes the results of an analysis of airline strategic decision-making with regards to: (1) geographic access, (2) economic access, and (3) airline finances. This analysis evaluated markets-served, scheduled flights, aircraft size, airfares, and profit from 2005-2009. During this period, airlines experienced changes in costs of operation (due to fluctuations in hedged fuel prices), changes in travel demand (due to changes in the economy), and changes in infrastructure capacity (due to the capacity limits at EWR, JFK, and LGA). This analysis captures the impact of the implementation of capacity limits at airports, as well as the effect of increased costs of operation (i.e. hedged fuel prices). The increases in costs of operation serve as a proxy for increased costs per flight that might occur if auctions or congestion pricing are imposed.

  9. Historical Maps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This collection of historic U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps is useful for research purposes and for comparison with modern data to study changes over time. It covers 14 states in the Eastern United States and New England. The collection is searchable by 7.5-minute quadrangle list, town index, or by an interactive image map.

  10. Historical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharlach, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a historical overview of four decades of scholarship and changing public policy on family and informal caregiving for older adults. Families are changing at a dizzying pace. Changes in family composition, cultural diversity, geographic mobility, and societal norms, coupled with increasing numbers of older…

  11. A Vegetation Analysis on Horn Island Mississippi, ca. 1940 using Habitat Characteristic Dimensions Derived from Historical Aerial Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeter, G. W.; Carter, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Guy (Will) Wilburn Jeter Jr., Gregory A. Carter University of Southern Mississippi Geography and Geology Gulf Coast Geospatial Center The over-arching goal of this research is to assess habitat change over a seventy year period to better understand the combined effects of global sea level rise and storm impacts on the stability of Horn Island, MS habitats. Historical aerial photography is often overlooked as a resource for use in determining habitat change. However, the spatial information provided even by black and white imagery can give insight into past habitat composition via textural analysis. This research will evaluate characteristic dimensions; most notably patch size of habitat types using simple geo-statistics and textures of brightness values of historical aerial imagery. It is assumed that each cover type has an identifiable patch size that can be used as a unique classifier of each habitat type. Analytical methods applied to the 1940 imagery were developed using 2010 field data and USDA aerial imagery. Textural moving window methods and basic geo-statistics were used to estimate characteristic dimensions of each cover type in 1940 aerial photography. The moving window texture analysis was configured with multiple window sizes to capture the characteristic dimensions of six habitat types; water, bare sand , dune herb land, estuarine shrub land, marsh land and slash pine woodland. Coefficient of variation (CV), contrast, and entropy texture filters were used to analyze the spatial variability of the 1940 and 2010 imagery. (CV) was used to depict the horizontal variability of each habitat characteristic dimension. Contrast was used to represent the variability of bright versus dark pixel values; entropy was used to show the variation in the slash pine woodland habitat type. Results indicate a substantial increase in marshland habitat relative to other habitat types since 1940. Results also reveal each habitat-type, such as dune herb-land, marsh-land, estuarine shrub-land, bare sand, slash pine woodland, and water exhibit a characteristic dimension that may be estimated from horizontal variability in image brightness values. These characteristic dimensions are estimated at less than one 1 meter for marsh-land bare sand and water, 3 meters for estuarine shrub-land and dune herb-land, and 5 to 7 meters for slash pine woodland.

  12. Woodland Composition Inertia Affected by Disturbance and Climate Assessed by Dimensional Analysis of Historical Landcover Change Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sides, M.; White, J. D.; Murray, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    Woodlands are transient communities that provide a significant reservoir of stored nutrients, particularly carbon, in many areas around the world. Alterations in the amount of woody biomass has an impact on carbon stores, but changes in the community composition of these areas can also have significant impacts on carbon stocks, particularly in the soils. In a longitudinal study using historical aerial photographs ranging from 1939 to 2004, changes in the proportion of broad vegetation types were analyzed for sites located in the Balcones Canyonlands National Wildlife Refuge near Austin, TX. Historical aerial photographs with a 1-m spatial resolution were classified according to vegetation type (evergreen, deciduous, and herbaceous). A sample of 50 sites was chosen using location data collected on fallen trees utilized for dendrochronological analysis of fire history. For each site, a 20-m by 20-m sample of pixels was extracted from each of the classified images. Changes in the proportion of each vegetation type were analyzed by applying spherical statistics to a three-dimensional change vector analysis. In addition, landscape trajectories were analyzed based on displacement, velocity, acceleration, and divergence to compare areas impacted by fire versus those not impacted by fire. Results indicate that areas with a history of fire exhibit smaller mean resultant vector lengths, indicating more variance in the direction of the change vectors overall. In addition, fire-impacted sites exhibit larger magnitudes of change in displacement and greater variations in velocity and acceleration. No significant differences were detected in displacement, velocity, or acceleration when comparing vegetation types. The results of both studies revealed sharp changes between the data for 1951 and 1964 in areas not impacted by fire. A possible explanation for the significant changes noted between these years could be a severe, multi-year drought that occurred in the region during the 1950s. These results indicate that fire does play a significant role in shaping the composition of woodland/savannah communities in the Central Texas region, but other factors such as climate shape community composition in the absence of fire.

  13. Silver colloidal pastes for dye analysis of reference and historical textile fibers using direct, extractionless, non-hydrolysis surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Idone, Ambra; Gulmini, Monica; Henry, Anne-Isabelle; Casadio, Francesca; Chang, Lauren; Appolonia, Lorenzo; Van Duyne, Richard P; Shah, Nilam C

    2013-10-21

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an ideal tool for analyzing dyes on historical textiles because it requires very little sample compared to other available analytical methods and analysis can be done directly on the fiber. This paper reports on the first systematic study of the use of citrate-reduced silver colloidal pastes for the direct, extractionless, non-hydrolysis detection of dyes directly on wool, silk, cotton, and flax fibers. This type of study provides greater insight into the optimal conditions required for accurate analysis of dyes in historical samples. In this work, Ag colloidal pastes were characterized using localized surface plasmon resonance and scanning electron microscopy. The pastes were then employed for SERS analysis of twelve reference samples of different vegetal and animal fibers dyed with cochineal and eleven dyed with brazilwood. Furthermore, six historical textiles from an important collection of Mariano Fortuny (1871-1949) textiles at the Art Institute of Chicago were also examined, to test the efficacy of the paste on aged samples, and to shed light on Fortuny's fascinating production techniques. A mixture of cochineal and brazilwood was detected in some of the historical samples demonstrating, for the first time, simultaneous identification of these colorants used in combination. In addition, the findings give substance to the claim that Fortuny kept using natural dyes at a time when many new and attractive synthetic products became available. PMID:23905159

  14. Landscape Vulnerability Analysis from Historic Lower Mississippi River Flood in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwell, A. E.; Zhu, Z.; Dutta, D.; Greenberg, J.; Kumar, P.; Garcia, M. H.; Rhoads, B. L.; Parker, G.; Berretta, D.; Holmes, R. R.

    2012-12-01

    This study presents the results of a landscape vulnerability analysis of the Birds Point New Madrid Floodway in southeastern Missouri. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers intentionally inundated 500 square kilometers of agricultural floodplain in May of 2011 as an emergency flood control measure. We use pre-flood (2005) and post-flood (2011) high resolution Lidar data to establish the landscape impact of the levee breach on the floodplain. The Lidar DEMs were corrected for flight line errors using a Fourier filtering technique, and then subtracted to obtain a differential DEM of erosion and deposition patterns. We use soil erosion characteristics, AVIRIS remote sensing data, and 2D floodplain modeling to analyze the three components of vulnerability: sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity. HydroSed2D (Liu, Landry and García 2008), a 2D flow model, is implemented to simulate flow depths and speeds, or flood exposure, over the entire floodway, as well as smaller sections at increased resolution using a nested grid. We classify woody vegetation based on AVIRIS remote sensing data, and represent vegetated regions in the model as varied values of the Manning's n coefficient. Soil erodibility, vegetation, topography, and flow characteristics are compared to observed landscape changes within the floodplain. Overall, the floodway showed a remarkable resilience to an extreme flood event. When compared to levee breaches on similar rivers in other floods, the lack of newly deposited sediment is noticeable and likely attributable to the presence of a substantial riparian corridor between the main channel of the Mississippi River and the floodway. Although many meander scars indicating former channels of the Mississippi River are apparent in the topography, only one, known as O'Bryan Ridge, experienced high volumes of erosion and deposition due to the flooding. The vulnerability analysis supports the hypothesis this high impact is due to a combination of vulnerability factors such as high flow speed, few localized patches of vegetation, and high soil erodibility at this ridge compared to other similar meander scars. The methodology of this analysis can be used to locate regions of high vulnerability in future floodplain management and flood control, and mitigate potentially catastrophic landscape change.

  15. A discourse analytic study on how the term ‘chav’ is constructed in the United Kingdom. 

    E-print Network

    Fielding, Emma

    2012-01-01

    The present study looked to investigate how the term ‘chav’ is constructed as a youth subculture through content and discourse analysis. The use of the term ‘chav’ has increased in recent years, with the media focusing ...

  16. The ghost of genetic diversity past: historical DNA analysis of the greater prairie chicken.

    PubMed

    Bouzat, J L; Lewin, H A; Paige, K N

    1998-07-01

    Most, if not all, of the "classic," often-cited examples illustrating the genetic effects of a population bottleneck are open to alternative explanations due to the lack of adequate control populations, that is, low levels of genetic variability are often assumed to be the result of a past population bottleneck without having any prebottleneck measures. Here we provide the first clear case history where both prebottleneck and postbottleneck measures of genetic variability have been collected from a natural system. Analysis of DNA from museum specimens of the greater prairie chicken Tympanuchus cupido from central Illinois revealed the loss of specific alleles (known to have been present earlier in this century) following a demographic contraction. Lost alleles included common ones present in all other populations sampled and others unique to the Illinois population. PMID:18811397

  17. Historical analysis of oil and gas well plugging in New York: is the regulatory system working?

    PubMed

    Bishop, Ronald E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate New York State's regulatory program for plugging inactive oil and gas wells. Analysis of reports from the Division of Mineral Resources, Department of Environmental Conservation, reveals that three-fourths of the state's abandoned oil and gas wells were never plugged. Inadequate enforcement efforts have resulted in steady increases of unplugged oil and gas wells abandoned since 1992. Further, no program exists or is proposed to monitor abandoned wells which were plugged. These results strongly suggest that comprehensive reform and increased agency resources would be required to effectively regulate conventional oil and gas development in New York. Industrial expansion into shale oil and gas development should be postponed to avoid adding stress to an already compromised regulatory system. PMID:23552650

  18. Discourse Tagging Tool and Discourse-Tagged Multilingual Corpora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chinatsu Aone; Scott W. Bennett

    1994-01-01

    As a part of our on-going research on multilingual anaphora resolution (cf. Aone and McKee [3],Aone [1]), we have built a graphical tool to tag texts with antecedent-anaphor relations and havecreated corpora tagged with such relations. The tool, called the Discourse Tagging Tool (DTTool),has been used to manually tag Japanese, Spanish and English texts with anaphora, their types (suchas pronouns

  19. Honeymoon, medical treatment or big business? An analysis of the meanings of the term “reproductive tourism” in German and Israeli public media discourses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background/Introduction Infertile couples that travel to another country for reproductive treatment do not refer to themselves as “reproductive tourists”. They might even be offended by this term. “Tourism” is a metaphor with hidden connotations. We will analyze these connotations in public media discourses on “reproductive tourism” in Israel and Germany. We chose to focus on these two countries since legal, ethical and religious restrictions give couples a similar motivation to travel for reproductive care, while the cultural backgrounds and conceptions of reproduction are different. Results Our research shows that the use of the metaphor “reproductive treatment” and its hidden messages depends on the writers’ intention and the target population. Although the phenomenon of patients travelling for reproductive treatment can fit into the definitions of tourism, the term emphasizes aspects that do not reflect patients’ reality. In both the German and the Israeli public media debate the term “reproductive tourism” is either used to criticize the economic aspects of the phenomenon or to attract patients as potential clients. Conclusions Ethicists should be cautious when borrowing metaphors like “reproductive tourism” from the public debate. Our findings support Penning’s suggestion to use instead an unloaded term like cross-border reproductive care to describe the phenomenon in a more neutral way and to make it explicit whenever criticism is necessary. PMID:23962355

  20. Analysis of AVHRR, CZCS and historical in situ data off the Oregon Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strub, P. Ted; Chelton, Dudley B.

    1990-01-01

    The original scientific objectives of this grant were to: (1) characterize the seasonal cycles and interannual variability for phytoplankton concentrations and sea surface temperature (SST) in the California Current using satellite data; and (2) to explore the spatial and temporal relationship between these variables and surface wind forcing. An additional methodological objective was to develop statistical methods for forming mean fields, which minimize the effects of random data gaps and errors in the irregularly sampled CZCS (Coastal Zone Color Scanner) and AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) satellite data. A final task was to evaluate the level of uncertainty in the wind fields used for the statistical analysis. Funding in the first year included part of the cost of an image processing system to enable this and other projects to process and analyze satellite data. This report consists of summaries of the major projects carried out with all or partial support from this grant. The appendices include a list of papers and professional presentations supported by the grant, as well as reprints of the major papers and reports.

  1. An analysis of the physical, chemical, optical, and historical impacts of the 1908 Tunguska meteor fall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Park, C.; Whitten, R. C.; Pollack, J. B.; Noerdlinger, P.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the physical characteristics and photochemical aftereffects of the 1908 Tunguska explosive cometary meteor, whose physical manifestations are consistent with a five million ton object's entry into the earth's atmosphere at 40 km/sec. Aerodynamic calculations indicate that the shock waves emanating from the falling meteor could have generated up to 30 million tons of nitric oxide in the stratosphere and mesosphere. A fully interactive one-dimensional chemical-kinetics model of atmospheric trace constituents is used to estimate the photochemical consequences of such a large NO injection. The 35-45% hemispherical ozone depletion predicted by the model is in keeping with the 30 + or - 15% ozone variation reported for the first year after the Tunguska fall. Attention is also given to the optical anomalies which followed the event for indications of NO(x)-O(x) chemiluminescent emissions, NO2 solar absorption, and meteoric dust turbidity, along with possible climate changes due to the nearly one million tons of pulverized dust deposited in the mesosphere and stratosphere by the meteor.

  2. OSU Historic OSUHistoricGuidelinesWorkbook

    E-print Network

    Escher, Christine

    Chart: Approvals Process (Graphic Insert) Diagram: Relationship Between Documents OSU Historic Resources District Appendix Applicable Standards & Order of Precedence Analysis of resources within OSU's National Historic District Suggested Approach: HRC Application Schedule of Design Criteria (Graphic Insert) Flow

  3. Shop 'till we drop: a historical and policy analysis of retail goods movement in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schewel, Laura B; Schipper, Lee J

    2012-09-18

    The movement of retail goods is central to modern economies and is a significant-but understudied-fraction of our overall energy footprint. Thus, we propose a new category for energy analysis called Retail Goods Movement (RGM) that draws its boundaries around the portion of freight dedicated to retail goods and the portion of driving dedicated to shopping. Historically, the components of RGM have not enjoyed policy priority. However, the net payoff from energy research and policy directed at RGM may now be high enough relative to other options to deserve increased investment. We combine a quantitative decomposition of the dynamics of RGM energy use with a qualitative discussion of what trends could have contributed to them. The RGM sector's energy use grew from 1.3 EJ (2.8% U.S.) in 1969 to 7.0 EJ (6.6% U.S.) in 2009. The major drivers were increases in population, freight tonnage (before 1990), distance freighted per tonne and driven per shopping trip (after 1990), and weekly shopping trips per household (before 1995). RGM energy intensity increased per capita (180%), per constant dollar GDP (60%), and per retail expenditure (140%). Finally, we describe policy recommendations that could become the basis of a sound RGM resource plan. PMID:22924575

  4. A historical analysis of herpes simplex virus promoter activation in vivo reveals distinct populations of latently infected neurones.

    PubMed

    Proença, João T; Coleman, Heather M; Connor, Viv; Winton, Douglas J; Efstathiou, Stacey

    2008-12-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has the capacity to establish a life-long latent infection in sensory neurones and also to periodically reactivate from these cells. Since mutant viruses defective for immediate-early (IE) expression retain the capacity for latency establishment it is widely assumed that latency is the consequence of a block in IE gene expression. However, it is not clear whether viral gene expression can precede latency establishment following wild-type virus infection. In order to address this question we have utilized a reporter mouse model system to facilitate a historical analysis of viral promoter activation in vivo. This system utilizes recombinant viruses expressing Cre recombinase under the control of different viral promoters and the Cre reporter mouse strain ROSA26R. In this model, viral promoter-driven Cre recombinase mediates a permanent genetic change, resulting in reporter gene activation and permanent marking of latently infected cells. The analyses of HSV-1 recombinants containing human cytomegalovirus major immediate-early, ICP0, gC or latency-associated transcript promoters linked to Cre recombinase in this system have revealed the existence of a population of neurones that have experienced IE promoter activation prior to the establishment of latency. PMID:19008381

  5. Evaluation of eutrophication variables and thresholds in the Dutch North Sea in a historical context - A model analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troost, T. A.; de Kluijver, A.; Los, F. J.

    2014-06-01

    This study presents an evaluation of eutrophication variables and thresholds in the Dutch North Sea in a historical context by means of a model analysis. An ecosystem model (Delft3D-GEM for the North Sea) was used to simulate four different years, representing periods with little anthropogenic input (1930), medium anthropogenic input (1960), and high anthropogenic input (1985), as well as current (2007) conditions. Model runs differed with respect to nutrient inputs (riverine input and atmospheric deposition) but physical and hydrodynamic conditions were kept unchanged, to enable a clear assessment of the impact of changes in nutrient inputs. Model results showed that current (2007) dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) concentrations along the Dutch North Sea coast are similar to levels in 1930, while dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations have been reduced to levels that were present in 1960. Chl a concentrations did not show clear differences between 2007, 1930 and 1960, but Phaeocystis levels were higher in 2007 than in 1930 and 1960 in all areas, although these differences were not statistically significant. Furthermore, model results indicate that DIN (rather than DIP) should be the focus of nutrient reduction efforts, since reducing nitrogen will cause a shift from a P-limited coastal ecosystem towards a more pristine, N-limited coastal ecosystem. Finally, it was found that assessment parameters and threshold levels should be revised and the harmonization between them should be improved, for which several recommendations are given.

  6. Tree-ring analysis by pixe for a historical record of soil chemistry response to acidic air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legge, Allan H.; Kaufmann, Henry C.; Winchester, John W.

    1984-04-01

    Tree cores have been analyzed intact in 1 mm steps, corresponding to time intervals in the rings as short as half a growing season, providing a chronological record of 16 elemental concentrations extending over thirty years back to 1950. Samples were collected in a forested region of western Canada in sandy soil which was impacted by acid-forming gases released by a sulfur recovery sour natural gas plant. Tree core samples of the hybrid lodgepole-Jack pine ( Pinns contorta Loud. × Pinus banksiana Lamb.) were taken in five ecologically similar locations between 1.2 and 9.6 km from the gas plant stacks. Concentrations of some elements showed patterns suggesting that the annual rings preserved a record of changing soil chemistry in response both to natural environmental conditions and to deposition from sulfur gas emissions, commencing after plant start-up in 1959 and modified by subsequent modifications in plant operating procedures. These patterns were most pronounced nearest the gas plant. Certain other elements did not exhibit these patterns, probably reflecting greater importance of biological than of soil chemical properties. The high time resolution of tree-ring analysis, which can be achieved by PIXE, demonstrates that the rings preserve a historical record of elemental composition which may reflect changes in soil chemistry during plant growth as it may be affected by both natural ecological processes and acidic deposition from the atmosphere.

  7. Historic Pelham

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pelham, New York is a city rich with history, dating back to 1654 when Thomas Pell purchased the land from the Siwanoy Native American Indian tribe. The history of the city is detailed in a timeline that begins in the 1500s and includes significant event such as the Battle of Pelham fought in 1776 and the Pelhamville Train Wreck in 1885. This site also highlights some of the more famous people who have ties to Pelham. For example, it is rumored that Aaron Burr, the man who killed Alexander Hamilton in an infamous duel in 1804, spent a couple summers in Pelham with his wife. In addition to historical information on the city of Pelham, the Web site includes a section with ghost stories and legends, photographs of the city, and descriptions of historical landmarks.

  8. Discourse on safe drug use: symbolic logics and ethical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Fainzang, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Drug safety is not a matter for healthcare professionals alone. As actors, patients are also concerned, at three different levels: 1) with regard to their behaviour and choices of drugs, with a view to reducing adverse reactions, 2) with regard to the discourse sometimes used by doctors in relation to prescribed drugs, 3) with regard to the discourses of the pharmaceutical industry concerning how they use their drugs within the framework of self-medication. We will examine these aspects on the basis of data gathered in France during anthropological studies on drug use. Patients’ concerns about reducing adverse effects give rise to a series of behaviours relating to drug use. They start with the identification of what they regard as a risk inherent in the substances or linked to uncontrolled use of drugs and try to neutralize their risks by modifying or modulating the prescriptions in line with various parameters. They take into account dimensions as varied as: the nature of the prescribed drugs, the quantity, the dosage and the preservation of certain functions or organs, and follow their own rules of conduct in order to reduce risks. These dimensions bring into play both representations of the drug and representations of the person, and consider the effects or the risks of drugs in their physical, psychic, behavioural and social aspects.We consider here doctors’ discourse towards patients regarding the risks and possible effects of drugs, in particular the discourse of those who choose to hide the undesirable effects of drugs from their patients – or even to lie to them on this subject – with the aim of not jeopardizing the patient’s compliance. This situation involves comparing two logics: ethics of care versus ethics of information.Regarding the pharmaceutical industry’s discourse on self-medication and risks. Although it promotes self-medication on the basis of patients’ growing desire for autonomy and competency, the pharmaceutical industry has a discourse which stigmatizes the home medicine cabinet for reasons of safety, which in fact questions patients’ ability to use drugs properly. This analysis shows that the various behaviours and discourses relating to the risks of drugs are impregnated with symbolic, ethical and cultural logics. As a consequence, above and beyond works carried out on the question of pharmacovigilance, examining the issue of safe drug use involves studying the human (social and cultural) aspects which govern part of the discourses and practices relating to drug safety. PMID:20635820

  9. Historic treasures

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    tx H2O | pg. 24 Story by Kathy Wythe historic experimental watershed in the Blackland Prairie of Central Texas is providing a treasure trove of information that the water resource community throughout the United States is using. For more... Laboratory?s watershed near Riesel, Texas, making it one of the longest continuous, intensively monitored hydrological research sites in the country. The Riesel experimental watershed, part of the larger Brushy Creek watershed, has approximately 800...

  10. DISCOURSES IN INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL ECONOMY

    E-print Network

    Delaware, University of

    historical critiques of capitalism (Foster, 1994) to analyses of inequality founded in race, culture movements. The priority placed on race, gender, and culture as explanations of environmental damage

  11. Nervous system cancer : analysis of historical mortality rates in the United States and Japan indicate sudden increases in environmental risk

    E-print Network

    Alhassani, Ali K

    2008-01-01

    Nervous System cancer age-specific mortality rates began being recorded for European and Non-European Americans in 1930 and for Japanese in 1952. All ethnic groups show significant historical increases in mortality rates. ...

  12. Comprehensive investigation into historical pipeline construction costs and engineering economic analysis of Alaska in-state gas pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Zhenhua

    This study analyzes historical cost data of 412 pipelines and 220 compressor stations. On the basis of this analysis, the study also evaluates the feasibility of an Alaska in-state gas pipeline using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Analysis of pipeline construction costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary by diameter, length, volume, year, and location. Overall average learning rates for pipeline material and labor costs are 6.1% and 12.4%, respectively. Overall average cost shares for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, and right of way (ROW) are 31%, 40%, 23%, and 7%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate pipeline component costs for different lengths, cross-sectional areas, and locations. An analysis of inaccuracy in pipeline cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation of pipeline cost components is biased except for in the case of total costs. Overall overrun rates for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, ROW, and total costs are 4.9%, 22.4%, -0.9%, 9.1%, and 6.5%, respectively, and project size, capacity, diameter, location, and year of completion have different degrees of impacts on cost overruns of pipeline cost components. Analysis of compressor station costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary in terms of capacity, year, and location. Average learning rates for compressor station material and labor costs are 12.1% and 7.48%, respectively. Overall average cost shares of material, labor, miscellaneous, and ROW are 50.6%, 27.2%, 21.5%, and 0.8%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate compressor station component costs in different capacities and locations. An investigation into inaccuracies in compressor station cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation for compressor stations is biased except for in the case of material costs. Overall average overrun rates for compressor station material, labor, miscellaneous, land, and total costs are 3%, 60%, 2%, -14%, and 11%, respectively, and cost overruns for cost components are influenced by location and year of completion to different degrees. Monte Carlo models are developed and simulated to evaluate the feasibility of an Alaska in-state gas pipeline by assigning triangular distribution of the values of economic parameters. Simulated results show that the construction of an Alaska in-state natural gas pipeline is feasible at three scenarios: 500 million cubic feet per day (mmcfd), 750 mmcfd, and 1000 mmcfd.

  13. Is public discourse about language policy really public discourse about immigration? A corpus-based study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shannon Fitzsimmons-Doolan

    2009-01-01

    The pluralist narrative of language policies suggests that language policies are influenced by public perceptions of immigrants\\u000a (Darder 2004; González 2000; Pavlenko 2002; Valdés 1997). This paper investigates the relationship between newspaper discourse about language policies and newspaper discourse about\\u000a immigration. It asks how much key, lexical overlap exists between the discourses. This study compared Arizona newspaper corpora\\u000a representing discourse

  14. When discourses collide: creationism and evolution in the public sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dávila, Denise

    2014-12-01

    This review essay focuses on Özgür Ta?k?n's discussion of the theory of evolution (TOE), intelligent design (ID) and the convictions of fundamentalist science educators and students in his paper entitled: An exploratory examination of Islamic values in science education: Islamization of science teaching and learning via constructivism. It examines the competing social discourses of evolution and creationism in the United States, which is partially maintained by national public opinion polls and states' legislation about the TOE in the science curricula. The examination of US social discourses presented here is framed by James Gee's (2008) theory that Discourses with a capital "D," are unconscious and uncritical socially accepted ways of speaking/listening and writing/reading that are merged with "distinctive ways of acting, interacting, valuing, feeling, dressing, thinking, [and] believing…so as to enact specific socially recognizable identities…" (p. 155). Such Discourses identify insiders of and outsiders to religious affiliations and other social or cultural groups. The context of this examination is unique in that is draws from the national conversation about the inclusion of ID alongside of the TOE in the public school science programs. Gee's (2011) concept that Discourses serve as tools of inquiry guides the analysis of video recorded public messages from Bill Nye and Lawrence Krauss as well as Creation Museum president Ken Ham. The analysis and discussion of the national conversation about creationism and public education suggests that the education community must consider the global landscape of science literacy both locally and internationally. It also indicates that preservice and practicing science educators may require special training and support. In order to provide unbiased, religious-resistant, evidence-based science instruction, science educators must understand how to separate church from state regardless of their personal beliefs. They must also know how to navigate conversations about the TOE among diverse communities of learners that include both religiously and non-religiously affiliated students.

  15. Lighting the Way Through Scientific Discourse

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Li-hsuan Yang

    2008-12-01

    This article describes a thought-provoking lesson that compares various arrangements of lamp-battery circuits to help students develop the motivation and competence to participate in scientific discourse for knowledge construction. Through experimentation and discourse, students explore concepts about voltage, current, resistance, and Ohm's law. The discourse encourages students to become deeply engaged in the process of making sense of their own observations and ideas.

  16. Analysing adjectives in scientific discourse: an exploratory study with educational applications for Spanish speakers at advanced university level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viviana Soler

    2002-01-01

    Although the literature on the textual properties of scientific discourse is vast, less attention has been paid to the analysis of adjectival frequency in this type of discourse and its semantic implications. Adjectives are a significant communicative tool for scientists, showing the author’s professional persona and manifesting a critical element in the rhetorical properties of research articles. They also allow

  17. Talking to Score: Impression Management in L2 Oral Assessment and the Co-Construction of a Test Discourse Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luk, Jasmine

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the emphasis in second language (L2) oral proficiency assessment has shifted from linguistic accuracy to discourse strategies such as the ability to initiate, respond, and negotiate meaning. This has resulted in a growing interest in the discourse analysis of students' performance in different oral proficiency assessment formats.…

  18. Historical Maps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The James Ford Bell Library at the University of Minnesota provides the Historical Maps page as part of their main Web site. Users can view more than fifty maps online, each of which contain a short description of what the map is depicting. One example is a navigational map of Africa and the Atlantic and Indian Oceans that was designed to illustrate the first Dutch expedition to Java undertaken by Cornelis de Houtman in 1597. The maps can be viewed in fine detail and are quite fascinating to view and learn about. Anyone interested in history, cartography, or other similar subjects should enjoy exploring the collection.

  19. Historical Supernovae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Green; F. Richard Stephenson

    The available historical records of supernovae occurring in our own Galaxy over the past two thousand years are reviewed.\\u000a These accounts include the well-recorded supernovae of AD1604 (Kepler’s SN), AD1572 (Tycho’s SN), AD1181 AD1054 (which produced\\u000a the Crab Nebula) and AD1006, together with less certain events dating back to AD185. In the case of the supernovae of AD1604\\u000a and AD1572

  20. Lexical Bundles in Discourse Structure: A Corpus-Based Study of Classroom Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csomay, Eniko

    2013-01-01

    The present study applies corpus-based methods to document the distributional patterns of previously reported lexical bundle functions as they relate to discourse structure. Specifically, 84 lexical bundles and their discourse functions (Biber "et al." 2004a) were tracked in 1,176 discourse units extracted from the initial phases of 196 university…

  1. Discourse Markers in Turn-Initial Positions in Interruptive Speech in a Malaysian Radio Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nor, Siti Nurbaya Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Discourse markers play significant roles in any spoken interaction. This research examines the functions of the discourse markers (DMs) well, now and and used as turn-initial interruptive devices in a Malaysian radio discourse. Using Schegloff's (2002) framework of what constitutes an interruption in turn-taking and previous studies on the…

  2. Embodiment awareness, mathematics discourse, and the blind.

    PubMed

    Quek, Francis; McNeill, David

    2006-12-01

    Blindness might be described as a biological condition, and thus remedies could be in the realm of biotechnology. However, the convergence of information technology and cognitive science offers great opportunities for understanding and helping blind children as they learn mathematics, the crosscutting discipline most important for all branches of science and engineering. This article outlines our logic and approach for providing blind students with awareness of the embodiment of their teachers to maintain situated communication. First, we shall show that math discourse is inherently spatiotemporal, and that this information is carried by gesticulation in conjunction with speech. Second, we shall explore the capacity of those who are blind for the imagism necessary for mathematics reasoning. Third, we shall advance a set of augmentative devices suggested by our analysis. Finally, we shall outline our ongoing experiments to validate our rationale. PMID:17312263

  3. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.

    2012-02-01

    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  4. Contributing to Meaning Making: Facilitating Discourse in the High School Physics Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovan, Scot Alan

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) identify eight practices as essential to science and engineering, and these practices include asking students to construct explanations, to engage in argumentation, and to communicate scientific information. However, few teacher-training programs instruct teachers how to facilitate such discourse in the classroom. Modeling Instruction is one movement in physics education that organizes high school physics content around a small number of student-derived scientific models, and it relies on student discourse for the design, development, and deployment of these models. This research is a self-study of one high school physics teacher's experience facilitating large group discourse in the high school modeling physics classroom. Whiteboard meetings and graded discussions were examined by applying the analytical framework created by Mortimer and Scott (2003) to characterize the classroom talk and the discourse facilitation moves that I employed. In addition, elements of discourse analysis were used to examine some of the tensions that I experienced in the facilitation of this discourse. The findings suggest that deliberate identification of the teaching purposes for the discussion can help determine the scaffolding needed for students to enter the Discourse (Gee, 2011) of being a participant in these large group conversations. In addition, connecting the dialogic dimension of exploring student ideas with the authoritative dimension of introducing the scientific view and supporting the internalization of that view is necessary to contribute to meaning making in the science classroom.

  5. The Nature of Discourse throughout 5E Lessons in a Large Enrolment College Biology Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sickel, Aaron J.; Witzig, Stephen B.; Vanmali, Binaben H.; Abell, Sandra K.

    2013-04-01

    Large enrolment science courses play a significant role in educating undergraduate students. The discourse in these classes usually involves an instructor lecturing with little or no student participation, despite calls from current science education reform documents to elicit and utilize students' ideas in teaching. In this study, we used the 5E instructional model to develop and implement four lessons in a large enrolment introductory biology course with multiple opportunities for teacher-student and student-student interaction. Data consisted of video and audio recordings of whole-class and small-group discussions that took place throughout the study. We then used a science classroom discourse framework developed by Mortimer and Scott (2003) to characterize the discursive interactions in each 5E lesson phase. Analysis of the data resulted in two assertions. First, the purpose, communicative approach, patterns of discourse, and teaching interventions were unique to each 5E lesson phase. Second, the type of lesson topic influenced the content of the discourse. We discuss how the findings help characterize the discourse of each phase in a 5E college science lesson and propose a model to understand internalization through discursive interaction using this reform-based approach. We conclude with implications for facilitating discourse in college science lessons and future research. This study provides support for using the discourse framework to characterize discursive interaction in college science courses.

  6. Understanding Historical Thinking at Historic Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the interpretive processes historians engage in when "reading" historic buildings and examines what qualifies as historical thinking about historic buildings and sites. To gather evidence of what historical thinking looks like as it pertains to buildings, 5 practicing historians were recorded as they toured the Old North…

  7. An Analysis of Historical Impacts of Water Resources Development on Water Levels of the Mekong River (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, T. A.; Arias, M. E.; Piman, T.

    2013-12-01

    The rapid rate of water resources development in the Mekong basin of Southeast Asia is a cause for concern due to potential impacts on highly valued fisheries and natural ecosystems. Historical water levels of the Mekong were analyzed by comparing pre and post 1991 daily data of 6 stations along the mainstream from Chiang Sean, in northern Lao PDR and Thailand, to Stung Treng, in Cambodia, and the Pre Kdam station near the Tonle Sap Lake in the lower Mekong floodplain using the Indicators of Hydrological Alteration (IHA) software. The year 1991 marks a turning point in the rate of development in the basin, with the start of development of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong and accelerated hydropower and irrigation development in key tributaries. Observed changes in water level patterns along the Mekong were linked to temporal and spatial water resources development from 1960 to 2010. Variations in climate were accounted for and are important, but they were not observed to be the main causes of changes in key hydrological indicators related to ecosystem productivity. The development of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong basin in the post 1991 period resulted in a significant change of seasonal water levels, raise rates, fall rates, and the number of water level fluctuations at Chiang Sean. This effect diminishes downstream until it becomes negligible at the Mukdahan monitoring station in Thailand, which represents a drainage area of over 50% of the total Mekong Basin. Further downstream at Pakse station in Southern Lao PDR, changes in hydrological indicators post 1991 were observed to be significant again, which can be directly attributed to water resource development in the Chi and Mun River basins in Northeastern Thailand. A reduction of 23% and 11% in water level raising rates and fall rates, respectively at Prek Kdam, provides clear evidence of a diminished flood pulse of the Tonle Sap Lake in the post 1991 period. Given the observed water level alterations from 1991 to 2010 as a result of water infrastructure development, we can extrapolate that future proposed development in the key transboundary Srepok, Sesan and Sekong basins of the Lower Mekong will have an even greater effect on the flood pulse of the Tonle Sap. Although much focus has been placed on impacts of mainstream dams in the upper Mekong, our analysis clearly shows that tributary development in the lower Mekong has already affected water level patterns significantly, particularly in the dry season. Through subsequent modeling we infer how future development could further impact water flows and livelihoods, and thus improve regional impact assessments. The analysis and methods can be translated to other river systems around the world undergoing rapid water resources development.

  8. Asking Questions & Promoting Discourse (Part 2)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-01

    This brief NCTM article presents Part 2 (Part 1 cataloged separately) of their collection of tips on asking good questions and promoting discourse, which is an integral part of the teaching and learning in a classroom. The article includes suggestions on how teachers can improve their questioning techniques as well as how they respond to student discourse.

  9. English and Spanish contrastive discourse markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Fraser; M. Malamud-Makowski

    1996-01-01

    Discourse markers are briefly introduced. Then, using the concepts of denial and contrast, with modifications, English and Spanish contrastive discourse markers are first analyzed and then contrasted. It was found that they correspond remarkably closely in what they signal about the interpretation of the utterance they introduce.

  10. Bilingual Discourse Markers in Indigenous Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Lourdes

    2006-01-01

    This review of research considers the occurrence and function of Spanish discourse markers and other particles in indigenous speech. I discuss important research that has examined these phenomena and refer to studies of bilingual discourse markers in other non-indigenous language contact situations to address unresolved issues concerning the form…

  11. Bilingual Discourse Markers in Indigenous Languages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lourdes Torres

    2006-01-01

    This review of research considers the occurrence and function of Spanish discourse markers and other particles in indigenous speech. I discuss important research that has examined these phenomena and refer to studies of bilingual discourse markers in other non-indigenous language contact situations to address unresolved issues concerning the form and function of these particles in indigenous languages. Based on an

  12. Elementary Teachers Negotiating Discourses in Writing Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthey, Sarah J.; Woodard, Rebecca; Kang, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Using Ivanic's (2004) framework, the study of 20 elementary teachers examines the relationships among teachers' beliefs about writing, their instructional practices, and contextual factors. While the district-adopted curriculum reflected specific discourses, teachers' beliefs and practices reflected a combination of discourses. The…

  13. Teaching the Conventions of Academic Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thonney, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Given the current emphasis on disciplinary discourses, it's not surprising that so little recent attention has been devoted to identifying conventions that are universal in academic discourse. In this essay, the author argues that there are shared features that unite academic writing, and that by introducing these features to first-year students…

  14. American Muslim PoliticsDiscourses and Practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Leonard

    2003-01-01

    This overview of American Muslim politics surveys the major communities and organizations of Muslims in the USA and their discourses before and after 11 September 2001. African Americans, Arab Americans and South Asian Americans are the three largest groups, and, after setting out their differences, the political discourses and practices drawing them together in American politics are analyzed. The important

  15. A compositional approach to discourse representation theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henk Zeevat

    1989-01-01

    In a series of articles and talks I Hans Kamp has developed a theory of natural language interpretation that uses discourse representations. The most interesting applications of the theory are the problem of discourse anaphora to indefinites, donkey sentences and temporal processing. It seems likely that the theory can be successfully applied to a range of furlLher questions in natural

  16. Cue Effectiveness in Communicatively Efficient Discourse Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Ting; Jaeger, T. Florian

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a surge in accounts motivated by information theory that consider language production to be partially driven by a preference for communicative efficiency. Evidence from discourse production (i.e., production beyond the sentence level) has been argued to suggest that speakers distribute information across discourse so as to…

  17. Science Learning in the Context of Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    do Nascimento, Silvania Sousa

    2013-01-01

    The original article by Kamberelis and Wehunt (2012) discusses an interesting and important research subject in science education as it focus on classroom interactions and the characteristics of the discourse production of interlocutors. The authors start from the premise that discourse heterogeneity is constitutive of social activities, which is…

  18. Lighting the Way through Scientific Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Li-hsuan

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a thought-provoking lesson that compares various arrangements of lamp-battery circuits to help students develop the motivation and competence to participate in scientific discourse for knowledge construction. Through experimentation and discourse, students explore concepts about voltage, current, resistance, and Ohm's law.…

  19. Performance of feminine discourse in designing women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonnie J. Dow

    1992-01-01

    The performance of feminine discourse in the television situation comedy Designing Women blurs distinctions between public discourse and the often devalued “private talk” of women. Through narratives that are driven by the talk among four women, Designing Women emphasizes the potential of women's talk for challenging patriarchal definitions and attitudes and for empowering women who participate in it. As a

  20. Computer Conferencing: Discourse, Education and Conflict Mediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Computer conferencing can aid in conflict resolution by developing discourse skills. This article examines conflict resolution and computer conferencing as a channel for discourse and describes three computer conferences involving secondary school students, teacher education students, and teachers in Northern Ireland, Europe, and the United…

  1. Argumentations in proving discourses in mathematics classrooms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Knipping

    This paper focuses on argumentations in proving discourses in mathematics classrooms. Examples of different types of argumentations that were observed in a comparative study of French and German lessons on the Pythagorean Theorem are presented. These illustrate different argumentations within two kinds of proving discourse. In one case the argumentation is characterised as intuitive-visual, and in the other as conceptual.

  2. The Neural Architecture of Discourse Compression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillywhite, L. M.; Saling, M. M.; Demutska, A.; Masterton, R.; Farquharson, S.; Jackson, G. D.

    2010-01-01

    Re-telling a story is thought to produce a progressive refinement in the mental representation of the discourse. A neuroanatomical substrate for this compression effect, however, has yet to be identified. We used a discourse re-listening task and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify brain regions responsive to repeated…

  3. An Archival Analysis of Actual Cases of Historic Child Sexual Abuse: A Comparison of Jury and Bench Trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Don Read; Deborah A. Connolly; Andrew Welsh

    2006-01-01

    Logistic regression analyses were used to predict verdicts from 466 Canadian jury and 644 Canadian judge-alone criminal trials involving delayed or historic allegations of child sexual abuse. Variables in regard to the complainant and offence were selected from the legal, clinical, and experimental literatures, including mock juror research. Of six variables that had been related to decisions reached in mock

  4. The Construction of "Female Citizens": A Socio-Historical Analysis of Girls' Education in Luxembourg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Catherina

    2014-01-01

    Background: This paper will empirically investigate female education in Luxembourg from a historical perspective. A special focus will be laid on the question of how women in Luxembourgian society were constructed as female "citizens", even though they were, rather, considered as a homogeneous category limited to a private sphere…

  5. Value-Chain Dynamics of the West Point Foundry, 1817-1911: A Historical Case Analysis in Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This case provides the opportunity for students to explore marketing and value/supply-chain dynamics in a unique historical context. The West Point Foundry (WPF), located in Cold Spring, New York, was one of the most important manufacturing ventures in the United States from 1817 to 1911. The case outlines the supply-chain details of the WPF as…

  6. Stability and Change in New York State Regents Mathematics Examinations, 1866-2009: A Socio-Historical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Robert Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation illuminates relationships between micro-level practices of schools and macro-level structures of society through the socio-historical lens of New York State Regents mathematics examinations, which were administered to public school students throughout the State of New York between 1866 and 2009, inclusive. Fundamental research…

  7. The Changing Roles of Adult and Continuing Education Practitioners in Hong Kong: Analysis from a Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Benjamin Tak-Yuen

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the role of adult and continuing education practitioners in Hong Kong as a function of contexts and conceptions of practice. A historical evolutionary approach is used to analyze how roles of practitioners differ in three periods--adult education, continuing education, and lifelong learning. It is revealed that practitioners…

  8. An Analysis of the Historical Regression Method of Predicting Posttest Grade Equivalents for Categorically-Aided Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hick, Thomas L.; Irvine, David J.

    To eliminate maturation as a factor in the pretest-posttest design, pretest scores can be converted to anticipate posttest scores using grade equivalent scores from standardized tests. This conversion, known as historical regression, assumes that without specific intervention, growth will continue at the rate (grade equivalents per year of…

  9. Impact of Federal/Institutional Aid Grants (Title III) on the Behavior of Private Historically Black Colleges: Financial Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Person, Carl S.

    The impact of federal funds on private, historically black institutions was studied. The focus was whether funding under Title III of the Higher Education Act of 1965 made a difference to the survival or stability of 45 four-year and 5 two-year colleges. The following information was used to analyze fiscal years (FY) 1977 and 1982: current funds…

  10. The Reconstruction of the Past through Images: An Iconographic Analysis on the Historical Imagination Usage Skills of Primary School Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilek, Dursun

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to understand how sixth grade students use their imagination skills in the historical thinking process and, by doing so, how they construct the past. In this respect, first, an exhibition/museum was visited in the context of social studies during history lessons in a primary school in Kadikoy district in Istanbul. Then,…

  11. Historical Research: A Thematic Analysis of Convention and Conference Themes for Selected Professional Health Education Associations from 1975 to 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Jill M.; Ubbes, Valerie A.

    2009-01-01

    Many professional organizations and associations hold conventions and conferences on an annual basis. Health Education professional associations take part in this process. Using a historical research perspective, this article delineates conference themes for four prominent professional Health Education associations: the American Association for…

  12. Mathematical analysis of the evaporative process of a new technological treatment of rising damp in historic buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Guimarães; J. M. P. Q. Delgado; V. P. de Freitas

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of rising damp in historic buildings walls is very complex, due to the thickness and heterogeneity of those walls. The traditionally techniques used to deal with this kind of problem (such as watertight barriers, injection of hydrofuge products, etc.) show, sometimes, to be ineffective, justifying the need to find a new approach.Experimental studies in the area of rising

  13. Analysis of Stream Channel Geometry Temporal and Spatial Evolution after Historic Dam Removal - two French case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slawson, Deborah; Manière, Louis; Marchandeau, Florent

    2014-05-01

    IRSTEA, in partnership with the French Office national de l'eau et des milieux aquatiques (ONEMA), has begun a study of channel geomorphology in small streams where dams have been removed or breached between two and 200 years ago, without any subsequent restoration of the channel in the legacy sediments. A preliminary analysis of two sites in the Morvan, Burgundy, will be presented; a dam breached at the beginning of the 20th century and another in the last decade. Using ergodic reasoning, historical and recent upstream and downstream channel geometry is being used to predict the future temporal and spatial scales of channel physical habitat restoration. With the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), dam removal has become a more frequently used method for restoring stream ecological continuity. In France, these obstacles are ubiquitous in medium and small streams and considerably reduce lateral and longitudinal connectivity. Improvement in the hydromorphologically controlled, physical habitat, particularly flow and sediment transport regimes, is often essential to improvement in stream biology. However, dam removal may cause long-term disturbances in flow and sediment transport regimes. In the absence of channel restoration measures in addition to dam removal, these disturbances may result in long-term negative impacts on fish, macroinvertebrate, and riparian plant physical habitat. These negative impacts may include channel incision and lowering of the water table, disconnection from floodplains, increased stream power and bed scouring, and increased sediment load from headcutting and bank erosion. Over time, these negative impacts may resolve themselves. However, the time frame necessary for reestablishing adequate physical habitat is not well-known. Some studies have indicated that many decades or longer may be required, depending on a variety of factors. Under the WFD, the REstoring rivers FOR effective catchment Management (REFORM) project is stressing the use of reference condition benchmarks when identifying objectives for and designing stream restoration projects. To identify appropriate reference condition benchmarks, it is important to understand over what temporal and spatial scales physical habitat improvement may take place after dam removal, including: 1. defining the spatial and temporal objectives for physical habitat restoration as a result of dam removal and 2. determining if dam removal alone will be sufficient to achieve those objectives or if additional channel restoration measures might be required.

  14. [Scientific evidence and discourse bioethics].

    PubMed

    Pastor, L M; Pastor García, Luis Miguel

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between the positive sciences, in particular the biomedical sciences, and bioethical discourse. Mainly addresses the question of whether bioethics requires adequate biomedical data for their development as science and that importance have such data in bioethical discourse. It also discusses the criteria that should govern relations between bioethics and biomedical fields. Before this is done a brief study of scientific rationality and the degree of truth that can achieve the empirical sciences coming to the conclusion that to determine it is necessary starting from a theory of knowledge. From what we have called epistemological realism we have valued the type of rationality that has biomedical sciences. Then from this rationality we have proposed the relationship must exist between the scientific evidence and development of bioethics. We conclude that bioethics needs the biomedical sciences to develop properly as a science but at the same time this does not mean that bioethics is reduced to biomedical science or derived from it. In development of bioethics is necessary the data biomedical but not sufficient, it is condition for the solution of problem or conflict studied but requires that this data is integrated into an eminently ethical reasoning. PMID:19799484

  15. Disciplinary discourses: rates of cesarean section explained by medicine, midwifery, and feminism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Amy Su May; Kirkman, Maggie

    2008-05-01

    In the context of international concern about increasing rates of cesarean sections, we used discourse analysis to examine explanations arising from feminism and the disciplines of medicine and midwifery, and found that each was positioned differently in relation to the rising rates. Medical discourses asserted that doctors are authorities on birth and that, although cesareans are sometimes medically necessary, women recklessly choose unnecessary cesareans against medical advice. Midwifery discourses portrayed medicine as paternalistic toward both women and midwifery, and feminist discourses situated birth and women's bodies in the context of a patriarchally structured society. The findings illustrate the complex ways in which this intervention in birth is discursively constructed, and demonstrate its significance as a site of disciplinary conflict. PMID:18437594

  16. Reading Words in Discourse: The Modulation of Lexical Priming Effects by Message-Level Context

    PubMed Central

    Ledoux, Kerry; Camblin, C. Christine; Swaab, Tamara Y.; Gordon, Peter C.

    2006-01-01

    Repetition and semantic-associative priming effects have been demonstrated for words in nonstructured contexts (i.e., word pairs or lists of words) in numerous behavioral and electrophysio-logical studies. The processing of a word has thus been shown to benefit from the prior presentation of an identical or associated word in the absence of a constraining context. An examination of such priming effects for words that are embedded within a meaningful discourse context provides information about the interaction of different levels of linguistic analysis. This article reviews behavioral and electrophysiological research that has examined the processing of repeated and associated words in sentence and discourse contexts. It provides examples of the ways in which eye tracking and event-related potentials might be used to further explore priming effects in discourse. The modulation of lexical priming effects by discourse factors suggests the interaction of information at different levels in online language comprehension. PMID:16891554

  17. Reflective discourse techniques: From in-class discussions to out-of-classroom problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wampler, Wendi; Demaree, Dedra; Gilbert, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Instructors often give prompts that encourage students to articulate their beliefs and conceptions, as well as encourage students to understand the thoughts of their peers. This reflective discourse is used in a calculus-based introductory physics class at Lane Community College, where the instructor explicitly has discourse goals integrated into his course structure. We investigate whether students utilize this discourse when solving problems outside of the classroom context. We interviewed groups of students after the end of spring term, 2012. The students were asked to solve open-ended problems, with analysis focused on whether students applied this reflective discourse. Students were asked a series of follow-up questions to reflect upon their experiences in the course.

  18. Identification of quality of life concerns of patients with obstructive sleep apnoea at the time of initiation of continuous positive airway pressure: A discourse analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Veale; G. Poussin; F. Benes; J.-L. Pepin; P. Levy

    2002-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a common condition with multiple symptoms dominated by daytime somnolence. Thus many worries and concerns of patients remain hidden. Treatment by nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) can be imposing for the individual. An analysis of the freely expressed concerns of such patients is required. Objective: To seek an in-depth analysis of how

  19. People with disabilities and social determinants of health discourses.

    PubMed

    Wolbring, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    Social determinants of health (SDH) are an important public health policy discourse and the concept and scope of SDH is debated within and outside of the public health field. This article concerns itself with the visibility of people with disabilities in existing SDH discourses. It employed a frequency analysis of Google and Google Scholar search hits obtained with the phrase "social determinants of health" in combination with various social groups and looked at the visibility of people with disabilities within key SDH documents, the Millennium Development Goals and some contemporary SDH such as energy, water and climate change security. It found that people with disabilities are much less visible than other social groups despite the major impact SDH have on this population. PMID:21913592

  20. Historical somersaults.

    PubMed

    Ryan, R

    1993-01-01

    The author and his youngest sister attended a mass at the Mission San Diego in California where the Monsignor discussed the life of Father Serra who founded the Mission in 1769. A letter to Father Serra from another priest showed the priest's distress over an abortion done to an Indian woman living at the Mission. Recollecting this historical letter was used to express the Monsignor's views on abortion today. He then reminded the congregation of the upcoming presidential election. He claimed that either Indians or people claiming to be Indians are trying to prevent the canonization of Father Serra without explaining why these people objected. He argued that the secular world cannot judge this man by contemporary standards. Yet, he had earlier implored the congregants to make secular political choices based on the absolute standards of the church. The objections to Father Serra by various secular people where he had been a member of the Spanish Inquisition and the missions he established served as forced confinement for the Indians. Supposedly, Father Serra and other priests kept Indian women in the missions to protect them from the brutality of Spanish soldiers. In fact, the pregnant Indian mentioned in the Monsignor's sermon was most likely raped by a Spaniard. Women in the missions were forced to stay in the missions while men could at least go to the fields. Unsanitary conditions were very unhealthy for the women, leading to considerable mortality. The child mortality rate was higher than 20%. Women who tried to control their fertility were harshly punished. The Catholic Church would do better if it canonized Father de las Casas who defended the autonomy and intellectual credibility of Indian culture. The author concludes that it is indeed unfair to judge Father Serra by contemporary standards, just as it is unfair and unreasonable to force Catholic standards on others. PMID:12178853