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Sample records for hiv coreceptor switch

  1. HIV coreceptor tropism determination and mutational pattern identification.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui-Shuang; Yin, Jason; Leng, Fei; Teng, Rui-Fang; Xu, Chao; Xia, Xia-Yu; Pan, Xian-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In the early stages of infection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) generally selects CCR5 as the primary coreceptor for entering the host cell. As infection progresses, the virus evolves and may exhibit a coreceptor-switch to CXCR4. Accurate determination coreceptor usage and identification key mutational patterns associated tropism switch are essential for selection of appropriate therapies and understanding mechanism of coreceptor change. We developed a classifier composed of two coreceptor-specific weight matrices (CMs) based on a full-scale dataset. For this classifier, we found an AUC of 0.97, an accuracy of 95.21% and an MCC of 0.885 (sensitivity 92.92%; specificity 95.54%) in a ten-fold cross-validation, outperforming all other methods on an independent dataset (13% higher MCC value than geno2pheno and 15% higher MCC value than PSSM). A web server (http://spg.med.tsinghua.edu.cn/CM.html) based on our classifier was provided. Patterns of genetic mutations that occur along with coreceptor transitions were further identified based on the score of each sequence. Six pairs of one-AA mutational patterns and three pairs of two-AA mutational patterns were identified to associate with increasing propensity for X4 tropism. These mutational patterns offered new insights into the mechanism of coreceptor switch and aided in monitoring coreceptor switch. PMID:26883082

  2. Functional impact of HIV coreceptor-binding site mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Biscone, Mark J.; Miamidian, John L.; Muchiri, John M.; Baik, Sarah S.W.; Lee, Fang-Hua; Doms, Robert W. . E-mail: doms@mail.med.upenn.edu; Reeves, Jacqueline D. . E-mail: jreeves@MonogramBio.com

    2006-07-20

    The bridging sheet region of the gp120 subunit of the HIV-1 Env protein interacts with the major virus coreceptors, CCR5 and CXCR4. We examined the impact of mutations in and adjacent to the bridging sheet region of an X4 tropic HIV-1 on membrane fusion and entry inhibitor susceptibility. When the V3-loop of this Env was changed so that CCR5 was used, the effects of these same mutations on CCR5 use were assayed as well. We found that coreceptor-binding site mutations had greater effects on CXCR4-mediated fusion and infection than when CCR5 was used as a coreceptor, perhaps related to differences in coreceptor affinity. The mutations also reduced use of the alternative coreceptors CCR3 and CCR8 to varying degrees, indicating that the bridging sheet region is important for the efficient utilization of both major and minor HIV coreceptors. As seen before with a primary R5 virus strain, bridging sheet mutations increased susceptibility to the CCR5 inhibitor TAK-779, which correlated with CCR5 binding efficiency. Bridging sheet mutations also conferred increased susceptibility to the CXCR4 ligand AMD-3100 in the context of the X4 tropic Env. However, these mutations had little effect on the rate of membrane fusion and little effect on susceptibility to enfuvirtide, a membrane fusion inhibitor whose activity is dependent in part on the rate of Env-mediated membrane fusion. Thus, mutations that reduce coreceptor binding and enhance susceptibility to coreceptor inhibitors can affect fusion and enfuvirtide susceptibility in an Env context-dependent manner.

  3. Highly Accurate Structure-Based Prediction of HIV-1 Coreceptor Usage Suggests Intermolecular Interactions Driving Tropism

    PubMed Central

    Kieslich, Chris A.; Tamamis, Phanourios; Guzman, Yannis A.; Onel, Melis; Floudas, Christodoulos A.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 entry into host cells is mediated by interactions between the V3-loop of viral glycoprotein gp120 and chemokine receptor CCR5 or CXCR4, collectively known as HIV-1 coreceptors. Accurate genotypic prediction of coreceptor usage is of significant clinical interest and determination of the factors driving tropism has been the focus of extensive study. We have developed a method based on nonlinear support vector machines to elucidate the interacting residue pairs driving coreceptor usage and provide highly accurate coreceptor usage predictions. Our models utilize centroid-centroid interaction energies from computationally derived structures of the V3-loop:coreceptor complexes as primary features, while additional features based on established rules regarding V3-loop sequences are also investigated. We tested our method on 2455 V3-loop sequences of various lengths and subtypes, and produce a median area under the receiver operator curve of 0.977 based on 500 runs of 10-fold cross validation. Our study is the first to elucidate a small set of specific interacting residue pairs between the V3-loop and coreceptors capable of predicting coreceptor usage with high accuracy across major HIV-1 subtypes. The developed method has been implemented as a web tool named CRUSH, CoReceptor USage prediction for HIV-1, which is available at http://ares.tamu.edu/CRUSH/. PMID:26859389

  4. P2X1 Receptor Antagonists Inhibit HIV-1 Fusion by Blocking Virus-Coreceptor Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Giroud, Charline; Marin, Mariana; Hammonds, Jason; Spearman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1 Env glycoprotein-mediated fusion is initiated upon sequential binding of Env to CD4 and the coreceptor CXCR4 or CCR5. Whereas these interactions are thought to be necessary and sufficient to promote HIV-1 fusion, other host factors can modulate this process. Previous studies reported potent inhibition of HIV-1 fusion by selective P2X1 receptor antagonists, including NF279, and suggested that these receptors play a role in HIV-1 entry. Here we investigated the mechanism of antiviral activity of NF279 and found that this compound does not inhibit HIV-1 fusion by preventing the activation of P2X1 channels but effectively blocks the binding of the virus to CXCR4 or CCR5. The notion of an off-target effect of NF279 on HIV-1 fusion is supported by the lack of detectable expression of P2X1 receptors in cells used in fusion experiments and by the fact that the addition of ATP or the enzymatic depletion of ATP in culture medium does not modulate viral fusion. Importantly, NF279 fails to inhibit HIV-1 fusion with cell lines and primary macrophages when added at an intermediate stage downstream of Env-CD4-coreceptor engagement. Conversely, in the presence of NF279, HIV-1 fusion is arrested downstream of CD4 binding but prior to coreceptor engagement. NF279 also antagonizes the signaling function of CCR5, CXCR4, and another chemokine receptor, as evidenced by the suppression of calcium responses elicited by specific ligands and by recombinant gp120. Collectively, our results demonstrate that NF279 is a dual HIV-1 coreceptor inhibitor that interferes with the functional engagement of CCR5 and CXCR4 by Env. IMPORTANCE Inhibition of P2X receptor activity suppresses HIV-1 fusion and replication, suggesting that P2X signaling is involved in HIV-1 entry. However, mechanistic experiments conducted in this study imply that P2X1 receptor is not expressed in target cells or involved in viral fusion. Instead, we found that inhibition of HIV-1 fusion by a specific P2X1

  5. HIV co-receptor tropism prediction remains stable over time in treatment-naïve patients.

    PubMed

    Philip, Keir Ej; Macartney, Malcolm J; Conibear, Tim Cr; Smith, Colette J; Marshall, Neal; Johnson, Margaret A; Haque, Tanzina; Webster, Daniel P

    2016-06-01

    HIV co-receptor tropism determination is essential before prescribing the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc. British HIV Association guidelines suggest tropism testing may remain valid for only 90 days in antiretroviral-naïve patients. We aimed to determine the accuracy of this figure. Tropism was assessed in 26 antiretroviral-naïve patients with ongoing viral replication, sampled yearly from first clinic visit. The V3 region of HIV-1 was sequenced in triplicate, then tropism predicted using the Geno2Pheno system. Baseline tropism prediction remained valid for a median of 52 months (range 7-81). For 19/26 individuals baseline tropism remained unchanged throughout a median of 54 months follow-up; 18 R5 tropic and 1 X4 tropic. In seven patients (27%) baseline tropism switched at least once (range 1-4 switches) during follow-up; however, their baseline tropism prediction remained valid for a median of 45 months. Co-receptor tropism in treatment-naïve patients with ongoing viral replication appears highly stable over time, suggesting that baseline genotypic tropism prediction may be valid for a longer duration in patients delaying ART initiation. In this study, baseline tropism prediction remained valid for a median of 52 months, suggesting current guidelines recommending repeat testing after 90 days may be excessively conservative in their assessment of tropism stability. PMID:25999168

  6. Genotypic Prediction of Co-receptor Tropism of HIV-1 Subtypes A and C.

    PubMed

    Riemenschneider, Mona; Cashin, Kieran Y; Budeus, Bettina; Sierra, Saleta; Shirvani-Dastgerdi, Elham; Bayanolhagh, Saeed; Kaiser, Rolf; Gorry, Paul R; Heider, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) infections with CCR5-antagonists requires the co-receptor usage prediction of viral strains. Currently available tools are mostly designed based on subtype B strains and thus are in general not applicable to non-B subtypes. However, HIV-1 infections caused by subtype B only account for approximately 11% of infections worldwide. We evaluated the performance of several sequence-based algorithms for co-receptor usage prediction employed on subtype A V3 sequences including circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and subtype C strains. We further analysed sequence profiles of gp120 regions of subtype A, B and C to explore functional relationships to entry phenotypes. Our analyses clearly demonstrate that state-of-the-art algorithms are not useful for predicting co-receptor tropism of subtype A and its CRFs. Sequence profile analysis of gp120 revealed molecular variability in subtype A viruses. Especially, the V2 loop region could be associated with co-receptor tropism, which might indicate a unique pattern that determines co-receptor tropism in subtype A strains compared to subtype B and C strains. Thus, our study demonstrates that there is a need for the development of novel algorithms facilitating tropism prediction of HIV-1 subtype A to improve effective antiretroviral treatment in patients. PMID:27126912

  7. Genotypic Prediction of Co-receptor Tropism of HIV-1 Subtypes A and C

    PubMed Central

    Riemenschneider, Mona; Cashin, Kieran Y.; Budeus, Bettina; Sierra, Saleta; Shirvani-Dastgerdi, Elham; Bayanolhagh, Saeed; Kaiser, Rolf; Gorry, Paul R.; Heider, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) infections with CCR5-antagonists requires the co-receptor usage prediction of viral strains. Currently available tools are mostly designed based on subtype B strains and thus are in general not applicable to non-B subtypes. However, HIV-1 infections caused by subtype B only account for approximately 11% of infections worldwide. We evaluated the performance of several sequence-based algorithms for co-receptor usage prediction employed on subtype A V3 sequences including circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and subtype C strains. We further analysed sequence profiles of gp120 regions of subtype A, B and C to explore functional relationships to entry phenotypes. Our analyses clearly demonstrate that state-of-the-art algorithms are not useful for predicting co-receptor tropism of subtype A and its CRFs. Sequence profile analysis of gp120 revealed molecular variability in subtype A viruses. Especially, the V2 loop region could be associated with co-receptor tropism, which might indicate a unique pattern that determines co-receptor tropism in subtype A strains compared to subtype B and C strains. Thus, our study demonstrates that there is a need for the development of novel algorithms facilitating tropism prediction of HIV-1 subtype A to improve effective antiretroviral treatment in patients. PMID:27126912

  8. Improving HIV coreceptor usage prediction in the clinic using hints from next-generation sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Nico; Lengauer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Due to the high mutation rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), drug-resistant-variants emerge frequently. Therefore, researchers are constantly searching for new ways to attack the virus. One new class of anti-HIV drugs is the class of coreceptor antagonists that block cell entry by occupying a coreceptor on CD4 cells. This type of drug just has an effect on the subset of HIVs that use the inhibited coreceptor. A good prediction of whether the viral population inside a patient is susceptible to the treatment is hence very important for therapy decisions and pre-requisite to administering the respective drug. The first prediction models were based on data from Sanger sequencing of the V3 loop of HIV. Recently, a method based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) data was introduced that predicts labels for each read separately and decides on the patient label through a percentage threshold for the resistant viral minority. Results: We model the prediction problem on the patient level taking the information of all reads from NGS data jointly into account. This enables us to improve prediction performance for NGS data, but we can also use the trained model to improve predictions based on Sanger sequencing data. Therefore, also laboratories without NGS capabilities can benefit from the improvements. Furthermore, we show which amino acids at which position are important for prediction success, giving clues on how the interaction mechanism between the V3 loop and the particular coreceptors might be influenced. Availability: A webserver is available at http://coreceptor.bioinf.mpi-inf.mpg.de. Contact: nico.pfeifer@mpi-inf.mpg.de PMID:22962486

  9. Tyrosine-sulfated V2 peptides inhibit HIV-1 infection via coreceptor mimicry.

    PubMed

    Cimbro, Raffaello; Peterson, Francis C; Liu, Qingbo; Guzzo, Christina; Zhang, Peng; Miao, Huiyi; Van Ryk, Donald; Ambroggio, Xavier; Hurt, Darrell E; De Gioia, Luca; Volkman, Brian F; Dolan, Michael A; Lusso, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Tyrosine sulfation is a post-translational modification that facilitates protein-protein interaction. Two sulfated tyrosines (Tys173 and Tys177) were recently identified within the second variable (V2) loop of the major HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120, and shown to contribute to stabilizing the intramolecular interaction between V2 and the third variable (V3) loop. Here, we report that tyrosine-sulfated peptides derived from V2 act as structural and functional mimics of the CCR5 N-terminus and potently block HIV-1 infection. Nuclear magnetic and surface plasmon resonance analyses indicate that a tyrosine-sulfated V2 peptide (pV2α-Tys) adopts a CCR5-like helical conformation and directly interacts with gp120 in a CD4-dependent fashion, competing with a CCR5 N-terminal peptide. Sulfated V2 mimics, but not their non-sulfated counterparts, inhibit HIV-1 entry and fusion by preventing coreceptor utilization, with the highly conserved C-terminal sulfotyrosine, Tys177, playing a dominant role. Unlike CCR5 N-terminal peptides, V2 mimics inhibit a broad range of HIV-1 strains irrespective of their coreceptor tropism, highlighting the overall structural conservation of the coreceptor-binding site in gp120. These results document the use of receptor mimicry by a retrovirus to occlude a key neutralization target site and provide leads for the design of therapeutic strategies against HIV-1. PMID:27389109

  10. Use of Four Next-Generation Sequencing Platforms to Determine HIV-1 Coreceptor Tropism

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Kenneth; Winner, Dane; Gibson, Richard; Lee, Lawrence; Paxinos, Ellen; Arts, Eric J.; Robertson, David L.; Mimms, Larry; Quiñones-Mateu, Miguel E.

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 coreceptor tropism assays are required to rule out the presence of CXCR4-tropic (non-R5) viruses prior treatment with CCR5 antagonists. Phenotypic (e.g., Trofile™, Monogram Biosciences) and genotypic (e.g., population sequencing linked to bioinformatic algorithms) assays are the most widely used. Although several next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms are available, to date all published deep sequencing HIV-1 tropism studies have used the 454™ Life Sciences/Roche platform. In this study, HIV-1 co-receptor usage was predicted for twelve patients scheduled to start a maraviroc-based antiretroviral regimen. The V3 region of the HIV-1 env gene was sequenced using four NGS platforms: 454™, PacBio® RS (Pacific Biosciences), Illumina®, and Ion Torrent™ (Life Technologies). Cross-platform variation was evaluated, including number of reads, read length and error rates. HIV-1 tropism was inferred using Geno2Pheno, Web PSSM, and the 11/24/25 rule and compared with Trofile™ and virologic response to antiretroviral therapy. Error rates related to insertions/deletions (indels) and nucleotide substitutions introduced by the four NGS platforms were low compared to the actual HIV-1 sequence variation. Each platform detected all major virus variants within the HIV-1 population with similar frequencies. Identification of non-R5 viruses was comparable among the four platforms, with minor differences attributable to the algorithms used to infer HIV-1 tropism. All NGS platforms showed similar concordance with virologic response to the maraviroc-based regimen (75% to 80% range depending on the algorithm used), compared to Trofile (80%) and population sequencing (70%). In conclusion, all four NGS platforms were able to detect minority non-R5 variants at comparable levels suggesting that any NGS-based method can be used to predict HIV-1 coreceptor usage. PMID:23166726

  11. The evolution of HIV-1 interactions with coreceptors and mannose C-type lectin receptors.

    PubMed

    Borggren, Marie; Jansson, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The phenotype of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) commonly evolves between and within infected individuals, at virus transmission, and during disease progression. This evolution includes altered interactions between the virus and its coreceptors, i.e., chemokine receptors, as well as mannose C-type lectin receptors (CLRs). Transmitted/founder viruses are predominantly restricted to CCR5, whereas the subsequent intrapatient evolution of HIV-1 coreceptor use during progressive disease can be subdivided into two distinct pathways. Accordingly, the CCR5-restricted virus population is either gradually replaced by virus variants able to use CXCR4 or evolves toward an altered, more flexible use of CCR5. Despite a strong dependency on these coreceptors for host cell entry, HIV-1 also interacts with other cell surface molecules during target cell attachment, including the CLRs. The virus interaction with the CLRs may result either in the efficient transfer of virus to CD4(+) T cells or in the degradation of the virus in endosomal compartments. The determinants of the diverse outcomes depend on which CLR is engaged and also on the glycan makeup of the envelope glycoproteins, which may evolve with the strength of the immune pressure during the disease course. With the current clinical introduction of CCR5 antagonists and the development of additional entry inhibitors, knowledge on the evolution and baseline characteristics of HIV-1 interactions with coreceptor and CLR interactions may play important roles for individualized and optimized treatment strategies. This review summarizes our current understanding of the evolution of HIV-1 interactions with these receptors. PMID:25595802

  12. HIV-1 Dynamics and Coreceptor Usage in Maraviroc-Treated Patients with Ongoing Replication

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, S.; Bellecave, P.; Marcelin, A. G.; Soulie, C.; Descamps, D.; Calvez, V.; Harrigan, P. R.; Fleury, H.; Izopet, J.; Masquelier, B.

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that HIV-1 evolution under maraviroc (MVC) pressure can lead to the selection of either X4-tropic variants and/or R5-tropic, MVC-resistant isolates. However, the viral dynamics of HIV-1 variants in patients with virological failure (VF) on MVC-containing regimens remain poorly studied. Here, we investigated the V3 loop evolution of HIV-1 on MVC in relation to coreceptor usage and the nature of HIV-1 quasispecies before MVC therapy using bulk population sequences and ultradeep sequencing. The majority of patients had no detectable minority X4 variant at baseline. The evolution of tropism was followed up until VF and showed three possibilities for viral evolution in these patients: emergence of preexisting X4 variants, de novo selection of R5 variants presenting V3 loop mutations, or replication of R5 variants without selection of known mutations. PMID:23208718

  13. HIV-1 dynamics and coreceptor usage in Maraviroc-treated patients with ongoing replication.

    PubMed

    Recordon-Pinson, P; Raymond, S; Bellecave, P; Marcelin, A G; Soulie, C; Descamps, D; Calvez, V; Harrigan, P R; Fleury, H; Izopet, J; Masquelier, B

    2013-02-01

    There is evidence that HIV-1 evolution under maraviroc (MVC) pressure can lead to the selection of either X4-tropic variants and/or R5-tropic, MVC-resistant isolates. However, the viral dynamics of HIV-1 variants in patients with virological failure (VF) on MVC-containing regimens remain poorly studied. Here, we investigated the V3 loop evolution of HIV-1 on MVC in relation to coreceptor usage and the nature of HIV-1 quasispecies before MVC therapy using bulk population sequences and ultradeep sequencing. The majority of patients had no detectable minority X4 variant at baseline. The evolution of tropism was followed up until VF and showed three possibilities for viral evolution in these patients: emergence of preexisting X4 variants, de novo selection of R5 variants presenting V3 loop mutations, or replication of R5 variants without selection of known mutations. PMID:23208718

  14. Improved guanide compounds which bind the CXCR4 co-receptor and inhibit HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Royce A.; Pincus, Seth H.; Song, Kejing; Shepard, Joyce B.; Weaver, Alan J.; Labib, Mohamed E.; Teintze, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptor CXCR4 is a co-receptor for HIV-1 infection and is involved in signaling cell migration and proliferation. In a previous study of non-peptide, guanide-based CXCR4-binding compounds, spermine and spermidine phenylguanides inhibited HIV-1 entry at low micromolar concentrations. Subsequently, crystal structures of CXCR4 were used to dock a series of naphthylguanide derivatives of the polyamines spermidine and spermine. Synthesis and evaluation of the naphthylguanide compounds identified our best compound, spermine tris-1-naphthylguanide, which bound CXCR4 with an IC50 of 40nM and inhibited the infection of TZM-bl cells with X4, but not R5, strains of HIV-1 with an IC50 of 50–100nM. PMID:23434419

  15. Co-receptor switch during HAART is independent of virological success.

    PubMed

    Saracino, Annalisa; Monno, Laura; Cibelli, Donatella C; Punzi, Grazia; Brindicci, Gaetano; Ladisa, Nicoletta; Tartaglia, Alessandra; Lagioia, Antonella; Angarano, Gioacchino

    2009-12-01

    The influence of antiretroviral therapy on co-receptor tropism remains controversial. To verify if co-receptor tropism shift was affected by HAART, the evolution of proviral DNA V3 genotype after 12 months of a new antiretroviral regimen was compared between responder and non-responder patients. Baseline blood samples were collected from 36 patients infected with HIV-1 subtype-B (18 naïve and 18 experienced) for virus isolation and env V3 genotyping from plasma HIV-1 RNA and PBMC DNA. DNA V3 genotyping was repeated after 12 months from initiating HAART. WebPSSM was used for categorizing V3 sequences into X4 or R5; for analysis purposes, dual/mixed viruses were considered as X4. From the 10 (28%) patients changing their proviral DNA V3 genotype during therapy, six shifted from R5-to-X4 and four from X4-to-R5. The lack of reaching virological suppression was not associated with an X4-to-R5 (P = 0.25) or R5-to-X4 (P = 0.14) shift; time-to-viral suppression and CD4 increase were similar in both groups. No association was found between tropism shift and patient baseline characteristics including age, sex, CDC stage, CD4 count, viral load, exposure and length of previous HAART, enfuvirtide use in the new regimen, number of reverse transcriptase and protease resistance-associated mutations. Conversely, CD4 nadir was correlated to emergence of X4 virus in proviral DNA (mean 27.2 +/- 30.6 in R5-to-X4 shifting patients vs. 161.6 +/- 150.6 in non-shifting patients, P = 0.02). The occurrence of a tropism shift in both directions was independent of HAART use, irrespective of its efficacy. The CD4 count nadir was the only baseline characteristic able to predict an R5-to-X4 viral shift. PMID:19856465

  16. Functional Mimetics of the HIV-1 CCR5 Co-Receptor Displayed on the Surface of Magnetic Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmina, Alona; Vaknin, Karin; Gdalevsky, Garik; Vyazmensky, Maria; Marks, Robert S.; Taube, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine G protein coupled receptors, principally CCR5 or CXCR4, function as co-receptors for HIV-1 entry into CD4+ T cells. Initial binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120 subunit to the host CD4 receptor induces a cascade of structural conformational changes that lead to the formation of a high-affinity co-receptor-binding site on gp120. Interaction between gp120 and the co-receptor leads to the exposure of epitopes on the viral gp41 that mediates fusion between viral and cell membranes. Soluble CD4 (sCD4) mimetics can act as an activation-based inhibitor of HIV-1 entry in vitro, as it induces similar structural changes in gp120, leading to increased virus infectivity in the short term but to virus Env inactivation in the long term. Despite promising clinical implications, sCD4 displays low efficiency in vivo, and in multiple HIV strains, it does not inhibit viral infection. This has been attributed to the slow kinetics of the sCD4-induced HIV Env inactivation and to the failure to obtain sufficient sCD4 mimetic levels in the serum. Here we present uniquely structured CCR5 co-receptor mimetics. We hypothesized that such mimetics will enhance sCD4-induced HIV Env inactivation and inhibition of HIV entry. Co-receptor mimetics were derived from CCR5 gp120-binding epitopes and functionalized with a palmitoyl group, which mediated their display on the surface of lipid-coated magnetic beads. CCR5-peptidoliposome mimetics bound to soluble gp120 and inhibited HIV-1 infectivity in a sCD4-dependent manner. We concluded that CCR5-peptidoliposomes increase the efficiency of sCD4 to inhibit HIV infection by acting as bait for sCD4-primed virus, catalyzing the premature discharge of its fusion potential. PMID:26629902

  17. Prediction of R5, X4, and R5X4 HIV-1 Coreceptor Usage with Evolved Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lamers, Susanna L.; Salemi, Marco; McGrath, Michael S.; Fogel, Gary B.

    2012-01-01

    The HIV-1 genome is highly heterogeneous. This variation affords the virus a wide range of molecular properties, including the ability to infect cell types, such as macrophages and lymphocytes, expressing different chemokine receptors on the cell surface. In particular, R5 HIV-1 viruses use CCR5 as a coreceptor for viral entry, X4 viruses use CXCR4, whereas some viral strains, known as R5X4 or D-tropic, have the ability to utilize both coreceptors. X4 and R5X4 viruses are associated with rapid disease progression to AIDS. R5X4 viruses differ in that they have yet to be characterized by the examination of the genetic sequence of HIV-1 alone. In this study, a series of experiments was performed to evaluate different strategies of feature selection and neural network optimization. We demonstrate the use of artificial neural networks trained via evolutionary computation to predict viral coreceptor usage. The results indicate the identification of R5X4 viruses with a predictive accuracy of 75.5 percent. PMID:18451438

  18. A synthetic heparan sulfate-mimetic peptide conjugated to a mini CD4 displays very high anti- HIV-1 activity independently of coreceptor usage.

    PubMed

    Connell, Bridgette Janine; Baleux, Françoise; Coic, Yves-Marie; Clayette, Pascal; Bonnaffé, David; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues

    2012-01-27

    The HIV-1 envelope gp120, which features both the virus receptor (CD4) and coreceptor (CCR5/CXCR4) binding sites, offers multiple sites for therapeutic intervention. However, the latter becomes exposed, thus vulnerable to inhibition, only transiently when the virus has already bound cellular CD4. To pierce this defense mechanism, we engineered a series of heparan sulfate mimicking tridecapeptides and showed that one of them target the gp120 coreceptor binding site with μM affinity. Covalently linked to a CD4-mimetic that binds to gp120 and renders the coreceptor binding domain available to be targeted, the conjugated tridecapeptide now displays nanomolar affinity for its target. Using solubilized coreceptors captured on top of sensorchip we show that it inhibits gp120 binding to both CCR5 and CXCR4 and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells broadly inhibits HIV-1 replication with an IC(50) of 1 nM. PMID:22284360

  19. Genetic Characteristics, Coreceptor Usage Potential and Evolution of Nigerian HIV-1 Subtype G and CRF02_AG Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Ajoge, Hannah O.; Gordon, Michelle L.; de Oliveira, Tulio; Green, Taryn N.; Ibrahim, Sani; Shittu, Oladapo S.; Olonitola, Stephen O.; Ahmad, Aliyu A.; Ndung'u, Thumbi

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 CRF02_AG and subtype G (HIV-1G) account for most HIV infections in Nigeria, but their evolutionary trends have not been well documented. To better elucidate the dynamics of the epidemic in Nigeria we characterised the gag and env genes of North-Central Nigerian HIV-1 isolates from pregnant women. Of 28 samples sequenced in both genes, the predominant clades were CRF02_AG (39%) and HIV-1G (32%). Higher predicted proportion of CXCR4-tropic (X4) HIV-1G isolates was noted compared to CRF02_AG (p = 0.007, Fisher's exact test). Phylogenetic and Bayesian analysis conducted on our sequences and all the dated available Nigerian sequences on the Los Alamos data base showed that CRF02_AG and HIV-1G entered into Nigeria through multiple entries, with presence of HIV-1G dating back to early 1980s. This study underlines the genetic complexity of the HIV-1 epidemic in Nigeria, possible subtype-specific differences in co-receptor usage, and the evolutionary trends of the predominant HIV-1 strains in Nigeria, which may have implications for the design of biomedical interventions and better understanding of the epidemic. PMID:21423811

  20. Slow Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infectivity Correlated with Low HIV Coreceptor Levels

    PubMed Central

    Bristow, Cynthia L.

    2001-01-01

    The absolute number of CD4+ lymphocytes in blood is prognostic for disease progression, yet the cell surface density of CD4 receptors or chemokine receptors on a single cell has not previously been found to be predictive of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infectivity outcome. It has recently been shown that human leukocyte elastase (HLE) and its ligand α1 proteinase inhibitor (α1PI; α1 antitrypsin) act as HIV fusion cofactors. The present study shows that decreased HIV infectivity is significantly correlated with decreased cell surface density of HLE but not with decreased CD4 nor chemokine receptors. In vitro HIV infectivity outcome in this study was predicted by the surface density of HLE on mononuclear phagocytes but not on lymphocytes. The set point HLE surface density was in part determined by α1PI. Decreased circulating α1PI was correlated with increased cell surface HLE and with increased HIV infectivity. The correlation of HIV infectivity outcome with surface HLE and circulating α1PI supports the utility of these HIV cofactors in diagnostic analysis and therapeutic intervention. PMID:11527806

  1. Different Pathogenesis of CCR5-Using Primary HIV-1 Isolates from Non-Switch and Switch Virus Patients in Human Lymphoid Tissue Ex Vivo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iarlsson, Ingrid; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Chen. Silvia; Karlsson, Anders; Albert, Jan; Fenyol, Eva Maria; Margolis, Leonid B.

    2005-01-01

    CCR5-utilizing HIV-1 variants (R5) typically transmit infection and dominate its early stages, whereas emergence of CXCR4-using (X4 or R5X4) HIV-1 is often associated with disease progression. However, such a switch in co-receptor usage can only be detected in approximately onehalf of HIV-infected patients (switch virus patients), and progression to immunodeficiency may also occur in patients without detectable switch in co-receptor usage (non-switch virus patients). Here, we used a system of ex vivo-infected tonsillar tissue to compare the pathogenesis of sequential primary R5 HIV-1 isolates from the switch and non-switch patients. Inoculation of ex vivo tissue with these R5 isolates resulted in viral replication and CCR5(+)CD4(+) T cell depletion. The levels of such depletion by HIV-1 isolated from non-switch virus patients were significantly higher than those by R5 HIV-1 isolates from switch virus patients. T cell depletion seemed to be controlled by viral factors and did not significantly vary between tissues from different donors. In contrast, viral replication did not correlate with the switch status of the patients; in tissues fiom different donors it varied 30-fold and seemed to be controlled by a combination of viral and tissue factors. Nevertheless, replication-level hierarchy among sequential isolates remained constant in tissues from various donors. Viral load in vivo was higher in switch virus patients compared to non-switch virus patients. The high cytopathogenicity of CCR5(+)CD4(+) T cells by R5 HIV-1 isolates from non-switch virus patients may explain the steady decline of CD4(+) T cells in the absence of CXCR4 using virus; elimination of target cells by these isolates may limit their own replication in vivo.

  2. Prediction of co-receptor usage of HIV-1 from genotype.

    PubMed

    Dybowski, J Nikolaj; Heider, Dominik; Hoffmann, Daniel

    2010-04-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 uses for entry into host cells a receptor (CD4) and one of two co-receptors (CCR5 or CXCR4). Recently, a new class of antiretroviral drugs has entered clinical practice that specifically bind to the co-receptor CCR5, and thus inhibit virus entry. Accurate prediction of the co-receptor used by the virus in the patient is important as it allows for personalized selection of effective drugs and prognosis of disease progression. We have investigated whether it is possible to predict co-receptor usage accurately by analyzing the amino acid sequence of the main determinant of co-receptor usage, i.e., the third variable loop V3 of the gp120 protein. We developed a two-level machine learning approach that in the first level considers two different properties important for protein-protein binding derived from structural models of V3 and V3 sequences. The second level combines the two predictions of the first level. The two-level method predicts usage of CXCR4 co-receptor for new V3 sequences within seconds, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.937+/-0.004. Moreover, it is relatively robust against insertions and deletions, which frequently occur in V3. The approach could help clinicians to find optimal personalized treatments, and it offers new insights into the molecular basis of co-receptor usage. For instance, it quantifies the importance for co-receptor usage of a pocket that probably is responsible for binding sulfated tyrosine. PMID:20419152

  3. HIV-1 in genital tract and plasma of women: Compartmentalization of viral sequences, coreceptor usage, and glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Kemal, Kimdar Sherefa; Foley, Brian; Burger, Harold; Anastos, Kathryn; Minkoff, Howard; Kitchen, Christina; Philpott, Sean M.; Gao, Wei; Robison, Esther; Holman, Susan; Dehner, Carolyn; Beck, Suzanne; Meyer, William A.; Landay, Alan; Kovacs, Andrea; Bremer, James; Weiser, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Worldwide, 90% of HIV-1 infections are transmitted heterosexually. Because the genital mucosa are the sites of initial contact with HIV-1 for most exposed individuals, study of the virus from the genital tract is critical for the development of vaccines and therapeutics. Previous analyses of HIV-1 in various tissues have documented compartmentalization of viral genomes. Whether compartmentalization was associated with viral phenotypic differences or immune status, however, was not well understood. We compared HIV-1 gp120 env sequences from the genital tract and plasma of 12 women. Eight women displayed compartmentalized HIV-1 RNA genomes, with viral sequences from each site that were clearly discrete, yet phylogenetically related. The remaining four exhibited env sequences that were intermingled between the two sites. Women with compartmentalized HIV-1 genomes had higher CD4+ cell counts than those displaying intermingled strains (P = 0.02). Intrapatient HIV-1 recombinants comprising sequences that were characteristic of both sites were identified. We next compared viral phenotypes in each compartment. HIV-1 coreceptor usage was often compartmentalized (P ≤ 0.01). The number of N-linked glycosylation sites, associated with neutralization resistance, also differed between compartments (P < 0.01). Furthermore, disparities between the density of gp120 glycosylations in each compartment correlated with higher CD4+ counts (P = 0.03). These data demonstrate that the genital tract and plasma can harbor populations of replicating HIV-1 with different phenotypes. The association of higher CD4+ cell counts with compartmentalization of viral genomes and density of gp120 glycosylations suggests that the immune response influences the development of viral genotypes in each compartment. These findings are relevant to the prevention and control of HIV-1 infection. PMID:14557540

  4. Identification of a Subset of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Strains Able To Exploit an Alternative Coreceptor on Untransformed Human Brain and Lymphoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Willey, Samantha J.; Reeves, Jacqueline D.; Hudson, Richard; Miyake, Koichi; Dejucq, Nathalie; Schols, Dominique; Clercq, Erik De; Bell, Jeanne; McKnight, Áine; Clapham, Paul R.

    2003-01-01

    The chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 are the major coreceptors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). At least 12 other chemokine receptors or close relatives support infection by particular HIV and SIV strains on CD4+ transformed indicator cell lines in vitro. However, the role of these alternative coreceptors in vivo is presently thought to be insignificant. Infection of cell lines expressing high levels of recombinant CD4 and coreceptors thus does not provide a true indication of coreceptor use in vivo. We therefore tested primary untransformed cell cultures that lack CCR5 and CXCR4, including astrocytes and brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs), for naturally expressed alternative coreceptors functional for HIV and SIV infection. An adenovirus vector (Ad-CD4) was used to express CD4 in CD4− astrocytes and thus confer efficient infection if a functional coreceptor is present. Using a large panel of viruses with well-defined coreceptor usage, we identified a subset of HIV and SIV strains able to infect two astrocyte cultures derived from adult brain tissue. Astrocyte infection was partially inhibited by several chemokines, indicating a role for the chemokine receptor family in the observed infection. BMVECs were weakly positive for CD4 but negative for CCR5 and CXCR4 and were susceptible to infection by the same subset of isolates that infected astrocytes. BMVEC infection was efficiently inhibited by the chemokine vMIP-I, implicating one of its receptors as an alternative coreceptor for HIV and SIV infection. Furthermore, we tested whether the HIV type 1 and type 2 strains identified were able to infect peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) via an alternative coreceptor. Several strains replicated in Δ32/Δ32 CCR5 PBMCs with CXCR4 blocked by AMD3100. This AMD3100-resistant replication was also sensitive to vMIP-I inhibition. The nature and potential role of this alternative coreceptor(s) in HIV infection

  5. Efficient Clinical Scale Gene Modification via Zinc Finger Nuclease–Targeted Disruption of the HIV Co-receptor CCR5

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Dawn A.; Brennan, Andrea L.; Jiang, Shuguang; Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn K.; Lee, Gary; Plesa, Gabriela; Zheng, Zhaohui; Cotte, Julio; Carpenito, Carmine; Wood, Travis; Spratt, S. Kaye; Ando, Dale; Gregory, Philip; Holmes, Michael C.; Perez, Elena. E.; Riley, James L.; Carroll, Richard G.; June, Carl H.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Since HIV requires CD4 and a co-receptor, most commonly C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), for cellular entry, targeting CCR5 expression is an attractive approach for therapy of HIV infection. Treatment of CD4+ T cells with zinc-finger protein nucleases (ZFNs) specifically disrupting chemokine receptor CCR5 coding sequences induces resistance to HIV infection in vitro and in vivo. A chimeric Ad5/F35 adenoviral vector encoding CCR5-ZFNs permitted efficient delivery and transient expression following anti-CD3/anti-CD28 costimulation of T lymphocytes. We present data showing CD3/CD28 costimulation substantially improved transduction efficiency over reported methods for Ad5/F35 transduction of T lymphocytes. Modifications to the laboratory scale process, incorporating clinically compatible reagents and methods, resulted in a robust ex vivo manufacturing process capable of generating >1010 CCR5 gene-edited CD4+ T cells from healthy and HIV+ donors. CD4+ T-cell phenotype, cytokine production, and repertoire were comparable between ZFN-modified and control cells. Following consultation with regulatory authorities, we conducted in vivo toxicity studies that showed no detectable ZFN-specific toxicity or T-cell transformation. Based on these findings, we initiated a clinical trial testing the safety and feasibility of CCR5 gene-edited CD4+ T-cell transfer in study subjects with HIV-1 infection. PMID:23360514

  6. In vivo effect of statins on the expression of the HIV co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    -term administration of statins at therapeutic doses, does not significantly affect the expression of HIV-1 co-receptors or of their ligands. In addition it is important to point out that based on the results obtained, therapeutic administration of statins in HIV-infected patients with lipid disorders is safe in terms of selecting X4 strains. PMID:23634877

  7. A Peptide Derived from the HIV-1 gp120 Coreceptor-Binding Region Promotes Formation of PAP248-286 Amyloid Fibrils to Enhance HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinquan; Ren, Ruxia; Tan, Suiyi; Zhang, Wanyue; Zhang, Xuanxuan; Yu, Fei; Xun, Tianrong; Jiang, Shibo; Liu, Shuwen; Li, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background Semen is a major vehicle for HIV transmission. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) fragments, such as PAP248-286, in human semen can form amyloid fibrils to enhance HIV infection. Other endogenous or exogenous factors present during sexual intercourse have also been reported to promote the formation of seminal amyloid fibrils. Methodology and Principal Findings Here, we demonstrated that a synthetic 15-residue peptide derived from the HIV-1 gp120 coreceptor-binding region, designated enhancing peptide 2 (EP2), can rapidly self-assemble into nanofibers. These EP2-derivated nanofibers promptly accelerated the formation of semen amyloid fibrils by PAP248-286, as shown by Thioflavin T (ThT) and Congo red assays. The amyloid fibrils presented similar morphology, assessed via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in the presence or absence of EP2. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy revealed that EP2 accelerates PAP248-286 amyloid fibril formation by promoting the structural transition of PAP248-286 from a random coil into a cross-β-sheet. Newly formed semen amyloid fibrils effectively enhanced HIV-1 infection in TZM-bl cells and U87 cells by promoting the binding of HIV-1 virions to target cells. Conclusions and Significance Nanofibers composed of EP2 promote the formation of PAP248-286 amyloid fibrils and enhance HIV-1 infection. PMID:26656730

  8. Immune adaptor ADAP in T cells regulates HIV-1 transcription and cell-cell viral spread via different co-receptors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Immune cell adaptor protein ADAP (adhesion and degranulation-promoting adaptor protein) mediates aspects of T-cell adhesion and proliferation. Despite this, a connection between ADAP and infection by the HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus-1) has not been explored. Results In this paper, we show for the first time that ADAP and its binding to SLP-76 (SH2 domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa) regulate HIV-1 infection via two distinct mechanisms and co-receptors. siRNA down-regulation of ADAP, or expression of a mutant that is defective in associating to its binding partner SLP-76 (termed M12), inhibited the propagation of HIV-1 in T-cell lines and primary human T-cells. In one step, ADAP and its binding to SLP-76 were needed for the activation of NF-κB and its transcription of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) in cooperation with ligation of co-receptor CD28, but not LFA-1. In a second step, the ADAP-SLP-76 module cooperated with LFA-1 to regulate conjugate formation between T-cells and dendritic cells or other T-cells as well as the development of the virological synapse (VS) and viral spread between immune cells. Conclusions These findings indicate that ADAP regulates two steps of HIV-1 infection cooperatively with two distinct receptors, and as such, serves as a new potential target in the blockade of HIV-1 infection. PMID:24047317

  9. Evaluation of the Genotypic Prediction of HIV-1 Coreceptor Use versus a Phenotypic Assay and Correlation with the Virological Response to Maraviroc: the ANRS GenoTropism Study▿

    PubMed Central

    Recordon-Pinson, Patricia; Soulié, Cathia; Flandre, Philippe; Descamps, Diane; Lazrek, Mouna; Charpentier, Charlotte; Montes, Brigitte; Trabaud, Mary-Anne; Cottalorda, Jacqueline; Schneider, Véronique; Morand-Joubert, Laurence; Tamalet, Catherine; Desbois, Delphine; Macé, Muriel; Ferré, Virginie; Vabret, Astrid; Ruffault, Annick; Pallier, Coralie; Raymond, Stéphanie; Izopet, Jacques; Reynes, Jacques; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Masquelier, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Genotypic algorithms for prediction of HIV-1 coreceptor usage need to be evaluated in a clinical setting. We aimed at studying (i) the correlation of genotypic prediction of coreceptor use in comparison with a phenotypic assay and (ii) the relationship between genotypic prediction of coreceptor use at baseline and the virological response (VR) to a therapy including maraviroc (MVC). Antiretroviral-experienced patients were included in the MVC Expanded Access Program if they had an R5 screening result with Trofile (Monogram Biosciences). V3 loop sequences were determined at screening, and coreceptor use was predicted using 13 genotypic algorithms or combinations of algorithms. Genotypic predictions were compared to Trofile; dual or mixed (D/M) variants were considered as X4 variants. Both genotypic and phenotypic results were obtained for 189 patients at screening, with 54 isolates scored as X4 or D/M and 135 scored as R5 with Trofile. The highest sensitivity (59.3%) for detection of X4 was obtained with the Geno2pheno algorithm, with a false-positive rate set up at 10% (Geno2pheno10). In the 112 patients receiving MVC, a plasma viral RNA load of <50 copies/ml was obtained in 68% of cases at month 6. In multivariate analysis, the prediction of the X4 genotype at baseline with the Geno2pheno10 algorithm including baseline viral load and CD4 nadir was independently associated with a worse VR at months 1 and 3. The baseline weighted genotypic sensitivity score was associated with VR at month 6. There were strong arguments in favor of using genotypic coreceptor use assays for determining which patients would respond to CCR5 antagonist. PMID:20530226

  10. Ethnicity and Smoking-Associated DNA Methylation Changes at HIV Co-Receptor GPR15

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Meeshanthini V.; Xiang, Jinhua; Beach, Steven R. H.; Cutrona, Carolyn; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Stapleton, Jack T.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is associated with poorer health outcomes for both African and European Americans. In order to better understand whether ethnic-specific genetic variation may underlie some of these differences, we compared the smoking-associated genome-wide methylation signatures of African Americans with those of European Americans, and followed up this analysis with a focused examination of the most ethnically divergent locus, cg19859270, at the GPR15 gene. We examined the association of methylation at this locus to the rs2230344 SNP and GPR15 gene and protein expression. Consistent with prior analyses, AHRR residue cg05575921 was the most differentially methylated residue in both African Americans and European Americans. However, the second most differentially methylated locus in African Americans, cg19859270, was only modestly differentially methylated in European Americans. Interrogation of the methylation status of this CpG residue found in GPR15, a chemokine receptor involved in HIV pathogenesis, showed a significant interaction of ethnicity with smoking as well as a marginal effect of genotype at rs2230344, a neighboring non-synonymous SNP, but only among African Americans. Gene and protein expression analyses showed that demethylation at cg19859270 was associated with an increase in both mRNA and protein levels. Since GPR15 is involved in the early stages of viral replication for some HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates, and the prevalence of HIV is increased in African Americans and smokers, these data support a possible role for GPR15 in the ethnically dependent differential prevalence of HIV. PMID:26441693

  11. Characterizing the Diverse Mutational Pathways Associated with R5-Tropic Maraviroc Resistance: HIV-1 That Uses the Drug-Bound CCR5 Coreceptor

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaowei; Feyertag, Felix; Meehan, Conor J.; McCormack, Grace P.; Travers, Simon A.; Craig, Charles; Westby, Mike; Lewis, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Entry inhibitors represent a potent class of antiretroviral drugs that target a host cell protein, CCR5, an HIV-1 entry coreceptor, and not viral protein. Lack of sensitivity can occur due to preexisting virus that uses the CXCR4 coreceptor, while true resistance occurs through viral adaptation to use a drug-bound CCR5 coreceptor. To understand this R5 resistance pathway, we analyzed >500 envelope protein sequences and phenotypes from viruses of 20 patients from the clinical trials MOTIVATE 1 and 2, in which treatment-experienced patients received maraviroc plus optimized background therapy. The resistant viral population was phylogenetically distinct and associated with a genetic bottleneck in each patient, consistent with de novo emergence of resistance. Recombination analysis showed that the C2-V3-C3 region tends to genotypically correspond to the recombinant's phenotype, indicating its primary importance in conferring resistance. Between patients, there was a notable lack of commonality in the specific sites conferring resistance, confirming the unusual nature of R5-tropic resistance. We used coevolutionary and positive-selection analyses to characterize the genotypic determinants of resistance and found that (i) there are complicated covariation networks, indicating frequent coevolutionary/compensatory changes in the context of protein structure; (ii) covarying sites under positive selection are enriched in resistant viruses; (iii) CD4 binding sites form part of a unique covariation network independent of the V3 loop; and (iv) the covariation network formed between the V3 loop and other regions of gp120 and gp41 intersects sites involved in glycosylation and protein secretion. These results demonstrate that while envelope sequence mutations are the key to conferring maraviroc resistance, the specific changes involved are context dependent and thus inherently unpredictable. IMPORTANCE The entry inhibitor drug maraviroc makes the cell coreceptor CCR5

  12. mRNA transfection of a novel TAL effector nuclease (TALEN) facilitates efficient knockout of HIV co-receptor CCR5

    PubMed Central

    Mock, Ulrike; Machowicz, Rafał; Hauber, Ilona; Horn, Stefan; Abramowski, Pierre; Berdien, Belinda; Hauber, Joachim; Fehse, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Homozygosity for a natural deletion variant of the HIV-coreceptor molecule CCR5, CCR5Δ32, confers resistance toward HIV infection. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation from a CCR5Δ32-homozygous donor has resulted in the first cure from HIV (‘Berlin patient’). Based thereon, genetic disruption of CCR5 using designer nucleases was proposed as a promising HIV gene-therapy approach. Here we introduce a novel TAL-effector nuclease, CCR5-Uco-TALEN that can be efficiently delivered into T cells by mRNA electroporation, a gentle and truly transient gene-transfer technique. CCR5-Uco-TALEN mediated high-rate CCR5 knockout (>90% in PM1 and >50% in primary T cells) combined with low off-target activity, as assessed by flow cytometry, next-generation sequencing and a newly devised, very convenient gene-editing frequency digital-PCR (GEF-dPCR). GEF-dPCR facilitates simultaneous detection of wild-type and gene-edited alleles with remarkable sensitivity and accuracy as shown for the CCR5 on-target and CCR2 off-target loci. CCR5-edited cells were protected from infection with HIV-derived lentiviral vectors, but also with the wild-type CCR5-tropic HIV-1BaL strain. Long-term exposure to HIV-1BaL resulted in almost complete suppression of viral replication and selection of CCR5-gene edited T cells. In conclusion, we have developed a novel TALEN for the targeted, high-efficiency knockout of CCR5 and a useful dPCR-based gene-editing detection method. PMID:25964300

  13. Induction of mucosal and systemic antibody responses against the HIV coreceptor CCR5 upon intramuscular immunization and aerosol delivery of a Virus-like Particle based vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Z; Smyth, HD; Durfee, P; Chackerian, B

    2009-01-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) can be exploited as platforms to increase the immunogenicity of poorly immunogenic antigens, including self-proteins. We have developed VLP-based vaccines that target two domains of the HIV coreceptor CCR5 that are involved in HIV binding. These vaccines induce anti-CCR5 antibodies that bind to native CCR5 and inhibit SIV infection in vitro. Given the role of mucosal surfaces in HIV transmission and replication, we also asked whether an aerosolized, VLP-based pulmonary vaccine targeting CCR5 could induce a robust mucosal response in addition to a systemic response. In rats, both intramuscular and pulmonary immunization induced high titer IgG and IgA against the vaccine in the serum, but only aerosol vaccination induced IgA antibodies at local mucosal sites. An intramuscular prime followed by an aerosol boost resulted in strong serum and mucosal antibody responses. These results show that VLP-based vaccines targeting CCR5 induce high-titer systemic antibodies, and can elicit both local and systemic mucosal response when administered via an aerosol. Vaccination against a self-molecule that is critically involved during HIV transmission and pathogenesis is an alternative to targeting the virus itself. More generally, our results provide a general method for inducing broad systemic and mucosal antibody responses using VLP-based immunogens. PMID:19849995

  14. Protection of rhesus macaques from vaginal infection by vaginally delivered maraviroc, an inhibitor of HIV-1 entry via the CCR5 co-receptor.

    PubMed

    Veazey, Ronald S; Ketas, Thomas J; Dufour, Jason; Moroney-Rasmussen, Terri; Green, Linda C; Klasse, P J; Moore, John P

    2010-09-01

    An effective vaginal microbicide could reduce human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission to women. Among microbicide candidates in clinical development is Maraviroc (MVC), a small-molecule drug that binds the CCR5 co-receptor and impedes HIV-1 entry into cells. Delivered systemically, MVC reduces viral load in HIV-1-infected individuals, but its ability to prevent transmission is untested. We have now evaluated MVC as a vaginal microbicide with use of a stringent model that involves challenge of rhesus macaques with a high-dose of a CCR5-using virus, SHIV-162P3. Gel-formulated, prescription-grade MVC provided dose-dependent protection, half-maximally at 0.5 mM (0.25 mg/mL). The duration of protection was transient; the longer the delay between MVC application and virus challenge, the less protection (half life of approximately 4 h). As expected, MVC neither protected against challenge with a CXCR4-using virus, SHIV-KU1, nor exacerbated postinfection viremia. These findings validate MVC development as a vaginal microbicide for women and should guide clinical programs. PMID:20629537

  15. Protection of rhesus macaques from vaginal infection by vaginally delivered Maraviroc, an inhibitor of HIV-1 entry via the CCR5 co-receptor

    PubMed Central

    Veazey, Ronald S.; Ketas, Thomas J.; Dufour, Jason; Moroney-Rasmussen, Terri; Green, Linda C.; Klasse, P.J.; Moore, John P.

    2010-01-01

    An effective vaginal microbicide could reduce human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission to women. Among microbicide candidates in clinical development is Maraviroc (MVC), a small molecule drug that binds the CCR5 co-receptor and impedes HIV-1 entry into cells. Delivered systemically, MVC reduces viral load in HIV-1-infected people, but its ability to prevent transmission is untested. We have now evaluated MVC as a vaginal microbicide, using a stringent model involving challenge of rhesus macaques with a high-dose of a CCR5-using virus, SHIV-162P3. Gel-formulated, prescription-grade MVC provided dose-dependent protection, half-maximally at 0.5 mM (0.25 mg/ml). The duration of protection was transient; the longer the delay between MVC application and virus challenge, the less protection (T1/2 ~ 4 h). As expected, MVC neither protected against challenge with a CXCR4-using virus, SHIV-KU1, nor exacerbated post-infection viremia. These findings validate MVC development as a vaginal microbicide for women, and should guide clinical programs. PMID:20629537

  16. Development and characterization of a novel single-cycle recombinant-virus assay to determine human immunodeficiency virus type 1 coreceptor tropism.

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, Jeannette M; Huang, Wei; Fransen, Signe; Limoli, Kay; Toma, Jonathan; Wrin, Terri; Chappey, Colombe; Kiss, Linda D B; Paxinos, Ellen E; Petropoulos, Christos J

    2007-02-01

    Most human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains require either the CXCR4 or CCR5 chemokine receptor to efficiently enter cells. Blocking viral binding to these coreceptors is an attractive therapeutic target. Currently, several coreceptor antagonists are being evaluated in clinical trials that require characterization of coreceptor tropism for enrollment. In this report, we describe the development of an automated and accurate procedure for determining HIV-1 coreceptor tropism (Trofile) and its validation for routine laboratory testing. HIV-1 pseudoviruses are generated using full-length env genes derived from patient virus populations. Coreceptor tropism is determined by measuring the abilities of these pseudovirus populations to efficiently infect CD4+/U87 cells expressing either the CXCR4 or CCR5 coreceptor. Viruses exclusively and efficiently infecting CXCR4+/CD4+/U87 cells are designated X4-tropic. Conversely, viruses exclusively and efficiently infecting CCR5+/CD4+/U87 cells are designated R5-tropic. Viruses capable of infecting both CXCR4+/CD4+/U87 and CCR5+/CD4+/U87 cells are designated dual/mixed-tropic. Assay accuracy and reproducibility were established by evaluating the tropisms of well-characterized viruses and the variability among replicate results from samples tested repeatedly. The viral subtype, hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus coinfection, and the plasma viral load did not affect assay performance. Minority subpopulations with alternate tropisms were reliably detected when present at 5 to 10%. The plasma viral load above which samples can be amplified efficiently in the Trofile assay is 1,000 copies per ml of plasma. Trofile has been automated for high-throughput use; it can be used to identify patients most likely to benefit from treatment regimens that include a coreceptor inhibitor and to monitor patients on treatment for the emergence of resistant virus populations that switch coreceptor tropism. PMID:17116663

  17. The Isolation of Novel Phage Display-Derived Human Recombinant Antibodies Against CCR5, the Major Co-Receptor of HIV

    PubMed Central

    Shimoni, Moria; Herschhorn, Alon; Britan-Rosich, Yelena; Kotler, Moshe; Benhar, Itai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Selecting for antibodies against specific cell-surface proteins is a difficult task due to many unrelated proteins that are expressed on the cell surface. Here, we describe a method to screen antibody-presenting phage libraries against native cell-surface proteins. We applied this method to isolate antibodies that selectively recognize CCR5, which is the major co-receptor for HIV entry (consequently, playing a pivotal role in HIV transmission and pathogenesis). We employed a phage screening strategy by using cells that co-express GFP and CCR5, along with an excess of control cells that do not express these proteins (and are otherwise identical to the CCR5-expressing cells). These control cells are intended to remove most of the phages that bind the cells nonspecifically; thus leading to an enrichment of the phages presenting anti-CCR5-specific antibodies. Subsequently, the CCR5-presenting cells were quantitatively sorted by flow cytometry, and the bound phages were eluted, amplified, and used for further successive selection rounds. Several different clones of human single-chain Fv antibodies that interact with CCR5-expressing cells were identified. The most specific monoclonal antibody was converted to a full-length IgG and bound the second extracellular loop of CCR5. The experimental approach presented herein for screening for CCR5-specific antibodies can be applicable to screen antibody-presenting phage libraries against any cell-surface expressed protein of interest. PMID:23941674

  18. The isolation of novel phage display-derived human recombinant antibodies against CCR5, the major co-receptor of HIV.

    PubMed

    Shimoni, Moria; Herschhorn, Alon; Britan-Rosich, Yelena; Kotler, Moshe; Benhar, Itai; Hizi, Amnon

    2013-08-01

    Selecting for antibodies against specific cell-surface proteins is a difficult task due to many unrelated proteins that are expressed on the cell surface. Here, we describe a method to screen antibody-presenting phage libraries against native cell-surface proteins. We applied this method to isolate antibodies that selectively recognize CCR5, which is the major co-receptor for HIV entry (consequently, playing a pivotal role in HIV transmission and pathogenesis). We employed a phage screening strategy by using cells that co-express GFP and CCR5, along with an excess of control cells that do not express these proteins (and are otherwise identical to the CCR5-expressing cells). These control cells are intended to remove most of the phages that bind the cells nonspecifically; thus leading to an enrichment of the phages presenting anti-CCR5-specific antibodies. Subsequently, the CCR5-presenting cells were quantitatively sorted by flow cytometry, and the bound phages were eluted, amplified, and used for further successive selection rounds. Several different clones of human single-chain Fv antibodies that interact with CCR5-expressing cells were identified. The most specific monoclonal antibody was converted to a full-length IgG and bound the second extracellular loop of CCR5. The experimental approach presented herein for screening for CCR5-specific antibodies can be applicable to screen antibody-presenting phage libraries against any cell-surface expressed protein of interest. PMID:23941674

  19. Frequencies of 32 base pair deletion of the (Delta 32) allele of the CCR5 HIV-1 co-receptor gene in Caucasians: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Lucotte, Gérard

    2002-05-01

    The CCR5 gene encodes for the co-receptor for the major macrophage-tropics strains of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), and a mutant allele of this gene (Delta 32) provide to homozygotes a strong resistance against infection by HIV. The frequency of the Delta 32 allele was investigated in 40 populations of 8842 non-infected subjects coming from Europe, the Middle-East and North Africa. A clear north-south decreasing gradient was evident for Delta 32 frequencies, with a significant correlation coefficient (r=0.83). The main frequency value of Delta 32 for Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland and Iceland (0.134) is significantly (chi(2)=63.818, P<0.001) highest than the Delta 32 mean value, indicating that probably the Vikings might have been instrumental in disseminating the Delta 32 allele during the eighth to the tenth centuries during historical times. Possibly variola virus has discriminated the Delta 32 carriers in Europe since the eighth century AD, explaining the high frequency of the Delta 32 allele in Europe today. PMID:12798016

  20. Plectin regulates the signaling and trafficking of the HIV-1 co-receptor CXCR4 and plays a role in HIV-1 infection

    SciTech Connect

    Ding Yun; Zhang Li; Goodwin, J. Shawn; Wang Ziqing; Liu Bingdong; Zhang Jingwu; Fan Guohuang

    2008-02-01

    The CXC chemokine CXCL12 and its cognate receptor CXCR4 play an important role in inflammation, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and cancer metastasis. The signal transduction and intracellular trafficking of CXCR4 are involved in these functions, but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that the CXCR4 formed a complex with the cytolinker protein plectin in a ligand-dependent manner in HEK293 cells stably expressing CXCR4. The glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-CXCR4 C-terminal fusion proteins co-precipitated with the full-length and the N-terminal fragments of plectin isoform 1 but not with the N-terminal deletion mutants of plectin isoform 1, thereby suggesting an interaction between the N-terminus of plectin and the C-terminus of CXCR4. This interaction was confirmed by confocal microscopic reconstructions showing co-distribution of these two proteins in the internal vesicles after ligand-induced internalization of CXCR4 in HEK293 cells stably expressing CXCR4. Knockdown of plectin with RNA interference (RNAi) significantly inhibited ligand-dependent CXCR4 internalization and attenuated CXCR4-mediated intracellular calcium mobilization and activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). CXCL12-induced chemotaxis of HEK293 cells stably expressing CXCR4 and of Jurkat T cells was inhibited by the plectin RNAi. Moreover, CXCR4 tropic HIV-1 infection in MAGI (HeLa-CD4-LTR-Gal) cells was inhibited by the RNAi of plectin. Thus, plectin appears to interact with CXCR4 and plays an important role in CXCR4 signaling and trafficking and HIV-1 infection.

  1. Crystal structure of an HIV assembly and maturation switch.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Jonathan M; Zadrozny, Kaneil K; Chrustowicz, Jakub; Purdy, Michael D; Yeager, Mark; Ganser-Pornillos, Barbie K; Pornillos, Owen

    2016-01-01

    Virus assembly and maturation proceed through the programmed operation of molecular switches, which trigger both local and global structural rearrangements to produce infectious particles. HIV-1 contains an assembly and maturation switch that spans the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the capsid (CA) region and the first spacer peptide (SP1) of the precursor structural protein, Gag. The crystal structure of the CTD-SP1 Gag fragment is a goblet-shaped hexamer in which the cup comprises the CTD and an ensuing type II β-turn, and the stem comprises a 6-helix bundle. The β-turn is critical for immature virus assembly and the 6-helix bundle regulates proteolysis during maturation. This bipartite character explains why the SP1 spacer is a critical element of HIV-1 Gag but is not a universal property of retroviruses. Our results also indicate that HIV-1 maturation inhibitors suppress unfolding of the CA-SP1 junction and thereby delay access of the viral protease to its substrate. PMID:27416583

  2. Crystal structure of an HIV assembly and maturation switch

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Jonathan M; Zadrozny, Kaneil K; Chrustowicz, Jakub; Purdy, Michael D; Yeager, Mark; Ganser-Pornillos, Barbie K; Pornillos, Owen

    2016-01-01

    Virus assembly and maturation proceed through the programmed operation of molecular switches, which trigger both local and global structural rearrangements to produce infectious particles. HIV-1 contains an assembly and maturation switch that spans the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the capsid (CA) region and the first spacer peptide (SP1) of the precursor structural protein, Gag. The crystal structure of the CTD-SP1 Gag fragment is a goblet-shaped hexamer in which the cup comprises the CTD and an ensuing type II β-turn, and the stem comprises a 6-helix bundle. The β-turn is critical for immature virus assembly and the 6-helix bundle regulates proteolysis during maturation. This bipartite character explains why the SP1 spacer is a critical element of HIV-1 Gag but is not a universal property of retroviruses. Our results also indicate that HIV-1 maturation inhibitors suppress unfolding of the CA-SP1 junction and thereby delay access of the viral protease to its substrate. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17063.001 PMID:27416583

  3. Structural analysis of a novel rabbit monoclonal antibody R53 targeting an epitope in HIV-1 gp120 C4 region critical for receptor and co-receptor binding

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Ruimin; Chen, Yuxin; Vaine, Michael; Hu, Guangnan; Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan; Kong, Xiang -Peng

    2015-07-15

    The fourth conserved region (C4) in the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120 is a structural element that is important for its function, as it binds to both the receptor CD4 and the co-receptor CCR5/CXCR4. It has long been known that this region is highly immunogenic and that it harbors B-cell as well as T-cell epitopes. It is the target of a number of antibodies in animal studies, which are called CD4-blockers. However, the mechanism by which the virus shields itself from such antibody responses is not known. Here, we determined the crystal structure of R53 in complex with its epitope peptide using a novel anti-C4 rabbit monoclonal antibody R53. Our data show that although the epitope of R53 covers a highly conserved sequence 433AMYAPPI439, it is not available in the gp120 trimer and in the CD4-bound conformation. Our results suggest a masking mechanism to explain how HIV-1 protects this critical region from the human immune system.

  4. Structural analysis of a novel rabbit monoclonal antibody R53 targeting an epitope in HIV-1 gp120 C4 region critical for receptor and co-receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ruimin; Chen, Yuxin; Vaine, Michael; Hu, Guangnan; Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan; Kong, Xiang-Peng

    2015-07-01

    The fourth conserved region (C4) in the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120 is a structural element that is important for its function, as it binds to both the receptor CD4 and the co-receptor CCR5/CXCR4. It has long been known that this region is highly immunogenic and that it harbors B-cell as well as T-cell epitopes. It is the target of a number of antibodies in animal studies, which are called CD4-blockers. However, the mechanism by which the virus shields itself from such antibody responses is not known. Here, we determined the crystal structure of R53 in complex with its epitope peptide using a novel anti-C4 rabbit monoclonal antibody R53. Our data show that although the epitope of R53 covers a highly conserved sequence (433)AMYAPPI(439), it is not available in the gp120 trimer and in the CD4-bound conformation. Our results suggest a masking mechanism to explain how HIV-1 protects this critical region from the human immune system. PMID:26251831

  5. Structural analysis of a novel rabbit monoclonal antibody R53 targeting an epitope in HIV-1 gp120 C4 region critical for receptor and co-receptor binding

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ruimin; Chen, Yuxin; Vaine, Michael; Hu, Guangnan; Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan; Kong, Xiang-Peng

    2015-01-01

    The fourth conserved region (C4) in the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120 is a structural element that is important for its function, as it binds to both the receptor CD4 and the co-receptor CCR5/CXCR4. It has long been known that this region is highly immunogenic and that it harbors B-cell as well as T-cell epitopes. It is the target of a number of antibodies in animal studies, which are called CD4-blockers. However, the mechanism by which the virus shields itself from such antibody responses is not known. Here, we determined the crystal structure of R53 in complex with its epitope peptide using a novel anti-C4 rabbit monoclonal antibody R53. Our data show that although the epitope of R53 covers a highly conserved sequence 433AMYAPPI439, it is not available in the gp120 trimer and in the CD4-bound conformation. Our results suggest a masking mechanism to explain how HIV-1 protects this critical region from the human immune system. PMID:26251831

  6. Structural analysis of a novel rabbit monoclonal antibody R53 targeting an epitope in HIV-1 gp120 C4 region critical for receptor and co-receptor binding

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pan, Ruimin; Chen, Yuxin; Vaine, Michael; Hu, Guangnan; Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan; Kong, Xiang -Peng

    2015-07-15

    The fourth conserved region (C4) in the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120 is a structural element that is important for its function, as it binds to both the receptor CD4 and the co-receptor CCR5/CXCR4. It has long been known that this region is highly immunogenic and that it harbors B-cell as well as T-cell epitopes. It is the target of a number of antibodies in animal studies, which are called CD4-blockers. However, the mechanism by which the virus shields itself from such antibody responses is not known. Here, we determined the crystal structure of R53 in complex with its epitopemore » peptide using a novel anti-C4 rabbit monoclonal antibody R53. Our data show that although the epitope of R53 covers a highly conserved sequence 433AMYAPPI439, it is not available in the gp120 trimer and in the CD4-bound conformation. Our results suggest a masking mechanism to explain how HIV-1 protects this critical region from the human immune system.« less

  7. Interaction between HIV-1 Tat and DNA-PKcs modulates HIV transcription and class switch recombination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shi-Meng; Zhang, He; Yang, Tian-Yi; Ying, Tian-Yi; Yang, Pei-Xiang; Liu, Xiao-Dan; Tang, Sheng-Jian; Zhou, Ping-Kun

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 tat targets a variety of host cell proteins to facilitate viral transcription and disrupts host cellular immunity by inducing lymphocyte apoptosis, but whether it influences humoral immunity remains unclear. Previously, our group demonstrated that tat depresses expression of DNA-PKcs, a critical component of the non-homologous end joining pathway (NHEJ) of DNA double-strand breaks repair, immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR) and V(D)J recombination, and sensitizes cells to ionizing radiation. In this study, we demonstrated that HIV-1 Tat down-regulates DNA-PKcs expression by directly binding to the core promoter sequence. In addition, Tat interacts with and activates the kinase activity of DNA-PKcs in a dose-dependent and DNA independent manner. Furthermore, Tat inhibits class switch recombination (CSR) at low concentrations (≤ 4 µg/ml) and stimulates CSR at high concentrations (≥ 8 µg/ml). On the other hand, low protein level and high kinase activity of DNA-PKcs promotes HIV-1 transcription, while high protein level and low kinase activity inhibit HIV-1 transcription. Co-immunoprecipitation results revealed that DNA-PKcs forms a large complex comprised of Cyclin T1, CDK9 and Tat via direct interacting with CDK9 and Tat but not Cyclin T1. Taken together, our results provide new clues that Tat regulates host humoral immunity via both transcriptional depression and kinase activation of DNA-PKcs. We also raise the possibility that inhibitors and interventions directed towards DNA-PKcs may inhibit HIV-1 transcription in AIDS patients. PMID:25332688

  8. Interaction between HIV-1 Tat and DNA-PKcs modulates HIV transcription and class switch recombination

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shi-Meng; Zhang, He; Yang, Tian-Yi; Ying, Tian-Yi; Yang, Pei-Xiang; Liu, Xiao-Dan; Tang, Sheng-Jian; Zhou, Ping-Kun

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 tat targets a variety of host cell proteins to facilitate viral transcription and disrupts host cellular immunity by inducing lymphocyte apoptosis, but whether it influences humoral immunity remains unclear. Previously, our group demonstrated that tat depresses expression of DNA-PKcs, a critical component of the non-homologous end joining pathway (NHEJ) of DNA double-strand breaks repair, immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR) and V(D)J recombination, and sensitizes cells to ionizing radiation. In this study, we demonstrated that HIV-1 Tat down-regulates DNA-PKcs expression by directly binding to the core promoter sequence. In addition, Tat interacts with and activates the kinase activity of DNA-PKcs in a dose-dependent and DNA independent manner. Furthermore, Tat inhibits class switch recombination (CSR) at low concentrations (≤4 µg/ml) and stimulates CSR at high concentrations (≥8 µg/ml). On the other hand, low protein level and high kinase activity of DNA-PKcs promotes HIV-1 transcription, while high protein level and low kinase activity inhibit HIV-1 transcription. Co-immunoprecipitation results revealed that DNA-PKcs forms a large complex comprised of Cyclin T1, CDK9 and Tat via direct interacting with CDK9 and Tat but not Cyclin T1. Taken together, our results provide new clues that Tat regulates host humoral immunity via both transcriptional depression and kinase activation of DNA-PKcs. We also raise the possibility that inhibitors and interventions directed towards DNA-PKcs may inhibit HIV-1 transcription in AIDS patients. PMID:25332688

  9. A Conserved Glycan in the C2 Domain of HIV-1 Envelope Acts as a Molecular Switch to Control X4 Utilization by Clonal Variants with Identical V3 Loops

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Thomas; Sobrera, Edwin R.; Tobin, Nicole H.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2015-01-01

    Nearly all persons newly infected with HIV-1 harbor exclusively CCR5-using virus. CXCR4-using variants eventually arise in up to 50% of patients infected with subtypes B or D. This transition to efficient CXCR4 utilization is often co-incident with progression to AIDS. The basis for HIV-1’s initial dependence on CCR5, the selective force(s) that drive CXCR4-utilization, and the evolutionary pathways by which it occurs are incompletely understood. Greater knowledge of these processes will inform interventions at all stages, from vaccination to cure. The determinants of co-receptor use map primarily, though not exclusively, to the V3 loop of gp120. In this study, we describe five clonal variants with identical V3 loops but divergent CXCR4 use. Mutagenesis revealed two residues controlling this phenotypic switch: a rare polymorphism in C1 and a highly conserved N-glycan in C2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of co-receptor usage regulated by the N-glycan at position 262. PMID:26083631

  10. HIV-1 Tropism Dynamics and Phylogenetic Analysis from Longitudinal Ultra-Deep Sequencing Data of CCR5- and CXCR4-Using Variants

    PubMed Central

    Sede, Mariano M.; Moretti, Franco A.; Laufer, Natalia L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Coreceptor switch from CCR5 to CXCR4 is associated with HIV disease progression. The molecular and evolutionary mechanisms underlying the CCR5 to CXCR4 switch are the focus of intense recent research. We studied the HIV-1 tropism dynamics in relation to coreceptor usage, the nature of quasispecies from ultra deep sequencing (UDPS) data and their phylogenetic relationships. Methods Here, we characterized C2-V3-C3 sequences of HIV obtained from 19 patients followed up for 54 to 114 months using UDPS, with further genotyping and phylogenetic analysis for coreceptor usage. HIV quasispecies diversity and variability as well as HIV plasma viral load were measured longitudinally and their relationship with the HIV coreceptor usage was analyzed. The longitudinal UDPS data were submitted to phylogenetic analysis and sampling times and coreceptor usage were mapped onto the trees obtained. Results Although a temporal viral genetic structuring was evident, the persistence of several viral lineages evolving independently along the infection was statistically supported, indicating a complex scenario for the evolution of viral quasispecies. HIV X4-using variants were present in most of our patients, exhibiting a dissimilar inter- and intra-patient predominance as the component of quasispecies even on antiretroviral therapy. The viral populations from some of the patients studied displayed evidences of the evolution of X4 variants through fitness valleys, whereas for other patients the data favored a gradual mode of emergence. Conclusions CXCR4 usage can emerge independently, in multiple lineages, along the course of HIV infection. The mode of emergence, i.e. gradual or through fitness valleys seems to depend on both virus and patient factors. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that, besides becoming dominant after population-level switches, minor proportions of X4 viruses might exist along the infection, perhaps even at early stages of it. The fate of these minor

  11. Epigenetic mechanisms, T-cell activation, and CCR5 genetics interact to regulate T-cell expression of CCR5, the major HIV-1 coreceptor

    PubMed Central

    Gornalusse, German G.; Mummidi, Srinivas; Gaitan, Alvaro A.; Jimenez, Fabio; Ramsuran, Veron; Picton, Anabela; Rogers, Kristen; Manoharan, Muthu Saravanan; Avadhanam, Nymisha; Murthy, Krishna K.; Martinez, Hernan; Molano Murillo, Angela; Chykarenko, Zoya A.; Hutt, Richard; Daskalakis, Demetre; Shostakovich-Koretskaya, Ludmila; Abdool Karim, Salim; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Deeks, Steven G.; Hecht, Frederick; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Clark, Robert A.; Okulicz, Jason; Valentine, Fred T.; Martinson, Neil; Tiemessen, Caroline Tanya; Ndung’u, Thumbi; Hunt, Peter W.; He, Weijing; Ahuja, Sunil K.

    2015-01-01

    T-cell expression levels of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) are a critical determinant of HIV/AIDS susceptibility, and manifest wide variations (i) between T-cell subsets and among individuals and (ii) in T-cell activation-induced increases in expression levels. We demonstrate that a unifying mechanism for this variation is differences in constitutive and T-cell activation-induced DNA methylation status of CCR5 cis-regulatory regions (cis-regions). Commencing at an evolutionarily conserved CpG (CpG −41), CCR5 cis-regions manifest lower vs. higher methylation in T cells with higher vs. lower CCR5 levels (memory vs. naïve T cells) and in memory T cells with higher vs. lower CCR5 levels. HIV-related and in vitro induced T-cell activation is associated with demethylation of these cis-regions. CCR5 haplotypes associated with increased vs. decreased gene/surface expression levels and HIV/AIDS susceptibility magnify vs. dampen T-cell activation-associated demethylation. Methylation status of CCR5 intron 2 explains a larger proportion of the variation in CCR5 levels than genotype or T-cell activation. The ancestral, protective CCR5-HHA haplotype bears a polymorphism at CpG −41 that is (i) specific to southern Africa, (ii) abrogates binding of the transcription factor CREB1 to this cis-region, and (iii) exhibits a trend for overrepresentation in persons with reduced susceptibility to HIV and disease progression. Genotypes lacking the CCR5-Δ32 mutation but with hypermethylated cis-regions have CCR5 levels similar to genotypes heterozygous for CCR5-Δ32. In HIV-infected individuals, CCR5 cis-regions remain demethylated, despite restoration of CD4+ counts (≥800 cells per mm3) with antiretroviral therapy. Thus, methylation content of CCR5 cis-regions is a central epigenetic determinant of T-cell CCR5 levels, and possibly HIV-related outcomes. PMID:26307764

  12. Epigenetic mechanisms, T-cell activation, and CCR5 genetics interact to regulate T-cell expression of CCR5, the major HIV-1 coreceptor.

    PubMed

    Gornalusse, German G; Mummidi, Srinivas; Gaitan, Alvaro A; Jimenez, Fabio; Ramsuran, Veron; Picton, Anabela; Rogers, Kristen; Manoharan, Muthu Saravanan; Avadhanam, Nymisha; Murthy, Krishna K; Martinez, Hernan; Molano Murillo, Angela; Chykarenko, Zoya A; Hutt, Richard; Daskalakis, Demetre; Shostakovich-Koretskaya, Ludmila; Abdool Karim, Salim; Martin, Jeffrey N; Deeks, Steven G; Hecht, Frederick; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Clark, Robert A; Okulicz, Jason; Valentine, Fred T; Martinson, Neil; Tiemessen, Caroline Tanya; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Hunt, Peter W; He, Weijing; Ahuja, Sunil K

    2015-08-25

    T-cell expression levels of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) are a critical determinant of HIV/AIDS susceptibility, and manifest wide variations (i) between T-cell subsets and among individuals and (ii) in T-cell activation-induced increases in expression levels. We demonstrate that a unifying mechanism for this variation is differences in constitutive and T-cell activation-induced DNA methylation status of CCR5 cis-regulatory regions (cis-regions). Commencing at an evolutionarily conserved CpG (CpG -41), CCR5 cis-regions manifest lower vs. higher methylation in T cells with higher vs. lower CCR5 levels (memory vs. naïve T cells) and in memory T cells with higher vs. lower CCR5 levels. HIV-related and in vitro induced T-cell activation is associated with demethylation of these cis-regions. CCR5 haplotypes associated with increased vs. decreased gene/surface expression levels and HIV/AIDS susceptibility magnify vs. dampen T-cell activation-associated demethylation. Methylation status of CCR5 intron 2 explains a larger proportion of the variation in CCR5 levels than genotype or T-cell activation. The ancestral, protective CCR5-HHA haplotype bears a polymorphism at CpG -41 that is (i) specific to southern Africa, (ii) abrogates binding of the transcription factor CREB1 to this cis-region, and (iii) exhibits a trend for overrepresentation in persons with reduced susceptibility to HIV and disease progression. Genotypes lacking the CCR5-Δ32 mutation but with hypermethylated cis-regions have CCR5 levels similar to genotypes heterozygous for CCR5-Δ32. In HIV-infected individuals, CCR5 cis-regions remain demethylated, despite restoration of CD4+ counts (≥800 cells per mm(3)) with antiretroviral therapy. Thus, methylation content of CCR5 cis-regions is a central epigenetic determinant of T-cell CCR5 levels, and possibly HIV-related outcomes. PMID:26307764

  13. Coreceptor Usage, Diversity, and Divergence in Drug-Naive and Drug-Exposed Individuals from Malawi, Infected with HIV-1 Subtype C for More Than 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Seager, Ishla; Travers, Simon A.; Leeson, Michael D.; Crampin, Amelia C.; French, Neil; Glynn, Judith R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There are few cohorts of individuals who have survived infection with HIV-1 for more than 20 years, reported and followed in the literature, and even fewer from Africa. Here we present data on a cohort of subtype C-infected individuals from rural northern Malawi. By sequencing multiple clones from long-term survivors at different time points, and using multiple genotyping approaches, we show that 5 of the 11 individuals are predicted as CXCR4 using (by ≥3/5 predictors) but only one individual is predicted as CXCR4 using by all five algorithms. Using any one genotyping approach overestimates the number of predicted CXCR4 sequences. Patterns of diversity and divergence were variable between the HIV-1 long-term survivors with some individuals showing very small amounts of variation and change, and others showing a greater amount; both patterns are consistent with what has been described in the literature. PMID:24925099

  14. Evolution of coreceptor utilization to escape CCR5 antagonist therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Gao, Xiang; Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce; Chen, Zheng; Mitreva, Makedonka; Henrich, Timothy; Kuritzkes, Daniel; Ratner, Lee

    2016-07-01

    The HIV-1 envelope interacts with coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 in a dynamic, multi-step process, its molecular details not clearly delineated. Use of CCR5 antagonists results in tropism shift and therapeutic failure. Here we describe a novel approach using full-length patient-derived gp160 quasispecies libraries cloned into HIV-1 molecular clones, their separation based on phenotypic tropism in vitro, and deep sequencing of the resultant variants for structure-function analyses. Analysis of functionally validated envelope sequences from patients who failed CCR5 antagonist therapy revealed determinants strongly associated with coreceptor specificity, especially at the gp120-gp41 and gp41-gp41 interaction surfaces that invite future research on the roles of subunit interaction and envelope trimer stability in coreceptor usage. This study identifies important structure-function relationships in HIV-1 envelope, and demonstrates proof of concept for a new integrated analysis method that facilitates laboratory discovery of resistant mutants to aid in development of other therapeutic agents. PMID:27128349

  15. Evolution of coreceptor utilization to escape CCR5 antagonist therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Gao, Xiang; Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce; Chen, Zheng; Mitreva, Makedonka; Henrich, Timothy; Kuritzkes, Daniel; Ratner, Lee

    2016-01-01

    The HIV-1 envelope interacts with coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 in a dynamic, multi-step process, its molecular details not clearly delineated. Use of CCR5 antagonists results in tropism shift and therapeutic failure. Here we describe a novel approach using full-length patient-derived gp160 quasispecies libraries cloned into HIV-1 molecular clones, their separation based on phenotypic tropism in vitro, and deep sequencing of the resultant variants for structure-function analyses. Analysis of functionally validated envelope sequences from patients who failed CCR5 antagonist therapy revealed determinants strongly associated with coreceptor specificity, especially at the gp120-gp41 and gp41-gp41 interaction surfaces that invite future research on the roles of subunit interaction and envelope trimer stability in coreceptor usage. This study identifies important structure-function relationships in HIV-1 envelope, and demonstrates proof of concept for a new integrated analysis method that facilitates laboratory discovery of resistant mutants to aid in development of other therapeutic agents. PMID:27128349

  16. IgE-FcεRI Interactions Determine HIV Coreceptor Usage and Susceptibility to Infection during Ontogeny of Mast Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Sundstrom, J. Bruce; Hair, Gregory A.; Ansari, Aftab A.; Secor, W. Evan; Gilfillan, Alasdair M.; Metcalfe, Dean D.; Kirshenbaum, Arnold S.

    2009-01-01

    Progenitor mast cells (prMCs), derived from CD34+ precursors are CD4+/CCR5+/CXCR4+ and susceptible to CCR5(R5)-tropic virus but only marginally susceptible to CXCR4(X4)-tropic HIV. As infected prMCs mature within extravascular compartments, they become both latently infected and HIV-infection resistant, and thus capable of establishing an inducible reservoir of CCR5-tropic infectious clones. In this report we provide the first evidence that IgE-FcεRI interactions, occurring during a unique period of mast cell (MC) ontogeny, enhance prMC susceptibility to X4 and R5X4 virus. IgE-FcεRI interactions significantly increased expression of CXCR4 mRNA (∼400- to 1800-fold), enhanced prMC susceptibility to X4 and R5X4 virus (∼3000- to 16,000-fold), but had no significant effect on CD4, CCR3, or CCR5 expression, susceptibility to R5 virus, or degranulation. Enhanced susceptibility to infection with X4 virus occurred during the first 3–5 wk of MC ontogeny and was completely inhibited by CXCR4-specific peptide antagonists and omalizumab, a drug that inhibits IgE-FcεRI interactions. IgE-FcεRI coaggregation mediated by HIVgp120 or Schistosoma mansoni soluble egg Ag accelerated maximal CXCR4 expression and susceptibility to X4 virus by prMCs. Our findings suggest that for HIV-positive individuals with atopic or helminthic diseases, elevated IgE levels could potentially influence the composition of CXCR4-tropic and R5X4-tropic variants archived within the long-lived tissue MC reservoir created during infection. PMID:19414793

  17. Etravirine as a Switching Option for Patients with HIV RNA Suppression: A Review of Recent Trials

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Mark; Hill, Andrew; van Delft, Yvon; Moecklinghoff, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Unlike other nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, etravirine is only approved for use in treatment-experienced patients. In the DUET 1 and 2 trials, 1203 highly treatment-experienced patients were randomized to etravirine or placebo, in combination with darunavir/ritonavir and optimized background treatment. In these trials, etravirine showed significantly higher rates of HIV RNA suppression when compared with placebo (61% versus 40% at Week 48). There was no significant rise of lipids or neuropsychiatric adverse events, but there was an increase in the risk of rash with etravirine treatment. In the SENSE trial, which evaluated etravirine and efavirenz in 157 treatment-naïve patients in combination with 2 nucleoside analogues, there was a lower risk of lipid elevations and neuropsychiatric adverse events with etravirine when compared to efavirenz. Etravirine has been evaluated in three randomized switching studies. In the SSAT029 switch trial, 38 patients who had neuropsychiatric adverse events possibly related to efavirenz showed an improvement in these after switching to etravirine. The Swiss Switch-EE recruited 58 individuals without neuropsychiatric adverse events who were receiving efavirenz, and no benefit was shown when switching to etravirine. In the Spanish ETRA-SWITCH trial (n = 46), there were improvements in lipids when individuals switched from a protease inhibitor to etravirine. These switching trials were conducted in patients with full HIV RNA suppression: <50 copies/mL and with no history of virological failure or resistance to therapy. The results from these three randomized switching studies suggest a possible new role for etravirine, in combination with two nucleoside analogues, as a switching option for those with HIV RNA suppression but who are reporting adverse events possibly related to antiretroviral therapy. However a large well-powered trial would need to be conducted to strengthen the evidence from the pilot studies conducted

  18. Two distinct CCR5 domains can mediate coreceptor usage by human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Doranz, B J; Lu, Z H; Rucker, J; Zhang, T Y; Sharron, M; Cen, Y H; Wang, Z X; Guo, H H; Du, J G; Accavitti, M A; Doms, R W; Peiper, S C

    1997-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CCR5 is the major fusion coreceptor for macrophage-tropic strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). To define the structures of CCR5 that can support envelope (Env)-mediated membrane fusion, we analyzed the activity of homologs, chimeras, and mutants of human CCR5 in a sensitive gene reporter cell-cell fusion assay. Simian, but not murine, homologs of CCR5 were fully active as HIV-1 fusion coreceptors. Chimeras between CCR5 and divergent chemokine receptors demonstrated the existence of two distinct regions of CCR5 that could be utilized for Env-mediated fusion, the amino-terminal domain and the extracellular loops. Dual-tropic Env proteins were particularly sensitive to alterations in the CCR5 amino-terminal domain, suggesting that this domain may play a pivotal role in the evolution of coreceptor usage in vivo. We identified individual residues in both functional regions, Asp-11, Lys-197, and Asp-276, that contribute to coreceptor function. Deletion of a highly conserved cytoplasmic motif rendered CCR5 incapable of signaling but did not abrogate its ability to function as a coreceptor, implying the independence of fusion and G-protein-mediated chemokine receptor signaling. Finally, we developed a novel monoclonal antibody to CCR5 to assist in future studies of CCR5 expression. PMID:9261347

  19. Physiological Levels of Virion-Associated Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Induce Coreceptor-Dependent Calcium Flux▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Melar, Marta; Ott, David E.; Hope, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry into target cells requires the engagement of receptor and coreceptor by envelope glycoprotein (Env). Coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 are chemokine receptors that generate signals manifested as calcium fluxes in response to binding of the appropriate ligand. It has previously been shown that engagement of the coreceptors by HIV Env can also generate Ca2+ fluxing. Since the sensitivity and therefore the physiological consequence of signaling activation in target cells is not well understood, we addressed it by using a microscopy-based approach to measure Ca2+ levels in individual CD4+ T cells in response to low Env concentrations. Monomeric Env subunit gp120 and virion-bound Env were able to activate a signaling cascade that is qualitatively different from the one induced by chemokines. Env-mediated Ca2+ fluxing was coreceptor mediated, coreceptor specific, and CD4 dependent. Comparison of the observed virion-mediated Ca2+ fluxing with the exact number of viral particles revealed that the viral threshold necessary for coreceptor activation of signaling in CD4+ T cells was quite low, as few as two virions. These results indicate that the physiological levels of virion binding can activate signaling in CD4+ T cells in vivo and therefore might contribute to HIV-induced pathogenesis. PMID:17121788

  20. Reconstructing the Dynamics of HIV Evolution within Hosts from Serial Deep Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Art F. Y.; Swenson, Luke C.; Bunnik, Evelien M.; Edo-Matas, Diana; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; van 't Wout, Angélique B.; Harrigan, P. Richard

    2012-01-01

    At the early stage of infection, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 predominantly uses the CCR5 coreceptor for host cell entry. The subsequent emergence of HIV variants that use the CXCR4 coreceptor in roughly half of all infections is associated with an accelerated decline of CD4+ T-cells and rate of progression to AIDS. The presence of a ‘fitness valley’ separating CCR5- and CXCR4-using genotypes is postulated to be a biological determinant of whether the HIV coreceptor switch occurs. Using phylogenetic methods to reconstruct the evolutionary dynamics of HIV within hosts enables us to discriminate between competing models of this process. We have developed a phylogenetic pipeline for the molecular clock analysis, ancestral reconstruction, and visualization of deep sequence data. These data were generated by next-generation sequencing of HIV RNA extracted from longitudinal serum samples (median 7 time points) from 8 untreated subjects with chronic HIV infections (Amsterdam Cohort Studies on HIV-1 infection and AIDS). We used the known dates of sampling to directly estimate rates of evolution and to map ancestral mutations to a reconstructed timeline in units of days. HIV coreceptor usage was predicted from reconstructed ancestral sequences using the geno2pheno algorithm. We determined that the first mutations contributing to CXCR4 use emerged about 16 (per subject range 4 to 30) months before the earliest predicted CXCR4-using ancestor, which preceded the first positive cell-based assay of CXCR4 usage by 10 (range 5 to 25) months. CXCR4 usage arose in multiple lineages within 5 of 8 subjects, and ancestral lineages following alternate mutational pathways before going extinct were common. We observed highly patient-specific distributions and time-scales of mutation accumulation, implying that the role of a fitness valley is contingent on the genotype of the transmitted variant. PMID:23133358

  1. A Putative G Protein-Coupled Receptor, RDC1, Is a Novel Coreceptor for Human and Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Nobuaki; Soda, Yasushi; Kanbe, Katsuaki; Liu, Hui-yu; Mukai, Ryozaburo; Kitamura, Toshio; Hoshino, Hiroo

    2000-01-01

    More than 10 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been shown to act as coreceptors for infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). We have isolated HIV-1 variants infectious to primary brain-derived CD4-positive cells (BT-3 and BT-20/N) and U87/CD4 glioma cells that are resistant to T-cell line-tropic (T-tropic), macrophage-tropic (M-tropic), and T- and M-tropic (dualtropic) (X4, R5, and R5X4) HIV-1 strains. These primary brain-derived cells were also highly susceptible to HIV-2ROD, HIV-2SBL6669, and SIVmndGB-1. A factor or coreceptor that determines the susceptibility of these brain-derived cells to these HIV and SIV strains has not been fully identified. To identify this coreceptor, we examined amino acid sequences of all known HIV and SIV coreceptors and noticed that tyrosine residues are well conserved in their extracellular amino-terminal domains. By this criterion, we selected 18 GPCRs as candidates of coreceptors for HIV and SIV strains infectious to these brain-derived cells. mRNA expression of an orphan GPCR, RDC1, was detected in the brain-derived cells, the C8166 T-cell line, and peripheral blood lymphocytes, all of which are susceptible to HIV-1 variants, but not in macrophages, which are resistant to them. When a CD4-expressing cell line, NP-2/CD4, which shows strict resistance to infection not only with HIV-1 but also with HIV-2 or SIV, was transduced with the RDC1 gene, the cells became highly susceptible to HIV-2 and SIVmnd strains but to neither M- nor T-tropic HIV-1 strains. The cells also acquired a low susceptibility to the HIV-1 variants. These findings indicate that RDC1 is a novel coreceptor for several HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV strains which infect brain-derived cells. PMID:10623723

  2. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Immune Cell Receptors, Coreceptors, and Cofactors: Implications for Prevention and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Woodham, Andrew W; Skeate, Joseph G; Sanna, Adriana M; Taylor, Julia R; Da Silva, Diane M; Cannon, Paula M; Kast, W Martin

    2016-07-01

    In the last three decades, extensive research on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has highlighted its capability to exploit a variety of strategies to enter and infect immune cells. Although CD4(+) T cells are well known as the major HIV target, with infection occurring through the canonical combination of the cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) receptor and either the C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) or C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) coreceptors, HIV has also been found to enter other important immune cell types such as macrophages, dendritic cells, Langerhans cells, B cells, and granulocytes. Interestingly, the expression of distinct cellular cofactors partially regulates the rate in which HIV infects each distinct cell type. Furthermore, HIV can benefit from the acquisition of new proteins incorporated into its envelope during budding events. While several publications have investigated details of how HIV manipulates particular cell types or subtypes, an up-to-date comprehensive review on HIV tropism for different immune cells is lacking. Therefore, this review is meant to focus on the different receptors, coreceptors, and cofactors that HIV exploits to enter particular immune cells. Additionally, prophylactic approaches that have targeted particular molecules associated with HIV entry and infection of different immune cells will be discussed. Unveiling the underlying cellular receptors and cofactors that lead to HIV preference for specific immune cell populations is crucial in identifying novel preventative/therapeutic targets for comprehensive strategies to eliminate viral infection. PMID:27410493

  3. HIV patients' decision of switching to second-line antiretroviral therapy in India.

    PubMed

    de Mello-Sampayo, Felipa

    2015-01-01

    The objective is to examine when patients should switch to second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) under health uncertainty and in the absence of viral load monitoring. We formalize and solve the therapeutic dilemma about whether or not, and when, to switch a therapy. The model's main value-added consists in the concrete application to patients with HIV in India. In our dynamic stochastic model, health level volatility can be understood as the variation in CD4 count and the trend of health level as increases in CD4 count and, thus, decreases in the incidence of opportunistic infections and mortality. The results of the empirical application suggest that the theoretical model can explain ART treatment switch. Treatment switch depends negatively on the volatility of patients' health, and on trend of health, i.e., the greater the variation in CD4 count and the more CD4 count increase, the fewer treatment switches one expects to occur. Treatment switch also depends negatively on the degree of irreversibility. Under irreversibility, low-risk patients must begin the second-line treatment as soon as possible, which is precisely when the second-line treatment is least valuable. The existence of an option value means that ART first-line regimen may be the better choice when considering lifetime welfare. Conversely, treatment switch depends positively on the discount rate and on the correlation between the patient's health under first- and second-line treatments. This means that treatment switch is likelier to succeed in second-line treatments that are similar to the first-line treatments, implying that a decision-maker should not rely on treatment switch as a risk diversification tool. PMID:25723906

  4. CCR6 Functions as a New Coreceptor for Limited Primary Human and Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Salequl; Shimizu, Nobuaki; Hoque, Sheikh Ariful; Jinno-Oue, Atsushi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Hoshino, Hiroo

    2013-01-01

    More than 12 chemokine receptors (CKRs) have been identified as coreceptors for the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), type 2 (HIV-2), and simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) into target cells. The expression of CC chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) on Th17 cells and regulatory T cells make the host cells vulnerable to HIV/SIV infection preferentially. However, only limited information is available concerning the specific role of CCR6 in HIV/SIV infection. We examined CCR6 as a coreceptor candidate in this study using NP-2 cell line-based in-vitro studies. Normally, CD4-transduced cell line, NP-2/CD4, is strictly resistant to all HIV/SIV infection. When CCR6 was transduced there, the resultant NP-2/CD4/CCR6 cells became susceptible to HIV-1HAN2, HIV-2MIR and SIVsmE660, indicating coreceptor roles of CCR6. Viral antigens in infected cells were detected by IFA and confirmed by detection of proviral DNA. Infection-induced syncytia in NP-2/CD4/CCR6 cells were detected by Giemsa staining. Amount of virus release through CCR6 has been detected by RT assay in spent culture medium. Sequence analysis of proviral DNA showed two common amino acid substitutions in the C2 envelope region of HIV-2MIR clones propagated through NP-2/CD4/CCR6 cells. Conversely, CCR6-origin SIVsmE660 clones resulted two amino acid changes in the V1 region and one change in the C2 region. The substitutions in the C2 region for HIV-2MIR and the V1 region of SIVsmE660 may confer selection advantage for CCR6-use. Together, the results describe CCR6 as an independent coreceptor for HIV and SIV in strain-specific manner. The alteration of CCR6 uses by viruses may influence the susceptibility of CD4+ CCR6+ T-cells and dendritic cell subsets in vivo and therefore, is important for viral pathogenesis in establishing latent infections, trafficking, and transmission. However, clinical relevance of CCR6 as coreceptor in HIV/SIV infections should be investigated further. PMID:24009735

  5. A formylpeptide receptor, FPRL1, acts as an efficient coreceptor for primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Atsushi; Mori, Takahisa; Ohtsuki, Takahiro; Hoque, Aliful; Jinno-Oue, Atsushi; Apichartpiyakul, Chatchawann; Kusagawa, Shigeru; Takebe, Yutaka; Hoshino, Hiroo

    2008-01-01

    Background More than 10 members of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been shown to work as coreceptors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), HIV type 2 (HIV-2), and simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs). As a common feature of HIV/SIV coreceptors, tyrosine residues are present with asparagines, aspartic acids or glutamic acids in the amino-terminal extracellular regions (NTRs). We noticed that a receptor for N-formylpeptides, FPRL1, also contains two tyrosine residues accompanied by glutamic acids in its NTR. It was reported that monocytes expressing CCR5 and FPRL1 in addition to CD4 are activated by treatment with ligands or agonists of FPRL1. Activated monocytes down-modulate CCR5 and become resistant to infection by HIV-1 strains. Thus, FPRL1 plays important roles in protection of monocyptes against HIV-1 infection. However, its own coreceptor activity has not been elucidated yet. In this study, we examined coreceptor activities of FPRL1 for HIV/SIV strains including primary HIV-1 isolates. Results A CD4-transduced human glioma cell line, NP-2/CD4, is strictly resistant to HIV/SIV infection. We have reported that when NP-2/CD4 cells are transduced with a GPCR having coreceptor activity, the cells become susceptible to HIV/SIV strains. When NP-2/CD4 cells were transduced with FPRL1, the resultant NP-2/CD4/FPRL1 cells became markedly susceptible to some laboratory-adapted HIV/SIV strains. We found that FPRL1 is also efficiently used as a coreceptor by primary HIV-1 isolates as well as CCR5 or CXCR4. Amino acid sequences linked to the FPRL1 use could not be detected in the V3 loop of the HIV-1 Env protein. Coreceptor activities of FPRL1 were partially blocked by the forymyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF) peptide. Conclusion We conclude that FPRL1 is a novel and efficient coreceptor for HIV/SIV strains. FPRL1 works as a bifunctional factor in HIV-1 infection. Namely, the role of FPRL1 in HIV-1 infection is protective and/or promotive in

  6. Genetically divergent strains of simian immunodeficiency virus use CCR5 as a coreceptor for entry.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Z; Zhou, P; Ho, D D; Landau, N R; Marx, P A

    1997-01-01

    Entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) requires CD4 and one of a family of related seven-transmembrane-domain coreceptors. Macrophage-tropic HIV-1 isolates are generally specific for CCR5, a receptor for the CC chemokines RANTES, MIP-1alpha, and MIP-1beta, while T-cell line-tropic viruses tend to use CXCR4 (also known as fusin, LESTR, or HUMSTR). Like HIV-1, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) requires CD4 on the target cell surface; however, whether it also requires a coreceptor is not known. We report here that several genetically divergent SIV isolates, including SIVmac, SIVsmSL92a, SIVsmLib-1, and SIVcpzGAB, can use human and rhesus CCR5 for entry. CXCR4 did not facilitate entry of any of the simian viruses tested, nor did any of the other known chemokine receptors. Moreover, SIVmac251 that had been extensively passaged in a human transformed T-cell line retained its use of CCR5. Rhesus and human CCR5 differed at only eight amino acid residues, four of which were in regions of the receptor that could be exposed, two in the amino-terminal extracellular region and two in the second extracellular loop. The human coreceptor was as active as the simian for SIV entry. In addition, HIV-1 was able to use the rhesus homologs of the human coreceptors, CCR5 and CXCR4. The SIV strains tested were specific for CCR5 regardless of whether they were able to replicate in transformed T-cell lines or macrophages and whether they were phenotypically syncytium inducing or noninducing in MT-2 cells. However, SIV replication was not restricted to cells expressing CCR5. SIV strains replicated efficiently in the human transformed lymphoid cell line CEMx174, which does not express detectable amounts of transcripts of CCR5. SIV also replicated in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells that were genetically deficient in CCR5. These findings indicated that, in addition to CCR5, SIV can use one or more unknown coreceptors that are expressed on human PBMCs and CEMx174 cells

  7. Improvement of lipid profiles when switching from efavirenz to rilpivirine in HIV-infected patients with dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Thamrongwonglert, Pornpimol; Chetchotisakd, Ploenchan; Anunnatsiri, Siriluck; Mootsikapun, Piroon

    2016-02-01

    Rilpivirine (RPV) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, which has better lipid profiles than efavirenz (EFV) in treatment naïve patients. However, the data on treatment experience are limited especially in dyslipidemic HIV patients; thus, we aimed to assess the change of lipid profiles after switching from EFV to RPV in these patients. In this prospective, open-label, cohort study, we enrolled HIV-1 infected adults who had received at least 6 months of EFV-based regimen, with HIV RNA <50 copies/mL for ≥6 months prior to switching. The objectives of this study were to analyze lipid changes and to evaluate the efficacy, safety, tolerability at 24 weeks after switching therapy. Fifty-three patients were enrolled and completed the study. At week 24, a significant decrease in the mean (95% confident interval, CI) total cholesterol (-28.06 mg/dL, 95%CI -35.20 to -20.91, p < 0.0001), LDL-cholesterol (-20.96 mg/dL, 95%CI -28.12 to -13.80, p < 0.0001), high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (-5.11 mg/dL, 95%CI -7.79 to -2.44, p < 0.0001), and triglyceride (-29.79 mg/dL. 95%CI -52.39 to -7.19, p = 0.011) levels were observed. One patient had virologic rebound with HIV RNA of 114 copies/mL at week 24. Three (5.7%) patients had grade 2 elevations of liver enzymes. None of the patients discontinued RPV during the study. Switching from EFV-based therapy to RPV-based regimen improved lipid profiles in fully suppressed HIV patients with dyslipidemia. This treatment should be considered in these patients. PMID:26739573

  8. Molecular basis for tetanus toxin coreceptor interactions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Baldwin, Michael R; Barbieri, Joseph T

    2008-07-01

    Tetanus toxin (TeNT) elicits spastic paralysis through the cleavage of vesicle-associated membrane protein-2 (VAMP-2) in neurons at the interneuronal junction of the central nervous system. While TeNT retrograde traffics from peripheral nerve endings to the interneuronal junction, there is limited understanding of the neuronal receptors utilized by tetanus toxin for the initial entry into nerve cells. Earlier studies implicated a coreceptor for tetanus toxin entry into neurons: a ganglioside binding pocket and a sialic acid binding pocket and that GT1b bound to each pocket. In this study, a solid phase assay characterized the ganglioside binding specificity and functional properties of both carbohydrate binding pockets of TeNT. The ganglioside binding pocket recognized the ganglioside sugar backbone, Gal-GalNAc, independent of sialic acid-(5) and sialic acid-(7) and GM1a was an optimal substrate for this pocket, while the sialic acid binding pocket recognized sialic acid-(5) and sialic acid-(7) with "b"series of gangliosides preferred relative to "a" series gangliosides. The high-affinity binding of gangliosides to TeNT HCR required functional ganglioside and sialic acid binding pockets, supporting synergistic binding to coreceptors. This analysis provides a model for how tetanus toxin utilizes coreceptors for high-affinity binding to neurons. PMID:18543947

  9. HIV-1 Drug Resistance and Second-line Treatment in Children Randomized to Switch at Low versus Higher RNA Thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Linda; Melvin, Ann; Fiscus, Susan; Saidi, Yacine; Nastouli, Eleni; Harper, Lynda; Compagnucci, Alexandra; Babiker, Abdel; McKinney, Ross; Gibb, Diana; Tudor-Williams, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Background The PENPACT-1 trial compared virologic thresholds to determine when to switch to second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART). Using PENPACT-1 data, we aimed to describe HIV-1 drug resistance accumulation on first-line ART by virologic threshold. Methods PENPACT-1 had a 2x2 factorial design, randomizing HIV-infected children to start protease inhibitor (PI) versus non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) based ART, and switch at a 1000c/ml versus 30000c/ml threshold. Switch-criteria were: not achieving the threshold by week 24, confirmed rebound above the threshold thereafter, or CDC-C event. Resistance tests were performed on samples ≥1000c/ml before switch, re-suppression and at 4-year/trial-end. Results Sixty-seven children started PI-based ART and were randomized to switch at 1000c/ml (PI-1000), 64 PIs and 30000c/ml (PI-30000), 67 NNRTIs and 1000c/ml (NNRTI-1000), and 65 NNRTI and 30000c/ml (NNRTI-30000). Ninety-four (36%) children reached the 1000c/ml switch-criteria during 5 years follow-up. In 30000c/ml threshold arms, median time from 1000c/ml to 30000c/ml switch-criteria was 58 (PI) versus 80 (NNRTI) weeks (P=0.81). In NNRTI-30000 more NRTI resistance mutations accumulated than other groups. NNRTI mutations were selected before switching at 1000c/ml (23% NNRTI-1000, 27% NNRTI-30000). Sixty-two children started abacavir+lamivudine, 166 lamivudine+zidovudine or stavudine, and 35 other NRTIs. The abacavir+lamivudine group acquired fewest NRTI mutations. Of 60 switched to second-line, 79% PI-1000, 63% PI-30000, 64% NNRTI-1000 and 100% NNRTI-30000 were <400c/ml 24 weeks later. Conclusion Children on first-line NNRTI-based ART who were randomized to switch at a higher virologic threshold developed the most resistance, yet re-suppressed on second-line. An abacavir+lamivudine NRTI combination seemed protective against development of NRTI resistance. PMID:26322666

  10. Role of inhibitory BCR co-receptors in immunity.

    PubMed

    Tsubata, Takeshi

    2012-06-01

    B lymphocytes (B cells) express a variety of membrane molecules containing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs (ITIMs) in the cytoplasmic region such as FcγRIIB, FCRLs, CD22, mouse Siglec-G/human Siglec-10, PECAM-1, mouse PIR-B/human LIRB1 and LIRB2PD-1 and CD72. When phosphorylated, ITIMs in these molecules recruit and activate phosphatases such as SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1), SHP-2, SH2 domain- containing inositol 5-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) and SHIP2 depending on receptors. These phosphatases then negatively regulate B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling. Because of their ability to inhibit BCR signaling, these ITIMcontaining molecules are called inhibitory BCR co-receptors. Studies on mice deficient in an inhibitory co-receptor have demonstrated that the inhibitory co-receptors regulate B cell development, antibody responses and development of autoimmune diseases. Moreover, polymorphisms in some inhibitory co-receptors such as FcγRIIB, FCRL3 and CD72 are associated with autoimmune diseases, suggesting a crucial role of inhibitory co-receptor polymorphisms in the regulation of autoimmune diseases. The ligands for inhibitory co-receptors regulate their inhibitory activity by inducing co-ligation of the co-receptors with BCR or some other regulatory mechanisms. Inhibitory co-receptors and their ligands are therefore good targets for controlling antibody responses and autoimmune diseases. PMID:22394175

  11. Expression of Nef Downregulates CXCR4, the Major Coreceptor of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, from the Surfaces of Target Cells and Thereby Enhances Resistance to Superinfection▿

    PubMed Central

    Venzke, Stephanie; Michel, Nico; Allespach, Ina; Fackler, Oliver T.; Keppler, Oliver T.

    2006-01-01

    Lentiviral Nef proteins are key factors for pathogenesis and are known to downregulate functionally important molecules, including CD4 and major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I), from the surfaces of infected cells. Recently, we demonstrated that Nef reduces cell surface levels of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry coreceptor CCR5 (N. Michel, I. Allespach, S. Venzke, O. T. Fackler, and O. T. Keppler, Curr. Biol. 15:714-723, 2005). Here, we report that Nef downregulates the second major HIV-1 coreceptor, CXCR4, from the surfaces of HIV-infected primary CD4 T lymphocytes with efficiencies comparable to those of the natural CXCR4 ligand, stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha. Analysis of a panel of mutants of HIV-1SF2 Nef revealed that the viral protein utilized the same signature motifs for downmodulation of CXCR4 and MHC-I, including the proline-rich motif P73P76P79P82 and the acidic cluster motif E66E67E68E69. Expression of wild-type Nef, but not of specific Nef mutants, resulted in a perinuclear accumulation of the coreceptor. Remarkably, the carboxy terminus of CXCR4, which harbors the classical motifs critical for basal and ligand-induced receptor endocytosis, was dispensable for the Nef-mediated reduction of surface exposure. Functionally, the ability of Nef to simultaneously downmodulate CXCR4 and CD4 correlated with maximum-level protection of Nef-expressing target cells from fusion with cells exposing X4 HIV-1 envelopes. Furthermore, the Nef-mediated downregulation of CXCR4 alone on target T lymphocytes was sufficient to diminish cells' susceptibility to X4 HIV-1 virions at the entry step. The downregulation of chemokine coreceptors is a conserved activity of Nef to modulate infected cells, an important functional consequence of which is an enhanced resistance to HIV superinfection. PMID:16928758

  12. Expression and coreceptor function of APJ for primate immunodeficiency viruses.

    PubMed

    Puffer, B A; Sharron, M; Coughlan, C M; Baribaud, F; McManus, C M; Lee, B; David, J; Price, K; Horuk, R; Tsang, M; Doms, R W

    2000-10-25

    APJ is a seven transmembrane domain G-protein-coupled receptor that functions as a coreceptor for some primate immunodeficiency virus strains. The in vivo significance of APJ coreceptor function remains to be elucidated, however, due to the lack of an antibody that can be used to assess APJ expression, and because of the absence of an antibody or ligand that can block APJ coreceptor activity. Therefore, we produced a specific monoclonal antibody (MAb 856) to APJ and found that it detected this receptor in FACS, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry studies. MAb 856 also recognized APJ by Western blot, enabling us to determine that APJ is N-glycosylated. Using this antibody, we correlated APJ expression with coreceptor activity and found that APJ had coreceptor function even at low levels of expression. However, we found that APJ could not be detected by FACS analysis on cell lines commonly used to propagate primate lentiviruses, nor was it expressed on human PBMC cultured under a variety of conditions. We also found that some viral envelope proteins could mediate fusion with APJ-positive, CD4-negative cells, provided that CD4 was added in trans. These findings indicate that in some situations APJ use could render primary cell types susceptible to virus infection, although we have not found any evidence that this occurs. Finally, the peptide ligand for APJ, apelin-13, efficiently blocked APJ coreceptor activity. PMID:11040134

  13. Adhesion and fusion efficiencies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) surface proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrowsky, Terrence M.; Rabi, S. Alireza; Nedellec, Rebecca; Daniels, Brian R.; Mullins, James I.; Mosier, Donald E.; Siliciano, Robert F.; Wirtz, Denis

    2013-10-01

    In about half of patients infected with HIV-1 subtype B, viral populations shift from utilizing the transmembrane protein CCR5 to CXCR4, as well as or instead of CCR5, during late stage progression of the disease. How the relative adhesion efficiency and fusion competency of the viral Env proteins relate to infection during this transition is not well understood. Using a virus-cell fusion assay and live-cell single-molecule force spectroscopy, we compare the entry competency of viral clones to tensile strengths of the individual Env-receptor bonds of Env proteins obtained from a HIV-1 infected patient prior to and during coreceptor switching. The results suggest that the genetic determinants of viral entry were predominantly enriched in the C3, HR1 and CD regions rather than V3. Env proteins can better mediate entry into cells after coreceptor switch; this effective entry capacity does not correlate with the bond strengths between viral Env and cellular receptors.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of HIV Drug Resistance Testing to Inform Switching to Second Line Antiretroviral Therapy in Low Income Settings

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Andrew; Cambiano, Valentina; Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Magubu, Travor; Miners, Alec; Ford, Debbie; Pillay, Deenan; De Luca, Andrea; Lundgren, Jens; Revill, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background To guide future need for cheap resistance tests for use in low income settings, we assessed cost-effectiveness of drug resistance testing as part of monitoring of people on first line ART - with switching from first to second line ART being conditional on NNRTI drug resistance mutations being identified. Methods An individual level simulation model of HIV transmission, progression and the effect of ART which accounts for adherence and resistance development was used to compare outcomes of various potential monitoring strategies in a typical low income setting in sub-Saharan Africa. Underlying monitoring strategies considered were based on clinical disease, CD4 count or viral load. Within each we considered a strategy in which no further measures are performed, one with a viral load measure to confirm failure, and one with both a viral load measure and a resistance test. Predicted outcomes were assessed over 2015–2025 in terms of viral suppression, first line failure, switching to second line regimen, death, HIV incidence, disability-adjusted-life-years averted and costs. Potential future low costs of resistance tests ($30) were used. Results The most effective strategy, in terms of DALYs averted, was one using viral load monitoring without confirmation. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for this strategy was $2113 (the same as that for viral load monitoring with confirmation). ART monitoring strategies which involved resistance testing did not emerge as being more effective or cost effective than strategies not using it. The slightly reduced ART costs resulting from use of resistance testing, due to less use of second line regimens, was of similar magnitude to the costs of resistance tests. Conclusion Use of resistance testing at the time of first line failure as part of the decision whether to switch to second line therapy was not cost-effective, even though the test was assumed to be very inexpensive. PMID:25290340

  15. Optimal Duration of Daily Antituberculosis Therapy before Switching to DOTS Intermittent Therapy to Reduce Mortality in HIV Infected Patients: A Duration-Response Analysis Using Restricted Cubic Splines

    PubMed Central

    Pakam, Raghavakalyan; Midde, Manoranjan; Naik, Praveen Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Compared with thrice-weekly intermittent antituberculosis therapy (ATT), the use of daily ATT during the intensive phase has shown improved survival in HIV infected patients with tuberculosis. However, the optimal duration of daily ATT before initiating intermittent ATT is not well known. In this study, we analysed the mortality of HIV-related tuberculosis according to the duration of daily ATT before switching to thrice-weekly ATT in patients who completed at least two months of treatment in an HIV cohort study. Statistical analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard models. To relax the linearity assumption in regression models and to allow for a flexible interpretation of the relationship between duration of daily ATT and mortality, continuous variables were modelled using restricted cubic splines. The study included 520 HIV infected patients with tuberculosis and 8,724.3 person-months of follow-up. The multivariable analysis showed that the mortality risk was inversely correlated with the duration of daily ATT before switching to intermittent therapy during the first 30 days of ATT but, after approximately 30 days of treatment, differences were not statistically significant. The results of this study suggest that daily ATT should be given for at least 30 days before switching to intermittent ATT in HIV infected patients with tuberculosis.

  16. A Cell Line-Based Neutralization Assay for Primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Isolates That Use either the CCR5 or the CXCR4 Coreceptor

    PubMed Central

    Trkola, Alexandra; Matthews, Jamie; Gordon, Cynthia; Ketas, Tom; Moore, John P.

    1999-01-01

    We describe here a cell line-based assay for the evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) neutralization. The assay is based on CEM.NKR cells, transfected to express the HIV-1 coreceptor CCR5 to supplement the endogenous expression of CD4 and the CXCR4 coreceptor. The resulting CEM.NKR-CCR5 cells efficiently replicate primary HIV-1 isolates of both R5 and X4 phenotypes. A comparison of the CEM.NKR-CCR5 cells with mitogen-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in neutralization assays with sera from HIV-1-infected individuals or specific anti-HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies shows that the sensitivity of HIV-1 neutralization is similar in the two cell types. The CEM.NKR-CCR5 cell assay, however, is more convenient to perform and eliminates the donor-to-donor variation in HIV-1 replication efficiency, which is one of the principal drawbacks of the PBMC-based neutralization assay. We suggest that this new assay is suitable for the general measurement of HIV-1 neutralization by antibodies. PMID:10516002

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus receptor and coreceptor expression on human uterine epithelial cells: regulation of expression during the menstrual cycle and implications for human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Yeaman, Grant R; Howell, Alexandra L; Weldon, Sally; Demian, Douglas J; Collins, Jane E; O'Connell, Denise M; Asin, Susana N; Wira, Charles R; Fanger, Michael W

    2003-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is primarily a sexually transmitted disease. Identification of cell populations within the female reproductive tract that are initially infected, and the events involved in transmission of infection to other cells, remain to be established. In this report, we evaluated expression of HIV receptors and coreceptors on epithelial cells in the uterus and found they express several receptors critical for HIV infection including CD4, CXCR4, CCR5 and galactosylceramide (GalC). Moreover, expression of these receptors varied during the menstrual cycle. Expression of CD4 and CCR5 on uterine epithelial cells is high throughout the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle when blood levels of oestradiol are high. In contrast, CXCR4 expression increased gradually throughout the proliferative phase. During the secretory phase of the cycle when both oestradiol and progesterone are elevated, CD4 and CCR5 expression decreased whereas CXCR4 expression remained elevated. Expression of GalC on endometrial glands is higher during the secretory phase than during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle. Because epithelial cells line the female reproductive tract and express HIV receptors and coreceptors, it is likely that they are one of the first cell types to become infected. The hormonal regulation of HIV receptor expression may affect a woman's susceptibility to HIV infection during her menstrual cycle. Moreover, selective coreceptor expression could account for the preferential transmission of R5-HIV-1 strains to women. In addition, these studies provide evidence that the uterus, and potentially the entire upper reproductive tract, are important sites for the initial events involved in HIV infection. PMID:12709027

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus receptor and coreceptor expression on human uterine epithelial cells: regulation of expression during the menstrual cycle and implications for human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Yeaman, Grant R; Howell, Alexandra L; Weldon, Sally; Demian, Douglas J; Collins, Jane E; O'Connell, Denise M; Asin, Susana N; Wira, Charles R; Fanger, Michael W

    2003-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is primarily a sexually transmitted disease. Identification of cell populations within the female reproductive tract that are initially infected, and the events involved in transmission of infection to other cells, remain to be established. In this report, we evaluated expression of HIV receptors and coreceptors on epithelial cells in the uterus and found they express several receptors critical for HIV infection including CD4, CXCR4, CCR5 and galactosylceramide (GalC). Moreover, expression of these receptors varied during the menstrual cycle. Expression of CD4 and CCR5 on uterine epithelial cells is high throughout the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle when blood levels of oestradiol are high. In contrast, CXCR4 expression increased gradually throughout the proliferative phase. During the secretory phase of the cycle when both oestradiol and progesterone are elevated, CD4 and CCR5 expression decreased whereas CXCR4 expression remained elevated. Expression of GalC on endometrial glands is higher during the secretory phase than during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle. Because epithelial cells line the female reproductive tract and express HIV receptors and coreceptors, it is likely that they are one of the first cell types to become infected. The hormonal regulation of HIV receptor expression may affect a woman's susceptibility to HIV infection during her menstrual cycle. Moreover, selective coreceptor expression could account for the preferential transmission of R5-HIV-1 strains to women. In addition, these studies provide evidence that the uterus, and potentially the entire upper reproductive tract, are important sites for the initial events involved in HIV infection. PMID:12709027

  19. Efficacy and safety of switching to abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) plus rilpivirine (RPV) in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients on HAART.

    PubMed

    Palacios, R; Pérez-Hernández, I A; Martínez, M A; Mayorga, M L; González-Domenech, C M; Omar, M; Olalla, J; Romero, A; Romero, J M; Pérez-Camacho, I; Hernández-Quero, J; Santos, J

    2016-05-01

    We analysed the efficacy and safety of switching from a regimen based on nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) or integrase inhibitors (INI) to ABC/3TC + RPV in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients. This multicentre, retrospective study comprised asymptomatic HIV-infected patients who switched from 2 NRTI + NNRTI or 2 NRTI + INI to ABC/3TC + RPV between February 2013 and December 2013; all had undetectable HIV viral load prior to switching. Efficacy and safety, and changes in lipids and cardiovascular risk (CVR) were analysed at 48 weeks. Of 85 patients (74.1 % men, mean age 49.5 years), 83 (97.6 %) switched from a regimen based on NNRTI (EFV 74, RPV 5, ETV 2, NVP 2), and 45 (53 %) switched from TDF/FTC to ABC/3TC. The main reasons for switching were toxicity (58.8 %) and convenience (29.4 %). At 48 weeks, 78 (91.8 %) patients continued taking the same regimen; efficacy was 88 % by intention to treat, and 96 % by per protocol. Two patients were lost to follow-up and five ceased the new regimen (4 due to adverse effects and 1 virologic failure). Mean CD4 cell counts increased (744 vs. 885 cells/μL; p = 0.0001), and there were mean decreases in fasting total cholesterol (-15.9 mg/dL; p < 0.0001) and LDL-cholesterol (-11.0 mg/dL; p < 0.004), with no changes in HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio, and CVR. ABC/3TC + RPV is effective and safe in virologically-suppressed patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Forty-eight weeks after switching the lipid profile improved with decreases in total and LDL cholesterol. PMID:26879392

  20. Patient-reported outcomes in virologically suppressed, HIV-1-Infected subjects after switching to a simplified, single-tablet regimen of efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir DF.

    PubMed

    Hodder, Sally L; Mounzer, Karam; Dejesus, Edwin; Ebrahimi, Ramin; Grimm, Kristy; Esker, Stephen; Ecker, Janet; Farajallah, Awny; Flaherty, John F

    2010-02-01

    A randomized, open-label, multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic switch to a single-tablet formulation of efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir DF (EFV/FTC/TDF) among virologically suppressed, HIV-1-infected subjects. Eligible subjects on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART) with HIV-1 RNA less than 200 copies per milliliter for 3 months or more were stratified by prior protease inhibitor (PI)- or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based therapy and randomized (2:1) to EFV/FTC/TDF or to stay on their baseline regimen (SBR). Patient-reported measures were quality of life (QOL; SF-36 [version 2]), treatment adherence (visual analogue scale), preference of medication (POM), perceived ease of the regimen for condition (PERC), and a 20-item HIV symptom index. Overall, 203 subjects were randomized to EFV/FTC/TDF and 97 to SBR. Fifty-three percent of subjects had previously received a PI-based regimen; 47% an NNRTI-based therapy. Throughout the study, SF-36 summary scores did not differ significantly from baseline, regardless of previous ART or treatment allocation. Adherence was 96% or more in both groups at baseline and all subsequent study visits. At study conclusion, the EFV/FTC/TDF regimen was considered easier to follow than prior regimens by 97% and 96% of subjects previously receiving PI-based and NNRTI-based therapies, respectively. Overall, 91% of subjects switched to EFV/FTC/TDF indicated a preference over their prior therapy. Switching to EFV/FTC/TDF was associated with transient worsening/emergence of dizziness and sustained improvements in several other HIV-related symptoms. In conclusion, switching virologically suppressed, HIV-1-infected subjects from PI-based or NNRTI-based regimens to EFV/FTC/TDF was associated with maintained QOL and treatment adherence, and improved ease of use and treatment satisfaction. PMID:20156091

  1. The anti-HIV activity of ADS-J1 targets the HIV-1 gp120

    SciTech Connect

    Armand-Ugon, Mercedes; Clotet-Codina, Imma; Tintori, Cristina; Manetti, Fabrizio; Clotet, Bonaventura; Botta, Maurizio; Este, Jose A. . E-mail: jaeste@irsicaixa.es

    2005-12-05

    Recent data suggest that heparin sulfates may bind to a CD4 induced epitope in the HIV-1 gp120 that constitutes the coreceptor binding site. We have studied the mechanism of action of ADS-J1, a non-peptidic compound selected by docking analysis to interact with gp41 and to interfere with the formation of N-36/C-34 complexes in sandwich ELISA experiments. We show that ADS-J1 blocked the binding of wild-type HIV-1 NL4-3 strain to MT-4 cells but not virus-cell binding of a polyanion-resistant virus. However, ADS-J1 blocked the replication of polyanion-resistant, T-20- and C34-resistant HIV-1, suggesting a second mechanism of action. Development of resistance to ADS-J1 on the polyanion-resistant HIV-1 led to mutations in gp120 coreceptor binding site and not in gp41. Time of addition experiments confirmed that ADS-J1, but not polyanions such as dextran sulfate or AR177, worked at a step that mimics the activity of an HIV coreceptor antagonist but prior to gp41-dependent fusion. We conclude that ADS-J1 may bind to the HIV coreceptor binding site as its mechanism of anti-HIV activity.

  2. An Orphan G Protein-Coupled Receptor, GPR1, Acts as a Coreceptor To Allow Replication of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Types 1 and 2 in Brain-Derived Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Nobuaki; Soda, Yasushi; Kanbe, Katsuaki; Liu, Hui-Yu; Jinno, Atsushi; Kitamura, Toshio; Hoshino, Hiroo

    1999-01-01

    Twelve G protein-coupled receptors, including chemokine receptors, act as coreceptors and determinants for the cell tropisms of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). We isolated HIV-1 variants from T-cell-line (T)- and macrophage (M)-tropic (i.e., dualtropic) (R5-R3-X4) HIV-1 strains and also produced six HIV-1 mutants carrying single-point amino acid substitutions at the tip of the V3 region of the Env protein of HIV-1. These variants and three mutants infected brain-derived CD4-positive cells that are resistant to M-, T-, or dualtropic (R5, X4, or R5-X4) HIV-1 strains. However, a factor that determines this cell tropism has not been identified. This study shows that primary brain-derived fibroblast-like cell strains, BT-3 and BT-20/N, as well as a CD4-transduced glioma cell line, U87/CD4, which were susceptible to these HIV-1 variants and mutants and the HIV-2ROD strain, expressed mRNA of an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), GPR1. When a CD4-positive cell line which was strictly resistant to infection with diverse HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains was transduced with GPR1, the cell line became susceptible to these HIV-1 variants and mutants and to an HIV-2 strain but not to T- or dualtropic HIV-1 strains, and numerous syncytia formed after infection. These results indicate that GPR1 functions as a coreceptor for the HIV-1 variants and mutants and for the HIV-2ROD strain in vitro. PMID:10233994

  3. Switching to darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg once-daily containing regimen maintains virological control in fully suppressed pre-treated patients infected with HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Ghosn, Jade; Slama, Laurence; Chermak, Aziza; Houssaini, Allal; Lambert-Niclot, Sidonie; Schneider, Luminita; Fourn, Erwan; Duvivier, Claudine; Simon, Anne; Courbon, Eve; Murphy, Robert; Flandre, Philippe; Peytavin, Gilles; Katlama, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the switch to once-daily darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg in treatment-experienced patients with suppressed HIV-1 replication on a twice-daily ritonavir-boosted protease-inhibitor (bid PI/r) containing regimen, that is in a setting where genotypic resistance test cannot be performed. In this open label, non-comparative, multicenter study, patients on a bid PI/r-containing triple combination, with suppressed viral replication, were switched to once-daily darunavir/r 800/100 mg containing triple combination. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with plasma HIV-RNA < 50 copies/ml 24 weeks after the switch. Intensive darunavir pharmacokinetic evaluation was performed at Week 4 (W4) in 11 patients. Eighty-five patients were enrolled. All had HIV-RNA < 50 copies/ml at screening with a pre-exposure to a median of 2 PI/r (1-5). By intent-to-treat analysis (missing = failure), 78/85 patients (92%, 95% CI [83;96]) maintained an HIV-RNA < 50 copies/ml at W24. Seven patients experienced protocol-defined treatment failure between baseline and W24: Two had confirmed low-level viral rebound, one discontinued study treatment for adverse event, three withdrew their consent, and one was lost to follow-up. By on-treatment analysis, 78/80 patients (97%, 95% CI [91;99]) maintained an HIV-RNA < 50 copies/ml at W24. Results were similar at Week 48. The median area under the darunavir plasma concentration-time curve measured in 11 patients was 61,380 ng hr/ml; darunavir median trough concentration 1,340 ng/ml and darunavir half-life was 12.2 hr. Tolerability of once-daily darunavir/r 800/100 mg was excellent. Optimally suppressed, treatment-experienced patients can switch safely from a twice-daily PI/r regimen to a once-daily darunavir/r 800/100 mg containing regimen. PMID:23024008

  4. Results of external quality assessment for proviral DNA testing of HIV tropism in the Maraviroc Switch collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Tu, Elise; Swenson, Luke C; Land, Sally; Pett, Sarah; Emery, Sean; Marks, Kat; Kelleher, Anthony D; Kaye, Steve; Kaiser, Rolf; Schuelter, Eugene; Harrigan, Richard

    2013-07-01

    The Maraviroc Switch collaborative study (MARCH) is a study in aviremic patients on stable antiretroviral therapy and utilizes population-based sequencing of proviral DNA to determine HIV tropism and susceptibility to maraviroc. An external quality assessment (EQA) program was implemented to ensure competency in assessing the tropism of clinical samples conducted by MARCH laboratories (n = 14). The MARCH EQA has three prestudy phases assessing V3 loop sequencing and tropism determination using the bioinformatic algorithm geno2pheno, which generates a false-positive rate (FPR). DNA sequences with low FPRs are more likely to be from CXCR4-using (X4) viruses. Phase 1 of the EQA involved chromatogram interpretation. Phases 2, 2/3, and 3 involved patient and clonal samples. Clinical samples used in these phases were from treatment-experienced HIV-infected volunteers; 18/20 had viral loads of <50 copies/ml, and 10/15 were CXCR4-tropic on prior phenotyping. All samples were tested in triplicate, and any replicate with a geno2pheno FPR of <10% was designated X4. Performance was deemed adequate if ≤2 R5 and ≤1 X4 specimens were miscalled. For several clinical samples in the EQA, triplicate testing revealed marked DNA variability (FPR range, 0 to 96.7%). Therefore, a consensus-based approach was employed for each sample, i.e., a median FPR across laboratories was used to define sample tropism. Further sequencing analysis showed mixed viral populations in the clinical samples, explaining the differences in tropism predictions. All laboratories passed the EQA after achieving predefined competence thresholds in either of the phase 2 rounds. The use of clinical samples from patients resembling those who were likely to be screened in the MARCH, coupled with triplicate testing, revealed inherent DNA variability that might have been missed if single or duplicate testing and/or clonal samples alone were used. These data highlight the importance of intensive EQA of tropism

  5. Dual tropism of HIV-1 envelopes derived from renal tubular epithelial cells of patients with HIV-associated nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Zerhouni-Layachi, Bouchra; Husain, Mohammad; Ross, Michael J; Marras, Daniele; Sunamoto, Masaaki; Liu, Xinyan; Klotman, Paul E; Klotman, Mary E

    2006-02-28

    The phenotype of HIV-1 gp120 envelope derived from renal epithelium and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients with HIV-associated nephropathy was investigated in vitro. Chimeric viruses were derived from kidney or blood and used to infect primary CD4+T cells, cell lines expressing single co-receptors and a renal epithelial cell line HPT-1. HIV-1 variants derived from renal epithelium were dual tropic whereas simultaneously derived viruses from PBMC were R5-tropic. Utilization of alternative co-receptors CCR3, BONZO and BOB, also differed. PMID:16470129

  6. CD4+ and viral load outcomes of antiretroviral therapy switch strategies after virologic failure of combination antiretroviral therapy in perinatally HIV-infected youth in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fairlie, Lee; Karalius, Brad; Patel, Kunjal; van Dyke, Russell B.; Hazra, Rohan; Hernán, Miguel A.; Siberry, George K.; Seage, George R.; Agwu, Allison; Wiznia, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study compared 12-month CD4+ and viral load outcomes in HIV-infected children and adolescents with virological failure, managed with four treatment switch strategies. Design: This observational study included perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) and Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials (PACTG) Protocol 219C. Methods: Treatment strategies among children with virologic failure were compared: continue failing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART); switch to new cART; switch to drug-sparing regimen; and discontinue all ART. Mean changes in CD4+% and viral load from baseline (time of virologic failure) to 12 months follow-up in each group were evaluated using weighted linear regression models. Results: Virologic failure occurred in 939 out of 2373 (40%) children. At 12 months, children switching to new cART (16%) had a nonsignificant increase in CD4+% from baseline, 0.59 percentage points [95% confidence interval (95% CI) −1.01 to 2.19], not different than those who continued failing cART (71%) (−0.64 percentage points, P = 0.15) or switched to a drug-sparing regimen (5%) (1.40 percentage points, P = 0.64). Children discontinuing all ART (7%) experienced significant CD4+% decline −3.18 percentage points (95% CI −5.25 to −1.11) compared with those initiating new cART (P = 0.04). All treatment strategies except discontinuing ART yielded significant mean decreases in log10VL by 12 months, the new cART group having the largest drop (−1.15 log10VL). Conclusion: In PHIV children with virologic failure, switching to new cART was associated with the best virological response, while stopping all ART resulted in the worst immunologic and virologic outcomes and should be avoided. Drug-sparing regimens and continuing failing regimens may be considered with careful monitoring. PMID:26182197

  7. HIV

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Sumit; Sahoo, Soumya Swaroop; Jain, Rambilas; Khanna, Pardeep; Mehta, Bharti; Singh, Inderjeet

    2014-01-01

    Getting to zero: zero new HIV infections, zero deaths from AIDS-related illness, zero discrimination is the theme of World AIDS Day 2012. Given the spread of the epidemic today, getting to zero may sound difficult, but significant progress is underway. The total annual loss for the entire country due to HIV is 7% of GDP, which exceeds India’s annual health expenditure in 2004. The additional loss due to loss of labor income and increased medical expenditure as measured by the external transfers, account for 5% of the country’s health expenditure and 0.23% of GDP. Given that the HIV incidence rate is only 0.27% in India, these losses are quite staggering. Despite the remarkable achievements in development of anti-retroviral therapies against HIV and the recent advances in new prevention technologies, the rate of new HIV infections continue to outpace efforts on HIV prevention and control. Thus, the development of a safe and effective vaccine for prevention and control of AIDS remains a global public health priority and the greatest opportunity to eventually end the AIDS pandemic. PMID:24056755

  8. Bioinformatic Analysis of HIV-1 Entry and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Aiamkitsumrit, Benjamas; Dampier, Will; Antell, Gregory; Rivera, Nina; Martin-Garcia, Julio; Pirrone, Vanessa; Nonnemacher, Michael R.; Wigdahl, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with respect to co-receptor utilization has been shown to be relevant to HIV-1 pathogenesis and disease. The CCR5-utilizing (R5) virus has been shown to be important in the very early stages of transmission and highly prevalent during asymptomatic infection and chronic disease. In addition, the R5 virus has been proposed to be involved in neuroinvasion and central nervous system (CNS) disease. In contrast, the CXCR4-utilizing (X4) virus is more prevalent during the course of disease progression and concurrent with the loss of CD4+ T cells. The dual-tropic virus is able to utilize both co-receptors (CXCR4 and CCR5) and has been thought to represent an intermediate transitional virus that possesses properties of both X4 and R5 viruses that can be encountered at many stages of disease. The use of computational tools and bioinformatic approaches in the prediction of HIV-1 co-receptor usage has been growing in importance with respect to understanding HIV-1 pathogenesis and disease, developing diagnostic tools, and improving the efficacy of therapeutic strategies focused on blocking viral entry. Current strategies have enhanced the sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility relative to the prediction of co-receptor use; however, these technologies need to be improved with respect to their efficient and accurate use across the HIV-1 subtypes. The most effective approach may center on the combined use of different algorithms involving sequences within and outside of the env-V3 loop. This review focuses on the HIV-1 entry process and on co-receptor utilization, including bioinformatic tools utilized in the prediction of co-receptor usage. It also provides novel preliminary analyses for enabling identification of linkages between amino acids in V3 with other components of the HIV-1 genome and demonstrates that these linkages are different between X4 and R5 viruses. PMID:24862329

  9. Differential adapter recruitment by TLR2 co-receptors.

    PubMed

    Piao, Wenji; Ru, Lisa W; Toshchakov, Vladimir Y

    2016-07-01

    TLR2 heterodimers with TLR1 or TLR6 recognize distinct pathogen-associated molecules such as tri- and di-acylated lipopeptides. The activated TLR2 heterodimers recruit Toll-IL-1R domain- (TIR-) containing adapter proteins, TIRAP and MyD88, through the receptor TIR domains. Molecular recognition mechanisms responsible for agonist-driven, TIR domain-mediated receptor-adapter interactions as well as the structure of resultant signaling complexes remain unknown. We previously reported that the cell-permeable peptide derived from helix D of TLR2 TIR (2R9) specifically binds TIRAP in vitro and in cells and thereby inhibits TIRAP-dependent TLR signaling. This study demonstrates that cell-permeable peptides from D helix of TLR1 or TLR6, peptides 1R9 and 6R9 respectively, inhibit signaling mediated by cognate TLR2 co-receptors. Interestingly, 1R9 and 6R9 bind different TLR2 adapters, as they selectively bind MyD88 and TIRAP TIR, respectively. Both peptides block the agonist-induced co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) of TLR2 with TIRAP or MyD88, but not TLR2 co-IP with co-receptors. Our data suggest that D helices of TLR1 and TLR6 TIR domains are adapter recruitment sites in both co-receptors; yet the sites recruit different adapters. The D helix in TLR1 is the MyD88 docking site, whereas in TLR6 this site recruits TIRAP. PMID:27150837

  10. Conserved Role of an N-Linked Glycan on the Surface Antigen of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Modulating Virus Sensitivity to Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies against the Receptor and Coreceptor Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Townsley, Samantha; Li, Yun; Kozyrev, Yury; Cleveland, Brad

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1 establishes persistent infection in part due to its ability to evade host immune responses. Occlusion by glycans contributes to masking conserved sites that are targets for some broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). Previous work has shown that removal of a highly conserved potential N-linked glycan (PNLG) site at amino acid residue 197 (N7) on the surface antigen gp120 of HIV-1 increases neutralization sensitivity of the mutant virus to CD4 binding site (CD4bs)-directed antibodies compared to its wild-type (WT) counterpart. However, it is not clear if the role of the N7 glycan is conserved among diverse HIV-1 isolates and if other glycans in the conserved regions of HIV-1 Env display similar functions. In this work, we examined the role of PNLGs in the conserved region of HIV-1 Env, particularly the role of the N7 glycan in a panel of HIV-1 strains representing different clades, tissue origins, coreceptor usages, and neutralization sensitivities. We demonstrate that the absence of the N7 glycan increases the sensitivity of diverse HIV-1 isolates to CD4bs- and V3 loop-directed antibodies, indicating that the N7 glycan plays a conserved role masking these conserved epitopes. However, the effect of the N7 glycan on virus sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies directed against the V2 loop epitope is isolate dependent. These findings indicate that the N7 glycan plays an important and conserved role modulating the structure, stability, or accessibility of bNAb epitopes in the CD4bs and coreceptor binding region, thus representing a potential target for the design of immunogens and therapeutics. IMPORTANCE N-linked glycans on the HIV-1 envelope protein have been postulated to contribute to viral escape from host immune responses. However, the role of specific glycans in the conserved regions of HIV-1 Env in modulating epitope recognition by broadly neutralizing antibodies has not been well defined. We show here that a single N-linked glycan plays a

  11. HIV Entry Inhibitors and Their Potential in HIV Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Keduo; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses recent progress in the development of anti-HIV agents targeting the viral entry process. The three main classes (attachment inhibitors, co-receptor binding inhibitors, and fusion inhibitors) are further broken down by specific mechanism of action and structure. Many of these inhibitors are in advanced clinical trials, including the HIV maturation inhibitor bevirimat, from the authors’ laboratories. In addition, the CCR5 inhibitor maraviroc has recently been FDA-approved. Possible roles for these agents in anti-HIV therapy, including treatment of virus resistant to current drugs, are also discussed. PMID:18720513

  12. Switch to Stribild versus continuation of NVP or RPV with FTC and TDF in virologically suppressed HIV adults: a STRATEGY-NNRTI subgroup analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stellbrink, Hans-Juergen; Antinori, Andrea; Pozniak, Anton; Flamm, Jason; Bredeek, Fritz; Patel, Kiran; Garner, Will; Piontkowsky, David

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Switch to Stribild (STB) was non-inferior to continuation of a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) with emtricitabine and tenofovir DF (FTC/TDF) at week 48 in virologically suppressed HIV adults [1]. We report the Week 48 efficacy and safety of STB versus nevirapine (NVP) or rilpivirine (RPV) with FTC/TDF in suppressed subjects. Materials and Methods Virologically suppressed subjects on an NNRTI with FTC/TDF regimens for ≥6 months were randomized (2:1) to switch to STB versus continue their NNRTI regimen. Eligibility criteria included no documented resistance to FTC and TDF, no history of virologic failure and eGFR ≥70 mL/min. The primary endpoint was the proportion of subjects in the modified ITT population who maintained HIV-1 RNA <50 copies(c)/mL at Week 48 by FDA snapshot algorithm (12% non-inferiority margin). Subgroup analysis by non-EFV NNRTI use (NVP [74]; RPV [19]; etravirine [3]) at screening was pre-specified. Results The mITT population included 433 subjects who were randomized and treated. In the non-EFV NNRTI subgroup, 59 switched to STB; 37 continued a non-EFV NNRTI (27 NVP, 10 RPV) with FTC/TDF. At week 48, 97% STB versus 95% non-EFV NNRTI maintained HIV-1 RNA <50 c/mL. No emergent resistance was detected in either group. No difference in median increases from baseline in CD4 count at week 48 (cells/µL): 25 STB versus 55 non-EFV NNRTI (p=0.78). No discontinuation due to adverse events; no cases of proximal renal tubulopathy. As expected, there were no significant changes in the frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms (i.e. anxiety, insomnia, dizziness, vivid dreams, weird/intense dreams, and nightmares) reported on the HIV Symptom Index at week 48 compared to baseline after switching to STB. There was a greater but non-progressive decrease from baseline in eGFR in the STB versus non-EFV NNRTI group; median changes (mL/min) at week 48: −9.1 versus −1.4. Switch to STB was associated with a higher treatment ease

  13. Brief Report: Switch to Ritonavir-Boosted Atazanavir Plus Raltegravir in Virologically Suppressed Patients With HIV-1 Infection: A Randomized Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    van Lunzen, Jan; Pozniak, Anton; Gatell, Jose M.; Antinori, Andrea; Serrano, Oscar; Baakili, Adyb; Osiyemi, Olayemi; Sevinsky, Heather; Girard, Pierre-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: This open-label, multinational, pilot study randomized (1:2 ratio) adults with HIV-1 RNA <40 copies per milliliter and nucleos(t)ide-related safety/tolerability issues to switch to ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r) plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (n = 37) or the nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor-sparing regimen of ATV/r plus raltegravir (RAL) (n = 72). At 24 weeks, 35/37 (94.6%) and 58/72 (80.6%) of patients, respectively, maintained virological suppression, the primary endpoint, and 1 (2.7%) and 7 (9.7%), respectively, experienced virological rebound. Corresponding 48-week proportions were 86.5%, 69.4%, 2.7%, and 12.5%, respectively. Adherence was lower and treatment discontinuation was higher with ATV/r+RAL. In conclusion, switching to ATV/r+RAL resulted in a higher virological rebound rate than switching to ATV/r plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine. PMID:26605505

  14. Brief Report: Switch to Ritonavir-Boosted Atazanavir Plus Raltegravir in Virologically Suppressed Patients With HIV-1 Infection: A Randomized Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    van Lunzen, Jan; Pozniak, Anton; Gatell, Jose M; Antinori, Andrea; Klauck, Isabelle; Serrano, Oscar; Baakili, Adyb; Osiyemi, Olayemi; Sevinsky, Heather; Girard, Pierre-Marie

    2016-04-15

    This open-label, multinational, pilot study randomized (1:2 ratio) adults with HIV-1 RNA <40 copies per milliliter and nucleos(t)ide-related safety/tolerability issues to switch to ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r) plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (n = 37) or the nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor-sparing regimen of ATV/r plus raltegravir (RAL) (n = 72). At 24 weeks, 35/37 (94.6%) and 58/72 (80.6%) of patients, respectively, maintained virological suppression, the primary endpoint, and 1 (2.7%) and 7 (9.7%), respectively, experienced virological rebound. Corresponding 48-week proportions were 86.5%, 69.4%, 2.7%, and 12.5%, respectively. Adherence was lower and treatment discontinuation was higher with ATV/r+RAL. In conclusion, switching to ATV/r+RAL resulted in a higher virological rebound rate than switching to ATV/r plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine. PMID:26605505

  15. Targeting VEGF signalling via the neuropilin co-receptor.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Snezana; Driscoll, Paul C

    2013-05-01

    The blockade of tumour vascularisation and angiogenesis continues to be a focus for drug development in oncology and other pathologies. Historically, targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) activity and its association with VEGF receptors (VEGFRs) has represented the most promising line of attack. More recently, the recognition that VEGFR co-receptors, neuropilin-1 and -2 (NRP1 and NRP2), are also engaged by specific VEGF isoforms in tandem with the VEGFRs has expanded the landscape for the development of modulators of VEGF-dependent signalling. Here, we review the recent structural characterisation of VEGF interactions with NRP subdomains and the impact this has had on drug development activity in this area. PMID:23228652

  16. Antiviral activity of a Rac GEF inhibitor characterized with a sensitive HIV/SIV fusion assay

    SciTech Connect

    Pontow, Suzanne; Harmon, Brooke; Campbell, Nancy; Ratner, Lee

    2007-11-10

    A virus-dependent fusion assay was utilized to examine the activity of a panel of HIV-1, -2, and SIV isolates of distinct coreceptor phenotypes. This assay allowed identification of entry inhibitors, and characterization of an antagonist of a Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor, as an inhibitor of HIV-mediated fusion.

  17. Lefty Blocks a Subset of TGFβ Signals by Antagonizing EGF-CFC Coreceptors

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Members of the EGF-CFC family play essential roles in embryonic development and have been implicated in tumorigenesis. The TGFβ signals Nodal and Vg1/GDF1, but not Activin, require EGF-CFC coreceptors to activate Activin receptors. We report that the TGFβ signaling antagonist Lefty also acts through an EGF-CFC-dependent mechanism. Lefty inhibits Nodal and Vg1 signaling, but not Activin signaling. Lefty genetically interacts with EGF-CFC proteins and competes with Nodal for binding to these coreceptors. Chimeras between Activin and Nodal or Vg1 identify a 14 amino acid region that confers independence from EGF-CFC coreceptors and resistance to Lefty. These results indicate that coreceptors are targets for both TGFβ agonists and antagonists and suggest that subtle sequence variations in TGFβ signals result in greater ligand diversity. PMID:14966532

  18. Gene silencing of HIV chemokine receptors using ribozymes and single-stranded antisense RNA.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Amer; Zheng, Richard; Parlett, Terry; Shi, Xiaoju; Balaraman, Priyadhashini; Cheloufi, Sihem; Murphy, Brendan; Guntermann, Christine; Eagles, Peter

    2006-03-01

    The chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 are required for HIV-1 to enter cells, and the progression of HIV-1 infection to AIDS involves a switch in the co-receptor usage of the virus from CCR5 to CXCR4. These receptors therefore make attractive candidates for therapeutic intervention, and we have investigated the silencing of their genes by using ribozymes and single-stranded antisense RNAs. In the present study, we demonstrate using ribozymes that a depletion of CXCR4 and CCR5 mRNAs can be achieved simultaneously in human PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells), cells commonly used by the virus for infection and replication. Ribozyme activity leads to an inhibition of the cell-surface expression of both CCR5 and CXCR4, resulting in a significant inhibition of HIV-1 replication when PBMCs are challenged with the virus. In addition, we show that small single-stranded antisense RNAs can also be used to silence CCR5 and CXCR4 genes when delivered to PBMCs. This silencing is caused by selective degradation of receptor mRNAs. PMID:16293105

  19. Gene silencing of HIV chemokine receptors using ribozymes and single-stranded antisense RNA

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Amer; Zheng, Richard; Parlett, Terry; Shi, Xiaoju; Balaraman, Priyadhashini; Cheloufi, Sihem; Murphy, Brendan; Guntermann, Christine; Eagles, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 are required for HIV-1 to enter cells, and the progression of HIV-1 infection to AIDS involves a switch in the co-receptor usage of the virus from CCR5 to CXCR4. These receptors therefore make attractive candidates for therapeutic intervention, and we have investigated the silencing of their genes by using ribozymes and single-stranded antisense RNAs. In the present study, we demonstrate using ribozymes that a depletion of CXCR4 and CCR5 mRNAs can be achieved simultaneously in human PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells), cells commonly used by the virus for infection and replication. Ribozyme activity leads to an inhibition of the cell-surface expression of both CCR5 and CXCR4, resulting in a significant inhibition of HIV-1 replication when PBMCs are challenged with the virus. In addition, we show that small single-stranded antisense RNAs can also be used to silence CCR5 and CXCR4 genes when delivered to PBMCs. This silencing is caused by selective degradation of receptor mRNAs. PMID:16293105

  20. LRP4 serves as a coreceptor of agrin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Luo, Shiwen; Wang, Qiang; Suzuki, Tatsuo; Xiong, Wen C; Mei, Lin

    2008-10-23

    Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) formation requires agrin, a factor released from motoneurons, and MuSK, a transmembrane tyrosine kinase that is activated by agrin. However, how signal is transduced from agrin to MuSK remains unclear. We report that LRP4, a low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-related protein, is expressed specifically in myotubes and binds to neuronal agrin. Its expression enables agrin binding and MuSK signaling in cells that otherwise do not respond to agrin. Suppression of LRP4 expression in muscle cells attenuates agrin binding, agrin-induced MuSK tyrosine phosphorylation, and AChR clustering. LRP4 also forms a complex with MuSK in a manner that is stimulated by agrin. Finally, we showed that LRP4 becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated in agrin-stimulated muscle cells. These observations indicate that LRP4 is a coreceptor of agrin that is necessary for MuSK signaling and AChR clustering and identify a potential target protein whose mutation and/or autoimmunization may cause muscular dystrophies. PMID:18957220

  1. Small molecule inhibition of HIV-1-induced MHC-I down-regulation identifies a temporally regulated switch in Nef action.

    PubMed

    Dikeakos, Jimmy D; Atkins, Katelyn M; Thomas, Laurel; Emert-Sedlak, Lori; Byeon, In-Ja L; Jung, Jinwon; Ahn, Jinwoo; Wortman, Matthew D; Kukull, Ben; Saito, Masumichi; Koizumi, Hirokazu; Williamson, Danielle M; Hiyoshi, Masateru; Barklis, Eric; Takiguchi, Masafumi; Suzu, Shinya; Gronenborn, Angela M; Smithgall, Thomas E; Thomas, Gary

    2010-10-01

    HIV-1 Nef triggers down-regulation of cell-surface MHC-I by assembling a Src family kinase (SFK)-ZAP-70/Syk-PI3K cascade. Here, we report that chemical disruption of the Nef-SFK interaction with the small molecule inhibitor 2c blocks assembly of the multi-kinase complex and represses HIV-1-mediated MHC-I down-regulation in primary CD4(+) T-cells. 2c did not interfere with the PACS-2-dependent trafficking of Nef required for the Nef-SFK interaction or the AP-1 and PACS-1-dependent sequestering of internalized MHC-I, suggesting the inhibitor specifically interfered with the Nef-SFK interaction required for triggering MHC-I down-regulation. Transport studies revealed Nef directs a highly regulated program to down-regulate MHC-I in primary CD4(+) T-cells. During the first two days after infection, Nef assembles the 2c-sensitive multi-kinase complex to trigger down-regulation of cell-surface MHC-I. By three days postinfection Nef switches to a stoichiometric mode that prevents surface delivery of newly synthesized MHC-I. Pharmacologic inhibition of the multi-kinase cascade prevents the Nef-dependent block in MHC-I transport, suggesting the signaling and stoichiometric modes are causally linked. Together, these studies resolve the seemingly controversial models that describe Nef-induced MHC-I down-regulation and provide new insights into the mechanism of Nef action. PMID:20702582

  2. Syndecans: from peripheral coreceptors to mainstream regulators of cell behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Couchman, John R; Gopal, Sandeep; Lim, Hooi Ching; Nørgaard, Steffen; Multhaupt, Hinke AB

    2015-01-01

    In the 25 years, as the first of the syndecan family was cloned, interest in these transmembrane proteoglycans has steadily increased. While four distinct members are present in mammals, one is present in invertebrates, including C. elegans that is such a powerful genetic model. The syndecans, therefore, have a long evolutionary history, indicative of important roles. However, these roles have been elusive. The knockout in the worm has a developmental neuronal phenotype, while knockouts of the syndecans in the mouse are mild and mostly limited to post-natal rather than developmental effects. Moreover, their association with high-affinity receptors, such as integrins, growth factor receptors, frizzled and slit/robo, have led to the notion that syndecans are coreceptors, with minor roles. Given that their heparan sulphate chains can gather many different protein ligands, this gave credence to views that the importance of syndecans lay with their ability to concentrate ligands and that only the extracellular polysaccharide was of significance. Syndecans are increasingly identified with roles in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including tumour progression, vascular disease, arthritis and inflammation. This has provided impetus to understanding syndecan roles in more detail. It emerges that while the cytoplasmic domains of syndecans are small, they have clear interactive capabilities, most notably with the actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, through the binding and activation of signalling molecules, it is likely that syndecans are important receptors in their own right. Here, an overview of syndecan structure and function is provided, with some prospects for the future. PMID:25546317

  3. Lipid Changes in Virologically Suppressed HIV-Infected Patients Switching from any Antiretroviral Therapy to the Emtricitabine/Rilpivirine/Tenofovir Single Tablet: GeSida Study 8114.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Rosario; Mayorga, Marisa; Pérez-Hernández, Isabel A; Rivero, Antonio; Arco, Alfonso Del; Lozano, Fernando; Santos, Jesús

    2016-05-01

    We carried out a retrospective, multicenter study of a cohort of 298 asymptomatic HIV-infected patients who switched from a regimen based on 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors + protease inhibitor (PI)/nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or ritonavir-boosted PI monotherapy to emtricitabine/rilpivirine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/RPV/TDF) to analyze lipid changes. At 24 weeks, 284 (95.3%) patients were still taking the same regimen, maintaining similar CD4 counts as at baseline (651 versus 672 cells/mm(3), P = .08), and 98.9% of them with an undetectable viral load. Eight of the other 14 patients were lost to follow up and 6 (2.0%) ceased the new regimen: 3 due to adverse effects, 2 due to virologic failure, and 1 due to abandonment. The mean levels of fasting total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides fell at 12 and 24 weeks, with no changes detected in the TC to HDL-C ratio. PMID:26858314

  4. New Approach for Inhibition of HIV Entry: Modifying CD4 Binding Sites by Thiolated Pyrimidine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kanizsai, Szilvia; Ongrádi, József; Aradi, János; Nagy, Károly

    2016-07-01

    Thiolated pyrimidine derivatives have been synthetized and their antiretroviral effect against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1IIIB) and HIV-1 chimeric pseudovirions have been quantitatively determined in cell-based viral infectivity assays including syncytium inhibition assay as well as a single-cycle viral infection assay on HeLaCD4-LTR/ß-gal cells. Pseudotype virions prepared bearing HIV-1 envelope preference for CCR5 coreceptor, CXCR4 coreceptor or for both, respectively, with a HIV-1 core containing luciferase reporter gene were able to infect susceptible cells but are replication defective so unable to replicate in the cells . Data indicate that thiolated pyrimidine derivatives inhibited effectively virally induced cell fusion in vitro as well as infectivity of primary HIV-1IIIB strain and HIV-1 pseudovirions using chemokine receptors CCR5 or CXCR4 or both for virus entry a dose dependent manner. Inhibition was selective, depended on the pseudovirus coreceptor preference. Our results suggest that some of these sulfur containing pyrimidines interact with redoxactive -SH groups required for successful HIV entry, including a redox active disulfide in the CD4 molecule as well as -SH groups in HIV viral envelope gp120. This mode of action is unique representing a new class of potential HIV entry inhibitors. PMID:26860867

  5. Charged amino acid patterns of coreceptor use in the major subtypes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Lotta; Fried, Ulrik; Clevestig, Peter; Ehrnst, Anneka

    2011-08-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 has several genetic subtypes and two coreceptor use phenotypes: R5 that uses CCR5, while X4 uses CXCR4. A high amino acid charge of the envelope glycoprotein 120 V3 region, common at positions 11 and 25, is important for CXCR4 use. We characterized charged V3 amino acids, retrieving all biologically phenotyped sequences from the HIV Sequence Database. Selecting individually unique ones randomly yielded 48 subtype A, 231 B, 180 C, 37 D and 32 CRF01_AE sequences; 482 were R5 and 46 were X4. Charged amino acids were conserved in both R5 and X4 with general and subtype-specific patterns. X4 viruses gained a higher charge from positive amino acids at positions other than in R5, and through the loss of negative amino acids. Other positions than 11/25 had a greater impact on charge (P<0.001). This describes how R5 evolves into X4 in a subtype-specific context, useful for computer-based predictions and vaccine design. PMID:21525208

  6. T-cell receptor accessory and co-receptor molecules in channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    T cell receptor (TCR) associated invariant chains CD3gamma/delta,epsilon, and zeta as well as TCR co-receptors CD8alpha and CD8beta were isolated from the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, at both the gene and cDNA levels. All of catfish CD3 sequences encode for proteins that resemble their resp...

  7. Splicing and proteolytic processing in VEGF signaling: now it is the coreceptor's turn.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiaolan; Bouyain, Samuel

    2015-04-01

    Alternative splicing and proteolytic processing of VEGFs generate proteins with distinct physiological roles. In this issue of Structure, Parker et al. show that proteolysis of an isoform of the VEGF-C coreceptor Nrp2 produces a soluble receptor that inhibits VEGF-C/Nrp2 interactions. PMID:25862932

  8. Co-receptors are dispensable for tethering receptor-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Park, B; Lee, J; Moon, H; Lee, G; Lee, D-H; Cho, J Hoon; Park, D

    2015-01-01

    During efferocytosis, phagocytic cells recognize dying cells by receptors binding to ligands specifically exposed on apoptotic cells. Multiple phagocytic receptors and some of their signaling pathways have been identified. However, the downstream pathways of tethering receptors that secure apoptotic cells remain elusive. It is generally assumed that tethering receptors induce signaling to mediate engulfment via interacting with co-receptors or other engulfment receptors located nearby. However, it is poorly understood whether co-receptors for tethering receptors exist during efferocytosis, and, if they do, whether they are indispensable for this process. Here, we address this issue using glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored annexin A5 (Anxa5-GPI), an artificial tethering receptor without a putative co-receptor. Phagocytes expressing Anxa5-GPI exhibited enhanced binding of apoptotic cells, resulting in promoted ingestion of apoptotic cells in a phosphatidylserine-dependent manner. Anxa5-GPI-induced phagocytosis of apoptotic cells relied on the known cytoskeletal engulfment machinery but partially depended on the Elmo-Dock-Rac module or the integrin pathway. In addition, Anxa5-GPI-mediated efferocytosis provoked anti-inflammatory responses. Taken together, our work suggests that co-receptors are dispensable for tethering receptor-induced efferocytosis and that tethering receptors mediate the engulfment of apoptotic cells through multiple engulfment signaling pathways. PMID:26018733

  9. Co-receptors are dispensable for tethering receptor-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, B; Lee, J; Moon, H; Lee, G; Lee, D-H; Hoon Cho, J; Park, D

    2015-01-01

    During efferocytosis, phagocytic cells recognize dying cells by receptors binding to ligands specifically exposed on apoptotic cells. Multiple phagocytic receptors and some of their signaling pathways have been identified. However, the downstream pathways of tethering receptors that secure apoptotic cells remain elusive. It is generally assumed that tethering receptors induce signaling to mediate engulfment via interacting with co-receptors or other engulfment receptors located nearby. However, it is poorly understood whether co-receptors for tethering receptors exist during efferocytosis, and, if they do, whether they are indispensable for this process. Here, we address this issue using glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored annexin A5 (Anxa5-GPI), an artificial tethering receptor without a putative co-receptor. Phagocytes expressing Anxa5-GPI exhibited enhanced binding of apoptotic cells, resulting in promoted ingestion of apoptotic cells in a phosphatidylserine-dependent manner. Anxa5-GPI-induced phagocytosis of apoptotic cells relied on the known cytoskeletal engulfment machinery but partially depended on the Elmo-Dock-Rac module or the integrin pathway. In addition, Anxa5-GPI-mediated efferocytosis provoked anti-inflammatory responses. Taken together, our work suggests that co-receptors are dispensable for tethering receptor-induced efferocytosis and that tethering receptors mediate the engulfment of apoptotic cells through multiple engulfment signaling pathways. PMID:26018733

  10. Switching to Tenofovir Alafenamide, Coformulated With Elvitegravir, Cobicistat, and Emtricitabine, in HIV-Infected Patients With Renal Impairment: 48-Week Results From a Single-Arm, Multicenter, Open-Label Phase 3 Study

    PubMed Central

    Pozniak, Anton; Arribas, Jose R.; Gathe, Joseph; Gupta, Samir K.; Post, Frank A.; Bloch, Mark; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Crofoot, Gordon; Benson, Paul; Lichtenstein, Kenneth; Ramgopal, Moti; Chetchotisakd, Ploenchan; Custodio, Joseph M.; Abram, Michael E.; Wei, Xuelian; Cheng, Andrew; McCallister, Scott; SenGupta, Devi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is a novel tenofovir prodrug with improved renal and bone safety compared with TDF-containing regimens. We report the 48 week safety and efficacy of a once-daily single tablet regimen of elvitegravir 150 mg (E), cobicistat 150 mg (C), emtricitabine 200 mg (F), and TAF 10 mg (E/C/F/TAF) in HIV-1-infected patients with mild to moderate renal impairment. Methods: We enrolled virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected subjects with estimated creatinine clearance (CrCl) 30–69 mL/min in a single-arm, open-label study to switch regimens to E/C/F/TAF. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in glomerular filtration rate estimated using various formulae. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01818596. Findings: We enrolled and treated 242 patients with mean age 58 years, 18% Black, 39% hypertension, 14% diabetes. Through week 48, no significant change in estimated CrCl was observed. Two patients (0.8%) discontinued study drug for decreased creatinine clearance, neither had evidence of renal tubulopathy and both had uncontrolled hypertension. Subjects had significant improvements in proteinuria, albuminuria, and tubular proteinuria (P < 0.001 for all). Hip and spine bone mineral density significantly increased from baseline to week 48 (mean percent change +1.47 and +2.29, respectively, P < 0.05). Ninety-two percent (222 patients) maintained HIV-1 RNA <50 copies per milliliter at week 48. Interpretation: Switch to E/C/F/TAF was associated with minimal change in GFR. Proteinuria, albuminuria and bone mineral density significantly improved. These data support the efficacy and safety of once daily E/C/F/TAF in HIV+ patients with mild or moderate renal impairment without dose adjustment. PMID:26627107

  11. Immunological failure of first-line and switch to second-line antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected persons in Tanzania: analysis of routinely collected national data

    PubMed Central

    Vanobberghen, Fiona M; Kilama, Bonita; Wringe, Alison; Ramadhani, Angela; Zaba, Basia; Mmbando, Donan; Todd, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Rates of first-line treatment failure and switches to second-line therapy are key indicators for national HIV programmes. We assessed immunological treatment failure defined by WHO criteria in the Tanzanian national HIV programme. Methods We included adults initiating first-line therapy in 2004–2011 with a pre-treatment CD4 count, and ≥6-months of follow-up. We assessed subhazard ratios (SHR) for immunological treatment failure, and subsequent switch to second-line therapy, using competing risks methods to account for deaths. Results Of 121 308 adults, 7% experienced immunological treatment failure, and 2% died without observed immunological treatment failure, over a median 1.7 years. The 6-year cumulative probability of immunological treatment failure was 19.0% (95% CI 18.5, 19.7) and of death, 5.1% (4.8, 5.4). Immunological treatment failure predictors included earlier year of treatment initiation (P < 0.001), initiation in lower level facilities (SHR = 2.23 [2.03, 2.45] for dispensaries vs. hospitals), being male (1.27 [1.19, 1.33]) and initiation at low or high CD4 counts (for example, 1.78 [1.65, 1.92] and 5.33 [4.65, 6.10] for <50 and ≥500 vs. 200–349 cells/mm3, respectively). Of 7382 participants in the time-to-switch analysis, 6% switched and 5% died before switching. Four years after immunological treatment failure, the cumulative probability of switching was 7.3% (6.6, 8.0) and of death, 6.8% (6.0, 7.6). Those who immunologically failed in dispensaries, health centres and government facilities were least likely to switch. Conclusions Immunological treatment failure rates and unmet need for second-line therapy are high in Tanzania; virological monitoring, at least for persons with immunological treatment failure, is required to minimise unnecessary switches to second-line therapy. Lower level government health facilities need more support to reduce treatment failure rates and improve second-line therapy uptake to sustain the

  12. Structure of the CCR5 Chemokine Receptor-HIV Entry Inhibitor Maraviroc Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Qiuxiang; Zhu, Ya; Li, Jian; Chen, Zhuxi; Han, Gye Won; Kufareva, Irina; Li, Tingting; Ma, Limin; Fenalti, Gustavo; Li, Jing; Zhang, Wenru; Xie, Xin; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Cherezov, Vadim; Liu, Hong; Stevens, Raymond C.; Zhao, Qiang; Wu, Beili

    2013-10-21

    The CCR5 chemokine receptor acts as a co-receptor for HIV-1 viral entry. Here we report the 2.7 angstrom–resolution crystal structure of human CCR5 bound to the marketed HIV drug maraviroc. The structure reveals a ligand-binding site that is distinct from the proposed major recognition sites for chemokines and the viral glycoprotein gp120, providing insights into the mechanism of allosteric inhibition of chemokine signaling and viral entry. A comparison between CCR5 and CXCR4 crystal structures, along with models of co-receptor–gp120-V3 complexes, suggests that different charge distributions and steric hindrances caused by residue substitutions may be major determinants of HIV-1 co-receptor selectivity. These high-resolution insights into CCR5 can enable structure-based drug discovery for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.

  13. CCR5Δ32 mutation and HIV infection: basis for curative HIV therapy.

    PubMed

    Allers, Kristina; Schneider, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is expressed on potential human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) target cells and serves as the predominant co-receptor for viral entry during initial transmission and through the early stages of infection. A homozygous Δ32 mutation in the CCR5 gene prevents CCR5 cell surface expression and thus confers resistance to infection with CCR5-tropic HIV strains. Transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells from a CCR5Δ32/Δ32 donor was previously successful in eliminating HIV from the recipient's immune system, suggesting that targeted CCR5 disruption can lead to an HIV cure. Therefore, intense work is currently being carried out on CCR5 gene-editing tools to develop curative HIV therapy. Here, we review the natural function of CCR5, the progress made on CCR5 gene editing to date and discuss the current limitations. PMID:26143158

  14. Primary, syncytium-inducing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates are dual-tropic and most can use either Lestr or CCR5 as coreceptors for virus entry.

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, G; Wilkinson, D; Reeves, J D; Dittmar, M T; Beddows, S; Weber, J; Carnegie, G; Desselberger, U; Gray, P W; Weiss, R A; Clapham, P R

    1996-01-01

    A panel of primary syncytium-inducing (SI) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates that infected several CD4+ T-cell lines, including MT-2 and C8166, were tested for infection of blood-derived macrophages. Infectivity titers for C8166 cells and macrophages demonstrated that primary SI strains infected macrophages much more efficiently than T-cell line-adapted HIV-1 strains such as LAI and RF. These primary SI strains were therefore dual-tropic. Nine biological clones of two SI strains, prepared by limiting dilution, had macrophage/C8166 infectivity ratios similar to those of their parental viruses, indicating that the dual-tropic phenotype was not due to a mixture of non-SI/macrophage-tropic and SI/T-cell tropic viruses. We tested whether the primary SI strains used either Lestr (fusin) or CCR5 as coreceptors. Infection of cat CCC/CD4 cells transiently expressing Lestr supported infection by T-cell line-adapted strains including LAI, whereas CCC/CD4 cells expressing CCR5 were sensitive to primary non-SI strains as well as to the molecularly cloned strains SF-162 and JR-CSF. Several primary SI strains, as well as the molecularly cloned dual-tropic viruses 89.6 and GUN-1, infected both Lestr+ and CCR5+ CCC/CD4 cells. Thus, these viruses can choose between Lestr and CCR5 for entry into cells. Interestingly, some dual-tropic primary SI strains that infected Lestr+ cells failed to infect CCR5+ cells, suggesting that these viruses may use an alternative coreceptor for infection of macrophages. Alternatively, CCR5 may be processed or presented differently on cat cells so that entry of some primary SI strains but not others is affected. PMID:8970955

  15. Tomoregulin-1 (TMEFF1) inhibits nodal signaling through direct binding to the nodal coreceptor Cripto

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Paul W.; Chang, Chenbei

    2003-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signals regulate multiple processes during development and in adult. We recently showed that tomoregulin-1 (TMEFF1), a transmembrane protein, selectively inhibits nodal but not activin in early Xenopus embryos. Here we report that TMEFF1 binds to the nodal coreceptor Cripto, but does not associate with either nodal or the type I ALK (activin receptor-like kinase) 4 receptor in coimmunoprecipitation assays. The inhibition of the nodal signaling by TMEFF1 in Xenopus ectodermal explants is rescued with wild-type but not mutant forms of Cripto. Furthermore, we show that the Cripto-FRL1-Cryptic (CFC) domain in Cripto, which is essential for its binding to ALK4, is also important for its interaction with TMEFF1. Our results demonstrate for the first time that nodal signaling can be regulated by a novel mechanism of blocking the Cripto coreceptor. PMID:14563676

  16. Ligand engaged TCR is triggered by Lck not associated with CD8 coreceptor

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Javier; Brzostek, Joanna; Zarnitsyna, Veronika I.; Hong, Jin-sung; Wei, Qianru; Hoerter, John A.H.; Fu, Guo; Ampudia, Jeanette; Zamoyska, Rose; Zhu, Cheng; Gascoigne, Nicholas R.J.

    2014-01-01

    The earliest molecular events in T cell recognition have not yet been fully described, and the initial T cell receptor (TCR) triggering mechanism remains a subject of controversy. Here, using TIRF/FRET microscopy, we observe a two-stage interaction between TCR, CD8, and MHCp. There is an early (within seconds) interaction between CD3ζ and the coreceptor CD8 that is independent of the binding of CD8 to MHC, but that requires CD8 association with Lck. Later (several minutes) CD3ζ-CD8 interactions require CD8-MHC binding. Lck can be found free or bound to the coreceptor. This work indicates that the initial TCR triggering event is induced by free Lck. PMID:25427562

  17. Peripheral and visceral fat changes following a treatment switch to a non-thymidine analogue or a nucleoside-sparing regimen in HIV-infected subjects with peripheral lipoatrophy: results of ACTG A5110

    PubMed Central

    Tebas, P.; Zhang, J.; Hafner, R.; Tashima, K.; Shevitz, A.; Yarasheski, K.; Berzins, B.; Owens, S.; Forand, J.; Evans, S.; Murphy, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Switching a thymidine analogue to a non-thymidine analogue or changing to a nucleoside-sparing regimen has been shown to partially reverse peripheral lipoatrophy. The current study evaluated both approaches. Methods Subjects at 15 AIDS Clinical Trial Group sites receiving thymidine analogue stavudine- or zidovudine-containing regimens with plasma HIV RNA ≤500 copies/mL and lipoatrophy were prospectively randomized to: (i) switch the thymidine analogue to abacavir; (ii) discontinue all antiretrovirals and switch to lopinavir/ritonavir plus nevirapine (LPV/r+NVP); or (iii) delay switching for 24 weeks (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00028314). Single-slice computer tomography of mid-thigh and abdominal fat and metabolic and virological/immunological parameters were measured at baseline and weeks 24 and 48. Results Among the 101 patients enrolled, there were significant subcutaneous thigh fat and subcutaneous abdominal tissue (SAT) increases over time and decreases in visceral adipose tissue to total adipose tissue (VAT:TAT) ratios for both interventions, and a decrease in VAT for abacavir. CD4 increased in the LPV/r+NVP arm. LPV/r+NVP had a significantly shorter time to grade 3 or higher toxicity (P = 0.007), but discontinuation rates were similar. Glucose levels did not change, but insulin decreased in the LPV/r+NVP arm. Lipids tended to increase in the LPV/r+NVP arm. Conclusions Switching stavudine or zidovudine to a non-thymidine analogue or changing to a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-sparing regimen is associated with qualitatively similar improvements in thigh fat, SAT and VAT:TAT ratio at 48 weeks. Abacavir also resulted in VAT reductions and LPV/r+NVP resulted in CD4 count increases. PMID:19299471

  18. Identification of RL-TGR, a coreceptor involved in aversive chemical signaling

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Staci P.; Haack, Karla K. V.; Halstead-Nussloch, Gwyneth E.; Bernard, Karen F.; Hatt, Hanns; Kubanek, Julia; McCarty, Nael A.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical signaling plays an important role in predator–prey interactions and feeding dynamics. Like other organisms that are sessile or slow moving, some marine sponges contain aversive compounds that defend these organisms from predation. We sought to identify and characterize a fish chemoreceptor that detects one of these compounds. Using expression cloning in Xenopus oocytes coexpressing the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel, the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR), and fractions of a zebrafish cDNA library, we isolated a cDNA clone encoding receptor activity–modifying protein (RAMP)-like triterpene glycoside receptor (RL-TGR), a novel coreceptor involved in signaling in response to triterpene glycosides. This coreceptor appears to be structurally and functionally related to RAMPs, a family of coreceptors that physically associate with and modify the activity of G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs). In membranes from formoside-responsive oocytes, RL-TGR was immunoprecipitated in an apparent complex with β2AR. In HEK293 cells, coexpression of β2AR induced the trafficking of RL-TGR from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane. These results suggest that RL-TGR in the predatory fish physically associates with the β2AR or another, more physiologically relevant GPCR and modifies its pharmacology to respond to triterpene glycosides found in sponges that serve as a potential food source for the fish. RL-TGR forms a coreceptor that responds to a chemical defense compound in the marine environment, and its discovery might lead the way to the identification of other receptors that mediate chemical defense signaling. PMID:20566865

  19. Identification of RL-TGR, a coreceptor involved in aversive chemical signaling.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Staci P; Haack, Karla K V; Halstead-Nussloch, Gwyneth E; Bernard, Karen F; Hatt, Hanns; Kubanek, Julia; McCarty, Nael A

    2010-07-01

    Chemical signaling plays an important role in predator-prey interactions and feeding dynamics. Like other organisms that are sessile or slow moving, some marine sponges contain aversive compounds that defend these organisms from predation. We sought to identify and characterize a fish chemoreceptor that detects one of these compounds. Using expression cloning in Xenopus oocytes coexpressing the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel, the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR), and fractions of a zebrafish cDNA library, we isolated a cDNA clone encoding receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP)-like triterpene glycoside receptor (RL-TGR), a novel coreceptor involved in signaling in response to triterpene glycosides. This coreceptor appears to be structurally and functionally related to RAMPs, a family of coreceptors that physically associate with and modify the activity of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In membranes from formoside-responsive oocytes, RL-TGR was immunoprecipitated in an apparent complex with beta(2)AR. In HEK293 cells, coexpression of beta(2)AR induced the trafficking of RL-TGR from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane. These results suggest that RL-TGR in the predatory fish physically associates with the beta(2)AR or another, more physiologically relevant GPCR and modifies its pharmacology to respond to triterpene glycosides found in sponges that serve as a potential food source for the fish. RL-TGR forms a coreceptor that responds to a chemical defense compound in the marine environment, and its discovery might lead the way to the identification of other receptors that mediate chemical defense signaling. PMID:20566865

  20. Role of GB virus C in modulating HIV disease

    PubMed Central

    Schwarze-Zander, Carolynne; Blackard, Jason T; Rockstroh, Juergen K

    2012-01-01

    GB virus C (GBV-C) is a member of the Flaviviridae family and the most closely related human virus to HCV. However, GBV-C does not replicate in hepatocytes, but rather in lymphocytes. GBV-C has a worldwide distribution and is transmitted sexually, parenterally and through mother-to-child transmission. Thus, co-infection with HCV and HIV is common. Until now, no human disease has been associated with GBV-C infection. However, there are several reports of a beneficial effect of GBV-C on HIV disease progression in vivo. Different mechanisms to explain these observations have been proposed, including modification of antiviral cytokine production, HIV co-receptor expression, direct inhibition of HIV-1 entry, T-cell activation and Fas-mediated apoptosis. Further understanding of these mechanisms may open new strategies for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. PMID:22702320

  1. Wnt Coreceptor Lrp5 Is a Driver of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Anna P.; Herazo-Maya, Jose D.; Sennello, Joseph A.; Flozak, Annette S.; Russell, Susan; Mutlu, Gökhan M.; Budinger, G. R. Scott; DasGupta, Ramanuj; Varga, John; Kaminski, Naftali

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been implicated in lung fibrosis, but how this occurs and whether expression changes in Wnt pathway components predict disease progression is unknown. Objectives: To determine whether the Wnt coreceptor Lrp5 drives pulmonary fibrosis in mice and is predictive of disease severity in humans. Methods: We examined mice with impaired Wnt signaling caused by loss of the Wnt coreceptor Lrp5 in models of lung fibrosis induced by bleomycin or an adenovirus encoding an active form of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. We also analyzed gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Measurements and Main Results: In patients with IPF, analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed that elevation of positive regulators, Lrp5 and 6, was independently associated with disease progression. LRP5 was also associated with disease severity at presentation in an additional cohort of patients with IPF. Lrp5 null mice were protected against bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, an effect that was phenocopied by direct inhibition of β-catenin signaling by the small molecular inhibitor of β-catenin responsive transcription. Transplantation of Lrp5 null bone marrow cells into wild-type mice did not limit fibrosis. Instead, Lrp5 loss was associated with reduced TGF-β production by alveolar type 2 cells and leukocytes. Consistent with a role of Lrp5 in the activation of TGF-β, Lrp5 null mice were not protected against lung fibrosis induced by TGF-β. Conclusions: We show that the Wnt coreceptor, Lrp5, is a genetic driver of lung fibrosis in mice and a marker of disease progression and severity in humans with IPF. Evidence that TGF-β signaling can override a loss in Lrp5 has implications for patient selection and timing of Wnt pathway inhibitors in lung fibrosis. PMID:24921217

  2. Pseudovirion Particles Bearing Native HIV Envelope Trimers Facilitate a Novel Method for Generating Human Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies against HIV

    PubMed Central

    Hicar, Mark D.; Chen, Xuemin; Briney, Bryan; Hammonds, Jason; Wang, Jaang-Jiun; Kalams, Spyros; Spearman, Paul W.; Crowe, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Monomeric HIV envelope vaccines fail to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies or to protect against infection. Neutralizing antibodies against HIV bind to native, functionally active Env trimers on the virion surface. Gag-Env pseudovirions recapitulate the native trimer, and could serve as an effective epitope presentation platform for study of the neutralizing antibody response in HIV-infected individuals. To address if pseudovirions can recapitulate native HIV virion epitope structures, we carefully characterized these particles, concentrating on the antigenic structure of the coreceptor binding site. By blue native gel shift assays, Gag-Env pseudovirions were shown to contain native trimers that were competent for binding to neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. In ELISA, pseudovirions exhibited increased binding of known CD4-induced antibodies following addition of CD4. Using flow cytometric analysis, fluorescently labeled pseudovirions specifically identified a subset of antigen-specific B cells in HIV-infected subjects. Interestingly, the sequence of one of these novel human antibodies, identified during cloning of single HIV-specific B cells and designated 2C6, exhibited homology to mAb 47e, a known anti-CD4-induced coreceptor binding site antibody. The secreted monoclonal antibody 2C6 did not bind monomeric gp120, but specifically bound envelope on pseudovirions. A recombinant form of the antibody 2C6 acted as a CD4-induced epitope-specific antibody in neutralization assays, yet did not bind monomeric gp120. These findings imply specificity against a quaternary epitope presented on the pseudovirion envelope spike. These data demonstrate that Gag-Env pseudovirions recapitulate CD4 and coreceptor binding pocket antigenic structures and can facilitate identification of B cell clones that secrete neutralizing antibodies. PMID:20531016

  3. Establishment of HIV-1 model cell line GHOST(3) with stable DRiP78 and NHERF1 knockdown

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Lin; HUANG, Xu-He; ZHOU, Ping-Ping; YU, Guo-Long; YAN, Jin; QIN, Bing; YAN, Xin-Ge; DIAO, Li-Mei; LIN, Peng; KUANG, Yi-Qun

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 are indispensable co-receptors for HIV-1 entry into host cells. In our previous study, we identified that dopamine receptor-interacting protein 78 (DRiP78) and Na+-H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) are the CXCR4 and CCR5 homo- or hetero-dimer-interacting proteins. DRiP78 and NHERF1 are able to influence the co-receptor internalization and intracellular trafficking. Over-expression of NHERF1 affects the ligands or HIV-1 gp120-induced CCR5 internalization and HIV-1 production. It is reasonable to speculate that DRiP78 and NHERF1, as well as the signaling pathways involved in viral replication, would probably affect HIV-1 replication through regulating the co-receptors. In this present study, we designed two short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting the DRiP78 and NHERF1, respectively, and constructed the pLenti6/BLOCK-iT-DEST lentiviral plasmids expressing DRiP78 or NHERF1 shRNA. The packaged lentiviruses were used to transduce the widely-applied HIV-1 model cell line GHOST(3). Then, cells with stable knockdown were established through selecting transduced cells with Blasticidin. This study, for the first time, reported the establishment of the GHOST(3) with DRiP78 and NHERF1 knockdown, which is the first stable cell line with HIV-1 co-receptor-interacting molecular defects. PMID:26018859

  4. Envelope gene evolution and HIV-1 neuropathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Santiago, Fabián J.; Rivera-Amill, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    In the era of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) account for 40 to 56% of all HIV+ cases. During the acute stage of HIV-1 infection (<6 months), the virus invades and replicates within the central nervous system (CNS). Compared to peripheral tissues, the local CNS cell population expresses distinct levels of chemokine receptors, which levels exert selective pressure on the invading virus. HIV-1 envelope (env) sequences recovered from the brains and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of neurocognitively impaired HIV+ subjects often display higher nucleotide variability as compared to non-impaired HIV+ subjects. Specifically, env evolution provides HIV-1 with the strategies to evade host immune response, to reduce chemokine receptor dependence, to increase co-receptor binding efficiency, and to potentiate neurotoxicity. The evolution of env within the CNS leads to changes that may result in the emergence of novel isolates with neurotoxic and neurovirulent features. However, whether specific factors of HIV-1 evolution lead to the emergence of neurovirulent and neurotropic isolates remains ill-defined. HIV-1 env evolution is an ongoing phenomenon that occurs independently of neurological and neurocognitive disease severity; thus HIV env evolution may play a pivotal and reciprocal role in the etiology of HAND. Despite the use of cART, the reactivation of latent viral reservoirs represents a clinical challenge because of the replenishment of the viral pool that may subsequently lead to persistent infection. Therefore, gaining a more complete understanding of how HIV-1 env evolves over the course of the disease should be considered for the development of future therapies aimed at controlling CNS burden, diminishing persistent viremia, and eradicating viral reservoirs. Here we review the current literature on the role of HIV-1 env evolution in the setting of HAND disease progression and on the impact of cART on the dynamics of

  5. CD36 is a co-receptor for hepatitis C virus E1 protein attachment

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jun-Jun; Li, Jian-Rui; Huang, Meng-Hao; Ma, Lin-Lin; Wu, Zhou-Yi; Jiang, Chen-Chen; Li, Wen-Jing; Li, Yu-Huan; Han, Yan-Xing; Li, Hu; Chen, Jin-Hua; Wang, Yan-Xiang; Song, Dan-Qing; Peng, Zong-Gen; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is a membrane protein related to lipid metabolism. We show that HCV infection in vitro increased CD36 expression in either surface or soluble form. HCV attachment was facilitated through a direct interaction between CD36 and HCV E1 protein, causing enhanced entry and replication. The HCV co-receptor effect of CD36 was independent of that of SR-BI. CD36 monoclonal antibodies neutralized the effect of CD36 and reduced HCV replication. CD36 inhibitor sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate (SSO), which directly bound CD36 but not SR-BI, significantly interrupted HCV entry, and therefore inhibited HCV replication. SSO’s antiviral effect was seen only in HCV but not in other viruses. SSO in combination with known anti-HCV drugs showed additional inhibition against HCV. SSO was considerably safe in mice. Conclusively, CD36 interacts with HCV E1 and might be a co-receptor specific for HCV entry; thus, CD36 could be a potential drug target against HCV. PMID:26898231

  6. Switching Lopinavir/Ritonavir to Atazanavir/Ritonavir vs Adding Atorvastatin in HIV-Infected Patients Receiving Second-Line Antiretroviral Therapy With Hypercholesterolemia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Wangpatharawanit, Phanthaboon; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek

    2016-09-15

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients receiving lopinavir/ritonavir-based regimens with hypercholesterolemia. Reduction of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein was significantly greater in patients who were randomized to the addition of atorvastatin compared with those who were switched from lopinavir/ritonavir to atazanavir/ritonavir. PMID:27402817

  7. [Companion Diagnostics for Selecting Antiretroviral Drugs against HIV-1].

    PubMed

    Fukutake, Katsuyuki

    2015-11-01

    Currently, the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus involves combination therapy, as antiretroviral therapy(ART). The treatment has improved steadily since the advent of potent combination therapy in 1996. New drugs that offer new mechanisms of action, improvements in potency and activity even against multidrug-resistant viruses, dosing convenience, and tolerability have been approved. Among ART with useful drugs, there are two important examinations before starting the treatment using the two kinds of drug. CCR5 co-receptor antagonists, maraviroc, prevent HIV entry into target cells by binding to CCR5 receptors. Genotypic assays have been developed that can determine or predict the co-receptor tropism(i.e., CCR5, CXCR4, or both) of the patient's dominant virus population. The assay for HIV-1 co-receptor usage should be performed whenever the use of a CCR5 antagonist is being considered. One of the nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), abacavir, is an important agent to develop recommended regimens for antiretroviral therapy. Serious and sometimes fatal hypersensitivity reactions have been associated with abacavir-containing products, ZIAGEN, Epzicom, and Triumeq. Patients who carry the HLA-B*5701 allele are at high-risk of a hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir. Prior to initiating therapy with abacavir, performing a screening test for the HLA-B*5701 allele is recommended. [Review]. PMID:26995879

  8. Switch wear leveling

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2015-09-01

    An apparatus for switch wear leveling includes a switching module that controls switching for two or more pairs of switches in a switching power converter. The switching module controls switches based on a duty cycle control technique and closes and opens each switch in a switching sequence. The pairs of switches connect to a positive and negative terminal of a DC voltage source. For a first switching sequence a first switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than a second switch of the pair of switches. The apparatus includes a switch rotation module that changes the switching sequence of the two or more pairs of switches from the first switching sequence to a second switching sequence. The second switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than the first switch of the pair of switches during the second switching sequence.

  9. T-Tropic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)-Derived V3 Loop Peptides Directly Bind to CXCR-4 and Inhibit T-Tropic HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sakaida, Hitoshi; Hori, Toshiyuki; Yonezawa, Akihito; Sato, Akihiko; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Yoshie, Osamu; Hattori, Toshio; Uchiyama, Takashi

    1998-01-01

    Certain types of chemokine receptors have been identified as coreceptors for HIV-1 infection. The process of viral entry is initiated by the interaction between an envelope protein gp120 of HIV-1, CD4, and one of the relevant coreceptors. To understand the precise mechanism of the Env-mediated fusion and entry of HIV-1, we examined whether the V3 region of gp120 of T-cell line tropic (T-tropic) virus directly interacts with the coreceptor, CXCR-4, by using five synthetic V3 peptides: two cyclized V3 peptides (V3-BH10 and V3-ELI) which correspond to the V3 regions of the T-tropic HIV-1 IIIB and HIV-1 ELI strains, respectively, a linear V3 peptide (CTR36) corresponding to that of HIV-1 IIIB strain; and cyclized V3 peptides corresponding to that of the macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) HIV-1 ADA strain (V3-ADA) or the dualtropic HIV-1 89.6 strain (V3-89.6). FACScan analysis with a CXCR-4+ human B-cell line, JY, showed that V3-BH10, V3-ELI, and V3-89.6 but not CTR36 or V3-ADA blocked the binding of IVR7, an anti-CXCR-4 monoclonal antibody (MAb), to CXCR-4 with different magnitudes in a dose-dependent manner, while none of the V3 peptides influenced binding of an anti-CD19 MAb at all. Next, the effects of the V3 peptides on SDF-1β-induced transient increases in intracellular Ca2+ were investigated. Three V3 peptides (V3-BH10, V3-ELI, and V3-89.6) prevented Ca2+ mobilization. Furthermore, the three peptides inhibited infection by T-tropic HIV-1 in a dose-dependent manner as revealed by an MTT assay and a reverse transcriptase assay, while the other peptides had no effects. These results present direct evidence that the V3 loop of gp120 of T-tropic HIV-1 can interact with its coreceptor CXCR-4 independently of the V1/V2 regions of gp120 or cellular CD4. PMID:9811711

  10. Gene number determination and genetic polymorphism of the gamma delta T cell co-receptor WC1 genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background WC1 co-receptors belong to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily and are encoded by a multi-gene family. Expression of particular WC1 genes defines functional subpopulations of WC1+ '' T cells. Our previous study identified partial sequences for 13 different WC1 genes by annota...

  11. Targeted mutagenesis of an odorant receptor co-receptor using TALEN in Ostrinia furnacalis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Fujii, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Matsuo, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    Genome editing using transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) has been applied for various model organisms but not yet for agricultural pest insects. In this study, TALEN-mediated mutagenesis of the gene encoding odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) of an important agricultural pest Ostrinia furnacalis (OfurOrco) was carried out. Of the two pairs of TALEN constructs designed, one generated somatic and germline mutations at rates of 70.8% and 20.8%, respectively. Physiological and behavioral analyses using a gas chromatograph-electroantennographic detector system and a wind tunnel, respectively, revealed that antennal responses to sex pheromone components were decreased to trace levels, and behavioral responses were abolished in OfurOrco mutants. This study demonstrated that TALEN-mediated mutagenesis is applicable to pest insects, and these results will open the way for a better understanding of chemosensory systems in wild insects. PMID:26689645

  12. CDO, an Hh-Coreceptor, Mediates Lung Cancer Cell Proliferation and Tumorigenicity through Hedgehog Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Leem, Young-Eun; Ha, Hye-Lim; Bae, Ju-Hyeon; Baek, Kwan-Hyuck; Kang, Jong-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays essential roles in various developmental processes, and its aberrant regulation results in genetic disorders or malignancies in various tissues. Hyperactivation of Hh signaling is associated with lung cancer development, and there have been extensive efforts to investigate how to control Hh signaling pathway and regulate cancer cell proliferation. In this study we investigated a role of CDO, an Hh co-receptor, in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Inhibition of Hh signaling by SANT-1 or siCDO in lung cancer cells reduced proliferation and tumorigenicity, along with the decrease in the expression of the Hh components. Histological analysis with NSCLC mouse tissue demonstrated that CDO was expressed in advanced grade of the cancer, and precisely co-localized with GLI1. These data suggest that CDO is required for proliferation and survival of lung cancer cells via Hh signaling. PMID:25369201

  13. Neuropilins are multifunctional coreceptors involved in tumor initiation, growth, metastasis and immunity.

    PubMed

    Prud'homme, Gérald J; Glinka, Yelena

    2012-09-01

    The neuropilins (Nrps) are multifunctional proteins involved in development, immunity and cancer. Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1), or its homologue neuropilin-2 (Nrp2), are coreceptors that enhance responses to several growth factors (GFs) and other mediators. Nrps are coreceptors for the class 3 semaphorins (SEMA3), involved in axonal guidance, and several members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family. However, recent findings reveal they have a much broader spectrum of activity. They bind transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and its receptors, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor (cMet), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptors, fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), and integrins. Nrps also promote Hedgehog signaling. These ligands and pathways are all relevant to angiogenesis and wound healing. In the immune system, the Nrps are expressed primarily by dendritic cells (DCs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs), and exert mainly inhibitory effects. In cancer, Nrps have been linked to a poor prognosis, which is consistent with their numerous interactions with ligands and receptors that promote tumor progression. We hypothesize that Nrps boost responses by capturing ligands, regulating GF receptor expression, endocytosis and recycling, and possibly also by signaling independently. Importantly, they promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and the survival of cancer stem cells. The recent finding that Nrps bind and internalize cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) with arginine/lysine-rich C-terminal motifs (C-end rule; e.g., RXXR) is of interest. These CPPs can be coupled to large drugs for cancer therapy. Almost all studies have been preclinical, but findings suggest Nrps are excellent targets for anti-cancer drug development. PMID:22948112

  14. The hunt for HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lataillade, Max; Kozal, Michael J

    2006-07-01

    Currently, there are three distinct mechanistic classes of antiretrovirals: inhibitors of the HIV- 1 reverse transcriptase and protease enzymes and inhibitors of HIV entry, including receptor and coreceptor binding and cell fusion. A new drug class that inhibits the HIV-1 integrase enzyme (IN) is in development and may soon be available in the clinic. IN is an attractive drug target because it is essential for a stable and productive HIV-1 infection and there is no mammalian homologue of IN. Inhibitors of integrase enzyme (INI) block the integration of viral double-stranded DNA into the host cell's chromosomal DNA. HIV-1 integration has many potential steps that can be inhibited and several new compounds that target specific integration steps have been identified by drug developers. Recently, two INIs, GS-9137 and MK-0518, demonstrated promising early clinical trial results and have been advanced into later stage trials. In this review, we describe how IN facilitates HIV-1 integration, the needed enzyme cofactors, and the resultant byproducts created during integration. Furthermore, we review the different INIs under development, their mechanism of actions, site of IN inhibition, potency, resistance patterns, and discuss the early clinical trial results. PMID:16839248

  15. Targeting CCR5 for anti-HIV research.

    PubMed

    Gu, W-G; Chen, X-Q

    2014-11-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is the only approach for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection treatment at present. Although HAART is effective in controlling the progression of infection, it is impossible to eradicate the virus from patients. The patients have to live with the virus. Alternative ways for the cure of HIV infection have been investigated. As the major co-receptor for HIV-1 infection, C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is naturally an ideal target for anti-HIV research. The first CCR5 antagonist, maraviroc, has been approved for the treatment of HIV infection. Several other CCR5 antagonists are in clinical trials. CCR5 delta32 is a natural genotype, conferring resistance to CCR5 using HIV-1 strains. Gene therapy research targeting this mutant has been conducted for HIV infection treatment. A Berlin patient has been cured of HIV infection by the transplantation of stem cells from a CCR5 delta32 genotype donor. The infusion of an engineered zinc finger nuclease (ZFN)-modified autologous cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) T cells has been proved to be a promising direction recently. In this study, the anti-HIV research targeting CCR5 is summarized, including CCR5 antagonist development, stem cell transplantation, and gene therapy. PMID:25027072

  16. Characterization of a Peptide Domain within the GB Virus C NS5A Phosphoprotein that Inhibits HIV Replication

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Jinhua; McLinden, James H.; Chang, Qing; Jordan, Emma L.; Stapleton, Jack T.

    2008-01-01

    Background GBV-C infection is associated with prolonged survival in HIV-infected people and GBV-C inhibits HIV replication in co-infection models. Expression of the GBV-C nonstructural phosphoprotein 5A (NS5A) decreases surface levels of the HIV co-receptor CXCR4, induces the release of SDF-1 and inhibits HIV replication in Jurkat CD4+ T cell lines. Methodology/Principal Findings Jurkat cell lines stably expressing NS5A protein and peptides were generated and HIV replication in these cell lines assessed. HIV replication was significantly inhibited in all cell lines expressing NS5A amino acids 152–165. Substitution of an either alanine or glycine for the serine at position 158 (S158A or S158G) resulted in a significant decrease in the HIV inhibitory effect. In contrast, substituting a phosphomimetic amino acid (glutamic acid; S158E) inhibited HIV as well as the parent peptide. HIV inhibition was associated with lower levels of surface expression of the HIV co-receptor CXCR4 and increased release of the CXCR4 ligand, SDF-1 compared to control cells. Incubation of CD4+ T cell lines with synthetic peptides containing amino acids 152–167 or the S158E mutant peptide prior to HIV infection resulted in HIV replication inhibition compared to control peptides. Conclusions/Significance Expression of GBV-C NS5A amino acids 152–165 are sufficient to inhibit HIV replication in vitro, and the serine at position 158 appears important for this effect through either phosphorylation or structural changes in this peptide. The addition of synthetic peptides containing 152–167 or the S158E substitution to Jurkat cells resulted in HIV replication inhibition in vitro. These data suggest that GBV-C peptides or a peptide mimetic may offer a novel, cellular-based approach to antiretroviral therapy. PMID:18596910

  17. What Will It Take to Cure HIV?

    PubMed

    Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2015-01-01

    Investigational strategies to attempt HIV cure or remission include very early initiation of antiretroviral therapy to limit the latent HIV reservoir and preinfection vaccination. In the setting of viral suppression, strategies include reactivation of latently infected cells (eg, through "shock" therapy with histone deacetylase inhibitors or other agents); use of broadly neutralizing antibodies, therapeutic vaccines, immunotoxins, or other immune-based therapies to kill latently infected cells; and gene editing to induce target cell resistance (eg, by eliminating the CC chemokine receptor 5 [CCR5] coreceptor). Improved ability to detect and quantify very low levels of virus is needed. This article summarizes a presentation by Jintanat Ananworanich, MD, PhD, at the IAS-USA continuing education program held in New York, New York, in October 2014. PMID:26200707

  18. Optical switches and switching methods

    DOEpatents

    Doty, Michael

    2008-03-04

    A device and method for collecting subject responses, particularly during magnetic imaging experiments and testing using a method such as functional MRI. The device comprises a non-metallic input device which is coupled via fiber optic cables to a computer or other data collection device. One or more optical switches transmit the subject's responses. The input device keeps the subject's fingers comfortably aligned with the switches by partially immobilizing the forearm, wrist, and/or hand of the subject. Also a robust nonmetallic switch, particularly for use with the input device and methods for optical switching.

  19. ION SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Cook, B.

    1959-02-10

    An ion switch capable of transferring large magnitudes of power is described. An ion switch constructed in accordance with the invention includes a pair of spaced control electrodes disposed in a highly evacuated region for connection in a conventional circuit to control the passing of power therethrough. A controllable ionic conduction path is provided directiy between the control electrodes by a source unit to close the ion switch. Conventional power supply means are provided to trigger the source unit and control the magnitude, durations and pulse repetition rate of the aforementioned ionic conduction path.

  20. On the Physicochemical and Structural Modifications Associated with HIV-1 Subtype B Tropism Transition.

    PubMed

    Lamers, Susanna L; Fogel, Gary B; Liu, Enoch S; Salemi, Marco; McGrath, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    HIV-1 enters immune cells via binding the viral envelope to a host cell CD4 receptor, and then a secondary co-receptor, usually CCR5 (R5) or CXCR4 (X4), and some HIV can utilize both co-receptors (R5X4). Although a small set of amino-acid properties such as charge and sequence length applied to HIV-1 envelope V3 loop sequence data can be used to predict co-receptor usage, we sought to expand the fundamental understanding of the physiochemical basis of tropism by analyzing many, perhaps less obvious, amino-acid properties over a diverse array of HIV sequences. We examined 74 amino-acid physicochemical scales over 1,559 V3 loop sequences with biologically tested tropisms downloaded from the Los Alamos HIV sequence database. Linear regressions were then calculated for each feature relative to three tropism transitions (R5→X4; R5→R5X4; R5X4→X4). Independent correlations were rank ordered to determine informative features. A structural analysis of the V3 loop was performed to better interpret these findings relative to HIV tropism states. Similar structural changes are required for R5 and R5X4 to transition to X4, thus suggesting that R5 and R5X4 types are more similar than either phenotype is to X4. Overall, the analysis suggests a continuum of viral tropism that is only partially related to charge; in fact, the analysis suggests that charge modification may be primarily attributed to decreased R5 usage, and further structural changes, particularly those associated with β-sheet structure, are likely required for full X4 usage. PMID:27071630

  1. Cloning and Analysis of Sooty Mangabey Alternative Coreceptors That Support Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVsmm Entry Independently of CCR5

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Sarah T. C.; Riddick, Nadeene E.; Francella, Nicholas; Paiardini, Mirko; Vanderford, Thomas H.; Li, Bing; Apetrei, Cristian; Sodora, Donald L.; Derdeyn, Cynthia A.; Silvestri, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Natural host sooty mangabeys (SM) infected with simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsmm do not develop AIDS despite high viremia. SM and other natural hosts express very low levels of CCR5 on CD4+ T cells, and we recently showed that SIVsmm infection and robust replication occur in vivo in SM genetically lacking CCR5, indicating the use of additional entry pathways. SIVsmm uses several alternative coreceptors of human origin in vitro, but which molecules of SM origin support entry is unknown. We cloned a panel of putative coreceptors from SM and tested their ability to mediate infection, in conjunction with smCD4, by pseudotypes carrying Envs from multiple SIVsmm subtypes. smCXCR6 supported efficient infection by all SIVsmm isolates with entry levels comparable to those for smCCR5, and smGPR15 enabled entry by all isolates at modest levels. smGPR1 and smAPJ supported low and variable entry, whereas smCCR2b, smCCR3, smCCR4, smCCR8, and smCXCR4 were not used by most isolates. In contrast, SIVsmm from rare infected SM with profound CD4+ T cell loss, previously reported to have expanded use of human coreceptors, including CXCR4, used smCXCR4, smCXCR6, and smCCR5 efficiently and also exhibited robust entry through smCCR3, smCCR8, smGPR1, smGPR15, and smAPJ. Entry was similar with both known alleles of smCD4. These alternative coreceptors, particularly smCXCR6 and smGPR15, may support virus replication in SM that have restricted CCR5 expression as well as SM genetically lacking CCR5. Defining expression of these molecules on SM CD4+ subsets may delineate distinct natural host target cell populations capable of supporting SIVsmm replication without CD4+ T cell loss. PMID:22090107

  2. Anti-HIV-1 activity of a tripodal receptor that recognizes mannose oligomers.

    PubMed

    Rivero-Buceta, Eva; Carrero, Paula; Casanova, Elena; Doyagüez, Elisa G; Madrona, Andrés; Quesada, Ernesto; Peréz-Pérez, María Jesús; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura; Mathys, Leen; Noppen, Sam; Kiselev, Evgeny; Marchand, Christophe; Pommier, Yves; Liekens, Sandra; Balzarini, Jan; Camarasa, María José; San-Félix, Ana

    2015-12-01

    The glycoprotein gp120 of the HIV-1 viral envelope has a high content in mannose residues, particularly α-1,2-mannose oligomers. Compounds that interact with these high-mannose type glycans may disturb the interaction between gp120 and its (co)receptors and are considered potential anti-HIV agents. Previously, we demonstrated that a tripodal receptor (1), with a central scaffold of 1,3,5-triethylbenzene substituted with three 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoyl groups, selectively recognizes α-1,2-mannose polysaccharides. Here we present additional studies to determine the anti-HIV-1 activity and the mechanism of antiviral activity of this compound. Our studies indicate that 1 shows anti-HIV-1 activity in the low micromolar range and has pronounced gp120 binding and HIV-1 integrase inhibitory capacity. However, gp120 binding rather than integrase inhibition seems to be the primary mechanism of antiviral activity of 1. PMID:26540494

  3. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, J.P. Jr.; Devaney, H.F.; Hake, L.W.

    1979-08-29

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  4. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Jr., Joseph P.; Devaney, Howard F.; Hake, Lewis W.

    1982-08-17

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  5. Understanding Factors That Modulate the Establishment of HIV Latency in Resting CD4+ T-Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jenny L.; Mota, Talia M.; Evans, Vanessa A.; Kumar, Nitasha; Rezaei, Simin D.; Cheong, Karey; Solomon, Ajantha; Wightman, Fiona; Cameron, Paul U.; Lewin, Sharon R.

    2016-01-01

    Developing robust in vitro models of HIV latency is needed to better understand how latency is established, maintained and reversed. In this study, we examined the effects of donor variability, HIV titre and co-receptor usage on establishing HIV latency in vitro using two models of HIV latency. Using the CCL19 model of HIV latency, we found that in up to 50% of donors, CCL19 enhanced latent infection of resting CD4+ T-cells by CXCR4-tropic HIV in the presence of low dose IL-2. Increasing the infectious titre of CXCR4-tropic HIV increased both productive and latent infection of resting CD4+ T-cells. In a different model where myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) were co-cultured with resting CD4+ T-cells, we observed a higher frequency of latently infected cells in vitro than CCL19-treated or unstimulated CD4+ T-cells in the presence of low dose IL-2. In the DC-T-cell model, latency was established with both CCR5- and CXCR4-tropic virus but higher titres of CCR5-tropic virus was required in most donors. The establishment of latency in vitro through direct infection of resting CD4+ T-cells is significantly enhanced by CCL19 and mDC, but the efficiency is dependent on virus titre, co-receptor usage and there is significant donor variability. PMID:27383184

  6. Anti-HIV drugs: 25 compounds approved within 25 years after the discovery of HIV.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Erik

    2009-04-01

    In 2008, 25 years after the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was discovered as the then tentative aetiological agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), exactly 25 anti-HIV compounds have been formally approved for clinical use in the treatment of AIDS. These compounds fall into six categories: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs: zidovudine, didanosine, zalcitabine, stavudine, lamivudine, abacavir and emtricitabine); nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs: tenofovir); non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs: nevirapine, delavirdine, efavirenz and etravirine); protease inhibitors (PIs: saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, amprenavir, lopinavir, atazanavir, fosamprenavir, tipranavir and darunavir); cell entry inhibitors [fusion inhibitors (FIs: enfuvirtide) and co-receptor inhibitors (CRIs: maraviroc)]; and integrase inhibitors (INIs: raltegravir). These compounds should be used in drug combination regimens to achieve the highest possible benefit, tolerability and compliance and to diminish the risk of resistance development. PMID:19108994

  7. Jasmonate perception by inositol-phosphate-potentiated COI1-JAZ co-receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Sheard, Laura B; Tan, Xu; Mao, Haibin; Withers, John; Ben-Nissan, Gili; Hinds, Thomas R; Kobayashi, Yuichi; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Sharon, Michal; Browse, John; He, Sheng Yang; Rizo, Josep; Howe, Gregg A; Zheng, Ning

    2011-11-07

    Jasmonates are a family of plant hormones that regulate plant growth, development and responses to stress. The F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1) mediates jasmonate signalling by promoting hormone-dependent ubiquitylation and degradation of transcriptional repressor JAZ proteins. Despite its importance, the mechanism of jasmonate perception remains unclear. Here we present structural and pharmacological data to show that the true Arabidopsis jasmonate receptor is a complex of both COI1 and JAZ. COI1 contains an open pocket that recognizes the bioactive hormone (3R,7S)-jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) with high specificity. High-affinity hormone binding requires a bipartite JAZ degron sequence consisting of a conserved {alpha}-helix for COI1 docking and a loop region to trap the hormone in its binding pocket. In addition, we identify a third critical component of the jasmonate co-receptor complex, inositol pentakisphosphate, which interacts with both COI1 and JAZ adjacent to the ligand. Our results unravel the mechanism of jasmonate perception and highlight the ability of F-box proteins to evolve as multi-component signalling hubs.

  8. Jasmonate perception by inositol phosphate-potentiated COI1-JAZ co-receptor

    PubMed Central

    Sheard, Laura B.; Tan, Xu; Mao, Haibin; Withers, John; Ben-Nissan, Gili; Hinds, Thomas R.; Kobayashi, Yuichi; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Sharon, Michal; Browse, John; He, Sheng Yang; Rizo, Josep; Howe, Gregg A.; Zheng, Ning

    2010-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are a family of plant hormones that regulate plant growth, development, and responses to stress. The F-box protein CORONATINE-INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1) mediates JA signaling by promoting hormone-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of transcriptional repressor JAZ proteins. Despite its importance, the mechanism of JA perception remains unclear. Here we present structural and pharmacological data to show that the true JA receptor is a complex of both COI1 and JAZ. COI1 contains an open pocket that recognizes the bioactive hormone, (3R,7S)-jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile), with high specificity. High-affinity hormone binding requires a bipartite JAZ degron sequence consisting of a conserved α-helix for COI1 docking and a loop region to trap the hormone in its binding pocket. In addition, we identify a third critical component of the JA co-receptor complex, inositol pentakisphosphate, which interacts with both COI1 and JAZ adjacent to the ligand. Our results unravel the mechanism of JA perception and highlight the ability of F-box proteins to evolve as multi-component signaling hubs. PMID:20927106

  9. Distinct Signaling of Coreceptors Regulates Specific Metabolism Pathways and Impacts Memory Development in CAR T Cells.

    PubMed

    Kawalekar, Omkar U; O'Connor, Roddy S; Fraietta, Joseph A; Guo, Lili; McGettigan, Shannon E; Posey, Avery D; Patel, Prachi R; Guedan, Sonia; Scholler, John; Keith, Brian; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Snyder, Nathaniel; Blair, Ian A; Blair, Ian; Milone, Michael C; June, Carl H

    2016-02-16

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) redirect T cell cytotoxicity against cancer cells, providing a promising approach to cancer immunotherapy. Despite extensive clinical use, the attributes of CAR co-stimulatory domains that impact persistence and resistance to exhaustion of CAR-T cells remain largely undefined. Here, we report the influence of signaling domains of coreceptors CD28 and 4-1BB on the metabolic characteristics of human CAR T cells. Inclusion of 4-1BB in the CAR architecture promoted the outgrowth of CD8(+) central memory T cells that had significantly enhanced respiratory capacity, increased fatty acid oxidation and enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis. In contrast, CAR T cells with CD28 domains yielded effector memory cells with a genetic signature consistent with enhanced glycolysis. These results provide, at least in part, a mechanistic insight into the differential persistence of CAR-T cells expressing 4-1BB or CD28 signaling domains in clinical trials and inform the design of future CAR T cell therapies. PMID:26885860

  10. Wnt isoform-specific interactions with coreceptor specify inhibition or potentiation of signaling by LRP6 antibodies.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yan; Bourhis, Eric; Chiu, Cecilia; Stawicki, Scott; DeAlmeida, Venita I; Liu, Bob Y; Phamluong, Khanhky; Cao, Tim C; Carano, Richard A D; Ernst, James A; Solloway, Mark; Rubinfeld, Bonnee; Hannoush, Rami N; Wu, Yan; Polakis, Paul; Costa, Mike

    2010-01-01

    β-Catenin-dependent Wnt signaling is initiated as Wnt binds to both the receptor FZD and coreceptor LRP5/6, which then assembles a multimeric complex at the cytoplasmic membrane face to recruit and inactivate the kinase GSK3. The large number and sequence diversity of Wnt isoforms suggest the possibility of domain-specific ligand-coreceptor interactions, and distinct binding sites on LRP6 for Wnt3a and Wnt9b have recently been identified in vitro. Whether mechanistically different interactions between Wnts and coreceptors might mediate signaling remains to be determined. It is also not clear whether coreceptor homodimerization induced extracellularly can activate Wnt signaling, as is the case for receptor tyrosine kinases. We generated monoclonal antibodies against LRP6 with the unexpected ability to inhibit signaling by some Wnt isoforms and potentiate signaling by other isoforms. In cell culture, two antibodies characterized further show reciprocal activities on most Wnts, with one antibody antagonizing and the other potentiating. We demonstrate that these antibodies bind to different regions of LRP6 protein, and inhibition of signaling results from blocking Wnt binding. Antibody-mediated dimerization of LRP6 can potentiate signaling only when a Wnt isoform is also able to bind the complex, presumably recruiting FZD. Endogenous autocrine Wnt signaling in different tumor cell lines can be either antagonized or enhanced by the LRP6 antibodies, indicating expression of different Wnt isoforms. As anticipated from the roles of Wnt signaling in cancer and bone development, antibody activities can also be observed in mice for inhibition of tumor growth and in organ culture for enhancement of bone mineral density. Collectively, our results indicate that separate binding sites for different subsets of Wnt isoforms determine the inhibition or potentiation of signaling conferred by LRP6 antibodies. This complexity of coreceptor-ligand interactions may allow for

  11. Gelsolin activity controls efficient early HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-1 entry into target lymphocytes requires the activity of actin adaptors that stabilize and reorganize cortical F-actin, like moesin and filamin-A. These alterations are necessary for the redistribution of CD4-CXCR4/CCR5 to one pole of the cell, a process that increases the probability of HIV-1 Envelope (Env)-CD4/co-receptor interactions and that generates the tension at the plasma membrane necessary to potentiate fusion pore formation, thereby favouring early HIV-1 infection. However, it remains unclear whether the dynamic processing of F-actin and the amount of cortical actin available during the initial virus-cell contact are required to such events. Results Here we show that gelsolin restructures cortical F-actin during HIV-1 Env-gp120-mediated signalling, without affecting cell-surface expression of receptors or viral co-receptor signalling. Remarkably, efficient HIV-1 Env-mediated membrane fusion and infection of permissive lymphocytes were impaired when gelsolin was either overexpressed or silenced, which led to a loss or gain of cortical actin, respectively. Indeed, HIV-1 Env-gp120-induced F-actin reorganization and viral receptor capping were impaired under these experimental conditions. Moreover, gelsolin knockdown promoted HIV-1 Env-gp120-mediated aberrant pseudopodia formation. These perturbed-actin events are responsible for the inhibition of early HIV-1 infection. Conclusions For the first time we provide evidence that through its severing of cortical actin, and by controlling the amount of actin available for reorganization during HIV-1 Env-mediated viral fusion, entry and infection, gelsolin can constitute a barrier that restricts HIV-1 infection of CD4+ lymphocytes in a pre-fusion step. These findings provide important insights into the complex molecular and actin-associated dynamics events that underlie early viral infection. Thus, we propose that gelsolin is a new factor that can limit HIV-1 infection acting at a pre-fusion step

  12. CNS safety at 48-week of switching to ATV/r plus 3TC or two nucleos(t)ides in HIV-suppressed patients on stable ART: the SALT neurocognitive sub-study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez Valero, Ignacio; Pasquau, Juan; Rubio, Rafael; Ribero, Antonio; Santos, Jose; Sanz, Jesus; Mariño, Ana; Crespo, Manel; Hernandez, Jose; Antonio Iribarren, Jose; Gutierrez, Felix; Terron, Alberto; Esteban, Herminia; Antonio Pérez-Molina, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Due to their low CNS penetrance, there are concerns about the capacity of non-conventional PI-based ART (monotherapy and dual therapies) to preserve neurocognitive performance (NP). Methods We evaluated the NP change of aviremic participants of the SALT clinical trial [1] switching therapy to dual therapy (DT: ATV/r+3TC) or triple therapy (TT: ATV/r+2NRTI) who agreed to perform an NP assessment (NPZ-5) at baseline and W48. Neurocognitive impairment and NP were assessed using AAN-2007 criteria [2] and global deficit scores (GDS) [3]. Neurocognitive change (GDS change: W48 – baseline) and the effect of DT on NP evolution crude and adjusted by significant confounders were determined using ANCOVA. Results A total of 158 patients were included (Table 1). They had shorter times because HIV diagnosis, ART initiation and HIV-suppression and their virologic outcome at W48 by snapshot was higher (79.1% vs 72.7%; p=0.04) compared to the 128 patients not included in the sub-study. By AAN-2007 criteria, 51 patients in each ART group (68% vs 63%) were neurocognitively impaired at baseline (p=0.61). Forty-seven patients were not reassessed at W48: 30 lost of follow-up (16 DT-14 TT) and 17 had non-evaluable data (6 DT-11 TT). Patients retested were more likely to be men (78.9% vs 61.4%) and had neurological cofounders (9.6% vs 0%) than patients non-retested. At W48, 3 out of 16 (5.7%) patients on DT and 6 out of 21 (10.5%) on TT who were non-impaired at baseline became impaired (p=0.49) while 10 out of 37 (18.9%) on DT and 7 out of 36 (12.3%) on TT who were neurocognitively impaired at baseline became non-impaired (p=0.44). Mean GDS changes (95% CI) were: Overall −0.2 (−0.3 to −0.04): DT −0.26 (−0.4 to −0.07) and TT −0.08 (−0.2 to 0.07). NP was similar between DT and TT (0.15). This absence of differences was also observed in all cognitive tests. Effect of DT: −0.16 [−0.38 to 0.06]) (r2=0.16) on NP evolution was similar to TT (reference), even

  13. Identification of a D-amino acid decapeptide HIV-1 entry inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Boggiano, Cesar; Jiang Shibo; Lu Hong; Zhao Qian; Liu Shuwen; Binley, James; Blondelle, Sylvie E. . E-mail: sylvieb@burnham.org

    2006-09-08

    Entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virion into host cells involves three major steps, each being a potential target for the development of entry inhibitors: gp120 binding to CD4, gp120-CD4 complex interacting with a coreceptor, and gp41 refolding to form a six-helix bundle. Using a D-amino acid decapeptide combinatorial library, we identified peptide DC13 as having potent HIV-1 fusion inhibitory activity, and effectively inhibiting infection by several laboratory-adapted and primary HIV-1 strains. While DC13 did not block binding of gp120 to CD4, nor disrupt the gp41 six-helix bundle formation, it effectively blocked the binding of an anti-CXCR4 monoclonal antibody and chemokine SDF-1{alpha} to CXCR4-expressing cells. However, because R5-using primary viruses were also neutralized, the antiviral activity of DC13 implies additional mode(s) of action. These results suggest that DC13 is a useful HIV-1 coreceptor antagonist for CXCR4 and, due to its biostability and simplicity, may be of value for developing a new class of HIV-1 entry inhibitors.

  14. HIV Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Home > HIV/AIDS > What is HIV/AIDS? HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) HIV symptoms Photo courtesy of AIDS.gov More information ... and brain Return to top More information on HIV symptoms Explore other publications and websites Basic Information ...

  15. The Role of Genetic Variants of Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1 in Pediatric HIV-1 Infection and Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Gianesin, Ketty; Freguja, Riccardo; Carmona, Francesco; Zanchetta, Marisa; Del Bianco, Paola; Malacrida, Sandro; Montagna, Marco; Rampon, Osvalda; Giaquinto, Carlo; De Rossi, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Stromal cell-Derived Factor 1 (SDF1) is the natural ligand of CXCR4, the coreceptor of HIV-1 X4 viruses. This study investigated the role of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1801157 (NM_000609.5:c.*519G>A) of the SDF1 gene in the natural history of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 and disease progression of HIV-1-infected children. The study was conducted in 428 children born to HIV-1-seropositive mothers, who had not undergone antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy, and in 120 HIV-1-infected children for whom the end-point was the onset of AIDS or the initiation of ART; 16 children developed early AIDS (<24 months of life), 13 from 24 to 84 months of age, and 14 had late AIDS (>84 months). The rs1801157 SNP was not associated with risk of perinatal infection in any genetic models tested. By contrast, this SNP influenced disease progression in a time-dependent manner. rs1801157 GA heterozygous children had a higher risk of late AIDS (HR = 6.3, 95%CI 1.9–20.7, p = 0.002) than children with the rs1801157 GG genotype. Children were studied for viral coreceptor usage at birth, after 84 months of age and/or at AIDS onset. While R5 viruses using CCR5 coreceptor were predominant at birth (94%) and at early AIDS (85%), viruses using CXCR4 coreceptor emerged during the course of infection and were detected in 49% of children older than 84 months and in 62% of late AIDS. The rs1801157 SNP did not influence the emergence of R5X4 viruses, but children with the rs1801157 GA genotype and R5X4 viruses were at significantly higher risk of late AIDS than children with rs1801157 GG genotype (OR = 8.0, 95% CI 1.2–52.2, p = 0.029). Our results indicate that the rs1801157 SNP does not influence perinatal infection, but impacts disease progression. This effect is time-dependent and linked to the coreceptor-usage of viral variants that undergo evolution during the course of HIV-1 infection. PMID:22962615

  16. Optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Reedy, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    An optical switching device (10) is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber (16) or a second glass fiber (14) may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber (18). Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system (26, 28, 30). In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber (16) is reflected by a planar mirror (36) into the third glass fiber (18). In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber (14) passes directly into the third glass fiber (18). The planar mirror (36) is attached to a rotatable table (32) which is rotated to provide the optical switching.

  17. Neisseria gonorrhoeae enhances HIV-1 infection of primary resting CD4+ T cells through TLR2 activation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jian; Rapista, Aprille; Teleshova, Natalia; Mosoyan, Goar; Jarvis, Gary A; Klotman, Mary E; Chang, Theresa L

    2010-03-15

    Sexually transmitted infections increase the likelihood of HIV-1 transmission. We investigated the effect of Neisseria gonorrheae (gonococcus [GC]) exposure on HIV replication in primary resting CD4(+) T cells, a major HIV target cell during the early stage of sexual transmission of HIV. GC and TLR2 agonists, such as peptidylglycan (PGN), Pam(3)CSK(4), and Pam(3)C-Lip, a GC-derived synthetic lipopeptide, but not TLR4 agonists including LPS or GC lipooligosaccharide enhanced HIV-1 infection of primary resting CD4(+) T cells after viral entry. Pretreatment of CD4(+) cells with PGN also promoted HIV infection. Anti-TLR2 Abs abolished the HIV enhancing effect of GC and Pam(3)C-Lip, indicating that GC-mediated enhancement of HIV infection of resting CD4(+) T cells was through TLR2. IL-2 was required for TLR2-mediated HIV enhancement. PGN and GC induced cell surface expression of T cell activation markers and HIV coreceptors, CCR5 and CXCR4. The maximal postentry HIV enhancing effect was achieved when PGN was added immediately after viral exposure. Kinetic studies and analysis of HIV DNA products indicated that GC exposure and TLR2 activation enhanced HIV infection at the step of nuclear import. We conclude that GC enhanced HIV infection of primary resting CD4(+) T cells through TLR2 activation, which both increased the susceptibility of primary CD4(+) T cells to HIV infection as well as enhanced HIV-infected CD4(+) T cells at the early stage of HIV life cycle after entry. This study provides a molecular mechanism by which nonulcerative sexually transmitted infections mediate enhancement of HIV infection and has implication for HIV prevention and therapeutics. PMID:20147631

  18. The odorant receptor co-receptor from the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Immo A; Rodriguez, Stacy D; Drake, Lisa L; Price, David P; Blakely, Brittny N; Hammond, John I; Tsujimoto, Hitoshi; Monroy, Erika Y; Maio, William A; Romero, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. has re-emerged as a serious and growing problem in many parts of the world. Presence of resistant bed bugs and the difficulty to eliminate them has renewed interest in alternative control tactics. Similar to other haematophagous arthropods, bed bugs rely on their olfactory system to detect semiochemicals in the environment. Previous studies have morphologically characterized olfactory organs of bed bugs' antenna and have physiologically evaluated the responses of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) to host-derived chemicals. To date, odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and odorant receptors (ORs) associated with these olfaction processes have not been studied in bed bugs. Chemoreception in insects requires formation of heteromeric complexes of ORs and a universal OR coreceptor (Orco). Orco is the constant chain of every odorant receptor in insects and is critical for insect olfaction but does not directly bind to odorants. Orco agonists and antagonists have been suggested as high-value targets for the development of novel insect repellents. In this study, we have performed RNAseq of bed bug sensory organs and identified several odorant receptors as well as Orco. We characterized Orco expression and investigated the effect of chemicals targeting Orco on bed bug behavior and reproduction. We have identified partial cDNAs of six C. lectularius OBPs and 16 ORs. Full length bed bug Orco was cloned and sequenced. Orco is widely expressed in different parts of the bed bug including OR neurons and spermatozoa. Treatment of bed bugs with the agonist VUAA1 changed bed bug pheromone-induced aggregation behavior and inactivated spermatozoa. We have described and characterized for the first time OBPs, ORs and Orco in bed bugs. Given the importance of these molecules in chemoreception of this insect they are interesting targets for the development of novel insect behavior modifiers. PMID:25411789

  19. Localization and action of Dragon (RGMb), a novel BMP co-receptor, throughout the reproductive axis.*

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yin; Sidis, Yisrael; Mukherjee, Abir; Samad, Tarek A.; Brenner, Gary; Woolf, Clifford J.; Lin, Herbert Y.; Schneyer, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play important roles in reproduction including primordial germ cell (PGC) formation, follicular development, spermatogenesis and FSH secretion. Dragon, a recently identified glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored member of the repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family, is also a BMP co-receptor. In the present study, we determined the tissue and cellular localization of Dragon in reproductive organs using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Among reproductive organs, Dragon was expressed in testis, epididymis, ovary, uterus, and pituitary. In the testis of early postnatal mice, Dragon was found in gonocytes and spermatogonia while in immature testes, Dragon was only weakly expressed in spermatogonia. Interestingly, PMSG treatment of immature mice robustly induced Dragon production in spermatocytes. In adult testis, Dragon was found in spermatocytes and round spermatids. In the ovary, Dragon was detected exclusively within oocytes and primarily those within secondary follicles. In the pituitary, Dragon expressing cells overlapped FSH expressing cells. Dragon was also expressed in a number of cell lines originating from reproductive tissues including Ishikawa, Hela, LβT2, MCF-7 and JEG3 cells. Immunocytochemistry and gradient sucrose ultracentrifugation studies showed Dragon was localized in lipid rafts within the plasma membrane. In reproductive cell lines, Dragon expression enhanced signaling of exogenous BMP2 or BMP4. The present studies demonstrate that Dragon expression is dynamically regulated throughout the reproductive tract and that Dragon protein modulates BMP signaling in cells from reproductive tissues. The overlap between Dragon expression and the functional BMP signaling system suggests that Dragon may play a role in mammalian reproduction. PMID:15890774

  20. A PTK7/Ror2 Co-Receptor Complex Affects Xenopus Neural Crest Migration

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Hanna; Rollwitz, Erik; Borchers, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Neural crest cells are a highly migratory pluripotent cell population that generates a wide array of different cell types and failure in their migration can result in severe birth defects and malformation syndromes. Neural crest migration is controlled by various means including chemotaxis, repellent guidance cues and cell-cell interaction. Non-canonical Wnt PCP (planar cell polarity) signaling has previously been shown to control cell-contact mediated neural crest cell guidance. PTK7 (protein tyrosine kinase 7) is a transmembrane pseudokinase and a known regulator of Wnt/PCP signaling, which is expressed in Xenopus neural crest cells and required for their migration. PTK7 functions as a Wnt co-receptor; however, it remains unclear by which means PTK7 affects neural crest migration. Expressing fluorescently labeled proteins in Xenopus neural crest cells we find that PTK7 co-localizes with the Ror2 Wnt-receptor. Further, co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that PTK7 interacts with Ror2. The PTK7/Ror2 interaction is likely relevant for neural crest migration, because Ror2 expression can rescue the PTK7 loss of function migration defect. Live cell imaging of explanted neural crest cells shows that PTK7 loss of function affects the formation of cell protrusions as well as cell motility. Co-expression of Ror2 can rescue these defects. In vivo analysis demonstrates that a kinase dead Ror2 mutant cannot rescue PTK7 loss of function. Thus, our data suggest that Ror2 can substitute for PTK7 and that the signaling function of its kinase domain is required for this effect. PMID:26680417

  1. Functional interactions between the LRP6 WNT co-receptor and folate supplementation.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jason D; Nakouzi, Ghunwa; Slowinska-Castaldo, Bozena; Dazard, Jean-Eudes; Rao, J Sunil; Nadeau, Joseph H; Ross, M Elizabeth

    2010-12-01

    Crooked tail (Cd) mice bear a gain-of-function mutation in Lrp6, a co-receptor for canonical WNT signaling, and are a model of neural tube defects (NTDs), preventable with dietary folic acid (FA) supplementation. Whether the FA response reflects a direct influence of FA on LRP6 function was tested with prenatal supplementation in LRP6-deficient embryos. The enriched FA (10 ppm) diet reduced the occurrence of birth defects among all litters compared with the control (2 ppm FA) diet, but did so by increasing early lethality of Lrp6(-/-) embryos while actually increasing NTDs among nulls alive at embryonic days 10-13 (E10-13). Proliferation in cranial neural folds was reduced in homozygous Lrp6(-/-) mutants versus wild-type embryos at E10, and FA supplementation increased proliferation in wild-type but not mutant neuroepithelia. Canonical WNT activity was reduced in LRP6-deficient midbrain-hindbrain at E9.5, demonstrated in vivo by a TCF/LEF-reporter transgene. FA levels in media modulated the canonical WNT response in NIH3T3 cells, suggesting that although FA was required for optimal WNT signaling, even modest FA elevations attenuated LRP5/6-dependent canonical WNT responses. Gene expression analysis in embryos and adults showed striking interactions between targeted Lrp6 deficiency and FA supplementation, especially for mitochondrial function, folate and methionine metabolism, WNT signaling and cytoskeletal regulation that together implicate relevant signaling and metabolic pathways supporting cell proliferation, morphology and differentiation. We propose that FA supplementation rescues Lrp6(Cd/Cd) fetuses by normalizing hyperactive WNT activity, whereas in LRP6-deficient embryos, added FA further attenuates reduced WNT activity, thereby compromising development. PMID:20843827

  2. The Odorant Receptor Co-Receptor from the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius L

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Immo A.; Rodriguez, Stacy D.; Drake, Lisa L.; Price, David P.; Blakely, Brittny N.; Hammond, John I.; Tsujimoto, Hitoshi; Monroy, Erika Y.; Maio, William A.; Romero, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. has re-emerged as a serious and growing problem in many parts of the world. Presence of resistant bed bugs and the difficulty to eliminate them has renewed interest in alternative control tactics. Similar to other haematophagous arthropods, bed bugs rely on their olfactory system to detect semiochemicals in the environment. Previous studies have morphologically characterized olfactory organs of bed bugs’ antenna and have physiologically evaluated the responses of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) to host-derived chemicals. To date, odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and odorant receptors (ORs) associated with these olfaction processes have not been studied in bed bugs. Chemoreception in insects requires formation of heteromeric complexes of ORs and a universal OR coreceptor (Orco). Orco is the constant chain of every odorant receptor in insects and is critical for insect olfaction but does not directly bind to odorants. Orco agonists and antagonists have been suggested as high-value targets for the development of novel insect repellents. In this study, we have performed RNAseq of bed bug sensory organs and identified several odorant receptors as well as Orco. We characterized Orco expression and investigated the effect of chemicals targeting Orco on bed bug behavior and reproduction. We have identified partial cDNAs of six C. lectularius OBPs and 16 ORs. Full length bed bug Orco was cloned and sequenced. Orco is widely expressed in different parts of the bed bug including OR neurons and spermatozoa. Treatment of bed bugs with the agonist VUAA1 changed bed bug pheromone-induced aggregation behavior and inactivated spermatozoa. We have described and characterized for the first time OBPs, ORs and Orco in bed bugs. Given the importance of these molecules in chemoreception of this insect they are interesting targets for the development of novel insect behavior modifiers. PMID:25411789

  3. HIV Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat HIV infection (called antiretroviral therapy, or ART) the right way, every day and his or ... way, every day, the medicine to treat HIV (ART) reduces the amount of HIV (called “viral ...

  4. Switching Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation's D60T transistors are used primarily as switching devices for controlling high power in electrical circuits. It enables reduction in the number and size of circuit components and promotes more efficient use of energy. Wide range of application from a popcorn popper to a radio frequency generator for solar cell production.

  5. HIV enhancing activity of semen impairs the antiviral efficacy of microbicides

    PubMed Central

    Zirafi, Onofrio; Kim, Kyeong-Ae; Roan, Nadia R.; Kluge, Silvia F.; Müller, Janis A.; Jiang, Shibo; Mayer, Benjamin; Greene, Warner C.; Kirchhoff, Frank; Münch, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Topically applied microbicides potently inhibit HIV in vitro but have largely failed to exert protective effects in clinical trials. One possible reason for this discrepancy is that the preclinical testing of microbicides does not faithfully reflect the conditions of HIV sexual transmission. Here, we report that candidate microbicides that target HIV components show greatly reduced antiviral efficacy in the presence of semen, the main vector for HIV transmission. This diminished antiviral activity was dependent on the ability of amyloid fibrils in semen to enhance the infectivity of HIV. Thus, the anti-HIV efficacy of microbicides determined in the absence of semen greatly underestimated the drug concentrations needed to block semen-exposed virus. One notable exception was Maraviroc. This HIV entry inhibitor targets the host cell CCR5 coreceptor and was highly active against both untreated and semen-exposed HIV. These data help explain why microbicides have failed to protect against HIV in clinical trials and suggest that antiviral compounds targeting host factors hold promise for further development. These findings also suggest that the in vitro efficacy of candidate microbicides should be determined in the presence of semen to identify the best candidates for the prevention of HIV sexual transmission. PMID:25391483

  6. Therapeutic strategies underpinning the development of novel techniques for the treatment of HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jian J.; Cong, Xiao J.; Hu, Li M.; Wang, Cun X.; Jia, Lee; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2010-01-01

    The HIV replication cycle offers multiple targets for chemotherapeutic intervention, including the viral exterior envelope glycoprotein, gp120; viral co-receptors CXCR4 and CCR5; transmembrane glycoprotein, gp41; integrase; reverse transcriptase; protease and so on. Most currently used anti-HIV drugs are reverse transcriptase inhibitors or protease inhibitors. The expanding application of simulation to drug design combined with experimental techniques have developed a large amount of novel inhibitors that interact specifically with targets besides transcriptase and protease. This review presents details of the anti-HIV inhibitors discovered with computer-aided approaches and provides an overview of the recent five-year achievements in the treatment of HIV infection and the application of computational methods to current drug design. PMID:20096804

  7. Synergistic Reactivation of Latent HIV Expression by Ingenol-3-Angelate, PEP005, Targeted NF-kB Signaling in Combination with JQ1 Induced p-TEFb Activation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Guochun; Mendes, Erica A.; Kaiser, Philipp; Wong, Daniel P.; Tang, Yuyang; Cai, Ivy; Fenton, Anne; Melcher, Gregory P.; Hildreth, James E. K.; Thompson, George R.; Wong, Joseph K.; Dandekar, Satya

    2015-01-01

    Although anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is highly effective in suppressing HIV replication, it fails to eradicate the virus from HIV-infected individuals. Stable latent HIV reservoirs are rapidly established early after HIV infection. Therefore, effective strategies for eradication of the HIV reservoirs are urgently needed. We report that ingenol-3-angelate (PEP005), the only active component in a previously FDA approved drug (PICATO) for the topical treatment of precancerous actinic keratosis, can effectively reactivate latent HIV in vitro and ex vivo with relatively low cellular toxicity. Biochemical analysis showed that PEP005 reactivated latent HIV through the induction of the pS643/S676-PKCδ/θ-IκBα/ε-NF-κB signaling pathway. Importantly, PEP005 alone was sufficient to induce expression of fully elongated and processed HIV RNAs in primary CD4+ T cells from HIV infected individuals receiving suppressive ART. Furthermore, PEP005 and the P-TEFb agonist, JQ1, exhibited synergism in reactivation of latent HIV with a combined effect that is 7.5-fold higher than the effect of PEP005 alone. Conversely, PEP005 suppressed HIV infection of primary CD4+ T cells through down-modulation of cell surface expression of HIV co-receptors. This anti-cancer compound is a potential candidate for advancing HIV eradication strategies. PMID:26225771

  8. Synergistic Reactivation of Latent HIV Expression by Ingenol-3-Angelate, PEP005, Targeted NF-kB Signaling in Combination with JQ1 Induced p-TEFb Activation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guochun; Mendes, Erica A; Kaiser, Philipp; Wong, Daniel P; Tang, Yuyang; Cai, Ivy; Fenton, Anne; Melcher, Gregory P; Hildreth, James E K; Thompson, George R; Wong, Joseph K; Dandekar, Satya

    2015-07-01

    Although anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is highly effective in suppressing HIV replication, it fails to eradicate the virus from HIV-infected individuals. Stable latent HIV reservoirs are rapidly established early after HIV infection. Therefore, effective strategies for eradication of the HIV reservoirs are urgently needed. We report that ingenol-3-angelate (PEP005), the only active component in a previously FDA approved drug (PICATO) for the topical treatment of precancerous actinic keratosis, can effectively reactivate latent HIV in vitro and ex vivo with relatively low cellular toxicity. Biochemical analysis showed that PEP005 reactivated latent HIV through the induction of the pS643/S676-PKCδ/θ-IκBα/ε-NF-κB signaling pathway. Importantly, PEP005 alone was sufficient to induce expression of fully elongated and processed HIV RNAs in primary CD4+ T cells from HIV infected individuals receiving suppressive ART. Furthermore, PEP005 and the P-TEFb agonist, JQ1, exhibited synergism in reactivation of latent HIV with a combined effect that is 7.5-fold higher than the effect of PEP005 alone. Conversely, PEP005 suppressed HIV infection of primary CD4+ T cells through down-modulation of cell surface expression of HIV co-receptors. This anti-cancer compound is a potential candidate for advancing HIV eradication strategies. PMID:26225771

  9. Cell-specific RNA aptamer against human CCR5 specifically targets HIV-1 susceptible and inhibits HIV-1 infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiehua; Satheesan, Sangeetha; Li, Haitang; Weinberg, Marc S.; Morris, Kevin V.; Burnett, John; Rossi, John

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) is a receptor expressed by T-cells and macrophages that serves as a co-receptor for macrophage-tropic HIV-1. Loss of CCR5 is associated with resistance to HIV-1. Here we combine the live cell-based SELEX with high throughput sequencing technology to generate CCR5 RNA aptamers capable of specifically targeting HIV-1 susceptible cells (as siRNA delivery agent) and inhibiting HIV-1 infectivity (as antiviral agent) via block of the CCR5 required for HIV-1 to enter cells. One of the best candidates, G-3, efficiently bound and was internalized into human CCR5 expressing cells. The G-3 specifically neutralized R5 virus infection in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and in vivo generated human CD4+ T cells with a nanomolar IC50. G-3 was also capable of transferring functional siRNAs to CCR5 expressing cells. Collectively, the cell-specific, internalizing, CCR5-targeted aptamers and aptamer-siRNA conjugates offer promise for overcoming some of the current challenges of drug resistance in HIV-1 by providing cell-type- or tissue-specific delivery of various therapeutic moieties. PMID:25754473

  10. Performance of genotypic tools for prediction of tropism in HIV-1 subtype C V3 loop sequences.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Soham; Neogi, Ujjwal; Srinivasa, Hiresave; Shet, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is no consensus on the genotypic tools to be used for tropism analysis in HIV-1 subtype C strains. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of the different V3 loop-based genotypic algorithms available. We compiled a dataset of 645 HIV-1 subtype C V3 loop sequences of known coreceptor phenotypes (531 R5-tropic/non-syncytium-inducing and 114 X4-tropic/R5X4-tropic/syncytium-inducing sequences) from the Los Alamos database (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/) and previously published literature. Coreceptor usage was predicted based on this dataset using different software-based machine-learning algorithms as well as simple classical rules. All the sophisticated machine-learning methods showed a good concordance of above 85%. Geno2Pheno (false-positive rate cutoff of 5-15%) and CoRSeqV3-C were found to have a high predicting capability in determining both HIV-1 subtype C X4-tropic and R5-tropic strains. The current sophisticated genotypic tropism tools based on V3 loop perform well for tropism prediction in HIV-1 subtype C strains and can be used in clinical settings. PMID:25573618

  11. Women and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women and HIV Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... HIV? What should pregnant women know about HIV? HIV Quick Facts What is HIV? HIV is the ...

  12. Nanoelectromechanical contact switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Owen Y.; Espinosa, Horacio D.

    2012-05-01

    Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switches are similar to conventional semiconductor switches in that they can be used as relays, transistors, logic devices and sensors. However, the operating principles of NEM switches and semiconductor switches are fundamentally different. These differences give NEM switches an advantage over semiconductor switches in some applications -- for example, NEM switches perform much better in extreme environments -- but semiconductor switches benefit from a much superior manufacturing infrastructure. Here we review the potential of NEM-switch technologies to complement or selectively replace conventional complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology, and identify the challenges involved in the large-scale manufacture of a representative set of NEM-based devices.

  13. THYRATRON SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Creveling, R.; Bourgeois, N.A. Jr.

    1959-04-21

    An arrangement for utilizing a thyratron as a noise free switch is described. It has been discovered that the voltage between plate and cathode of a thyratron will oscillate, producing voltage spikes, if the tube carries only a fraction of its maximum rated current. These voltage spikes can produce detrimental effects where the thyratron is used in critical timing circuits. To alleviate this problem the disclosed circuit provides a charged capacitor and a resistor in parallel with the tube and of such value that the maximum current will flow from the capacitor through the thyratron when it is triggered. During this time the signal current is conducted through the tube, before the thyratron voltage starts to oscillate, and the signal current output is free of noise spikes.

  14. Design and Characterization of a Peptide Mimotope of the HIV-1 gp120 Bridging Sheet

    PubMed Central

    Schiavone, Marco; Fiume, Giuseppe; Caivano, Antonella; de Laurentiis, Annamaria; Falcone, Cristina; Masci, Francesca Fasanella; Iaccino, Enrico; Mimmi, Selena; Palmieri, Camillo; Pisano, Antonio; Pontoriero, Marilena; Rossi, Annalisa; Scialdone, Annarita; Vecchio, Eleonora; Andreozzi, Concetta; Trovato, Maria; Rafay, Jan; Ferko, Boris; Montefiori, David; Lombardi, Angela; Morsica, Giulia; Poli, Guido; Quinto, Ileana; Pavone, Vincenzo; de Berardinis, Piergiuseppe; Scala, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The Bridging Sheet domain of HIV-1 gp120 is highly conserved among the HIV-1 strains and allows HIV-1 binding to host cells via the HIV-1 coreceptors. Further, the bridging sheet domain is a major target to neutralize HIV-1 infection. We rationally designed four linear peptide epitopes that mimic the three-dimensional structure of bridging sheet by using molecular modeling. Chemically synthesized peptides BS3 and BS4 showed a fair degree of antigenicity when tested in ELISA with IgG purified from HIV+ broadly neutralizing sera while the production of synthetic peptides BS1 and BS2 failed due to their high degree of hydrophobicity. To overcome this limitation, we linked all four BS peptides to the COOH-terminus of GST protein to test both their antigenicity and immunogenicity. Only the BS1 peptide showed good antigenicity; however, no envelope specific antibodies were elicited upon mice immunization. Therefore we performed further analyses by linking BS1 peptide to the NH2-terminus of the E2 scaffold from the Geobacillus Stearothermophylus PDH complex. The E2-BS1 fusion peptide showed good antigenic results, however only one immunized rabbit elicited good antibody titers towards both the monomeric and oligomeric viral envelope glycoprotein (Env). In addition, moderate neutralizing antibodies response was elicited against two HIV-1 clade B and one clade C primary isolates. These preliminary data validate the peptide mimotope approach as a promising tool to obtain an effective HIV-1 vaccine. PMID:22754323

  15. Complexity and Dynamics of HIV-1 Chemokine Receptor Usage in a Multidrug-Resistant Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Mainetti, Lara; Pignataro, Angela Rosa; Bigoloni, Alba; Tolazzi, Monica; Galli, Andrea; Nozza, Silvia; Castagna, Antonella; Sampaolo, Michela; Boeri, Enzo; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Maraviroc (MVC) is licensed in clinical practice for patients with R5 virus and virological failure; however, in anecdotal reports, dual/mixed viruses were also inhibited. We retrospectively evaluated the evolution of HIV-1 coreceptor tropism in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of an infected adolescent with a CCR5/CXCR4 Trofile profile who experienced an important but temporary immunological and virological response during a 16-month period of MVC-based therapy. Coreceptor usage of biological viral clones isolated from PBMCs was investigated in U87.CD4 cells expressing wild-type or chimeric CCR5 and CXCR4. Plasma and PBMC-derived viral clones were sequenced to predict coreceptor tropism using the geno2pheno algorithm from the V3 envelope sequence and pol gene-resistant mutations. From start to 8.5 months of MVC treatment only R5X4 viral clones were observed, whereas at 16 months the phenotype enlarged to also include R5 and X4 clones. Chimeric receptor usage suggested the preferential usage of the CXCR4 coreceptor by the R5X4 biological clones. According to phenotypic data, R5 viruses were susceptible, whereas R5X4 and X4 viruses were resistant to RANTES and MVC in vitro. Clones at 16 months, but not at baseline, showed an amino acidic resistance pattern in protease and reverse transcription genes, which, however, did not drive their tropisms. The geno2pheno algorithm predicted at baseline R5 viruses in plasma, and from 5.5 months throughout follow-up only CXCR4-using viruses. An extended methodological approach is needed to unravel the complexity of the phenotype and variation of viruses resident in the different compartments of an infected individual. The accurate evaluation of the proportion of residual R5 viruses may guide therapeutic intervention in highly experienced patients with limited therapeutic options. PMID:25275490

  16. Stochastic fate selection in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Ariel D; Weinberger, Leor S

    2013-10-24

    Classic studies proposed that stochastic variability ("noise") can drive biological fate switching, enhancing evolutionary success. Now, Ho et al. report that HIV's reactivation from dormant (latently infected) patient cells-the major barrier to an HIV cure-is inherently stochastic. Eradicating an incompletely inducible (probabilistic) viral phenotype will require inventive approaches. PMID:24243007

  17. Long-term CD4+ T-cell count evolution after switching from regimens including HIV nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) plus protease inhibitors to regimens containing NRTI plus non-NRTI or only NRTI

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Data regarding CD4+ recovery after switching from protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimens to regimens not containing PI are scarce. Methods Subjects with virological success on first-PI-regimens who switched to NNRTI therapy (NNRTI group) or to nucleoside reverse transcriptase (NRTI)-only (NRTI group) were studied. The effect of the switch on the ongoing CD4+ trend was assessed by two-phase linear regression (TPLR), allowing us to evaluate whether a change in the CD4+ trend (hinge) occurred and the time of its occurrence. Furthermore, we described the evolution of the frequencies in CD4-count classes across four relevant time-points (baseline, before and immediately after the switch, and last visit). Finally, we explored whether the CD4+ counts evolved differently in patients who switched to NNRTI or NRTI-only regimens by considering: the overall CD4+ trends, the time to CD4+≥ 500/mm3 after the switch, and the area-under-the-curve (AUC) of the CD4+ after the switch. Results Eight hundred and ninety-six patients, followed for a median of 2,121 days, were included. At TPLR, hinges occurred in 581/844 (68.9%), but in only 40/581 (6.9%) within a time interval (180 days) compatible with a possible relationship to the switch; furthermore, in 19/40 cases, CD4+ counts appeared to decrease after the hinges. In comparison with the NNRTI group, the NRTI group showed CD4+ count greater at baseline (P = 0.0234) and before the switch (P ≤ 0.0001), superior CD4+ T-cell increases after HAART was started, lower probability of not achieving CD4+ ≥ 500/mm3 (P = 0.0024), and, finally, no significant differences in the CD4+ T-cell AUC after the switch after adjusting for possible confounders (propensity score and pre-switch AUC). Persistence at CD4+ < 200/mm3 was observed in 34/435 (7.5%) patients, and a decrease below this level was found in only 10/259 (3.9%) with baseline CD4+ ≥ 350/mm3. Conclusions Switching from first-line PI to NNRTI- or NRTI-based regimens did

  18. Neisseria gonorrhoeae-induced human defensins 5 and 6 increase HIV infectivity: role in enhanced transmission.

    PubMed

    Klotman, Mary E; Rapista, Aprille; Teleshova, Natalia; Micsenyi, Amanda; Jarvis, Gary A; Lu, Wuyuan; Porter, Edith; Chang, Theresa L

    2008-05-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) increase the likelihood of HIV transmission. Defensins are part of the innate mucosal immune response to STIs and therefore we investigated their role in HIV infection. We found that human defensins 5 and 6 (HD5 and HD6) promoted HIV infection, and this effect was primarily during viral entry. Enhancement was seen with primary viral isolates in primary CD4(+) T cells and the effect was more pronounced with R5 virus compared with X4 virus. HD5 and HD6 promoted HIV reporter viruses pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus and murine leukemia virus envelopes, indicating that defensin-mediated enhancement was not dependent on CD4 and coreceptors. Enhancement of HIV by HD5 and HD6 was influenced by the structure of the peptides, as loss of the intramolecular cysteine bonds was associated with loss of the HIV-enhancing effect. Pro-HD5, the precursor and intracellular form of HD5, also exhibited HIV-enhancing effect. Using a cervicovaginal tissue culture system, we found that expression of HD5 and HD6 was induced in response to Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC, for gonococcus) infection and that conditioned medium from GC-exposed cervicovaginal epithelial cells with elevated levels of HD5 also enhanced HIV infection. Introduction of small interfering RNAs for HD5 or HD6 abolished the HIV-enhancing effect mediated by GC. Thus, the induction of these defensins in the mucosa in the setting of GC infection could facilitate HIV infection. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the complexity of defensins as innate immune mediators in HIV transmission and warrants further investigation of the mechanism by which defensins modulate HIV infection. PMID:18424739

  19. Switch Transcripts in Immunoglobulin Class Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Matthias; Jung, Steffen; Radbruch, Andreas

    1995-03-01

    B cells can exchange gene segments for the constant region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain, altering the class and effector function of the antibodies that they produce. Class switching is directed to distinct classes by cytokines, which induce transcription of the targeted DNA sequences. These transcripts are processed, resulting in spliced "switch" transcripts. Switch recombination can be directed to immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) by the heterologous human metallothionein II_A promoter in mutant mice. Induction of the structurally conserved, spliced switch transcripts is sufficient to target switch recombination to IgG1, whereas transcription alone is not.

  20. RNAi-Mediated CCR5 Knockdown Provides HIV-1 Resistance to Memory T Cells in Humanized BLT Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Saki; Ringpis, Gene-Errol; Marsden, Matthew D; Cortado, Ruth V; Wilhalme, Holly M; Elashoff, David; Zack, Jerome A; Chen, Irvin S Y; An, Dong Sung

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) modified with a lentiviral vector bearing a potent nontoxic short hairpin RNA (sh1005) directed to the HIV coreceptor CCR5 is capable of continuously producing CCR5 downregulated CD4+ T lymphocytes. Here, we characterized HIV-1 resistance of the sh1005-modified CD4+ T lymphocytes in vivo in humanized bone marrow/liver/thymus (hu BLT) mice. The sh1005-modified CD4+ T lymphocytes were positively selected in CCR5-tropic HIV-1–challenged mice. The sh1005-modified memory CD4+ T lymphocytes (the primary target of CCR5-tropic HIV-1) expressing sh1005 were maintained in lymphoid tissues in CCR5-tropic HIV-1–challenged mice. Frequencies of HIV-1 p24 expressing cells were significantly reduced in the sh1005-modified splenocytes by ex vivo cell stimulation confirming that CCR5 downregulated sh1005 modified cells are protected from viral infection. These results demonstrate that stable CCR5 downregulation through genetic modification of human HSPC by lentivirally delivered sh1005 is highly effective in providing HIV-1 resistance. Our results provide in vivo evidence in a relevant small animal model that sh1005 is a potent early-step anti-HIV reagent that has potential as a novel anti-HIV-1 HSPC gene therapeutic reagent for human applications. PMID:25689223

  1. Miniature intermittent contact switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sword, A.

    1972-01-01

    Design of electric switch for providing intermittent contact is presented. Switch consists of flexible conductor surrounding, but separated from, fixed conductor. Flexing of outside conductor to contact fixed conductor completes circuit. Advantage is small size of switch compared to standard switches.

  2. Latching relay switch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Duimstra, Frederick A.

    1991-01-01

    A latching relay switch assembly which includes a coil section and a switch or contact section. The coil section includes at least one permanent magnet and at least one electromagnet. The respective sections are, generally, arranged in separate locations or cavities in the assembly. The switch is latched by a permanent magnet assembly and selectively switched by an overriding electromagnetic assembly.

  3. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by synthetic peptides derived CCR5 fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, Masaki; Baranyi, Lajos; Okada, Noriko; Okada, Hidechika; E-mail: hiokada@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp

    2007-02-23

    HIV-1 infection requires interaction of viral envelope protein gp160 with CD4 and a chemokine receptor, CCR5 or CXCR4 as entry coreceptor. We designed HIV-inhibitory peptides targeted to CCR5 using a novel computer program (ANTIS), which searched all possible sense-antisense amino acid pairs between proteins. Seven AHBs were found in CCR5 receptor. All AHB peptides were synthesized and tested for their ability to prevent HIV-1 infection to human T cells. A peptide fragment (LC5) which is a part of the CCR5 receptor corresponding to the loop between the fifth and sixth transmembrane regions (amino acids 222-240) proved to inhibit HIV-1{sub IIIB} infection of MT-4 cells. Interaction of these antisense peptides could be involved in sustaining HIV-1 infectivity. LC5 effectively indicated dose-dependent manner, and the suppression was enhanced additively by T20 peptide, which inhibits infection in vitro by disrupting the gp41 conformational changes necessary for membrane fusion. Thus, these results indicate that CCR5-derived AHB peptides could provide a useful tool to define the mechanism(s) of HIV infection, and may provide insight which will contribute to the development of an anti-HIV-1 reagent.

  4. Combinatorial Anti-HIV Gene Therapy: Using a Multi-Pronged Approach to Reach Beyond HAART

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Christopher W; Younan, Patrick; Jerome, Keith R; Kiem, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    The “Berlin Patient,” who maintains suppressed levels of HIV viremia in the absence of antiretroviral therapy, continues to be a standard bearer in HIV eradication research. However, the unique circumstances surrounding his functional cure are not applicable to most HIV+ patients. To achieve a functional or sterilizing cure in a greater number of infected individuals worldwide, combinatorial treatments, targeting multiple stages of the viral life cycle, will be essential. Several anti-HIV gene therapy approaches have recently been explored, including disruption of the CCR5 and CXCR4 coreceptor loci in CD4+ T-cells and CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells. However, less is known about the efficacy of these strategies in patients and more relevant HIV model systems such as nonhuman primates. Combinatorial approaches, including genetic disruption of integrated provirus, functional enhancement of endogenous restriction factors, and/or the use of pharmacological adjuvants, could amplify the anti-HIV effects of CCR5/CXCR4 gene disruption. Importantly, delivering gene disruption molecules to genetic sites of interest will likely require optimization on a cell type-by-cell type basis. In this review, we highlight the most promising gene therapy approaches to combat HIV infection, methods to deliver these therapies to hematopoietic cells, and emphasize the need to target viral replication pre- and post-entry in order to mount a suitably robust defense against spreading infection. PMID:23364313

  5. Get Tested for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for HIV Browse Sections The Basics Overview What Is HIV? ... 1 of 7 sections The Basics: What Is HIV? What is HIV? HIV stands for human immunodeficiency ...

  6. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ... reduces the risk of HIV transmission . How do HIV medicines work? HIV attacks and destroys the infection- ...

  7. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1990-03-06

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  8. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1990-01-01

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  9. HIV-1 Mutation and Recombination Rates Are Different in Macrophages and T-cells

    PubMed Central

    Cromer, Deborah; Schlub, Timothy E.; Smyth, Redmond P.; Grimm, Andrew J.; Chopra, Abha; Mallal, Simon; Davenport, Miles P.; Mak, Johnson

    2016-01-01

    High rates of mutation and recombination help human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to evade the immune system and develop resistance to antiretroviral therapy. Macrophages and T-cells are the natural target cells of HIV-1 infection. A consensus has not been reached as to whether HIV replication results in differential recombination between primary T-cells and macrophages. Here, we used HIV with silent mutation markers along with next generation sequencing to compare the mutation and the recombination rates of HIV directly in T lymphocytes and macrophages. We observed a more than four-fold higher recombination rate of HIV in macrophages compared to T-cells (p < 0.001) and demonstrated that this difference is not due to different reliance on C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) and C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) co-receptors between T-cells and macrophages. We also found that the pattern of recombination across the HIV genome (hot and cold spots) remains constant between T-cells and macrophages despite a three-fold increase in the overall recombination rate. This indicates that the difference in rates is a general feature of HIV DNA synthesis during macrophage infection. In contrast to HIV recombination, we found that T-cells have a 30% higher mutation rate than macrophages (p < 0.001) and that the mutational profile is similar between these cell types. Unexpectedly, we found no association between mutation and recombination in macrophages, in contrast to T-cells. Our data highlights some of the fundamental difference of HIV recombination and mutation amongst these two major target cells of infection. Understanding these differences will provide invaluable insights toward HIV evolution and how the virus evades immune surveillance and anti-retroviral therapeutics. PMID:27110814

  10. HIV-1 Mutation and Recombination Rates Are Different in Macrophages and T-cells.

    PubMed

    Cromer, Deborah; Schlub, Timothy E; Smyth, Redmond P; Grimm, Andrew J; Chopra, Abha; Mallal, Simon; Davenport, Miles P; Mak, Johnson

    2016-01-01

    High rates of mutation and recombination help human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to evade the immune system and develop resistance to antiretroviral therapy. Macrophages and T-cells are the natural target cells of HIV-1 infection. A consensus has not been reached as to whether HIV replication results in differential recombination between primary T-cells and macrophages. Here, we used HIV with silent mutation markers along with next generation sequencing to compare the mutation and the recombination rates of HIV directly in T lymphocytes and macrophages. We observed a more than four-fold higher recombination rate of HIV in macrophages compared to T-cells (p < 0.001) and demonstrated that this difference is not due to different reliance on C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) and C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) co-receptors between T-cells and macrophages. We also found that the pattern of recombination across the HIV genome (hot and cold spots) remains constant between T-cells and macrophages despite a three-fold increase in the overall recombination rate. This indicates that the difference in rates is a general feature of HIV DNA synthesis during macrophage infection. In contrast to HIV recombination, we found that T-cells have a 30% higher mutation rate than macrophages (p < 0.001) and that the mutational profile is similar between these cell types. Unexpectedly, we found no association between mutation and recombination in macrophages, in contrast to T-cells. Our data highlights some of the fundamental difference of HIV recombination and mutation amongst these two major target cells of infection. Understanding these differences will provide invaluable insights toward HIV evolution and how the virus evades immune surveillance and anti-retroviral therapeutics. PMID:27110814

  11. The Complexity of HIV Persistence and Pathogenesis in the Lung Under Antiretroviral Therapy: Challenges Beyond AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Antiretroviral therapy (ART) represents a significant milestone in the battle against AIDS. However, we continue learning about HIV and confronting challenges 30 years after its discovery. HIV has cleverly tricked both the host immune system and ART. First, the many HIV subtypes and recombinant forms have different susceptibilities to antiretroviral drugs, which may represent an issue in countries where ART is just being introduced. Second, even under the suppressive pressures of ART, HIV still increases inflammatory mediators, deregulates apoptosis and proliferation, and induces oxidative stress in the host. Third, the preference of HIV for CXCR4 as a co-receptor may also have noxious outcomes, including potential malignancies. Furthermore, HIV still replicates cryptically in anatomical reservoirs, including the lung. HIV impairs bronchoalveolar T-lymphocyte and macrophage immune responses, rendering the lung susceptible to comorbidities. In addition, HIV-infected individuals are significantly more susceptible to long-term HIV-associated complications. This review focuses on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary arterial hypertension, and lung cancer. Almost two decades after the advent of highly active ART, we now know that HIV-infected individuals on ART live as long as the uninfected population. Fortunately, its availability is rapidly increasing in low- and middle-income countries. Nevertheless, ART is not risk-free: the developed world is facing issues with antiretroviral drug toxicity, resistance, and drug–drug interactions, while developing countries are confronting issues with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Several aspects of the complexity of HIV persistence and challenges with ART are discussed, as well as suggestions for new avenues of research. PMID:24797368

  12. The clinical applications of genome editing in HIV.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cathy X; Cannon, Paula M

    2016-05-26

    HIV/AIDS has long been at the forefront of the development of gene- and cell-based therapies. Although conventional gene therapy approaches typically involve the addition of anti-HIV genes to cells using semirandomly integrating viral vectors, newer genome editing technologies based on engineered nucleases are now allowing more precise genetic manipulations. The possible outcomes of genome editing include gene disruption, which has been most notably applied to the CCR5 coreceptor gene, or the introduction of small mutations or larger whole gene cassette insertions at a targeted locus. Disruption of CCR5 using zinc finger nucleases was the first-in-human application of genome editing and remains the most clinically advanced platform, with 7 completed or ongoing clinical trials in T cells and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). Here we review the laboratory and clinical findings of CCR5 editing in T cells and HSPCs for HIV therapy and summarize other promising genome editing approaches for future clinical development. In particular, recent advances in the delivery of genome editing reagents and the demonstration of highly efficient homology-directed editing in both T cells and HSPCs are expected to spur the development of even more sophisticated applications of this technology for HIV therapy. PMID:27053530

  13. Coevolution of risk perception, sexual behaviour, and HIV transmission in an agent-based model.

    PubMed

    Tully, Stephen; Cojocaru, Monica; Bauch, Chris T

    2013-11-21

    Risk perception shapes individual behaviour, and is in turn shaped by the consequences of that behaviour. Here we explore this dynamics in the context of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread. We construct a simplified agent-based model based on a partner selection game, where individuals are paired with others in the population, and through a decision tree, agree on unprotected sex, protected sex, or no sex. An individual's choice is conditioned on their HIV status, their perceived population-level HIV prevalence, and the preferences expressed by the individual with whom they are paired. HIV is transmitted during unprotected sex with a certain probability. As expected, in model simulations, the perceived population-level HIV prevalence climbs along with actual HIV prevalence. During this time, HIV- individuals increasingly switch from unprotected sex to protected sex, HIV+ individuals continue practicing unprotected sex whenever possible, and unprotected sex between HIV+ and HIV- individuals eventually becomes rare. We also find that the perceived population-level HIV prevalence diverges according to HIV status: HIV- individuals develop a higher perceived HIV prevalence than HIV+ individuals, although this result is sensitive to how much information is derived from global versus local sources. This research illustrates a potential mechanism by which distinct groups, as defined by their sexual behaviour, HIV status, and risk perceptions, can emerge through coevolution of HIV transmission and risk perception dynamics. PMID:23988796

  14. The PTK7-Related Transmembrane Proteins Off-track and Off-track 2 Are Co-receptors for Drosophila Wnt2 Required for Male Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Honemann-Capito, Mona; Brechtel-Curth, Katja; Hedderich, Marie; Wodarz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Wnt proteins regulate many developmental processes and are required for tissue homeostasis in adult animals. The cellular responses to Wnts are manifold and are determined by the respective Wnt ligand and its specific receptor complex in the plasma membrane. Wnt receptor complexes contain a member of the Frizzled family of serpentine receptors and a co-receptor, which commonly is a single-pass transmembrane protein. Vertebrate protein tyrosine kinase 7 (PTK7) was identified as a Wnt co-receptor required for control of planar cell polarity (PCP) in frogs and mice. We found that flies homozygous for a complete knock-out of the Drosophila PTK7 homolog off track (otk) are viable and fertile and do not show PCP phenotypes. We discovered an otk paralog (otk2, CG8964), which is co-expressed with otk throughout embryonic and larval development. Otk and Otk2 bind to each other and form complexes with Frizzled, Frizzled2 and Wnt2, pointing to a function as Wnt co-receptors. Flies lacking both otk and otk2 are viable but male sterile due to defective morphogenesis of the ejaculatory duct. Overexpression of Otk causes female sterility due to malformation of the oviduct, indicating that Otk and Otk2 are specifically involved in the sexually dimorphic development of the genital tract. PMID:25010066

  15. Crystal Structure of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type a in Complex With the Cell Surface Co-Receptor GT1b-Insight Into the Toxin-Neuron Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Stenmark, P.; Dupuy, J.; Inamura, A.; Kiso, M.; Stevens, R.C.

    2009-05-26

    Botulinum neurotoxins have a very high affinity and specificity for their target cells requiring two different co-receptors located on the neuronal cell surface. Different toxin serotypes have different protein receptors; yet, most share a common ganglioside co-receptor, GT1b. We determined the crystal structure of the botulinum neurotoxin serotype A binding domain (residues 873-1297) alone and in complex with a GT1b analog at 1.7 A and 1.6 A, respectively. The ganglioside GT1b forms several key hydrogen bonds to conserved residues and binds in a shallow groove lined by Tryptophan 1266. GT1b binding does not induce any large structural changes in the toxin; therefore, it is unlikely that allosteric effects play a major role in the dual receptor recognition. Together with the previously published structures of botulinum neurotoxin serotype B in complex with its protein co-receptor, we can now generate a detailed model of botulinum neurotoxin's interaction with the neuronal cell surface. The two branches of the GT1b polysaccharide, together with the protein receptor site, impose strict geometric constraints on the mode of interaction with the membrane surface and strongly support a model where one end of the 100 A long translocation domain helix bundle swing into contact with the membrane, initiating the membrane anchoring event.

  16. Latching micro optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Ernest J; Polosky, Marc A

    2013-05-21

    An optical switch reliably maintains its on or off state even when subjected to environments where the switch is bumped or otherwise moved. In addition, the optical switch maintains its on or off state indefinitely without requiring external power. External power is used only to transition the switch from one state to the other. The optical switch is configured with a fixed optical fiber and a movable optical fiber. The movable optical fiber is guided by various actuators in conjunction with a latching mechanism that configure the switch in one position that corresponds to the on state and in another position that corresponds to the off state.

  17. Genome editing of CXCR4 by CRISPR/cas9 confers cells resistant to HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Hou, Panpan; Chen, Shuliang; Wang, Shilei; Yu, Xiao; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Meng; Zhuang, Ke; Ho, Wenzhe; Hou, Wei; Huang, Jian; Guo, Deyin

    2015-01-01

    Genome editing via CRISPR/Cas9 has become an efficient and reliable way to make precise, targeted changes to the genome of living cells. CXCR4 is a co-receptor for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and has been considered as an important therapeutic target for AIDS. CXCR4 mediates viral entry into human CD4(+) cells by binding to envelope protein, gp120. Here, we show that human CXCR4 gene is efficiently disrupted by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing, leading to HIV-1 resistance of human primary CD4(+) T cells. We also show that the Cas9-mediated ablation of CXCR4 demonstrated high specificity and negligible off-target effects without affecting cell division and propagation. The precise and efficient genome editing of CXCR4 will provide a new strategy for therapeutic application against HIV-1 infection. PMID:26481100

  18. Molecular identification and expressive characterization of an olfactory co-receptor gene in the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana cerana.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huiting; Gao, Pengfei; Zhang, Chunxiang; Ma, Weihua; Jiang, Yusuo

    2013-01-01

    Olfaction recognition process is extraordinarily complex in insects, and the olfactory receptors play an important function in the process. In this paper, a highly conserved olfactory co-receptor gene, AcerOr2 (ortholog to the Drosophila melanogaster Or83b), cloned from the antennae of the Asian honeybee, Apis cerana cerana Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Apidae), using reverse transcriptase PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length sequence of the gene was 1763 bp long, and the cDNA open reading frame encoded 478 amino acid residues, including 7 putative transmembrane domains. Alignment analysis revealed that AcerOr2 shares high homology (> 74%) with similar olfactory receptors found in other Hymenoptera species. The amino acid identity with the closely related species Apis mellifera reached 99.8%. The developmental expression analysis using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR suggested that the AcerOr2 transcript was expressed at a relatively low level in the larval stage, whereas it was expressed broadly in the pupal and adult stages, with a significantly high level on the days just before and after eclosion. In situ hybridization showed that AcerOr2 mRNA was expressed in sensilla placodea and on the basal region of the worker antennal cuticle, in accordance with the previous conclusions that the conserved genes are expressed in most olfactory receptor neurons. PMID:24224665

  19. The Wnt Co-Receptor Lrp5 Is Required for Cranial Neural Crest Cell Migration in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Bernd; Tao, Shijie; Yu, Tingsheng; Huysseune, Ann; Witten, Paul Eckhard; Winkler, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    During vertebrate neurulation, cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs) undergo epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), delaminate from the neural plate border, and migrate as separate streams into different cranial regions. There, they differentiate into distinct parts of the craniofacial skeleton. Canonical Wnt signaling has been shown to be essential for this process at different levels but the involved receptors remained unclear. Here we show that the frizzled co-receptor low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 5 (Lrp5) plays a crucial role in CNCC migration and morphogenesis of the cranial skeleton. Early during induction and migration of CNCCs, lrp5 is expressed ubiquitously but later gets restricted to CNCC derivatives in the ventral head region besides different regions in the CNS. A knock-down of lrp5 does not interfere with induction of CNCCs but leads to reduced proliferation of premigratory CNCCs. In addition, cell migration is disrupted as CNCCs are found in clusters at ectopic positions in the dorsomedial neuroepithelium after lrp5 knock-down and transient CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing. These migratory defects consequently result in malformations of the craniofacial skeleton. To date, Lrp5 has mainly been associated with bone homeostasis in mammals. Here we show that in zebrafish, lrp5 also controls cell migration during early morphogenetic processes and contributes to shaping the craniofacial skeleton. PMID:26121341

  20. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins as chaperones and co-receptors for FERONIA receptor kinase signaling in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Yeh, Fang-Ling; Cheung, Alice Y; Duan, Qiaohong; Kita, Daniel; Liu, Ming-Che; Maman, Jacob; Luu, Emily J; Wu, Brendan W; Gates, Laura; Jalal, Methun; Kwong, Amy; Carpenter, Hunter; Wu, Hen-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis receptor kinase FERONIA (FER) is a multifunctional regulator for plant growth and reproduction. Here we report that the female gametophyte-expressed glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein (GPI-AP) LORELEI and the seedling-expressed LRE-like GPI-AP1 (LLG1) bind to the extracellular juxtamembrane region of FER and show that this interaction is pivotal for FER function. LLG1 interacts with FER in the endoplasmic reticulum and on the cell surface, and loss of LLG1 function induces cytoplasmic retention of FER, consistent with transport of FER from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane in a complex with LLG1. We further demonstrate that LLG1 is a component of the FER-regulated RHO GTPase signaling complex and that fer and llg1 mutants display indistinguishable growth, developmental and signaling phenotypes, analogous to how lre and fer share similar reproductive defects. Together our results support LLG1/LRE acting as a chaperone and co-receptor for FER and elucidate a mechanism by which GPI-APs enable the signaling capacity of a cell surface receptor. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06587.001 PMID:26052747

  1. Degradation of the ABA co-receptor ABI1 by PUB12/13 U-box E3 ligases

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Lingyao; Cheng, Jinkui; Zhu, Yujuan; Ding, Yanglin; Meng, Jingjing; Chen, Zhizhong; Xie, Qi; Guo, Yan; Li, Jigang; Yang, Shuhua; Gong, Zhizhong

    2015-01-01

    Clade A protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs) are abscisic acid (ABA) co-receptors that block ABA signalling by inhibiting the downstream protein kinases. ABA signalling is activated after PP2Cs are inhibited by ABA-bound PYR/PYL/RCAR ABA receptors (PYLs) in Arabidopsis. However, whether these PP2Cs are regulated by other factors remains unknown. Here, we report that ABI1 (ABA-INSENSITIVE 1) can interact with the U-box E3 ligases PUB12 and PUB13, but is ubiquitinated only when it interacts with ABA receptors in an in vitro assay. A mutant form of ABI1-1 that is unable to interact with PYLs is more stable than the wild-type protein. Both ABI1 degradation and all tested ABA responses are reduced in pub12 pub13 mutants compared with the wild type. Introducing the abi1-3 loss-of-function mutation into pub12 pub13 mutant recovers the ABA-insensitive phenotypes of the pub12 pub13 mutant. We thus uncover an important regulatory mechanism for regulating ABI1 levels by PUB12 and PUB13. PMID:26482222

  2. Growth and turning properties of adult glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor coreceptor α1 nonpeptidergic sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Guo, GuiFang; Singh, Vandana; Zochodne, Douglas W

    2014-09-01

    An overlapping population of adult primary sensory neurons that innervate the skin express the glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor coreceptor α1 (GFRα1), the lectin IB4, and the "regenerative brake" phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10. Using an adapted turning and growth assay, we analyzed the growth cone behavior of adult immunoselected GFRα1 sensory neurons. These neurons had less robust baseline growth and reluctant responsiveness to individual growth factors but responded to synergistic types of input from glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor, hepatocyte growth factor, a phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 inhibitor, or a downstream Rho kinase inhibitor. Hepatocyte growth factor and the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 inhibitor were associated with growth cone turning. A gradient of protein extracted from skin samples, a primary target of GFRα1 axons, replicated the impact of synergistic support. Within the skin, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor was expressed within epidermal axons, indicating an autocrine role accompanying local hepatocyte growth factor synthesis. Taken together, our findings identify unique growth properties and plasticity of a distinct population of epidermal axons that are relevant to neurologic repair and skin reinnervation. PMID:25101700

  3. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins as chaperones and co-receptors for FERONIA receptor kinase signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Yeh, Fang-Ling; Cheung, Alice Y; Duan, Qiaohong; Kita, Daniel; Liu, Ming-Che; Maman, Jacob; Luu, Emily J; Wu, Brendan W; Gates, Laura; Jalal, Methun; Kwong, Amy; Carpenter, Hunter; Wu, Hen-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis receptor kinase FERONIA (FER) is a multifunctional regulator for plant growth and reproduction. Here we report that the female gametophyte-expressed glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein (GPI-AP) LORELEI and the seedling-expressed LRE-like GPI-AP1 (LLG1) bind to the extracellular juxtamembrane region of FER and show that this interaction is pivotal for FER function. LLG1 interacts with FER in the endoplasmic reticulum and on the cell surface, and loss of LLG1 function induces cytoplasmic retention of FER, consistent with transport of FER from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane in a complex with LLG1. We further demonstrate that LLG1 is a component of the FER-regulated RHO GTPase signaling complex and that fer and llg1 mutants display indistinguishable growth, developmental and signaling phenotypes, analogous to how lre and fer share similar reproductive defects. Together our results support LLG1/LRE acting as a chaperone and co-receptor for FER and elucidate a mechanism by which GPI-APs enable the signaling capacity of a cell surface receptor. PMID:26052747

  4. Bone-derived mesenchymal stromal cells from HIV transgenic mice exhibit altered proliferation, differentiation capacity and paracrine functions along with impaired therapeutic potential in kidney injury

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Kang; Rai, Partab; Lan, Xiqian; Plagov, Andrei; Malhotra, Ashwani; Gupta, Sanjeev; Singhal, Pravin C.

    2013-08-15

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete paracrine factors that could be cytoprotective and serve roles in immunoregulation during tissue injury. Although MSCs express HIV receptors, and co-receptors, and are susceptible to HIV infection, whether HIV-1 may affect biological properties of MSCs needs more study. We evaluated cellular proliferation, differentiation and paracrine functions of MSCs isolated from compact bones of healthy control mice and Tg26 HIV-1 transgenic mice. The ability of MSCs to protect against cisplatin toxicity was studied in cultured renal tubular cells as well as in intact mice. We successfully isolated MSCs from healthy mice and Tg26 HIV-1 transgenic mice and found the latter expressed viral Nef, Vpu, NL4-3 and Vif genes. The proliferation and differentiation of Tg26 HIV-1 MSCs was inferior to MSCs from healthy mice. Moreover, transplantation of Tg26 HIV-1 MSCs less effectively improved outcomes compared with healthy MSCs in mice with acute kidney injury. Also, Tg26 HIV-1 MSCs secreted multiple cytokines, but at significantly lower levels than healthy MSCs, which resulted in failure of conditioned medium from these MSCs to protect cultured renal tubular cells from cisplatin toxicity. Therefore, HIV-1 had adverse biological effects on MSCs extending to their proliferation, differentiation, function, and therapeutic potential. These findings will help in advancing mechanistical insight in renal injury and repair in the setting of HIV-1 infection. -- Highlights: •MSCs isolated from HIV mice displayed HIV genes. •MSCs isolated from HIV mice exhibited attenuated growth and paracrine functions. •AKI mice with transplanted HIV-MSC displayed poor outcome. •HIV-1 MSC secreted multiple cytokines but at a lower level.

  5. The Lupane-type Triterpene 30-Oxo-calenduladiol Is a CCR5 Antagonist with Anti-HIV-1 and Anti-chemotactic Activities*

    PubMed Central

    Barroso-González, Jonathan; El Jaber-Vazdekis, Nabil; García-Expósito, Laura; Machado, José-David; Zárate, Rafael; Ravelo, Ángel G.; Estévez-Braun, Ana; Valenzuela-Fernández, Agustín

    2009-01-01

    The existence of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viruses in patients receiving antiretroviral treatment urgently requires the characterization and development of new antiretroviral drugs designed to inhibit resistant viruses and to complement the existing antiretroviral strategies against AIDS. We assayed several natural or semi-synthetic lupane-type pentacyclic triterpenes in their ability to inhibit HIV-1 infection in permissive cells. We observed that the 30-oxo-calenduladiol triterpene, compound 1, specifically impaired R5-tropic HIV-1 envelope-mediated viral infection and cell fusion in permissive cells, without affecting X4-tropic virus. This lupane derivative competed for the binding of a specific anti-CCR5 monoclonal antibody or the natural CCL5 chemokine to the CCR5 viral coreceptor with high affinity. 30-Oxo-calenduladiol seems not to interact with the CD4 antigen, the main HIV receptor, or the CXCR4 viral coreceptor. Our results suggest that compound 1 is a specific CCR5 antagonist, because it binds to the CCR5 receptor without triggering cell signaling or receptor internalization, and inhibits RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted)-mediated CCR5 internalization, intracellular calcium mobilization, and cell chemotaxis. Furthermore, compound 1 appeared not to interact with β-chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR2b, CCR3, or CCR4. Thereby, the 30-oxo-calenduladiol-associated anti-HIV-1 activity against R5-tropic virus appears to rely on the selective occupancy of the CCR5 receptor to inhibit CCR5-mediated HIV-1 infection. Therefore, it is plausible that the chemical structure of 30-oxo-calenduladiol or other related dihydroxylated lupane-type triterpenes could represent a good model to develop more potent anti-HIV-1 molecules to inhibit viral infection by interfering with early fusion and entry steps in the HIV life cycle. PMID:19386595

  6. Can We Repurpose FDA-Approved Alefacept to Diminish the HIV Reservoir?

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Asifa; Meng, Qinglai; Popkin, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Current anti-retroviral treatment (ART) for HIV is effective in maintaining HIV at undetectable levels. However, cessation of ART results in immediate and brisk rebound of viremia to high levels. This rebound is driven by an HIV reservoir mainly enriched in memory CD4+ T cells. In order to provide any form of functional HIV Cure, elimination of this viral reservoir has become the focus of current HIV cure strategies. Alefacept was initially developed for the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis. Alefacept is a chimeric fusion protein consisting of the CD2-binding portion of human leukocyte function antigen-3 (LFA3) linked to the Fc region of human IgG1 (LFA3-Fc). Alefacept was designed to inhibit memory T cell activation that contributes to the chronic autoimmune disease psoriasis by blocking the CD2 coreceptor. However, it was found to deplete memory T cells that express high levels of CD2 via NK cell-mediated antibody dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) in vivo. Phase II and phase III clinical trials of alefacept with psoriasis patients demonstrated promising results and an excellent safety profile. Subsequently, alefacept has been successfully repurposed for other memory T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases including skin diseases other than psoriasis, organ transplantation and type I diabetes (T1D). Herein, we review our specific strategy to repurpose the FDA approved biologic alefacept to decrease and hopefully someday eliminate the HIV reservoir, for which CD2hi memory CD4+ T cells are a significant contributor. PMID:27110598

  7. Silibinin Inhibits HIV-1 Infection by Reducing Cellular Activation and Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Janela; Lovelace, Erica S.; Elahi, Shokrollah; Maurice, Nicholas J.; Wagoner, Jessica; Dragavon, Joan; Mittler, John E.; Kraft, Zane; Stamatatos, Leonidis; Horton, Helen; De Rosa, Stephen C.; Coombs, Robert W.; Polyak, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Purified silymarin-derived natural products from the milk thistle plant (Silybum marianum) block hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and inhibit T cell proliferation in vitro. An intravenous formulation of silibinin (SIL), a major component of silymarin, displays anti-HCV effects in humans and also inhibits T-cell proliferation in vitro. We show that SIL inhibited replication of HIV-1 in TZM-bl cells, PBMCs, and CEM cells in vitro. SIL suppression of HIV-1 coincided with dose-dependent reductions in actively proliferating CD19+, CD4+, and CD8+ cells, resulting in fewer CD4+ T cells expressing the HIV-1 co-receptors CXCR4 and CCR5. SIL inhibition of T-cell growth was not due to cytotoxicity measured by cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or necrosis. SIL also blocked induction of the activation markers CD38, HLA-DR, Ki67, and CCR5 on CD4+ T cells. The data suggest that SIL attenuated cellular functions involved in T-cell activation, proliferation, and HIV-1 infection. Silymarin-derived compounds provide cytoprotection by suppressing virus infection, immune activation, and inflammation, and as such may be relevant for both HIV mono-infected and HIV/HCV co-infected subjects. PMID:22848626

  8. Activation of TLR3/interferon signaling pathway by bluetongue virus results in HIV inhibition in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ming; Wang, Xu; Li, Jie-Liang; Zhou, Yu; Sang, Ming; Liu, Jin-Biao; Wu, Jian-Guo; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2015-12-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV), a nonenveloped double-stranded RNA virus, is a potent inducer of type Ι interferons in multiple cell systems. In this study, we report that BTV16 treatment of primary human macrophages induced both type I and III IFN expression, resulting in the production of multiple antiviral factors, including myxovirus resistance protein A, 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase, and the IFN-stimulated gene 56. Additionally, BTV-treated macrophages expressed increased HIV restriction factors (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide 3 G/F/H) and CC chemokines (macrophage inflammatory protein 1-α, macrophage inflammatory protein 1-β, regulated on activation of normal T cell expressed and secreted), the ligands for HIV entry coreceptor CC chemokine receptor type 5. BTV16 also induced the expression of tetherin, which restricts HIV release from infected cells. Furthermore, TLR3 signaling of macrophages by BTV16 resulted in the induction of several anti-HIV microRNAs (miRNA-28, -29a, -125b, -150, -223, and -382). More importantly, the induction of antiviral responses by BTV resulted in significant suppression of HIV in macrophages. These findings demonstrate the potential of BTV-mediated TLR3 activation in macrophage innate immunity against HIV. PMID:26296370

  9. Molecular Gymnastics: Mechanisms of HIV-1 Resistance to CCR5 Antagonists and Impact on Virus Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Roche, Michael; Borm, Katharina; Flynn, Jacqueline K; Lewin, Sharon R; Churchill, Melissa J; Gorry, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) enters host cells through the binding of its envelope glycoproteins (Env) to the host cell receptor CD4 and then subsequent binding to a chemokine coreceptor, either CCR5 or CXCR4. CCR5 antagonists are a relatively recent class addition to the armamentarium of anti-HIV-1 drugs. These compounds act by binding to a hydrophobic pocket formed by the transmembrane helices of CCR5 and altering the conformation of the extracellular domains, such that they are no longer recognized by Env. Maraviroc is the first drug within this class to be licenced for use in HIV-1 therapy regimens. HIV resistance to CCR5 antagonists occurs either through outgrowth of pre-existing CXCR4-using viruses, or through acquisition of the ability of CCR5-using HIV-1 to use the antagonist bound form of CCR5. In the latter scenario, the mechanism underlying resistance is through complex alterations in the way that resistant Envs engage CCR5. These significant changes are unlikely to occur without consequence to the viral entry phenotype and may also open up new avenues to target CCR5 antagonist resistant viruses. This review discusses the mechanism of action of CCR5 antagonists, how HIV resistance to CCR5 antagonists occurs, and the subsequent effects on Env function. PMID:26324043

  10. Design and synthesis of small molecule-sulfotyrosine mimetics that inhibit HIV-1 entry.

    PubMed

    Dogo-Isonagie, Cajetan; Lee, Su-Lin; Lohith, Katheryn; Liu, Hongbing; Mandadapu, Sivakoteswara R; Lusvarghi, Sabrina; O'Connor, Robert D; Bewley, Carole A

    2016-04-15

    In the absence of a cure or vaccine for HIV/AIDS, small molecule inhibitors remain an attractive choice for antiviral therapeutics. Recent structural and functional studies of the HIV-1 surface envelope glycoprotein gp120 have revealed sites of vulnerability that can be targeted by small molecule and peptide inhibitors, thereby inhibiting HIV-1 infection. Here we describe a series of small molecule entry inhibitors that were designed to mimic the sulfated N-terminal peptide of the HIV-1 coreceptor CCR5. From a panel of hydrazonothiazolyl pyrazolinones, we demonstrate that compounds containing naphthyl di- and tri-sulfonic acids inhibit HIV-1 infection in single round infectivity assays with the disulfonic acids being the most potent. Molecular docking supports the observed structure activity relationship, and SPR confirmed binding to gp120. In infectivity assays treatment with a representative naphthyl disulfonate and a disulfated CCR5 N-terminus peptide results in competitive inhibition, with combination indices >2. In total this work shows that gp120 and HIV-1 infection can be inhibited by small molecules that mimic the function of, and are competitive with the natural sulfated CCR5 N-terminus. PMID:26968647

  11. Differential Role of Autophagy in CD4 T Cells and Macrophages during X4 and R5 HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Robert-Hebmann, Véronique; Sagnier, Sophie; Robbins, Ian; Sanchez, Françoise; Lafont, Virginie; Biard-Piechaczyk, Martine

    2009-01-01

    Background HIV-1 can infect and replicate in both CD4 T cells and macrophages. In these cell types, HIV-1 entry is mediated by the binding of envelope glycoproteins (gp120 and gp41, Env) to the receptor CD4 and a coreceptor, principally CCR5 or CXCR4, depending on the viral strain (R5 or X4, respectively). Uninfected CD4 T cells undergo X4 Env-mediated autophagy, leading to their apoptosis, a mechanism now recognized as central to immunodeficiency. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrate here that autophagy and cell death are also induced in the uninfected CD4 T cells by HIV-1 R5 Env, while autophagy is inhibited in productively X4 or R5-infected CD4 T cells. In contrast, uninfected macrophages, a preserved cell population during HIV-1 infection, do not undergo X4 or R5 Env-mediated autophagy. Autophagosomes, however, are present in macrophages exposed to infectious HIV-1 particles, independently of coreceptor use. Interestingly, we observed two populations of autophagic cells: one highly autophagic and the other weakly autophagic. Surprisingly, viruses could be detected in the weakly autophagic cells but not in the highly autophagic cells. In addition, we show that the triggering of autophagy in macrophages is necessary for viral replication but addition of Bafilomycin A1, which blocks the final stages of autophagy, strongly increases productive infection. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, our data suggest that autophagy plays a complex, but essential, role in HIV pathology by regulating both viral replication and the fate of the target cells. PMID:19492063

  12. Kinase Control of Latent HIV-1 Infection: PIM-1 Kinase as a Major Contributor to HIV-1 Reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Duverger, Alexandra; Wolschendorf, Frank; Anderson, Joshua C.; Wagner, Frederic; Bosque, Alberto; Shishido, Takao; Jones, Jennifer; Planelles, Vicente; Willey, Christopher; Cron, Randall Q.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the clinical relevance of latent HIV-1 infection as a block to HIV-1 eradication, the molecular biology of HIV-1 latency remains incompletely understood. We recently demonstrated the presence of a gatekeeper kinase function that controls latent HIV-1 infection. Using kinase array analysis, we here expand on this finding and demonstrate that the kinase activity profile of latently HIV-1-infected T cells is altered relative to that of uninfected T cells. A ranking of altered kinases generated from these kinome profile data predicted PIM-1 kinase as a key switch involved in HIV-1 latency control. Using genetic and pharmacologic perturbation strategies, we demonstrate that PIM-1 activity is indeed required for HIV-1 reactivation in T cell lines and primary CD4 T cells. The presented results thus confirm that kinases are key contributors to HIV-1 latency control. In addition, through mutational studies we link the inhibitory effect of PIM-1 inhibitor IV (PIMi IV) on HIV-1 reactivation to an AP-1 motif in the CD28-responsive element of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR). The results expand our conceptual understanding of the dynamic interactions of the host cell and the latent HIV-1 integration event and position kinome profiling as a research tool to reveal novel molecular mechanisms that can eventually be targeted to therapeutically trigger HIV-1 reactivation. PMID:24155393

  13. Kinase control of latent HIV-1 infection: PIM-1 kinase as a major contributor to HIV-1 reactivation.

    PubMed

    Duverger, Alexandra; Wolschendorf, Frank; Anderson, Joshua C; Wagner, Frederic; Bosque, Alberto; Shishido, Takao; Jones, Jennifer; Planelles, Vicente; Willey, Christopher; Cron, Randall Q; Kutsch, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Despite the clinical relevance of latent HIV-1 infection as a block to HIV-1 eradication, the molecular biology of HIV-1 latency remains incompletely understood. We recently demonstrated the presence of a gatekeeper kinase function that controls latent HIV-1 infection. Using kinase array analysis, we here expand on this finding and demonstrate that the kinase activity profile of latently HIV-1-infected T cells is altered relative to that of uninfected T cells. A ranking of altered kinases generated from these kinome profile data predicted PIM-1 kinase as a key switch involved in HIV-1 latency control. Using genetic and pharmacologic perturbation strategies, we demonstrate that PIM-1 activity is indeed required for HIV-1 reactivation in T cell lines and primary CD4 T cells. The presented results thus confirm that kinases are key contributors to HIV-1 latency control. In addition, through mutational studies we link the inhibitory effect of PIM-1 inhibitor IV (PIMi IV) on HIV-1 reactivation to an AP-1 motif in the CD28-responsive element of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR). The results expand our conceptual understanding of the dynamic interactions of the host cell and the latent HIV-1 integration event and position kinome profiling as a research tool to reveal novel molecular mechanisms that can eventually be targeted to therapeutically trigger HIV-1 reactivation. PMID:24155393

  14. Heat Switches for ADRs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiPirro, M. J.; Shirron, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Heat switches are key elements in the cyclic operation of Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs). Several of the types of heat switches that have been used for ADRs are described in this paper. Key elements in selection and design of these switches include not only ON/OFF switching ratio, but also method of actuation, size, weight, and structural soundness. Some of the trade-off are detailed in this paper.

  15. Heat switches for ADRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiPirro, M. J.; Shirron, P. J.

    2014-07-01

    Heat switches are key elements in the cyclic operation of Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs). Several of the types of heat switches that have been used for ADRs are described in this paper. Key elements in selection and design of these switches include not only ON/OFF switching ratio, but also method of actuation, size, weight, and structural soundness. Some of the trade-off are detailed in this paper.

  16. HIV Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... pre-chewed by an HIV-infected person. The contamination occurs when infected blood from a caregiver’s mouth ... pre-chewed by an HIV-infected person. The contamination occurs when infected blood from a caregiver’s mouth ...

  17. Apollo Ring Optical Switch

    SciTech Connect

    Maestas, J.H.

    1987-03-01

    An optical switch was designed, built, and installed at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to facilitate the integration of two Apollo computer networks into a single network. This report presents an overview of the optical switch as well as its layout, switch testing procedure and test data, and installation.

  18. Triggered plasma opening switch

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, C W

    1988-02-23

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  19. Triggered plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W.

    1988-01-01

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  20. The Impact of Different CD4 Cell-Count Monitoring and Switching Strategies on Mortality in HIV-Infected African Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy: An Application of Dynamic Marginal Structural Models.

    PubMed

    Ford, Deborah; Robins, James M; Petersen, Maya L; Gibb, Diana M; Gilks, Charles F; Mugyenyi, Peter; Grosskurth, Heiner; Hakim, James; Katabira, Elly; Babiker, Abdel G; Walker, A Sarah

    2015-10-01

    In Africa, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is delivered with limited laboratory monitoring, often none. In 2003-2004, investigators in the Development of Antiretroviral Therapy in Africa (DART) Trial randomized persons initiating ART in Uganda and Zimbabwe to either laboratory and clinical monitoring (LCM) or clinically driven monitoring (CDM). CD4 cell counts were measured every 12 weeks in both groups but were only returned to treating clinicians for management in the LCM group. Follow-up continued through 2008. In observational analyses, dynamic marginal structural models on pooled randomized groups were used to estimate survival under different monitoring-frequency and clinical/immunological switching strategies. Assumptions included no direct effect of randomized group on mortality or confounders and no unmeasured confounders which influenced treatment switch and mortality or treatment switch and time-dependent covariates. After 48 weeks of first-line ART, 2,946 individuals contributed 11,351 person-years of follow-up, 625 switches, and 179 deaths. The estimated survival probability after a further 240 weeks for post-48-week switch at the first CD4 cell count less than 100 cells/mm(3) or non-Candida World Health Organization stage 4 event (with CD4 count <250) was 0.96 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.94, 0.97) with 12-weekly CD4 testing, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.95, 0.97) with 24-weekly CD4 testing, 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93, 0.96) with a single CD4 test at 48 weeks (baseline), and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.91, 0.94) with no CD4 testing. Comparing randomized groups by 48-week CD4 count, the mortality risk associated with CDM versus LCM was greater in persons with CD4 counts of <100 (hazard ratio = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3, 4.3) than in those with CD4 counts of ≥100 (hazard ratio = 1.1, 95% CI: 0.8, 1.7; interaction P = 0.04). These findings support a benefit from identifying patients immunologically failing first-line ART at 48 weeks. PMID:26316598

  1. The Impact of Different CD4 Cell-Count Monitoring and Switching Strategies on Mortality in HIV-Infected African Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy: An Application of Dynamic Marginal Structural Models

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Deborah; Robins, James M.; Petersen, Maya L.; Gibb, Diana M.; Gilks, Charles F.; Mugyenyi, Peter; Grosskurth, Heiner; Hakim, James; Katabira, Elly; Babiker, Abdel G.; Walker, A. Sarah

    2015-01-01

    In Africa, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is delivered with limited laboratory monitoring, often none. In 2003–2004, investigators in the Development of Antiretroviral Therapy in Africa (DART) Trial randomized persons initiating ART in Uganda and Zimbabwe to either laboratory and clinical monitoring (LCM) or clinically driven monitoring (CDM). CD4 cell counts were measured every 12 weeks in both groups but were only returned to treating clinicians for management in the LCM group. Follow-up continued through 2008. In observational analyses, dynamic marginal structural models on pooled randomized groups were used to estimate survival under different monitoring-frequency and clinical/immunological switching strategies. Assumptions included no direct effect of randomized group on mortality or confounders and no unmeasured confounders which influenced treatment switch and mortality or treatment switch and time-dependent covariates. After 48 weeks of first-line ART, 2,946 individuals contributed 11,351 person-years of follow-up, 625 switches, and 179 deaths. The estimated survival probability after a further 240 weeks for post-48-week switch at the first CD4 cell count less than 100 cells/mm3 or non-Candida World Health Organization stage 4 event (with CD4 count <250) was 0.96 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.94, 0.97) with 12-weekly CD4 testing, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.95, 0.97) with 24-weekly CD4 testing, 0.95 (95% CI: 0.93, 0.96) with a single CD4 test at 48 weeks (baseline), and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.91, 0.94) with no CD4 testing. Comparing randomized groups by 48-week CD4 count, the mortality risk associated with CDM versus LCM was greater in persons with CD4 counts of <100 (hazard ratio = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3, 4.3) than in those with CD4 counts of ≥100 (hazard ratio = 1.1, 95% CI: 0.8, 1.7; interaction P = 0.04). These findings support a benefit from identifying patients immunologically failing first-line ART at 48 weeks. PMID:26316598

  2. Brief Report: HIV-1 Tropism During Primary Infections in France: 1996-2014.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Stéphanie; Nicot, Florence; Sauné, Karine; Cazabat, Michelle; Pasquier, Christophe; Massip, Patrice; Marchou, Bruno; Delobel, Pierre; Izopet, Jacques

    2016-08-01

    HIV-1 was mainly CCR5 tropic in recent seroconverters. We analyzed the coreceptor use in 239 primary HIV-1 infections (PHIs) between 1996 and 2014 using a validated recombinant virus phenotypic entry assay. CXCR4-using viruses were detected in 8.3%, 3.8%, and 6.1% of PHIs from 1996 to 2004, 2005 to 2009, and 2010 to 2014, respectively. The presence of CXCR4-using viruses was associated with the virological failure of antiretroviral treatment initiated during PHI (odds ratio, 7.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 56.5). The phenotypic tropism assay data show that the prevalence of X4 tropic transmitted viruses was stable in this French cohort of PHIs between 1996 and 2014. PMID:26959188

  3. Conserved Structural Elements in the V3 Crown of HIV-1 gp120

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, X.; Burke, V; Totrov, M; Williams, C; Cardozo, T; Gorny, M; Zolla-Pazner, S; Kong, X

    2010-01-01

    Binding of the third variable region (V3) of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 to the cell-surface coreceptors CCR5 or CXCR4 during viral entry suggests that there are conserved structural elements in this sequence-variable region. These conserved elements could serve as epitopes to be targeted by a vaccine against HIV-1. Here we perform a systematic structural analysis of representative human anti-V3 monoclonal antibodies in complex with V3 peptides, revealing that the crown of V3 has four conserved structural elements: an arch, a band, a hydrophobic core and the peptide backbone. These are either unaffected by or are subject to minimal sequence variation. As these regions are targeted by cross-clade neutralizing human antibodies, they provide a blueprint for the design of vaccine immunogens that could elicit broadly cross-reactive protective antibodies.

  4. REMOTE CONTROLLED SWITCHING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, J.C.

    1959-02-01

    An electrical switching device which can be remotely controlled and in which one or more switches may be accurately operated at predetermined times or with predetermined intervening time intervals is described. The switching device consists essentially of a deck, a post projecting from the deck at right angles thereto, cam means mounted for rotation around said posts and a switch connected to said deck and actuated by said cam means. Means is provided for rotating the cam means at a constant speed and the switching apparatus is enclosed in a sealed container with external adjusting means and electrical connection elements.

  5. CCR5/CD4/CXCR4 oligomerization prevents HIV-1 gp120IIIB binding to the cell surface

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Muñoz, Laura; Barroso, Rubén; Dyrhaug, Sunniva Y.; Navarro, Gemma; Lucas, Pilar; Soriano, Silvia F.; Vega, Beatriz; Costas, Coloma; Muñoz-Fernández, M. Ángeles; Santiago, César; Frade, José Miguel Rodríguez; Franco, Rafael; Mellado, Mario

    2014-01-01

    CCR5 and CXCR4, the respective cell surface coreceptors of R5 and X4 HIV-1 strains, both form heterodimers with CD4, the principal HIV-1 receptor. Using several resonance energy transfer techniques, we determined that CD4, CXCR4, and CCR5 formed heterotrimers, and that CCR5 coexpression altered the conformation of both CXCR4/CXCR4 homodimers and CD4/CXCR4 heterodimers. As a result, binding of the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120IIIB to the CD4/CXCR4/CCR5 heterooligomer was negligible, and the gp120-induced cytoskeletal rearrangements necessary for HIV-1 entry were prevented. CCR5 reduced HIV-1 envelope-induced CD4/CXCR4-mediated cell-cell fusion. In nucleofected Jurkat CD4 cells and primary human CD4+ T cells, CCR5 expression led to a reduction in X4 HIV-1 infectivity. These findings can help to understand why X4 HIV-1 strains infection affect T-cell types differently during AIDS development and indicate that receptor oligomerization might be a target for previously unidentified therapeutic approaches for AIDS intervention. PMID:24778234

  6. HIV Medication Adherence

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment HIV Medication Adherence (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points Medication adherence means sticking ... exactly as prescribed. Why is adherence to an HIV regimen important? Adherence to an HIV regimen gives ...

  7. HIV among Transgender People

    MedlinePlus

    ... of transgender Virginians . Richmond, VA: Virginia HIV Community Planning Committee and Virginia Department of Health; 2007. Accessed April 14, 2016. Additional ... HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS ...

  8. Generation of Antiviral Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I-Restricted T Cells in the Absence of CD8 Coreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Nicolas P.; Pack, Christopher D.; Lukacher, Aron E.

    2008-01-01

    The CD8 coreceptor is important for positive selection of major histocompatibility complex I (MHC-I)-restricted thymocytes and in the generation of pathogen-specific T cells. However, the requirement for CD8 in these processes may not be essential. We previously showed that mice lacking β2-microglobulin are highly susceptible to tumors induced by mouse polyoma virus (PyV), but CD8-deficient mice are resistant to these tumors. In this study, we show that CD8-deficient mice also control persistent PyV infection as efficiently as wild-type mice and generate a substantial virus-specific, MHC-I-restricted, T-cell response. Infection with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), which is acutely cleared, also recruited antigen-specific, MHC-I-restricted T cells in CD8-deficient mice. Yet, unlike in VSV infection, the antiviral MHC-I-restricted T-cell response to PyV has a prolonged expansion phase, indicating a requirement for persistent infection in driving T-cell inflation in CD8-deficient mice. Finally, we show that the PyV-specific, MHC-I-restricted T cells in CD8-deficient mice, while maintained long term at near-wild-type levels, are short lived in vivo and have extremely narrow T-cell receptor repertoires. These findings provide a possible explanation for the resistance of CD8-deficient mice to PyV-induced tumors and have implications for the maintenance of virus-specific MHC-I-restricted T cells during persistent infection. PMID:18337581

  9. MuSK is a BMP co-receptor that shapes BMP responses and calcium signaling in muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Atilgan; Kattamuri, Chandramohan; Ozdeslik, Rana N; Schmiedel, Carolyn; Mentzer, Sarah; Schorl, Christoph; Oancea, Elena; Thompson, Thomas B; Fallon, Justin R

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) function in most tissues but have cell type-specific effects. Given the relatively small number of BMP receptors, this exquisite signaling specificity requires additional molecules to regulate this pathway's output. The receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK (muscle-specific kinase) is critical for neuromuscular junction formation and maintenance. Here, we show that MuSK also promotes BMP signaling in muscle cells. MuSK bound to BMP4 and related BMPs with low nanomolar affinity in vitro and to the type I BMP receptors ALK3 and ALK6 in a ligand-independent manner both in vitro and in cultured myotubes. High-affinity binding to BMPs required the third, alternatively spliced MuSK immunoglobulin-like domain. In myoblasts, endogenous MuSK promoted BMP4-dependent phosphorylation of SMADs and transcription of Id1, which encodes a transcription factor involved in muscle differentiation. Gene expression profiling showed that MuSK was required for the BMP4-induced expression of a subset of genes in myoblasts, including regulator of G protein signaling 4 (Rgs4). In myotubes, MuSK enhanced the BMP4-induced expression of a distinct set of genes, including transcripts characteristic of slow muscle. MuSK-mediated stimulation of BMP signaling required type I BMP receptor activity but was independent of MuSK tyrosine kinase activity. MuSK-dependent expression of Rgs4 resulted in the inhibition of Ca(2+) signaling induced by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in myoblasts. These findings establish that MuSK has dual roles in muscle cells, acting both as a tyrosine kinase-dependent synaptic organizing molecule and as a BMP co-receptor that shapes BMP transcriptional output and cholinergic signaling. PMID:27601729

  10. LRP-6 is a coreceptor for multiple fibrogenic signaling pathways in pericytes and myofibroblasts that are inhibited by DKK-1

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Shuyu; Johnson, Bryce G.; Kida, Yujiro; Ip, Colin; Davidson, Kathryn C.; Lin, Shuei-Liong; Kobayashi, Akio; Lang, Richard A.; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Moon, Randall T.; Duffield, Jeremy S.

    2013-01-01

    Fibrosis of vital organs is a major public health problem with limited therapeutic options. Mesenchymal cells including microvascular mural cells (pericytes) are major progenitors of scar-forming myofibroblasts in kidney and other organs. Here we show pericytes in healthy kidneys have active WNT/β-catenin signaling responses that are markedly up-regulated following kidney injury. Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK-1), a ligand for the WNT coreceptors low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins 5 and 6 (LRP-5 and LRP-6) and an inhibitor of WNT/β-catenin signaling, effectively inhibits pericyte activation, detachment, and transition to myofibroblasts in vivo in response to kidney injury, resulting in attenuated fibrogenesis, capillary rarefaction, and inflammation. DKK-1 blocks activation and proliferation of established myofibroblasts in vitro and blocks pericyte proliferation to PDGF, pericyte migration, gene activation, and cytoskeletal reorganization to TGF-β or connective tissue growth factor. These effects are largely independent of inhibition of downstream β-catenin signaling. DKK-1 acts predominantly by inhibiting PDGF-, TGF-β–, and connective tissue growth factor-activated MAPK and JNK signaling cascades, acting via LRP-6 with associated WNT ligand. Biochemically, LRP-6 interacts closely with PDGF receptor β and TGF-β receptor 1 at the cell membrane, suggesting that it may have roles in pathways other than WNT/β-catenin. In summary, DKK-1 blocks many of the changes in pericytes required for myofibroblast transition and attenuates established myofibroblast proliferation/activation by mechanisms dependent on LRP-6 and WNT ligands but not the downstream β-catenin pathway. PMID:23302695

  11. Defining Binding Efficiency and Specificity of Auxins for SCFTIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA Co-receptor Complex Formation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Structure–activity profiles for the phytohormone auxin have been collected for over 70 years, and a number of synthetic auxins are used in agriculture. Auxin classification schemes and binding models followed from understanding auxin structures. However, all of the data came from whole plant bioassays, meaning the output was the integral of many different processes. The discovery of Transport Inhibitor-Response 1 (TIR1) and the Auxin F-Box (AFB) proteins as sites of auxin perception and the role of auxin as molecular glue in the assembly of co-receptor complexes has allowed the development of a definitive quantitative structure–activity relationship for TIR1 and AFB5. Factorial analysis of binding activities offered two uncorrelated factors associated with binding efficiency and binding selectivity. The six maximum-likelihood estimators of Efficiency are changes in the overlap matrixes, inferring that Efficiency is related to the volume of the electronic system. Using the subset of compounds that bound strongly, chemometric analyses based on quantum chemical calculations and similarity and self-similarity indices yielded three classes of Specificity that relate to differential binding. Specificity may not be defined by any one specific atom or position and is influenced by coulomb matrixes, suggesting that it is driven by electrostatic forces. These analyses give the first receptor-specific classification of auxins and indicate that AFB5 is the preferred site for a number of auxinic herbicides by allowing interactions with analogues having van der Waals surfaces larger than that of indole-3-acetic acid. The quality factors are also examined in terms of long-standing models for the mechanism of auxin binding. PMID:24313839

  12. Screening and diagnosis for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    HIV testing; HIV screening; HIV screening test; HIV confirmatory test ... A positive result on a screening test does not confirm that the person has HIV infection. More tests are needed to confirm HIV infection. A negative test ...

  13. Inhibition of HIV-1 endocytosis allows lipid mixing at the plasma membrane, but not complete fusion

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We recently provided evidence that HIV-1 enters HeLa-derived TZM-bl and lymphoid CEMss cells by fusing with endosomes, whereas its fusion with the plasma membrane does not proceed beyond the lipid mixing step. The mechanism of restriction of HIV-1 fusion at the cell surface and/or the factors that aid the virus entry from endosomes remain unclear. Results We examined HIV-1 fusion with a panel of target cells lines and with primary CD4+ T cells. Kinetic measurements of fusion combined with time-resolved imaging of single viruses further reinforced the notion that HIV-1 enters the cells via endocytosis and fusion with endosomes. Furthermore, we attempted to deliberately redirect virus fusion to the plasma membrane, using two experimental strategies. First, the fusion reaction was synchronized by pre-incubating the viruses with cells at reduced temperature to allow CD4 and coreceptors engagement, but not the virus uptake or fusion. Subsequent shift to a physiological temperature triggered accelerated virus uptake followed by entry from endosomes, but did not permit fusion at the cell surface. Second, blocking HIV-1 endocytosis by a small-molecule dynamin inhibitor, dynasore, resulted in transfer of viral lipids to the plasma membrane without any detectable release of the viral content into the cytosol. We also found that a higher concentration of dynasore is required to block the HIV-endosome fusion compared to virus internalization. Conclusions Our results further support the notion that HIV-1 enters disparate cell types through fusion with endosomes. The block of HIV-1 fusion with the plasma membrane at a post-lipid mixing stage shows that this membrane is not conducive to fusion pore formation and/or enlargement. The ability of dynasore to interfere with the virus-endosome fusion suggests that dynamin could be involved in two distinct steps of HIV-1 entry - endocytosis and fusion within intracellular compartments. PMID:22145853

  14. HIV among Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS ... HIV infection—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2013 . HIV Surveillance Special Report 13 . Accessed January ...

  15. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVagm Efficiently Utilizes Non-CCR5 Entry Pathways in African Green Monkey Lymphocytes: Potential Role for GPR15 and CXCR6 as Viral Coreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Riddick, Nadeene E.; Wu, Fan; Matsuda, Kenta; Whitted, Sonya; Ourmanov, Ilnour; Goldstein, Simoy; Goeken, Robert M.; Plishka, Ronald J.; Buckler-White, Alicia; Brenchley, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT African green monkeys (AGM) are natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and infection in these animals is generally nonpathogenic, whereas infection of nonnatural hosts, such as rhesus macaques (RM), is commonly pathogenic. CCR5 has been described as the primary entry coreceptor for SIV in vivo, while human-derived CXCR6 and GPR15 also appear to be used in vitro. However, sooty mangabeys that are genetically deficient in CCR5 due to an out-of-frame deletion are infectible with SIVsmm, indicating that SIVsmm can use alternative coreceptors in vivo. In this study, we examined the CCR5 dependence of SIV strains derived from vervet AGM (SIVagmVer) and the ability of AGM-derived GPR15 and CXCR6 to serve as potential entry coreceptors. We found that SIVagmVer replicated efficiently in AGM and RM peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in the presence of the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc, despite the fact that maraviroc was capable of blocking the CCR5-tropic strains SIVmac239, SIVsmE543-3, and simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV-AD8 in RM PBMC. We also found that AGM CXCR6 and AGM GPR15, to a lesser extent, supported entry of pseudotype viruses bearing SIVagm envelopes, including SIVagm transmitted/founder envelopes. Lastly, we found that CCR5, GPR15, and CXCR6 mRNAs were detected in AGM and RM memory CD4+ T cells. These results suggest that GPR15 and CXCR6 are expressed on AGM CD4+ T cells and are potential alternative coreceptors for SIVagm use in vivo. These data suggest that the use of non-CCR5 entry pathways may be a common feature of SIV replication in natural host species, with the potential to contribute to nonpathogenicity in these animals. IMPORTANCE African green monkeys (AGM) are natural hosts of SIV, and infection in these animals generally does not cause AIDS, whereas SIV-infected rhesus macaques (RM) typically develop AIDS. Although it has been reported that SIV generally uses CD4 and CCR5 to enter target cells in vivo, other

  16. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  17. The Law of Communicable Diseases Act and disclosure to sexual partners among HIV-positive youth

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Monica; Lalos, Ann; Johansson, Eva. E.

    2008-01-01

    In Sweden, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is included among the venereal diseases covered by the Law of Communicable Diseases Act. HIV-positive (HIV+) people are required to inform their sexual partners about their infection and adopt safe sex behaviours. However, it is unclear how the law is perceived. This study explores how HIV+ youth in Sweden perceive the law, handle their sexuality and disclose their HIV diagnosis to sexual partners. Ten HIV+ women and men between 17 and 24 years of age were recruited from three different HIV infection clinics. These participants were interviewed in depth. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed according to a grounded theory approach. The core category—cultured to take responsibility—illuminates the informants’ double-edged experiences regarding the law and how they handle disclosure to sexual partners. The legislation implies both support and burden for these HIV+ youth; they feel that they have a great deal of responsibility, sometimes more than they can handle. ‘Switch off lust’, ‘balancing lust, fear and obedience’ and ‘switch off the disease’ are strategies that describe how the informants manage sexuality and disclosure. Young HIV+ people have a difficult time informing partners of their HIV diagnosis and discussing safe sex strategies. These are challenges that health care providers need to take seriously. HIV+ youth need better communication strategies to negotiate safer sex. Staff with extended education on sexuality should be a part of HIV health care. PMID:22639678

  18. The Law of Communicable Diseases Act and disclosure to sexual partners among HIV-positive youth.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Monica; Lalos, Ann; Johansson, Eva E

    2008-12-01

    In Sweden, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is included among the venereal diseases covered by the Law of Communicable Diseases Act. HIV-positive (HIV(+)) people are required to inform their sexual partners about their infection and adopt safe sex behaviours. However, it is unclear how the law is perceived. This study explores how HIV(+) youth in Sweden perceive the law, handle their sexuality and disclose their HIV diagnosis to sexual partners. Ten HIV(+) women and men between 17 and 24 years of age were recruited from three different HIV infection clinics. These participants were interviewed in depth. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed according to a grounded theory approach. The core category-cultured to take responsibility-illuminates the informants' double-edged experiences regarding the law and how they handle disclosure to sexual partners. The legislation implies both support and burden for these HIV(+) youth; they feel that they have a great deal of responsibility, sometimes more than they can handle. 'Switch off lust', 'balancing lust, fear and obedience' and 'switch off the disease' are strategies that describe how the informants manage sexuality and disclosure. Young HIV(+) people have a difficult time informing partners of their HIV diagnosis and discussing safe sex strategies. These are challenges that health care providers need to take seriously. HIV(+) youth need better communication strategies to negotiate safer sex. Staff with extended education on sexuality should be a part of HIV health care. PMID:22639678

  19. Attrition of TCR Vα7.2+ CD161++ MAIT cells in HIV-tuberculosis co-infection is associated with elevated levels of PD-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Saeidi, Alireza; Tien Tien, Vicky L; Al-Batran, Rami; Al-Darraji, Haider A; Tan, Hong Y; Yong, Yean K; Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela; Barathan, Muttiah; Rukumani, Devi V; Ansari, Abdul W; Velu, Vijayakumar; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Larsson, Marie; Shankar, Esaki M

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are evolutionarily conserved antimicrobial MR1-restricted CD8(+) T cells co-expressing the semi-invariant TCR Vα7.2, and are numerous in the blood and mucosal tissues of humans. MAIT cells appear to undergo exhaustion in chronic viral infections. However, their role in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mono-infection and HIV/tuberculosis (TB) co-infection have seldom been elaborately investigated. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the frequencies and phenotypes of CD161(++)CD8(+) T cells among anti-retroviral therapy (ART)/anti-TB therapy (ATT) treatment-naïve HIV/TB co-infected, ART/TB treated HIV/TB co-infected, ART naïve HIV-infected, ART-treated HIV-infected patients, and HIV negative healthy controls (HCs) by flow cytometry. Our data revealed that the frequency of MAIT cells was severely depleted in HIV mono- and HIV/TB co-infections. Further, PD-1 expression on MAIT cells was significantly increased in HIV mono- and HIV-TB co-infected patients. The frequency of MAIT cells did not show any significant increase despite the initiation of ART and/or ATT. Majority of the MAIT cells in HCs showed a significant increase in CCR6 expression as compared to HIV/TB co-infections. No marked difference was seen with expressions of chemokine co-receptor CCR5 and CD103 among the study groups. Decrease of CCR6 expression appears to explain why HIV-infected patients display weakened mucosal immune responses. PMID:25894562

  20. Attrition of TCR Vα7.2+ CD161++ MAIT Cells in HIV-Tuberculosis Co-Infection Is Associated with Elevated Levels of PD-1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Saeidi, Alireza; Tien Tien, Vicky L.; Al-Batran, Rami; Al-Darraji, Haider A.; Tan, Hong Y.; Yong, Yean K.; Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela; Barathan, Muttiah; Rukumani, Devi V.; Ansari, Abdul W.; Velu, Vijayakumar; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Larsson, Marie; Shankar, Esaki M.

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are evolutionarily conserved antimicrobial MR1-restricted CD8+ T cells co-expressing the semi-invariant TCR Vα7.2, and are numerous in the blood and mucosal tissues of humans. MAIT cells appear to undergo exhaustion in chronic viral infections. However, their role in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mono-infection and HIV/tuberculosis (TB) co-infection have seldom been elaborately investigated. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the frequencies and phenotypes of CD161++CD8+ T cells among anti-retroviral therapy (ART)/anti-TB therapy (ATT) treatment-naïve HIV/TB co-infected, ART/TB treated HIV/TB co-infected, ART naïve HIV-infected, ART-treated HIV-infected patients, and HIV negative healthy controls (HCs) by flow cytometry. Our data revealed that the frequency of MAIT cells was severely depleted in HIV mono- and HIV/TB co-infections. Further, PD-1 expression on MAIT cells was significantly increased in HIV mono- and HIV-TB co-infected patients. The frequency of MAIT cells did not show any significant increase despite the initiation of ART and/or ATT. Majority of the MAIT cells in HCs showed a significant increase in CCR6 expression as compared to HIV/TB co-infections. No marked difference was seen with expressions of chemokine co-receptor CCR5 and CD103 among the study groups. Decrease of CCR6 expression appears to explain why HIV-infected patients display weakened mucosal immune responses. PMID:25894562

  1. NSOM/QD-Based Direct Visualization of CD3-Induced and CD28-Enhanced Nanospatial Coclustering of TCR and Coreceptor in Nanodomains in T Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Richard C.; Gong, Guangming; Yan, Lin; Huang, Dan; Chen, Zheng W.

    2009-01-01

    Direct molecular imaging of nano-spatial relationship between T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 and CD4 or CD8 co-receptor before and after activation of a primary T cell has not been reported. We have recently innovated application of near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) and immune-labeling quantum dots (QD) to image Ag-specific TCR response during in vivo clonal expansion, and now up-graded the NSOM/QD-based nanotechnology through dipole-polarization and dual-color imaging. Using this imaging system scanning cell-membrane molecules at a best-optical lateral resolution, we demonstrated that CD3, CD4 or CD8 molecules were distinctly distributed as single QD-bound molecules or nano-clusters equivalent to 2–4 QD fluorescence-intensity/size on cell-membrane of un-stimulated primary T cells, and ∼6–10% of CD3 were co-clustering with CD4 or CD8 as 70–110 nm nano-clusters without forming nano-domains. The ligation of TCR/CD3 on CD4 or CD8 T cells led to CD3 nanoscale co-clustering or interaction with CD4 or CD8 co-receptors forming 200–500 nm nano-domains or >500 nm micro-domains. Such nano-spatial co-clustering of CD3 and CD4 or CD3 and CD8 appeared to be an intrinsic event of TCR/CD3 ligation, not purely limited to MHC engagement, and be driven by Lck phosphorylation. Importantly, CD28 co-stimulation remarkably enhanced TCR/CD3 nanoscale co-clustering or interaction with CD4 co-receptor within nano- or micro-domains on the membrane. In contrast, CD28 co-stimulation did not enhance CD8 clustering or CD3–CD8 co-clustering in nano-domains although it increased molecular number and density of CD3 clustering in the enlarged nano-domains. These nanoscale findings provide new insights into TCR/CD3 interaction with CD4 or CD8 co-receptor in T-cell activation. PMID:19536289

  2. NSOM/QD-based direct visualization of CD3-induced and CD28-enhanced nanospatial coclustering of TCR and coreceptor in nanodomains in T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Liyun; Zeng, Gucheng; Lu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Richard C; Gong, Guangming; Yan, Lin; Huang, Dan; Chen, Zheng W

    2009-01-01

    Direct molecular imaging of nano-spatial relationship between T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3 and CD4 or CD8 co-receptor before and after activation of a primary T cell has not been reported. We have recently innovated application of near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) and immune-labeling quantum dots (QD) to image Ag-specific TCR response during in vivo clonal expansion, and now up-graded the NSOM/QD-based nanotechnology through dipole-polarization and dual-color imaging. Using this imaging system scanning cell-membrane molecules at a best-optical lateral resolution, we demonstrated that CD3, CD4 or CD8 molecules were distinctly distributed as single QD-bound molecules or nano-clusters equivalent to 2-4 QD fluorescence-intensity/size on cell-membrane of un-stimulated primary T cells, and approximately 6-10% of CD3 were co-clustering with CD4 or CD8 as 70-110 nm nano-clusters without forming nano-domains. The ligation of TCR/CD3 on CD4 or CD8 T cells led to CD3 nanoscale co-clustering or interaction with CD4 or CD8 co-receptors forming 200-500 nm nano-domains or >500 nm micro-domains. Such nano-spatial co-clustering of CD3 and CD4 or CD3 and CD8 appeared to be an intrinsic event of TCR/CD3 ligation, not purely limited to MHC engagement, and be driven by Lck phosphorylation. Importantly, CD28 co-stimulation remarkably enhanced TCR/CD3 nanoscale co-clustering or interaction with CD4 co-receptor within nano- or micro-domains on the membrane. In contrast, CD28 co-stimulation did not enhance CD8 clustering or CD3-CD8 co-clustering in nano-domains although it increased molecular number and density of CD3 clustering in the enlarged nano-domains. These nanoscale findings provide new insights into TCR/CD3 interaction with CD4 or CD8 co-receptor in T-cell activation. PMID:19536289

  3. Effective switching frequency multiplier inverter

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Gui-Jia; Peng, Fang Z.

    2007-08-07

    A switching frequency multiplier inverter for low inductance machines that uses parallel connection of switches and each switch is independently controlled according to a pulse width modulation scheme. The effective switching frequency is multiplied by the number of switches connected in parallel while each individual switch operates within its limit of switching frequency. This technique can also be used for other power converters such as DC/DC, AC/DC converters.

  4. HIV-1 gp120 as a therapeutic target: Navigating a moving labyrinth

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Priyamvada; Lusvarghi, Sabrina; Bewley, Carole A.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The HIV-1 gp120 envelope (Env) glycoprotein mediates attachment of virus to human target cells that display requisite receptors, CD4 and co-receptor, generally CCR5. Despite high affinity interactions with host receptors and proof-of-principle by the drug maraviroc that interference with CCR5 provides therapeutic benefit, no licensed drug currently targets gp120. Areas covered An overview of the role of gp120 in HIV-1 entry and of sites of potential gp120 vulnerability to therapeutic inhibition is presented. Viral defenses that protect these sites and turn gp120 into a moving labyrinth are discussed together with strategies for circumventing these defenses to allow therapeutic targeting of gp120 sites of vulnerability. Expert opinion The gp120 envelope glycoprotein interacts with host proteins through multiple interfaces and has conserved structural features at these interaction sites. In spite of this, targeting gp120 for therapeutic purposes is challenging. Env mechanisms evolved to evade the humoral immune response also shield it from potential therapeutics. Nevertheless, substantial progress has been made in understanding HIV-1 gp120 structure and its interactions with host receptors, and in developing therapeutic leads that potently neutralize diverse HIV-1 strains. Synergies between advances in understanding, needs for therapeutics against novel viral targets, and characteristics of breadth and potency for a number of gp120-targetting lead molecules bodes well for gp120 as a HIV-1 therapeutic target. PMID:25724219

  5. Recent advances in RNAi-based strategies for therapy and prevention of HIV-1/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Manjunath N; Wu, Haoquan; Shankar, Premlata

    2016-08-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) provides a powerful tool to silence specific gene expression and has been widely used to suppress host factors such as CCR5 and/or viral genes involved in HIV-1 replication. Newer nuclease-based gene-editing technologies, such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system, also provide powerful tools to ablate specific genes. Because of differences in co-receptor usage and the high mutability of the HIV-1 genome, a combination of host factors and viral genes needs to be suppressed for effective prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection. Whereas the continued presence of small interfering/short hairpin RNA (si/shRNA) mediators is needed for RNAi to be effective, the continued expression of nucleases in the gene-editing systems is undesirable. Thus, RNAi provides the only practical way for expression of multiple silencers in infected and uninfected cells, which is needed for effective prevention/treatment of infection. There have been several advances in the RNAi field in terms of si/shRNA design, targeted delivery to HIV-1 susceptible cells, and testing for efficacy in preclinical humanized mouse models. Here, we comprehensively review the latest advances in RNAi technology towards prevention and treatment of HIV-1. PMID:27013255

  6. Human tissue mast cells are an inducible reservoir of persistent HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Sundstrom, J Bruce; Ellis, Jane E; Hair, Gregory A; Kirshenbaum, Arnold S; Metcalfe, Dean D; Yi, Hong; Cardona, Adriana C; Lindsay, Michael K; Ansari, Aftab A

    2007-06-15

    We have proposed that, unlike other HIV-vulnerable cell lineages, progenitor mast cells (prMCs), cultured in vitro from undifferentiated bone marrow-derived CD34(+) pluripotent progenitors (PPPs), are susceptible to infection during a limited period of their ontogeny. As infected prMCs mature in culture, they lose expression of viral chemokine coreceptors necessary for viral entry and develop into long-lived, latently infected mature tissue mast cells (MCs), resistant to new infection. In vivo recruitment of prMCs to different tissue compartments occurs in response to tissue injury, growth, and remodeling or allergic inflammation, allowing populations of circulating and potentially HIV-susceptible prMCs to spread persistent infection to diverse tissue compartments. In this report, we provide in vivo evidence to confirm this model by demonstrating that HIV-infected women have both circulating prMCs and placental tissue MCs (PLMCs) that harbor inducible infectious HIV even after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) during pregnancy. Furthermore, infectious virus, capable of infecting alloactivated fetal cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs), could be induced in isolated latently infected PLMCs after weeks in culture in vitro. These data provide the first in vivo evidence that tissue MCs, developed from infected circulating prMCs, comprise a long-lived inducible reservoir of persistent HIV in infected persons during HAART. PMID:17351109

  7. Human tissue mast cells are an inducible reservoir of persistent HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Jane E.; Hair, Gregory A.; Kirshenbaum, Arnold S.; Metcalfe, Dean D.; Yi, Hong; Cardona, Adriana C.; Lindsay, Michael K.; Ansari, Aftab A.

    2007-01-01

    We have proposed that, unlike other HIV-vulnerable cell lineages, progenitor mast cells (prMCs), cultured in vitro from undifferentiated bone marrow–derived CD34+ pluripotent progenitors (PPPs), are susceptible to infection during a limited period of their ontogeny. As infected prMCs mature in culture, they lose expression of viral chemokine coreceptors necessary for viral entry and develop into long-lived, latently infected mature tissue mast cells (MCs), resistant to new infection. In vivo recruitment of prMCs to different tissue compartments occurs in response to tissue injury, growth, and remodeling or allergic inflammation, allowing populations of circulating and potentially HIV-susceptible prMCs to spread persistent infection to diverse tissue compartments. In this report, we provide in vivo evidence to confirm this model by demonstrating that HIV-infected women have both circulating prMCs and placental tissue MCs (PLMCs) that harbor inducible infectious HIV even after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) during pregnancy. Furthermore, infectious virus, capable of infecting alloactivated fetal cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs), could be induced in isolated latently infected PLMCs after weeks in culture in vitro. These data provide the first in vivo evidence that tissue MCs, developed from infected circulating prMCs, comprise a long-lived inducible reservoir of persistent HIV in infected persons during HAART. PMID:17351109

  8. Conditionally replicating HIV and SIV variants.

    PubMed

    Das, Atze T; Berkhout, Ben

    2016-05-01

    Conditionally replicating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) variants that can be switched on and off at will are attractive tools for HIV and SIV research. We constructed HIV and SIV variants in which the natural transcription control mechanism was replaced by the doxycycline (dox)-inducible Tet-On gene expression mechanism. These HIV-rtTA and SIV-rtTA variants are fully replication-competent, but replication is critically dependent on dox administration. We here describe how the dox-dependent virus variants may improve the safety of live-attenuated virus vaccines and how they can be used to study the immune responses that correlate with vaccine-induced protection. Furthermore, we review how these variants were initially designed and subsequently optimized by spontaneous viral evolution. These efforts yielded efficiently replicating and tightly dox-controlled HIV-rtTA and SIV-rtTA variants that replicate in a variety of cell and tissue culture systems, and in human immune system (HIS) mice and macaques, respectively. These viruses can be used as a tool in HIV and SIV biology studies and in vaccine research. We review how HIV-rtTA and SIV-rtTA were used to study the role of the viral TAR and Tat elements in virus replication. PMID:25982510

  9. Thermally actuated thermionic switch

    DOEpatents

    Barrus, D.M.; Shires, C.D.

    1982-09-30

    A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

  10. Thermally actuated thermionic switch

    DOEpatents

    Barrus, Donald M.; Shires, Charles D.

    1988-01-01

    A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

  11. AC magnetohydrodynamic microfluidic switch

    SciTech Connect

    Lemoff, A V; Lee, A P

    2000-03-02

    A microfluidic switch has been demonstrated using an AC Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pumping mechanism in which the Lorentz force is used to pump an electrolytic solution. By integrating two AC MHD pumps into different arms of a Y-shaped fluidic circuit, flow can be switched between the two arms. This type of switch can be used to produce complex fluidic routing, which may have multiple applications in {micro}TAS.

  12. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, Bernard T.; Dreifuerst, Gary R.

    1994-01-01

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1500 A peak, 1.0 .mu.s pulsewidth, and 4500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry.

  13. Reusable fast opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Van Devender, J.P.; Emin, D.

    1983-12-21

    A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and metallic states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

  14. Alarm toe switch

    DOEpatents

    Ganyard, Floyd P.

    1982-01-01

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit n a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch. The reed switch is hermetically sealed with the magnet acting through the wall so the switch assembly S is capable of reliable operation even in wet and corrosive environments.

  15. The CCL3L1-CCR5 genotype influences the development of AIDS, but not HIV susceptibility or the response to HAART

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Stanton, Jennifer; Kim, Eun - Young; Kunstman, Kevin; Phair, John; Jacobson, Lisa P; Wolinsky, Steven M

    2008-01-01

    A selective advantage against infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS is associated with differences in the genes relevant to immunity and virus replication. The CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), the principal coreceptor for HIV, and its chemokine ligands, including CCL3L1, influences the CD4+ target cells susceptibility to infection. The CCL3L1 gene is in a region of segmental duplication on the q-arm of human chromosome 17. Increased numbers of CCL3L1 gene copies that affect the gene expression phenotype might have substantial protective effects. Here we show that the population-specific CCL3L1 gene copy number and the CCR5 {Delta}32 protein-inactivating deletion that categorizes the CCL3L1-CCR5 genotype do not influence HIV/AIDS susceptibility or the robustness of immune recovery after the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

  16. Asymmetrical Switch Costs in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellefson, Michelle R.; Shapiron, Laura R.; Chater, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Switching between tasks produces decreases in performance as compared to repeating the same task. Asymmetrical switch costs occur when switching between two tasks of unequal difficulty. This asymmetry occurs because the cost is greater when switching to the less difficult task than when switching to the more difficult task. Various theories about…

  17. Maraviroc: a review of its use in HIV infection and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Woollard, Shawna M; Kanmogne, Georgette D

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) enters target cells by binding its envelope glycoprotein gp120 to the CD4 receptor and/or coreceptors such as C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5; R5) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4; X4), and R5-tropic viruses predominate during the early stages of infection. CCR5 antagonists bind to CCR5 to prevent viral entry. Maraviroc (MVC) is the only CCR5 antagonist currently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, the European Commission, Health Canada, and several other countries for the treatment of patients infected with R5-tropic HIV-1. MVC has been shown to be effective at inhibiting HIV-1 entry into cells and is well tolerated. With expanding MVC use by HIV-1-infected humans, different clinical outcomes post-approval have been observed with MVC monotherapy or combination therapy with other antiretroviral drugs, with MVC use in humans infected with dual-R5- and X4-tropic HIV-1, infected with different HIV-1 genotype or infected with HIV-2. This review discuss the role of CCR5 in HIV-1 infection, the development of the CCR5 antagonist MVC, its pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug–drug interactions, and the implications of these interactions on treatment outcomes, including viral mutations and drug resistance, and the mechanisms associated with the development of resistance to MVC. This review also discusses available studies investigating the use of MVC in the treatment of other diseases such as cancer, graft-versus-host disease, and inflammatory diseases. PMID:26491256

  18. Contribution of immunological and virological factors to extremely severe primary HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Dalmau, Judith; Puertas, Maria Carmen; Azuara, Marta; Mariño, Ana; Frahm, Nicole; Mothe, Beatriz; Izquierdo-Useros, Nuria; Buzón, Maria José; Paredes, Roger; Matas, Lourdes; Allen, Todd M.; Brander, Christian; Rodrigo, Carlos; Clotet, Bonaventura; Martinez-Picado, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Background During acute HIV infection, high viral loads and the induction of host immune responses typically coincide with the onset of clinical symptoms. However, clinically severe presentations during acute HIV-1 infection, including AIDS-defining symptoms, are unusual. Methods Virus isolates were tested for clade, drug susceptibility, coreceptor usage, and growth rate for two cases of clinically severe sexual transmission. HLA genotype was determined, and HIV-1-specific CTL responses to an overlapping peptide set spanning the entire HIV clade A and clade B proteome were assayed. Results The virus isolated from the two unrelated cases of severe primary HIV-1 infection showed R5/X4 dual/mixed tropism, belonged to clade B and CRF02-AG, and were highly replicative in peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture. Impaired humoral responses were paralleled by a profound absence of HIV-1-specific CTL responses to the entire viral proteome in the two study cases. One case for which the virus source was available, showed a remarkable HLA similarity between the transmission pair as all 4 HLA-A and -B alleles were HLA supertype-matched between the subjects involved in the transmission case. Conclusions The data suggest that concurrence of viral and host factors contribute to the clinical severity of primary HIV-1 infection and that subjects infected with highly replicative dual tropic viruses are more prone to develop AIDS-defining symptoms during acute infection if they are unable to mount humoral and cellular HIV-1-specific immune responses. Concordant HLA supertypes might facilitate the preferential transmission of HLA-adapted viral variants, further accelerating disease progression. PMID:19093810

  19. More about the Viking hypothesis of origin of the delta32 mutation in the CCR5 gene conferring resistance to HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Lucotte, Gérard; Dieterlen, Florent

    2003-11-01

    The chemokine receptor CCR5 constitutes the major coreceptor for the HIV-1, because a mutant allele of the CCR5 gene named delta32 was shown to provide to homozygotes a strong resistance against infection. In the present study the frequency of the delta32 allele was collected in 36 European populations and in Cyprus, and the highest allele frequencies were found in Nordic countries. We constructed an allele map of delta32 frequencies in Europe; the map is in accordance to the Vikings hypothesis of the origin of the mutation and his dissemination during the eighth to the tenth centuries. PMID:14636691

  20. The G-quadruplex-forming aptamer AS1411 potently inhibits HIV-1 attachment to the host cell

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, Rosalba; Butovskaya, Elena; Lago, Sara; Garzino-Demo, Alfredo; Pannecouque, Christophe; Palù, Giorgio; Richter, Sara N.

    2016-01-01

    AS1411 is a G-rich aptamer that forms a stable G-quadruplex structure and displays antineoplastic properties both in vitro and in vivo. This oligonucleotide has undergone phase 2 clinical trials. The major molecular target of AS1411 is nucleolin (NCL), a multifunctional nucleolar protein also present in the cell membrane where it selectively mediates the binding and uptake of AS1411. Cell-surface NCL has been recognised as a low-affinity co-receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) anchorage on target cells. Here we assessed the anti-HIV-1 properties and underlying mechanism of action of AS1411. The antiviral activity of AS1411 was determined towards different HIV-1 strains, host cells and at various times post-infection. Acutely, persistently and latently infected cells were tested, including HIV-1-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a healthy donor. Mechanistic studies to exclude modes of action other than virus binding via NCL were performed. AS1411 efficiently inhibited HIV-1 attachment/entry into the host cell. The aptamer displayed antiviral activity in the absence of cytotoxicity at the tested doses, therefore displaying a wide therapeutic window and favourable selectivity indexes. These findings, besides validating cell-surface-expressed NCL as an antiviral target, open the way for the possible use of AS1411 as a new potent and promisingly safe anti-HIV-1 agent. PMID:27032748

  1. Engineering HIV-Resistant Human CD4+ T Cells with CXCR4-Specific Zinc-Finger Nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Wilen, Craig B.; Wang, Jianbin; Tilton, John C.; Miller, Jeffrey C.; Kim, Kenneth A.; Rebar, Edward J.; Sherrill-Mix, Scott A.; Patro, Sean C.; Secreto, Anthony J.; Jordan, Andrea P. O.; Lee, Gary; Kahn, Joshua; Aye, Pyone P.; Bunnell, Bruce A.; Lackner, Andrew A.; Hoxie, James A.; Danet-Desnoyers, Gwenn A.; Bushman, Frederic D.; Riley, James L.; Gregory, Philip D.; June, Carl H.; Holmes, Michael C.; Doms, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 entry requires the cell surface expression of CD4 and either the CCR5 or CXCR4 coreceptors on host cells. Individuals homozygous for the ccr5Δ32 polymorphism do not express CCR5 and are protected from infection by CCR5-tropic (R5) virus strains. As an approach to inactivating CCR5, we introduced CCR5-specific zinc-finger nucleases into human CD4+ T cells prior to adoptive transfer, but the need to protect cells from virus strains that use CXCR4 (X4) in place of or in addition to CCR5 (R5X4) remains. Here we describe engineering a pair of zinc finger nucleases that, when introduced into human T cells, efficiently disrupt cxcr4 by cleavage and error-prone non-homologous DNA end-joining. The resulting cells proliferated normally and were resistant to infection by X4-tropic HIV-1 strains. CXCR4 could also be inactivated in ccr5Δ32 CD4+ T cells, and we show that such cells were resistant to all strains of HIV-1 tested. Loss of CXCR4 also provided protection from X4 HIV-1 in a humanized mouse model, though this protection was lost over time due to the emergence of R5-tropic viral mutants. These data suggest that CXCR4-specific ZFNs may prove useful in establishing resistance to CXCR4-tropic HIV for autologous transplant in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:21533216

  2. New cholesterol-specific antibodies remodel HIV-1 target cells’ surface and inhibit their in vitro virus production

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Zoltán; Balogh, Andrea; Kis, Andrea; Izsépi, Emese; Cervenak, László; László, Glória; Bíró, Adrienn; Liliom, Károly; Mocsár, Gábor; Vámosi, György; Füst, George; Matko, Janos

    2010-01-01

    The importance of membrane rafts in HIV-1 infection is still in the focus of interest. Here, we report that new monoclonal anticholesterol IgG antibodies (ACHAs), recognizing clustered membrane cholesterol (e.g., in lipid rafts), rearrange the lateral molecular organization of HIV-1 receptors and coreceptors in the plasma membrane of HIV-1 permissive human T-cells and macrophages. This remodeling is accompanied with a substantial inhibition of their infection and HIV-1 production in vitro. ACHAs promote the association of CXCR4 with both CD4 and lipid rafts, consistent with the decreased lateral mobility of CXCR4, while Fab fragments of ACHAs do not show these effects. ACHAs do not directly mask the extracellular domains of either CD4 or CXCR4 nor do they affect CXCR4 internalization. No significant inhibition of HIV production is seen when the virus is preincubated with the antibodies prior to infection. Thus, we propose that the observed inhibition is mainly due to the membrane remodeling induced by cholesterol-specific antibodies on the target cells. This, in turn, may prevent the proper spatio-temporal juxtaposition of HIV-1 glycoproteins with CD4 and chemokine receptors, thus negatively interfering with virus attachment/entry. PMID:19654424

  3. The G-quadruplex-forming aptamer AS1411 potently inhibits HIV-1 attachment to the host cell.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Rosalba; Butovskaya, Elena; Lago, Sara; Garzino-Demo, Alfredo; Pannecouque, Christophe; Palù, Giorgio; Richter, Sara N

    2016-04-01

    AS1411 is a G-rich aptamer that forms a stable G-quadruplex structure and displays antineoplastic properties both in vitro and in vivo. This oligonucleotide has undergone phase 2 clinical trials. The major molecular target of AS1411 is nucleolin (NCL), a multifunctional nucleolar protein also present in the cell membrane where it selectively mediates the binding and uptake of AS1411. Cell-surface NCL has been recognised as a low-affinity co-receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) anchorage on target cells. Here we assessed the anti-HIV-1 properties and underlying mechanism of action of AS1411. The antiviral activity of AS1411 was determined towards different HIV-1 strains, host cells and at various times post-infection. Acutely, persistently and latently infected cells were tested, including HIV-1-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a healthy donor. Mechanistic studies to exclude modes of action other than virus binding via NCL were performed. AS1411 efficiently inhibited HIV-1 attachment/entry into the host cell. The aptamer displayed antiviral activity in the absence of cytotoxicity at the tested doses, therefore displaying a wide therapeutic window and favourable selectivity indexes. These findings, besides validating cell-surface-expressed NCL as an antiviral target, open the way for the possible use of AS1411 as a new potent and promisingly safe anti-HIV-1 agent. PMID:27032748

  4. Variability Of The Conserved V3 Loop Tip Motif In Hiv-1 Subtype B Isolates Collected From Brazilian And French Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tomasini-Grotto, Rejane-Maria; Montes, Brigitte; Triglia, Denise; Torres-Braconi, Carla; Aliano-Block, Juliana; de A. Zanotto, Paolo M.; de M. C. Pardini, Maria-Inès; Segondy, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The diversity of the V3 loop tip motif sequences of HIV-1 subtype B was analyzed in patients from Botucatu (Brazil) and Montpellier (France). Overall, 37 tetrameric tip motifs were identified, 28 and 17 of them being recognized in Brazilian and French patients, respectively. The GPGR (P) motif was predominant in French but not in Brazilian patients (53.5% vs 31.0%), whereas the GWGR (W) motif was frequent in Brazilian patients (23.0%) and absent in French patients. Three tip motif groups were considered: P, W, and non-P non-W groups. The distribution of HIV-1 isolates into the three groups was significantly different between isolates from Botucatu and from Montpellier (P < 0.001). A higher proportion of CXCR4-using HIV-1 (X4 variants) was observed in the non-P non-W group as compared with the P group (37.5% vs 19.1%), and no X4 variant was identified in the W group (P < 0.001). The higher proportion of X4 variants in the non-P non-W group was essentially observed among the patients from Montpellier, who have been infected with HIV-1 for a longer period of time than those from Botucatu. Among patients from Montpellier, CD4+ cell counts were lower in patients belonging to the non-P non-W group than in those belonging to the P group (24 cells/μL vs 197 cells/μL; P = 0.005). Taken together, the results suggest that variability of the V3 loop tip motif may be related to HIV-1 coreceptor usage and to disease progression. However, as analyzed by a bioinformatic method, the substitution of the V3 loop tip motif of the subtype B consensus sequence with the different tip motifs identified in the present study was not sufficient to induce a change in HIV-1 coreceptor usage. PMID:24031549

  5. Movements of HIV-1 genomic RNA-APOBEC3F complexes and PKR reveal cytoplasmic and nuclear PKR defenses and HIV-1 evasion strategies.

    PubMed

    Marin, Mariana; Golem, Sheetal; Kozak, Susan L; Kabat, David

    2016-02-01

    APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases and viral genomic RNA (gRNA) occur in virions, polysomes, and cytoplasmic granules, but have not been tracked together. Moreover, gRNA traffic is important, but the factors that move it into granules are unknown. Using in situ hybridization of transfected cells and protein synthesis inhibitors that drive mRNAs between locales, we observed APOBEC3F cotrafficking with gRNA without altering its movements. Whereas cells with little cytoplasmic gRNA were translationally active and accumulated Gag, suprathreshold amounts induced autophosphorylation of the cytoplasmic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase (PKR), causing eIF2α phosphorylation, protein synthesis suppression, and gRNA sequestration in stress granules. Additionally, we confirmed recent evidence that PKR is activated by chromosome-associated cellular dsRNAs after nuclear membranes disperse in prophase. By arresting cells in G2, HIV-1 blocks this mechanism for PKR activation and eIF2α phosphorylation. However, cytopathic membrane damage in CD4- and coreceptor-positive cultures infected with laboratory-adapted fusogenic HIV-1LAI eventually enabled PKR entry and activation in interphase nuclei. These results reveal multiple stages in the PKR-HIV-1 battleground that culminate in cell death. We discuss evidence suggesting that HIV-1s evolve in vivo to prevent or delay PKR activation by all these mechanisms. PMID:26626364

  6. The unique degradation pathway of the PTS2 receptor, Pex7, is dependent on the PTS receptor/coreceptor, Pex5 and Pex20

    PubMed Central

    Hagstrom, Danielle; Ma, Changle; Guha-Polley, Soumi; Subramani, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisomal matrix protein import uses two peroxisomal targeting signals (PTSs). Most matrix proteins use the PTS1 pathway and its cargo receptor, Pex5. The PTS2 pathway is dependent on another receptor, Pex7, and its coreceptor, Pex20. We found that during the matrix protein import cycle, the stability and dynamics of Pex7 differ from those of Pex5 and Pex20. In Pichia pastoris, unlike Pex5 and Pex20, Pex7 is constitutively degraded in wild-type cells but is stabilized in pex mutants affecting matrix protein import. Degradation of Pex7 is more prevalent in cells grown in methanol, in which the PTS2 pathway is nonessential, in comparison with oleate, suggesting regulation of Pex7 turnover. Pex7 must shuttle into and out of peroxisomes before it is polyubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome. The shuttling of Pex7, and consequently its degradation, is dependent on the receptor recycling pathways of Pex5 and Pex20 and relies on an interaction between Pex7 and Pex20. We also found that blocking the export of Pex20 from peroxisomes inhibits PTS1-mediated import, suggesting sharing of limited components in the export of PTS receptors/coreceptors. The shuttling and stability of Pex7 are divergent from those of Pex5 and Pex20, exemplifying a novel interdependence of the PTS1 and PTS2 pathways. PMID:25009284

  7. Manually operated coded switch

    DOEpatents

    Barnette, Jon H.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made.

  8. Multidimensional set switching.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Sowon; Andersen, George J; Kramer, Arthur F

    2003-06-01

    The present study examined the organization of preparatory processes that underlie set switching and, more specifically, switch costs. On each trial, subjects performed one of two perceptual judgment tasks, color or shape discrimination. Subjects also responded with one of two different response sets. The task set and/or the response set switched from one to the other after 2-6 repeated trials. Response set, task set, and double set switches were performed in both blocked and randomized conditions. Subjects performed with short (100-msec) and long (800-msec) preparatory intervals. Task and response set switches had an additive effect on reaction times (RTs) in the blocked condition. Such a pattern of results suggests a serial organization of preparatory processes when the nature of switches is predictable. However, task and response set switches had an underadditive effect on RTs in the random condition when subjects performed with a brief cue-to-target interval. This pattern of results suggests overlapping task and response set preparation. These findings are discussed in terms of strategic control of preparatory processes in set switching. PMID:12921431

  9. Reflective HTS switch

    DOEpatents

    Martens, Jon S.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Hohenwarter, Gert K. G.

    1994-01-01

    A HTS switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time.

  10. Reflective HTS switch

    DOEpatents

    Martens, J.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Hohenwarter, G.K.G.

    1994-09-27

    A HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time. 6 figs.

  11. A Novel Molecular Switch

    PubMed Central

    Daber, Robert; Lewis, Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation is a fundamental process for regulating the flux of all metabolic pathways. For the last several decades, the lac operon has served as a valuable model for studying transcription. More recently, the switch that controls the operon has also been successfully adapted to function in mammalian cells. Here we describe how, using directed evolution, we have created a novel switch that recognizes an asymmetric operator sequence. The new switch has a repressor with altered headpiece domains for operator recognition, and a redesigned dimer interface to create a heterodimeric repressor. Quite unexpectedly, the heterodimeric switch functions better than the natural system. It can repress more tightly than the naturally occurring switch of the lac operon; it is less leaky and can be induced more efficiently. Ultimately these novel repressors could be evolved to recognize eukaryotic promoters and used to regulate gene expression in mammalian systems. PMID:19540845

  12. Nanoscale memristive radiofrequency switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Shuang; Ghadiri-Sadrabadi, Mohammad; Bardin, Joseph C.; Xia, Qiangfei

    2015-06-01

    Radiofrequency switches are critical components in wireless communication systems and consumer electronics. Emerging devices include switches based on microelectromechanical systems and phase-change materials. However, these devices suffer from disadvantages such as large physical dimensions and high actuation voltages. Here we propose and demonstrate a nanoscale radiofrequency switch based on a memristive device. The device can be programmed with a voltage as low as 0.4 V and has an ON/OFF conductance ratio up to 1012 with long state retention. We measure the radiofrequency performance of the switch up to 110 GHz and demonstrate low insertion loss (0.3 dB at 40 GHz), high isolation (30 dB at 40 GHz), an average cutoff frequency of 35 THz and competitive linearity and power-handling capability. Our results suggest that, in addition to their application in memory and computing, memristive devices are also a leading contender for radiofrequency switch applications.

  13. Erected mirror optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Allen, James J.

    2005-06-07

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) optical switching apparatus is disclosed that is based on an erectable mirror which is formed on a rotatable stage using surface micromachining. An electrostatic actuator is also formed on the substrate to rotate the stage and mirror with a high angular precision. The mirror can be erected manually after fabrication of the device and used to redirect an incident light beam at an arbitrary angel and to maintain this state in the absence of any applied electrical power. A 1.times.N optical switch can be formed using a single rotatable mirror. In some embodiments of the present invention, a plurality of rotatable mirrors can be configured so that the stages and mirrors rotate in unison when driven by a single micromotor thereby forming a 2.times.2 optical switch which can be used to switch a pair of incident light beams, or as a building block to form a higher-order optical switch.

  14. Switch on, switch off: stiction in nanoelectromechanical switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Till J. W.; Vella, Dominic

    2013-07-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of stiction in nanoscale electromechanical contact switches. We develop a mathematical model to describe the deflection of a cantilever beam in response to both electrostatic and van der Waals forces. Particular focus is given to the question of whether adhesive van der Waals forces cause the cantilever to remain in the ‘ON’ state even when the electrostatic forces are removed. In contrast to previous studies, our theory accounts for deflections with large slopes (i.e. geometrically nonlinear). We solve the resulting equations numerically to study how a cantilever beam adheres to a rigid electrode: transitions between ‘free’, ‘pinned’ and ‘clamped’ states are shown to be discontinuous and to exhibit significant hysteresis. Our findings are compared to previous results from linearized models and the implications for nanoelectromechanical cantilever switch design are discussed.

  15. Switch on, switch off: stiction in nanoelectromechanical switches.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Till J W; Vella, Dominic

    2013-07-12

    We present a theoretical investigation of stiction in nanoscale electromechanical contact switches. We develop a mathematical model to describe the deflection of a cantilever beam in response to both electrostatic and van der Waals forces. Particular focus is given to the question of whether adhesive van der Waals forces cause the cantilever to remain in the 'ON' state even when the electrostatic forces are removed. In contrast to previous studies, our theory accounts for deflections with large slopes (i.e. geometrically nonlinear). We solve the resulting equations numerically to study how a cantilever beam adheres to a rigid electrode: transitions between 'free', 'pinned' and 'clamped' states are shown to be discontinuous and to exhibit significant hysteresis. Our findings are compared to previous results from linearized models and the implications for nanoelectromechanical cantilever switch design are discussed. PMID:23759938

  16. Towards single molecule switches.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia Lin; Zhong, Jian Qiang; Lin, Jia Dan; Hu, Wen Ping; Wu, Kai; Xu, Guo Qin; Wee, Andrew T S; Chen, Wei

    2015-05-21

    The concept of using single molecules as key building blocks for logic gates, diodes and transistors to perform basic functions of digital electronic devices at the molecular scale has been explored over the past decades. However, in addition to mimicking the basic functions of current silicon devices, molecules often possess unique properties that have no parallel in conventional materials and promise new hybrid devices with novel functions that cannot be achieved with equivalent solid-state devices. The most appealing example is the molecular switch. Over the past decade, molecular switches on surfaces have been intensely investigated. A variety of external stimuli such as light, electric field, temperature, tunneling electrons and even chemical stimulus have been used to activate these molecular switches between bistable or even multiple states by manipulating molecular conformations, dipole orientations, spin states, charge states and even chemical bond formation. The switching event can occur either on surfaces or in break junctions. The aim of this review is to highlight recent advances in molecular switches triggered by various external stimuli, as investigated by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM) and the break junction technique. We begin by presenting the molecular switches triggered by various external stimuli that do not provide single molecule selectivity, referred to as non-selective switching. Special focus is then given to selective single molecule switching realized using the LT-STM tip on surfaces. Single molecule switches operated by different mechanisms are reviewed and discussed. Finally, molecular switches embedded in self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and single molecule junctions are addressed. PMID:25757483

  17. HIV Life Cycle

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Overview The HIV Life Cycle (Last updated 9/8/2016; last reviewed 9/8/2016) Key Points HIV gradually destroys the immune ... life cycle. What is the connection between the HIV life cycle and HIV medicines? Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ...

  18. A scalable low-cost cGMP process for clinical grade production of the HIV inhibitor 5P12-RANTES in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Cerini, Fabrice; Gaertner, Hubert; Madden, Knut; Tolstorukov, Ilya; Brown, Scott; Laukens, Bram; Callewaert, Nico; Harner, Jay C; Oommen, Anna M; Harms, John T; Sump, Anthony R; Sealock, Robert C; Peterson, Dustin J; Johnson, Scott K; Abramson, Stephan B; Meagher, Michael; Offord, Robin; Hartley, Oliver

    2016-03-01

    In the continued absence of an effective anti-HIV vaccine, approximately 2 million new HIV infections occur every year, with over 95% of these in developing countries. Calls have been made for the development of anti-HIV drugs that can be formulated for topical use to prevent HIV transmission during sexual intercourse. Because these drugs are principally destined for use in low-resource regions, achieving production costs that are as low as possible is an absolute requirement. 5P12-RANTES, an analog of the human chemokine protein RANTES/CCL5, is a highly potent HIV entry inhibitor which acts by achieving potent blockade of the principal HIV coreceptor, CCR5. Here we describe the development and optimization of a scalable low-cost production process for 5P12-RANTES based on expression in Pichia pastoris. At pilot (150 L) scale, this cGMP compliant process yielded 30 g of clinical grade 5P12-RANTES. As well as providing sufficient material for the first stage of clinical development, this process represents an important step towards achieving production of 5P12-RANTES at a cost and scale appropriate to meet needs for topical HIV prevention worldwide. PMID:26506568

  19. Minocycline attenuates HIV-1 infection and suppresses chronic immune activation in humanized NOD/LtsZ-scidIL-2Rγnull mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Maneesh; Singh, Pratibha; Vaira, Dolores; Amand, Mathieu; Rahmouni, Souad; Moutschen, Michel

    2014-01-01

    More than a quarter of a century of research has established chronic immune activation and dysfunctional T cells as central features of chronic HIV infection and subsequent immunodeficiency. Consequently, the search for a new immunomodulatory therapy that could reduce immune activation and improve T-cell function has been increased. However, the lack of small animal models for in vivo HIV study has hampered progress. In the current study, we have investigated a model of cord blood haematopoietic progenitor cells (CB-HPCs) -transplanted humanized NOD/LtsZ-scidIL-2Rγnull mice in which progression of HIV infection is associated with widespread chronic immune activation and inflammation. Indeed, HIV infection in humanized NSG mice caused up-regulation of several T-cell immune activation markers such as CD38, HLA-DR, CD69 and co-receptor CCR5. T-cell exhaustion markers PD-1 and CTLA-4 were found to be significantly up-regulated on T cells. Moreover, increased plasmatic levels of lipopolysaccharide, sCD14 and interleukin-10 were also observed in infected mice. Treatment with minocycline resulted in a significant decrease of expression of cellular and plasma immune activation markers, inhibition of HIV replication and improved T-cell counts in HIV-infected humanized NSG mice. The study demonstrates that minocycline could be an effective, low-cost adjunctive treatment to regulate chronic immune activation and replication of HIV. PMID:24409837

  20. A scalable low-cost cGMP process for clinical grade production of the HIV inhibitor 5P12-RANTES in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Cerini, Fabrice; Gaertner, Hubert; Madden, Knut; Tolstorukov, Ilya; Brown, Scott; Laukens, Bram; Callewaert, Nico; Harner, Jay C.; Oommen, Anna M.; Harms, John T.; Sump, Anthony R.; Sealock, Robert C.; Peterson, Dustin J.; Johnson, Scott K.; Abramson, Stephan B.; Meagher, Michael; Offord, Robin; Hartley, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    In the continued absence of an effective anti-HIV vaccine, approximately 2 million new HIV infections occur every year, with over 95% of these in developing countries. Calls have been made for the development of anti-HIV drugs that can be formulated for topical use to prevent HIV transmission during sexual intercourse. Because these drugs are principally destined for use in low-resource regions, achieving production costs that are as low as possible is an absolute requirement. 5P12-RANTES, an analog of the human chemokine protein RANTES/CCL5, is a highly potent HIV entry inhibitor which acts by achieving potent blockade of the principal HIV coreceptor, CCR5. Here we describe the development and optimization of a scalable low-cost production process for 5P12-RANTES based on expression in Pichia pastoris. At pilot (150 L) scale, this cGMP compliant process yielded 30 g of clinical grade 5P12-RANTES. As well as providing sufficient material for the first stage of clinical development, this process represents an important step towards achieving production of 5P12-RANTES at a cost and scale appropriate to meet needs for topical HIV prevention worldwide. PMID:26506568

  1. Optical Circuit Switched Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monacos, Steve P. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a system and method embodied in an optical circuit switched protocol for the transmission of data through a network. The optical circuit switched protocol is an all-optical circuit switched network and includes novel optical switching nodes for transmitting optical data packets within a network. Each optical switching node comprises a detector for receiving the header, header detection logic for translating the header into routing information and eliminating the header, and a controller for receiving the routing information and configuring an all optical path within the node. The all optical path located within the node is solely an optical path without having electronic storage of the data and without having optical delay of the data. Since electronic storage of the header is not necessary and the initial header is eliminated by the first detector of the first switching node. multiple identical headers are sent throughout the network so that subsequent switching nodes can receive and read the header for setting up an optical data path.

  2. Optical packet switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekel, Eyal; Ruschin, Shlomo; Majer, Daniel; Levy, Jeff; Matmon, Guy; Koenigsberg, Lisa; Vecht, Jacob; Geron, Amir; Harlavan, Rotem; Shfaram, Harel; Arbel, Arnon; McDermott, Tom; Brewer, Tony

    2005-02-01

    We report here a scalable, multichassis, 6.3 terabit core router, which utilizes our proprietary optical switch. The router is commercially available and deployed in several customer sites. Our solution combines optical switching with electronic routing. An internal optical packet switching network interconnects the router"s electronic line cards, where routing and buffering functions take place electronically. The system architecture and performance will be described. The optical switch is based on Optical Phased Array (OPA) technology. It is a 64 x 64, fully non-blocking, optical crossbar switch, capable of switching in a fraction of a nanosecond. The basic principles of operation will be explained. Loss and crosstalk results will be presented, as well as the results of BER measurements of a 160 Gbps transmission through one channel. Basic principles of operation and measured results will be presented for the burst-mode-receivers, arbitration algorithm and synchronization. Finally, we will present some of our current research work on a next-generation optical switch. The technological issues we have solved in our internal optical packet network can have broad applicability to any global optical packet network.

  3. New developments in anti-HIV chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, E

    2001-11-01

    Virtually all the compounds that are currently used, or under advanced clinical trial, for the treatment of HIV infections, belong to one of the following classes: (i) nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs): i.e., zidovudine (AZT), didanosine (ddI), zalcitabine (ddC), stavudine (d4T), lamivudine (3TC), abacavir (ABC), emtricitabine [(-)FTC], tenofovir (PMPA) disoproxil fumarate; (ii) non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs): i.e., nevirapine, delavirdine, efavirenz, emivirine (MKC-442); and (iii) protease inhibitors (PIs): i.e., saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, amprenavir, and lopinavir. In addition to the reverse transcriptase and protease step, various other events in the HIV replicative cycle are potential targets for chemotherapeutic intervention: (i) viral adsorption, through binding to the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 (polysulfates, polysulfonates, polyoxometalates, zintevir, negatively charged albumins, cosalane analogues); (ii) viral entry, through blockade of the viral coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5 [bicyclams (i.e. AMD3100), polyphemusins (T22), TAK-779, MIP-1 alpha LD78 beta isoform]; (iii) virus-cell fusion, through binding to the viral glycoprotein gp41 [T-20 (DP-178), T-1249 (DP-107), siamycins, betulinic acid derivatives]; (iv) viral assembly and disassembly, through NCp7 zinc finger-targeted agents [2,2'-dithiobisbenzamides (DIBAs), azadicarbonamide (ADA) and NCp7 peptide mimics]; (v) proviral DNA integration, through integrase inhibitors such as L-chicoric acid and diketo acids (i.e. L-731,988); (vi) viral mRNA transcription, through inhibitors of the transcription (transactivation) process (fluoroquinolone K-12, Streptomyces product EM2487, temacrazine, CGP64222). Also, in recent years new NRTIs, NNRTIs and PIs have been developed that possess respectively improved metabolic characteristics (i.e. phosphoramidate and cyclosaligenyl pronucleotides of d4T), or increased activity against NNRTI

  4. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.

    1994-07-19

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1,500 A peak, 1.0 [mu]s pulsewidth, and 4,500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry. 6 figs.

  5. SPARK GAP SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Neal, R.B.

    1957-12-17

    An improved triggered spark gap switch is described, capable of precisely controllable firing time while switching very large amounts of power. The invention in general comprises three electrodes adjustably spaced and adapted to have a large potential impressed between the outer electrodes. The central electrode includes two separate elements electrically connected togetaer and spaced apart to define a pair of spark gaps between the end electrodes. Means are provided to cause the gas flow in the switch to pass towards the central electrode, through a passage in each separate element, and out an exit disposed between the two separate central electrode elements in order to withdraw ions from the spark gap.

  6. Photoconductive switch package

    DOEpatents

    Ca[rasp, George J

    2013-10-22

    A photoconductive switch is formed of a substrate that has a central portion of SiC or other photoconductive material and an outer portion of cvd-diamond or other suitable material surrounding the central portion. Conducting electrodes are formed on opposed sides of the substrate, with the electrodes extending beyond the central portion and the edges of the electrodes lying over the outer portion. Thus any high electric fields produced at the edges of the electrodes lie outside of and do not affect the central portion, which is the active switching element. Light is transmitted through the outer portion to the central portion to actuate the switch.

  7. Photoconductive switch package

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, George J.

    2015-10-27

    A photoconductive switch is formed of a substrate that has a central portion of SiC or other photoconductive material and an outer portion of cvd-diamond or other suitable material surrounding the central portion. Conducting electrodes are formed on opposed sides of the substrate, with the electrodes extending beyond the central portion and the edges of the electrodes lying over the outer portion. Thus any high electric fields produced at the edges of the electrodes lie outside of and do not affect the central portion, which is the active switching element. Light is transmitted through the outer portion to the central portion to actuate the switch.

  8. Electromechanical magnetization switching

    SciTech Connect

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M.; Jaafar, Reem

    2015-03-14

    We show that the magnetization of a torsional oscillator that, in addition to the magnetic moment also possesses an electrical polarization, can be switched by the electric field that ignites mechanical oscillations at the frequency comparable to the frequency of the ferromagnetic resonance. The 180° switching arises from the spin-rotation coupling and is not prohibited by the different symmetry of the magnetic moment and the electric field as in the case of a stationary magnet. Analytical equations describing the system have been derived and investigated numerically. Phase diagrams showing the range of parameters required for the switching have been obtained.

  9. HIV Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... the right way, every day. If you have health insurance, your insurer is required to cover some medicines ... to treat HIV. If you don’t have health insurance, or you’re unable to afford your co- ...

  10. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  11. Preventing HIV with Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... information in Spanish ( en español ) Preventing HIV with medicine Get medicine right after you are exposed to ... to top More information on Preventing HIV with medicine Explore other publications and websites National HIV and ...

  12. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It kills or damages the body's immune system cells. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the most advanced stage of infection with HIV. HIV most ...

  13. How HIV Causes AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  14. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  15. HIV-AIDS Connection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 and ... is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in the human ...

  16. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... HIV infections. HIV infection is often diagnosed through rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), which detect the presence or absence of ... accuracy. It is important to note that serological tests detect antibodies produced ... pathogens, rather than direct detection of HIV itself. Most ...

  17. Older People and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... common than they were before the use of anti-HIV drugs. It is difficult to know what is causing mental problems in older people with HIV. Is it normal aging, or is it HIV disease? Research studies have ...

  18. Punica granatum (Pomegranate) juice provides an HIV-1 entry inhibitor and candidate topical microbicide

    PubMed Central

    Neurath, A Robert; Strick, Nathan; Li, Yun-Yao; Debnath, Asim K

    2004-01-01

    Background For ≈ 24 years the AIDS pandemic has claimed ≈ 30 million lives, causing ≈ 14,000 new HIV-1 infections daily worldwide in 2003. About 80% of infections occur by heterosexual transmission. In the absence of vaccines, topical microbicides, expected to block virus transmission, offer hope for controlling the pandemic. Antiretroviral chemotherapeutics have decreased AIDS mortality in industrialized countries, but only minimally in developing countries. To prevent an analogous dichotomy, microbicides should be: acceptable; accessible; affordable; and accelerative in transition from development to marketing. Already marketed pharmaceutical excipients or foods, with established safety records and adequate anti-HIV-1 activity, may provide this option. Methods Fruit juices were screened for inhibitory activity against HIV-1 IIIB using CD4 and CXCR4 as cell receptors. The best juice was tested for inhibition of: (1) infection by HIV-1 BaL, utilizing CCR5 as the cellular coreceptor; and (2) binding of gp120 IIIB and gp120 BaL, respectively, to CXCR4 and CCR5. To remove most colored juice components, the adsorption of the effective ingredient(s) to dispersible excipients and other foods was investigated. A selected complex was assayed for inhibition of infection by primary HIV-1 isolates. Results HIV-1 entry inhibitors from pomegranate juice adsorb onto corn starch. The resulting complex blocks virus binding to CD4 and CXCR4/CCR5 and inhibits infection by primary virus clades A to G and group O. Conclusion These results suggest the possibility of producing an anti-HIV-1 microbicide from inexpensive, widely available sources, whose safety has been established throughout centuries, provided that its quality is adequately standardized and monitored. PMID:15485580

  19. Molecular Characterization of HIV-1 Subtype C gp-120 Regions Potentially Involved in Virus Adaptive Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Cenci, Alessandra; D'Avenio, Giuseppe; Tavoschi, Lara; Chiappi, Michele; Becattini, Simone; Narino, Maria del Pilar; Picconi, Orietta; Bernasconi, Daniela; Fanales-Belasio, Emanuele; Vardas, Eftyhia; Sukati, Hosea; Presti, Alessandra Lo; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Monini, Paolo; Ensoli, Barbara; Grigioni, Mauro; Buttò, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The role of variable regions of HIV-1 gp120 in immune escape of HIV has been investigated. However, there is scant information on how conserved gp120 regions contribute to virus escaping. Here we have studied how molecular sequence characteristics of conserved C3, C4 and V3 regions of clade C HIV-1 gp120 that are involved in HIV entry and are target of the immune response, are modulated during the disease course. We found an increase of “shifting” putative N-glycosylation sites (PNGSs) in the α2 helix (in C3) and in C4 and an increase of sites under positive selection pressure in the α2 helix during the chronic stage of disease. These sites are close to CD4 and to co-receptor binding sites. We also found a negative correlation between electric charges of C3 and V4 during the late stage of disease counteracted by a positive correlation of electric charges of α2 helix and V5 during the same stage. These data allow us to hypothesize possible mechanisms of virus escape involving constant and variable regions of gp120. In particular, new mutations, including new PNGSs occurring near the CD4 and CCR5 binding sites could potentially affect receptor binding affinity and shield the virus from the immune response. PMID:24788065

  20. Stem cell gene therapy for HIV: strategies to inhibit viral entry and replication.

    PubMed

    DiGiusto, David L

    2015-03-01

    Since the demonstration of a cure of an HIV+ patient with an allogeneic stem cell transplant using naturally HIV-resistant cells, significant interest in creating similar autologous products has fueled the development of a variety of "cell engineering" approaches to stem cell therapy for HIV. Among the more well-studied strategies is the inhibition of viral entry through disruption of expression of viral co-receptors or through competitive inhibitors of viral fusion with the cell membrane. Preclinical evaluation of these approaches often starts in vitro but ultimately is tested in animal models prior to clinical implementation. In this review, we trace the development of several key approaches (meganucleases, short hairpin RNA (shRNA), and fusion inhibitors) to modification of hematopoietic stem cells designed to impart resistance to HIV to their T-cell and monocytic progeny. The basic evolution of technologies through in vitro and in vivo testing is discussed as well as the pros and cons of each approach and how the addition of postentry inhibitors may enhance the overall antiviral efficacy of these approaches. PMID:25578054

  1. CD4-Specific Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins Are Novel Potent HIV Entry Inhibitors with Unique Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, Andreas; Rusert, Peter; Berlinger, Livia; Ruprecht, Claudia R.; Mann, Axel; Corthésy, Stéphanie; Turville, Stuart G.; Aravantinou, Meropi; Fischer, Marek; Robbiani, Melissa; Amstutz, Patrick; Trkola, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Here, we describe the generation of a novel type of HIV entry inhibitor using the recently developed Designed Ankyrin Repeat Protein (DARPin) technology. DARPin proteins specific for human CD4 were selected from a DARPin DNA library using ribosome display. Selected pool members interacted specifically with CD4 and competed with gp120 for binding to CD4. DARPin proteins derived in the initial selection series inhibited HIV in a dose-dependent manner, but showed a relatively high variability in their capacity to block replication of patient isolates on primary CD4 T cells. In consequence, a second series of CD4-specific DARPins with improved affinity for CD4 was generated. These 2nd series DARPins potently inhibit infection of genetically divergent (subtype B and C) HIV isolates in the low nanomolar range, independent of coreceptor usage. Importantly, the actions of the CD4 binding DARPins were highly specific: no effect on cell viability or activation, CD4 memory cell function, or interference with CD4-independent virus entry was observed. These novel CD4 targeting molecules described here combine the unique characteristics of DARPins—high physical stability, specificity and low production costs—with the capacity to potently block HIV entry, rendering them promising candidates for microbicide development. PMID:18654624

  2. Insulin resistance and diabetes in HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Das, Satyajit

    2011-09-01

    Insulin resistance is an important and under recognized consequence of HIV treatment. Different studies have yielded widely varying estimates of the prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism in people on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The risk increases further with hepatitis C co infection. Although Protease inhibitors (PIs) are the main drug class implicated in insulin resistance, some studies have shown an association of increased risk of diabetes with cumulative exposure of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). The effect of switching to other antiretrovirals has not been fully determined and the long-term consequences of insulin resistance in this population are not known. Treatment of established diabetes mellitus should generally follow existing guidelines. It is therefore reasonable to recommend general measures to increase insulin sensitivity in all patients infected with HIV, such as regular aerobic exercise and weight reduction for overweight persons. The present review article has the information of some recent patents regarding the insulin resistance in HIV infection. PMID:21824074

  3. Miniature Intermittent Contact Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sword, Antony

    1972-01-01

    This tech brief concerns work to provide a shock-resistant switch capable of being actuated by forces of varying magnitude and direction, primarily for use as a sensor on remote control (tele-operator) and prosthetic devices.

  4. Plasmonic enhanced ultrafast switch.

    SciTech Connect

    Subramania,Ganapathi Subramanian; Reno, John Louis; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Harris, Tom.; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Barrick, Todd A.

    2009-09-01

    Ultrafast electronic switches fabricated from defective material have been used for several decades in order to produce picosecond electrical transients and TeraHertz radiation. Due to the ultrashort recombination time in the photoconductor materials used, these switches are inefficient and are ultimately limited by the amount of optical power that can be applied to the switch before self-destruction. The goal of this work is to create ultrafast (sub-picosecond response) photoconductive switches on GaAs that are enhanced through plasmonic coupling structures. Here, the plasmonic coupler primarily plays the role of being a radiation condenser which will cause carriers to be generated adjacent to metallic electrodes where they can more efficiently be collected.

  5. An optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.

    1987-04-30

    The invention is a gas mixture for a diffuse discharge switch having an electron attaching gas wherein electron attachment is brought about by indirect excitation of molecules to long live states by exposure to laser light. 3 figs.

  6. Switching and stopping antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Keks, Nicholas; Hope, Judy; Keogh, Simone

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Switching from one antidepressant to another is frequently indicated due to an inadequate treatment response or unacceptable adverse effects. All antidepressant switches must be carried out cautiously and under close observation. Conservative switching strategies involve gradually tapering the first antidepressant followed by an adequate washout period before the new antidepressant is started. This can take a long time and include periods of no treatment with the risk of potentially life-threatening exacerbations of illness. Clinical expertise is needed for more rapid or cross-taper switching as drug toxicity, including serotonin syndrome, may result from inappropriate co-administration of antidepressants. Some antidepressants must not be combined. Antidepressants can cause withdrawal syndromes if discontinued abruptly after prolonged use. Relapse and exacerbation of depression can also occur. Gradual dose reduction over days to weeks reduces the risk and severity of complications. PMID:27346915

  7. Switching power supply filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Prithvi R. (Inventor); Abare, Wayne (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A filter for a switching power supply. The filter includes a common mode inductor with coil configurations allowing differential mode current from a dc source to pass through but attenuating common mode noise from the power supply so that the noise does not reach the dc source. The invention also includes the use of feed through capacitors at the switching power supply input terminals to provide further high-frequency noise attenuation.

  8. Cygnus Water Switch Jitter

    SciTech Connect

    Charles V. Mitton, George D. Corrow, Mark D. Hansen, David J. Henderson, et al.

    2008-03-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources - Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. Each source has the following x-ray output: 1-mm diameter spot size, 4 rad at 1 m, 50-ns Full Width Half Max. The diode pulse has the following electrical specifications: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images on subcritical tests which are performed at NTS. Subcritical tests are single-shot, high-value events. For this application, it is desirable to maintain a high level of reproducibility in source output. The major components of the Cygnus machines are: Marx generator, water-filled pulse–forming line (PFL), water-filled coaxial transmission line, three-cell inductive voltage adder, and rod-pinch diode. A primary source of fluctuation in Cygnus shot-to-shot performance is jitter in breakdown of the main PFL switch, which is a “self-break” switch. The PFL switch breakdown time determines the peak PFL charging voltage, which ultimately affects the diode pulse. Therefore, PFL switch jitter contributes to shot-to-shot variation in source endpoint energy and dose. In this paper we will present PFL switch jitter analysis for both Cygnus machines and give the correlation with diode performance. For this analysis the PFL switch on each machine was maintained at a single gap setting which has been used for the majority of shots at NTS. In addition to this analysis, PFL switch performance for different switch gap settings taken recently will be examined. Lastly, implications of source jitter for radiographic diagnosis of subcritical shots will be discussed.

  9. Irreversible magnetic switch

    SciTech Connect

    Karnowsky, M.M.; Yost, F.G.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an irreversible magnetic switch containing a ferromagnetic amorphous metal having a predetermined crystallization temperature in its inductor magnetic path. With the incorporation of such material, the magnetic properties after cooling from a high temperature excursion above its crystallization temperature are only a fraction of the original value. The difference is used to provide a safety feature in the magnetic switch.

  10. Cygnus PFL Switch Jitter

    SciTech Connect

    C. Mitton, G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, et al.

    2007-07-21

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources: Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. Each source has the following X-ray output: 1-mm diameter spot size, 4 rads at 1 m, 50-ns full-widthhalf-maximum. The diode pulse has the following electrical specifications: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images on subcritical tests performed at NTS. Subcritical tests are single-shot, high-value events. For this application, it is desirable to maintain a high level of reproducibility in source output. The major components of the Cygnus machines are Marx generator, water-filled pulse forming line (PFL), water-filled coaxial transmission line, threecell inductive voltage adder, and rod-pinch diode. A primary source of fluctuation in Cygnus shot-to-shot performance may be jitter in breakdown of the main PFL switch, which is a “self-break” switch. The PFL switch breakdown time determines the peak PFL charging voltage, which ultimately affects the source X-ray spectrum and dose. Therefore, PFL switch jitter may contribute to shot-to-shot variation in these parameters, which are crucial to radiographic quality. In this paper we will present PFL switch jitter analysis for both Cygnus machines and present the correlation with dose. For this analysis, the PFL switch on each machine was maintained at a single gap setting, which has been used for the majority of shots at NTS. In addition the PFL switch performance for one larger switch gap setting will be examined.

  11. uv preilluminated gas switches

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, L.P.; Orham, E.L.; Stowers, I.F.; Braucht, J.R.

    1980-06-03

    We have designed, built, and characterized uv preilluminated gas switches for a trigger circuit and a low inductance discharge circuit. These switches have been incorporated into a 54 x 76 x 150 cm pulser module to produce a 1 Ma output current rising at 5 x 10/sup 12/ amps/sec with 1 ns jitter. Twenty such modules will be used on the Nova Inertial Confinement Fusion Laser System for plasma retropulse shutters.

  12. Finding a stabilising switching law for switching nonlinear models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lendek, Zs.; Raica, P.; Lauber, J.; Guerra, T. M.

    2016-09-01

    This paper considers the stabilisation of switching nonlinear models by switching between the subsystems. We assume that arbitrary switching between two subsystems is possible once a subsystem has been active for a predefined number of samples. We use a Takagi-Sugeno representation of the models and a switching Lyapunov function is employed to develop sufficient stability conditions. If the conditions are satisfied, we construct a switching law that stabilises the system. The application of the conditions is illustrated in several examples.

  13. An extended CCR5-ECL2 peptide forms a helix that binds HIV-1 gp120 through non-specific hydrophobic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Naama; Arshava, Boris; Naider, Fred; Scherf, Tali; Anglister, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CCR5 serves as a co-receptor for the Human Immunodefficiency Virus type-1, HIV-1. The CCR5 N-terminal segment, the second extracellular loop (ECL2) and the transmembrane helices have been implicated in binding the envelope glycoprotein gp120. Peptides corresponding to the sequence of the putative ECL2 as well as peptides containing the ECL1 and ECL3 were found to inhibit HIV-1 infection. The aromatic residues in the C-terminal half of an ECL2 peptide were shown to interact with gp120. In the present study we determined that in aqueous buffer the segment Q188-Q194 in an elongated ECL2 peptide (R168 to K197) forms an amphiphilic helix, which corresponds to the beginning of the fifth transmembrane helix in the crystal structure of CCR5. Two dimensional Saturation Transfer Difference NMR spectroscopy and dynamic filtering studies revealed the involvement of Y187, F189, W190 and F193 of the helical segment, in the interaction with gp120. The crystal structure of CCR5 shows that the aromatic side chains of F189, W190 and F193 point away from the binding pocket and interact with the membrane or with an adjacent CCR5 molecule and therefore, could not interact with gp120 in the intact CCR5 receptor. We conclude that these three aromatic residues of ECL2 peptides interact with gp120 through hydrophobic interactions not representative of the interactions of the intact CCR5 receptor. The HIV-1 inhibition by ECL2 peptides as well as by ECL1 and ECL3 peptides and peptides corresponding to ECL2 of CXCR4, which serves as an alternative HIV-1 co-receptor, suggests that there is a hydrophobic surface in the envelope spike that could be a target for HIV-1 entry inhibitors. PMID:25703038

  14. β-chemokine production by neural and glial progenitor cells is enhanced by HIV-1 Tat: Effects on microglial migration

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Yun Kyung; Vo, Phu; Fitting, Sylvia; Block, Michelle L.; Hauser, Kurt F.; Knapp, Pamela E.

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 neuropathology results from collective effects of viral proteins and inflammatory mediators on several cell types. Significant damage is mediated indirectly through inflammatory conditions promulgated by glial cells, including microglia that are productively infected by HIV-1, and astroglia. Neural and glial progenitors exist in both developing and adult brains. To determine whether progenitors are targets of HIV-1, a multi-plex assay was performed to assess chemokine/cytokine expression after treatment with viral proteins Tat or gp120. In the initial screen, ten analytes were basally released by murine striatal progenitors. The beta-chemokines CCL5/RANTES, CCL3/MIP-1α, and CCL4/MIP-1β were increased by 12 h exposure to HIV-1 Tat. Secreted factors from Tat-treated progenitors were chemoattractive towards microglia, an effect blocked by 2D7 anti-CCR5 antibody pretreatment. Tat and opiates have interactive effects on astroglial chemokine secretion, but this interaction did not occur in progenitors. gp120 did not affect chemokine/cytokine release, although both CCR5 and CXCR4, which serve as gp120 co-receptors, were detected in progenitors. We postulate that chemokine production by progenitors may be a normal, adaptive process that encourages immune inspection of newly generated cells. Pathogens such as HIV might usurp this function to create a maladaptive state, especially during development or regeneration, when progenitors are numerous. PMID:20403075

  15. Cbfa1-independent decrease in osteoblast proliferation, osteopenia, and persistent embryonic eye vascularization in mice deficient in Lrp5, a Wnt coreceptor

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Masaki; Patel, Millan S.; Levasseur, Regis; Lobov, Ivan; Chang, Benny H.-J.; Glass, Donald A.; Hartmann, Christine; Li, Lan; Hwang, Tae-Ho; Brayton, Cory F.; Lang, Richard A.; Karsenty, Gerard; Chan, Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor–related protein (Lrp)-5 functions as a Wnt coreceptor. Here we show that mice with a targeted disruption of Lrp5 develop a low bone mass phenotype. In vivo and in vitro analyses indicate that this phenotype becomes evident postnatally, and demonstrate that it is secondary to decreased osteoblast proliferation and function in a Cbfa1-independent manner. Lrp5 is expressed in osteoblasts and is required for optimal Wnt signaling in osteoblasts. In addition, Lrp5-deficient mice display persistent embryonic eye vascularization due to a failure of macrophage-induced endothelial cell apoptosis. These results implicate Wnt proteins in the postnatal control of vascular regression and bone formation, two functions affected in many diseases. Moreover, these features recapitulate human osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome, caused by LRP5 inactivation. PMID:11956231

  16. HSP90 regulates temperature-dependent seedling growth in Arabidopsis by stabilizing the auxin co-receptor F-box protein TIR1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Renhou; Zhang, Yi; Kieffer, Martin; Yu, Hong; Kepinski, Stefan; Estelle, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that a mild increase in environmental temperature stimulates the growth of Arabidopsis seedlings by promoting biosynthesis of the plant hormone auxin. However, little is known about the role of other factors in this process. In this report, we show that increased temperature promotes rapid accumulation of the TIR1 auxin co-receptor, an effect that is dependent on the molecular chaperone HSP90. In addition, we show that HSP90 and the co-chaperone SGT1 each interact with TIR1, confirming that TIR1 is an HSP90 client. Inhibition of HSP90 activity results in degradation of TIR1 and interestingly, defects in a range of auxin-mediated growth processes at lower as well as higher temperatures. Our results indicate that HSP90 and SGT1 integrate temperature and auxin signalling in order to regulate plant growth in a changing environment. PMID:26728313

  17. Low inductance gas switching.

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Ray; Harjes, Henry Charles III; Wallace, Zachariah; Elizondo, Juan E.

    2007-10-01

    The laser trigger switch (LTS) is a key component in ZR-type pulsed power systems. In ZR, the pulse rise time through the LTS is > 200 ns and additional stages of pulse compression are required to achieve the desired <100 ns rise time. The inductance of the LTS ({approx}500nH) in large part determines the energy transfer time through the switch and there is much to be gained in improving system performance and reducing system costs by reducing this inductance. The current path through the cascade section of the ZR LTS is at a diameter of {approx} 6-inches which is certainly not optimal from an inductance point of view. The LTS connects components of much greater diameter (typically 4-5 feet). In this LDRD the viability of switch concepts in which the diameter of cascade section is greatly increased have been investigated. The key technical question to be answered was, will the desired multi-channel behavior be maintained in a cascade section of larger diameter. This LDRD proceeded in 2 distinct phases. The original plan for the LDRD was to develop a promising switch concept and then design, build, and test a moderate scale switch which would demonstrate the key features of the concept. In phase I, a switch concept which meet all electrical design criteria and had a calculated inductance of 150 nH was developed. A 1.5 MV test switch was designed and fabrication was initiated. The LDRD was then redirected due to budgetary concerns. The fabrication of the switch was halted and the focus of the LDRD was shifted to small scale experiments designed to answer the key technical question concerning multi-channel behavior. In phase II, the Multi-channel switch test bed (MCST) was designed and constructed. The purpose of MCST was to provide a versatile, fast turn around facility for the study the multi-channel electrical breakdown behavior of a ZR type cascade switch gap in a parameter space near that of a ZR LTS. Parameter scans on source impedance, gap tilt, gap spacing and

  18. Routine or targeted HIV screening of Indonesian prisoners.

    PubMed

    Nelwan, Erni Juwita; Isa, Ahmad; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Triani, Nurlita; Djamaris, Iqbal; Djaja, Ilham; Pohan, Herdiman T; Zwanikken, Prisca; Crevel, Reinout van; van der Ven, Andre; Meheus, Andre

    2016-03-14

    Purpose - Routine HIV screening of prisoners is generally recommended, but rarely implemented in low-resource settings. Targeted screening can be used as an alternative. Both strategies may provide an opportunity to start HIV treatment but no formal comparisons have been done of these two strategies. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach - The authors compared yield and costs of routine and targeted screening in a narcotic prison in Indonesia. Routine HIV screening was done for all incoming prisoners from August 2007-February 2009, after it was switched for budgetary reasons to targeted ("opt-out") HIV screening of inmates classified as people who inject drugs (PWIDs), and "opt-in" HIV testing for all non-PWIDs. Findings - During routine screening 662 inmates were included. All 115 PWIDs and 93.2 percent of non-PWIDs agreed to be tested, 37.4 percent and 0.4 percent respectively were HIV-positive. During targeted screening (March 2009-October 2010), of 888 inmates who entered prison, 107 reported injecting drug use and were offered HIV testing, of whom 31 (29 percent) chose not to be tested and 25.0 percent of those tested were HIV-positive. Of 781 non-PWIDs, 187 (24 percent) came for testing (opt-in), and 2.1 percent were infected. During targeted screening fewer people admitted drug use (12.0 vs 17.4 percent). Routine screening yielded twice as many HIV-infected subjects (45 vs 23). The estimated cost per detected HIV infection was 338 USD for routine and 263 USD for targeted screening. Originality/value - In a resource limited setting like Indonesia, routine HIV screening in prison is feasible and more effective than targeted screening, which may be stigmatizing. HIV infections that remain unrecognized can fuel ongoing transmission in prison and lead to unnecessary disease progression and deaths. PMID:26933989

  19. Silibinin inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling by suppressing Wnt co-receptor LRP6 expression in human prostate and breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenyan; Lin, Cuihong; King, Taj D; Chen, Honghong; Reynolds, Robert C; Li, Yonghe

    2012-12-01

    Silibinin is a natural compound isolated from milk thistle seed extracts, and has traditionally been used as a hepatoprotectant. A number of studies have also established the cancer therapeutic and chemopreventive role of silibinin in both in vitro and in vivo models. The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-6 (LRP6) is an essential Wnt co-receptor for the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and represents a promising target for cancer prevention and therapy. In the present study, we found that silibinin was able to repress endogenous LRP6 expression and block Wnt3A-induced LRP6 phosphorylation and Wnt/β-catenin signaling activation in HEK293 cells. Importantly, silibinin was also able to suppress endogenous LRP6 expression and phosphorylation and block Wnt/β-catenin signaling in prostate cancer PC-3 and DU-145 cells and breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and T-47D cells. Mechanistically, silibinin inhibited LRP6 promoter activity and decreased LRP6 mRNA levels in prostate and breast cancer cells. Finally, we demonstrated that silibinin displayed anticancer activity with IC(50) values comparable to those shown to suppress LRP6 expression and Wnt/β-catenin signaling activities in prostate and breast cancer cells. Our data indicate that silibinin is a novel small molecule Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibitor by suppressing Wnt co-receptor LRP6 expression at the transcription level, and that the anti-cancer activity of silibinin is associated with its inhibitory effect on Wnt/LRP6 signaling. PMID:22820499

  20. A radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1988-07-19

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

  1. Energy losses in switches

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, T.H.; Seamen, J.F.; Jobe, D.O.

    1993-07-01

    The authors experiments show energy losses between 2 and 10 times that of the resistive time predictions. The experiments used hydrogen, helium, air, nitrogen, SF{sub 6} polyethylene, and water for the switching dielectric. Previously underestimated switch losses have caused over predicting the accelerator outputs. Accurate estimation of these losses is now necessary for new high-efficiency pulsed power devices where the switching losses constitute the major portion of the total energy loss. They found that the switch energy losses scale as (V{sub peak}I{sub peak}){sup 1.1846}. When using this scaling, the energy losses in any of the tested dielectrics are almost the same. This relationship is valid for several orders of magnitude and suggested a theoretical basis for these results. Currents up to .65 MA, with voltages to 3 MV were applied to various gaps during these experiments. The authors data and the developed theory indicates that the switch power loss continues for a much longer time than the resistive time, with peak power loss generally occurring at peak current in a ranging discharge instead of the early current time. All of the experiments were circuit code modeled after developing a new switch loss version based on the theory. The circuit code predicts switch energy loss and peak currents as a function of time. During analysis of the data they noticed slight constant offsets between the theory and data that depended on the dielectric. They modified the plasma conductivity for each tested dielectric to lessen this offset.

  2. Switching Power Universality in Unipolar Resistive Switching Memories

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jongmin; Jung, Kyooho; Kim, Yongmin; Jo, Yongcheol; Cho, Sangeun; Woo, Hyeonseok; Lee, Seongwoo; Inamdar, A. I.; Hong, Jinpyo; Lee, Jeon-Kook; Kim, Hyungsang; Im, Hyunsik

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the resistive switching power from unipolar resistive switching current-voltage characteristics in various binary metal oxide films sandwiched by different metal electrodes, and find a universal feature (the so-called universality) in the switching power among these devices. To experimentally derive the switching power universality, systematic measurements of the switching voltage and current are performed, and neither of these correlate with one another. As the switching resistance (R) increases, the switching power (P) decreases following a power law P ∝ R−β, regardless of the device configurations. The observed switching power universality is indicative of the existence of a commonly applicable switching mechanism. The origin of the power universality is discussed based on a metallic filament model and thermo-chemical reaction. PMID:27033695

  3. Switching Power Universality in Unipolar Resistive Switching Memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongmin; Jung, Kyooho; Kim, Yongmin; Jo, Yongcheol; Cho, Sangeun; Woo, Hyeonseok; Lee, Seongwoo; Inamdar, A. I.; Hong, Jinpyo; Lee, Jeon-Kook; Kim, Hyungsang; Im, Hyunsik

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the resistive switching power from unipolar resistive switching current-voltage characteristics in various binary metal oxide films sandwiched by different metal electrodes, and find a universal feature (the so-called universality) in the switching power among these devices. To experimentally derive the switching power universality, systematic measurements of the switching voltage and current are performed, and neither of these correlate with one another. As the switching resistance (R) increases, the switching power (P) decreases following a power law P ∝ R‑β, regardless of the device configurations. The observed switching power universality is indicative of the existence of a commonly applicable switching mechanism. The origin of the power universality is discussed based on a metallic filament model and thermo-chemical reaction.

  4. Switching Power Universality in Unipolar Resistive Switching Memories.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongmin; Jung, Kyooho; Kim, Yongmin; Jo, Yongcheol; Cho, Sangeun; Woo, Hyeonseok; Lee, Seongwoo; Inamdar, A I; Hong, Jinpyo; Lee, Jeon-Kook; Kim, Hyungsang; Im, Hyunsik

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the resistive switching power from unipolar resistive switching current-voltage characteristics in various binary metal oxide films sandwiched by different metal electrodes, and find a universal feature (the so-called universality) in the switching power among these devices. To experimentally derive the switching power universality, systematic measurements of the switching voltage and current are performed, and neither of these correlate with one another. As the switching resistance (R) increases, the switching power (P) decreases following a power law P ∝ R(-β), regardless of the device configurations. The observed switching power universality is indicative of the existence of a commonly applicable switching mechanism. The origin of the power universality is discussed based on a metallic filament model and thermo-chemical reaction. PMID:27033695

  5. Evaluation of anti-HIV-1 activity of a new iridoid glycoside isolated from Avicenna marina, in vitro.

    PubMed

    Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-11-01

    This study was carried out to check the efficacy of methanol seed extract of Avicenna marina and its column chromatographic fractions on Peripheral Blood Mono nuclear Cells (PBMCs) toxicity and HIV-1 replication. The anti-HIV-1 activities of crude methanol extract and its fractions were performed by use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and HIV-1 p24 antigen kit. A time of drug addiction approach was also done to identify target of anti-HIV compound. The activity of the extracts on CD4, CD3, CD19 and CD45 expression in lymphocytes population was performed by use of flow cytometry. The most active anti-HIV agent was detected by spectroscopic analysis as 2'-O-(4-methoxycinnamoyl) mussaenosidic acid. The apparent effective concentrations for 50% virus replication (EC50) of methanol extract and iridoid glycoside were 45 and 0.1 μg/ml respectively. The iridoid glycoside also did not have any observable effect on the proportion of CD4, CD3, CD19 and CD45 cells or on the intensity of their expressions on PBMCs. In addition, the expression level of C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) and chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) on CD4(+) T cells were decreased in cells treated with this iridoid glycoside. The reduction of these two HIV coreceptors and the result of time of addition study demonstrated that this iridoid glycoside restricts HIV-1 replication on the early stage of HIV infection. PMID:25239814

  6. Exceptionally Potent and Broadly Cross-Reactive, Bispecific Multivalent HIV-1 Inhibitors Based on Single Human CD4 and Antibody Domains

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yang; Prabakaran, Ponraj; Ying, Tianlei; Wang, Yanping; Sun, Jianping; Macedo, Camila D. S.; Zhu, Zhongyu; He, Yuxian; Polonis, Victoria R.

    2014-01-01

    Soluble forms of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) primary receptor CD4 (soluble CD4 [sCD4]) have been extensively characterized for a quarter of a century as promising HIV-1 inhibitors, but they have not been clinically successful. By combining a protein cavity-filling strategy and the power of library technology, we identified an engineered cavity-altered single-domain sCD4 (mD1.22) with a unique combination of excellent properties, including broad and potent neutralizing activity, high specificity, stability, solubility, and affinity for the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120, and small molecular size. To further improve its neutralizing potency and breadth, we generated bispecific multivalent fusion proteins of mD1.22 with another potent HIV-1 inhibitor, an antibody domain (m36.4) that targets the coreceptor-binding site on gp120. The fusion proteins neutralized all HIV-1 isolates tested, with potencies about 10-, 50-, and 200-fold higher than those of the broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01, the U.S. FDA-approved peptide inhibitor T20, and the clinically tested sCD4-Fc fusion protein CD4-Ig, respectively. In addition, they exhibited higher stability and specificity and a lower aggregation propensity than CD4-Ig. Therefore, mD1.22 and related fusion proteins could be useful for HIV-1 prevention and therapy, including eradication of the virus. PMID:24198429

  7. 48 week outcomes of maraviroc-containing regimens following the genotypic or Trofile assay in HIV-1 failing subjects: the OSCAR Study.

    PubMed

    Nozza, Silvia; Pignataro, Angela Rosa; Galli, Laura; Svicher, Valentina; Alteri, Claudia; Boeri, Enzo; Ripa, Marco; Castagna, Antonella; Sampaolo, Michela; Clementi, Massimo; Perno, Carlo Federico; Lazzarin, Adriano

    2016-09-01

    This study assessed the 48-week efficacy of an antiretroviral therapy including maraviroc following the assessment of co-receptor tropism by use of Geno2Pheno algorithm or the Trofile phenotypic assay in failing treatment-experienced HIV-1 patients. This was a multicenter, randomized, open-label, non-inferiority trial. Treatment-experienced subjects with HIV-RNA ≥500 copies/mL were randomized (1:1) to undergo co-receptor tropism testing by the Geno- 2Pheno algorithm (with a false positive rate >10%) or the Trofile assay before starting a new antiretroviral treatment which included maraviroc. The primary endpoint was the 48 week proportion of patients with treatment success (TS). Intention-to-treat analyses are also reported. One hundred and fifty-five experienced patients were analysed: 77 patients in the Trofile arm and 78 in the Genotype arm. The 48-week proportion of TS was 87% in the Trofile arm and 89% in the Genotype arm (difference: 1.5%, 95%CI: -8.9% to 11.8%) suggesting non-inferiority. In the Trofile arm, 10 patients had treatment failure: 5 viral rebound, 5 discontinuations. In the Genotype arm, 9 patients had treatment failure: 7 viral rebound, 2 lost to follow-up. CD4+ significantly increased from baseline to week 48 in both arms. 48-week treatment success was similar for maraviroc-including therapy prescribed following the Trofile phenotypic assay or Geno2Pheno algorithm. PMID:27602417

  8. Atomic Scale Plasmonic Switch.

    PubMed

    Emboras, Alexandros; Niegemann, Jens; Ma, Ping; Haffner, Christian; Pedersen, Andreas; Luisier, Mathieu; Hafner, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas; Leuthold, Juerg

    2016-01-13

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moore's law in the electronics industry. While electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling, similar to electronics, is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled plasmonic switch operating at the atomic scale. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocation of an individual or, at most, a few atoms in a plasmonic cavity. Depending on the location of the atom either of two distinct plasmonic cavity resonance states are supported. Experimental results show reversible digital optical switching with an extinction ratio of 9.2 dB and operation at room temperature up to MHz with femtojoule (fJ) power consumption for a single switch operation. This demonstration of an integrated quantum device allowing to control photons at the atomic level opens intriguing perspectives for a fully integrated and highly scalable chip platform, a platform where optics, electronics, and memory may be controlled at the single-atom level. PMID:26670551

  9. Thermionic gas switch

    DOEpatents

    Hatch, G.L.; Brummond, W.A.; Barrus, D.M.

    1984-04-05

    The present invention is directed to an improved temperature responsive thermionic gas switch utilizing a hollow cathode and a folded emitter surface area. The folded emitter surface area of the thermionic switch substantially increases the on/off ratio by changing the conduction surface area involved in the two modes thereof. The improved switch of this invention provides an on/off ratio of 450:1 compared to the 10:1 ratio of the prior known thermionic switch, while providing for adjusting the on current. In the improved switch of this invention the conduction area is made small in the off mode, while in the on mode the conduction area is made large. This is achieved by utilizing a folded hollow cathode configuration and utilizing a folded emitter surface area, and by making the dimensions of the folds small enough so that a space charge will develop in the convolutions of the folds and suppress unignited current, thus limiting the current carrying surface in the off mode.

  10. Switching power pulse system

    DOEpatents

    Aaland, K.

    1983-08-09

    A switching system for delivering pulses of power from a source to a load using a storage capacitor charged through a rectifier, and maintained charged to a reference voltage level by a transistor switch and voltage comparator. A thyristor is triggered to discharge the storage capacitor through a saturable reactor and fractional turn saturable transformer having a secondary to primary turn ratio N of n:l/n = n[sup 2]. The saturable reactor functions as a soaker'' while the thyristor reaches saturation, and then switches to a low impedance state. The saturable transformer functions as a switching transformer with high impedance while a load coupling capacitor charges, and then switches to a low impedance state to dump the charge of the storage capacitor into the load through the coupling capacitor. The transformer is comprised of a multilayer core having two secondary windings tightly wound and connected in parallel to add their output voltage and reduce output inductance, and a number of single turn windings connected in parallel at nodes for the primary winding, each single turn winding linking a different one of the layers of the multilayer core. The load may be comprised of a resistive beampipe for a linear particle accelerator and capacitance of a pulse forming network. To hold off discharge of the capacitance until it is fully charged, a saturable core is provided around the resistive beampipe to isolate the beampipe from the capacitance until it is fully charged. 5 figs.

  11. Nanoscale memristive radiofrequency switches.

    PubMed

    Pi, Shuang; Ghadiri-Sadrabadi, Mohammad; Bardin, Joseph C; Xia, Qiangfei

    2015-01-01

    Radiofrequency switches are critical components in wireless communication systems and consumer electronics. Emerging devices include switches based on microelectromechanical systems and phase-change materials. However, these devices suffer from disadvantages such as large physical dimensions and high actuation voltages. Here we propose and demonstrate a nanoscale radiofrequency switch based on a memristive device. The device can be programmed with a voltage as low as 0.4 V and has an ON/OFF conductance ratio up to 10(12) with long state retention. We measure the radiofrequency performance of the switch up to 110 GHz and demonstrate low insertion loss (0.3 dB at 40 GHz), high isolation (30 dB at 40 GHz), an average cutoff frequency of 35 THz and competitive linearity and power-handling capability. Our results suggest that, in addition to their application in memory and computing, memristive devices are also a leading contender for radiofrequency switch applications. PMID:26108890

  12. Multiple switch actuator

    DOEpatents

    Beyer, Edward T.

    1976-01-06

    The present invention relates to switches and switch actuating devices to be operated for purposes of arming a bomb or other missile as it is dropped or released from an aircraft. The particular bomb or missile in which this invention is applied is one in which there is a plurality of circuits which are to be armed by the closing of switches upon dropping or releasing of the bomb. The operation of the switches to closed position is normally accomplished by means of a pull-out wire; that is, a wire which is withdrawn from the bomb or missile at the time of release of the bomb, one end of the wire being attached to the aircraft. The conditions to be met are that the arming switches must be positively and surely maintained in open position until the bomb is released and the arming action is effected. The action of the pull-out wire in achieving the arming action must be sure and positive with minimum danger of malfunctioning, jamming or binding.

  13. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Teens > HIV and AIDS Print A A A Text Size What's in ... in human history. HIV causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — better known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type ...

  14. HIV Structural Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 102 HIV Structural Database (Web, free access)   The HIV Protease Structural Database is an archive of experimentally determined 3-D structures of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1), Human Immunodeficiency Virus 2 (HIV-2) and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Proteases and their complexes with inhibitors or products of substrate cleavage.

  15. Switching power supply

    DOEpatents

    Mihalka, A.M.

    1984-06-05

    The invention is a repratable capacitor charging, switching power supply. A ferrite transformer steps up a dc input. The transformer primary is in a full bridge configuration utilizing power MOSFETs as the bridge switches. The transformer secondary is fed into a high voltage, full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The transformer is designed to provide adequate leakage inductance to limit capacitor current. The MOSFETs are switched to the variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor from 0.6 kV. The peak current in a transformer primary and secondary is controlled by increasing the pulse width as the capacitor charges. A digital ripple counter counts pulses and after a preselected desired number is reached an up-counter is clocked.

  16. SWITCH user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The planning program, SWITCH, and its surrounding changed-goal-replanning program, Runaround, are described. The evolution of SWITCH and Runaround from an earlier planner, DEVISER, is recounted. SWITCH's plan representation, and its process of building a plan by backward chaining with strict chronological backtracking, are described. A guide for writing knowledge base files is provided, as are narrative guides for installing the program, running it, and interacting with it while it is running. Some utility functions are documented. For the sake of completeness, a narrative guide to the experimental discrepancy-replanning feature is provided. Appendices contain knowledge base files for a blocksworld domain, and a DRIBBLE file illustrating the output from, and user interaction with, the program in that domain.

  17. FAST ACTING CURRENT SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, T.H.; Cummings, D.B.; Ryan, J.F.

    1962-05-22

    A high-current, fast-acting switch is designed for utilization as a crowbar switch in a high-current circuit such as used to generate the magnetic confinement field of a plasma-confining and heat device, e.g., Pyrotron. The device particularly comprises a cylindrical housing containing two stationary, cylindrical contacts between which a movable contact is bridged to close the switch. The movable contact is actuated by a differential-pressure, airdriven piston assembly also within the housing. To absorb the acceleration (and the shock imparted to the device by the rapidly driven, movable contact), an adjustable air buffer assembly is provided, integrally connected to the movable contact and piston assembly. Various safety locks and circuit-synchronizing means are also provided to permit proper cooperation of the invention and the high-current circuit in which it is installed. (AEC)

  18. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Schare, Joshua M.; Bunch, Kyle

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  19. Optical computer switching network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clymer, B.; Collins, S. A., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The design for an optical switching system for minicomputers that uses an optical spatial light modulator such as a Hughes liquid crystal light valve is presented. The switching system is designed to connect 80 minicomputers coupled to the switching system by optical fibers. The system has two major parts: the connection system that connects the data lines by which the computers communicate via a two-dimensional optical matrix array and the control system that controls which computers are connected. The basic system, the matrix-based connecting system, and some of the optical components to be used are described. Finally, the details of the control system are given and illustrated with a discussion of timing.

  20. Bearingless switched reluctance motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Carlos R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A switched reluctance motor has a stator with a first set of poles directed toward levitating a rotor horizontally within the stator. A disc shaped portion of a hybrid rotor is affected by the change in flux relative to the current provided at these levitation poles. A processor senses the position of the rotor and changes the flux to move the rotor toward center of the stator. A second set of poles of the stator are utilized to impart torque upon a second portion of the rotor. These second set of poles are driven in a traditional switched reluctance manner by the processor.

  1. SHOCKPROOF MAGNETIC REED SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Medal, E.

    1962-03-13

    A shockproof magnetic reed switch is described which comprises essentially a plurality of pairs of reed contacts of magnetic, electrical conducting material which are arranged generally in circumferential spaced relationship. At least two of the pairs are disposed to operate at a predetermined angle with respect to each other, and the contacts are wired in the circuit, so that the continuity, or discontinuity, of the circuit is not affected by a shock imposed on the switch. The contacts are hermetically sealed within an outer tubular jacket. (AEC)

  2. Doctors Report Groundbreaking HIV-To-HIV Organ Transplants

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158039.html Doctors Report Groundbreaking HIV-to-HIV Organ Transplants One donor supplied a kidney to ... News) -- Trailblazing liver and kidney transplants from an HIV-positive donor to HIV-positive recipients were announced ...

  3. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Lactic Acidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... HIV medicines. All HIV medicines in the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) drug class may cause lactic acidosis, but ... some HIV medicines. HIV medicines in the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) drug class can cause the body to ...

  4. Maturation Pathways of Cross-Reactive HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiaodong; Chen, Weizao; Feng, Yang; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.

    2009-01-01

    Several human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs) and antibody fragments, including the best characterized in terms of structure-function b12 and Fab X5, exhibit relatively potent and broad HIV-1 neutralizing activity. However, the elicitation of b12 or b12-like antibodies in vivo by vaccine immunogens based on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) has not been successful. B12 is highly divergent from the closest corresponding germline antibody while X5 is less divergent. We have hypothesized that the relatively high degree of specific somatic hypermutations may preclude binding of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) to closest germline antibodies, and that identifying antibodies that are intermediates in the pathways to maturation could help design novel vaccine immunogens to guide the immune system for their enhanced elicitation. In support of this hypothesis we have previously found that a germline-like b12 (monovalent and bivalent scFv as an Fc fusion protein or IgG) lacks measurable binding to an Env as measured by ELISA with a sensitivity in the μM range [1]; here we present evidence confirming and expanding these findings for a panel of Envs. In contrast, a germline-like scFv X5 bound Env with high (nM) affinity. To begin to explore the maturation pathways of these antibodies we identified several possible b12 intermediate antibodies and tested their neutralizing activity. These intermediate antibodies neutralized only some HIV-1 isolates and with relatively weak potency. In contrast, germline-like scFv X5 neutralized a subset of the tested HIV-1 isolates with comparable efficiencies to that of the mature X5. These results could help explain the relatively high immunogenicity of the coreceptor binding site on gp120 and the abundance of CD4-induced (CD4i) antibodies in HIV-1-infected patients (X5 is a CD4i antibody) as well as the maturation pathway of X5. They also can help identify antigens that can bind specifically to b12 germline and intermediate antibodies

  5. 35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  6. 36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS FROM OPERATOR'S POSITION - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  7. 43. OBLIQUE VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. OBLIQUE VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  8. 41. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  9. Main electrical switch banks, plant switch house, looking to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Main electrical switch banks, plant switch house, looking to the North - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  10. High-speed switching characteristics of integrated optoelectronic crossbar switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouin, Francois L.; Almeida, Carlos; Callender, Claire L.; Robitaille, Lucie; Noad, Julian P.

    1999-04-01

    Optoelectronic (OE) switching is a promising approach for routing signals in fiber optic networks. Recently, the integration of a 4 X 4 MSM array with optical surface waveguides has been reported. This technique greatly simplifies the packaging of an OE switch. The on-chip polyimide optical waveguides perform the optical signal distribution to a matrix of MSMs which are responsible for the switching operation itself. Photoresponse bandwidths exceeding 4 GHz have been demonstrated. Another important characteristic of a switch is the switching speed since it determines the reconfiguration time. Mechanical and thermal optical waveguide switches offer switching speeds of the order of milliseconds which is sufficient for network traffic management but too slow for packet switching. We report measurements on the switching characteristics of a 4 X 4 optoelectronic switch performed in both the frequency and time domain. In the time domain, the individual crosspoints exhibit a rise time of 3 ns. However, a sizeable overshoot and ringing settles only after 35 ns. This constitutes the reconfiguration time at present. This is confirmed by measurements in the frequency domain of the electrical transmission from control line to output line. The 3-dB switching bandwidth is a few hundred megahertz. The 35 ns reconfiguration time indicates that it is already suitable for packet switching in a 10 Mb/s network. Switching speed measurements on individual MSMs suggests that modifications to the switch circuit could improve the switching time. The switch could also find application as a component in the wavelength conversion circuit of a WDM fiber optic network.

  11. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Multipath star switch controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, T. O.

    1980-01-01

    Device concept permits parallel computers to scan several commonnetwork-connected data stations at maximum rate. Sequencers leap-frog to bypass ports already being serviced by another computer. Two-path system for 16-port star switch controller is cost effective if added bandwidth or increased reliability is desired. Triple-path system would be cost effective for 32-port controller.

  13. Oscillating Thermal Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrick, S. Walter

    1991-01-01

    Proposed heat switch transfers heat from source to sink in regular cycles. Self-sustaining; actuated by transferred heat, contains no moving parts, and needs no external heaters or electronic circuitry to synchronize heat-transfer periods or control heat-transfer rates. Intended for use in gas-sorption refrigerator.

  14. Waveguide switch protector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolbly, R. B.

    1972-01-01

    Device for detecting excessive operation of electric motors used to drive waveguide switches is described. Purpose of device is to prevent burnout of electric motor in event of waveguide stoppage at some point other than extreme limits of travel. Operation of equipment, components used to sense motor performance, and schematic diagram are included.

  15. Photonic MEMS switch applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, Anis

    2001-07-01

    As carriers and service providers continue their quest for profitable network solutions, they have shifted their focus from raw bandwidth to rapid provisioning, delivery and management of revenue generating services. Inherently transparent to data rate the transmission wavelength and data format, MEMS add scalability, reliability, low power and compact size providing flexible solutions to the management and/or fiber channels in long haul, metro, and access networks. MEMS based photonic switches have gone from the lab to commercial availability and are now currently in carrier trials and volume production. 2D MEMS switches offer low up-front deployment costs while remaining scalable to large arrays. They allow for transparent, native protocol transmission. 2D switches enable rapid service turn-up and management for many existing and emerging revenue rich services such as storage connectivity, optical Ethernet, wavelength leasing and optical VPN. As the network services evolve, the larger 3D MEMS switches, which provide greater scalability and flexibility, will become economically viable to serve the ever-increasing needs.

  16. Molecular Rotors as Switches

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Mei; Wang, Kang L.

    2012-01-01

    The use of a functional molecular unit acting as a state variable provides an attractive alternative for the next generations of nanoscale electronics. It may help overcome the limits of conventional MOSFETd due to their potential scalability, low-cost, low variability, and highly integratable characteristics as well as the capability to exploit bottom-up self-assembly processes. This bottom-up construction and the operation of nanoscale machines/devices, in which the molecular motion can be controlled to perform functions, have been studied for their functionalities. Being triggered by external stimuli such as light, electricity or chemical reagents, these devices have shown various functions including those of diodes, rectifiers, memories, resonant tunnel junctions and single settable molecular switches that can be electronically configured for logic gates. Molecule-specific electronic switching has also been reported for several of these device structures, including nanopores containing oligo(phenylene ethynylene) monolayers, and planar junctions incorporating rotaxane and catenane monolayers for the construction and operation of complex molecular machines. A specific electrically driven surface mounted molecular rotor is described in detail in this review. The rotor is comprised of a monolayer of redox-active ligated copper compounds sandwiched between a gold electrode and a highly-doped P+ Si. This electrically driven sandwich-type monolayer molecular rotor device showed an on/off ratio of approximately 104, a read window of about 2.5 V, and a retention time of greater than 104 s. The rotation speed of this type of molecular rotor has been reported to be in the picosecond timescale, which provides a potential of high switching speed applications. Current-voltage spectroscopy (I-V) revealed a temperature-dependent negative differential resistance (NDR) associated with the device. The analysis of the device I–V characteristics suggests the source of the

  17. Heat-transfer thermal switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedell, M. V.; Anderson, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Thermal switch maintains temperature of planetary lander, within definite range, by transferring heat. Switch produces relatively large stroke and force, uses minimum electrical power, is lightweight, is vapor pressure actuated, and withstands sterilization temperatures without damage.

  18. Automatic thermal switch. [spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, J. W.; Wing, L. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An automatic thermal switch to control heat flow includes two thermally conductive plates and a thermally conductive switch saddle pivotally mounted to the first plate. A flexible heat carrier is connected between the switch saddle and the second plate. A phase-change power unit, including a piston coupled to the switch saddle, is in thermal contact with the first thermally conductive plate. A biasing element biases the switch saddle in a predetermined position with respect to the first plate. When the phase-change power unit is actuated by an increase in heat transmitted through the first place, the piston extends and causes the switch saddle to pivot, thereby varying the thermal conduction between the two plates through the switch saddle and flexible heat carrier. The biasing element, switch saddle, and piston can be arranged to provide either a normally closed or normally opened thermally conductive path between the two plates.

  19. Switching power pulse system

    DOEpatents

    Aaland, Kristian

    1983-01-01

    A switching system for delivering pulses of power from a source (10) to a load (20) using a storage capacitor (C3) charged through a rectifier (D1, D2), and maintained charged to a reference voltage level by a transistor switch (Q1) and voltage comparator (12). A thyristor (22) is triggered to discharge the storage capacitor through a saturable reactor (18) and fractional turn saturable transformer (16) having a secondary to primary turn ratio N of n:l/n=n.sup.2. The saturable reactor (18) functions as a "soaker" while the thyristor reaches saturation, and then switches to a low impedance state. The saturable transformer functions as a switching transformer with high impedance while a load coupling capacitor (C4) charges, and then switches to a low impedance state to dump the charge of the storage capacitor (C3) into the load through the coupling capacitor (C4). The transformer is comprised of a multilayer core (26) having two secondary windings (28, 30) tightly wound and connected in parallel to add their output voltage and reduce output inductance, and a number of single turn windings connected in parallel at nodes (32, 34) for the primary winding, each single turn winding linking a different one of the layers of the multilayer core. The load may be comprised of a resistive beampipe (40) for a linear particle accelerator and capacitance of a pulse forming network (42). To hold off discharge of the capacitance until it is fully charged, a saturable core (44) is provided around the resistive beampipe (40) to isolate the beampipe from the capacitance (42) until it is fully charged.

  20. A homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assay to identify inhibitors of HIV-1 fusion.

    PubMed

    Smeulders, Liesbet; Bunkens, Lieve; Vereycken, Inge; Van Acker, Koen; Holemans, Pascale; Gustin, Emmanuel; Van Loock, Marnix; Dams, Géry

    2013-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) initiates infection through sequential interactions with CD4 and chemokine coreceptors unmasking the gp41 subunit of the viral envelope protein. Consequently, the N-terminal heptad repeats of gp41 form a trimeric coiled-coil groove in which the C-terminal heptad repeats collapse, generating a stable six-helix bundle. This brings the viral and cell membrane in close proximity enabling fusion and the release of viral genome in the cytosol of the host cell. In this chapter, we describe a homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assay to identify inhibitors of HIV-1 fusion, based on the ability of soluble peptides, derived from the N- and C-terminal domains of gp41, to form a stable six-helix bundle in vitro. Labeling of the peptides with allophycocyanin and the lanthanide europium results in a Föster resonance energy transfer (FRET) signal upon formation of the six-helix bundle. Compounds interfering with the six-helix bundle formation inhibit the HIV-1 fusion process and suppress the FRET signal. PMID:23821256

  1. Easily-wired toggle switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, W. T.; Stringer, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    Crimp-type connectors reduce assembly and disassembly time. With design, no switch preparation is necessary and socket contracts are crimped to wires inserted in module attached to back of toggle switch engaging pins inside module to make electrical connections. Wires are easily removed with standard detachment tool. Design can accommodate wires of any gage and as many terminals can be placed on switch as wire gage and switch dimensions will allow.

  2. Transparent electrode for optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

    1984-10-19

    The invention relates generally to optical switches and techniques for applying a voltage to an electro-optical crystal, and more particularly, to transparent electodes for an optical switch. System architectures for very large inertial confinement fusion (ICF) lasers require active optical elements with apertures on the order of one meter. Large aperture optical switches are needed for isolation of stages, switch-out from regenerative amplifier cavities and protection from target retroreflections.

  3. Radiation sensitive solid state switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutto, R. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A mechanically operable solid state switch suited for use in achieving a variable circuit-switching function is described. This switch is characterized by an annular array of photoresponsive switching devices, disposed in communication with an included source of radiation, and a plurality of interchangeable, mechanically operable interrupter disks. Each disk has a predetermined pattern of transparent and opaque portions. Operative displacement of each disk serves to make and break selected electrical circuits through the photo responsive devices of said array.

  4. High speed switching in gases

    SciTech Connect

    Cassell, R.E.; Villa, F.

    1989-02-01

    A fast, efficient and reliable switch is the basic ingredient of a pulse power accelerator. Two switches have been proposed so far: the solid state switch, and the vacuum photodiode switch. The solid state version has been tested to some extent, albeit at low (few kilovolts) level, with risetime around 10 ps in the radial line transformer configuration. The vacuum photodiode is being investigated by Fisher and Rao at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Common to both switches is the need of a short laser pulse; near infrared for the solid state switch, and ultraviolet for the vacuum photodiode switch. Another common feature is the poor energy gain of these switches: the gain being the ratio between the electrical energy switched and the laser energy needed to drive the switch. For the solid state switch, calculations and experimental data show that the energy gain cannot exceed a value between 5 and 10. For the vacuum photodiode, the situation is somewhat similar, unless very high quantum efficiency, rugged photocathodes can be found. A closing switch also can be used to produce short pulses of rf at frequencies related to its closing time, using a well-known device called the frozen wave generator. For a risetime of the order of 30 ps, one could produce several Gigawatts of rf at Xband at very low cost. 12 refs., 12 figs.

  5. Illuminated push-button switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwagiri, T.

    1983-01-01

    An illuminated push-button switch is described. It is characterized by the fact that is consists of a switch group, an operator button opening and closing the switch group, and a light-emitting element which illuminates the face of the operator button.

  6. Organic Materials For Optical Switching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardelino, Beatriz H.

    1993-01-01

    Equations predict properties of candidate materials. Report presents results of theoretical study of nonlinear optical properties of organic materials. Such materials used in optical switching devices for computers and telecommunications, replacing electronic switches. Optical switching potentially offers extremely high information throughout in compact hardware.

  7. Semiconductor ac static power switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrancik, J.

    1968-01-01

    Semiconductor ac static power switch has long life and high reliability, contains no moving parts, and operates satisfactorily in severe environments, including high vibration and shock conditions. Due to their resistance to shock and vibration, static switches are used where accidental switching caused by mechanical vibration or shock cannot be tolerated.

  8. Language Switching and Language Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, Teresa; Paolieri, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the asymmetrical language switching cost in a word reading task (Experiment 1) and in a categorization task (Experiment 2 and 3). In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals named words in first language (L1) and second language (L2) in a switching paradigm. They were slower to switch from their weaker L2 to their more dominant…

  9. Expression of CCR5, CXCR4 and DC-SIGN in Cervix of HIV-1 Heterosexually Infected Mexican Women

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Morales, Lydia Guadalupe; Lopez-Guillen, Paulo; Vazquez-Guillen, Jose Manuel; Palacios-Saucedo, Gerardo C; Rosas-Taraco, Adrian G; Ramirez-Pineda, Antonio; Amaya-Garcia, Patricia Irene; Rodriguez-Padilla, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Background: A number of studies have demonstrated that receptor and co-receptor expression levels which may affect viral entry, promoting cervical HIV infection. The aim was to evaluate the expression levels of CCR5, CXCR4and DC-SIGN mRNA in a sample of heterosexually HIV infected Mexican women. Methods: We enrolled twenty-six HIV heterosexual infected women attending a local infectious diseases medical unit.RNA was isolated from the cervix and gene expression analysis was performed using real-time PCR. Results: Expression rates for mRNA of CCR5 (median 1.82; range 0.003–2934) were higher than those observed for CXCR4 (0.79; 0.0061–3312) and DC-SIGN (0.33; 0.006–532) receptors (p < 0.05). A high correlation was found between the mRNA expression levels of these three receptors (rs = 0.52 to 0.85, p < 0.01). Conclusion: Levels of expression of the tested chemokine receptors in the cervix are different from each other and alsovary from woman to woman, and seem to support the suggestion that chemokine receptor expression in genital tissues may be playing a role in the HIV transmission. PMID:23115608

  10. Antigenic and 3D structural characterization of soluble X4 and hybrid X4-R5 HIV-1 Env trimers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV-1 is decorated with trimeric glycoprotein spikes that enable infection by engaging CD4 and a chemokine coreceptor, either CCR5 or CXCR4. The variable loop 3 (V3) of the HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) is the main determinant for coreceptor usage. The predominant CCR5 using (R5) HIV-1 Env has been intensively studied in function and structure, whereas the trimeric architecture of the less frequent, but more cytopathic CXCR4 using (X4) HIV-1 Env is largely unknown, as are the consequences of sequence changes in and near V3 on antigenicity and trimeric Env structure. Results Soluble trimeric gp140 Env constructs were used as immunogenic mimics of the native spikes to analyze their antigenic properties in the context of their overall 3D structure. We generated soluble, uncleaved, gp140 trimers from a prototypic T-cell line-adapted (TCLA) X4 HIV-1 strain (NL4-3) and a hybrid (NL4-3/ADA), in which the V3 spanning region was substituted with that from the primary R5 isolate ADA. Compared to an ADA (R5) gp140, the NL4-3 (X4) construct revealed an overall higher antibody accessibility, which was most pronounced for the CD4 binding site (CD4bs), but also observed for mAbs against CD4 induced (CD4i) epitopes and gp41 mAbs. V3 mAbs showed significant binding differences to the three constructs, which were refined by SPR analysis. Of interest, the NL4-3/ADA construct with the hybrid NL4-3/ADA CD4bs showed impaired CD4 and CD4bs mAb reactivity despite the presence of the essential elements of the CD4bs epitope. We obtained 3D reconstructions of the NL4-3 and the NL4-3/ADA gp140 trimers via electron microscopy and single particle analysis, which indicates that both constructs inherit a propeller-like architecture. The first 3D reconstruction of an Env construct from an X4 TCLA HIV-1 strain reveals an open conformation, in contrast to recently published more closed structures from R5 Env. Exchanging the X4 V3 spanning region for that of R5 ADA did not alter the open

  11. Abacus switch: a new scalable multicast ATM switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, H. Jonathan; Park, Jin-Soo; Choe, Byeong-Seog

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes a new architecture for a scalable multicast ATM switch from a few tens to thousands of input ports. The switch, called Abacus switch, has a nonblocking memoryless switch fabric followed by small switch modules at the output ports; the switch has input and output buffers. Cell replication, cell routing, output contention resolution, and cell addressing are all performed distributedly in the Abacus switch so that it can be scaled up to thousnads input and output ports. A novel algorithm has been proposed to resolve output port contention while achieving input and output ports. A novel algorithm has been proposed to reolve output port contention while achieving input buffers sharing, fairness among the input ports, and multicast call splitting. The channel grouping concept is also adopted in the switch to reduce the hardware complexity and improve the switch's throughput. The Abacus switch has a regular structure and thus has the advantages of: 1) easy expansion, 2) relaxed synchronization for data and clock signals, and 3) building the switch fabric using existing CMOS technology.

  12. Biochemical switching device: how to turn on (off) the switch.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, M; Sakai, T; Hayashi, K

    1989-01-01

    We previously showed with computer simulations that cyclic enzyme systems have the reliability of ON-OFF types of operation (McCulloch-Pitts' neuronic equation) and the applicability for a switching circuit in a biocomputer. The switching time was inevitably determined in accordance with the difference in amount between two inputs of the system. This characteristic is, however, a disadvantage for practical use of a switching device; we need to improve the system in order for the switching time to optionally be changed. We shall present here how to turn on (off) the switch independently of the modes of two inputs. By introducing pulse perturbation, we could optionally set up the switching time of a cyclic enzyme system (biochemical switching device). PMID:2720139

  13. High gain GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches: Switch longevity

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, G.M.; Zutavern, F.J.; Mar, A.

    1998-07-01

    Optically activated, high gain GaAs switches are being tested for many different pulsed power applications that require long lifetime (longevity). The switches have p and n contact metallization (with intentional or unintentional dopants) configured in such a way as to produce p-i-n or n-i-n switches. The longevity of the switches is determined by circuit parameters and by the ability of the contacts to resist erosion. This paper will describe how the switches performed in test-beds designed to measure switch longevity. The best longevity was achieved with switches made with diffused contacts, achieving over 50 million pulses at 10 A and over 2 million pulses at 80 A.

  14. Optical fiber switch

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2002-01-01

    Optical fiber switches operated by electrical activation of at least one laser light modulator through which laser light is directed into at least one polarizer are used for the sequential transport of laser light from a single laser into a plurality of optical fibers. In one embodiment of the invention, laser light from a single excitation laser is sequentially transported to a plurality of optical fibers which in turn transport the laser light to separate individual remotely located laser fuel ignitors. The invention can be operated electro-optically with no need for any mechanical or moving parts, or, alternatively, can be operated electro-mechanically. The invention can be used to switch either pulsed or continuous wave laser light.

  15. Neurotransmitter Switching? No Surprise

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, Nicholas C.

    2015-01-01

    Among the many forms of brain plasticity, changes in synaptic strength and changes in synapse number are particularly prominent. However, evidence for neurotransmitter respecification or switching has been accumulating steadily, both in the developing nervous system and in the adult brain, with observations of transmitter addition, loss, or replacement of one transmitter with another. Natural stimuli can drive these changes in transmitter identity, with matching changes in postsynaptic transmitter receptors. Strikingly, they often convert the synapse from excitatory to inhibitory or vice versa, providing a basis for changes in behavior in those cases in which it has been examined. Progress has been made in identifying the factors that induce transmitter switching and in understanding the molecular mechanisms by which it is achieved. There are many intriguing questions to be addressed. PMID:26050033

  16. A plasmonic Fano switch.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Shun; Lassiter, J Britt; Swanglap, Pattanawit; Sobhani, Heidar; Khatua, Saumyakanti; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J; Link, Stephan

    2012-09-12

    Plasmonic clusters can support Fano resonances, where the line shape characteristics are controlled by cluster geometry. Here we show that clusters with a hemicircular central disk surrounded by a circular ring of closely spaced, coupled nanodisks yield Fano-like and non-Fano-like spectra for orthogonal incident polarization orientations. When this structure is incorporated into an uniquely broadband, liquid crystal device geometry, the entire Fano resonance spectrum can be switched on and off in a voltage-dependent manner. A reversible transition between the Fano-like and non-Fano-like spectra is induced by relatively low (∼6 V) applied voltages, resulting in a complete on/off switching of the transparency window. PMID:22924610

  17. Plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Savage, Mark E.; Mendel, Jr., Clifford W.

    2001-01-01

    A command triggered plasma opening switch assembly using an amplification stage. The assembly surrounds a coaxial transmission line and has a main plasma opening switch (POS) close to the load and a trigger POS upstream from the main POS. The trigger POS establishes two different current pathways through the assembly depended on whether it has received a trigger current pulse. The initial pathway has both POS's with plasma between their anodes and cathodes to form a short across the transmission line and isolating the load. The final current pathway is formed when the trigger POS receives a trigger current pulse which energizes its fast coil to push the conductive plasma out from between its anode and cathode, allowing the main transmission line current to pass to the fast coil of the main POS, thus pushing its plasma out the way so as to establish a direct current pathway to the load.

  18. The quantum cryptographic switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinatha, N.; Omkar, S.; Srikanth, R.; Banerjee, Subhashish; Pathak, Anirban

    2014-01-01

    We illustrate the principle of a cryptographic switch for a quantum scenario, in which a third party (Charlie) can control to a continuously varying degree the amount of information the receiver (Bob) receives, after the sender (Alice) has sent her information through a quantum channel. Suppose Charlie transmits a Bell state to Alice and Bob. Alice uses dense coding to transmit two bits to Bob. Only if the 2-bit information corresponding to the choice of the Bell state is made available by Charlie to Bob can the latter recover Alice's information. By varying the amount of information Charlie gives, he can continuously alter the information recovered by Bob. The performance of the protocol as subjected to the squeezed generalized amplitude damping channel is considered. We also present a number of practical situations where a cryptographic switch would be of use.

  19. MULTIPLE SPARK GAP SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Schofield, A.E.

    1958-07-22

    A multiple spark gap switch of unique construction is described which will permit controlled, simultaneous discharge of several capacitors into a load. The switch construction includes a disc electrode with a plurality of protuberances of generally convex shape on one surface. A firing electrode is insulatingly supponted In each of the electrode protuberances and extends substantially to the apex thereof. Individual electrodes are disposed on an insulating plate parallel with the disc electrode to form a number of spark gaps with the protuberances. These electrodes are each connected to a separate charged capacitor and when a voltage ls applied simultaneously between the trigger electrodes and the dlsc electrode, each spark gap fires to connect its capacitor to the disc electrode and a subsequent load.

  20. Cryogenic switched MOSFET characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Both p channel and n channel enhancement mode MOSFETs can be readily switched on and off at temperatures as low as 2.8 K so that switch sampled readout of a VLWIR Ge:Ga focal plane is electronically possible. Noise levels as low as 100 rms electrons per sample (independent of sample rate) can be achieved using existing p channel MOSFETs, at overall rates up to 30,000 samples/second per multiplexed channel (e.g., 32 detectors at a rate of almost 1,000 frames/second). Run of the mill devices, including very low power dissipation n channel FETs would still permit noise levels of the order of 500 electrons/sample.

  1. Concordance between two phenotypic assays and ultradeep pyrosequencing for determining HIV-1 tropism.

    PubMed

    Saliou, Adrien; Delobel, Pierre; Dubois, Martine; Nicot, Florence; Raymond, Stéphanie; Calvez, Vincent; Masquelier, Bernard; Izopet, Jacques

    2011-06-01

    There have been few studies on the concordance between phenotypic assays for predicting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) coreceptor usage. The sensitivity of ultradeep pyrosequencing combined with genotyping tools is similar to that of phenotypic assays for detecting minor CXCR4-using variants. We evaluated the agreement between two phenotypic assays, the Toulouse tropism test (TTT) and the Trofile assay, and ultradeep pyrosequencing for determining the tropism of HIV-1 quasispecies. The concordance between the TTT and Trofile assays was assessed for 181 samples successfully phenotyped by both assays. The TTT was 86% concordant with the standard Trofile assay and 91.7% with its enhanced-sensitivity version. The concordance between phenotypic characterization of HIV-1 tropism and ultradeep pyrosequencing genotypic prediction was further studied in selected samples. The HIV-1 tropism inferred from ultradeep pyrosequencing of 11 samples phenotyped as X4 and dualtropic and 12 phenotyped as R5-tropic agreed closely with the results of phenotyping. However, ultradeep pyrosequencing detected minor CXCR4-using variants in 3 of 12 samples phenotyped as R5-tropic. Ultradeep pyrosequencing also detected minor CXCR4-using variants that had been missed by direct sequencing in 6 of 9 samples phenotyped as X4-tropic but genotyped as R5-tropic by direct sequencing. Ultradeep pyrosequencing was 87% concordant with the Trofile and TTT phenotypic assays and was in the same range of sensitivity (0.4%) than these two phenotypic assays (0.3 to 0.5%) for detecting minor CXCR4-using variants. Ultradeep pyrosequencing provides a new way to improve the performance of genotypic prediction of HIV-1 tropism to match that of the phenotypic assays. PMID:21464245

  2. Concordance between Two Phenotypic Assays and Ultradeep Pyrosequencing for Determining HIV-1 Tropism▿†

    PubMed Central

    Saliou, Adrien; Delobel, Pierre; Dubois, Martine; Nicot, Florence; Raymond, Stéphanie; Calvez, Vincent; Masquelier, Bernard; Izopet, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    There have been few studies on the concordance between phenotypic assays for predicting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) coreceptor usage. The sensitivity of ultradeep pyrosequencing combined with genotyping tools is similar to that of phenotypic assays for detecting minor CXCR4-using variants. We evaluated the agreement between two phenotypic assays, the Toulouse tropism test (TTT) and the Trofile assay, and ultradeep pyrosequencing for determining the tropism of HIV-1 quasispecies. The concordance between the TTT and Trofile assays was assessed for 181 samples successfully phenotyped by both assays. The TTT was 86% concordant with the standard Trofile assay and 91.7% with its enhanced-sensitivity version. The concordance between phenotypic characterization of HIV-1 tropism and ultradeep pyrosequencing genotypic prediction was further studied in selected samples. The HIV-1 tropism inferred from ultradeep pyrosequencing of 11 samples phenotyped as X4 and dualtropic and 12 phenotyped as R5-tropic agreed closely with the results of phenotyping. However, ultradeep pyrosequencing detected minor CXCR4-using variants in 3 of 12 samples phenotyped as R5-tropic. Ultradeep pyrosequencing also detected minor CXCR4-using variants that had been missed by direct sequencing in 6 of 9 samples phenotyped as X4-tropic but genotyped as R5-tropic by direct sequencing. Ultradeep pyrosequencing was 87% concordant with the Trofile and TTT phenotypic assays and was in the same range of sensitivity (0.4%) than these two phenotypic assays (0.3 to 0.5%) for detecting minor CXCR4-using variants. Ultradeep pyrosequencing provides a new way to improve the performance of genotypic prediction of HIV-1 tropism to match that of the phenotypic assays. PMID:21464245

  3. Development of a Contemporary Globally Diverse HIV Viral Panel by the EQAPOL Program

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Ana M.; DeMarco, C. Todd; Hora, Bhavna; Keinonen, Sarah; Chen, Yue; Brinkley, Christie; Stone, Mars; Tobler, Leslie; Keating, Sheila; Schito, Marco; Busch, Michael P.; Gao, Feng; Denny, Thomas N.

    2014-01-01

    The significant diversity among HIV-1 variants poses serious challenges for vaccine development and for developing sensitive assays for screening, surveillance, diagnosis and clinical management. Recognizing a need to develop a panel of HIV representing the current genetic and geographic diversity NIH/NIAID contracted the External Quality Assurance Program Oversight Laboratory (EQAPOL) to isolate, characterize and establish panels of HIV-1 strains representing global diverse subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs), and to make them available to the research community. HIV-positive plasma specimens and previously established isolates were collected through a variety of collaborations with a preference for samples from acutely/recently infected persons diagnosed since 2009. Source specimens were cultured to high-titer/high-volume using well-characterized cryopreserved PBMCs from healthy donors. Panel samples were stored as neat culture supernatant or diluted into defibrinated plasma. Characterization for the final expanded virus stocks included viral load, p24 antigen, infectivity (TCID), sterility, coreceptor usage, and near full-length genome sequencing. Viruses are made available to approved, interested laboratories using an online ordering application. The current EQAPOL Viral Diversity panel includes over 101 viral specimens representing 6 subtypes (A, B, C, D, F, and G), 2 sub-subtypes (F1 and F2), 7 CRFs (01, 02, 04, 14, 22, 24, and 47), 19 URFs and 3 group O viruses from 22 countries. The EQAPOL Viral Diversity panel is an invaluable collection of well-characterized reagents that are available to the scientific community, including researchers, epidemiologists, and commercial manufacturers of diagnostics and pharmaceuticals to support HIV research and diagnostic and vaccine development. PMID:24447533

  4. Germlining of the HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibody domain m36

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weizao; Li, Wei; Ying, Tianlei; Wang, Yanping; Feng, Yang; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.

    2015-01-01

    Engineered antibody domains (eAds) have emerged as a novel class of HIV-1 inhibitors and are currently under preclinical testing as promising drug candidates for prevention and therapy of HIV-1 infection. Reverse mutation of antibodies to germline sequences (germlining) could not only identify less mutated variants with lower probability of immunogenicity and other improved properties but also help elucidate their mechanisms of action. In this study, we sequentially reverted the framework (FRs) and complementary determining regions (CDRs) of m36, a human antibody heavy chain variable domain-based eAd targeting the coreceptor binding site of the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120, back to germline sequences. Two types of amino acid mutations and one region in the antibody V segment were identified that are critical for HIV-1 neutralization. These include four mutations to acidic acid residues distributed in the CDR1 and CDR2, two mutations to hydrophobic residues in the FR3 and CDR3, and partial FR2 and FR3 sequences flanking the CDR2 that are derived from a different gene family. An m36 variant with all five mutations in the FRs reverted back to germline showed slightly increased neutralizing activity against two HIV-1 isolates tested. Another variant with seven of twelve mutations in the V segment reverted retained potency within three-fold of that of the mature antibody. These results, together with an analysis of m36-gp120-CD4 docking structures, could have implications for the further development of m36 as candidate therapeutics and elucidation of its mechanism of potent and broad HIV-1 neutralization. PMID:25676867

  5. Evolution of genetic switch complexity

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Gregory W.; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2013-01-01

    The circuitry of the phage λ genetic switch determining the outcome of lytic or lysogenic growth is well-integrated and complex, raising the question as to how it evolved. It is plausible that it arose from a simpler ancestral switch with fewer components that underwent various additions and refinements, as it adapted to vast numbers of different hosts and conditions. We have recently identified a new class of genetic switches found in mycobacteriophages and other prophages, in which immunity is dependent on integration. These switches contain only three genes (integrase, repressor and cro) and represent a major departure from the λ-like circuitry, lacking many features such as xis, cII and cIII. These small self-contained switches represent an unrealized, elegant circuitry for controlling infection outcome. In this addendum, we propose a model of possible events in the evolution of a complex λ-like switch from a simpler integration-dependent switch. PMID:23819104

  6. CREE: Making the Switch

    SciTech Connect

    Grider, David; Palmer, John

    2014-03-06

    CREE, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed a Silicon Carbide (SIC) transistor which can be used to create solid state transformers capable of meeting the unique needs of the emerging smart grid. SIC transistors are different from common silicon computer chips in that they handle grid scale voltages with ease and their high frequency switching is well suited to the intermittent nature of renewable energy generation.

  7. CREE: Making the Switch

    ScienceCinema

    Grider, David; Palmer, John

    2014-04-09

    CREE, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed a Silicon Carbide (SIC) transistor which can be used to create solid state transformers capable of meeting the unique needs of the emerging smart grid. SIC transistors are different from common silicon computer chips in that they handle grid scale voltages with ease and their high frequency switching is well suited to the intermittent nature of renewable energy generation.

  8. Composite Material Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javadi, Hamid (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A device to protect electronic circuitry from high voltage transients is constructed from a relatively thin piece of conductive composite sandwiched between two conductors so that conduction is through the thickness of the composite piece. The device is based on the discovery that conduction through conductive composite materials in this configuration switches to a high resistance mode when exposed to voltages above a threshold voltage.

  9. Automatic switching matrix

    DOEpatents

    Schlecht, Martin F.; Kassakian, John G.; Caloggero, Anthony J.; Rhodes, Bruce; Otten, David; Rasmussen, Neil

    1982-01-01

    An automatic switching matrix that includes an apertured matrix board containing a matrix of wires that can be interconnected at each aperture. Each aperture has associated therewith a conductive pin which, when fully inserted into the associated aperture, effects electrical connection between the wires within that particular aperture. Means is provided for automatically inserting the pins in a determined pattern and for removing all the pins to permit other interconnecting patterns.

  10. MCT/MOSFET Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E.

    1990-01-01

    Metal-oxide/semiconductor-controlled thyristor (MCT) and metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) connected in switching circuit to obtain better performance. Offers high utilization of silicon, low forward voltage drop during "on" period of operating cycle, fast turnon and turnoff, and large turnoff safe operating area. Includes ability to operate at high temperatures, high static blocking voltage, and ease of drive.

  11. Extended lifetime railgap switch

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, D.B.; Mendoza, P.J.

    1988-02-02

    In a railgap switch of the type having an elongate blade electrode made of conductive material, an elongate housing made of insulating material for supporting the blade electrode and plate electrode in opposed relation extending in the same direction with the blade centered over the plate and separated therefrom by a gap, and a gas filling the housing and the gap, the gas being selected to breakdown and switch from a highly insulative state to a highly conductive state upon application of a high voltage across the blade and plate electrodes, the improvement is described comprising: forming the blade with laterally extending transverse wing portions at the edge of the blade and adjacent the gap so as to extend in spaced parallel relation to the surface of the plate, the blade generally following the contour thereof to form an inverted T-shape structure with the wing portions extending transversely of the elongate dimension of the blade. The wing portions terminating in a pair of spaced parallel edges extending along the elongate direction of the blade to thereby create two spaced elongate edges along which arcs form serving to divide the erosion effects of discharge between them, the current through each edge being one-half of that in single-edge devices with ablation wear reduced accordingly to give significantly larger switch lifetime. The blade and wing portions limiting ablation erosion of the edges in a direction generally align with the plate contour so that the edge-to-plate separation remains substantially constant.

  12. Ferroelectric switching of elastin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanming; Cai, Hong-Ling; Zelisko, Matthew; Wang, Yunjie; Sun, Jinglan; Yan, Fei; Ma, Feiyue; Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Zheng, Hairong; Meng, Xiangjian; Sharma, Pradeep; Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu

    2014-01-01

    Ferroelectricity has long been speculated to have important biological functions, although its very existence in biology has never been firmly established. Here, we present compelling evidence that elastin, the key ECM protein found in connective tissues, is ferroelectric, and we elucidate the molecular mechanism of its switching. Nanoscale piezoresponse force microscopy and macroscopic pyroelectric measurements both show that elastin retains ferroelectricity at 473 K, with polarization on the order of 1 μC/cm2, whereas coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations predict similar polarization with a Curie temperature of 580 K, which is higher than most synthetic molecular ferroelectrics. The polarization of elastin is found to be intrinsic in tropoelastin at the monomer level, analogous to the unit cell level polarization in classical perovskite ferroelectrics, and it switches via thermally activated cooperative rotation of dipoles. Our study sheds light onto a long-standing question on ferroelectric switching in biology and establishes ferroelectricity as an important biophysical property of proteins. This is a critical first step toward resolving its physiological significance and pathological implications. PMID:24958890

  13. Ultrafast gas switching experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, C.A.; Martin, T.H.; Patterson, P.E.; Rinehart, L.F.; Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.; Aurand, J.F.; Buttram, M.T.

    1996-11-01

    We describe recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes < 100 ps which can be used for ultrawideband radar systems, particle accelerators, laser drivers, bioelectromagnetic studies, electromagnetic effects testing, and for basic studies of gas breakdown physics. We have produced and accurately measured pulses with 50 to 100 ps risetimes to peak levels of 75 to 160 kV at pulse repetition frequencies (PRF) to I kHz. A unique gas switch was developed to hold off hundreds of kV with parasitic inductance less than I nH. An advanced diagnostic system using Fourier compensation was developed to measure single-shot risetimes below 35 ps. The complete apparatus is described and wave forms are presented. The measured data are compared with a theoretical model which predicts key features including dependence on gas species and pressure. We have applied this technology to practical systems driving ultrawideband radiating antennas and bounded wave simulators. For example, we have developed a thyristor/pulse transformer based system using a highly overvolted cable switch. This pulser driving a Sandia- designed TEM cell, provides an ultra wideband impulse with < 200 ps risetime to the test object at a PRF > 1 kHz at > 100 kV/m E field.

  14. Ultrafast gas switching experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, C.A.; Martin, T.H.; Patterson, P.E.; Rinehart, L.F.; Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.; Aurand, J.F.; Buttram, M.T.

    1993-08-01

    We describe recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes < 100 ps which can be used for ultrawideband radar systems, particle accelerators, laser drivers, bioelectromagnetic studies, electromagnetic effects testing, and for basic studies of gas breakdown physics. We have produced and accurately measured pulses with 50 to 100 ps risetimes to peak levels of 75 to 160 kV at pulse repetition frequencies (PRF) to 1 kHz. A unique gas switch was developed to hold off hundreds of kV with parasitic inductance less than 1 nH. An advanced diagnostic system using Fourier compensation was developed to measure single-shot risetimes below 35 ps. The complete apparatus is described and waveforms are presented. The measured data are compared with a theoretical model which predicts key features including dependence on gas species and technology to practical systems antennas and bounded wave developed a thyristor/pulse transformer based system using a highly overvolted cable switch. This pulser driving a Sandia-designed TEM cell, provides an ultra wideband impulse with < 200 ps risetime to the test object at a PRF > Khz at > 100 kV/m E field.

  15. "Platform switching": serendipity.

    PubMed

    Kalavathy, N; Sridevi, J; Gehlot, Roshni; Kumar, Santosh

    2014-01-01

    Implant dentistry is the latest developing field in terms of clinical techniques, research, material science and oral rehabilitation. Extensive work is being done to improve the designing of implants in order to achieve better esthetics and function. The main drawback with respect to implant restoration is achieving good osseointegration along with satisfactory stress distribution, which in turn will improve the prognosis of implant prosthesis by reducing the crestal bone loss. Many concepts have been developed with reference to surface coating of implants, surgical techniques for implant placement, immediate and delayed loading, platform switching concept, etc. This article has made an attempt to review the concept of platform switching was in fact revealed accidentally due to the nonavailability of the abutment appropriate to the size of the implant placed. A few aspect of platform switching, an upcoming idea to reduce crestal bone loss have been covered. The various methods used for locating and preparing the data were done through textbooks, Google search and related articles. PMID:24992863

  16. Cygnus Diverter Switch Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, C. Mitton et al.

    2008-02-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two 2.25-MV, 60-kA, 50-ns x-ray sources fielded in an underground laboratory at the Nevada Test Site. The tests performed in this laboratory involve study of the dynamic properties of plutonium and are called subcritical experiments. From end-to-end, the Cygnus machines utilize the following components: Marx generator, water-filled pulse-forming line (PFL), waterfilled coaxial transmission line (WTL), 3-cell inductive voltage adder (IVA), and rod-pinch diode. The upstream WTL interface to the PFL is via a radial insulator with coaxial geometry. The downstream WTL terminates in a manifold where the center conductor splits into three lines which individually connect to each of the IVA cell inputs. There is an impedance mismatch at this juncture. It is a concern that a reflected pulse due to anomalous behavior in the IVA or diode might initiate breakdown upon arrival at the upstream PFL/WTL insulator. Therefore near the beginning of the WTL a radial diverter switch is installed to protect the insulator from over voltage and breakdown. The diverter has adjustable gap spacing, and an in-line aqueous-solution (sodium thiosulfate) resistor array for energy dissipation. There are capacitive voltage probes at both ends of the WTL and on the diverter switch. These voltage signals will be analyzed to determine diverter performance. Using this analysis the usefulness of the diverter switch will be evaluated.

  17. Organic optical bistable switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Jiangeng; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate an organic optical bistable switch by integrating an efficient organic photodetector on top of a transparent electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (TOLED). The bistability is achieved with an external field-effect transistor providing positive feedback. In the "LOW" state, the TOLED is off and the current in the photodetector is solely its dark current. In the "HIGH" state, the TOLED emits light that is directly coupled into the integrated photodetector through the transparent cathode. The photocurrent then is fed back to the TOLED, maintaining it in the HIGH state. The green electrophosphorescent material, fac tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium [Ir(ppy)3] doped into a 4,4'-N,N'-dicarbazole-biphenyl host was used as the luminescent material in the TOLED, while alternating thin layers of copper phthalocyanine and 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic bis-benzimidazole were used as the active region of the organic photodetector. The circuit has a 3 dB bandwidth of 25 kHz, and can be switched between HIGH and LOW using pulses as narrow as 60 ns. The bistable switch can be both electrically and optically reset, making it a candidate for image-retaining displays (e.g., electronic paper) and other photonic logic applications. The integrated organic device also has broad use as a linear circuit element in applications such as automatic brightness control.

  18. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Inactivation Drives T-bet-Mediated Downregulation of Co-receptor PD-1 to Enhance CD8(+) Cytolytic T Cell Responses.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Alison; Harker, James A; Chanthong, Kittiphat; Stevenson, Philip G; Zuniga, Elina I; Rudd, Christopher E

    2016-02-16

    Despite the importance of the co-receptor PD-1 in T cell immunity, the upstream signaling pathway that regulates PD-1 expression has not been defined. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3, isoforms α and β) is a serine-threonine kinase implicated in cellular processes. Here, we identified GSK-3 as a key upstream kinase that regulated PD-1 expression in CD8(+) T cells. GSK-3 siRNA downregulation, or inhibition by small molecules, blocked PD-1 expression, resulting in increased CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) function. Mechanistically, GSK-3 inactivation increased Tbx21 transcription, promoting enhanced T-bet expression and subsequent suppression of Pdcd1 (encodes PD-1) transcription in CD8(+) CTLs. Injection of GSK-3 inhibitors in mice increased in vivo CD8(+) OT-I CTL function and the clearance of murine gamma-herpesvirus 68 and lymphocytic choriomeningitis clone 13 and reversed T cell exhaustion. Our findings identify GSK-3 as a regulator of PD-1 expression and demonstrate the applicability of GSK-3 inhibitors in the modulation of PD-1 in immunotherapy. PMID:26885856

  19. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Inactivation Drives T-bet-Mediated Downregulation of Co-receptor PD-1 to Enhance CD8+ Cytolytic T Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Alison; Harker, James A.; Chanthong, Kittiphat; Stevenson, Philip G.; Zuniga, Elina I.; Rudd, Christopher E.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Despite the importance of the co-receptor PD-1 in T cell immunity, the upstream signaling pathway that regulates PD-1 expression has not been defined. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3, isoforms α and β) is a serine-threonine kinase implicated in cellular processes. Here, we identified GSK-3 as a key upstream kinase that regulated PD-1 expression in CD8+ T cells. GSK-3 siRNA downregulation, or inhibition by small molecules, blocked PD-1 expression, resulting in increased CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) function. Mechanistically, GSK-3 inactivation increased Tbx21 transcription, promoting enhanced T-bet expression and subsequent suppression of Pdcd1 (encodes PD-1) transcription in CD8+ CTLs. Injection of GSK-3 inhibitors in mice increased in vivo CD8+ OT-I CTL function and the clearance of murine gamma-herpesvirus 68 and lymphocytic choriomeningitis clone 13 and reversed T cell exhaustion. Our findings identify GSK-3 as a regulator of PD-1 expression and demonstrate the applicability of GSK-3 inhibitors in the modulation of PD-1 in immunotherapy. PMID:26885856

  20. Silencing the Olfactory Co-Receptor RferOrco Reduces the Response to Pheromones in the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus.

    PubMed

    Soffan, Alan; Antony, Binu; Abdelazim, Mahmoud; Shukla, Paraj; Witjaksono, Witjaksono; Aldosari, Saleh A; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S

    2016-01-01

    The red palm weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), one of the most widespread of all invasive insect pest species, is a major cause of severe damage to economically important palm trees. RPW exhibits behaviors very similar to those of its sympatric species, the Asian palm weevil (R. vulneratus), which is restricted geographically to the southern part of Southeast Asia. Although efficient and sustainable control of these pests remains challenging, olfactory-system disruption has been proposed as a promising approach for controlling palm weevils. Here, we report the cloning and sequencing of an olfactory co-receptor (Orco) from R. ferrugineus (RferOrco) and R. vulneratus (RvulOrco) and examine the effects of RferOrco silencing (RNAi) on odorant detection. RferOrco and RvulOrco encoding 482 amino acids showing 99.58% identity. The injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) from RferOrco into R. ferrugineus pupae significantly reduced RferOrco gene expression and led to the failure of odor-stimulus detection, as confirmed through olfactometer and electroantennography (EAG) assays. These results suggest that olfactory-system disruption leading to reduced pheromone detection holds great potential for RPW pest-control strategies. PMID:27606688

  1. The sclerostin-neutralizing antibody AbD09097 recognizes an epitope adjacent to sclerostin's binding site for the Wnt co-receptor LRP6

    PubMed Central

    Boschert, V.; Frisch, C.; Back, J. W.; van Pee, K.; Weidauer, S. E.; Muth, E.-M.; Schmieder, P.; Beerbaum, M.; Knappik, A.; Timmerman, P.

    2016-01-01

    The glycoprotein sclerostin has been identified as a negative regulator of bone growth. It exerts its function by interacting with the Wnt co-receptor LRP5/6, blocks the binding of Wnt factors and thereby inhibits Wnt signalling. Neutralizing anti-sclerostin antibodies are able to restore Wnt activity and enhance bone growth thereby presenting a new osteoanabolic therapy approach for diseases such as osteoporosis. We have generated various Fab antibodies against human and murine sclerostin using a phage display set-up. Biochemical analyses have identified one Fab developed against murine sclerostin, AbD09097 that efficiently neutralizes sclerostin's Wnt inhibitory activity. In vitro interaction analysis using sclerostin variants revealed that this neutralizing Fab binds to sclerostin's flexible second loop, which has been shown to harbour the LRP5/6 binding motif. Affinity maturation was then applied to AbD09097, providing a set of improved neutralizing Fab antibodies which particularly bind human sclerostin with enhanced affinity. Determining the crystal structure of AbD09097 provides first insights into how this antibody might recognize and neutralize sclerostin. Together with the structure–function relationship derived from affinity maturation these new data will foster the rational design of new and highly efficient anti-sclerostin antibodies for the therapy of bone loss diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:27558933

  2. The sclerostin-neutralizing antibody AbD09097 recognizes an epitope adjacent to sclerostin's binding site for the Wnt co-receptor LRP6.

    PubMed

    Boschert, V; Frisch, C; Back, J W; van Pee, K; Weidauer, S E; Muth, E-M; Schmieder, P; Beerbaum, M; Knappik, A; Timmerman, P; Mueller, T D

    2016-08-01

    The glycoprotein sclerostin has been identified as a negative regulator of bone growth. It exerts its function by interacting with the Wnt co-receptor LRP5/6, blocks the binding of Wnt factors and thereby inhibits Wnt signalling. Neutralizing anti-sclerostin antibodies are able to restore Wnt activity and enhance bone growth thereby presenting a new osteoanabolic therapy approach for diseases such as osteoporosis. We have generated various Fab antibodies against human and murine sclerostin using a phage display set-up. Biochemical analyses have identified one Fab developed against murine sclerostin, AbD09097 that efficiently neutralizes sclerostin's Wnt inhibitory activity. In vitro interaction analysis using sclerostin variants revealed that this neutralizing Fab binds to sclerostin's flexible second loop, which has been shown to harbour the LRP5/6 binding motif. Affinity maturation was then applied to AbD09097, providing a set of improved neutralizing Fab antibodies which particularly bind human sclerostin with enhanced affinity. Determining the crystal structure of AbD09097 provides first insights into how this antibody might recognize and neutralize sclerostin. Together with the structure-function relationship derived from affinity maturation these new data will foster the rational design of new and highly efficient anti-sclerostin antibodies for the therapy of bone loss diseases such as osteoporosis. PMID:27558933

  3. Testing for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability (Biologics) HIV Home Test Kits Testing for HIV Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  4. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ... cancers. When that happens, the illness is called AIDS. Once a person has the virus, it stays ...

  5. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV positive have been tested ... to everyone in the world. When the person's immune system has weakened and more of the blood's T ...

  6. Microbiome in HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Salas, January T.; Chang, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    HIV primary infection occurs at mucosa tissues, suggesting an intricate interplay between microbiome and HIV infection. Recent advanced technologies of high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics allow researchers to explore nonculturable microbes including bacteria, virus and fungi and their association with diseases. HIV/SIV infection is associated with microbiome shifts and immune activation that may affect the outcome of disease progression. Similarly, altered microbiome and inflammation are associated with increased risks of HIV acquisition, suggesting the role of microbiome in HIV transmission. In this review, we will focus on microbiome in HIV infection at various mucosal compartments. Understanding the relationship between microbiome and HIV may offer insights into development of better strategies for HIV prevention and treatment. PMID:25439273

  7. HIV and Cardiovascular Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... CVD. ART can increase blood fats (cholesterol and triglycerides, see fact sheet 123.) It can also help ... disease. HIV infection decreases good cholesterol and increases triglycerides. HIV causes inflammation. This can also contribute to ...

  8. Older People and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many older people believe that HIV only affects younger people Most older people get little training in ... diseases among older people, as they do for younger people. Physicians may not diagnose HIV infection in ...

  9. Smoking and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... 28, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 803 Smoking and HIV WHY IS SMOKING MORE DANGEROUS FOR ... It can also worsen liver problems like hepatitis. Smoking and Side Effects People with HIV who smoke ...

  10. HIV and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy Patient Education FAQs HIV and Pregnancy Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish HIV and Pregnancy FAQ113, December 2012 PDF Format ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  11. HIV-1 Induced Nuclear Factor I-B (NF-IB) Expression Negatively Regulates HIV-1 Replication through Interaction with the Long Terminal Repeat Region

    PubMed Central

    Vemula, Sai Vikram; Veerasamy, Ravichandran; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Biswas, Santanu; Devadas, Krishnakumar; Hewlett, Indira

    2015-01-01

    Background: Retroviruses rely on host factors for cell entry, replication, transcription, and other major steps during their life cycle. Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) is well known for utilizing a plethora of strategies to evade the host immune response, including the establishment of latent infection within a subpopulation of susceptible cells. HIV-1 also manipulates cellular factors in latently infected cells and persists for long periods of time, despite the presence of successful highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Results: In this study we demonstrate that Nuclear Factor-IB (NF-IB) is induced during HIV-1 infection and its expression negatively impacts viral replication. During HIV-1 infection in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and the T cell line, Jurkat or during induction of virus replication in latently infected cells, ACH2 and J1.1, we observed a time-dependent alteration in NF-IB expression pattern that correlated with HIV-1 viral expression. Using the Chip assay, we observed an association of NF-IB with the long terminal repeat region of HIV-1 (LTR) (-386 to -453 nt), and this association negatively correlated with HIV-1 transcription. Furthermore, knock-down of NF-IB levels in J1.1 cells resulted in an increase of HIV-1 levels. Knock-down of NF-IB levels in J-Lat-Tat-GFP (A1), (a Jurkat cell GFP reporter model for latent HIV-1 infection) resulted in an increase in GFP levels, indicating a potential negative regulatory role of NF-IB in HIV-1 replication. Conclusion: Overall, our results suggest that NF-IB may play a role in intrinsic antiretroviral defenses against HIV-1. These observations may offer new insights into the correlation of the latently infected host cell types and HIV-1, and help to define new therapeutic approaches for triggering the switch from latency to active replication thereby eliminating HIV-1 latent infection. PMID:25664610

  12. [Immunological changes in the child infected by vertical HIV transmission].

    PubMed

    García Rodríguez, M C

    1998-01-01

    The vertical transmission of HIV infection depends on factors in the mother and child, as well as characteristics of the virus itself. The body defends itself through the immune response. Today it is known that the presence of the CD4 molecule on the cells does not suffice for them to be able to be infected, being necessary the presence of co-receptors such as CCR5 and CXCR4. The immunological disorders that most frequently appear in infected children are hypergammaglobulinemia and reduction in the CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD4+/CD8+ ratio. In vitro production of immunoglobulins is increased and the proliferative response to mitogens and antigens is reduced. Also, the production of cytokines like IL-2 and IFN(is lower than in controls as a consequence of the reduction in memory CD4+ T cells in these children. The presence of a mutation in the CCR5 gene in some of them seems to contribute to the evolution of the disease because heterozygotes for this gene have less risk of developing severe immunodeficiency and a slower disease progression. PMID:9675395

  13. Immunogenetics of HIV and HIV associated tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, S; Alagarasu, K; Selvaraj, P

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the frequent major opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients, and is the leading cause of mortality among HIV-infected patients. Genetic susceptibility to TB in HIV negative subjects is well documented. Since coinfections can influence the way in which immune system respond to different pathogens, genetic susceptibility to TB in HIV patients might also change. Studies from India and other parts of the world have shown that genetic susceptibility to TB is influenced by HIV infection. In the present review, we emphasize the role of genetic factors in determining susceptibility to HIV infection, disease progression and development of TB in HIV-infected patients. Polymorphisms in human leukocyte antigen (HLA), MBL2, CD209, vitamin D receptor, cytokine, chemokine and chemokine receptor genes have been shown to be associated with development of TB in HIV patients. However, the results are inconclusive and larger well-defined studies with precise clinical data are required to validate these associations. Apart from candidate gene approach, genome-wide association studies are also needed to unravel the unknown or to establish the previously reported genetic associations with HIV associated TB. Despite the preliminary status of the reported associations, it is becoming clear that susceptibility to development of TB in HIV patients is influenced by both environmental and genetic components. Understanding the genetic and immunologic factors that influence susceptibility to TB in HIV patients could lead to novel insights for vaccine development as well as diagnostic advances to target treatment to those who are at risk for developing active disease. PMID:21943869

  14. Reduce HIV Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... are increasing among younger people from 13 to 30 years of age. The key to defeating HIV lies ... Control and Prevention (CDC) has used them as models, and Dr. Jemmott was invited to South Africa to help decrease HIV/AIDS there. "For the past 15 years, I have observed how the HIV/AIDS epidemic ...

  15. HIV and the menopause.

    PubMed

    Fan, Maria D; Maslow, Bat-Sheva; Santoro, Nanette; Schoenbaum, Ellie

    2008-12-01

    Dramatic improvement in the survival of the HIV population has occurred with the ascendance of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In the foreseeable future, HIV-infected women who acquired disease during the peak years of the epidemic are expected to survive to experience menopause and even years beyond. The HIV epidemic may be viewed as 'mature', as its earlier victims become part of the geriatric population. Research about the process of menopause in HIV-infected women and, conversely, about HIV infection in women undergoing menopause is currently limited. Existing research suggests that the process of menopause is affected by HIV infection, inasmuch as infected women appear to experience menopause at an earlier age, with greater symptomatology, and with different reproductive hormone profiles compared with HIV-uninfected women. HIV infection also appears to affect bone mineral density, cardiovascular disease and cognition, with some age-related interactions. Lifestyle and demographic factors have pervasive importance for both HIV infection and the menopause in women. This article reviews the current state of knowledge about the menopausal process in HIV-infected women, and the common conditions in postmenopausal women that are likely to be affected by HIV infection. Clinicians should appreciate the potential role of HIV infection in caring for menopause-aged women. PMID:19037065

  16. HIV Disease: Current Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    Describes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), newly characterized human retrovirus which causes chronic, progressive, immune deficiency disease, the most severe phase of which is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Reviews most important current epidemiologic, clinical, and virologic information about HIV and HIV disease and provides…

  17. Potent and Broadly Reactive HIV-2 Neutralizing Antibodies Elicited by a Vaccinia Virus Vector Prime-C2V3C3 Polypeptide Boost Immunization Strategy▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Marcelino, José Maria; Borrego, Pedro; Rocha, Cheila; Barroso, Helena; Quintas, Alexandre; Novo, Carlos; Taveira, Nuno

    2010-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection affects about 1 to 2 million individuals, the majority living in West Africa, Europe, and India. As for HIV-1, new strategies for the prevention of HIV-2 infection are needed. Our aim was to produce new vaccine immunogens that elicit the production of broadly reactive HIV-2 neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). Native and truncated envelope proteins from the reference HIV-2ALI isolate were expressed in vaccinia virus or in bacteria. This source isolate was used due to its unique phenotype combining CD4 independence and CCR5 usage. NAbs were not elicited in BALB/c mice by single immunization with a truncated and fully glycosylated envelope gp125 (gp125t) or a recombinant polypeptide comprising the C2, V3, and C3 envelope regions (rpC2-C3). A strong and broad NAb response was, however, elicited in mice primed with gp125t expressed in vaccinia virus and boosted with rpC2-C3. Serum from these animals potently neutralized (median 50% neutralizing titer, 3,200) six of six highly divergent primary HIV-2 isolates. Coreceptor usage and the V3 sequence of NAb-sensitive isolates were similar to that of the vaccinating immunogen (HIV-2ALI). In contrast, NAbs were not reactive on three X4 isolates that displayed major changes in V3 loop sequence and structure. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that broadly reactive HIV-2 NAbs can be elicited by using a vaccinia virus vector-prime/rpC2-C3-boost immunization strategy and suggest a potential relationship between escape to neutralization and cell tropism. PMID:20844029

  18. Potent and broadly reactive HIV-2 neutralizing antibodies elicited by a vaccinia virus vector prime-C2V3C3 polypeptide boost immunization strategy.

    PubMed

    Marcelino, José Maria; Borrego, Pedro; Rocha, Cheila; Barroso, Helena; Quintas, Alexandre; Novo, Carlos; Taveira, Nuno

    2010-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection affects about 1 to 2 million individuals, the majority living in West Africa, Europe, and India. As for HIV-1, new strategies for the prevention of HIV-2 infection are needed. Our aim was to produce new vaccine immunogens that elicit the production of broadly reactive HIV-2 neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). Native and truncated envelope proteins from the reference HIV-2ALI isolate were expressed in vaccinia virus or in bacteria. This source isolate was used due to its unique phenotype combining CD4 independence and CCR5 usage. NAbs were not elicited in BALB/c mice by single immunization with a truncated and fully glycosylated envelope gp125 (gp125t) or a recombinant polypeptide comprising the C2, V3, and C3 envelope regions (rpC2-C3). A strong and broad NAb response was, however, elicited in mice primed with gp125t expressed in vaccinia virus and boosted with rpC2-C3. Serum from these animals potently neutralized (median 50% neutralizing titer, 3,200) six of six highly divergent primary HIV-2 isolates. Coreceptor usage and the V3 sequence of NAb-sensitive isolates were similar to that of the vaccinating immunogen (HIV-2ALI). In contrast, NAbs were not reactive on three X4 isolates that displayed major changes in V3 loop sequence and structure. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that broadly reactive HIV-2 NAbs can be elicited by using a vaccinia virus vector-prime/rpC2-C3-boost immunization strategy and suggest a potential relationship between escape to neutralization and cell tropism. PMID:20844029

  19. Photoconductive semiconductor switches: Laser Q-switch trigger and switch-trigger laser integration

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, G.M.; Mar, A.; Hamil, R.A.; Zutavern, F.J.; Helgeson, W.D.

    1997-12-01

    This report provides a summary of the Pulser In a Chip 9000-Discretionary LDRD. The program began in January of 1997 and concluded in September of 1997. The over-arching goal of this LDRD is to study whether laser diode triggered photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) can be used to activate electro-optic devices such as Q-switches and Pockels cells and to study possible laser diode/switch integration. The PCSS switches we used were high gain GaAs switches because they can be triggered with small amounts of laser light. The specific goals of the LDRD were to demonstrate: (1) that small laser diode arrays that are potential candidates for laser-switch integration will indeed trigger the PCSS switch, and (2) that high gain GaAs switches can be used to trigger optical Q-switches in lasers such as the lasers to be used in the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source and the laser used for direct optical initiation (DOI) of explosives. The technology developed with this LDRD is now the prime candidate for triggering the Q switch in the multiple lasers in the laser trigger system of the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source and may be utilized in other accelerators. As part of the LDRD we developed a commercial supplier. To study laser/switch integration we tested triggering the high gain GaAs switches with: edge emitting laser diodes, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), and transverse junction stripe (TJS) lasers. The first two types of lasers (edge emitting and VCSELs) did activate the PCSS but are harder to integrate with the PCSS for a compact package. The US lasers, while easier to integrate with the switch, did not trigger the PCSS at the US laser power levels we used. The PCSS was used to activate the Q-switch of the compact laser to be used in the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source.

  20. In vitro antiviral activity of the novel, tyrosyl-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 protease inhibitor brecanavir (GW640385) in combination with other antiretrovirals and against a panel of protease inhibitor-resistant HIV.

    PubMed

    Hazen, Richard; Harvey, Robert; Ferris, Robert; Craig, Charles; Yates, Phillip; Griffin, Philip; Miller, John; Kaldor, Istvan; Ray, John; Samano, Vincente; Furfine, Eric; Spaltenstein, Andrew; Hale, Michael; Tung, Roger; St Clair, Marty; Hanlon, Mary; Boone, Lawrence

    2007-09-01

    Brecanavir, a novel tyrosyl-based arylsulfonamide, high-affinity, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor (PI), has been evaluated for anti-HIV activity in several in vitro assays. Preclinical assessment of brecanavir indicated that this compound potently inhibited HIV-1 in cell culture assays with 50% effective concentrations (EC(50)s) of 0.2 to 0.53 nM and was equally active against HIV strains utilizing either the CXCR4 or CCR5 coreceptor, as was found with other PIs. The presence of up to 40% human serum decreased the anti-HIV-1 activity of brecanavir by 5.2-fold, but under these conditions the compound retained single-digit nanomolar EC(50)s. When brecanavir was tested in combination with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, the antiviral activity of brecanavir was synergistic with the effects of stavudine and additive to the effects of zidovudine, tenofovir, dideoxycytidine, didanosine, adefovir, abacavir, lamivudine, and emtricitabine. Brecanavir was synergistic with the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor nevirapine or delavirdine and was additive to the effects of efavirenz. In combination with other PIs, brecanavir was additive to the activities of indinavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, amprenavir, saquinavir, and atazanavir. Clinical HIV isolates from PI-experienced patients were evaluated for sensitivity to brecanavir and other PIs in a recombinant virus assay. Brecanavir had a <5-fold increase in EC(50)s against 80% of patient isolates tested and had a greater mean in vitro potency than amprenavir, indinavir, lopinavir, atazanavir, tipranavir, and darunavir. Brecanavir is by a substantial margin the most potent and broadly active antiviral agent among the PIs tested in vitro. PMID:17620375

  1. Gene expression profile of HIV-1 Tat expressing cells: a close interplay between proliferative and differentiation signals

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Cynthia; Santiago, Francisco; Deng, Longwen; Eadie, Carolyne; Zilberman, Irene; Kehn, Kylene; Maddukuri, Anil; Baylor, Shanese; Wu, Kaili; Lee, Chee Gun; Pumfery, Anne; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2002-01-01

    Background Expression profiling holds great promise for rapid host genome functional analysis. It is plausible that host expression profiling in an infection could serve as a universal phenotype in virally infected cells. Here, we describe the effect of one of the most critical viral activators, Tat, in HIV-1 infected and Tat expressing cells. We utilized microarray analysis from uninfected, latently HIV-1 infected cells, as well as cells that express Tat, to decipher some of the cellular changes associated with this viral activator. Results Utilizing uninfected, HIV-1 latently infected cells, and Tat expressing cells, we observed that most of the cellular host genes in Tat expressing cells were down-regulated. The down-regulation in Tat expressing cells is most apparent on cellular receptors that have intrinsic receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activity and signal transduction members that mediate RTK function, including Ras-Raf-MEK pathway. Co-activators of transcription, such as p300/CBP and SRC-1, which mediate gene expression related to hormone receptor genes, were also found to be down-regulated. Down-regulation of receptors may allow latent HIV-1 infected cells to either hide from the immune system or avoid extracellular differentiation signals. Some of the genes that were up-regulated included co-receptors for HIV-1 entry, translation machinery, and cell cycle regulatory proteins. Conclusions We have demonstrated, through a microarray approach, that HIV-1 Tat is able to regulate many cellular genes that are involved in cell signaling, translation and ultimately control the host proliferative and differentiation signals. PMID:12069692

  2. HIV Excision Utilizing CRISPR/Cas9 Technology: Attacking the Proviral Quasispecies in Reservoirs to Achieve a Cure

    PubMed Central

    Dampier, Will; Nonnemacher, Michael R.; Sullivan, Neil T.; Jacobson, Jeffrey M.; Wigdahl, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Recently several gene-editing technologies developed are being explored for their potential utility in providing new and unique treatments for HIV. One of these technologies is the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas)9 system. This system is being explored for its utility against host genes important to HIV infection, namely the HIV coreceptor CCR5, and for excision of the integrated genome from infected cells by targeting selected genes or genomic regions, especially the HIV-1 promoter or long terminal repeat (LTR). One of the major hurdles with the development of this technology for use in patients is defining the LTR sequence spectrum within the viral quasispecies present in the integrated virus and how that effects the number of guide RNAs (gRNAs) required to completely excise all proviral genomes. In this study, the Drexel Medicine CNS AIDS Research and Eradication Study (CARES) Cohort was utilized to demonstrate that [1] the predominant sequence of the integrated proviral LTR within the PBMC compartment shows a decrease in the amount of variation per year regardless of the type of therapy; [2] predominant HIV-1 LTR sequence undergoes continued genetic change with respect to the predominant genotype in these cells for at least 6 years while on effective suppressive ART; [3] using next generation sequencing (NGS), to demonstrate that 4 of the 8 patient samples examined could have a complete gRNA regimen designed to target all known quasispecies; and [4] length of HAART therapy may reduce the number of gRNA required to eradicate provirus as shown by NGS and gRNA design for longitudinal samples of patient A0017 in the CARES cohort. Overall, these studies demonstrate the feasibility of addressing at least one of the major technological challenges of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated HIV-1 proviral genome eradication involving the effective targeting of all viral quasispecies in a given patient sample. PMID:25893217

  3. Emergence and Persistence of CXCR4-Tropic HIV-1 in a Population of Men from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, James C.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Qiao, Wei; Jamieson, Beth D.; Phair, John P.; Piazza, Paolo; Quinn, Thomas C.; Margolick, Joseph B.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the emergence of CXCR4 (i.e., X4) tropism in 67 male human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seroconverters from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) who were selected to reflect the full spectrum of rates of HIV-1 disease progression. A mean of 10 serial samples per donor were evaluated by a laboratory-validated, commercially available assay to determine phenotypic coreceptor use. A total of 52% of men had dual- or mixed-tropic HIV-1 detected at 1 or more of the time points tested. Use of X4 by HIV-1 was detected more frequently among men who developed AIDS (defined as a CD4+ T cell count of < 200 cells/μL and/or an AIDS-defining illness)≤11 years after seroconversion than among those who did not (P = .005), as well as among men who exhibited a total T cell count decline (i.e., a CD3+ inflection point), compared with those who did not (P = .03). For men in whom both X4 virus and an inflection point were detected, emergence of X4 virus preceded the inflection point by a median of 0.83 years. The median CD4+ T cell count at first detection of X4 viruses before the onset of AIDS was 475 cells/μL. We conclude that HIV-1 variants that used X4 frequently emerged at high CD4+ T cell counts and may contribute to the decrease in T cell numbers during late HIV-1 infection. PMID:18783316

  4. Monitoring and Switching of First-line Antiretroviral Therapy in sub-Saharan Africa: Collaborative Analysis of Adult Treatment Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Andreas D.; Keiser, Olivia; Balestre, Eric; Brown, Steve; Bissagnene, Emmanuel; Chimbetete, Cleophas; Dabis, François; Davies, Mary-Ann; Hoffmann, Christopher J.; Oyaro, Patrick; Parkes-Ratanshi, Rosalind; Reynolds, Steven J.; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Zannou, Djimon Marcel; Wandeler, Gilles; Egger, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV-1 viral load (VL) testing is recommended to monitor antiretroviral therapy (ART) but not universally available. We examined monitoring of first-line and switching to second-line ART in sub-Saharan Africa, 2004–2013. Methods Adult HIV-1 infected patients starting combination ART in 16 countries were included. Switching was defined as a change from a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimen to a protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimen, with a change of ≥1 NRTI. Virological and immunological failures were defined per World Health Organization criteria. We calculated cumulative probabilities of switching and hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing routine VL monitoring, targeted VL monitoring, CD4 cell monitoring and clinical monitoring, adjusted for programme and individual characteristics. Findings Of 297,825 eligible patients, 10,352 patients (3·5%) switched during 782,412 person-years of follow-up. Compared to CD4 monitoring hazard ratios for switching were 3·15 (95% CI 2·92–3·40) for routine VL, 1·21 (1·13–1·30) for targeted VL and 0·49 (0·43–0·56) for clinical monitoring. Overall 58.0% of patients with confirmed virological and 19·3% of patients with confirmed immunological failure switched within 2 years. Among patients who switched the percentage with evidence of treatment failure based on a single CD4 or VL measurement ranged from 32·1% with clinical to 84.3% with targeted VL monitoring. Median CD4 counts at switching were 215 cells/µl under routine VL monitoring but lower with other monitoring (114–133 cells/µl). Interpretation Overall few patients switched to second-line ART and switching occurred late in the absence of routine viral load monitoring. Switching was more common and occurred earlier with targeted or routine viral load testing. PMID:26423252

  5. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genital shedding in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women receiving effective combination antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Péré, Héléne; Rascanu, Aida; LeGoff, Jérome; Matta, Mathieu; Bois, Frédéric; Lortholary, Olivier; Leroy, Valériane; Launay, Odile; Bélec, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of genital shedding of HSV-2 DNA was assessed in HIV-1-infected women taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA and HSV DNA loads were measured during 12-18 months using frozen plasma, PBMC and cervicovaginal lavage samples from 22 HIV-1-infected women, including 17 women naive for antiretroviral therapy initiating cART and 5 women with virological failure switching to a new regimen. Nineteen (86%) women were HSV-2-seropositive. Among HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women, HIV-1 RNA loads showed a rapid fall from baseline after one month of cART, in parallel in paired plasma and cervicovaginal secretions. In contrast, HIV-1 DNA loads did not show significant variations from baseline up to 18 months of treatment in both systemic and genital compartments. HSV DNA was detected at least once in 12 (63%) of 19 women during follow up: HSV-2 shedding in the genital compartment was observed in 11% of cervicovaginal samples at baseline and in 16% after initiating or switching cART. Cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA loads were strongly associated with plasma HIV-1 RNA loads over time, but not with cervicovaginal HSV DNA loads. Reactivation of genital HSV-2 replication frequently occurred despite effective cART in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women. Genital HSV-2 replication under cART does not influence cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA or DNA shedding. PMID:25769886

  6. Power transistor switching characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The switching properties of power transistors are investigated. The devices studied were housed in IO-3 cases and were of an n(+)-p-n(-)-n(+) vertical dopant structure. The effects of the magnitude of the reverse-base current and temperature on the reverse-bias second breakdown characteristics are discussed. Brief discussions of device degradation due to second breakdown and of a constant voltage turn-off circuit are included. A description of a vacuum tube voltage clamp circuit which reduces clamped collector voltage overshoot is given.

  7. Biological switches and clocks

    PubMed Central

    Tyson, John J.; Albert, Reka; Goldbeter, Albert; Ruoff, Peter; Sible, Jill

    2008-01-01

    To introduce this special issue on biological switches and clocks, we review the historical development of mathematical models of bistability and oscillations in chemical reaction networks. In the 1960s and 1970s, these models were limited to well-studied biochemical examples, such as glycolytic oscillations and cyclic AMP signalling. After the molecular genetics revolution of the 1980s, the field of molecular cell biology was thrown wide open to mathematical modellers. We review recent advances in modelling the gene–protein interaction networks that control circadian rhythms, cell cycle progression, signal processing and the design of synthetic gene networks. PMID:18522926

  8. Composite Thermal Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Robert; Brawn, Shelly; Harrison, Katherine; O'Toole, Shannon; Moeller, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Lithium primary and lithium ion secondary batteries provide high specific energy and energy density. The use of these batteries also helps to reduce launch weight. Both primary and secondary cells can be packaged as high-rate cells, which can present a threat to crew and equipment in the event of external or internal short circuits. Overheating of the cell interior from high current flows induced by short circuits can result in exothermic reactions in lithium primary cells and fully charged lithium ion secondary cells. Venting of the cell case, ejection of cell components, and fire have been reported in both types of cells, resulting from abuse, cell imperfections, or faulty electronic control design. A switch has been developed that consists of a thin layer of composite material made from nanoscale particles of nickel and Teflon that conducts electrons at room temperature and switches to an insulator at an elevated temperature, thus interrupting current flow to prevent thermal runaway caused by internal short circuits. The material is placed within the cell, as a thin layer incorporated within the anode and/or the cathode, to control excess currents from metal-to-metal or metal-to-carbon shorts that might result from cell crush or a manufacturing defect. The safety of high-rate cells is thus improved, preventing serious injury to personnel and sensitive equipment located near the battery. The use of recently available nanoscale particles of nickel and Teflon permits an improved, homogeneous material with the potential to be fine-tuned to a unique switch temperature, sufficiently below the onset of a catastrophic chemical reaction. The smaller particles also permit the formation of a thinner control film layer (<50 m), which can be incorporated into commercial high-rate lithium primary and secondary cells. The innovation permits incorporation in current lithium and lithium-ion cell designs with a minimal impact on cell weight and volume. The composite thermal

  9. HIV-1 tropism for the central nervous system: Brain-derived envelope glycoproteins with lower CD4 dependence and reduced sensitivity to a fusion inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Garcia, Julio . E-mail: julio.martin-garcia@drexelmed.edu; Cao, Wei; Varela-Rohena, Angel; Plassmeyer, Matthew L.; Gonzalez-Scarano, Francisco

    2006-03-01

    We previously described envelope glycoproteins of an HIV-1 isolate adapted in vitro for growth in microglia that acquired a highly fusogenic phenotype and lower CD4 dependence, as well as resistance to inhibition by anti-CD4 antibodies. Here, we investigated whether similar phenotypic changes are present in vivo. Envelope clones from the brain and spleen of an HIV-1-infected individual with neurological disease were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated clustering of sequences according to the tissue of origin, as expected. Functional clones were then used in cell-to-cell fusion assays to test for CD4 and co-receptor utilization and for sensitivity to various antibodies and inhibitors. Both brain- and spleen-derived envelope clones mediated fusion in cells expressing both CD4 and CCR5 and brain envelopes also used CCR3 as co-receptor. We found that the brain envelopes had a lower CD4 dependence, since they efficiently mediated fusion in the presence of low levels of CD4 on the target cell membrane, and they were significantly more resistant to blocking by anti-CD4 antibodies than the spleen-derived envelopes. In contrast, we observed no difference in sensitivity to the CCR5 antagonist TAK-779. However, brain-derived envelopes were significantly more resistant than those from spleen to the fusion inhibitor T-1249 and concurrently showed slightly greater fusogenicity. Our results suggest an increased affinity for CD4 of brain-derived envelopes that may have originated from in vivo adaptation to replication in microglial cells. Interestingly, we note the presence of envelopes more resistant to a fusion inhibitor in the brain of an untreated, HIV-1-infected individual.

  10. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    DOEpatents

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  11. Tuberculosis and HIV Coinfection.

    PubMed

    Bruchfeld, Judith; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Källenius, Gunilla

    2015-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) constitute the main burden of infectious disease in resource-limited countries. In the individual host, the two pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV, potentiate one another, accelerating the deterioration of immunological functions. In high-burden settings, HIV coinfection is the most important risk factor for developing active TB, which increases the susceptibility to primary infection or reinfection and also the risk of TB reactivation for patients with latent TB. M. tuberculosis infection also has a negative impact on the immune response to HIV, accelerating the progression from HIV infection to AIDS. The clinical management of HIV-associated TB includes the integration of effective anti-TB treatment, use of concurrent antiretroviral therapy (ART), prevention of HIV-related comorbidities, management of drug cytotoxicity, and prevention/treatment of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). PMID:25722472

  12. Basic HIV/AIDS Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Collapse All How many people are diagnosed with HIV each year in the United States? In 2014, ...

  13. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects (Last updated 1/7/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points HIV medicines help people with ... will depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people ...

  14. Heat pipe thermal switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, D. A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A thermal switch for controlling the dissipation of heat between a body is described. The thermal switch is comprised of a flexible bellows defining an expansible vapor chamber for a working fluid located between an evaporation and condensation chamber. Inside the bellows is located a coiled retaining spring and four axial metal mesh wicks, two of which have their central portions located inside of the spring while the other two have their central portions located between the spring and the side wall of the bellows. The wicks are terminated and are attached to the inner surfaces of the outer end walls of evaporation and condensation chambers respectively located adjacent to the heat source and heat sink. The inner surfaces of the end walls furthermore include grooves to provide flow channels of the working fluid to and from the wick ends. The evaporation and condensation chambers are connected by turnbuckles and tension springs to provide a set point adjustment for setting the gap between an interface plate on the condensation chamber and the heat sink.

  15. Neuromorphic Atomic Switch Networks

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Olmos, Cristina; Shieh, Hsien Hang; Aono, Masakazu; Stieg, Adam Z.; Gimzewski, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to emulate the formidable information processing capabilities of the brain through neuromorphic engineering have been bolstered by recent progress in the fabrication of nonlinear, nanoscale circuit elements that exhibit synapse-like operational characteristics. However, conventional fabrication techniques are unable to efficiently generate structures with the highly complex interconnectivity found in biological neuronal networks. Here we demonstrate the physical realization of a self-assembled neuromorphic device which implements basic concepts of systems neuroscience through a hardware-based platform comprised of over a billion interconnected atomic-switch inorganic synapses embedded in a complex network of silver nanowires. Observations of network activation and passive harmonic generation demonstrate a collective response to input stimulus in agreement with recent theoretical predictions. Further, emergent behaviors unique to the complex network of atomic switches and akin to brain function are observed, namely spatially distributed memory, recurrent dynamics and the activation of feedforward subnetworks. These devices display the functional characteristics required for implementing unconventional, biologically and neurally inspired computational methodologies in a synthetic experimental system. PMID:22880101

  16. Data center coolant switch

    SciTech Connect

    Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schultz, Mark D.

    2015-10-06

    A data center cooling system is operated in a first mode; it has an indoor portion wherein heat is absorbed from components in the data center, and an outdoor heat exchanger portion wherein outside air is used to cool a first heat transfer fluid (e.g., water) present in at least the outdoor heat exchanger portion of the cooling system during the first mode. The first heat transfer fluid is a relatively high performance heat transfer fluid (as compared to the second fluid), and has a first heat transfer fluid freezing point. A determination is made that an appropriate time has been reached to switch from the first mode to a second mode. Based on this determination, the outdoor heat exchanger portion of the data cooling system is switched to a second heat transfer fluid, which is a relatively low performance heat transfer fluid, as compared to the first heat transfer fluid. It has a second heat transfer fluid freezing point lower than the first heat transfer fluid freezing point, and the second heat transfer fluid freezing point is sufficiently low to operate without freezing when the outdoor air temperature drops below a first predetermined relationship with the first heat transfer fluid freezing point.

  17. HIV drug resistance interpreted by cumulative versus last genotypes in HIV-infected patients with multiple treatment failures.

    PubMed

    Punyacam, Punthiya; Iemwimangsa, Nareenart; Chantratita, Wasun; Sukasem, Chonlaphat; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek

    2012-04-01

    Genotypic resistance test has been recommended to evaluate HIV drug resistance and guide the effective regimens of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients with treatment failure. In patients with multiple treatment failures, drug resistance-associated mutations may disappear due to the loss of selective drug pressure after switching regimens. A cohort study was conducted among HIV-infected patients who had ≥2 genotypic resistance tests during 2003-2011. HIV-1 pol nucleotide sequencing of reverse transcriptase and protease region was carried out using TRUGENE HIV-1 Genotypic Assay. Sequencing data was analyzed using Stanford rule-based interpretation algorithms. Of 54 patients with mean age of 30.1 years, 46.3% were males. HIV-1 subtype A/E was observed in 88.9% of patients. At the latest failure, 55.3% were receiving protease inhibitor-based regimens. Median CD4 and HIV RNA were 167 cells/mm(3) and 22,359 copies/mL. During a median duration of ART of 38.6 months, 72.2%, 22.2%, and 5.6% had 5, 3, and 2 genotype tests, respectively. When compared between using cumulative (CG) and last genotypes (LG), CG interpreted resistance to any drug 59.3% higher than LG did. For NRTI, NNRTI, and PI drug classes, CG interpreted as resistance 42.6%, 27.8%, and 7.4% higher than LG, respectively. The most common drugs that CG interpreted resistance with the higher rate than LG were lamivudine/emtricitabine, nevirapine, efavirenz, etravirine and abacavir. In conclusion, CG interprets HIV drug resistance at a higher rate than LG and may be more accurate to use for selecting the next effective regimen of ART among HIV-infected patients with multiple treatment failures. PMID:22497699

  18. Types of HIV/AIDS Antiretroviral Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... reverse transcriptase (RT) from converting single-stranded HIV RNA into double-stranded HIV DNA―a process called ... RT, interfering with its ability to convert HIV RNA into HIV DNA Integrase Inhibitors block the HIV ...

  19. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Osteoporosis (Last updated 1/11/2016; last reviewed 1/11/2016) Key ... in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents: Adverse Effects of Antiretroviral Agents From the National Institutes of ...

  20. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A isoform and (co)receptor expression are differentially regulated by 17beta-oestradiol in the ovariectomised mouse uterus.

    PubMed

    Walter, Lisa M; Rogers, Peter A W; Girling, Jane E

    2010-08-01

    The angiogenic effects of 17beta-oestradiol (E(2)) in the mouse endometrium are mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA). We analysed the temporal and spatial changes in VEGFA isoform and (co)receptor expression in ovariectomised mouse uteri following E(2) treatment. VEGFA isoform and receptor mRNA were quantified in whole uterine tissue collected 2, 6, 12 and 24 h after E(2) or vehicle treatment. Laser capture microdissection was used to investigate mRNA expression in epithelial, stromal and myometrial tissues separately. Endothelial cell proliferation, VEGFA and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR2) protein were visualised using immunohistochemistry. Endometrial endothelial cell proliferation was only observed 24 h after E(2) treatment. In whole uterine tissue, total Vegfa, Vegfa(164) and Vegfa(120) mRNA expression increased 2 h post E(2) treatment, and then decreased by 24 h. Vegfa(188) expression was lower in E(2)-treated animals at all time points relative to control animals. Vegfr2 and neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) mRNA expression did not change following E(2) treatment; Nrp2 expression decreased by 24 h. When uterine compartments were considered separately at 24 h post E(2) or vehicle, stromal Vegfa(120), Vegfa(188) and Vegfr2 mRNA expression and myometrial Vegfa(120) and Vegfa(188) mRNA expression were reduced in E(2)-treated mice relative to controls, whereas epithelial Vegfa(188) mRNA expression increased. The highest VEGFA immunoexpression was observed in luminal epithelium; expression increased at 24 h relative to other time points. No changes were noted in VEGFR2 immunoexpression among treatment groups. We have provided the first evidence that VEGFA isoform and receptor mRNA expression are differentially regulated by E(2) in different uterine cell compartments. PMID:20530092

  1. Silencing in Apolygus lucorum of the olfactory coreceptor Orco gene by RNA interference induces EAG response declining to two putative semiochemicals.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-Le; Zhu, Xiao-Qiang; Gu, Shao-Hua; Cui, Huan-huan; Guo, Yu-Yuan; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Zhang, Yong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an agronomically important pest that causes severe economic damage to the cotton, fruit, and vegetable industries. Similar to other insects, A. lucorum can perceive and discriminate olfactory cues. A highly conserved and broadly expressed olfactory coreceptor (Orco) is crucial for insect olfaction, and Orco orthologs have been identified in several insect species. In this study, a homology-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was utilized to identify AlucOrco, an Orco ortholog essential for olfaction in A. lucorum. AlucOrco shares significant sequence homology with known Orco proteins in other insects. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that AlucOrco was abundantly expressed in adult A. lucorum. AlucOrco expression level was the highest in the antennae; by contrast, AlucOrco showed negligible expression level in other tissues. We injected AlucOrco siRNA into the conjunctivum between the prothorax and mesothorax of A. lucorum and evaluated its expression 36 h after RNA interference. The results of qRT-PCR demonstrated that the level of mRNA expression was significantly reduced (>90%) in AlucOrco siRNA-treated A. lucorum than in water-injected and non-injected controls. The electroantennogram responses of A. lucorum to two putative semiochemicals, trans-2-hexenal and trans-2-hexenyl butyrate, were also reduced significantly (∼80%) in RNAi-treated A. lucorum than in the controls. These results suggest that AlucOrco is crucial in mediating odorant perception of A. lucorum, especially in perceiving trans-2-hexenal and trans-2-hexenyl butyrate. PMID:24216470

  2. An Overdose of the Arabidopsis Coreceptor BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR KINASE1 or Its Ectodomain Causes Autoimmunity in a SUPPRESSOR OF BIR1-1-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Ferreras, Ana; Kiss-Papp, Marta; Jehle, Anna Kristina; Felix, Georg; Chinchilla, Delphine

    2015-07-01

    The membrane-bound Brassinosteroid insensitive1-associated receptor kinase1 (BAK1) is a common coreceptor in plants and regulates distinct cellular programs ranging from growth and development to defense against pathogens. BAK1 functions through binding to ligand-stimulated transmembrane receptors and activating their kinase domains via transphosphorylation. In the absence of microbes, BAK1 activity may be suppressed by different mechanisms, like interaction with the regulatory BIR (for BAK1-interacting receptor-like kinase) proteins. Here, we demonstrated that BAK1 overexpression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) could cause detrimental effects on plant development, including growth arrest, leaf necrosis, and reduced seed production. Further analysis using an inducible expression system showed that BAK1 accumulation quickly stimulated immune responses, even under axenic conditions, and led to increased resistance to pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000. Intriguingly, our study also revealed that the plasma membrane-associated BAK1 ectodomain was sufficient to induce autoimmunity, indicating a novel mode of action for BAK1 in immunity control. We postulate that an excess of BAK1 or its ectodomain could trigger immune receptor activation in the absence of microbes through unbalancing regulatory interactions, including those with BIRs. Consistently, mutation of suppressor of BIR1-1, which encodes an emerging positive regulator of transmembrane receptors in plants, suppressed the effects of BAK1 overexpression. In conclusion, our findings unravel a new role for the BAK1 ectodomain in the tight regulation of Arabidopsis immune receptors necessary to avoid inappropriate activation of immunity. PMID:25944825

  3. Inhibition of LPS binding to MD-2 co-receptor for suppressing TLR4-mediated expression of inflammatory cytokine by 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione from dietary ginger

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sun Hong; Kyeong, Min Sik; Hwang, Yuri; Ryu, Shi Yong; Han, Sang-Bae; Kim, Youngsoo

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1-Dehydro-10-gingerdione (1D10G) from ginger inhibits LPS binding to MD-2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1D10G suppresses MyD88- or TRIF-dependent signaling in LPS-activated macrophages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1D10G down-regulates the expression of NF-{kappa}B-, AP1- or IRF3-target genes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MD-2 is a molecular target in the anti-inflammatory action of 1D10G. -- Abstract: Myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2) is a co-receptor of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) for innate immunity. Here, we delineated a new mechanism of 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione (1D10G), one of pungent isolates from ginger (Zingiber officinale), in the suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gene expression of inflammatory cytokines. 1D10G inhibited LPS binding to MD-2 with higher affinity than gingerol and shogaol from dietary ginger. Moreover, 1D10G down-regulated TLR4-mediated expression of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) or activating protein 1 (AP1)-target genes such as tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-1{beta}, as well as those of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)-target IFN-{beta} gene and IFN-{gamma} inducible protein 10 (IP-10) in LPS-activated macrophages. Taken together, MD-2 is a molecular target in the anti-inflammatory action of 1D10G.

  4. CD14 Is a Co-Receptor for TLR4 in the S100A9-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Response in Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhifei; Riva, Matteo; Björk, Per; Swärd, Karl; Mörgelin, Matthias; Leanderson, Tomas; Ivars, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    The cytosolic Ca2+-binding S100A9 and S100A8 proteins form heterodimers that are primarily expressed in human neutrophils and monocytes. We have recently shown that S100A9 binds to TLR4 in vitro and induces TLR4-dependent NF-κB activation and a pro-inflammatory cytokine response in monocytes. In the present report we have further investigated the S100A9-mediated stimulation of TLR4 in monocytes. Using transmission immunoelectron microscopy, we detected focal binding of S100A9 to monocyte membrane subdomains containing the caveolin-1 protein and TLR4. Furthermore, the S100A9 protein was detected in early endosomes of the stimulated cells, indicating that the protein could be internalized by endocytosis. Although stimulation of monocytes with S100A9 was strictly TLR4-dependent, binding of S100A9 to the plasma membrane and endocytosis of S100A9 was still detectable and coincided with CD14 expression in TLR4-deficient cells. We therefore investigated whether CD14 would be involved in the TLR4-dependent stimulation and could show that the S100A9-induced cytokine response was inhibited both in CD14-deficient cells and in cells exposed to CD14 blocking antibodies. Further, S100A9 was not internalized into CD14-deficient cells suggesting a direct role of CD14 in endocytosis of S100A9. Finally, we could detect satiable binding of S100A9 to CD14 in surface plasmon resonance experiments. Taken together, these results indicate that CD14 is a co-receptor of TLR4 in the S100A9-induced cytokine response. PMID:27228163

  5. Silencing the odorant receptor co-receptor RproOrco affects the physiology and behavior of the Chagas disease vector Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Franco, Thiago A; Oliveira, Daniele S; Moreira, Monica F; Leal, Walter S; Melo, Ana C A

    2016-02-01

    Olfaction is one of the main sensory modalities that allow insects to interpret their environment. Several proteins, including odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and odorant receptors (ORs), are involved in this process. Odorant receptors are ion channels formed by a binding unit OR and an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco). The main goal of this study was to characterize the Orco gene of Rhodnius prolixus (RproOrco) and to infer its biological functions using gene silencing. The full-length RproOrco gene sequence was downloaded from VectorBase. This gene has 7 introns and is located in the genome SuperContig GL563069: 1,017,713-1,023,165. RproOrco encodes a protein of 473 amino acids, with predicted 7 transmembrane domains, and is highly expressed in the antennae during all R. prolixus developmental stages. The RNAi technique effectively silenced RproOrco, reducing the gene's expression by approximately 73%. Interestingly, the effect of gene silencing persisted for more than 100 days, indicating a prolonged effect of dsRNA that was maintained even after molting. The phenotypic effects of silencing involved the following: (1) loss of the ability to find a vertebrate host in a timely manner, (2) decreased ingested blood volume, (3) delayed and decreased molt rate, (4) increased mortality rate, and (5) decreased egg laying. Our data strongly suggest that dsOrco disrupts R. prolixus host-finding behavior, which is further reflected in the blood ingestion, molting, mortality, and egg laying data. This study clearly demonstrates that Orco is an excellent target for controlling triatomine populations. Thus, the data presented here open new possibilities for the control of vector-borne diseases. PMID:25747010

  6. Hybrid switch for resonant power converters

    DOEpatents

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Yu, Wensong

    2014-09-09

    A hybrid switch comprising two semiconductor switches connected in parallel but having different voltage drop characteristics as a function of current facilitates attainment of zero voltage switching and reduces conduction losses to complement reduction of switching losses achieved through zero voltage switching in power converters such as high-current inverters.

  7. A high capacity satellite switched TDMA microwave switch matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cory, B. J.; Berkowitz, M.

    1981-01-01

    A description is given of the conceptual design of a high-capacity satellite switched-time division multiple access (SS-TDMA) microwave switch matrix fabricated with GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs), including integration of both microwave and control logic circuits into the monolithic design. The technology required for a 30/20 GHz communications system includes an on-board SS-TDMA switch matrix. A conceptual design study that has been completed for a wideband, high-capacity (typically 100 x 100) channel switch matrix using technology anticipated for 1987 is described, noting that the study resulted in a switch matrix design concept using a coupled crossbar architecture implemented with MMIC. The design involves basic building block MMIC, permitting flexible growth and efficient wraparound redundancy to increase reliability.

  8. Correction options for lipoatrophy in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Engelhard, Peter

    2006-03-01

    Lipoatrophy (LA) is a form of lipodystrophy, characterized by volume depletion caused by fat loss in the limbs, buttocks, and face. Facial volume loss is the most obvious outward sign of LA because it alters the facial contours in the cheeks, temples, and orbits. Lipodystrophy and LA are most commonly seen in patients with HIV on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which was introduced in the mid-1990s for the management of HIV, and is currently considered the mainstay therapy for HIV-infected patients. However, the etiology of LA is likely multifactorial as underlying patient conditions, including duration and severity of HIV and increasing age, have also been found to contribute to its occurrence. The volume loss of LA can be very dramatic with some patients exhibiting no signs of facial fat. As a result, many HIV-infected patients with associated LA suffer from psychological and lifestyle effects, which can lead to noncompliance with HAART. Thus, increases in facial volume and improvement in morphology is anticipated to reduce anxiety caused by LA in HIV-infected patients, and improve quality of life. This review discusses the benefits and limitations of several treatment options available to correct the volume depletion associated with LA, including antiretroviral switching, permanent surgical implants and injectables, poly-L-lactic acid, collagen, and hyaluronic acid derivatives. PMID:16548712

  9. HIV-1 TAT Inhibits Microglial Phagocytosis of Aβ Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Giunta, Brian; Zhou, Yuyan; Hou, Huayan; Rrapo, Elona; Fernandez, Francisco; Tan, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated dementia (HAD) is a subcortical neuropsychiatric syndrome that has increased in prevalence in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Several studies demonstrated increased amyloidosis in brains of HIV patients and suggested that there may be a significant number of long-term HIV survivors with co-morbid Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the future. We show HIV-1 Tat protein inhibits microglial uptake of Aβ1-42 peptide, a process that is enhanced by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and rescued by the STAT1 inhibitor (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). It is hypothesized that reduced Aβ uptake occurs through IFN-γ mediated STAT1 activation. This process promotes a switch from a phagocytic to an antigen presenting phenotype in microglia through activation of class II transactivator (CIITA). Additionally, we show that HIV-1 Tat significantly disrupts apolipoprotein-3 (Apo-E3) promoted microglial Aβ uptake. As Tat has been shown to directly interact with the low density lipoprotein (LRP) receptor and thus inhibit the uptake of its ligands including apolipoprotein E4 (Apo-E4) and Aβ peptide in neurons, we further hypothesize that a similar inhibition of LRP may occur in microglia. Future studies will be required to fully characterize the mechanisms underlying IFN-γ enhancement of HIV-1 Tats disruption of microglial phagocytosis of Aβ and Apo-E3. PMID:18784813

  10. 9G4 Autoreactivity Is Increased in HIV-Infected Patients and Correlates with HIV Broadly Neutralizing Serum Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kobie, James J.; Alcena, Danielle C.; Zheng, Bo; Bryk, Peter; Mattiacio, Jonelle L.; Brewer, Matthew; LaBranche, Celia; Young, Faith M.; Dewhurst, Stephen; Montefiori, David C.; Rosenberg, Alexander F.; Feng, Changyong; Jin, Xia; Keefer, Michael C.; Sanz, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    The induction of a broadly neutralizing antibody (BNAb) response against HIV-1 would be a desirable feature of a protective vaccine. Vaccine strategies thus far have failed to elicit broadly neutralizing antibody responses; however a minority of HIV-infected patients do develop circulating BNAbs, from which several potent broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been isolated. The findings that several BNmAbs exhibit autoreactivity and that autoreactive serum antibodies are observed in some HIV patients have advanced the possibility that enforcement of self-tolerance may contribute to the rarity of BNAbs. To examine the possible breakdown of tolerance in HIV patients, we utilized the 9G4 anti-idiotype antibody system, enabling resolution of both autoreactive VH4-34 gene-expressing B cells and serum antibodies. Compared with healthy controls, HIV patients had significantly elevated 9G4+ serum IgG antibody concentrations and frequencies of 9G4+ B cells, a finding characteristic of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, both of which positively correlated with HIV viral load. Compared to the global 9G4−IgD− memory B cell population, the 9G4+IgD− memory fraction in HIV patients was dominated by isotype switched IgG+ B cells, but had a more prominent bias toward “IgM only" memory. HIV envelope reactivity was observed both in the 9G4+ serum antibody and 9G4+ B cell population. 9G4+ IgG serum antibody levels positively correlated (r = 0.403, p = 0.0019) with the serum HIV BNAbs. Interestingly, other serum autoantibodies commonly found in SLE (anti-dsDNA, ANA, anti-CL) did not correlate with serum HIV BNAbs. 9G4-associated autoreactivity is preferentially expanded in chronic HIV infection as compared to other SLE autoreactivities. Therefore, the 9G4 system provides an effective tool to examine autoreactivity in HIV patients. Our results suggest that the development of HIV BNAbs is not merely a consequence of a general breakdown in

  11. Convertible resistive switching characteristics between memory switching and threshold switching in a single ferritin-based memristor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaochao; Shang, Jie; Xue, Wuhong; Tan, Hongwei; Pan, Liang; Yang, Xi; Guo, Shanshan; Hao, Jian; Liu, Gang; Li, Run-Wei

    2016-04-01

    A bio-memristor fabricated with ferritin exhibits novel resistive switching characteristics wherein memory switching and threshold switching are made steadily coexistent and inter-convertible through controlling the magnitude of compliance current presets. PMID:26967024

  12. Position-specific automated processing of V3 env ultra-deep pyrosequencing data for predicting HIV-1 tropism

    PubMed Central

    Jeanne, Nicolas; Saliou, Adrien; Carcenac, Romain; Lefebvre, Caroline; Dubois, Martine; Cazabat, Michelle; Nicot, Florence; Loiseau, Claire; Raymond, Stéphanie; Izopet, Jacques; Delobel, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 coreceptor usage must be accurately determined before starting CCR5 antagonist-based treatment as the presence of undetected minor CXCR4-using variants can cause subsequent virological failure. Ultra-deep pyrosequencing of HIV-1 V3 env allows to detect low levels of CXCR4-using variants that current genotypic approaches miss. However, the computation of the mass of sequence data and the need to identify true minor variants while excluding artifactual sequences generated during amplification and ultra-deep pyrosequencing is rate-limiting. Arbitrary fixed cut-offs below which minor variants are discarded are currently used but the errors generated during ultra-deep pyrosequencing are sequence-dependant rather than random. We have developed an automated processing of HIV-1 V3 env ultra-deep pyrosequencing data that uses biological filters to discard artifactual or non-functional V3 sequences followed by statistical filters to determine position-specific sensitivity thresholds, rather than arbitrary fixed cut-offs. It allows to retain authentic sequences with point mutations at V3 positions of interest and discard artifactual ones with accurate sensitivity thresholds. PMID:26585833

  13. Variation in the biological properties of HIV-1 R5 envelopes: implications of envelope structure, transmission and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Duenas-Decamp, Maria José; Peters, Paul J; Repik, Alexander; Musich, Thomas; Gonzalez-Perez, Maria Paz; Caron, Catherine; Brown, Richard; Ball, Jonathan; Clapham, Paul R

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 R5 viruses predominantly use CCR5 as a coreceptor to infect CD4+ T cells and macrophages. While R5 viruses generally infect CD4+ T cells, research over the past few years has demonstrated that they vary extensively in their capacity to infect macrophages. Thus, R5 variants that are highly macrophage tropic have been detected in late disease and are prominent in brain tissue of subjects with neurological complications. Other R5 variants that are less sensitive to CCR5 antagonists and use CCR5 differently have also been identified in late disease. These latter variants have faster replication kinetics and may contribute to CD4 T-cell depletion. In addition, R5 viruses are highly variable in many other properties, including sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies and inhibitors that block HIV-1 entry into cells. Here, we review what is currently known about how HIV-1 R5 viruses vary in cell tropism and other properties, and discuss the implications of this variation on transmission, pathogenesis, therapy and vaccines. PMID:20930940

  14. Entry inhibitor-based microbicides are active in vitro against HIV-1 isolates from multiple genetic subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Ketas, Thomas J.; Schader, Susan M.; Zurita, Juan; Teo, Esther; Polonis, Victoria; Lu Min; Klasse, Per Johan; Moore, John P. . E-mail: jpm2003@med.cornell.edu

    2007-08-01

    Inhibitors of viral entry are under consideration as topical microbicides to prevent HIV-1 sexual transmission. Small molecules targeting HIV-1 gp120 (BMS-378806) or CCR5 (CMPD167), and a peptide fusion inhibitor (C52L), each blocks vaginal infection of macaques by a SHIV. A microbicide, however, must be active against multiple HIV-1 variants. We therefore tested BMS-C (a BMS-378806 derivative), CMPD167, C52L and the CXCR4 ligand AMD3465, alone and in combination, against 25 primary R5, 12 X4 and 7 R5X4 isolates from subtypes A-G. At high concentrations (0.1-1 {mu}M), the replication of most R5 isolates in human donor lymphocytes was inhibited by > 90%. At lower concentrations, double and triple combinations were more effective than individual inhibitors. Similar results were obtained with X4 viruses when AMD3465 was substituted for CMPD167. The R5X4 viruses were inhibited by combining AMD3465 with CMPD167, or by the coreceptor-independent compounds. Thus, combining entry inhibitors may improve microbicide effectiveness.

  15. Study of optoelectronic switch for satellite-switched time-division multiple access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Shing-Fong; Jou, Liz; Lenart, Joe

    1987-01-01

    The use of optoelectronic switching for satellite switched time division multiple access will improve the isolation and reduce the crosstalk of an IF switch matrix. The results are presented of a study on optoelectronic switching. Tasks include literature search, system requirements study, candidate switching architecture analysis, and switch model optimization. The results show that the power divided and crossbar switching architectures are good candidates for an IF switch matrix.

  16. Phenotypic switching in bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrin, Jack

    Living matter is a non-equilibrium system in which many components work in parallel to perpetuate themselves through a fluctuating environment. Physiological states or functionalities revealed by a particular environment are called phenotypes. Transitions between phenotypes may occur either spontaneously or via interaction with the environment. Even in the same environment, genetically identical bacteria can exhibit different phenotypes of a continuous or discrete nature. In this thesis, we pursued three lines of investigation into discrete phenotypic heterogeneity in bacterial populations: the quantitative characterization of the so-called bacterial persistence, a theoretical model of phenotypic switching based on those measurements, and the design of artificial genetic networks which implement this model. Persistence is the phenotype of a subpopulation of bacteria with a reduced sensitivity to antibiotics. We developed a microfluidic apparatus, which allowed us to monitor the growth rates of individual cells while applying repeated cycles of antibiotic treatments. We were able to identify distinct phenotypes (normal and persistent) and characterize the stochastic transitions between them. We also found that phenotypic heterogeneity was present prior to any environmental cue such as antibiotic exposure. Motivated by the experiments with persisters, we formulated a theoretical model describing the dynamic behavior of several discrete phenotypes in a periodically varying environment. This theoretical framework allowed us to quantitatively predict the fitness of dynamic populations and to compare survival strategies according to environmental time-symmetries. These calculations suggested that persistence is a strategy used by bacterial populations to adapt to fluctuating environments. Knowledge of the phenotypic transition rates for persistence may provide statistical information about the typical environments of bacteria. We also describe a design of artificial

  17. EDITORIAL: Molecular switches at surfaces Molecular switches at surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinelt, Martin; von Oppen, Felix

    2012-10-01

    In nature, molecules exploit interaction with their environment to realize complex functionalities on the nanometer length scale. Physical, chemical and/or biological specificity is frequently achieved by the switching of molecules between microscopically different states. Paradigmatic examples are the energy production in proton pumps of bacteria or the signal conversion in human vision, which rely on switching molecules between different configurations or conformations by external stimuli. The remarkable reproducibility and unparalleled fatigue resistance of these natural processes makes it highly desirable to emulate nature and develop artificial systems with molecular functionalities. A promising avenue towards this goal is to anchor the molecular switches at surfaces, offering new pathways to control their functional properties, to apply electrical contacts, or to integrate switches into larger systems. Anchoring at surfaces allows one to access the full range from individual molecular switches to self-assembled monolayers of well-defined geometry and to customize the coupling between molecules and substrate or between adsorbed molecules. Progress in this field requires both synthesis and preparation of appropriate molecular systems and control over suitable external stimuli, such as light, heat, or electrical currents. To optimize switching and generate function, it is essential to unravel the geometric structure, the electronic properties and the dynamic interactions of the molecular switches on surfaces. This special section, Molecular Switches at Surfaces, collects 17 contributions describing different aspects of this research field. They analyze elementary processes, both in single molecules and in ensembles of molecules, which involve molecular switching and concomitant changes of optical, electronic, or magnetic properties. Two topical reviews summarize the current status, including both challenges and achievements in the field of molecular switches on

  18. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

  19. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... Victoria Cargill talks to students about HIV and AIDS at the opening of a National Library of ...

  20. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  1. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  2. Women and HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... action on HIV/AIDS National Women and Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day – March 10 Programs Share your story Anonymous from Illinois says... Although I am HIV negative, I would like to share my story. ...

  3. HIV/AIDS in Women

    MedlinePlus

    HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus, kills or damages cells of the body's immune system. The most advanced stage of infection with HIV is AIDS, which stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV often ...

  4. HIV-Positive-to-HIV-Positive Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Calmy, A; van Delden, C; Giostra, E; Junet, C; Rubbia Brandt, L; Yerly, S; Chave, J-P; Samer, C; Elkrief, L; Vionnet, J; Berney, T

    2016-08-01

    Most countries exclude human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients from organ donation because of concerns regarding donor-derived HIV transmission. The Swiss Federal Act on Transplantation has allowed organ transplantation between HIV-positive donors and recipients since 2007. We report the successful liver transplantation from an HIV-positive donor to an HIV-positive recipient. Both donor and recipient had been treated for many years with antiretroviral therapy and harbored multidrug-resistant viruses. Five months after transplantation, HIV viremia remains undetectable. This observation supports the inclusion of appropriate HIV-positive donors for transplants specifically allocated to HIV-positive recipients. PMID:27109874

  5. Task Switching: A PDP Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Sam J.; Shallice, Tim

    2002-01-01

    When subjects switch between a pair of stimulus-response tasks, reaction time is slower on trial N if a different task was performed on trial N--1. We present a parallel distributed processing (PDP) model that simulates this effect when subjects switch between word reading and color naming in response to Stroop stimuli. Reaction time on "switch…

  6. Battery switch for downhole tools

    DOEpatents

    Boling, Brian E.

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  7. Component Processes in Task Switching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiran, Nachshon; Chorev, Ziv; Sapir, Ayelet

    2000-01-01

    Studied task switching in 4 experiments involving 111 Israeli undergraduates. Results show the preparation for a task switch is not a by-product of general preparation by phasic alertness or predicting target onset and establish reconfiguration as a separate preparatory process. Suggests that there are at least three components of task switching…

  8. 49 CFR 236.6 - Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems General § 236.6 Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller. Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller connected to...

  9. 49 CFR 236.6 - Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems General § 236.6 Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller. Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller connected to...

  10. 49 CFR 236.6 - Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems General § 236.6 Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller. Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller connected to...

  11. 49 CFR 236.6 - Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems General § 236.6 Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller. Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller connected to...

  12. 49 CFR 236.6 - Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems General § 236.6 Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller. Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller connected to...

  13. FAST OPENING SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Bender, M.; Bennett, F.K.; Kuckes, A.F.

    1963-09-17

    A fast-acting electric switch is described for rapidly opening a circuit carrying large amounts of electrical power. A thin, conducting foil bridges a gap in this circuit and means are provided for producing a magnetic field and eddy currents in the foil, whereby the foil is rapidly broken to open the circuit across the gap. Advantageously the foil has a hole forming two narrow portions in the foil and the means producing the magnetic field and eddy currents comprises an annular coil having its annulus coaxial with the hole in the foil and turns adjacent the narrow portions of the foil. An electrical current flows through the coil to produce the magnetic field and eddy currents in the foil. (AEC)

  14. Optimized scalable network switch

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.

    2010-02-23

    In a massively parallel computing system having a plurality of nodes configured in m multi-dimensions, each node including a computing device, a method for routing packets towards their destination nodes is provided which includes generating at least one of a 2m plurality of compact bit vectors containing information derived from downstream nodes. A multilevel arbitration process in which downstream information stored in the compact vectors, such as link status information and fullness of downstream buffers, is used to determine a preferred direction and virtual channel for packet transmission. Preferred direction ranges are encoded and virtual channels are selected by examining the plurality of compact bit vectors. This dynamic routing method eliminates the necessity of routing tables, thus enhancing scalability of the switch.

  15. ''Smart'' watchdog safety switch

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-10-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring a process having a periodic output so that the process equipment is not damaged in the event of a controller failure, comprising a low-pass and peak clipping filter, an event detector that generates an event pulse for each valid change in magnitude of the filtered periodic output, a timing pulse generator, a counter that increments upon receipt of any timing pulse and resets to zero on receipt of any event pulse, an alarm that alerts when the count reaches some preselected total count, and a set of relays that opens to stop power to process equipment. An interface module can be added to allow the switch to accept a variety of periodic output signals. 21 figures.

  16. "Smart" watchdog safety switch

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring a process having a periodic output so that the process equipment is not damaged in the event of a controller failure, comprising a low-pass and peak clipping filter, an event detector that generates an event pulse for each valid change in magnitude of the filtered periodic output, a timing pulse generator, a counter that increments upon receipt of any timing pulse and resets to zero on receipt of any event pulse, an alarm that alerts when the count reaches some preselected total count, and a set of relays that opens to stop power to process equipment. An interface module can be added to allow the switch to accept a variety of periodic output signals.

  17. Smart watchdog safety switch

    SciTech Connect

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1989-05-12

    A method and apparatus for monitoring a process having a periodic output so that the process equipment is not damaged in the event of a controller failure, comprising a low-pass and peak clipping filter, an event detector that generates an event pulse for each valid change in magnitude of the filtered periodic output, a timing pulse generator, a counter that increments upon receipt of any timing pulse and resets to zero on receipt of any event pulse, an alarm that alerts when the count reaches some preselected total count, and a set of relays that open to stop power to process equipment. An interface module can be added to allow the switch to accept a variety of periodic output signals. 6 figs.

  18. Automatic thermal switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, L. D.; Cunningham, J. W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An automatic thermal switch to control heat flow includes a first thermally conductive plate, a second thermally conductive plate and a thermal transfer plate pivotally mounted between the first and second plates. A phase change power unit, including a plunger connected to the transfer plate, is in thermal contact with the first thermally conductive plate. A biasing element, connected to the transfer plate, biases the transfer plate in a predetermined position with respect to the first and second plates. When the phase change power unit is actuated by an increase in heat transmitted through the first plate, the plunger extends and pivots the transfer plate to vary the thermal conduction between the first and second plates through the transfer plate. The biasing element, transfer plate and piston can be arranged to provide either a normally closed or normally open thermally conductive path between the first and second plates.

  19. Optimized scalable network switch

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2007-12-04

    In a massively parallel computing system having a plurality of nodes configured in m multi-dimensions, each node including a computing device, a method for routing packets towards their destination nodes is provided which includes generating at least one of a 2m plurality of compact bit vectors containing information derived from downstream nodes. A multilevel arbitration process in which downstream information stored in the compact vectors, such as link status information and fullness of downstream buffers, is used to determine a preferred direction and virtual channel for packet transmission. Preferred direction ranges are encoded and virtual channels are selected by examining the plurality of compact bit vectors. This dynamic routing method eliminates the necessity of routing tables, thus enhancing scalability of the switch.

  20. Bayesian analysis of complex interacting mutations in HIV drug resistance and cross-resistance.

    PubMed

    Kozyryev, Ivan; Zhang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    resistance. Results obtained with such stochastic methods pave the way not only for optimization of the use for existing HIV drugs, but also for the development of the new more efficient antiretroviral medicines. In this chapter we survey current challenges in the bioinformatics of anti-HIV therapy, and outline how recently emerged Bayesian methods can help with the clinical management of HIV-1 infection. We will provide a rigorous review of the Bayesian variable partition model and the recursive model selection procedure based on probability theory and mathematical data analysis techniques while highlighting real applications in HIV and HBV studies including HIV drug resistance (Zhang et al. in PNAS 107:1321, 2010 [1]), cross-resistance (Zhang et al. in J Proteome Sci Comput Biol 1:2, 2012 [2]), HIV coreceptor usage (Svicher et al. in Antiviral Therapy 16(7):1035-1045, 2011 [4]; Svicher et al. in Antiviral Ther 16(4):A14-A14, 2011 [5]; Alteri et al. in Signature mutations in V3 and bridging sheet domain of HIV-1 gp120 HIV-1 are specifically associated with dual tropism and modulate the interaction with CCR5 N-Terminus, 2011 [7]), and occult HBV infection (Svicher et al. in Antiviral Res 93(1):86-93, 2012 [3]; Svicher et al. in Antiviral Ther 16(4):A85-A85, 2011 [6]). PMID:25387976

  1. Switched power workshop: Introduction and summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, R. B.

    This paper discusses the design of a switched power electron gun. Particular topics discussed are: vacuum photodiode switch; laser switched solid state diodes; gun performance; charging supply; and laser requirements.

  2. Switching Phenomena in a System with No Switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preis, Tobias; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-02-01

    It is widely believed that switching phenomena require switches, but this is actually not true. For an intriguing variety of switching phenomena in nature, the underlying complex system abruptly changes from one state to another in a highly discontinuous fashion. For example, financial market fluctuations are characterized by many abrupt switchings creating increasing trends ("bubble formation") and decreasing trends ("financial collapse"). Such switching occurs on time scales ranging from macroscopic bubbles persisting for hundreds of days to microscopic bubbles persisting only for a few seconds. We analyze a database containing 13,991,275 German DAX Future transactions recorded with a time resolution of 10 msec. For comparison, a database providing 2,592,531 of all S&P500 daily closing prices is used. We ask whether these ubiquitous switching phenomena have quantifiable features independent of the time horizon studied. We find striking scale-free behavior of the volatility after each switching occurs. We interpret our findings as being consistent with time-dependent collective behavior of financial market participants. We test the possible universality of our result by performing a parallel analysis of fluctuations in transaction volume and time intervals between trades. We show that these financial market switching processes have properties similar to those of phase transitions. We suggest that the well-known catastrophic bubbles that occur on large time scales—such as the most recent financial crisis—are no outliers but single dramatic representatives caused by the switching between upward and downward trends on time scales varying over nine orders of magnitude from very large (≈102 days) down to very small (≈10 ms).

  3. Barriers to HIV Cure.

    PubMed

    Stein, J; Storcksdieck Genannt Bonsmann, M; Streeck, H

    2016-10-01

    Since the beginning of the epidemic, more than 70 million people have been infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and about 38 million have died from acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related illnesses. While the discovery of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the mid 90's has saved millions of lives, a complete eradication of HIV is still not possible as HIV can persist for decades in a small reservoir of latently infected cells. Once reactivated, these latently infected cells can actively produce viral particles. Recent studies suggest that several sanctuaries exist within infected individuals where HIV can remain undetected by the immune system. These cellular, anatomical and microanatomical viral reservoirs represent a major obstacle for the eradication of HIV. Here we review recent findings on potential sanctuaries of HIV and address potential avenues to overcome these immunological barriers. PMID:27620852

  4. Channelized coplanar waveguide pin-diode switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, G. E.; Simons, R. N.

    1989-01-01

    Three different types of p-i-n diode, reflective CPW switches are presented. The first two switches are the series and the shunt mounted diode switches. Each has achieved greater than 15 dB of isolation over a broad bandwidth. The third switch is a narrow band, high isolation switched filter which has achieved 19 dB of isolation. Equivalent circuits and measured performance for each switch is presented.

  5. Liquid metal switches for electromagnetic railgun systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mitcham, A.J.; Prothero, D.H.; Brooks, J.C. )

    1991-01-01

    The need for a reliable and effective commutating switch is essential to the operation of an HPG-driven railgun system. This switch must offer the lowest possible resistance during the current build up time and then must commutate the current quickly and efficiently into the railgun barrel. This paper considers the essential requirements for such a switch and, after briefly reviewing the available switch technologies, describes a new type of switch based on a liquid metal switching medium.

  6. Two cases of possible transmitted drug-resistant HIV: likely HIV superinfection and unmasking of pre-existing resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, John; Thomson, Emma; Tarrant, Nick; Hale, Antony; Lacey, Charles J

    2016-01-01

    In the UK, patients undergo HIV viral load and genotype testing before they are prescribed antiretroviral therapy. The genotype test guides clinicians in prescribing antiretroviral therapy with maximum efficacy against the patient’s specific viral strain. HIV viral load escape under antiretroviral drug therapy, to which the virus was thought to be genotypically susceptible, is commonly observed in patients with poor adherence. We observed early viral escapes in two-newly diagnosed patients, during antiretroviral treatment, with different sequences compared to their original viral resistance test and who reported excellent adherence to and tolerance of their therapy. HIV superinfection with a new viral strain was identified in a patient with multiple risk factors and co-infections with sexually transmitted infections. The second patient was a case of the emergence of primary resistant virus under drug pressure. Both suppressed their virus promptly after treatment switch. PMID:25663247

  7. Two cases of possible transmitted drug-resistant HIV: likely HIV superinfection and unmasking of pre-existing resistance.

    PubMed

    Martin, Fabiola; Lee, John; Thomson, Emma; Tarrant, Nick; Hale, Antony; Lacey, Charles J

    2016-01-01

    In the UK, patients undergo HIV viral load and genotype testing before they are prescribed antiretroviral therapy. The genotype test guides clinicians in prescribing antiretroviral therapy with maximum efficacy against the patient's specific viral strain. HIV viral load escape under antiretroviral drug therapy, to which the virus was thought to be genotypically susceptible, is commonly observed in patients with poor adherence. We observed early viral escapes in two-newly diagnosed patients, during antiretroviral treatment, with different sequences compared to their original viral resistance test and who reported excellent adherence to and tolerance of their therapy. HIV superinfection with a new viral strain was identified in a patient with multiple risk factors and co-infections with sexually transmitted infections. The second patient was a case of the emergence of primary resistant virus under drug pressure. Both suppressed their virus promptly after treatment switch. PMID:25663247

  8. Measuring glutathione redox potential of HIV-1-infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Ashima; Munshi, MohamedHusen; Khan, Sohrab Zafar; Fatima, Sadaf; Arya, Rahul; Jameel, Shahid; Singh, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Redox signaling plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). The majority of HIV redox research relies on measuring redox stress using invasive technologies, which are unreliable and do not provide information about the contributions of subcellular compartments. A major technological leap emerges from the development of genetically encoded redox-sensitive green fluorescent proteins (roGFPs), which provide sensitive and compartment-specific insights into redox homeostasis. Here, we exploited a roGFP-based specific bioprobe of glutathione redox potential (E(GSH); Grx1-roGFP2) and measured subcellular changes in E(GSH) during various phases of HIV-1 infection using U1 monocytic cells (latently infected U937 cells with HIV-1). We show that although U937 and U1 cells demonstrate significantly reduced cytosolic and mitochondrial E(GSH) (approximately -310 mV), active viral replication induces substantial oxidative stress (E(GSH) more than -240 mV). Furthermore, exposure to a physiologically relevant oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), induces significant deviations in subcellular E(GSH) between U937 and U1, which distinctly modulates susceptibility to apoptosis. Using Grx1-roGFP2, we demonstrate that a marginal increase of about ∼25 mV in E(GSH) is sufficient to switch HIV-1 from latency to reactivation, raising the possibility of purging HIV-1 by redox modulators without triggering detrimental changes in cellular physiology. Importantly, we show that bioactive lipids synthesized by clinical drug-resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis reactivate HIV-1 through modulation of intracellular E(GSH). Finally, the expression analysis of U1 and patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells demonstrated a major recalibration of cellular redox homeostatic pathways during persistence and active replication of HIV. PMID:25406321

  9. Measuring Glutathione Redox Potential of HIV-1-infected Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Ashima; Munshi, MohamedHusen; Khan, Sohrab Zafar; Fatima, Sadaf; Arya, Rahul; Jameel, Shahid; Singh, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Redox signaling plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). The majority of HIV redox research relies on measuring redox stress using invasive technologies, which are unreliable and do not provide information about the contributions of subcellular compartments. A major technological leap emerges from the development of genetically encoded redox-sensitive green fluorescent proteins (roGFPs), which provide sensitive and compartment-specific insights into redox homeostasis. Here, we exploited a roGFP-based specific bioprobe of glutathione redox potential (EGSH; Grx1-roGFP2) and measured subcellular changes in EGSH during various phases of HIV-1 infection using U1 monocytic cells (latently infected U937 cells with HIV-1). We show that although U937 and U1 cells demonstrate significantly reduced cytosolic and mitochondrial EGSH (approximately −310 mV), active viral replication induces substantial oxidative stress (EGSH more than −240 mV). Furthermore, exposure to a physiologically relevant oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), induces significant deviations in subcellular EGSH between U937 and U1, which distinctly modulates susceptibility to apoptosis. Using Grx1-roGFP2, we demonstrate that a marginal increase of about ∼25 mV in EGSH is sufficient to switch HIV-1 from latency to reactivation, raising the possibility of purging HIV-1 by redox modulators without triggering detrimental changes in cellular physiology. Importantly, we show that bioactive lipids synthesized by clinical drug-resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis reactivate HIV-1 through modulation of intracellular EGSH. Finally, the expression analysis of U1 and patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells demonstrated a major recalibration of cellular redox homeostatic pathways during persistence and active replication of HIV. PMID:25406321

  10. HIV Evolution and Escape.

    PubMed Central

    Richman, Douglas D.; Little, Susan J.; Smith, Davey M.; Wrin, Terri; Petropoulos, Christos; Wong, Joseph K.

    2004-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exemplifies the principles of Darwinian evolution with a telescoped chronology. Because of its high mutation rate and remarkably high rates of replication, evolution can be appreciated over periods of days in contrast to the durations conceived of by Darwin. Certain selective pressures that drive the evolution of HIV include chemotherapy, anatomic compartmentalization and the immune response. Examples of these selective forces on HIV evolution are described. Images Fig. 5 PMID:17060974

  11. A Multi-targeted Drug Candidate with Dual Anti-HIV and Anti-HSV Activity

    PubMed Central

    Balzarini, Jan; Andrei, Graciela; Balestra, Emanuela; Huskens, Dana; Vanpouille, Christophe; Introini, Andrea; Zicari, Sonia; Liekens, Sandra; Snoeck, Robert; Holý, Antonín; Perno, Carlo-Federico; Margolis, Leonid; Schols, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is often accompanied by infection with other pathogens, in particular herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). The resulting coinfection is involved in a vicious circle of mutual facilitations. Therefore, an important task is to develop a compound that is highly potent against both viruses to suppress their transmission and replication. Here, we report on the discovery of such a compound, designated PMEO-DAPym. We compared its properties with those of the structurally related and clinically used acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) tenofovir and adefovir. We demonstrated the potent anti-HIV and -HSV activity of this drug in a diverse set of clinically relevant in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo systems including (i) CD4+ T-lymphocyte (CEM) cell cultures, (ii) embryonic lung (HEL) cell cultures, (iii) organotypic epithelial raft cultures of primary human keratinocytes (PHKs), (iv) primary human monocyte/macrophage (M/M) cell cultures, (v) human ex vivo lymphoid tissue, and (vi) athymic nude mice. Upon conversion to its diphosphate metabolite, PMEO-DAPym markedly inhibits both HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) and HSV DNA polymerase. However, in striking contrast to tenofovir and adefovir, it also acts as an efficient immunomodulator, inducing β-chemokines in PBMC cultures, in particular the CCR5 agonists MIP-1β, MIP-1α and RANTES but not the CXCR4 agonist SDF-1, without the need to be intracellularly metabolized. Such specific β-chemokine upregulation required new mRNA synthesis. The upregulation of β-chemokines was shown to be associated with a pronounced downmodulation of the HIV-1 coreceptor CCR5 which may result in prevention of HIV entry. PMEO-DAPym belongs conceptually to a new class of efficient multitargeted antivirals for concomitant dual-viral (HSV/HIV) infection therapy through inhibition of virus-specific pathways (i.e. the viral polymerases) and HIV transmission prevention through interference with host

  12. Neutralizing antibody and anti-retroviral drug sensitivities of HIV-1 isolates resistant to small molecule CCR5 inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Pugach, Pavel; Ketas, Thomas J.; Michael, Elizabeth; Moore, John P.

    2008-08-01

    The small molecule CCR5 inhibitors are a new class of drugs for treating infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). They act by binding to the CCR5 co-receptor and preventing its use during HIV-1-cell fusion. Escape mutants can be raised against CCR5 inhibitors in vitro and will arise when these drugs are used clinically. Here, we have assessed the responses of CCR5 inhibitor-resistant viruses to other anti-retroviral drugs that act by different mechanisms, and their sensitivities to neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). The rationale for the latter study is that the resistance pathway for CCR5 inhibitors involves changes in the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env), which are also targets for NAbs. The escape mutants CC101.19 and D1/85.16 were selected for resistance to AD101 and vicriviroc (VVC), respectively, from the primary R5 HIV-1 isolate CC1/85. Each escape mutant was cross-resistant to other small molecule CCR5 inhibitors (aplaviroc, maraviroc, VVC, AD101 and CMPD 167), but sensitive to protein ligands of CCR5: the modified chemokine PSC-RANTES and the humanized MAb PRO-140. The resistant viruses also retained wild-type sensitivity to the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI) zidovudine, the non-nucleoside RTI nevirapine, the protease inhibitor atazanavir and other attachment and fusion inhibitors that act independently of CCR5 (BMS-806, PRO-542 and enfuvirtide). Of note is that the escape mutants were more sensitive than the parental CC1/85 isolate to a subset of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and to some sera from HIV-1-infected people, implying that sequence changes in Env that confer resistance to CCR5 inhibitors can increase the accessibility of some NAb epitopes. The need to preserve NAb resistance may therefore be a constraint upon how escape from CCR5 inhibitors occurs in vivo.

  13. Conformational properties of the third variable loop of HIV-1AD8 envelope glycoprotein in the liganded conditions.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Satoshi; Takizawa, Mari; Miyauchi, Kosuke; Urano, Emiko; Fujino, Masayuki; Murakami, Toshio; Murakami, Tsutomu; Komano, Jun

    2016-06-17

    The conformational dynamics of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 and gp41 (Env) remains poorly understood. Here we examined how the V3 loop conformation is regulated in the liganded state using a panel of recombinant HIV-1NL4-3 clones bearing HIV-1AD8 Env by two experimental approaches, one adopting a monoclonal neutralizing antibody KD-247 (suvizumab) that recognizes the tip of the V3 loop, and the other assessing the function of the V3 loop. A significant positive correlation of the Env-KD-247 binding was detected between the liganded and unliganded conditions. Namely, the mutation D163G located in the V2 loop, which enhances viral susceptibility to KD-247 by 59.4-fold, had little effect on the sCD4-induced increment of the virus-KD-247 binding. By contrast, a virus with the S370N mutation in the C3 region increased the virus-KD-247 binding by 91.4-fold, although it did not influence the KD-247-mediated neutralization. Co-receptor usage and the susceptibility to CCR5 inhibitor Maraviroc were unaffected by D163G and S370N mutations. Collectively, these data suggest that the conformation of the liganded V3-loop of HIV-1AD8 Env is still under regulation of other Env domains aside from the V3 loop, including V2 and C3. Our results give an insight into the structural properties of HIV-1 Env and viral resistance to entry inhibitors by non-V3 loop mutations. PMID:27178216

  14. HIV Associated Opportunistic Pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Ismail, T; Lee, C

    2011-03-01

    Opportunistic pneumonias are major causes of morbidity and mortality in HIV infected individuals. The majority of new HIV infections in Malaysia are adults aged 20 to 39 years old and many are unaware of their HIV status until they present with an opportunistic infection. HIV associated opportunistic pneumonias can progress rapidly without appropriate therapy. Therefore a proper diagnostic evaluation is vital and prompt empiric treatment of the suspected diagnosis should be commenced while waiting for the results of the diagnostic studies. Tuberculosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) and recurrent bacterial pneumonias are common causes of AIDS-defining diseases and are discussed in this article. PMID:23765154

  15. The biological characteristics of predominant strains of HIV-1 genotype: modeling of HIV-1 infection among men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Dai, Di; Shang, Hong; Han, Xiao-Xu; Zhao, Bin; Liu, Jing; Ding, Hai-Bo; Xu, Jun-Jie; Chu, Zhen-Xing

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the molecular subtypes of prevalent HIV-1 strains and characterize the genetics of dominant strains among men who have sex with men. Molecular epidemiology surveys in this study concentrated on the prevalent HIV-1 strains in Liaoning province by year. 229 adult patients infected with HIV-1 and part of a high-risk group of men who have sex with men were recruited. Reverse transcription and nested PCR amplification were performed. Sequencing reactions were conducted and edited, followed by codon-based alignment. NJ phylogenetic tree analyses detected two distinct CRF01_AE phylogenetic clusters, designated clusters 1 and 2. Clusters 1 and 2 accounted for 12.8% and 84.2% of sequences in the pol gene and 17.6% and 73.1% of sequences in the env gene, respectively. Another six samples were distributed on other phylogenetic clusters. Cluster 1 increased significantly from 5.6% to 20.0%, but cluster 2 decreased from 87.5% to 80.0%. Genetic distance analysis indicated that CRF01_AE cluster 1 in Liaoning was homologous to epidemic CRF01_AE strains, but CRF01_AE cluster 2 was different from other scattered strains. Additionally, significant differences were found in tetra-peptide motifs at the tip of V3 loop between cluster 1 and 2; however, differences in coreceptor usage were not detected. This study shows that subtype CRF01_AE strain may be the most prevalent epidemic strain in the men who have sex with men. Genetic characteristics of the subtype CRF01_AE cluster strain in Liaoning showed homology to the prevalent strains of men who have sex with men in other parts of China. PMID:25655808

  16. Alarm toe switch. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Ganyard, F.P.

    1980-11-18

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit in a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch.

  17. Lopinavir/ritonavir dosage form affects quality of life during monotherapy in HIV-positive adults.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Rosa F; Lipman, Bryan A; Mayberry, Carl; Miguel, Bernie; Nemecek, John J; Gathe, Joseph C

    2010-01-01

    This was a single-center, open-label study of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) single-agent therapy in antiretroviral-naive, HIV-infected participants initiating therapy with twice-daily soft-gelatin capsules (SGC) and switched to tablets after ≥4 weeks. The objective was to evaluate quality of life and tolerability of the 2 formulations. Participants quality of life, depression, and tolerability were measured using the Medical Outcomes Study-HIV (MOS-HIV), Modified Global Condition Improvement (GCI), and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D), prior to and 4 weeks following switch. MOS-HIV showed significant improvements in general health perception (+6 (16), mean (SD); P = .047) and role functioning (+8 (19), mean (SD); P = .023) post-switch. GCI showed significant improvement in ease of taking medications with tablets (56.7% vs 83.3%; P = .021). No change was observed in CES-D. Tolerability improved in 47%. Reported diarrhea (grade 2) was higher during SGC (33.3% vs3.3%; P = .004). Quality-of-life measures, tolerability, and diarrhea improved with the LPV/r tablet formulation compared to SGC in HIV-positive patients not receiving other antiretroviral therapy (ART). PMID:20841439

  18. Unmasking of CD22 Co-receptor on Germinal Center B-cells Occurs by Alternative Mechanisms in Mouse and Man.

    PubMed

    Macauley, Matthew S; Kawasaki, Norihito; Peng, Wenjie; Wang, Shui-Hua; He, Yuan; Arlian, Britni M; McBride, Ryan; Kannagi, Reiji; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Paulson, James C

    2015-12-11

    CD22 is an inhibitory B-cell co-receptor whose function is modulated by sialic acid (Sia)-bearing glycan ligands. Glycan remodeling in the germinal center (GC) alters CD22 ligands, with as yet no ascribed biological consequence. Here, we show in both mice and humans that loss of high affinity ligands on GC B-cells unmasks the binding site of CD22 relative to naive and memory B-cells, promoting recognition of trans ligands. The conserved modulation of CD22 ligands on GC B-cells is striking because high affinity glycan ligands of CD22 are species-specific. In both species, the high affinity ligand is based on the sequence Siaα2-6Galβ1-4GlcNAc, which terminates N-glycans. The human ligand has N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) as the sialic acid, and the high affinity ligand on naive B-cells contains 6-O-sulfate on the GlcNAc. On human GC B-cells, this sulfate modification is lost, giving rise to lower affinity CD22 ligands. Ligands of CD22 on naive murine B-cells do not contain the 6-O-sulfate modification. Instead, the high affinity ligand for mouse CD22 has N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) as the sialic acid, which is replaced on GC B-cells with Neu5Ac. Human naive and memory B-cells express sulfated glycans as high affinity CD22 ligands, which are lost on GC B-cells. In mice, Neu5Gc-containing glycans serve as high affinity CD22 ligands that are replaced by Neu5Ac-containing glycans on GC B-cells. Our results demonstrate that loss of high affinity CD22 ligands on GC B-cells occurs in both mice and humans through alternative mechanisms, unmasking CD22 relative to naive and memory B-cells. PMID:26507663

  19. Characteristics of switching plasma in an inverse-pinch switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ja H.; Choi, Sang H.; Venable, Demetrius D.; Han, Kwang S.; Nam, Sang H.

    1993-01-01

    Characteristics of the plasma that switches on tens of giga volt-ampere in an inverse-pinch plasma switch (INPIStron) have been made. Through optical and spectroscopic diagnostics of the current carrying plasma, the current density, the motion of current paths, dominant ionic species have been determined in order to access their effects on circuit parameters and material erosion. Also the optimum operational condition of the plasma-puff triggering method required for azimuthally uniform conduction in the INPIStron has been determined.

  20. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Hepatotoxicity

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Hepatotoxicity (Last updated 1/7/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points Hepatotoxicity means damage to the ... the liver can be life-threatening. What HIV medicines can cause hepatotoxicity? HIV medicines in the following ...