Science.gov

Sample records for hiv patients studied

  1. Knowledge about HIV prevention and transmission among recently diagnosed tuberculosis patients: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with Tuberculosis (TB) are a vulnerable group for acquiring HIV infection. Therefore, countries with a concentrated HIV epidemic and high prevalence of TB should provide adequate information about HIV prevention to TB patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the level of knowledge on HIV prevention and transmission among newly diagnosed TB patients in Lima, Peru. The survey evaluated knowledge about HIV infection and prevention and was administered before HIV counseling and blood sampling for HIV testing were performed. Results A total of 171 TB patients were enrolled; mean age was 31.1 years, 101 (59%) were male. The overall mean level of knowledge of HIV was 59%; but the specific mean level of knowledge on HIV transmission and prevention was only 33.3% and 41.5%, respectively. Age and level of education correlated with overall level of knowledge in the multivariate model (P-value: 0.02 and <0.001 respectively). Conclusions The study shows inadequate levels of knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention among newly-diagnosed TB patients in this setting, and underscores the need for implementing educational interventions in this population. PMID:24373517

  2. A Cohort Pilot Study on HIV-Associated Neuropsychological Impairments in Hemophilia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Silvia; Cutica, Ilaria; Krampe, Caspar; Reinecke, Laura F.; Russell-Edu, William; Santoro, Cristina; Rocino, Angiola; Santagostino, Elena; Rusconi, Vega; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in the management of HIV infection with the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy, it is well known that HIV can directly infect the central nervous system and, as a result of such infection, neuropsychological impairments can be manifested. In this study, we tried to determine whether seropositivity was associated with a poor neuropsychological performance in patients with hemophilia and HIV. Such a cohort of patients is very often underrepresented and understudied in the HIV literature. To amend such a gap, we carried out an extensive neuropsychological evaluation on these patients, and compared their performance with that of a group of seronegative hemophilia patients. The results revealed that HIV infection in HIV-seropositive (HIV+) hemophilia patients was associated with deficits in attention, short-term memory, abstraction, and visual recognition. Such results are still preliminary and explorative due to the small cohort of patients enrolled. However, the results do seem to have some important implications for day-to-day functioning, as the level of impairment detected may cause difficulties in completing common everyday tasks such as maintaining adherence to complex medication regimens or maintaining social life activities. Continued research into the mechanisms related to HIV and neurocognitive dysfunction may provide targets for interventions that could have meaningful consequences in the real world for HIV hemophilia patients. PMID:26082706

  3. Adequacy of Mental Health Services for HIV-Positive Patients with Depression: Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Stephanie K. Y.; Boyle, Eleanor; Cairney, John; Gardner, Sandra; Collins, Evan J.; Bacon, Jean; Rourke, Sean B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Major depression can profoundly impact clinical and quality-of-life outcomes of people living with HIV, and this disease is underdiagnosed and undertreated in many HIV-positive individuals. Here, we describe the prevalence of publicly funded primary and secondary mental health service use and antidepressant use, as well as mental health care for depression in accordance with existing Canadian guidelines for HIV-positive patients with depression in Ontario, Canada. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study linking data from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study with administrative health databases in the province of Ontario, Canada. Current depression was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Depression Scale or the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. Multivariable regressions were used to characterize prevalence outcomes. Results Of 990 HIV-positive patients with depression, 493 (50%) patients used mental health services; 182 (18%) used primary services (general practitioners); 176 (18%) used secondary services (psychiatrists); and 135 (14%) used both. Antidepressants were used by 407 (39%) patients. Patients who identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual, as having low income or educational attainment, or as non-native English speakers or immigrants to Canada were less likely to obtain care. Of 493 patients using mental health services, 250 (51%) received mental health care for depression in accordance with existing Canadian guidelines. Conclusions Our results showed gaps in delivering publicly funded mental health services to depressed HIV-positive patients and identified unequal access to these services, particularly among vulnerable groups. More effective mental health policies and better access to mental health services are required to address HIV-positive patient needs and reduce depression’s impact on their lives. PMID:27280751

  4. Lung cancer in HIV patients and their parents: A Danish cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV patients are known to be at increased risk of lung cancer but the risk factors behind this are unclear. Methods We estimated the cumulative incidence and relative risk of lung cancer in 1) a population of all Danish HIV patients identified from the Danish HIV Cohort Study (n = 5,053) and a cohort of population controls matched on age and gender (n = 50,530) (study period; 1995 - 2009) and 2) their parents (study period; 1969 - 2009). Mortality and relative risk of death after a diagnosis of lung cancer was estimated in both populations. Results 29 (0.6%) HIV patients vs. 183 (0.4%) population controls were diagnosed with lung cancer in the observation period. HIV patients had an increased risk of lung cancer (adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR); 2.38 (95% CI; 1.61 - 3.53)). The IRR was considerably increased in HIV patients who were smokers or former smokers (adjusted IRR; 4.06 (95% CI; 2.66 - 6.21)), male HIV patients with heterosexual route of infection (adjusted IRR; 4.19 (2.20 - 7.96)) and HIV patients with immunosuppression (adjusted IRR; 3.25 (2.01 - 5.24)). Both fathers and mothers of HIV patients had an increased risk of lung cancer (adjusted IRR for fathers; 1.31 (95% CI: 1.09 - 1.58), adjusted IRR for mothers 1.35 (95% CI: 1.07 - 1.70)). Mortality after lung cancer diagnose was increased in HIV patients (adjusted mortality rate ratio 2.33 (95%CI; 1.51 - 3.61), but not in the parents. All HIV patients diagnosed with lung cancer were smokers or former smokers. Conclusion The risk was especially increased in HIV patients who were smokers or former smokers, heterosexually infected men or immunosuppressed. HIV appears to be a marker of behavioural or family related risk factors that affect the incidence of lung cancer in HIV patients. PMID:21702995

  5. Relationship between HIV protease inhibitors and QTc interval duration in HIV-infected patients: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Charbit, Beny; Rosier, Arnaud; Bollens, Diane; Boccara, Franck; Boelle, Pierre-Yves; Koubaa, Afef; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Funck-Brentano, Christian

    2009-01-01

    AIMS QTc interval prolongation and torsades de pointes have been reported in HIV-infected patients. Protease inhibitors (PIs) are suspected to contribute to this adverse reaction. However, many factors can prolong QTc interval. We examined factors influencing QTc duration in HIV-infected patients. METHODS Unselected HIV-infected patients (n = 978) were enrolled in this prospective, single-centre cross-sectional study. Variables related to infection and treatments were collected. A digital electrocardiographic record was recorded in each patient and QT interval duration was measured and corrected using both Bazett's (QTcB) and Fridericia's (QTcF) formula. Results were analysed with a multivariable linear model. RESULTS After excluding arrhythmias and complete bundle branch blocks, QT interval was measured in 956 patients. The mean (SD) QTcB was 418 ms (23) and QTcF was 405 ms (20). QTc was found prolonged (>450 ms in women and >440 ms in men) in 129 [13.5%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 11.5, 15.8] and 38 (4%; 95% CI 2.9, 5.4) patients using Bazett and Fridericia corrections, respectively. On multivariable analysis, incomplete bundle branch block, ventricular hypertrophy, signs of ischaemic cardiopathy, female gender, White ethnic origin and age were significantly associated with QTc prolongation. The only HIV variable independently associated with QTc prolongation was the duration of infection (P = 0.023). After adjustment, anti-HIV treatment, in particular PI (P = 0.99), was not associated with QTc prolongation. CONCLUSIONS Although PIs block in vitro hERG current, they are not independently associated with QTc interval prolongation. Prolonged QTc interval in HIV-infected patients is primarily associated with factors commonly known to prolong QT and with the duration of HIV infection. PMID:19076152

  6. Assessing physician/patient relationships in the presence of HIV/AIDS: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S A; Madrigal, C

    1998-01-01

    The following study investigates the nature of the relationship between physicians and HIV/AIDS patients within the context of the rapidly evolving services/relationship marketing literatures. The emerging evidence suggests that service providers generally play a critical role in the development of positive consumer attitudes and behaviors, and that relationship marketing practices can contribute to the delivery of health services. However, to date, there appears little evidence supporting the efficacy of employing relationship marketing practices in relation to a target market of HIV/AIDS patients. This exploratory study contributes to the body of knowledge by more closely investigating the nature of the patient-physician relationship relative to HIV/AIDS patients' attitudes, marketing-related behaviors, and overall quality-of-life/life satisfaction judgments. The results of this study first suggest that HIV/AIDS patients use the expectancy disconfirmation model when evaluating the performance of their physician. A reliance on expectancy disconfirmation suggests the likely prevalent role of service quality perceptions and satisfaction judgments in evaluating their relationship with their physician. Second, the results appear to support the conclusion that the patient's evaluation of their physician relationship and subsequent behaviors (e.g., word-of-mouth) are directly related to the patient's general perception of received health services. Thus, the patient/physician relationship may play a particularly powerful role in determining patient (marketing related) outcomes relative to other health service settings. Third, a direct influence is supported between negative affective reactions by patients and subsequent outcome behaviors. This finding lends support for the potential efficacy of service recovery efforts when rendering treatment to HIV/AIDS patients. Finally, evidence is presented demonstrating the effect of positive perceptions of the patient

  7. Does HIV status influence the outcome of patients admitted to a surgical intensive care unit? A prospective double blind study.

    PubMed Central

    Bhagwanjee, S.; Muckart, D. J.; Jeena, P. M.; Moodley, P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (a) To assess the impact of HIV status (HIV negative, HIV positive, AIDS) on the outcome of patients admitted to intensive care units for diseases unrelated to HIV; (b) to decide whether a positive test result for HIV should be a criterion for excluding patients from intensive care for diseases unrelated to HIV. DESIGN: A prospective double blind study of all admissions over six months. HIV status was determined in all patients by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence assay, western blotting, and flow cytometry. The ethics committee considered the clinical implications of the study important enough to waive patients' right to informed consent. Staff and patients were blinded to HIV results. On discharge patients could be advised of their HIV status if they wished. SETTING: A 16 bed surgical intensive care unit. SUBJECTS: All 267 men and 135 women admitted to the unit during the study period. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: APACHE II score (acute physiological, age, and chronic health evaluation), organ failure, septic shock, durations of intensive care unit and hospital stay, and intensive care unit and hospital mortality. RESULTS: No patient had AIDS. 52 patients were tested positive for HIV and 350 patients were tested negative. The two groups were similar in sex distribution but differed significantly in age, incidence of organ failure (37 (71%) v 171 (49%) patients), and incidence of septic shock (20 (38%) v 54 (15%)). After adjustment for age there were no differences in intensive care unit or hospital mortality or in the durations of stay in the intensive care unit or hospital. CONCLUSIONS: Morbidity was higher in HIV positive patients but there was no difference in mortality. In this patient population a positive HIV test result should not be a criterion for excluding a patient from intensive care. PMID:9133887

  8. Liver Retransplantation in Patients With HIV-1 Infection: An International Multicenter Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Agüero, F; Rimola, A; Stock, P; Grossi, P; Rockstroh, J K; Agarwal, K; Garzoni, C; Barcan, L A; Maltez, F; Manzardo, C; Mari, M; Ragni, M V; Anadol, E; Di Benedetto, F; Nishida, S; Gastaca, M; Miró, J M

    2016-02-01

    Liver retransplantation is performed in HIV-infected patients, although its outcome is not well known. In an international cohort study (eight countries), 37 (6%; 32 coinfected with hepatitis C virus [HCV] and five with hepatitis B virus [HBV]) of 600 HIV-infected patients who had undergone liver transplant were retransplanted. The main indications for retransplantation were vascular complications (35%), primary graft nonfunction (22%), rejection (19%), and HCV recurrence (13%). Overall, 19 patients (51%) died after retransplantation. Survival at 1, 3, and 5 years was 56%, 51%, and 51%, respectively. Among patients with HCV coinfection, HCV RNA replication status at retransplantation was the only significant prognostic factor. Patients with undetectable versus detectable HCV RNA had a survival probability of 80% versus 39% at 1 year and 80% versus 30% at 3 and 5 years (p = 0.025). Recurrence of hepatitis C was the main cause of death in the latter. Patients with HBV coinfection had survival of 80% at 1, 3, and 5 years after retransplantation. HIV infection was adequately controlled with antiretroviral therapy. In conclusion, liver retransplantation is an acceptable option for HIV-infected patients with HBV or HCV coinfection but undetectable HCV RNA. Retransplantation in patients with HCV replication should be reassessed prospectively in the era of new direct antiviral agents. PMID:26415077

  9. Complex care needs of patients with late-stage HIV disease: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Halman, Mark; Carusone, Soo Chan; Stranks, Sarah; Schaefer-McDaniel, Nicole; Stewart, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective chart review provides a profile of an emerging population of vulnerable HIV patients with complex comorbidities. Data were abstracted from all 87 patients admitted in 2008 to Casey House, a community-based hospital dedicated to supportive and palliative care for persons with HIV in Toronto, Canada. We describe patient characteristics, including medical and psychiatric conditions, and use a Venn diagram and case study to illustrate the frequency and reality of co-occurring conditions that contribute to the complexity of patients’ health and health care needs. The mean age at admission was 48.9 years (SD = 10.5). Eighty percent were male. Patients experienced a mean of 5.8 medical comorbidities (SD = 2.3) and 1.9 psychiatric disorders (lifetime axis I diagnoses). Forty-one patients (47%) experienced cognitive impairment including HIV-associated dementia. Patients were on a mean of 11.8 (SD = 5.3) medications at admission; 74% were on antiretroviral medications with 55% reporting full adherence. Current alcohol and drug use was common with 54% reporting active use at admission. Our Venn diagram illustrates the breadth of complexity in the clients with 9% of clients living in unstable housing with three or more medical comorbidites and two or more psychiatric diagnoses. Comprehensive HIV program planning should include interventions that can flexibly adapt to meet the multidimensional and complex needs of this segment of patients. Researchers, policymakers and clinicians need to have greater awareness of overlapping medical, psychiatric and psychosocial comorbidities. Inclusion of the needs of these most vulnerable patients in the development of evidence based guidelines is an important step for effectively treating, preventing and planning for the future of HIV/AIDS care.

  10. Study of Natural Cytotoxicity Receptors in Patients with HIV/AIDS and Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Terra Junior, Orlando Nascimento; Maldonado, Gabriel de Carvalho; Alfradique, Guilherme Rohem; Lisboa, Vinicius da Cunha; Arnóbio, Adriano; de Lima, Dirce Bonfim; Diamond, Hilda Rachel; de Souza, Maria Helena Faria Ornellas

    2016-01-01

    The NCR receptors play a fundamental role in the cytotoxicity mediated by NK cells against tumor cells. In the current study, we investigated possible HIV/AIDS-related changes in the expression of the NCR receptors comparing healthy donors, HIV/AIDS patients, and HIV/AIDS patients with cancer (HIV/AIDSWC). The NCRs were quantified in NK cells (NKdim and NKbright) and T lymphocytes from peripheral blood samples by flow cytometry. We found a significant decrease in the frequency of NK cells expressing NKp46 in HIV/AIDS group (p = 0.0012). There was a decrease in the frequency of NK cells expressing NKp46 in the HIV/AIDSWC group; however, this was not statistically significant. We found a significant decrease in the frequency of NK cells expressing NKp30 in the HIV/AIDS group (p = 0.0144). There was a decrease in the frequency of NK cells expressing NKp30 and in the HIV/AIDSWC group, but this was not statistically significant. There were no changes in the distribution of NK cells and their subtypes in both groups. PMID:27382604

  11. Study of Natural Cytotoxicity Receptors in Patients with HIV/AIDS and Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Terra Junior, Orlando Nascimento; Maldonado, Gabriel de Carvalho; Alfradique, Guilherme Rohem; Lisboa, Vinicius da Cunha; Arnóbio, Adriano; de Lima, Dirce Bonfim; Diamond, Hilda Rachel; de Souza, Maria Helena Faria Ornellas

    2016-01-01

    The NCR receptors play a fundamental role in the cytotoxicity mediated by NK cells against tumor cells. In the current study, we investigated possible HIV/AIDS-related changes in the expression of the NCR receptors comparing healthy donors, HIV/AIDS patients, and HIV/AIDS patients with cancer (HIV/AIDSWC). The NCRs were quantified in NK cells (NK(dim) and NK(bright)) and T lymphocytes from peripheral blood samples by flow cytometry. We found a significant decrease in the frequency of NK cells expressing NKp46 in HIV/AIDS group (p = 0.0012). There was a decrease in the frequency of NK cells expressing NKp46 in the HIV/AIDSWC group; however, this was not statistically significant. We found a significant decrease in the frequency of NK cells expressing NKp30 in the HIV/AIDS group (p = 0.0144). There was a decrease in the frequency of NK cells expressing NKp30 and in the HIV/AIDSWC group, but this was not statistically significant. There were no changes in the distribution of NK cells and their subtypes in both groups. PMID:27382604

  12. Retained in HIV Care But Not on Antiretroviral Treatment: A Qualitative Patient-Provider Dyadic Study

    PubMed Central

    Christopoulos, Katerina A.; Olender, Susan; Lopez, Andrea M.; Lekas, Helen-Maria; Jaiswal, Jessica; Mellman, Will; Geng, Elvin; Koester, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients retained in HIV care but not on antiretroviral therapy (ART) represent an important part of the HIV care cascade in the United States. Even in an era of more tolerable and efficacious ART, decision making in regards to ART offer and uptake remains complex and calls for exploration of both patient and provider perspectives. We sought to understand reasons for lack of ART usage in patients meeting the Health Resources Services Administration definition of retention as well as what motivated HIV primary care appointment attendance in the absence of ART. Methods and Findings We conducted a qualitative study consisting of 70 in-depth interviews with ART-naïve and ART-experienced patients off ART and their primary care providers in two urban safety-net HIV clinics in San Francisco and New York. Twenty patients and their providers were interviewed separately at baseline, and 15 dyads were interviewed again after at least 3 mo and another clinic visit in order to understand any ART use in the interim. We applied dyadic analysis to our data. Nearly all patients were willing to consider ART, and 40% of the sample went on ART, citing education on newer antiretroviral drugs, acceptance of HIV diagnosis, social support, and increased confidence in their ability to adhere as facilitators. However, the strength of the provider recommendation of ART played an important role. Many patients had internalized messages from providers that their health was too good to warrant ART. In addition, providers, while demonstrating patient-centered care through sensitivity to patients experiencing psychosocial instability, frequently muted the offer of ART, at times unintentionally. In the absence of ART, lab monitoring, provider relationships, access to social services, opiate pain medications, and acute symptoms motivated care. The main limitations of this study were that treatment as prevention was not explored in depth and that participants were recruited from academic

  13. Assessing Implicit Cognition Among Patients Lost to Follow-up for HIV Care: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Eric; Lyons, Thomas; Wolfe, Brenda; Rolfsen, Norma; Williams, Maryanne; Rucker, Monique; Glick, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Objective: While a growing body of research indicates that implicit cognitive processes play an important role in a range of health behaviors, the assessment of these impulsive, associative mental processes among patients living with HIV has received little attention. This preliminary study explored how multidimensional scaling (MDS) could be used to assess implicit cognitive processes among patients lost to follow-up for HIV care and develop interventions to improve their engagement. Method: The sample consisted of 33 patients who were identified as lost to follow up for HIV care at two urban hospitals. Participants were randomly assigned to either the MDS assessment program or control group. All participants underwent measures designed to gauge behavioral change intentions and treatment motivation. Assessment group participants were interviewed to determine their reactions to the assessment program. Results: The MDS assessment program identified cognitive processes and their relationship to treatment-related behaviors among assessment group participants. Assessment group participants reported significantly greater behavior change intentions than those in the control group (p =.02; Cohen’s d = 0.84). Conclusion: MDS shows promise as a tool to identify implicit cognitive processes related to treatment-related behaviors. Assessments based on MDS could serve as the basis for patient-centered clinical interventions designed to improve treatment adherence and HIV care engagement in general. PMID:27347274

  14. Study of Basic Coagulation Parameters among HIV Patients in Correlation to CD4 Counts and ART Status

    PubMed Central

    Manimaran, D; Rachakatla, Praveen; Bharathi, K; Afroz, Tameem; Sagar, Radha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV infection is known to cause coagulation abnormalities by various mechanism, especially during its late course. Aim The objective of this study was to analyse platelet count, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time among HIV infected patients and to analyse these parameters with respect to their CD4 count and ART status. Materials and Methods A case control study was conducted with 120 HIV infected patients and 40 normal individuals. The blood samples were collected after obtaining consent from the subjects. The blood samples were processed for platelet count, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time and CD4 count. The results were tabulated and analysed with statistical package. Results The platelet count was significantly decreased in HIV infected patients compared to controls. Though HIV patients with CD4 count less than 200cells/mm3 showed a decreased platelet count compared to those with CD4 count greater than 200cells/mm3, it was not statistically significant. Prothrombin Time (PT) and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT) was significantly prolonged in HIV patients, but only aPTT showed significant inverse correlation with CD4 count. None of the parameters showed statistical significance on comparing HIV patients on ART with those not on ART. Conclusion Basic coagulation tests like platelet count, PT and especially aPTT can be used as prospective screening test to assess severity in HIV patients in resource limited settings where CD4 count is not available. PMID:27437222

  15. Correlation between HIV viral load and aminotransferases as liver damage markers in HIV infected naive patients: a concordance cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mata-Marín, José Antonio; Gaytán-Martínez, Jesús; Grados-Chavarría, Bernardo Horacio; Fuentes-Allen, José Luis; Arroyo-Anduiza, Carla Ileana; Alfaro-Mejía, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in liver function tests could be produced exclusively by direct inflammation in hepatocytes, caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Mechanisms by which HIV causes hepatic damage are still unknown. Our aim was to determine the correlation between HIV viral load, and serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as markers of hepatic damage in HIV naive infected patients. We performed a concordance cross-sectional study. Patients with antiviral treatment experience, hepatotoxic drugs use or co-infection were excluded. We used a Pearson's correlation coefficient to calculate the correlation between aminotransferases serum levels with HIV viral load. We enrolled 59 patients, 50 men and 9 women seen from 2006 to 2008. The mean (± SD) age of our subjects was 34.24 ± 9.5, AST 37.73 ± 29.94 IU/mL, ALT 43.34 ± 42.41 IU/mL, HIV viral load 199,243 ± 292,905 copies/mL, and CD4+ cells count 361 ± 289 cells/mm3. There was a moderately strong, positive correlation between AST serum levels and HIV viral load (r = 0.439, P < 0.001); and a weak correlation between ALT serum levels and HIV viral load (r = 0.276, P = 0.034); after adjusting the confounders in lineal regression model the correlation remained significant. Our results suggest that there is an association between HIV viral load and aminotransferases as markers of hepatic damage; we should improved recognition, diagnosis and potential therapy of hepatic damage in HIV infected patients. PMID:19878552

  16. Correlation between HIV viral load and aminotransferases as liver damage markers in HIV infected naive patients: a concordance cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mata-Marín, José Antonio; Gaytán-Martínez, Jesús; Grados-Chavarría, Bernardo Horacio; Fuentes-Allen, José Luis; Arroyo-Anduiza, Carla Ileana; Alfaro-Mejía, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in liver function tests could be produced exclusively by direct inflammation in hepatocytes, caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Mechanisms by which HIV causes hepatic damage are still unknown. Our aim was to determine the correlation between HIV viral load, and serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) as markers of hepatic damage in HIV naive infected patients. We performed a concordance cross-sectional study. Patients with antiviral treatment experience, hepatotoxic drugs use or co-infection were excluded. We used a Pearson's correlation coefficient to calculate the correlation between aminotransferases serum levels with HIV viral load. We enrolled 59 patients, 50 men and 9 women seen from 2006 to 2008. The mean (+/- SD) age of our subjects was 34.24 +/- 9.5, AST 37.73 +/- 29.94 IU/mL, ALT 43.34 +/- 42.41 IU/mL, HIV viral load 199,243 +/- 292,905 copies/mL, and CD4+ cells count 361 +/- 289 cells/mm(3). There was a moderately strong, positive correlation between AST serum levels and HIV viral load (r = 0.439, P < 0.001); and a weak correlation between ALT serum levels and HIV viral load (r = 0.276, P = 0.034); after adjusting the confounders in lineal regression model the correlation remained significant. Our results suggest that there is an association between HIV viral load and aminotransferases as markers of hepatic damage; we should improved recognition, diagnosis and potential therapy of hepatic damage in HIV infected patients. PMID:19878552

  17. Trends in Decline of Antiretroviral Resistance among ARV-Experienced Patients in the HIV Outpatient Study: 1999–2008

    PubMed Central

    Buchacz, Kate; Baker, Rose; Ward, Douglas J.; Palella, Frank J.; Chmiel, Joan S.; Young, Benjamin; Yangco, Bienvenido G.; Novak, Richard M.; Brooks, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Little is known about temporal trends in frequencies of clinically relevant ARV resistance mutations in HIV strains from U.S. patients undergoing genotypic testing (GT) in routine HIV care. Methods. We analyzed cumulative frequency of HIV resistance among patients in the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) who, during 1999–2008 and while prescribed antiretrovirals, underwent GT with plasma HIV RNA >1,000 copies/mL. Exposure ≥4 months to each of three major antiretroviral classes (NRTI, NNRTI and PI) was defined as triple-class exposure (TCE). Results. 906 patients contributed 1,570 GT results. The annual frequency of any major resistance mutations decreased during 1999–2008 (88% to 79%, P = 0.05). Resistance to PIs decreased among PI-exposed patients (71% to 46%, P = 0.010) as exposure to ritonavir-boosted PIs increased (6% to 81%, P < 0.001). Non-significant declines were observed in resistance to NRTIs among NRTI-exposed (82% to 67%), and triple-class-resistance among TCE patients (66% to 41%), but not to NNRTIs among NNRTI-exposed. Conclusions. HIV resistance was common but declined in HIV isolates from subgroups of ARV-experienced HOPS patients during 1999–2008. Resistance to PIs among PI-exposed patients decreased, possibly due to increased representation of patients whose only PI exposures were to boosted PIs. PMID:22611484

  18. Study of oxidative, enzymatic mitochondrial respiratory chain function and apoptosis in perinatally HIV-infected pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Morén, Constanza; Garrabou, Glòria; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Rovira, Núria; Catalán, Marc; Hernández, Sandra; Tobías, Ester; Cardellach, Francesc; Fortuny, Clàudia; Miró, Òscar

    2013-10-01

    Mitochondrial toxicity in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pediatric patients has been scarcely investigated. Limited data are available about HIV or antiretroviral (ARV)-mediated mitochondrial damage in this population group, specifically, regarding oxygen consumption and apoptosis approach. We aimed to elucidate whether a given mitochondrial DNA depletion is reflected at downstream levels, to gain insight on the pathology of HIV and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in perinatally HIV-infected pediatric patients. We studied 10 healthy control participants and 20 perinatally HIV-infected pediatric patients (10 under ARV treatment and 10 off treatment). We determined mitochondrial mass, subunits II and IV of complex IV, global and specific mitochondrial enzymatic and oxidative activities, and apoptosis from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Global oxygen consumption was significantly compromised in HIV-infected untreated patients, compared to the control group (0.76 ± 0.01 versus 1.59 ± 0.15; P = 0.014). Apoptosis showed a trend to increase in untreated patients as well. The overall complex (C) CI-III-IV activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) was significantly decreased in HIV-infected treated patients with respect to the control group (1.52 ± 0.38 versus 6.38 ± 1.53; P = 0.02). No statistically significant differences were found between untreated and HAART-treated patients. These findings suggest the pathogenic role of both HIV and HAART in mitochondrial dysfunction in vertical infection. The abnormalities in mitochondrial genome may be downstream reflected through a global alteration of the MRC. Mitochondrial impairment associated with HIV and HAART was generalized, rather than localized, in this series of perinatally HIV-infected patients. PMID:23534415

  19. HIV patients in the HCUP database: a study of hospital utilization and costs.

    PubMed

    Hellinger, Fred J

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the utilization of hospital care by HIV patients in all hospitals in eight states (California, Colorado, Florida, Kansas, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and South Carolina), and examines the cost of hospital care for HIV patients in six of these states (California, Colorado, Kansas, New Jersey, New York, and South Carolina). The eight states in the sample account for more than 52% of all persons living with AIDS in the United States; the six states account for 39%. The unit of observation in both studies is a hospital admission by a patient with HIV. Hospital data were obtained from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), State Inpatient Database (SID), which is maintained by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). The HCUP contains hospital discharge data and is a federal/state/industry partnership to build a multistate health care data system. Using multivariate analytic techniques and data from 2000, results indicate that cost and length of a hospital stay vary significantly across states after accounting for a patient's gender, insurance type, race, age, and number of diagnoses, as well as the teaching status and ownership category of the hospital. PMID:15224963

  20. Biomarkers and Bacterial Pneumonia Risk in Patients with Treated HIV Infection: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Bjerk, Sonja M.; Baker, Jason V.; Emery, Sean; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Angus, Brian; Gordin, Fred M.; Pett, Sarah L.; Stephan, Christoph; Kunisaki, Ken M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite advances in HIV treatment, bacterial pneumonia continues to cause considerable morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV infection. Studies of biomarker associations with bacterial pneumonia risk in treated HIV-infected patients do not currently exist. Methods We performed a nested, matched, case-control study among participants randomized to continuous combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy trial. Patients who developed bacterial pneumonia (cases) and patients without bacterial pneumonia (controls) were matched 1∶1 on clinical center, smoking status, age, and baseline cART use. Baseline levels of Club Cell Secretory Protein 16 (CC16), Surfactant Protein D (SP-D), C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and d-dimer were compared between cases and controls. Results Cases (n = 72) and controls (n = 72) were 25.7% female, 51.4% black, 65.3% current smokers, 9.7% diabetic, 36.1% co-infected with Hepatitis B/C, and 75.0% were on cART at baseline. Median (IQR) age was 45 (41, 51) years with CD4+ count of 553 (436, 690) cells/mm3. Baseline CC16 and SP-D were similar between cases and controls, but hsCRP was significantly higher in cases than controls (2.94 µg/mL in cases vs. 1.93 µg/mL in controls; p = 0.02). IL-6 and d-dimer levels were also higher in cases compared to controls, though differences were not statistically significant (p-value 0.06 and 0.10, respectively). Conclusions In patients with cART-treated HIV infection, higher levels of systemic inflammatory markers were associated with increased bacterial pneumonia risk, while two pulmonary-specific inflammatory biomarkers, CC16 and SP-D, were not associated with bacterial pneumonia risk. PMID:23457535

  1. Subtypes of depressive symptoms and inflammatory biomarkers: An exploratory study on a sample of HIV-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Norcini Pala, A; Steca, P; Bagrodia, R; Helpman, L; Colangeli, V; Viale, P; Wainberg, M L

    2016-08-01

    Depressive symptoms cause major impairment and may accelerate HIV progression despite the use of antiretroviral medication. The somatic symptoms criteria for HIV infection and depression partially overlap, which can make differential diagnosis challenging. Because of chronic inflammation caused by HIV infection, HIV-positive patients may develop somatic and affective-cognitive symptoms of depression. Inflammation-related depression is primarily characterized with severe somatic symptoms such as fatigue and sleep disturbance. This study sought to explore the patterns of somatic and cognitive-affective depressive symptoms that characterize HIV-positive patients. Our specific aims were (1) to identify subtypes of depressive symptoms in a sample of HIV-positive patients; and (2) to test the subtypes' difference on inflammatory and HIV disease progression biomarkers. HIV-positive men and women (N=102) with and without depressive symptoms were randomly selected from an Italian HIV clinic. Depressive symptoms (PHQ-9), viral load (VL), CD4+, Il-6, TNF-α, and monocytes were assessed. The three subtypes formed using Latent Class Analysis (LCA) identified patients with (1) severe cognitive-affective and somatic depressive symptoms; (2) severe/moderate somatic symptoms; and (3) absent or low depressive symptoms. The subtype with severe/moderate somatic symptoms was characterized with elevated levels of Il-6 and monocytes. No difference on HIV progression biomarkers was found. The subtypes of depressive symptoms might help differentiating depressive symptoms from HIV- and inflammatory-related somatic symptoms. When present, cognitive-affective and/or somatic symptoms cause significant impairment to patients' lives and thus warrant further assessment and treatment. PMID:26883521

  2. A study of financial incentives to reduce plasma HIV RNA among patients in care.

    PubMed

    Farber, Steven; Tate, Janet; Frank, Cyndi; Ardito, David; Kozal, Michael; Justice, Amy C; Scott Braithwaite, R

    2013-09-01

    The role of financial incentives in HIV care is not well studied. We conducted a single-site study of monetary incentives for viral load suppression, using each patient as his own control. The incentive size ($100/quarter) was designed to be cost-neutral, offsetting estimated downstream costs averted through reduced HIV transmission. Feasibility outcomes were clinic workflow, patient acceptability, and patient comprehension. Although the study was not powered for effectiveness, we also analyzed viral load suppression. Of 80 eligible patients, 77 consented, and 69 had 12 month follow-up. Feasibility outcomes showed minimal impact on patient workflow, near-unanimous patient acceptability, and satisfactory patient comprehension. Among individuals with detectable viral loads pre-intervention, the proportion of undetectable viral load tests increased from 57 to 69 % before versus after the intervention. It is feasible to use financial incentives to reward ART adherence, and to specify the incentive by requiring cost-neutrality and targeting biological outcomes. PMID:23404097

  3. Etiological study of lymphadenopathy in HIV-infected patients in a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Dipanwita; Dey, Sumedha; Nandi, Ayandip; Bandyopadhyay, Ranjana; Roychowdhury, Debjani; Roy, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has become a global pandemic. Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL) is very common manifestation of HIV infection. Moreover, different opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis (TB) and malignancies may present with lymphadenopathy. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is most common with cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ count ≤50 cells/μL. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) offers a simple and effective modality for obtaining a representative sample of the material from lymph nodes, permitting cytological evaluation and other investigations. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to find out the different etiologies of lymphadenopathy in HIV-infected patients and to establish a possible correlation with CD4+ count. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 HIV-infected patients having significant (>1 cm) extrainguinal lymphadenopathy were studied in 1 year at the Department of Pathology by FNAC and the stains used were Leishman–Giemsa, Ziehl–Neelsen (ZN), Papanicoloau, and Gram stains. For tubercular culture, Löwenstein–Jensen (LJ) medium was used. CD4+count was done by flow cytometer. Result: The present study revealed four types of cytomorphological variants in lymphadenopathy cases by FNAC, which include: Reactive hyperplasia and caseation necrosis; caseation necrosis and ill-formed granuloma; well-formed granuloma without any necrosis; and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The highest acid-fast bacilli (AFB) positivity was among the patients showing caseation necrosis. Tubercular culture in LJ media turned out as a more sensitive method for diagnosis than routine ZN staining. The 2 cases that showed well-formed epithelioid granuloma without any necrosis turned out to be histoplasmosis and cryptococcosis, respectively. In this study, we found 2 cases of NHL. The study also revealed that caseation necrosis and AFB positivity along with opportunistic infections increases with

  4. An observational study of comorbidity and healthcare utilisation among HIV-positive patients aged 50 years and over.

    PubMed

    Patel, Roshani; Moore, Thomas; Cooper, Vanessa; McArdle, Conor; Perry, Nicky; Cheek, Elizabeth; Gainsborough, Nicola; Fisher, Martin

    2016-07-01

    The number of HIV-positive people aged ≥50 years is rising each year. We measured the prevalence of non-infectious illnesses and their risk factors and described healthcare use in this UK population. A cross-sectional, observational study was conducted at an outpatient HIV specialist clinic in south east England. Patients age ≥50 years were invited to complete questionnaires measuring demographics, non-infectious illnesses, medication use, lifestyle and healthcare utilisation. The response rate was 67%. Of 299 participants, 84% reported ≥1 comorbid condition and 61% reported ≥2 (multimorbidity). Most commonly reported were high cholesterol, sexual dysfunction, hypertension and depression. In multivariate analyses, age, number of years HIV-positive and duration of antiretroviral therapy remained significant predictors of comorbidity when controlling for lifestyle factors (exercise, smoking and use of recreational drugs and alcohol). Use of non-HIV healthcare services was associated with increasing comorbidity, a longer duration of HIV and recreational drug use. The majority of HIV-patients aged ≥50 years reported multiple comorbidities and this was associated with polypharmacy and increased use of non-HIV services. Further research examining the quality, safety and patient experience of healthcare is needed to inform development of services to optimally meet the needs of older HIV-positive patients. PMID:26068965

  5. Hepatic Enzyme Alterations in HIV Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy: A Case-Control Study in a Hospital Setting in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Osakunor, Derick Nii Mensah; Obirikorang, Christian; Fianu, Vincent; Asare, Isaac; Dakorah, Mavis

    2015-01-01

    Background Diagnosing hepatic injury in HIV infection can be a herculean task for clinicians as several factors may be involved. In this study, we sought to determine the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and disease progression on hepatic enzymes in HIV patients. Methods A case-control study conducted from January to May 2014 at the Akwatia Government Hospital, Eastern region, Ghana, The study included 209 HIV patients on ART (designated HIV-ART) and 132 ART-naive HIV patients (designated HIV-Controls). Data gathered included demography, clinical history and results of blood tests for hepatic enzymes. We employed the Fisher’s, Chi-square, unpaired t-test and Pearson’s correlation in analysis, using GraphPad Prism and SPSS. A P value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results Median CD4 lymphocyte count of HIV-ART participants (604.00 cells/mm3) was higher than that of HIV-Controls (491.50 cells/mm3; P = 0.0005). Mean values of ALP, ALT, AST and GGT did not differ between the two groups compared (P > 0.05). There was a significant positive correlation between hepatic enzymes (ALP, ALT, AST and GGT) for both groups (p < 0.01 each). Duration of ART correlated positively with ALT (p < 0.05). The effect size of disease progression on hepatic enzymes for both groups was small. Conclusion Antiretroviral therapy amongst this population has minimal effects on hepatic enzymes and does not suggest modifications in therapy. Hepatic injury may occur in HIV, even in the absence of ART and other traditional factors. Monitoring of hepatic enzymes is still important in HIV patients. PMID:26247879

  6. High Feasibility of Empiric HIV Treatment for Patients With Suspected Acute HIV in an Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Kathleen R; Arora, Sanjay; Walsh, Kristin B; Lora, Meredith; Merjavy, Stephen; Livermore, Shanna; Menchine, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Earlier intervention in acute HIV infection limits HIV reservoirs and may decrease HIV transmission. We developed criteria for empiric antiretroviral therapy (ART) in an emergency department (ED) routine HIV screening program. We assessed the feasibility and willingness of patients with suspected acute HIV infection in the ED to begin ART. A suspected acute HIV infection was defined as a positive HIV antigen antibody combination immunoassay with pending HIV-antibody differentiation test results and HIV RNA viral load. During the study period, there were 16 confirmed cases of acute HIV infection: 11 met our criteria for empiric ART and agreed to treatment, 10 were prescribed ART, and 1 left the ED against medical advice without a prescription for ART. Eight patients completed at least one follow-up visit. Empiric HIV treatment in an ED is feasible, well received by patients, and offers a unique entry point into the HIV care continuum. PMID:27028498

  7. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among HIV-infected patients in Ghana: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Obirikorang, Christian; Quaye, Lawrence; Osei-Yeboah, James; Odame, Enoch Anto; Asare, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in HIV-infected patients is very limited in the Ghanaian setting and may vary across the globe by the different study populations and criteria used. Aim: We investigated the prevalence of MetS among HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) at the St. Dominic Hospital, Akwatia, Ghana. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 433 HIV-infected patients (294 on HAART and 139 HAART-naïve) from the period of February 2013 to December 2013. Information on the demographic, clinical, anthropometric characteristics were obtained and lipid profile for each patient was assessed. MetS was assessed based on the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III), World Health Organization (WHO) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Results: The prevalence of MetS was 24.5% according to WHO criteria, 48.3% by NCEP-ATP III criteria, and 42.3% by IDF criteria. In general, participants on HAART were significantly associated with higher prevalence of MetS compared to those without HAART (P < 0.05) irrespective of the criteria used. Prevalence of clustering components of MetS was significantly higher among those on HAART when risk scores of 2 and above were used compared with those not on HAART (P < 0.05). Conclusion: HAART recipient developed MetS as indicated by dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, and abnormal body fat. It is incumbent on health giver to incorporate MetS assessment as a part of treatment and management plan in patients receiving HAART. PMID:27226681

  8. The Level of DING Proteins Is Increased in HIV-Infected Patients: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Djeghader, Ahmed; Aragonès, Gerard; Darbinian, Nune; Elias, Mikael; Gonzalez, Daniel; García-Heredia, Anabel; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Kaminski, Rafal; Gotthard, Guillaume; Hiblot, Julien; Rull, Anna; Rohr, Olivier; Schwartz, Christian; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Joven, Jorge; Camps, Jordi; Chabriere, Eric

    2012-01-01

    DING proteins constitute an interesting family, owing to their intriguing and important activities. However, after a decade of research, little is known about these proteins. In humans, at least five different DING proteins have been identified, which were implicated in important biological processes and diseases, including HIV. Indeed, recent data from different research groups have highlighted the anti-HIV activity of some DING representatives. These proteins share the ability to inhibit the transcriptional step of HIV-1, a key step of the viral cycle that is not yet targeted by the current therapies. Since such proteins have been isolated from humans, we undertook a comprehensive study that focuses on the relationship between these proteins and HIV-infection in an infectious context. Hence, we developed a home-made ELISA for the quantification of the concentration of DING proteins in human serum. Using this method, we were able to determine the concentration of DING proteins in healthy and HIV-infected patients. Interestingly, we observed a significant increase of the concentration of DING proteins in non treated and treated HIV-infected patients compared to controls. In addition, cell cultures infected with HIV also show an increased expression of DING proteins, ruling out the possible role of antiretroviral treatment in the increase of the expression of DING proteins. In conclusion, results from this study show that the organism reacts to HIV-infection by an overexpression of DING proteins. PMID:22427948

  9. HIV Patient Characteristics that Affect Adherence to Exercise Programmes: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Petróczi, Andrea; Hawkins, Kim; Jones, Gareth; Naughton, Declan P

    2010-01-01

    Background: Benefits of exercise for HIV-infected persons have been documented, although in clinical practice, diminished adherence to exercise limits the effectiveness of this auxiliary treatment. Exercise intervention studies carry the caveat that the results are limited to volunteers with good compliance and completion profiles. Objectives: This study aimed to identify characteristics contributing to adherence vs non-adherence to prescribed supervised 10-week 75-minute aerobic and progressive resistance exercise programme in a clinical setting that requires twice-weekly attendance at the physiotherapy gym. Study Design: This observational study was comprised of 11 males and 11 females, physician-assessed, HIV seropositive patients referred to exercise programmes in a tertiary multi-disciplinary outpatient service for HIV patients at an urban Teaching Hospital in London (UK). Measurements taken prior to the exercise programme were used as dependent variables and include CD4 count, fitness level, flexibility and perceived physical-, emotional-, functional- and psychological- well-being. Attendance records were categorised into a dichotomous independent variable of adherence based on a natural break that occurred at 8/20 attended sessions. Results: Prior-to-treatment differences in perceived physical, functional and psychological well-being exist between adherent and non-adherent patients, but no differences were found in age, CD4 count or fitness level. Perceived well-being explained 55.7% of the variances in attendance. Gender and reason for referral appear to be independent of adherence, whereas ethnicity may play an influential role. Conclusion: Perceived well-being appears to differentiate between adherent and non-adherent patients. Further studies are required to investigate other psychological characteristics and barriers to maintaining exercise. PMID:20871752

  10. HIV-infected patients' adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy: a phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Mohammadpour, Ali; Yekta, Zohre Parsa; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Ali R

    2010-12-01

    Adherence to the treatment regimen is essential to the success of highly active antiretroviral therapy for patients who are infected with HIV. The evidence suggests that poor adherence to antiretroviral drug therapy is a major problem that has the potential to diminish effective viral suppression, promote viral resistance, and place patients at risk for hospitalization, opportunistic infections, and an increased risk of HIV transmission. The primary aim of this study was to understand patients' experiences regarding their adherence to antiretroviral drug therapy. Thus, 19 participants were recruited for in-depth interviews regarding their adherence to drug regimens. All the interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by using Benner's phenomenological analysis approach. Four main themes emerged from the data: (i) choosing to live and the decision to start taking medications; (ii) strategies for adhering to the regimen and managing the side-effects; (iii) relationships with healthcare providers; and (iv) advantages of the medications as a motivator to continue one's adherence to the regimen. Studying and understanding the experiences of patients can provide new insights and strategies in order to enhance patients' adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy. PMID:21210925

  11. Identifying Drivers of Overall Satisfaction in Patients Receiving HIV Primary Care: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Bich N.; Westbrook, Robert A.; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Giordano, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study seeks to understand the drivers of overall patient satisfaction in a predominantly low-income, ethnic-minority population of HIV primary care patients. The study’s primary aims were to determine 1) the component experiences which contribute to patients’ evaluations of their overall satisfaction with care received, and 2) the relative contribution of each component experience in explaining patients’ evaluation of overall satisfaction. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 489 adult patients receiving HIV primary care at two clinics in Houston, Texas, from January 13–April 21, 2011. The participation rate among eligible patients was 94%. The survey included 15 questions about various components of the care experience, 4 questions about the provider experience and 3 questions about overall care. To ensure that the survey was appropriately tailored to our clinic population and the list of component experiences reflected all aspects of the care experience salient to patients, we conducted in-depth interviews with key providers and clinic staff and pre-tested the survey instrument with patients. Results Patients’ evaluation of their provider correlated the strongest with their overall satisfaction (standardized β = 0.445, p<0.001) and accounted for almost half of the explained variance. Access and availability, like clinic hours and ease of calling the clinic, also correlated with overall satisfaction, but less strongly. Wait time and parking, despite receiving low patient ratings, did not correlate with overall satisfaction. Conclusions The patient-provider relationship far exceeds other component experiences of care in its association with overall satisfaction. Our study suggests that interventions to improve overall patient satisfaction should focus on improving patients’ evaluation of their provider. PMID:22912770

  12. Statin Use Is Associated With Incident Diabetes Mellitus Among Patients in the HIV Outpatient Study

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenstein, Kenneth A.; Hart, Rachel L. D.; Wood, Kathleen C.; Bozzette, Samuel; Buchacz, Kate; Brooks, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Statin therapy is effective in the prevention of cardiovascular disease in the general population but has been shown to modestly increase the risk for incident diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods We analyzed incident DM in HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) participants followed at 8 HIV clinic sites during 2002–2011, comparing rates among those who initiated statin therapy during that period with those who did not. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we examined the association between cumulative years of statin exposure and the risk of developing DM, after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, antiretroviral history, prevalent hepatitis C, body mass index, and cumulative exposure to protease inhibitor therapy. We also adjusted for propensity scores to account for residual confounding by indication. Results Of 4692 patients analyzed, 590 (12.6%) initiated statin therapy and 355 (7.2%) developed DM. Incident DM was independently associated with statin therapy (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.14 per year of statin use), as well as older age, Hispanic/Latino ethnicity, non-Hispanic/Latino black race, antiretroviral-naive status, prevalent hepatitis C, and body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 (P < 0.05 for all). The association of statin use with incident DM was similar in the model adjusted for propensity score. Conclusions Statin use was associated with a modestly increased risk of incident DM in an HIV-infected population, similar to existing data for the general population. HIV-infected patients should be monitored for glucose intolerance, but statins should not be withheld if clinically indicated for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. PMID:26181706

  13. Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio and Cardiovascular Disease Incidence in HIV-Infected Patients: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Quiros-Roldan, Eugenia; Raffetti, Elena; Donato, Francesco; Magoni, Michele; Pezzoli, Chiara; Ferraresi, Alice; Brianese, Nigritella; Castelnuovo, Filippo; Focà, Emanuele; Castelli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been shown to predict occurrence of cardiovascular events in the general population. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of NLR to predict major cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in HIV-infected subjects. We performed a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients residing in the Local Health Authority (LHA) of Brescia, northern Italy, from 2000 to 2012. The incidence of CVD events in HIV-positive patients was compared with that expected in the general population living in the same area, computing standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). To evaluate the predictive role of NLR, univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were applied, computing hazard ratios (HRs). A total of 3766 HIV-infected patients (mean age 38.1 years, 71.3% males) were included (person-years 28768.6). A total of 134 CVD events occurred in 119 HIV-infected patients. A 2-fold increased risk (SIR 2.02) of CVD was found in HIV-infected patients compared to the general population. NLR levels measured at baseline and during follow-up were independently associated with CVD incidence, when also adjusting for both traditional CVD risk factors and HIV-related factors (HR 3.05 for NLR≥ 1.2). The area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve showed a modest, not statistically significant, increase, from 0.81 to 0.83, with addition of NLR to Framingham risk score model covariates. In conclusion an elevated NLR is a predictor of risk CVD in HIV-infected patients, independently from the traditional CVD risk factors. PMID:27148878

  14. Use of electronic personal health record systems to encourage HIV screening: an exploratory study of patient and provider perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background When detected, HIV can be effectively treated with antiretroviral therapy. Nevertheless in the U.S. approximately 25% of those who are HIV-infected do not know it. Much remains unknown about how to increase HIV testing rates. New Internet outreach methods have the potential to increase disease awareness and screening among patients, especially as electronic personal health records (PHRs) become more widely available. In the US Department of Veterans' Affairs medical care system, 900,000 veterans have indicated an interest in receiving electronic health-related communications through the PHR. Therefore we sought to evaluate the optimal circumstances and conditions for outreach about HIV screening. In an exploratory, qualitative research study we examined patient and provider perceptions of Internet-based outreach to increase HIV screening among veterans who use the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) health care system. Findings We conducted two rounds of focus groups with veterans and healthcare providers at VHA medical centers. The study's first phase elicited general perceptions of an electronic outreach program to increase screening for HIV, diabetes, and high cholesterol. Using phase 1 results, outreach message texts were drafted and then presented to participants in the second phase. Analysis followed modified grounded theory. Patients and providers indicated that electronic outreach through a PHR would provide useful information and would motivate patients to be screened for HIV. Patients believed that electronic information would be more convenient and understandable than information provided verbally. Patients saw little difference between messages about HIV versus about diabetes and cholesterol. Providers, however, felt patients would disapprove of HIV-related messages due to stigma. Providers expected increased workload from the electronic outreach, and thus suggested adding primary care resources and devising methods to smooth the flow of

  15. QTc interval prolongation in HIV-infected patients: a case–control study by 24-hour Holter ECG recording

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Aim of the study was to assess QTc interval by a 24-hour ECG recording in a group of HIV-infected individuals with a basal prolonged QTc. The risk factors associated with QTc prolongation and the indices of cardiovascular autonomic control were also evaluated. Methods A case–control study was performed using as cases 32 HIV-infected patients with prolonged (>440 msec) QTc interval as assessed by Holter ECG, and as controls 64 HIV-infected subjects with normal QTc interval. Autonomic function was evaluated by heart rate variability analysis during 24-hour recording. Results Duration of HIV disease was significantly longer among cases than among controls (p=0.04). Waist/hip ratio was also higher among cases than among controls (p=0.05). Frequency domain analysis showed the absence of physiologic decrease of low frequency (LF) in the night period in both cases and controls. The LF night in cases showed a statistically significant reduction when compared with controls (p=0.007). Conclusions In our study group, QTc interval prolongation was associated with a longer duration of HIV infection and with a greater waist/hip ratio. HIV patients with QTc interval prolongation and with a longer duration of HIV infection were more likely to have an impairment of parasympathetic and sympathetic cardiac component. PMID:23259665

  16. [Renal abnormalities in HIV infected patients].

    PubMed

    Pernasetti, María Marta; Chiurchiu, Carlos; Fuente, Jorge de la; Arteaga, Javier de; Douthat, Walter; Bardosy, Cecilia; Zarate, Abel; Massari, Pablo U

    2010-01-01

    Several renal complications may occur during HIV infection, especially in advanced stages related to HIV, to other infectious agents and/or drugs. Little is known about the prevalence of renal diseases that may occur as a complication of or related to HIV infection in asymptomatic patients. This is a single center cross-sectional study of asymptomatic HIV(+) patients referred to a nefrology care service at an Argentine hospital to look for the presence of renal abnormalities. Fifty two consecutive patients were studied between April and November 2008. Patients underwent plasma and urine analysis, ultrasound, and kidney biopsy as needed. Mean age was 39.9 +/- 10.6 years, 88% were male, time from HIV diagnosis 53.2 +/- 41.2 months (2-127); 71% had HIV-disease and 77% were on antiretroviral therapy. Mean plasma HIV-RNA copies number was 7.043 +/- 3.322 and CD4+ cell count: 484 +/- 39. Pathologic findings in urine analysis were present in 30.7% of patients: albuminuria 16.6%, microscopic hematuria 11.5%, hypercalciuria 10.8% and crystalluria 6%. Mean glomerular filtration rate was 102.2 +/- 22.95 ml/min (34-149) and 41% of patients could be classified in stages 1 to 3 of chronic kidney disease. Renal abnormalities prevaled in older patients without relationship with presence of HIV-disease. Two patients were biopsied and the findings included: tubulointerstitial nephritis with presence of crystal deposition in one and IgA nephropathy in the other. No HIV-associated nephropathy was detected. The broad spectrum and the high prevalence of lesions found in this series suggest that asymptomatic HIV-infected patients should routinely undergo renal evaluation. PMID:20529774

  17. [Anal cancer in HIV patients].

    PubMed

    Quéro, Laurent; Duval, Xavier; Abramowitz, Laurent

    2014-11-01

    Despite effective highly active antiretroviral treatment, anal cancer incidence has recently strongly increased in HIV-infected population. Treatment strategy in HIV-infected patients does not differ from general population. HIV-infected patients treated by chemo-radiotherapy are exposed to high-grade toxicities and should be closely monitored to deliver the optimal treatment. Close collaboration between oncologist and infectiologist is highly recommended to adjust antiretroviral therapy if necessary. PMID:25418596

  18. Is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) stage an independent risk factor for altering the periodontal status of HIV-positive patients? A South African study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The immunosuppresion in HIV patients makes them highly susceptible to microbial infections. The aim of the study was to establish whether HIV stage (as depicted by CD4+ T lymphocyte counts) could independently be associated with periodontal status (as revealed by the measurement of clinical indices). Methods One hundred and twenty HIV-infected patients attending an infectious diseases clinic in the Western Cape, South Africa were included in the study. The periodontal clinical indices such as plaque index, gingival index, pocket probing depth and clinical attachment levels were measured on the mesial aspect of the six Ramfjord teeth. The CD4 + T cell counts were taken from the patients’ medical records and patients’ HIV stage determined and grouped according to their CD4+ T cell counts into A (<200 cells /mm3), B (200–500 cells /mm3) and C (>500 cells /mm3). Results The mean age of 120 HIV-positive patients was 33.25 years and the mean CD4 + T cell count was 293.43 cells/mm3. The probing depth and clinical attachment loss were found to be significantly associated with the total CD4 + T cell counts but not with HIV stage. Significant correlations were found between age and all clinical indices except for clinical attachment loss. No correlation was found between age and HIV stage of the patients. The use of antiretroviral therapy was significantly associated with probing depth and clinical attachment loss, but not with plaque nor gingival index. Significant associations were observed between smoking and all of the clinical indices except for the gingival index. A significant association was observed between the use of interdental aids and all the clinical indices except for probing depth, while brushing was significantly associated with plaque index only. CD4 + T cell counts were significantly associated with brushing frequency (p = 0.0190) and the use of interdental aids (p = 0.0170). Conclusion The findings of this study

  19. A cross-sectional study of HIV-seropositive patients with varying degrees of proteinuria in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Han, T M; Naicker, S; Ramdial, P K; Assounga, A G

    2006-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is the most common finding on renal biopsy in HIV-infected black patients and is also the commonest cause of end-stage renal disease in these patients. Early detection of HIVAN may be beneficial in evaluating early treatment. This study examined the pattern of renal diseases in HIV-infected South Africans and also attempted to diagnose HIVAN at an early stage. In this single-center cross-sectional study, 615 HIV-infected patients were screened for proteinuria. Thirty patients with varying degrees of proteinuria underwent renal biopsy. Patients with diabetes mellitus, uncontrolled hypertension, known causes of chronic kidney disease, and serum creatinine above 250 mumol/l were excluded. Patients in this study were not on antiretroviral therapy. HIVAN was found in 25 (83%) patients. Six of them (24%) had microalbuminuria. Altogether, seven patients with persistent microalbuminuria were biopsied and six (86%) showed HIVAN. Other biopsy findings included membranoproliferative nephropathy in two (7%) and interstitial nephritis in three (10%). Four patients with HIVAN had associated membranous nephropathy. HIVAN is the commonest biopsy finding among our study patients with HIV infection who present with varying degrees of proteinuria. Microalbuminuria is a manifestation of HIVAN in our study patients. Therefore, microalbuminuria may be an early marker of HIVAN, and screening for its presence may be beneficial. Renal biopsy may be considered in seropositive patients who present with persistent microalbuminuria, especially with low CD4 counts irrespective of good renal function. This will allow diagnosis and treatment of HIVAN at an early stage and may prevent further disease progression. PMID:16672914

  20. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C viruses in HIV-positive patients in China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jing; Han, Yang; Qiu, Zhifeng; Li, Yijia; Li, Yanling; Song, Xiaojing; Wang, Huanling; Thio, Chloe L; Li, Taisheng

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Liver disease related to hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) may temper the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in China. Limited data exist on their prevalence in HIV-positive Chinese. A multi-centre, cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and disease characteristics of HBV and HCV co-infection in HIV-positive patients across 12 provinces. Methods HIV-positive ART-naïve patients were recruited from two parent cohorts established during November 2008–January 2010 and August 2012–September 2014. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen and HCV antibody (anti-HCV) status were retrieved from parent databases at the visit prior to ART initiation. HBV DNA was then determined in HBsAg+ patients. HCV RNA was quantified in anti-HCV+ patients. Aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and the fibrosis-4 (FIB4) were calculated. Chi-square test, Kruskal–Wallis test and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis, as appropriate. Results Of 1944 HIV-positive patients, 186 (9.5%) were HIV–HBV co-infected and 161 (8.3%) were HIV–HCV co-infected. The highest HIV–HBV prevalence (14.5%) was in Eastern China while the highest HIV–HCV prevalence was in the Central region (28.2%). HIV–HBV patients had lower median CD4 + T cell count (205 cells/μL) than either HIV monoinfected (242 cells/μL, P=0.01) or HIV–HCV patients (274 cells/μL, P=0.001). Moderate-to-significant liver disease was present in >65% of the HIV–HCV, ~35% of the HIV–HBV and ~20% of the HIV monoinfected patients. Independent associations with moderate-to-significant liver disease based on APRI included HBV (Odds ratio, OR 2.37, P < 0.001), HCV (OR 9.64, P<0.001), CD4 count≤200 cells/μL (OR 2.55, P<0.001) and age ≥30 years (OR 1.80, P=0.001). Conclusions HBV and HCV prevalence is high in HIV-positive Chinese and differs by geographic region. HBV and HCV co-infection and HIV monoinfection are risks

  1. Addressing HIV knowledge, risk reduction, social support, and patient involvement using SMS: results of a proof-of-concept study.

    PubMed

    Uhrig, Jennifer D; Lewis, Megan A; Bann, Carla M; Harris, Jennie L; Furberg, Robert D; Coomes, Curtis M; Kuhns, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    Men who have sex with men continue to be severely and disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States. Effective antiretroviral therapy has altered the HIV epidemic from being an acute disease to a chronic, manageable condition for many people living with HIV. The pervasiveness, low cost, and convenience of short message service suggests its potential suitability for supporting the treatment of conditions that must be managed over an extended period. The purpose of this proof-of-concept study was to develop, implement, and test a tailored short message service-based intervention for HIV-positive men who have sex with men. The messages focused on reducing risk-taking behaviors and enhancing HIV knowledge, social support, and patient involvement. Participants reported strong receptivity to the messages and the intervention. The authors detected a statistically significant increase in HIV knowledge and social support from baseline to follow-up. Among participants who received sexual risk reduction messages, the authors also detected a statistically significant reduction in reported risk behaviors from baseline to follow-up. Results confirm the feasibility of a tailored, short message service-based intervention designed to provide ongoing behavioral reinforcement for HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Future research should include a larger sample, a control group, multiple sites, younger participants, and longer term follow-up. PMID:22548606

  2. A Comparison of Methods for Analyzing Viral Load Data in Studies of HIV Patients.

    PubMed

    Rose, Charles E; Gardner, Lytt; Craw, Jason; Girde, Sonali; Wawrzyniak, Andrew J; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Davila, Jessica; DeHovitz, Jack; Keruly, Jeanne C; Westfall, Andrew O; Marks, Gary

    2015-01-01

    HIV RNA viral load (VL) is a pivotal outcome variable in studies of HIV infected persons. We propose and investigate two frameworks for analyzing VL: (1) a single-measure VL (SMVL) per participant and (2) repeated measures of VL (RMVL) per participant. We compared these frameworks using a cohort of 720 HIV patients in care (4,679 post-enrollment VL measurements). The SMVL framework analyzes a single VL per participant, generally captured within a "window" of time. We analyzed three SMVL methods where the VL binary outcome is defined as suppressed or not suppressed. The omit-participant method uses a 8-month "window" (-6/+2 months) around month 24 to select the participant's VL closest to month 24 and removes participants from the analysis without a VL in the "window". The set-to-failure method expands on the omit-participant method by including participants without a VL within the "window" and analyzes them as not suppressed. The closest-VL method analyzes each participant's VL measurement closest to month 24. We investigated two RMVL methods: (1) repeat-binary classifies each VL measurement as suppressed or not suppressed and estimates the proportion of participants suppressed at month 24, and (2) repeat-continuous analyzes VL as a continuous variable to estimate the change in VL across time, and geometric mean (GM) VL and proportion of participants virally suppressed at month 24. Results indicated the RMVL methods have more precision than the SMVL methods, as evidenced by narrower confidence intervals for estimates of proportion suppressed and risk ratios (RR) comparing demographic strata. The repeat-continuous method had the most precision and provides more information than other considered methods. We generally recommend using the RMVL framework when there are repeated VL measurements per participant because it utilizes all available VL data, provides additional information, has more statistical power, and avoids the subjectivity of defining a "window." PMID

  3. Kaposi Sarcoma among HIV Infected Patients in Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria: A 14-Year Retrospective Clinicopathological Study

    PubMed Central

    Akinde, Olakanmi; Adeyemo, Titilope; Omoseebi, Oladipo; Ikeri, Nzechukwu; Okonkwo, Ikechukwu; Afolayan, Olatunji

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite the increased incidence of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) resulting from the Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic, there is still significant underreporting of KS in this environment. Objectives. This study was aimed at determining the incidence and clinicopathologic patterns of KS among HIV infected patients in Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Nigeria, over a 14-year period: January 2000 to December 2013. Methodology. The materials for this study included patients' hospital clinical files, duplicate copies of histopathologic reports, and tissue blocks and corresponding archival slides in the Anatomic and Molecular Pathology Department and the HIV/AIDS unit of the Department of Haematology. Results. Within the study period, 182 cases of KS were diagnosed, accounting for 1.2% of all patients managed for HIV/AIDS and 2.99% of solid malignant tumours. The male-to-female ratio and modal age group were 1 : 1.3 and 5th decade, respectively. Most cases (90%) had purely mucocutaneous involvement with the lower limb being the commonest site (65.8%). The majority of lesions were plaques (65.8%). Vascular formation was the predominant histologic type seen (43.5%). Conclusion. KS in Lagos followed the same epidemiologic trend as other centers in Nigeria, with an increasing incidence in this era of HIV/AIDS. PMID:27034839

  4. Ocular manifestation of HIV/AIDS and correlation with CD4+ cells count among adult HIV/AIDS patients in Jimma town, Ethiopia: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV/AIDS is one of twenty first century’s challenges to human being with protean manifestation affecting nearly all organs of our body. It is causing high morbidity and mortality especially in sub-Saharan Africa with numerous ocular complications and blindness. The purpose of this study was to determine the patterns of ocular manifestations of HIV/AIDS and their correlation with CD4+Tcells count. Methods A cross-sectional study was done on 348 HIV-positive patients presented to Anti-Retroviral Therapy clinics. Data were collected using face-to-face interview, clinical examination and laboratory investigation, and analyzed using SPSS version 13 software. Statistical association test was done and p<0.05 was considered significant. Other statistical tests like student t-test and logistic regression were also done. Results Of 348 patients, 175 were on antiretroviral therapy and 173 were not on therapy. The mean duration of therapy was 27 months. The overall prevalence of ocular manifestations was 25.3%. The commonest ocular manifestation was keratoconjunctivitis sicca (11.3%) followed by blepharitis (3.2%), molluscum contagiosum (2.6%), conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (2.3%), conjunctival microvasculopathy (2.3%), cranial nerve palsies (2%), herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) (1.2%), and HIV retinopathy (0.6%). HIV retinopathy and conjunctival microvasculopathy were common in patient with CD4+ count of <200 cells/μl while HZO and molluscum contagiosum were common in patients with CD4+ count of 200–499 cells/μl. Prevalence of ocular manifestation was higher among patients on HAART (32.6%) than those patients not on HAART (17.9%) (p<0.05). There was statistically significant association between ocular manifestation and sex, CD4+Tcells count, and age (p<0.05). CD4+ count, <200 cells/μl and age >35 years were independent risk factors for ocular manifestations. Conclusion The study showed that the prevalence of ocular manifestation of HIV/AIDS is

  5. Reliability and validity of mobile teledermatology in HIV positive patients in Botswana: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Azfar, Rahat S; Lee, Robert A.; Castelo-Soccio, Leslie; Greenberg, Martin S.; Bilker, Warren B; Gelfand, Joel M; Kovarik, Carrie L

    2014-01-01

    Importance Mobile teledermatology may increase access to care. Objective To determine if mobile teledermatology in HIV positive patients in Gaborone, Botswana was reliable and produced valid consultations in comparison to face-to-face dermatology consultations. Design Cross-sectional study Setting Outpatient clinics and public inpatient settings in Botswana. Participants 76 HIV positive patients aged 18 years and up with a skin or mucosal complaint that had not been previously evaluated by a dermatologist. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s) We calculated Cohen's kappa coefficient for diagnosis, diagnostic category and management for test-retest reliability and for inter-rater reliability. We also calculated sensitivity and specificity for each diagnosis. Results Cohen's kappa for test-retest reliability ranged from 0.47 (95% CI 0.35-0.59) to 0.78 (95% CI 0.67-0.88) for the primary diagnosis, 0.29 (95% CI 0.18-0.42) to 0.73 (95% CI 0.61-0.84) for diagnostic category, and 0.17 (95% CI -0.01-0.36) to 0.54 (95% CI 0.38-0.70) for management. Cohen's kappa for inter-rater reliability ranged from 0.41 (95% CI 0.31-0.52) to 0.51 (95% CI 0.41-0.61) for the primary diagnosis, from 0.22 (95% CI 0.14-0.31) to 0.43 (95% CI 0.34-0.53) for the diagnostic category for the primary diagnosis and from 0.08 (95% CI 0.02-0.15) to 0.12 (95% CI 0.01-0.23) for management. Sensitivity and specificity for the top ten diagnoses ranged from 0 to 0.88 and from 0.84 to 1 respectively. Conclusions and Relevance Our results suggest that while the use of mobile teledermatology technology in HIV-positive patients in Botswana has significant potential for improving access to care, additional work is needed to improve reliability and validity of this technology on a larger scale in this population. PMID:24622778

  6. HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations Among Antiretroviral-Naïve HIV-1–Infected Patients in Asia: Results From the TREAT Asia Studies to Evaluate Resistance-Monitoring Study

    PubMed Central

    Oyomopito, Rebecca; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Sirisanthana, Thira; Kantipong, Pacharee; Lee, Christopher K. C.; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Messerschmidt, Liesl; Law, Matthew G.; Phanuphak, Praphan

    2011-01-01

    (See editorial commentary by Jordan on pages 1058–1060.) Of 682 antiretroviral-naïve patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in a prospective, multicenter human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance monitoring study involving 8 sites in Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Thailand, the prevalence of patients with ≥1 drug resistance mutation was 13.8%. Primary HIV drug resistance is emerging after rapid scaling-up of antiretroviral therapy use in Asia. PMID:21460324

  7. Low Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among HIV-Positive Patients: Data From a Large-Scale Cohort Study in Istanbul, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Ozlem Altuntas; Yemisen, Mucahit; Karaosmanoglu, Hayat Kumbasar; Sargin, Fatma; Gunduz, Alper; Ceylan, Bahadir; Mete, Bilgul; Ozgunes, Nail; Sevgi, Dilek Yildiz; Ozaras, Resat; Tabak, Fehmi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Rate of coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) varies in different countries. This may be attributable to common transmission routes as well as social, economic, and cultural factors. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of HCV infection among HIV-positive patients in Istanbul, Turkey. Patients and Methods: Since January 2006 to November 2013, 949 HIV-positive patients that were enrolled in this study by ACTHIV-IST (Action Against HIV in Istanbul) Study Group, which consists of five centers to follow up HIV-positive patients in Istanbul. Epidemiologic and clinical data were collected retrospectively from medical records and were transferred to an HIV database system. Results: Among 949 patients, 84% were men and the mean age was 37.92 ± 11.54 years (range, 17-79). The most frequent route of transmission was heterosexual intercourse (48.8%), followed by men having sex with men (30.5%). Only nine patients (0.9%) had history of injection drug use (IDU). The prevalence of HIV/HCV coinfection was 0.9% (9:949). The IDU rate was 44.4% (4:9) in patients with HIV/HCV coinfection (three of them were not Turkish citizens), whereas this rate was only 0.6% (5:881) in patients with only HIV infection (P < 0.01). Genotypes 1b, 2a/2c, and 3 were determined in five, one, and two patients, respectively. Genotype could not be determined in one patient. History of residence in a foreign country (P < 0.01) and imprisonment (P < 0.01) were also considered as risk factors in terms of HIV/HCV coinfection. Conclusions: Prevalence of HIV/HCV coinfection is considerably low in Turkey. The extremely rare prevalence of IDU might have a role in this low prevalence. PMID:25337142

  8. Perceptions of quality of life among Ugandan patients living with HIV: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ugandans have endured the HIV epidemic for three decades. Now, with the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and early diagnosis, those living with HIV can live longer and can enjoy the same life expectancy as the rest of the Ugandan population. This emerging trend necessitates the assessment of quality of life, alongside other patient outcomes, of those undergoing therapy, alongside other patient outcomes. While major strides have been made in developing measures of quality of life in the developed world, there remains a paucity of evidence from resource-limited settings. This challenge is further complicated by the contentious definition of quality of life, which is highly subjective and varies between individuals. In this paper, we aim to identify the determinants of quality of life for people living with HIV in a Ugandan context to contribute to the chronic care model for persons living with HIV/AIDS. Methods Twenty HIV-positive participants took part in in-depth interviews at an urban clinic, with follow-ups at three and six months. Ten patients were on ART and ten not on ART. All interviews were transcribed and translated for analysis. Data were analysed manually using the framework approach to content analysis. Results Individuals reported on four aspects of quality of life: liveability of the environment, utility of life, life ability of a person and appreciation of life. Respondents described multiple expectations and expressed hope for their future. However, many still suffered from stigma, fears of disclosure and poverty, which negatively affected their quality of life. Conclusions Individuals living with HIV receiving treatment or in care experienced an improved quality of life in this setting, although the situation for many remains precarious. PMID:24721338

  9. Prevalence and impact of body physical changes in HIV patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy: results from a study on patient and physician perceptions.

    PubMed

    Cabrero, Esther; Griffa, Laura; Burgos, Angel

    2010-01-01

    Patients infected with HIV treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) frequently develop body physical changes (BPC) that have an important psychosocial burden. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of BPC observed by HIV-infected patients and their attending physicians and to assess the impact BPC had on daily life. In this epidemiologic multicenter study, patients with HIV infection and their treating physicians filled out parallel questionnaires about their perceptions of specific BPC and their impact on daily activities. A total of 965 patient-physician questionnaires were collected across 98 health centers. Patient's mean age was 43.7 +/- 8.5 years and 72.6% were men. Adjusted prevalence of perceived BPC by patients and physicians was 55.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 52.0-58.1) and 55.2% (95% CI: 52.1-58.2), respectively (p = 1.000). Overall patient-physician agreement concerning perception of BPC was 83% (p < 0.0005). The most common BPC was lipoatrophy, described by 46.8% (95% CI: 43.7-49.8) of patients and 49.4% (95% CI: 46.3-52.5) of physicians (p = 0.033) followed by lipohypertrophy. No gender differences were observed in the global prevalence of BPC (p = 0.649). However, significantly more women reported lipoatrophy of the lower limbs (p = 0.009) and buttocks (p = 0.007), as well as lipohypertrophy (p = 0.007), than men; 58.2% (95% CI: 54.0-62.4) patients noted that BPC negatively affected their daily activities. This study reflects the high prevalence of patient and physician-perceived BPC in the HIV population, and the adverse impact on daily life. Physicians should be aware of the psychosocial consequences of BPC in HIV patients in order to improve patient well-being. PMID:20095903

  10. A Retrospective Cohort Study of Lesion Distribution of HIV-1 Infection Patients With Cryptococcal Meningoencephalitis on MRI

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Shuang; Li, Xueqin; Shi, Yanbin; Liu, Jinxin; Zhang, Mengjie; Gu, Tenghui; Pan, Shinong; Song, Liucun; Xu, Jinsheng; Sun, Yan; Zhao, Qingxia; Lu, Zhiyan; Lu, Puxuan; Li, Hongjun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this paper is to correlate the MRI distribution of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in HIV-1 infection patients with CD4 T cell count and immune reconstitution effect. A large retrospective cohort study of HIV patients from multi-HIV centers in China was studied to demonstrate the MRI distribution of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis and its correlation with the different immune status. The consecutive clinical and neuroimaging data of 55 HIV-1-infected patients with cryptococcal meningoencephalitis collected at multi-HIV centers in China during the years of 2011 to 2014 was retrospectively analyzed. The enrolled patients were divided into 2 groups based on the distribution of lesions. One group of patients had their lesions at the central brain (group 1, n = 34) and the other group of patients had their lesions at the superficial brain (group 2, n = 21). We explored their MRI characterization of brain. In addition, we also compared their CD4 T cell counts and immune reconstitution effects between the 2 groups based on the imaging findings. No statistical difference was found in terms of age and gender between the 2 groups. The medians of CD4 T cell counts were 11.67 cells/mm3 (3.00–52.00 cells/mm3) in group 1 and 42.00 cells/mm3 (10.00–252.00 cells/mm3) in group 2. Statistical difference of CD4 T cell count was found between the 2 groups (P = 0.023). Thirteen patients in group 1 (13/34) and 12 patients in group 2 (12/21) received highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Patients of group 2 received HAART therapy more frequently than patients of group 1 (P = 0.021). Central and superficial brain lesions detected by MR imaging in HIV-1-infected patients with cryptococcal meningoencephalitis are in correlation with the host immunity and HAART therapy. PMID:26871791

  11. Study on local inflammatory reactions and other parameters during subcutaneous mistletoe application in HIV-positive patients and HIV-negative subjects over a period of 18 weeks.

    PubMed

    Stoss, M; van Wely, M; Musielsky, H; Gorter, R W

    1999-04-01

    Subcutaneous injections of fermented and unfermented aqueous extracts of Viscum album L. result in a local inflammatory reaction at the injection site. In this trial, the symptoms associated with this local reaction were investigated. Furthermore the occurrence of local reactions was tried to correlate with an increase in CD3/25- and CD8/38-positive lymphocyte counts, with eosinophilic granulocyte numbers, and with the formation of mistletoe lectin antibodies. Included in the trial were 30 HIV-antibody-positive patients and 17 healthy non-smokers, aged 24-51 years. The CD4 cell count in the HIV-negative subjects was > 800/microliter, compared with 200-600/microliter in the HIV-positive patients. All study participants had a Karnofsky score > or = 70. The trial subjects were observed over a period of 18 weeks. With escalation of the dose of a fermented and unfermented extract of Viscum album L. (Iscador Qu Spezial and Viscum album QuFrF), there was an increase in local reactions. Erythema at the injection site was the most frequently reported symptom. Between the doses and the symptoms induration, swelling and pruritus were marked correlations. Effects of the application of mistletoe extracts on the immune system were demonstrated by an increase in CD3/25-positive lymphocyte counts and antibodies against mistletoe-lectins. There were no changes in eosinophilic granulocytes or CD8/38-positive lymphocyte populations. For evaluation of the therapeutic applications of mistletoe extracts in HIV-positive patients it is advisable to assess primarily activation of CD3-positive lymphocytes and the patient response on the basis of the local reaction. The local inflammatory reaction at the injection site is desirable and well tolerated if the reaction is smaller than 5 cm in diameter. PMID:10337457

  12. A Comparison of Methods for Analyzing Viral Load Data in Studies of HIV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Charles E.; Gardner, Lytt; Craw, Jason; Girde, Sonali; Wawrzyniak, Andrew J.; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn; Davila, Jessica; DeHovitz, Jack; Keruly, Jeanne C.; Westfall, Andrew O.; Marks, Gary

    2015-01-01

    HIV RNA viral load (VL) is a pivotal outcome variable in studies of HIV infected persons. We propose and investigate two frameworks for analyzing VL: (1) a single-measure VL (SMVL) per participant and (2) repeated measures of VL (RMVL) per participant. We compared these frameworks using a cohort of 720 HIV patients in care (4,679 post-enrollment VL measurements). The SMVL framework analyzes a single VL per participant, generally captured within a “window” of time. We analyzed three SMVL methods where the VL binary outcome is defined as suppressed or not suppressed. The omit-participant method uses a 8-month “window” (-6/+2 months) around month 24 to select the participant’s VL closest to month 24 and removes participants from the analysis without a VL in the “window”. The set-to-failure method expands on the omit-participant method by including participants without a VL within the “window” and analyzes them as not suppressed. The closest-VL method analyzes each participant’s VL measurement closest to month 24. We investigated two RMVL methods: (1) repeat-binary classifies each VL measurement as suppressed or not suppressed and estimates the proportion of participants suppressed at month 24, and (2) repeat-continuous analyzes VL as a continuous variable to estimate the change in VL across time, and geometric mean (GM) VL and proportion of participants virally suppressed at month 24. Results indicated the RMVL methods have more precision than the SMVL methods, as evidenced by narrower confidence intervals for estimates of proportion suppressed and risk ratios (RR) comparing demographic strata. The repeat-continuous method had the most precision and provides more information than other considered methods. We generally recommend using the RMVL framework when there are repeated VL measurements per participant because it utilizes all available VL data, provides additional information, has more statistical power, and avoids the subjectivity of defining

  13. Understanding how adherence goals promote adherence behaviours: a repeated measure observational study with HIV seropositive patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The extent to which patients follow treatments as prescribed is pivotal to treatment success. An exceptionally high level (> 95%) of HIV medication adherence is required to suppress viral replication and protect the immune system and a similarly high level (> 80%) of adherence has also been suggested in order to benefit from prescribed exercise programmes. However, in clinical practice, adherence to both often falls below the desirable level. This project aims to investigate a wide range of psychological and personality factors that may lead to adherence/non-adherence to medical treatment and exercise programmes. Methods HIV positive patients who are referred to the physiotherapist-led 10-week exercise programme as part of the standard care are continuously recruited. Data on social cognitive variables (attitude, intention, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and outcome beliefs) about the goal and specific behaviours, selected personality factors, perceived quality of life, physical activity, self-reported adherence and physical assessment are collected at baseline, at the end of the exercise programme and again 3 months later. The project incorporates objective measures of both exercise (attendance log and improvement in physical measures such as improved fitness level, weight loss, improved circumferential anthropometric measures) and medication adherence (verified by non-invasive hair analysis). Discussion The novelty of this project comes from two key aspects, complemented with objective information on exercise and medication adherence. The project assesses beliefs about both the underlying goal such as following prescribed treatment; and about the specific behaviours such as undertaking the exercise or taking the medication, using both implicit and explicit assessments of patients’ beliefs and attitudes. We predict that i) the way people think about the underlying goal of their treatments explains medication and exercise behaviours over and above

  14. The Importance of the Family: A Longitudinal Study of the Predictors of Depression in HIV Patients in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Edwin; Masquillier, Caroline; le Roux Booysen, Frederik

    2016-08-01

    As a chronic illness, HIV/AIDS requires life-long treatment adherence and retention-and thus sufficient attention to the psychosocial dimensions of chronic disease care in order to produce favourable antiretroviral treatment (ART) outcomes in a sustainable manner. Given the high prevalence of depression in chronic HIV patients, there is a clear need for further research into the determinants of depression in this population. In order to comprehensively study the predictors of depressive symptoms in HIV patients on ART, the socio-ecological theory postulates to not only incorporate the dominant individual-level and the more recent community-level approaches, but also incorporate the intermediate, but crucial family-level approach. The present study aims to extend the current literature by simultaneously investigating the impact of a wide range individual-level, family-level and community-level determinants of depression in a sample of 435 patients enrolled in the Free State Province of South Africa public-sector ART program. Structural equation modeling is used to explore the relationships between both latent and manifest variables at two time points. Besides a number of individual-level correlates-namely education, internalized and external stigma, and avoidant and seeking social support coping styles-of depressive symptoms in HIV patients on ART, the study also revealed the important role of family functioning in predicting depression. While family attachment emerged as the only factor to continuously and negatively impact depression at both time points, the second dimension of family functioning, changeability, was the only factor to produce a negative cross-lagged effect on depression. The immediate and long-term impact of family functioning on depression draws attention to the role of family dynamics in the mental health of people living with HIV/AIDS. In addition to individual-level and community-based factors, future research activities should also

  15. Alterations in the Fecal Microbiota of Patients with HIV-1 Infection: An Observational Study in A Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Ling, Zongxin; Jin, Changzhong; Xie, Tiansheng; Cheng, Yiwen; Li, Lanjuan; Wu, Nanping

    2016-01-01

    The available evidence suggests that alterations in gut microbiota may be tightly linked to the increase in microbial translocation and systemic inflammation in patients with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection. We profiled the fecal microbiota as a proxy of gut microbiota by parallel barcoded 454-pyrosequencing in 67 HIV-1-infected patients (32 receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy [HAART] and 35 HAART naïve) and 16 healthy controls from a Chinese population. We showed that α-diversity indices did not differ significantly between the healthy control and HIV-1-infected patients. The ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes increased significantly in HIV-1-infected patients. Several key bacterial phylotypes, including Prevotella, were prevalent in HIV-1-infected patients; whereas Phascolarctobacterium, Clostridium XIVb, Dialister and Megamonas were significantly correlated with systemic inflammatory cytokines. After short-term, effective HAART, the viral loads of HIV-1 were reduced; however, the diversity and composition of the fecal microbiota were not completely restored. and the dysbiosis remained among HIV-1-infected subjects undergoing HAART. Our detailed analysis demonstrated that dysbiosis of fecal microbiota might play an active role in HIV-1 infection. Thus, new insights may be provided into therapeutics that target the microbiota to attenuate the progression of HIV disease and to reduce the risk of gut-linked disease in HIV-1-infected patients. PMID:27477587

  16. Alterations in the Fecal Microbiota of Patients with HIV-1 Infection: An Observational Study in A Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Zongxin; Jin, Changzhong; Xie, Tiansheng; Cheng, Yiwen; Li, Lanjuan; Wu, Nanping

    2016-01-01

    The available evidence suggests that alterations in gut microbiota may be tightly linked to the increase in microbial translocation and systemic inflammation in patients with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection. We profiled the fecal microbiota as a proxy of gut microbiota by parallel barcoded 454-pyrosequencing in 67 HIV-1-infected patients (32 receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy [HAART] and 35 HAART naïve) and 16 healthy controls from a Chinese population. We showed that α-diversity indices did not differ significantly between the healthy control and HIV-1-infected patients. The ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes increased significantly in HIV-1-infected patients. Several key bacterial phylotypes, including Prevotella, were prevalent in HIV-1-infected patients; whereas Phascolarctobacterium, Clostridium XIVb, Dialister and Megamonas were significantly correlated with systemic inflammatory cytokines. After short-term, effective HAART, the viral loads of HIV-1 were reduced; however, the diversity and composition of the fecal microbiota were not completely restored. and the dysbiosis remained among HIV-1-infected subjects undergoing HAART. Our detailed analysis demonstrated that dysbiosis of fecal microbiota might play an active role in HIV-1 infection. Thus, new insights may be provided into therapeutics that target the microbiota to attenuate the progression of HIV disease and to reduce the risk of gut-linked disease in HIV-1-infected patients. PMID:27477587

  17. Early diagnosis and retention in care of HIV-infected patients through rapid salivary testing: a test-and-treat fast track pilot study.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Maria Rita; Soldini, Laura; Negri, Silvia; Vidoni, Gian Marino; Gianotti, Nicola; Nozza, Silvia; Schlusnus, Karin; Dorigatti, Fernanda; Lazzarin, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and the retention-in-care of individuals diagnosed during six years of salivary HIV testing (EASY-test project). Among those linked-to-care at the Infectious Diseases Department of San Raffaele Hospital (Milan, Italy), the proportion of patients engaged, retained in care and virologically suppressed after the antiretroviral treatment was 96%, 100% and 95.2%, respectively. Results from our study suggest that salivary HIV testing may help bring to light cases of HIV infection otherwise undiagnosed, and thus favour a more rapid and wider reduction of the HIV infection burden at the population level. PMID:26922986

  18. A Community-based Oral Health Promotion Model for HIV Patients in Nairobi, East District in Kenya: a Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Koyio, Lucina N.; van der Sanden, Wil J.M.; van der Ven, Andre; Mulder, Jan; Creugers, Nico H.J.; Merkx, Matthias A.W.; Frencken, Jo E.

    2013-01-01

    General HIV-related orofacial lesions, most commonly oropharyngeal candidiasis, have a typical clinical appearance and can be recognised by members of the community. Although affected patients often experience pain leading to compromised eating and swallowing, barriers such as social stigma and lack of knowledge regarding available services may prevent them from seeking early care. Educating the community about these lesions through community health workers (CHWs) who are democratically elected community members may encourage individuals affected to seek early oral healthcare in the health facilities. A health facility (HF) is a health centre mainly run by clinical officers (CO), i.e. personnel with a 3-year medical training, and nurses. This study aims to evaluate the effect of a CHW training programme on: i) their knowledge and recognition of HIV-related oral-facial lesions at a community level; and ii) referral of affected patients from the community to the HFs. Design and Methods All 800 CHWs in 2 administrative divisions of Nairobi East District (test group n=400; control group n=400) will be selected. The test group will receive training. CHWs in both groups will be assessed at 4 time points: −3, 0, +3 and +6 months with reference to the training on: i) their knowledge of HIV-related orofacial lesions (using a written questionnaire); and ii) their performance in referring affected patients to the HFs (using clinical data). Expected Impact Early recognition of HIV-related orofacial lesions at a community level will prompt community members to seek early oral care, leading to early HIV testing and counselling regarding failure of antiretroviral therapy, while treatment outcomes are still favourable. PMID:25170476

  19. Improved insulin sensitivity and body fat distribution in HIV-infected patients treated with rosiglitazone: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gelato, Marie C; Mynarcik, Dennis C; Quick, Joyce L; Steigbigel, Roy T; Fuhrer, Jack; Brathwaite, Collin E M; Brebbia, John S; Wax, Mark R; McNurlan, Margaret A

    2002-10-01

    The insulin-sensitizing drugs thiazolidinediones (TZDs), such as rosiglitazone, improve insulin sensitivity and also promote adipocyte differentiation in vitro. The authors hypothesized that TZDs might be beneficial to patients with HIV disease to improve insulin sensitivity and the distribution of body fat by increasing peripheral fat. The ability of rosiglitazone (8 mg/d) to improve insulin sensitivity (from hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp) and to improve body fat distribution (determined from computed tomography measurements of visceral adipose tissue [VAT] and subcutaneous adipose tissue [SAT]) was determined in 8 HIV-positive patients. Before treatment, the insulin sensitivity of the patients was reduced to approximately 34% of that in control subjects. The rate of glucose disposal during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (Rd) was 3.8 +/-.4 (SEM) mg glucose/kg lean body mass/min compared with 11.08 +/- 1.1 (p<.001) in healthy age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched control subjects. After rosiglitazone treatment of 6 to 12 weeks, Rd increased to 5.99 +/-.9 (p=.02), an improvement of 59 +/- 22%. SAT increased by 23 +/- 10% (p=.05), and, surprisingly, VAT was decreased by 21 +/- 8% (p=.04) with a trend for increased SAT/VAT that failed to reach statistical significance. There were no significant changes in blood counts, viral loads, or CD4 counts with rosiglitazone treatment. The study demonstrates that rosiglitazone therapy improves insulin resistance and body fat distribution in some patients with HIV disease. PMID:12394794

  20. Vitamin D status in Well-Controlled Caucasian HIV Patients in Relation to Inflammatory and Metabolic Markers – A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Missailidis, C; Höijer, J; Johansson, M; Ekström, L; Bratt, G; Hejdeman, B; Bergman, P

    2015-01-01

    To study vitamin D (25OH D3) in relation to (i) microbial translocation (ii) systemic inflammation and (iii) blood lipid markers, in Caucasian, well-controlled HIV patients and healthy controls, plasma and serum samples from n = 97 male, HIV patients on HAART with immeasurable viral load (<20 copies/ml) since median 6.5 years and no concurrent inflammatory or infectious disease and n = 30 healthy controls were analysed for (i) LPS; (ii) sCD14, hsCRP, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, MCP-1 and IFN-γ; as well as (iii) blood lipids. Vitamin D levels were similarly distributed and equally low in both HIV patients and controls. There was no association between vitamin D levels and markers of microbial translocation, systemic inflammation or dyslipidemia. LPS levels were similar in both groups but HIV patients expressed higher levels of sCD14 and hsCRP, with HIV as an independent risk factor. HIV patients had higher cholesterol and Apo B levels. Notably, more HIV patients smoked and smoking was associated with lower vitamin D levels. In conclusion; these well-treated Caucasian HIV patients had similar vitamin D levels as healthy controls. However, despite perfect virological control, they exhibited slightly increased inflammatory markers and disturbed blood lipids. However, neither of these parameters were associated with low vitamin D levels but appeared to be linked to the HIV-disease per se. Thus, the rationale for vitamin D substitution as a way to improve microbial translocation and systemic inflammation is not fully supported in this HIV population. PMID:25833795

  1. Vitamin D status in Well-Controlled Caucasian HIV Patients in Relation to Inflammatory and Metabolic Markers--A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Missailidis, C; Höijer, J; Johansson, M; Ekström, L; Bratt, G; Hejdeman, B; Bergman, P

    2015-07-01

    To study vitamin D (25OH D3 ) in relation to (i) microbial translocation (ii) systemic inflammation and (iii) blood lipid markers, in Caucasian, well-controlled HIV patients and healthy controls, plasma and serum samples from n = 97 male, HIV patients on HAART with immeasurable viral load (<20 copies/ml) since median 6.5 years and no concurrent inflammatory or infectious disease and n = 30 healthy controls were analysed for (i) LPS; (ii) sCD14, hsCRP, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, MCP-1 and IFN-γ; as well as (iii) blood lipids. Vitamin D levels were similarly distributed and equally low in both HIV patients and controls. There was no association between vitamin D levels and markers of microbial translocation, systemic inflammation or dyslipidemia. LPS levels were similar in both groups but HIV patients expressed higher levels of sCD14 and hsCRP, with HIV as an independent risk factor. HIV patients had higher cholesterol and Apo B levels. Notably, more HIV patients smoked and smoking was associated with lower vitamin D levels. In conclusion; these well-treated Caucasian HIV patients had similar vitamin D levels as healthy controls. However, despite perfect virological control, they exhibited slightly increased inflammatory markers and disturbed blood lipids. However, neither of these parameters were associated with low vitamin D levels but appeared to be linked to the HIV-disease per se. Thus, the rationale for vitamin D substitution as a way to improve microbial translocation and systemic inflammation is not fully supported in this HIV population. PMID:25833795

  2. Normal Myocardial Flow Reserve in HIV-Infected Patients on Stable Antiretroviral Therapy: A Cross-Sectional Study Using Rubidium-82 PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Andreas; Christensen, Thomas E; Ghotbi, Adam Ali; Hasbak, Philip; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Kjær, Andreas; Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten

    2015-10-01

    Studies have found HIV-infected patients to be at increased risk of myocardial infarction, which may be caused by coronary microvascular dysfunction. For the first time among HIV-infected patients, we assessed the myocardial flow reserve (MFR) by Rubidium-82 (82Rb) positron emission tomography (PET), which can quantify the coronary microvascular function. MFR has proved highly predictive of future coronary artery disease and cardiovascular events in the general population.In a prospective cross-sectional study, HIV-infected patients all receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) with full viral suppression and HIV-uninfected controls were scanned using 82Rb PET/computed tomography at rest and adenosine-induced stress, thereby obtaining the MFR (stress flow/rest flow), stratified into low ≤1.5, borderline >1.5 to 2.0, or normal >2.0.Fifty-six HIV-infected patients and 25 controls were included. The HIV-infected patients had a mean age of 53 years (range 37-68 years) with 23% active smokers. The controls had a mean age of 52 years (range 36-68 years) and 26% active smokers. In the HIV-infected group 73% had a normal MFR, 17% borderline, and 10% low values of MFR. Among controls these values were 71%, 19%, and 10%, respectively (P = 0.99). However, the HIV-infected group had lower values of stress myocardial blood flow (MBF) (2.63 ± 0.09 mL/g/min vs 2.99 ± 0.14 mL/g/min; P = 0.03). We found no evidence of decreased MFR as assessed by 82Rb PET among HIV-infected patients on stable ART with full viral suppression compared with HIV-uninfected controls. We did notice a decreased MBF during stress. PMID:26512605

  3. A Study of Compliance to Antiretroviral Therapy among HIV Infected Patients at a Tertiary Care Hospital in North Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Hasabi, Ishwar Siddappa; Kachapur, Chandrashekar; Kaulgud, Ram Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Compliance to Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) is a primary determinant of treatment success of HIV-AIDS. Many studies have shown inadequate compliance to ART in the Indian population. Aim To assess the compliance to ART among HIV infected patients, to explore the factors affecting compliance and impact of compliance on CD4 count. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 200 adult patients attending ART center, KIMS, Hubli. The patients were randomly selected and compliance to ART over preceding 3 months was assessed. Reasons for non- compliance were assessed among those with inadequate compliance. Results Mean age of the study population was 40.07±9.99 years. The sex ratio was 1.02:1 (M:F). Majority of patients were in WHO stage 1 with treatment, with CD4 count above 500/μl. Pulmonary tuberculosis was the most common opportunistic infection. Most of the patients were on long term ART, more than 5 years {81 (40.5%)}. Most of the patients were on ZLN regimen {97 (48.5%)}. Compliance over the preceding 3 months was 94.84± 14.93% for ART and 88.97±23.75% for opportunistic infection prophylaxis. There was no significant difference in compliance in relation to age group, sex, educational status, residence, religion, habits, HIV status of spouse or child, the regimen of ART and frequency of dosing. The compliance was better among those on long term treatment, i.e., those on treatment for more than 5 years compared to those who started ART in last 1 year (p=0.06). The most common reasons given by patients for non-compliance were going away from home, busy with other work and simply forgot. Better compliance was associated with higher CD4 count. Conclusion Compliance to ART was inadequate in the studied population, which is a major obstacle to success of ART. PMID:27437267

  4. The Effect of Spirulina platensis versus Soybean on Insulin Resistance in HIV-Infected Patients: A Randomized Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Marcel, Azabji-Kenfack; Ekali, Loni G.; Eugene, Sobngwi; Arnold, Onana E.; Sandrine, Edie D.; von der Weid, Denis; Gbaguidi, Emmanuel; Ngogang, Jeanne; Mbanya, Jean C.

    2011-01-01

    HIV-infected patients develop abnormalities of glucose metabolism due to the virus and antiretroviral drugs. Spirulina and soybean are nutritional supplements that are cheap, accessible in our community and affect glucose metabolism. We carried out a randomized study to assess the effect of Spirulina platensis versus soybean as a food supplement on HIV/HAART-associated insulin resistance (IR) in 33 insulin-resistant HIV-infected patients. The study lasted for two months at the National Obesity Centre of Cameroon. Insulin resistance was measured using the short insulin tolerance test. Physical activity and diet did not change over the study duration. On-treatment analysis was used to analyze data. The Mann-Whitney U test, the Students T test and the Chi square test were used as appropriate. Curve gradients were analyzed using ANCOVA. Seventeen subjects were randomized to spirulina and 16 to soybean. Each received 19 g of supplement daily. The follow up rate was 65% vs. 100% for spirulina and soybean groups, respectively, and both groups were comparable at baseline. After eight weeks, insulin sensitivity (IS) increased by 224.7% vs. 60% in the spirulina and soybean groups respectively (p < 0.001). One hundred per cent vs. 69% of subjects on spirulina versus soybean, respectively, improved their IS (p = 0.049) with a 1.45 (1.05–2.02) chance of improving insulin sensitivity on spirulina. This pilot study suggests that insulin sensitivity in HIV patients improves more when spirulina rather than soybean is used as a nutritional supplement. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01141777. PMID:22254118

  5. Evaluation of patient care cascade for HIV-positive patients diagnosed in La Romana, Dominican Republic in 2011: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Alex S; Lerebours, Leonel; Amesty, Silvia; de la Rosa, Milagros; Gil, Elizabeth; Halpern, Mina; Nicholas, Stephen; Lamb, Matthew R

    2016-04-01

    The Caribbean has the highest adult HIV prevalence in the world after sub-Saharan Africa (2011). One sub-population in the Dominican Republic is the migratory Batey community primarily comprised of Haitian immigrants with limited access to healthcare and HIV prevalence rates of between 3.0% and 9.0%, compared to 0.7% nationally. This retrospective cohort study describes the cumulative retention from diagnosis to virological suppression for newly-diagnosed HIV-infected adults presenting to the Clínica de Familia and its Batey programme in La Romana, during 2011. Of the patients diagnosed with HIV, 65% entered into care, 59% completed immunologic testing, 53% were eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, 36% initiated ART within three months of eligibility and 27% were retained in care. Seventeen per cent of those retained on ART with a 12-month viral load measure had undetectable viral load. Attrition primarily occurred before ART initiation. The Batey programme had a first step lost-to-follow-up of 88% compared to 20% at the clinic (p < 0.001). This retrospective study details the continuum of care and indicates where structural changes must occur to increase continuity between steps. The manuscript results are important to help implement programmes to enhance engagement and retention in HIV primary care. PMID:25941055

  6. Anaemia and Iron Homeostasis in a Cohort of HIV-Infected Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Obirikorang, Christian; Issahaku, Razak Gyesi; Osakunor, Derick Nii Mensah; Osei-Yeboah, James

    2016-01-01

    Aim. We determined the prevalence of anaemia and evaluated markers of iron homeostasis in a cohort of HIV patients. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study on 319 participants was carried out at the Tamale Teaching Hospital from July 2013 to December 2013, 219 patients on HAART (designated On-HAART) and 100 HAART-naive patients. Data gathered include sociodemography, clinical history, and selected laboratory assays. Results. Prevalence of anaemia was 23.8%. On-HAART participants had higher CD4/CD3 lymphocyte counts, Hb, HCT/PCV, MCV, MCH, iron, ferritin, and TSAT (P < 0.05). Hb, iron, ferritin, and TSAT decreased from grade 1 to grade 3 anaemia and CD4/CD3 lymphocyte count was lowest in grade 3 anaemia (P < 0.05). Iron (P = 0.0072) decreased with disease severity whilst transferrin (P = 0.0143) and TIBC (P = 0.0143) increased with disease severity. Seventy-six (23.8%) participants fulfilled the criteria for anaemia, 86 (26.9%) for iron deficiency, 41 (12.8%) for iron deficiency anaemia, and 17 (5.3%) for iron overload. The frequency of anaemia was higher amongst participants not on HAART (OR 2.6 for grade 1 anaemia; OR 3.0 for grade 3 anaemia). Conclusion. In this study population, HIV-associated anaemia is common and is related to HAART status and disease progression. HIV itself is the most important cause of anaemia and treatment of HIV should be a priority compared to iron supplementation. PMID:27092270

  7. High Rates of Sexually transmitted infections in HIV-positive patients in the Australian HIV Observational Database - a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mulhall, Brian P; Wright, Stephen; Allen, Debbie; Brown, Katherine; Dickson, Bridget; Grotowski, Miriam; Jackson, Eva; Petoumenos, Kathy; Read, Phillip; Read, Timothy; Russell, Darren; Smith, David J; Templeton, David J; Fairley, Christopher K; Law, Matthew G

    2015-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STI) may directly increase the risk of HIV infection, or may indicate sexual practices that increase the risk of HIV infection. In persons with HIV they probably also increase the infectiousness of HIV, even in the context of treatment with antiretroviral drugs (ARV). Estimating STI in this group has proved problematic, and there are few longitudinal studies able to accurately measure incidence. Methods In 2010, we established a cohort of individuals from ten widely dispersed sexual health clinics that were already enrolled in the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD). We calculated retrospective diagnosis rates for four STI (chlamydia, gonorrhoea, infectious syphilis, anogenital warts) from 2005-2010, and prospective incidence rates from 2010-2011. Results At baseline (2010) , the patient characteristics (n=554) were similar to the rest of AHOD (n=1767), namely they were predominantly male, homosexual, middle-aged, and pre- treated with ARV. Overall, the incidence of any STI was 12.5/100 person years (py). There was a gradual increase in chlamydial infections , from 3.4/100 py (95% CI 1.9-5.7) in 2005 to 6.7/100py (95% CI 4.5-9.5) in 2011, with a substantial peak of 8.1/100py (95% CI 5.6-11.2) in 2010. The cases were distributed between rectal ( 61.9%), urethral (34%), and pharyngeal (6.3%) sites. Similarly, gonococcal infections increased, with a peak in 2010 of 4.7/100py (95% CI 5.6-11.2), (p value for trend=0.0099), distributed between rectal (63.9%), urethral (27.9%), and pharyngeal (14.8%) sites. Infectious syphilis showed several peaks, the largest in 2008 (5.3/100py , (95% CI 3.3-8.0), but the overall trend was not significant (p=0.113). Diagnoses of genital warts declined from 7.5/100py (95% CI 4.8-11.3) in 2005 (95% CI 4.8-11.3) to 2.4/100py (95% CI 1.1-4.5) in 2011 (p value for trend=0.0016). Conclusions The incidence of chlamydial and gonococcal infections in this cohort was higher than previous

  8. Lack of awareness of treatment failure among HIV-1-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau – a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Medina, Candida; da Silva Té, David; Correira, Faustino Gomes; Laursen, Alex Lund; Erikstrup, Christian; Østergaard, Lars; Wejse, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction With more people receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART), the need to detect treatment failure and switch to second-line ART has also increased. We assessed CD4 cell counts (as a marker of treatment failure), determined the rate of switching to second-line treatment and evaluated mortality related to treatment failure among HIV-infected patients in Guinea-Bissau. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, adult patients infected with HIV-1 receiving ≥6 months of ART at an HIV clinic in Bissau were included from June 2005 to July 2014 and followed until January 2015. Treatment failure was defined as 1) a fall in CD4 count to baseline (or below) or 2) CD4 levels persistently below 100 cells/µL after ≥6 months of ART. Cox hazard models, with time since six months of ART as the time-varying coefficient, were used to estimate the hazard ratio for death and loss to follow-up. Results We assessed 1,591 HIV-1-infected patients for immunological treatment failure. Treatment failure could not be determined in 594 patients (37.3%) because of missing CD4 cell counts. Among the remaining 997 patients, 393 (39.4%) experienced failure. Only 39 patients (9.9%) with failure were switched from first- to second-line ART. The overall switching rate was 3.1 per 100 person-years. Mortality rate was higher in patients with than without treatment failure, with adjusted hazard rate ratios (HRRs) 10.0 (95% CI: 0.9–107.8), 7.6 (95% CI: 1.6–35.5) and 3.1 (95% CI: 1.5–6.3) in the first, second and following years, respectively. During the first year of follow-up, patients experiencing treatment failure had a higher risk of being lost to follow-up than patients not experiencing treatment failure (adjusted HRR 4.4; 95% CI: 1.7–11.8). Conclusions We found a high rate of treatment failure, an alarmingly high number of patients for whom treatment failure could not be assessed, and a low rate of switching to a second-line therapy. These factors could lead to an increased

  9. Impact of HIV Status on Treatment Outcome of Tuberculosis Patients Registered at Arsi Negele Health Center, Southern Ethiopia: A Six Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gebremariam, Gebreslassie; Asmamaw, Getachew; Hussen, Muktar; Hailemariam, Mengistu Z.; Asegu, Demissie; Astatkie, Ayalew; Amsalu, Anteneh G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite implementation of different strategies, the burden and mortality of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculosis (TB) remains a challenge in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HIV status on treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients registered at Arsi Negele Health Center, Southern Ethiopia. Methods A six-year retrospective data (from September 2008 to August 2014) of tuberculosis patients (n = 1649) registered at the directly observed therapy short-course (DOTS) clinic of Arsi Negele Health Center was reviewed. Treatment outcome and tuberculosis type were categorized according to the national tuberculosis control program guideline. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine the effect of HIV status separately on default/failure and death in relation to those who were successfully treated. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were used to check the presence and strength of association between TB treatment outcome and HIV status and other independent variables. Results Out of the 1649 TB patients, 94.7% (1562) have been tested for HIV of whom 156(10%) were HIV co-infected. The mean (standard deviation) age of the patients was 28.5(15.5) years. The majority were new TB cases (96.7%), male (53.7%), urban (54.7%), and had smear negative pulmonary TB (44.1%). Overall, the treatment success rate of TB patients with or without HIV was 87.3%. Using cure/completion as reference, patients without known HIV status had significantly higher odds of default /failure [aOR, 4.26; 95%CI, 1.684–10.775] and transfer-out [aOR, 2.92; 95%CI, 1.545–5.521] whereas those who tested positive for HIV had a significantly higher odds of death [aOR, 6.72; 95%CI, 3.704–12.202] and transfer-out [aOR, 2.02; 95%CI, 1.111–3.680]. Conclusion Overall, treatment outcome and HIV testing coverage for TB patients is promising to reach the WHO target in the study

  10. Knowledge and perceptions of HIV-infected patients regarding HIV transmission and treatment in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Don; Dinh, An T; Groce, Nora; Sullivan, Lynn E

    2015-03-01

    Patient education concerning HIV and antiretroviral (ARV) medications is important for optimal outcomes. The authors assessed the knowledge and perceptions of HIV-infected patients in an ARV education program in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Of 185 patients, 64 (35%) receiving ARV medications, nearly 80% correctly answered questions regarding HIV. Correct responses were associated with higher education (P < .05) and longer duration of HIV diagnosis (P < .05). A lack of knowledge was observed in 40% of respondents who believed HIV and AIDS were the same and 70% of respondents who believed ARV medications cured HIV. Greater embarrassment of living with HIV was associated with female gender (P < .05) and lower education (P < .05). Patients were concerned over ARV medication use (27%) and its side effects (38%). The study population's knowledge of HIV/AIDS and ARV medications, perceived stigmatization, and areas of knowledge deficits underscore the need for effective patient education programs addressing poorly understood issues around HIV/AIDS. PMID:22199151

  11. Universal HIV screening at a major metropolitan TB clinic: HIV prevalence and high-risk behaviors among TB patients.

    PubMed Central

    Weis, S E; Foresman, B; Cook, P E; Matty, K J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the outcome of implementing a policy of universal screening of patients with tuberculosis (TB) for HIV infection at a major metropolitan public health TB clinic. METHODS: HIV serologic testing was completed on 768 (93%) of 825 eligible patients. Ninety-eight HIV-positive cases (13%) were compared with 670 HIV-negative cases. The presence of adult HIV risk factors was determined by structured interview and review of medical records. RESULTS: One or more HIV risk factors were present in 93% of HIV-positive cases and 42% of HIV-negative cases. CONCLUSIONS: The metropolitan TB clinic is well suited for HIV screening, and HIV-antibody testing and counseling should be provided to all TB patients. PMID:9987468

  12. Patient Reported Delays in Seeking Treatment for Tuberculosis among Adult and Pediatric TB Patients and TB Patients Co-Infected with HIV in Lima, Peru: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.; Alban, Rebecca E.; Dimos Jones, Christy; Powell, Amy R.; Oberhelman, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant public health challenge worldwide, and particularly in Peru with one of the highest incidence rates in Latin America. TB patient behavior has a direct influence on whether a patient will receive timely diagnosis and successful treatment of their illness. Objectives: The objective was to understand the complex factors that can impact TB patient health seeking behavior. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with adult and parents of pediatric patients receiving TB treatment (n = 43), within that group a sub-group was also co-infected with HIV (n = 11). Results: Almost all of the study participants recognized delays in seeking either their child’s or their own diagnosis of their TB symptoms. The principal reasons for treatment-seeking delays were lack of knowledge and confusion of TB symptoms, fear and embarrassment of receiving a TB diagnosis, and a patient tendency to self-medicate prior to seeking formal medical attention. Conclusion: Health promotion activities that target patient delays have the potential to improve individual patient outcomes and mitigate the spread of TB at a community level. PMID:25566523

  13. Benzodiazepines and Z-drug use among HIV-infected patients in Taiwan: a 13-year nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wei, Han-Ting; Chen, Mu-Hong; Wong, Wing-Wai; Chou, Yuan-Hwa; Liou, Ying-Jay; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Benzodiazepines (BZDs) and zolpidem, zopiclone, and zaleplon (Z-drugs) are commonly prescribed to HIV-infected patients. We hypothesized that frequent BZD and Z-drug use among these patients may be associated with psychiatric illnesses, particularly in long-term users. Methods. We included 1,081 patients with HIV between 1998 and 2011 from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database and matched them according to age, sex, and comorbidity with uninfected controls to investigate the psychiatric diagnoses and prescriptions of BZDs and Z-drugs. Cumulative defined daily dose (cDDD) was assessed as the indicator of the duration of medication exposure. Patients exhibiting a cDDD exceeding 180 were defined as long-term users. Results. The patients with HIV had an increased risk of any use (odds ratio (OR): 8.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.82-10.97) and long-term use (OR: 5.06, 95% CI: 3.63-7.04) of BZD and Z-drugs compared with those without HIV during the follow-up after demographic data and psychiatric comorbidities were adjusted. Conclusion. A large proportion of the HIV-infected patients received prescriptions of BZDs and Z-drugs. Mood disorders, insomnia, anxiety disorders, HIV infection, and substance use disorder were substantial predictors among the BZD and Z-drug users. These findings suggest that providing psychiatric services for HIV-infected patients is vital. PMID:25654104

  14. Clinical profile of HIV infected patients attending a HIV referral clinic in Pune, India

    PubMed Central

    Antwal, Megha; Gurjar, Rohan; Chidrawar, Shweta; Pawar, Jyoti; Gaikwad, Sunil; Panchal, Narayan; Kale, Varsha; Thakar, Madhuri; Risbud, Arun; Tripathy, Srikanth

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has infected several million individuals in India. Various interventions have been implemented for early detection and prevention of transmission of HIV infection. This has progressively changed the clinical profile of HIV infected individuals and this study documents the clinical presentation of individuals positive for HIV in 2010, in Pune, Maharashtra, India. Methods: This cross-sectional study included subjects who had come to the HIV referral clinic for HIV testing from January to December 2010. Children as well as individuals with indeterminate HIV result were excluded from the study, and data for 1546 subjects were finally analysed. Results: The HIV positivity rate among all referred cases for the year 2010 was 35 per cent (male 55% and females 45%). The median age (Q1, Q3) was 31 (25.75, 39) yr. The median CD4 cell count for all HIV infected individuals (whose CD4 count was available n= 345) was 241 cells/µl and for asymptomatic HIV infected individuals was 319 cells/µl. There were 673 (43.5%) symptomatic and 873 (56.5%) asymptomatic participants. Fever, breathlessness, cough with expectoration, weight loss, loss of appetite, generalized weakness, pallor and lymphadenopathy (axillary and cervical) were found to be associated (P< 0.001) with HIV positivity. On multivariate analysis, history of Herpes zoster [AOR 11.314 (6.111-20.949)] and TB [AOR 11.214 (6.111-20.949)] was associated with HIV positivity. Interpretation & conclusions: Signs and symptoms associated with HIV positivity observed in this study can be used by health care providers to detect HIV infection early. Moreover, similar to HIV testing in patients with tuberculosis, strategies can be developed for considering Herpes zoster as a predictor of HIV infection. PMID:25297361

  15. Magnitude and correlates of moderate to severe anemia among adult HIV patients receiving first line HAART in Northwestern Tanzania: a cross sectional clinic based study

    PubMed Central

    Gunda, Daniel Wilfred; Kilonzo, Semvua Bukheti; Mpondo, Bonaventura Cornel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Moderate to severe anemia is an important clinical problem in HIV patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. The rate of progression and mortality in this sub group of patients is high compared to non anemic patients. In sub Saharan Africa with scale up of Anti retroviral therapy, the magnitude of this problem is not known especially in Tanzania. This study aimed at determining the magnitude and correlates of moderate to severe anemia in HIV patients receiving first line ART in northwestern Tanzania. Methods This was a cross sectional clinic based study, involving adult HIV patients on first line Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy at Bugando Medical Centre Care and Treatment Center. The patients’ data were analyzed using STATA version 11 to determine the prevalence of moderate to severe anemia and risk factors that could predict occurrence of anemia. Results In this study 346 patients on Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy were enrolled, of whom 100(40.46%) had moderate to severe anemia. The odds of being anemic were strongly predicted by Zidovudine based regime, low baseline CD4 count (< 200 cells/μl) and HIV stage 3&4 at enrollment. Most of the anemic patients had mean corpuscular volume of >100fl. Conclusion The prevalence of moderate to severe anemia is significantly high in this cohort of HIV-infected patients on first line Anti Retroviral Therapy and it is strongly predicted by Zidovudine based regime, low baseline CD4 and HIV stage 3 and 4. On clinical grounds this suggests that patients who are initiated on Zidovudine based regimen and those in advanced HIV at enrollment should have regular haemoglobin follow up to identify anemia at its earliest stage to improve the clinical outcome of these patients. PMID:27200131

  16. Differential clinical outcome of dengue infection among patients with and without HIV infection: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Pang, Junxiong; Thein, Tun-Linn; Lye, David C; Leo, Yee-Sin

    2015-06-01

    Clinical characteristics and outcome among dengue patients with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remain elusive. A total of 10 dengue virus (DENV)-HIV Chinese patients were compared with 40 Chinese dengue patients without HIV, who were matched for age, gender, type of care received, methods, and year of dengue diagnosis from 2005 to 2008. Univariate and multivariate conditional logistics regression were applied. DENV-HIV patients were significantly associated with the World Health Organization (WHO) 2009 severe dengue (conditional odds ratio [COR] = 5.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-32.64) but not with the WHO 1997 dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (COR = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.09-1.71). This is mainly due to severe plasma leakage and the lack of hemorrhagic manifestations. Hospitalization duration was longer for DENV-HIV patients (10.5 days; interquartile range [IQR] = 5.5-26.3 days) compared with dengue patients (5 days; IQR = 4-6 days). There were no significant differences in presentation of clinical warning signs and symptoms at admission and during hospitalization, except for rash (adjusted COR [ACOR] = 0.06; 95% CI = 0.03-0.92). DENV-HIV patients were associated with higher pulse rate (ACOR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.02-1.25), eosinophils proportion (ACOR = 3.07; 95% CI = 1.12-8.41) and lower hematocrit level (ACOR = 0.79; 95% CI = 0.64-0.98) compared with dengue patients. Even though DENV-HIV patients may present similarly to dengue patients, they may be more likely to have severe dengue outcome. Hence, close monitoring of DENV-HIV patients is highly recommended as part of dengue clinical care and management. PMID:25825389

  17. Differential Clinical Outcome of Dengue Infection among Patients with and without HIV Infection: A Matched Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Junxiong; Thein, Tun-Linn; Lye, David C.; Leo, Yee-Sin

    2015-01-01

    Clinical characteristics and outcome among dengue patients with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remain elusive. A total of 10 dengue virus (DENV)–HIV Chinese patients were compared with 40 Chinese dengue patients without HIV, who were matched for age, gender, type of care received, methods, and year of dengue diagnosis from 2005 to 2008. Univariate and multivariate conditional logistics regression were applied. DENV-HIV patients were significantly associated with the World Health Organization (WHO) 2009 severe dengue (conditional odds ratio [COR] = 5.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–32.64) but not with the WHO 1997 dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (COR = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.09–1.71). This is mainly due to severe plasma leakage and the lack of hemorrhagic manifestations. Hospitalization duration was longer for DENV-HIV patients (10.5 days; interquartile range [IQR] = 5.5–26.3 days) compared with dengue patients (5 days; IQR = 4–6 days). There were no significant differences in presentation of clinical warning signs and symptoms at admission and during hospitalization, except for rash (adjusted COR [ACOR] = 0.06; 95% CI = 0.03–0.92). DENV-HIV patients were associated with higher pulse rate (ACOR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.02–1.25), eosinophils proportion (ACOR = 3.07; 95% CI = 1.12–8.41) and lower hematocrit level (ACOR = 0.79; 95% CI = 0.64–0.98) compared with dengue patients. Even though DENV-HIV patients may present similarly to dengue patients, they may be more likely to have severe dengue outcome. Hence, close monitoring of DENV-HIV patients is highly recommended as part of dengue clinical care and management. PMID:25825389

  18. Hospital treatment of HIV patients.

    PubMed

    Ola, Samuel Olawale

    2006-12-01

    Treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria has progressed from the stage of inactivity, unconcern, abandonment and neglect to the present stage of holistic care involving treatment of the infection with Highly Active Anti Retroviral Agents, complications of the disease and side effects of antiretroviral therapy as well as that of human behavioural responses towards the disease with hope and promising outcome. The goal of the treatment is to prolong the patient's life while maintaining the best possible quality of health and life. It is now a continuum of care between the hospital and the different sectors of the community. Hospital treatment of patients with HIV-AIDS is complex and yet a simple task if there is healthy interaction of the patients and health care providers in a milieu of well equipped hospital setting with available treatment facilities for proper management of diseases. Similarly, for the care to achieve its goal, it requires a joint participation of the community and the commitment of the government not only on curtailment of the reservoir of HIV infection by antiretroviral therapy but total eradication of diseases, poverty and ignorance in all its entirety. PMID:18050774

  19. Cryptoccocal meningitis in Yaoundé (Cameroon) HIV infected patients: Diagnosis, frequency and Cryptococcus neoformans isolates susceptibility study to fluconazole.

    PubMed

    Kammalac Ngouana, T; Dongtsa, J; Kouanfack, C; Tonfack, C; Fomena, S; Mallié, M; Delaporte, E; Boyom, F-Fekam; Bertout, S

    2015-03-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is a mycosis encountered especially in patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and is fatal in the absence of treatment. Information on epidemiology, diagnosis and susceptibility profile to antifungal drugs, are scarce in Cameroon. Authors evaluated the diagnosis possibilities of the cryptococcal meningitis in Cameroon, and studied the antifungal susceptibility of isolated strains to fluconazole, used as first line treatment of the disease in Cameroon. Between December 2009 and July 2011, 146 cerebrospinal fluids obtained from HIV patients with suspicion of meningitis were analysed. The diagnosis procedure involved macroscopic and cyto-chemical analysis, India ink test, culture on Sabouraud chloramphenicol medium and antigen latex agglutination test. Antifungal susceptibility testing of isolated strains to fluconazole was done by the E-test(®) method. The diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis gave 28.08% positive cases. Among these patients, 80% were at stages III and IV and 20% at stage I of the HIV infection, according to the WHO previous classification. Cyto-chemical analysis showed current findings in the case of cryptococcal meningitis. India ink test and latex agglutination test exhibited very high sensitivity and specificity (>94%). Fluconazole antifungal susceptibility testing gave MICs lower than 32μg/mL to 92.7% of isolated strains and MICs greater than this value to 7.3% of isolates. These results showed that cryptococcal meningitis remains a real problem among HIV infected patients in Yaoundé. The emergence of fluconazole reduced susceptibility strains is worrying. Nevertheless, efficacy of rapid detection tests is interesting because this will help in rapid diagnosis and treatment of patients. PMID:25467817

  20. Relations between cardiovascular risk estimates and subclinical atherosclerosis in naive HIV patients: results from the HERMES study.

    PubMed

    De Socio, G V L; Martinelli, C; Ricci, E; Orofino, G; Valsecchi, L; Vitiello, P; Martinelli, L; Quirino, T; Maggi, P; Bonfanti, P

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the cardiovascular risk factors associated with subclinical carotid atherosclerosis in antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV-infected patients. The HERMES (HIV Exposure and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome) study enrolled therapy-naïve patients attending hospitals in the Italian coordination group for the study of allergies and HIV infection (CISAI [Coordinamento Italiano per lo Studio Allergia e Infezione da HIV]) in 2007. It was designed to identify metabolic syndrome (MS) and cardiovascular risk factors. The present analysis is a nested cross-sectional study with a subset of patients examined by carotid ultrasonography. Consecutive antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV patients attending the facilities involved in the CISAI were included. Their 10-year probability of cardiovascular events was calculated using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and three other cardiovascular algorithms (the Global Framingham Risk Score - GFRS, 'Progetto Cuore' and 'SCORE'). Vascular age was estimated using a new model derived from GFRS and was compared with chronological age. The diagnosis of MS was based on the National Cholesterol Education Programme and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definitions. Subclinical atherosclerosis was determined as ultrasound carotid intima-media thickness >0.9 mm. Out of 140 patients enrolled in the HERMES study by the four centres participating in the nested study, a total of 72 (51.4%) subjects, with no overt cardiovascular disease, were examined using carotid ultrasonography. The median age was 40 years, 79.2% men. The vascular age was 7.6 years higher than the chronological age. The factors associated with subclinical atherosclerosis were age (P < 0.0001), vascular age (P = 0.0002), body mass index (P = 0.003), waist circumference (P = 0.0002), MS (IDF definition, P = 0.004) and all the cardiovascular (CV) models (FRS, P = 0.01, GFRS, P = 0.002, Progetto Cuore, P = 0.018, SCORE, P = 0.03). Independent of other

  1. Causes of Death Among Patients Infected with HIV at a Tertiary Care Hospital in China: An Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jiang; Du, Shuxu; Tian, Yunfei; Su, Wenjing; Yang, Di; Zhao, Hongxin

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the causes of death and mortality in a cohort of inpatients infected with HIV. The causes of death and mortality were evaluated by using the clinical data of 1,076 patients admitted to the Center for Infectious Diseases, Beijing Ditan Hospital, between January 1, 2009, and November 30, 2012, and who were followed for 6 months after discharge. During the 4-year study period, 216 patients had died by the 6-month follow-up (mortality rate, 20.1%). Opportunistic infections were the most common causes of death (42.0%), followed by malignancies (23.1%), unexplained central nervous system infections and occupying lesions (18.1%), infectious shock (10.2%), severe hepatitis and decompensated cirrhosis (3.2%), sudden death (1.4%), lactic acidosis (0.9%), and uremia (0.9%). The strong risk factors for mortality were cost constraints and unaffordable further diagnosis and treatment (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 134.394, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 25.748-701.481, p < .001), unexplained etiologies (AHR = 12.551, 95% CI = 6.642-23.716, p < .001), and multiple complications (AHR = 5.798, 95% CI = 2.973-11.308, p < .001). Mortality was not associated with CD4 levels or combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) in a cohort of inpatients at a special hospital for HIV/AIDS patients in China. AIDS-related infections and malignancies were the most common causes of death in patients infected with HIV, and improvement of the etiological diagnosis would help physicians provide appropriate treatment and reduce mortality rates. PMID:26971827

  2. Ocular lesions in 1,000 consecutive HIV-positive patients in India: a long-term study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ocular lesions in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have shown changes in disease prevalence and pattern. Although they have been described in the Western population, there are not many such studies in the HAART era from India. This study aims to present the clinical profile, systemic correlation, and visual outcome in HIV-positive patients in relation to HAART in comparison with pre-HAART Indian studies and current Western data. Ocular findings and systemic correlation in 1,000 consecutive patients with HIV seen at a tertiary eye care center were analyzed. This study uses a prospective observational case series design. Results Age range of the patients was 1.5 to 75 years. Ocular lesions were seen in 68.5% of the patients (cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis was the commonest). The commonest systemic disease was pulmonary TB. Mean interval between HIV diagnosis and onset of ocular lesions was 2.43 years. CD4 counts range from 2 to 1,110 cells/mm3. Immune recovery uveitis (IRU) was seen in 17.4%. Interval between HAART initiation and IRU was 4 months to 2.5 years. Recurrence of ocular infection was seen in 2.53% (post-HAART) and > 20% (pre-HAART). Overall visual outcome showed improvement in about 14.3% and was maintained in 71.6% of the patients. Conclusions CMV retinitis is the commonest ocular opportunistic infection in India, even in the HAART era. Newer manifestations of known diseases and newer ocular lesions are being seen. In contrast to Western studies, in our patients on HAART, ocular lesions do not always behave as in immunocompetent individuals. Ocular TB needs to be kept in mind in India, as well as other neuro-ophthalmic manifestations related to cryptococci, especially in gravely ill patients. Occurrence and frequency of various ocular opportunistic infections in developing nations such as India have significant variations from those reported in Western literature and need to be managed accordingly. PMID:23514612

  3. Clinicopathologic Features of Colorectal Carcinoma in HIV-Positive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sigel, Carlie; Cavalcanti, Marcela S.; Daniel, Tanisha; Vakiani, Efsevia; Shia, Jinru; Sigel, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence suggests differences in colo-rectal cancer in HIV-infected patients (HIV+) compared with HIV− patients. Microsatellite instability (MSI), occurring in a subset of colorectal cancer, is present at a higher rate in certain cancers in HIV+ patients. Colorectal cancer with MSI share some characteristics with those reported for HIV+ colorectal cancer. On this premise, we studied clinical and pathologic features of HIV+ colorectal cancer and evaluated for MSI using matched HIV− colorectal cancer controls. Methods Two nested, matched cohorts were identified from a hospital-based cohort of colorectal cancer patients. HIV+ colo-rectal cancers were identified and random control patients were matched for selected characteristics. Mismatch repair protein (MMR) IHC was performed as the detection method for MSI. Variables were compared between cases and controls using fixed-effects logit modeling to account for matching. Results We included 184 colorectal cancer samples (38 HIV+, 146 HIV− control). Median patient age at colorectal cancer onset was 55. When compared with HIV− colorectal cancer, HIV+patients were more likely to have smoked (P = 0.001), have right-sided colorectal cancer (37% vs. 14%; P = 0.003), and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) above 50/10 high-power fields (21% vs. 7%). There was no difference in MMR protein expression (P = 0.6). HIV+ colorectal cancer patients had reduced overall survival (P = 0.02) but no difference in progression-free survival. Conclusions HIV+ patients developed colorectal cancer at a lower median age than population estimates, had a higher frequency of right-sided disease, and increased TILs, suggesting potential biologic differences compared with uninfected patients. Impact Clinicopathologic differences in colorectal cancer of HIV+ persons may have implications for tumor pathogenesis. PMID:27197294

  4. Deterrents to HIV-patient initiation of antiretroviral therapy in urban Lusaka, Zambia: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Musheke, Maurice; Bond, Virginia; Merten, Sonja

    2013-04-01

    Some people living with HIV (PLHIV) refuse to initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) despite availability. Between March 2010 and September 2011, using a social ecological framework, we investigated barriers to ART initiation in Lusaka, Zambia. In-depth interviews were conducted with PLHIV who were offered treatment but declined (n=37), ART staff (n=5), faith healers (n=5), herbal medicine providers (n=5), and home-based care providers (n=5). One focus group discussion with lay HIV counselors and observations in the community and at an ART clinic were conducted. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated, coded using Atlas ti, and analyzed using latent content analysis. Lack of self-efficacy, negative perceptions of medication, desire for normalcy, and fear of treatment-induced physical body changes, all modulated by feeling healthy, undermined treatment initiation. Social relationships generated and perpetuated these health and treatment beliefs. Long waiting times at ART clinics, concerns about long-term availability of treatment, and taking strong medication amidst livelihood insecurity also dissuaded PLHIV from initiating treatment. PLHIV opted for herbal remedies and faith healing as alternatives to ART, with the former being regarded as effective as ART, while the latter contributed to restoring normalcy through the promise of being healed. Barriers to treatment initiation were not mutually exclusive. Some coalesced to undermine treatment initiation. Ensuring patients initiate ART requires interventions at different levels, addressing, in particular, people's health and treatment beliefs, changing perceptions about effectiveness of herbal remedies and faith healing, improving ART delivery to attenuate social and economic costs and allaying concerns about future non-availability of treatment. PMID:23530573

  5. Multiple frequency bioimpedance is an adequate tool to assess total and regional fat mass in HIV-positive patients but not to diagnose HIV-associated lipoatrophy: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Matute, Patricia; Pérez-Martínez, Laura; Blanco, José R; Ibarra, Valvanera; Metola, Luis; Sanz, Mercedes; Hernando, Luis; Martínez, Sagrario; Ramírez, Arsenio; Ramalle-Gomara, Enrique; Oteo, José A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome causes systemic metabolic alterations and psychological distress that worsen the quality of life of these patients. An early detection should be considered to efficiently treat it. Objective criteria or reference indices are needed for an early diagnosis. Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) is an operator-independent, repeatable and non-invasive method of body composition evaluation that is less expensive than dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and/or CT scans. The aims of this pilot study were to validate the data obtained by BIA to measure fat mass in HIV-positive patients with/without lipoatrophy and to determine if BIA correctly diagnoses lipoatrophy in HIV-positive patients. Methods Thirty-nine participants were included in this preliminary study. Fourteen were HIV-negative (eight men) whereas 25 were HIV-positive patients (17 men). Eleven of the HIV-positive patients were classified as lipoatrophic according to subjective evaluation by the physicians. Total and regional body composition was measured in basal conditions by DXA and by BIA. To obtain abdominal CT scan fat values, transverse slices with 6-mm thickness were acquired at the L4-L5 intervertebral space. Results BIA measurements of total and regional body fat were significantly correlated with those obtained by DXA (p < 0.05 to <0.01) in HIV-positive patients. However, agreement between methods was poor as not very high ICC (intraclass correlation coefficient) values were observed. BIA and DXA showed higher ICC values in lipoatrophic patients. The visceral index obtained by BIA was correlated with total and visceral fat in L4 measured by CT scan (r = 0.607 and r = 0.617, respectively, p < 0.01) in HIV-positive patients. The Fat Mass Ratio (FMR) calculated by BIA did not correlate or agree with DXA values. Conclusions Multi-frequency BIA could be an effective method to evaluate the evolution of total and regional fat composition in HIV

  6. A Descriptive Analysis of HIV Prevalence, HIV Service Uptake, and HIV-Related Risk Behaviour among Patients Attending a Mental Health Clinic in Rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Lommerse, Kinke; Stewart, Robert C.; Chilimba, Queen; van den Akker, Thomas; Lund, Crick

    2013-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and mental illness are interlinked health problems; mental illness may pose a risk for contracting HIV and HIV-positive individuals are at higher risk of mental illness. However, in countries with high HIV prevalence, the main focus of HIV-related health programmes is usually on prevention and treatment of somatic complications of HIV, and mental illness is not given high priority. We examined HIV prevalence, uptake of HIV services, and HIV-related risk behaviour among people attending a mental health clinic in rural Malawi. Methodology Semi-structured interviews were performed with patients capable to consent (94%), and with those accompanied by a capable caregiver who consented. HIV counselling and testing was offered to participants. Findings Among 174 participants, we collected 162 HIV test results (91%). HIV prevalence was 14.8%. Women were three times as likely to be HIV-positive compared to men. Two-thirds of participants reported having been tested for HIV prior to this study. The uptake of HIV-services among HIV-positive patients was low: 35% did not use recommended prophylactic therapy and 44% of patients not receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) had never been assessed for ART eligibility. The reported rate of sexual activity was 61%, and 9% of sexually active participants had multiple partners. Inconsistent condom use with stable (89%) and occasional (79%) sexual partners, and absence of knowledge of the HIV status of those partners (53%, 63%) indicate high levels of sexual risk behaviour. Conclusions HIV-prevalence among persons attending the clinic, particularly men, was lower than among the general population in a population survey. The rate of HIV testing was high, but there was low uptake of preventive measures and ART. This illustrates that HIV-positive individuals with mental illness or epilepsy constitute a vulnerable population. HIV programmes should include those with neuropsychiatric illness

  7. HIV treatment cascade in tuberculosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Lessells, Richard J.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Globally, the number of deaths associated with tuberculosis (TB) and HIV coinfection remains unacceptably high. We review the evidence around the impact of strengthening the HIV treatment cascade in TB patients and explore recent findings about how best to deliver integrated TB/HIV services. Recent findings There is clear evidence that the timely provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces mortality in TB/HIV coinfected adults. Despite this, globally in 2013, only around a third of known HIV-positive TB cases were treated with ART. Although there is some recent evidence exploring the barriers to achieve high coverage of HIV testing and ART initiation in TB patients, our understanding of which factors are most important and how best to address these within different health systems remains incomplete. There are some examples of good practice in the delivery of integrated TB/HIV services to improve the HIV treatment cascade. However, evidence of the impact of such strategies is of relatively low quality for informing integrated TB/HIV programming more broadly. In most settings, there remain barriers to higher-level organizational and functional integration. Summary There remains a need for commitment to patient-centred integrated TB/HIV care in countries affected by the dual epidemic. There is a need for better quality evidence around how best to deliver integrated services to strengthen the HIV treatment cascade in TB patients, both at primary healthcare level and within community settings. PMID:26352390

  8. HIV Treatment Outcomes Among HIV-Infected, Opioid-Dependent Patients Receiving Buprenorphine/Naloxone Treatment within HIV Clinical Care Settings: Results From a Multisite Study

    PubMed Central

    Altice, Frederick L.; Bruce, R. Douglas; Lucas, Gregory M.; Lum, Paula J.; Korthuis, P. Todd; Flanigan, Timothy P.; Cunningham, Chinazo O.; Sullivan, Lynn E.; Vergara-Rodriguez, Pamela; Fiellin, David A.; Cajina, Adan; Botsko, Michael; Nandi, Vijay; Gourevitch, Marc N.; Finkelstein, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Background Having opioid dependence and HIV infection are associated with poor HIV-related treatment outcomes. Methods HIV-infected, opioid-dependent subjects (N = 295) recruited from 10 clinical sites initiated buprenorphine/naloxone (BUP/NX) and were assessed at baseline and quarterly for 12 months. Primary outcomes included receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-1 RNA suppression, and mean changes in CD4 lymphocyte count. Analyses were stratified for the 119 subjects not on ART at baseline. Generalized estimating equations were deployed to examine time-dependent correlates for each outcome. Results At baseline, subjects on ART (N = 176) were more likely than those not on ART (N = 119) to be older, heterosexual, have lower alcohol addiction severity scores, and lower HIV-1 RNA levels; they were less likely to be homeless and report sexual risk behaviors. Subjects initiating BUP/NX (N = 295) were significantly more likely to initiate or remain on ART and improve CD4 counts over time compared with baseline; however, these improvements were not significantly improved by longer retention on BUP/NX. Retention on BUP/NX for three or more quarters was, however, significantly associated with increased likelihood of initiating ART (β = 1.34 [1.18, 1.53]) and achieve viral suppression (β = 1.25 [1.10, 1.42]) for the 64 of 119 (54%) subjects not on ART at baseline compared with the 55 subjects not retained on BUP/NX. In longitudinal analyses, being on ART was positively associated with increasing time of observation from baseline and higher mental health quality of life scores (β = 1.25 [1.06, 1.46]) and negatively associated with being homo- or bisexual (β = 0.55 [0.35, 0.97]), homeless (β = 0.58 [0.34, 0.98]), and increasing levels of alcohol addiction severity (β = 0.17 [0.03, 0.88]). The strongest correlate of achieving viral suppression was being on ART (β = 10.27 [5.79, 18.23]). Female gender (β = 1.91 [1.07, 3.41]), Hispanic ethnicity (β = 2.82 [1.44, 5

  9. HIV-2 Genetic Evolution in Patients with Advanced Disease Is Faster than That in Matched HIV-1 Patients▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Skar, Helena; Borrego, Pedro; Wallstrom, Timothy C.; Mild, Mattias; Marcelino, José Maria; Barroso, Helena; Taveira, Nuno; Leitner, Thomas; Albert, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate and compare the evolutionary rates of HIV-2 and HIV-1. Two HIV-2 data sets from patients with advanced disease were compared to matched HIV-1 data sets. The estimated mean evolutionary rate of HIV-2 was significantly higher than the estimated rate of HIV-1, both in the gp125 and in the V3 region of the env gene. In addition, the rate of synonymous substitutions in gp125 was significantly higher for HIV-2 than for HIV-1, possibly indicating a shorter generation time or higher mutation rate of HIV-2. Thus, the lower virulence of HIV-2 does not appear to translate into a lower rate of evolution. PMID:20463072

  10. Hearing Function in Patients Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Luque, Amneris E.; Orlando, Mark S.; Leong, U-Cheng; Allen, Paul D.; Guido, Joseph J.; Yang, Hongmei; Wu, Hulin

    2014-01-01

    Background During the earlier years of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, initial reports described sensorineural hearing loss in up to 49% of individuals with HIV/AIDS. During those years, patients commonly progressed to advanced stages of HIV disease, and frequently had neurological complications. However, the abnormalities on pure-tone audiometry and brainstem evoked responses outlined in small studies were not always consistently correlated with advanced stages of HIV/AIDS. Moreover, these studies could not exclude the confounding effect of concurrent opportunistic infections and syphilis. Additional reports also have indicated that some antiretroviral (ARV) medications may be ototoxic, thus it has been difficult to make conclusions regarding the cause of changes in hearing function in HIV-infected patients. More recently, accelerated aging has been suggested as a potential explanation for the disproportionate increase in complications of aging described in many HIV-infected patients, hence accelerated aging associated hearing loss may also be playing a role in these patients. Methods We conducted a large cross-sectional analysis of hearing function in over 300 patients with HIV-1 infection and in 137 HIV-uninfected controls. HIV-infected participants and HIV-uninfected controls underwent a two-hour battery of hearing tests including the Hearing Handicap Inventory, standard audiometric pure-tone air and bone conduction testing, tympanometric testing and speech reception and discrimination testing. Results Three-way ANOVA and logistic regression analysis of 278 eligible HIV-infected subjects stratified by disease stage in early HIV disease (n= 127) and late HIV disease (n=148) and 120 eligible HIV-uninfected controls revealed no statistical significant differences among the three study groups in either overall 4-PTA or hearing loss prevalence in either ear. Three-way ANOVA showed significant differences in word recognition scores (WRS) in the right ear among groups; a

  11. Intimacy versus Isolation: A Qualitative Study of Sexual Practices among Sexually Active HIV-Infected Patients in HIV Care in Brazil, Thailand, and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Closson, Elizabeth F.; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Sherman, Susan G.; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Friedman, Ruth K.; Limbada, Mohammed; Moore, Ayana T.; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Alves, Carla A.; Roberts, Sarah; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Elharrar, Vanessa; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Safren, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    The success of global treatment as prevention (TasP) efforts for individuals living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is dependent on successful implementation, and therefore the appropriate contribution of social and behavioral science to these efforts. Understanding the psychosocial context of condomless sex among PLWHA could shed light on effective points of intervention. HPTN 063 was an observational mixed-methods study of sexually active, in-care PLWHA in Thailand, Zambia, and Brazil as a foundation for integrating secondary HIV prevention into HIV treatment. From 2010–2012, 80 qualitative interviews were conducted with PLWHA receiving HIV care and reported recent sexual risk. Thirty men who have sex with women (MSW) and 30 women who have sex with men (WSM) participated in equal numbers across the sites. Thailand and Brazil also enrolled 20 biologically-born men who have sex with men (MSM). Part of the interview focused on the impact of HIV on sexual practices and relationships. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated into English and examined using qualitative descriptive analysis. The mean age was 25 (SD = 3.2). There were numerous similarities in experiences and attitudes between MSM, MSW and WSM across the three settings. Participants had a high degree of HIV transmission risk awareness and practiced some protective sexual behaviors such as reduced sexual activity, increased use of condoms, and external ejaculation. Themes related to risk behavior can be categorized according to struggles for intimacy and fears of isolation, including: fear of infecting a sex partner, guilt about sex, sexual communication difficulty, HIV-stigma, and worry about sexual partnerships. Emphasizing sexual health, intimacy and protective practices as components of nonjudgmental sex-positive secondary HIV prevention interventions is recommended. For in-care PLWHA, this approach has the potential to support TasP. The overlap of themes across groups and countries indicates that

  12. [Incidence and etiology of psychotic disorders in HIV infected patients].

    PubMed

    Niederecker, M; Naber, D; Riedel, R; Perro, C; Goebel, F D

    1995-05-01

    There are numerous case reports on psychoses in AIDS patients and, although more seldom, also in HIV-positive patients in early stages of infection; however, systematic investigations on the frequency, e.g., relevant for the indication of an HIV test in psychiatric patients, are missing. For this study, 1046 HIV-positive patients were examined regarding psychoses. A total of 301 patients (28.8%) were HIV-positive but asymptomatic, and 380 patients (36.2%) had the lymphadenopathy syndrome. One hundred thirty-two patients (12.6%) suffered from an AIDS-related complex and 233 patients (22.3%) from AIDS. Of these 1046 patients, only 9 (0.9%) suffered from psychoses. One patient with a paranoid-hallucinatory syndrome was asymptomatic; one in the lymphadenopathy syndrome was manic. The other 7 patients were all in late stages of the infection. A causal relationship between HIV infection and psychosis and probable in only 3 patients. These data do not indicate a markedly elevated prevalence of psychosis in HIV-positive or AIDS patients. PMID:7609818

  13. Herbal product use in non-HIV and HIV-positive Hispanic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, José O.; González-Stuart, Armando; Ortiz, Melchor; Rodríguez, José C.; Anaya, Jaime P.; Meza, Armando

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: The primary endpoint of this study was to determine the prevalence of herbal product use by a sample of Mexican-American patients in the El Paso, TX region. Even though medicinal plants are popularly assumed to be a safe and natural alternative to conventional medications, some herbal products may pose a potential health risk to the consumer. Currently, there are few studies related to herbal use by Mexican Americans and none in HIV patients living on the U.S./México border. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted in hospitals and clinics throughout the El Paso region area. A semistructured interview was conducted by trained bilingual interviewers. A 45-item bilingual questionnaire was used to collect the information. RESULTS: A total of 439 non-HIV patients as well as 35 patients afflicted with HIV participated in the study. Seventy-nine percent (347/439) of non-HIV and 71% (25/35) of HIV patients reported using herbal products. The percentages of herbal use among the two groups did not show any statistically significant differences (p=0.29), and both groups reflected that herbal products are commonly used. CONCLUSIONS: The use of herbal products was very common among non-HIV (79%) and HIV-positive (71%) Mexican-Americans patients in the El Paso region. PMID:16396061

  14. Value of CXCL13 in diagnosing asymptomatic neurosyphilis in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Hu, RongXin; Lu, Chun; Lu, Sihan; Hu, Yunxin; Ma, Han; Lai, Wei; Zhu, Guoxing; Feng, Peiying; Lu, Rongbiao; Li, Ying

    2016-02-01

    Diagnosing asymptomatic neurosyphilis (ANS) in HIV-infected patients is difficult. A recent report suggested that CXCL13 is a promising diagnostic marker for neurosyphilis in HIV-positive patients. However, whether CXCL13 can be a diagnostic marker for ANS in HIV-infected patients remains unknown. The purpose of our study was to determine the role of CXCL13 in diagnosing ANS in HIV-infected patients. This study comprised two study and three control groups. Two study groups included 12 HIV-infected patients with ANS and 25 patients with syphilis and HIV co-infection (without ANS). Three control groups included 9 patients with ANS without HIV infection, 25 HIV-infected patients without syphilis and 10 healthy volunteers. Concentrations of CSF CXCL13 were measured before and after neurosyphilis therapy. Our results showed that CSF CXCL13 concentrations were significantly increased in all of the HIV-infected patients with ANS, the 25 HIV patients with syphilis and the 9 ANS patients without HIV, but not in the patients of the other two control groups. CSF CXCL13 concentrations declined in the two study groups of patients following neurosyphilis therapy. Therefore, CSF CXCL13 concentrations could improve the diagnosis of ANS in HIV-infected patients. PMID:25769888

  15. Stem Cell Transplant Can Help HIV Patients Battling Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159395.html Stem Cell Transplant Can Help HIV Patients Battling Lymphoma: Study ... for lymphoma, and a new study concludes that stem cell transplant should be standard treatment in these cases. ...

  16. Hepatitis B and/or C co-infection in HIV infected patients: A study in a tertiary care centre from south India

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Naval; Joshi, Nayana; Raju, Y.S.N.; Kumar, Ajit; Teja, Vijay D.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals results in increased hepatic complications. We undertook this study to evaluate the presence of HBV and HCV in HIV infected individuals attending a tertiary care centre in southern India. Methods: A total of 120 cases with HIV infection and 120 healthy adult control subjects were included in the study. Samples were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HCV antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. HBsAg and anti-HCV positive serum samples were further tested for the presence of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), anti-HBe antibodies, HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA. Results: The most common mode of transmission was sexual promiscuity (79%), followed by spouse positivity (15%) and history of blood transfusion (6%). HBsAg and anti-HCV were positive in 18 (15%) and 10 (8.3%) HIV infected patients; the corresponding figures in healthy controls being 2 (1.6%) 0 (0%) (P<0.0001). Among HIV infected patients, presence of HBeAg and anti-HBe antibodies was seen in 33.3 and 55.5 per cent, respectively; both HBeAg and anti-HBe antibodies were negative in 11.1 per cent. HBV DNA and HCV RNA were positive in 10 of 18 and in all anti-HCV positive samples. Triple infection with HBV, HCV and HIV was seen in three patients. CD4+ T-lymphocyte count less than 200/μl was seen in 22 of 28 co-infected cases. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of our study showed presence of HBV (15%) and HCV (8.3%) co-infections in HIV positive patients which was higher than that seen in HIV negative controls. Co-infection with HBV and HCV is a common problem in HIV infected patients in India. Hence, all HIV patients need to be routinely tested for markers of HBV and HCV infection. PMID:24521641

  17. Profile of the HIV epidemic in Cape Verde: molecular epidemiology and drug resistance mutations among HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected patients from distinct islands of the archipelago.

    PubMed

    de Pina-Araujo, Isabel Inês M; Guimarães, Monick L; Bello, Gonzalo; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Morgado, Mariza G

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 and HIV-2 have been detected in Cape Verde since 1987, but little is known regarding the genetic diversity of these viruses in this archipelago, located near the West African coast. In this study, we characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 and HIV-2 and described the occurrence of drug resistance mutations (DRM) among antiretroviral therapy naïve (ARTn) patients and patients under treatment (ARTexp) from different Cape Verde islands. Blood samples, socio-demographic and clinical-laboratory data were obtained from 221 HIV-positive individuals during 2010-2011. Phylogenetic and bootscan analyses of the pol region (1300 bp) were performed for viral subtyping. HIV-1 and HIV-2 DRM were evaluated for ARTn and ARTexp patients using the Stanford HIV Database and HIV-GRADE e.V. Algorithm Homepage, respectively. Among the 221 patients (169 [76.5%] HIV-1, 43 [19.5%] HIV-2 and 9 [4.1%] HIV-1/HIV-2 co-infections), 67% were female. The median ages were 34 (IQR = 1-75) and 47 (IQR = 12-84) for HIV-1 and HIV-2, respectively. HIV-1 infections were due to subtypes G (36.6%), CRF02_AG (30.6%), F1 (9.7%), URFs (10.4%), B (5.2%), CRF05_DF (3.0%), C (2.2%), CRF06_cpx (0.7%), CRF25_cpx (0.7%) and CRF49_cpx (0.7%), whereas all HIV-2 infections belonged to group A. Transmitted DRM (TDRM) was observed in 3.4% (2/58) of ARTn HIV-1-infected patients (1.7% NRTI, 1.7% NNRTI), but not among those with HIV-2. Among ARTexp patients, DRM was observed in 47.8% (33/69) of HIV-1 (37.7% NRTI, 37.7% NNRTI, 7.4% PI, 33.3% for two classes) and 17.6% (3/17) of HIV-2-infections (17.6% NRTI, 11.8% PI, 11.8% both). This study indicates that Cape Verde has a complex and unique HIV-1 molecular epidemiological scenario dominated by HIV-1 subtypes G, CRF02_AG and F1 and HIV-2 subtype A. The occurrence of TDRM and the relatively high level of DRM among treated patients are of concern. Continuous monitoring of patients on ART, including genotyping, are public policies to be implemented

  18. Profile of the HIV Epidemic in Cape Verde: Molecular Epidemiology and Drug Resistance Mutations among HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infected Patients from Distinct Islands of the Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    de Pina-Araujo, Isabel Inês M.; Guimarães, Monick L.; Bello, Gonzalo; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Morgado, Mariza G.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 and HIV-2 have been detected in Cape Verde since 1987, but little is known regarding the genetic diversity of these viruses in this archipelago, located near the West African coast. In this study, we characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 and HIV-2 and described the occurrence of drug resistance mutations (DRM) among antiretroviral therapy naïve (ARTn) patients and patients under treatment (ARTexp) from different Cape Verde islands. Blood samples, socio-demographic and clinical-laboratory data were obtained from 221 HIV-positive individuals during 2010–2011. Phylogenetic and bootscan analyses of the pol region (1300 bp) were performed for viral subtyping. HIV-1 and HIV-2 DRM were evaluated for ARTn and ARTexp patients using the Stanford HIV Database and HIV-GRADE e.V. Algorithm Homepage, respectively. Among the 221 patients (169 [76.5%] HIV-1, 43 [19.5%] HIV-2 and 9 [4.1%] HIV-1/HIV-2 co-infections), 67% were female. The median ages were 34 (IQR = 1–75) and 47 (IQR = 12–84) for HIV-1 and HIV-2, respectively. HIV-1 infections were due to subtypes G (36.6%), CRF02_AG (30.6%), F1 (9.7%), URFs (10.4%), B (5.2%), CRF05_DF (3.0%), C (2.2%), CRF06_cpx (0.7%), CRF25_cpx (0.7%) and CRF49_cpx (0.7%), whereas all HIV-2 infections belonged to group A. Transmitted DRM (TDRM) was observed in 3.4% (2/58) of ARTn HIV-1-infected patients (1.7% NRTI, 1.7% NNRTI), but not among those with HIV-2. Among ARTexp patients, DRM was observed in 47.8% (33/69) of HIV-1 (37.7% NRTI, 37.7% NNRTI, 7.4% PI, 33.3% for two classes) and 17.6% (3/17) of HIV-2-infections (17.6% NRTI, 11.8% PI, 11.8% both). This study indicates that Cape Verde has a complex and unique HIV-1 molecular epidemiological scenario dominated by HIV-1 subtypes G, CRF02_AG and F1 and HIV-2 subtype A. The occurrence of TDRM and the relatively high level of DRM among treated patients are of concern. Continuous monitoring of patients on ART, including genotyping, are public policies to be

  19. A Clinical Algorithm to Identify HIV Patients at High Risk for Incident Active Tuberculosis: A Prospective 5-Year Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Tsai, Hung-Chin; Su, Ih-Jen; Yang, Chin-Hui; Sun, Hsin-Yun; Hung, Chien-Chin; Sy, Cheng-Len; Wu, Kuan-Sheng; Chen, Jui-Kuang; Chen, Yao-Shen; Fang, Chi-Tai

    2015-01-01

    Background Predicting the risk of tuberculosis (TB) in people living with HIV (PLHIV) using a single test is currently not possible. We aimed to develop and validate a clinical algorithm, using baseline CD4 cell counts, HIV viral load (pVL), and interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA), to identify PLHIV who are at high risk for incident active TB in low-to-moderate TB burden settings where highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is routinely provided. Materials and Methods A prospective, 5-year, cohort study of adult PLHIV was conducted from 2006 to 2012 in two hospitals in Taiwan. HAART was initiated based on contemporary guidelines (CD4 count < = 350/μL). Cox regression was used to identify the predictors of active TB and to construct the algorithm. The validation cohorts included 1455 HIV-infected individuals from previous published studies. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated. Results Seventeen of 772 participants developed active TB during a median follow-up period of 5.21 years. Baseline CD4 < 350/μL or pVL ≥ 100,000/mL was a predictor of active TB (adjusted HR 4.87, 95% CI 1.49–15.90, P = 0.009). A positive baseline IGRA predicted TB in patients with baseline CD4 ≥ 350/μL and pVL < 100,000/mL (adjusted HR 6.09, 95% CI 1.52–24.40, P = 0.01). Compared with an IGRA-alone strategy, the algorithm improved the sensitivity from 37.5% to 76.5%, the negative predictive value from 98.5% to 99.2%. Compared with an untargeted strategy, the algorithm spared 468 (60.6%) from unnecessary TB preventive treatment. Area under the ROC curve was 0.692 (95% CI: 0.587–0.798) for the study cohort and 0.792 (95% CI: 0.776–0.808) and 0.766 in the 2 validation cohorts. Conclusions A validated algorithm incorporating the baseline CD4 cell count, HIV viral load, and IGRA status can be used to guide targeted TB preventive treatment in PLHIV in low-to-moderate TB burden settings where HAART is routinely provided to all PLHIV. The

  20. Interrelationship of alcohol misuse, HIV sexual risk and HIV screening uptake among emergency department patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Emergency department (ED) patients comprise a high-risk population for alcohol misuse and sexual risk for HIV. In order to design future interventions to increase HIV screening uptake, we examined the interrelationship among alcohol misuse, sexual risk for HIV and HIV screening uptake among these patients. Methods A random sample of 18-64-year-old English- or Spanish-speaking patients at two EDs during July-August 2009 completed a self-administered questionnaire about their alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Questionnaire, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and the HIV Sexual Risk Questionnaire. Study participants were offered a rapid HIV test after completing the questionnaires. Binging (≥ five drinks/occasion for men, ≥ four drinks for women) was assessed and sex-specific alcohol misuse severity levels (low-risk, harmful, hazardous, dependence) were calculated using AUDIT scores. Analyses were limited to participants who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the associations between HIV screening uptake and (1) alcohol misuse, (2) sexual risk for HIV, and (3) the intersection of HIV sexual risk and alcohol misuse. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. All models were adjusted for patient demographic characteristics and separate models for men and women were constructed. Results Of 524 participants (55.0% female), 58.4% identified as white, non-Hispanic, and 72% reported previous HIV testing. Approximately 75% of participants reported drinking alcohol within the past 30 days and 74.5% of men and 59.6% of women reported binge drinking. A relationship was found between reported sexual risk for HIV and alcohol use among men (AOR 3.31 [CI 1.51-7.24]) and women (AOR 2.78 [CI 1.48-5.23]). Women who reported binge drinking were more likely to have higher reported sexual risk for HIV (AOR 2.55 [CI 1.40-4.64]) compared to women who do

  1. A Suicide Prevention Program for HIV-Positive Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Seana; Rothberg, Joseph M.

    Research has shown that suicide risk is elevated in the patient who has tested positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Studies within the Army have found that the three most turbulent periods for the soldier with HIV infection are: (1) at the time of notification of diagnosis; (2) when the family and peer group learn of the diagnosis; and…

  2. Stochastic fate selection in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Ariel D; Weinberger, Leor S

    2013-10-24

    Classic studies proposed that stochastic variability ("noise") can drive biological fate switching, enhancing evolutionary success. Now, Ho et al. report that HIV's reactivation from dormant (latently infected) patient cells-the major barrier to an HIV cure-is inherently stochastic. Eradicating an incompletely inducible (probabilistic) viral phenotype will require inventive approaches. PMID:24243007

  3. Emergence of co-infection of visceral leishmaniasis in HIV-positive patients in northeast Iran: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, Reza; Mohebali, Mehdi; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Galian, Meysam Sharifdini; Kalantar, Fathollah; Ashkan, Saeedeh; Fata, Abdolmajid; Farash, Bibi Razieh Hosseini; Ghasemian, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) serosurvey was carried out on 49 HIV/AIDS patients among 500 asymptomatic HIV/infected patients who registered in the Khorasan Razavi Province during the last 14 years. HIV infections were detected by ELISA and confirmed using western blot assay at the AIDS centre of the Khorasan Razavi Province. All collected sera were screened using the direct agglutination test (DAT). The sera with anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies at a titre of 1:100 were considered positive for VL infection and serum titration was performed from 1:100 to 1:102,400. Nine (18.4%) patients were sero-positive according to DAT. The distribution of sera titrations were as follows: 1:100 (n = 6) 1:1600 (n = 1); 1:25,600 (n = 1) and 1:102,400 (n = 1). All sero-positive cases showed clinical signs and symptoms. The most predominant signs and symptoms of co-infection of visceral leishmaniasis in HIV-positive patients were pneumonia (n = 2), hepatosplenomegaly (n = 2), lymphadenopathy (n = 2), anaemia (n = 1), prolonged fever (n = 1) and cachexia (n = 1). Our finding shows that VL (or kala-azar) is an opportunistic disease in HIV-positive patients that may be occurred in VL endemic areas of Iran. PMID:24100200

  4. Hemiballistic movements in a newly HIV patient.

    PubMed

    Magano, Rita; Jorge, Rita; Prata, Margarida; Ventura, Maria Conceição; Saraiva da Cunha, José Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Infections of central nervous system (CNS) include a broad group of conditions and pose a particular challenge to physicians, especially in immunocompromised individuals. This case refers to a 26-year-old male patient with a history of smoked hashish and drug abuse admitted to the infectious disease department with hemiballismus of left hemibody and a positive HIV serologic test. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study showed lesions at lower left and right cerebellar hemisphere, one of them thalamus - mesencephalic suggesting an opportunistic infection or an HIV associated encephalopathy. Lumbar puncture, brain biopsy and successive neuroimaging were not conclusive for one disease and despite the use of directed therapy for cerebral toxoplasmosis, meningeal tuberculosis, anti-retrovirals and sedative medication, after over 6 weeks of hospitalization pallidotomy was performed. After 5 months of oral and surgical treatment the patient showed clinical, immunological and radiological recovery. PMID:27583209

  5. Stem Cell Transplant Can Help HIV Patients Battling Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159395.html Stem Cell Transplant Can Help HIV Patients Battling Lymphoma: ... for lymphoma, and a new study concludes that stem cell transplant should be standard treatment in these ...

  6. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in HIV positive and HIV negative females, in a tertiary care hospital - An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Dimple; Sandhu, Ivy; Bahl, RK; Bhatia, Ruby; Goyal, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    The presentation and course of Sexually transmitted diseases(STI) may be altered by presence of coexisting HIV status. Aim of the study was to study the prevalence of STI in 50 females with HIV infection and 50 females without HIV infection and to study the pap smear of patients to look for any cellular changes (dysplasia) due to sexually transmitted infections. Material and methods: The present study was an observational study, which was undertaken on 100 females with STIs (50 females with coexistent HIV infection and 50 females without HIV infection), in the age group 15-49 years attending Skin and VD OPD of Rajindra hospital, Patiala. Results: In our study, the commonest presenting complaint in case of both HIV positive (66%) and HIV negative (80%) women was vaginal discharge. PAP smear abnormalities were present in 28 (56%) HIV positive women and 11 (22%) HIV negative women. In case of HIV positive women, the inflammation was trichomonal in 4 (8%), bacterial in 2 (4%), fungal in 2 (4%) and non-specific in 20 (40%) patients. In HIV negative women, the inflammation was trichomonal in 2 (4%) patients, bacterial in 2 (4%) patients and non-specific in 7 (14%) patients. The difference in abnormality seen in PAP smear between HIV positive and HIV negative women is statistically significant only in case of non-specific inflammation which is more common in case of HIV positive women. Conclusion: From the present study, it was concluded vaginal discharge was the commonest presenting complaint in both HIV positive and HIV negative women, though the commonest cause of vaginal discharge was candidiasis in HIV positive females and bacterial vaginosis in HIV negative females. Also, PAP smear abnormalities were significantly higher in HIV positive women than HIV negative women. So it is important that HIV positive women should have complete gynecological evaluation including a PAP smear with aggressive screening of STIs. PMID:26392656

  7. Why HIV positive patients on antiretroviral treatment and/or cotrimoxazole prophylaxis use traditional medicine: perceptions of health workers, traditional healers and patients: a study in two provinces of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Puoane, T R; Hughes, G D; Uwimana, J; Johnson, Q; Folk, W R

    2012-01-01

    The study explored the perceptions, knowledge and attitudes of patients, health workers and traditional healers about the use of traditional medicine and Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART). The study explored the perceptions, knowledge and attitudes of patients, health workers and traditional healers about the use of traditional medicine and Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART), using an exploratory qualitative design in two provinces of South Africa: an urban township health facility in the Western Cape, and a rural district hospital in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) with antennal HIV rate of 32% and 28%'respectively. In-depth interviews were conducted with 14 participants: six HIV patients on ART and using Traditional Medicine(TM), two doctors, two nurses and four traditional healers. Two focus group discussions -one at each site - were held with community health workers who work with HIV-positive patients (Western Cape [5] and in KZN [4]). Patient said to have used Traditional Healing Practices (THP) before they were diagnosed with HIV, and some who have been diagnosed with HIV continue using TM in conjunction with ART and/or Cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. Patients preferred not to disclose THP to health professionals because of lack of support and understanding. Patients utilize THP because of family expectations, privacy and confidentiality, especially when they have not disclosed their HIV status. Healthcare professionals had strong negative opinions about THP, especially for HIV-positive patients. Traditional healers supported the patient's rationale for THP use. This study revealed a need to better understand factors involved in patients' choosing to use THP concurrently with ART. PMID:23983385

  8. Stigma, social reciprocity and exclusion of HIV/AIDS patients with illicit drug histories: A study of Thai nurses' attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kit Yee; Stoové, Mark A; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2008-01-01

    Background Stigma is a key barrier for the delivery of care to patients living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). In the Asia region, the HIV/AIDS epidemic has disproportionately affected socially marginalised groups, in particular, injecting drug users. The effect of the stigmatising attitudes towards injecting drug users on perceptions of PLWHA within the health care contexts has not been thoroughly explored, and typically neglected in terms of stigma intervention. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a group of twenty Thai trainee and qualified nurses. Drawing upon the idea of 'social reciprocity', this paper examines the constructions of injecting drug users and PLWHA by a group of Thai nurses. Narratives were explored with a focus on how participants' views concerning the high-risk behaviour of injecting drug use might influence their attitudes towards PLWHA. Results The analysis shows that active efforts were made by participants to separate their views of patients living with HIV/AIDS from injecting drug users. While the former were depicted as patients worthy of social support and inclusion, the latter were excluded on the basis that they were perceived as irresponsible 'social cheaters' who pose severe social and economic harm to the community. Absent in the narratives were references to wider socio-political and epidemiological factors related to drug use and needle sharing that expose injecting drug users to risk; these behaviours were constructed as individual choices, allowing HIV positive drug users to be blamed for their seropositive status. These attitudes could potentially have indirect negative implications on the nurses' opinions of patients living with HIV/AIDS more generally. Conclusion Decreasing the stigma associated with illicit drugs might play crucial role in improving attitudes towards patients living with HIV/AIDS. Providing health workers with a broader understanding of risk behaviours and redirecting government injecting drug

  9. ORTHOPEDIC COMPLICATIONS IN HIV PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Lima, Ana Lúcia Lei Munhoz; Godoy, Alexandre Leme; Oliveira, Priscila Rosalba Domingos; Gobbi, Ricardo Gomes; de Almeida Silva, Camila; Martino, Patricia Bernardelli; Gutierrez, Eliana Bataggia; Gianna, Maria Clara; Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2009-01-01

    The considerable increase of the life expectancy of HIV-infected patients in the age of highly-powerful antiretroviral treatment results in important metabolic and bone-joint changes resulting from a long-lasting viral infection time and from this treatment. The most common orthopaedic complications are bone mineralization changes, osteonecrosis, carpal tunnel syndrome and gleno-humeral adhesive capsulitis, with different clinical presentation features, natural disease progression and therapeutic response compared to the overall population. Literature reports are initial, and the experience of the multidisciplinary service of the University of Sao Paulo's Institute of Orthopaedics and Traumatology enables us a more indepth knowledge about the various pathologies involved and the development of treatment protocols that are appropriate to these diagnoses. PMID:27004170

  10. ORTHOPEDIC COMPLICATIONS IN HIV PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Ana Lúcia Lei Munhoz; Godoy, Alexandre Leme; Oliveira, Priscila Rosalba Domingos; Gobbi, Ricardo Gomes; de Almeida Silva, Camila; Martino, Patricia Bernardelli; Gutierrez, Eliana Bataggia; Gianna, Maria Clara; Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2015-01-01

    The considerable increase of the life expectancy of HIV-infected patients in the age of highly-powerful antiretroviral treatment results in important metabolic and bone-joint changes resulting from a long-lasting viral infection time and from this treatment. The most common orthopaedic complications are bone mineralization changes, osteonecrosis, carpal tunnel syndrome and gleno-humeral adhesive capsulitis, with different clinical presentation features, natural disease progression and therapeutic response compared to the overall population. Literature reports are initial, and the experience of the multidisciplinary service of the University of Sao Paulo's Institute of Orthopaedics and Traumatology enables us a more indepth knowledge about the various pathologies involved and the development of treatment protocols that are appropriate to these diagnoses. PMID:27004170

  11. CD4 Cell Counts at HIV Diagnosis among HIV Outpatient Study Participants, 2000–2009

    PubMed Central

    Buchacz, Kate; Armon, Carl; Palella, Frank J.; Baker, Rose K.; Tedaldi, Ellen; Durham, Marcus D.; Brooks, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Background. It is unclear if CD4 cell counts at HIV diagnosis have improved over a 10-year period of expanded HIV testing in the USA. Methods. We studied HOPS participants diagnosed with HIV infection ≤6 months prior to entry into care during 2000–2009. We assessed the correlates of CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 at HIV diagnosis (late HIV diagnosis) by logistic regression. Results. Of 1,203 eligible patients, 936 (78%) had a CD4 count within 3 months after HIV diagnosis. Median CD4 count at HIV diagnosis was 299 cells/mm3 and did not significantly improve over time (P = 0.13). Comparing periods 2000-2001 versus 2008-2009, respectively, 39% and 35% of patients had a late HIV diagnosis (P = 0.34). Independent correlates of late HIV diagnosis were having an HIV risk other than being MSM, age ≥35 years at diagnosis, and being of nonwhite race/ethnicity. Conclusions. There is need for routine universal HIV testing to reduce the frequency of late HIV diagnosis and increase opportunity for patient- and potentially population-level benefits associated with early antiretroviral treatment. PMID:21941640

  12. Neuropsychological abnormalities in AIDS and asymptomatic HIV seropositive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Villa, G; Monteleone, D; Marra, C; Bartoli, A; Antinori, A; Pallavicini, F; Tamburrini, E; Izzi, I

    1993-01-01

    Neuropsychological and immunological parameters were studied in 36 AIDS patients with early disease and without clinical, laboratory, and neuroradiological signs of CNS impairment, and also in 33 asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects. Many AIDS patients performed abnormally on timed psychomotor tasks, tasks involving sequencing and "set-shifting", and memory tasks stressing attention, learning, active retrieval, and monitoring of information. Asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects as a group did not perform significantly worse than controls. However, on the basis of a cut off number of pathological performances on neuropsychological tasks, 52.8% of AIDS and 30.3% of asymptomatic HIV seropositive subjects had cognitive impairment, compared with 3.9% of HIV seronegative controls. Low values of CD4+ cells and of CD4+/CD8+ ratio and high titres of P-24 antigen in the blood prevailed among subjects with cognitive impairment, especially in the asymptomatic HIV seropositive group. PMID:8350104

  13. Food insecurity, CD4 counts, and incomplete viral suppression among HIV+ patients from Texas Children's Hospital: A pilot study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our goal was to determine the relationship between food insecurity and CD4 counts and viral suppression among pediatric HIV-positive patients. Food insecurity was assessed by validated survey. CD4 counts and viral load were abstracted from patients’ charts. We used linear regression for the dependen...

  14. High mortality in tuberculosis patients despite HIV interventions in Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    van Griensven, J.; Hinderaker, S. G.; Kizito, W.; Sikhondze, W.; Manzi, M.; Dlamini, T.; Harries, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: All health facilities providing tuberculosis (TB) care in Swaziland. Objective: To describe the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) interventions on the trend of TB treatment outcomes during 2010–2013 in Swaziland; and to describe the evolution in TB case notification, the uptake of HIV testing, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT), and the proportion of TB-HIV co-infected patients with adverse treatment outcomes, including mortality, loss to follow-up and treatment failure. Design: A retrospective descriptive study using aggregated national TB programme data. Results: Between 2010 and 2013, TB case notifications in Swaziland decreased by 40%, HIV testing increased from 86% to 96%, CPT uptake increased from 93% to 99% and ART uptake among TB patients increased from 35% to 75%. The TB-HIV co-infection rate remained around 70% and the proportion of TB-HIV cases with adverse outcomes decreased from 36% to 30%. Mortality remained high, at 14–16%, over the study period, and anti-tuberculosis treatment failure rates were stable over time (<5%). Conclusion: Despite high CPT and ART uptake in TB-HIV patients, mortality remained high. Further studies are required to better define high-risk patient groups, understand the reasons for death and design appropriate interventions. PMID:27358803

  15. Depression in patients with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Penzak, S R; Reddy, Y S; Grimsley, S R

    2000-02-15

    The epidemiology, clinical features, and drug treatment of depression in HIV-infected patients are discussed. The lifetime prevalence of depression in patients infected with HIV has been estimated at 22-45%. The signs and symptoms of depression are similar in HIV-infected and noninfected patients, but patients with HIV infection may more frequently have sleep and appetite disturbances. Diagnosis should focus on affective or cognitive depression symptoms that reflect mood state alone. Patients with a history of depression, homosexual men, women, and i.v. drug abusers are among HIV-infected individuals who may be at increased risk for depression. Depression may alter the course of HIV infection by impairing immune function or influencing behavior. Depression my contribute to nonadherence to therapy. Antidepressant therapy is effective in most HIV-positive patients with major depression. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) have produced response rates as high as 89%, but their usefulness has been limited by adverse effects. Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors and other non-TCAs have also demonstrated efficacy and are generally better tolerated. Psychostimulants have improved mood, cognition, and energy level, and androgens have been used for their anabolic effects. The systemic concentrations of antidepressants may be altered by coadministered drugs that affect their cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme-mediated metabolism; in turn, the metabolism and toxicity of certain antiretrovirals may be affected by antidepressants. Guidelines on the treatment of depression in the general population may be applied to patients with HIV infection. Depressive disorders are prevalent among patients with HIV infection but often respond to a variety of treatments. PMID:10714976

  16. A pilot study to evaluate the magnitude of association of the use of electronic personal health records with patient activation and empowerment in HIV-infected veterans

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Carol Dawson; Johnson, Mallory; Janson, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    by race and computer access. There was no difference in the current CD4, provider satisfaction, Health Care Empowerment Inventory score, satisfaction with provider-patient communication, satisfaction with courteous and helpful staff, knowledge of ART, or ART adherence. The use of electronic personal health records is associated with positive clinical and behavioral characteristics. The use of these systems may play a role in improving the health of people with HIV. Larger studies are needed to further evaluate these associations. PMID:25802815

  17. Knowledge of HIV Transmission and Associated Factors among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Patients in Rural Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Steven Y; Thompson, Daria; Wanke, Christine; Omosa, Gloria; Jordan, Michael R; Tang, Alice M; Patta, Shem; Mwero, Ben; Mjomba, Innocent; Mwamburi, Mkaya

    2012-01-01

    Summary Knowledge of HIV transmission is a prerequisite to practicing safer behaviors to prevent HIV infections and may be expected to vary by region because of cultural and socioeconomic determinants. A cross-sectional study was conducted in rural Kenya using a standardized questionnaire assessing HIV transmission knowledge, socio-demographic and other characteristics. Participants were recruited from the voluntary counseling and testing clinic and the general hospital population of Moi District Hospital. “High” HIV transmission knowledge scorers (≥ 81%) (Mean score) were compared with “low” scorers (<81%). Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to examine factors associated with HIV transmission knowledge. Of 214 participants, 70 (33%) were HIV-positive, 104 (49%) were HIV-negative, and 40 (19%) did not know. Factors associated with low knowledge in multivariate analyses were lower education (OR 2.36, CI 1.03–5.46), lower household money on healthcare (OR 2.03, CI 1.28–3.21), higher clinic transportation costs (OR 3.14, CI 1.20–9.82), sex without a condom (OR 2.18, CI 1.12–4.26), positive HIV status vs. negative (OR 2.50, CI 1.22–5.26) and positive HIV status vs. unknown (OR 3.57, CI 1.33–9.09). Mean HIV transmission knowledge score was relatively high; however, a large proportion of patients demonstrated low knowledge. Identifying individuals at risk for low knowledge will support targeted HIV education and prevention programs. PMID:23495369

  18. Characteristics of Patients Recently Infected with HIV-1 Non-B Subtypes in France: a Nested Study within the Mandatory Notification System for New HIV Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Denys; Moreau, Alain; Cazein, Françoise; Lot, Florence; Pillonel, Josiane; Brunet, Sylvie; Thierry, Damien; Le Vu, Stéphane; Plantier, Jean-Christophe; Semaille, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    The presence of HIV-1 non-B subtypes in Western Europe is commonly attributed to migration of individuals from non-European countries, but the possible role of domestic infections with non-B subtypes is not well investigated. The French mandatory anonymous reporting system for HIV is linked to a virological surveillance using assays for recent infection (<6 months) and serotyping. During the first semester of years 2007 to 2010, any sample corresponding to a non-B recent infection was analyzed by sequencing a 415-bp env region, followed by phylogenetic analysis and search for transmission clusters. Two hundred thirty-three recent HIV-1 infections with non-B variants were identified. They involved 5 subtypes and 7 circulating recombinant forms (CRFs). Ninety-two cases (39.5%) were due to heterosexual transmissions, of which 39 occurred in patients born in France. Eighty-five cases (36.5%) were identified in men having sex with men (MSM). Forty-three recent non-B infections (18.5%) segregated into 14 clusters, MSM being involved in 11 of them. Clustered transmission events included 2 to 7 cases per cluster. The largest cluster involved MSM infected by a CRF02_AG variant. In conclusion, we found that the spread of non-B subtypes in France occurs in individuals of French origin and that MSM are particularly involved in this dynamic. PMID:25232163

  19. Predictors of Poor Retention in Care of HIV-infected Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in Korea: Five-Year Hospital-based Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Kye-Hyung; Lee, Jeong Eun; Cho, Heerim; Lee, Seung Geun; Chen, Dong Hwan; Chung, Joo Seop; Kwak, Ihm Soo

    2016-01-01

    Poor retention in care (RIC) is associated with higher antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure and worse survival. Identifying high risk patients for poor RIC is important for targeted intervention. A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Korea. HIV-infected patients initiating ART during 2002-2008 were included. 5 year-RIC was measured by hospital visit constancy (HVC) at 5 years after initiating ART. Among 247 enrolled patients, 179 (72.5%) remained in care, 20 (8.1%) were transferred to other hospitals, 9 (3.6%) died and 39 (15.8%) were lost to follow-up. We compared the demographic, psychosocial, and clinical characteristics between the groups with 100% HVC (n = 166, 67.2%) and ≤ 50% HVC (n = 33, 13.4%). In multivariable analysis, ART-starting age ≤ 30 years (odds ratio [OR] 4.08 vs. > 50; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-15.15, P = 0.036), no non-HIV related comorbidity (OR 2.94 vs. comorbidity ≥ 1; 95% CI 1.02-8.49, P = 0.046), baseline CD4 cell count > 300 cells/μL (OR 3.58 vs. ≤ 200; 95% CI 1.33-9.65, P = 0.012) were significant predictable factors of poor RIC. HIV/AIDS care-givers should pay attention to young patients with higher baseline CD4 cell counts and no non-HIV related comorbidity. PMID:26955237

  20. Predicting the short-term risk of diabetes in HIV-positive patients: the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study

    PubMed Central

    Petoumenos, Kathy; Worm, Signe W; Fontas, Eric; Weber, Rainer; De Wit, Stephane; Bruyand, Mathias; Reiss, Peter; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Monforte, Antonella D'Arminio; Friis-Møller, Nina; Lundgren, Jens D; Law, Matthew G

    2012-01-01

    Introduction HIV-positive patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) frequently experience metabolic complications such as dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, as well as lipodystrophy, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Rates of DM and other glucose-associated disorders among HIV-positive patients have been reported to range between 2 and 14%, and in an ageing HIV-positive population, the prevalence of DM is expected to continue to increase. This study aims to develop a model to predict the short-term (six-month) risk of DM in HIV-positive populations and to compare the existing models developed in the general population. Methods All patients recruited to the Data Collection on Adverse events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study with follow-up data, without prior DM, myocardial infarction or other CVD events and with a complete DM risk factor profile were included. Conventional risk factors identified in the general population as well as key HIV-related factors were assessed using Poisson-regression methods. Expected probabilities of DM events were also determined based on the Framingham Offspring Study DM equation. The D:A:D and Framingham equations were then assessed using an internal-external validation process; area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve and predicted DM events were determined. Results Of 33,308 patients, 16,632 (50%) patients were included, with 376 cases of new onset DM during 89,469 person-years (PY). Factors predictive of DM included higher glucose, body mass index (BMI) and triglyceride levels, and older age. Among HIV-related factors, recent CD4 counts of<200 cells/µL and lipodystrophy were predictive of new onset DM. The mean performance of the D:A:D and Framingham equations yielded AUROC of 0.894 (95% CI: 0.849, 0.940) and 0.877 (95% CI: 0.823, 0.932), respectively. The Framingham equation over-predicted DM events compared to D:A:D for lower glucose and lower

  1. Attitude of patients with HIV infection towards organ transplant between HIV patients. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Taha, Huda; Newby, Katie; Das, Archik; Das, Satyajit

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the HIV patients' attitudes towards the practice of organ transplant between HIV patients using a cross-sectional survey design. In total, 206 patients participated with a mean age of 42 (±8.8) years. The majority (70%) were black African and women (54%), and 83% described themselves as heterosexual. Most participants (n = 171, 83%) were on treatment, and 159 (93%) had viral load less than 40 copies/ml. Mean duration of illness and mean duration of treatment were 77 (±42.7) and 68 (±41) months, respectively. Of all participants, 128 (62%) reported that they would consider donating either any organ or a specific organ/s to an HIV patient, 33 (16%) would not consider it and 45 (22%) were unsure about donating their organs. Furthermore, 113 (55%) participants would consider receiving an organ from an HIV patient, 37 (18%) would not consider it, and 56 (27%) were unsure. Ninety-eight participants (42%) reported that they would consider both donating and receiving an organ. Multinomial logistic regression analysis found that significantly more Black African than Caucasian participants were unsure about organ donation (p = 0.011, OR = 3.887). Participants with longer duration of infection were significantly less likely to consider receiving an organ from an HIV patient (p = 0.036, OR = 1.297). Overall, the study findings indicated that the majority of participants were in favour of organ transplant between HIV patients. Use of HIV-infected donors could potentially reduce current organ waiting list among HIV patients. PMID:25614524

  2. A Diagnostic Accuracy Study of Xpert®MTB/RIF in HIV-Positive Patients with High Clinical Suspicion of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Carriquiry, Gabriela; Otero, Larissa; González-Lagos, Elsa; Zamudio, Carlos; Sánchez, Eduardo; Nabeta, Pamela; Campos, Miguel; Echevarría, Juan; Seas, Carlos; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients remains complex and demands easy to perform and accurate tests. Xpert®MTB/RIF (MTB/RIF) is a molecular TB diagnostic test which is rapid and convenient; the test requires minimal human resources and reports results within two hours. The majority of performance studies of MTB/RIF have been performed in high HIV burden settings, thus TB diagnostic studies among HIV patients in low HIV prevalence settings such as Peru are still needed. Methodology/Principal Findings From April 2010 to May 2011, HIV-positive patients with high clinical suspicion of TB were enrolled from two tertiary hospitals in Lima, Peru. Detection of TB by MTB/RIF was compared to a composite reference standard Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) and liquid culture. Detection of rifampicin resistance was compared to the LJ proportion method. We included 131 patients, the median CD4 cell count was 154.5 cells/mm3 and 45 (34.4%) had TB. For TB detection among HIV patients, sensitivity of MTB/RIF was 97.8% (95% CI 88.4–99.6) (44/45); specificity was 97.7% (95% CI 91.9–99.4) (84/86); the positive predictive value was 95.7% (95% CI 85.5–98.8) (44/46); and the negative predictive value, 98.8% (95% CI 93.6–99.8) (84/85). MTB/RIF detected 13/14 smear-negative TB cases, outperforming smear microscopy [97.8% (44/45) vs. 68.9% (31/45); p = 0.0002]. For rifampicin resistance detection, sensitivity of MTB/RIF was 100% (95% CI 61.0–100.0) (6/6); specificity was 91.0% (95% CI 76.4–96.9) (30/33); the positive predictive value was 66.7% (95% CI 35.4–87.9) (6/9); and the negative predictive value was 100% (95% CI 88.7 –100.0) (30/30). Conclusions/Significance In HIV patients in our population with a high clinical suspicion of TB, MTB/RIF performed well for TB diagnosis and outperformed smear microscopy. PMID:22970271

  3. Neurologic diseases in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Bilgrami, Mohammed; O'Keefe, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy there has been an improvement in the quality of life for people with HIV infection. Despite the progress made, about 70% of HIV patients develop neurologic complications. These originate either in the central or the peripheral nervous system (Sacktor, 2002). These neurologic disorders are divided into primary and secondary disorders. The primary disorders result from the direct effects of the virus and include HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), HIV-associated vacuolar myelopathy (VM), and distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP). Secondary disorders result from marked immunosuppression and include opportunistic infections and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). A differential diagnosis which can be accomplished by detailed history, neurologic examination, and by having a good understanding of the role of HIV in various neurologic disorders will help physicians in approaching these problems. The focus of this chapter is to discuss neuropathogenesis of HIV, the various opportunistic infections, primary CNS lymphoma, neurosyphilis, CNS tuberculosis, HIV-associated peripheral neuropathies, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), and vacuolar myelopathy (VM). It also relies on the treatment recommendations and guidelines for the above mentioned neurologic disorders proposed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. PMID:24365422

  4. Use of Pentamidine As Secondary Prophylaxis to Prevent Visceral Leishmaniasis Relapse in HIV Infected Patients, the First Twelve Months of a Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Diro, Ermias; Ritmeijer, Koert; Boelaert, Marleen; Alves, Fabiana; Mohammed, Rezika; Abongomera, Charles; Ravinetto, Raffaella; De Crop, Maaike; Fikre, Helina; Adera, Cherinet; Colebunders, Robert; van Loen, Harry; Menten, Joris; Lynen, Lutgarde; Hailu, Asrat; van Griensven, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has become an important opportunistic infection in persons with HIV-infection in VL-endemic areas. The co-infection leads to profound immunosuppression and high rate of annual VL recurrence. This study assessed the effectiveness, safety and feasibility of monthly pentamidine infusions to prevent recurrence of VL in HIV co-infected patients. Methods A single-arm, open-label trial was conducted at two leishmaniasis treatment centers in northwest Ethiopia. HIV-infected patients with a VL episode were included after parasitological cure. Monthly infusions of 4mg/kg pentamidine-isethionate diluted in normal-saline were started for 12months. All received antiretroviral therapy (ART). Time-to-relapse or death was the primary end point. Results Seventy-four patients were included. The probability of relapse-free survival at 6months and at 12 months was 79% and 71% respectively. Renal failure, a possible drug-related serious adverse event, occurred in two patients with severe pneumonia. Forty-one patients completed the regimen taking at least 11 of the 12 doses. Main reasons to discontinue were: 15 relapsed, five died and seven became lost to follow-up. More patients failed among those with a CD4+cell count ≤ 50cells/μl, 5/7 (71.4%) than those with counts above 200 cells/μl, 2/12 (16.7%), (p = 0.005). Conclusion Pentamidine secondary prophylaxis led to a 29% failure rate within one year, much lower than reported in historical controls (50%-100%). Patients with low CD4+cell counts are at increased risk of relapse despite effective initial VL treatment, ART and secondary prophylaxis. VL should be detected and treated early enough in patients with HIV infection before profound immune deficiency installs. PMID:26431253

  5. HIV prevalence in patients with herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Kar, P K; Ramasastry, C V

    2003-01-01

    To monitor HIV seroprevalence and to determine the sexual risk behaviour of men with herpes zoster (HZ), a study was conducted from Jan 98 to Dec 99 among 115 men of 21 to 55 years of age suffering from HZ. The diagnosis of HZ was clinical and relevant investigations when indicated were carried out to exclude immunodeficiency state. None of the cases were on immunosuppressive drugs. All cases were tested for HIV by immunocomb method and if found positive were confirmed by Western blot assay. Out of 115 cases of HZ 11 (9.5%) were found to be HIV positive. 11 (10.8%) of HIV positive cases were 21-40 years of age. More than one dermatome was involved in 7 (63.6%) HIV positive and in 2 (1.9%) HIV negative cases. 2 HIV positive cases had multiple cranial nerve involvement and one had generalized HZ. None of the cases showed evidence of progression to symptomatic HIV disease. Out of 11 HIV positive cases 9 (81.8%) gave history of multiple unprotected sexual exposures with female commercial sex workers and 2 (18.1%) with amateurs. None of our cases had used condom during sexual intercourse. None gave history of blood transfusion in the past or intravenous drug use. PMID:17642851

  6. Porphyria cutanea tarda in a HIV- positive patient*

    PubMed Central

    Franzon, Valéria Aparecida Zanela; Mikilita, Emanuella Stella; Camelo, Fernanda Henriques; Camargo, Rosana

    2016-01-01

    This is a case report about Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) and its relationship with the infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Cutaneous porphyria is an illness caused by enzymatic modification that results in partial deficiency of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (Urod), which may be hereditary or acquired. Several studies suggest that HIV infection associated with cofactors might trigger the development of porphyria cutanea tarda. In this case report, we present a patient infected with HIV, who after the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) enjoyed clinical improvement of porphyria cutanea tarda symptoms. PMID:27579753

  7. Porphyria cutanea tarda in a HIV- positive patient.

    PubMed

    Franzon, Valéria Aparecida Zanela; Mikilita, Emanuella Stella; Camelo, Fernanda Henriques; Camargo, Rosana

    2016-01-01

    This is a case report about Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) and its relationship with the infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Cutaneous porphyria is an illness caused by enzymatic modification that results in partial deficiency of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (Urod), which may be hereditary or acquired. Several studies suggest that HIV infection associated with cofactors might trigger the development of porphyria cutanea tarda. In this case report, we present a patient infected with HIV, who after the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) enjoyed clinical improvement of porphyria cutanea tarda symptoms. PMID:27579753

  8. Off-label use of rilpivirine in combination with emtricitabine and tenofovir in HIV-1-infected pediatric patients: A multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Falcon-Neyra, Lola; Palladino, Claudia; Navarro Gómez, María Luisa; Soler-Palacín, Pere; González-Tomé, María Isabel; De Ory, Santiago J; Frick, Marie Antoinette; Fortuny, Clàudia; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Moreno, Elena Bermúdez; Santos, Juan Luis; Olbrich, Peter; López-Cortés, Luis F; Briz, Verónica; Neth, Olaf

    2016-06-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of rilpivirine in combination with emtricitabine and tenofovir (RPV/FTC/TDF) as a once-daily single-tablet regimen (STR) in HIV-1-infected children and adolescents we performed a multicenter case series study of HIV-1-infected patients. Inclusion criteria were initiation of therapy with RPV/FTC/TDF before the age of 18. Patients were divided into undetectable viral load (uVL) group, HIV-1 RNA < 20 copies/mL on stable combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), and detectable viral load (dVL) group, HIV-1 RNA ≥ 20 copies/mL at RPV/FTC/TDF initiation. Patients were monitored from the date of RPV/FTC/TDF initiation until June 30, 2015, RPV/FTC/TDF discontinuation or failure to follow-up. Seventeen patients (8 in uVL and 9 in dVL group) with age between 11.6 and 17.6 were included. Reasons for switching were toxicity (n = 4) and simplification (n = 4) in uVL; viral failure (n = 8) and cART initiation (n = 1) in the dVL group. After a median follow-up of 90 (uVL) and 40 weeks (dVL), 7/8 (86%) patients maintained and 8/9 (89%) achieved and maintained HIV-1 suppression. Median CD4 count increased from 542 to 780/μL (uVL, P = 0.069) and 480 to 830/μL (dVL, P = 0.051). Five patients (2 in uVL and 3 in dVL) improved their immunological status from moderate to no immunosuppression. Serum lipid profiles improved in both groups; cholesterol dropped significantly in the dVL group (P = 0.008). Grade 1 laboratory adverse events (AEs) were observed in 3 patients. No clinical AEs occurred. Adherence was complete in 9 patients (5 in uVL and 4 in dVL); 1 adolescent interrupted treatment. Once-daily STR with RPV/FTC/TDF may be a safe and effective choice in selected HIV-1-infected adolescents and children. PMID:27310962

  9. Mortality in HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis treated with streptomycin and a two-week intensified regimen: data from an HIV cohort study using inverse probability of treatment weighting.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Midde, Manoranjan; Naik, Praveen K

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite the dramatic scale-up of antiretroviral therapy in low- and middle-income countries, tuberculosis (TB) is still the main cause of death among HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings. Previous studies in patients with TB meningitis suggest that the use of higher doses of common anti-TB drugs could reduce mortality. Methods. Using clinical data from an HIV cohort study in India, we compared the mortality among HIV-infected patients diagnosed with TB according to the regimen received during the first two weeks of treatment: standard anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT) (N = 847), intensified ATT (N = 322), and intensified ATT with streptomycin (N = 446). The intensified ATT comprised double dose of rifampicin and substitution of ethambutol with levofloxacin. Multivariate analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard models and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) based on propensity scores. Patients with TB meningitis were excluded. Results. The use of intensified ATT alone did not improve survival. However, when streptomycin was added, the use intensified ATT was associated with reduced mortality in Cox models (adjusted hazard ratio 0.72, 95% CI [0.57-0.91]) and after IPTW (hazard ratio 0.77, 95% CI [0.67-0.96]). Other factors associated with improved survival were high serum albumin concentration, high CD4 lymphocyte cell-counts, and high glomerular filtration rates. Factors associated with increased mortality were high urea concentrations, being on antiretroviral therapy at the time of ATT initiation and high BUN/creatinine ratio. In an effect modification analysis, the survival benefits of the intensified ATT with streptomycin disappeared in patients with severe hypoalbuminemia. Conclusion. The results of this study are in accordance with a previous study from our cohort involving patients with TB meningitis, and suggest that an intensified 2-week ATT with streptomycin could reduce mortality in HIV infected patients

  10. Mortality in HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis treated with streptomycin and a two-week intensified regimen: data from an HIV cohort study using inverse probability of treatment weighting

    PubMed Central

    Midde, Manoranjan; Naik, Praveen K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite the dramatic scale-up of antiretroviral therapy in low- and middle-income countries, tuberculosis (TB) is still the main cause of death among HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings. Previous studies in patients with TB meningitis suggest that the use of higher doses of common anti-TB drugs could reduce mortality. Methods. Using clinical data from an HIV cohort study in India, we compared the mortality among HIV-infected patients diagnosed with TB according to the regimen received during the first two weeks of treatment: standard anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT) (N = 847), intensified ATT (N = 322), and intensified ATT with streptomycin (N = 446). The intensified ATT comprised double dose of rifampicin and substitution of ethambutol with levofloxacin. Multivariate analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard models and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) based on propensity scores. Patients with TB meningitis were excluded. Results. The use of intensified ATT alone did not improve survival. However, when streptomycin was added, the use intensified ATT was associated with reduced mortality in Cox models (adjusted hazard ratio 0.72, 95% CI [0.57–0.91]) and after IPTW (hazard ratio 0.77, 95% CI [0.67–0.96]). Other factors associated with improved survival were high serum albumin concentration, high CD4 lymphocyte cell-counts, and high glomerular filtration rates. Factors associated with increased mortality were high urea concentrations, being on antiretroviral therapy at the time of ATT initiation and high BUN/creatinine ratio. In an effect modification analysis, the survival benefits of the intensified ATT with streptomycin disappeared in patients with severe hypoalbuminemia. Conclusion. The results of this study are in accordance with a previous study from our cohort involving patients with TB meningitis, and suggest that an intensified 2-week ATT with streptomycin could reduce mortality in HIV infected

  11. Collaborative activities and treatment outcomes in patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis in Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Nhung, N. V.; Shewade, H. D.; Hoa, N. B.; Harries, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: The National Tuberculosis (TB) Programme in Viet Nam and Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). Objectives: To determine 1) at national level between 2011 and 2013, the relationship between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, uptake of TB-HIV interventions and adverse treatment outcomes among TB-HIV patients; and 2) in HCMC in 2013, patient characteristics associated with adverse outcomes. Design: An ecological study reviewing aggregate nationwide data and a retrospective cohort review in HCMC. Results: Nationwide, from 2011 to 2013, HIV testing increased in TB patients from 58% to 68% and antiretroviral therapy (ART) increased in TB-HIV patients from 54% to 63%. Adverse treatment outcomes in TB-HIV patients increased from 24% to 27%, largely due to transfer out (5–9% increase) and death. The Northern and Highland regions showed poor uptake of TB-HIV interventions. In HCMC, 303 (27%) of 1110 TB-HIV patients had adverse outcomes, with higher risks observed in those with previously treated TB, those diagnosed as HIV-positive before TB onset and those never placed on cotrimoxazole or ART. Conclusion: Despite improving HIV testing rates and TB-HIV interventions, adverse outcomes in TB-HIV patients remain at about 26%. Characteristics predicting higher risk of adverse outcomes must be addressed if Viet Nam wishes to end the TB epidemic by 2030. PMID:27051604

  12. HIV-2 Integrase Polymorphisms and Longitudinal Genotypic Analysis of HIV-2 Infected Patients Failing a Raltegravir-Containing Regimen

    PubMed Central

    Cavaco-Silva, Joana; Abecasis, Ana; Miranda, Ana Cláudia; Poças, José; Narciso, Jorge; Águas, Maria João; Maltez, Fernando; Almeida, Isabel; Germano, Isabel; Diniz, António; Gonçalves, Maria de Fátima; Gomes, Perpétua; Cunha, Celso; Camacho, Ricardo Jorge

    2014-01-01

    To characterize the HIV-2 integrase gene polymorphisms and the pathways to resistance of HIV-2 patients failing a raltegravir-containing regimen, we studied 63 integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTI)-naïve patients, and 10 heavily pretreated patients exhibiting virological failure while receiving a salvage raltegravir-containing regimen. All patients were infected by HIV-2 group A. 61.4% of the integrase residues were conserved, including the catalytic motif residues. No INSTI-major resistance mutations were detected in the virus population from naïve patients, but two amino acids that are secondary resistance mutations to INSTIs in HIV-1 were observed. The 10 raltegravir-experienced patients exhibited resistance mutations via three main genetic pathways: N155H, Q148R, and eventually E92Q - T97A. The 155 pathway was preferentially used (7/10 patients). Other mutations associated to raltegravir resistance in HIV-1 were also observed in our HIV-2 population (V151I and D232N), along with several novel mutations previously unreported. Data retrieved from this study should help build a more robust HIV-2-specific algorithm for the genotypic interpretation of raltegravir resistance, and contribute to improve the clinical monitoring of HIV-2-infected patients. PMID:24681625

  13. Hepatitis E virus infection in the HIV-positive patient.

    PubMed

    Debes, Jose D; Pisano, Maria Belen; Lotto, Martin; Re, Viviana

    2016-07-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a RNA virus that can cause hepatitis. In immunocompetent individuals, infection with HEV usually leads to asymptomatic seroconversion. However, in immunosuppressed patients, such as transplant recipients, HEV can develop into a chronic infection. Studies regarding the seroprevalence and clinical implications of HEV in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are conflicting. Levels of CD4 count in blood seem to be the most widely associated risk factor, while other factors such as meat consumption or proximity to animals are less clearly associated with HEV infection. Progression to chronicity, as well as extrahepatic manifestations of HEV seem rare in HIV, and the implications of HEV in liver disease progression are poorly understood in the HIV-infected. In this review we describe the epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical implications of HEV infection in individuals infected with HIV. PMID:27243210

  14. Rates of cardiovascular disease following smoking cessation in patients with HIV infection: results from the D:A:D Study

    PubMed Central

    Petoumenos, K; Worm, S; Reiss, P; de Wit, S; d’Arminio Monforte, A; Sabin, C; Friis-Moller, N; Weber, R; Mercie, P; Pradier, C; El-Sadr, W; Kirk, O; Lundgren, J; Law, MG

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate the rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events after stopping smoking in patients with HIV-infection. Design Patients who reported smoking status, and no previous CVD prior to enrolment into D:A:D were included. Smoking status is collected at each visit as current smoker (yes/no) and ever smoker (yes/no). Duration since stopping smoking was calculated for persons who had reported current smoking during follow-up and no current smoking subsequently. Endpoints were: myocardial infarction (MI); coronary heart disease (CHD – MI plus invasive coronary artery procedure or death from other CHD); CVD (CVD – CHD plus carotid artery endarterectomy or stroke); and all-cause mortality. Methods Event rates were calculated for never, previous and current smokers, and smokers who stopped during follow-up. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were determined using Poisson regression adjusted for age, sex, cohort, calendar year, family history of CVD, diabetes, lipids, blood pressure and antiretroviral treatment. Results 27,136 patients had smoking status reported, with a total of 432, 600, 746 and 1902 MI, CHD, CVD and mortality events respectively. The adjusted IRR of CVD in patients who stopped smoking during follow-up decreased from 2.32 within the first year of stopping to 1.49 after 3+ years compared to those who never smoked. Similar trends were observed for the MI and CHD endpoints. Reductions in risk were less pronounced for all cause mortality. Conclusion The risk of CVD events in HIV-positive patients decreased with increasing time since stopping smoking. Smoking cessation efforts should be a priority in the management of HIV positive patients. PMID:21251183

  15. HIV-related symptoms and patient clusters among Chileans living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Araya, A. X.; Norr, K. F.; Levy, J.A.; Pérez, C.M.; Park, C.G.; Kim, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Identifying both HIV-related and co-morbid symptoms experienced by people living with HIV (PLWH) who are receiving antiretroviral therapy treatment (ART) is a major challenge for health care providers globally. Yet little research to date has examined the symptoms of illness experienced by PLWH including patients living in Central and South American. To address this gap, this study was designed to identify symptoms of HIV by socio-demographic and/or clinical characteristics among Chilean patients living with the virus. A convenience sample of 209 Chilean PLWH was recruited from an outpatient clinic in Santiago, Chile. A structured interview was used to elicit socio-demographic information and HIV symptoms status. Additional clinical information was obtained through a review of the participants’ medical records. Results show that patients’ most commonly reported HIV-related symptoms were fear/worries (66%), anxiety (52%), gas/bloating (50%), and thirst (50%). Multivariate analysis revealed a positive association between the number of reported HIV-related symptoms and number of years living with HIV. Having completed college was negatively associated with number of symptoms. Latent class analysis indicated that PLWH in the sample who had completed college were two times more likely to experience a mild intensity of HIV-related symptoms than their lesser educated counterparts. Similarly, logistic regression revealed that college-educated PLWH were twice as likely to be classified in the subgroup reporting mild intensity of symptoms than those who lacked a college degree. Overall, the study’s results reveal that many Chilean PLWH, even those with high CD4 counts and low or undetectable viral loads, are not symptom free. The findings point to the need for clinicians to tailor a plan of care for individuals living with HIV that is based on their symptomatology. PMID:22909386

  16. Impaired Urine Dilution Capability in HIV Stable Patients

    PubMed Central

    Belloso, Waldo H.; de Paz Sierra, Mariana; Navarro, Matilde; Sanchez, Marisa L.; Perelsztein, Ariel G.; Musso, Carlos G.

    2014-01-01

    Renal disease is a well-recognized complication among patients with HIV infection. Viral infection itself and the use of some antiretroviral drugs contribute to this condition. The thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TALH) is the tubule segment where free water clearance is generated, determining along with glomerular filtration rate the kidney's ability to dilute urine. Objective. We analyzed the function of the proximal tubule and TALH in patients with HIV infection receiving or not tenofovir-containing antiretroviral treatment in comparison with healthy seronegative controls, by applying a tubular physiological test, hyposaline infusion test (Chaimowitz' test). Material & Methods. Chaimowitz' test was performed on 20 HIV positive volunteers who had normal renal functional parameters. The control group included 10 healthy volunteers. Results. After the test, both HIV groups had a significant reduction of serum sodium and osmolarity compared with the control group. Free water clearance was lower and urine osmolarity was higher in both HIV+ groups. Proximal tubular function was normal in both studied groups. Conclusion. The present study documented that proximal tubule sodium reabsorption was preserved while free water clearance and maximal urine dilution capability were reduced in stable HIV patients treated or not with tenofovir. PMID:24800076

  17. Predicting intention to treat HIV-infected patients among Tanzanian and Sudanese medical and dental students using the theory of planned behaviour - a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The HIV epidemic poses significant challenges to the low income countries in sub Saharan Africa (SSA), affecting the attrition rate among health care workers, their level of motivation, and absenteeism from work. Little is known about how to deal with deterioration of human resources in the health care systems. This study aimed to predict the intention to provide surgical treatment to HIV infected patients among medical- and dental students in Tanzania and Sudan using an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Methods Four hundred and seventy five medical- and dental students at the University of Dar es Salaam (mean age, 25 yr) and 642 dental students attending 6 public and private dental faculties in Khartoum (mean age 21.7 yr) completed self-administered TPB questionnaires in 2005 and 2007, respectively. Results Both Tanzanian and Sudanese students demonstrated strong intentions to provide care for people with HIV and AIDS. Stepwise linear regression revealed that the TPB accounted for 51% (43% in Tanzania and Sudan) of the variance in intention across study sites. After having controlled for country and past behaviour, the TPB in terms of attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control accounted for 34% and moral norms for an additional 2,3% of the explainable variance in intention. Across both study sites, attitudes were the strongest predictor of intention followed in descending order by subjective norms, moral norms and perceived behavioural control. Conclusion The TPB is applicable to students' care delivery intentions in the context of HIV and AIDS across the two SSA countries investigated. It is suggested that attitudes, subjective norms, moral norms and perceived behavioural control are key factors in students' willingness to treat AIDS and HIV infected patients and should be targets of interventions aimed at improving the quality of health care delivery in this context. PMID:19930555

  18. Sublingual allergen immunotherapy in HIV-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Iemoli, E; Borgonovo, L; Fusi, A; Magni, C; Ricci, E D; Rizzardini, G; Piconi, S

    2016-03-01

    HIV infection is a relative contraindication for allergic immunotherapy (AIT). In the last decade, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved the immune function and life expectancy in HIV-infected patients whose respiratory allergic incidence is similar to the general population. We evaluated the safety and clinical effectiveness of sublingual immunotherapy in a group of grass pollen-allergic HAART-treated HIV-positive patients. Thirteen patients received sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablet (Oralair, Stallergenes©) and symptomatic therapy and were compared with nine patients receiving symptomatic therapy alone. Clinical benefits were evaluated by the analysis of total combined score (TCS), sum of symptom-medication score, and a quality of life (QoL) questionnaire. HIV viral load and peripheral TCD4 lymphocytes were analyzed at the beginning and at the end of the study. Clinical efficacy data showed a significant improvement in SLIT-treated patients compared to controls (TCS: P = 0.0001; QoL: P = 0.03). We did not observe any significant alteration of TCD4 cell counts and viral load (VL) in both groups. Our preliminary data showed that SLIT therapy in viro-immunological controlled HAART treated HIV positive patients was efficacious, safe and well tolerated. PMID:26228482

  19. Mannose binding lectin gene variants and susceptibility to tuberculosis in HIV-1 infected patients of South India.

    PubMed

    Alagarasu, Kalichamy; Selvaraj, Paramasivam; Swaminathan, Soumya; Raghavan, Sampathkumar; Narendran, Gopalan; Narayanan, Paranji R

    2007-11-01

    Mannose binding lectin (MBL) plays an important role in innate immunity. Plasma MBL levels and MBL2 gene polymorphisms were studied in HIV-1 infected patients without tuberculosis (HIV+TB-) (n=151) and with tuberculosis (HIV+TB+) (n=109), HIV negative tuberculosis patients (HIV-TB+) (n=148) and healthy controls (n=146) by ELISA and genotyping by polymerase chain reaction based methods. MBL levels were significantly increased among HIV-TB+ and HIV+TB+ patients than controls and HIV+TB- patients (P<0.05). A significantly increased frequency of OO genotype of structural polymorphism and YY genotype of -221Y/X was observed among HIV-TB+ patients than controls. In HIV+TB+ patients, a significantly increased frequency of YA/YA diplotype (associated with very high MBL levels) was observed compared to controls (P=0.03). In HIV+TB+ patients, a significantly decreased frequency of medium MBL expression diplotypes (XA/XA and YA/YO) were noticed compared to HIV+TB- and healthy controls. The results suggest that YA/YA diplotype associated with very high MBL levels may predispose HIV-infected patients to tuberculosis while O/O genotype associated with very low MBL levels may be associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis in HIV uninfected individuals. Medium MBL expression diplotypes might protect against development of TB in HIV-infected patients. PMID:17855170

  20. Effects of Pitavastatin on Lipid Profiles in HIV-Infected Patients with Dyslipidemia and Receiving Atazanavir/Ritonavir: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Wongprikorn, Asita; Sukasem, Chonlaphat; Puangpetch, Apichaya; Numthavej, Pawin; Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin

    2016-01-01

    Background Dyslipidemia as a risk factor of cardiovascular disease is common especially in HIV-infected patients who are using protease inhibitors (PIs) including atazanavir. Pitavastatin has less drug-drug interactions and demonstrable efficacy in decreasing lipid levels in non HIV-infected individuals. Materials and Methods This study was a randomized, double-blind, crossover study comparing the safety and efficacy of pitavastatin vs placebo in HIV-infected patients with dyslipidemia and receiving atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r). Patients were randomized to receive either placebo or pitavastatin for 12 weeks. The follow-up visits were every 4 weeks until the end of the study. Results A total of 12 HIV-infected patients were enrolled to each study group. Of all, 14 (58%) patients were men and mean (standard deviation, SD) age was 48.1 (1.8) years. At 12 weeks of treatment with pitavastatin compared to placebo; mean [95% confidence interval (CI)] total cholesterol (TC) was 207 (187.3, 226.8) mg/dL vs 246.3 (226.5, 266) mg/dL (p <0.001); mean (95% CI) triglyceride (TG) was 351.3 (193.2, 509.4) mg/dL vs 279.1 (121, 437.2) mg/dL (p = 0.269); mean (95% CI) high density lipoprotein (HDL) was 45.3 (40.4, 50.2) mg/dL vs 44.2 (39.3, 49.1) mg/dL (p = 0.354); and mean (95% CI) low density lipoprotein (LDL) was 113.2 (100.4, 126) mg/dL vs 145.6 (132.8, 158.4) mg/dL (p <0.001). Mean liver enzyme and median creatine phosphokinase levels were not statistically significant between patients receiving placebo and pitavastatin. Conclusions Pitavastatin decreases TC and LDL level at 12 weeks significantly and shows indifferent in hepatotoxicity and creatine phosphokinase levels compared to those of placebo. Thus, pitavastatin can be a good option of lipid-lowering agent in HIV-infected patients who are receiving ATV/r. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02442700 PMID:27304841

  1. Treatment of latent syphilis in HIV-infected patients with 10 d of benzylpenicillin G benethamine: a prospective study in Maputo, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Tattevin, Pierre; Renault, Patrick; Joly, Véronique; Bastos, Rui; Coelho, Elisabeth; Adda, Christian; Ebel, Anne; Yeni, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Neurosyphilis has been reported in HIV-infected patients previously treated with penicillin G benzathine, which does not achieve treponemicidal levels in cerebrospinal fluid. Therapy combining benzylpenicillin G and its repository form benzylpenicillin G benethamine could be a potentially effective alternative enhanced regimen for treating latent syphilis in HIV-infected patients because peak serum and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations would be achieved early post-administration by the former molecule and sustained for 24 h due to the prolonged half-life of the latter. In this study, 23 asymptomatic HIV and Treponema pallidum co-infected patients received 10 d of combined therapy (2 M IU intramuscular once daily) and were followed up at 3, 6 and 12 months. None experienced side effects or clinical symptoms. Of the 18 patients who were evaluated 1 y later, 8 (44.4%) exhibited serological treatment failure, defined as a positive serum rapid plasma reagin test. In conclusion, a 10-d regimen combining penicillin G and penicillin G benethamine seems to be of no benefit compared to currently recommended treatment. PMID:12064687

  2. Prognosis of HIV-1-infected patients up to 5 years after initiation of HAART: collaborative analysis of prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prognosis over 5 years of HIV-1-infected, treatment-naive patients starting HAART, taking into account the immunological and virological response to therapy. Design A collaborative analysis of data from 12 cohorts in Europe and north America on 20 379 adults who started HAART between 1995 and 2003. Methods Parametric survival models were used to predict the cumulative incidence at 5 years of a new AIDS-defining event or death, and death alone, first from the start of HAART and second from 6 months after the start of HAART. Data were analysed by intention-to-continue-treatment, ignoring treatment changes and interruptions. Results During 61 798 person-years of follow-up, 1005 patients died and an additional 1303 developed AIDS. A total of 10 046 (49%) patients started HAART either with a CD4 cell count of less than 200 cells/μl or with a diagnosis of AIDS. The 5-year risk of AIDS or death (death alone) from the start of HAART ranged from 5.6 to 77% (1.8–65%), depending on age, CD4 cell count, HIV-1-RNA level, clinical stage, and history of injection drug use. From 6 months the corresponding figures were 4.1–99% for AIDS or death and 1.3–96% for death alone. Conclusion On the basis of data collected routinely in HIV care, prognostic models with high discriminatory power over 5 years were developed for patients starting HAART in industrialized countries. A risk calculator that produces estimates for progression rates at years 1 to 5 after starting HAART is available from www.art-cohort-collaboration.org. PMID:17502729

  3. Prevalence of K65R in patients treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: recommendations based on the Frankfurt HIV Cohort Study Resistance Database (FHCS-RD).

    PubMed

    Reinheimer, Claudia; Wesner, Anna; Keppler, Oliver T; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Herrmann, Eva; Stürmer, Martin; Stephan, Christoph

    2016-08-01

    Mutations in the genome of HIV-1 can compromise the success of antiretroviral treatments (ARTs) in HIV-1-infected individuals. The Frankfurt HIV Cohort Study Resistance Database (FHCS-RD) has previously documented a decline in the burden of resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) following the implementation of several new antiretroviral therapy regimens in 2007. In the current study, the annual burden of RAMs documented in the FHCS-RD in 2005-2013 was set in relation to the annual number of all cohort patients, drug regimens, available resistance tests, and prevalence for each RAM on relevant codons of reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR) genes. A specific focus was put on the prevalence of the tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) signature mutation K65R in HIV-1 RT in relation to the application of TDF within ART. Between 2005 and 2012, a total of 4423 HIV genotyping data sets from 4509 patients were analysed. All mutations show a consistent decline, and the most impressive decrease was observed for thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs). The frequency of non-TAMs and PR mutations also decreased, but generally to a lower extent. The prevalence of K65R decreased from 2.6 % in 2005 to 0.2 % in 2012 despite increased use of TDF-containing ART. Both the improved strategic use of TDF in ARTs and generally more effective ART regimens may have resulted in decreasing RAM prevalences in FHCS-RD since 2007. These trends challenge the cost-effectiveness of resistance testing prior to failing ART. PMID:26746222

  4. A cohort study of treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients treated with raltegravir: factors associated with virological response and mutations selected at failure.

    PubMed

    Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Delaugerre, Constance; Beaudoux, Céline; Descamps, Diane; Morand-Joubert, Laurence; Amiel, Corinne; Schneider, Veronique; Ferre, Virginie; Izopet, Jacques; Si-Mohamed, Ali; Maillard, Anne; Henquell, Cécile; Desbois, Delphine; Lazrek, Mouna; Signori-Schmuck, Anne; Rogez, Sylvie; Yerly, Sabine; Trabaud, Mary-Anne; Plantier, Jean-Christophe; Fourati, Slim; Houssaini, Allal; Masquelier, Bernard; Calvez, Vincent; Flandre, Philippe

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with virological response (VR) to raltegravir (RAL)-containing regimens in 468 treatment-experienced but integrase inhibitor-naive HIV-1 patients receiving a RAL-containing regimen. VR was defined at Month 6 (M6) as HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) <50 copies/mL. The impacts on VR of baseline integrase mutations, VL, CD4 count, genotypic sensitivity score for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors, and the number of new antiretrovirals used for the first time associated with RAL were investigated. For patients with VL >50 copies/mL at M6, integrase mutations selected were characterised. Median baseline VL was 4.2 log(10)copies/mL (IQR 3.3-4.9 log(10) copies/mL) and CD4 count was 219 cells/mm(3) (IQR 96-368 cells/mm(3)). At M6, 71% of patients were responders. In multivariate analysis, baseline VL and CD4 count and ≥ 2 new antiretrovirals among darunavir, etravirine, maraviroc and enfuvirtide were associated with VR to RAL. Neither HIV-1 subtype nor baseline integrase polymorphisms were associated with VR to RAL. Among 63 failing patients at M6, selection of ≥ 1 change in the integrase gene was observed in 49 (77.8%), and 27/63 (42.9%) were considered as RAL-associated resistance mutations. Factors independently associated with the occurrence of ≥ 1 RAL-associated resistance mutation were VL at failure >3 log(10) and having no new drugs associated with RAL. RAL showed great potency in treatment-experienced patients. The number of new drugs associated with RAL was an important factor associated with VR. HIV-1 subtype and baseline integrase polymorphisms do not influence the RAL VR. PMID:23562640

  5. Barriers and Facilitators of Adherence to Antiretroviral Drug Therapy and Retention in Care among Adult HIV-Positive Patients: A Qualitative Study from Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bezabhe, Woldesellassie M.; Chalmers, Leanne; Bereznicki, Luke R.; Peterson, Gregory M.; Bimirew, Mekides A.; Kassie, Desalew M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been life saving for hundreds of thousands of Ethiopians. With increased availability of ART in recent years, achievement of optimal adherence and patient retention are becoming the greatest challenges in the management of HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia. However, few studies have explored factors influencing medication adherence to ART and retention in follow-up care among adult Ethiopian HIV-positive patients, especially in the Amhara region of the country, where almost one-third of the country’s ART is prescribed. The aim of this qualitative study was to collect such data from patients and healthcare providers in the Amhara region of Ethiopia. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 patients, of whom 11 had been lost to follow-up and were non-persistent with ART. In addition, focus group discussions were performed with 15 ART nurses and 19 case managers. All interviews and focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded for themes and patterns in Amharic using a grounded theory approach. The emergent concepts and categories were translated into English. Results Economic constraints, perceived stigma and discrimination, fasting, holy water, medication side effects, and dissatisfaction with healthcare services were major reasons for patients being non-adherent and lost to follow-up. Disclosure of HIV status, social support, use of reminder aids, responsibility for raising children, improved health on ART, and receiving education and counseling emerged as facilitators of adherence to ART. Conclusions Improving adherence and retention requires integration of enhanced treatment access with improved job and food security. Healthcare providers need to be supported to better equip patients to cope with the issues associated with ART. Development of social policies and cooperation between various agencies are required to facilitate optimal adherence to ART, patient retention, and improved patient outcomes

  6. Osteosarcoma in Adult Patients Living with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Marais, Leonard C.; Ferreira, Nando

    2013-01-01

    Background. HIV infection has reached epidemic proportions in South Africa, with an estimated prevalence of 21.5% in adults living in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. Several malignancies have been identified as part of the spectrum of immunosuppression-related manifestations of HIV infection. Very few reports, however, exist regarding the occurrence of non-AIDS-defining sarcomas in the extremities or limb girdles. Methods. A retrospective review was performed on all adult patients, between the ages of 30 and 60 years, with histologically confirmed osteosarcomas of the appendicular skeleton referred to a tertiary-level orthopaedic oncology unit. Results. Five out of the nine patients (62.5%) included in the study were found to be HIV positive. The average CD4 count of these patients was 278 (237–301) cells/mm3, indicating advanced immunological compromise. Three of the malignancies in HIV-positive patients occurred in preexisting benign or low-grade tumours. Conclusion. A heightened index of suspicion is required in HIV patients presenting with unexplained bone and joint pain or swelling. Judicious use of appropriate radiological investigation, including magnetic resonance imaging of suspicious lesions and timely referral to an appropriate specialized orthopaedic oncology unit, is recommended. PMID:23762607

  7. Evaluation of cotrimoxazole use as a preventive therapy among patients living with HIV/AIDS in Gondar University Referral Hospital, northwestern Ethiopia: a retrospective cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gebresillassie, Begashaw Melaku; Gebeyehu, Minaleshewa Biruk; Abegaz, Tadesse Melaku; Erku, Daniel Asfaw; Mekuria, Abebe Basazn; Tadesse, Yokabd Dechassa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cotrimoxazole preventive therapy (CPT) is a feasible, inexpensive, and well-tolerated way of using cotrimoxazole intervention for patients living with HIV/AIDS to reduce HIV/AIDS-related morbidities and mortalities caused by various bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of cotrimoxazole as a prophylaxis therapy among patients living with HIV/AIDS at Gondar University Referral Hospital (GURH), northwestern Ethiopia. Materials and methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was used to evaluate the use of cotrimoxazole as a prophylaxis therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS at GURH, northwestern Ethiopia from September 2013 to October 2015. Medical records of 264 patients were selected by using systematic random sampling technique from the sampling frame list of all patients’ medical records. Data were collected from patients’ medical records using the structured checklist and evaluated against World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on the use of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. The quantitative data were analyzed using the statistical packages for social sciences Version 20. Descriptive and binary logistic regression analyses were used to describe and assess the association between different variables. Results Approximately 95 (36.0%) patients were at WHO clinical stage III at the start of CPT. The use of CPT was consistent with the guidelines in the rationale for indication 200 (75.75%) and dose 263 (99.62%), despite the presence of contraindications in 24 (9.90%) patients. The occurrence of cotrimoxazole-associated side effects was higher in the first month of therapy. Problems regarding drug–drug interactions were identified in 63 (23.86%) patients, and 92 (34.84%) patients discontinued CPT due to different reasons. Conclusion Although the practice of discontinuation of CPT and follow-up for adverse drug effects were not consistent with WHO guidelines on the rational use of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, the use

  8. Socioeconomic disadvantage increasing risk for depression among recently diagnosed HIV patients in an urban area in Brazil: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Nomoto, Silmara Harumi; Longhi, Renata Marrona Praça; de Barros, Bruna Paes; Croda, Julio; Ziff, Edward Benjamin; Castelon Konkiewitz, Elisabete

    2015-01-01

    Depression is the most common psychiatric co-morbidity among people living with HIV (PLHIV), with prevalence rates ranging from 25% to 36%. Depression impacts negatively upon adherence and response to combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) and the transmission of HIV infection through increased sexually risky behavior. This cross-sectional study presents data from a reference HIV-outpatient service in Dourados (Brazil) that evaluated the association between depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life, and clinical, socioeconomic, and demographic factors in newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients. Using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 61% with a predominance of self-deprecating and cognitive-affective factors. Depressive symptoms were associated with lower income (p=0.019) and disadvantaged social class (p=0.005). Poorer quality of life was related to depressive symptoms (p<0.0001), low educational level (p=0.05), and lower income (p=0.03). These data suggest that socioeconomic factors, including level of income and education, are mediating the risk of depression and poor quality of life of PLHIV. Possible explanations for this effect are discussed, including the possible role of stigma. PMID:25741909

  9. A 10-Year Population Based Study of ‘Opt-Out’ HIV Testing of Tuberculosis Patients in Alberta, Canada: National Implications

    PubMed Central

    Long, Richard; Niruban, Selvanayagam; Heffernan, Courtney; Cooper, Ryan; Fisher, Dina; Ahmed, Rabia; Egedahl, Mary Lou; Fur, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Compliance with the recommendation that all tuberculosis (TB) patients be tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has not yet been achieved in Canada or globally. Methods The experience of “opt-out” HIV testing of TB patients in the Province of Alberta, Canada is described over a 10-year period, 2003–2012. Testing rates are reported before and after the introduction of the “opt-out” approach. Risk factors for HIV seropositivity are described and demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of TB patients who were newly diagnosed versus previously diagnosed with HIV are compared. Genotypic clusters, defined as groups of two or more cases whose isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis had identical DNA fingerprints over the 10-year period or within 2 years of one another, were analyzed for their ability to predict HIV co-infection. Results HIV testing rates were 26% before and 90% after the introduction of “opt-out” testing. During the “opt-out” testing years those <15 or >64 years of age at diagnosis were less likely to have been tested. In those tested the prevalence of HIV was 5.6%. In the age group 15–64 years, risk factors for HIV were: age (35–64 years), Canadian-born Aboriginal or foreign-born sub-Saharan African origin, and combined respiratory and non-respiratory disease. Compared to TB patients previously known to be HIV positive, TB patients newly discovered to be HIV positive had more advanced HIV disease (lower CD4 counts; higher viral loads) at diagnosis. Large cluster size was associated with Aboriginal ancestry. Cluster size predicted HIV co-infection in Aboriginal peoples when clusters included all cases reported over 10 years but not when clusters included cases reported within 2 years of one another. Conclusion “Opt-out” HIV testing of TB patients is effective and well received. Universal HIV testing of TB patients (>80% of patients tested) has immediate (patients) and longer-term (TB/HIV program

  10. Baseline characteristics of HIV & hepatitis B virus (HIV/HBV) co-infected patients from Kolkata, India

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Jayeeta; Saha, Debraj; Bandyopadhyay, Bhaswati; Saha, Bibhuti; Kedia, Deepika; Guha Mazumder, D.N.; Chakravarty, Runu; Guha, Subhasish Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV co-infection has variable prevalence worldwide. In comparison to HBV mono-infection, the course of chronic HBV infection is accelerated in HIV/HBV co-infected patients. The present study was carried out to analyse the baseline characteristics (clinical, biochemical, serological and virological) of treatment naïve HIV/HBV co-infected and HIV mono-infected patients. Methods: Between July 2011 and January 2013, a total number of 1331 HIV-seropositive treatment naïve individuals, enrolled in the ART Centre of Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, India, were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). A total of 1253 HIV mono-infected and 78 HIV/HBV co-infected patients were characterized. The co-infected patients were evaluated for HBeAg and anti-HBe antibody by ELISA. HIV RNA was quantified for all co-infected patients. HBV DNA was detected and quantified by real time-PCR amplification followed by HBV genotype determination. Results: HIV/HBV co-infected patients had proportionately more advanced HIV disease (WHO clinical stage 3 and 4) than HIV mono-infected individuals (37.1 vs. 19.9%). The co-infected patients had significantly higher serum bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase and ALT/platelet ratio index (APRI). CD4 count was non-significantly lower in co-infected patients. Majority (61.5%) were HBeAg positive with higher HIV RNA (P<0.05), HBV DNA (P<0.001) and APRI (P<0.05) compared to those who were HBeAg negative. HBV/D was the predominant genotype (73.2%) and D2 (43.7%) was the commonest subgenotype. Interpretation & conclusions: HIV/HBV co-infected patients had significantly higher serum bilirubin, ALT, alkaline phosphatase and lower platelet count. HBeAg positive co-infected patients had higher HIV RNA and HBV DNA compared to HBeAg negative co-infected patients. Prior to initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) all patients should be screened for HBsAg to

  11. Abdominal ultrasonography in HIV/AIDS patients in southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Obajimi, Millicent O; Atalabi, Mojisola O; Ogbole, Godwin I; Adeniji-Sofoluwe, Adenike T; Agunloye, Atinuke M; Adekanmi, Ademola J; Osuagwu, Yvonne U; Olarinoye, Sefiat A; Olusola-Bello, Mojisola A; Ogunseyinde, Ayotunde O; Aken'Ova, Yetunde A; Adewole, Isaac F

    2008-01-01

    Background Though the major target of the HIV-virus is the immune system, the frequency of abdominal disorders in HIV/AIDS patients has been reported to be second only to pulmonary disease. These abdominal manifestations may be on the increase as the use of antiretroviral therapy has increased life expectancy and improved quality of life. Ultrasonography is an easy to perform, non invasive, inexpensive and safe imaging technique that is invaluable in Africa where AIDS is most prevalent and where sophisticated diagnostic tools are not readily available. Purpose: To describe the findings and evaluate the clinical utility of abdominal ultrasonography in HIV/AIDS patients in Ibadan, Nigeria Methods A Prospective evaluation of the abdominal ultrasonography of 391 HIV-positive patients as well as 391 age and sex-matched HIV-negative patients were carried out at the University College Hospital, Ibadan. Results Of the 391 cases studied, 260 (66.5%) were females; the mean age was 38.02 years, (range 15–66 years). The disease was most prevalent in the 4th decade with an incidence of 40.4%. Compared with the HIV-negative individuals, the HIV+ group of patients had a significantly higher proportion of splenomegaly (13.5% vs. 7.7%; p < 0.01), lymphadenopathy (2.0% vs. 1.3%; p < 0.70), and renal abnormalities (8.4% vs. 3.8%; p < 0.02). There were no differences in hepatic and pancreatic abnormalities between the HIV+ and HIV- groups. There were significantly fewer gallstones in the HIV+ group (1.4% vs. 5.1%; p < 0.01). Conclusion AIDS is a multi-systemic disease and its demographic and clinical pattern remains the same globally. Ultrasonography is optimally suited for its clinical management especially in Africa. Its accuracy and sensitivity may be much improved with clinico-pathologic correlation which may not be readily available in developing countries; further studies may provide this much needed diagnostic algorithms. PMID:18312644

  12. Activation of HIV Transcription with Short-Course Vorinostat in HIV-Infected Patients on Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Ajantha; Ghneim, Khader; Ahlers, Jeffrey; Cameron, Mark J.; Smith, Miranda Z.; Spelman, Tim; McMahon, James; Velayudham, Pushparaj; Brown, Gregor; Roney, Janine; Watson, Jo; Prince, Miles H.; Hoy, Jennifer F.; Chomont, Nicolas; Fromentin, Rémi; Procopio, Francesco A.; Zeidan, Joumana; Palmer, Sarah; Odevall, Lina; Johnstone, Ricky W.; Martin, Ben P.; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Deeks, Steven G.; Hazuda, Daria J.; Cameron, Paul U.; Sékaly, Rafick-Pierre; Lewin, Sharon R.

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persistence in latently infected resting memory CD4+ T-cells is the major barrier to HIV cure. Cellular histone deacetylases (HDACs) are important in maintaining HIV latency and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) may reverse latency by activating HIV transcription from latently infected CD4+ T-cells. We performed a single arm, open label, proof-of-concept study in which vorinostat, a pan-HDACi, was administered 400 mg orally once daily for 14 days to 20 HIV-infected individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). The primary endpoint was change in cell associated unspliced (CA-US) HIV RNA in total CD4+ T-cells from blood at day 14. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01365065). Vorinostat was safe and well tolerated and there were no dose modifications or study drug discontinuations. CA-US HIV RNA in blood increased significantly in 18/20 patients (90%) with a median fold change from baseline to peak value of 7.4 (IQR 3.4, 9.1). CA-US RNA was significantly elevated 8 hours post drug and remained elevated 70 days after last dose. Significant early changes in expression of genes associated with chromatin remodeling and activation of HIV transcription correlated with the magnitude of increased CA-US HIV RNA. There were no statistically significant changes in plasma HIV RNA, concentration of HIV DNA, integrated DNA, inducible virus in CD4+ T-cells or markers of T-cell activation. Vorinostat induced a significant and sustained increase in HIV transcription from latency in the majority of HIV-infected patients. However, additional interventions will be needed to efficiently induce virus production and ultimately eliminate latently infected cells. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01365065 PMID:25393648

  13. Addressing Sexual Problems in HIV Primary Care: Experiences from Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Collier, Kate L.; Grossberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that sexual problems are common among people living with HIV and may be related to sexual risk taking and treatment adherence. This study explored the extent to which sexual problems experienced by people with HIV are addressed in primary care as well as how primary care responses to sexual problems are experienced by patients. Structured interviews were conducted with 60 patients at an urban HIV clinic. The average age of the participants (37 male, 23 female) was 45.8 years (SD = 7.9). Sexual problems were common. The most common sexual problem experienced in the past year was a lack of interest in sex (53.3 % reported) and the least common problem was painful intercourse (reported by 20 %). There were no gender differences in reports of sexual problems, except that painful intercourse was more frequently reported by women than men. Relatively few individuals who experienced sexual problems had discussed them with their provider, but these individuals were generally pleased with the counseling they had received and could identify several factors that facilitated a positive patient-provider interaction. Those who offer primary care services to people with HIV should be aware of sexual problems their patients may be experiencing and should feel confident in their ability to successfully address these problems. Providers may need additional training in order to adequately address sexual problems among people with HIV in primary care settings. PMID:22965768

  14. Effect of Integrated Yoga (IY) on psychological states and CD4 counts of HIV-1 infected patients: A randomized controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Naoroibam, Rosy; Metri, Kashinath G; Bhargav, Hemant; Nagaratna, R; Nagendra, HR

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals frequently suffer from anxiety and depression. Depression has been associated with rapid decline in CD4 counts and worsened treatment outcomes in HIV-infected patients. Yoga has been used to reduce psychopathology and improve immunity. Aim: To study the effect of 1-month integrated yoga (IY) intervention on anxiety, depression, and CD4 counts in patients suffering from HIV-1 infection. Methods: Forty four HIV-1 infected individuals from two HIV rehabilitation centers of Manipur State of India were randomized into two groups: Yoga (n = 22; 12 males) and control (n = 22; 14 males). Yoga group received IY intervention, which included physical postures (asanas), breathing practices (pranayama), relaxation techniques, and meditation. IY sessions were given 60 min/day, 6 days a week for 1 month. Control group followed daily routine during this period. All patients were on anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and dosages were kept stable during the study. There was no significant difference in age, gender, education, CD4 counts, and ART status between the two groups. Hospital anxiety and depression scale was used to assess anxiety and depression, CD4 counts were measured by flow cytometry before and after intervention. Analysis of variance – repeated measures was applied to analyze the data using SPSS version 10. Results: Within group comparison showed a significant reduction in depression scores (F [1, 21] =4.19, P < 0.05) and non-significant reduction in anxiety scores along with non significant increment in CD4 counts in the yoga group. In the control group, there was a non-significant increase in anxiety and depression scores and reduction in CD4 counts. Between-group comparison revealed a significant reduction in depression scores (F [1, 21] =5.64, P < 0.05) and significant increase in CD4 counts (F [1, 21] =5.35, P < 0.05) in the yoga group as compared to the control. Conclusion: One month practice of IY

  15. Characteristics and Outcome of Patients Diagnosed With HIV at Older Age

    PubMed Central

    Asher, Ilan; Guri, Keren Mahlab; Elbirt, Daniel; Bezalel, Shira Rosenberg; Maldarelli, Frank; Mor, Orna; Grossman, Zehava; Sthoeger, Zev M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To characterize the clinical, virological, and immunological status at presentation as well as the outcome of patients diagnosed with HIV above the age of 50. A retrospective study of 418 patients newly diagnosed with HIV in 1 Israeli center, between the years 2004 and 2013. Patients with new HIV diagnosis ≥50 years of age defined as “older" and <50 defined as “younger." Patients were evaluated every 1 to 3 months (mean follow-up 53 ± 33 months). Patients with <2 CD4/viral-load measurements or with <1 year of follow-up were excluded. Time of HIV infection was estimated by HIV sequence ambiguity assay. Ambiguity index ≤0.43 indicated recent (≤1 year) HIV infection. Eighty nine (21%) patients were diagnosed with HIV at an older age. Those older patients presented with significant lower CD4 cell counts and higher viral-load compared with the younger patients. At the end of the study, the older patients had higher mortality rate (21% vs 3.5%; P < 0.001) and lower CD4 cell counts (381 ± 228 vs 483 ± 261cells/μL; P < 0.001) compared with the younger patients. This difference was also observed between older and younger patients with similar CD4 cell counts and viral load at the time of HIV diagnosis and among patients with a recent (≤1 year) HIV infection. One-fifth of HIV patients are diagnosed at older age (≥50 years). Those older patients have less favorable outcome compared with the younger patients. This point to the need of educational and screening programs within older populations and for a closer follow-up of older HIV patients. PMID:26735534

  16. Validation of the WHOQOL-HIV BREF among HIV-infected patients in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsiung, Ping-Chuan; Fang, Chi-Tai; Wu, Chia-Huei; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Chen, Shing-Chia; Wang, Jung-Der; Yao, Grace

    2011-08-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the quality of life (QOL) of an individual is essentially defined as the subjective evaluation by such individuals of their own personal life embedded within the context of their culture and values. In the present study, we set out to examine the reliability and validity of the WHOQOL-HIV BREF, a newly-developed, multi-dimensional instrument comprising 31 items designed to assess the QOL of people in Taiwan infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We collected data on a total of 680 people in Taiwan infected with HIV; these study participants were found to have a mean age of 36.26±10.1 years. Based on our assessment of the psychometric (reliability and validity) properties of the WHOQOL-HIV BREF, we found that the internal consistency (Cronbach's α) ranged between 0.67 and 0.80 across the six domains of physical health, level of independence, psychological health, spirituality, social relations, and environmental health. We also found that the multi-dimensional instrument demonstrated good content, concurrent, and known-group validity, with the results of the construct validity further revealing that the original six-domain structure model was acceptable. The findings of the present study provide strong evidence in support of both the reliability and validity of the WHOQOL-HIV BREF for widespread use in the assessment of quality of life among HIV-infected patients in Taiwan, with the original factor structure of the instrument having been found to be appropriately valid for patients of a Chinese cultural background. We therefore contribute to the evidence on the cultural relevance of the WHOQOL-HIV BREF as a valid measure for cross-cultural comparative studies on QOL. PMID:21500023

  17. The Vancouver Lymphadenopathy-AIDS Study: 5. Antecedent behavioural, clinical and laboratory findings in patients with AIDS and HIV-seropositive controls.

    PubMed Central

    Boyko, W J; Schechter, M T; Craib, K J; Constance, P; Nitz, R; Fay, S; McLeod, A; O'Shaughnessy, M

    1986-01-01

    In a group of homosexual men in Vancouver studied prospectively since November 1982, 26 cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) have arisen. To identify behavioural, clinical and laboratory findings that might predict the development of AIDS in people with antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), we compared data for 25 patients with AIDS with corresponding data for 80 controls serologically positive for HIV selected from the cohort. The clinical and laboratory data for the patients with AIDS preceded the diagnosis of the syndrome by a mean of 17.5 months. The controls had been both seropositive and AIDS-free for a mean of 16.7 months after acquisition of their data. We detected significant differences between the patients with AIDS and the controls in IgG and IgA levels, absolute number of helper T cells and ratio of helper to suppressor T cells but not in lifetime number of male sexual partners, frequency of receptive anal intercourse or receptive fisting, illicit drug use or history of infectious disease. We also detected an increased risk of AIDS among those who had an elevated number of sexual contacts in AIDS-endemic areas in the 5 years before enrollment. A history of increased early sexual contact in AIDS-endemic areas is likely to be associated with early infection and with an increased risk of AIDS among men with HIV infection of unknown duration. Thus, although our analysis had limited statistical power, we conclude that most lifestyle variables appear to act as exposure factors in HIV infection but not as cofactors in the development of AIDS. PMID:3463386

  18. The Vancouver Lymphadenopathy-AIDS Study: 5. Antecedent behavioural, clinical and laboratory findings in patients with AIDS and HIV-seropositive controls.

    PubMed

    Boyko, W J; Schechter, M T; Craib, K J; Constance, P; Nitz, R; Fay, S; McLeod, A; O'Shaughnessy, M

    1986-10-15

    In a group of homosexual men in Vancouver studied prospectively since November 1982, 26 cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) have arisen. To identify behavioural, clinical and laboratory findings that might predict the development of AIDS in people with antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), we compared data for 25 patients with AIDS with corresponding data for 80 controls serologically positive for HIV selected from the cohort. The clinical and laboratory data for the patients with AIDS preceded the diagnosis of the syndrome by a mean of 17.5 months. The controls had been both seropositive and AIDS-free for a mean of 16.7 months after acquisition of their data. We detected significant differences between the patients with AIDS and the controls in IgG and IgA levels, absolute number of helper T cells and ratio of helper to suppressor T cells but not in lifetime number of male sexual partners, frequency of receptive anal intercourse or receptive fisting, illicit drug use or history of infectious disease. We also detected an increased risk of AIDS among those who had an elevated number of sexual contacts in AIDS-endemic areas in the 5 years before enrollment. A history of increased early sexual contact in AIDS-endemic areas is likely to be associated with early infection and with an increased risk of AIDS among men with HIV infection of unknown duration. Thus, although our analysis had limited statistical power, we conclude that most lifestyle variables appear to act as exposure factors in HIV infection but not as cofactors in the development of AIDS. PMID:3463386

  19. A Prospective Study Assessing Tumour Response, Survival, and Palliative Care Outcomes in Patients with HIV-Related Kaposi's Sarcoma at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Francis, H.; Bates, M. J.; Kalilani, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Human-Immunodeficiency-Virus- (HIV-) related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) has a high prevalence in Africa; however, there is minimal published data on treatment and outcomes in this population. Objective and Design. This was a prospective study of 50 patients, aiming to assess the impact of vincristine therapy on tumour response and survival and to assess palliative care outcomes in patients with HIV-related KS. Methods. 50 consecutive patients were recruited during 2008. Vincristine therapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were given. Tumour response, survival, and chemotherapy-related toxicities were documented. Palliative care outcomes were assessed using the African Palliative Care Association (APCA) Palliative Outcome Scale (POS). Results. The majority of patients were male, and the median age was 33 years. At baseline assessment, the median CD4 T-cell count was 263, and 50% patients had evidence of peripheral neuropathy. The overall response rate was 64% at 6 weeks, and median progression-free survival was 30 weeks. Treatment was generally well tolerated, with peripheral neuropathy the main dose-limiting toxicity. Conclusion. The combination of vincristine and HAART is feasible and effective in a low resource setting, although peripheral neuropathy is a dose-limiting factor. This patient group carries a high mortality and as such adequate access to palliative care is crucial. PMID:22496970

  20. Coping With Stress Strategies in HIV-infected Iranian Patients.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Maryam; Dehdari, Tahereh; Shojaeezadeh, Davoud; Abbasian, Ladan

    2015-01-01

    Stress has significant adverse impacts on health outcomes of HIV-infected patients. Our study explored coping with stress strategies by HIV-infected Iranian patients. A qualitative content analysis study was conducted at the Consultation Clinic of HIV at the Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran in 2012. Twenty-six semi-structured in-depth interviews were done. Participants were asked about coping strategies for stress. After the first interview, continuous analysis of data was started and continued up to data saturation. Results showed that participants used two categories of strategies (emotion-based coping and problem-based coping) to cope with stress. Emotion-based coping had two sub-themes: adaptive and maladaptive. The problem-based coping category had three sub-themes: participation in education sessions, adherence to medication, and efforts to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Explanations of different strategies available to HIV-infected patients to cope with stress may help develop tailored interventions to improve the psychological conditions of people living with HIV. PMID:25769759

  1. Oral and Airway Microbiota in HIV-Infected Pneumonia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Iwai, Shoko; Fei, Matthew; Huang, Delphine; Fong, Serena; Subramanian, Anuradha; Grieco, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increased frequency of recurrent pneumonia in HIV-infected patients and recent studies linking the airway bacterial community (microbiota) to acute and chronic respiratory infection, little is known of the oral and airway microbiota that exist in these individuals and their propensity to harbor pathogens despite antimicrobial treatment for acute pneumonia. This pilot study compared paired samples of the oral and airway microbiota from 15 hospitalized HIV-infected patients receiving antimicrobial treatment for acute pneumonia. Total DNA was extracted, bacterial burden was assessed by quantitative PCR, and amplified 16S rRNA was profiled for microbiome composition using a phylogenetic microarray (16S rRNA PhyloChip). Though the bacterial burden of the airway was significantly lower than that of the oral cavity, microbiota in both niches were comparably diverse. However, oral and airway microbiota exhibited niche specificity. Oral microbiota were characterized by significantly increased relative abundance of multiple species associated with the mouth, including members of the Bacteroides, Firmicutes, and TM7 phyla, while airway microbiota were primarily characterized by a relative expansion of the Proteobacteria. Twenty-two taxa were detected in both niches, including Streptococcus bovis and Chryseobacterium species, pathogens associated with HIV-infected populations. In addition, we compared the airway microbiota of five of these patients to those of five non-HIV-infected pneumonia patients from a previous study. Compared to the control population, HIV-infected patients exhibited relative increased abundance of a large number of phylogenetically distinct taxa, which included several known or suspected pathogenic organisms, suggesting that recurrent pneumonia in HIV-infected populations may be related to the presence of these species. PMID:22760045

  2. Optimal management of cervical cancer in HIV-positive patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ntekim, Atara; Campbell, Oladapo; Rothenbacher, Dietrich

    2015-09-01

    The clinical management of cervical cancer in HIV-positive patients has challenges mainly due to the concerns on immune status. At present, their mode of management is similar to HIV-seronegative patients involving the use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy concurrently as indicated. HIV infection, cancer, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy lower immunity through reduction in CD4 cell counts. At present there are no treatment guidelines for HIV-positive patients. This study was done to systematically review the literature on cervical cancer management in HIV-positive patients and treatment outcomes. A systematic literature search was done in the major databases to identify studies on the management of HIV-positive patients with cervical cancer. Identified studies were assessed for eligibility and inclusion in the review following the guidelines of The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews and CRD's (Centre for Reviews and Dissemination) guidance for undertaking reviews in health care. Eight eligible studies were identified from the literature. Three of them were prospective while five were retrospective studies. Notably, the average age at diagnosis of cervical cancer in HIV-positive patients was a decade lower than in seronegative patients. There was no difference in distribution of stages of disease at presentation between HIV-positive and negative patients. Mild acute toxicity (Grades 1 and 2) was higher in HIV-positive patients than in HIV-negative patients in hematopoietic system. In the grades 3 and 4 reactions, anemia was reported in 4% versus 2% while gastrointestinal reactions were reported in 5% versus 2% respectively. In general, patients who were started early on HAART had higher rates of treatment completion. The study supports the suggestion that HAART should be commenced early at cervical cancer diagnosis in HIV-positive patients diagnosed with cervical cancer to ensure less toxicity and better treatment compliance. PMID:26136407

  3. Preferential adherence to antiretroviral therapy over tuberculosis (TB) treatment: a qualitative study of drug–resistant TB/HIV co–infected patients in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Daftary, Amrita; Padayatchi, Nesri; O’Donnell, Max

    2014-01-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and second–line antituberculosis medications is essential to achieve successful outcomes among individuals co–infected with HIV and multi or extensively drug-resistant TB (M/XDR–TB). In 2012–13, we designed a qualitative study to explore barriers to adherence in KwaZulu–Natal, South Africa. We conducted six focus groups comprising 23 adults receiving treatment for either MDR-TB (n=2) or XDR-TB (n=21); 17 were on concurrent ART. Participants expressed a preference for ART over M/XDR–TB treatment as a result of greater tolerability, lower pill burden, and a commitment to ART. Treatment outcomes and the social morbidity associated with M/XDR-TB, characterised by public notification, stigma, and social isolation, were perceived to be worse than with HIV. Poor communication, low patient involvement, and provider supervision of treatment exacerbated participants’ negative experiences with TB care. To improve adherence, it is critical that new regimens for drug-resistant TB be developed with better efficacy, lower pill burden, and fewer adverse effects. For the first time, such improved regimens are on the horizon. In parallel and equally important is the implementation of a cohesive approach that promotes patient involvement, empowerment, and treatment literacy for HIV and for TB. PMID:25035943

  4. A Binational Study of Patient-Initiated Changes to Antiretroviral Therapy Regimen Among HIV-positive Latinos Living in the Mexico–U.S. Border Region

    PubMed Central

    Zúñiga, María Luisa; Muñoz, Fátima; Kozo, Justine; Blanco, Estela; Scolari, Rosana

    2015-01-01

    Research is lacking on factors associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) sub-optimal adherence among U.S. Latinos, who are disproportionately affected by HIV and face substantial health care barriers. We examined self-reported, patient-initiated changes to ART (i.e., made small/major changes from the antiretroviral drugs prescribed) among HIV-positive Latinos. Trained interviewers administered surveys to 230 participants currently on ART in San Diego, U.S. and Tijuana, Mexico. We identified factors independently associated with ART changes. Participants were Spanish-language dominant (86%), mean age of 41 years, male (77%), and born in Mexico (93%). Patient-initiated changes to ART were reported in 43% of participants. Being female, having ≥1 sexual partner (past 3 months), ≥6 years since HIV diagnosis and poor health were associated with increased odds of ART changes. Findings raise concern about sub-optimal adherence among this binational population. Longitudinal studies are needed to further explore adherence barriers and avenues for intervention. PMID:21800182

  5. HIV Patients Now Living Long Enough to Develop Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... HIV Patients Now Living Long Enough to Develop Alzheimer's Findings upend previous beliefs about brain changes related ... 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The first case of Alzheimer's disease diagnosed in a person with HIV highlights ...

  6. Willingness to care for patients with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Välimäki, Maritta; Makkonen, Pekka; Blek-Vehkaluoto, Mari; Mockiene, Vida; Istomina, Natalja; Raid, Ulla; Vänskä, Maj-Lis; Suominen, Tarja

    2008-09-01

    This study aims to describe and compare nurses' willingness to provide care for patients with HIV/AIDS and factors associated with this in three countries. An international cross-sectional survey was conducted among nurses working in medical, surgical and gynaecology units in Finland (n =427), Estonia (n =221) and Lithuania ( n =185) in early 2006. The response rates were 75% (n = 322) in Finland, 54% (n =119) in Estonia and 86% (n = 160) in Lithuania. A modified version of a scale developed in 1994 by Dubbert et al. was applied. Our findings showed a general willingness of the nurse participants to provide care for patients with HIV/AIDS. However, this willingness varied both among and within countries and was also related to specific nursing interventions. The results underline the importance of providing education on ethical issues related to HIV/AIDS care in Europe and tailoring the content of this education to meet nurses' national educational needs. PMID:18687814

  7. Four years data of raltegravir-based salvage therapy in HIV-1-infected, treatment-experienced patients: the SALIR-E Study.

    PubMed

    Capetti, Amedeo; Meraviglia, Paola; Landonio, Simona; Sterrantino, Gaetana; Di Biagio, Antonio; Lo Caputo, Sergio; Ammassari, Adriana; Menzaghi, Barbara; De Socio, Giuseppe Vittorio; Franzetti, Marco; Soria, Alessandro; Meschiari, Marianna; Sasset, Lolita; Pellicanò, Giovanni; Mazzotta, Elena; Trezzi, Michele; Celesia, Benedetto Maurizio; Melzi, Sara; Carenzi, Laura; Ricci, Elena; Rizzardini, Giuliano

    2014-02-01

    Apart from the BENCHMRK study, there are no large observational experiences describing the long-term efficacy and safety of rescue regimens for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Antiretroviral-experienced patients with detectable viraemia starting a raltegravir (RAL)-based regimen between March 2007 and June 2009 were consecutively enrolled and followed for ≥4 years. Data were censored at Week 206 for homogeneity. Of 333 patients, 258 (77.5%) were still on RAL-based therapy at Week 206, and 241 had undetectable HIV-1 RNA (73% in intention-to-treat analysis). Of the 75 subjects who discontinued RAL therapy, 36 were lost to follow-up, 15 changed their regimen due to virological failure, 2 simplified their regimen stopping RAL, 9 stopped all antiretrovirals and 13 died. Overall, 100 subjects (30.0%) had at least one detectable viraemia, but only 32 (9.6%) had true viral failure. Seventeen patients continued their failing regimen. 'Blips' were experienced by 53 patients (15.9%), whilst 15 (4.5%) had confirmed viral rebound due to adherence issues and were re-suppressed upon treatment re-introduction. In a multivariate analysis of predictors of interruption or failure, each baseline HIV-1 RNA log10 increase was associated with an adjusted hazard ratio for failure of 1.6; having more than 13 previous treatment courses also emerged as a predictor. Overall, adverse events were rare (n=64), with 13 deaths. Tumours were mainly early events, often fatal (7/15), mainly non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (8), followed by hepatocarcinoma (2). RAL proved effective and well tolerated in this cohort, and few patients experienced viral failure after 4 years. PMID:24315315

  8. Pathophysiology of HIV related thrombocytopenia: an analysis of 41 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, A; Gamallo, G; Garcia, R; Lopez-Pastor, A; Peña, J M; Vazquez, J J

    1994-01-01

    AIM--To analyse the pathogenic mechanism of HIV related thrombocytopenia. METHODS--Forty one patients with thrombocytopenia and HIV-1 infection were investigated over two years. Anticardiolipin antibodies were measured using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and antiplatelet antibodies were measured using an immunocapture technique. Tests for VDRL, C3 and C4, antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factor were also carried out in all patients and 80 control subjects (HIV-1 positive but non-thrombocytopenic). Indiumoxine labelled platelets were transfused in 13 patients. P24 antigen were also measured in 12 bone marrow aspirates. RESULTS--Antiplatelet antibodies and circulating immune complexes were found exclusively in the thrombocytopenic group; values for antiplatelet antibodies and circulating immune complexes were both higher in homosexual and bisexual patients. Three kinds of pattern were observed using 111 In-labelled platelets: splenic (n = 10); hepatic (n = 2); and destruction of bone marrow in just one case. The two most influential factors in the sequestration pattern were antiplatelet antibodies in the splenic uptake and circulating immune complexes in the hepatic and marrow sequestration. All patients, except three, had decreased platelet recovery. In those patients with a CD4 lymphocyte count of less than 200 x 10(6) cells/l the recovery was clearly greater (53%) than in patients who had more than 200 x 10(6) /l (28%). Finally, in seven of the 12 patients who were chosen for immunohistochemical study, p24 antigen was detected in the megakaryocytes, verifying that HIV-1 infects such cells. CONCLUSIONS--The pathogenic mechanism of HIV related thrombocytopenia is probably multifaceted. Antiplatelet antibodies and circulating immune complexes would cause peripheral destruction in the spleen, liver, and bone marrow, in that order; and, on the other hand, there would be an ineffective immune thrombopoiesis and direct infection of the megakaryocytes which

  9. Is Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis More Prevalent in HIV-Infected Patients in Korea?

    PubMed

    Lee, Shinwon; Lee, Sun Hee; Mok, Jeong Ha; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Kye Hyung; Lee, Jeong Eun; Lee, Seung Geun; Chung, Joo Seop; Kwak, Ihm Soo

    2016-11-01

    The epidemiological synergy between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) is a major threat to public health. However, the association between HIV and multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is not clear. To explore the association between HIV and MDR-TB infection, a case-control study was performed in Korea. A total of 1606 culture-proven TB patients (45 HIV vs. 1561 non-HIV) from January 2006 to October 2014 were included in this analysis. MDR-TB rates were 11.1% and 8.2% in the HIV and non-HIV groups, respectively (p=0.42), thus indicating that MDR-TB was not significantly associated with HIV infection in Korea. PMID:27593882

  10. Stem cell mobilization in HIV seropositive patients with lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Re, Alessandro; Cattaneo, Chiara; Skert, Cristina; Balsalobre, Pascual; Michieli, Mariagrazia; Bower, Mark; Ferreri, Andrés J. M.; Hentrich, Marcus; Ribera, José M.; Allione, Bernardino; Schommers, Philipp; Montoto, Silvia; Almici, Camillo; Ferremi, Pierino; Mazzucato, Mario; Gattillo, Salvatore; Casari, Salvatore; Spina, Michele; Diez-Martin, José L.; Tirelli, Umberto; Rossi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    High-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cell rescue has been reported as feasible and effective in HIV-associated lymphoma. Although a sufficient number of stem cells seems achievable in most patients, there are cases of stem cell harvest failure. The aim of this study was to describe the mobilization policies used in HIV-associated lymphoma, evaluate the failure rate and identify factors influencing mobilization results. We analyzed 155 patients who underwent attempted stem cell mobilization at 10 European centers from 2000–2012. One hundred and twenty patients had non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 35 Hodgkin lymphoma; 31% had complete remission, 57% chemosensitive disease, 10% refractory disease, 2% untested relapse. Patients were mobilized with chemotherapy + G-CSF (86%) or G-CSF alone (14%); 73% of patients collected >2 and 48% >5 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg. Low CD4+ count and refractory disease were associated with mobilization failure. Low CD4+ count, low platelet count and mobilization with G-CSF correlated with lower probability to achieve >5 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg, whereas cyclophosphamide ≥3 g/m2 + G-CSF predicted higher collections. Circulating CD34+ cells and CD34/WBC ratio were strongly associated with collection result. HIV infection alone should not preclude an attempt to obtain stem cells in candidates for autologous transplant as the results are comparable to the HIV-negative population. PMID:23975176

  11. Stem cell mobilization in HIV seropositive patients with lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Re, Alessandro; Cattaneo, Chiara; Skert, Cristina; Balsalobre, Pascual; Michieli, Mariagrazia; Bower, Mark; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Hentrich, Marcus; Ribera, José M; Allione, Bernardino; Schommers, Philipp; Montoto, Silvia; Almici, Camillo; Ferremi, Pierino; Mazzucato, Mario; Gattillo, Salvatore; Casari, Salvatore; Spina, Michele; Diez-Martin, José L; Tirelli, Umberto; Rossi, Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    High-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cell rescue has been reported as feasible and effective in HIV-associated lymphoma. Although a sufficient number of stem cells seems achievable in most patients, there are cases of stem cell harvest failure. The aim of this study was to describe the mobilization policies used in HIV-associated lymphoma, evaluate the failure rate and identify factors influencing mobilization results. We analyzed 155 patients who underwent attempted stem cell mobilization at 10 European centers from 2000-2012. One hundred and twenty patients had non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 35 Hodgkin lymphoma; 31% had complete remission, 57% chemosensitive disease, 10% refractory disease, 2% untested relapse. Patients were mobilized with chemotherapy + G-CSF (86%) or G-CSF alone (14%); 73% of patients collected >2 and 48% >5 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg. Low CD4+ count and refractory disease were associated with mobilization failure. Low CD4(+) count, low platelet count and mobilization with G-CSF correlated with lower probability to achieve >5 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg, whereas cyclophosphamide ≥ 3 g/m(2) + G-CSF predicted higher collections. Circulating CD34(+) cells and CD34/WBC ratio were strongly associated with collection result. HIV infection alone should not preclude an attempt to obtain stem cells in candidates for autologous transplant as the results are comparable to the HIV-negative population. PMID:23975176

  12. High HIV-1 Genetic Diversity in Patients from Northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Carolina Marinho; Costa de Oliveira, Cintia Mara; Chehuan de Melo, Yonne Francis; Delatorre, Edson; Bello, Gonzalo; Couto-Fernandez, Jose Carlos

    2016-09-01

    The HIV-1 epidemic in Brazil is driven by subtypes B, F1, and C and recombinants forms among those subtypes. The distribution of HIV-1 subtypes, however, may vary across different Brazilian regions and the molecular epidemiologic profile in Northern Brazil remains poorly explored. HIV-1 pol sequences were obtained from 305 patients failing antiretroviral therapy followed at outpatient clinics from five Northern Brazilian states. The most prevalent HIV-1 clade observed in the Northern Brazilian region was subtype B (81%), followed by BF1 recombinants (10%), subtype F1 (4%), subtype C (3%), BC recombinants (2%), and BU recombinants (1%). Although HIV-1 subtype B was the predominant HIV-1 clade in Northern Brazil, its prevalence greatly varies among different states, ranging from 63% in Rondônia to 92% in Acre. Among the 37 HIV-1 recombinant sequences detected in the Northern Brazilian region, nine (24%) displayed a unique recombinant form structure, five (14%) a CRF28/29_BF-like structure, and four (11%) a CRF31_BC-like structure. Two other BF1 recombinant patterns were identified in 16 (43%) and three (8%) samples that may correspond to two potentially new CRFs_BF characteristic of the Northern region. This study reveals that despite the low spatial connectivity with other Brazilian regions, the genetic complexity of the HIV-1 epidemic in Northern Brazil is very high and that the molecular epidemiologic pattern may vary across different northern states, reflecting a complex epidemic with multiple independent viral introductions into this Brazilian region. PMID:27091699

  13. Interferon-free regimens improve health-related quality of life and fatigue in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with advanced liver disease: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Scheiner, Bernhard; Schwabl, Philipp; Steiner, Sebastian; Bucsics, Theresa; Chromy, David; Aichelburg, Maximilian C; Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, Katharina; Trauner, Michael; Peck-Radosavljevic, Markus; Reiberger, Thomas; Mandorfer, Mattias

    2016-07-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is impaired in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients (HIV/HCV) and further decreased by interferon (IFN)-based therapies. We aimed to investigate the impact of IFN- and ribavirin (RBV)-free therapies on HRQoL and fatigue.Thirty-three HIV/HCV-coinfected patients who underwent HCV therapy with sofosbuvir in combination with daclatasvir or ledipasvir were retrospectively studied and compared to 17 patients who received boceprevir (BOC)/PEGIFN/RBV. HRQoL (mental [MCS] and physical [PCS] component score) and fatigue were assessed using the SF-36 (Short Form 36 Health Survey) and the FSS (Fatigue Severity Scale), respectively. HRQoL/fatigue was evaluated at baseline (BL), midway, and 12 weeks after the end of treatment (FU).At BL, both domains of HRQoL as well as the severity of fatigue were significantly impaired in HIV/HCV, when compared to a healthy population. Already during treatment, IFN/RBV-free therapy improved physical health (PCS: 41.4 ± 9.7 vs. 47.0 ± 11.2; P < 0.01) and reduced fatigue (37.8 ± 14.0 vs. 31.9 ± 15.2; P = 0.01), whereas we observed a substantial worsening of both factors in patients treated with BOC/PEGIFN/RBV. Since these improvements were maintained, patients treated with IFN/RBV-free therapy reported an improvement in physical health (PCS: 41.4 ± 9.7 vs. 45.8 ± 12.7; P < 0.01) and fatigue (37.8 ± 14.0 vs. 30.9 ± 14.8; P = 0.04) at FU. While AIDS-patients had a higher severity of fatigue at BL and showed a reduction of fatigue (42.5 ± 14.0 vs. 31.6 ± 15.7; P = 0.01), mental health only improved in patients without AIDS (MCS: 35.7 ± 5.3 vs.40.7 ± 6.4; P = 0.04). HIV/HCV with severe fatigue at BL (>median BL-FSS) showed most pronounced improvements in severity of fatigue (49.7 ± 7.0 vs. 32.0 ± 16.7; P < 0.01).In contrast to IFN-based regimens, highly effective and well-tolerated IFN-/RBV-free regimens improve HRQo

  14. Brief Report: Macrophage Activation in HIV-2-Infected Patients Is Less Affected by Antiretroviral Treatment-sCD163 in HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1/2 Dually Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Hønge, Bo L; Andersen, Morten N; Jespersen, Sanne; Medina, Candida; Correira, Faustino G; Jakobsen, Martin R; Laursen, Alex; Erikstrup, Christian; Møller, Holger J; Wejse, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The course of disease among HIV-2, HIV-1, and HIV-1/2 dually infected patients is different. We investigated the macrophage activation marker soluble CD163 (sCD163) dynamics in 212 HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1/2 dually infected patients. There were no differences in sCD163 levels at baseline or during follow-up without antiretroviral therapy (ART). At follow-up on ART, median sCD163 levels were decreased for HIV-1-infected patients (P < 0.001), but not among HIV-2 (P = 0.093) or HIV-1/2 dually infected patients (P = 0.145). The larger decrease in sCD163 levels among HIV-1-infected patients during ART may indicate an HIV type-dependent differential effect of ART on macrophage activation during HIV infection. PMID:26825178

  15. A ‘good hospital’: Nurse and patient perceptions of good clinical care for HIV-positive people on antiretroviral treatment in rural Zimbabwe—A mixed-methods qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Catherine; Scott, Kerry; Madanhire, Claudius; Nyamukapa, Constance; Gregson, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral treatment for HIV is gradually being made available across sub-Saharan Africa. With antiretroviral treatment, HIV can be approached as a chronic, manageable condition rather than a shorter-term issue of palliative care. This treatment involves repeated interaction between health staff and patients for ongoing check-ups and prescription refills. Objective This study aimed to understand patient and healthcare staff perceptions of good clinical antiretroviral treatment care. Design Over 100 h of ethnographic observation at healthcare sites; interviews and focus groups with 25 healthcentre workers (mostly nurses), 53 HIV-positive adults taking ARVs and 40 carers of children on ART. The data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Setting Three healthcare sites providing free antiretroviral drugs in rural Zimbabwe, where the adult HIV infection rate is approximately 20%. Results Contrary to reports of poor antiretroviral treatment adherence and task-oriented rather than patient-oriented nursing, our study found great patient commitment to adherence, outstanding nurse dedication and a pervasive sense of hope about coping with HIV. Within this context however there were some situations where patients and nurses had different expectations of the medical encounter, leading to stress and dissatisfaction. Patients and staff both emphasized the importance of nurse kindness, understanding, confidentiality and acceptance (i.e. treating HIV patients ‘like normal’) and patient adherence to medical directions. However, nurses at times overlooked the negative effects of long wait times and frequent hospital visits. Further, nurses sometimes conflated medical adherence with general patient obedience in all aspects of the nurse–patient relationships. Patients and staff were frustrated by the ambiguity and unpredictability surrounding key elements of hospital visits such as how much patients had to pay for service, how long it would take to be

  16. Dolutegravir in Antiretroviral-Experienced Patients With Raltegravir- and/or Elvitegravir-Resistant HIV-1: 24-Week Results of the Phase III VIKING-3 Study

    PubMed Central

    Castagna, Antonella; Maggiolo, Franco; Penco, Giovanni; Wright, David; Mills, Anthony; Grossberg, Robert; Molina, Jean-Michel; Chas, Julie; Durant, Jacques; Moreno, Santiago; Doroana, Manuela; Ait-Khaled, Mounir; Huang, Jenny; Min, Sherene; Song, Ivy; Vavro, Cindy; Nichols, Garrett; Yeo, Jane M.; Aberg, J.; Akil, B.; Arribas, J. R.; Baril, J.-G.; Blanco Arévalo, J. L.; Blanco Quintana, F.; Blick, G.; Boix Martínez, V.; Bouchaud, O.; Branco, T.; Bredeek, U. F.; Castro Iglesias, M.; Clumeck, N.; Conway, B.; DeJesus, E.; Delassus, J.-L.; De Truchis, P.; Di Perri, G.; Di Pietro, M.; Duggan, J.; Duvivier, C.; Elion, R.; Eron, J.; Fish, D.; Gathe, J.; Haubrich, R.; Henderson, H.; Hicks, C.; Hocqueloux, L.; Hodder, S.; Hsiao, C.-B.; Katlama, C.; Kozal, M.; Kumar, P.; Lalla-Reddy, S.; Lazzarin, A.; Leoncini, F.; Llibre, J. M.; Mansinho, K.; Morlat, P.; Mounzer, K.; Murphy, M.; Newman, C.; Nguyen, T.; Nseir, B.; Philibert, P.; Pialoux, G.; Poizot-Martin, I.; Ramgopal, M.; Richmond, G.; Salmon Ceron, D.; Sax, P.; Scarsella, A.; Sension, M.; Shalit, P.; Sighinolfi, L.; Sloan, L.; Small, C.; Stein, D.; Tashima, K.; Tebas, P.; Torti, C.; Tribble, M.; Troisvallets, D.; Tsoukas, C.; Viciana Fernández, P.; Ward, D.; Wheeler, D.; Wilkin, T.; Yeni, G.-P.; Louise Martin-Carpenter, J.; Uhlenbrauck, Gina

    2014-01-01

    Background. The pilot phase IIb VIKING study suggested that dolutegravir (DTG), a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integrase inhibitor (INI), would be efficacious in INI-resistant patients at the 50 mg twice daily (BID) dose. Methods. VIKING-3 is a single-arm, open-label phase III study in which therapy-experienced adults with INI-resistant virus received DTG 50 mg BID while continuing their failing regimen (without raltegravir or elvitegravir) through day 7, after which the regimen was optimized with ≥1 fully active drug and DTG continued. The primary efficacy endpoints were the mean change from baseline in plasma HIV-1 RNA at day 8 and the proportion of subjects with HIV-1 RNA <50 c/mL at week 24. Results. Mean change in HIV-1 RNA at day 8 was −1.43 log10 c/mL, and 69% of subjects achieved <50 c/mL at week 24. Multivariate analyses demonstrated a strong association between baseline DTG susceptibility and response. Response was most reduced in subjects with Q148 + ≥2 resistance-associated mutations. DTG 50 mg BID had a low (3%) discontinuation rate due to adverse events, similar to INI-naive subjects receiving DTG 50 mg once daily. Conclusions. DTG 50 mg BID–based therapy was effective in this highly treatment-experienced population with INI-resistant virus. Clinical Trials Registration. www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01328041) and http://www.gsk-clinicalstudywww.gsk-clinicalstudyregister.com (112574). PMID:24446523

  17. Characteristics of HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 Dually Seropositive Adults in West Africa Presenting for Care and Antiretroviral Therapy: The IeDEA-West Africa HIV-2 Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ekouevi, Didier K.; Balestre, Eric; Coffie, Patrick A.; Minta, Daouda; Messou, Eugene; Sawadogo, Adrien; Minga, Albert; Sow, Papa Salif; Bissagnene, Emmanuel; Eholie, Serge P.; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S.; Dabis, François; Zannou, Djimon Marcel; Ahouada, Carin; Akakpo, Jocelyn; Ahomadegbé, Christelle; Bashi, Jules; Gougounon-Houéto, Alice; Azon-Kouanou, Angèle; Houngbé, Fabien; Koumakpaï, Sikiratou; Alihonou, Florence; d’Almeida, Marcelline; Hodonou, Irvine; Hounhoui, Ghislaine; Sagbo, Gracien; Tossa-Bagnan, Leïla; Adjide, Herman; Drabo, Joseph; Bognounou, René; Dienderé, Arnaud; Traore, Eliezer; Zoungrana, Lassane; Zerbo, Béatrice; Sawadogo, Adrien Bruno; Zoungrana, Jacques; Héma, Arsène; Soré, Ibrahim; Bado, Guillaume; Tapsoba, Achille; Yé, Diarra; Kouéta, Fla; Ouedraogo, Sylvie; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Hiembo, William; Gansonré, Mady; Messou, Eugène; Gnokoro, Joachim Charles; Koné, Mamadou; Kouakou, Guillaume Martial; Bosse, Clarisse Amani; Brou, Kouakou; Assi, Achi Isidore; Chenal, Henri; Hawerlander, Denise; Soppi, Franck; Minga, Albert; Abo, Yao; Bomisso, Germain; Eholié, Serge Paul; Amego, Mensah Deborah Noelly; Andavi, Viviane; Diallo, Zelica; Ello, Frédéric; Tanon, Aristophane Koffi; Koule, Serge Olivier; Anzan, Koffi Charles; Guehi, Calixte; Aka, Edmond Addi; Issouf, Koffi Ladji; Kouakou, Jean-Claude; N’Gbeche, Marie-Sylvie; Touré, Pety; Avit-Edi, Divine; Kouakou, Kouadio; Moh, Magloire; Yao, Valérie Andoblé; Folquet, Madeleine Amorissani; Dainguy, Marie-Evelyne; Kouakou, Cyrille; Méa-Assande, Véronique Tanoh; Oka-Berete, Gladys; Zobo, Nathalie; Acquah, Patrick; Kokora, Marie-Berthe; Eboua, Tanoh François; Timité-Konan, Marguerite; Ahoussou, Lucrèce Diecket; Assouan, Julie Kebé; Sami, Mabéa Flora; Kouadio, Clémence; Renner, Lorna; Goka, Bamenla; Welbeck, Jennifer; Sackey, Adziri; Owiafe, Seth Ntiri; Wejse, Christian; Silva, Zacarias José Da; Paulo, Joao; Rodrigues, Amabelia; da Silva, David; Medina, Candida; Oliviera-Souto, Ines; Østergaard, Lars; Laursen, Alex; Sodemann, Morten; Aaby, Peter; Fomsgaard, Anders; Erikstrup, Christian; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Maïga, Moussa Y; Diakité, Fatoumata Fofana; Kalle, Abdoulaye; Katile, Drissa; Traore, Hamar Alassane; Minta, Daouda; Cissé, Tidiani; Dembelé, Mamadou; Doumbia, Mohammed; Fomba, Mahamadou; Kaya, Assétou Soukho; Traoré, Abdoulaye M; Traoré, Hamady; Toure, Amadou Abathina; Dicko, Fatoumata; Sylla, Mariam; Berthé, Alima; Traoré, Hadizatou Coulibaly; Koïta, Anta; Koné, Niaboula; N'Diaye, Clémentine; Coulibaly, Safiatou Touré; Traoré, Mamadou; Traoré, Naïchata; Charurat, Man; Ajayi, Samuel; Dapiap, Stephen; Otu; Igbinoba, Festus; Benson, Okwara; Adebamowo, Clément; James, Jesse; Obaseki; Osakede, Philip; Olasode, John; Sow, Papa Salif; Diop, Bernard; Manga, Noël Magloire; Tine, Judicael Malick; Signate Sy, Haby; Ba, Abou; Diagne, Aida; Dior, Hélène; Faye, Malick; Gueye, Ramatoulaye Diagne; Mbaye, Aminata Diack; Patassi, Akessiwe; Kotosso, Awèrou; Kariyare, Benjamin Goilibe; Gbadamassi, Gafarou; Komi, Agbo; Mensah-Zukong, Kankoé Edem; Pakpame, Pinuwe; Lawson-Evi, Annette Koko; Atakouma, Yawo; Takassi, Elom; Djeha, Améyo; Ephoévi-gah, Ayoko; Djibril, Sherifa El-Hadj; Dabis, François; Bissagnene, Emmanuel; Arrivé, Elise; Coffie, Patrick; Ekouevi, Didier; Jaquet, Antoine; Leroy, Valériane; Lewden, Charlotte; Sasco, Annie; Azani, Jean-Claude; Allou, Gérard; Balestre, Eric; Bohossou, Franck; Karcher, Sophie; Gonsan, Jules Mahan; Carrou, Jérôme Le; Lenaud, Séverin; Nchot, Célestin; Malateste, Karen; Yao, Amon Roseamonde; Siloué, Bertine; Clouet, Gwenaelle; Djetouan, Hugues; Doring, Alexandra; Kouakou, Adrienne; Rabourdin, Elodie; Rivenc, Jean; Anglaret, Xavier; Ba, Boubacar; Essanin, Jean Bosco; Ciaranello, Andrea; Datté, Sébastien; Desmonde, Sophie; Diby, Jean-Serge Elvis; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S.; Horo, Apollinaire Gninlgninrin; Kangah, Serge N'zoré; Malvy, Denis; Meless, David; Mounkaila-Harouna, Aida; Ndondoki, Camille; Shiboski, Caroline; Thiébaut, Rodolphe; PAC-CI; Abidjan

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-2 is endemic in West Africa. There is a lack of evidence-based guidelines on the diagnosis, management and antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-2 or HIV-1/HIV-2 dual infections. Because of these issues, we designed a West African collaborative cohort for HIV-2 infection within the framework of the International epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA). Methods We collected data on all HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 dually seropositive patients (both ARV-naive and starting ART) and followed-up in clinical centres in the IeDEA-WA network including a total of 13 clinics in five countries: Benin, Burkina-Faso Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal, in the West Africa region. Results Data was merged for 1,754 patients (56% female), including 1,021 HIV-2 infected patients (551 on ART) and 733 dually seropositive for both HIV-1 and HIV 2 (463 on ART). At ART initiation, the median age of HIV-2 patients was 45.3 years, IQR: (38.3–51.7) and 42.4 years, IQR (37.0–47.3) for dually seropositive patients (p = 0.048). Overall, 16.7% of HIV-2 patients on ART had an advanced clinical stage (WHO IV or CDC-C). The median CD4 count at the ART initiation is 166 cells/mm3, IQR (83–247) among HIV-2 infected patients and 146 cells/mm3, IQR (55–249) among dually seropositive patients. Overall, in ART-treated patients, the CD4 count increased 126 cells/mm3 after 24 months on ART for HIV-2 patients and 169 cells/mm3 for dually seropositive patients. Of 551 HIV-2 patients on ART, 5.8% died and 10.2% were lost to follow-up during the median time on ART of 2.4 years, IQR (0.7–4.3). Conclusions This large multi-country study of HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 dual infection in West Africa suggests that routine clinical care is less than optimal and that management and treatment of HIV-2 could be further informed by ongoing studies and randomized clinical trials in this population. PMID:23824279

  18. How Patient Interactions with a Computer-Based Video Intervention Affect Decisions to Test for HIV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Ian David; Rajan, Sonali; Marsch, Lisa A.; Bania, Theodore C.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines predictors of HIV test acceptance among emergency department patients who received an educational video intervention designed to increase HIV testing. A total of 202 patients in the main treatment areas of a high-volume, urban hospital emergency department used inexpensive netbook computers to watch brief educational…

  19. [Pneumocystis pneumonia in 3 non HIV patients].

    PubMed

    Battikh, R; M'sadek, F; Ben Abdelhafidh, N; Louzir, B; Labidi, J; Ajili, F; Jemli, B; Gargouri, S; Cheikh, R; Othmani, S

    2007-09-01

    We report 3 cases of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in 2 female and 1 male patients (mean age=50 years) free of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. One female patient presented with breast neoplasm the other with Wegener's granulomatosis, the male patient with lymphoma. All patients were taking immunosuppressive treatment at the time of infection. Persistent cough, dyspnea, and severe hypoxemia were the most characteristic clinical signs. All patients presented with lymphopenia (average CD4-cell count=275/mm3), two with hypoalbuminemia, and one with renal failure. In all cases, the microscopic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage was used to establish the diagnosis. All patients were treated with trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole and a tapering dose of corticosteroids. Outcome was favorable for 1 patient, 1 was transferred to the intensive care unit for acute respiratory failure, and 1 died. PMID:17306485

  20. Nigerian dental therapy students' knowledge, attitude, and willingness to care for patients with HIV.

    PubMed

    Azodo, Clement Chinedu; Ehizele, Adebola Oluyemisi; Umoh, Agnes; Okechukwu, Robinson

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess Nigerian dental therapy students' knowledge, attitudes, and willingness to care for patients with HIV. A twenty-six-item questionnaire was used to conduct a cross-sectional study of the dental therapy students of Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria. The level of knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention among the respondents was high. However, misconceptions about the transmission of HIV through blood donation, mosquito bite, and sharing cups and plates were noted. Erroneous descriptions of HIV as harmless, self-limiting, antibiotic sensitive infection, punishment virus, and contagious infection were also reported. More than half (56.2 percent) and 25.2 percent of the respondents, respectively, expressed feelings of empathy and sympathy towards individuals with HIV. About three-quarters (74.3 percent) expressed willingness to treat patients with HIV, and 87.6 percent expressed confidence in their ability to prevent occupational HIV acquisition. This expressed confidence was significantly associated with their willingness to treat patients with HIV. More than half (55.7 percent) of the respondents reported they can adequately deliver HIV-related information to patients. A total of 86.2 percent said there is a need for training dental therapists in the clinical care of patients with HIV, and 89.0 percent said that dental therapists can play a significant role in the dissemination of HIV-related information. The vast majority (90.0 percent) expressed willingness to disseminate HIV-related information, and the majority (70.5 percent) considered the dental therapist the most suitable dental professional to give HIV-related information to patients. PMID:23740916

  1. Liver involvement in HIV-infected patients with early syphilis.

    PubMed

    Palacios, R; Navarro, F; Narankiewicz, D; Marcos, M; Jiménez-Oñate, F; de la Torre, J; Santos, J

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyse the prevalence of liver involvement and related factors in HIV-infected patients with early syphilis (<2 years). Liver involvement was defined as an elevation above normal ranges of alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase and/or alkaline phosphatase during early syphilis, or doubling of previous levels in patients with liver enzyme elevation before syphilis. We undertook a multicentre study and of the 147 cases, 86.4% were men who had sex with men, and the diagnoses of syphilis and HIV infection were coincident in 48 (32.7%). Liver involvement was detected in 45 (30.6%) and the only related factor was a rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titre ≥1/64 (odds ratio 3.76; 95% confidence interval 1.3-10.5; P = 0.012). In conclusion, liver involvement occurs in around one-third of HIV-infected patients with early syphilis and is associated with high RPR levels. Syphilis should be included in the differential diagnosis of liver enzyme elevation in HIV-infected patients. PMID:23467288

  2. Methadone Maintenance for HIV Positive and HIV Negative Patients in Kyiv: Acceptability and Treatment Response

    PubMed Central

    Dvoriak, Sergii; Karachevsky, Andrey; Chhatre, Sumedha; Booth, Robert; Metzger, David; Schumacher, Joseph; Chychula, Nina; Pecoraro, Anna; Woody, George

    2014-01-01

    Background With up to 40% of opioid injectors infected with HIV, Ukraine has one of the most concentrated HIV epidemics in the world, mainly due to unsterile injection practices and a historical absence of effective prevention services. Harm reduction programs, including syringe exchange and a small buprenorphine treatment program, were introduced in 2004 and methadone maintenance was allowed in 2007. Despite an initial expansion, by 2009, only 3221 injectors were receiving methadone treatment. A growing body of research on methadone maintenance has found high retention rates with reduction in opioid use and HIV risk behaviors. We report on the acceptability and initial outcome of methadone treatment as a function of HIV status, an issue that has not yet been reported for injectors in Ukraine. Methods Longitudinal observational study of a 12-week course of methadone treatment in 25 HIV+ and 25 HIV− opioid addicted individuals recruited from a harm reduction program and the city AIDS Center. Drug use and HIV risk were assessed at baseline and weeks 4, 8, 12 and 20; all patients were offered continued methadone maintenance in the Kyiv city program at the end of 12 weeks. Results Fifty-four individuals were asked if they were interested in the study and 50, demographically similar to other samples of opioid addicted Ukrainians, agreed to participate. Two died of non-study related causes; the other 48 completed assessments at weeks 4, 8 and 12, and 47 completed followups at week 20. Significant reductions were seen in use of heroin (p<. 0001), other opiates/analgesics (p< 0.0001), and HIV risk behaviors (drug, sex, total; all p <0.0001). All 48 patients chose to continue methadone after the 12-weeks of study medication ended. Unlike most opioid treatment studies, sexual risk was somewhat higher than injecting risk at study intake. Conclusions Methadone maintenance was well accepted by HIV+ and HIV− opioid dependent individuals and has the potential for significant

  3. Incidence rate of Kaposi sarcoma in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Southern Africa: a prospective multi-cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Rohner, Eliane; Valeri, Fabio; Maskew, Mhairi; Prozesky, Hans; Rabie, Helena; Garone, Daniela; Dickinson, Diana; Chimbetete, Cleophas; Lumano-Mulenga, Priscilla; Sikazwe, Izukanji; Wyss, Natascha; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M.; Egger, Matthias; Chi, Benjamin H.; Bohlius, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Background The risk of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) among HIV-infected persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not well defined in resource-limited settings. We studied KS incidence rates and associated risk factors in children and adults on ART in Southern Africa. Methods We included patient data of six ART programs in Botswana, South Africa, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. We estimated KS incidence rates in patients on ART measuring time from 30 days after ART initiation to KS diagnosis, last follow-up visit, or death. We assessed risk factors (age, sex, calendar year, WHO stage, tuberculosis, and CD4 counts) using Cox models. Findings We analyzed data from 173,245 patients (61% female, 8% children aged <16 years) who started ART between 2004 and 2010. 564 incident cases were diagnosed during 343,927 person-years (pys). KS incidence rate overall was 164/100,000 pys (95% confidence interval [CI] 151–178). The incidence rate was highest 30 to 90 days after ART initiation (413/100,000 pys; 95% CI 342–497) and declined thereafter (86/100,000 pys[95% CI 71–105]>2 years after ART initiation). Male sex (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.34; 95% CI 1.12–1.61), low current CD4 counts (≥500 cells/µL versus <50 cells/µL, adjusted HR 0.36; 95% CI 0.23–0.55) and age (5 to 9 years versus 30 to 39 years, adjusted HR 0.20; 95% CI 0.05–0.79) were relevant risk factors for developing KS. Interpretation Despite ART, KS risk in HIV-infected persons in Southern Africa remains high. Early HIV testing and maintaining high CD4 counts is needed to further reduce KS-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:25393941

  4. Routine HIV Testing among Hospitalized Patients in Argentina. Is It Time for a Policy Change?

    PubMed Central

    Socías, María Eugenia; Hermida, Laura; Singman, Mariana; Kulgis, Gisela; Díaz Armas, Andrés; Cando, Osvaldo; Sued, Omar; Pérez, Héctor; Hermes, Ricardo; Presas, José Luis; Cahn, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Argentinean AIDS Program estimates that 110,000 persons are living with HIV/AIDS in Argentina. Of those, approximately 40% are unaware of their status, and 30% are diagnosed in advanced stages of immunosuppression. Though studies show that universal HIV screening is cost-effective in settings with HIV prevalence greater than 0.1%, in Argentina, with the exception of antenatal care, HIV testing is always client-initiated. Objective We performed a pilot study to assess the acceptability of a universal HIV screening program among inpatients of an urban public hospital in Buenos Aires. Methods Over a six-month period, all eligible adult patients admitted to the internal medicine ward were offered HIV testing. Demographics, uptake rates, reasons for refusal and new HIV diagnoses were analyzed. Results Of the 350 admissions during this period, 249 were eligible and subsequently enrolled. The enrolled population was relatively old compared to the general population, was balanced on gender, and did not report traditional high risk factors for HIV infection. Only 88 (39%) reported prior HIV testing. One hundred and ninety (76%) patients accepted HIV testing. In multivariable analysis only younger age (OR 1.02; 95%CI 1.003-1.05) was independently associated with test uptake. Three new HIV diagnoses were made (undiagnosed HIV prevalence: 1.58%); none belonged to a most-at-risk population. Conclusions Our findings suggest that universal HIV screening in this setting is acceptable and potentially effective in identifying undiagnosed HIV-infected individuals. If confirmed in a larger study, our findings may inform changes in the Argentinean HIV testing policy. PMID:23936034

  5. Discrepancies between physician's perception of depression in HIV patients and self-reported CES-D-20 assessment: the DHIVA study.

    PubMed

    Marando, F; Gualberti, G; Costanzo, A M; di Luzio Paparatti, U; Franzetti, M; Ammassari, A; Antinori, A; Galli, M

    2016-01-01

    Depression in HIV/AIDS patients affects adherence and disease progression and often goes unnoticed. DHIVA is a cross-sectional epidemiologic survey, investigating the prevalence of depression in people living with HIV through use of a validated self-administered scale (CES-D-20), as well and the degree of concordance between the physician's perception and patients' reports. A total of 690 HIV-infected patients attending 24 centers across Italy were enrolled. Concordance was calculated by K statistics. Association between depression and subject characteristics were evaluated through univariate and multivariate logistic models (OR and 95%CI). The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 48.8% from patient's questionnaires and 49.5% from physicians' reports, with a low/fair concordance (K = .38, p < .001). CES-D-20 found severe depression in 22.5% of the patients vs 4% identified by physicians. 135/155 (87%) of the severely depressed patients (according to CES-D-20) were considered as non or mildly/moderately depressed by physicians. Risk of severe depression was associated with unemployment (p < .001), previous depression (p < .001), treatment failure (p = .001), and former smoking status (p = .018). Depression is frequent in HIV-infected patients in the HAART era, with significant discrepancy between physician perception and the self-reported CES-D-20 results. Screening should be mandatory in all HIV patients. PMID:26461177

  6. HIV diagnosis in a patient presenting with vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Sharif, M; Hameed, S; Akin, I; Natarajan, U

    2016-02-01

    A patient with digital ischaemia and gangrene was treated with iloprost and antiplatelets for two weeks. His vasculitic screen was negative except for a positive HIV test. His vasculitis improved three weeks after treatment with antiretroviral medications. Though vasculitis is well known to be associated with HIV infection, very few cases of HIV present as vasculitis. PMID:25769887

  7. Optimizing care for African-American HIV-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kimberly Y; Brutus, Andre; Cathcart, Ronald; Gathe, Joseph; Johnson, William; Jordan, Wilbert; Kwakwa, Helena A; Nkwanyou, Joseph; Page, Carlos; Scott, Robert; Vaughn, Anita C; Virgil, Luther A; Williamson, Diana

    2003-10-01

    The African-American community has been disproportionately affected HIV/AIDS, as noted by higher reported rates of HIV infection, higher proportion of AIDS cases, and more deaths caused by complications of AIDS than whites and other ethnic groups. In addition, epidemiologic trends suggest that African Americans with HIV infection are more often diagnosed later in the course of HIV disease than whites. Numerous reasons account for this disparity, including the lack of perception of risk and knowledge about HIV transmission as well as a delays in HIV testing and diagnosis in the African-American community. Understanding the important considerations in the management of HIV infection in the African-American patient may create awareness among health care professionals and broaden the knowledge of HIV-infected patients within the African-American community. PMID:14588093

  8. HIV drug resistance interpreted by cumulative versus last genotypes in HIV-infected patients with multiple treatment failures.

    PubMed

    Punyacam, Punthiya; Iemwimangsa, Nareenart; Chantratita, Wasun; Sukasem, Chonlaphat; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek

    2012-04-01

    Genotypic resistance test has been recommended to evaluate HIV drug resistance and guide the effective regimens of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients with treatment failure. In patients with multiple treatment failures, drug resistance-associated mutations may disappear due to the loss of selective drug pressure after switching regimens. A cohort study was conducted among HIV-infected patients who had ≥2 genotypic resistance tests during 2003-2011. HIV-1 pol nucleotide sequencing of reverse transcriptase and protease region was carried out using TRUGENE HIV-1 Genotypic Assay. Sequencing data was analyzed using Stanford rule-based interpretation algorithms. Of 54 patients with mean age of 30.1 years, 46.3% were males. HIV-1 subtype A/E was observed in 88.9% of patients. At the latest failure, 55.3% were receiving protease inhibitor-based regimens. Median CD4 and HIV RNA were 167 cells/mm(3) and 22,359 copies/mL. During a median duration of ART of 38.6 months, 72.2%, 22.2%, and 5.6% had 5, 3, and 2 genotype tests, respectively. When compared between using cumulative (CG) and last genotypes (LG), CG interpreted resistance to any drug 59.3% higher than LG did. For NRTI, NNRTI, and PI drug classes, CG interpreted as resistance 42.6%, 27.8%, and 7.4% higher than LG, respectively. The most common drugs that CG interpreted resistance with the higher rate than LG were lamivudine/emtricitabine, nevirapine, efavirenz, etravirine and abacavir. In conclusion, CG interprets HIV drug resistance at a higher rate than LG and may be more accurate to use for selecting the next effective regimen of ART among HIV-infected patients with multiple treatment failures. PMID:22497699

  9. Renal Leishmaniasis as Unusual Cause of Nephrotic Syndrome in an HIV Patient

    PubMed Central

    Bogdan, Christian; Harrer, Thomas; Rech, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    Renal involvement is a rare complication in HIV-1–infected patients leading to various pathologies and clinical symptoms. In addition to the classic HIV-1–associated nephropathy with collapsing-type focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and characteristic tubulocystic changes, which is more common in Afro-American than in Caucasian HIV-1 patients, immune complex GNs such as membranous GN and membranoproliferative GN are particularly common renal manifestations. Besides HIV-1 itself, a number of opportunistic infections may cause renal disease in HIV-1–infected patients. In this study, we report an unusual case of HIV-1 infection with a severe renal manifestation of systemic leishmaniasis that developed years after repeated visits to Mediterranean countries. The case presents several remarkable clinical, pathologic, and therapeutic aspects that may be important for daily clinical practice. PMID:22282598

  10. The VACS Index Accurately Predicts Mortality and Treatment Response among Multi-Drug Resistant HIV Infected Patients Participating in the Options in Management with Antiretrovirals (OPTIMA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sheldon T.; Tate, Janet P.; Kyriakides, Tassos C.; Kirkwood, Katherine A.; Holodniy, Mark; Goulet, Joseph L.; Angus, Brian J.; Cameron, D. William; Justice, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The VACS Index is highly predictive of all-cause mortality among HIV infected individuals within the first few years of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, its accuracy among highly treatment experienced individuals and its responsiveness to treatment interventions have yet to be evaluated. We compared the accuracy and responsiveness of the VACS Index with a Restricted Index of age and traditional HIV biomarkers among patients enrolled in the OPTIMA study. Methods Using data from 324/339 (96%) patients in OPTIMA, we evaluated associations between indices and mortality using Kaplan-Meier estimates, proportional hazards models, Harrel’s C-statistic and net reclassification improvement (NRI). We also determined the association between study interventions and risk scores over time, and change in score and mortality. Results Both the Restricted Index (c = 0.70) and VACS Index (c = 0.74) predicted mortality from baseline, but discrimination was improved with the VACS Index (NRI = 23%). Change in score from baseline to 48 weeks was more strongly associated with survival for the VACS Index than the Restricted Index with respective hazard ratios of 0.26 (95% CI 0.14–0.49) and 0.39(95% CI 0.22–0.70) among the 25% most improved scores, and 2.08 (95% CI 1.27–3.38) and 1.51 (95%CI 0.90–2.53) for the 25% least improved scores. Conclusions The VACS Index predicts all-cause mortality more accurately among multi-drug resistant, treatment experienced individuals and is more responsive to changes in risk associated with treatment intervention than an index restricted to age and HIV biomarkers. The VACS Index holds promise as an intermediate outcome for intervention research. PMID:24667813

  11. Pharmacists’ perspectives on promoting medication adherence among patients with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Kibicho, Jennifer W.; Owczarzak, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To provide pharmacists’ perspectives on medication adherence barriers for patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to describe pharmacists’ strategies for promoting adherence to antiretroviral medications. Design Multisite, qualitative, descriptive study. Setting Four midwestern U.S. states, from August through October 2009. Participants 19 pharmacists at 10 pharmacies providing services to patients with HIV. Intervention Pharmacists were interviewed using a semistructured interview guide. Main outcome measures Barriers to medication adherence, pharmacist interventions, challenges to promoting adherence. Results Pharmacists reported a range of adherence barriers that were patient specific (e.g., cognitive factors, lack of social support), therapy related (e.g., adverse effects, intolerable medications), and structural level (e.g., strained provider relationships). They used a combination of individually tailored, patient-specific interventions that identified and resolved adherence barriers and actively anticipated and addressed potential adherence barriers. Pharmacist interventions included medication-specific education to enhance patient self-efficacy, follow-up calls to monitor adherence, practical and social support to motivate adherence, and patient referrals to other health care providers. However, the pharmacists faced internal (e.g., lack of time, lack of trained personnel) and external (e.g., insurance policies that disallowed patient enrollment in automatic prescription refill program) challenges. Conclusion Pharmacists in community settings went beyond prescription drug counseling mandated by law to provide additional pharmacy services that were tailored to the needs of patients with HIV. Given that many individuals with HIV are living longer, more research is needed on the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of pharmacists’ interventions in clinical practice, in order to inform insurance reimbursement policies. PMID

  12. Comparison of Parasitological, Serological, and Molecular Tests for Visceral Leishmaniasis in HIV-Infected Patients: A Cross-Sectional Delayed-Type Study

    PubMed Central

    Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; de Sousa, Marcos Roberto; de Freitas Nogueira, Betânia Mara; Gomes, Luciana Inácia; Oliveira, Edward; Assis, Tália Santana Machado; de Mendonça, Andréa Laender Pessoa; Pinto, Bruna Fernandes; Saliba, Juliana Wilke; Rabello, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of invasive and non-invasive tests for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in a large series of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. In this delayed-type cross-sectional study, 113 HIV-infected symptomatic patients were evaluated by an adjudication committee after clinical follow-up to establish the presence or absence of VL as the target condition (reference test). The index tests were recombinant K39 antigen-based immunochromatographic test (rK39), indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), prototype kit of direct agglutination test (DAT-LPC), and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in peripheral blood. Compared with parasitological test and adjudication committee diagnosis or latent class model analyses, IFAT and rk39 dipstick test presented the lowest sensitivity. DAT-LPC exhibited good overall performance, and there was no statistical difference between DAT-LPC and qPCR diagnosis accuracy. Real-time PCR emerges as a less invasive alternative to parasitological examination for confirmation of cases not identified by DAT. PMID:23836568

  13. Use of dental care by HIV-infected medical patients.

    PubMed

    Coulter, I D; Marcus, M; Freed, J R; Der-Martirosian, C; Cunningham, W E; Andersen, R M; Maas, W R; Garcia, I; Schneider, D A; Genovese, B; Shapiro, M F; Bozzette, S A

    2000-06-01

    Although increasing attention has been paid to the use of dental care by HIV patients, the existing studies do not use probability samples, and no accurate population estimates of use can be made from this work. The intent of the present study was to establish accurate population estimates of the use of dental services by patients under medical care. The study, part of the HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study (HCSUS), created a representative national probability sample, the first of its kind, of HIV-infected adults in medical care. Both bivariate and logistic regressions were conducted, with use of dental care in the preceding 6 months as the dependent variable and demographic, social, behavioral, and disease characteristics as independent variables. Forty-two percent of the sample had seen a dental health professional in the preceding 6 months. The bivariate logits for use of dental care show that African-Americans, those whose exposure to HIV was caused by hemophilia or blood transfusions, persons with less education, and those who were employed were less likely to use dental care (p < 0.05). Sixty-five percent of those with a usual source of care had used dental care in the preceding 6 months. Use was greatest among those obtaining dental care from an AIDS clinic (74%) and lowest among those without a usual source of dental care (12%). We conclude that, in spite of the high rate of oral disease in persons with HIV, many do not use dental care regularly, and that use varies by patient characteristics and availability of a regular source of dental care. PMID:10890713

  14. Drinking Motives Among HIV Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Jennifer C.; Aharonovich, Efrat; O’Leary, Ann; Wainberg, Milton; Hasin, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Heavy drinking among individuals with HIV is associated with poor medication adherence and other health problems. Understanding reasons for drinking (drinking motives) in this population is therefore important and could inform intervention. Using concepts of drinking motives from previous alcohol research, we assessed these motives and drinking in 254 HIV-positive primary care patients (78.0% male; 94.5% African American or Hispanic) prior to their participation in an alcohol intervention trial. Three motives had good factor structure and internal consistency: “drinking to cope with negative affect”, “drinking for social facilitation” (both associated with heavier drinking), and “drinking due to social pressure” (associated with less drinking). Drinking motives may provide important content for alcohol intervention; clinical trials could indicate whether inclusion of such content improves intervention efficacy. Discussing motives in session could help providers assist clients in better managing psychological and social aspects of their lives without reliance on alcohol. PMID:24165984

  15. Multicenter Study of Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole-Related Hepatotoxicity: Incidence and Associated Factors among HIV-Infected Patients Treated for Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jen-Jia; Huang, Chung-Hao; Liu, Chun-Eng; Tang, Hung-Jen; Yang, Chia-Jui; Lee, Yi-Chien; Lee, Kuan-Yeh; Tsai, Mao-Song; Lin, Shu-Wen; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Lu, Po-Liang; Hung, Chien-Ching

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of hepatotoxicity related to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) administered at a therapeutic dose may vary among study populations of different ethnicities and hepatotoxic metabolites of TMP/SMX may be decreased by drug-drug interaction with fluconazole. We aimed to investigate the incidence of hepatotoxicity and the role of concomitant use of fluconazole in HIV-infected patients receiving TMP/SMX for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. We reviewed medical records to collect clinical characteristics and laboratory data of HIV-infected patients who received TMP/SMX for treatment of P. jirovecii pneumonia at 6 hospitals around Taiwan between September 2009 and February 2013. Hepatotoxicity was defined as 2-fold or greater increase of aminotransferase or total bilirubin level from baselines. Roussel UCLAF Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) was used to analyze the causality of drug-induced liver injuries. NAT1 and NAT2 acetylator types were determined with the use of polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) restriction fragment length polymorphism to differentiate common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) predictive of the acetylator phenotypes in a subgroup of patients. During the study period, 286 courses of TMP/SMX treatment administered to 284 patients were analyzed. One hundred and fifty-two patients (53.1%) developed hepatotoxicity, and TMP/SMX was considered causative in 47 (16.4%) who had a RUCAM score of 6 or greater. In multivariate analysis, concomitant use of fluconazole for candidiasis was the only factor associated with reduced risk for hepatotoxicity (adjusted odds ratio, 0.372; 95% confidence interval, 0.145–0.957), while serostatus of hepatitis B or C virus, NAT1 and NAT2 acetylator types, or receipt of combination antiretroviral therapy was not. The incidence of hepatotoxicity decreased with an increasing daily dose of fluconazole up to 4.0 mg/kg. We conclude that the incidence of TMP/SMX-related hepatotoxicity was 16.4% in HIV

  16. Multicenter study of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-related hepatotoxicity: incidence and associated factors among HIV-infected patients treated for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jen-Jia; Huang, Chung-Hao; Liu, Chun-Eng; Tang, Hung-Jen; Yang, Chia-Jui; Lee, Yi-Chien; Lee, Kuan-Yeh; Tsai, Mao-Song; Lin, Shu-Wen; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Lu, Po-Liang; Hung, Chien-Ching

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of hepatotoxicity related to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) administered at a therapeutic dose may vary among study populations of different ethnicities and hepatotoxic metabolites of TMP/SMX may be decreased by drug-drug interaction with fluconazole. We aimed to investigate the incidence of hepatotoxicity and the role of concomitant use of fluconazole in HIV-infected patients receiving TMP/SMX for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. We reviewed medical records to collect clinical characteristics and laboratory data of HIV-infected patients who received TMP/SMX for treatment of P. jirovecii pneumonia at 6 hospitals around Taiwan between September 2009 and February 2013. Hepatotoxicity was defined as 2-fold or greater increase of aminotransferase or total bilirubin level from baselines. Roussel UCLAF Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) was used to analyze the causality of drug-induced liver injuries. NAT1 and NAT2 acetylator types were determined with the use of polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) restriction fragment length polymorphism to differentiate common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) predictive of the acetylator phenotypes in a subgroup of patients. During the study period, 286 courses of TMP/SMX treatment administered to 284 patients were analyzed. One hundred and fifty-two patients (53.1%) developed hepatotoxicity, and TMP/SMX was considered causative in 47 (16.4%) who had a RUCAM score of 6 or greater. In multivariate analysis, concomitant use of fluconazole for candidiasis was the only factor associated with reduced risk for hepatotoxicity (adjusted odds ratio, 0.372; 95% confidence interval, 0.145-0.957), while serostatus of hepatitis B or C virus, NAT1 and NAT2 acetylator types, or receipt of combination antiretroviral therapy was not. The incidence of hepatotoxicity decreased with an increasing daily dose of fluconazole up to 4.0 mg/kg. We conclude that the incidence of TMP/SMX-related hepatotoxicity was 16.4% in HIV

  17. Increased HIV testing among hospitalized patients who declined testing in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Felsen, Uriel R; Cunningham, Chinazo O; Zingman, Barry S

    2016-05-01

    Health-care systems have serial encounters with many of the same patients across care settings; however, few studies have examined the role of reoffering HIV testing after a patient declines. We assessed whether an intervention to increase HIV testing among hospitalized patients was associated with increased testing among those who declined a test while in the Emergency Department (ED). We studied 8-week periods pre- and post-implementation of an electronic medical record (EMR)-based intervention to increase HIV testing among hospitalized patients. We included all patients 21-64 years old who had no prior HIV test, declined HIV testing in the ED, and were subsequently hospitalized. We used logistic regression to test for an association between time of hospital admission (pre- vs. post-intervention) and whether an HIV test was performed prior to discharge. Pre- and post-implementation, 220 and 218 patients who declined HIV testing in the ED were hospitalized, respectively. There were no significant demographic or clinical differences among patients pre- and post-implementation. Pre- and post-implementation, the median proportion of patients tested weekly was 6.7% (IQR 6.5%, 10.0%) and 41.4% (IQR 33.3%, 41.9%), respectively (aOR 6.2: 95%CI: 3.6, 10.6). HIV testing increased among hospitalized patients who declined a test in the ED after implementation of an EMR-based intervention. Almost half of the patients who declined testing in the ED ultimately underwent testing after it was reoffered during hospitalization, suggesting that the decision to undergo HIV testing is a dynamic process. Leveraging EMR resources may be an effective tool for expanding HIV testing, and testing should be reoffered to patients who previously declined. PMID:26654431

  18. Care of Patients With HIV Infection: Antiretroviral Drug Regimens.

    PubMed

    Bolduc, Philip; Roder, Navid; Colgate, Emily; Cheeseman, Sarah H

    2016-04-01

    The advent of combination antiretroviral drug regimens has transformed HIV infection from a fatal illness into a manageable chronic condition. All patients with HIV infection should be considered for antiretroviral therapy, regardless of CD4 count or HIV viral load, for individual benefit and to prevent HIV transmission. Antiretroviral drugs affect HIV in several ways: entry inhibitors block HIV entry into CD4 T cells; nucleotide and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors prevent reverse transcription from RNA to DNA via chain-terminating proteins; nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors prevent reverse transcription through enzymatic inhibition; integrase strand transfer inhibitors block integration of viral DNA into cellular DNA; protease inhibitors block maturation and production of the virus. Current guidelines recommend six combination regimens for initial therapy. Five are based on tenofovir and emtricitabine; the other uses abacavir and lamivudine. Five include integrase strand transfer inhibitors. HIV specialists should assist with treating patients with complicated HIV infection, including patients with treatment-resistant HIV infection, coinfection with hepatitis B or C virus, pregnancy, childhood infections, severe opportunistic infections, complex drug interactions, significant drug toxicity, or comorbidities. Family physicians can treat most patients with HIV infection effectively by choosing appropriate treatment regimens, monitoring patients closely, and retaining patients in care. PMID:27092564

  19. HIV testing and disclosure: a qualitative analysis of TB patients in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Daftary, A; Padayatchi, N; Padilla, M

    2007-04-01

    In South Africa, more than 60% of TB patients have HIV co-infection. Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is critical to effective HIV prevention, and TB facilities are optimal venues for delivery of these services. This study employed qualitative research methods to explore the decision-making processes for HIV testing and serostatus disclosure by 21 patients hospitalized with multi/extensively-drug resistant TB (M/XDR-TB) in Durban, KwaZulu Natal. Data collected from in-depth interviews characterized 3 broad themes: HIV testing history, experiences and perceptions of stigma and disclosure, and the relationship between TB and HIV/AIDS. Fear of AIDS-related stigma, the singular stress of TB infection, the absence of partner's consent, asymptomatic or incurable disease, and uncertainty about subsequent eligibility for antiretroviral treatment while still receiving TB treatment were identified as potential barriers to the uptake of VCT. HIV serostatus disclosure was impeded by the felt stigma of a 'discreditable' infection, manifested by social rejection and discrimination. The public disclosure of TB illness helped relieve some co-infected patients' overall burden of stigma through a process of 'covering'. HIV prevention [corrected] measures such as VCTare likely to be more effective within TB facilities if greater sensitivity is paid to TB patients' specific social issues and perceptions. These patients are not only at greater risk for HIV co-infection but also for experiencing the double stigma of TB and HIV/AIDS. PMID:17453600

  20. Neuroretinal Degeneration in HIV Patients Without Opportunistic Ocular Infections in the cART Era.

    PubMed

    Demirkaya, Nazli; Wit, Ferdinand; Schlingemann, Reinier; Verbraak, Franciscus

    2015-10-01

    Subtle structural and functional retinal abnormalities, termed 'HIV-associated Neuroretinal Disorder (HIV-NRD)', have been reported in HIV patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), without infectious retinitis or any apparent fundus abnormalities otherwise. In this review, we provide an overview of studies investigating HIV-NRD in HIV patients without opportunistic ocular infections in the cART era, and try to elucidate underlying mechanisms and associated risk factors. Most studies focused on patients with severe immune-deficiency and demonstrated that patients with nadir CD4 counts<100 cells/μL are most at risk for neuroretinal damage, with a thinner retinal nerve fiber layer, subtle loss of color vision and/or contrast sensitivity, visual field deficits, and subnormal electrophysiological responses. In contrast, alterations in retinal vascular calibers and retinal blood flow were not associated with nadir CD4 counts, but instead with detectable viremia, suggesting a role for (chronic) inflammation in microvascular damage. Although the alterations in visual function are subtle, they can lead to difficulties in activities, such as reading or driving, thereby affecting quality of life. Since HIV has become a chronic disease, its long-term effects with respect to visual function loss become more important, as is recently emphasized by a longitudinal study, reporting that AIDS patients with HIV-NRD have higher risks of developing bilateral visual impairment and even blindness than patients without HIV-NRD. The question remains whether patients with high (>350 cells/μL) nadir CD4 counts and well-suppressed HIV infection on cART remain at risk for HIV-NRD, as this group constitutes a growing part of the aging HIV-infected population. PMID:26258992

  1. Factors Associated with Length of Hospital Stay among HIV Positive and HIV Negative Patients with Tuberculosis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Maria Jacirema Ferreira; Ferreira, Alaidistania A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Identify and analyze the factors associated to length of hospital stay among HIV positive and HIV negative patients with tuberculosis in Manaus city, state of Amazonas, Brazil, in 2010. Methods Epidemiological study with primary data obtained from monitoring of hospitalized patients with tuberculosis in Manaus. Data were collected by interviewing patients and analyzing medical records, according to the following study variables age, sex, co-morbidities, education, race, income, lifestyle, history of previous treatment or hospitalization due to tuberculosis, treatment regimen, adverse reactions, smear test, clinical form, type of discharge, and length of hospital stay. The associated factors were identified through chi-square or t-Student test at a 5% significance level. Results Income from 1 to 3 minimum wages (P = 0.028), pulmonary tuberculosis form (P = 0.011), negative smear test or no information in this regard (P = 0.014), initial 6-month treatment scheme (P = 0.029), and adverse drug reactions (P = 0.021) were associated to prolonged hospital stay in HIV positive patients. Conclusion We found out that although there were no significant differences in the length of hospital stay in HIV positive patients, all factors significantly associated to prolonged hospital stay occurred in this group of patients. This finding corroborates other studies indicating the severity of tuberculosis in HIV patients, which may also contribute to lengthen their hospital stay. PMID:23593227

  2. Outcomes of a clinical diagnostic algorithm for management of ambulatory smear and Xpert MTB/Rif negative HIV infected patients with presumptive pulmonary TB in Uganda: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Walusimbi, Simon; Semitala, Fred; Bwanga, Freddie; Haile, Melles; De Costa, Ayesha; Davis, Lucian; Joloba, Moses; Hoffner, Sven; Kamya, Moses

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diagnostic guidelines for Tuberculosis (TB) in HIV infected patients previously relied on microscopy where the value of initial antibiotic treatment for exclusion of pulmonary TB (PTB) was limited. New guidelines rely on the Xpert MTB Rif test (Xpert). However, the value of the antibiotic treatment remains unclear particularly in individuals who are smear-negative and Xpert-negative-given Xpert has only moderate sensitivity for smear-negative PTB. We assessed an algorithm involving initial treatment with antibiotics prior empiric TB treatment in HIV patients with presumptive PTB who were both smear and Xpert negative. Methods We performed a prospective study with six month follow-up to establish patient response to a course of broad spectrum antibiotics prior empiric TB treatment between March 2012 and June 2013. We calculated the proportion of patients who responded to the antibiotic treatment and those who did not. We computed the crude and adjusted odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals, for response to the antibiotic treatment on various patient characteristics. We report treatment outcomes for patients who received broad spectrum antibiotics only or who were initiated empiric TB treatment. Results Our cohort comprised 162 smear-negative and Xpert-negative patients, of whom 59% (96 of 162) were female, 81% (131 of 162) were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for a median of 8.7 months. Overall, 88% (141 of 160) responded to the antibiotic treatment, 8% (12 of 160) got empiric TB treatment and 4% (7 out of 160) were treated for other respiratory disease. The odds of improvement on antibiotics were lower in patients with advanced HIV disease than in patients with early HIV disease. Adjusted odds ratios were significant for HIV clinical stage (AOR; 0.038,) and duration on ART (AOR; 1.038,). Conclusion The majority of HIV patients with presumptive PTB with smear-negative and Xpert negative results improved on the antibiotic treatment and did not

  3. Risk Factors for DOTS Treatment Default Among New HIV-TB Coinfected Patients in Nalgonda (Dist.) Telangana (State): A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Reddy Satti, Siva Balaji; Kondagunta, Nagaraj

    2016-01-01

    Background: The therapeutic regimens as recommended by the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) have been shown to be highly effective for both preventing and treating tuberculosis, but poor adherence to medication is a major barrier to its global control. Aim and Objectives: The study was conducted to assess the influence of patient related factors for DOTS Treatment Default among HIV-TB Co-infected cases. Setting and Design: This was a case control study conducted in Nalgond, Telangana. Materials and Methods: All new HIV-TB coinfected and DOTS-defaulted patients registered under RNTCP for the period from January 2010 to December 2012 were selected. Of the 154 patients, 23 had died and 11 could not be traced, and these were excluded. Thus the total number of available cases were 120 for those age- and sex-matched controls (HIV-TB coinfected patients and those who had completed the DOTS regimen successfully) were selected. Results: The mean age was 36.5 ± 9 years; the majority (23.3%) of patients defaulted during the second month of treatment. Significant risk factors associated with defaulting included unskilled occupation [adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 3.56; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-11.56], lower middle class socioeconomic status (AOR: 17.16; 95% CI: 3.93-74.82), small family size (AOR: 21.3; 95% CI: 6.4-70.91), marital disharmony (AOR: 6.78; 95% CI: 1.93-23.76), not being satisfied with the conduct of health personnel (AOR: 7.38; 95% CI: 2.32-23.39), smoking (AOR: 8.5; 95% CI: 2.31-31.21), and side effects of drugs (AOR: 4.18; 95% CI: 1.35-12.9). Conclusion: Unskilled occupation, marital disharmony, small family size, lower middle class socioeconomic status, not being satisfied with the conduct of health personnel, smoking, and drug side effects were significantly associated with defaulting. Information on the pattern of tuberculosis (TB), the outcome of anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT), and the factors associated with it will help in planning

  4. Hepatitis C virus–HIV-coinfected patients and liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kardashian, Ani A.; Price, Jennifer C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review To review the experience to date and unique challenges associated with liver transplantation in hepatitis C virus (HCV)/HIV-coinfected patients. Recent findings The prevalence of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma is rising among HIV-infected individuals. With careful patient selection and in the absence of HCV infection, HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected liver transplant recipients have comparable posttransplant outcomes. However, in the presence of HCV infection, patient and graft survival are significantly poorer in HIV-infected recipients, who have a higher risk of aggressive HCV recurrence, acute rejection, sepsis, and multiorgan failure. Outcomes may be improved with careful recipient and donor selection and with the availability of new highly potent all-oral HCV direct acting antivirals (DAAs). Although all-oral DAAs have not been evaluated in HIV/HCV-coinfected transplant patients, HIV does not adversely impact treatment success in nontransplant populations. Therefore, there is great hope that HCV can be successful eradicated in HIV/HCV-coinfected transplant patients and will result in improved outcomes. Careful attention to drug–drug interactions with HIV antiretroviral agents, DAAs, and posttransplant immunosuppressants is required. Summary Liver transplant outcomes are poorer in HIV/HCV-coinfected recipients compared with those with HCV-monoinfection. The new HCV DAAs offer tremendous potential to improve outcomes in this challenging population. PMID:25944240

  5. Correlation between imaging features of Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonitis (PCP), CD4+ T lymphocyte count, and plasma HIV viral load: A study in 50 consecutive AIDS patients

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ying-Ying; Liu, Shui-Teng; Liu, Yan; Liu, Ying-Xia; Wang, Yi-Xiang J; Zhu, Wen-Ke; Le, Xiao-Hua; Yu, Wei-Ye; Zhou, Bo-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the imaging manifestations of Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonitis (PCP) in AIDS patients, and the correlation between imaging features, CD4+ lymphocyte count, and plasma HIV viral load. Materials and methods A total of consecutive 50 AIDS patients with PCP were reviewed retrospectively. Chest CT manifestations, CD4+ lymphocyte count, and plasma HIV viral load were analyzed to investigate their correlation. Results PCP chest CT manifestations included ground-glass opacities dominated in 28 cases (28/50, 56%), lung cysts dominated in 10 cases (10/50, 20%), consolidation dominated in 6 cases (6/50, 12%), interstitial lesion dominated in 3 cases (3/50, 6%), and mixed lesions in 3 cases (3/50, 6%). In these 50 patients, CD4+ lymphocyte count ranged from 2 to 373 cells/µL. Plasma HIV viral load ranged from 500 to 5.28×107 copies/mL. CD4+ lymphocyte count in ground-glass opacities dominated patients was higher than that of lung cyst dominated patients (P<0.05). Plasma virus load of lung cysts dominated PCP patients was higher than that of consolidation dominated patients (P<0.05). Conclusions The typical chest imaging features of PCP in AIDS patients included lung ground-glass opacities and lung cysts. The chest imaging features were correlated with CD4+ T lymphocyte count and plasma HIV viral load. PMID:23256070

  6. Managing dyslipidemia in HIV/AIDS patients: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Nazik Elmalaika OS; Ahmed, Mohamed H

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a chronic disease associated with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. In addition, the administration of combination antiretroviral therapy is associated with an increase in the incidence of metabolic risk factors (insulin resistance, lipoatrophy, dyslipidemia, and abnormalities of fat distribution in HIV patients). HIV dyslipidemia is a common problem, and associated with an increase in incidence of cardiovascular disease. Further challenges in the management of HIV dyslipidemia are the presence of diabetes and metabolic syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, hypothyroidism, chronic kidney disease, the risk of diabetes associated with statin administration, age and ethnicity, and early menopause in females. Dyslipidemia in patients with HIV is different from the normal population, due to the fact that HIV increases insulin resistance and HIV treatment not only may induce dyslipidemia but also may interact with lipid-lowering medication. The use of all statins (apart from simvastatin and lovastatin) is safe and effective in HIV dyslipidemia, and the addition of ezetimibe, fenofibrate, fish oil, and niacin can be used in statin-unresponsive HIV dyslipidemia. The management of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease risks associated with HIV is complex, and a certain number of patients may require management in specialist clinics run by specialist physicians in lipid disorders. Future research is needed to address best strategies in the management of hyperlipidemia with HIV infection. PMID:25565897

  7. A Single Quantifiable Viral Load Is Predictive of Virological Failure in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Patients on Combination Antiretroviral Therapy: The Austrian HIV Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Leierer, Gisela; Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, Katharina; Steuer, Andrea; Sarcletti, Mario; Geit, Maria; Haas, Bernhard; Taylor, Ninon; Kanatschnig, Manfred; Rappold, Michaela; Ledergerber, Bruno; Zangerle, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background. Viral loads (VLs) detectable at low levels are not uncommon in patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We investigated whether a single quantifiable VL predicted virological failure (VF). Methods. We analyzed patients receiving standard regimens with at least 1 VL measurement below the limit of quantification (BLQ) in their treatment history. The first VL measurement after 6 months of unmodified cART served as baseline VL for the subsequent analyses of the time to reach single VL levels of ≥200, ≥400, and ≥1000 copies/mL. Roche TaqMan 2.0 was used to quantify human immunodeficiency virus-1 ribonucleic acid. Factors associated with VF were determined by Cox proportional hazards models. Results. Of 1614 patients included in the study, 68, 44, and 34 experienced VF ≥200, ≥400, and ≥1000 copies/mL, respectively. In multivariable analyses, compared with patients who were BLQ, a detectable VL ≤ 50 and VL 51–199 copies/mL predicted VF ≥ 200 copies/mL (hazards ratio [HR] = 2.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06–4.55 and HR = 4.21, 95% CI = 2.15–8.22, respectively). In those with VL 51–199 copies/mL, a trend for an increased risk of VF ≥400 and VF ≥1000 copies/mL could be found (HR = 2.13, 95% CI = 0.84–5.39 and HR = 2.52, 95% CI = 0.96–6.60, respectively). Conclusions. These findings support closer monitoring and adherence counseling for patients with a single measurement of quantifiable VL <200 copies/mL. PMID:27419163

  8. Spoligotype profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains from HIV-positive and -negative patients in Nigeria: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Cadmus, Simeon; Hill, Véronique; van Soolingen, Dick; Rastogi, Nalin

    2011-01-01

    We ran a comparative analysis of all patients for whom a positive culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex was available between April 2004 and October 2005 and whose HIV serology results were known, with spoligotyping results (n = 163) split into 49 HIV-positive patients and 114 HIV-negative patients. Spoligotype international type 373 (SIT373) (T1 lineage), which was highly prevalent among the HIV(+) patients, was totally absent from the HIV(-) population, suggesting that we had a specific clone affecting nearly 1/3 of all HIV-tuberculosis (TB)-coinfected patients. Among the LAM10-CAM sublineage strains, we had only a single strain of SIT403 among HIV(-) patients (0.88%), as opposed to 12.25% of the HIV(+) population (χ(2) = 10.77; P < 0.01), indicating a strong association between the strain and the HIV(+) population. The LAM10-CAM lineage spoligotype SIT61 was prevalent among the 2 subsets (37.72% in HIV(-) versus 12.24% in HIV(+) populations), though, with a significant difference between the 2 groups (χ(2) = 10.53; P < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference for SIT53 (T1 lineage) in the 2 subsets: 6.14 versus 8.2% (χ(2) = 0.22; P > 0.05). A total of 7/49, or 14.3%, other SITs among HIV(+) patients were not found among the HIV(-) patients. When added to the most prevalent SIT among HIV(+) patients (SIT373; n = 16), 23/49, or 47%, isolates among HIV-TB-coinfected patients were unique. We conclude that further studies should be carried out to investigate the evolution of these genotypes and others in the emergence of multidrug resistance and control of tuberculosis in Nigeria. PMID:21048016

  9. Patient and Provider Perspectives on HIV and HIV-Related Stigma in Dutch Health Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Sicking, Lenneke; Brands, Ronald; Baas, Ineke; Roberts, Hilde; van Brakel, Wim H.; Lechner, Lilian; Kok, Gerjo; Bos, Arjan E. R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Ensuring that people living with HIV (PLWH) feel accepted in health care settings is imperative. This mixed methods study explored the perspectives of PLWH and health professionals on their interactions. A total of 262 predominantly gay men of Dutch origin participated in a survey study of possible negative interactions with health professionals, and semi-structured interviews were subsequently conducted with 22 PLWH and 14 health professionals. Again, most PLWH were gay men of Dutch origin. All health professionals were Dutch. PLWH reported negative experiences with health professionals including awkward interactions, irrelevant questions, rude treatment, blame, pity, excessive or differential precautions, care refusal, unnecessary referrals, delayed treatment, poor support, and confidentiality breaches. They also reported positive experiences including equal treatment, being valued as a partner in one's health, social support provision, and confidentiality assurances. Health professionals reported having little experience with PLWH and only basic knowledge of HIV. They contended that PLWH are treated equally and that HIV is no longer stigmatized, but also reported fear of occupational infection, resulting in differential precautions. Additionally, they conveyed labeling PLWH's files to warn others, and curiosity regarding how patients acquired HIV. The findings suggest that there is a gap in perception between PLWH and health professionals regarding the extent to which negative interactions occur, and that these interactions should be improved. Implications for stigma reduction and care optimization are discussed. PMID:25459231

  10. Antiretroviral Regimens and CD4/CD8 Ratio Normalization in HIV-Infected Patients during the Initial Year of Treatment: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    De Salvador-Guillouët, F.; Sakarovitch, C.; Durant, J.; Risso, K.; Demonchy, E.; Roger, P. M.; Fontas, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background As CD4/CD8 ratio inversion has been associated with non-AIDS morbidity and mortality, predictors of ratio normalization after cART need to be studied. Here, we aimed to investigate the association of antiretroviral regimens with CD4/CD8 ratio normalization within an observational cohort. Methods We selected, from a French cohort at the Nice University Hospital, HIV-1 positive treatment-naive patients who initiated cART between 2000 and 2011 with a CD4/CD8 ratio <1. Association between cART and ratio normalization (>1) in the first year was assessed using multivariate logistic regression models. Specific association with INSTI-containing regimens was examined. Results 567 patients were included in the analyses; the median CD4/CD8 ratio was 0.36. Respectively, 52.9%, 29.6% and 10.4% initiated a PI-based, NNRTI-based or NRTI-based cART regimens. About 8% of the population started an INSTI-containing regimen. 62 (10.9%) patients achieved a CD4/CD8 ratio ≥1 (N group). cART regimen was not associated with normalization when coded as PI-, NNRTI- or NRTI-based regimen. However, when considering INSTI-containing regimens alone, there was a strong association with normalization [OR, 7.67 (2.54–23.2)]. Conclusions Our findings suggest an association between initiation of an INSTI-containing regimen and CD4/CD8 ratio normalization at one year in naïve patients. Should it be confirmed in a larger population, it would be another argument for their use as first-line regimen as it is recommended in the recent update of the “Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents”. PMID:26485149

  11. Survival on antiretroviral treatment among adult HIV-infected patients in Nepal: a retrospective cohort study in far-western Region, 2006–2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Though financial and policy level efforts are made to expand antiretroviral treatment (ART) service free of cost, survival outcome of ART program has not been systematically evaluated in Nepal. This study assesses the mortality rates and determinants among adult HIV-infected patients on ART in Far-western region of Nepal. Methods This retrospective cohort study included 1024 (51.2% men) HIV-infected patients aged ≥15 years, who started ART between May 15th 2006 and May 15th 2011 in five ART sites in the Far-western region, Nepal. Follow-up time was calculated from the date of ART initiation to date of death or censoring (loss to follow-up, transferred out, or 15 November 2011). Mortality rates (per 100 person-years) were calculated. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression models were used to estimate survival and explore determinants of mortality. Results The median follow-up time was 19.1 months. The crude mortality rate was 6.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.3-7.6) but more than three-times higher in first 3 months after ART initiation (21.9 (95% CI 16.6- 28.8)). About 12% (83% men) of those newly initiated on ART died during follow-up. The independent determinants of mortality were male sex (hazard ratio (HR) 4.55, 95% CI 2.43-8.51), poor baseline performance scale (bedridden <50% of the day during the past month, HR 2.05, 95% CI 1.19-3.52; bedridden >50% of the day during the past month, HR 3.41, 95% CI 1.67-6.98 compared to normal activity), one standard deviation decrease in baseline bodyweight (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07), and poor WHO clinical stage (stage III, HR 2.96, 95% CI 1.31-6.69; stage IV, HR 3.28, 95% CI 1.30-8.29 compared to WHO clinical stage I or II). Conclusions High mortality was observed within the first 3 months of ART initiation. Patients with poor baseline clinical characteristics had higher mortality, especially men. Earlier initiation of ART through expanded testing and counselling should be encouraged in HIV-infected patients. PMID

  12. Evaluation of immunological indices in HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C in Kazakhstan

    PubMed Central

    Sarsekeyeva, Nazgul; Kosherova, Bakhyt

    2016-01-01

    Aim To evaluate immunological indices in HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) who are injecting drug users. Materials and methods The study examined 38 patients coinfected with HIV and CHC who were injecting drug users and 36 patients with HIV/CHC who were not injecting drug users. In the study of immune status, the relative and absolute numbers of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD16+, and CD20+ cells were determined by means of flow cytofluorometry of “FACSCount” using monoclonal antibodies of the company Becton Dickinson. The level of circulating immune complexes in blood serum was determined by means of precipitation in polyethylene glycol solution. Results It was found that T-cell immunodeficiency was developing in patients coinfected with HIV and CHC. T-cell immunodeficiency was characterized by a decrease in the number of T-helpers, mainly for injecting drug users. At the same time, patients coinfected with HIV and CHC experienced markedly elevated levels of circulating immune complexes, mainly among injecting drug users. The evaluation of immunogram indices in injecting drug users coinfected with HIV and CHC, depending on the stage of HIV infection, revealed a greater degree of immune-suppression of T-helper cells in clinical stage III. Conclusion Our comprehensive immunological study of patients coinfected with HIV and CHC revealed a pronounced dysfunction of the immune system. The comparison of the immune system indices in patients with HIV/CHC showed a more pronounced T-cell suppression in injecting drug users than in patients with HIV/CHC but who were not injecting drug users. PMID:27284263

  13. HIV Patients Now Living Long Enough to Develop Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... positive individuals," said study author Dr. R. Scott Turner. He is head of the Memory Disorders Program ... HIV-associated brain disorders and Alzheimer's, according to Turner. "Chronic HIV infection and amyloid deposition with aging ...

  14. A comparative study between conventional and liquid-based cytology in screening for anal intraepithelial lesions in HIV-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Maia, Livia Bravo; Marinho, Larissa Cardoso; Wanderley Paes Barbosa, Tania; Batalha Filho, Eronides Salustiano; Ribeiro Velasco, Lara Franciele; Garcia Costa, Patrícia Godoy; Carneiro, Fabiana Pirani; de Oliveira, Paulo Gonçalves

    2014-10-01

    Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is associated with HPV infection and can be detected by cytological screening. While conventional exfoliative cytology (CC) is a low-cost and nonaggressive method, liquid-based cytology (LBC) tends to give clearer readings. Although studies of the efficacy of anal cancer screening methods would be of great importance for groups at high risk for AIN, few such studies have been conducted. The aim of the present study was to assess the concordance of CC and LBC in diagnosing anal pre-neoplastic lesions, and to compare cytological results with anoscopy, histopathological, and molecular biology findings. Comparative study involving 33 HIV-positive patients, who underwent anoscopy and biopsy of suspected lesions. Concordance between the two cytology methods was calculated, as were the associations between cytology results and findings from other screening methods. A total of 54.5% of cases were considered AIN-negative by CC and LBC, and concordance between the two methods was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Anoscopy was negative in 15 of the 18 CC- and LBC-negative cases. CC identified 75% of patients with positive biopsy, while LBC identified 85.71% of these patients. Molecular biology results showed that patients with LSIL tested positive for the highest number of HPV subtypes. The associations between positive biopsy and high grade HPV, HPV 16, and multiple HPV infections were not statistically significant. Conventional and liquid-based cytology are equally effective in screening for anal preneoplastic lesions. PMID:24591207

  15. HIV infection of choroid plexus in AIDS and asymptomatic HIV-infected patients suggests that the choroid plexus may be a reservoir of productive infection.

    PubMed

    Petito, C K; Chen, H; Mastri, A R; Torres-Munoz, J; Roberts, B; Wood, C

    1999-12-01

    The choroid plexus (CPx) may be an important site of viral dissemination since monocytes and dendritic cells in its stroma are infected with HIV in AIDS patients and since the ratio of CPx to brain infection is more than 2 : 1. In order to see if CPx infection also develops in asymptomatic (ASY) HIV-infected patients, we examined archival formalin-fixed brain and CPx from 14 AIDS and seven ASY cases, using routine histology, immunohistochemistry for HIV gp41, and DNA extraction and gene amplification for HIV DNA. Eight of 14 AIDS (57%) had HIV-positive cells in the CPx and four (29%) had HIV encephalitis. Two of seven ASY cases (29%) had HIV-positive cells in the CPx but none had HIV encephalitis. Extracted DNA from brain, CPx and systemic organs of five ASY cases was amplified by nested PCR with or without Southern blotting for HIV env gene. It was positive in systemic organs in five cases; in CPx in four cases; and in brain in one case. This study shows that the CPx is a site of HIV infection in ASY patients and that the frequency of CPx infection is higher than seen in brain in both AIDS and ASY cases. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the CPx may be a site for hematogeneous spread and a reservoir for HIV infection during the period of clinical latency. PMID:10602407

  16. HIV Protease Inhibitors Do Not Cause the Accumulation of Prelamin A in PBMCs from Patients Receiving First Line Therapy: The ANRS EP45 “Aging” Study

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Sophie; Cremer, Jonathan; Faucher, Olivia; Reynes, Jacques; Dellamonica, Pierre; Micallef, Joëlle; Solas, Caroline; Lacarelle, Bruno; Stretti, Charlotte; Kaspi, Elise; Robaglia-Schlupp, Andrée; Tamalet, Corine Nicolino-Brunet Catherine; Lévy, Nicolas; Poizot-Martin, Isabelle; Cau, Pierre; Roll, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Background The ANRS EP45 “Aging” study investigates the cellular mechanisms involved in the accelerated aging of HIV-1 infected and treated patients. The present report focuses on lamin A processing, a pathway known to be altered in systemic genetic progeroid syndromes. Methods 35 HIV-1 infected patients being treated with first line antiretroviral therapy (ART, mean duration at inclusion: 2.7±1.3 years) containing boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r) (comprising lopinavir/ritonavir in 65% of patients) were recruited together with 49 seronegative age- and sex-matched control subjects (http://clinicaltrials.gov/, NCT01038999). In more than 88% of patients, the viral load was <40 copies/ml and the CD4+ cell count was >500/mm3. Prelamin A processing in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients and controls was analysed by western blotting at inclusion. PBMCs from patients were also investigated at 12 and 24 months after enrolment in the study. PBMCs from healthy controls were also incubated with boosted lopinavir in culture medium containing various concentrations of proteins (4 to 80 g/L). Results Lamin A precursor was not observed in cohort patient PBMC regardless of the PI/r used, the dose and the plasma concentration. Prelamin A was detected in PBMC incubated in culture medium containing a low protein concentration (4 g/L) but not in plasma (60–80 g/L) or in medium supplemented with BSA (40 g/L), both of which contain a high protein concentration. Conclusions Prelamin A processing abnormalities were not observed in PBMCs from patients under the PI/r first line regimen. Therefore, PI/r do not appear to contribute to lamin A-related aging in PBMCs. In cultured PBMCs from healthy donors, prelamin A processing abnormalities were only observed when the protein concentration in the culture medium was low, thus increasing the amount of PI available to enter cells. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01038999 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01038999. PMID

  17. Electronic decision protocols for ART patient triaging to expand access to HIV treatment in South Africa: A cross sectional study for development and validation

    PubMed Central

    MITCHELL, Marc; HEDT, Bethany L.; ESHUN-WILSON, Ingrid; FRASER, Hamish; JOHN, Melanie-Anne; MENEZES, Colin; GROBUSCH, Martin P.; JACKSON, Jonathan; TALJAARD, Jantjie; LESH, Neal

    2012-01-01

    Background The shortage of doctors and nurses, along with future expansion into rural clinics, will require that the majority of clinic visits by HIV infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are managed by non-doctors. The goal of this study was to develop and evaluate a screening protocol to determine which patients needed a full clinical assessment and which patients were stable enough to receive their medications without a doctor’s consultation. For this study, we developed an electronic, handheld tool to guide non-physician counselors through screening questions. Methods Patients visiting two ART clinics in South Africa for routine follow-up visits between March 2007 – April 2008 were included in our study. Each patient was screened by non-physician counselors using the handheld device and then received a full clinical assessment. Clinicians’ report on whether full clinical assessment had been necessary was used as the gold standard for determining “required referral”. Observations were randomly divided into two datasets – 989 for developing a referral protocol and 200 for validating protocol performance. Results A third of patients had at least one physical complaint, and 16% had five or more physical complaints. 38% of patients required referral for full clinical assessment. We identify a subset of questions which are 87% sensitive and 47% specific for recommended patient referral. Conclusions The final screening protocol is highly sensitive and could reduce burden on ART clinicians by 30%. The uptake and acceptance of the handheld tool to support implementation of the protocol was high. Further examination of the data reveals several important questions to include in future referral algorithms to improve sensitivity and specificity. Based on these results, we identify a refined algorithm to explore in future evaluations. PMID:22178295

  18. Care of Patients With HIV Infection: Medical Complications and Comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Bolduc, Philip; Roder, Navid; Colgate, Emily; Cheeseman, Sarah H

    2016-04-01

    Care of patients with HIV infection starts with diagnosis as soon as possible, preferably at or near the time of acute infection. Opportunistic infections, malignancies, and other conditions develop progressively over time, particularly in untreated patients. The AIDS-defining opportunistic infections most common in the United States include Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, Candida esophagitis, toxoplasmic encephalitis, tuberculosis, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex, cryptococcal meningitis, and cytomegalovirus retinitis. Specific prophylaxis regimens exist for several opportunistic infections, and effective antiretroviral therapy reduces the risk of most others. Other AIDS-defining conditions include wasting syndrome and HIV encephalopathy. AIDS-defining malignancies include Kaposi sarcoma, systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma, primary central nervous system lymphoma, and invasive cervical cancer. Although not an AIDS-defining condition, anal cancer is common in patients with HIV infection. Other HIV-related conditions include thrombocytopenia, recurrent bacterial respiratory infections, HIV-associated nephropathy, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder. PMID:27092563

  19. Anti-HIV-1 activity of salivary MUC5B and MUC7 mucins from HIV patients with different CD4 counts

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We have previously shown that MUC5B and MUC7 mucins from saliva of HIV negative individuals inhibit HIV-1 activity by 100% in an in vitro assay. The purpose of this subsequent study was to investigate whether MUC5B and MUC7 from saliva of HIV patients or with full blown AIDS had a similar inhibitory activity against the virus. Methods Salivary MUC5B and MUC7 from HIV patients with different CD4 counts (< 200, 200-400 and > 400) were incubated with HIV-1 prior to infection of the human T lymphoblastoid cell line (CEM SS cells). Cells were then cultured and viral replication was measured by a qualitative p24 antigen assay. The size, charge and immunoreactivity of mucins from HIV negative and positive individuals was also analysed by SDS-PAGE, Western blot and ELISA respectively. Results It was shown that irrespective of their CD4 counts both MUC5B and MUC7 from HIV patients, unlike the MUC5B and MUC7 from HIV negative individuals, did not inhibit HIV-1 activity. Size, charge and immunoreactivity differences between the mucins from HIV negative and positive individuals and among the mucins from HIV patients of different CD4 count was observed by SDS-PAGE, Western blot and ELISA. Conclusions Purified salivary mucins from HIV positive patients do not inhibit the AIDS virus in an in vitro assay. Although the reason for the inability of mucins from infected individuals to inhibit the virus is not known, it is likely that there is an alteration of the glycosylation pattern, and therefore of charge of mucin, in HIV positive patients. The ability to inhibit the virus by aggregation by sugar chains is thus diminished. PMID:20946627

  20. Integration of HIV Care and Treatment in Primary Health Care Centers and Patient Retention in Central Mozambique: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lambdin, Barrot H.; Micek, Mark A.; Sherr, Kenneth; Gimbel, Sarah; Karagianis, Marina; Lara, Joseph; Gloyd, Stephen S.; Pfeiffer, James

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2004, the Mozambican Ministry of Health began a national scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) using a vertical model of HIV clinics colocated within large urban hospitals. In 2006, the ministry expanded access by integrating ART into primary health care clinics. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study including adult ART-naive patients initiating ART between January 2006 and June 2008 in public sector clinics in Manica and Sofala provinces. Cox proportional hazards models with robust variances were used to estimate the association between clinic model (vertical/integrated), clinic location (urban/rural), and clinic experience (first 6 months/post first 6 months) and attrition occurring in early patient follow-up (≤6 months) and attrition occurring in late patient follow-up (>6 months), while controlling for age, sex, education, pre-ART CD4 count, World Health Organization stage and pharmacy staff burden. Results A total of 11,775 patients from 17 clinics were studied. The overall attrition rate was 37 per 100 person-years. Patients attending integrated clinics had a higher risk of attrition in late follow-up [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.75; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04 to 2.94], and patients attending urban clinics (HR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.91) had a lower risk of attrition in late follow-up. Though not statistically significant, clinics open for longer than 6 months (HR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.49 to 1.04) had a lower risk of attrition in early follow-up. Conclusions Patients attending vertical clinics had a lower risk of attrition. Utilizing primary health clinics to implement ART is necessary to reach higher levels of coverage; however, further implementation strategies should be developed to improve patient retention in these settings. PMID:23288031

  1. Prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection among dental patients in a Nigerian secondary healthcare facility

    PubMed Central

    Ogbebor, O. G.; Obisesan, B.; Madukwe, I. U.; Azodo, Clement C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection among patients attending the Dental Clinic of General Hospital Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was a prospective study of 1080 dental patients of General Hospital Minna. Results: Out of the 1080 patients counseled, only 200 gave consent to participate in the study. Of the 200 participants, 8 tested positive for HIV, giving a prevalence of 4.0%. Females and participants in the sixth and fifth decades of life were found to have higher prevalence of undiagnosed HIV. Corpers and traders had higher prevalence of undiagnosed HIV. Participants with periodontal complaints (bleeding gums and shaking teeth) also had higher prevalence of undiagnosed HIV. The proportion of participants that reported having knowledge about the actual existence, risk factors, and prevention of HIV/AIDS was high. The proportion of participants who expressed willingness to receive more information on HIV-related issues was high. Conclusion: One out of 25 patients attending this secondary healthcare setting for dental services had undiagnosed HIV infection. This highlights the need for the establishment of voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) unit in the dental clinics and also re-emphasizes the strict compliance of standard precaution in dental practices. PMID:26236685

  2. Factors associated with quality of life in middle-aged and older patients living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Fabiana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Pereira, Marco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV infection has been historically considered a disease of young adults; however, adults aged 50 years and older represent now an increasing proportion of HIV cases worldwide, including in Portugal. In this context, given the considerable burden associated with living with HIV, the topic of quality-of-life (QoL) assessment has become increasingly relevant. The aims of this study were to examine the age-related differences in QoL and depressive symptoms of younger and middle-aged and older adults with HIV as well as the sociodemographic, HIV-related and depressive symptoms (cognitive-affective and somatic) associated with QoL domains. The sample consisted of 1194 HIV-infected patients, recruited from 10 Portuguese hospitals. QoL data were collected using the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref questionnaire. Patients also completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Of the 1194 patients, 185 (15.5%) were over 50 years old. Middle-aged and older patients reported significantly lower QoL in the physical, independence and social relationships domains. Regarding the specific facets of QoL, middle-aged and older patients reported significantly lower scores in seven of the 29 specific facets of the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref and higher scores in one facet (financial resources). Overall, among middle-aged and older patients, higher education, being employed, a shorter time since HIV diagnosis, use of combination anti-retroviral therapy and fewer depressive symptoms were significantly associated with higher QoL ratings. Our findings suggest that both cognitive-affective and somatic depressive symptoms account for significant variability in QoL scores in middle-aged and older patients. Because an important feature of healthy ageing is maintaining QoL, these data may provide useful information for tailoring age-appropriate and effective interventions to improve the mental health and QoL of middle-aged and older patients living with HIV. PMID:26881294

  3. Factors associated with quality of life in middle-aged and older patients living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Fabiana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Pereira, Marco

    2016-01-01

    HIV infection has been historically considered a disease of young adults; however, adults aged 50 years and older represent now an increasing proportion of HIV cases worldwide, including in Portugal. In this context, given the considerable burden associated with living with HIV, the topic of quality-of-life (QoL) assessment has become increasingly relevant. The aims of this study were to examine the age-related differences in QoL and depressive symptoms of younger and middle-aged and older adults with HIV as well as the sociodemographic, HIV-related and depressive symptoms (cognitive-affective and somatic) associated with QoL domains. The sample consisted of 1194 HIV-infected patients, recruited from 10 Portuguese hospitals. QoL data were collected using the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref questionnaire. Patients also completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Of the 1194 patients, 185 (15.5%) were over 50 years old. Middle-aged and older patients reported significantly lower QoL in the physical, independence and social relationships domains. Regarding the specific facets of QoL, middle-aged and older patients reported significantly lower scores in seven of the 29 specific facets of the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref and higher scores in one facet (financial resources). Overall, among middle-aged and older patients, higher education, being employed, a shorter time since HIV diagnosis, use of combination anti-retroviral therapy and fewer depressive symptoms were significantly associated with higher QoL ratings. Our findings suggest that both cognitive-affective and somatic depressive symptoms account for significant variability in QoL scores in middle-aged and older patients. Because an important feature of healthy ageing is maintaining QoL, these data may provide useful information for tailoring age-appropriate and effective interventions to improve the mental health and QoL of middle-aged and older patients living with HIV. PMID:26881294

  4. CD8 T-Cells from Most HIV-Infected Patients Lack Ex Vivo HIV-Suppressive Capacity during Acute and Early Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chéret, Antoine; Versmisse, Pierre; Nembot, Georges; Meyer, Laurence; Rouzioux, Christine; Pancino, Gianfranco; Venet, Alain; Sáez-Cirión, Asier

    2013-01-01

    The strong CD8+ T-cell-mediated HIV-1-suppressive capacity found in a minority of HIV-infected patients in chronic infection is associated with spontaneous control of viremia. However, it is still unclear whether such capacities were also present earlier in the CD8+ T cells from non controller patients and then lost as a consequence of uncontrolled viral replication. We studied 50 patients with primary HIV-1-infection to determine whether strong CD8+ T-cell-mediated HIV suppression is more often observed at that time. Despite high frequencies of polyfunctional HIV-specific CD8+ T-cells and a strong CD4+ T-helper response, CD8+ T-cells from 48 patients lacked strong HIV-suppressive capacities ex vivo. This indicates that the superior HIV-suppressive capacity of CD8+ T-cells from HIV controllers is not a general characteristic of the HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response in primary HIV infection. PMID:23555774

  5. Pregnancy in HIV-Positive Patients: Effects on Vaginal Flora

    PubMed Central

    Vallone, Cristina; Rigon, Giuliano; Lucantoni, Valeria; Putignani, Lorenza; Signore, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    A high proportion of HIV-infected pregnant women present pathogenic organisms in their lower genital tract. This has been associated with the development of postpartum morbility, HIV transmission to the partner and offspring, and other gynaecological conditions, such as cervical dysplasia or cancer. Vaginal flora alterations can range from 47% in Western countries to 89% in Africa in pregnant HIV-positive patients, much higher than about 20% of the general population. Pathogen organism retrieval is high. As peripartum complications due to vaginal infections seem higher in HIV-positive patients, accurate investigation and treatment of such infections are strongly mandatory. PMID:22675241

  6. Male preponderance in HIV seropositive patients with mucocutaneous complaints in a tertiary care hospital in North India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shivani; Puri, Karan Jeet Pal Singh; Gambhir, Mankesh Lal

    2014-01-01

    Objective A panorama of mucocutaneous manifestations is seen at every stage of HIV. This study was done to study the sex prevalence in HIV/AIDS patients with mucocutaneous disorders. Methods A total of 1 000 HIV seropositive patients attending Skin-STD clinic, Govt. Medical College, Amritsar, for any dermatologic complaints were studied in respect to the sex group preponderance. Results Males constituted the majority as 75.6% while females were 24.4%. Conclusions Women, in most of the cases, get infected from their spouses, who have acquired infection through extramarital sexual contact. HIV infection in female patients increases the risk of HIV transmission to neonates and infants, thus further spreading the HIV in a community. So it is very crucial to initiate early preventive measures to reduce HIV burden. PMID:25183078

  7. Contraception Use Among Iranian Women With HIV: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Saeieh, Sara E.; Nasrabadi, Alireza N.; Ebadi, Abbas; Moghadam, Zahra B.; Mohraz, Minoo; Jozani, Zahra B.; Rezaei, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Background: The application of family planning methods to people with HIV not only prevents unwanted pregnancy, but also leads to a reduction in the possibility of transmission of the virus from the patient to the sexual partner and the fetus. In order to prevent the spread of HIV and enhance reproductive rights, it is necessary to inform women with HIV of the contraception methods. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore experiences of HIV positive women about contraception use. Method: This qualitative study was conducted on 18 women with HIV who were at reproductive age and had referred the Center for clients with Risky Behavior in Imam Khomeini Hospital. Data were analyzed using the conventional content analysis method in MAXQDA 10. Results: The following two themes were derived from descriptions of the use of contraception methods by women with HIV: 1) Contraception is the forgotten component of reproductive health services; 2) inconsistent condom use. Each theme also contained three sub-themes. Conclusion: Results of investigations showed that Risky Behavior consultation Centers mostly stress the use of condom for husband/sexual partners without HIV. In addition, since health care practitioners play an important role in provision of reproductive health services, their lack of knowledge and cooperation considerably contribute to the spread of the disease and violation of patient rights. PMID:26234989

  8. Toxoplasma encephalitis in HIV/AIDS patients admitted to the Douala general hospital between 2004 and 2009: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is estimated that about a third of the world’s population is chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Toxoplasma encephalitis (TE), which occurs as a reactivation of quiescent chronic infection, is one of the leading causes of central nervous system (CNS) infection in AIDS. Its diagnosis in most centres still remains difficult. We opted to describe the clinical and radiological features of TE as well as in-hospital outcome and its associated factors. Methods We carried out a cross sectional study on the clinical case notes of adult patients admitted and treated for TE at the Douala General Hospital, Cameroon between January 1st 2004 to December 31st 2009. Results Of 672 patients admitted during the study period, 14.4% (97/672) had TE. The mean age was 36.9 ± 14.1 years and the median CD4 cell count was 68/mm3 (IQR): 43 – 103). Headache and fever were the most common presenting symptoms in 92.8% (90/97) and 87.6% (85/97) of patients. Annular contrast enhanced lesions were the most common brain scan finding in 81.4% (79/97) of patients. In-hospital mortality was 29.9% (29/97). Altered sensorium, presence of focal signs, neck stiffness and low CD4 cell count were factors associated with mortality. Adjusting for low CD4 count, altered sensorium remained strongly associated with fatality, adjusted odd ratio (AOR) 3.5 (95% CI 1.2 – 10.5). Conclusion Toxoplasma encephalitis is common among AIDS patients in Douala. Its high case fatality warrants adequate and compliant prophylactic therapy in severely immune depressed patients as well as early initiation of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients. PMID:23587093

  9. Managing HIV/hepatitis positive patients: present approach of dental health care workers and students.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Nagesh; Baad, Rajendra; Nagpal, Deepak Kumar J; Prabhu, Prashant R; Surekha, L Chavan; Karande, Prasad

    2012-01-01

    People with HIV/HBsAg in India frequently encounter discrimination while seeking and receiving health care services. The knowledge and attitudes of health care workers (HCWs) influences the willingness and ability of people with HIV/HBsAg to access care, and the quality of the care they receive. The objective of this study was to asses HIV/HBsAg-related knowledge, attitudes and risk perception among students and dental HCWs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 250 students and 120 dental HCWs in the form of objective questionnaire. Information was gathered regarding demographic details (age, sex, duration of employment, job category); HIV/ HBsAg-related knowledge and attitudes; risk perception; and previous experience caring for HIV-positive patients. The HCWs in this study generally had a positive attitude to care for the people with HIV/HBsAg. However, this was tempered by substantial concerns about providing care, and the fear of occupational infection with HIV/HBsAg. A continuing dental education program was conducted to resolve all the queries found interfering to provide care to HIV/HBsAg patients. But even after the queries were resolved the care providing capability was not attained. These findings show that even with advanced knowledge and facilities the attitude of dental HCWs and students require more strategic training with regards to the ethics and moral stigma associated with the dreaded infectious diseases (HIV/HBsAg). PMID:23404020

  10. Outcomes and factors associated with survival of patients with HIV/AIDS initiating antiretroviral treatment in Liangshan Prefecture, southwest of China: A retrospective cohort study from 2005 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang; Gong, Yuhan; Wang, Qixing; Deng, Ling; Zhang, Shize; Liao, Qiang; Yu, Gang; Wang, Ke; Wang, Ju; Ye, Shaodong; Liu, Zhongfu

    2016-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive cases have been reported among people who injected drugs in Liangshan Prefecture in southwest of China since 1995 and Liangshan has become one of the most seriously affected epidemic areas in China. In 2004, several patients with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) initiated antiretroviral treatment (ART) at the Central Hospital of Liangshan Prefecture. From 2005 to 2013, the number of patients receiving ART dramatically increased.We conducted a retrospective cohort study to analyze the long-term survival time and associated factors among patients with HIV/AIDS who received ART in Liangshan Prefecture for the first time. Data were collected from the Chinese AIDS Antiretroviral Therapy DATAFax Information System. A life table and the Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportion hazard regression were used to calculate the survival time and its associated factors, respectively.Among 8310 ART-naïve patients with HIV/AIDS who initiated ART, 436 patients died of AIDS-related diseases, and their median time of receiving ART was 15.0 ± 12.3 months, whereas 28.7% of them died within the first 6 months after treatment. The cumulative survival rates of those receiving ART in 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years were 97.1%, 93.4%, 90.6%, 88.8%, and 86.0%, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that male patients on ART were at a higher risk of death from AIDS-related diseases (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-2.1) than female patients. Patients infected with HIV through injection drug use (IDU) were at a higher risk of death (AHR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2) than those infected through heterosexual transmission. Patients with a baseline CD4 cell count <50/mm (AHR = 9.8, 95% CI: 6.0-15.9), 50-199/mm (AHR = 3.3, 95% CI: 2.3-4.6), and 200-349/mm (AHR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.3) were at a higher risk of death than those with a CD4 cell count ≥350/mm.ART prolonged survival time of patients with HIV

  11. Effectiveness, durability, and safety of darunavir/ritonavir in HIV-1-infected patients in routine clinical practice in Italy: a postauthorization noninterventional study

    PubMed Central

    Antinori, Andrea; Meraviglia, Paola; Monforte, Antonella d’Arminio; Castagna, Antonella; Mussini, Cristina; Bini, Teresa; Gianotti, Nicola; Rusconi, Stefano; Colella, Elisa; Airoldi, Giuseppe; Mancusi, Daniela; Termini, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Current antiretroviral (ARV) therapy for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-infected patients provides long-term control of viral load (VL). Darunavir (DRV) is a nonpeptidomimetic protease inhibitor approved for use with a ritonavir booster (DRV/r). This study evaluated the effectiveness of DRV/r in combination with other ARV agents in routine clinical practice in Italy. In this descriptive observational study, data on utilization of DRV/r, under the conditions described in the marketing authorization, were collected from June 2009 to December 2012. Effectiveness (VL <50 copies/mL), tolerability, and durability in four patient groups (two DRV/r-experienced, one ARV-experienced DRV/r-naïve, and one ARV-naïve) were analyzed. Secondary objectives included immunological response, safety, and persistence/discontinuation rates. In total, 875 of 883 enrolled patients were included in the analysis: of these, 662 (75.7%) completed the follow-up until the end of 2012 and 213 (24.3%) withdrew from the study earlier. Initial DRV dose was 600 mg twice daily (67.1%) or 800 mg once daily (32.9%). Only 16 patients (1.8%) withdrew from the study due to virological failure. Virological response proportions were higher in patients virologically suppressed at study entry versus patients with baseline VL ≥50 copies/mL in each ARV-experienced group, while there was no consistent difference across study groups and baseline VL strata according to baseline CD4+ cell count. CD4+ cell count increased from study entry to last study visit in all the four groups. DRV/r was well tolerated, with few discontinuations due to study-emergent nonfatal adverse events (3.0% overall, including 2.1% drug-related) or deaths (3.0% overall, all non-drug-related); 35.3% of patients reported ≥1 adverse events. These observational data show that DRV/r was effective and well tolerated in the whole patient population described here. The DRV/r-containing regimen provided viral suppression

  12. Normal Myocardial Flow Reserve in HIV-Infected Patients on Stable Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Andreas; Christensen, Thomas E.; Ghotbi, Adam Ali; Hasbak, Philip; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Kjær, Andreas; Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Studies have found HIV-infected patients to be at increased risk of myocardial infarction, which may be caused by coronary microvascular dysfunction. For the first time among HIV-infected patients, we assessed the myocardial flow reserve (MFR) by Rubidium-82 (82Rb) positron emission tomography (PET), which can quantify the coronary microvascular function. MFR has proved highly predictive of future coronary artery disease and cardiovascular events in the general population. In a prospective cross-sectional study, HIV-infected patients all receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) with full viral suppression and HIV-uninfected controls were scanned using 82Rb PET/computed tomography at rest and adenosine-induced stress, thereby obtaining the MFR (stress flow/rest flow), stratified into low ≤1.5, borderline >1.5 to 2.0, or normal >2.0. Fifty-six HIV-infected patients and 25 controls were included. The HIV-infected patients had a mean age of 53 years (range 37–68 years) with 23% active smokers. The controls had a mean age of 52 years (range 36–68 years) and 26% active smokers. In the HIV-infected group 73% had a normal MFR, 17% borderline, and 10% low values of MFR. Among controls these values were 71%, 19%, and 10%, respectively (P = 0.99). However, the HIV-infected group had lower values of stress myocardial blood flow (MBF) (2.63 ± 0.09 mL/g/min vs 2.99 ± 0.14 mL/g/min; P = 0.03). We found no evidence of decreased MFR as assessed by 82Rb PET among HIV-infected patients on stable ART with full viral suppression compared with HIV-uninfected controls. We did notice a decreased MBF during stress. PMID:26512605

  13. Challenges facing providers caring for HIV/HCV-coinfected patients

    PubMed Central

    Lekas, Helen-Maria; Siegel, Karolynn; Leider, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among injection drug users also infected with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the synergistic adverse effect of the two diseases on patients' health and survival, the research on the clinical management of these patients and particularly the low uptake of HCV therapy is limited. We conducted qualitative interviews with 17 HIV providers from two urban public hospitals. We discovered that the limitations of the current state of medical knowledge, the severe side effects of HIV and HCV therapies, and the psychosocial vulnerability of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients combined with their resistance to becoming informed about HCV posed significant challenges for providers. To contend with these challenges, providers incorporated key dimensions of patient-centered medicine in their practice such as considering their patients' psychosocial profiles and the meaning patients assign to being coinfected, and finding ways to engage their patients in a therapeutic alliance. PMID:21825278

  14. Mandatory HIV testing in critical care/emergency patients.

    PubMed

    Unkle, D W

    1990-01-01

    Testing for the presence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains one of the most controversial issues of this decade. Among persons diagnosed to be HIV positive, social ostracism and exaggerated atypical behavior are common. The resulting impact on the delivery of healthcare services to the seropositive patient has raised many ethical and professional dilemmas. Discussion of HIV testing and the subsequent effects of seropositivity on the delivery of healthcare will be emphasized. PMID:2249461

  15. Pattern of linkage and retention in HIV care continuum among patients attending referral HIV care clinic in private sector in India.

    PubMed

    Parchure, Ritu; Kulkarni, Vinay; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Gangakhedkar, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Continued engagement throughout the HIV care continuum, from HIV diagnosis through retention on antiretroviral therapy (ART), is crucial for enhancing impact of HIV care programs. We assessed linkage and retention in HIV care among people living with HIV (PLHIV) enrolled at a private HIV care clinic in Pune, India. Of 1220 patients, 28% delayed linkage after HIV diagnosis with a median delay of 24 months (IQR = 8-43). Younger people, women, low socioeconomic status, and those diagnosed at facilities other than the study clinic were more likely to delay linkage. Those with advanced HIV disease at diagnosis and testing for HIV due to HIV-related illness were linked to care immediately. Of a total of 629 patients eligible for ART at first CD4 count, 68% initiated ART within 3 months. Among those not eligible for ART, only 46% of patients sought subsequent CD4 count in time. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that patients with initial CD4 count of 350-500 cells/cu mm (OR: 2, 95% CI: 1.1-3.5) and >500 cells/cu mm (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2-3.7) were less likely to do subsequent CD4 test on time as compared to those with CD4 < 50 cells/cu mm. Among patients not eligible for ART, those having >12 years of education (OR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9) were more likely to have timely uptake of subsequent CD4 count. Among ART eligible patients, being an unskilled laborer (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.1-4.2) predicted lower uptake. The study highlights a long delay from HIV diagnosis to linkage and further attrition during pre-ART and ART phases. It identifies need for newer approaches aimed at timely linkage and continued retention for patients with low education, unskilled laborers, and importantly, asymptomatic patients. PMID:25559639

  16. Analysis of undiagnosed tuberculosis-related deaths identified at post-mortem among HIV-infected patients in Russia: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis remains a serious public health threat and economic burden in Russia with escalating rates of drug resistance against a background of growing HIV-epidemic. Samara Oblast is one of the regions of the Russian Federation where more than 1% of the population is affected by the HIV-epidemic; almost half of the cases are concentrated in the largely-industrial city of Togliatti with a population of 800 000. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of errors leading to death of HIV-positive patients in general health care hospitals in Togliatti, Russia, in 2008. All (n = 29) cases when tuberculosis was established at autopsy as a cause of death were included. Results Median length of hospital stay was 20 days; in 11 cases the death occurred within the first 24 hours of admission. All cases were known to be HIV-positive prior to admission, however HAART was not initiated for any case, and no relevant tests to assess severity of immunosupression were performed despite their availability. No appropriate diagnostic algorithms were applied to confirm tuberculosis. Major gaps were identified in the work of hospital and consulting physicians including insufficient records keeping. In almost all patients earlier regular HIV-relevant tests were not performed due to poor compliance of patients, many of whom abused alcohol and drugs. Conclusions We conclude that introduction of prompt and accurate diagnostics tests, adequate treatment protocols and intensive training of physicians in management of AIDS and TB is vital. This should include reviewing standards of care for HIV-positive individuals with accompanying social problems. PMID:22008481

  17. Retinal arteriolar occlusions due to cytomegalovirus retinitis in elderly patients without HIV

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Five of 7 (71%) elderly immunocompetent patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis had retinal arteriolar occlusions versus 2 of 8 (25%) elderly immunocompromised patients and 1 of 19 (5%) younger HIV-infected patients. Compared to HIV-infected patients, elderly patients were more likely to have occlusive events, neovascularization or hemorrhage, and underlying vasculopathy. The purpose of this study is to report the novel finding of extensive retinal arteriolar occlusions and neovascularization in immunocompetent patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis. This is a retrospective observational cohort study of cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR) in a university setting. Seven patients were elderly but not immunocompromised, 8 were elderly and iatrogenically immunocompromised, and 16 were HIV-infected. All patients underwent polymerase chain reaction testing of intraocular fluid. Primary outcome measure was visual acuity. Secondary outcome measures were vascular occlusions, ischemic complications, and response to treatment. Results Mean age was 73, 70, and 41 years for immunocompetent, immunocompromised, and HIV-infected patients, respectively. Diabetes and vascular disease were common in the elderly. Vision loss to less than 5/200 occurred in 50% of the immunocompetent elderly patients, and 17% of CMV eyes in immunocompromised and HIV patients. Occlusion of the entire retinal vasculature occurred in 4/7 (57%) of immunocompetent patients despite lack of Zone I involvement, and rubeosis occurred in three, disc neovascularization in one, and vitreous hemorrhage in two patients. Vascular occlusive events were less common in immunocompromised patients and rare in the HIV-infected. Conclusions CMVR in non-HIV-infected elderly patients is associated with retinal arteriolar occlusions. An intact host immune response may increase damage to retinal vessels. Prompt diagnosis may avert catastrophic vision loss. PMID:23514532

  18. System and Patient Barriers to Care among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Houston/Harris County, Texas: HIV Medical Care Providers' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mgbere, Osaro; Khuwaja, Salma; Bell, Tanvir K; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Arafat, Raouf; Essien, Ekere James; Singh, Mamta; Aguilar, Jonathan; Roland, Eric

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, a considerable number of people diagnosed with HIV are not receiving HIV medical care due to some barriers. Using data from the Medical Monitoring Project survey of HIV medical care providers in Houston/Harris County, Texas, we assessed the HIV medical care providers' perspectives of the system and patient barriers to HIV care experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The study findings indicate that of the 14 HIV care barriers identified, only 1 system barrier and 7 patient barriers were considered of significant (P ≤ .05) importance, with the proportion of HIV medical care providers' agreement to these barriers ranging from 73.9% (cost of health care) to 100% (lack of social support systems and drug abuse problems). Providers' perception of important system and patient barriers varied significantly (P ≤ .05) by profession, race/ethnicity, and years of experience in HIV care. To improve access to and for consistent engagement in HIV care, effective intervention programs are needed to address the barriers identified especially in the context of the new health care delivery system. PMID:24943655

  19. Clinical evolution of chronic renal patients with HIV infection in replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Saracho, Ramón; Martín Escobar, Eduardo; Comas Farnés, Jordi; Arcos, Emma; Mazuecos Blanca, Auxiliadora; Gentil Govantes, Miguel Ángel; Castro de la Nuez, Pablo; Zurriaga, Óscar; Ferrer Alamar, Manuel; Bouzas Caamaño, Encarnación; García Falcón, Teresa; Portolés Pérez, José; Herrero Calvo, José A; Chamorro Jambrina, Carlos; Moina Eguren, Íñigo; Rodrigo de Tomás, María Teresa; Abad Díez, José María; Sánchez Miret, José I; Alvarez Lipe, Rafael; Díaz Tejeiro, Rafael; Moreno Alía, Inmaculada; Torres Guinea, Marta; Huarte Loza, Enma; Artamendi Larrañaga, Marta; Fernández Renedo, Carlos; González Fernández, Raquel; Sánchez Álvarez, Emilio; Alonso de la Torre, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Patients on renal replacement therapy (RRT) infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are a special group with growing interest. In order to study the epidemiological data of HIV+ patients on RRT in Spain, we collected individual information from 2004-2011 (period of use of highly active antiretroviral therapy [HAART] in the Autonomous Communities of Andalusia, Aragon, Asturias, Catalonia, Valencia, Castilla la Mancha, Castilla León, Galicia, Madrid, La Rioja and the Basque Country, comprising 85% of the Spanish population. A total of 271 incident and 209 prevalent patients were analysed. They were compared with the remaining patients on RRT during the same period. The annual incidence was 0.8 patients per one million inhabitants, with a significant increase during the follow-up period. The proportion of prevalent HIV+ patients was 5.1 per 1,000 patients on RRT (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.4-5.8. Although glomerular diseases constituted the majority of cases (42%), diabetic nephropathy was the cause in 14% of patients. The nation-wide totals for these percentages were 13 and 25%, respectively. Compared to the total of patients in treatment, the risk of death was significantly higher in the HIV+ group: hazard ratio (HR) adjusted for age, sex and diabetes was 2.26 (95% CI 1.74 - 2.91). Hepatitis C coinfection increased the risk of death in the HIV+ group (HR 1.77; 95% CI 1.10 - 2.85). The probability of kidney transplantation in HIV+ was only 17% after 7 years, comparing with total RTT patients (HR 0.15; 95% CI: 0.10-0.24). Despite the use of HAART, the incidence of HIV+ patients on dialysis has increased; their mortality still exceeds non-HIV patients, and they have a very low rate of transplantation. It is necessary to further our knowledge of this disease in order to improve results. PMID:26409500

  20. Late HIV testing in a cohort of HIV-infected patients followed in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Tossas-Milligan, Katherine Y.; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F.; Mayor, Angel M.; Fernandez-Santos, Diana M.; Dworkin, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Late HIV testing (LT) defined as an AIDS diagnosis within a year of first positive HIV test is associated with higher HIV transmission, lower HAART effectiveness, and worse outcomes. Latinos represent 36% of LT in the US, yet research concerning LT among HIV cases in Puerto Rico is scarce. Methods Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with LT and Cochran-Armitage test to describe LT trends in an HIV infected cohort followed at a specialized HIV clinic in Puerto Rico. Results From 2000 to 2011, 47% of eligible patients were LT, with lower median CD4 count (54 vs. 420 cells/mm3) and higher median HIV viral load counts (253,680 vs. 23,700 copies/mL), when compared to non-LT patients. LT prevalence decreased significantly, from 47% in 2000 to 37% in 2011. In a mutually adjusted logistic regression model, males, older age at enrolment and past history of IDU significantly increased LT odds whereas history of amphetamine use decreased LT odds. Stratified by mode of transmission, only men who have sex with men (MSM), had a significant reduction in the proportion of LT, from 67% in 2000 to 33% in 2011. Conclusion These results suggest a gap in early HIV detection in Puerto Rico that decreased only among MSM. A closer evaluation of HIV testing guideline implementation among non MSM in the Island is needed. PMID:26356739

  1. Validity and reliability of the Malay version of WHOQOL-HIV BREF in patients with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Saddki, N; Noor, M M; Norbanee, T H; Rusli, M A; Norzila, Z; Zaharah, S; Sarimah, A; Norsarwany, M; Asrenee, A R; Zarina, Z A

    2009-10-01

    This study determines the validity and reliability of the Malay version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) assessment instrument in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A cross-sectional study on 157 patients with HIV seen at the Infectious Disease Unit, Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II, Kota Bharu, Kelantan was conducted. Factor analysis identified five major domains: physical needs, spirituality, social relationship, psychological, and environment. Significant correlation was found between each domain scores and the general health questions. The instrument was able to discriminate between asymptomatic and symptomatic HIV positive patients for all domain scores except for the spirituality domain. The internal consistency of the five domains ranged from 0.70 to 0.83. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) ranged from 0.60 to 0.87 across all domains. In conclusion, the Malay version of WHOQOL-HIV BREF is a valid and reliable instrument in assessing quality of life in HIV positive patients. PMID:20024703

  2. An 84-month observational study of the changes in CD4 T-lymphocyte cell count of 110 HIV/AIDS patients treated with traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Liang, Biyan; Zhang, Xiaoping; Xu, Liran; Deng, Xin; Li, Xiuhui; Fang, Lu; Tan, Xinghua; Mao, Yuxiang; Zhang, Guoliang; Wang, Yuguang

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) by observing the changes in CD4 T-lymphocyte cell count of 110 cases with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treated continuously with TCM for 84 months. Information of 110 HIV/AIDS patients from 19 provinces and cities treated with TCM from 2004 to 2013 was collected. Changes in the indexes of CD4 counts ( ≤ 200, 201-350, 351-500 and > 500 cells/mm(3)) at five time points (0, 12, 36, 60 and 84 months) and different treatments [TCM and TCM plus antiretroviral therapy (ART)] were compared. Repeated measures test indicated no interaction between group and time (P > 0.05). Degrees of increasing and decreasing CD4 count of the two groups at four different frames were statistically significant compared with the baseline. The CD4 count between the two groups was not statistically significant. For CD4 count of ≤ 200 cells/mm(3), the mean CD4 count changes were 21 and 28 cells/mm(3) per year for the TCM group and TCM plus ART group, respectively. For CD4 count of 201-350 cells/mm(3), the mean CD4 count changes were 6 and 25 cells/mm(3) per year for the TCM group and TCM plus ART group, respectively. For CD4 count of 351-500 cells/mm(3), the mean CD4 count changes were -13 and -7 cells/mm(3) per year for the TCM group and TCM plus ART group, respectively. For CD4 count of > 500 cells/mm(3), the mean CD4 count changes were -34 and -17 cells/mm(3) per year for the TCM group and TCM plus ART group, respectively. Long-term use of TCM could maintain or slow the pace of declining CD4 counts in patients with HIV/AIDS, and may achieve lasting effectiveness. PMID:25190350

  3. Post-ART Symptoms Were Not the Problem: A Qualitative Study on Adherence to ART in HIV-Infected Patients in a Mozambican Rural Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Maixenchs, Maria; Boene, Helena; Anselmo, Rui; Mindu, Carolina; Alonso, Pedro; Menéndez, Clara; Macete, Eusébio; Pool, Robert; Letang, Emílio; Naniche, Denise; Munguambe, Khátia

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this qualitative study was to explore how clinical symptoms may affect adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV patients, and to explore factors, perceptions and attitudes related to adherence to therapy. Design A qualitative study was carried out in the context of the prospective cohort study “Evaluation of Immune Reconstitution Following Initiation of Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment in Manhiça, Mozambique”. In-depth Interviews were conducted twice in a sub-sample of the study cohort (51 participants), at six-month intervals. Results Most participants (73%) knew that AIDS is a chronic disease and that ART does not cure it. Nine participants (18%) were non-adherent at some point and two (4%) abandoned ART. All participants but five reported having symptoms after starting ART, mainly attributed to pills needing time to act and body’s reaction to the treatment. In spite of the perceived severity of the symptoms, only two people reported they discontinued the treatment due to symptoms. Almost all participants reported feeling comfortable with the HIV clinic organization and procedures, but afraid of staff being hostile if they did not follow the rules or if the health worker visited their home. Family was one of the most important source of support according participants. Almost all participants with children said that a decisive factor to follow the treatment was the desire to be able to look after them. Conclusions Experiencing symptoms after starting treatment was not a barrier to adherence to ART. Factors related to adherence included control measures set up by the health facility (exhaustive follow up, support, information) and family and community support. Indirect ART-related expenses did jeopardise adherence. PMID:26332680

  4. Defective HIV-1 proviruses produce novel protein-coding RNA species in HIV-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Imamichi, Hiromi; Dewar, Robin L; Adelsberger, Joseph W; Rehm, Catherine A; O'Doherty, Una; Paxinos, Ellen E; Fauci, Anthony S; Lane, H Clifford

    2016-08-01

    Despite years of plasma HIV-RNA levels <40 copies per milliliter during combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), the majority of HIV-infected patients exhibit persistent seropositivity to HIV-1 and evidence of immune activation. These patients also show persistence of proviruses of HIV-1 in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Many of these proviruses have been characterized as defective and thus thought to contribute little to HIV-1 pathogenesis. By combining 5'LTR-to-3'LTR single-genome amplification and direct amplicon sequencing, we have identified the presence of "defective" proviruses capable of transcribing novel unspliced HIV-RNA (usHIV-RNA) species in patients at all stages of HIV-1 infection. Although these novel usHIV-RNA transcripts had exon structures that were different from those of the known spliced HIV-RNA variants, they maintained translationally competent ORFs, involving elements of gag, pol, env, rev, and nef to encode a series of novel HIV-1 chimeric proteins. These novel usHIV-RNAs were detected in five of five patients, including four of four patients with prolonged viral suppression of HIV-RNA levels <40 copies per milliliter for more than 6 y. Our findings suggest that the persistent defective proviruses of HIV-1 are not "silent," but rather may contribute to HIV-1 pathogenesis by stimulating host-defense pathways that target foreign nucleic acids and proteins. PMID:27432972

  5. Liver Enzymes Abnormalities among Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Experienced and HAART Naïve HIV-1 Infected Patients at Debre Tabor Hospital, North West Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Tulu, Ketema Tafess; Zegeye, Amtatachew Moges; Wubante, Amarech Asratie

    2016-01-01

    Liver disease has emerged as the most common non-AIDS-related cause of death in HIV patients. However, there is limited data regarding this condition including our setting in Ethiopia. Hence, liver enzyme abnormalities among highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) experienced and HAART naïve patients were assessed in this study. A total of 164 HAART experienced and 164 HAART naïve patients were studied. Blood specimen was collected to determine alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), CD4 count, and viral hepatitis. The prevalence of liver enzyme abnormality was 20.1% and 22.0% among HAART experienced and HAART naïve patients, respectively. The HAART experienced patients had higher mean ALT than HAART naïve patients (P = 0.002). Viral hepatitis (AOR = 6.02; 95% CI = 1.87–19.39), opportunistic infections (AOR = 2.91; 95% CI = 1.04–8.19), current CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 (AOR = 2.16; 95% CI = 1.06–4.39), and male sex (AOR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.001–3.33) were associated with elevated ALT and/or AST. In conclusion, liver enzyme abnormalities were high in both HAART experienced and HAART naïve HIV-1 infected patients. Hence, monitoring and management of liver enzyme abnormalities in HIV-1 infected patients are important in our setting. PMID:27493798

  6. Characteristics of HIV patients who missed their scheduled appointments

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Delsa; Gutierrez, Eliana Battaggia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze whether sociodemographic characteristics, consultations and care in special services are associated with scheduled infectious diseases appointments missed by people living with HIV. METHODS This cross-sectional and analytical study included 3,075 people living with HIV who had at least one scheduled appointment with an infectologist at a specialized health unit in 2007. A secondary data base from the Hospital Management & Information System was used. The outcome variable was missing a scheduled medical appointment. The independent variables were sex, age, appointments in specialized and available disciplines, hospitalizations at the Central Institute of the Clinical Hospital at the Faculdade de Medicina of the Universidade de São Paulo, antiretroviral treatment and change of infectologist. Crude and multiple association analysis were performed among the variables, with a statistical significance of p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS More than a third (38.9%) of the patients missed at least one of their scheduled infectious diseases appointments; 70.0% of the patients were male. The rate of missed appointments was 13.9%, albeit with no observed association between sex and absences. Age was inversely associated to missed appointment. Not undertaking anti-retroviral treatment, having unscheduled infectious diseases consultations or social services care and being hospitalized at the Central Institute were directly associated to missed appointments. CONCLUSIONS The Hospital Management & Information System proved to be a useful tool for developing indicators related to the quality of health care of people living with HIV. Other informational systems, which are often developed for administrative purposes, can also be useful for local and regional management and for evaluating the quality of care provided for patients living with HIV. PMID:26786472

  7. The spectrum of polyneuropathies in patients infected with HIV.

    PubMed Central

    Leger, J M; Bouche, P; Bolgert, F; Chaunu, M P; Rosenheim, M; Cathala, H P; Gentilini, M; Hauw, J J; Brunet, P

    1989-01-01

    Twenty five patients with peripheral neuropathy at different stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are reported. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings were available in 17 cases, electrophysiology in all and a neuromuscular biopsy in 11. Of six otherwise asymptomatic HIV+ patients, five had chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and one acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP). CSF showed pleocytosis in all cases. Infiltration of the endoneurium and/or the epineurium by mononuclear cells was seen in biopsies from three cases. These six patients recovered either spontaneously, or with corticosteroids or plasmaphereses. Of five patients with AIDS related complex (ARC), three had distal predominantly sensory peripheral neuropathy (DSPN), one CIDP and one mixed neuropathy. Of 14 patients with AIDS, one had mononeuropathy multiplex and 13 painful DSPN. Electrophysiological studies were consistent with an axonopathy. Nerve biopsies in six cases showed axonal changes but surprisingly associated with marked segmental demyelination in two cases. Cell infiltration was present in nerve samples in two cases. Five patients died within six months after the onset of the neuropathy. PMID:2559161

  8. Perception of Patients With HIV/AIDS From Stigma and Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Saki, Mandana; Mohammad Khan Kermanshahi, Sima; Mohammadi, Eesa; Mohraz, Minoo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stigma and discrimination among patients with HIV/AIDS cause various problems for the patients and their health systems. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explain the perceived experiences of the patients from stigma and discrimination and their roles on health-seeking services among patients. Patients and Methods: This was a qualitative research using content analysis approach and semi-structured interviews, conducted on patients living with HIV/ADS, during 2013 - 2014 in Iran. Sampling started purposefully and continued in a snowball. Results: The experiences of patients with HIV/AIDS from stigma and discrimination led to exploring three main themes and nine subthemes. The main themes were multidimensional stigma, rejection, and insult and discrimination in receiving health services. Conclusions: Stigma and discrimination play an important role in patients' lives and hinder them from accessing the treatment. The patients' responses to this event by secrecy strategy can be an important factor in the disease prevalence. PMID:26290751

  9. HIV testing practices as reported by HIV-infected patients in four European countries.

    PubMed

    Deblonde, Jessika; Hamers, Françoise F; Callens, Steven; Lucas, Raquel; Barros, Henrique; Rüütel, Kristi; Hemminki, Elina; Temmerman, Marleen

    2014-04-01

    HIV testing constitutes an important strategy to control the HIV epidemic, which therefore merits an observation of HIV testing practices to help improve testing effectiveness. In 2008, a cross-sectional survey among recently diagnosed (≤ 3 years) HIV-infected patients was conducted in Belgium, Estonia, Finland and Portugal. Participants were questioned about reasons for HIV testing, testing place and testing conditions. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Out of 1460 eligible participants, 629 (43%) were included. Forty-one per cent were diagnosed late and 55% had never undergone a previous HIV test with perceived low risk being the primary reason for not having been tested earlier. Heterogeneity in HIV testing practices was observed across countries. Overall, tests were most frequently conducted in primary care (38%) and specialised clinics (21%), primarily on the initiative of the health care provider (65%). Sixty-one per cent were tested with informed consent, 31% received pretest counselling, 78% received post-test counselling, 71% were involved in partner notification and 92% were in care three months after diagnosis. The results showed that HIV testing is done in a variety of settings suggesting that multiple pathways to HIV testing are provided. HIV testing practice is being normalised, with less focus on pretest counselling, yet with emphasis on post-test follow-up. Major barriers to testing are centred on the denial of risk. Efforts are needed to concurrently promote public awareness about HIV risk and benefits of HIV testing and train clinicians to be more proactive in offering HIV testing. PMID:24090396

  10. Management of lipid disorders in patients living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Myerson, Merle; Malvestutto, Carlos; Aberg, Judith A

    2015-09-01

    Since the discovery and development of antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV has become a chronic disease with patients living longer lives and to ages where co-morbidities, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) are prevalent. Diagnosis and management of risk factors for CVD, in particular dyslipidemia, have become an important part of the overall care for patients living with HIV infection. Existing guidelines and recommendations for the management of dyslipidemia for persons with HIV infection are largely based on guidelines for the general population. Clinical and epidemiologic research efforts are ongoing to provide information specific to patients living with HIV. This review offers a detailed guide for clinicians who manage dyslipidemia in patients infected with HIV. The first sections provide background information on dyslipidemia, risk stratification, and targets for lipid therapy. This is followed by a step-by-step approach for diagnosis and treatment with specific information on lipid drug use for patients with HIV. The recommendations presented here are based on existing guidelines for the general population, evidence from research in patients infected with HIV, and the clinical experience of the authors. Management issues for which little or no information is available specific to this patient population are noted and serve to highlight the many gaps in our knowledge that will need to be addressed. PMID:25651539

  11. Cost of hospital care for HIV/AIDS infected patients in three general reference hospitals in Lubumbashi, DR Congo: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tshamba, Henri Mundongo; a Kaut, Clarence Mukeng; Kyalubile, Nono Mulubwa; Kakambal, Alphonse Kaij; Yav, Grevisse Ditend; Kaj, Françoise Malonga; Vancaillie, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This article analyses the composition of healthcare costs for HIV/AIDS infected patients in a country with limited resources and attempts to identify the factors that influence these costs. The aims are to calculate medical care costs, analysing how they vary depending on patients’ income, and to evaluate the factors explaining healthcare consumption. Methods This is a prospective cohort study focusing on patients who were admitted to hospital for a short stay between January 2010 and June 2011, before their integration into a specialised program. The patients were selected randomly. Free consent was obtained from all participants. Data were analysed using the SPSS 19.0 software. The significance threshold was set at 5% and the CI (Confidence Interval) at 95%. We used Kruskal-Wallis tests, Fisher's exact test and multiple linear regression. Results We monitored 209 patients. Their average age was 36.37 years (SD: 8.72). The sex ratio was 0.58 and the women patients were generally younger than the male ones (p=0.011). The overall cost of healthcare amounted to $US 41,922. The cost of Antiretroviral Therapy represented 21.6% ($US 9,045). The price of para-clinical examinations represented 46% ($US 19,136) of the overall cost. The patient's average monthly income was $US 157.40 whereas the average direct cost per patient was$US 201.45. Both monthly income (t=4.385; p=0.0000) and education level (t=3.703 p=0.0003) were statistically significant predictive factors for healthcare consumption. The medical care costs for patients with opportunistic infections were nine times higher than those for patients who presented none. The presence of opportunistic infections increased healthcare consumption by approximately 31$ US (CI 95%: 15-46.9). Conclusion The average direct cost for patients on each short-term stay was higher than the average monthly income. To be able to access the necessary services, the patients need additional resources, which are derived

  12. Higher HIV RNA Viral Load in Recent Patients with Symptomatic Acute HIV Infection in Lyon University Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Girerd-Genessay, Isabelle; Baratin, Dominique; Ferry, Tristan; Chidiac, Christian; Ronin, Vincent; Vanhems, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) virulence at infection has been suggested by a meta-analysis based on viral load and CD4 T lymphocytes (CD4) count during acute infection. This result was obtained after secondary analyses of large databases, facilitating the detection of differences. Similar finding in cohorts of more modest sample size would indicate that the effect could be more substantial. Methods Change from initial CD4 count and HIV viral load after acute HIV infection by calendar year was explored in patients treated at Lyon University hospitals. All patients admitted to our hospitals with acute HIV infection between 1996 and 2013 were included in our study. Initial CD4 count and viral load before the start of anti-retroviral treatment were analyzed. Trends over time were assessed in linear models. Results Initial CD4 count remained similar over time. However, in 2006–2013, initial viral load rose significantly (+1.12 log10/ml/year, p = 0.01). Conclusion Our data, obtained from a single hospital cohort, confirmed findings from a large meta-analysis, showed increased initial viremia at acute HIV infection since 2006 and suggesting potentially higher HIV virulence in recent years. PMID:26799390

  13. Lipid Changes in Virologically Suppressed HIV-Infected Patients Switching from any Antiretroviral Therapy to the Emtricitabine/Rilpivirine/Tenofovir Single Tablet: GeSida Study 8114.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Rosario; Mayorga, Marisa; Pérez-Hernández, Isabel A; Rivero, Antonio; Arco, Alfonso Del; Lozano, Fernando; Santos, Jesús

    2016-05-01

    We carried out a retrospective, multicenter study of a cohort of 298 asymptomatic HIV-infected patients who switched from a regimen based on 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors + protease inhibitor (PI)/nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or ritonavir-boosted PI monotherapy to emtricitabine/rilpivirine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/RPV/TDF) to analyze lipid changes. At 24 weeks, 284 (95.3%) patients were still taking the same regimen, maintaining similar CD4 counts as at baseline (651 versus 672 cells/mm(3), P = .08), and 98.9% of them with an undetectable viral load. Eight of the other 14 patients were lost to follow up and 6 (2.0%) ceased the new regimen: 3 due to adverse effects, 2 due to virologic failure, and 1 due to abandonment. The mean levels of fasting total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides fell at 12 and 24 weeks, with no changes detected in the TC to HDL-C ratio. PMID:26858314

  14. Cognitive Deficits in Psychiatric Patients: Constraints on HIV Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnell, Gil

    Some mental health experts have suggested that particular subgroups of the chronic mentally ill may be especially vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Patients with mood disorders (manic type), schizophrenia, and dual diagnosis of either disorder with substance abuse are considered at high risk for HIV infection, as are…

  15. [THE MOLECULAR TECHNIQUES OF DIAGNOSTIC OF GINGIVITIS AND PERIODONTITIS IN HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS].

    PubMed

    Tsarev, V N; Nikolaeva, E N; Iagodina, E V; Trefilova, Yu A; Ippolitov, E V

    2016-01-01

    The examination was carried out in the Moscow clinical infectious hospital No 2 concerning 102 patients with verified diagnosis "AIDS-infection" and seropositive according results of detection of anti-HIV-antibodies in blood serum. The study was organized to analyze rate ofcolonization of gums with virulent anaerobic bacteria in HIV-infected (polymerase chain reaction) and antibodies to HIV in gingival fluid (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). It is established that in HIV-infected patients, in scrape from gingival sulcus dominate anaerobic bacteria P. gigngivalis and A. ctinomycetemcomitans and in case of periodontitis--P. gingivalis and T. forsythia. The received data permits recommending the test-system "Multident-5" for polymerase chain reaction diagnostic. The reagents kit "Calypte®HIV-1/2"--for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay gingival fluid. The results of polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay have no impact of concomitant stomatological (periodontitis, gingivitis) and somatic pathology. PMID:27183732

  16. Optic neuropathy secondary to syphilis in an HIV negative patient.

    PubMed

    Berrozpe-Villabona, C; Santos-Bueso, E; Bañeros-Rojas, P; Aguilar Munoa, S; Saenz-Francés, F; Díaz-Valle, D; Martínez-de-la-Casa, J M; García-Feijoo, J

    2016-02-01

    Ocular syphilis is a resurgent clinical condition due to unsafe sexual practices. It has been reported in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients, but in HIV positive patients, it is more likely to exhibit a more aggressive course and adopt atypical clinical patterns such as optic nerve involvement. Herein we report an atypical case of optic neuritis secondary to syphilis in an HIV negative patient. This case highlights the importance of considering syphilis in the differential diagnosis of ocular inflammation and of obtaining HIV serology, since both diseases share common risk factors. PMID:26868532

  17. Depression and diagnosis of neurocognitive impairment in HIV-positive patients.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, C A T; Souza, L D M; Motta, J V S; Kelbert, E F; Souza, M S; Martins, C S R; Coelho, F M C; Pinheiro, K A T; Pinheiro, R T

    2016-01-01

    Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) is frequently observed in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and results from the compromise of subcortical brain structures by the virus. The manifestations of NCI range from asymptomatic impairment to dementia. In addition to cognitive impairment resulting from HIV infection, other factors such as depression are associated with the loss of cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of NCI in HIV-positive patients in a city in southern Brazil and to establish possible associations for the prevalence of NCI with HIV-related and other risk factors. This cross-sectional study of HIV-positive outpatients was conducted in a specialized care service in the city of Pelotas in Southern Brazil. Sociodemographic data and HIV-related information were collected, and all patients underwent psychiatric and neurocognitive evaluations. The prevalence of NCI among the 392 patients was 54.1% when tracked using the IHDS (International HIV Dementia Scale) and 36.2% when the IHDS was associated with a battery of complementary tests. A bivariate analysis suggested an association of NCI with gender, age, educational level, depression, current CD4 count and lowest CD4 count. The association of NCI with depression remained in the Poisson regression (PR=1.96, 95%CI=1.12-3.42). The prevalence of cognitive impairment in HIV-positive patients estimated in this study is in accordance with international and Brazilian data. Of the factors analyzed, depression showed the greatest evidence of association with neurocognitive loss. Based on our findings, the inclusion of instruments to evaluate depression in our services for patients with HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is recommended. PMID:27626305

  18. Fecal bacterial microbiome diversity in chronic HIV-infected patients in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Ma, Yingfei; Lin, Ping; Tang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Liying; Shen, Yinzhong; Zhang, Renfan; Liu, Li; Cheng, Jun; Shao, Jiashen; Qi, Tangkai; Tang, Yan; Cai, Rentian; Guan, Liqian; Luo, Bin; Sun, Meiyan; Li, Ben; Pei, Zhiheng; Lu, Hongzhou

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify fecal bacterial microbiome changes in patients with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in China. Bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified, sequenced (454 pyrosequencing), and clustered into operational taxonomic units using the QIIME software. Relative abundance at the phylum and genus levels were calculated. Alpha diversity was determined by Chao 1 and observed-species indices, and beta diversity was determined by double principal component analysis using the estimated phylogeny-based unweighted Unifrac distance matrices. Fecal samples of the patients with chronic HIV-infection tended to be enriched with bacteria of the phyla Firmicutes (47.20% ± 0.43 relative abundance) and Proteobacteria (37.21% ± 0.36) compared with those of the non-HIV infected controls (17.95% ± 0.06 and 3.81% ± 0.02, respectively). Members of the genus Bilophila were exclusively detected in samples of the non-HIV infected controls. Bacteroides and arabacteroides were more abundant in the chronic HIV-infected patients. Our study indicated that chronic HIV-infected patients in China have a fecal bacterial microbiome composition that is largely different from that found in non-HIV infected controls, and further study is needed to evaluate whether microbiome changes play a role in disease complications in the distal gut, including opportunistic infections. PMID:27048741

  19. Fecal bacterial microbiome diversity in chronic HIV-infected patients in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yang; Ma, Yingfei; Lin, Ping; Tang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Liying; Shen, Yinzhong; Zhang, Renfan; Liu, Li; Cheng, Jun; Shao, Jiashen; Qi, Tangkai; Tang, Yan; Cai, Rentian; Guan, Liqian; Luo, Bin; Sun, Meiyan; Li, Ben; Pei, Zhiheng; Lu, Hongzhou

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify fecal bacterial microbiome changes in patients with chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in China. Bacterial 16S rRNA genes were amplified, sequenced (454 pyrosequencing), and clustered into operational taxonomic units using the QIIME software. Relative abundance at the phylum and genus levels were calculated. Alpha diversity was determined by Chao 1 and observed-species indices, and beta diversity was determined by double principal component analysis using the estimated phylogeny-based unweighted Unifrac distance matrices. Fecal samples of the patients with chronic HIV-infection tended to be enriched with bacteria of the phyla Firmicutes (47.20%±0.43 relative abundance) and Proteobacteria (37.21%±0.36) compared with those of the non-HIV infected controls (17.95%±0.06 and 3.81%±0.02, respectively). Members of the genus Bilophila were exclusively detected in samples of the non-HIV infected controls. Bacteroides and arabacteroides were more abundant in the chronic HIV-infected patients. Our study indicated that chronic HIV-infected patients in China have a fecal bacterial microbiome composition that is largely different from that found in non-HIV infected controls, and further study is needed to evaluate whether microbiome changes play a role in disease complications in the distal gut, including opportunistic infections. PMID:27048741

  20. Cardiovascular Diseases in HIV-infected Subjects (HIV-HEART Study)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2010-05-07

    Detection of Frequency, Severity and Progression of Cardiovascular Diseases in Patients With HIV-infection.; Effect on Cardiovascular Risk and Life Quality by Age, Gender, Classic Cardiovascular Risk Factors,; HIV-specific Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Cardiovascular Medication, Antiretroviral Medication

  1. Management of HIV Infection in Patients With Substance Use Problems

    PubMed Central

    Nijhawan, Ank; Kim, Soyun; Rich, Josiah D.

    2010-01-01

    Although highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has greatly reduced overall morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV, patients with substance use issues have been less likely than other patients with HIV to realize these benefits. Social obstacles (eg, lack of housing, minimal social support), and medical comorbidities (eg, mental illness, hepatitis), complicate the management of this group of patients. Not only are drug and alcohol users less likely to access medical care, initiation of HAART may be delayed due to concerns for adherence and the potential development of drug resistance. Ultimately, a multidisciplinary comprehensive approach is needed to both engage and retain this population in care. Through the integration of case management, addiction therapy, and medical treatment of HIV, we may be able to improve outcomes for patients with HIV and addiction. PMID:18687208

  2. Adenovirus infection of the large bowel in HIV positive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Maddox, A.; Francis, N.; Moss, J.; Blanshard, C.; Gazzard, B.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To describe the microscopic appearance of adenovirus infection in the large bowel of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients with diarrhoea. METHODS: Large bowel biopsy specimens from 10 HIV positive patients, eight of whom were also infected with other gastrointestinal pathogens, with diarrhoea were examined, together with six small bowel biopsy specimens from the same group of patients. Eight of the patients had AIDS. The biopsy specimens were examined by light microscopy performed on haematoxylin and eosin stained and immunoperoxidase preparations, the latter using a commercially available antibody (Serotec MCA 489). Confirmation was obtained with electron microscopy. RESULTS: The morphological appearance of cells infected with adenovirus showed characteristic nuclear and cellular changes, although the inflammatory reaction was non-specific. Immunoperoxidase staining for adenovirus was sensitive and specific, and the presence of viral inclusions consistent with adenovirus was confirmed by electron microscopy. CONCLUSIONS: The light microscopic features of adenovirus infection are distinctive and immunocytochemistry with a commercially available antibody is a sensitive and specific means of confirming the diagnosis. Further studies of the role of adenovirus in causing diarrhoea in these patients are indicated. Images PMID:1401177

  3. Household HIV Testing Uptake among Contacts of TB Patients in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Velen, Kavindhran; Lewis, James J.; Charalambous, Salome; Page-Shipp, Liesl; Popane, Flora; Churchyard, Gavin J.; Hoffmann, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Background In high HIV prevalence settings, offering HIV testing may be a reasonable part of contact tracing of index tuberculosis (TB) patients. We evaluated the uptake of HIV counselling and testing (HCT) among household contacts of index TB patients and the proportion of newly diagnosed HIV-infected persons linked into care as part of a household TB contact tracing study. Methods We recruited index TB patients at public health clinics in two South African provinces to obtain consent for household contact tracing. During scheduled household visits we offered TB symptom screening to all household members and HCT to individuals ≥14years of age. Factors associated with HCT uptake were investigated using a random effects logistic regression model. Results & Discussion Out of 1,887 listed household members ≥14 years old, 984 (52%) were available during a household visit and offered HCT of which 108 (11%) self-reported being HIV infected and did not undergo HCT. Of the remaining 876, a total of 304 agreed to HCT (35%); 26 (8.6%) were newly diagnosed as HIV positive. In multivariable analysis, factors associated with uptake of HCT were prior testing (odds ratio 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–2.3) and another member in the household testing (odds ratio 2.4; 95% CI: 1.7–3.4). Within 3 months of testing HIV-positive, 35% reported initiating HIV care. Conclusion HCT as a component of household TB contact tracing reached individuals without prior HIV testing, however uptake of HIV testing was poor. Strategies to improve HIV testing in household contacts should be evaluated. PMID:27195957

  4. Cocaine enhances HIV-1-induced CD4(+) T-cell apoptosis: implications in disease progression in cocaine-abusing HIV-1 patients.

    PubMed

    Pandhare, Jui; Addai, Amma B; Mantri, Chinmay K; Hager, Cynthia; Smith, Rita M; Barnett, Louis; Villalta, Fernando; Kalams, Spyros A; Dash, Chandravanu

    2014-04-01

    Substance abuse is a major barrier in eradication of the HIV epidemic because it serves as a powerful cofactor for viral transmission, disease progression, and AIDS-related mortality. Cocaine, one of the commonly abused drugs among HIV-1 patients, has been suggested to accelerate HIV disease progression. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Therefore, we tested whether cocaine augments HIV-1-associated CD4(+) T-cell decline, a predictor of HIV disease progression. We examined apoptosis of resting CD4(+) T cells from HIV-1-negative and HIV-1-positive donors in our study, because decline of uninfected cells plays a major role in HIV-1 disease progression. Treatment of resting CD4(+) T cells with cocaine (up to 100 μmol/L concentrations) did not induce apoptosis, but 200 to 1000 μmol/L cocaine induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, treatment of CD4(+) T cells isolated from healthy donors with both HIV-1 virions and cocaine significantly increased apoptosis compared with the apoptosis induced by cocaine or virions alone. Most important, our biochemical data suggest that cocaine induces CD4(+) T-cell apoptosis by increasing intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and inducing mitochondrial depolarization. Collectively, our results provide evidence of a synergy between cocaine and HIV-1 on CD4(+) T-cell apoptosis that may, in part, explain the accelerated disease observed in HIV-1-infected drug abusers. PMID:24486327

  5. Mortality in Patients with HIV-1 Infection Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa, Europe, or North America: A Collaborative Analysis of Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Boulle, Andrew; Schomaker, Michael; May, Margaret T.; Hogg, Robert S.; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Monge, Susana; Keiser, Olivia; Lampe, Fiona C.; Giddy, Janet; Ndirangu, James; Garone, Daniela; Fox, Matthew; Ingle, Suzanne M.; Reiss, Peter; Dabis, Francois; Costagliola, Dominique; Castagna, Antonella; Ehren, Kathrin; Campbell, Colin; Gill, M. John; Saag, Michael; Justice, Amy C.; Guest, Jodie; Crane, Heidi M.; Egger, Matthias; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background High early mortality in patients with HIV-1 starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa, compared to Europe and North America, is well documented. Longer-term comparisons between settings have been limited by poor ascertainment of mortality in high burden African settings. This study aimed to compare mortality up to four years on ART between South Africa, Europe, and North America. Methods and Findings Data from four South African cohorts in which patients lost to follow-up (LTF) could be linked to the national population register to determine vital status were combined with data from Europe and North America. Cumulative mortality, crude and adjusted (for characteristics at ART initiation) mortality rate ratios (relative to South Africa), and predicted mortality rates were described by region at 0–3, 3–6, 6–12, 12–24, and 24–48 months on ART for the period 2001–2010. Of the adults included (30,467 [South Africa], 29,727 [Europe], and 7,160 [North America]), 20,306 (67%), 9,961 (34%), and 824 (12%) were women. Patients began treatment with markedly more advanced disease in South Africa (median CD4 count 102, 213, and 172 cells/µl in South Africa, Europe, and North America, respectively). High early mortality after starting ART in South Africa occurred mainly in patients starting ART with CD4 count <50 cells/µl. Cumulative mortality at 4 years was 16.6%, 4.7%, and 15.3% in South Africa, Europe, and North America, respectively. Mortality was initially much lower in Europe and North America than South Africa, but the differences were reduced or reversed (North America) at longer durations on ART (adjusted rate ratios 0.46, 95% CI 0.37–0.58, and 1.62, 95% CI 1.27–2.05 between 24 and 48 months on ART comparing Europe and North America to South Africa). While bias due to under-ascertainment of mortality was minimised through death registry linkage, residual bias could still be present due to differing approaches to and

  6. [HIV infection in tuberculosis patients in Madagascar. Situation in 1-93].

    PubMed

    Morvan, J M; Auregan, G; Rasamindrakotroka, A J; de Ravel, T; Roux, J F

    1994-01-01

    In Madagascar, the estimated incidence of tuberculosis is high (320 per 100,000) when human immunodeficiency virus (VIH) infection progress slowly. The authors have studied HIV seroprevalence in a group of tubercular patients and in two reference groups (general population and outpatients of the Clinical Biology Centre of Institut Pasteur). Circulation of HIV1 virus was observed with a low prevalence rate in all the 3 groups. There was no significant difference between tubercular patients and healthy population. Tubercular people ought to be a watch group for the epidemiological surveillance of HIV infection evolution in Madagascar. PMID:7575038

  7. Comparison of viro-immunological marker changes between HIV-1 and HIV-2-infected patients in France

    PubMed Central

    Drylewicz, Julia; Matheron, Sophie; Lazaro, Estibaliz; Damond, Florence; Bonnet, Fabrice; Simon, François; Dabis, François; Brun-Vezinet, Françoise; Chêne, Geneviève; Thiebaut, Rodolphe

    2008-01-01

    Background HIV-2 is known to be less pathogenic than HIV-1, although the underlying mechanisms are still debated. We compared the changes over time in viro-immunologic markers in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected patients living in France during natural history and after initiation of the first Combination of AntiRetroviral Treatment (CART). Method Patients were included in the ANRS CO3 HIV-1 cohort (N=6707) or the ANRS CO5 HIV-2 cohort (N=572). HIV-1 infected patients were matched to HIV-2 patients according to sex, age, HIV transmission group and period of treatment initiation. Changes in markers have been estimated with linear mixed models. Results Analyses were performed for three groups of patients: (1) those with estimated date of contamination (98 HIV-1 and 49 HIV-2 seroincident patients), (2) untreated seroprevalent patients (320 HIV-1 and 160 HIV-2) and (3) those who initiated a first CART (59 HIV-1 and 63 HIV-2). In group 1, CD4 T-cell decreased less rapidly in HIV-2 than HIV-1 patients (−9 vs. −49 cells/mm3/year, p<10−4). Estimated slopes in untreated group 2 were similar to those estimated in group 1 (−11 vs. −49 cells/mm3/year, p=0.003). In group 3, baseline CD4 at CART initiation was not different according to the type of infection (269 vs.220 cells/mm3). During the first two months of treatment, CD4 count increased by +59 cells/mm3/month (95% Confidence Interval [CI]=34;84) for HIV-1 and +24 (CI=6;42) for HIV-2. The plasma viral load drop was 3-fold more important in HIV-1 patients: −1.56 log10/ml/month (CI=−1.83; − 1.30) vs. −0.62 (CI=−0.84; −0.40) among HIV-2 patients (p<10−4). Conclusion Differences between the two infections during natural history are similar to those previously described in Africa. Paradoxically, once treatment is started, response is poorer in HIV-2 patients than in HIV-1 patients. PMID:18301058

  8. Evidence for spleen dysfunction in malaria-HIV co-infection in a subset of pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Joice, Regina; Frantzreb, Charles; Pradham, Alana; Seydel, Karl B.; Kamiza, Steve; Wirth, Dyann F.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.; Molyneux, Malcolm E; Taylor, Terrie E.; Marti, Matthias; Milner, Danny A.

    2015-01-01

    The spleen has an important role in the clearance of malaria parasites, and the role of HIV co-infection on this process is yet to be described. Using a combination of histological and molecular methods, we systematically evaluated parasite load across multiple organs from HIV-positive and HIV-negative cases of an autopsy study of pediatric comatose children with malaria infection (n = 103) in Blantyre, Malawi. Quantification of parasite load across organs was done using histology. A subset of cases was further characterized for parasite localization and stage of development using immunohistochemistry-based labeling of parasite and host cells (5 HIV-positive, 10 HIV-negative), and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) of asexual and sexual-specific genes (4 HIV-positive, 5 HIV-negative). The results were compared with clinical information including HIV status. The HIV positive rate was 21% for the group studied (20 of 95) and HIV-positive patients had a significantly shorter duration of time between onset of illness and death, and were significantly older than HIV-negative patients. We found that spleens of HIV-positive cases had significantly higher parasite loads compared to those of HIV-negative cases in each the three methods we used: (i) standard histology, (ii) immunohistochemistry-based labeling of Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH), and (iii) molecular detection of asexual parasite transcript apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1). Immunohistochemistry-based labeling of macrophage marker CD163 in a subset of spleens revealed fewer activated macrophages containing engulfed parasites and a greater number of free unphagocytosed parasites in the HIV-positive cases. The mechanism by which HIV infection is associated with more rapid progression to severe cerebral malaria disease is possibly impairment of parasite destruction by splenic macrophages, supported by published in vitro studies showing inefficient phagocytosis of malaria parasites by HIV-infected macrophages

  9. Deep sequencing analysis of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase at baseline and time of failure in patients receiving rilpivirine in the phase III studies ECHO and THRIVE.

    PubMed

    Van Eygen, Veerle; Thys, Kim; Van Hove, Carl; Rimsky, Laurence T; De Meyer, Sandra; Aerssens, Jeroen; Picchio, Gaston; Vingerhoets, Johan

    2016-05-01

    Minority variants (1.0-25.0%) were evaluated by deep sequencing (DS) at baseline and virological failure (VF) in a selection of antiretroviral treatment-naïve, HIV-1-infected patients from the rilpivirine ECHO/THRIVE phase III studies. Linkage between frequently emerging resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) was determined. DS (llIumina®) and population sequencing (PS) results were available at baseline for 47 VFs and time of failure for 48 VFs; and at baseline for 49 responders matched for baseline characteristics. Minority mutations were accurately detected at frequencies down to 1.2% of the HIV-1 quasispecies. No baseline minority rilpivirine RAMs were detected in VFs; one responder carried 1.9% F227C. Baseline minority mutations associated with resistance to other non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) were detected in 8/47 VFs (17.0%) and 7/49 responders (14.3%). Baseline minority nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) RAMs M184V and L210W were each detected in one VF (none in responders). At failure, two patients without NNRTI RAMs by PS carried minority rilpivirine RAMs K101E and/or E138K; and five additional patients carried other minority NNRTI RAMs V90I, V106I, V179I, V189I, and Y188H. Overall at failure, minority NNRTI RAMs and NRTI RAMs were found in 29/48 (60.4%) and 16/48 VFs (33.3%), respectively. Linkage analysis showed that E138K and K101E were usually not observed on the same viral genome. In conclusion, baseline minority rilpivirine RAMs and other NNRTI/NRTI RAMs were uncommon in the rilpivirine arm of the ECHO and THRIVE studies. DS at failure showed emerging NNRTI resistant minority variants in seven rilpivirine VFs who had no detectable NNRTI RAMs by PS. J. Med. Virol. 88:798-806, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26412111

  10. STIGMA, SOCIAL SUPPORT, AND TREATMENT ADHERENCE AMONG HIV-POSITIVE PATIENTS IN CHIANG MAI, THAILAND

    PubMed Central

    Li, Michael Jonathan; Murray, Jordan Keith; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Wiwatanadate, Phongtape

    2016-01-01

    Our study assessed the influence of HIV-related stigma on treatment adherence among people living with HIV in Chiang Mai, Thailand, and whether social support had a moderating effect on this relationship. We recruited 128 patients living with HIV from Sansai Hospital, a community hospital in Chiang Mai, Thailand, and collected data through structured interviews. All forms of HIV-related stigma considered in this study (personalized experience, disclosure, negative self-image, and public attitudes) were negatively correlated with adherence to anti-retroviral regimens. Multiple linear regression indicated that total HIV-related stigma was more predictive of treatment adherence than any individual stigma type, after adjusting for socio-demographic and health characteristics. Tests of interaction showed that social support did not appear to moderate the association between HIV stigma and treatment adherence. Our findings suggest that community and government efforts to improve public perceptions about people living with HIV might promote treatment adherence behaviors among HIV-positive patients. PMID:25299810

  11. Stigma, social support, and treatment adherence among HIV-positive patients in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Li, Michael Jonathan; Murray, Jordan Keith; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Wiwatanadate, Phongtape

    2014-10-01

    Our study assessed the influence of HIV-related stigma on treatment adherence among people living with HIV in Chiang Mai, Thailand, and whether social support had a moderating effect on this relationship. We recruited 128 patients living with HIV from Sansai Hospital, a community hospital in Chiang Mai, Thailand, and collected data through structured interviews. All forms of HIV-related stigma considered in this study (personalized experience, disclosure, negative self-image, and public attitudes) were negatively correlated with adherence to anti-retroviral regimens. Multiple linear regression indicated that total HIV-related stigma was more predictive of treatment adherence than any individual stigma type, after adjusting for socio-demographic and health characteristics. Tests of interaction showed that social support did not appear to moderate the association between HIV stigma and treatment adherence. Our findings suggest that community and government efforts to improve public perceptions about people living with HIV might promote treatment adherence behaviors among HIV-positive patients. PMID:25299810

  12. HIV COST AND SERVICES UTILIZATION STUDY (HCSUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study (HCSUS) is the first major research effort to collect information on a nationally representative sample of people in care for HIV infection. HCSUS is funded through a cooperative agreement between the Agency for Health Care Policy Resea...

  13. Prevalence survey of infection with Treponema pallidum among HIV-positive patients in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Badie; Yavari, Zeinab; Esmaeeli, Shooka; Paydary, Koosha; Emamzadeh-Fard, Sahra; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad; Rasoulinejad, Mehrnaz

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify the frequency of syphilis among Iranian HIV-positive patients. Methods A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of syphilis and HIV co-infection among 450 patients diagnosed with HIV infection was conducted between 2004 and 2008 at Imam Khomeini hospital, Tehran, Iran. The lab tests including CD4 cell count, cerebrospinal fluid, veneral disease research laboratory (VDRL), fluorescent treponema antibody-absorption (FTA-Abs) and viral load were performed for all the patients. Data regarding medical history and their demographics were also collected. Results Of all 450 HIV-positive patients, 24 (5.3%) had a positive VDRL test and only two men had a FTA-Abs positive test which means 0.45% of them had a definite co-infection of syphilis. 65.3% of the HIV-positive patients were injection drug users that the co-infection prevalence of them was 0.7%. We did not find any patient with neurosyphilis. Conclusions Considering the increasing prevalence of HIV and also extensive use of highly active antiretroviral therapy in developing nations, the diagnosis of syphilis should be timely established using screening tests among such patients. PMID:23620862

  14. Significance of CD4+ T-cell count in the management of appendicitis in patients with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Kitaoka, Kumiko; Saito, Kazuhiro; Tokuuye, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Summary Identification of complicated appendicitis (CA) is critical to the management of appendicitis. However, previous studies have not investigated indicators of CA among patients with HIV or whether it is safe to use conservative treatment for appendicitis in these patients. Among 322 patients with appendicitis, we identified 14 who had HIV. Six of them were operated and 8 were treated with antibiotics; CA was diagnosed in 4. Patients with HIV and CA had a significantly lower CD4+ T-cell count than those with uncomplicated appendicitis. A white blood cell count lower than 7.4 × 109/L was observed exclusively in patients with CA. No patient with HIV whose appendicitis was treated conservatively died or experienced a recurrence. We discuss our findings, which suggest the possibility of conservative treatment of appendicitis in patients with HIV and identification of CA by low CD4+ T-cell count. PMID:26424690

  15. Stigmatization of patients with HIV/AIDS among doctors and nurses in Belize.

    PubMed

    Andrewin, Aisha; Chien, Li-Yin

    2008-11-01

    This study, conducted from August to September 2007, utilized a population-based survey to investigate stigmatizing attitudes and acts of discrimination against HIV/AIDS patients among doctors and nurses working in public hospitals in Belize. A total of 230 subjects (81.0%) completed the survey. The mean age was 36.8 years; 75% were women; 61% were nurses; 74% were Belizean. Stigmatization was greatest for "attitudes of blame/judgment"; disclosing a patient's HIV/AIDS status to colleagues was the most frequent act of discrimination (29%). Formal HIV/AIDS training was significantly associated with less stigmatization for "attitudes towards imposed measures" (p < .01); "attitudes of blame/judgment" (p < 0.05); and testing without consent (p < 0.05). Doctors showed more stigmatization in "attitudes towards imposed measures," conducted HIV tests without consent and disclosed patient status to colleagues more frequently than nurses (p < 0.05) while nurses gave differential care to patients based on HIV status more frequently (p < 0.01) than doctors. Female and religious health care workers (HCWs) were more stigmatizing in their "attitudes of blame/judgment" than male and nonreligious HCWs (p < 0.05). Cuban HCWs were more stigmatizing in their "attitudes toward imposed measures" and were less comfortable dealing with HIV/AIDS patients than their Belizean counterparts (p < 0.01). Older age was associated with less frequent disclosure of patients' HIV status (p < 0.05). HIV/AIDS training that incorporates stigma reduction strategies tailored to the target groups identified is needed. Additionally, we recommend that the effectiveness of national HIV/AIDS policies be investigated. PMID:19025484

  16. Characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV seropositive and seronegative patients in a Northeastern region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Liberato, Isabella Ramos de Oliveira; de Albuquerque, Maria de Fatima P Militão; Campelo, Antônio Roberto Leite; de Melo, Heloísa Ramos Lacerda

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the clinical, epidemiological and bacteriological features present in 60 pulmonary tuberculosis patients who were also infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to compare these with 120 TB patients who were not infected with HIV. The patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and HIV coinfection were mostly male (p = 0.001), showed a higher frequency of weight loss >10 kilos (p <0.001), had a higher rate of non-reaction result to the tuberculin skin test (p <0.001), a higher frequency of negative sputum smear examination for acid-fast bacilli (p = 0.001) and negative sputum culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (p = 0.001). Treatment failure was more common in those who were HIV positive (p <0.000). No higher frequency of resistance to antituberculosis drugs was found to be associated with TB/HIV coinfection (p = 0.407). Association between extrapulmonary and pulmonary tuberculosis was more frequent in those seropositive to HIV than those without HIV virus, 30% and 1.6% respectively. These findings showed a predominance of atypical clinical laboratory features in co-infected patients, and suggest that health care personnel should consider the possibility this diagnosis. PMID:15042183

  17. Vaccinating HIV patients: focus on human papillomavirus and herpes zoster vaccines.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Helen C; Garland, Joseph M; Weissman, Drew; Mounzer, Karam

    2013-01-01

    Vaccination has been one of our most powerful tools to decrease morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases in the last century. It is critical to understand the evolving safety and efficacy data for vaccines in HIV-infected individuals as the number of people living with HIV in the United States and globally continues to increase. The quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine and the herpes zoster vaccine are newly licensed in the general population, and several studies have recently been published on the safety and efficacy of these vaccines in HIV populations. This manuscript reviews recent data for the vaccines most commonly administered in HIV patients and incorporates these data into our body of knowledge about the safety and efficacy of vaccines in this population. In addition, patient factors that predict response for each vaccine are discussed. Given the great burden of human papillomavirus and herpes zoster in HIV patients, we discuss the benefits and the challenges of vaccinating HIV patients with the human papillomavirus and herpes zoster vaccines. This review provides information that clinicians need to make real-time decisions in the absence of large-scale trials in the HIV population. PMID:23681435

  18. 'I believe that the staff have reduced their closeness to patients': an exploratory study on the impact of HIV/AIDS on staff in four rural hospitals in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Dieleman, Marjolein; Bwete, Vincent; Maniple, Everd; Bakker, Mirjam; Namaganda, Grace; Odaga, John; van der Wilt, Gert Jan

    2007-01-01

    Background Staff shortages could harm the provision and quality of health care in Uganda, so staff retention and motivation are crucial. Understanding the impact of HIV/AIDS on staff contributes to designing appropriate retention and motivation strategies. This research aimed 'to identify the influence of HIV/AIDS on staff working in general hospitals at district level in rural areas and to explore support required and offered to deal with HIV/AIDS in the workplace'. Its results were to inform strategies to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS on hospital staff. Methods A cross-sectional study with qualitative and quantitative components was implemented during two weeks in September 2005. Data were collected in two government and two faith-based private not-for-profit hospitals purposively selected in rural districts in Uganda's Central Region. Researchers interviewed 237 people using a structured questionnaire and held four focus group discussions and 44 in-depth interviews. Results HIV/AIDS places both physical and, to some extent, emotional demands on health workers. Eighty-six per cent of respondents reported an increased workload, with 48 per cent regularly working overtime, while 83 per cent feared infection at work, and 36 per cent reported suffering an injury in the previous year. HIV-positive staff remained in hiding, and most staff did not want to get tested as they feared stigmatization. Organizational responses were implemented haphazardly and were limited to providing protective materials and the HIV/AIDS-related services offered to patients. Although most staff felt motivated to work, not being motivated was associated with a lack of daily supervision, a lack of awareness on the availability of HIV/AIDS counselling, using antiretrovirals and working overtime. The specific hospital context influenced staff perceptions and experiences. Conclusion HIV/AIDS is a crucially important contextual factor, impacting on working conditions in various ways. Therefore

  19. Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jasper F W; Lau, Susanna K P; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2016-01-01

    Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei is an important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungus causing systemic mycosis in Southeast Asia. The clinical significance of T. marneffei became evident when the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic arrived in Southeast Asia in 1988. Subsequently, a decline in the incidence of T. marneffei infection among HIV-infected patients was seen in regions with access to highly active antiretroviral therapy and other control measures for HIV. Since the 1990s, an increasing number of T. marneffei infections have been reported among non-HIV-infected patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity. Their comorbidities included primary adult-onset immunodeficiency due to anti-interferon-gamma autoantibodies and secondary immunosuppressive conditions including other autoimmune diseases, solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantations, T-lymphocyte-depleting immunsuppressive drugs and novel anti-cancer targeted therapies such as anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies and kinase inhibitors. Moreover, improved immunological diagnostics identified more primary immunodeficiency syndromes associated with T. marneffei infection in children. The higher case-fatality rate of T. marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected than HIV-infected patients might be related to delayed diagnosis due to the lack of clinical suspicion. Correction of the underlying immune defects and early use of antifungals are important treatment strategies. Clinicians should be familiar with the changing epidemiology and clinical management of T. marneffei infection among non-HIV-infected patients. PMID:26956447

  20. Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jasper FW; Lau, Susanna KP; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick CY

    2016-01-01

    Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei is an important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungus causing systemic mycosis in Southeast Asia. The clinical significance of T. marneffei became evident when the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic arrived in Southeast Asia in 1988. Subsequently, a decline in the incidence of T. marneffei infection among HIV-infected patients was seen in regions with access to highly active antiretroviral therapy and other control measures for HIV. Since the 1990s, an increasing number of T. marneffei infections have been reported among non-HIV-infected patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity. Their comorbidities included primary adult-onset immunodeficiency due to anti-interferon-gamma autoantibodies and secondary immunosuppressive conditions including other autoimmune diseases, solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantations, T-lymphocyte-depleting immunsuppressive drugs and novel anti-cancer targeted therapies such as anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies and kinase inhibitors. Moreover, improved immunological diagnostics identified more primary immunodeficiency syndromes associated with T. marneffei infection in children. The higher case-fatality rate of T. marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected than HIV-infected patients might be related to delayed diagnosis due to the lack of clinical suspicion. Correction of the underlying immune defects and early use of antifungals are important treatment strategies. Clinicians should be familiar with the changing epidemiology and clinical management of T. marneffei infection among non-HIV-infected patients. PMID:26956447

  1. Hospital pharmacists’ knowledge about and attitude toward HIV/AIDS and patients living with HIV/AIDS in Kedah, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Mirza Rafi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The current study aims to explore the knowledge, attitude, and perception of hospital pharmacists towards HIV/AIDS and patients living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the state of Kedah, Malaysia. Material and methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted among the hospital pharmacists in three government hospitals in Kedah, using a self-administered 43-item questionnaire. Data analysis was done using non-parametric and multinomial regression. Results A total of 75 respondents participated in this study, resulting in a response rate of 60.8%. The majority were found to be well aware of the causes of HIV/AIDS. However, about 34 (45.3%) believed erroneously that HIV/AIDS cannot be transmitted through tattooing or body piercing. Nearly 25 (33.3%) of the respondents believed that preventing the use of intravenous drugs may not be effective to prevent HIV/AIDS and endorsed social isolation as a measure to prevent HIV/AIDS. The majority (66.6%) had negative attitudes and about 20% held extremely negative attitudes. Findings from regression modelling revealed that hospital (–2 log likelihood = 215.182, χ2 = 18.060, Df = 8, p = 0.021) and gender (–2 log likelihood = 213.643, χ2 = 16.521, Df = 8, p = 0.035) were more likely to affect the attitudes of respondents. Conclusions Overall, more than one third of the respondents were found to have negative attitudes towards PLWHA. Gender, job experience, and hospitals with more HIV/AIDS patient visits were the main factors affecting attitudes. PMID:24482660

  2. Brucella canis causing infection in an HIV-infected patient.

    PubMed

    Lucero, Nidia E; Maldonado, Patricia I; Kaufman, Sara; Escobar, Gabriela I; Boeri, Eduardo; Jacob, Néstor R

    2010-06-01

    From the blood culture of an HIV-positive patient with a febrile syndrome (CD4 count 385 cells/microL and viral load nondetectable), Brucella canis was isolated. The patient was presumptively infected from his dogs, which tested positive, and showed good outcome after the therapy with doxycycline-ciprofloxacin, and the HIV infection would seem not to have been influenced by brucellosis. To our knowledge, no other case of B. canis in the setting of HIV infection has been reported in the literature, and the emerging zoonotic potential of the disease in urban areas should be considered. PMID:19725766

  3. Expression of CXCL2 in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with HIV and syphilis or neurosyphilis.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hung-Chin; Ye, Shin-Yu; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Wann, Shue-Ren; Chen, Yao-Shen

    2014-06-01

    The potential mechanisms for blood-brain barrier damage and the diagnosis of neurosyphilis in HIV patients co-infected with syphilis (HIV-S) are unclear. The aim of the study was to determine the expression of CXCL2 in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of HIV-S patients. A total of 34 HIV patients and 7 controls were enrolled in a HIV clinical cohort for diagnosis of neurosyphilis in Taiwan. Serum and CSF concentrations of CXCL2 were determined by ELISA. Neurosyphilis was defined as a CSF white blood cell count of ≧20 cells/μl or a reactive CSF Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL). Demographics and medical histories were collected. All the patients with HIV-S were males. Most (80%) had sex with men (MSM) and serum rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titers of ≧1:32. The medium age was 37 (range 21-68) years. The medium CD4 T cell counts at the time of the diagnosis of syphilis were 299 (range 92-434) cells/μl. Eight patients (24%) had neurosyphilis based on a reactive CSF VDRL test (n = 5) or increased CSF white blood cell counts of ≧20 cells/μl (n = 3). The concentrations of CSF CXCL2 were significantly higher in patients with HIV and neurosyphilis as compared to HIV with syphilis, HIV, and controls (p = 0.012). There were no significant differences in serum concentrations between the four groups. There was a correlation between CSF CXCL2 concentrations with neurosyphilis (p = 0.017), CSF white blood cell count (p = 0.001), and CSF protein levels (p = 0.005). The CSF level of CXCL2 can be used to distinguish those with or without neurosyphilis in HIV infected patients. PMID:24419746

  4. Polymorphisms in CAMKK2 may predict sensory neuropathy in African HIV patients.

    PubMed

    Goullee, Hayley; Wadley, Antonia L; Cherry, Catherine L; Allcock, Richard J N; Black, Michael; Kamerman, Peter R; Price, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is the most common neurological condition associated with HIV. HIV-SN has characteristics of an inflammatory pathology caused by the virus itself and/or by antiretroviral treatment (ART). Here, we assess the impact of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a cluster of three genes that affect inflammation and neuronal repair: P2X7R, P2X4R and CAMKK2. HIV-SN status was assessed using the Brief Peripheral Neuropathy Screening tool, with SN defined by bilateral symptoms and signs. Forty-five SNPs in P2X7R, P2X4R and CAMKK2 were genotyped using TaqMan fluorescent probes, in DNA samples from 153 HIV(+) black Southern African patients exposed to stavudine. Haplotypes were derived using the fastPHASE algorithm, and SNP genotypes and haplotypes associated with HIV-SN were identified. Optimal logistic regression models included demographics (age and height), with SNPs (model p < 0.0001; R (2) = 0.19) or haplotypes (model p < 0.0001; R (2) = 0.18, n = 137 excluding patients carrying CAMKK2 haplotypes perfectly associated with SN). Overall, CAMKK2 exhibited the strongest associations with HIV-SN, with two SNPs and six haplotypes predicting SN status in black Southern Africans. This gene warrants further study. PMID:26785644

  5. Care of Patients With HIV Infection: Diagnosis and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bolduc, Philip; Roder, Navid; Colgate, Emily; Cheeseman, Sarah H

    2016-04-01

    Appropriate screening for HIV infection is the cornerstone of HIV-related care. There have been several recent changes in testing technology and screening recommendations. The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends universal HIV screening at least once for adolescents and adults ages 15 to 65 years, and additional screening for patients at higher risk, although evidence is insufficient to determine optimum rescreening intervals. All pregnant women should be screened for HIV infection in the first trimester, and pregnant women at high risk should be screened again in the third trimester. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends use of an algorithm using fourth-generation tests for screening; this decreases the window period between infection and detection to as few as 14 days, thereby reducing the number of false-negative results. Home HIV testing kits, which require follow-up confirmatory testing, also are available. Clinicians should be aware of HIV-specific laws in their states, including those criminalizing HIV exposure and transmission. Thorough medical and laboratory evaluations are essential at initiation of care for patients with HIV infection, along with appropriate follow-up monitoring, as recommended in various guidelines. PMID:27092562

  6. Expansion of the E138A mutation in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients in Gran Canaria.

    PubMed

    Chamizo, Francisco; Gilarranz, Raúl; Tosco, Tomás; Carrillo, Deyanira; Holguín, África; Santana, Évora; Pérez-Arellano, Jose Luís; Hernández, Michele; Francés, Adela; Cárdenes, Miguel Ángel; Zarzalejos, Jose María; Pena-López, María José

    2016-09-01

    Molecular epidemiology allows us to know local HIV transmission and to design strategies of prevention. We studied 25 HIV newly diagnosed patients with the E138A mutation since the year 2010. Most transmission networks involved young and promiscuous men who have sex with men. Recent infection was only documented in patients grouped into the smaller clusters. PMID:27352730

  7. Correction options for lipoatrophy in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Engelhard, Peter

    2006-03-01

    Lipoatrophy (LA) is a form of lipodystrophy, characterized by volume depletion caused by fat loss in the limbs, buttocks, and face. Facial volume loss is the most obvious outward sign of LA because it alters the facial contours in the cheeks, temples, and orbits. Lipodystrophy and LA are most commonly seen in patients with HIV on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which was introduced in the mid-1990s for the management of HIV, and is currently considered the mainstay therapy for HIV-infected patients. However, the etiology of LA is likely multifactorial as underlying patient conditions, including duration and severity of HIV and increasing age, have also been found to contribute to its occurrence. The volume loss of LA can be very dramatic with some patients exhibiting no signs of facial fat. As a result, many HIV-infected patients with associated LA suffer from psychological and lifestyle effects, which can lead to noncompliance with HAART. Thus, increases in facial volume and improvement in morphology is anticipated to reduce anxiety caused by LA in HIV-infected patients, and improve quality of life. This review discusses the benefits and limitations of several treatment options available to correct the volume depletion associated with LA, including antiretroviral switching, permanent surgical implants and injectables, poly-L-lactic acid, collagen, and hyaluronic acid derivatives. PMID:16548712

  8. A polymorphism in the leptin gene promoter is associated with anemia in patients with HIV disease

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jee-Yeong; Tate, Janet; Bathulapalli, Harini; Anderson, Damon; Steen, Hanno; Fleming, Mark; Mattocks, Kristin; Telenti, Amalio; Fellay, Jacques; Justice, Amy C.; Berliner, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    To study factors associated with anemia and its effect on survival in HIV-infected persons treated with modern combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), we characterized the prevalence of anemia in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) and used a candidate gene approach to identify proinflammatory gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with anemia in HIV disease. The study comprised 1597 HIV+ and 865 HIV− VACS subjects with DNA, blood, and annotated clinical data available for analysis. Anemia was defined according to World Health Organization criteria (hemoglobin < 13 g/dL and < 12 g/dL in men and women, respectively). The prevalence of anemia in HIV+ and HIV− subjects was 23.1% and 12.9%, respectively. Independent of HIV status, anemia was present in 23.4% and 8% in blacks and whites, respectively. Analysis of our candidate genes revealed that the leptin −2548 G/A SNP was associated with anemia in HIV+, but not HIV−, patients, with the AA and AG genotypes significantly predicting anemia (P < .003 and P < .039, respectively, logistic regression). This association was replicated in an independent cohort of HIV+ women. Our study provides novel insight into the association between genetic variability in the leptin gene and anemia in HIV+ individuals. PMID:21926355

  9. HLA Immunogenotype Determines Persistent Human Papillomavirus Virus Infection in HIV-Infected Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Treatment.

    PubMed

    Meys, Rhonda; Purdie, Karin J; de Koning, Maurits N C; Quint, Koen D; Little, Ann-Margaret; Baker, Finnuala; Francis, Nick; Asboe, David; Hawkins, David; Marsh, Steven G E; Harwood, Catherine A; Gotch, Frances M; Bunker, Christopher B

    2016-06-01

    A proportion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients develop persistent, stigmatizing human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cutaneous and genital warts and anogenital (pre)cancer. This is the first study to investigate immunogenetic variations that might account for HPV susceptibility and the largest to date to categorize the HPV types associated with cutaneous warts in HIV-positive patients. The HLA class I and II allele distribution was analyzed in 49 antiretroviral (ART)-treated HIV-positive patients with persistent warts, 42 noninfected controls, and 46 HIV-positive controls. The allele HLA-B*44 was more frequently identified in HIV-positive patients with warts (P = .004); a susceptible haplotype (HLA-B*44, HLA-C*05; P = .001) and protective genes (HLA-DQB1*06; P = .03) may also contribute. Cutaneous wart biopsy specimens from HIV-positive patients harbored common wart types HPV27/57, the unusual wart type HPV7, and an excess of Betapapillomavirus types (P = .002), compared with wart specimens from noninfected controls. These findings suggest that HLA testing might assist in stratifying those patients in whom vaccination should be recommended. PMID:26908737

  10. Cocaine modulates HIV-1 integration in primary CD4+ T cells: implications in HIV-1 pathogenesis in drug-abusing patients

    PubMed Central

    Addai, Amma B.; Pandhare, Jui; Paromov, Victor; Mantri, Chinmay K.; Pratap, Siddharth; Dash, Chandravanu

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that cocaine abuse worsens HIV-1 disease progression. Increased viral load has been suggested to play a key role for the accelerated HIV disease among cocaine-abusing patients. The goal of this study was to investigate whether cocaine enhances proviral DNA integration as a mechanism to increase viral load. We infected CD4+ T cells that are the primary targets of HIV-1 in vivo and treated the cells with physiologically relevant concentrations of cocaine (1 µM–100 µM). Proviral DNA integration in the host genome was measured by nested qPCR. Our results illustrated that cocaine from 1 µM through 50 µM increased HIV-1 integration in CD4+ T cells in a dose-dependent manner. As integration can be modulated by several early postentry steps of HIV-1 infection, we examined the direct effects of cocaine on viral integration by in vitro integration assays by use of HIV-1 PICs. Our data illustrated that cocaine directly increases viral DNA integration. Furthermore, our MS analysis showed that cocaine is able to enter CD4+ T cells and localize to the nucleus-. In summary, our data provide strong evidence that cocaine can increase HIV-1 integration in CD4+ T cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that increased HIV-1 integration is a novel mechanism by which cocaine enhances viral load and worsens disease progression in drug-abusing HIV-1 patients. PMID:25691383

  11. Knowledge and Attitude of Faculty Members Working in Dental Institutions towards the Dental Treatment of Patients with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Sharma, Nilima; Mohanty, Vikrant; Marya, Charumohan; Rekhi, Amit; Oberoi, Avneet

    2014-01-01

    Background. Dentists have an ethical responsibility to provide treatment to HIV-infected patients, particularly because oral lesions are common among these patients. However, there are no official guidelines as to how to treat people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (PLWHA) or how to screen for potentially infectious people. Materials and Method. A descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire based study which assessed the knowledge and attitude of the faculty members towards the treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS was carried out in the Sudha Rustagi College of Dental Sciences, Faridabad, and Maulana Azad Institute of Dental Sciences, New Delhi. Results. The willingness to treat patients with HIV was found to be 86.0% among the faculty members in the present study. The majority (79%) of the faculty members thought that treating an HIV-positive patient is ethical responsibility of the dentist. There was a positive attitude (88.0%) among faculty members that routine dental care should be a part of the treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion. The level of knowledge regarding HIV and AIDS was acceptable in the present study. However, continuing dental education (CDE) programmes should be conducted on a regular basis for updating the knowledge level of the faculty members towards the dental treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS patients. PMID:27379262

  12. HIV-1 Dynamics and Coreceptor Usage in Maraviroc-Treated Patients with Ongoing Replication

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, S.; Bellecave, P.; Marcelin, A. G.; Soulie, C.; Descamps, D.; Calvez, V.; Harrigan, P. R.; Fleury, H.; Izopet, J.; Masquelier, B.

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that HIV-1 evolution under maraviroc (MVC) pressure can lead to the selection of either X4-tropic variants and/or R5-tropic, MVC-resistant isolates. However, the viral dynamics of HIV-1 variants in patients with virological failure (VF) on MVC-containing regimens remain poorly studied. Here, we investigated the V3 loop evolution of HIV-1 on MVC in relation to coreceptor usage and the nature of HIV-1 quasispecies before MVC therapy using bulk population sequences and ultradeep sequencing. The majority of patients had no detectable minority X4 variant at baseline. The evolution of tropism was followed up until VF and showed three possibilities for viral evolution in these patients: emergence of preexisting X4 variants, de novo selection of R5 variants presenting V3 loop mutations, or replication of R5 variants without selection of known mutations. PMID:23208718

  13. HIV-1 dynamics and coreceptor usage in Maraviroc-treated patients with ongoing replication.

    PubMed

    Recordon-Pinson, P; Raymond, S; Bellecave, P; Marcelin, A G; Soulie, C; Descamps, D; Calvez, V; Harrigan, P R; Fleury, H; Izopet, J; Masquelier, B

    2013-02-01

    There is evidence that HIV-1 evolution under maraviroc (MVC) pressure can lead to the selection of either X4-tropic variants and/or R5-tropic, MVC-resistant isolates. However, the viral dynamics of HIV-1 variants in patients with virological failure (VF) on MVC-containing regimens remain poorly studied. Here, we investigated the V3 loop evolution of HIV-1 on MVC in relation to coreceptor usage and the nature of HIV-1 quasispecies before MVC therapy using bulk population sequences and ultradeep sequencing. The majority of patients had no detectable minority X4 variant at baseline. The evolution of tropism was followed up until VF and showed three possibilities for viral evolution in these patients: emergence of preexisting X4 variants, de novo selection of R5 variants presenting V3 loop mutations, or replication of R5 variants without selection of known mutations. PMID:23208718

  14. The effect of weekly short message service communication on patient retention in care in the first year after HIV diagnosis: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial (WelTel Retain)

    PubMed Central

    van der Kop, Mia L; Ojakaa, David I; Patel, Anik; Thabane, Lehana; Kinagwi, Koki; Ekström, Anna Mia; Smillie, Kirsten; Karanja, Sarah; Awiti, Patricia; Mills, Edward; Marra, Carlo; Kyomuhangi, Lennie Bazira; Lester, Richard T

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Interventions to improve retention in care after HIV diagnosis are necessary to optimise the timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and HIV/AIDS control outcomes. Widespread mobile phone use presents new opportunities to engage patients in care. A randomised controlled trial (RCT), WelTel Kenya1, demonstrated that weekly text messages led to improved ART adherence and viral load suppression among those initiating ART. The aim of this study was to determine whether the WelTel intervention is an effective and cost-effective method of improving retention in care in the first year of care following HIV diagnosis. Methods and analysis WelTel Retain is an open, parallel group RCT that will be conducted at the Kibera Community Health Centre in Nairobi, Kenya. Over a 1-year period, we aim to recruit 686 individuals newly diagnosed with HIV who will be randomly allocated to an intervention or control arm (standard care) at a 1:1 ratio. Intervention arm participants will receive the weekly WelTel SMS ‘check-in’ to which they will be instructed to respond within 48 h. An HIV clinician will follow-up and triage any problems that are identified. Participants will be followed for 1 year, with a primary endpoint of retention in care at 12 months. Secondary outcomes include retention in stage 1 HIV care (patients return to the clinic to receive their first CD4 results) and timely ART initiation. Cost-effectiveness will be analysed through decision-analytic modelling. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from the University of British Columbia and the African Medical and Research Foundation. This trial will test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the WelTel intervention to engage patients during the first year of HIV care. Trial results and economic evaluation will help inform policy and practice on the use of WelTel in the early stages of HIV care. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01630304. PMID:23794578

  15. [Travel medicine for HIV-infected patients].

    PubMed

    Rossi, M; Furrer, H

    2001-06-01

    Many HIV-infected persons travel from temperate zones to (sub)tropical destinations. HIV-specific immigration issues, medical resources abroad and problems regarding travelling with multiple medications have to be anticipated. When prescribing immunizations and specific chemoprophylaxis, the stage of immunodeficiency as well as drug interactions with antiretrovirals and medicaments against opportunistic infections have to be taken into account. Live vaccines may be contraindicated. Immunocompromised HIV-infected travellers have a higher risk for serious courses of diseases by enteropathogens. Therefore a good information about food hygiene is important and a prescription of an antibiotic to take in case of severe diarrhea may be indicated. A new antiretroviral combination therapy should not be started immediately before travelling to the tropics. The possibility to continue an established HIV treatment during travel has to be evaluated cautiously. With good pre-travel advice the risk of severe health problems is low for most HIV-infected travellers. PMID:11441700

  16. Comparison of Serum Lipid Profile in HIV Positive Patients on ART with ART Naïve Patients

    PubMed Central

    V, Vijay; Shekhanawar, M.S.; Rajeshwari; M, Amareshwaras; D, Shantala

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The widespread use of effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV patients has coincided with increasing reports of complications like HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome and the metabolic alterations, affecting the lipid and glucose metabolism. Evidences in support of lipodystrophy and dyslipidaemia associated with First- line HAART in our area is scarce. The aim of the present study was 1) to study and compare Lipid profile in HIV positive patients on ART with that of freshly diagnosed HIV positive patients who were yet to be started on ART. 2) To assess lipodystrophy syndrome in patients on ART. Materials and Methods: Hundred newly diagnosed HIV positive patients who were yet to be started on ART were taken as controls (ART-Naïve).Hundred randomly selected HIV+ patients who were already on First-line ART regimen (Stavudine/Zudovudine + Lamivudine + Nevirapine) for more than 12 months were taken as cases (ART). This study was conducted for a period of 12 months at the VIMS ART centre, Bellary, Karnataka, India. Results: There was a significant increase (p<0.001) in serum Total Cholesterol, LDL-C, TG, VLDL, Non-HDL -C & TC/HDL-C ratio in ART patients compared to ART-naïve patients. Of the 100 ART patients 23 had lipodystrophy syndrome (buffalo hump, abnormal fat deposition around neck & back, buccal fat resorption, increase in abdominal fat). Conclusion: To conclude, it is evident from our study that there is increase in lipid profile (except HDL) in ART patients compared to ART Naïve group and 23 ART patients showed lipodystrophy syndrome. Hence it appears reasonable to measure fasting lipid levels before and 3-6 months after antiretroviral therapy is initiated or when ART regimen is changed. PMID:25478335

  17. White matter correlates of apathy in HIV-positive subjects: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Hoare, Jacqueline; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Spottiswoode, Bruce; Joska, John A; Schoeman, Renata; Stein, Dan J; Carey, Paul D

    2010-01-01

    Apathy is commonly reported by patients infected with HIV. No previous work has assessed the relationship between white matter and apathy in HIV. The authors aimed to determine whether apathy in HIV reflects a direct effect of the virus on subcortical brain regions or a secondary neuropsychiatric symptom. Thirteen HIV+ participants with apathy, 13 HIV+ participants with no apathy, and 10 healthy comparison subjects were examined using diffusion tensor imaging in the region of the anterior cingulate and corpus callosum. Results of the study confirmed the hypothesis which anticipated changes associated with apathy in white matter tracts that relay through the medial prefrontal cortex. PMID:20686138

  18. Dawn of antioxidants and immune modulators to stop HIV-progression and boost the immune system in HIV/AIDS patients: An updated comprehensive and critical review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurinder; Pai, Roopa S

    2015-06-01

    In the last two decades, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the retrovirus responsible for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, worldwide. Providing the optimum management of HIV/AIDS is a major challenge in the 21st century. Since, HIV-infected persons have an extended lifespan due to the development of effective antiretroviral therapies, malnutrition is becoming central factors of long-term survivors. The nutrition status of AIDS patients has a significant influence on the maintenance and optimal effectiveness of the immune system. Micronutrient therapy in combination with allopathic treatments can extend and improve the quality and quantity of life in individuals infected with HIV/AIDS. HIV infection is thought to lead to augmented oxidative stress which may in turn lead to faster development of HIV disease. Hence, antioxidants might have a significant role in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. An additional approach to treating HIV infection is fortifying the immune response of infected people. Immune modulators help to activate and boost the normal immune function. The present review first describes the boon of antioxidants (especially Vitamin A) and immune modulators (cytolin, resveratrol, murabutide, setarud, tucaresol, AVR118, Immunitin (HE2000), reticulose, and interleukin-7) in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Then, providing a comparatively succinct outline on updated patents study on antioxidants and immune modulators to treat HIV/AIDS will be discussed. PMID:25933975

  19. Erectile Dysfunction Among HIV Patients Undergoing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: Dyslipidemia as a Main Risk Factor

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Velez, Gustavo; Lisker-Cervantes, Andrés; Villeda-Sandoval, Christian I; Sotomayor de Zavaleta, Mariano; Olvera-Posada, Daniel; Sierra-Madero, Juan Gerardo; Arreguin-Camacho, Lucrecia O; Castillejos-Molina, Ricardo A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence and risk factors of erectile dysfunction (ED) in HIV patients from the HIV clinic of a tertiary referral center in Mexico City. Design Prevalence was obtained from cross-sectional studies, and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), a standardized method, was used to assess ED. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in the HIV clinic. Participants completed the IIEF to allow ED assessment. Information on demographics, clinical and HIV-related variables was retrieved from their medical records. Results One hundred and nine patients were included, with a mean age of 39.9 ± 8.8 years. ED was present in 65.1% of the individuals. Patients had been diagnosed with HIV for a mean of 92.7 ± 70.3 months and had undergone a mean 56.4 ± 45.5 months of HAART. The only variable associated with ED in the univariate analysis was dyslipidemia, and this association was also found in the multivariate analysis (P = 0.01). Conclusions ED is highly prevalent in HIV patients. Dyslipidemia should be considered as a risk factor for ED in HIV patients. Romero-Velez G, Lisker-Cervantes A, Villeda-Sandoval CI, Sotomayor de Zavaleta M, Olvera-Posada D, Sierra-Madero JG, Arreguin-Camacho LO, and Castillejos-Molina RA. Erectile dysfunction among HIV patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy: Dyslipidemia as a main risk factor. Sex Med 2014;2:24–30. PMID:25356298

  20. Isolation of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from HIV Patients Referring to HIV Referral Center, Shiraz, Iran, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh, Parvin; Hassanzadeh, Yashgin; Mardaneh, Jalal; Rezai, Esmaeel; Motamedifar, Mohammad

    2015-11-01

    Extension of drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains is one of the problems of modern society. Presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in HIV-infected individuals is an important cause of severe infections. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of MRSA carriage rate among HIV patients referring to the Shiraz HIV referral center (Shiraz, Iran) during 2011-2012. Nasal swabs were obtained from HIV positive patients and were cultured on differential and selective media to isolate Staphylococcus aureus, which was confirmed by standard biochemical tests. For isolation of MRSA isolates, bacterial suspensions were cultured on Muller-Hinton Agar containing NaCl and Oxacillin. Finally, data were analyzed by the SPSS software. Of 180 HIV patients, MRSA was isolated from nasal cavity of 23 (12.8%) patients. Most of the isolates were recovered from male subjects who were under 40 years old. No variables such as skin disease, history of hospitalization or infectious disease had significant association with the MRSA colonization rate. The presence of MRSA isolates in the nasal cavity of HIV patients in such a rate warns us about the potential spreading of MRSA among HIV patients in our society and emphasizes on establishing better prevention strategies. PMID:26538782

  1. Population Pharmacokinetics of Boosted-Elvitegravir in HIV-Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Custodio, Joseph M; Gordi, Toufigh; Zhong, Lijie; Ling, Kah Hiing J; Ramanathan, Srini

    2016-06-01

    Elvitegravir (EVG) is an HIV strand transfer integrase inhibitor approved for the treatment of HIV infection as a part of antiretroviral regimens containing cobicistat (COBI) or ritonavir (RTV) as a booster. The population pharmacokinetics of EVG in treatment-naive and -experienced HIV patients was determined, and the effects of demographic, biometric, and formulation covariates on EVG pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated. Data from 31 clinical studies (25 in healthy subjects, 6 phase 1b to phase 3 in HIV-1-infected patients) with COBI-boosted EVG studies (as EVG/co or EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF single-tablet regimen) or RTV-boosted EVG studies (EVG/r) were analyzed using NONMEM. The effect of the covariates age, sex, race, health status (healthy volunteers vs HIV patients), weight, body mass index (BMI), body surface area (BSA), creatinine clearance (estimated GFR), and formulation were evaluated. EVG PK, with COBI or RTV, was described by a 2-compartment model, with first-order absorption and elimination and an absorption lag time. A statistically significant, but not clinically relevant, effect of BSA on EVG clearance (CL) was observed. Coadministration of atazanavir or lopinavir with EVG/r had an effect on EVG CL consistent with the known interaction with these agents. No other covariate had a meaningful effect on EVG PK. EVG PK was well described in a population PK model with HIV-infected patients, with low PK variability and no relevant effect of demographic or biometric covariates. PMID:26449283

  2. Quantitative Diffusion Tensor Imaging Tractography Metrics are Associated with Cognitive Performance Among HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Conley, Jared; Paul, Robert H.; Coop, Kathryn; Zhang, Song; Zhou, Wenjin; Laidlaw, David H.; Taylor, Lynn E.; Flanigan, Timothy; Navia, Bradford; Cohen, Ronald; Tashima, Karen

    2010-01-01

    There have been many studies examining HIV-infection-related alterations of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diffusion metrics. However, examining scalar diffusion metrics ignores the orientation aspect of diffusion imaging, which can be captured with tractography. We examined five different tractography metrics obtained from global tractography maps (global tractography FA, average tube length, normalized number of streamtubes, normalized weighted streamtube length, and normalized total number of tubes generated) for differences between HIV positive and negative patients and the association between the metrics and clinical variables of disease severity. We also examined the relationship between these metrics and cognitive performance across a wide range of cognitive domains for the HIV positive and negative patient groups separately. The results demonstrated a significant difference between the groups for global tractography FA (t=2.13, p= 0.04), but not for any of the other tractography metrics examined (p-value range=0.39 to 0.95). There were also several significant associations between the tractography metrics and cognitive performance (i.e., tapping rates, switching 1 and 2, verbal interference, mazes; r≥0.42) for HIV infected patients. In particular, associations were noted between tractography metrics, speed of processing, fine motor control/speed, and executive function for the HIV-infected patients. These findings suggest that tractography metrics capture clinically relevant information regarding cognitive performance among HIV infected patients and suggests the importance of subtle white matter changes in examining cognitive performance. PMID:20503115

  3. Switching to Tenofovir Alafenamide, Coformulated With Elvitegravir, Cobicistat, and Emtricitabine, in HIV-Infected Patients With Renal Impairment: 48-Week Results From a Single-Arm, Multicenter, Open-Label Phase 3 Study

    PubMed Central

    Pozniak, Anton; Arribas, Jose R.; Gathe, Joseph; Gupta, Samir K.; Post, Frank A.; Bloch, Mark; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Crofoot, Gordon; Benson, Paul; Lichtenstein, Kenneth; Ramgopal, Moti; Chetchotisakd, Ploenchan; Custodio, Joseph M.; Abram, Michael E.; Wei, Xuelian; Cheng, Andrew; McCallister, Scott; SenGupta, Devi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is a novel tenofovir prodrug with improved renal and bone safety compared with TDF-containing regimens. We report the 48 week safety and efficacy of a once-daily single tablet regimen of elvitegravir 150 mg (E), cobicistat 150 mg (C), emtricitabine 200 mg (F), and TAF 10 mg (E/C/F/TAF) in HIV-1-infected patients with mild to moderate renal impairment. Methods: We enrolled virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected subjects with estimated creatinine clearance (CrCl) 30–69 mL/min in a single-arm, open-label study to switch regimens to E/C/F/TAF. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in glomerular filtration rate estimated using various formulae. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01818596. Findings: We enrolled and treated 242 patients with mean age 58 years, 18% Black, 39% hypertension, 14% diabetes. Through week 48, no significant change in estimated CrCl was observed. Two patients (0.8%) discontinued study drug for decreased creatinine clearance, neither had evidence of renal tubulopathy and both had uncontrolled hypertension. Subjects had significant improvements in proteinuria, albuminuria, and tubular proteinuria (P < 0.001 for all). Hip and spine bone mineral density significantly increased from baseline to week 48 (mean percent change +1.47 and +2.29, respectively, P < 0.05). Ninety-two percent (222 patients) maintained HIV-1 RNA <50 copies per milliliter at week 48. Interpretation: Switch to E/C/F/TAF was associated with minimal change in GFR. Proteinuria, albuminuria and bone mineral density significantly improved. These data support the efficacy and safety of once daily E/C/F/TAF in HIV+ patients with mild or moderate renal impairment without dose adjustment. PMID:26627107

  4. Disseminated nocardiosis in a patient with nephrotic syndrome following HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Letian; Liu, Hong; Yuan, Fang; Yuan, Shuguang

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, a case of disseminated abscesses caused by Nocardia in a patient undergoing immunosuppressive therapy for nephrotic syndrome and infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is described. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case to be reported. The patient had membranous nephropathy and received systemic corticosteroid therapy for one year. During this time, the patient was diagnosed with HIV and developed disseminated abscesses in the lungs, brain and hip. Pathogens isolated from sputum and pus were identified as Nocardia asteroides. The patient was successfully treated following surgical drainage of the abscesses and by oral administration of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. PMID:25187812

  5. Reduced sTWEAK and Increased sCD163 Levels in HIV-Infected Patients: Modulation by Antiretroviral Treatment, HIV Replication and HCV Co-Infection

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán, Luis M.; García Morillo, José S.; Egido, Jesús; Noval, Manuel Leal; Ferrando-Martinez, Sara; Blanco-Colio, Luis M.; Genebat, Miguel; Villar, José R.; Moreno-Luna, Rafael; Moreno, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease due to increased inflammation and persistent immune activation. CD163 is a macrophage scavenger receptor that is involved in monocyte-macrophage activation in HIV-infected patients. CD163 interacts with TWEAK, a member of the TNF superfamily. Circulating levels of sTWEAK and sCD163 have been previously associated with cardiovascular disease, but no previous studies have fully analyzed their association with HIV. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze circulating levels of sTWEAK and sCD163 as well as other known markers of inflammation (hsCRP, IL-6 and sTNFRII) and endothelial dysfunction (sVCAM-1 and ADMA) in 26 patients with HIV before and after 48 weeks of antiretroviral treatment (ART) and 23 healthy subjects. Results Patients with HIV had reduced sTWEAK levels and increased sCD163, sVCAM-1, ADMA, hsCRP, IL-6 and sTNFRII plasma concentrations, as well as increased sCD163/sTWEAK ratio, compared with healthy subjects. Antiretroviral treatment significantly reduced the concentrations of sCD163, sVCAM-1, hsCRP and sTNFRII, although they remained elevated when compared with healthy subjects. Antiretroviral treatment had no effect on the concentrations of ADMA and sTWEAK, biomarkers associated with endothelial function. The use of protease inhibitors as part of antiretroviral therapy and the presence of HCV-HIV co-infection and/or active HIV replication attenuated the ART-mediated decrease in sCD163 plasma concentrations. Conclusion HIV-infected patients showed a proatherogenic profile characterized by increased inflammatory, immune-activation and endothelial-dysfunction biomarkers that partially improved after ART. HCV-HIV co-infection and/or active HIV replication enhanced immune activation despite ART. PMID:24594990

  6. Short communication routine HIV testing in the emergency department: assessment of patient perceptions.

    PubMed

    Batey, D Scott; Hogan, Victoria L; Cantor, Ryan; Hamlin, Christopher M; Ross-Davis, Kelly; Nevin, Christa; Zimmerman, Cindy; Thomas, Shakira; Mugavero, Michael J; Willig, James H

    2012-04-01

    The CDC released revised HIV testing guidelines in 2006 recommending routine, opt-out HIV testing in acute care settings including emergency departments (ED). Patient attitudes have been cited as a barrier to implementation of routine HIV testing in the ED. We assessed patients' perceptions of HIV testing in the ED through a contextual qualitative approach. The study was conducted during a 72-h period. All adults presenting to the ED without life-threatening trauma or psychiatric crisis completed a standardized questionnaire. The questionnaire explored HIV testing history, knowledge of testing resources, and qualitative items addressing participant perceptions about advantages and disadvantages to ED testing. After completion of the interview, participants were offered a free, confidential, rapid HIV test. Among 329 eligible individuals approached, 288 (87.5%) completed the initial interview. Participants overwhelmingly (n=247, 85.8%) reported support for testing and identified increased knowledge (41%), prevention (12.5%), convenience (11.8%), and treatment (4.9%) among the advantages. Fear and denial about one's HIV status, reported by <5% of patients, were identified as the most significant barriers to ED testing. Bivariate analysis determined race and ethnicity differences between individuals completing the interview and those who refused (p<0.05). Among individuals consenting for testing (n=186, 64.6%), no positives were detected. Most patients support HIV testing in the ED, noting knowledge of status, prevention, convenience, and linkage to early treatment as distinct advantages. These data are of particular benefit to decision makers considering the addition of routine HIV testing in EDs. PMID:21790474

  7. Timing of antiretroviral therapy and TB treatment outcomes in patients with TB-HIV in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Shewade, H. D.; Kyaw, N. T. T.; Oo, M. M.; Aung, T. K.; Aung, S. T.; Oo, H. N.; Win, T.; Harries, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: Integrated HIV Care programme, Mandalay, Myanmar. Objectives: To determine time to starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) in relation to anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT) and its association with TB treatment outcomes in patients co-infected with tuberculosis (TB) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enrolled from 2011 to 2014. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Results: Of 1708 TB-HIV patients, 1565 (92%) started ATT first and 143 (8%) started ART first. Treatment outcomes were missing for 226 patients and were thus not included. In those starting ATT first, the median time to starting ART was 8.6 weeks. ART was initiated after 8 weeks in 830 (53%) patients. Unsuccessful outcome was found in 7%, with anaemia being an independent predictor. In patients starting ART first, the median time to starting ATT was 21.6 weeks. ATT was initiated within 3 months in 56 (39%) patients. Unsuccessful outcome was found in 12%, and in 20% of those starting ATT within 3 months. Patients with CD4 count <100/mm3 had a four times higher risk of an unsuccessful outcome. Conclusions: Timing of ART in relation to ATT was not an independent risk factor for unsuccessful outcome. Extensive screening for TB with rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests in HIV-infected persons and close monitoring of anaemia and immunosuppression are recommended to further improve TB treatment outcomes among patients with TB-HIV. PMID:27358804

  8. Haplotype analysis of HLA-A, -B antigens and -DRB1 alleles in south Indian HIV-1-infected patients with and without pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, S; Selvaraj, P; Swaminathan, S; Alagarasu, K; Narendran, G; Narayanan, P R

    2009-06-01

    We have shown earlier the association of human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-A11 with resistance and HLA-B40 and -DR2 with susceptibility to HIV and HIV-TB. In the present study, we have attempted to find out the HLA-DR2 subtypes and the possible HLA-A/-B/-DRB1 haplotype combinations that are associated with susceptibility or resistance to HIV and HIV with pulmonary tuberculosis (HIV+PTB+). HLA-DR2 subtyping was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-based sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe method. Overrepresentation of HLA-DRB1*1501 in HIV-positive PTB-negative (HIV+PTB-) patients (P = 0.004, P(c) = 0.06) and -DRB1*1502 in HIV-positive PTB-positive (HIV+PTB+) patients (P = 0.019) was observed as compared to healthy controls. Haplotype analysis revealed an increased frequency of HLA-A2-DRB1*1501 haplotype in HIV+PTB- patients (P = 0.008) and HLA-A2-DRB1*1502 among HIV+PTB+ patients (P = 0.01) compared to healthy controls. The haplotypes B40-DRB1*1501 and B40-DRB1*04 were found to be moderately increased in HIV+PTB(-) and HIV+PTB+ patients (P < 0.05). The study suggests that HLA-A2-DRB1*1501 haplotype may be associated with HIV infection while HLA-A2-DRB1*1502 haplotype might be associated with susceptibility to PTB in HIV patients. Moreover, HLA-B40-DRB1*1501 and HLA-B40-DRB1*04 haplotypes may be associated with susceptibility to HIV infection and to PTB in HIV patients. PMID:19392836

  9. Brief Report: Switch to Ritonavir-Boosted Atazanavir Plus Raltegravir in Virologically Suppressed Patients With HIV-1 Infection: A Randomized Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    van Lunzen, Jan; Pozniak, Anton; Gatell, Jose M.; Antinori, Andrea; Serrano, Oscar; Baakili, Adyb; Osiyemi, Olayemi; Sevinsky, Heather; Girard, Pierre-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: This open-label, multinational, pilot study randomized (1:2 ratio) adults with HIV-1 RNA <40 copies per milliliter and nucleos(t)ide-related safety/tolerability issues to switch to ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r) plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (n = 37) or the nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor-sparing regimen of ATV/r plus raltegravir (RAL) (n = 72). At 24 weeks, 35/37 (94.6%) and 58/72 (80.6%) of patients, respectively, maintained virological suppression, the primary endpoint, and 1 (2.7%) and 7 (9.7%), respectively, experienced virological rebound. Corresponding 48-week proportions were 86.5%, 69.4%, 2.7%, and 12.5%, respectively. Adherence was lower and treatment discontinuation was higher with ATV/r+RAL. In conclusion, switching to ATV/r+RAL resulted in a higher virological rebound rate than switching to ATV/r plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine. PMID:26605505

  10. Brief Report: Switch to Ritonavir-Boosted Atazanavir Plus Raltegravir in Virologically Suppressed Patients With HIV-1 Infection: A Randomized Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    van Lunzen, Jan; Pozniak, Anton; Gatell, Jose M; Antinori, Andrea; Klauck, Isabelle; Serrano, Oscar; Baakili, Adyb; Osiyemi, Olayemi; Sevinsky, Heather; Girard, Pierre-Marie

    2016-04-15

    This open-label, multinational, pilot study randomized (1:2 ratio) adults with HIV-1 RNA <40 copies per milliliter and nucleos(t)ide-related safety/tolerability issues to switch to ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r) plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (n = 37) or the nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor-sparing regimen of ATV/r plus raltegravir (RAL) (n = 72). At 24 weeks, 35/37 (94.6%) and 58/72 (80.6%) of patients, respectively, maintained virological suppression, the primary endpoint, and 1 (2.7%) and 7 (9.7%), respectively, experienced virological rebound. Corresponding 48-week proportions were 86.5%, 69.4%, 2.7%, and 12.5%, respectively. Adherence was lower and treatment discontinuation was higher with ATV/r+RAL. In conclusion, switching to ATV/r+RAL resulted in a higher virological rebound rate than switching to ATV/r plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine. PMID:26605505

  11. Postmortem findings and opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients from a public hospital in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Eza, Dominique; Cerrillo, Gustavo; Moore, David A.J.; Castro, Cecilia; Ticona, Eduardo; Morales, Domingo; Cabanillas, Jose; Barrantes, Fernando; Alfaro, Alejandro; Benavides, Alejandro; Rafael, Arturo; Valladares, Gilberto; Arevalo, Fernando; Evans, Carlton A.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    There is a paucity of HIV autopsy data from South America and none that document the postmortem findings in patients with HIV/AIDS in Peru. The purpose of this autopsy study was to determine the spectrum of opportunistic infections and the causes of mortality in HIV-positive patients at a public hospital in Lima. Clinico-epidemiological information regarding HIV infection in Peru is also reviewed. Sixteen HIV-related hospital postmortems, performed between 1999 and 2004, were included in this retrospective analysis. The primary cause of death was established in 12 patients: one died of neoplasia and 11 of infectious diseases, including 3 from pulmonary infection, 7 from disseminated infection, and 2 from central nervous system infection (one case had dual pathology). Opportunistic infections were identified in 14 cases, comprising cytomegalovirus, histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, toxoplasmosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia, aspergillosis, tuberculosis, varicella zoster virus, and cryptosporidiosis. Fourteen patients had at least one AIDS-related disease that had been neither clinically suspected nor diagnosed premortem. Moreover, 82% of the diagnoses considered to be of important clinical significance had not been suspected antemortem. The spectrum and frequency of certain opportunistic infections differed from other South American autopsy studies, highlighting the importance of performing HIV/AIDS postmortems in resource-limited countries where locally specific disease patterns may be observed. PMID:16979302

  12. Urinary Markers of Tubular Injury in HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gebreweld, Angesom

    2016-01-01

    Renal disease is a common complication of HIV-infected patients, associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events, progression to AIDS, AIDS-defining illness, and mortality. Early and accurate identification of renal disease is therefore crucial to improve patient outcomes. The use of serum creatinine, along with proteinuria, to detect renal involvement is essentially to screen for markers of glomerular disease and may not be effective in detecting earlier stages of renal injury. Therefore, more sensitive and specific markers are needed in order to early identify HIV-infected patients at risk of renal disease. This review article summarizes some new and important urinary markers of tubular injury in HIV-infected patients and their clinical usefulness in the renal safety follow-up of TDF-treated patients. PMID:27493802

  13. Alcohol Drinking Pattern: A Comparison between HIV-Infected Patients and Individuals from the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Maria Leticia R.; Barcellos, Nemora T.; Alencastro, Paulo R.; Wolff, Fernando H.; Moreira, Leila B.; Gus, Miguel; Brandão, Ajacio B. M.; Fuchs, Flavio D.; Fuchs, Sandra C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in the general population and among HIV-infected population. This study aimed to compare the pattern of alcohol consumption and to describe characteristics associated with heavy alcohol consumption in individuals from the general population with patients infected with HIV. Methods Participants for this analysis came from a population-based cross-sectional study and from a consecutive sampling of patients infected with HIV. Participants aged 18 years or older were interviewed using similar questionnaires with questions pertaining to socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and HIV-related characteristics, among others. Blood pressure and anthropometric measures were measured using standardized procedures. Results Weekly alcohol consumption was more prevalent among individuals from the general population than HIV-infected patients: 57.0 vs. 31.1%, P<0.001. The prevalence of heavy episodic drinking was higher in the population sample as well: 46.1 vs. 17.0%, P<0.001. In the general population, heavy alcohol consumption was more prevalent in men. Cigarette smoking was independently associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV infected (Prevalence Ratio; PR = 5.9; 95%CI 2.6–13.9; P<0,001) and general population (PR = 2.6; 95%CI 1.9–3.0; P<0.001). Years at school were inversely associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV-infected patients and directly associated among participants from the general population, even after controlling for sex, age, skin color, and smoking. Conclusions Heavy alcohol consumption is more prevalent in the general population than among HIV-infected patients. Individuals aware about their disease may reduce the amount of alcoholic beverages consumption comparatively to healthy individuals from the general population. PMID:27362541

  14. Construct validities of the Quality of Well-Being Scale and the MOS-HIV-34 Health Survey for HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Hughes, T E; Kaplan, R M; Coons, S J; Draugalis, J R; Johnson, J A; Patterson, T L

    1997-01-01

    This research assessed the construct validities of two health-related quality-of-life instruments: the Quality of Well-Being Scale (QWB) and the Medical Outcomes Study 34-item HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV-34). A sample of 100 adult male, HIV-infected patients, across six HIV disease classifications, was used as subjects. Four convergent validity measures of health-related quality of life were used: CD4 cell counts, beta-2 microglobulin levels, disease classification, and age. All convergent validity measures were significant for the QWB. Forty percent of the convergent validity comparisons with the MOS-HIV-34 were statistically significant. Because the two measures provide different perspectives on health-related quality of life, both instruments appear to be useful in measuring health-related quality of life in this patient population. PMID:9343802

  15. The Structural Violence of Patient Participation in Cambodian HIV Services.

    PubMed

    Bureau-Point, Eve; Phan, Sovannoty

    2016-07-01

    Participation of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) has become a new standard of good governance in HIV services worldwide, and most HIV organizations make reference to it. This standard has had a considerable impact in Cambodia, where hundreds of PLHA have been recruited by organizations to participate in the development of HIV services. However, participation is a vague concept with various interpretations and applications. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted between 2006 and 2008, this article first clarifies what promoters expect from patient participation in Cambodia and then examines its meanings and uses for one category of PLHA working in hospitals (hereafter "volunteers"). It shows that volunteers have played a valuable role in the scaling-up of access to care and treatment policy, and that although international organizations in Cambodia see patient participation as empowering PLHA, these volunteers face structural violence caused by inherent conflicts within Cambodia's strict health care hierarchy. PMID:25904677

  16. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV/AIDS patients attending Infectious Disease Hospital Kano, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Jegede, Ebenezer Feyisayo; Oyeyi, Esther Tinuade Ibijoke; Bichi, ArmaYau Hamisu; Mbah, Henry Akwen; Torpey, Kwasi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal parasitic infection has been a major source of morbidity in tropical countries especially among HIV patients. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of intestinal parasites and its association with immunological status and risk factors among HIV infected patients in Kano, Nigeria. Methods 105 HIV+ subjects and 50 HIV- controls were recruited into the studies from June to December 2010. Clinical information was collected using a questionnaire. Single stool and venous blood samples were collected from each subject. Stool examination and CD4+ count were performed. Results Prevalence of intestinal parasites was 11.4% and 6% among the HIV+ and control subjects respectively with no statistically significant difference (p = 0.389). Specifically, the following intestinal parasites were isolated from HIV+ subjects: Entamoebahistolytica (5.7%), hookworm (3.8%), Entamoeba coli (1%), Blastocystishominis (1%). Only Entamoebahistolytica was isolated among the control subjects. The mean CD4+ count of HIV+ and control subjects was 287 cells/ul and 691 cells/µlrespectively while the median was 279(Q1-120, Q3-384) cell/µl and 691(Q1-466, Q3-852) cell/µlrespectively with statistically significant difference (P= 0.021). Diarrhea and the absence of anti-parasitic therapy seem to be important risk factors associated with the occurrence of intestinal parasites among HIV+ subjects. A higher prevalence (14.5%) of intestinal parasites was observed in subject with CD4+ count 350cell/µl. Conclusion Routine examination for intestinal parasites should be carried out for better management of HIV/AIDS patients. PMID:25328591

  17. No Evidence of Human Herpesvirus 8 among Iranian Patients Infected with HIV

    PubMed Central

    RAMEZANI, Amitis; SABOORI, Elham; AZADMANESH, Kayhan; MOHRAZ, Minoo; KAZEMIMANESH, Monireh; KARAMI, Afsaneh; BANIFAZL, Mohammad; GOLCHEHREGAN, Hanieh; AGHAKHANI, Arezoo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Kaposi’s sarcoma is a vascular malignancy, which frequently occurs among immunocompromised individuals such as transplant recipients and patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is considered the etiological agent of all forms of Kaposi’s sarcoma. Though some seroepidemiological studies conducted on the prevalence of HHV-8 in Iran, there are insufficient data on the prevalence of HHV-8 viremia in HIV infected patients. We therefore, aimed to determine the prevalence of HHV-8 viremia in general population and HIV infected patients without Kaposi’s sarcoma in Tehran, Iran. Methods: We conducted a cross sectional survey on 99 patients with HIV infection referred to Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS and 40 healthy controls in Tehran, Iran from January to April 2014. The presence of HHV-8 DNA was detected in buffy coat samples of enrolled subjects using nested PCR assay. Results: A total of 99 HIV infected patients with mean age of 37.9±10 yr and 40 healthy controls with mean age of 39±11.5 yr were enrolled in the study. The mean CD4 count was 410.3± 211.4 cells/mm3. HHV-8 DNA was not detected in both healthy control and HIV patient groups. Conclusion: This survey showed low rate of HHV-8 DNA in healthy controls and HIV patients. Considering our findings HHV-8 infection does not seem to be widespread in our population. Further studies focusing on different regions of Iran appear to be required to have a more accurate estimation. PMID:27517001

  18. HIV disclosure status and factors among adult HIV positive patients in a secondary health facility in North-Eastern Nigeria, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Dankoli, Raymond Salanga; Aliyu, Alhaji A; Nsubuga, Peter; Nguku, Patrick; Ossai, Okechukwu P; Tukur, Dahiru; Ibrahim, Luka; Madi, James E.; Dalhat, Mahmood; Abdullaziz, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Disclosure of HIV status especially to sexual partners is an important prevention goal. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of HIV status disclosure and the factors associated with disclosure by HIV positive patients attending the adult Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) clinic in State Specialist Hospital Gombe (SSHG) a secondary health facility in north-eastern Nigeria. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study among adult HIV positive patients enrolled into the HIV/AIDS programme of SSHG. Study participant were sampled using a systematic random sampling. Interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, disclosure status and factors associated with disclosure. Data was analyzed using Epi-info software. Results Of the 198 (99%) respondents, 159 (80.3%) were females. The mean age of respondents was 32.9years (SD ± 9.5). Sixty percent of the respondents were married. Most (97.5%) had disclosed their HIV status and majority (36.8%) disclosed to their spouses. Sixty four percent of the respondents had treatment supporter and spouses (42.9%) were their choice of a treatment supporter. Disclosure of HIV status was found to be associated with age < 40years Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 38.16; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 2.42-602.61. Gender, employment status, educational level, duration of infection and marital status were not found to be significantly associated with disclosure of HIV status. Conclusion Disclosure of HIV status was high in the study population. Spouses were the most preferred choice of persons to disclose HIV status to, and the most adopted as treatment supporter. HIV status disclosure is encouraged after diagnosis because of its importance especially among couples. PMID:25328623

  19. Diagnosis & treatment of tuberculosis in HIV co-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Padmapriyadarsini, C.; Narendran, G.; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global public health challenge, with an estimated 1.4 million patients worldwide. Co-infection with HIV leads to challenges in both the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis. Further, there has been an increase in rates of drug resistant tuberculosis, including multi-drug (MDR-TB) and extensively drug resistant TB (XDRTB), which are difficult to treat and contribute to increased mortality. Because of the poor performance of sputum smear microscopy in HIV-infected patients, newer diagnostic tests are urgently required that are not only sensitive and specific but easy to use in remote and resource-constrained settings. The treatment of co-infected patients requires antituberculosis and antiretroviral drugs to be administered concomitantly; challenges include pill burden and patient compliance, drug interactions, overlapping toxic effects, and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Also important questions about the duration and schedule of anti-TB drug regimens and timing of antiretroviral therapy remain unanswered. From a programmatic point of view, screening of all HIV-infected persons for TB and vice-versa requires good co-ordination and communication between the TB and AIDS control programmes. Linkage of co-infected patients to antiretroviral treatment centres is critical if early mortality is to be prevented. We present here an overview of existing diagnostic strategies, new tests in the pipeline and recommendations for treatment of patients with HIV-TB dual infection. PMID:22310818

  20. Thrombotic microangiopathy as an initial manifestation in HIV patients

    PubMed Central

    Dineshkumar, Thanigachalam; Dhanapriya, Jeyachandran; Jaganathan, Palanivel; Sakthirajan, Ramanathan; Gopalakrishnan, Natarajan; Balasubramaniyan, T.

    2016-01-01

    Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, microvascular thrombosis, and various organ dysfunctions. TMA usually occurs in a more advanced stage of HIV disease. TMA as an initial presenting feature is rare. We here report a male patient who presented with oliguric renal failure. Investigations revealed anemia, thrombocytopenia, schistocytes in peripheral smear, and HIV-positive. Renal biopsy revealed TMA. He was treated with hemodialysis and started on highly active antiretroviral therapy. PMID:27390466

  1. Intraoral Burkitt's lymphoma in an HIV positive patient

    PubMed Central

    Ajila, Vidya; Gopakumar, R.; Hegde, Shruthi; Babu, Subhas G.

    2012-01-01

    Burkitt's lymphoma is an aggressive form of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma composed of malignant cells of B lymphocyte origin. Burkitt's lymphoma is a rarity in the Indian subcontinent. Though intraoral Burkitt's lymphoma in HIV positive individuals is very uncommon, its importance lies in the fact that it is often the first sign of the underlying immunosuppression. We present a case of Burkitt's lymphoma in right maxillary region which was the first manifestation of HIV in the patient. PMID:23188938

  2. Autograft HIV-DNA Load Predicts HIV-1 Peripheral Reservoir After Stem Cell Transplantation for AIDS-Related Lymphoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bortolin, Maria Teresa; Pratesi, Chiara; Tedeschi, Rosamaria; Basaglia, Giancarlo; Abbruzzese, Luciano; Mazzucato, Mario; Spina, Michele; Vaccher, Emanuela; Tirelli, Umberto; Rupolo, Maurizio; Michieli, Mariagrazia; Di Mascio, Michele; De Paoli, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a widely used procedure for AIDS-related lymphomas, and it represents an opportunity to evaluate strategies curing HIV-1 infection. The association of autograft HIV-DNA load with peripheral blood HIV-1 reservoir before ASCT and its contribution in predicting HIV-1 reservoir size and stability during combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) after transplantation are unknown. Aiming to obtain information suggesting new functional cure strategies by ASCT, we retrospectively evaluated HIV-DNA load in autograft and in peripheral blood before and after transplantation in 13 cART-treated HIV-1 relapse/refractoring lymphoma patients. Among them seven discontinued cART after autograft infusion. HIV-DNA was evaluated by a sensitive quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After debulking chemotherapy/mobilization, the autograft HIV-1 reservoir was higher than and not associated with the peripheral HIV-1 reservoir at baseline [median 215 HIV-DNA copies/106 autograft mononuclear cells, range 13–706 vs. 82 HIV-DNA copies/106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), range 13–479, p=0.03]. After high dose chemotherapy and autograft infusion, HIV-DNA levels reached a plateau between month 6 and 12 of follow-up. No association was found between peripheral HIV-DNA levels at baseline and after infusion in both cART interrupting and not interrupting patients. Only in the last subgroup, a stable significant linear association between autograft and peripheral blood HIV-1 reservoir emerged from month 1 (R2=0.84, p=0.01) to month 12 follow-up (R2=0.99, p=0.0005). In summary, autograft HIV-1 reservoir size could be influenced by the mobilization phase and predicts posttransplant peripheral HIV-1 reservoir size in patients on continuous cART. These findings could promote new research on strategies reducing the HIV-1 reservoir by using the ASCT procedure. PMID:25581618

  3. New-onset delusions and hallucinations in patients infected with HIV.

    PubMed Central

    Alciati, A; Fusi, A; D'Arminio Monforte, A; Coen, M; Ferri, A; Mellado, C

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between HIV-associated psychotic symptoms (i.e., delusions, hallucinations) and demographic, psychopathological and medical variables by comparing patients with and without cerebral opportunistic infections or metabolic encephalopathy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PATIENTS: 26 patients admitted to hospital with HIV and new-onset psychotic symptoms, defined according to DSM-III-R criteria. OUTCOME MEASURES: A semistructured psychiatric interview using the Psychopathology Assessment Scale (AMDP-4) of the Association for Methodology and Documentation in Psychiatry system. Comprehensive medical assessments, including laboratory tests and computed tomographic scans, were also performed. RESULTS: Patients with cerebral opportunistic infections or metabolic encephalopathy (i.e., "secondary" psychosis, n = 13) were more likely to show disorders of consciousness, disorders of orientation and disturbances of attention and memory than those with no evidence of HIV-related cerebral disease (i.e., "primary" psychosis, n = 13); 10 patients (77%) with cerebral opportunistic infections or metabolic encephalopathy and only 1 (8%) patient without (p < 0.001) were diagnosed with delirium. These associations were stronger for the "secondary" patients with no focal brain lesions than for those with lesions. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that "organic" symptoms of psychosis in those infected with HIV are related to the systemic and cerebral complications of HIV infection rather than to the psychotic process itself. PMID:11394192

  4. Understanding HIV-positive patients' preferences for healthcare services: a protocol for a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Elaney; Cooper, Vanessa; Miners, Alec; Llewellyn, Carrie; Pollard, Alex; Lagarde, Mylene; Sachikonye, Memory; Sabin, Caroline; Foreman, Claire; Perry, Nicky; Nixon, Eileen; Fisher, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction While the care of HIV-positive patients, including the detection and management of comorbidities, has historically been provided in HIV specialist outpatient clinics, recent years have seen a greater involvement of non-HIV specialists and general practitioners (GPs). The aim of this study is to determine whether patients would prefer to see their GP or HIV physician given general symptoms, and to understand what aspects of care influence their preferences. Methods/analysis We have developed and piloted a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to better understand patients' preferences for care of non-HIV-related acute symptoms. The design of the DCE was informed by our exploratory research, including the findings of a systematic literature review and a qualitative study. Additional questionnaire items have been included to measure demographics, service use and experience of non-HIV illnesses and quality of life (EQ5D). We plan to recruit 1000 patients from 14 HIV clinics across South East England. Data will be analysed using random-effects logistic regression and latent class analysis. ORs and 95% CIs will be used to estimate the relative importance of each of the attribute levels. Latent class analysis will identify whether particular groups of people value the service attribute levels differently. Ethics/dissemination Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Newcastle and North Tyneside Research Ethics Committee (reference number 14/NE/1193). The results will be disseminated at national and international conferences and peer-reviewed publications. A study report, written in plain English, will be made available to all participants. The Patient Advisory Group will develop a strategy for wider dissemination of the findings to patients and the public. PMID:27431895

  5. Stem cell transplantation for lymphoma patients with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Michieli, Mariagrazia; Mazzucato, Mario; Tirelli, Umberto; De Paoli, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The advent of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has radically changed incidence characteristics and prognosis of HIV-positive patients affected by lymphomas. At this time there is consensus in the literature that, in first line, HIV-positive patients should always be treated with curative intent preferentially following the same approach used in the HIV-negative counterpart. On the contrary, an approach of salvage therapy in HIV-positive lymphomas is still a matter of debate given that for a wide range of relapsed or resistant HIV-negative Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients, autologous peripheral or allogeneic stem cell transplantation are among the established options. In the pre-HAART era, therapeutic options derived from pioneering experiences gave only anecdotal success, either when transplantation was used to cure lymphomas or to improve HIV infection itself. Concerns relating to the entity, quality, and kinetics of early and late immune reconstitutions and the possible worsening of underlying viroimmunological conditions were additional obstacles. Currently, around 100 relapsed or resistant HIV-positive lymphomas have been treated with an autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation (APSCT) in the HAART era. Published data compared favorably with any previous salvage attempt showing a percentage of complete remission ranging from 48% to 90%, and overall survival ranging from 36% to 85% at median follow-up approaching 3 years. However, experiences are still limited and have given somewhat confounding indications, especially concerning timing and patients' selection for APSCT and feasibility and outcome for allogeneic stem cell transplant. Moreover, little data exist on the kinetics of immunological reconstitution after APSCT or relevant to the outcome of HIV infection. The aim of this review is to discuss current knowledge of the role of allogeneic and autologous stem cell transplantation as a modality in the cure of

  6. Hepatitis B in HIV patients: what is the current treatment and what are the challenges?

    PubMed

    Soriano, Vincent; Tuma, Paula; Vispo, Eugenia; Labarga, Pablo; Fernández, José Vicente; Medrano, José; Barreiro, Pablo

    2009-03-01

    Chronic hepatitis B affects 5-10% of HIV patients in Western countries. Lamivudine should no longer be used as a single anti-HBV agent in HIV-HBV co-infected patients, given its limited antiviral potency and high risk of selection of resistance, which further results in wide cross-resistance to all other nucleoside analogues. Recent reports of transmission of lamivudine-resistant HBV in HIV patients are of especial concern, and large surveillance studies suggest that it may occur in up to 10% of new HBV infections in Western countries. Another worrisome aspect of the selection of lamivudine-resistant HBV is the potential for selection of vaccine escape mutants. Currently, tenofovir must be viewed as the drug of choice in HIV-HBV co-infected patients in whom antiretroviral therapy is advised. Its co-formulation with emtricitabine (Truvada) is particularly convenient for treating both HIV and HBV in co-infected individuals. While pegIFN-alpha monotherapy for 1 year may be considered for HIV-HBV coinfected individuals with good spontaneous HIV control (elevated CD4 cell count, low plasma HIV-RNA), and certain HBV features (genotype A, HBeAg+, low serum HBV-DNA and elevated ALT), it is clear that very few coinfected patients fulfill these criteria. In HBeAg-negative HIV patients, adefovir may be an option but the relatively low antiviral potency of this drug discourages its wide use. Given its potential anti-HIV activity, both entecavir and telbivudine must only be prescribed with antiretroviral agents. Lack of information about potential pharmacodynamic interactions between entecavir and abacavir (both are guanosine analogues) or between telbivudine and zidovudine or stavudine (all are thymidine analogues) further discourages their concomitant use. At this time, most experts agree that early introduction of anti-HBV active HAART is the best strategy for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in HIV patients, and Truvada must be part of the triple regimen. PMID:19731560

  7. Communication Between HIV Patients and Their Providers: A Qualitative Preference Match Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Bob C; van Lelyveld, Merel A A; Vervoort, Sigrid C J M; Lokhorst, Anne Marike; van Woerkum, Cees M J; Prins, Jan M; de Bruin, Marijn

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of cART (combination antiretroviral therapy), HIV has evolved into a chronic disease such that it requires lifelong medical treatment to which patients must adhere. Communication with health care providers is pivotal in supporting patients to adapt to having HIV and adhering to treatment, in order to maintain health and quality of life. Previous research indicates that communication is optimal when it matches patient preferences for information exchange, relationship establishment, and involvement in treatment decisions. The aim of the present study is to explore HIV patient communication preferences as well as patient experiences with their providers (not) matching their preferences. A second aim is to explore provider beliefs about patient preferences and provider views on optimal communication. Data were collected through interviews with 28 patients and 11 providers from two academic hospitals. Results indicate that patient preferences reflect their cognitive, emotional, and practical needs such that patients look to increase their sense of control over their HIV. Patients aim to further increase their sense of control (by proxy) through their relationship with their providers and through their decisional involvement preferences. Providers are well aware of patient communication preferences but do not explicate underlying control needs. Implications for clinical practice are discussed. PMID:25412175

  8. Monotherapy with lopinavir/ritonavir versus standard of care in HIV-infected patients virologically suppressed while on treatment with protease inhibitor-based regimens: results from the MoLo study.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, Nicola; Poli, Andrea; Galli, Massimo; Pan, Angelo; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Soria, Alessandro; Viale, Pierluigi; Di Biagio, Antonio; Quirino, Tiziana; Viganò, Paolo; Bonfanti, Paolo; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Fortino, Ida; Lazzarin, Adriano

    2014-10-01

    This study compared the cost-efficacy ratios of lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy (LPV/r-MT) and of standard of care in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients. The results of the efficacy and safety analyses are presented. We conducted a multicentre, randomised, open-label trial of HIV-infected adults on stable treatment, with HIV- RNA <50 copies/mL, randomised to continue the ongoing regimen (cART-arm) or to switch to LPV/r (400/100 mg BID) MT (MT-arm). Time to virological rebound (VR = confirmed HIV-RNA ?50 copies/mL) was estimated by Ka- plan-Meier method and changes in laboratory values during follow-up were evaluated by univariate mixed-linear models. Ninety-four patients were randomised and analysed (43 in the MT-arm and 51 in the cART-arm). Five (four in the MT and 1 in the cART-arm; p=0.175) had VR, but time to VR did not statistically differ between the two arms (p=0.143). Major PI mutations were not detected at VR. Patients on MT had significant increases in total choles- terol [difference in mean change between MT and cART arm: 0.77 (±0.30) mg/dL per month; p=0.012] and eGFR [difference in mean change between MT and cART arm: 0.24 (±0.11) mL/min/1.73 m2 per month; p=0.029]. LPV/r-MT seems safe in most patients and should be considered in patients who have developed kidney toxicity from tenofovir. PMID:25387282

  9. Drug Transporter Genetic Variants Are Not Associated with TDF-Related Renal Dysfunction in Patients with HIV-1 Infection: A Pharmacogenetic Study

    PubMed Central

    Nishijima, Takeshi; Hayashida, Tsunefusa; Kurosawa, Takuma; Tanaka, Noriko; Oka, Shinichi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of drug transporter proteins for TDF is a risk factor for TDF-related renal function decrement. Methods This study investigated the association between 3 SNPs (ABCC2–24, 1249, and ABCB1 2677), which are shown to be associated with TDF-induced tubulopathy, and clinically important renal outcomes (>10ml/min/1.73m2 decrement in eGFR relative to baseline, >25% decrement in eGFR, and eGFR <60ml/min/1.73m2) in 703 HIV-1-infected Japanese patients who initiated TDF-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART). Genotyping was performed by allelic discrimination using TaqMan 5’-nuclease assays. Results 95% of the study patients were males and 66% were treatment-naïve, with median CD4 count of 249/μl, median baseline eGFR of 96ml/min/1.73m2 (IQR 84.6–109.2), and median exposure to TDF of 3.66 years (IQR 1.93–5.59). The frequencies of genotypes at -24, 1249 of ABCC2, and 2677 of ABCB1 were neither different between patients with decrement in eGFR of >10ml/min/1.73m2 and those without such decrement (ABCC2: -24, p = 0.53, 1249, p = 0.68; ABCB1: 2677, p = 0.74), nor between those without and with the other two renal outcomes (>25% decrement: ABCC2: -24, p = 0.83, 1249, p = 0.97, ABCB1: 2677, p = 0.40; eGFR <60ml/min/1.73m2: ABCC2: -24, p = 0.51, 1249, p = 0.81, ABCB1: 2677, p = 0.94). Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk genotype of the three SNPs were not associated with any of the three renal outcomes, respectively. Logistic regression model that applied either dominant, recessive, or additive model yielded the same results. Conclusions SNPs of the drug transporters for TDF are not associated with clinically important renal outcomes in patients who initiated TDF-containing ART. PMID:26535588

  10. Gastrointestinal symptoms in ambulatory HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    May, G R; Gill, M J; Church, D L; Sutherland, L R

    1993-08-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms are commonly seen in patients with established AIDS. We examined the charts of 258 HIV-infected patients attending our HIV outpatient clinic to determine: (1) the frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in unselected HIV-infected patients and (2) if there are any predictors of the development of symptoms in initially asymptomatic patients. We found the overall frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms at initial presentation in our ambulatory, predominantly homosexual population of HIV-infected patients was 35% (95% CI 30-40%) with 19% having anorexia, 15% weight loss, 14% diarrhea, and 5% dysphagia. There was no association between the presence of symptoms and stool parasites, which were found in 51% of patients. In 165 patients who were initially asymptomatic, 72% subsequently developed symptoms over 36 months of actuarial follow-up. Patients with initial T4 counts < 500 were more likely to develop symptoms. Patients with a greater degree of immunosuppression as indicated by a lower T4 count, are more likely to develop gastrointestinal symptoms. PMID:8102092

  11. Meaning of care for terminally Ill HIV-infected patients by HIV-infected peer caregivers in a simulation-based training program in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghee; Shin, Gisoo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a simulation-based training program for people living with HIV (PLWH) as peer caregivers who would take care of terminally ill, HIV-infected patients. We used qualitative research methods and standardized patients to explore the meaning of caring for patients as peer caregivers. Study participants included 32 patients registered as PLWH at the South Korea Federation for HIV/AIDS. The meanings of peer caregiving were categorized into four dimensions: physical, psychological, relational, and economic. Our study had benefits in knowledge acquisition for caregivers as well as care recipients, empathy with HIV-infected care recipients, improvement in self-esteem and social participation, and financial self-sufficiency to enable independent living for caregivers. The simulation training program for PLWH peer caregivers for terminally ill HIV-infected patients demonstrated value, for both PLWH caregivers and terminally ill HIV-infected patients in South Korea, to improve the quality of care. PMID:26279386

  12. Short communication: oral lesions in HIV/AIDS patients undergoing HAART including efavirenz.

    PubMed

    Aquino-García, S I; Rivas, M A; Ceballos-Salobreña, A; Acosta-Gio, A E; Gaitán-Cepeda, L A

    2008-06-01

    Oral lesions (OL) have an important prognostic value for HIV/AIDS patients. However, the behavior of OL in HIV/AIDS patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy including efavirenz (HAART/EFV) has not been documented. Our objective was to establish the prevalence of OL in HIV/AIDS patients undergoing HAART/EFV and to compare it with the prevalence of OL in patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy including a protease inhibitor (HAART/PI). Seventy-three HIV/AIDS patients undergoing antiretroviral treatment for at least for 6 months at "La Raza" Medical Center's Internal Medicine Unit (IMSS, Mexico City) were included. To detect OL, a detailed examination of oral soft tissues was performed in each patient. Patient records recorded gender, seropositivity time, route of contagion, antiretroviral therapy type and duration, CD4 lymphocyte count/ml, and viral load. Two groups were formed: 38 patients receiving HAART/EFV [two nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NARTI) plus efavirenz] and 35 patients receiving HAART/PI (two NARTIs plus one PI). OL prevalence was established in each study group. The Chi-square test was applied (p < 0.05(IC95%)). OL prevalence in the HAART/EFV group (32%) was lower (p < 0.007) than in the HAART/PI group (63%). Candidosis was the most prevalent OL in both groups. Herpes labialis, HIV-associated necrotizing periodontitis, xerostomia, hairy leukoplakia, and nonspecific oral sores were identified. The highest prevalence for all OL was found in the HAART/PI group. These findings suggest that HIV/AIDS patients undergoing HAART/EFV show a lower prevalence of oral lesions than patients undergoing HAART/PI. PMID:18507528

  13. Limited cross-border infections in patients newly diagnosed with HIV in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background International travel plays a role in the spread of HIV-1 across Europe. It is, however, not known whether international travel is more important for spread of the epidemic as compared to endogenous infections within single countries. In this study, phylogenetic associations among HIV of newly diagnosed patients were determined across Europe. Results Data came from the SPREAD programme which collects samples of newly diagnosed patients that are representative for national HIV epidemics. 4260 pol sequences from 25 European countries and Israel collected in 2002–2007 were included. We identified 457 clusters including 1330 persons (31.2% of all patients). The cluster size ranged between 2 and 28. A number of 987 patients (74.2%) were part of a cluster that consisted only of patients originating from the same country. In addition, 135 patients (10.2%) were in a cluster including only individuals from neighboring countries. Finally, 208 patients (15.6%) clustered with individuals from countries without a common border. Clustering with patients from the same country was less prevalent in patients being infected with B subtype (P-value <0.0001), in men who have sex with men (P-value <0.0001), and in recently infected patients (P-value =0.045). Conclusions Our findings indicate that the transmission of HIV-1 in Europe is predominantly occurring between patients from the same country. This could have implications for HIV-1 transmission prevention programmes. Because infections through travelling between countries is not frequently observed it is important to have good surveillance of the national HIV-1 epidemics. PMID:23551870

  14. Care of Patients With HIV Infection: Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Bolduc, Philip; Roder, Navid; Colgate, Emily; Cheeseman, Sarah H

    2016-04-01

    With the advent of antiretroviral therapy and improved access to care, the average life expectancy of patients with HIV infection receiving optimal treatment approaches that of patients in the general population. AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies are no longer the primary issues; instead, traditional age- and lifestyle-related conditions are a growing concern. Patients with HIV infection are at higher risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and some non-AIDS-related cancers than patients in the general population. Family physicians need to be knowledgeable about screening for and managing chronic comorbid conditions as this population ages. Health maintenance, including appropriate vaccinations, prophylaxis against opportunistic infections, and routine screening for sexually transmitted infections, remains an important part of care. As HIV infection becomes a chronic condition, emerging strategies in prevention, including preexposure prophylaxis, fall within the scope of practice of the family physician. PMID:27092565

  15. Silent oophoritis due to cytomegalovirus in a patient with advanced HIV disease.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, R; Alampi, G; Talò, S; Calza, L; Tadolini, M; Martinelli, G N; Chiodo, F

    2000-06-01

    A case of isolated necrotizing cytomegalovirus (CMV) oophoritis disclosed only by necropsy studies in a patient with AIDS, is described. This unusual case report is discussed with a review of the literature dealing with CMV involvement of genital organs in the immunocompromised host, and in patients with HIV infection and AIDS. PMID:10872916

  16. Understanding diabetes in patients with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the incidence, pathogenetic mechanisms and management strategies of diabetes mellitus in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It classifies patients based on the aetiopathogenetic mechanisms, and proposes rational methods of management of the condition, based on aetiopathogenesis and concomitant pharmacotherapy. PMID:21232158

  17. Incidence and risk factors of hepatitis C virus infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients in a large HIV clinic in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shinwon; Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Kye-Hyung; Lee, Jeong Eun; Cho, Heerim; Lee, Seung Geun; Chung, Joo Seop; Kwak, Ihm Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Increasing incidences of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex were reported in the United States and Europe. However, few studies regarding the epidemiology of HCV infection in HIV-infected patients in Asian countries have been reported. Methods: To determine the prevalence and incidence of HCV infection in HIV-infected patients, a retrospective cohort study was conducted. All HIV-infected patients who visited a tertiary care hospital in Korea from 2000 to 2013 were identified. Patients with ≥ 1 HCV antibody (Ab) test were included and observed until December 2014. Results: Among 996 HIV-infected patients, 790 patients (79%) had baseline HCV Ab tests and 41 (5.2%) were positive at baseline and four at follow-up. Experience of injecting drug use (IDU; adjusted odds ratio, 16.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56 to 167.89; p < 0.01) was significantly associated with prevalent HCV infection. Conversion to HCV Ab positivity was observed in four of 384 included patients, with an incidence rate of 2.22 (95% CI, 0.60 to 5.80)/1,000 person-years (PYs); 164.89 (95% CI, 34.00 to 481.88)/1,000 PYs in patients with IDU, and 1.40 (95% CI, 0.35 to 7.79)/1,000 PYs in men who have sex with men who denied IDU. There was no significant increase in incidence rate of HCV in HIV-infected patients from 2009 to 2014 (p = 0.119). Among 19 patients who were positive for HCV RNA, genotype 1b (73%) was the most common following 2a/2c (20%). Conclusions: IDU was an independent risk factor for prevalent HCV infection. Prevalence of HCV infection was low and incidence of HCV infection was not significantly increased in HIV-infected patients in South Korea. PMID:27117318

  18. People living with HIV /AIDS (PLWHA) and HIV/AIDS associated oral lesions; a study in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The continuous increase in number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) represents a serious health and economic burden. HIV positive individuals with oral lesions have significantly lower oral health-related quality of life than HIV positive individuals without oral lesions. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) within a cohort of HIV/AIDS positive patients towards HIV/AIDS associated oral lesions. Methods Two hundred seventy patients attending a national referral hospital of infectious disease in Malaysia were recruited for the study. The study involved the administration of a validated interview-based questionnaire designed to elicit knowledge, attitude and practices of these patients towards HIV associated oral lesions. The last part of the questionnaire assessed the training provided to the patients in relation to the oral lesions associated with the disease and the effectiveness of this training. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS version 18. Results Thirty seven percent of patients were reported as knowledgeable, while sixty four percent reported to have positive attitude towards the care of oral hygiene. Sixty six percent of the patients reported that they would seek professional care when experiencing oral lesion. Training was reported effective for 93% patients. Conclusions Patients were non-knowledgeable in relation to oral manifestations of the disease and one third of the participating patients showed negative attitudes towards oral health care and reported various measures to manage oral lesions rather than seeking professional care. Developing effective educational methodologies can empower patients with knowledge that may translate to positive attitudes and practices. PMID:23043358

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Infection among HIV/AIDS Patients in Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guoqiang; Wang, Xiaoming; Sun, Hui; Gao, Yaying

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, occurs throughout the world. Human T. gondii infection is asymptomatic in 80% of the population; however, the infection is life-threatening and causes substantial neurologic damage in immunocompromised patients such as HIV-infected persons. The major purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in subjects infected with HIV/AIDS in eastern China. Our findings showed 9.7% prevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody in HIV/AIDS patients, which was higher than in intravenous drug users (2.2%) and healthy controls (4.7%), while no significant difference was observed in the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibody among all participants (P>0.05). Among all HIV/AIDS patients, 15 men (7.7%) and 10 women (15.9%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibody; however, no significant difference was detected in the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody between males and females. The frequency of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody was 8.0%, 13.2%, 5.5%, and 0% in patients with normal immune function (CD4+ T-lymphocyte count ≥500 cells/ml), immunocompromised patients (cell count ≥200 and <500 cells/ml), severely immunocompromised patients (cell count ≥50 and <200 cells/ml), and advanced AIDS patients, respectively (cell count <50 cells/ml), while only 3 immunocompromised patients were positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibody. The results indicate a high seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in HIV/AIDS patients in eastern China, and a preventive therapy for toxoplasmosis may be given to HIV/AIDS patients based on CD4+ T lymphocyte count. PMID:26951986

  20. HIV-related Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia in Older Patients Hospitalized in the Early HAART Era

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Benjamin; Lyons, Thomas M; Parada, Jorge P; Uphold, Constance R; Yarnold, Paul R; Hounshell, Jennie B; Sipler, Alison M; Goetz, Matthew B; DeHovitz, Jack A; Weinstein, Robert A; Campo, Rafael E; Bennett, Charles L

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether older age continues to influence patterns of care and in-hospital mortality for hospitalized persons with HIV-related Pneumocustis carinii pneumonia (PCP), as determined in our prior study from the 1980s. DESIGN Retrospective chart review. PATIENTS/SETTING Patients (1,861) with HIV-related PCP at 78 hospitals in 8 cities from 1995 to 1997. MEASUREMENTS Medical record notation of possible HIV infection; alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient; CD4 lymphocyte count; presence or absence of wasting; timely use of anti-PCP medications; in-hospital mortality. MAIN RESULTS Compared to younger patients, patients ≥50 years of age were less likely to have HIV mentioned in their progress notes (70% vs 82%, P < .001), have mild or moderately severe PCP cases at admission (89% vs 96%, P < .002), receive anti-PCP medications within the first 2 days of hospitalization (86% vs 93%, P <.002), and survive hospitalization (82% vs 90%, P < .003). However, age was not a significant predicator of mortality after adjustment for severity of PCP and timeliness of therapy. CONCLUSIONS While inpatient PCP mortality has improved by 50% in the past decade, 2-fold age-related mortality differences persist. As in the 1980s, these differences are associated with lower rates of recognition of HIV, increased severity of illenss at admission, and delays in initiation of PCP-specific treatments among older individuals—factors suggestive of delayed recognition of HIV infection, pneumonia, and PCP, respectively. Continued vigilance for the possibility of HIV and HIV-related PCP among persons ≥50 years of age who present with new pulmonary symptoms should be encouraged. PMID:11556938

  1. Antiretroviral Therapy Normalizes Autoantibody Profile of HIV Patients by Decreasing CD33⁺CD11b⁺HLA-DR⁺ Cells: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhefeng; Du, Ling; Hu, Ningjie; Byrd, Daniel; Amet, Tohti; Desai, Mona; Shepherd, Nicole; Lan, Jie; Han, Renzhi; Yu, Qigui

    2016-04-01

    Autoimmune manifestations are common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. However, the autoantibody spectrum associated with HIV infection and the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains to be determined. The plasma autoantibody spectrum for HIV patients was characterized by protein microarrays containing 83 autoantigens and confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) were analyzed by flow cytometry and their effects on autoantibodies production were determined by B cell ELISpot. Higher levels of autoantibody and higher prevalence of elevated autoantibodies were observed in ART-naive HIV patients compared to healthy subjects and HIV patients on ART. The highest frequency of CD33(+)CD11b(+)HLA-DR(+) cells was observed in ART-naive HIV patients and was associated with the quantity of elevated autoantibodies. In addition, CD33(+)CD11b(+)HLA-DR(+) cells other than Tregs or MDSCs boost the B cell response in a dose-dependent manner by in vitro assay. In summary, HIV infection leads to elevation of autoantibodies while ART suppresses the autoimmune manifestation by decreasing CD33(+)CD11b(+)HLA-DR(+) cells in vivo.The roles of CD33(+)CD11b(+)HLA-DR(+) cells on disease progression in HIV patients needs further assessment. PMID:27082567

  2. HIV Testing among Patients with Presumptive Tuberculosis: How Do We Implement in a Routine Programmatic Setting? Results of a Large Operational Research from India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ajay MV; Gupta, Devesh; Kumar, Ashok; Gupta, R. S.; Kanchar, Avinash; Rao, Raghuram; Shastri, Suresh; Suryakanth, MD; Rangaraju, Chethana; Naik, Balaji; Guddemane, Deepak K.; Bhat, Prashant; Nair, Achuthan Sreenivas; Harries, Anthony David; Dewan, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Background In March 2012, World Health Organization recommended that HIV testing should be offered to all patients with presumptive TB (previously called TB suspects). How this is best implemented and monitored in routine health care settings in India was not known. An operational research was conducted in Karnataka State (South India, population 64 million, accounts for 10% of India’s HIV burden), to test processes and learn results and challenges of screening presumptive TB patients for HIV within routine health care settings. Methods In this cross-sectional study conducted between January-March 2012, all presumptive TB patients attending public sector sputum microscopy centres state-wide were offered HIV testing by the laboratory technician, and referred to the nearest public sector HIV counselling and testing services, usually within the same facility. The HIV status of the patients was recorded in the routine TB laboratory form and TB laboratory register. The laboratory register was compiled to obtain the number of presumptive TB patients whose HIV status was ascertained, and the number found HIV positive. Aggregate data on reasons for non-testing were compiled at district level. Results Overall, 115,308 patients with presumptive TB were examined for sputum smear microscopy at 645 microscopy centres state-wide. Of these, HIV status was ascertained for 62,847(55%) among whom 7,559(12%) were HIV-positive, and of these, 3,034(40%) were newly diagnosed. Reasons for non-testing were reported for 37,700(72%) of the 52,461 patients without HIV testing; non-availability of testing services at site of sputum collection was cited by health staff in 54% of respondents. Only 4% of patients opted out of HIV testing. Conclusion Offering HIV testing routinely to presumptive TB patients detected large numbers of previously-undetected instances of HIV infection. Several operational challenges were noted which provide useful lessons for improving uptake of HIV testing in this

  3. First report of Babesia divergens infection in an HIV patient.

    PubMed

    González, Luis M; Castro, Emma; Lobo, Cheryl A; Richart, Alberto; Ramiro, Raquel; González-Camacho, Fernando; Luque, Daniel; Velasco, Aurelio C; Montero, Estrella

    2015-04-01

    Human babesiosis is a zoonosis primarily transmitted through Ixodes ticks and alternatively by routes such as blood transfusions from asymptomatic donors. We report the first case of human babesiosis caused by Babesia divergens in a patient with HIV. This study also focuses on elucidating the possible transmission route of infection in this patient, who received numerous blood transfusions but showed patent symptoms only after splenectomy. A battery of detection tools along with a novel Western-Blot Assay and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay using the major surface protein of B. divergens (Bd37) as a target were used to evaluate the presence of B. divergens or antibodies against the parasite in samples from the patient and the blood donors involved in this case. A retrospective study of the humoral status against the parasite revealed B. divergens IgG antibodies in one of the implicated donors, but also showed that the patient had been already exposed to the parasite before any transfusion. Thus, this analysis of natural and transfusion transmission routes suggests a pre-existing subclinical babesiosis in the patient. PMID:25686807

  4. Affective disorders in patients with HIV infection: impact of antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    At the beginning of the AIDS pandemic, affective disorders (such as depressed mood) were seen in a considerable number of HIV-1-infected individuals. These disorders were a result of the poor physical condition of the patients, brain involvement by the virus (e.g. encephalopathy) or a reaction to disadvantageous living conditions (losing friends, jobs, etc.). In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), mental illness related to physical weakness is declining, as is the incidence of HIV-1-associated encephalopathy. However, depressed mood and fatigue caused by efavirenz (a standard component of HAART) is becoming increasingly important, particularly in individuals who are infected long-term with HIV-1. Whatever the cause of affective disorders, their presence has been shown to negatively influence adherence to HAART and HIV-1 disease progression. Specialist knowledge of HIV-1 infection, and HAART and its psychiatric complications (particularly in subgroups of patients such as drug abusers and older people), is needed to care adequately for patients. Furthermore, prospective studies are needed to more fully differentiate between the various aetiologies of affective disorders seen in individuals living with HIV/AIDS and to determine their incidence and prevalence. Such information is important to ensure that affective disorders are recognised and adequately treated, which will in turn improve the efficacy of HAART. PMID:16734500

  5. Recurrent pneumococcal meningitis in a splenectomised HIV-infected patient

    PubMed Central

    Morand, Philippe C; Veuillez, Veronique; Poyart, Claire; Abachin, Eric; Quesne, Gilles; Dupont, Bertrand; Berche, Patrick; Viard, Jean-Paul

    2003-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of human disease, especially in pre-school children and elderly people, as well as in special risk groups such as asplenic, antibody deficient patients, or presenting disruption of natural barriers. The occurrence of pneumococcal disease has increased with the onset of the HIV epidemic and the emergence of drug-resistance. Case presentation We report the case of an HIV-1-infected patient who experienced three episodes of recurrent pneumococcal meningitis over a 4-year period, despite chemoprophylaxis and capsular vaccination. Conclusions Efficacy of anti-pneumococcal chemoprophylaxis and vaccination in HIV-infected patients are discussed in the light of this particular case. PMID:14613586

  6. Extensive Giant Molluscum Contagiosum in a HIV Positive Patient.

    PubMed

    Vora, Rita V; Pilani, Abhishek P; Kota, Rahul Krishna

    2015-11-01

    Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a very common benign self-limiting cutaneous viral infection caused by molluscum contagiosum virus. Disease is self-limiting in immunocompetent individuals, while it is severe and prolonged when associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. The widespread and refractory mollusca of HIV disease occur especially on the face. In advanced stages of immunosuppression, giant or verrucous forms of MC may occur. Molluscum contagiosum tends to take a chronic course and is usually not responsive to various treatments in immunocompromised patients. Here, we present a HIV positive male patient with extensive papulonodular lesions over face, neck, bilateral upper limbs since 2 months, diagnosed as giant molluscum contagiosum, treated with cryotherapy with little improvement for few weeks after which patient did not turn up. PMID:26672647

  7. Extensive Giant Molluscum Contagiosum in a HIV Positive Patient

    PubMed Central

    Pilani, Abhishek P.; Kota, Rahul Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a very common benign self-limiting cutaneous viral infection caused by molluscum contagiosum virus. Disease is self-limiting in immunocompetent individuals, while it is severe and prolonged when associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. The widespread and refractory mollusca of HIV disease occur especially on the face. In advanced stages of immunosuppression, giant or verrucous forms of MC may occur. Molluscum contagiosum tends to take a chronic course and is usually not responsive to various treatments in immunocompromised patients. Here, we present a HIV positive male patient with extensive papulonodular lesions over face, neck, bilateral upper limbs since 2 months, diagnosed as giant molluscum contagiosum, treated with cryotherapy with little improvement for few weeks after which patient did not turn up. PMID:26672647

  8. Kaposi Sarcoma in a Non HIV Patient

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Rafi A; Koul, Parvaiz A; Ahmed, Manzoor; Shah, Sonaullah; Mufti, Showkat A; War, Fayaz A

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of a 45 year old non HIV infected female, who presented with multiple painful, livid reddish brown plaques, papules and nodules on both lower limbs and left index finger. The cutaneous nodular lesions on biopsy showed characteristic features of Kaposi’s sarcoma. This case is reported due to paucity of Kapsi’s sarcoma in non HIV Persons. It is typically a disease of older men from European and Mediterranean region. Here we present a case report of classic Kaposi’s Sarcoma in a young Indian female. PMID:21475497

  9. HIV Transmission Risk Behavior Among HIV-Positive Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kiene, Susan M.; Mahlase, Gethwana; MacDonald, Susan; Christie, Sarah; Cornman, Deborah H.; Fisher, William A.; Greener, Ross; Lalloo, Umesh G.; Pillay, Sandy; van Loggerenberg, Francois; Fisher, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to identify factors associated with HIV transmission risk behavior among HIV-positive women and men receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Across 16 clinics, 1,890 HIV+ patients on ART completed a risk-focused audio computer-assisted self-interview upon enrolling in a prevention-with-positives intervention trial. Results demonstrated that 62 % of HIV-positive patients’ recent unprotected sexual acts involved HIV-negative or HIV status unknown partners. For HIV-positive women, multivariable correlates of unprotected sex with HIV-negative or HIV status unknown partners were indicative of poor HIV prevention-related information and of sexual partnership-associated behavioral skills barriers. For HIV-positive men, multivariable correlates represented motivational barriers, characterized by negative condom attitudes and the experience of depressive symptomatology, as well as possible underlying information deficits. Findings suggest that interventions addressing gender-specific and culturally-relevant information, motivation, and behavioral skills barriers could help reduce HIV transmission risk behavior among HIV-positive South Africans. PMID:24158486

  10. HIV Symptom Burden and Anemia among HIV-Positive Individuals: Cross-Sectional Results of a Community-Based Positive Living with HIV (POLH) Study in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Catherine; Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana; Poudel, Krishna C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research has reported high rates of anemia in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in hospital or tertiary care settings. The objective of this community-based study was to measure the prevalence of anemia and describe the risk factors, with a specific emphasis on HIV symptom burden, in PLWHA in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 319 PLWHA residing in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. We recruited participants from five non-governmental organizations in the Kathmandu Valley. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used. Results Our study found a 55.8% prevalence of anemia in PLWHA in the Kathmandu Valley. The prevalence of anemia among the participants with first, second, third, and fourth quartiles of HIV symptom burden was 44.8%, 49.3%, 60.3%, and 69.6%, respectively. Compared to the participants with lowest level of HIV symptom burden, the participants with highest level of HIV symptom burden were more likely to have anemia (adjusted odds ratio = 2.14; 95% confidence interval = 1.07 to 4.30). Conclusion Due to a high prevalence of anemia in a community-based sample of PLWHA, HIV patients should be counseled on their risk of developing anemia and encouraged to seek timely care for HIV symptoms. PMID:25551656

  11. Disseminated cryptococcosis in a patient with HIV/AIDS at a teaching hospital in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Quayson, SE; Lartey, M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To raise awareness of the existence of cryptococcal infections in HIV/AIDS patients in Ghana. Method: Detailed postmortem gross and histopathological analysis of an HIV/AIDS patient suspected to have cryptococcal meningitis was carried out and histopathological findings correlated with clinical findings. Results: showed disseminated Cryptococcosis in an HIV/AIDS patient which was confirmed with special stains. Conclusion: cryptococcal infection occurs in HIV /AIDS patients in Ghanaian and when clinically suspected the diagnosis should be pursued vigorously. PMID:27489672

  12. Disclosure of HIV status: Experiences of Patients Enrolled in an Integrated TB and HAART Pilot Programme in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Gebrekristos, Hirut T; Lurie, Mark N; Mthethwa, Nkosinathi; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool

    2010-01-01

    The convergence between the tuberculosis (TB) and HIV epidemics has led to studies investigating strategies for integrated HIV and TB care. We present the experiences of a cohort of 17 patients enrolled in the first integrated TB and HIV treatment pilot programme, conducted in Durban, South Africa, as a precursor to a pivotal trial to answer the question of when to start antiretroviral treatment (ART) in patients co-infected with HIV and TB. Patients’ experiences with integrated TB and HIV care can provide insight about the problems or benefits of introducing HIV treatment into existing TB care in resource-constrained settings, where stigma and discrimination are often pervasive and determining factors influencing treatment uptake and coverage. Individual interviews, focus group discussions, and observations were used to understand patients’ experiences with integrated TB and HIV treatment. The patients described incorporating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) into their daily routine as ‘easy’; however, the patients experienced difficulties with disclosing their HIV status. Non-disclosure to sexual partners may jeopardise safer-sex practices and enhance HIV transmission. Being on TB treatment created a safe space for all patients to conceal their HIV status from those to whom they did not wish to disclose. The data suggest that the context of directly observed therapy (DOT) for TB may have the added benefit of creating a safe space for introducing ART to patients who would benefit most from treatment initiation but who are not ready or prepared to disclose their HIV status to others. PMID:20411037

  13. TB-IRIS and remodelling of the T cell compartment in highly immunosuppressed HIV+ patients with TB: the CAPRI T (ANRS-12614) study

    PubMed Central

    Haridas, V.; Pean, P.; Jasenosky, L.D.; Madec, Y.; Laureillard, D.; Sok, T.; Sath, S.; Borand, L.; Marcy, O.; Chan, S.; Tsitsikov, E.; Delfraissy, J.-F.; Blanc, F.-X.; Goldfeld, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of tuberculosis (TB)-associated immune reconstitution syndrome (IRIS) upon immunological recovery and the T cell compartment after initiation of TB and antiretroviral therapy (ART). Design and methods We prospectively evaluated T cell immunophenotypes by flow cytometry and cytokines by Luminex assays in a subset (n=154) of highly immunosuppressed HIV+ patients with TB from the CAMELIA randomized clinical trial. We compared findings from patients who developed TB-IRIS to findings from patients who did not develop TB-IRIS. Data were evaluated with mixed effect linear regression, Kaplan-Meier estimates, and Wilcoxon rank sum tests, and q-values were calculated to control for multiple comparisons. Results Development of TB-IRIS was associated with significantly greater pre-ART frequencies of HLA-DR+CD45RO+CD4+, CCR5+CD4+, OX40+CD4+, and Fas+ effector memory (EM) CD8+ T cells, and significantly elevated levels of plasma IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8, and IL-10 and viral load. Post-ART initiation, EM CD4+ and Fas+ EM CD4+ T cell frequencies significantly expanded, and central memory (CM) CD4+ T cell frequencies significantly contracted in patients who experienced TB-IRIS. By week 34 post-TB treatment initiation, EM/CM CD4+ T cell ratios were markedly higher in TB-IRIS versus non-TB-IRIS patients. Conclusions A distinct pattern of pre-ART T cell and cytokine markers appear to poise the immune response to develop TB-IRIS. Experience of TB-IRIS is then associated with long-term remodeling of the CD4+ T cell memory compartment towards an EM-dominated phenotype. We speculate that these pre- and post-ART TB-IRIS-associated immune parameters may contribute to superior immune control of TB/HIV co-infection and better clinical outcome. PMID:25486415

  14. [MANAGEMENT OF PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS IN HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS].

    PubMed

    Zirulnik, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    Here we make a revision about the rational use of psychopharmacological drugs in HIV/AIDS patients. We revised the clinical use of psychotropic drugs in this setting. In the clinical spectrum, the most frequent clinical pictures are the depression, anxiety disorders, psychosis, delirium, and the cognitive and behavioral neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with the HIV/AIDS dementia and the substance abuse-dependence. Also, we analyzed the most important pharmacological interactions between psychotropic drugs and antiretrovirals. The medical education and the interdisciplinary work are the basic topics to an adequate clinical management of this kind of patients. PMID:26650559

  15. [SSRI AND BONE METABOLISM IN HIV + PATIENTS WITH ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY].

    PubMed

    Mazzoglio y Nabar, Martín J; Muñiz, Milagros María; Mejías Delamano, Alexis A; Muñoz, Santiago; Magrath Guimet, Nahuel

    2015-01-01

    We report a series of 9 male HIV + patients, average age of 41.2 years, viral load negative (<50 copies RNA/ml), treated with antiretroviral (nucleoside and non-nucleoside inhibitors of reverse transcriptase) without systemic infections, the CNS diseases or marker or corticoidoterapia in progress. Were evaluated and supported by their infectologists interconsultation during the period October 2008-October 2013 by depressive syndrome. Psychotherapeutic and psychiatric treatment was initiated with SSRIs and clonazepam; Neuroimaging control and biochemical laboratory studies at baseline and 2 months of treatment were conducted. In the course of psychopharmacological treatment not suffer fractures due to falls and alterations were detected in bone metabolism markers and images. He studied with endocrinology and interdisciplinary medical clinic, decided to withdraw the SSRIs with normalization of biochemical values and psychotherapeutic treatment was continued. We will raise the associations between the use of SSRIs, disturbances of bone metabolism with clinical correlation and possible drug interactions between antidepressants and antiretroviral. PMID:26650557

  16. Molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in HIV/AIDS patients in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Asma, I; Sim, B L H; Brent, R D; Johari, S; Yvonne Lim, A L

    2015-06-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a particular concern in immunocompromised individuals where symptoms may be severe. The aim of this study was to examine the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium infections in HIV/AIDS patients in Malaysia in order to identify risk factors and facilitate control measures. A modified Ziehl-Neelsen acid fast staining method was used to test for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the stools of 346 HIV/AIDS patients in Malaysia. Standard coproscopical methods were used to identify infections with other protozoan or helminths parasites. To identify the species of Cryptosporidium, DNA was extracted and nested-PCR was used to amplify a portion of the SSU rRNA gene. A total of 43 (12.4%) HIV-infected patients were found to be infected with Cryptosporidium spp. Of the 43 Cryptosporidium-positive HIV patients, 10 (23.3%) also harboured other protozoa, and 15 (34.9%) had both protozoa and helminths. The highest rates of cryptosporidiosis were found in adult males of Malay background, intravenous drug users, and those with low CD4 T cell counts (i.e., < 200 cells/mm3). Most were asymptomatic and had concurrent opportunistic infections mainly with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. DNA sequence analysis of 32 Cryptosporidium isolates identified C. parvum (84.3%), C. hominis (6.3%), C. meleagridis (6.3%), and C. felis (3.1%). The results of the present study revealed a high prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in hospitalized HIV/AIDS patients. The results also confirmed the potential significance of zoonotic transmission of C. parvum in HIV infected patients, as it was the predominant species found in this study. However, these patients were found to be susceptible to a wide range of Cryptosporidium species. Epidemiological and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium isolates provides clinicians and researchers with further information regarding the origin of the infection, and may enhance treatment and control

  17. Determinants of benzodiazepine use in a representative population of HIV-infected individuals: the role of HIV status disclosure (ANRS-EN12-VESPA study).

    PubMed

    Roux, Perrine; Fugon, Lionel; Michel, Laurent; Lert, France; Obadia, Yolande; Spire, Bruno; Carrieri, Maria Patrizia

    2011-09-01

    HIV infection may result in stressful situations such as disclosure to others and could be a mediator between seropositivity status and psychiatric illness, depression, or anxiety. Several results have shown that anxiolytic use (mainly benzodiazepines [BDZ]) is highly prevalent in HIV-infected individuals, but few studies have highlighted to what extent this use could be associated with HIV disclosure. A national cross-sectional survey representative of people living with HIV and AIDS in France enrolled 2932 individuals in 102 French HIV hospital departments. Face-to-face interviews and self-administered questions collected information about patients' experience with HIV and HIV care, including use of psychotropic drugs, social support, stigma, and disclosure of HIV status. We identified factors associated with regular BDZ use (i.e., more than once a week) using a weighted logistic regression model. Regular BDZ use and anxiety symptoms were reported by 16% and 29% of the patients, respectively. After multiple adjustment for known correlates of BDZ use and anxiety symptoms, individuals who had disclosed their HIV status to relatives or friends were found to be more likely (OR [95% CI] = 1.78 [1.02-3.09]) to regularly use BDZ. These results show both to what extent disclosure to others continues to be a stressful step in the course of HIV infection and that disclosure is something that could be identified by BDZ use. They also highlight the need for appropriate case management and psychiatric care to help patients manage the consequences of disclosure. PMID:21562996

  18. Urinary beta-2 microglobulin and alpha-1 microglobulin are useful screening markers for tenofovir-induced kidney tubulopathy in patients with HIV-1 infection: a diagnostic accuracy study.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Takeshi; Shimbo, Takuro; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Takano, Misao; Tanuma, Junko; Tsukada, Kunihisa; Teruya, Katsuji; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi

    2013-10-01

    Kidney tubulopathy is a well-known adverse event of antiretroviral agent tenofovir. A cross-sectional study was conducted to compare the diagnostic accuracy of five tubular markers, with a collection of abnormalities in these markers as the reference standard. The study subjects were patients with HIV-1 infection on ritonavir-boosted darunavir plus tenofovir/emtricitabine with suppressed viral load. Kidney tubular dysfunction (KTD) was predefined as the presence of at least three abnormalities in the following five parameters: β2-microglobulinuria (β2M), α1-microglobulinuria (α1M), high urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), fractional excretion of phosphate (FEIP), and fractional excretion of uric acid (FEUA). Receiver operating characteristic curves and areas under the curves (AUC) were estimated, and the differences between the largest AUC and each of the other AUCs were tested using a nonparametric method. The cutoff value of each tubular marker was determined using raw data of 100% sensitivity with maximal specificity. KTD was diagnosed in 19 of the 190 (10%) patients. The AUCs (95% CIs) of each tubular marker were β2M, 0.970 (0.947-0.992); α1M, 0.968 (0.944-0.992); NAG, 0.901 (0.828-0.974); FEIP, 0.757 (0.607-0.907), and FEUA, 0.762 (0.653-0.872). The AUCs of β2M and α1M were not significantly different, whereas those of the other three markers were smaller. The optimal cutoff values with 100% sensitivity were 1,123 μg/gCr (β2M, specificity 89%), 15.4 mg/gCr (α1M, specificity 87%), 3.58 U/gCr (NAG, specificity 46%), 1.02% (FEIP, specificity 0%), and 3.92% (FEUA, specificity 12%). Urinary β2M and α1M are potentially suitable screening tools for tenofovir-induced KTD. Monitoring either urinary β2M or α1M should be useful in early detection of tenofovir nephrotoxicity. PMID:23467792

  19. Dropout from care among HIV-infected patients enrolled in care at a tertiary HIV care center in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Blutinger, Erik J; Solomon, Suniti; Srikrishnan, Aylur K; Thamburaj, Easter; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu; Anand, Santhanam; Ganesh, Aylur K; Solomon, Sunil S

    2014-01-01

    Long-term follow-up of persons infected with HIV infection is essential to optimize clinical outcomes. However, limited data exist on the rates of dropout (DO) from HIV care and factors associated with DO especially from resource-limited settings. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the data available at YRGCARE, a private HIV care provider in south India that has registered over 15,000 HIV-infected persons since its inception in 1993. We included 7995 patients who registered for care between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2009. A dropout was defined as a person who registered for care during this period and had not been seen in the clinic for >1 year. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with DO from clinical care. The median age of the patients registered for care was 34 years; 66% were male and 83% were married. The overall DO rate was 38.1 per 100 person-years - the majority of the DOs occurred within 6 months from registration. In multivariate analyses, patients who were enrolled in clinical studies/projects entitling them to free medications and retention staff (Odds Ratio [OR]: 0.65) or were on antiretroviral therapy (ART; OR: 0.37) or had a CD4 > 350 at the last visit (OR: 0.20) were significantly less likely to DO from clinical care. We observed a high rate of DO from clinical care at this tertiary HIV clinic in Chennai, India. Making ART available free of charge in the private sector and providing incentives/benefits for attending clinic visits as is routinely done in clinical trials might help improve retention. PMID:25011519

  20. Brain magnetic resonance imaging screening is not useful for HIV-1-infected patients without neurological symptoms.

    PubMed

    Nishijima, Takeshi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Teruya, Katsuji; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Hasuo, Kanehiro; Oka, Shinichi

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the diagnostic usefulness of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening in HIV-1-infected patients without neurological symptoms in detecting intracranial diseases at early stages. In this retrospective analysis, the study patients were HIV-1-infected patients who underwent brain MRI scan in clinical practice between 2001 and 2013. We excluded patients with MRI for (1) follow-up examination for prediagnosed intracranial diseases, (2) cancer staging, (3) screening mycobacterium/bacteria/fungi disease proliferation in the brain, and (4) evaluation for meningitis/encephalitis. The study patients (n=485) were classified into two groups: those who underwent brain MRI scan without any neurological symptoms/signs (asymptomatic patients, n=158) and those who underwent MRI due to such symptoms (symptomatic patients, n=327). Asymptomatic patients had lower CD4 counts than symptomatic patients (median 78 versus 241/μl). Intracranial diseases were detected in three (2%) of the asymptomatic patients [two toxoplasmosis and one progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)] compared to 58 (19%) of the symptomatic patients (the χ(2) test, p<0.01). The latter included toxoplasmosis (n=10), PML (n=7), cytomegalovirus encephalitis (n=3), primary central nervous system lymphoma (n=3), cryptococcoma/meningitis (n=3), and HIV-associated dementia (n=17). Among symptomatic patients, intracranial diseases were common in those with slurred speech (3/6, 50%), seizure (4/10, 40%), eyesight/vision abnormality (5/16, 31%), altered mental status (8/31, 26%), and hemiplegia/numbness (13/50, 26%). For patients with CD4 count <200/μl, intracranial diseases were detected in only 3 (3%) of 144 asymptomatic patients, compared with 46 (32%) of 113 symptomatic patients (p<0.01). Brain MRI screening for HIV-1-infected patients without neurological symptoms is of little value. PMID:25084148

  1. What experienced HIV-infected lay peer educators working in Midwestern U.S. HIV medical care settings think about their role and contributions to patient care.

    PubMed

    Enriquez, Maithe; Farnan, Rose; Neville, Sally

    2013-08-01

    This qualitative study examined the role of experienced HIV-infected lay individuals who work in HIV medical care settings as educators. Participants in this study had been in the role an average of 4 years, and referred to their work as "peering," a newly coined verb in the vein of nursing. An overarching theme was that the title "peer educator" captured neither the scope of their work, nor the skill set they contribute to patient care. Peers brought unique contributions to the HIV care team that were vital to encouraging patients to stay engaged in care. Peers felt undervalued and expressed the wish to be "professionalized." Results from this study suggest that peers show promise as behavior change agents who can model healthful behaviors, particularly for newly diagnosed patients or those struggling with engagement in HIV care and adherence to treatment. However, peers need and want more formal training in behavior change science, and peer-led services must become more uniform and readily available to patients across HIV care settings. Research is needed to document the positive impact that peers can have on HIV-related health outcomes and to increased knowledge about the attributes of successful peers. PMID:23883321

  2. Common mental disorders in TB/HIV co-infected patients in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background- The relationship between TB/HIV co-infection and common mental disorders (CMD) has been scarcely investigated. In this study, we compared the occurrence of CMD in TB/HIV co-infected and non-co-infected HIV patients in Ethiopia. Methods- We conducted a cross sectional study in three hospitals in Ethiopia from February to April, 2009. The study population consisted of 155 TB/HIV co-infected and 465 non-co-infected HIV patients. CMD was assessed through face to face interviews by trained clinical nurses using the Kessler 10 scale. Several risk factors for CMD were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Results- TB/HIV co-infected patients had significantly (p = 0.001) greater risk of CMD (63.7%) than the non-co-infected patients (46.7%). When adjusted for the effect of potential confounding variables, the odds of having CMD for TB/HIV co-infected individuals was 1.7 times the odds for non-co-infected patients [OR = 1.7, (95%CI: 1.0, 2.9)]. Individuals who had no source of income [OR = 1.7, (95%CI: 1.1, 2.8)], and day labourers [OR = 2.4, 95%CI: 1.2, 5.1)] were more likely to have CMD as compared to individuals who had a source of income and government employees respectively. Patients who perceived stigma [OR = 2.2, 95%CI: 1.5, 3.2)] and who rate their general health as "poor" [OR = 10.0, 95%CI: 2.8, 35.1)] had significantly greater risk of CMD than individual who did not perceive stigma or who perceived their general health to be "good". Conclusion- TB/HIV control programs should develop guidelines to screen and treat CMD among TB/HIV co-infected patients. Screening programs should focus on individuals with no source of income, jobless people and day labourers. PMID:20618942

  3. [ANALYSIS OF A LETHAL OUTCOME RISK AFTER TRAUMA IN HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS IN POLYSYSTEMIC INJURY].

    PubMed

    Guryev, S O; Solovyov, O S; Tanasiyenko, P V

    2016-02-01

    Abstract The data, concerning clinic--epidemiologic and clinic--nosological characteristic of a HIV-infected injured persons in polytrauma were adduced. There was established, that polysystemic injuries (PSI) in a HIV-infected persons occur in a younger injured patients, a trauma environment is quite a speciphic one (criminal trauma prevails), as well as mechanism of the injury occurrence (falling down is much more freqent), and the risk of a lethal outcome is determined by predominantly cranial, thoracic and abdominal components of injury. A lethal outcome occurrence risk in HIV-infected injured persons in PSI in accordance to the age signs and traumagenesis is lesser, than in a control body. It is necessary to prolong the investigations, concerning studying this phenomenon and other peculiarities of a traumatic disease in HIV-infected injured persons in polytrauma. PMID:27244924

  4. Penicillium keratitis in a HIV-infected patient.

    PubMed

    Anutarapongpan, Orapin; Thanathanee, Onsiri; Suwan-Apichon, Olan

    2016-01-01

    A 36-year-old HIV-positive man presented with symptoms of redness, blurred vision and foreign body sensation in his right eye for 3 months. The slit lamp examination revealed deep stromal infiltration with a feathery margin in an otherwise minimal anterior chamber reaction. A corneal scraping was negative. Confocal microscopy demonstrated an abnormal large hyper-reflective oval shape in the corneal stroma. Corneal infiltration did not show improvement after topical, intrastromal and intracameral antifungal treatment. Therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty was performed to eradicate the infection. Corneal button culture and histopathological results confirmed the diagnosis of Penicillium marneffei keratitis. No recurrent infection occurred after corneal transplantation. This appears to be the first report of P. marneffei keratitis in an HIV-infected patient. Although it is an uncommon condition, it should be one of the differential diagnoses in an HIV-infected patient presenting with keratitis. PMID:27535731

  5. Barriers and Facilitators of Linkage to and Engagement in HIV Care Among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men in China: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Osborn, Chandra Y; Qian, Han-Zhu; Yin, Lu; Xiao, Dong; Ruan, Yuhua; Simoni, Jane M; Zhang, Xiangjun; Shao, Yiming; Vermund, Sten H; Amico, K Rivet

    2016-02-01

    Linking and engaging HIV-positive patients in care is the key bridging step to glean the documented health and prevention advantages of antiretroviral therapy (ART). In China, HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) is surging, yet many HIV-positive MSM do not use HIV care services. We conducted a qualitative study in order to help positive interventions to promote linkage-to-care in this key population. Four focus group discussions (FGD) were held among HIV-positive MSM in Beijing, China, to ascertain knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and practices related to HIV care. FGD participates highlighted six major barriers of linkage to/engagement in HIV care: (1) perceived discrimination from health care workers; (2) lack of guidance and follow-up; (3) clinic time or location inconvenience; (4) privacy disclosure concerns; (5) psychological burden of committing to HIV care; and (6) concerns about treatment. Five major sub-themes emerged from discussions on the facilitators of linkage to/engagement in care: (1) peer referral and accompaniment; (2) free HIV care; (3) advocacy from HIV-positive MSM counselors; (4) extended involvement for linking MSM to care; and (5) standardization of HIV care (i.e., reliable high quality care regardless of venue). An understanding of the barriers and facilitators that may impact the access to HIV care is essential for improving the continuum of care for MSM in China. Findings from our study provide research and policy guidance for how current HIV prevention and care interventions can be enhanced to link and engage HIV-positive MSM in HIV care. PMID:26784360

  6. Effect of antiretroviral therapy in thromboregulation through the hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides in platelets of HIV patients.

    PubMed

    Rezer, João Felipe P; Souza, Viviane C G; Thorstenberg, Maria Luiza P; Ruchel, Jader B; Bertoldo, Tatiana M D; Zanini, Daniela; Silveira, Karine L; Leal, Claudio A M; Passos, Daniela F; Gonçalves, Jamile F; Abdalla, Fátima H; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Leal, Daniela B R

    2016-04-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection results in biochemical and vascular dysfunctions. The highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) markedly reduces mortality and opportunistic diseases associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This increased survival time predisposes the development of cardiovascular diseases. Platelets present purinergic system ectoenzymes such as E-NTPDase, E-5'-nucleotidase and E-ADA on its surface. In view of this, the aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of these ectoenzymes in platelets as well as the platelet aggregation and lipid profile of patients with HIV infection and also patients receiving HAART. The results showed an increase in the E-NTPDase activity for ATP hydrolysis in the HIV group compared with the control group and the HIV/HAART group. When assessing the activity E-NTPDase hydrolysis to ADP, the results revealed an increase in activity in the HIV group when compared to the control group, and a decrease in activity when in the HIV/HAART group when compared to the control and HIV groups. The activity of E-5'-nucleotidase revealed an increase in AMP hydrolysis in the HIV group, as the results from control and HIV/HAART groups showed no statistical difference. Regarding the E-ADA activity, the HIV and HIV/HAART groups revealed a decreased deamination of adenosine when compared with the control group. Furthermore, we observed an increased platelet aggregation of HIV/HAART group compared with the control group. Thus, our results suggest that antiretroviral treatment against HIV has a significant effect on the activity of purinergic system ectoenzymes demonstrating that thromboregulation is involved in the process. PMID:27044844

  7. Provider and patient correlates of provider decisions to recommend HCV treatment to HIV co-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Glenn; Osilla, Karen Chan; Garnett, Jeffrey; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Bhatti, Laveeza; Witt, Mallory; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell

    2012-01-01

    Despite low uptake of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment among HIV co-infected patients, few studies have examined the factors that contribute to provider decisions to recommend treatment. Surveys of 173 co-infected patients and their primary care providers, as well as patient chart data, were collected at 3 HIV clinics in Los Angeles; 73% of the patients had any history of being recommended HCV treatment. Multivariate predictors of being offered treatment included being Caucasian, greater HCV knowledge, receiving depression treatment if depressed, and one's provider having a lower weekly patient load and more years working at the study site. These findings suggest that provider decisions to recommend HCV treatment are influenced by patient factors including race and psychosocial treatment readiness, as well as characteristics of their own practice and treatment philosophy. With changes to HCV treatment soon to emerge, further evaluation of factors influencing treatment decisions is needed to improve HCV treatment uptake. PMID:22564797

  8. Nutritional Supplementation Is a Necessary Complement to Dietary Counseling among Tuberculosis and Tuberculosis-HIV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bacelo, Adriana Costa; Ramalho, Andrea; Brasil, Pedro Emmanuel; Cople-Rodrigues, Cláudia dos Santos; Georg, Ingebourg; Paiva, Eliane; Argolo, Sheila Vasques Leandro; Rolla, Valeria Cavalcante

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization recommend dietary counseling for patients with malnutrition during tuberculosis treatment. Patients under tuberculosis therapy (infected and not infected with HIV) were followed-up to evaluate the effectiveness of dietary counseling. Objective: describe the nutritional status of patients with tuberculosis. Methods: an observational follow-up study over a 180-day period of tuberculosis therapy in adults was conducted. Subjects were assessed for body composition (using BMI, TSF and MUAC parameters), serum biomarkers and offered dietary counseling. The data obtained at each visit (D15, D30, D60, D90, D120, D150, and D180) were analyzed, showing trajectories over time and central tendencies each time. Results: at baseline, the mean age was 41.1 (±13.4) years; they were predominantly male, with income lower than a local minimum wage and at least six years of schooling. Patients showed predominantly pulmonary tuberculosis. At baseline, all patients suffered from malnutrition. The overall energy malnutrition prevalence was of 70.6%. Anemia at baseline was observed in both groups (63.2%), however, it was significantly more pronounced in the HIV+. At the end, energy malnutrition was reduced to 57.1% (42.9% of HIV- and 71.4% of the HIV+). Micronutrients malnutrition was evident in 71.4% of the HIV- patients and 85.7% of HIV+ patients at the end of tuberculosis therapy. Using BMI (≤18.5 kg/m2cutoff) as an index of malnutrition, it was detected in 23.9% of the HIV- and 27.3% of the HIV+ patients at baseline, with no evident improvement over time; using TSF (≤11.4mm as cutoff) or MUAC (≤28.5cm as cutoff), malnutrition was detected in 70.1% and 85.3% of all patients, respectively. Nevertheless, combining all biomarkers, at the end of follow-up, all patients suffered from malnutrition. Conclusion: Although with a limited number of patients, the evidence does not support that dietary counseling is effective

  9. Is hand-grip another culprit for the risk of fractures in HIV-positive patients?

    PubMed

    Postorino, Maria Concetta; Torti, Carlo; Carè, Ilaria; Pisani, Vincenzo; Strazzulla, Alessio; Vaccaro, Vittoria; Costa, Chiara; Provenzano, Francesco; Mazzitelli, Maria; Pujia, Arturo; Montalcini, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Risk of bone fractures in patients with HIV infection is greater than in the general population, particularly in those co-infected with hepatitis viruses. We compared bone mineral density (BMD) and muscular strength, measured by hand grip test (HG), in HIV mono-infected and co-infected patients. T-score values were lower in HIV patients co-infected with hepatitis viruses vs. mono-infected individuals. Since no significant correlations between HG and T-scores were found, we hypothesize that these factors belong, at least in part, to independent pathways, so both should be taken into account as risks for fragility fractures. Larger prospective studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:26922987

  10. Long-term treatment of patients with HIV-1: the role of atazanavir

    PubMed Central

    Artacho, Miguel Ángel; Barreiro, Pablo; Fernández-Montero, José Vicente

    2010-01-01

    Background The introduction of highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) remains a major milestone in the management of HIV-infected patients. Protease inhibitors (PI) are commonly used as part of triple combinations, given that to antiviral potency, better tolerance and convenience has been achieved in recent years. Objective To summarize and update evidence-based information about atazanavir (ATV) on initial, simplification, and rescue interventions in HIV patients. Methods Review of observational and randomized trials reported in medical conferences, peer-reviewed journals, and treatment guidelines. Results ATV is a second-generation PI, which has shown across studies potent antiviral activity and high genetic barrier, both in HAART-naïve patients or after virological failure. Indulgent metabolic profile, in terms of insulin glucose and lipid levels, adds value to this drug for the long-term management of HIV infection. PMID:22096394

  11. Lay Counsellor-Based Risk Reduction Intervention with HIV Positive Diagnosed Patients at Public HIV Counselling and Testing Sites in Mpumalanga, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltzer, Karl; Tabane, Cily; Matseke, Gladys; Simbayi, Leickness

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility, fidelity, and effect of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction intervention delivered to HIV-infected patients by lay counsellors during routine HIV counselling and testing (HCT) public service in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Methods: A total of 488 HIV-infected patients, aged 18 years and older,…

  12. The Study of Gonadal Hormonal Abnormalities and Sexual Dysfunction in HIV Positive Females: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Kallikadavil, Abithraj; Shivaswamy, Rajendraprasad; Menon, Vineetha Bharathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Every endocrine gland has been reported to be affected at varying rates in HIV. HIV is a highly stigmatized chronic disease with a substantial co-occurrence of mental and sexual health problems; however the sexual health problems in women have not been extensively studied. Aim To study the gonadal hormonal abnormalities and sexual dysfunction in HIV positive female patients and its possible association. Materials and Methods This descriptive/exploratory study was conducted in the Department of General Medicine at a tertiary care hospital from September 2013 to August 2015. The study group included 50 diagnosed HIV-positive patients. They were also subjected to specific questions regarding sexual dysfunction by female counselors using female sexual function index. Visits of the subjects were scheduled independent of the menstrual cycle. Hormonal levels (free testosterone, FSH, LH) were measured. Results Out of 50 patients, 26 patients in our study had sexual dysfunction (52%). Patients with age group between 30-39 years had the maximum sexual dysfunction compared to the other groups (<0.001). Patients with a CD4 count between 200 and 499 had the maximum sexual dysfunction (<0.02). Mean duration of HIV in the study was 30 months in sexual dysfunction group which was significant (p<0.005). Hormonal levels were found to be in normal range. All the study patients reported desire, arousal and lubrication problems whereas orgasm and satisfaction problems were noted in 60% patients with pain reported in 52%. Conclusion We identified that although the hormonal levels were in the normal range, they were comparatively in the lower range in the dysfunction group than the non-dysfunctional group. Both free testosterone and FSH levels were low indicating involvement of the pituitary rather than the gonads. We also conclude that duration of HIV and also level of CD4 count is related to sexual dysfunction. PMID:27190860

  13. Intellectual Impairment in Patients with Newly Diagnosed HIV Infection in Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sunmonu, Taofiki A.; Sellner, Johann; Ogunrin, Olubunmi A.; Imarhiagbe, Frank A.; Komolafe, Morenikeji A.; Afolabi, Olusegun T.; Ilesanmi, Olayinka S.; Olanrewaju, Fatai; Oladimeji, Benedicta Y.

    2015-01-01

    Neurocognitive impairment is a detrimental complication of HIV infection. Here, we characterized the intellectual performance of patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection in southwestern Nigeria. We conducted a prospective study at Owo Federal Medical Center by using the adapted Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). The raw scores were converted to standardized scores (z-scores) and correlated with clinical and laboratory findings. Fifty-eight HIV positive patients were recruited; 72% were in WHO stages 3 and 4. We detected a high rate of intellectual impairment in HIV positive patients and controls (63.8% and 10%, resp.; P < 0.001). HIV positive patients performed worse throughout the subtests of both verbal and performance intelligence quotients. Presence of opportunistic infections was associated with worse performance in the similarities and digit symbol tests and performance and full scale scores. Lower body weight correlated with poor performance in different WAIS subtests. The high rate of advanced disease stage warrants measures aimed at earlier diagnosis and treatment. Assessment of neurocognitive performance at diagnosis may offer the opportunity to improve functioning in daily life and counteract disease progression. PMID:26295033

  14. Intellectual Impairment in Patients with Newly Diagnosed HIV Infection in Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sunmonu, Taofiki A; Sellner, Johann; Ogunrin, Olubunmi A; Imarhiagbe, Frank A; Komolafe, Morenikeji A; Afolabi, Olusegun T; Ilesanmi, Olayinka S; Olanrewaju, Fatai; Oladimeji, Benedicta Y

    2015-01-01

    Neurocognitive impairment is a detrimental complication of HIV infection. Here, we characterized the intellectual performance of patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection in southwestern Nigeria. We conducted a prospective study at Owo Federal Medical Center by using the adapted Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). The raw scores were converted to standardized scores (z-scores) and correlated with clinical and laboratory findings. Fifty-eight HIV positive patients were recruited; 72% were in WHO stages 3 and 4. We detected a high rate of intellectual impairment in HIV positive patients and controls (63.8% and 10%, resp.; P < 0.001). HIV positive patients performed worse throughout the subtests of both verbal and performance intelligence quotients. Presence of opportunistic infections was associated with worse performance in the similarities and digit symbol tests and performance and full scale scores. Lower body weight correlated with poor performance in different WAIS subtests. The high rate of advanced disease stage warrants measures aimed at earlier diagnosis and treatment. Assessment of neurocognitive performance at diagnosis may offer the opportunity to improve functioning in daily life and counteract disease progression. PMID:26295033

  15. Is the clinical course of HIV-1 changing? Cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Sinicco, A.; Fora, R.; Raiteri, R.; Sciandra, M.; Bechis, G.; Calvo, M. M.; Gioannini, P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the clinical course of HIV infection has changed from 1985 to 1995. DESIGN: Cohort Study. SETTING: Infectious disease clinic. SUBJECTS: 285 patients recruited from September 1985 to January 1995 with < or = 12 months between the dates of their last seronegative and first seropositive test result and with first follow up visit in the six months after seroconversion and at least 12 months' follow up. Patients were grouped according to the date of seroconversion. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Time to CD4 cell count of < 500, 400, and 200 x 10(6) cells/l, and clinical outcome defining AIDS; variation in cell count per day between consecutive visits, and ratio between this variation and time from estimated date of seroconversion at each visit. RESULTS: The groups were similar in age, number with acute primary HIV infection, CD4 cell count at intake, and cell count at the beginning of antiretroviral treatment; they differed in sex ratio, risk factors for HIV, probability of CD4 cell decline to < 500, 400, and 200 x 10(6) cells/l. and risk of developing AIDS. Acute infection, seroconversion after December 1989, and serum beta 2 microglobulin > 296 nmol/l were independent predictors of poor clinical course. The speed of CD4 cell decline, expressed as cell variation divided by the number of days between consecutive visits, increased with more recent seroconversion (P = 0.02). Ratio between the speed of CD4 cell decline and time from estimated date of seroconversion at each visit was also higher in the patients who seroconverted after December 1989. CONCLUSIONS: The faster disease progression and the higher speed of CD4 cell decline at early stages in the patients with recently acquired HIV infection suggest changes in the clinical course of HIV infection. PMID:9154026

  16. [Neurosyphilis in the patients with and without HIV infection: description and comparison of two historical cohorts].

    PubMed

    Lasso, Martín B; Balcells M, M Elvira M; Fernández, Ana S; Gaete, Pablo G; Serri, Michel V; Pérez, Jorge G; Chain, Carolina A; Cerón, Inés A; Duque, Clara O; Ramírez, Anamaría B

    2009-12-01

    Neurosyphilis follows a more aggressive and different clinical course in HIV-infected patients compared to patients with normal immunity. Two historical series of patients with a diagnosis of neurosyphilis between 1995 and 2008 were compared: they included a group of 15 patients with y and 28 patients without HIV infection. Probability of neurosyphilis in patients with positive serum VDRL was increased in patients infected with HIV compared to HIV negative patients (OR: 62.37 IC:95% (32.1-119.1) p value:< 0,001). Predominant clinical manifestations in neurosyphilis in the HIV negative group were ocular abnormality, vascular encephalic and spinal cord lesions. In the HIV positive group, they were fever, ocular abnormalities and headache. There were no differences in cerebrospinal fluid characteristics between both groups. Neurosyphilis was diagnosed even in patients with blood VDRL of < 1:32, that happened in 17.8% of the HIV positive patients with blood and in 60% of t he HIV negative patients. Penicillin sodium given at dose >or= than 18.000.000 IU/day IV during 14 days was the most common treatment. In patients with clinical neurosyphilis, 93% of HIV negative group, and 54.2% of HIV positive group had persistent neurological after-effects. Three HIV positive patients died due to causes not related to neurosyphilis. PMID:20098789

  17. Vascular access-related infections in HIV patients undergoing hemodialysis: case description and literature review.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carlos E Figueroa; Madariaga, Miguel G

    2008-12-01

    Poor immune status, the use of a vascular access different from an AV fistula, and intravenous drug use (IDU) may favor increased rates of vascular access infections among HIV infected patients on hemodialysis. Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. are the main cause of these infections, but Gram-negative rods and fungi have been found as well. Using an AV fistula when possible, and eliciting a history of IVDU on every visit may prevent this type of infection. When infections are present, coverage for both Gram-positive and negative organisms is recommended. Additional studies specifically addressing the issue of vascular access infection in HIV infected patients are required. PMID:19287844

  18. Analysis of Suppressor and Non-Suppressor FOXP3+ T Cells in HIV-1-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Arruvito, Lourdes; Baz, Plácida; Billordo, Luis A.; Lasala, Maria B.; Salomón, Horacio; Geffner, Jorge; Fainboim, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it was shown that peripheral blood FOXP3+CD4+ T cells are composed of three phenotypic and functionally distinct subpopulations. Two of them having in vitro suppressive effects were characterized as resting Treg cells (rTregs) and activated Treg cells (aTregs). A third subset, identified as FOXP3+ non-Tregs, does not display any suppressor activity and produce high levels of Th1 and Th17 cytokines upon stimulation. In the present study we focus on the characteristics of these three subsets of FOXP3+CD4+ T cells in untreated HIV-1-infected patients. We found that the absolute counts of rTregs, aTregs and FOXP3+ non-Tregs were reduced in HIV-1 patients compared with healthy donors. The relative frequency of rTregs and aTregs was similar in HIV-1 patients and healthy donors, while the frequency of FOXP3+ non-Tregs was significantly higher in HIV-1 patients, reaching a maximum in those patients with the lower values of CD4 counts. Contrasting with the observations made in FOXP3- CD4+ T cells, we did not find a negative correlation between the number of rTregs, aTregs or FOXP3+ non-Tregs and virus load. Studies performed with either whole PBMCs or sorted aTregs and FOXP3+ non-Tregs cells showed that these two populations of FOXP3+ T cells were highly permissive to HIV-1 infection. Upon infection, FOXP3+ non-Tregs markedly down-regulates its capacity to produce Th1 and Th17 cytokines, however, they retain the ability to produce substantial amounts of Th2 cytokines. This suggests that FOXP3+ non-Tregs might contribute to the polarization of CD4+ T cells into a Th2 profile, predictive of a poor outcome of HIV-1-infected patients. PMID:23285102

  19. Acute Confusional State: A Manifestation of Toxoplasma and CMV Co-infection in HIV Patient

    PubMed Central

    Jehangir, Waqas; Sareen, Romil; Sen, Shuvendu; Raoof, Nazar; Yousif, Abdalla

    2014-01-01

    Context: When dealing with a patient with HIV that presents with an altered mental status, there are various infections and disease etiologies a physician has to rule out that may play a role in complicating the inherent complex nature of HIV. Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) affect a large part of the world's population and lead to a varied and broad symptomatology depending upon the severity of HIV, the CD4 count and how early the infection is diagnosed. Case Report: We report an HIV+ patient in his early 50s and with a low CD4 count that presented with severe lethargy and confusion. Imaging studies that were performed after stabilizing the patient revealed a ring-enhancing lesion in the brain and after further testing, a diagnosis of reactivated T. gondii with co-infection with CMV was made. Patients infected with T. gondii that are already immune-compromised deteriorate rapidly and the disease diagnosis poses several challenges. Conclusion: Clinicians have to be extremely careful about making a prompt diagnosis and initiate treatment without delay before the infection takes a deadly toll on the patient. Since our patient was not on the required prophylactic medication to prevent infection with T. gondii, it was imperative to start treatment in a timely manner and to monitor the patient for any further decline in functioning. PMID:25489570

  20. An emergency department registration kiosk can increase HIV screening in high risk patients.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Gauvey-Kern, Megan; Peterson, Stephen; Woodfield, Alonzo; Deruggiero, Katherine; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Rothman, Richard E

    2014-12-01

    We evaluated the feasibility and the patient acceptability of integrating a kiosk into routine emergency department (ED) practice for offering HIV testing. The work was conducted in four phases: phase 1 was a baseline, in which external testing staff offered testing at the bedside; phase 2 was a pilot assessment of a prototype kiosk; phase 3 was a pilot implementation and phase 4 was the full implementation with automated login. Feasibility was assessed by the proportion of offering HIV tests, acceptance, completion and result reporting. During the study period, the number of ED patients and eligible patients for screening were similar in the three main phases. However, the number and proportion of patients offered testing of those eligible for screening increased significantly from phase 1 (32%) to phase 3 (37%) and phase 4 (40%). There were slightly higher prevalences of newly diagnosed HIV with kiosk versus bedside testing (phase 1, 0%; phase 3, 0.2%; phase 4, 0.5%). Compared to patients tested at the bedside, patients tested via the kiosk were significantly younger, more likely to be female, to be black, and to report high risk behaviours. ED-based HIV screening via a registration-based kiosk was feasible, yielded similar proportions of testing, and increased the proportion of engagement of higher-risk patients in testing. PMID:25316041

  1. Vascular Tumor on the Forehead of an HIV Patient

    PubMed Central

    Ibarguren, Ander Mayor; Ramos, Jéssica González; Merino, María Beato; Pedrero, Rocío Maseda; Fernández, Cristina Gómez; Pinto, Pedro Herranz

    2015-01-01

    Cirsoid aneurysm is a small vascular proliferation characterized by small to medium-sized channels with features of arteries and veins, that present as small, blue or red asymptomatic papule. We report a case of a crisoid aneurysm on the forhead of an HIV patient that suggested a Kaposi sarcoma as a differential diagnosis. PMID:26288449

  2. HIV Patients Less Likely to Get Treatment for Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Latest Health News → Article URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158881.html HIV Patients Less Likely to Get Treatment for Cancer: ...

  3. HIV Drug-Resistant Patient Information Management, Analysis, and Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Mars, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The science of information systems, management, and interpretation plays an important part in the continuity of care of patients. This is becoming more evident in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), the leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa. The high replication rates, selective pressure, and initial infection by resistant strains of HIV infer that drug resistance will inevitably become an important health care concern. This paper describes proposed research with the aim of developing a physician-administered, artificial intelligence-based decision support system tool to facilitate the management of patients on antiretroviral therapy. Methods This tool will consist of (1) an artificial intelligence computer program that will determine HIV drug resistance information from genomic analysis; (2) a machine-learning algorithm that can predict future CD4 count information given a genomic sequence; and (3) the integration of these tools into an electronic medical record for storage and management. Conclusion The aim of the project is to create an electronic tool that assists clinicians in managing and interpreting patient information in order to determine the optimal therapy for drug-resistant HIV patients. PMID:23611761

  4. Serological markers of hepatitis B and C in patients with HIV/AIDS and active tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Araújo-Mariz, Carolline; Lopes, Edmundo Pessoa; Ximenes, Ricardo A A; Lacerda, Heloísa R; Miranda-Filho, Demócrito B; Montarroyos, Ulisses R; Barreto, Silvana; Salustiano, Daniela Medeiros; Albuquerque, Maria Fátima Pessoa Militão

    2016-06-01

    Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and C virus (HCV) are common in patients with HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB). This is a cross-sectional study with patients infected with HIV/AIDS and active TB in Recife, Brazil, aiming to verify the prevalence of markers for HBV: antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc); and HCV: antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) by chemiluminescence, and to identify the frequency of associated factors. Data were collected through questionnaires, and blood was drawn from patients for analysis. We used the chi-square test and the Fisher exact test when necessary. We conducted a bivariate logistic regression analysis and the magnitude of the associations was expressed as odds ratio (OR) with a confidence interval of 95%. Among 166 patients studied with HIV/AIDS and active TB, anti-HBc was positive in 61 patients [36.7%; 95%CI (29.4-44.6%)] and anti-HCV in 11[6.6%; 95%CI (3.4-11.5%)]. In the logistic regression analysis, male sex, and age ≥40 years were independent factors associated with the occurrence of anti-HBc. In conclusion, we verified a high frequency of HBV contact marker and a low frequency of HCV markers in patients with HIV/AIDS and TB in Recife. J. Med. Virol. 88:996-1002, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26580855

  5. Effects of different anesthetic approaches on postoperative complications in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W W; Wang, Y P; Wang, Y Q; Ji, X M; Zhang, M Y

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of three different methods of anesthesia on patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, which could lead to an improvement in postoperative outcomes in these patients. A total of 90 patients undergoing an operation while being treated for an HIV infection were included in this study. Patients were divided into three groups (N = 30/group) based on the type of anesthesia administered: general anesthesia, local anesthesia, and combined spinal epidural anesthesia (CSEA). The effects of local infiltration of anesthesia and peripheral nerve block local anesthesia were examined in the local anesthesia group. The CSEA group examined the effects of spinal anesthesia in HIV-infected patients. We compared the vital signs of the three groups during the preoperative period, at incision, and during the postoperative recovery period. The CSEA group had a significantly higher mean preoperative CD4(+) T lymphocyte count compared with the general anesthesia and local anesthesia groups (P < 0.05). We found that the three kinds of anesthesia methods administered to HIV-infected patients could be used with considerable safety and can be selected according to the clinical need and type of surgical procedure. PMID:26345845

  6. Cellular HIV-1 DNA quantitation in patients during simplification therapy with protease inhibitor-sparing regimens.

    PubMed

    Sarmati, Loredana; Parisi, Saverio Giuseppe; Nicastri, Emanuele; d'Ettorre, Gabriella; Andreoni, Carolina; Dori, Luca; Gatti, Francesca; Montano, Marco; Buonomini, Anna Rita; Boldrin, Caterina; Palù, Giorgio; Vullo, Vincenzo; Andreoni, Massimo

    2007-07-01

    Simplified regimens containing protease-inhibitors (PI)-sparing combinations were used in patients with virological suppression after prolonged highly active antiretroviral therapy. This study evaluated the total HIV-1 DNA quantitation as a predictor of long-term success for PI-sparing simplified therapy. Sixty-two patients were enrolled in a prospective non-randomized cohort. All patients have been receiving a triple-therapy regimen, two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) plus one PI, for at least 9 months and were characterized by undetectable plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (<50 cp/ml) for at least 6 months. Patients were changed to a simplified PI-sparing regimen to overcome PI-associated adverse effects. HIV-DNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were evaluated at baseline and at the end of follow-up. Patients with proviral DNA levels below the median value (226 copies/10(6) PBMCs) had a significant higher CD4 cell count at nadir (P = 0.003) and at enrolment (P = 0.001) with respect to patients with HIV-DNA levels above the median value. At month 18, 53 out of 62 (85%) patients on simplified regimen showed virological success, 4 (6.4%) patients experienced virological failure and 5 (8%) patients showed viral blip. At logistic regression analysis, HIV-DNA levels below 226 copies/10(6) PBMCs at baseline were associated independently to a reduced risk of virological failure or viral blip during simplified therapy (OR 0.002, 95% CI 0.001-0.46, P = 0.025). The substitution of PI with NRTI or non-NRTIs may represent an effective treatment option. Indeed, treatment failure or viral blip were experienced by 6% and 8% of the patients on simplified therapy, respectively. In addition, sustained suppression of the plasma viral load was significantly correlated with low levels of proviral DNA before treatment simplification. PMID:17516532

  7. Sentinel hospital surveillance of HIV infection in Quebec. Quebec Sentinel Hospital HIV-Seroprevalence Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Alary, M; Joly, J R; Parent, R; Fauvel, M; Dionne, M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the HIV seroprevalence rate in a surrogate sample of the general population in the province of Quebec, using a network of sentinel hospitals. DESIGN: Anonymous unlinked sentinel surveillance study. SETTING: Outpatient surgery units in 19 acute care hospitals throughout Quebec. PARTICIPANTS: All patients attending the outpatient surgery units from November 1990 to October 1992. A total of 61,547 plasma samples were obtained from leftover blood samples collected for cell counts. Fifty samples were excluded because of an insufficient amount of plasma and one because of an indeterminate result. INTERVENTION: HIV antibody testing with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; positive results confirmed with radioimmunoprecipitation assay. OUTCOME MEASURES: HIV antibody status, sex, year of birth and area of residence. RESULTS: The crude seroprevalence rate among the subjects aged 15 years or more was 0.4 per 1000 population (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2 to 0.7) among the women and 3.6 per 1000 population (95% CI 2.8 to 4.4) among the men (p < 0.001). The rate after adjustment for age, sex and geographic distribution of the study population was 2.3 per 1000 population (95% CI 1.9 to 2.7). The seroprevalence rate among the male patients in the City of Montreal was much higher than the rates elsewhere in the province. It increased progressively during each of the four 6-month intervals of the study: 8.1, 8.7, 13.9 and 18.3 per 1000 respectively (chi 2 linear trend = 4.76; p = 0.029). No similar trends were observed outside Montreal for the male patients. There were too few seropositive female patients to draw any solid conclusion. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the possible drawbacks of a nonrandomized sampling scheme, this study suggests that in the male population the HIV seroprevalence rate is increasing in Montreal and is stable in all other areas of the province. The continued surveillance of HIV infection through anonymous unlinked studies is useful to

  8. HIV providers' likelihood to prescribe pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention differs by patient type: a short report.

    PubMed

    Adams, Leah M; Balderson, Benjamin H

    2016-09-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), the antiretroviral treatment regimen for HIV-negative people at high risk of acquiring HIV, has demonstrated efficacy across clinical trials in several patient populations. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have released detailed guidelines to aid providers in prescribing PrEP for their high-risk patients, including men who have sex with men (MSM), high-risk heterosexuals, and injection drug users (IDUs). Given that much attention in PrEP has focused on MSM patients, the present study used an online survey to assess factors involved in HIV care providers' (n = 363) decisions about prescribing PrEP, along with their willingness to prescribe PrEP to patients from various risk populations (e.g., MSM, heterosexuals, IDUs). The efficacy of PrEP was an important factor in providers' decisions about prescribing PrEP, as were considerations about patients' adherence to the regimen, regular follow-up for care, and medication costs. This survey's findings also suggest that providers' willingness to prescribe PrEP varies by patient group, with providers most willing to initiate the regimen with MSM who have an HIV-positive partner, and least willing to prescribe to high-risk heterosexuals or IDUs. In the context of the current CDC recommendations for PrEP that include MSM, heterosexuals, and IDUs, examining providers' rationales for and barriers against supporting this HIV prevention strategy across patient groups merits further attention. PMID:26915281

  9. Diagnostic Value of Culture and Serological Tests in the Diagnosis of Histoplasmosis in HIV and non-HIV Colombian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Arango-Bustamante, Karen; Restrepo, Angela; Cano, Luz Elena; de Bedout, Catalina; Tobón, Angela Maria; González, Angel

    2013-01-01

    We determined the value of culture and serological tests used to diagnose histoplasmosis. The medical records of 391 histoplasmosis patients were analyzed. Diagnosis of the mycosis was assessed by culture, complement fixation, and immunodiffusion tests; 310 patients (79.5%) were male, and 184 patients (47.1%) were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Positivity value for cultures was 35.7% (74/207), reactivity of serological tests was 95.2% (160/168), and a combination of both methodologies was 16.9% (35/207) for non-HIV patients. Positivity value for cultures was 75.0% (138/184), reactivity of serological tests was 92.4% (85/92), and a combination of both methodologies was 26.0% (48/184) for HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients; 48.1% (102/212) of extrapulmonary samples from HIV/AIDS patients yielded positive cultures compared with 23.1% (49/212) in non-HIV patients. Lymphocyte counts made for 33.1% (61/184) of HIV/AIDS patients showed a trend to low CD4+ numbers and higher proportion of positive cultures. These results indicate that culture is the most reliable fungal diagnostic method for HIV/AIDS patients, and contrary to what is generally believed, serological assays are useful for diagnosing histoplasmosis in these patients. PMID:24043688

  10. Demographical, Viro-Immunological, Clinical and Therapeutical Characteristics of HIV-Infected Patients in an “Epidemiologically Unexplored” Region of Italy (Calabria Region): the CalabrHIV Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Postorino, Maria Concetta; Luciani, Filippo; Mangano, Carmelo; Carpentieri, Maria Stella; Scerbo, Paolo; Priamo, Armando; Berardelli, Giuseppina; Marino, Roberto; Vallone, Alfredo; Serrao, Nicola; Pisani, Vincenzo; Costa, Chiara; Terremoto, Albano; Foti, Giuseppe; Cosco, Lucio; Calderazzo, Massimo; Corigliano, Domenico; Scordo, Preziosa; Strazzulla, Alessio; Torti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives HIV epidemics may differ among epidemiological contexts. We aimed at constructing an HIV clinical cohort whose main epidemiological, clinical and therapeutical characteristics are described (the CalabrHIV cohort, Calabria Region, Southern Italy). Methods The CalabrHIV Cohort includes all HIV patients on active follow-up in all infectious disease centers in the Calabria Region as at October 2014. All information was recorded in a common electronic database. Not-infectious co-morbidities (such as cardiovascular diseases, bone fractures, diabetes, renal failure and hypertension) were also studied. Results 548 patients (68% males; 59% aged <50 years) were included in the CalabrHIV cohort. Major risk factors were: sexual transmission (49%) and intravenous drug use (34%). 39% patients had HCV and/or HBV co-infection. Amongst 404 patients who had a complete clinical history, 34% were AIDS presenters and 49.3% had CD4 count ≤350/mm3 at HIV diagnosis. 83% patients on HAART had undetectable HIV-RNA. Hypertension was the most frequent co-morbidity (21.5%). Multimorbidity was more frequent in >50 years old patients than in <50 years old ones (30% vs. 6%; p<0.0001). Co-morbidity was more frequent in HCV and/or HBV co-infected than in HIV mono-infected patients (46.6% vs. 31.7%: p=0.0006). Conclusion This cohort presentation study sheds light, for the first time, on HIV patients’ characteristics in the Calabria Region. We showed that HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis were affected by concomitant not-infectious co-morbidities more than the HIV mono-infected individuals. New HCV treatments are therefore to be implemented in the co-infected population. PMID:26543523

  11. Knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian nurses towards patients with HIV/AIDS: findings from a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Zeinab M; Wahsheh, Moayad A

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian nurses toward patients with HIV/AIDS, particularly in regards to their sources of information and education. This survey utilized a cross-sectional design. A self-administered questionnaire developed by Eckstein was used in collecting the data. A total of 922 nurses completed the questionnaire. Overall, Jordanian nurses expressed negative attitudes toward patients with HIV/AIDS, and their level of HIV/AIDS knowledge was weak. Weak knowledge level was recorded among nurses in the following subsections: agent and immunology; course and manifestation; transmission and incidence; and precaution and prevention. Only in one subsection (risk group), did nurses show a good level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS. More than two-thirds of nurses (84%) refused to provide care to patients who tested positive for HIV/AIDS. Most of the nurse participants believed that currently provided HIV/AIDS information resources were inadequate (81.4 %). The majority of nurses were interested in support groups for staff nurses (96.5%). The major source of HIV/AIDS information obtained by Jordanian nurses was through Internet web sites (52.7%). The majority of nurses (96.2%) ranked their fear of getting AIDS from their nursing practice as overwhelming. The total attitude of participants towards patients with HIV/AIDS in all five subsections (i.e., fear of contagion, social stigma, fatal outcome of the disease, direct care, and education and counseling) was negative (84.3%). Accurate knowledge about HIV/AIDS along with an in-depth understanding of patients? needs can help alleviate much of the fear, anxiety, and stigma associated with caring for patients with HIV/AIDS. PMID:22077750

  12. HIV/Tuberculosis Co-Infection among Patients Attending a Referral Chest Clinic in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeh, E. U.; Ishaleku, D.; Iheukwumere, C. C.

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) coinfection rate was investigated among patients referred to a chest clinic in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Out of the 344 patients who presented with respiratory problems at the clinic, 44.8% had M. tuberculosis infection, 24.7% HIV infection and 12.8% HIV/tubercle bacilli co-infection. Coinfection rate in HIV infected persons (HIV+) was 51.8 and 28.6% in those with M. tuberculosis infection. The relative risk of HIV positive persons being coinfected was 1.075, while it was 0.401 for TB infected persons. The estimated Odds Ratio (OR) shows that the risk of co-infection was 2.68 times higher among HIV+ persons than among those with tuberculosis. The attributable risk was 45% and shows the extent to which co-infection could be attributed to HIV infection. A key socio-economic variable, eating in groups, was significantly correlated with coinfection (r = 0.107; p< 0.05). The results of this study may provide a useful policy guide in the formulation of HIV and tuberculosis control measures in Nigeria.

  13. Trends in Any and High-Dose Opioid Analgesic Receipt Among Aging Patients With and Without HIV

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Kirsha; Edelman, E. Jennifer; Kerns, Robert D.; Crystal, Stephen; Dziura, James D.; Fiellin, Lynn E.; Gordon, Adam J.; Goulet, Joseph L.; Justice, Amy C.; Fiellin, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Harms of opioid analgesics, especially high-dose therapy among individuals with comorbidities and older age, are increasingly recognized. However, trends in opioid receipt among HIV-infected patients are not well characterized. We examined trends, from 1999 to 2010, in any and high-dose (≥120 mg/day) opioid receipt among patients with and without HIV, by age strata, controlling for demographic and clinical correlates. Of 127,216 patients, 64 % received at least one opioid prescription. Opioid receipt increased substantially among HIV-infected and uninfected patients over the study; high-dose therapy was more prevalent among HIV-infected patients. Trends in high-dose receipt stratified by three age groups revealed an increasing trend in each age strata, higher among HIV-infected patients. Correlates of any opioid receipt included HIV, PTSD and major depression. Correlates of high-dose receipt included HIV, PTSD, major depression and drug use disorders. These findings suggest a need for appropriate balance of risks and benefits, especially as these populations age. PMID:26384973

  14. Trends in the Treatment of Anemia Using Recombinant Human Erythropoietin in Patients with HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Patrick S; Hanson, Debra L; Richardson, James T; Brooks, John T

    2011-01-01

    Background: Treating anemia with erythropoietin (EPO) to hemoglobin (Hb) endpoints >11 g/dL may increase risk of serious adverse cardiovascular events. Methods: We used medical records data (1996-2003 from the Adolescent Spectrum of HIV Disease Project [ASD] and 1996-2006 from the HIV Outpatient Study [HOPS]) to describe EPO prescription patterns for mildly, moderately, or severely anemic HIV-infected patients. We calculated proportions prescribed EPO and treated to Hb>12 g/dL, and tested for trends over time. We calculated median hemoglobin at first EPO prescription, and described temporal changes using linear regression. Results: Among 37,395 patients in ASD and 7,005 patients in HOPS, EPO prescription increased over time for moderately anemic patients; for patients with severe anemia, EPO prescription increased only among ASD patients. Hb at EPO prescription decreased over time in ASD patients (median=8.5 g/dL), but not in HOPS patients (median 9.5 g/dL). Percentage of EPO-treated patients with post-treatment Hb>12 g/dL was 18.3% in ASD and stable, and was 56.7% in HOPS and increased over time (p = 0.03). Conclusions: Through 2006, EPO prescription increased over time for patients with moderate or severe anemia. Many patients treated with EPO had post-treatment Hb>12 g/dL. Based on 2011 FDA recommendations, changes in previous prescription practices will be needed. PMID:22253666

  15. FAmily CEntered (FACE) advance care planning: Study design and methods for a patient-centered communication and decision-making intervention for patients with HIV/AIDS and their surrogate decision-makers

    PubMed Central

    Kimmel, Allison L.; Wang, Jichuan; Scott, Rachel; Briggs, Linda; Lyon, Maureen E.

    2016-01-01

    Although the Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has become a chronic illness, disease-specific advance care planning has not yet been evaluated for the palliative care needs of adults with HIV/AIDS. This prospective, longitudinal, randomized, two-arm controlled clinical trial aims to test the efficacy of FAmily CEntered Advance Care Planning among adults living with AIDS and/or HIV with co-morbidities on congruence in treatment preferences, healthcare utilization, and quality of life. The FAmily CEntered intervention arm is two face-to-face sessions with a trained, certified facilitator: Session 1) Disease-Specific Advance Care Planning Respecting Choices Interview; Session 2) Completion of advance directive. The Healthy Living control arm is: Session 1) Developmental/Relationship History; Session 2) Nutrition. Follow-up data will be collected at 3, 6, 12, and 18-month post-intervention. A total of 288 patient/surrogate dyads will be enrolled from five hospital-based, out-patient clinics in Washington, District of Columbia. Participants will be HIV positive and ≥21 years of age; surrogates will be ≥18 years of age. Exclusion criteria are homicidality, suicidality, psychosis, and impaired cognitive functioning. We hypothesize that this intervention will enhance patient-centered communication with a surrogate decision-maker about end of life treatment preferences over time, enhance patient quality of life and decrease health care utilization. We further hypothesize that this intervention will decrease health disparities for Blacks in completion of advance directives. If proposed aims are achieved, the benefits of palliative care, particularly increased treatment preferences about end-of-life care and enhanced quality of life, will be extended to people living with AIDS. PMID:26044463

  16. HLA-DQB1 and -DPB1 allele profile in HIV infected patients with and without pulmonary tuberculosis of south India.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, P; Raghavan, S; Swaminathan, S; Alagarasu, K; Narendran, G; Narayanan, P R

    2008-09-01

    We made an attempt to find out whether Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA)-DQB1 and -DPB1 alleles are associated with susceptibility or resistance to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and development of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in HIV infected patients. The allelic profile of HLA-DQB1 and -DPB1 was studied among HIV patients without pulmonary tuberculosis (HIV+PTB-) (n = 115), HIV patients with pulmonary TB (HIV+PTB+) (n = 59), HIV negative PTB patients (HIV-PTB+) (n = 110) and healthy controls (n=112) by polymerase chain reaction and sequence specific oligonucleotide probe method. Increased frequency of HLA-DQB1*050301 was observed in HIV+PTB- [p = 0.024, Odds Ratio (OR) 2.30, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.11-4.90] and HIV+PTB+ patients (p = 0.044, OR 2.41, 95% CI 1.01-5.73) compared to healthy controls, suggesting that DQB1*050301 may be associated with susceptibility to HIV infection as well as development of PTB in HIV patients. Underrepresentation of HLA-DPB1*1501 was observed in HIV-PTB+ (p = 0.002, Pc = 0.034) and HIV+PTB+ (p = 0.036) patients compared to healthy controls, suggesting that DPB1*1501 may be associated with protection against PTB development both in HIV positive and negative subjects. Analysis on the amino acid variation in the peptide binding pocket at beta69 position of HLA-DPB1 molecules revealed that the beta69 arginine containing HLA-DPB1 alleles and the genotype lysine/arginine were underrepresented in HIV-PTB+ (allele: p = 0.003, Pc = 0.009; genotype: p = 0.0002, Pc = 0.001) and HIV+PTB+ (allele: p = 0.016, Pc = 0.048; genotype: p = 0.026). This suggests that HLA-DPB1 alleles with arginine may be associated with protection against development of PTB in both HIV infected as well as uninfected individuals. Further, the haplotypes HLA-DRB1*1502-DPB1*0201 and HLA-DQB1*0601-DPB1*0201 (Pc < 0.001) and HLA-DRB1*1502-DQB1*0601-DPB1*0201 (p = 0.006, OR 5.09, 95% CI 1.42-22.66) were significantly overrepresented in HIV+PTB+ patients

  17. 9G4+ Antibodies Isolated from HIV-Infected Patients Neutralize HIV-1 and Have Distinct Autoreactivity Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Alcéna, Danielle C.; Kobie, James J.; Kaminski, Denise A.; Rosenberg, Alexander F.; Mattiacio, Jonelle L.; Brewer, Matthew; Dewhurst, Stephen; Dykes, Carrie; Jin, Xia; Keefer, Michael C.; Sanz, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Potent HIV-1 specific broadly neutralizing antibodies (BNA) are uncommon in HIV infected individuals, and have proven hard to elicit by vaccination. Several, isolated monoclonal BNA are polyreactive and also recognize self-antigens, suggesting a breach of immune tolerance in persons living with HIV (PLWH). Persons with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) often have elevated levels of autoreactive antibodies encoded by the VH4-34 heavy chain immunoglobulin gene whose protein product can be detected by the 9G4 rat monoclonal antibody. We have recently found that levels of these “9G4+” antibodies are also elevated in PLWH. However, the putative autoreactive nature of these antibodies and the relationship of such reactivities with HIV neutralization have not been investigated. We therefore examined the autoreactivity and HIV neutralization potential of 9G4+ antibodies from PLWH. Results show that 9G4+ antibodies from PLWH bound to recombinant HIV-1 envelope (Env) and neutralized viral infectivity in vitro, whereas 9G4+ antibodies from persons with SLE did not bind to Env and failed to neutralize viral infectivity. In addition, while 9G4+ antibodies from PLWH retained the canonical anti-i reactivity that mediates B cell binding, they did not display other autoreactivities common to SLE 9G4+ antibodies, such as binding to cardiolipin and DNA and had much lower reactivity with apoptotic cells. Taken together, these data indicate that the autoreactivity of 9G4+ antibodies from PLWH is distinct from that of SLE patients, and therefore, their expansion is not due to a general breakdown of B cell tolerance but is instead determined in a more disease-specific manner by self-antigens that become immunogenic in the context of, and possibly due to HIV infection. Further studies of 9G4+ B cells may shed light on the regulation of B cell tolerance and interface between the generation of specific autoreactivities and the induction of antiviral immunity in persons living with HIV

  18. Detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii by Quantitative PCR To Differentiate Colonization and Pneumonia in Immunocompromised HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Patients.

    PubMed

    Fauchier, T; Hasseine, L; Gari-Toussaint, M; Casanova, V; Marty, P M; Pomares, C

    2016-06-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is an acute and life-threatening lung disease caused by the fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii The presentation of PCP in HIV-positive patients is well-known and consists of a triad of dyspnea, fever, and cough, whereas the presentation of PCP in HIV-negative patients is atypical and consists of a sudden outbreak, O2 desaturation, and a rapid lethal outcome without therapy. Despite the availability of direct and indirect identification methods, the diagnosis of PCP remains difficult. The cycle threshold (CT) values obtained by quantitative PCR (qPCR) allow estimation of the fungal burden. The more elevated that the fungal burden is, the higher the probability that the diagnosis is pneumonia. The purposes of the present study were to evaluate the CT values to differentiate colonization and pneumonia in a population of immunocompromised patients overall and patients stratified on the basis of their HIV infection status. Testing of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples from the whole population of qPCR-positive patients showed a mean CT value for patients with PCP of 28 (95% confidence interval [CI], 26 to 30) and a mean CT value for colonized patients of 35 (95% CI, 34 to 36) (P < 10(-3)). For the subgroup of HIV-positive patients, we demonstrated that a CT value below 27 excluded colonization and a CT value above 30 excluded PCP with a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 80%, respectively. In the subgroup of HIV-negative patients, we demonstrated that a CT value below 31 excluded colonization and a CT value above 35 excluded PCP with a specificity of 80% and a sensitivity of 80%, respectively. Thus, qPCR of BAL fluid samples is an important tool for the differentiation of colonization and pneumonia in P. jirovecii-infected immunocompromised patients and patients stratified on the basis of HIV infection status with different CT values. PMID:27008872

  19. Pill impaction mimicking appendicitis in an HIV-positive patient.

    PubMed

    Torno, Mauro; Shallman, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Abdominal pain is a frequent presenting symptom among HIV-positive patients seeking care at emergency departments. We report a case of a 45-year-old HIV-infected Hispanic man who presented with right lower quadrant pain accompanied by fever, decreased appetite, nausea, and vomiting. The results of a CT scan of his abdomen were normal with no evidence of appendicitis. A colonoscopy was performed and revealed an impacted pill in the appendiceal orifice. The pill was removed endoscopically, and pill impaction has not recurred. PMID:19209455

  20. Effect of SLCO1B1 Polymorphisms on Rifabutin Pharmacokinetics in African HIV-Infected Patients with Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Naiker, Suhashni; Reddy, Tarylee; Egan, Deirdre; Kellerman, Tracy; Wiesner, Lubbe; Owen, Andrew; McIlleron, Helen; Pym, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Rifabutin, used to treat HIV-infected tuberculosis, shows highly variable drug exposure, complicating dosing. Effects of SLCO1B1 polymorphisms on rifabutin pharmacokinetics were investigated in 35 African HIV-infected tuberculosis patients after multiple doses. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling found that influential covariates for the pharmacokinetics were weight, sex, and a 30% increased bioavailability among heterozygous carriers of SLCO1B1 rs1104581 (previously associated with low rifampin concentrations). Larger studies are needed to understand the complex interactions of host genetics in HIV-infected tuberculosis patients. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00640887.) PMID:26482301