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Sample records for hiv seroprevalence

  1. Seroprevalence of HIV and hepatitis C co-infection among blood donors in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Karki, Surendra; Ghimire, Prakash; Tiwari, Bishnu Raj; Shrestha, Ashish Chandra; Gautam, Avhishekh; Rajkarnikar, Manita

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in different categories of blood donors and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection rate. A total of 33,255 blood samples were screened for HIV using a third generation ELISA test at the Central Blood Transfusion Service, Nepal Red Cross Society, Kathmandu from December 2006 to September 2007. The seroprevalence of HIV was 0.19% (95% CI= 0.15-0.25) and co-infection with HCV was found in 10.8% (95% CI= 4.4-20.9). There were no significant differences in HIV seroprevalence among the different categories of age, sex, type of donation and time of donation. The study revealed a relatively lower seroprevalence of HIV among blood donors in Kathmandu Valley than reported earlier but a higher HCV co-infection rate. The similar seroprevalence between first time and repeat donors suggests the need for more improved donor education and counselling. PMID:19323036

  2. Sentinel hospital surveillance of HIV infection in Quebec. Quebec Sentinel Hospital HIV-Seroprevalence Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Alary, M; Joly, J R; Parent, R; Fauvel, M; Dionne, M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the HIV seroprevalence rate in a surrogate sample of the general population in the province of Quebec, using a network of sentinel hospitals. DESIGN: Anonymous unlinked sentinel surveillance study. SETTING: Outpatient surgery units in 19 acute care hospitals throughout Quebec. PARTICIPANTS: All patients attending the outpatient surgery units from November 1990 to October 1992. A total of 61,547 plasma samples were obtained from leftover blood samples collected for cell counts. Fifty samples were excluded because of an insufficient amount of plasma and one because of an indeterminate result. INTERVENTION: HIV antibody testing with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; positive results confirmed with radioimmunoprecipitation assay. OUTCOME MEASURES: HIV antibody status, sex, year of birth and area of residence. RESULTS: The crude seroprevalence rate among the subjects aged 15 years or more was 0.4 per 1000 population (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2 to 0.7) among the women and 3.6 per 1000 population (95% CI 2.8 to 4.4) among the men (p < 0.001). The rate after adjustment for age, sex and geographic distribution of the study population was 2.3 per 1000 population (95% CI 1.9 to 2.7). The seroprevalence rate among the male patients in the City of Montreal was much higher than the rates elsewhere in the province. It increased progressively during each of the four 6-month intervals of the study: 8.1, 8.7, 13.9 and 18.3 per 1000 respectively (chi 2 linear trend = 4.76; p = 0.029). No similar trends were observed outside Montreal for the male patients. There were too few seropositive female patients to draw any solid conclusion. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the possible drawbacks of a nonrandomized sampling scheme, this study suggests that in the male population the HIV seroprevalence rate is increasing in Montreal and is stable in all other areas of the province. The continued surveillance of HIV infection through anonymous unlinked studies is useful to

  3. Impact of HLA-driven HIV adaptation on virulence in populations of high HIV seroprevalence

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Rebecca; Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Mann, Jaclyn; Roberts, Hannah E.; Matthews, Philippa; Adland, Emily; Hempenstall, Allison; Huang, Kuan-Hsiang; Brockman, Mark; Brumme, Zabrina; Sinclair, Marc; Miura, Toshiyuki; Frater, John; Essex, Myron; Shapiro, Roger; Walker, Bruce D.; Ndung’u, Thumbi; McLean, Angela R.; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Goulder, Philip J. R.

    2014-01-01

    It is widely believed that epidemics in new hosts diminish in virulence over time, with natural selection favoring pathogens that cause minimal disease. However, a tradeoff frequently exists between high virulence shortening host survival on the one hand but allowing faster transmission on the other. This is the case in HIV infection, where high viral loads increase transmission risk per coital act but reduce host longevity. We here investigate the impact on HIV virulence of HIV adaptation to HLA molecules that protect against disease progression, such as HLA-B*57 and HLA-B*58:01. We analyzed cohorts in Botswana and South Africa, two countries severely affected by the HIV epidemic. In Botswana, where the epidemic started earlier and adult seroprevalence has been higher, HIV adaptation to HLA including HLA-B*57/58:01 is greater compared with South Africa (P = 7 × 10−82), the protective effect of HLA-B*57/58:01 is absent (P = 0.0002), and population viral replicative capacity is lower (P = 0.03). These data suggest that viral evolution is occurring relatively rapidly, and that adaptation of HIV to the most protective HLA alleles may contribute to a lowering of viral replication capacity at the population level, and a consequent reduction in HIV virulence over time. The potential role in this process played by increasing antiretroviral therapy (ART) access is also explored. Models developed here suggest distinct benefits of ART, in addition to reducing HIV disease and transmission, in driving declines in HIV virulence over the course of the epidemic, thereby accelerating the effects of HLA-mediated viral adaptation. PMID:25453107

  4. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis in blood donors in Southern Haryana.

    PubMed

    Arora, Dimple; Arora, Bharti; Khetarpal, Anshul

    2010-01-01

    Blood transfusion is an important mode of transmission of infections to recipients. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections among blood donors. For this, a 3.5-year retrospective study, from October 2002 to April 2006 was conducted at the blood transfusion centre of Maharaja Agrasen Medical College, Agroha (Hisar) Haryana. Donors were screened for seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis. A total of 5849 donors were tested, out of which 4010 (68.6%) were replacement donors and 1839 (31.4%) were voluntary donors. The seroprevalence of HIV was 0.3% in the donors. No voluntary donor was found to be positive for HIV. The low sero-positivity among donors is attributed to pre-donation counseling in donor selection. The seroprevalence of HBV, HCV and syphilis was 1.7%, 1.0% and 0.9% respectively in total donors. The seroprevalence of hepatitis and syphilis was more in replacement donors as compared to voluntary donors. PMID:20551540

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Infection among HIV/AIDS Patients in Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guoqiang; Wang, Xiaoming; Sun, Hui; Gao, Yaying

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, occurs throughout the world. Human T. gondii infection is asymptomatic in 80% of the population; however, the infection is life-threatening and causes substantial neurologic damage in immunocompromised patients such as HIV-infected persons. The major purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in subjects infected with HIV/AIDS in eastern China. Our findings showed 9.7% prevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody in HIV/AIDS patients, which was higher than in intravenous drug users (2.2%) and healthy controls (4.7%), while no significant difference was observed in the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibody among all participants (P>0.05). Among all HIV/AIDS patients, 15 men (7.7%) and 10 women (15.9%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibody; however, no significant difference was detected in the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody between males and females. The frequency of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody was 8.0%, 13.2%, 5.5%, and 0% in patients with normal immune function (CD4+ T-lymphocyte count ≥500 cells/ml), immunocompromised patients (cell count ≥200 and <500 cells/ml), severely immunocompromised patients (cell count ≥50 and <200 cells/ml), and advanced AIDS patients, respectively (cell count <50 cells/ml), while only 3 immunocompromised patients were positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibody. The results indicate a high seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in HIV/AIDS patients in eastern China, and a preventive therapy for toxoplasmosis may be given to HIV/AIDS patients based on CD4+ T lymphocyte count. PMID:26951986

  6. Hepatitis B, HIV, and Syphilis Seroprevalence in Pregnant Women and Blood Donors in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Dionne-Odom, Jodie; Mbah, Rahel; Rembert, Nicole J; Tancho, Samuel; Halle-Ekane, Gregory E; Enah, Comfort; Welty, Thomas K; Tih, Pius M; Tita, Alan T N

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated seroprevalence and correlates of selected infections in pregnant women and blood donors in a resource-limited setting. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of laboratory seroprevalence data from pregnant women and voluntary blood donors from facilities in Cameroon in 2014. Rapid tests were performed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen, syphilis treponemal antibodies, and HIV-1/2 antibodies. Blood donations were also tested for hepatitis C and malaria. Results. The seroprevalence rates and ranges among 7069 pregnant women were hepatitis B 4.4% (1.1-9.6%), HIV 6% (3.0-10.2%), and syphilis 1.7% (1.3-3.8%) with significant variability among the sites. Correlates of infection in pregnancy in adjusted regression models included urban residence for hepatitis B (aOR 2.9, CI 1.6-5.4) and HIV (aOR 3.5, CI 1.9-6.7). Blood donor seroprevalence rates and ranges were hepatitis B 6.8% (5.0-8.8%), HIV 2.2% (1.4-2.8%), syphilis 4% (3.3-4.5%), malaria 1.9%, and hepatitis C 1.7% (0.5-2.5%). Conclusions. Hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis infections are common among pregnant women and blood donors in Cameroon with higher rates in urban areas. Future interventions to reduce vertical transmission should include universal screening for these infections early in pregnancy and provision of effective prevention tools including the birth dose of univalent hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:27578957

  7. Hepatitis B, HIV, and Syphilis Seroprevalence in Pregnant Women and Blood Donors in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Mbah, Rahel; Rembert, Nicole J.; Tancho, Samuel; Halle-Ekane, Gregory E.; Enah, Comfort; Welty, Thomas K.; Tih, Pius M.; Tita, Alan T. N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated seroprevalence and correlates of selected infections in pregnant women and blood donors in a resource-limited setting. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of laboratory seroprevalence data from pregnant women and voluntary blood donors from facilities in Cameroon in 2014. Rapid tests were performed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen, syphilis treponemal antibodies, and HIV-1/2 antibodies. Blood donations were also tested for hepatitis C and malaria. Results. The seroprevalence rates and ranges among 7069 pregnant women were hepatitis B 4.4% (1.1–9.6%), HIV 6% (3.0–10.2%), and syphilis 1.7% (1.3–3.8%) with significant variability among the sites. Correlates of infection in pregnancy in adjusted regression models included urban residence for hepatitis B (aOR 2.9, CI 1.6–5.4) and HIV (aOR 3.5, CI 1.9–6.7). Blood donor seroprevalence rates and ranges were hepatitis B 6.8% (5.0–8.8%), HIV 2.2% (1.4–2.8%), syphilis 4% (3.3–4.5%), malaria 1.9%, and hepatitis C 1.7% (0.5–2.5%). Conclusions. Hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis infections are common among pregnant women and blood donors in Cameroon with higher rates in urban areas. Future interventions to reduce vertical transmission should include universal screening for these infections early in pregnancy and provision of effective prevention tools including the birth dose of univalent hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:27578957

  8. [Low seroprevalence of syphilis and HIV in refugees and asylum seekers in Germany in 2015].

    PubMed

    Jablonka, A; Solbach, P; Nothdorft, S; Hampel, A; Schmidt, R E; Behrens, G M N

    2016-07-01

    Background | Currently only estimates exist of seroprevalence of syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in refugees arriving in Germany during the current refugee crisis. Objectives | To assess the prevalence of syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in refugees arriving in northern Germany in 2015. Materials and methods | In a cross-sectional study in 790 patients from all age groups tests for serological markers of treponema pallidum and in 789 patients for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were performed in August 2015 in reception centers in northern Germany. Results | The overall prevalence of treponema pallidum antibodies was 0.13 % (1/790; [95 % CI: 0 - 0.4]). HIV antibodies were positive in two refugees from sub-Saharan Africa (2/789; 0.25 %, [95 % CI: 0 - 0.6]). Conclusions | This study showed a low prevalence of treponema pallidum antibodies and human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) in a German refugee cohort, not significantly different from German controls. PMID:27404938

  9. Seroprevalence of HIV-type 1 in a northern California health plan population: an unlinked survey.

    PubMed Central

    Hiatt, R A; Capell, F J; Ascher, M S

    1992-01-01

    We conducted an unlinked seroprevalence survey for human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) of 9821 persons who had a routine personal health appraisal examination in 1989 while members of the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program in northern California. An outside laboratory performed enzyme immunoassay (EIA) analyses, and the California Viral and Rickettsial Diseases Laboratory confirmed EIA-reactive samples by immunofluorescent assay and Western blot assay. Only 20 specimens (0.2%) were confirmed as positive, and 18 were from men. These data suggest that, at the time of this survey, HIV-1 infection was not widespread in the northern California population represented by this health plan membership. PMID:1546773

  10. Hepatitis C Seroprevalence Among HIV-Infected Childbearing Women in New York State in 2006.

    PubMed

    Ghazaryan, L; Smith, L; Parker, M; Flanigan, C; Pulver, W; Sullivan, T; Carrascal, A

    2016-03-01

    Objective To identify factors associated with maternal hepatitis C virus (HCV) seroprevalence and transmission of HCV as identified by qualitative HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the infants of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women delivering in New York State (NYS) in 2006. Study Design In this retrospective cohort study of HIV-exposed infants born in NYS, leftover infant plasma from HIV diagnostic testing was de-identified and tested for HCV. If HCV antibodies were detected, a second specimen collected when the infant was >2 months old was tested for HCV qualitative RNA. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with HCV seropositivity. Results In a final sample of 553 live birth events with perinatal HIV exposure, 21 (3.8 %) of tested infant specimens had HCV antibodies indicative of maternal HCV seropositivity. Maternal age at delivery of >35 years, Hispanic ethnicity, white race and injection drug use (IDU) were significantly associated with HCV seropositivity in multivariate analysis. No cases of HCV vertical transmission were identified among HCV exposed infant specimens. Conclusions This statewide population-based study of HIV-infected childbearing women shows HCV seroprevalence of 3.8 %. Maternal age of >35 years and IDU are the strongest predictors of HCV seropositivity. Although no viral transmission was documented, more comprehensive longitudinal testing would be required to conclude that HCV transmission did not occur. PMID:26520159

  11. Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in HIV Coinfected Individuals in Eastern India with Risk Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Soumyabrata; Sarkar, Soma; Chattopadhyay, Debprasad; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy; Biswas, Rahul; SenGupta, Manideepa

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the cause of most genital herpes while HSV-1 is responsible for orolabial and facial lesions. In immunocompromised individuals, like HIV patients, impaired immunity leads to more frequent symptomatic and asymptomatic HSV infection. Fifty-two blood samples from HIV patients with clinically diagnosed HSV infection were taken as cases, while 45 blood samples each from HIV-infected (HIV control) and noninfected patients without any herpetic lesion (non-HIV control) were taken as control. Serum was tested for IgM and IgG antibodies of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 by ELISA. The seroprevalence was compared among the three groups of study population, considering the demographic and socioeconomic parameters. The HSV-2 IgM was significantly higher (p < 0.005) in the HIV patient group (34.6%) than the HIV control (2.2%) and non-HIV control (2.2%) groups, whereas HSV-2 IgG seroprevalence was higher in both HIV patient (61.5%) and HIV control (57.8%) groups than the non-HIV control group (17.8%). The prevalence of HSV-2 was significantly higher in persons with multiple partners and in the reproductive age group. The overall seroprevalence of HSV-1 IgM was too low (<5%), whereas it was too high (about 90%) with HSV-1 IgG in all three study groups. PMID:26557849

  12. Imputation of the Date of HIV Seroconversion in a Cohort of Seroprevalent Subjects: Implications for Analysis of Late HIV Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino-Vegas, Paz; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Geskus, Ronald; Padilla, Belén; Segura, Ferrán; Rubio, Rafael; del Romero, Jorge; Santos, Jesus; Moreno, Santiago; del Amo, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Since subjects may have been diagnosed before cohort entry, analysis of late HIV diagnosis (LD) is usually restricted to the newly diagnosed. We estimate the magnitude and risk factors of LD in a cohort of seroprevalent individuals by imputing seroconversion dates. Methods. Multicenter cohort of HIV-positive subjects who were treatment naive at entry, in Spain, 2004–2008. Multiple-imputation techniques were used. Subjects with times to HIV diagnosis longer than 4.19 years were considered LD. Results. Median time to HIV diagnosis was 2.8 years in the whole cohort of 3,667 subjects. Factors significantly associated with LD were: male sex; Sub-Saharan African, Latin-American origin compared to Spaniards; and older age. In 2,928 newly diagnosed subjects, median time to diagnosis was 3.3 years, and LD was more common in injecting drug users. Conclusions. Estimates of the magnitude and risk factors of LD for the whole cohort differ from those obtained for new HIV diagnoses. PMID:22013517

  13. Association of Attitudes and Beliefs towards Antiretroviral Therapy with HIV-Seroprevalence in the General Population of Kisumu, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Craig R.; Montandon, Michele; Carrico, Adam W.; Shiboski, Stephen; Bostrom, Alan; Obure, Alfredo; Kwena, Zachary; Bailey, Robert C.; Nguti, Rosemary; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Since antiretroviral therapy (ART) became available in the developed world, the prevalence of unprotected sex and the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV have increased. We hypothesized that a similar phenomenon may be occurring in sub-Saharan Africa concomitant with the scale-up of HIV treatment. Methods We conducted a general population-based survey in Kisumu, Kenya. Participants completed an interview that included demographics as well as ART-related attitudes and beliefs (AB) and then underwent HIV serological testing. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of AB about ART indicated two factors: 1) ART-related risk compensation (increased sexual risk taking now that ART is available); and 2) a perception that HIV is more controllable now that ART is available. Logistic regression was used to determine associations of these factors with HIV-seroprevalence after controlling for age. Findings 1,655 (90%) of 1,844 people aged 15–49 contacted, including 749 men and 906 women, consented to participate in the study. Most participants (n = 1164; 71%) had heard of ART. Of those who had heard of ART, 23% believed ART was a cure for HIV. ART-related risk compensation (Adjusted (A)OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.16–1.81), and a belief that ART cures HIV (AOR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.22–3.76) were associated with an increased HIV seroprevalence in men but not women after controlling for age. In particular, ART-related risk compensation was associated with an increased HIV-seroprevalence in young (aged 15–24 years) men (OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.12–2.19). Conclusions ART-related risk compensation and a belief that ART cures HIV were associated with an increased HIV seroprevalence among men but not women. HIV prevention programs in sub-Saharan Africa that target the general population should include educational messages about ART and address the changing beliefs about HIV in the era of greater ART availability. PMID:19259267

  14. High Seroprevalence of Human Herpesviruses in HIV-Infected Individuals Attending Primary Healthcare Facilities in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Schaftenaar, Erik; Verjans, Georges M. G. M.; Getu, Sarah; McIntyre, James A.; Struthers, Helen E.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Peters, Remco P. H.

    2014-01-01

    Seroprevalence data of human herpesviruses (HHVs) are limited for sub-Saharan Africa. These are important to provide an indication of potential burden of HHV-related disease, in particular in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals who are known to be at increased risk of these conditions in the Western world. In this cross-sectional study among 405 HIV-infected and antiretroviral therapy naïve individuals in rural South Africa the seroprevalence of HHVs was: herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) (98%), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) (87%), varicella zoster virus (VZV) (89%), and 100% for both Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV). Independent factors associated with VZV seropositivity were low educational status and having children. Lack of in-house access to drinking water was independently associated with positive HSV-1 serostatus, whereas Shangaan ethnicity was associated with HSV-2 seropositivity. Increasing age was associated with higher IgG titres to both EBV and CMV, whereas CD4 cell count was negatively associated with EBV and CMV IgG titres. Moreover, IgG titres of HSV-1 and 2, VZV and CMV, and CMV and EBV were positively correlated. The high HHV seroprevalence emphasises the importance of awareness of these viral infections in HIV-infected individuals in South Africa. PMID:24914671

  15. The relationship between age of coital debut and HIV seroprevalence among women in Durban, South Africa: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ramjee, Gita

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the impact of early sexual debut on HIV seroprevalence and incidence rates among a cohort of women. Design Prospective study. Setting KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Participants A total of 3492 sexually active women who consented to screen a HIV prevention trial during September 2002 to September 2005; a total of 1485 of them were followed for approximately 24 months. Primary and secondary outcome measures HIV seroprevalence among those who were screened for the trial and HIV seroconversion among those who seroconverted during the study. Results Lowest quintiles of age at sexual debut, less than high school education, a higher number of lifetime sexual partners and lack of cohabitation, being diagnosed as having herpes simplex virus 2 and other sexually transmitted infections were all significantly associated with prevalent HIV infection in multivariate analysis. During follow-up, 148 (6.8 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 5.8 to 8.0) women seroconverted. Highest seroconversion rate was observed among women who had reported to have had sex 15 years or younger (12.0 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 8.0 to 18.0). Overall, impact of risk factors considered in this study was associated with considerable potential reductions in HIV prevalence and incidence rates (population attributable risk: 85%, 95% CI 84% to 87% and population attributable risk: 77%, 95% CI 72% to 82%, respectively). Conclusions The association of HIV status with younger age at sexual debut may likely due to an increased number of lifetime partners. This increase could result from longer duration of sexual life. Prevention of HIV infection should include efforts to delay age at first sex in young women. Trial registration number NCT00121459. PMID:22223838

  16. Seroprevalence of HIV, hepatitis b, and hepatitis c among opioid drug users on methadone treatment in the netherlands

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Injecting drug users (IDU) remain an important population at risk for blood-borne infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). In the Netherlands, a program is being implemented to offer annual voluntary screening for these infections to opioid drug users (ODUs) screened in methadone care. At two care sites where the program is now operating, our study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence among ODUs screened for HIV, HBV and HCV; to evaluate HBV vaccination coverage; and to assess the feasibility of monitoring seroprevalence trends by using routine annual screening data. Methods Opioid drug users on methadone treatment are routinely offered voluntary screening for infectious diseases such as HIV, HBV and HCV. Data on uptake and outcome of anti-HIV, anti-HBc, and anti-HCV screening among ODUs receiving methadone were obtained from two regions: Amsterdam from 2004 to 2008 and Heerlen from 2003 to 2009. Findings Annual screening uptake for HIV, HBV and HCV varied from 34 to 69%, depending on disease and screening site. Of users screened, 2.5% were HIV-positive in Amsterdam and 11% in Heerlen; 26% were HCV-positive in Amsterdam and 61% in Heerlen. Of those screened for HBV, evidence of current or previous infection (anti-HBc) was found among 33% in Amsterdam and 48% in Heerlen. In Amsterdam, 92% were fully vaccinated for HBV versus 45% in Heerlen. Conclusion Annual screening for infectious diseases in all ODUs in methadone care is not fully implemented in the Netherlands. On average, more than half of the ODUs in methadone care in Heerlen and Amsterdam were screened for HIV, HBV and HCV. In addition, screening data indicate that HBV vaccination uptake was rather high. While the HIV prevalence among these ODUs was relatively low compared to other drug-using populations, the high HCV prevalence among this group underscores the need to expand annual screening and interventions to monitor HIV, HBV

  17. Changes in HIV Seroprevalence and Related Behaviors Among Male Injection Drug Users Who Do and Do Not Have Sex With Men: New York City, 1990–1999

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, Carey B.; Friedman, Samuel R.; Perlis, Theresa E.; Rockwell, Russell; Des Jarlais, Don C.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined HIV prevalence and risk behaviors among male injection drug users (IDUs) who have sex with men and among other male IDUs. Methods. Male IDUs were interviewed and tested for HIV at a detoxification clinic during 1990 to 1994 and 1995 to 1999. Analyses compared male IDUs who do and do not have sex with men within and between periods. Results. Initially, HIV seroprevalence and risk behaviors were higher among IDUs who have sex with men. Seroprevalence (initially 60.5% vs 48.3%) declined approximately 15% in both groups, remaining higher among those who have sex with men. Generally, injection prevalence, but not sexual risk behaviors, declined. Conclusions. Male IDUs who have sex with men are more likely to engage in higher-risk behaviors and to be HIV infected. Improved intervention approaches for male IDUs who have sex with men are needed. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:382–384) PMID:11867315

  18. [Seroprevalence and factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis in inmates in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Albuquerque, Ana Cecília Cavalcanti; da Silva, Débora Maria; Rabelo, Deyse Caroline Cabral; de Lucena, Waldenia Agny Torres; de Lima, Paloma Cássia Silva; Coelho, Maria Rosângela Cunha Duarte; Tiago, Guilherme Gustavo de Brito

    2014-07-01

    Prison inmates are more vulnerable to HIV and other Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) due to risk factors such as needle sharing and unprotected sex with homosexuals. The aim of this work was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1/2) and syphilis among male inmates in Caruaru, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed between May and July 2011, when 1,097 inmates at a prison in Caruaru were assessed by means of interviews and blood sample collection for performing the respective tests. The prevalence was 1.19% for HIV infection and 3.92% for syphilis. HIV infection showed a statistically significant association (p <0.05), with injected drug use, homosexuality and blood transfusions. With respect to HIV status and syphilis, factors related to sex life were statistically significant (p <0.05). The prison population is a high risk group for the diseases investigated. The prevalence rates identified indicate the need to implement prevention programs, helping to contain such diseases in this particular population group. PMID:25014292

  19. Increased Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence Correlates with Lower CD4+ Cell Counts in HIV-Infected Persons in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Debes, José D; Martínez Wassaf, Maribel; Pisano, María Belén; Isa, María Beatriz; Lotto, Martin; Marianelli, Leonardo G; Frassone, Natalia; Ballari, Estefania; Bohjanen, Paul R; Hansen, Bettina E; Ré, Viviana

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that can cause hepatitis in an epidemic fashion. HEV usually causes asymptomatic or limited acute infections in immunocompetent individuals, whereas in immunosuppressed individuals such as transplant recipients, HEV can cause chronic infections. The risks and outcomes of HEV co-infection in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are poorly characterized. We used a third generation immunoassay to measure serum IgG antibodies specific for HEV in 204 HIV-infected individuals from Argentina and a control group of 433 HIV-negative individuals. We found 15 of 204 (7.3%, 95%CI 3.74-10.96%) individuals in the HIV-positive group to have positive HEV IgG levels suggestive of previous infection, compared to 19 of 433 (4.4%, 95% CI 2.5-6.3%) individuals in the HIV-negative control group (p = 0.12). Among HIV-positive individuals, those with HEV seropositivity had lower CD4 counts compared to those that were HEV seronegative (average CD4 count of 234 vs 422 mm3, p = 0.01), indicating that patients with lower CD4 counts were more likely to be HEV IgG positive. Moreover, HEV seropositivity in patients with CD4 counts <200 mm3 was 16%, compared to 4.5% in those with CD4 counts >200 mm3 (p = 0.012). We found a positive PCR result for HEV in one individual. Our study found that increased seroprevalence of HEV IgG correlated with lower CD4 counts in HIV-infected patients in Argentina. PMID:27467394

  20. Increased Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence Correlates with Lower CD4+ Cell Counts in HIV-Infected Persons in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Debes, José D.; Martínez Wassaf, Maribel; Pisano, María Belén; Isa, María Beatriz; Lotto, Martin; Marianelli, Leonardo G.; Frassone, Natalia; Ballari, Estefania; Bohjanen, Paul R.; Hansen, Bettina E.; Ré, Viviana

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that can cause hepatitis in an epidemic fashion. HEV usually causes asymptomatic or limited acute infections in immunocompetent individuals, whereas in immunosuppressed individuals such as transplant recipients, HEV can cause chronic infections. The risks and outcomes of HEV co-infection in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are poorly characterized. We used a third generation immunoassay to measure serum IgG antibodies specific for HEV in 204 HIV-infected individuals from Argentina and a control group of 433 HIV-negative individuals. We found 15 of 204 (7.3%, 95%CI 3.74–10.96%) individuals in the HIV-positive group to have positive HEV IgG levels suggestive of previous infection, compared to 19 of 433 (4.4%, 95% CI 2.5–6.3%) individuals in the HIV-negative control group (p = 0.12). Among HIV-positive individuals, those with HEV seropositivity had lower CD4 counts compared to those that were HEV seronegative (average CD4 count of 234 vs 422 mm3, p = 0.01), indicating that patients with lower CD4 counts were more likely to be HEV IgG positive. Moreover, HEV seropositivity in patients with CD4 counts <200 mm3 was 16%, compared to 4.5% in those with CD4 counts >200 mm3 (p = 0.012). We found a positive PCR result for HEV in one individual. Our study found that increased seroprevalence of HEV IgG correlated with lower CD4 counts in HIV-infected patients in Argentina. PMID:27467394

  1. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasmosis in HIV infected and non-infected individuals in Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis, a zoonotic disease distributed worldwide, is an infection caused by the ubiquitous obligatory intracellular coccidian protozoan organism, Toxoplasma gondii. It is a major public health concern because the disease is serious in terms of mortality or physical and /or psychological sequellae in patients with HIV disease. The aim of the study was to assess the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies and associated risk factors in HIV infected and non-infected individuals attending Felege Hiwot referral hospital, Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at Felege Hiwot referral hospital, Bahir Dar, Amhara National Regional State. Venous blood samples were collected from 103 HIV infected pre anti-retroviral therapy patients at Felege Hiwot referral hospital and 101 HIV negative apparently healthy voluntary blood donors at the blood bank. Serum samples were analyzed for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using a commercially available ELISA kit. Socio-demographic and associated risk factors for Toxoplasmosis from each individual were also obtained and the data was analyzed using SPSS version 18. Results Of the examined HIV seropositive individuals, 87.4% (90/103) and 10.7% (11/103) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies, respectively. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression showed that anti-T. gondii seropositivity was independently significantly associated with undercooked or raw meat consumption (adjusted OR=5.73, 95% CI=1.35-24.39; P=0.02) and having contact with cat (adjusted OR= 4.29, 95% CI=1.08-16.94; P=0.04) in HIV positive individuals. In HIV negative apparently healthy blood donors, prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies were 70.29% and 2.97% for IgG and IgM, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that undercooked or raw meat consumption (adjusted OR=6.45, 95% CI=2.16-19.28; p=0.001) and sex (OR=6.79, 95% CI=2.14-21.60; p=0.001) were

  2. Seroprevalence of HCV and HIV Infections by Year of Birth in Spain: Impact of US CDC and USPSTF Recommendations for HCV and HIV Testing

    PubMed Central

    Meijide, Héctor; Cañizares, Angelina; Castro-Iglesias, Ángeles; Delgado, Manuel; Pértega, Sonia; Pedreira, José; Bou, Germán; Poveda, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Background The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently add the advice of one-time testing of HCV infection in persons born during 1945–1965. Moreover, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) newly recommended one-time HIV testing for persons aged 15–65. Herein, we evaluate the potential impact of these recommendations in a reference medical area of Spain. Methods All assays results entries for HCV and HIV serological markers ordered at a reference lab from primary care and specialized physicians between 2008 and 2012 were recorded in a medical area which covers 501,526 citizens in Northern Spain. The year of birth were also documented. Results A total of 108,159 anti-HCV-Ab results were generated during the study period. The global rate of anti-HCV-Ab+ was 7.7% (95% CI: 7.6%–7.9%), being more prevalent in men than women (8.6% vs. 4.5%). By year of birth, the highest prevalence was found in persons born between 1955 and 1970. HCV genotype 1 was the most prevalent (59.7%) followed by genotype 3 (22.7%). Regard HIV infection, among 65,279 anti-HIV results generated the prevalence of anti-HIV+ was 1.1% (95% CI: 1.0%–1.2%), being more frequent in men (2% vs 0.5%). The years of birth with highest rates of HIV infection exactly match with those for HCV infection. Conclusions The highest rates of HCV and HIV infections are found between 1960 and 1965. Different historical and social circumstances such as the huge intravenous drug use epidemic in the eighties in Spain, might explain it. Therefore, each country needs to determine its own HCV and HIV seroprevalences by year of birth to establish the proper recommendations for the screening of both infections. PMID:25436642

  3. Seroprevalence and determinants of Kaposi sarcoma-associated human herpesvirus 8 in Indian HIV-infected males.

    PubMed

    Munawwar, Arshi; Sharma, Surendra K; Gupta, Somesh; Singh, Sarman

    2014-12-01

    In India Kaposi's sarcoma is rarely seen in AIDS patients. Hence the current belief is that the incidence of human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is very low in this subcontinent, most probably due to the heterosexual route of HIV transmission. However, there is a scarcity of data on the prevalence of HHV-8 in India. In India the primary mode of HIV transmission is the heterosexual route. Therefore we aimed to determine the prevalence of antibodies against HHV-8 in North Indian HIV-infected men naive of antiretroviral therapy (ART). In a prospective study, 165 Indian adult males were recruited from an ART clinic. Blood samples were collected before administering any antiretroviral drug. The sera were tested for antibodies against HHV-8 using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, which detects IgG antibodies to lytic antigens of HHV-8. All positive samples were confirmed for the presence of anti-HHV-8 antibodies using an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The IFA kit is intended to detect primary, latent, persistent, or reactivated infection of HHV-8. Of the 165 males, 43 (26.06%) were positive by ELISA while 26 (15.8%) were also positive by IFA. Seroprevalence decreased with increasing age (p<0.05). Factors independently associated with HHV-8 infection were younger age group and alcohol consumption. These findings suggest that even in a heterosexual population, HHV-8 can be transmitted frequently. PMID:25375960

  4. [Investigation of human herpesvirus-8 seroprevalence in blood donors and HIV-positive patients admitted to Ege University Medical School Hospital, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Altuğlu, İmre; Yolcu, Ayfer; Öcek, Zeliha Aslı; Yazan Sertöz, Rüçhan; Gökengin, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), classified in Herpesviridae family, is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease. In contrast to the other herpesviruses, HHV-8 seroprevalence is low in general populations; however, the higher prevalence observed in individuals with immunodeficiencies such as AIDS poses an increased risk for KS. The global distribution of HHV-8 shows great variations, with the highest seroprevalence seen in Africa. The number of studies on the seroprevalence of HHV-8 in Turkey are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the HHV-8 seroprevalences in healthy blood donors and HIV-positive patients, that will contribute HHV-8 seroepidemiological data in our country. This study was designed as a cross-sectional study. A total of 551 healthy donors (76 female, 475 male; age range: 18-65 years) admitted to Ege University Medical School Hospital, Blood Center for blood donation between December 2013-January 2014, and 173 HIV-positive patients (30 female, 143 male; age range: 18-65 years) admitted to infectious diseases outpatient clinic between October 2013-January 2014, were included in the study. A commercial ELISA method (KSHV/HHV-8 IgG ELISA Kit, Advanced Biotechnologies Inc, USA) was used for the detection of IgG antibodies that were structured against HHV-8 lytic antigens. In the study, 29 (29/551, 5.3%) of blood donors and 44 (44/173, 25.4%) of HIV-positive patients, with a total of 73 (73/724, 10.1%) cases were found as HHV-8 seropositive. The difference between blood donors and HIV-positive patients in terms of HHV-8 seropositivity rates was statistically significant (5.3% versus 25.4%; p< 0.05). In both of the study groups, no statistically significant difference was detected between HHV-8 seropositivity with gender and age. When considering HIV-positive patients, no statistically significant difference was observed between HHV-8 seropositivity with the duration of anti-HIV

  5. Are females who inject drugs at higher risk for HIV infection than males who inject drugs: an international systematic review of high seroprevalence areas

    PubMed Central

    Des Jarlais, Don C; Feelemyer, Jonathan P; Modi, Shilpa N.; Arasteh, Kamyar; Hagan, Holly

    2012-01-01

    Objective There are multiple reasons why females who inject drugs may be more likely to become infected with HIV than males who inject drugs. Where this is the case, special HIV prevention programs for females would be needed. Design International systematic review and meta-analysis of studies across 14 countries. Methods Countries with high seroprevalence (>20%) HIV epidemics among persons who inject drugs (PWID) were identified from the Reference Group to the UN on HIV and Injecting Drug Use. Systematic literature reviews collected data on HIV prevalence by gender for these countries. Non-parametric and parametric tests along with meta-analytic techniques examined heterogeneity and differences in odds ratios (OR) across studies. Results Data were abstracted from 117 studies in 14 countries; total sample size N=128,745. The mean weighted OR for HIV prevalence among females to males was 1.18 [95% CI 1.10–1.26], with high heterogeneity among studies (I2 = 70.7%). There was a Gaussian distribution of the log ORs across studies in the sample. Conclusion There was a significantly higher HIV prevalence among females compared to males who inject drugs in high seroprevalence settings, but the effect size is extremely modest. The high level of heterogeneity and the Gaussian distribution suggest multiple causes of differences in HIV prevalence between females and males, with a specific difference determined by local factors. Greater understanding of factors that may protect females from HIV infection may provide insights into more effective HIV prevention for both females and males who inject drugs. PMID:22257753

  6. High HIV sero-prevalence among students of institutions of higher education in Southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Emeka-Nwabunnia, Ijeoma; Ibeh, Bartholomew Okey; Ogbulie, Tochukwu Ekwutosi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence and sexual behavioural dynamics of HIV infection in students of institutions of higher education (IHEs) as a guide to the design of a tailor-made HIV intervention programmes. Methods A total of 9 709 sexually matured students from five IHEs in Southeast Nigeria aged 19-24 years were recruited to obtain representative data from the institutionalised student population. HIV status was confirmed using enzyme based immuno-assay technique. Demographic and behavioural information were obtained through a structured questionnaire. Association of HIV infection with behavioural risk factors was done using multiple logistics regression model. Results IHEs in Southeast Nigeria have a higher HIV prevalence of 3.69% against the national projected rate of 2012. The age-specific prevalence among male students (2.91%) is non-significantly (P>0.1) lower than that of females (4.31%). Female students had higher rate of infection, multiple sexual partner, transactional and forced sex, unusual genital discharge and low condom use when compared with their male counterparts. These risk factors were associated with increased HIV seropositivity. HIV prevalence and sexual risky behaviour were high among students of IHEs when compared with previous estimates of their non-institutionalised age brackets. Unprotected sexual activity have a 4.2 times higher chances of infecting the partner with HIV. Conclusions The data showed a higher prevalence of HIV infection in students of IHEs in comparison with non-institutionalised persons of the same age bracket. Specifically, it could be inferred that appropriate HIV intervention measures was absent with higher incidence of the infection and risky behaviour found in female students. Therefore, a prioritised tailor-made policy for HIV control for students of IHEs should be considered.

  7. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, and HTLV among Pregnant Women in Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Igboama, Magdalene C; Ojo, Johnson Adeyemi; Odewale, Gbolabo

    2016-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major public health challenge especially in developing countries. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and Human T-cell lymphotropic Virus type I (HTLV-I) among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic, in Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, and South-Western Nigeria. One hundred and eighty two randomly selected pregnant women were screened for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and HTLV-1 IgM antibodies using commercially available ELISA kit. Of the 182 blood samples of pregnant women screened whose age ranged from 15-49 years, 13 (7.1%), 5 (2.7%), 9 (4.9%), and 44 (24.2%) were positive for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV, and HTLV-1 IgM antibodies, respectively. The co-infection rate of 0.5% was obtained for HBV/HCV, HBV/HIV, HIV/HTLV-1, and HCV/HTLV-1 while 1.1% and 0% was recorded for HBV/HTLV-1 and HCV/HIV co-infections, respectively. Expected risk factors such as history of surgery, circumcision, tattooing and incision showed no significant association with any of the viral STIs (P > 0.05). This study shows that there is the need for a comprehensive screening of all pregnant women for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and HTLV-1 to prevent mother to child transmission of these viral infections and its attending consequences. PMID:25879258

  8. High seroprevalence of antibodies against Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) among HIV-1-infected children and adolescents in a non-endemic population.

    PubMed

    Feiterna-Sperling, Cornelia; Königs, Christoph; Notheis, Gundula; Buchholz, Bernd; Krüger, Renate; Weizsäcker, Katharina; Eberle, Josef; Hanhoff, Nikola; Gärtner, Barbara; Heider, Harald; Krüger, Detlev H; Hofmann, Jörg

    2016-10-01

    Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), which primarily affects human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults with advanced immunodeficiency. Currently, only limited prevalence data for HHV-8 infection in HIV-infected children living in non-endemic areas are available. This multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in four university hospitals in Germany specializing in pediatric HIV care. Stored serum specimens obtained from 207 vertically HIV-1-infected children and adolescents were tested for antibodies against lytic and latent HHV-8 antigens. Logistic regression was used to assess independent risk factors associated with HHV-8 seropositivity. The overall HHV-8 seroprevalence was 24.6 % (n = 51/207) without significant differences related to sex, age, or ethnicity. In univariate analysis, HHV-8 seropositivity was significantly associated with a child having being born outside Germany, maternal origin from sub-Saharan Africa, a history of breastfeeding, CDC immunologic category 3, and deferred initiation of antiretroviral therapy (>24 months of age). In multivariate analysis, a child's birth outside Germany was the only significant risk factor for HHV-8 seropositivity (odds ratio 3.98; 95 % confidence interval 1.27-12.42). HHV-8-associated malignancies were uncommon; only one patient had a history of KS. Serum specimen of vertically HIV-infected children and adolescents living in Germany showed a high HHV-8 seroprevalence. These findings suggest that primary HHV-8 infection-a risk factor for KS and other HHV-8-associated malignancies-occurs early in life. Thus, management of perinatally HIV-infected children should include testing for HHV-8 coinfection and should consider future risks of HHV-8-associated malignancies. PMID:27240652

  9. Modelling HIV/AIDS epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa using seroprevalence data from antenatal clinics.

    PubMed Central

    Salomon, J. A.; Murray, C. J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To improve the methodological basis for modelling the HIV/AIDS epidemics in adults in sub-Saharan Africa, with examples from Botswana, Central African Republic, Ethiopia, and Zimbabwe. Understanding the magnitude and trajectory of the HIV/AIDS epidemic is essential for planning and evaluating control strategies. METHODS: Previous mathematical models were developed to estimate epidemic trends based on sentinel surveillance data from pregnant women. In this project, we have extended these models in order to take full advantage of the available data. We developed a maximum likelihood approach for the estimation of model parameters and used numerical simulation methods to compute uncertainty intervals around the estimates. FINDINGS: In the four countries analysed, there were an estimated half a million new adult HIV infections in 1999 (range: 260 to 960 thousand), 4.7 million prevalent infections (range: 3.0 to 6.6 million), and 370 thousand adult deaths from AIDS (range: 266 to 492 thousand). CONCLUSION: While this project addresses some of the limitations of previous modelling efforts, an important research agenda remains, including the need to clarify the relationship between sentinel data from pregnant women and the epidemiology of HIV and AIDS in the general population. PMID:11477962

  10. Seroprevalence and vaccination coverage of vaccine-preventable diseases in perinatally HIV-1-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Sticchi, Laura; Bruzzone, Bianca; Caligiuri, Patrizia; Rappazzo, Emanuela; Lo Casto, Michele; De Hoffer, Laura; Gustinetti, Giulia; Viscoli, Claudio; Di Biagio, Antonio

    2014-08-27

    Background Even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV-infected subjects are at higher risk of complications from vaccine-preventable diseases than those uninfected. The current international guidelines strongly recommend that these patients should receive all the routine childhood vaccinations. Although these children represent an appropriate target for immunization, the available data indicate suboptimal coverage rates. Methods To evaluate seroprotection/seropositivity rates and vaccination coverage against the common vaccine-preventable diseases, all patients with vertically transmitted HIV-1 infection who attended San Martino Hospital were enrolled. Blood samples were collected for testing antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, hepatitis A and B viruses by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay and polioviruses by microneutralization test. In order to assess immunization coverage, retrospectively was recorded the vaccination history collecting data from Regional Immunization Database. Results A total of 39 perinatally HIV-1 infected patients were included in the study. At the time of serum was obtained, the mean age was 18,1 years (range: 6-28). The median CD4+ T-lymphocyte count was 702 cells/mm (3) (2-1476 cells/mm (3)). Twenty-nine (74.4%) patients were found with HIV RNA load<50 copies/mL. The proportion of subjects with protective anti-tetanus and anti-HBs were 43.6% and 30.8%, respectively. Seroprotection rates about 20% against rubella and measles were found, less than 20% against all the other antigens investigated. In particular, all patients resulted susceptible to mumps. High immunization rates were observed for polio and HBV (100% and 92.3%, respectively) and suboptimal for diphtheria-tetanus (84.6%). For the other recommended vaccines the rates were generally low. None of the patients received varicella vaccine doses. Conclusions As in the HAART era the vertically acquired HIV infection has become a chronic treatable disease

  11. Seroprevalence and correlates of HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B and C virus among intrapartum patients in Kabul, Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Catherine S; Ahmadzai, Malalay; Atiqzai, Faridullah; Miller, Suellen; Smith, Jeffrey M; Ghazanfar, Syed Alef Shah; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2008-01-01

    Background Little current information is available for prevalence of vertically-transmitted infections among the Afghan population. The purpose of this study is to determine prevalence and correlates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), syphilis, and hepatitis B and C infection among obstetric patients and model hepatitis B vaccination approaches in Kabul, Afghanistan. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at three government maternity hospitals in Kabul, Afghanistan from June through September, 2006. Consecutively-enrolled participants completed an interviewer-administered survey and whole blood rapid testing with serum confirmation for antibodies to HIV, T. pallidum, and HCV, and HBsAg. Descriptive data and prevalence of infection were calculated, with logistic regression used to identify correlates of HBV infection. Modeling was performed to determine impact of current and birth dose vaccination strategies on HBV morbidity and mortality. Results Among 4452 women, prevalence of HBsAg was 1.53% (95% CI: 1.18 – 1.94) and anti-HCV was 0.31% (95% CI: 0.17 – 0.53). No cases of HIV or syphilis were detected. In univariate analysis, HBsAg was associated with husband's level of education (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.01 – 1.26). Modeling indicated that introduction of birth dose vaccination would not significantly reduce hepatitis-related morbidity or mortality for the measured HBsAg prevalence. Conclusion Intrapartum whole blood rapid testing for HIV, syphilis, HBV, and HCV was acceptable to patients in Afghanistan. Though HBsAg prevalence is relatively low, periodic assessments should be performed to determine birth dose vaccination recommendations for this setting. PMID:18798996

  12. Seroprevalence of CMV, HSV-2 and HBV among HIV-Infected Malawian Children: A Cross-sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Chris Buck, W.; Kazembe, Peter N.; Phiri, Sam; Andrianarimanana, Diavolana; Weigel, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about viral co-infections in African human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children. We examined the prevalence of seromarkers for cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections among HIV-infected, antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve children in Lilongwe, Malawi. Methods: Ninety-one serum samples were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies to CMV, and IgG antibodies to HSV-2 and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Baseline demographic, clinical and laboratory data were abstracted from electronic records. Results: CMV IgG was the most common positive result in all age groups (in 73% of children <1 year, and 100% in all other groups). Three patients were CMV IgM positive (3.3%), suggesting acute infection. HSV-2 IgG was positive in four patients (4.4%), and HBsAg in two (2.2%). Conclusions: CMV infection occurred early in life, and few children had specific signs of CMV infection at the time of ART initiation. Unrecognized HBV infection represents opportunities for testing and treatment of HIV/HBV co-infected children. PMID:26884443

  13. Seroprevalence and factors associated with herpes simplex virus type 2 among HIV-negative high-risk men who have sex with men from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the leading cause of genital ulcer disease in developing countries, including Brazil, and is especially prevalent among men who have sex with men (MSM). HSV-2 infection represents a risk factor for the acquisition and transmission of other sexually transmitted diseases. The goal of the present cross-sectional study was to estimate HSV-2 seroprevalence and to determine the factors associated with HSV-2 seropositivity in HIV-negative high-risk MSM from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods Stored sera were tested to estimate HSV-2 seroprevalence, while socio-demographic and sexual behavior data were used to measure associations between risk factors and HSV-2 seropositivity. Using the Poisson regression model with robust variance, prevalence ratios (PR) were used to estimate de degree of association between risk factors and HSV-2 seropositivity in bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Seroprevalence of HSV-2 was of 45.7% (184 out of 403). Factors independently associated with HSV-2 seroprevalence in the multivariate model were: older age (≥ 26 years, PR: 1.41 95% Confidence Interval: 1.11–1.78), non-white race (PR: 1.32 95%CI: 1.06–1.64), positive serology for syphilis (PR: 1.65 95%CI: 1.33–2.05), positive serology for hepatitis B (PR: 1.25 95%CI: 0.99–1.57), stable male partner in the past 6 months (PR: 1.42 95%CI: 1.12–1.79), and unprotected anal sex with a stable female partner (PR: 1.46 95%CI: 1.05–2.04) in the 6 months preceding the cross-sectional assessment. Conclusion The present study made evident a high prevalence of HSV-2 infection in a sample of HIV-negative high-risk MSM from Rio de Janeiro. This finding indicates the need and urgency for implementing integrated programs for the prevention of HSV-2 and other sexually transmitted diseases, and, in particular, programs targeting high-risk MSM. PMID:19335922

  14. Hepatitis E Seroprevalence in Europe: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hartl, Johannes; Otto, Benjamin; Madden, Richie Guy; Webb, Glynn; Woolson, Kathy Louise; Kriston, Levente; Vettorazzi, Eik; Lohse, Ansgar W.; Dalton, Harry Richard; Pischke, Sven

    2016-01-01

    There have been large numbers of studies on anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence in Europe, however, the results of these studies have produced high variability of seroprevalence rates, making interpretation increasingly problematic. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a clearer understanding of anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence in Europe and identify risk groups for HEV exposure by a meta-analysis of published studies. Methods: All European HEV-seroprevalence studies from 2003 to 2015 were reviewed. Data were stratified by assay, geographical location, and patient cohort (general population, patients with HIV, solid-organ transplant recipients, chronic liver disease patients, and individuals in contact with swine/wild animals). Data were pooled using a mixed-effects model. Results: Four hundred thirty-two studies were initially identified, of which 73 studies were included in the analysis. Seroprevalence estimates ranged from 0.6% to 52.5%, increased with age, but were unrelated to gender. General population seroprevalence varied depending on assays: Wantai (WT): 17%, Mikrogen (MG): 10%, MP-diagnostics (MP): 7%, DiaPro: 4%, Abbott 2%. The WT assay reported significantly higher seroprevalence rates across all cohorts (p < 0.001). Individuals in contact with swine/wild animals had significantly higher seroprevalence rates than the general population, irrespective of assay (p < 0.0001). There was no difference between any other cohorts. The highest seroprevalence was observed in France (WT: 32%, MP: 16%) the lowest in Italy (WT: 7.5%, MP 0.9%). Seroprevalence varied between and within countries. The observed heterogeneity was attributed to geographical region (23%), assay employed (23%) and study cohort (7%). Conclusion: Seroprevalcence rates primarily depend on the seroassy that is used, followed by the geographical region and study cohort. Seroprevalence is higher in individuals exposed to swine and/or wild animals, and increases with age. PMID:27509518

  15. [The seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) in patients with tuberculosis at the National Hospital of Niamey, Niger (1990-1991)].

    PubMed

    Ousseini, H; Kim, D S; Adamou, A

    1995-01-01

    This study has been planned in order to determinate the frequency of the infection by VIH among the 394 new tuberculous, for a period extended from July 1990 to July 1991 at the section of pneumophtisiology in the National Hospital of Niamey. The number of seropositives is 7.6%. The two types of viruses, i.e. VIH1 and VIH2, and the double infection by VIH1 + VIH2 types exist in the tuberculous patients. The VIH1 is most frequently found in the subjects of age group 20-39 years, who are almost emigrants. Inspite of the actual weak sero-prevalency among the tuberculous patients, the authors claim that a sero-epidemiological sequential survey of tuberculosis in Niamey can be a relatively easy method for measuring the variations of sero-prevalency of AIDS in Niger. PMID:8555766

  16. Seroprevalence for Hepatitis E and Other Viral Hepatitides among Diverse Populations, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Rusie, Laura K.; Labrique, Alain; Nyirenda, Mulinda; Soko, Dean; Kamanga, Melvin; Kumwenda, Johnstone; Farazadegan, Homayoon; Nelson, Kenrad; Kumwenda, Newton

    2015-01-01

    Data on prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Malawi is limited. We tested blood samples from HIV-uninfected and -infected populations of women and men enrolled in research studies in Malawi during 1989–2008 to determine the seroprevalence of HEV, hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Samples were tested for IgG against HEV, total antibodies against HAV and HCV, and presence of HBV surface antigens. Of 800 samples tested, 16.5% were positive for HEV IgG, 99.6% were positive for HAV antibodies, 7.5% were positive for HBV surface antigen, and 7.1% were positive for HCV antibodies. No clear trends over time were observed in the seroprevalence of HEV, and HIV status was not associated with hepatitis seroprevalence. These preliminary data suggest that the seroprevalence of HEV is high in Malawi; the clinical effects may be unrecognized or routinely misclassified. PMID:26079666

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus antibody test and seroprevalence in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Naber, D; Pajonk, F G; Perro, C; Löhmer, B

    1994-05-01

    Psychiatric inpatients are at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Investigations in the United States revealed seroprevalence rates of 5.5-8.9%. Therefore, inclusion of HIV antibody testing in routine laboratory screening is sometimes suggested. To investigate this issue for inpatients in the Department of Psychiatry, University of Munich, the incidence, reason for HIV testing and results were analyzed. Of 12,603 patients, hospitalized from 1985 to 1993, 4.9% (623 patients, 265 in risk groups) underwent the HIV test after informed consent. Thirty patients (4.8% of those tested) were found to be positive, but only in 5 cases (all of risk groups) was infection newly detected. Data indicate that, in psychiatry, HIV testing is reasonable only in patients in risk groups or if clinical variables suggest HIV infection. PMID:8067276

  18. A cross-sectional seroprevalence survey for HIV-1 and high risk sexual behaviour of seropositives in a prison in India.

    PubMed

    Sundar, M; Ravikumar, K K; Sudarshan, M K

    1995-01-01

    This study was conducted to know whether prisoners constitute a "high risk group" for HIV transmission in India today. A sero-epidemiological period prevalence survey was conducted in Central Prison, Bangalore, South India covering 1007 undertrials and 107 permanent convicts during January to December 1993. Twenty (1.98%) undertrials and none of the permanent convicts were seropositive for HIV infection. All of them were males and 1.6(80%) of them were in the age group of 20-30 years. Low literacy, poor income, sexual promiscuity and low condom usage were observed among the seropositives. Thus, prisoners constitute a high risk group and routine screening and counselling are recommended. PMID:8690491

  19. Sero-prevalence and factors associated with Hepatitis B and C co-infection in pregnant Nigerian women living with HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ezechi, Oliver Chukwujekwu; Kalejaiye, Olufunto Olufela; Gab-Okafor, Chidinma Vivian; Oladele, David Ayola; Oke, Bamidele Oludare; Musa, Zaidat Adesola; Ekama, Sabdat Ozichu; Ohwodo, Harry; Agahowa, Endurance; Gbajabiamilla, Titilola; Ezeobi, Paschal Mbanefo; Okwuraiwe, Azuka; Audu R, Rosemary Ajuma; Okoye, Rosemary Nwakaego; David, Agatha Nkiru; Odunukwe, Nkiruka Nonyelum; Onwujekwe, Dan Ifeanyi; Ujah, Innocent Achanya

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Perinatal and horizontal transmission of Hepatitis B occur in areas of high endemicity as most infections are acquired in the first 5 years of life. Unless Hepatitis B and C infected pregnant women identified, and appropriate treatment provided, children born to these women are at high risk of chronic Hepatitis B (and C) virus infection. The objecive of this study was to determined the prevalence and the factors associated with Hepatitis B and C Virus infection in pregnant HIV positive Nigerians. Methods A cross sectional study among HIV Positive pregnant women seen at a large PMTCT clinic in Lagos Nigeria. The women were screened for Hepatitis B and C Virus infection at enrollment. HIV viral load, CD4 count, liver transaminases and hemoglobin levels were also determined. Data were managed with SPSS for windows version. Ethical approval was obtained from the Institutions Ethical Review Board. Results Of the 2391 studied subjects, 101(4.2%) and 37(1.5%) respectively were seropositive for Hepatitis B and C Virus infection. Twowomen (0. 08%) had triple infections. blood transfusion, (cOR: 2.3; 95% CI:1.1 - 4.6), history of induced abortion (cOR:2. 2;95% CI:1.3 - 3.6), and elevated baseline ALT (cOR:2. 2; 95%CI:2. 2;4.2) were significantly associated with HBV. History of induced abortion was the only factor found to be associated with HIV/ HCV (cOR: 1.9;95%CI:1. 3-3.9). Conclusion Hepatitis B Virus infection (4.2%) is relatively common in our environment and associated with induced abortion, blood transfusion and elevated baseline transaminase. Hepatitis C Virus infection (1.5%) is less common and associated with only history of induced abortion. PMID:25396023

  20. A double blind, randomised controlled trial of glycerol adjuvant therapy in adult bacterial meningitis in a high HIV seroprevalence setting in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Ajdukiewicz, Katherine M.B.; Cartwright, Katharine E.; Scarborough, Matthew; Mwambene, James B.; Goodson, Patrick; Molyneux, Malcolm E.; Zijlstra, Eduard E.; French, Neil; Whitty, Christopher J.M.; Lalloo, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Southern Africa has a high incidence of bacterial meningitis in adults, often associated with HIV co-infection. Even with appropriate antibiotic therapy, mortality exceeds 50% and is not improved with corticosteroids. Glycerol adjuvant therapy reduced mortality and long-term morbidity (deafness) in bacterial meningitis in children and is being promoted. If similarly effective in adults, glycerol would provide a cheap, available adjuvant therapy in Africa. Methods Following a dose-finding study, we conducted a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of oral glycerol in adults with bacterial meningitis. Patients with clinical and CSF findings suggestive of bacterial meningitis were randomised either to glycerol or an equivalent volume of sugar solution. The primary outcome was mortality at 40 days with secondary outcomes including disability and mortality restricted to pneumococcal disease. Findings 75ml glycerol QDS was best tolerated and was used for the main study. 265 patients were randomised to receive glycerol or placebo. The trial was stopped early on the advice of the Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) following a planned interim analysis. Mortality by day 40 was 61/125 (49%) in the placebo and 86/136 (69%) in the glycerol arms, Adjusted Odds Ratio 2·4 (95% CI 1·3-4·2 p0·003). There was no benefit from glycerol for death and disability by day 40 by intention to treat or in predefined subgroups. Two serious adverse events occurred possibly due to study drug. Interpretation Oral glycerol therapy did not improve mortality in adults with bacterial meningitis and cannot be recommended as a suitable adjuvant therapy in resource-poor settings with a high HIV prevalence. PMID:21334262

  1. Seroprevalence of histoplasmosis in Kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bahr, Nathan C; Sarosi, George A; Meya, David B; Bohjanen, Paul R; Richer, Sarah M; Swartzentruber, Samantha; Halupnick, Ryan; Jarrett, Deidre; Wheat, L Joseph; Boulware, David R

    2016-03-01

    Histoplasmosis is endemic to the Midwestern United States, but cases have been reported nearly worldwide. A 1970 study found 3.8% skin test sensitivity to Histoplasma capsulatum in Uganda but no systemic study of histoplasmosis exposure has occurred since the onset of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. This study investigated the seroprevalence of H. capsulatum and sought previously undetected cases of histoplasmosis in Kampala, Uganda. Serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or urine specimens were obtained from HIV-infected persons with suspected meningitis. Specimens were tested for H. capsulatum IgG and IgM by enzyme immune assay and Histoplasma antigen. 147 of the 257 subjects who were enrolled had cryptococcal meningitis. Overall, 1.3% (2/151) of subjects were serum Histoplasma IgG positive, and zero of 151 were IgM positive. Antigen was not detected in any serum (n = 57), urine (n = 37, or CSF (n = 63) samples. Both subjects with serum Histoplasma IgG positivity had cryptococcal meningitis. Histoplasma capsulatum IgG was detected at low levels in persons with HIV/AIDS in Kampala, Uganda. Histoplasmosis is not widespread in Uganda but microfoci do exist. There appears to be no cross-reactivity between Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma antigen testing, and cryptococcosis appears to be at most, a rare cause of positive Histoplasma IgG. PMID:26527637

  2. Seroprevalence of histoplasmosis in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bahr, Nathan C; Sarosi, George A.; Meya, David B; Bohjanen, Paul R; Richer, Sarah M; Swartzentruber, Samantha; Halupnick, Ryan; Jarrett, Deidre; Wheat, L. Joseph; Boulware, David R

    2016-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is endemic to the Midwestern United States, but cases have been reported nearly worldwide. A 1970 study found 3.8% skin test sensitivity to Histoplasma capsulatum in Uganda but no systemic study of histoplasmosis exposure has occurred since the onset of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. This study investigated the seroprevalence of H. capsulatum and sought previously undetected cases of histoplasmosis in Kampala, Uganda. Serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or urine specimens were obtained from HIV-infected persons with suspected meningitis. Specimens were tested for H. capsulatum IgG and IgM by enzyme immune assay and Histoplasma antigen. 147 of the 257 subjects who were enrolled had cryptococcal meningitis. Overall, 1.3% (2/151) of subjects were serum Histoplasma IgG positive, and zero of 151 were IgM positive. Antigen was not detected in any serum (n = 57), urine (n = 37, or CSF (n = 63) samples. Both subjects with serum Histoplasma IgG positivity had cryptococcal meningitis. Histoplasma capsulatum IgG was detected at low levels in persons with HIV/AIDS in Kampala, Uganda. Histoplasmosis is not widespread in Uganda but micro-foci do exist. There appears to be no cross-reactivity between Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma antigen testing, and cryptococcosis appears to be at most, a rare cause of positive Histoplasma IgG. PMID:26527637

  3. Injecting and sexual risk correlates of HBV and HCV seroprevalence among new drug injectors

    PubMed Central

    Neaigus, Alan; Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Miller, Maureen; Frajzyngier, Veronica M.; Zhao, Mingfang; Friedman, Samuel R.; Des Jarlais, Don C.

    2007-01-01

    We examine injecting and sexual risk correlates of hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) seroprevalence among new injecting drug users (IDUs) (age 18–30 years, injecting ≤6 years). Participants were interviewed/serotested (HIVab, HBVcAb, HCVab) in New York City, 2/1999–2/2003. Gender-stratified, multivariate logistic regression was conducted. Participants (N=259) were: 68% male; 81% white. Women were more likely to test HCV seropositive (42% vs. 27%) and men HBV seropositive (24% vs. 12%); HIV seroprevalence was low (3%). Among both men and women, HBV seropositivity was associated with ever selling sex, and HCV seropositivity with ever having had infected (HIV, HBV or HCV) sex partners (among those ever sharing injecting equipment). Among women only, HBV seropositivity was associated with ever having had infected sex partners (regardless of ever sharing injecting equipment), and HCV seropositivity with ≥300 lifetime drug injections. Among men only, HCV seropositivity was associated with ≥40 lifetime number of sex partners (among those never sharing injecting equipment). In this new IDU sample, HBV and HCV seroprevalence differed by gender and were considerably higher than HIV seroprevalence. Early interventions, targeting injecting and sexual risks and including HBV vaccination, are needed among new IDUs to prevent HBV, HCV and, potentially, HIV epidemics. PMID:17289298

  4. Seroprevalence of HHV-8, CMV, and EBV among the general population in Ghana, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Adjei, Andrew A; Armah, Henry B; Gbagbo, Foster; Boamah, Isaac; Adu-Gyamfi, Clement; Asare, Isaac

    2008-01-01

    Background Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are prevalent in Africa, but less common elsewhere and the modes of transmission are still subject to debate. Generally, they rarely cause disease in the immunocompetent host but are highly oncogenic when associated with immunosuppression. Although the high prevalence of HHV-8, CMV and EBV has been well documented in Africa, such data are sparse from Ghana. Methods Serum samples from 3275 HIV-seronegative healthy blood donors and 250 HIV-AIDS patients were tested for antibodies specific for HHV-8, CMV and EBV by IgG ELISA assays. Differences in seropositivity rates by gender and age were evaluated using the Chi-square test with Yates correction. Results Of the 3275 HIV-seronegative healthy blood donors tested, 2573 (78.6%) were males and 702 (21.4%) were females, with ages ranging from 18 to 65 years (median 32.6; mean 31.2; mode 30). Of the 250 HIV-AIDS patients tested, 140 (56%) were males and 110 (44%) were females, with ages ranging from 17 to 64 years (median 30.8; mean 30.3; mode 28). Among the HIV-seronegative healthy blood donors, overall seroprevalence of HHV-8, CMV and EBV was 23.7%, 77.6% and 20.0%, respectively. Among the HIV-AIDS patients, overall seroprevalence of HHV-8, CMV and EBV was 65.6%, 59.2% and 87.2%, respectively. The seroprevalence of HHV-8 (p < 0.005) and EBV (p < 0.001) was statistically significantly higher in HIV-AIDS patients compared to HIV-seronegative healthy blood donors. There was no statistically significant difference (p = 0.24) between CMV seroprevalence in HIV-AIDS patients and HIV-seronegative healthy blood donors. Age and gender were not independent determinants (p > 0.05) for all three infections among HIV-seronegative healthy blood donors and HIV-AIDS patients in Ghana. Conclusion The results presented herein indicate that HHV-8, CMV and EBV infections are hyperendemic in both HIV-seronegative and HIV-seropositive Ghanaians, and

  5. Population-based seroprevalence of HSV-2 and syphilis in Andhra Pradesh state of India

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding the prevalence and risk factors for common causes of ulcerative genital disease in the general population would inform current STI syndromic management and HIV testing strategies in high HIV prevalence regions of India. Methods Persons 15-49 years old from 32 rural and 34 urban clusters were sampled using a stratified random method to represent adults in the high HIV prevalence Guntur district in Andhra Pradesh state. Interviews were conducted and dry blood spots were collected on 12,617 study participants. Testing for HSV-2 and syphilis was performed. Results Adjusted HSV-2 and syphilis seroprevalence rates were 4.70% and 2.08% for men and 7.07% and 1.42% for women. For men, tattooing, >3 lifetime sex partners, tobacco use, and sex with men in the past 6 months were associated with HSV-2 or syphilis (ORs, 1.66-2.95, p < 0.05). Male circumcision was positively associated with HSV-2 infection (OR, 1.37, p = 0.028) though this could be due to residual confounding. In women, greater than one lifetime partner remained significantly associated with HSV-2 in multivariate analysis (OR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.39-4.87). Among all behavioral risk factors and other covariates in women and men, HIV infection exhibited the strongest association with HSV-2 and syphilis (ORs, 8.2-14.2, p < 0.001). The proportion of individuals with HSV-2 who were HIV infected was less than the proportion with syphilis who were HIV infected (11.8% vs. 22.7%; p = 0.001). Conclusions Nearly one in four persons surveyed in this population-based study that were seroprevalent for syphilis, were also HIV infected. Common population risk factors for syphilis, HSV-2 and HIV and high rates of co-seroprevalence suggest that HIV testing, STI testing and service strategies for these would benefit from direct linkage in India. PMID:20214795

  6. HIV

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Sumit; Sahoo, Soumya Swaroop; Jain, Rambilas; Khanna, Pardeep; Mehta, Bharti; Singh, Inderjeet

    2014-01-01

    Getting to zero: zero new HIV infections, zero deaths from AIDS-related illness, zero discrimination is the theme of World AIDS Day 2012. Given the spread of the epidemic today, getting to zero may sound difficult, but significant progress is underway. The total annual loss for the entire country due to HIV is 7% of GDP, which exceeds India’s annual health expenditure in 2004. The additional loss due to loss of labor income and increased medical expenditure as measured by the external transfers, account for 5% of the country’s health expenditure and 0.23% of GDP. Given that the HIV incidence rate is only 0.27% in India, these losses are quite staggering. Despite the remarkable achievements in development of anti-retroviral therapies against HIV and the recent advances in new prevention technologies, the rate of new HIV infections continue to outpace efforts on HIV prevention and control. Thus, the development of a safe and effective vaccine for prevention and control of AIDS remains a global public health priority and the greatest opportunity to eventually end the AIDS pandemic. PMID:24056755

  7. HIV and Young Male Street Prostitutes: A Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Patricia M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence data for young male street prostitutes. Examined sociodemographic characteristics, substance use patterns, HIV-related risk behaviors, and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome knowledge as potential correlates to HIV status. Findings suggest that adolescent male prostitutes are exposed to…

  8. HIV Testing Patterns among Urban YMSM of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Noelle R.; Rajan, Sonali; Gwadz, Marya V.; Aregbesola, Temi

    2014-01-01

    The heightened level of risk for HIV infection among Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is driven by multilevel influences. Using cross-sectional data, we examined HIV testing patterns among urban YMSM of color in a high-HIV seroprevalence area (ages 16 to 21 years). Self-reported frequency of testing was high, with 42% of…

  9. HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Jaime E; Bozon, Michel; Ortiz, Edith; Arredondo, Anabella

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW) attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW showed adequate overall knowledge of HIV, even better than reported for the Chilean general population on some items. Condom use with clients was high ("always" = 93.4%), although regular use with steady partners was low ("always" = 9.9%). The zero HIV seroprevalence and consistent condom use with clients confirms the positive impact of intervention strategies for FSW, increasing both correct knowledge of AIDS and condom use with clients and helping decrease these women's HIV/AIDS vulnerability. PMID:17653395

  10. Seroprevalence of human herpesvirus 8 in human immunodeficiency virus 1-positive and human immunodeficiency virus 1-negative populations in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujii, T; Taguchi, H; Katano, H; Mori, S; Nakamura, T; Nojiri, N; Nakajima, K; Tadokoro, K; Juji, T; Iwamoto, A

    1999-02-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) among human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-positive (HIV-1+) and HIV-1-negative (HIV-1-) populations in Japan, 276 HIV-1+ patients and 1,000 HIV-1- blood donors were enrolled in this study. Antibodies against HHV8 latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) were examined through indirect immunofluorescent assay by using a B-cell line that was infected latently with HHV8 (body cavity-based lymphoma 1). An HHV8- and Epstein-Barr virus-negative B-cell line (Ramos) was used as a control. Thirty-two seropositive cases against LANA (anti-LANA+) were identified among the 276 HIV-1+ patients who were studied. Five cases were foreigners living in Japan. The risk factor of all 27 Japanese cases was unprotected sexual intercourse, and the great majority of these cases (23 in 27; 85%) reported homosexual/bisexual behavior. Anti-LANA+ status correlated with the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, such as amoeba and HBV infection, further suggesting male homosexual behavior as the main route of HHV8 transmission in Japan. Only two LANA+ cases were identified among 1,000 HIV- blood donors in Japan; thus, seroprevalence of HHV8 identified by LANA was estimated to be 0.2% among HIV-1- populations in this country. PMID:9892401

  11. Scrub Typhus Seroprevalence in Healthy Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Mallika; Anandan, Shalini; Daniel, Dolly

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus, a zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is an important cause of acute febrile illness in India. This preliminary study determines the seroprevalence of scrub typhus in healthy Indian adults by measuring IgM and IgG antibodies to scrub typhus by ELISA in 100 healthy blood donors. Our study demonstrates a 15% seroprevalence of scrub typhus in adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings especially in children. PMID:26557523

  12. The Role of Community in Meeting the Needs of African-American HIV Affected Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Sally

    2002-01-01

    Assessed the service needs of HIV-affected families in an inner city African American community with a high HIV/AIDS seroprevalence. Data from focus group interviews indicated a lack of family-sensitive HIV/AIDS community services. Participants noted the problem with stigma and identified community awareness and education as critical to serving…

  13. Hepatitis C virus seroprevalence in adults in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Riou, J; Aït Ahmed, M; Blake, A; Vozlinsky, S; Brichler, S; Eholié, S; Boëlle, P-Y; Fontanet, A

    2016-04-01

    With the introduction of more efficient treatments for hepatitis C virus (HCV), improved epidemiological information is required at the country level to allow evidence-based policymaking for elaboration of national strategies and HCV resources planning. We present a systematic review with meta-analysis of HCV seroprevalence data in adults in African countries. We conducted a systematic review of all HCV seroprevalence estimates reported in African countries from 2000 to 2014 in MEDLINE, AJOL and grey literature. We assessed studies performed in the general population and among blood donors, pregnant women and HIV-positive patients. A meta-regression analysis was used to provide adjusted estimates of HCV seroprevalence in the general adult population in each country, accounting for the heterogeneity in sample age structure and population types in the included studies. We identified 775 national-level estimations, among which 184 were included. Estimates of HCV seroprevalence were produced for 38 countries, in addition to the results from nationwide representative surveys available in Egypt and Libya. Next to Egypt, which clearly stands out, the highest levels of seroprevalence were found in Middle Africa (e.g. Cameroon, Gabon and Angola) and some West African countries (e.g. Burkina Faso, Benin), and the largest absolute numbers of infected adults were found in Nigeria, Ethiopia and Democratic Republic of Congo. This study exposes the diversity of HCV epidemiology among African countries. Egypt and several countries of West and Middle Africa present a HCV burden that will require strong governmental commitment to promote efficient preventive and curative interventions. PMID:26477881

  14. Seroprevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Treponema pallidum Infections among Blood Donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiang-Tao; Eyi, Urbano Monsuy; Matesa, Rocio Apicante; Obono, Maximo Miko Ondo; Ehapo, Carlos Sala; Yang, Li-Ye; Yang, Hui; Yang, Hui-Tian; Lin, Min

    2015-01-01

    Background Regular screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs), such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HBV and HCV, respectively), and Treponema pallidum, in blood donors is essential to guaranteeing clinical transfusion safety. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of four TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (EG). Methods A retrospective survey of blood donors from January 2011 to April 2013 was conducted to assess the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum. The medical records were analyzed to verify the seroprevalence of these TTIs among blood donations stratified by gender, age and geographical region. Results Of the total 2937 consecutive blood donors, 1098 (37.39%) had a minimum of one TTI and 185 (6.29%) harbored co-infections. The general seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were 7.83%, 10.01%, 3.71% and 21.51%, respectively. The most frequent TTI co-infections were HBV-T. pallidum 60 (2.04%) and HIV-T. pallidum 46 (1.57%). The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were highest among blood donors 38 to 47 years, 18 to 27 years and ≥ 48 years age, respectively (P<0.05). The seroprevalence of TTIs varied according to the population from which the blood was collected on Bioko Island. Conclusions Our results firstly provide a comprehensive overview of TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island. Strict screening of blood donors and improved hematological examinations using standard operating procedures are recommended. PMID:26448460

  15. Correlates to seroprevalent herpes simplex virus type 2 among rural Appalachian drug users.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Dustin B; Young, April M; Mullins, Ursula L; Havens, Jennifer R

    2016-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the most common cause of genital ulcer disease and, along with substance abuse, an important HIV risk factor. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine HSV-2 seroprevalence in a sample of drug users in rural Appalachia. Rural Appalachian individuals age 18 or older reporting non-medical use of prescription opioids, heroin, crack/cocaine, or methamphetamine in the past 6 months (n = 499) were included. Behavioral, demographic, and sexual network data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Participants' serum was tested for HSV-2 antibodies using the Biokit rapid test (Lexington, MA). The estimated population seroprevalence of HSV-2 was 14.4% (95%CI: 9.6-19.4%). Only 8.8% were aware of being HSV-2+, and unprotected sex was reported in 80% of serodiscordant sexual relationships. In a multivariate model, female gender, age, older age at first oral sex, and frequency of unprotected sex in the sexual network were independently associated with HSV-2 seropositivity. Despite lower seroprevalence than that reported in similar studies of substance abusers, targeted interventions to reduce sexual risk behavior are warranted in this underserved population. Network-informed approaches with particular focus on women, older individuals, and those engaging in frequent unprotected sex are recommended. PMID:26288383

  16. [Prisons and HIV. A review of HIV epidemics in 4 prisons in the Oslo area].

    PubMed

    Skogstad, M

    1989-10-30

    It is very likely that the degree of HIV-seropositive prevalence in prisons reflects the HIV epidemic among drug users outside prisons. A thorough epidemiologic survey among prisoners is therefore important. 23% of all known HIV-positive male drug users in Norway have been diagnosed at Oslo Kretsfengsel. The minimum seroprevalence of HIV among the drug users in this prison is 10%. Of the persons detained in Oslo Kretsfengsel who were tested two times or more during their term of imprisonment in 1987 and 1988, none seroconverted. PMID:2815047

  17. Nationwide surveillance of HIV-1 prevalence and subtype in young Thai men.

    PubMed

    Mason, C J; Kitsiripornchai, S; Markowitz, L E; Chanbancherd, P; Supapongse, T; Jugsudee, A; Sirisopana, N; Chuenchitra, C; Torugsa, K; VanCott, T C; Michael, R A; Nitayaphan, S

    1998-10-01

    As part of routine surveillance, an HIV-1 serosurvey of 366,074 members of successive cohorts of young Thai men entering service with the Royal Thai Army (RTA) was conducted between November 1989 and November 1995. We analyzed regional and temporal trends in HIV-1 seroprevalence in young men in Thailand and determined the proportion of infections resulting from subtypes E and B in this population in 1992 and 1995. The prevalence in 1992 was compared with that in 1995 by region and demographic group. The HIV-1 subtype was determined in a random sample of HIV-1-positive specimens in 1992 and 1995 using a V3 peptide enzyme immunoassay. From a peak of 3.7% in 1993, overall seroprevalence declined to 3.0% in 1994 and further in 1995 to 2.5%. Between 1992 and 1995, the absolute decrease in seroprevalence was greatest in the upper North (from 12.5% to 5.3%), where the prevalence has been the highest. Overall, 96.9% and 95.9% of typable specimens were determined to be subtype E in 1992 and 1995, respectively. Decline in HIV-1 seroprevalence among young men in Thailand has continued, which suggests that HIV control programs in Thailand may have been successful in decreasing spread of HIV-1. Almost all HIV-1 infections resulted from subtype E. PMID:9768626

  18. [Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence: a reappraisal].

    PubMed

    Covarrubías, Natalia; Hurtado, Carmen; Díaz, Alex; Mezzano, Gabriel; Brahm, Javier; Venegas, Mauricio

    2015-08-01

    Reported seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in developed countries is between 0.3-53%. Published data relies on the assays used and its technical performance. Sensitivity on new available tests has improved, which has changed HEV seroprevalence around the world. We re-evaluated retrospectively, 178 serum samples of patients with previous anti HEV IgG determination between 2009 and 2012. Initial analysis was performed with ELISA kit Genelabs (Singapore), with 7.3% positivity. The reevaluation was done with ELISA kit AccuDiag TM HEV-IgG (Diagnostic Automation, United States), with reported sensitivity and specificity over 99.8%. With the new assay, 32.6% positive samples were found, significantly greater to the previous result (p<0.001) (4.5 times more). There were no differences in gender but a significant association between age and HEV IgG seropositivity was found (p<0.001). This suggests that previous testing might have underestimated HEV seroprevalence in Chile, which should be reevaluated using the new available test. PMID:26436799

  19. HIV infection among women undergoing abortion in Montreal.

    PubMed Central

    Remis, R S; Eason, E L; Palmer, R W; Najjar, M; Leclerc, P; Lebel, F; Fauvel, M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the seroprevalence and correlates of HIV infection in a subpopulation of women of childbearing age in Montreal. DESIGN: Anonymous unlinked seroprevalence study. SETTING: Pregnancy termination unit in a teaching hospital in Montreal. PARTICIPANTS: Women presenting for abortion from July 1989 to June 1993 who resided in Quebec and were not known to have HIV infection; 12,017 (99.6%) of 12,068 eligible women were included in the study. INTERVENTION: HIV antibody testing of serum left over from samples obtained for routine Rh typing; the same algorithm as for serodiagnostic testing, namely enzyme immunoassay (EIA) followed by confirmatory testing of repeatedly EIA-reactive samples, was used. OUTCOME MEASURES: HIV serostatus by age, marital status, region of residence (metropolitan Montreal versus other), country of birth and number of living children. RESULTS: Most (84.7%) of the subjects resided in metropolitan Montreal. The median age was 27.0 (range 13 to 50) years. The serum samples of 22 women were confirmed to be HIV positive, for an overall seroprevalence rate of 1.8 per 1000 (95% confidence interval 1.1 to 2.8). The seroprevalence rate did not vary significantly by age, marital status, region of residence or study year. However, it was strongly correlated with country of birth: Canada 0.16, Haiti 23.5, HIV-endemic countries other than Haiti 5.3 and non-HIV-endemic countries other than Canada 0.0 per 1000. The seroprevalence rate among women born in Haiti was 147 times higher than that among women born in Canada (p < 0.0001). Of the women born in Haiti the rate was 3.0 times greater among those who immigrated to Canada in 1985 or later than among those who immigrated earlier (p = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that the HIV seroprevalence rate among women in Montreal is strongly associated with country of birth, women born in HIV-endemic countries, especially Haiti, having the highest rate. These results will help

  20. Strategies for universalistic and targeted HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Des Jarlais, D C; Padian, N

    1997-10-01

    The controversy over "targeted" versus "universalistic" programs for HIV prevention has persisted throughout the history of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States and in some European countries. Building on previous analyses, we outline methods for integrating universalistic and targeted HIV prevention programming. The outline considers possible synergy between targeted and universalistic programs, rather than a forced choice between the two. Components within this framework include a continuum of the intensity of targeted programs, specification of local risk behavior populations, categories of risk behavior, and HIV seroprevalence within local risk-behavior populations. Given the scarce resources currently available, preventing all new HIV infections is not a realistic public health goal, but with better use of current scientific knowledge, it should be possible to greatly reduce the rate of new HIV infections. PMID:9358108

  1. Seroprevalence of Entamoeba histolytica Infection among Chinese Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangwei; Yang, Yu; Gao, Cong; Jin, Qi; Gao, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) were found to be one of the high-risk populations for Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) infection. Accompanied by the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among MSM, invasive amebiasis caused by E. histolytica has been paid attention to as an opportunistic parasitic infection. However, the status of E. histolytica infection among MSM has been barely studied in mainland China. Methods Seroprevalance of E. histolytica was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a cross-sectional study conducted in Beijing and Tianjin, China. Factors potentially associated with E. histolytica infection were identified by logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 602 MSM were included in the study and the laboratory data on serostatus of E. histolytica were available for 599 of them (99.5%). 246 (41.1%) and 51 (8.5%) of the study participants were E. histolytica seropositive and HIV seropositive, respectively. Univariate analyses suggested preferred anal sex behaviors were associated with E. histolytica seropositivity. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, “only has receptive anal sex” (OR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.22 3.37), “majority receptive anal sex” (OR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.95), and “sadomasochistic behavior (SM)” (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.04, 5.13) were found to be significantly associated with E. histolytica infection. Conclusions High seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection was observed among MSM from Beijing and Tianjin, China. Receptive anal sex behavior and SM were identified as potential predictors. Therefore, E. histolytica and HIV co-infection needs to be concerned among MSM due to their sharing the common risk behaviors. PMID:23717699

  2. Anti-HCV seroprevalence and risk factors of hepatitis C virus infection in Moroccan population groups.

    PubMed

    Benjelloun, S; Bahbouhi, B; Sekkat, S; Bennani, A; Hda, N; Benslimane, A

    1996-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) seroprevalence and transmission routes were investigated in several groups of the Moroccan population. This study showed a low HCV seroprevalence in the Moroccan general population. However, haemodialysis patients and haemophiliacs were at higher risk of having HCV infection, since the prevalences were, respectively, 35.1 and 42.4% in comparison with the blood donors' prevalence (1.1%). These results indicated that parenteral exposure is the transmission pathway of HCV. To investigate the possibility of vertical HCV transmission, a cohort of healthy, unselected pregnant women were included in the study. A prevalence of 1% was found among them. Seven newborns were anti-HCV-positive, although, when RT-PCR was used to search for HCV RNA in their sera, none of them was viraemic. These data indicated that anti-HCV antibodies were passively acquired in these cases. We concluded that vertical transmission is absent when mothers are at low risk of contracting other parenterally or sexually transmitted diseases. Three percent of a group of patients of a centre for sexually transmitted diseases were repeatedly anti-HCV-positive, suggesting the possible sexual transmission of HCV. When screening 116 sera of anti-HIV-positive subjects, 19.8% were anti-HCV-positive. Furthermore, 17.9% of the sixty-seven patients who were proven to have sexually contracted HIV were also anti-HCV-positive. These data might reflect a likely cotransmission of these two viruses, hence suggesting HIV is a cofacter for HCV sexual transmission, as previously reported. PMID:8837233

  3. Seroprevalence of West Nile virus in Iran.

    PubMed

    Chinikar, Sadegh; Shah-Hosseini, Nariman; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Moradi, Maryam; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Jalali, Tahmineh; Goya, Mohammad Mehdi; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Zainali, Mohammad; Fooks, Anthony R

    2013-08-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) in human and equine sera in Iran. Blood samples were tested from 300 human samples and 315 equine samples in five geographic zones of north and central parts of Iran between 2010 and 2012. All samples were tested for the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to WNV by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Of all samples, 4 (1.3%) human and 9 (2.8%) equines were considered to be seropositive for WNV. These results suggest circulation and exposure of the human and equine populations to WNV in Iran. PMID:23697768

  4. Seroprevalence of bluetongue in ruminants of Jharkhand

    PubMed Central

    Tigga, Pinky; Joardar, Siddhartha Narayan; Halder, Arkendu; Lodh, Chandan; Samanta, Indranil; Isore, Devi Prasad; Batabyal, Kunal; Dey, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was carried out to assess the presence of anti-bluetongue (BT) antibodies in sheep, goat and cattle of different agro-climatic zones of Jharkhand. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from apparently healthy as well as suspected sheep, goat and cattle from different districts of Jharkhand covering different agro-climatic zones. Serum samples were screened by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) for detecting anti-BT antibodies. Results: Out of a total of 480 animal serum samples (sheep-190, goats-210 and cattle-80) screened, 83 (43.68%) of sheep, 91 (43.33%) of goat and 46 (57.50%) of cattle sera were found positive. The % positivity ranged between 41% and 51% in different agro-climatic zones. The results showed slight higher seroprevalence, although not significantly, in cattle than sheep and goats in different agro-climatic zones of Jharkhand. Conclusions: The above data indicate widespread prevalence of BT virus antibodies in studied areas. The incidence of BT is not detected officially, so far. The present seroprevalence status of BT in Jharkhand indicates presence of BT infection in the state for the first time. PMID:27047095

  5. Seroprevalence of Chikungunya in Southern Odisha

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Indrani; Dash, Muktikesh; Sahu, Susmita; Narasimham, M.V.; Panda, Pritilata; Padhi, Sanghamitra

    2013-01-01

    Background: The emergence of chikungunya (CHIK) infection was observed in Odisha, India in 2006. Thereafter many cases with symptoms suggestive of CHIK were reported from different districts of Southern-Odisha. This study was aimed to know the seroprevalence, clinical presentations and seasonal trends of CHIK infection in this region. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a tertiary hospital of this region. Serum samples received in the Department of Microbiology from various districts of Southern-Odisha from April 2011 to March 2012 were included in the study. The samples were tested for CHIK and dengue Immunoglobin M (IgM) antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and malaria parasite by immunochromatographic test (ICT) method. Results: Out of the 678 serum samples tested, 174 were positive for CHIK, 15 for dengue and two samples were positive for both CHIK and dengue IgM antibodies. The most affected age group was 16-45 years. Females were more affected than males. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of CHIK among the suspected cases was 25.7%. Co-infection with CHIK and dengue was found to be 1.15%. The infection had spread to new areas during this outbreak. PMID:24479040

  6. The Julius Rosenwald Fund syphilis seroprevalence studies.

    PubMed

    Roy, B

    1996-05-01

    In 1929 the Julius Rosenwald Fund, in conjunction with the Public Health Service (PHS), sponsored a syphilis seroprevalence study in the South characterized as a humanitarian effort to benefit the health of rural African Americans. The study reported extraordinarily high rates of positive Wassermann tests, even among children. Despite the unreliability and nonspecificity of this test, modern authors continue to indict these subjects as syphilitic. However, there was no consistent relationship between syphilis and a positive Wassermann test. Additional treponemal pathogens that potentially caused false-positive tests could explain the results. After public outcry to the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, the Rosenwald study acquired new significance. It was used as evidence to bolster the argument that Tuskegee was a consequence of humanitarian motives that became captive to misguided methods of researchers at the Venereal Disease Division of the PHS. Humanitarianism implies the acknowledgement of a right invested in the recipient; health is an end in itself. However, African Americans were necessary as a source of cheap labor for competition in the world cotton markets and as a restraint on the market value of white labor in manufacturing. The administrative structure of the PHS, not zealous individuals, adopted utilitarianism as its paradigm for human research. Syphilis seroprevalence was a calculated use of public health as a means to economic development. PMID:8667443

  7. The Julius Rosenwald Fund syphilis seroprevalence studies.

    PubMed Central

    Roy, B.

    1996-01-01

    In 1929 the Julius Rosenwald Fund, in conjunction with the Public Health Service (PHS), sponsored a syphilis seroprevalence study in the South characterized as a humanitarian effort to benefit the health of rural African Americans. The study reported extraordinarily high rates of positive Wassermann tests, even among children. Despite the unreliability and nonspecificity of this test, modern authors continue to indict these subjects as syphilitic. However, there was no consistent relationship between syphilis and a positive Wassermann test. Additional treponemal pathogens that potentially caused false-positive tests could explain the results. After public outcry to the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment, the Rosenwald study acquired new significance. It was used as evidence to bolster the argument that Tuskegee was a consequence of humanitarian motives that became captive to misguided methods of researchers at the Venereal Disease Division of the PHS. Humanitarianism implies the acknowledgement of a right invested in the recipient; health is an end in itself. However, African Americans were necessary as a source of cheap labor for competition in the world cotton markets and as a restraint on the market value of white labor in manufacturing. The administrative structure of the PHS, not zealous individuals, adopted utilitarianism as its paradigm for human research. Syphilis seroprevalence was a calculated use of public health as a means to economic development. PMID:8667443

  8. Retrospective hepatitis C seroprevalence screening in the antenatal setting—should we be screening antenatal women?

    PubMed Central

    Orkin, Chloe; Jeffery-Smith, Anna; Foster, Graham R; Tong, C Y William

    2016-01-01

    Objectives An unlinked anonymous seroprevalence study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in samples derived from antenatal clinic attendees at 2 East London Hospitals. An unexpectedly high HCV seroprevalence of 2.6% (1.2% viraemic) had been revealed during an unlinked study of the emergency department at 1 of these hospitals. Design 1000 stored residual samples were tested for HCV antibody (anti-HCV) and reactive samples were further tested for HCV RNA. The study was reviewed by the East Midland NRES ethics committee project ID 181154, approval number 15/WS/0125. Results The anti-HCV reactivity rate was 0.5% (5/1000) with 0.1% (1/1000) confirmed viraemic. Prevalence for the other blood-borne viruses was higher: 1% (10/1000) were hepatitis B surface antigen positive and 0.3% were HIV antigen/antibody positive (3/1000). There were no co-infections. Conclusions More data to establish the prevalence of HCV in the antenatal population is needed. The addition of anti-HCV testing to the well-established antenatal screening programme provides a unique opportunity to impact on the health of pregnant women, their children, partners and future pregnancies in this new era of treatment for hepatitis C. PMID:27231001

  9. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Kyrgyzstan: Seroprevalence, Risk Factor Analysis, and Estimate of Congenital and AIDS-Related Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Bodosheva, Aigerim; Kuttubaev, Omurbek; Hehl, Adrian B.; Tanner, Isabelle; Ziadinov, Iskender; Torgerson, Paul R.; Deplazes, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-prevalence, as well as incidence of zoonotic parasitic diseases like cystic echinococcosis, has increased in the Kyrgyz Republic due to fundamental socio-economic changes after the breakdown of the Soviet Union. The possible impact on morbidity and mortality caused by Toxoplasma gondii infection in congenital toxoplasmosis or as an opportunistic infection in the emerging AIDS pandemic has not been reported from Kyrgyzstan. Methodology/Principal Findings We screened 1,061 rural and 899 urban people to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 2 representative but epidemiologically distinct populations in Kyrgyzstan. The rural population was from a typical agricultural district where sheep husbandry is a major occupation. The urban population was selected in collaboration with several diagnostic laboratories in Bishkek, the largest city in Kyrgyzstan. We designed a questionnaire that was used on all rural subjects so a risk-factor analysis could be undertaken. The samples from the urban population were anonymous and only data with regard to age and gender was available. Estimates of putative cases of congenital and AIDS-related toxoplasmosis in the whole country were made from the results of the serology. Specific antibodies (IgG) against Triton X-100 extracted antigens of T. gondii tachyzoites from in vitro cultures were determined by ELISA. Overall seroprevalence of infection with T. gondii in people living in rural vs. urban areas was 6.2% (95%CI: 4.8–7.8) (adjusted seroprevalence based on census figures 5.1%, 95% CI 3.9–6.5), and 19.0% (95%CI: 16.5–21.7) (adjusted 16.4%, 95% CI 14.1–19.3), respectively, without significant gender-specific differences. The seroprevalence increased with age. Independently low social status increased the risk of Toxoplasma seropositivity while increasing numbers of sheep owned decreased the risk of seropositivity. Water supply, consumption of unpasteurized milk products or undercooked meat, as

  10. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Australian dogs.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, A J; Norris, J M; Heller, J; Brown, G; Malik, R; Bosward, K L

    2016-09-01

    The role of dogs in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii to humans is uncertain, and extensive seroprevalence studies of dogs have not been previously conducted in Australia. This study determined C. burnetii exposure in four diverse canine subpopulations by adapting, verifying and comparing an indirect immunofluoresence assay (IFA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used to detect anti-C. burnetii antibodies in humans. Canine serum samples (n = 1223) were tested with IFA from four subpopulations [breeding establishments; household pets; free-roaming dogs in Aboriginal communities; shelter dogs]. The proportions of seropositive dogs were as follows: breeding (7/309, 2.3%), household pets (10/328, 3%), Aboriginal communities (21/321, 6.5%) and shelters (5/265, 1.9%). Dogs from Aboriginal communities were 2.8 times (CI 1.5-5.1; P < 0.001) more likely to be seropositive than dogs from other populations. The ELISA was used on 86 of 1223 sera tested with IFA, and a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.60 (CI 0.43-0.78) indicated good agreement between the two assays. This study has established that Australian dogs within all four subpopulations have been exposed to C. burnetii and that a higher seroprevalence was observed amongst free-roaming dogs associated with Aboriginal communities. As C. burnetii recrudesces during pregnancy and birth products contain the highest concentration of organism, individuals assisting at the time of parturition, those handling pups shortly after birth as well as those residing in the vicinity of whelping dogs are potentially at risk of developing Q fever. However, the identification of active antigen shed in excreta from seropositive dogs is required in order to accurately define and quantify the public health risk. PMID:26729351

  11. International epidemiology of HIV and AIDS among injecting drug users.

    PubMed

    Des Jarlais, D C; Friedman, S R; Choopanya, K; Vanichseni, S; Ward, T P

    1992-10-01

    HIV/AIDS and iv drug use (IVDU) are of significant multinational scope and growing. Supporting increased IVDU in many countries are countries' geographical proximity to illicit drug trafficking distribution routes, law enforcement efforts which increase the demand for more efficient drug distribution and consumption, and countries' infrastructural and social modernization. Given the failures of intensified law enforcement efforts to thwart the use and proliferation of illegal drugs, countries with substantial IVDU should look away from preventing use to preventing HIV transmission within drug user populations. With HIV seroprevalence rates rapidly reaching 40-50% in some developing country IVDU groups, a variety of prevention programs is warranted. Such programs should be supported and implemented while prevention remains feasible. This paper examines the variation in HIV seroprevalence among IVD users, rapid HIV spread among users, HIV among IVDUs in Bangkok, emerging issues in HIV transmission among IVDUs, non-AIDS manifestations of HIV infection among IVDUs, prevention programs and effectiveness, and harm reduction. PMID:1466837

  12. HIV prevalence in patients with herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Kar, P K; Ramasastry, C V

    2003-01-01

    To monitor HIV seroprevalence and to determine the sexual risk behaviour of men with herpes zoster (HZ), a study was conducted from Jan 98 to Dec 99 among 115 men of 21 to 55 years of age suffering from HZ. The diagnosis of HZ was clinical and relevant investigations when indicated were carried out to exclude immunodeficiency state. None of the cases were on immunosuppressive drugs. All cases were tested for HIV by immunocomb method and if found positive were confirmed by Western blot assay. Out of 115 cases of HZ 11 (9.5%) were found to be HIV positive. 11 (10.8%) of HIV positive cases were 21-40 years of age. More than one dermatome was involved in 7 (63.6%) HIV positive and in 2 (1.9%) HIV negative cases. 2 HIV positive cases had multiple cranial nerve involvement and one had generalized HZ. None of the cases showed evidence of progression to symptomatic HIV disease. Out of 11 HIV positive cases 9 (81.8%) gave history of multiple unprotected sexual exposures with female commercial sex workers and 2 (18.1%) with amateurs. None of our cases had used condom during sexual intercourse. None gave history of blood transfusion in the past or intravenous drug use. PMID:17642851

  13. Triple jeopardy for HIV: substance using Severely Mentally Ill Adults.

    PubMed

    Devieux, Jessy G; Malow, Robert; Lerner, Brenda G; Dyer, Janyce G; Baptista, Ligia; Lucenko, Barbara; Kalichman, Seth

    2007-01-01

    Severely Mentally Ill (SMI) adults have disproportionately high HIV seroprevalence rates. Abuse of alcohol and other substances (AOD) and lifetime exposure to trauma by others are particularly potent risk factors, which, in combination with psychiatric disabilities, create triple jeopardy for HIV infection. This study examined the predictive utility of demographic characteristics; history of physical, emotional, or sexual abuse; extent of drug and alcohol abuse; knowledge about HIV/AIDS; sexual self-efficacy; and condom attitudes toward explaining the variance in a composite of HIV high-risk behavior among 188 SMI women and 158 SMI men. History of sexual abuse, engaging in sexual activities while high on substances, and lower cannabis use were the most significant predictors of HIV sexual risk behaviors. Given the triple jeopardy for HIV risk in this population, a triple barreled approach that simultaneously addresses multiple health risks within an integrated treatment setting is warranted. PMID:17298927

  14. HIV surveillance in complex emergencies.

    PubMed

    Salama, P; Dondero, T J

    2001-04-01

    Many studies have shown a positive association between both migration and temporary expatriation and HIV risk. This association is likely to be similar or even more pronounced for forced migrants. In general, HIV transmission in host-migrant or host-forced-migrant interactions depends on the maturity of the HIV epidemic in both the host and the migrant population, the relative seroprevalence of HIV in the host and the migrant population, the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that may facilitate transmission, and the level of sexual interaction between the two communities. Complex emergencies are the major cause of mass population movement today. In complex emergencies, additional factors such as sexual interaction between forced-migrant populations and the military; sexual violence; increasing commercial sex work; psychological trauma; and disruption of preventive and curative health services may increase the risk for HIV transmission. Despite recent success in preventing HIV infection in stable populations in selected developing countries, internally displaced persons and refugees (or forced migrants) have not been systematically included in HIV surveillance systems, nor consequently in prevention activities. Standard surveillance systems that rely on functioning health services may not provide useful data in many complex emergency settings. Secondary sources can provide some information in these settings. Little attempt has been made, however, to develop innovative HIV surveillance systems in countries affected by complex emergencies. Consequently, data on the HIV epidemic in these countries are scarce and HIV prevention programs are either not implemented or interventions are not effectively targeted. Second generation surveillance methods such as cross-sectional, population-based surveys can provide rapid information on HIV, STIs, and sexual behavior. The risks for stigmatization and breaches of confidentiality must be recognized

  15. HIV and female sex workers.

    PubMed Central

    Estébanez, P.; Fitch, K.; Nájera, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this review of published findings on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk factors among female sex workers, we summarize the results of seroprevalence studies in different countries and discuss the different patterns of transmission among such workers in various geographical regions. The highest rates of HIV infection occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where the widespread existence of sexually transmitted diseases may play an important role in sustaining transmission. In Europe and North America injecting drug use continues to be the major factor associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, while in Latin America and parts of Asia there is a more mixed pattern of heterosexual and parenteral transmission from injecting drug use. Reviewed also are studies of the risk factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, such as drug use, sexual behaviour, the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, and condom use; in addition, we comment on some studies of the clients of sex workers. Finally, we propose directions that future research in this area might take and discuss various interventions that need to be undertaken to reduce HIV transmission among female sex workers. PMID:8324860

  16. High Seroprevalence for Typhus Group Rickettsiae, Southwestern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Dill, Tatjana; Dobler, Gerhard; Saathoff, Elmar; Clowes, Petra; Kroidl, Inge; Ntinginya, Elias; Machibya, Harun; Maboko, Leonard; Löscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Rickettsioses caused by typhus group rickettsiae have been reported in various African regions. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,227 participants from 9 different sites in the Mbeya region, Tanzania; overall seroprevalence of typhus group rickettsiae was 9.3%. Risk factors identified in multivariable analysis included low vegetation density and highway proximity. PMID:23347529

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is important because they are considered as a sentinel for contamination of seas with T. gondii oocysts, and toxoplasmosis causes mortality in these animals, particularly sea otters. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was determined in 75 captive mari...

  18. Low seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Boer goats in Missouri

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Goats are known reservoirs of Coxiella burnetii, the etiologic agent of Q fever. However, there has been very little research on the prevalence of C. burnetii exposure and risk in meat goats farmed in the US. Banked serum samples were secondarily tested for C. burnetii specific antibodies. Findings The animal and herd-level seroprevalence estimates for C. burnetii were 1.2% (3/249) and 4.2% (1/24) respectively. Within-herd seroprevalence ranged from 0% to 1.2%. Conclusions This study indicates that seroprevalence of C. burnetii in Boer goats raised in Missouri was low, but it does not preclude the existence of a higher level of infection in Missouri’s meat goat herds. This result is inconclusive because this study was disadvantaged by the small number of individual animal and herds tested, which compromised the statistical power of this study to detect a possible higher seroprevalence of C. burnetii in this population, if present. More research is warranted to corroborate the preliminary findings reported here in order to determine the public health significance C. burnetii infection risks associated with contemporary goat production systems in the US. PMID:24994554

  19. Epidemic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among intravenous drug users (IVDU).

    PubMed Central

    D'Aquila, R. T.; Williams, A. B.

    1987-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is epidemic among intravenous drug users (IVDU), particularly in the northeastern United States. IVDU are playing a critical role in the spread of HIV by infecting their heterosexual partners and children, as well as their needle-sharing partners. The epidemiology of HIV infection among IVDU is reviewed here, including a compilation of seroprevalence data. Relevant determinants of the future spread of HIV among IVDU are discussed, including the major risk factors for HIV seropositivity, the modes of HIV transmission, and aspects of the natural history of HIV infection in IVDU. The public health policy implications of these issues include the need for education of adolescents and the general public about the risks of drug injection and heterosexual intercourse with IVDU, as well as motivation of IVDU to stop injecting, never share injection paraphernalia, or, at least, clean needles effectively. PMID:3324506

  20. Population-based HIV prevalence and associated factors in male-to-female transsexuals from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Jacinto, Michelle Moraes; da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Lorencetti, Emilaine Karine; da Rosa Filho, Heitor Tomé; Mueller, Andressa; de Garcia, Claudia Garcia; Nardi, Henrique Caetano; Koller, Silvia Helena; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues

    2015-02-01

    This study assessed HIV prevalence and associated factors in 284 male-to-female transsexuals from southern Brazil. Seroprevalence was 25 %. Seroprevalence was higher and associated with older age, residence in the metropolitan area, history of diagnosis of other STDs, and reported history of sex work. The year of diagnosis showed no significant relationship with the prevalence of HIV nor the fact of being in a stable relationship, a history of drug use, years of education, and race/ethnicity. The odds of HIV infection compared with the general Brazilian population was 55.55 (95 % CI 38.39-80.39). Changes in the views of the vulnerable groups to HIV/AIDS in Brazil and efforts in the construction of strategies of prevention and in the guarantee of human rights are required. PMID:25245931

  1. Addressing Unmet Need for HIV Testing in Emergency Care Settings: A Role for Computer-facilitated Rapid HIV Testing?

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Ann E.; Severynen, Anneleen; Spielberg, Freya

    2014-01-01

    HIV testing in emergency departments (EDs) remains underutilized. We evaluated a computer tool to facilitate rapid HIV testing in an urban ED. Randomly assigned non-acute adult ED patients to computer tool (‘CARE’) and rapid HIV testing before standard visit (n=258) or to standard visit (n=259) with chart access. Assessed intervention acceptability and compared noted HIV risks. Participants were 56% non-white, 58% male; median age 37 years. In the CARE arm nearly all (251/258) completed the session and received HIV results; 4 declined test consent. HIV risks were reported by 54% of users and there was one confirmed HIV-positive and 2 false-positives (seroprevalence 0.4%, 95% CI 0.01–2.2%). Half (55%) preferred computerized, over face-to-face, counseling for future HIV testing. In standard arm, one HIV test and 2 referrals for testing occurred. Computer-facilitated HIV testing appears acceptable to ED patients. Future research should assess cost-effectiveness compared with staff-delivered approaches. PMID:23837807

  2. [Seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in STD consultants in Morocco].

    PubMed

    Takourt, B; Radouani, F; Benchekroun, A; Sekkat, S; Bouqdir, F; Guinet, R; Ibrahimy, S; Benslimane, A

    1995-03-01

    We have conducted a seroepidemiological survey of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among 400 STD consultants in comparison with 400 blood donors. The study was performed by using the indirect microimmunofluorescence technique with Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pneumoniae as antigens. The overall seroprevalences were 60% and 46% for STD consultants and blood donors respectively. The seroprevalences of Chlamydia trachomatis alone were 12.5% for STD consultants and 7.5% for blood donors. No differences were observed according to age in the two groups and people of 20-29 and 30-39 years old, of both sexes were the most concerned. We conclude that Chlamydia trachomatis infection remains an important problem in Morocco. PMID:8640084

  3. HIV Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Home > HIV/AIDS > What is HIV/AIDS? HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) HIV symptoms Photo courtesy of AIDS.gov More information ... and brain Return to top More information on HIV symptoms Explore other publications and websites Basic Information ...

  4. Seroprevalence of Leptospira Hardjo in the Irish suckler cattle population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prior to the present study, the seroprevalence of leptospirosis in Irish suckler herds was unknown. In this study, we describe the herd and animal-level prevalence of Leptospira Hardjo infection in the Irish suckler cattle population. For the purposes of the study, the 26 counties of the Republic of Ireland were divided into 6 regions from which a representative number of herds were selected. A herd was considered eligible for sampling if it was not vaccinating against leptospirosis and if it contained ≥ 9 breeding animals of beef breed ≥ 12 months of age. In total, 288 randomly selected herds were eligible for inclusion in the seroprevalence dataset analysis. Serological testing was carried out using a commercially available monoclonal antibody-capture ELISA, (sensitivity 100%; specificity 86.67%). Results Herds were categorised as either “Free from Infection” or “Infected” using the epidemiological software tool, FreeCalc 2.0. Using this classification, 237 herds were “Infected” (82.29%). The South West and South East regions had the highest herd prevalence. The regional effect on herd prevalence was largely mirrored by breeding herd size. A true animal-level prevalence of 41.75% was calculated using the epidemiological software tool, TruePrev. There was a statistically significant regional trend, with true prevalence being highest in the South East (P < 0.05). The median Breeding Herd Size (BHS), when categorised into quartiles, had a statistically significant influence on individual animal true seroprevalence (P < 0.001); true seroprevalence increased with increasing BHS. Conclusions Leptospirosis is a widespread endemic disease in the Republic of Ireland. It is possible that economic losses due to leptospirosis in unvaccinated Irish suckler herds may be underestimated. PMID:22546216

  5. Seroprevalence survey of brucellosis among rural people in Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Baljinnyam, Zolzaya; Suuri, Bujinlkham; Dashbal, Enkhbayar; Oidov, Baatarkhuu; Roth, Felix; Zinstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther; Dambadarjaa, Davaalkham

    2014-01-01

    Background After the transition from socialism to a market economy in 1990, human brucellosis re-emerged in Mongolia. The aim of our study was to estimate a representative seroprevalence of Brucella spp. and to determine risk factors for brucellosis seropositivity among rural people. Methods A cross-sectional study with multistage random selection was conducted in eight provinces of Mongolia. Study participants were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain their brucellosis history, current symptoms and likely risk factors. Blood samples were drawn to determine brucellosis seroprevalence. Results A total of 2856 randomly selected rural people aged four to 90 years were enrolled in the study. The seroprevalence of Brucella spp. was 11.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.0–12.1), ranging between 2.3% and 22.6% in the eight provinces; 39.2% (n = 609) of nomadic camps had at least one seropositive participant. Risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity were being older than 45 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.9, 95% CI = 5.1–8.7) and being a veterinarian (AOR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.5–5.0). Conclusion Our study confirms that human brucellosis seroprevalence among rural people in Mongolia is high. Human brucellosis can be effectively controlled if high-coverage livestock mass vaccination is implemented with a coverage survey after the vaccinations to ensure completeness. This mass vaccination should be accompanied by public awareness and educational programmes. PMID:25685600

  6. Mayaro virus fever in French Guiana: isolation, identification, and seroprevalence.

    PubMed

    Talarmin, A; Chandler, L J; Kazanji, M; de Thoisy, B; Debon, P; Lelarge, J; Labeau, B; Bourreau, E; Vié, J C; Shope, R E; Sarthou, J L

    1998-09-01

    This paper reports the first isolation of Mayaro (MAY) virus from a patient infected in French Guiana. The identification was initially performed using immunofluorescent antibody testing with specific mouse antibody, and confirmed by plaque-reduction neutralization testing and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. To determine if MAY virus infection is widespread in French Guiana, a serosurvey was performed to determine the prevalence of antibody to this virus in various ethnic groups and areas of French Guiana. Human sera (n = 1,962) were screened using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. To determine whether MAY virus circulates in the rain forest, a serosurvey in monkey populations was performed. Monkey sera (n = 150) were also screened for antibody to MAY virus using HI testing. Of the human sera tested, 6.3% were positive for anti-MAY virus antibodies. Significant differences in MAY virus seroprevalence between different age groups were observed. Seroprevalence rates increased with age, with a large increase in people 10-19 years of age in comparison with those less than 10 years of age. After adjustment for age, significant differences were also found between places of residence. The prevalence of anti-MAY virus antibody was higher in people living in contact with the forest, especially in the Haut Oyapock area (odds ratio [OR] = 97.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 48.2-197.9) and along the Maroni River (OR = 39.7, 95% CI = 20.6-76.6). The ethnic differences observed in this study were probably due to differences in residence. Among monkeys, higher seroprevalence rates were found in Alouatta seniculus (66.0%) than in Saguinus midas (18.2%). Among Alouatta, the seroprevalence increased significantly with weight (and therefore with age). This study indicates that MAY virus is present in French Guiana, and human infections occur in areas where people live near the tropical rain forest. PMID:9749643

  7. Coxiella burnetii Seroprevalence in Small Ruminants in The Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Klaasen, Marieke; Roest, Hendrik-Jan; van der Hoek, Wim; Goossens, Bart; Secka, Arss; Stegeman, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    Background Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, a Gram negative bacterium present worldwide. Small ruminants are considered the main reservoirs for infection of humans. This study aimed to estimate the extent of C. burnetii infection among sheep and goats in part of The Gambia. Methodology/Principal Findings This survey was carried out from March to May 2012 at two areas in The Gambia. The first area comprised a cluster of seven rural villages situated 5–15 km west of Farafenni as well as the local abattoir. A second sampling was done at the central abattoir in Abuko (30 km from the capital, Banjul) in the Western Region. Serum samples were obtained from 490 goats and 398 sheep. In addition, 67 milk samples were obtained from lactating dams. Sera were tested with a Q fever ELISA kit. C. burnetii DNA was extracted from milk samples and then detected using a specific quantitative multiplex PCR assay, targeting the IS1111a element. A multivariable mixed logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between seropositivity and explanatory variables. An overall seroprevalence of 21.6% was found. Goats had a significantly higher seroprevalence than sheep, respectively 24.2% and 18.5%. Seropositive animals were significantly older than seronegative animals. Animals from the villages had a significantly lower seroprevalence than animals from the central abattoir (15.1% versus 29.1%). C. burnetii DNA was detected in 2 out of 67 milk samples, whereas 8 samples gave a doubtful result. Conclusion/Significance A substantial C. burnetii seroprevalence in sheep and goats in The Gambia was demonstrated. People living in close proximity to small ruminants are exposed to C. burnetii. Q fever should be considered as a possible cause of acute febrile illness in humans in The Gambia. Future studies should include a simultaneous assessment of veterinary and human serology, and include aetiology of febrile illness in local clinics. PMID:24454863

  8. Seroprevalence of Infections with Dengue, Rift Valley Fever and Chikungunya Viruses in Kenya, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Ochieng, Caroline; Ahenda, Petronella; Vittor, Amy Y.; Nyoka, Raymond; Gikunju, Stella; Wachira, Cyrus; Waiboci, Lilian; Umuro, Mamo; Kim, Andrea A.; Nderitu, Leonard; Juma, Bonventure; Montgomery, Joel M.; Breiman, Robert F.; Fields, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses are a major constituent of emerging infectious diseases worldwide, but limited data are available on the prevalence, distribution, and risk factors for transmission in Kenya and East Africa. In this study, we used 1,091 HIV-negative blood specimens from the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2007) to test for the presence of IgG antibodies to dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV).The KAIS 2007 was a national population-based survey conducted by the Government of Kenya to provide comprehensive information needed to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Antibody testing for arboviruses was performed on stored blood specimens from KAIS 2007 through a two-step sandwich IgG ELISA using either commercially available kits or CDC-developed assays. Out of the 1,091 samples tested, 210 (19.2%) were positive for IgG antibodies against at least one of the three arboviruses. DENV was the most common of the three viruses tested (12.5% positive), followed by RVFV and CHIKV (4.5% and 0.97%, respectively). For DENV and RVFV, the participant’s province of residence was significantly associated (P≤.01) with seropositivity. Seroprevalence of DENV and RVFV increased with age, while there was no correlation between province of residence/age and seropositivity for CHIKV. Females had twelve times higher odds of exposure to CHIK as opposed to DENV and RVFV where both males and females had the same odds of exposure. Lack of education was significantly associated with a higher odds of previous infection with either DENV or RVFV (p <0.01). These data show that a number of people are at risk of arbovirus infections depending on their geographic location in Kenya and transmission of these pathogens is greater than previously appreciated. This poses a public health risk, especially for DENV. PMID:26177451

  9. Seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in southeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mahshid, Mostafavi; Baharak, Akhtardanesh; Iraj, Sharifi; Sina, Kakooei; Javad, Khedri; Mehdi, Bamorovat

    2014-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in many parts of Iran and infected dogs constitute the main domestic reservoirs that play a key role in transmission to humans. The objective of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in southeast of Iran. This survey was carried out from 2009 to 2011 in Kerman, Bam and Baft districts in Kerman province and Zabol in Sistan-Baluchestan province. Blood samples were taken from 201 dogs after complete clinical examination. Following hematological evaluation; collected sera were tested by indirect ELISA method for the presence of anti Leishmania infantum antibodies. Overall seroprevalence was 15.4 %, including 6.4, 3.5, 3 and 2.4 % in Bam, Zabol, Baft and Kerman, respectively. However, seroprevalence of disease was not significantly related to age, gender, presence of clinical signs and hematological disorders. Based to the results of the present study, CVL is endemic in southeastern Iran. Delayed diagnosis and euthanasia of potentially infectious animals may occur with an increased transmission risk to sand flies and subsequently to humans. Implementation of potent screening tests with high validity is essential for rapid detection and successful dog elimination programs in endemic parts of Iran. PMID:24808656

  10. High seroprevalence of respiratory pathogens in hobby poultry.

    PubMed

    Haesendonck, R; Verlinden, M; Devos, G; Michiels, T; Butaye, P; Haesebrouck, F; Pasmans, F; Martel, A

    2014-12-01

    Seroprevalence studies on respiratory pathogens have been done extensively in commercial laying hens, broilers, and, to a lesser extent, backyard poultry. In Europe, seroprevalence studies in backyard and fancy breed poultry flocks are scarce and limited to a few pathogens, such as Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG); others, such as Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), are missing. A commercial ELISA for detection of antibodies against six selected pathogens was performed on 460 serum samples from chickens across Flanders. Anti-ORT antibodies were, by far, the most prevalent, with a prevalence of 95.4%. Infectious bronchitis virus, Mycoplasma synoviae, and avian metapneumovirus antibodies were found in 75.6%, 76.3%, and 63.5% of the animals, respectively. Antibodies against MG and infectious laryngotracheitis virus were found in 36.7% and 30% of the animals, respectively. These data demonstrate the high seroprevalence of respiratory pathogens among hobby poultry; therefore, it is possible that this group could act as a reservoir for commercially kept poultry. PMID:25619008

  11. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild birds in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ju-Chi; Tsai, Yu-Jen; Wu, Ying-Ling

    2015-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoon which is well known for infecting humans and wild animals. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were evaluated in 394 wild birds, belonging to 37 species, from 15 different administrative regions in Taiwan. Using modified agglutination test (MAT), the overall seroprevalence of infection was 23.35% (CI 95% = 19.17%-27.53%). Antibodies were detected in birds of prey (25.73%, CI 95% = 19.76%-31.70%), birds living in freshwater or marine systems (34.29%, CI 95% = 18.56%-50.01%) and ground-feeding birds (18.12%, CI 95% = 11.94%-24.31%). Adult birds showed higher seroprevalence than that in juvenile birds, and the presence of clinical abnormalities was associated with T. gondii seropositivity. The results showed that this pathogen has spread widely in Taiwan. This suggests the zoonotic potential of the disease, with transmission from urban to rural regions, and from terrestrial to aquatic systems. The pathogenicity of T. gondii infection in wild birds in Taiwan needs further investigation. This is the first study of the seroprevalence of T. gondii in wild birds in Taiwan. PMID:26412541

  12. The seroprevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona in Michigan equids.

    PubMed

    Rossano, M G; Kaneene, J B; Marteniuk, J V; Banks, B D; Schott, H C; Mansfield, L S

    2001-01-29

    A cross-sectional study of serum antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona (the etiologic agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM) was performed on Michigan equids. Our objectives were to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to S. neurona in Michigan equids and to identify specific risk factors for seropositivity. A random, weighted sample of Michigan horse farms (stratified by the state's opossum (Didelphis virginiana) population and the number of equids on each operation) was selected. Ninety-eight equine-operation owners agreed to participate, and blood collection occurred from late March through October of 1997. Data regarding the 98 farms' feeding and management practices were collected, as well as descriptive data for each of the 1121 individual horses. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to S. neurona using a Western blot test. The true seroprevalence of antibodies specific to S. neurona was estimated to be 60%. Chi-square analysis showed that seroprevalence was lowest in the colder parts of the state that had the fewest opossums (P<0.0001). In two multivariable logistic-regression analyses with random effects grouped by herd, age and exposure to pasture were associated with increased odds of seropositivity, and feeding of sweet feed (grains mixed with molasses) was associated with decreased odds of testing positive. No association was found between farm size, animal gender, hay types, horse-housing types or exposure to natural surface water and seropositivity. PMID:11154784

  13. Seroprevalence of dengue virus antibodies in healthy Jamaicans.

    PubMed

    Brown, Michelle G; Vickers, Ivan E; Salas, Rose Alba; Smikle, Monica F

    2009-01-01

    Dengue fever, a mosquito borne viral infection, is endemic to Jamaica. The seroprevalence of dengue IgG and IgM antibodies were determined in 277 healthy Jamaicans by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The seroprevalence of dengue IgG antibodies was 100% (277/277) while dengue IgM antibodies were found in 3.6% (10/277). A statistically significant association was found between the presence of dengue IgM antibodies and gender (males 10/105, 9.5% vs females 0/172, 0.0%); chi(2) = 17.0, p=0.000.The high seroprevalence rate of dengue IgG antibodies and the presence of dengue IgM in the healthy population are in keeping with the endemicity of the virus in Jamaica. Therefore tests for dengue IgG antibodies are of limited usefulness in Jamaica and can be safely excluded from diagnostic testing as a cost saving measure. Serological diagnosis of current dengue infection should be centred around the dengue IgM tests although the limitations in the predictive values of such tests should also be considered. The results also suggest that the risk of emergence of the more severe forms of dengue, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) in the Jamaican population, due to the presence of enhancing antibodies, is high. PMID:19996526

  14. The seroprevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis in horses in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Kranenburg, L C; van Ree, H E M I; Calis, A N M; de Pater, M; Buter, G J; van Maanen, C; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaarn, M M

    2011-04-01

    Equine proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis is an emerging disease of weanling foals and affects their growth and development. The prevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis in The Netherlands is not known. The aim of the study was to investigate the seroprevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis in horses in The Netherlands. Blood samples were taken from healthy foals before and after weaning and from healthy yearlings and mature horses on farms throughout The Netherlands. These samples were analysed for the presence of Lawsonia intracellularis-specific antibodies with a blocking ELISA. White blood cell count, packed cell volume, and total protein concentration were also measured in all foals. Information regarding housing, pasture access, and contact with pig manure on the premises was obtained for all animals. The prevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis antibodies in foals increased significantly from 15% before weaning to 23% after weaning (p = 0.019); it was 89% in yearlings and 99% in horses older than 2 years. There was no significant difference in seroprevalence between the pasture-kept and stable-confined adult horses (97% and 100%, respectively), and there was no significant influence of contact with pig manure. None of the sampled animals showed clinical disease. In conclusion, the results suggest that Lawsonia intracellularis is widespread in The Netherlands and that seropositivity is not necessarily associated with clinical problems. The high seroprevalence in adult horses suggests long-term persistence of antibodies against Lawsonia intracellularis or constant exposure to the bacterium. PMID:21528618

  15. Comparison of viro-immunological marker changes between HIV-1 and HIV-2-infected patients in France

    PubMed Central

    Drylewicz, Julia; Matheron, Sophie; Lazaro, Estibaliz; Damond, Florence; Bonnet, Fabrice; Simon, François; Dabis, François; Brun-Vezinet, Françoise; Chêne, Geneviève; Thiebaut, Rodolphe

    2008-01-01

    Background HIV-2 is known to be less pathogenic than HIV-1, although the underlying mechanisms are still debated. We compared the changes over time in viro-immunologic markers in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected patients living in France during natural history and after initiation of the first Combination of AntiRetroviral Treatment (CART). Method Patients were included in the ANRS CO3 HIV-1 cohort (N=6707) or the ANRS CO5 HIV-2 cohort (N=572). HIV-1 infected patients were matched to HIV-2 patients according to sex, age, HIV transmission group and period of treatment initiation. Changes in markers have been estimated with linear mixed models. Results Analyses were performed for three groups of patients: (1) those with estimated date of contamination (98 HIV-1 and 49 HIV-2 seroincident patients), (2) untreated seroprevalent patients (320 HIV-1 and 160 HIV-2) and (3) those who initiated a first CART (59 HIV-1 and 63 HIV-2). In group 1, CD4 T-cell decreased less rapidly in HIV-2 than HIV-1 patients (−9 vs. −49 cells/mm3/year, p<10−4). Estimated slopes in untreated group 2 were similar to those estimated in group 1 (−11 vs. −49 cells/mm3/year, p=0.003). In group 3, baseline CD4 at CART initiation was not different according to the type of infection (269 vs.220 cells/mm3). During the first two months of treatment, CD4 count increased by +59 cells/mm3/month (95% Confidence Interval [CI]=34;84) for HIV-1 and +24 (CI=6;42) for HIV-2. The plasma viral load drop was 3-fold more important in HIV-1 patients: −1.56 log10/ml/month (CI=−1.83; − 1.30) vs. −0.62 (CI=−0.84; −0.40) among HIV-2 patients (p<10−4). Conclusion Differences between the two infections during natural history are similar to those previously described in Africa. Paradoxically, once treatment is started, response is poorer in HIV-2 patients than in HIV-1 patients. PMID:18301058

  16. [HIV infection in tuberculosis patients in Madagascar. Situation in 1-93].

    PubMed

    Morvan, J M; Auregan, G; Rasamindrakotroka, A J; de Ravel, T; Roux, J F

    1994-01-01

    In Madagascar, the estimated incidence of tuberculosis is high (320 per 100,000) when human immunodeficiency virus (VIH) infection progress slowly. The authors have studied HIV seroprevalence in a group of tubercular patients and in two reference groups (general population and outpatients of the Clinical Biology Centre of Institut Pasteur). Circulation of HIV1 virus was observed with a low prevalence rate in all the 3 groups. There was no significant difference between tubercular patients and healthy population. Tubercular people ought to be a watch group for the epidemiological surveillance of HIV infection evolution in Madagascar. PMID:7575038

  17. HIV Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat HIV infection (called antiretroviral therapy, or ART) the right way, every day and his or ... way, every day, the medicine to treat HIV (ART) reduces the amount of HIV (called “viral ...

  18. Hepatitis E virus infection in the HIV-positive patient.

    PubMed

    Debes, Jose D; Pisano, Maria Belen; Lotto, Martin; Re, Viviana

    2016-07-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a RNA virus that can cause hepatitis. In immunocompetent individuals, infection with HEV usually leads to asymptomatic seroconversion. However, in immunosuppressed patients, such as transplant recipients, HEV can develop into a chronic infection. Studies regarding the seroprevalence and clinical implications of HEV in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are conflicting. Levels of CD4 count in blood seem to be the most widely associated risk factor, while other factors such as meat consumption or proximity to animals are less clearly associated with HEV infection. Progression to chronicity, as well as extrahepatic manifestations of HEV seem rare in HIV, and the implications of HEV in liver disease progression are poorly understood in the HIV-infected. In this review we describe the epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical implications of HEV infection in individuals infected with HIV. PMID:27243210

  19. HIV-associated adult mortality in a rural Tanzanian population.

    PubMed

    Todd, J; Balira, R; Grosskurth, H; Mayaud, P; Mosha, F; ka-Gina, G; Klokke, A; Gabone, R; Gavyole, A; Mabey, D; Hayes, R

    1997-05-01

    A cohort of 12,501 adults aged 15-54 years was randomly selected from 12 rural communities in Mwanza region, Tanzania, in 1991-92 and followed for 2 years to assess the contribution of HIV/AIDS to mortality in the region. HIV seroprevalence in the sample was 4% at baseline. 73 of the 196 deaths recorded over the period occurred among HIV-positive individuals. Mortality rates per 1000 person-years were 6.0 among the HIV-seronegative and 93.5 among the HIV-seropositive. The age-adjusted mortality rate ratio was 15.68 overall. 35% of overall mortality was attributed to HIV infection, 53% among those age 20-29 years. Verbal autopsies administered for each death reported showed that HIV-positive deaths were significantly associated with fever, rash, weight loss, anemia, cough, chest pain, abdominal pain, and headache. The specificity of individual symptoms, however, was low. The World Health Organization clinical case definition of AIDS was satisfied for only 13 deaths, of which seven were HIV-positive at baseline. HIV/AIDS was mentioned during the verbal autopsy interview by only seven respondents as being associated with a given death. PMID:9143613

  20. Herpes in the time of AIDS: a comparison of the epidemiology of HIV-1 and HSV-2 in young men in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Dobbins, J G; Mastro, T D; Nopkesorn, T; Sangkharomya, S; Limpakarnjanarat, K; Weniger, B G; Schmid, D S

    1999-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) has been in Thailand longer than has been HIV-1. The epidemiology of the 2 viruses was compared in an attempt to gain insight into likely future trends of the dissemination of HIV-1 and HSV-2 in the country. Findings are based upon questionnaire and serostatus data on a cohort of 1115 young male army conscripts who entered service in northern Thailand in 1991. The 1061 conscripts were 21 years old and the remainder were 22-27 years old. 879 were unmarried, 598 were farmers, and 55 were students. 6.9% of the young men were infected with HIV-1 and 14.9% with HSV-2. Among HSV-2-seropositive men who reported previous genital ulcers, HIV-1 seroprevalence was 32%. For most variables, there was a close correspondence between the prevalence ratios for HIV-1 and HSV-2, except that prevalence ratios for HIV-1 tended to be greater than the corresponding ratios for HSV-2. The seroprevalence of both viruses was strongly related to early and frequent contact with female prostitutes, infrequent condom use with such prostitutes, and residence in the upper northern region of Thailand. The patterns of infection were similar for the 2 viruses, suggesting the direction in which HIV-1 seroprevalence levels will go. PMID:10029978

  1. Sexual Risk Behaviors for HIV/AIDS in Chuuk State, Micronesia: The Case for HIV Prevention in Vulnerable Remote Populations

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Toya V.; Do, Ann N.; Setik, Eleanor; Sullivan, Patrick S.; Rayle, Victoria D.; Fridlund, Carol A.; Quan, Vu M.; Voetsch, Andrew C.; Fleming, Patricia L.

    2007-01-01

    Background After the first two cases of locally-acquired HIV infection were recognized in Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), a public health response was initiated. The purpose of the response was to assess the need for HIV education and prevention services, to develop recommendations for controlling further spread of HIV in Chuuk, and to initiate some of the prevention measures. Methodology/Principal Findings A public health team conducted a survey and rapid HIV testing among a sample of residents on the outer islands in Chuuk. Local public health officials conducted contact tracing and testing of sex partners of the two locally-acquired cases of HIV infection. A total of 333 persons completed the survey. The majority knew that HIV is transmitted through unprotected sexual contact (81%), injection drug use (61%), or blood transfusion (64%). Sexual activity in the past 12 months was reported among 159 participants, including 90 females and 69 males. Compared to women, men were more likely to have had multiple sex partners, to have been drunk during sex, but less likely to have used a condom in the past 12 months. The two men with locally acquired HIV infection had unprotected anal sex with a third Chuukese man who likely contracted HIV while outside of Chuuk. All 370 persons who received voluntary, confidential HIV counseling and testing had HIV negative test results. Conclusions/Significance Despite the low HIV seroprevalence, risky sexual behaviors in this small isolated population raise concerns about the potential for rapid spread of HIV. The lack of knowledge about risks, along with stigmatizing attitudes towards persons infected with HIV and high risk sexual behaviors indicate the need for resources to be directed toward HIV prevention in Chuuk and on other Pacific Islands. PMID:18074009

  2. Seroprevalence of infectious markers & their trends in blood donors in a hospital based blood bank in north india

    PubMed Central

    Makroo, R.N.; Hegde, Vikas; Chowdhry, Mohit; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Rosamma, N.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Hepatitis B virus (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis infections pose a great threat to blood safety. This study was undertaken to investigate the seroprevalence of serologic markers for transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) among blood donors at a hospital based blood centre in north India over a period of nine years. Methods: The results of serologic markers for TTIs (HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and syphilis) of all blood donations (both voluntary and replacement) at our hospital from January 2005 to December 2013 were screened. Additional analysis was conducted to examine the prevalence trends associated with each of the positive marker. Results: The data of 180,477 donors [173,019 (95.86%) males and 7,458 (4.13%) females] were analyzed. Replacement donations [174,939 (96.93%)] represented the majority whereas, only 5,538 (3.06%) donations were from the voluntary donors. The risk of blood being reactive was three times higher in male donors when compared with the female donors. The risk of blood being reactive for one or more infectious markers was 2.1 times higher in replacement donors when compared with the voluntary donors. Seropositivity of HIV, HBsAg, HBcAb, syphilis showed a significant decreasing trend (P<0.05) while there was an increasing trend in HCV infection which was insignificant. Interpretation & conclusions: This study reflects that the risk of TTIs has been decreased over time with respect to HIV, HBV and syphilis, but the trends for HCV remains almost the same in blood donors. Blood transfusion remains a risk factor for the spread of blood-borne infections. Therefore, improvements are needed to strengthen both safety and availability of blood. PMID:26458348

  3. Seroprevalence of varicella-zoster virus in five US-bound refugee populations.

    PubMed

    Leung, Jessica; Lopez, Adriana; Mitchell, Tarissa; Weinberg, Michelle; Lee, Deborah; Thieme, Martha; Schmid, D Scott; Bialek, Stephanie R

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about varicella-zoster virus (VZV) susceptibility in US-bound refugee populations, although published data suggest that VZV seroprevalence in these refugee populations may be lower than US populations. We describe VZV seroprevalence in five US-bound refugee groups: (1) Bhutanese in Nepal, (2) Burmese on the Thailand-Burma (Myanmar) border, (3) Burmese in Malaysia, (4) Iraqi in Jordan, and (5) Somali in Kenya. Sera were tested for presence of VZV IgG antibodies among adults aged 18-45 years. Overall VZV seroprevalence was 97% across all refugee groups. VZV seroprevalence was also high across all age groups, with seroprevalence ranging from 92-100% for 18-26 year-olds depending on refugee group and 93-100% for 27-45 year-olds. VZV seroprevalence was unexpectedly high in these five US-bound refugee groups, though may not reflect seroprevalence in other refugee groups. Additional studies are needed to better understand VZV seroprevalence in refugee populations over time and by region. PMID:24271111

  4. Seroprevalence of varicella-zoster virus in five US-bound refugee populations

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Jessica; Lopez, Adriana; Mitchell, Tarissa; Weinberg, Michelle; Lee, Deborah; Thieme, Martha; Schmid, D. Scott; Bialek, Stephanie R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about varicella-zoster virus (VZV) susceptibility in US-bound refugee populations, although published data suggest that VZV seroprevalence in these refugee populations may be lower than US populations. We describe VZV seroprevalence in 5 U.S.-bound refugee groups: (1) Bhutanese in Nepal, (2) Burmese on the Thailand-Burma (Myanmar) border, (3) Burmese in Malaysia, (4) Iraqi in Jordan, and (5) Somali in Kenya. Methods Sera were tested for presence of VZV IgG antibodies among adults aged 18–45 years. Results Overall VZV seroprevalence was 97% across all refugee groups. VZV seroprevalence was also high across all age groups, with seroprevalence ranging from 92–100% for 18–26 year-olds depending on refugee group and 93–100% for 27–45 year-olds. Discussion VZV seroprevalence was unexpectedly high in these 5 US-bound refugee groups, though may not reflect seroprevalence in other refugee groups. Additional studies are needed to better understand VZV seroprevalence in refugee populations over time and by region. PMID:24271111

  5. Prevalence of antibodies against Treponema pallidum among HIV-positive patients in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mata-Marín, José Antonio; Sandoval-Sánchez, Juan Joel; Huerta-García, Gloria; Arroyo-Anduiza, Carla Ileana; Alcalá-Martínez, Enrique; Mata-Marín, Luis Alberto; Sandoval-Ramirez, Jorge Luis; Gaytán-Martínez, Jesús

    2015-02-01

    Our objective was to determine the seroprevalence of syphilis among HIV-infected patients in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was developed, and 318 HIV-positive patients were evaluated from January to February 2013 at Hospital de Infectología, National Medical Center 'La Raza' (a tertiary care hospital specialising in infectious diseases in Mexico City). Laboratory data were screened for the detection of antibodies against Treponema pallidum. Patients completed a questionnaire relating to socio-demographic data and factors associated with syphilis. Of the 318 patients, 83% were men. The mean age ± SD was 36 ± 11 years; 52% were men who have sex with men and 47% had undertaken higher education. The overall seroprevalence of syphilis among these patients was 25% (95% confidence interval 21%, 30%). Men who have sex with men had a significantly higher seroprevalence (30% vs. 15%, p = 0.009). We conclude that, in Mexico, there is a high seroprevalence of syphilis antibodies in HIV-infected patients and that men who have sex with men are the group most affected. PMID:24713227

  6. Unexpectedly high injection drug use, HIV and hepatitis C prevalence among female sex workers in the Republic of Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lisa Grazina; Corceal, Sewraz

    2013-02-01

    Female sex workers (FSW) often have a disproportionately high prevalence of HIV infection and they, along with their clients, are considered a core group contributing to the transmission of HIV in many countries. In 2010, females who reported having vaginal/anal/oral sex in the last 6 months with a male in exchange for money or gifts, aged ≥15 years, and living in Mauritius were recruited into a survey using respondent driven sampling. Consenting females (n = 299) completed a behavioral questionnaire and provided venous blood for HIV, HCV and HBV testing. HIV seroprevalence among FSW was 28.9 % and 43.8 % were infected with HCV; among HIV seropositive FSW, 88.2 % were also infected with HCV. Almost 40 % of FSW reported injecting drugs sometime in their lives and 30.5 % of all FSW reported doing so in the previous 3 months. Among those who ever injected drugs, 82.5 % did so in the past 3 months and among those 60 % reported injecting drugs at least once a day. Among FSW who ever injected drugs, 17.5 % reported sharing a needle at last injection. Regression analyses found injection drug use behaviors to be positively associated with HIV seroprevalence. These findings indicate that FSW, especially those who inject drugs, are at high risk for HIV and HCV infection and transmission and illustrates the need for gender responsive HIV and injection drug use prevention and treatment models that respond to the unique situations that affect this population. PMID:22851154

  7. Women and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women and HIV Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... HIV? What should pregnant women know about HIV? HIV Quick Facts What is HIV? HIV is the ...

  8. Toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in urban rodents: a survey in Niamey, Niger

    PubMed Central

    Mercier, Aurélien; Garba, Madougou; Bonnabau, Henri; Kane, Mamadou; Rossi, Jean-Pierre; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Dobigny, Gauthier

    2013-01-01

    A serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii was conducted on 766 domestic and peridomestic rodents from 46 trapping sites throughout the city of Niamey, Niger. A low seroprevalence was found over the whole town with only 1.96% of the rodents found seropositive. However, differences between species were important, ranging from less than 2% in truly commensal Mastomys natalensis, Rattus rattus and Mus musculus, while garden-associated Arvicanthis niloticus displayed 9.1% of seropositive individuals. This is in line with previous studies on tropical rodents - that we reviewed here - which altogether show that Toxoplasma seroprevalence in rodent is highly variable, depending on many factors such as locality and/or species. Moreover, although we were not able to decipher statistically between habitat or species effect, such a contrast between Nile grass rats and the other rodent species points towards a potentially important role of environmental toxoplasmic infection. This would deserve to be further scrutinised since intra-city irrigated cultures are extending in Niamey, thus potentially increasing Toxoplasma circulation in this yet semi-arid region. As far as we are aware of, our study is one of the rare surveys of its kind performed in Sub-Saharan Africa and the first one ever conducted in the Sahel. PMID:23828008

  9. Seroprevalence of Brucella abortus and Leptospira hardjo in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Pandian, S. Jegaveera; Ray, Pradeep Kumar; Chandran, P. C.; Kumar, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to assess the seroprevalence of B. abortus and Leptospira hardjo in the cattle population of Bihar, this work was carried out. Materials and Methods: Randomly selected 450 cattle from nine districts of Bihar were serologically screened for antibodies against L. hardjo and B. abortus. DAS-ELISA for leptospira and AB-ELISA for brucella were carried out. Based on the results prevalence in each district and the state are reported herewith. Results and Discussion: In this study, it was found that the seroprevalence of L. hardjo was 9.11% and that of B. abortus was 12.2% in Bihar. Indigenous cattle were found to be less susceptible to leptospirosis and brucellosis even though they accounted for 83.11% of the study population. Conclusion: Although there was no acute disease, antibodies detected against L. hardjo and B. abortus in the cattle population indicated the presence of chronic and subclinical infection, which could challenge the fertility of the animals. PMID:27047076

  10. Seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. in clinically healthy horses in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Blatti, S; Overesch, G; Gerber, V; Frey, J; Hüssy, D

    2011-10-01

    A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the leptospiral seroprevalence in clinically healthy horses in Switzerland. A representative sample of 615 horse sera was examined by microscopic agglutination test for the presence of antibodies against 15 Leptospira spp. serovars. In total, 58.5 % (n = 360) of the horses were positive for one or more of the antigens analysed, with 20.3 % of them showing titres >= 400. The most prevalent serovar was Pyrogenes (22.6 %), followed by serovars Canicola (22.1 %) and Australis (19.2 %). Older horses, mares, ponies and animals spending increased time on pasture exhibited significantly higher prevalence rates (p < 0.05). Moreover, the prevalence was higher in summer and autumn (p = 0.003). The high seroprevalence in healthy horses indicates that they are often exposed to or infected with Leptospira spp. without developing signs of disease. Therefore, other laboratory and clinical data should always be taken into consideration when interpreting serological test results for Leptospira spp. PMID:21971672

  11. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Inkoo Virus in Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Evander, Magnus; Putkuri, Niina; Eliasson, Mats; Lwande, Olivia Wesula; Vapalahti, Olli; Ahlm, Clas

    2016-01-01

    The mosquito-borne Inkoo virus (INKV) is a member of the California serogroup in the family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus. These viruses are associated with fever and encephalitis, although INKV infections are not usually reported and the incidence is largely unknown. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of anti-INKV antibodies and associated risk factors in humans living in northern Sweden. Seroprevalence was investigated using the World Health Organization Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease study, where a randomly selected population aged between 25 and 74 years (N = 1,607) was invited to participate. The presence of anti-INKV IgG antibodies was determined by immunofluorescence assay. Seropositivity for anti-INKV was significantly higher in men (46.9%) than in women (34.8%; P < 0.001). In women, but not in men, the prevalence increased somewhat with age (P = 0.06). The peak in seropositivity was 45–54 years for men and 55–64 years for women. Living in rural areas was associated with a higher seroprevalence. In conclusion, the prevalence of anti-INKV antibodies was high in northern Sweden and was associated with male sex, older age, and rural living. The age distribution indicates exposure to INKV at a relatively early age. These findings will be important for future epidemiological and clinical investigations of this relatively unknown mosquito-borne virus. PMID:26928830

  12. Seroprevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Humans and Rabbits in China

    PubMed Central

    PAN, Yaoqian; WANG, Shuai; LIU, Xingyou; LI, Ruizhen; SUN, Yuqian; GADAHI, Javaid Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a microsporidian parasite commonly found in rabbits that can infect humans, causing encephalitozoonosis. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of this parasite in rabbits and humans in China Methods: Overall, 300 serum samples each from clinically healthy rabbit and human were collected from three regions of China (Sichuan Province, Chongqing Municipality and Jilin Province) from January to September 2013 and tested for anti-E. Cuniculi antibodies using an ELISA. Results: An overall seroprevalence of E. cuniculi was recorded as 56/300 (18.76%) and 29/300 (9.76%) in rabbit and human sera, respectively. The seropositivity of rabbit samples collected from Jilin province was 41%, which was significantly higher (P<0.01) than Sichuan Province (9%) and Chongqing Municipality (6%). Three breeds of rabbit were used in the present study and antibody detection in Rex Rabbit was significantly (P<0.01) higher than Japanese White and New Zealand Rabbit. In human, Jilin province was more prevalent (18%) followed by Sichuan Province (6%) and Chongqing Municipality (5%). Conclusions: The E. cuniculi was present and widespread among healthy rabbits and humans in China PMID:26246829

  13. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus among Iranian soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Morteza; Esfahani, Ali Aliakbar; Hassannia, Hadi; Jonaidi Jafari, Nematollah; Rahmati Najarkolaei, Fatemeh; Rezaee-Zavareh, Mohammad Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to investigate the seroprevalence of HAV immunity among Iranian soldiers and determine whether vaccination should be given to military draftees. Background: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is highly contagious in individuals living in crowded conditions such as military centers. To the best of our knowledge, there are limited data about HAV prevalence among Iranian soldiers. Patients and methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1554 soldiers were recruited through a random clustering sampling. Serum anti-HAV antibody was measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS. Results: A total of 1554 male soldiers with age ranged from 18 to 34 years (mean age: 21.2±1.9 years) at baseline were evaluated. Overall, 80.3% of the analyzed specimens were anti-HAV seropositive. Seroprevalence rates significantly increased with the age. Conclusion: Our results suggest that vaccination for HAV is not necessary for Iranian military draftees. However, the vaccination is recommended for high-risk groups, including anti-HAV seronegative soldiers. PMID:27099669

  14. Seroprevalence of acute dengue in a Malaysian tertiary medical centre

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Chuan Hun; Rashid, Zetti Zainol; Rahman, Md. Mostafizur; Khang, NanFeng; Low, Wan Ngor; Hussin, Nurabrar; Marzuki, Melissa Iqlima; Jaafar, Alyaa Nadhira; Roslan, Nurul Ain’ Nabilla; Chandrasekaran, Terukumar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of acute dengue in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) Medical Centre and its correlation with selected haematological and biochemical parameters. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to June 2015. A patient was serologically diagnosed with acute dengue if the dengue virus IgG, IgM or NS-1 antigen was reactive. Results: Out of 1,774 patients suspected to have acute dengue, 1,153 were serologically diagnosed with the infection, resulting in a seroprevalence of 64.9%. Dengue-positive patients had a lower mean platelet count (89 × 109/L) compared to the dengue-negative patients (171 × 109/L) (p<0.0001). The mean total white cell count was also lower in the dengue-positive cases (4.7 × 109/L vs. 7.2 × 109/L; p<0.0001). The mean haematocrit was higher in patients with acute dengue (42.5% vs. 40.0%; p<0.0001). Likewise, the serum alanine transaminase level was also higher in patients with acute dengue (108 U/L vs. 54 U/L; p<0.0001). Conclusions: Dengue is very prevalent in UKM Medical Centre as most patients suspected to have acute dengue had serological evidence of the infection. The platelet count was the single most likely parameter to be abnormal (i.e. low) in patients with acute dengue. PMID:27182269

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in captive neotropical felids from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, J C; Ogassawara, S; Adania, C H; Ferreira, F; Gennari, S M; Dubey, J P; Ferreira-Neto, J S

    2001-12-13

    Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was determined in 865 captive neotropical felids from 20 states from Brazil, sampled from September 1995 to April 1997. Sera were tested by the modified agglutination test (MAT) using formalin-fixed whole tachyzoites and mercaptoethanol. Antibodies (MAT> or =1:20) to T. gondii were found in 472 of 865 (54.6%) cats: in 45 of 99 (45.9%) jaguarundis (Herpailurus yagouaroundi), in 97 of 168 (57.7%) ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), in 68 of 131 (51.9%) oncillas (L. tigrinus), in 35 of 63 (55.5%) margays (L. wiedii), in 1 of 8 (12.5%) Pampas-cat (Oncifelis colocolo), in 9 of 12 (75.0%) Geoffroys-cat (O. geoffroyi), in 134 of 212 (63.2%) jaguars (Panthera onca), and in 83 of 172 (48.2%) pumas (Puma concolor). Antibody titers were: 1:20 in 27 felids, 1:25 in 142 felids, 1:40 in 6 felids, 1:50 in 292 felids, and > or =1:500 in 5 felids. The high seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies found in the present study suggested a widespread exposure of neotropical cats to T. gondii in zoos in Brazil. The results warrant an investigation on the mode of exposure and oocyst shedding by neotropical cats. PMID:11777601

  16. Impact of the growing HIV-1 epidemic on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis control in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Morozova, I; Riekstina, V; Sture, G; Wells, C; Leimane, V

    2003-09-01

    Latvia, a country with levels of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB among the highest in the world, experienced a 58-fold increase in HIV seroprevalence among all persons tested in the country from 1996 through 2001. In addition, HIV seroprevalence among TB cases increased from 0.4% to 1.4%, and among MDR-TB cases from 0% to 5.6% from 1998 through 2001, potentially compromising gains made to date in controlling the country's MDR-TB epidemic. The following will be critical to the future of MDR-TB control in Latvia: containing HIV transmission in the country, particularly among injection drug users who comprised 72% of all HIV cases reported in the country by the end of 2001, as well as 81% of all MDR-TB cases co-infected with HIV; expanding capabilities to more rapidly detect and successfully treat patients with MDR-TB; developing mutual TB control strategies between the National TB and AIDS programs; and continuing to improve institutional infection control measures, particularly in hospitals and prisons where an increasing number of persons infected with HIV come into contact with persons with active MDR-TB. PMID:12971677

  17. Involving lay community researchers in epidemiological research: experiences from a seroprevalence study among sub-Saharan African migrants

    PubMed Central

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Loos, Jasna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention during past decades as a method to increase community ownership in research and prevention. We discuss its application to epidemiological research using the case of second-generation surveillance conducted among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in Antwerp city. To inform evidence-based prevention planning for this target group, this HIV-prevalence study used two-stage time-location sampling preceded by formative research. Extensive collaborative partnerships were built with community organizations, a Community Advisory Board provided input throughout the project, and community researchers were trained to participate in all phases of the seroprevalence study. Valid oral fluid samples for HIV testing were collected among 717 SSA migrants and linked to behavioural data assessed through an anonymous survey between December 2013 and August 2014. A qualitative content analysis of various data sources (extensive field notes, minutes of intervision, and training protocols) collected at 77 data collection visits in 51 settings was carried out to describe experiences with challenges and opportunities inherent to the CBPR approach at three crucial stages of the research process: building collaborative partnerships; implementing the study; dissemination of findings including prevention planning. The results show that CBPR is feasible in conducting scientifically sound epidemiological research, but certain requirements need to be in place. These include among others sufficient resources to train, coordinate, and supervise community researchers; continuity in the implementation; transparency about decision-taking and administrative procedures, and willingness to share power and control over the full research process. CBPR contributed to empowering community researchers on a personal level, and to create greater HIV prevention demand in the SSA communities. PMID:26885938

  18. Involving lay community researchers in epidemiological research: experiences from a seroprevalence study among sub-Saharan African migrants.

    PubMed

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Loos, Jasna

    2016-01-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention during past decades as a method to increase community ownership in research and prevention. We discuss its application to epidemiological research using the case of second-generation surveillance conducted among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in Antwerp city. To inform evidence-based prevention planning for this target group, this HIV-prevalence study used two-stage time-location sampling preceded by formative research. Extensive collaborative partnerships were built with community organizations, a Community Advisory Board provided input throughout the project, and community researchers were trained to participate in all phases of the seroprevalence study. Valid oral fluid samples for HIV testing were collected among 717 SSA migrants and linked to behavioural data assessed through an anonymous survey between December 2013 and August 2014. A qualitative content analysis of various data sources (extensive field notes, minutes of intervision, and training protocols) collected at 77 data collection visits in 51 settings was carried out to describe experiences with challenges and opportunities inherent to the CBPR approach at three crucial stages of the research process: building collaborative partnerships; implementing the study; dissemination of findings including prevention planning. The results show that CBPR is feasible in conducting scientifically sound epidemiological research, but certain requirements need to be in place. These include among others sufficient resources to train, coordinate, and supervise community researchers; continuity in the implementation; transparency about decision-taking and administrative procedures, and willingness to share power and control over the full research process. CBPR contributed to empowering community researchers on a personal level, and to create greater HIV prevention demand in the SSA communities. PMID:26885938

  19. Seroprevalence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in southeastern China and analysis of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Sun, J M; Zhang, Y J; Gong, Z Y; Zhang, L; Lv, H K; Lin, J F; Chai, C L; Ling, F; Liu, S L; Gu, S P; Zhu, Z H; Zheng, X H; Lan, Y Q; Ding, F; Huang, W Z; Xu, J R; Chen, E F; Jiang, J M

    2015-03-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) has been prevalent for some time in China and it was first identified in 2010. However, the seroprevalence of SFTSV in the general population in southeastern China and risk factors associated with the infection are currently unclear. Blood samples were collected from seven counties across Zhejiang province and tested for the presence of SFTSV-specific IgG antibodies by ELISA. A total of 1380 blood samples were collected of which 5·51% were seropositive for SFTSV with seroprevalence varying significantly between sites. Seroprevalence of SFTSV in people who were family members of the patient, lived in the same village as the patient, or lived in a different village than the patient varied significantly. There was significant difference in seroprevalence between participants who bred domestic animals and participants who did not. Domestic animals are probably potential reservoir hosts and contact with domestic animals may be a transmission route of SFTSV. PMID:24866248

  20. Lassa Virus Seroprevalence in Sibirilia Commune, Bougouni District, Southern Mali

    PubMed Central

    Sogoba, Nafomon; Rosenke, Kyle; Adjemian, Jennifer; Diawara, Sory Ibrahim; Maiga, Ousmane; Keita, Moussa; Konaté, Drissa; Keita, Abdoul Salam; Sissoko, Ibrahim; Boisen, Matt; Nelson, Diana; Oottamasathien, Darin; Millett, Molly; Garry, Robert F.; Branco, Luis M.; Traoré, Sékou F.; Doumbia, Seydou; Feldmann, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic to several nations in West Africa. In Mali, LASV was unknown until an exported case of Lassa fever was reported in 2009. Since that time, rodent surveys have found evidence of LASV-infected Mastomys natalensis rats in several communities in southern Mali, near the border with Côte d’Ivoire. Despite increased awareness, to date only a single case of Lassa fever has been confirmed in Mali. We conducted a survey to determine the prevalence of LASV exposure among persons in 3 villages in southern Mali where the presence of infected rodents has been documented. LASV IgG seroprevalence ranged from 14.5% to 44% per village. No sex bias was noted; however, seropositivity rates increased with participant age. These findings confirm human LASV exposure in Mali and suggest that LASV infection/Lassa fever is a potential public health concern in southern Mali. PMID:26981786

  1. Assessing Maladaptive Responses to the Stress of Being At-Risk of HIV Infection among HIV-Negative Gay Men in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Huso; Shidlo, Ariel; Sandfort, Theo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties and preliminary validity of a newly developed 16-item measure to assess maladaptive responses to the stress of being at risk for HIV infection among HIV-negative gay men. The measure consisted of three factors: (1) fatalistic beliefs about maintaining an HIV-negative serostatus; (2) reduced perceived severity of HIV infection due to advances in medical treatment of HIV/AIDS; and (3) negative affective states associated with the risk of HIV infection. A total of 285 HIV-negative gay men at a counseling program in New York City participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the three-factor model as an acceptable model fit: NNFI = .91, CFI = .92, GFI = .90, RMSEA = .07. The measure and its subscales obtained in this sample achieved adequate internal consistency coefficients. Construct validity was supported by significant positive associations with internalized homophobia, depression, self-justifications for the last unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), and actual UAI with casual sex partners. Understanding the dynamics of maladaptive responses to the epidemic and intense anxieties elicited by HIV risk among HIV-negative gay men living in a place of high seroprevalence provides useful information to guide psychosocial interventions in the population. PMID:20043254

  2. Is it appropriate to use fixed assay cut-offs for estimating seroprevalence?

    PubMed

    Kafatos, G; Andrews, N J; McConway, K J; Maple, P A C; Brown, K; Farrington, C P

    2016-03-01

    Population seroprevalence can be estimated from serosurveys by classifying quantitative measurements into positives (past infection/vaccinated) or negatives (susceptible) according to a fixed assay cut-off. The choice of assay cut-offs has a direct impact on seroprevalence estimates. A time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA) was used to test exposure to human parvovirus 4 (HP4). Seroprevalence estimates were obtained after applying the diagnostic assay cut-off under different scenarios using simulations. Alternative methods for estimating assay cut-offs were proposed based on mixture modelling with component distributions for the past infection/vaccinated and susceptible populations. Seroprevalence estimates were compared to those obtained directly from the data using mixture models. Simulation results showed that when there was good distinction between the underlying populations all methods gave seroprevalence estimates close to the true one. For high overlap between the underlying components, the diagnostic assay cut-off generally gave the most biased estimates. However, the mixture model methods also gave biased estimates which were a result of poor model fit. In conclusion, fixed cut-offs often produce biased estimates but they also have advantages compared to other methods such as mixture models. The bias can be reduced by using assay cut-offs estimated specifically for seroprevalence studies. PMID:26311119

  3. High seroprevalence of antibodies to avian influenza viruses among wild waterfowl in Alaska: implications for surveillance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Heather M.; Hall, Jeffery S.; Flint, Paul L.; Franson, J. Christian; Ely, Craig R.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined seroprevalence (presence of detectable antibodies in serum) for avian influenza viruses (AIV) among 4,485 birds, from 11 species of wild waterfowl in Alaska (1998–2010), sampled during breeding/molting periods. Seroprevalence varied among species (highest in eiders (Somateria and Polysticta species), and emperor geese (Chen canagica)), ages (adults higher than juveniles), across geographic locations (highest in the Arctic and Alaska Peninsula) and among years in tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus). All seroprevalence rates in excess of 60% were found in marine-dependent species. Seroprevalence was much higher than AIV infection based on rRT-PCR or virus isolation alone. Because pre-existing AIV antibodies can infer some protection against highly pathogenic AIV (HPAI H5N1), our results imply that some wild waterfowl in Alaska could be protected from lethal HPAIV infections. Seroprevalence should be considered in deciphering patterns of exposure, differential infection, and rates of AIV transmission. Our results suggest surveillance programs include species and populations with high AIV seroprevalences, in addition to those with high infection rates. Serologic testing, including examination of serotype-specific antibodies throughout the annual cycle, would help to better assess spatial and temporal patterns of AIV transmission and overall disease dynamics.

  4. Age-specific seroprevalence of hepatitis A in Antananarivo (Madagascar)

    PubMed Central

    Raharimanga, Vaomalala; Carod, Jean-François; Ramarokoto, Charles-Emile; Chrétien, Jean-Baptiste; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Talarmin, Antoine; Richard, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Background Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an enteric, viral, infectious disease endemic in many developing countries such as Madagascar. Infection is often subclinical or asymptomatic in children; however, symptomatic acute infections become more common with increasing age. In some developing countries, improvements in living conditions have led to changes in the epidemiological pattern of HAV infection. There are very few reports on the prevalence of HAV in Madagascar. This study was to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus antibodies in relation to age in the city of Antananarivo, Madagascar. Methods Serum samples collected in 2004 during a cross-sectional survey of individuals aged between two and 24 years from Antananarivo were tested for anti-HAV antibody using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit. Subjects were investigated using a standardized social and medical history questionnaire. Results 926 subjects were enrolled including 406 males and 520 females. There were 251 children under 10 years old and 675 subjects between 10 and 24 years old. Of the 926 serum samples tested, 854 (92.2%) were positive for anti-HAV antibodies. The number of seropositive samples was similar for males and females. The overall seroprevalence was 83.7% (210/251) for children under 10 years old and 95.5% (644/675) for subjects aged between 10 and 24 years (p < 0.001). Conclusion Despite improvements in sanitary conditions and hygiene over the last few years, the prevalence of HAV in Antananarivo is high. Only children under five years old remain susceptible to HAV infection. Immunization against HAV is not needed at the present time in the Madagascan population, but should be recommended for travellers. PMID:18538023

  5. Leptospira Exposure and Gardeners: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptospira can be found in soil. However, it is unclear whether occupational exposure to soil may represent a risk for Leptospira infection in humans. Therefore, we sought to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence with the occupation of gardener, and to determine the epidemiological characteristics of gardeners associated with Leptospira exposure. Methods We performed a case-control study in 168 gardeners and 168 age- and gender-matched control subjects without gardening occupation in Durango City, Mexico. The seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies in cases and controls was determined using an enzyme immunoassay. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of Leptospira exposure and the characteristics of the gardeners. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 10 (6%) of 168 gardeners and in 15 (8.9%) of 168 control subjects (odds ratio (OR): 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28 - 1.48; P = 0.40). Multivariate analysis showed that Leptospira seropositivity was positively associated with female gender (OR: 5.82; 95% CI: 1.11 - 30.46; P = 0.03), and negatively associated with eating while working (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.05 - 0.87; P = 0.03). In addition, multivariate analysis showed that high anti-Leptospira levels were associated with consumption of boar meat (OR: 28.00; 95% CI: 1.20 - 648.80; P = 0.03). Conclusions This is the first case-control study of Leptospira exposure in gardeners. Results do not support an association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of gardener. However, further studies to confirm the lack of this association are needed. The potential role of consumption of boar meat in Leptospira infection deserves further investigation. PMID:26668679

  6. Increasing HIV-1 molecular complexity among men who have sex with men in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Leelawiwat, Wanna; Rutvisuttinunt, Wiriya; Arroyo, Miguel; Mueanpai, Famui; Kongpechsatit, Oranuch; Chonwattana, Wannee; Chaikummao, Supaporn; de Souza, Mark; vanGriensven, Frits; McNicholl, Janet M; Curlin, Marcel E

    2015-04-01

    In Thailand, new HIV-1 infections are largely concentrated in certain risk groups such as men who have sex with men (MSM), where annual incidence may be as high as 12% per year. The paucity of information on the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Thai MSM limits progress in understanding the epidemic and developing new prevention methods. We evaluated HIV-1 subtypes in seroincident and seroprevalent HIV-1-infected men enrolled in the Bangkok MSM Cohort Study (BMCS) between 2006 and 2011. We characterized HIV-1 subtype in 231 seroprevalent and 194 seroincident subjects using the multihybridization assay (MHA). Apparent dual infections, recombinant strains, and isolates found to be nontypeable by MHA were further characterized by targeted genomic sequencing. Most subjects were infected with HIV-1 CRF01_AE (82%), followed by infections with recombinants (11%, primarily CRF01_AE/B recombinants), subtype B (5%), and dual infections (2%). More than 11 distinct chimeric patterns were observed among CRF01B_AE/B recombinants, most involving recombination within integrase. A significant increase in the proportion of nontypeable strains was observed among seroincident MSM between 2006 and 2011. CRF01_AE and subtype B were the most and least common infecting strains, respectively. The predominance of CRF01_AE among HIV-1 infections in Thai MSM participating in the BMCS parallels trends observed in Thai heterosexuals and injecting drug users. The presence of complex recombinants and a significant rise in nontypeable strains suggest ongoing changes in the genetic makeup of the HIV-1 epidemic in Thailand, which may pose challenges for HIV-1 prevention efforts and vaccine development. PMID:25366819

  7. Risk Factors for HIV Infection among Young Thai Men during 2005–2009

    PubMed Central

    Rangsin, Ram; Kana, Khunakorn; Chuenchitra, Thippawan; Sunantarod, Akachai; Mungthin, Mathirut; Meesiri, Supanee; Areekul, Wirote; Nelson, Kenrad E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Thailand is one of several countries with a continuing generalized HIV epidemic. We evaluated the risk factors for HIV prevalence among 17–29 year old men conscripted by a random process into the Royal Thai Army (RTA) in 8 cohorts from 2005–2009. Methods A series of case-cohort studies were conducted among the male RTA conscripts who had been tested for HIV seroprevalence after they were inducted. Men who were HIV positive were compared with a systematic random sample (1 in 30–40) of men from the total population of new conscripts. Each subject completed a detailed risk factor questionnaire. Results A total of 240,039 young Thai men were conscripted into the RTA and were screened for HIV seroprevalence between November 2005 and May 2009. Of 1,208 (0.5%) HIV positive cases, 584 (48.3%) men were enrolled into the study. There were 7,396 men who were enrolled as a comparison group. Among conscripts who had an education lower than a college-level, the independent risk factors for HIV infection were age in years (AOR 1.38, 95% CI 1.28–1.48), a history of sex with another man (AOR 3.73, 95% CI 2.70–5.13), HCV infection (AOR 3.89, 95% CI 2.56–5.90), and a history of sex with a female sex worker (FSW) (AOR 1.35, 95% CI 1.10–1.66). Among conscripts who had a college degree, the independent risk factor for HIV infection was a history of sex with another man (AOR 23.04, 95% CI 10.23–51.90). Numbers of sexual partners increased and the age at first sex, as well as the use of condoms for sex with a FSW decreased in successive cohorts. Conclusion The HIV seroprevalence among cohorts of 17–29 years old men has remained at about 0.5% overall during 2005–2009. The most significant behavior associated with HIV prevalence was a history of sex with another man. Our data indicate continuing acquisition of HIV among young men in Thailand in recent years, especially among men with a history of same sex behavior. PMID:26308085

  8. A description of HIV prevalence trends in Nigeria from 2001 to 2010: what is the progress, where is the problem?

    PubMed Central

    Bashorun, Adebobola; Nguku, Patrick; Kawu, Issa; Ngige, Evelyn; Ogundiran, Adeniyi; Sabitu, Kabir; Nasidi, Abdulsalam; Nsubuga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nigeria's population of 160 million and estimated HIV prevalence of 3.34% (2011) makes Nigeria the second highest HIV burden worldwide, with 3.2 million people living with HIV (PLHIV). In 2010, US government spent about US$456.5 million on the Nigerian epidemic. Antenatal clinic (ANC) HIV sero-prevalence sentinel survey has been conducted biennially in Nigeria since 1991 to track the epidemic. This study looked at the trends of HIV in Nigeria over the last decade to identify progress and needs. Methods We conducted description of HIV sero-prevalence sentinel cross-sectional surveys conducted among pregnant women attending ANC from 2001 to 2010, which uses consecutive sampling and unlinked-anonymous HIV testing (UAT) in160 sentinel facilities. 36,000 blood samples were collected and tested. We used Epi-Info to determine national and state HIV prevalence and trends. The Estimation and Projection Package with Spectrum were used to estimate/project the burden of infection. Results National ANC HIV prevalence rose from 1.8% (1991) to 5.8% (2001) and dropped to 4.1% (2010). Since 2001, states in the center, and south of Nigeria had higher prevalence than the rest, with Benue and Cross Rivers notable. Benue was highest in 2001 (14%), 2005 (10%), and 2010 (12.7%). Overall, eight states (21.6%) showed increased HIV prevalence while six states (16.2%) had an absolute reduction of at least 2% from 2001 to 2010. In 2010, Nigeria was estimated to have 3.19 million PLHIV, with the general population prevalence projected to drop from 3.34% in 2011 to 3.27% in 2012. Conclusion Examining a decade of HIV ANC surveillance in Nigeria revealed important differences in the epidemic in states that need to be examined further to reveal key drivers that can be used to target future interventions. PMID:25328622

  9. Correlates of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections among prison inmates and officers in Ghana: A national multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Adjei, Andrew A; Armah, Henry B; Gbagbo, Foster; Ampofo, William K; Boamah, Isaac; Adu-Gyamfi, Clement; Asare, Isaac; Hesse, Ian FA; Mensah, George

    2008-01-01

    Background Prisons are known to be high-risk environments for the spread of bloodborne and sexually transmitted infections. Prison officers are considered to have an intermittent exposure potential to bloodborne infectious diseases on the job, however there has been no studies on the prevalence of these infections in prison officers in Ghana. Methods A national multicenter cross-sectional study was undertaken on correlates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis infections in sample of prison inmates and officers from eight of ten regional central prisons in Ghana. A total of 1366 inmates and 445 officers were enrolled between May 2004 and December 2005. Subjects completed personal risk-factor questionnaire and provided blood specimens for unlinked anonymous testing for presence of antibodies to HIV, HCV and Treponema pallidum; and surface antigen of HBV (HBsAg). These data were analyzed using both univariate and multivariate techniques. Results Almost 18% (1336) of 7652 eligible inmates and 21% (445) of 2139 eligible officers in eight study prisons took part. Median ages of inmates and officers were 36.5 years (range 16–84) and 38.1 years (range 25–59), respectively. Among inmates, HIV seroprevalence was 5.9%, syphilis seroprevalence was 16.5%, and 25.5% had HBsAg. Among officers tested, HIV seroprevalence was 4.9%, HCV seroprevalence was 18.7%, syphilis seroprevalence was 7.9%, and 11.7% had HBsAg. Independent determinants for HIV, HBV and syphilis infections among inmates were age between 17–46, being unmarried, being illiterate, female gender, being incarcerated for longer than median time served of 36 months, history of homosexuality, history of intravenous drug use, history of sharing syringes and drug paraphernalia, history of participation in paid sexual activity, and history of sexually transmitted diseases. Independent determinants for HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections among officers

  10. Get Tested for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for HIV Browse Sections The Basics Overview What Is HIV? ... 1 of 7 sections The Basics: What Is HIV? What is HIV? HIV stands for human immunodeficiency ...

  11. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ... reduces the risk of HIV transmission . How do HIV medicines work? HIV attacks and destroys the infection- ...

  12. Cytomegalovirus IgM Seroprevalence among Women of Reproductive Age in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengbin; Dollard, Sheila C.; Amin, Minal M.; Bialek, Stephanie R.

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM indicates recent active CMV infection. CMV IgM seroprevalence is a useful marker for prevalence of transmission. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III 1988–1994, we present estimates of CMV IgM prevalence by race/ethnicity, provide a comparison of IgM seroprevalence among all women and among CMV IgG positive women, and explore factors possibly associated with IgM seroprevalence, including socioeconomic status and exposure to young children. There was no difference in IgM seroprevalence by race/ethnicity among all women (3.1%, 2.2%, and 1.6% for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black and Mexican American, respectively; P = 0.11). CMV IgM seroprevalence decreased significantly with increasing age in non-Hispanic black women (P<0.001 for trend) and marginally among Mexican American women (P = 0.07), while no apparent trend with age was seen in non-Hispanic white women (P = 0.99). Among 4001 IgG+ women, 118 were IgM+, resulting in 4.9% IgM seroprevalence. In IgG+ women, IgM seroprevalence varied significantly by age (5.3%, 7.3%, and 3.7% for women of 12–19, 20–29, and 30–49 years; P = 0.04) and race/ethnicity (6.1%, 2.7%, and 2.0% for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American; P<0.001). The factors reported associated with IgG seroprevalence were not associated with IgM seroprevalence. The patterns of CMV IgM seroprevalence by age, race/ethnicity, and IgG serostatus may help understanding the epidemiology of congenital CMV infection as a consequence of vertical transmission and are useful for identifying target populations for intervention to reduce CMV transmission. PMID:26990759

  13. HIV testing patterns among urban YMSM of color.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Noelle R; Rajan, Sonali; Gwadz, Marya V; Aregbesola, Temi

    2014-12-01

    The heightened level of risk for HIV infection among Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is driven by multilevel influences. Using cross-sectional data, we examined HIV testing patterns among urban YMSM of color in a high-HIV seroprevalence area (ages 16 to 21 years). Self-reported frequency of testing was high, with 42% of youth reporting testing at a greater frequency than recommended guidelines. There were no differences between less frequent and more frequent testers on sexual risk behaviors. Most (80%) youth cited reassurance of HIV-negative status as a reason for testing. Further, over half of the sample reported numerous other reasons for HIV testing, which spanned individual, partner, social, and structural levels of influence. Approximately half of respondents indicated that peers, family members, and counselors influenced their motivation to get tested. Of concern, their first HIV test occurred approximately 2 years after their first sexual experience with another male. These results indicate the need to consider developmental issues as well as comprehensive, multilevel efforts to ensure that YMSM of color test at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-recommended frequency but not less than this or too frequently. PMID:24973260

  14. HIV prevention research: accomplishments and challenges for the third decade of AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, J D; Coates, T J

    2000-01-01

    The past 2 decades have taught us that HIV prevention can work. We now have evidence from places as diverse as Senegal, Thailand, Uganda, and Australia that concerted HIV prevention efforts at the national level have resulted in the maintenance of low seroprevalence rates where they otherwise would have been expected to rise. We are beginning to observe declining rates of HIV prevalence and incidence in places and populations with historically high rates--for example, injection drug users in New York City. This trend points to the long-term impact of prevention efforts in those communities. The best of these efforts have been based on sound scientific research. As we move into the third decade of the AIDS epidemic, it is important to restate principles, acknowledge advances, and identify challenges and future directions in HIV prevention research. PMID:10897177

  15. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in horses and donkeys in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that infects almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans, with a worldwide distribution. There have been limited reports about the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in equids around the world and little is known about the seroprevalence of T. gondii in equids in southwestern China, in particular in Yunnan Province. The objective of the present investigation was to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in equids in this area. Methods A total of 399 serum samples (266 from horses and 133 from donkeys) were collected in 2012, and assayed for T. gondii antibodies by Indirect Haemagglutination (IHA) test using a commercially available kit. Results A total of 108 (27.1%) equids, including 81 (30.5%) horses and 27 (20.3%) donkeys were positive for T. gondii antibodies, and the seroprevalence ranged from 18.8% to 37.5% among different sampling areas. The seroprevalence was 27.4% and 26.8% for male and female equids, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The seroprevalence ranged from 21% to 32.9% among different age groups, and the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusions The results of the present survey indicated the existence of high T. gondii seroprevalence in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, which has significant public health concern. Therefore, it is imperative that improved integrated measures be carried out to prevent and control T. gondii infection in equids in the studied region. PMID:23742078

  16. Geographical differences in seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in Norway, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Vestrheim, Didrik F; White, Richard A; Aaberge, Ingeborg S; Aase, Audun

    2016-07-01

    Detection of specific antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a useful aid for the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. However, antibodies are present in the general population. The seroprevalence increase with age, and varies according to the prevalence of infected ticks. We performed a seroprevalence study of IgM and IgG antibody reactivity against B. burgdorferi sensu lato in Norway by age-groups and geography, in order to provide a reference set of seroprevalence to inform the interpretation of positive test results. We used two commercially available enzyme immuno assays (EIA) and a multiplexed bead assay to detect Borrelia IgG antibodies in a convenience sample of 3057 sera collected from clinical chemistry laboratories in 10 of 19 counties in Norway between December 2011 and January 2013. We estimated seroprevalence by age and county by a logistic regression model. IgM antibodies were detected by two commercially available EIAs and a multiplexed bead assay. The overall seroprevalence of Borrelia IgG was 4.0% (95% CI: 2.4-6.6%) and 4.2% (2.6-6.8%) by the two EIAs, respectively. The seroprevalence increased by age, and by geography from north to south. The IgG assays showed a good agreement for positive test results. All sera positive for IgG in the multiplexed bead assay reacted with the VlsE antigen, and also had high antibody levels by EIA. The Borrelia seroprevalence varied by geography and increased by age. The results indicate regional differences in pre-test probabilities for positive test results, and can inform the interpretation of laboratory results. PMID:26961275

  17. Seroprevalence of anti-HCV antibodies among blood donors of north India

    PubMed Central

    Makroo, R.N.; Walia, Rimpreet Singh; Chowdhry, Mohit; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Hegde, Vikas; Rosamma, N.L.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Transfusion of blood and blood products although considered as a life saving treatment modality, but may lead to certain infectious and non-infectious complications in the recipients. The purpose of this analysis was to monitor the seroprevalence of anti-HCV antibody in the blood donor population in a hospital based blood bank in north India, to evaluate the trends over the years (2001-2011). Methods: Relevant information of all the blood donors who donated whole blood at the department of Transfusion Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, New Delhi from the January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2011 was retrieved from the departmental records. The number of donors who were found reactive for anti-HCV anatibodies was calculated. Results: Of the 2,06,022 blood donors, 1,93,661 were males and 12,361 were females. The percentage of whole blood donors found seroreactive for anti-HCV antibodies was 0.39 per cent (n=795). The seroprevalence of anti-HCV in male blood donors was 0.38 per cent (n=750) and the respective seroprevalence in female blood donors was 0.36 per cent (n=45). No significant change in the trend of HCV seroprevalence was observed over the period under consideration. Maximum seroprevalence of anti-HCV was observed in the age group of 18 to 30 yr (0.41%) and the minimum in the age group of 51 to 60 yr (0.26%). Interpretation & conclusion: HCV seroprevalence in our study was 0.39 per cent and a decreasing trend with age was observed. No significant change in the trend of anti-HCV seroprevalence was seen over a decade. Since, no vaccine is presently available for immunization against HCV infection, transfusion transmitted HCV infection remains a potential threat to the safety of the blood supply. PMID:24056566

  18. Network characteristics of people who inject drugs within a new HIV epidemic following austerity in Athens, Greece

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Michelle A.; Schneider, John A.; Sypsa, Vana; Schumm, Phil; Nikolopoulos, Georgios K.; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Friedman, Samuel R.; Malliori, Meni; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    Background Greece experienced an unprecedented increase in HIV cases among drug injectors in 2011 following economic crisis. Network level factors are increasingly understood to drive HIV transmission in emerging epidemics. Methods We examined the relationship between networks, risk behaviors and HIV serostatus among 1,404 people who inject drugs in Athens, Greece. We generated networks using the chain-referral structure within a large HIV screening program. Network proportions, the proportion of a respondent’s network with a given characteristic, were calculated. Multiple logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between network proportions and individual HIV seroprevalance, injection frequency and unprotected sex. Results 1030 networks were generated. Respondent HIV seroprevalence was associated with greater proportions of network members who were HIV infected (i.e. those with ≥50% of network members HIV-positive vs. those with no network members HIV-positive) [AOR, 3.11; 95% CI, 2.10 to 4.62], divided drugs [AOR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.35] or injected frequently [AOR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.21]. Homelessness was the only sociodemographic characteristic associated with a risk outcome measure – high-frequency injecting [AOR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.93]. These associations were weaker for more distal second and third degree networks and not present when examined within random networks. Conclusion Networks are an independently important contributor to the HIV outbreak in Athens Greece. Network associations were strongest for the immediate network, with residual associations for distal networks. Homelessness was associated with high frequency injecting. Prevention programs should consider including network-level interventions to prevent future emerging epidemics. PMID:26115439

  19. Population Size, HIV, and Behavior Among MSM in Luanda, Angola: Challenges and Findings in the First Ever HIV and Syphilis Biological and Behavioral Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Carl; Kerr, Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo; Mota, Rosa Maria Salani; Cavalcante, Socorro; Macena, Raimunda Hermelinda Maia; Chen, Sanny; Gaffga, Nicholas; Monterosso, Edgar; Bastos, Fransisco I.; Serrano, Dulcelina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To conduct the first population size estimation and biological and behavioral surveillance survey among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Angola. Design Population size estimation with multiplier method and a cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling. Setting Luanda Province, Angola. Study was conducted in a large hospital. Participants Seven hundred ninety-two self-identified MSM accepted a unique object for population size estimation. Three hundred fifty-one MSM were recruited with respondent-driven sampling for biological and behavioral surveillance survey. Methods Interviews and testing for HIV and syphilis were conducted on-site. Analysis used Respondent-Driven Sampling Analysis Tool and STATA 11.0. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses examined factors associated with HIV and unprotected sex. Six imputation strategies were used for missing data for those refusing to test for HIV. Main Outcome A population size of 6236 MSM was estimated. Twenty-seven of 351 individuals were tested positive. Adjusted HIV prevalence was 3.7% (8.7% crude). With imputation, HIV seroprevalence was estimated between 3.8% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6 to 6.5] and 10.5% (95% CI: 5.6 to 15.3). Being older than 25 (odds ratio = 10.8, 95% CI: 3.5 to 32.8) and having suffered episodes of homophobia (odds ratio = 12.7, 95% CI: 3.2 to 49.6) significantly increased the chance of HIV seropositivity. Conclusions Risk behaviors are widely reported, but HIV seroprevalence is lower than expected. The difference between crude and adjusted values was mostly due to treatment of missing values in Respondent-Driven Sampling Analysis Tool. Solutions are proposed in this article. Although concerns were raised about feasibility and adverse outcomes for MSM, the study was successfully and rapidly completed with no adverse effects. PMID:25014130

  20. Leptospira seroprevalence and associations between seropositivity, clinical disease and host factors in horses

    PubMed Central

    Båverud, V; Gunnarsson, A; Engvall, E Olsson; Franzén, P; Egenvall, A

    2009-01-01

    Background A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of different serovars of Leptospira spp. and their association with clinical disease and host factors in Swedish horses. Methods Sera from 2017 horses brought to equine clinics during 1997–98 were investigated. The sera were examined by microscopic agglutination test for the presence of antibodies against the following L. interrogans serovars: Bratislava strain Jez, Icterohaemorrhagiae strain Kantorowicz and Pomona strain Pomona and also L. kirschneri sv Grippotyphosa strain Duyster and L. borgpetersenii sv Sejroe strain M 84. Host factors, disease factors, season, pasture access and outdoor confinement variables were analysed with respect to seropositivity to sv Bratislava and Icterohaemorrhagiae. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model seropositivity to sv Bratislava and Icterohaemorrhagiae (seroprevalence > 8%). Results The seroprevalence, at a cut-off 1:100, were for sv Bratislava (16.6%), Icterohaemorrhagiae (8.3%), Sejroe (1.2%), Pomona (0.5%) and Grippotyphosa (0.4%). In the multivariable analysis, it was demonstrated that seroprevalence increased with age for sv Bratislava and Icterohaemorrhagiae. For sv Bratislava the seasons April – June and October – December and for sv Icterohaemorrhagiae October – December had higher seroprevalences than other seasons. Horses not used for racing had higher levels of seropositivity to sv Bratislava. Furthermore, horses with respiratory problems as well as horses with fatigue had higher levels of seropositivity to sv Bratislava. Ponies and coldbloods, and horses with access to pasture, had lower seroprevalence for sv Icterohaemorrhagiae. Healthy horses had lower seroprevalence for sv Icterohaemorrhagiae, than non-healthy horses. Conclusion There was no significant association between clinical signs and disease and positive titres to sv Bratislava (except for the association between respiratory problems and fatigue and

  1. Seroepidemiology of HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B and C viruses among blood donors in Bangui, Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Nambei, W S; Rawago-Mandjiza, D; Gbangbangai, E

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HIV, the hepatitis B and C viruses, and syphilis as well the risk factors for these diseases among blood donors in Bangui, Central Africa Republic. This cross-sectional study examined samples from donors giving blood in August and September, 2013. HIV1/2 antibodies was screened with the Determine and Unigold HIV tests. Hepatitis B surface antigens were detected by sandwich immunochromatographic methods (DIAspot HBsAg test), and antibodies to HCV by the DIAspot test strip. Syphilis was diagnosed with the VDRL and TPHA methods (Omega Diagnostic, UK). The Chi(2) test was used for statistical analysis. The study included samples from 551 individuals, 350 (63.52%) of whom were frequent volunteer donors. In all, 132 (23.95%) were infected with at least one pathogen. The overall seroprevalence rate was 8.89% for HBV, 4.72% for HCV, 4.36% for syphilis, and 5.98% for HIV. Eight patients had two concomitant infections, with HIV-HBV the most common combination. Compared to long-term volunteers, first-time donors were more often infected by at least one of the pathogens we screened for, most especially HVB (OR = 5.06; 95% CI = 4.22-7.11) and syphilis (OR = 2.05; 95% CI = 2.02-7.44). Our findings indicate the high seroprevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections in blood donated in Bangui. The most common combined infections were HIV-HBV. The most common risk factor was a family history of HBV infection, and especially, mother-child transmission. PMID:27412978

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sows in Hunan province, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Li, Run-Cheng; Liu, Guo-Hua; Cong, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Yu, Xing-Long; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infections are prevalent in animals and humans worldwide. Although the prevalence of T. gondii has been reported in many animals in China, little is known of T. gondii infection in sows. Antibodies to T. gondii in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, were examined using indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT). Overall, 31.3% (373/1191) of the examined sows were seropositive for T. gondii. Among 11 representative regions of Hunan province, the seroprevalence ranged from 14.8% to 45.1%. In addition, the T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in summer (37.4%) and autumn (34.9%) than in spring (24.6%) and winter (23.9%). Regarding different antibody titers, the seroprevalence ranged from 1.8% (titer ≥ 1: 1024) to 17.4% (titer = 1:64). The findings of the present investigation revealed the high seroprevalence of T. gondii in sows in Hunan province, China, which poses a potential risk for T. gondii infection in humans and animals in this province. Therefore, effective measures should be taken to prevent and control toxoplasmosis of pigs in this province. This is the first report of the comprehensive survey of T. gondii seroprevalence in sows in Hunan Province, subtropical China. PMID:24683331

  3. Seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Italian horses.

    PubMed

    Ebani, Valentina V; Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Pinzauti, Paolo; Cerri, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in healthy horses living in 7 provinces of central Italy. In the period 2007-2009, sera from 386 horses were tested by microagglutination test (MAT) to detect antibodies to Leptospira spp., employing the following serovars as antigens: Bratislava, Ballum, Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Pomona, Tarassovi. 3 animals were positive for the serovars Icterohaemorrhagiae, 2 to Bratislava, and 1 to Pomona, for a total 1.5% seroprevalence. All sera were examined by immunofluorence antibody test (IFAT) to reveal anti-B. burgdorferi s.l. antibodies. 94 (24.3%) horses were positive with antibody titres ranging from 1:64 to 1:1,024. The seroprevalence was significantly higher in >10 year-old horses compared to younger subjects. No significant differences in the mean seroprevalence were observed in the respective years. The total mean seroprevalence were strictly related to the environmental conditions of the areas in which the horses lived. No cross-reactions between Leptospira and Borrelia were observed. This is the first serological survey on antibodies to B. burgdorferi s.l. in Italian horses. PMID:22742794

  4. Infectious bursal disease: seroprevalence and associated risk factors in major poultry rearing areas of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jenbreie, Shiferaw; Ayelet, Gelagay; Gelaye, Esayas; Kebede, Fekadu; Lynch, Stacey E; Negussie, Haileleul

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted in eight districts of Ethiopia with the objectives of determining the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of infectious bursal disease (IBD). From the total of 2,597 chicken serum samples examined using ELISA, 83.1 % were found positive. The highest seroprevalence was found at Mekele (90.3 %) while the lowest was recorded at Gondar district (69.8 %). These differences among the study areas were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Highest seroprevalence was found in crossbreed of chicken (91.4 %) while the lowest was recorded in indigenous breed of chicken (81.4 %). This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05) among the three breeds of chickens, but sex was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The seroprevalence of the disease was found high in young (≤ 8 weeks) age group (86.6 %) while the lowest prevalence was recorded in adults (>8 weeks) (72 %). This is also statistically significant (p < 0.05) between young and adult age groups. The prevalence of IBD in different production system indicated that higher seroprevalence was recorded in intensive production system (85.9 %) while the lowest was recorded in extensive production system (81.6 %). This difference is also statistically significant (p < 0.05). PMID:22639033

  5. Seroprevalence of rubella among Jordanian women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Jarour, Najwa; Hayajneh, Wail A; Balbeesi, Adel; Otoom, Haidar; Al-Shurman, Abdullah; Kharabsheh, Sa'ad

    2007-05-01

    This study was conducted to assess immunity (seroprevalence) to rubella among Jordanian women of childbearing age. A multistage cluster sampling was used to recruit 1125 women of childbearing age (15-49 year) from the 12 Governorates of Jordan. Anti-rubella antibody titers were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays. The overall immunity rate to rubella among women in childbearing age was 90.9% (CI: 88.8-92.9). However, the immunity rate was significantly lower in younger women aged 15-19 years (83%) compared to the whole cohort (P

  6. Seroprevalence of erythrovirus B19 in Saudi pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Johargy, Ayman K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Erythrovirus B19 infection is associated with clinical symptoms that range from mild to severe. The common clinical presentation of B19 virus (B19V) infection is erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, aplastic crisis, and fetal infection. Infection in seronegative pregnant women can lead to fetal hydrops. Objectives: To determine the seroprevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to erythrovirus B19 in Saudi pregnant women in the cities of Makkah and Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A total of 364 blood (serum) samples were tested for erythrovirus B19-specific-IgG antibody in Saudi pregnant women in the cities of Makkah and Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. Results: Erythrovirus B19-specific-IgG antibodies were detected in 182/364 (50%) of Saudi pregnant women of different age groups. Conclusion: This study indicated that B19V is clearly circulating in the community in a way that is similar to what is found in most nontemperate countries. PMID:27186157

  7. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild kangaroos using an ELISA

    PubMed Central

    Parameswaran, N.; O'Handley, RM.; Grigg, ME.; Fenwick, SG.; Thompson, RCA.

    2009-01-01

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii is a significant problem in Australian marsupials, and can lead to devastating disease and predispose animals to predation. T. gondii infection in kangaroos is also of public health significance due to the kangaroo meat trade. A moderate seroprevalence of T. gondii was observed in a study of western grey kangaroos located in the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. Of 219 kangaroos tested, 15.5% (95%CI: 10.7-20.3) were positive for T. gondii antibodies using an ELISA developed to detect T. gondii IgG in macropod marsupials. When compared with the commercially available MAT (modified agglutination test), the ELISA developed was in absolute agreement and yielded a κ coefficient of 1.00. Of 18 kangaroos tested for the presence of T. gondii DNA by PCR, the 9 ELISA positive kangaroos tested PCR positive and the 9 ELISA negative kangaroos tested PCR negative indicating the ELISA protocol was both highly specific and sensitive and correlated 100% with the more labour intensive PCR assay. PMID:19567231

  8. Low seroprevalent species D adenovirus vectors as influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Eric A; Barry, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal and pandemic influenza remains a constant threat. While standard influenza vaccines have great utility, the need for improved vaccine technologies have been brought to light by the 2009 swine flu pandemic, highly pathogenic avian influenza infections, and the most recent early and widespread influenza activity. Species C adenoviruses based on serotype 5 (AD5) are potent vehicles for gene-based vaccination. While potent, most humans are already immune to this virus. In this study, low seroprevalent species D adenoviruses Ad26, 28, and 48 were cloned and modified to express the influenza virus A/PR/8/34 hemagglutinin gene for vaccine studies. When studied in vivo, these species D Ad vectors performed quite differently as compared to species C Ad vectors depending on the route of immunization. By intramuscular injection, species D vaccines were markedly weaker than species C vaccines. In contrast, the species D vaccines were equally efficient as species C when delivered mucosally by the intranasal route. Intranasal adenovirus vaccine doses as low as 10(8) virus particles per mouse induced complete protection against a stringent lethal challenge dose of influenza. These data support translation of species D adenoviruses as mucosal vaccines and highlight the fundamental effects of differences in virus tropism on vaccine applications. PMID:23991187

  9. Seroprevalence of tuberculosis in domesticated elk (Cervus canadensis) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Shin-Seok; Byeon, Hyeon-Seop; Ku, Bok Kyung; Kim, Sang Woo; Kim, Jiro; Woo, Jeongim; Ahn, Byeongwoo; Kim, Soojin; Monoldorova, Sezim; Park, Chan-Ho; Cho, Sang-Nae; Jeon, Bo-Young

    2016-08-01

    Tuberculosis is a contagious disease in animals, primarily cattle, although it also affects wild animals and humans. There are few data on the state of tuberculosis in domesticated elk (Cervus canadensis) in Korea. In order to investigate tuberculosis in elk, the effectiveness of an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using MPB70 and MPB83 antigens was compared with the tuberculin skin test (TST), and seroprevalence was measured with this assay using serum samples collected from domesticated elk herds in Korea. The respective sensitivities of the MPB70 and MPB83 ELISAs were 51.9% (95% CI 42.0-61.6) and 49.1% (95% CI 39.3-58.9), and their specificities were 100.0% (95% CI 92.6-100.0) and 97.9% (95% CI 88.9-100.0), respectively, in comparison with the TST. The herd prevalence ranged from 50 to 80% and the mean herd seropositive rate was 67.7% (21 of 31). Of 819 serum samples, 163 (19.9%) were seropositive, and the within-region prevalence ranged from 18.5-58.0%. In conclusion, the ELISA using the MPB70 and MPB83 antigens showed moderate sensitivity and high specificity compared to TST in elk, and tuberculosis was assumed to be fairly prevalent in domesticated elk in Korea. PMID:27474000

  10. Chikungunya virus outbreak in Kerala, India, 2007: a seroprevalence study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Narendran Pradeep; Suresh, Abidha; Vanamail, Perumal; Sabesan, Shanmugavelu; Krishnamoorthy, Kalianna Gounder; Mathew, Jacob; Jose, Varakilparambil Thomas; Jambulingam, Purushothaman

    2011-12-01

    India was affected by a major outbreak of chikungunya fever caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) during 2006-2007. Kerala was the worst affected state during 2007 with a contribution of 55.8% suspected cases in the country. However, except for clinically reported case records, no systematic information is available on infection status of CHIKV in the region. Hence, we carried out a post-epidemic survey to estimate seroprevalence status [immunoglobulin G (IgG)] in the community using commercially available indirect immunofluorescence test. This methodology had been reported to be highly specific and sensitive for CHIKV infection. The study area selected was the worst affected mid-highlands region of Kerala which harbour vast area of rubber plantations. The study evidenced 68% of the population to be seropositive for CHIKV IgG. Males were found more affected than females (χ2 = 9.86; p = 0.002). Among males, prevalence was significantly higher in the age classes 21-30 (χ2 = 5.46; p = 0.019) and 31-40 (χ2 = 5.84; p = 0.016) years. This may be due to high occupational risk of the male population engaged in plantation activities exposed to infective bites of Aedes albopictus. The current study provides an insight into the magnitude of CHIKV outbreak in Kerala. PMID:22241110

  11. Seroprevalence survey for Salmonella Abortusovis infection in Swiss sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Wirz-Dittus, Sophie; Belloy, Luc; Hüssy, Daniela; Waldvogel, Andreas S; Doherr, Marcus G

    2010-11-01

    Between 1976 and 2003, no infections with Salmonella Abortusovis had been officially recorded in Switzerland. Since then, however, several sheep flocks were infected and suffered massive fetal losses suggesting a re-emergence of the disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological situation of S. Abortusovis infection in sheep in this country. A representative serum sample collected in 2007 in the context of certifying Brucella freedom included sera from 578 flocks with a total of 8426 sheep from all regions in Switzerland and the Principality of Liechtenstein. Sera were tested by ELISA for the presence of antibodies specific for S. Abortusovis. The cantonal seroprevalence was estimated at the sheep as well as the flock-level by taking into account (a) all flocks with one or more seropositive sheep (Flock 1+) and (b) only the flocks with two or more seropositive sheep (Flock 2+). Flocks with seropositive sheep were found throughout the country with an overall sheep-level prevalence of 1.7%. At the flock-level, overall prevalences of 16.3% and 5.0% were found for Flock 1+ and Flock 2+ definitions, respectively. Significant sheep-level clusters were located in the cantons of Bern, the Valais and Graubünden, while significant flock-level clusters (Flock 1+ and Flock 2+) were located in the canton of Graubünden only. Our results indicate that exposure of Swiss sheep flocks to S. Abortusovis is wide-spread. PMID:20870306

  12. Seroprevalence of asymptomatic dengue infection in children in Lahore.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, S N; Ghafoor, F; Saleem, M; Ghous, R; Aasim, M

    2016-08-01

    Dengue has become a global problem in past few decades, with half of the world's population at risk of infection. For some countries of Asia and Latin America, severe dengue is a major cause of serious illness and even death in children. Pakistan has been reported as a hyperendemic area for dengue infection. Our study aimed to find seroprevalence of past dengue infection in asymptomatic children of Lahore with no previous history of dengue infection. A total of 400 samples were collected from children aged 1-12 years in Lahore using random sampling. The inclusion criteria were children aged 1-12 years, who had no previous symptoms of dengue fever during their lives. Children with known immunodeficiency status or fever at the time of recruitment were excluded from the study. Commercially available ELISA kits were used to determine the IgG status in sera of children. The data obtained was entered and analysed using SPSS v. 20.0. The overall prevalence of asymptomatic dengue infection was found to be 25%. There was no statistically significant difference between prevalence of infection in male and female children. There was, however, a strong relationship between increasing age of the child and number of cases with infection, with low incidence in children aged ⩽5 years. PMID:27019361

  13. Seroprevalence of HCV among Cairo University students in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Esmat, Gamal; Raziky, Maissa El; Nabeel, Mohammed M; Maher, Rabab; Zakaria, Zeinab

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly prevalent in Egypt. This work aimed at determining the seroprevalence of HCV among Cairo University students. The present study included 3,000 students from Cairo University, Egypt. Blood sample was obtained from each participant to be tested for HCV seromarker. HCV RNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out for those with positive anti-HCV. Overall prevalence rate of HCV antibody (anti-HCV) was 4.6%. It showed that the prevalence was relatively higher among females (86/1660; 5.2%) while males (51/1340; 3.8%) with no significant difference. PCR for HCV RNA was detected in 31.4% of the HCV antibody positive subjects (43/137). Which showed statistical significant difference between males (29/51) and females (14/86) at P = 0.001. Despite the prevalence rate reported in the present study was similar to anti-HCV prevalence among persons in the same age group, confirmed that HCV infection is detected among Cairo University students. J. Med. Virol. 88:1384-1387, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26754614

  14. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Cytomegalovirus Infections in Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Stadler, Laura Patricia; Bernstein, David I.; Callahan, S. Todd; Turley, Christine B.; Munoz, Flor M.; Ferreira, Jennifer; Acharya, Mekhala; Simone, Gina A. Gorgone; Patel, Shital M.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Rosenthal, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a leading cause of disability, including sensorineural hearing loss, developmental delay, and mental retardation. Understanding risk factors for acquisition of CMV infection in adolescent females will help determine vaccine strategies. Methods Females (12–17 years) were recruited from primary care settings in Cincinnati, Galveston, Houston, and Nashville from June 2006 to July 2010 for a seroepidemiologic study, from which seronegative participants were recruited for a CMV vaccine trial. Participants (n = 1585) responded to questions regarding potential exposures. For those with young children in the home (n = 859), additional questions were asked about feeding and changing diapers, and for those > 14 years of age (n = 1162), questions regarding sexual activity were asked. Serum was evaluated for CMV antibody using a commercial immunoglobulin G assay. Results Cytomegalovirus antibody was detected in 49% of participants. In the univariate analyses, CMV seroprevalence was significantly higher among African Americans, those with children < 3 years of age in the home, and those with a history of oral, anal, or vaginal intercourse. Among those with young children in the home, feeding children and changing diapers further increased the association with CMV infection. However, in the final multivariate analysis, only African Americans and household contact with young children were associated with CMV infection. Conclusions By age 12, evidence of CMV infection was common. Multiple factors regarding race and personal behaviors likely contribute to seroconversion earlier in life. PMID:23687583

  15. Seroprevalence and genotype of Chlamydia in pet parrots in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, N-Z; Zhang, X-X; Zhou, D-H; Huang, S-Y; Tian, W-P; Yang, Y-C; Zhao, Q; Zhu, X-Q

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are one of the most popular pet birds in China, and can harbour Chlamydia which has significance for human and animal health. We investigated, by indirect haemagglutination assay, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in four species of parrots, namely budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria) that were collected from Weifang and Beijing cities, North China and explored the association between potential risk factors and chlamydial seropositivity. We further determined the genotype of Chlamydia in 21 fresh faecal samples based on the ompA sequence by reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships. Of the 311 parrots examined, 35·37% (95% confidence interval 30·06-40·68) were seropositive, and species, gender, age, season and geographical location were identified as risk factors. Two PCR-positive samples represented Chlamydia psittaci genotype A. The occurrence of C. psittaci genotype A in the droppings of two pet parrots in China suggests potential environmental contamination with Chlamydiaceae and may raise a public health concern. PMID:24588856

  16. HIV Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... pre-chewed by an HIV-infected person. The contamination occurs when infected blood from a caregiver’s mouth ... pre-chewed by an HIV-infected person. The contamination occurs when infected blood from a caregiver’s mouth ...

  17. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Sweden and evaluation of ELISA test performance.

    PubMed

    Wallander, C; Frössling, J; Vågsholm, I; Uggla, A; Lundén, A

    2015-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite, infecting a wide range of warm-blooded animals. The Swedish wild boar population is expanding and increased hunting provides its meat to a growing group of consumers. We performed a spatio-temporal investigation of T. gondii seroprevalence in Swedish wild boars. An ELISA was set up and evaluated against a commercial direct agglutination test, using Bayesian latent class analysis. The ELISA sensitivity and specificity were estimated to 79% and 85%, respectively. Of 1327 serum samples, 50% were positive. Thirty-four per cent of young wild boars and 55% of adults were positive (P < 0.001). The total seroprevalence ranged from 72% in 2005 to 38% in 2011 (P < 0.001), suggesting a declining trend. The highest seroprevalence, 65%, was recorded in South Sweden. In other regions it varied from 29% in Stockholm to 46% in East Middle Sweden. PMID:25373497

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in fattening pigs in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Chang, Qiao-Cheng; Zheng, Xu; Qiu, Jian-Hua; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2013-06-01

    Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in fattening pigs in Heilongjiang Province, northeast China, was investigated between July 2011 and June 2012. In total, 1,014 pig serum samples were collected from 10 administrative regions and assayed for T. gondii antibodies by indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test using a commercially available kit. The average T. gondii antibody-positive prevalence was 4.6% (47/1,014), which is relatively lower than that in other provinces in China. Seroprevalence in fattening pigs raised on small farms (6.3%) was significantly higher than that on large farms (3.8%) (P < 0.05), and the seroprevalence ranged from 2.4% (Shuangyashan) to 6.8% (Qitaihe) between different geographical regions. Given that pork is not examined for T. gondii infection in China by law, these findings have public health implications and provide useful baseline information for the control of pig toxoplasmosis in this unique region of China. PMID:23116060

  19. Seroprevalence of seven zoonotic pathogens in pregnant women from the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Wood, Heidi; Drebot, Michael A; Dewailly, Eric; Dillon, Liz; Dimitrova, Kristina; Forde, Martin; Grolla, Allen; Lee, Elise; Loftis, Amanda; Makowski, Kai; Morrison, Karen; Robertson, Lyndon; Krecek, Rosina C

    2014-09-01

    Studies examining the prevalence of zoonotic agents in the Caribbean are very limited. The objective of this study was to examine the seroprevalence of seven zoonotic agents among individuals residing on 10 English-speaking Caribbean countries. Sera from healthy, pregnant women were collected from Antigua-Barbuda, Belize, Bermuda, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts-Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent-Grenadines and tested for the presence of IgG antibodies to dengue virus, hepatitis E virus, hantaviruses, leptospiral agents, spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR), typhus group rickettsiae (TGR), and Coxiella burnetii (Q fever). The highest seroprevalence values were observed for dengue virus, SFGR, and leptospirosis, although the lowest seroprevalence values were observed for hepatitis E virus, C. burnetii, and TGR. Antibodies to hantaviruses were not detected in any individuals. PMID:24914001

  20. Seroprevalence of Seven Zoonotic Pathogens in Pregnant Women from the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Heidi; Drebot, Michael A.; Dewailly, Eric; Dillon, Liz; Dimitrova, Kristina; Forde, Martin; Grolla, Allen; Lee, Elise; Loftis, Amanda; Makowski, Kai; Morrison, Karen; Robertson, Lyndon; Krecek, Rosina C.

    2014-01-01

    Studies examining the prevalence of zoonotic agents in the Caribbean are very limited. The objective of this study was to examine the seroprevalence of seven zoonotic agents among individuals residing on 10 English-speaking Caribbean countries. Sera from healthy, pregnant women were collected from Antigua-Barbuda, Belize, Bermuda, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts-Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent-Grenadines and tested for the presence of IgG antibodies to dengue virus, hepatitis E virus, hantaviruses, leptospiral agents, spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR), typhus group rickettsiae (TGR), and Coxiella burnetii (Q fever). The highest seroprevalence values were observed for dengue virus, SFGR, and leptospirosis, although the lowest seroprevalence values were observed for hepatitis E virus, C. burnetii, and TGR. Antibodies to hantaviruses were not detected in any individuals. PMID:24914001

  1. Seroprevalence of infectious diseases in saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica tatarica) in Kazakhstan 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Orynbayev, Mukhit B; Beauvais, Wendy; Sansyzbay, Abylay R; Rystaeva, Rashida A; Sultankulova, Kulyaisan T; Kerimbaev, Aslan A; Kospanova, Madina N; Kock, Richard A

    2016-05-01

    286 serum samples were collected from three sub-populations of saiga in Kazakhstan (Betpakdala, Ustyurt and Volga-Ural) between 2012 and 2014, and were tested for the presence of antibodies to Brucella spp., bluetongue virus, peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus, Akabane virus, Schmallenberg virus, Chlamydophila, Toxoplasma, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Coxiella burnetii (Q Fever). Seropositives to Coxiella burnetii of saiga were detected and the adjusted seroprevalence of Q Fever antibodies was 0.07 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03-0.10). Seropositives to Akabane virus were detected in all three populations and the adjusted seroprevalence values for this virus were very high (all were>0.13). Lower adjusted seroprevalence values were estimated for PPR Virus and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (0.005 and 0.006). No seropositives for bluetongue, Toxoplasma, Brucella or Schmallenberg were detected. PMID:27094147

  2. Ovine Paratuberculosis: A Seroprevalence Study in Dairy Flocks Reared in the Marche Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Anna Rita, Attili; Victor, Ngu Ngwa; Silvia, Preziuso; Luciana, Pacifici; Anastasia, Domesi; Vincenzo, Cuteri

    2011-01-01

    In order to fulfil the seroprevalence gap on Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in ovine dairy farms of Marche region (central Italy), a stratified study was carried out on 2086 adult female sheep randomly chosen from 38 herds selected in Ancona and Macerata provinces. 73.7% flocks resulted infected by a commercial ELISA test (Pourquier, France), with a mean seroprevalence of 6.29% of sampled sheep in both provinces. A higher number of MAP seropositive ewes was recorded in the large herds' consistence than in the small and medium herds' consistence (P = 0.0269), and a greater percentage of infected sheep was obtained among female at early/late than in peak lactation stage (P = 0.0237). MAP infection was confirmed in 12.6% of infected farms by faecal culture. The true sheep-level seroprevalence was 15.1% ± 7.3%. PMID:21876850

  3. HIV behind Bars: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cluster Analysis and Drug Resistance in a Reference Correctional Unit from Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Maria Letícia R.; Kuhleis, Daniele; Picon, Pedro D.; Jarczewski, Carla A.; Osório, Marta R.; Sánchez, Alexandra; Seuánez, Héctor N.; Larouzé, Bernard; Soares, Marcelo A.; Soares, Esmeralda A.

    2013-01-01

    People deprived of liberty in prisons are at higher risk of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) due to their increased exposure through intravenous drug use, unprotected sexual activity, tattooing in prison and blood exposure in fights and rebellions. Yet, the contribution of intramural HIV transmission to the epidemic is scarcely known, especially in low- and middle-income settings. In this study, we surveyed 1,667 inmates incarcerated at Presídio Central de Porto Alegre, located in southern Brazil, for HIV infection and molecular characterization. The HIV seroprevalence was 6.6% (110/1,667). Further analyses were carried out on 40 HIV-seropositive inmates to assess HIV transmission clusters and drug resistance within the facility with the use of molecular and phylogenetic techniques. The molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 subtypes observed was similar to the one reported for the general population in southern Brazil, with the predominance of HIV-1 subtypes C, B, CRF31_BC and unique BC recombinants. In particular, the high rate (24%) of URF_BC found here may reflect multiple exposures of the population investigated to HIV infection. We failed to find HIV-infected inmates sharing transmission clusters with each other. Importantly, the analysis of HIV-1 pol genomic fragments evidenced high rates of HIV primary and secondary (acquired) drug resistance and an alarming proportion of virologic failure among patients under treatment, unveiling suboptimal access to antiretroviral therapy (ARV), low ARV adherence and dissemination of drug resistant HIV strains in primary infections. Our results call for immediate actions of public authority to implement preventive measures, serological screening and, for HIV-seropositive subjects, clinical and treatment follow-up in order to control HIV infection and limit the spread of drug resistance strains in Brazilian prisons. PMID:23874857

  4. Probability of female-to-male transmission of HIV-1 in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Mastro, T D; Satten, G A; Nopkesorn, T; Sangkharomya, S; Longini, I M

    1994-01-22

    The epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in Thailand has allowed an estimate to be made of the probability of female-to-male HIV-1 transmission per sexual contact. In a study of 1115 21-year-old male military conscripts, of whom 77 (6.9%) were HIV-1 seropositive, sex with female prostitutes was identified as the principal mode of HIV-1 transmission. With a mathematical model including data on conscript's age at first sexual contact, frequency of sex with female prostitutes, and province of origin; as well as province-specific HIV-1 seroprevalence of prostitutes, we estimated the probability of HIV-1 transmission per sexual contact to be 0.031 (95% confidence limits [CL] 0.025-0.040). Allowing for random error in the self-reported frequency of contacts, the estimate was 0.056 (95% CL 0.041-0.075). The transmission probability was significantly greater among men with a history of sexually-transmitted diseases. These estimates are substantially higher than analogous estimates made in North America. This high per-act probability of heterosexual transmission helps to explain the rapid spread of HIV-1 in the emerging epidemic in Thailand and perhaps in other countries where HIV-1 transmission is predominantly heterosexual. PMID:7904668

  5. Seroprevalence of brucellosis and its associated risk factors in cattle from smallholder dairy farms in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Matope, Gift; Bhebhe, Evison; Muma, John Bwalya; Oloya, James; Madekurozwa, Rachel L; Lund, Arve; Skjerve, Eystein

    2011-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate seroprevalence of brucellosis and the associated risk factors in cattle from smallholder dairy farms in Gokwe, Marirangwe, Mushagashe, Nharira, Rusitu and Wedza areas of Zimbabwe. A total of 1,440 cattle from 203 herds were tested serially for Brucella antibodies using Rose Bengal test and the competitive ELISA. Weighted seroprevalence estimates were calculated and risk factors in individual cattle investigated using logistic regression analysis. The overall individual animal brucellosis seroprevalence was low, with mean of 5.6% (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.4%, 6.8%). Gokwe had the highest individual (12.6%; 95% CI, 3.9%, 21.4%) and herd-level (40.0%; 95% CI, 22.1%, 58.0%), while Wedza had the lowest individual (2.3%; 95% CI, 0%, 5.3%) and herd-level (8.0%; 95% CI, 0.0%, 18.9%) brucellosis seroprevalence, respectively. In individual cattle, the area of origin, age and history of abortion were independently associated with brucellosis seroprevalence. While the seroprevalence was independent of sex, it decreased with increasing age. Cattle 2-4 years old had higher odds (odds ratio (OR) = 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1%, 9.1%) of being seropositive compared to those >7 years. Cows with a history of abortion were more likely to be seropositive (OR = 7.9; 95% CI, 3.1, 20.1) than controls. In conclusion, the area-to-area variation of brucellosis may be linked to ecological factors and differences in management practices. The implementation of stamping out policy, bleeding and testing animals before movement and promoting the use self-contained units are likely to significantly reduce the public health risks associated with Brucella infections in cattle. PMID:21327714

  6. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus in a cross-sectional study in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Conde-Gonzalez, Carlos; Rojas, Rosalba; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Romano-Mazzotti, Luis; Cervantes, Yolanda; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) remains a public health concern worldwide contributing to significant morbidity in developed and developing countries. This cross-sectional database study estimated the overall HAV seroprevalence and the seroprevalence by gender, age, region and socioeconomic status in Mexico. Between January and October 2010, serum samples collected during the National Health and Nutrition survey (ENSANUT 2006) were obtained from subjects aged 1–95 y. Subjects’ gender, age, geographical region and socioeconomic status were extracted from the survey and compiled into a subset database by the Mexican National Institute of Public Health. Anti-HAV antibodies were measured using a chemiluminescent immunoassay. A total of 3658 subjects were included in the according-to-protocol cohort. Overall, the HAV seroprevalence was 84.2%. The HAV seroprevalence rates were similar between females (86.1%) and males (82.2%). The percentage of subjects seropositive for anti-HAV antibodies was highest in adults aged ≥ 20 y (96.9%), followed by adolescents aged 10–19 y (80.1%) and lowest in children aged 1–9 y (45.0%) (p < 0.0001). Regionally, the highest HAV seroprevalence rate was observed in the South (88.8%) followed by Central and Northern Mexico and Mexico City (p = 0.02). The HAV seroprevalence was similar between subjects of high socioeconomic (90.1%) status and of low socioeconomic status (86.6%). This study confirms the intermediate HAV endemicity in Mexico. Cost-effectiveness studies are necessary to evaluate the inclusion of an effective hepatitis A vaccine from a population-based perspective in addition to continuous efforts to improve hygiene and sanitation that have a substantial impact on the disease burden. PMID:23291940

  7. Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence Among Blood Donors in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hesamizadeh, Khashayar; Sharafi, Heidar; Keyvani, Hossein; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Najafi-Tireh Shabankareh, Azar; Sharifi Olyaie, Roghiyeh; Keshvari, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) are both transmitted by the fecal-oral route and are known as the leading causes of acute viral hepatitis in the world, especially in developing countries. There is a lack of updated data on HAV and HEV seroprevalence in Iran. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HAV and HEV among a group of blood donors in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was performed from July 2014 to December 2014, on a total of 559 blood donors referred to the Tehran blood transfusion center. The serum samples were tested for antibodies to HAV and HEV, using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results In the present study, 536 (95.9%) cases were male and 23 (4.1%) female with mean age of 38 years. Out of 559 blood donors, 107 (19.1%) were first-time donors, 163 (29.2%) lapsed donors and 289 (51.7%) regular donors. Anti-HAV was found in 395 (70.7%) and anti-HEV in 45 (8.1%) of the blood donors. The HAV and HEV seroprevalence increased by age. There was no significant difference between genders in terms of anti-HAV and anti-HEV status. The HAV and HEV seroprevalence was significantly related to the level of education, where the donors with higher level of education had lower rate of HAV and HEV seroprevalence. The HAV and HEV seroprevalence was significantly higher in regular and lapsed donors than in first-time donors. Conclusions The present study showed that both HAV and HEV infections are still endemic in Iran. PMID:27110256

  8. HIV incidence among injection drug users in New York City, 1992-1997: evidence for a declining epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    Des Jarlais, D C; Marmor, M; Friedmann, P; Titus, S; Aviles, E; Deren, S; Torian, L; Glebatis, D; Murrill, C; Monterroso, E; Friedman, S R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We assessed recent (1992-1997) HIV incidence in the large HIV epidemic among injection drug users in New York City. METHODS: Data were compiled from 10 separate studies (N = 4979), including 6 cohort studies, 2 "repeat service user" studies, and 2 analyses of voluntary HIV testing and counseling services within drug treatment programs. RESULTS: In the 10 studies, 52 seroconversions were found in 6344 person-years at risk. The observed incidence rates among the 10 studies were all within a narrow range, from 0 per 100 person-years at risk to 2.96 per 100 person-years at risk. In 9 of the 10 studies, the observed incidence rate was less than 2 per 100 person-years at risk. The weighted average incidence rate was 0.7 per 100 person-years at risk. CONCLUSIONS: The recent incidence rate in New York City is quite low for a high-seroprevalence population of injection drug users. The very large HIV epidemic among injection drug users in New York City appears to have entered a "declining phase," characterized by low incidence and declining prevalence. The data suggest that very large high-seroprevalence HIV epidemics may be "reversed." PMID:10705851

  9. Prevalence of HIV Infection and Risk Behaviors Among Younger and Older Injecting Drug Users in the United States, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Huong; Spiller, Michael; Wejnert, Cyprian; Le, Binh; Neaigus, Alan; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    This study compared HIV sero-prevalence and risk behaviors between younger and older injecting drug users (IDUs). IDUs aged ≥18 years were interviewed for the 2009 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System. Using GEE regression, we assessed characteristics of younger (18–29 years) and older (≥30 years) IDUs, and factors associated with past 12-month receptive syringe sharing and unprotected sex (vaginal/anal). Of 10,090 participants, 10 % were younger. HIV sero-prevalence was lower among younger than older IDUs (4 vs. 10 %, p = 0.001). Younger IDUs were more likely (p ≤ 0.002) to be non-black race/ethnicity, report higher household income, homelessness, being arrested and to engage in receptive syringe sharing and unprotected sex. In multivariable models, age remained associated (p < 0.001) with receptive syringe sharing (aPR = 1.14, 95 % CI1.07–1.22) and unprotected sex (aPR = 1.10, 95 % CI1.06–1.14). Although younger IDUs had lower HIV prevalence, their behaviors place them at increased risk of HIV infection and could lead to a rapid spread in this susceptible population. PMID:24242754

  10. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in domestic animals and humans in Mymensingh District, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shahiduzzaman, Md; Islam, Rafiqul; Khatun, Most Monjila; Batanova, Tatiana A; Kitoh, Katsuya; Takashima, Yasuhiro

    2011-10-01

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii was examined in adult women and domestic animals used for meat products from the Mymensingh District, Bangladesh. Cattle, goats and sheep showed a high seroprevalence (12, 32 and 40%, respectively), while the sera from all fifteen women examined in the same area were seronegative. Considering that primary infection in women during pregnancy can cause abortion and congenital defects, accidental ingestion of T. gondii infected meat products from domestic animals represents a risk factor for adult women living in the same area. PMID:21685720

  11. Seroprevalence of and risk factors for leptospiral antibodies among cattle in the state of Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Segura-Correa, V M; Solis-Calderon, J J; Segura-Correa, J C

    2003-08-01

    Sera obtained from cattle in the state of Yucatan, Mexico, were screened using the microscopic agglutination test against 13 serovars of Leptospira interrogans. A total of 62.8% (461/734) cows were positive for one or more serovars. This seroprevalence probably reflects infection because vaccination against leptospirosis has not been practised in Yucatan. The most common antibodies detected were those against antigens of serovars hardjo (54.1%) and tarassovi (53.3%). Region was the only risk factor associated with the seroprevalence of leptospirosis (p < 0.05). PMID:14509536

  12. Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of hepatitis B virus among pregnant women in southern Ethiopia: a hospital-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Metaferia, Yeshi; Dessie, Walelign; Ali, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major blood-borne and sexually transmitted infectious agent that is a significant global public health issue. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of HBV among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the Hawassa University referral hospital in Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May, 2015. A total of 269 consecutive pregnant women attending antenatal consultations were enrolled. Sociodemographic information and data regarding possible risk factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening was performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the data were analyzed. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence of HBsAg among the 269 participants enrolled in the study was 7.8% (n=21). The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was 5.2% (n=14), of whom two participants (14.2%) were also positive for HBsAg. Study participants with no formal education (odds ratio [OR], 3.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27 to 10.68; p<0.05) were more likely to be infected with HBV than those who had completed at least secondary school. Although HBsAg was detected more often in pregnant women who had multiple exposure factors (8.8%, n=13) than in pregnant women who had not experienced possible risk factors (4%, n=1), this difference was not statistically significant (OR, 2.33; 95%CI, 0.29 to 18.63). CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of HBV infection was detected in the study population. Neither the type of risk factors nor exposure to multiple risk factors was significantly associated with HBV infection. Hence, screening pregnant women regardless of risk factors and improving awareness of the transmission routes of HBV within this group may reduce the risk of HBV infections. PMID:27336446

  13. The HIV Care Continuum among Female Sex Workers: A Key Population in Lilongwe, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Kathryn Elizabeth; Powers, Kimberly A.; Lungu, Thandie; Mmodzi, Pearson; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Chadwick, Katy; Go, Vivian F.; Pence, Brian W.; Hoffman, Irving F.; Miller, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The HIV care continuum among female sex workers (FSW), a key population, has not been well characterized, especially within the generalized epidemics of sub-Saharan Africa. This was the first study to characterize the HIV care continuum among FSW in Lilongwe, Malawi. Methods From July through September 2014, we used venue-based sampling to enroll 200 adult FSW in Lilongwe, Malawi into a cross-sectional evaluation assessing HIV care continuum outcomes. Seropositive FSW, identified using HIV rapid testing, received rapid CD4 counts in addition to viral loads using dried blood spots. We calculated proportions of HIV-infected FSW who had history of care, were on ART, and had suppressed viral load and we used Poisson regression to estimate the associations of demographic characteristics and transmission risk behaviors with each outcome. Results HIV seroprevalence was 69% (n = 138). Among all FSW the median age was 24 years (IQR: 22–28). Among the 20% who were newly diagnosed and reported previously testing negative, the median time since last HIV test was 11 months (interquartile range: 3–17). The majority (69%) of HIV-infected FSW had a history of HIV care, 52% reported current ART use, and 45% were virally suppressed. Of the FSW who reported current ART use, 86% were virally suppressed. Transmission risk behaviors were not associated with continuum outcomes. Conclusions FSW in Lilongwe were predominately young and have a high HIV prevalence. Only half of HIV-infected FSW reported current ART use, but the majority of those on ART were virally suppressed. To reduce ongoing transmission and improve health outcomes, increased HIV testing, care engagement, and ART coverage is urgently needed among FSW. Universal testing and treatment strategies for all FSW in Malawi must be strongly considered. PMID:26808043

  14. HIV Medication Adherence

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment HIV Medication Adherence (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points Medication adherence means sticking ... exactly as prescribed. Why is adherence to an HIV regimen important? Adherence to an HIV regimen gives ...

  15. HIV among Transgender People

    MedlinePlus

    ... of transgender Virginians . Richmond, VA: Virginia HIV Community Planning Committee and Virginia Department of Health; 2007. Accessed April 14, 2016. Additional ... HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS ...

  16. Sero-Prevalence of Rodent Pathogens in India.

    PubMed

    Manjunath, Shrruthi; Kulkarni, Prachet G; Nagavelu, Krishnaveni; Samuel, Rosa J; Srinivasan, Sandhya; Ramasamy, Nandhini; Hegde, Nagendra R; Gudde, Ramachandra S

    2015-01-01

    Health monitoring is an integral part of laboratory animal quality standards. However, current or past prevalence data as well as regulatory requirements dictate the frequency, type and the expanse of health monitoring. In an effort to understand the prevalence of rodent pathogens in India, a preliminary study was carried out by sero-epidemiology. Sera samples obtained from 26 public and private animal facilities were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against minute virus of mice (MVM), ectromelia virus (ECTV), lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), Sendai virus (SeV), and Mycoplasma pulmonis in mice, and SeV, rat parvo virus (RPV), Kilham's rat virus (KRV) and sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) in rats, by sandwich ELISA. It was observed that MHV was the most prevalent agent followed by Mycoplasma pulmonis and MVM in mice, and SDAV followed by RPV were prevalent in rats. On the other hand, none of the samples were positive for ECTV in mice, or SeV or KRV in rats. Multiple infections were common in both mice and rats. The incidence of MHV and Mycoplasma pulmonis was higher in facilities maintained by public organizations than in vivaria of private organizations, although the difference was not statistically different. On the other hand the prevalence of rodent pathogens was significantly higher in the northern part of India than in the South. These studies form the groundwork for detailed sero-prevalence studies which should further lay the foundations for country-specific guidelines for health monitoring of laboratory animals. PMID:26158453

  17. Sero-Prevalence of Rodent Pathogens in India

    PubMed Central

    Manjunath, Shrruthi; Kulkarni, Prachet G.; Nagavelu, Krishnaveni; Samuel, Rosa J.; Srinivasan, Sandhya; Ramasamy, Nandhini; Hegde, Nagendra R.; Gudde, Ramachandra S.

    2015-01-01

    Health monitoring is an integral part of laboratory animal quality standards. However, current or past prevalence data as well as regulatory requirements dictate the frequency, type and the expanse of health monitoring. In an effort to understand the prevalence of rodent pathogens in India, a preliminary study was carried out by sero-epidemiology. Sera samples obtained from 26 public and private animal facilities were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against minute virus of mice (MVM), ectromelia virus (ECTV), lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), Sendai virus (SeV), and Mycoplasma pulmonis in mice, and SeV, rat parvo virus (RPV), Kilham’s rat virus (KRV) and sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) in rats, by sandwich ELISA. It was observed that MHV was the most prevalent agent followed by Mycoplasma pulmonis and MVM in mice, and SDAV followed by RPV were prevalent in rats. On the other hand, none of the samples were positive for ECTV in mice, or SeV or KRV in rats. Multiple infections were common in both mice and rats. The incidence of MHV and Mycoplasma pulmonis was higher in facilities maintained by public organizations than in vivaria of private organizations, although the difference was not statistically different. On the other hand the prevalence of rodent pathogens was significantly higher in the northern part of India than in the South. These studies form the groundwork for detailed sero-prevalence studies which should further lay the foundations for country-specific guidelines for health monitoring of laboratory animals. PMID:26158453

  18. Seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Aljebreen, Abdulrahman M; Almadi, Majid A; Alhammad, Alwaleed; Al Faleh, Faleh Z

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To identify the seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy Saudi adolescents. METHODS: Between December 2007 and January 2008, healthy students from the 10th to 12th grades were randomly selected from three regions in Saudi Arabia. These regions included the following: (1) Aseer region, with a student population of 25512; (2) Madinah, with a student population of 23852; and (3) Al-Qaseem, with a student population of 16067. Demographic data were recorded, and a venous blood sample (5-10 mL) was taken from each student. The blood samples were tested for immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G endomysial antibodies (EMA) by indirect immunofluorescence. RESULTS: In total, 1167 students (614 males and 553 females) from these three regions were randomly selected. The majority of the study population was classified as lower middle class (82.7%). There were 26 (2.2%) students who had a positive anti-EMA test, including 17 females (3.1%) and 9 males (1.5%). Al-Qaseem region had the highest celiac disease prevalence among the three studied regions in Saudi Arabia (3.1%). The prevalence by region was as follows: Aseer 2.1% (10/479), Madinah 1.8% (8/436), and Al-Qaseem 3.2% (8/252). The prevalence in Madinah was significantly lower than the prevalence in Aseer and Al-Qaseem (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest celiac disease prevalence might be one of the highest in the world. Further studies are needed to determine the real prevalence. PMID:23613632

  19. Screening and diagnosis for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    HIV testing; HIV screening; HIV screening test; HIV confirmatory test ... A positive result on a screening test does not confirm that the person has HIV infection. More tests are needed to confirm HIV infection. A negative test ...

  20. HIV vaccine trial willingness among injection and non-injection drug users in two urban centres, Barcelona and San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Etcheverry, M Florencia; Lum, Paula J; Evans, Jennifer L; Sanchez, Emilia; de Lazzari, Elisa; Mendez-Arancibia, Eva; Sierra, Ernesto; Gatell, José M; Page, Kimberly; Joseph, Joan

    2011-02-24

    Being able to recruit high-risk volunteers who are also willing to consider future participation in vaccine trials are critical features of vaccine preparedness studies. We described data from two cohorts of injection- and non-injection drug users in Barcelona, Spain [Red Cross centre] and in San Francisco, USA, [UFO-VAX study] at high risk of HIV/HCV infection to assess behaviour risk exposure and willingness to participate in future preventive HIV vaccine trials. We successfully identified drug-using populations that would be eligible for future HIV vaccine efficacy trials, based on reported levels of risk during screening and high levels of willingness to participate. In both groups, Red Cross and UFO-VAX respectively, HCV infection was highly prevalent at baseline (41% and 34%), HIV baseline seroprevalence was 4.2% and 1.5%, and high levels of willingness were seen (83% and 78%). PMID:21241735

  1. HIV vaccine trial willingness among injection and non-injection drug users in two urban centres, Barcelona and San Francisco

    PubMed Central

    Etcheverry, M. Florencia; Lum, Paula J.; Evans, Jennifer L.; Sanchez, Emilia; de Lazzari, Elisa; Mendez-Arancibia, Eva; Sierra, Ernesto; Gatell, José M.; Page, Kimberly; Joseph, Joan

    2013-01-01

    Being able to recruit high-risk volunteers who are also willing to consider future participation in vaccine trials are critical features of vaccine preparedness studies. We described data from two cohorts of injection- and non-injection drug users in Barcelona, Spain [Red Cross centre] and in San Francisco, USA, [UFO-VAX study] at high risk of HIV/HCV infection to assess behaviour risk exposure and willingness to participate in future preventive HIV vaccine trials. We successfully identified drug-using populations that would be eligible for future HIV vaccine efficacy trials, based on reported levels of risk during screening and high levels of willingness to participate. In both groups, Red Cross and UFO-VAX respectively, HCV infection was highly prevalent at baseline (41% and 34%), HIV baseline seroprevalence was 4.2% and 1.5%, and high levels of willingness were seen (83% and 78%). PMID:21241735

  2. HIV among Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS ... HIV infection—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2013 . HIV Surveillance Special Report 13 . Accessed January ...

  3. The etiology of genital ulcer disease by multiplex polymerase chain reaction and relationship to HIV infection among patients attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in Pune, India.

    PubMed

    Risbud, A; Chan-Tack, K; Gadkari, D; Gangakhedkar, R R; Shepherd, M E; Bollinger, R; Mehendale, S; Gaydos, C; Divekar, A; Rompalo, A; Quinn, T C

    1999-01-01

    The etiology of genital ulcer disease (GUD) and the relationship between GUD and HIV infection were investigated in 302 patients presenting to a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Pune, India, in a 3-month period in 1994. Swabs of each genital ulcer were tested for herpes simplex virus (HSV) antigen by enzyme immunoassay and processed in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) assay for simultaneous detection of HSV, Treponema pallidum, and Haemophilus ducreyi. The seroprevalence of HIV in this series was 22.2%. Clinical diagnosis of GUD was undermined when HIV infection was present. The etiology of GUD according to M-PCR was HSV in 26%, chancroid in 23%, primary syphilis in 10%, and multiple infections in 7%; no etiology could be identified in the remaining 34% of cases. Attempts to differentiate the etiology of GUD based solely on clinical grounds resulted in many inaccurate diagnoses. Chancroid was the most common clinical diagnosis (40%), followed by HSV (24%), syphilis (20%), and multiple infections (3%). HIV seroprevalence was significantly higher in patients with HSV compared with other etiologies (odds ratio, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.7), presumably as a result of HIV-induced immunosuppression and consequent HSV reactivation. Until rapid, inexpensive, and sensitive assays become available, syndromic treatment with antibiotics should be provided to patients with GUD in order to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV infection. PMID:9918324

  4. Diagnosis, Clinical Presentation, and In-Hospital Mortality of Severe Malaria in HIV-Coinfected Children and Adults in Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Hendriksen, Ilse C. E.; Ferro, Josefo; Montoya, Pablo; Chhaganlal, Kajal D.; Seni, Amir; Gomes, Ermelinda; Silamut, Kamolrat; Lee, Sue J.; Lucas, Marcelino; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Fanello, Caterina I.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; White, Nicholas J.; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Dondorp, Arjen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Severe falciparum malaria with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection is common in settings with a high prevalence of both diseases, but there is little information on whether HIV affects the clinical presentation and outcome of severe malaria. Methods. HIV status was assessed prospectively in hospitalized parasitemic adults and children with severe malaria in Beira, Mozambique, as part of a clinical trial comparing parenteral artesunate versus quinine (ISRCTN50258054). Clinical signs, comorbidity, complications, and disease outcome were compared according to HIV status. Results. HIV-1 seroprevalence was 11% (74/655) in children under 15 years and 72% (49/68) in adults with severe malaria. Children with HIV coinfection presented with more severe acidosis, anemia, and respiratory distress, and higher peripheral blood parasitemia and plasma Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP2). During hospitalization, deterioration in coma score, convulsions, respiratory distress, and pneumonia were more common in HIV-coinfected children, and mortality was 26% (19/74) versus 9% (53/581) in uninfected children (P < .001). In an age- and antimalarial treatment–adjusted logistic regression model, significant, independent predictors for death were renal impairment, acidosis, parasitemia, and plasma PfHRP2 concentration. Conclusions. Severe malaria in HIV-coinfected patients presents with higher parasite burden, more complications, and comorbidity, and carries a higher case fatality rate. Early identification of HIV coinfection is important for the clinical management of severe malaria. PMID:22752514

  5. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  6. Prevalence of human herpesvirus 8 infection in people living with HIV/AIDS in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Mendes Cahú, Georgea Gertrudes; Morais, Viviane Martha Santos; Lopes, Thaisa Regina Rocha; da Silva, Dayvson Maurício; Tozetto-Mendoza, Tania Regina; Pannuti, Claudio Sergio; Cunha Duarte Coêlho, Maria Rosângela

    2016-11-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence and risk factors for Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection among people living with HIV/AIDS in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. A total of 500 individuals were tested for antibodies against HHV-8 using the whole-virus ELISA. The prevalence of anti-HHV-8 was 28.6% and the frequency among 140 men who have sex with men (MSM) was 38.6%. In the univariate model, there were significant associations with male gender, detectable HIV load, travel abroad, bissexual, and homossexual orientation. The first HHV-8 seroepidemiologic study, in northeast Brazil, documents a highly prevalent HHV-8 infection among MSM living with HIV/AIDS. J. Med. Virol. 88:2016-2020, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27089548

  7. HIV and human herpesvirus 8 co-infection across the globe: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Eliane; Wyss, Natascha; Heg, Zina; Faralli, Zully; Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Novak, Urban; Zwahlen, Marcel; Egger, Matthias; Bohlius, Julia

    2016-01-01

    HIV-infection is an important risk factor for developing Kaposi sarcoma (KS), but it is unclear whether HIV-positive persons are also at increased risk of co-infection with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), the infectious cause of KS. We systematically searched literature up to December 2012 and included studies reporting HHV-8 seroprevalence for HIV-positive and HIV-negative persons. We used random-effects meta-analysis to combine odds ratios (ORs) of the association between HIV and HHV-8 seropositivity and conducted random-effects meta-regression to identify sources of heterogeneity. We included 93 studies with 58,357 participants from 32 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, North and South America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. Overall, HIV-positive persons were more likely to be HHV-8 seropositive than HIV-negative persons (OR 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70-2.34) with considerable heterogeneity among studies (I(2) 84%). The association was strongest in men who have sex with men (MSM, OR 3.95, 95% CI 2.92-5.35), patients with hemophilia (OR 3.11, 95% CI 1.19-8.11), and children (OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.58-3.81), but weaker in heterosexuals who engage in low-risk (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.16-1.74) or high-risk sexual behavior (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.27-2.17), persons who inject drugs (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.28-2.14), and pregnant women (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.15-2.47), p value for interaction <0.001. In conclusion, HIV-infection was associated with an increased HHV-8 seroprevalence in all population groups examined. A better understanding of HHV-8 transmission in different age and behavioral groups is needed to develop strategies to prevent HHV-8 transmission. PMID:26175054

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep in Oaxaca State, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep in southern Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples of 429 sheep from 4 farms in 2 geographical regions in Oaxaca State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT); 99 (23.1%) of the 429 sh...

  9. Seroprevalence of Kaposi Sarcoma–associated Herpesvirus and Other Serologic Markers in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Sumita, Laura M.; Souza, Vanda U.; Weiss, Helen A.; Oliveira, Juliane; Mascheretti, Melissa; Quiroga, Mariana; Vela, Rodrigo A.R.; Sabino, Ester; Pannuti, Claudio S.; Mayaud, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    To determine the presence of Kaposi sarcoma–associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and other serologic markers, we tested serum specimens of 339 Amerindians, 181 rural non-Amerindians, and 1,133 urban blood donors (13 Amerindians) in the Brazilian Amazon. High KSHV seroprevalence in children and inverse association with herpes simplex virus type 2 indicates predominant nonsexual transmission among Amerindians. PMID:19331768

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep in Durango State, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep in northern Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples from 511 sheep from 8 farms in Durango State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Sheep were raised in 3 geographical regions, i....

  11. Seroprevalence Dynamics of European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 in a Multispecies Bat Colony

    PubMed Central

    López-Roig, Marc; Bourhy, Hervé; Lavenir, Rachel; Serra-Cobo, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    We report an active surveillance study of the occurrence of specific antibodies to European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 (EBLV-1) in bat species, scarcely studied hitherto, that share the same refuge. From 2004 to 2012, 406 sera were obtained from nine bat species. Blood samples were subjected to a modified fluorescent antibody virus neutralization test to determine the antibody titer. EBLV-1-neutralizing antibodies were detected in six of the nine species analyzed (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. kuhlii, Hypsugo savii, Plecotus austriacus, Eptesicus serotinus and Tadarida teniotis). Among all bats sampled, female seroprevalence (20.21%, 95% CI: 14.78%–26.57%) was not significantly higher than the seroprevalence in males (15.02%, 95% CI: 10.51%–20.54%). The results showed that the inter-annual variation in the number of seropositive bats in T. teniotis and P. austriacus showed a peak in 2007 (>70% of EBLV-1 prevalence). However, significant differences were observed in the temporal patterns of the seroprevalence modeling of T. teniotis and P. austriacus. The behavioral ecology of these species involved could explain the different annual fluctuations in EBLV-1 seroprevalence. PMID:25192547

  12. Leptospirosis in raccoons in Quebec: 2 case reports and seroprevalence in a recreational area.

    PubMed Central

    Mikaelian, I; Higgins, R; Lequient, M; Major, M; Lefebvre, F; Martineau, D

    1997-01-01

    Raccoons may represent a source of leptospires for humans and domestic animals. We describe a case of severe interstitial nephritis associated with the serovar bratislava of Leptospira interrogans (1st report in wildlife), and the seroprevalence to 4 leptospire serovars in a recreational area in Quebec. Images Figure 1. p442-a PMID:9220134

  13. Seroprevalence and risk factors for brucellosis in cattle in selected districts of Jimma zone, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dirar, Bashahun Gebremichael; Nasinyama, George William; Gelalcha, Benti Deresa

    2015-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in Jimma town and Chora Botor district of Jimma zone from February 2014 to May 2014 to determine seroprevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in cattle. A total of 348 blood samples (174 each from zebu and crossbreed) were collected. The sera were separated and screened by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), and positive sera were retested by complement fixation test (CFT) for confirmation. The overall seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis was 1.4 and 0.3 % as tested by RBPT and CFT, respectively. The seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in indigenous and crossbreed cattle was 1.1 and 0.6 % and 1.7 and 0 % using RBPT and CFT, respectively. Retained fetal membrane was the only risk factor found to be significantly associated with seropositivity of brucellosis in this study (p = 0.019). The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis was very low. However, due to the zoonotic and economic importance of the disease, prevention and control measures are required to stop further spread of the disease. To effectively implement this, the One Health (OH) is the most constructive approach we recommend. PMID:26374209

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii from free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from Addis Adaba, Ethiopa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) is a good indicator of the environmental contamination with oocysts because chickens become infected mainly by feeding from ground/feed/soil contaminated with oocysts. The seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in 125 free-r...

  15. Seroprevalence of brucella antibodies among persons in high-risk occupation in Lebanon.

    PubMed Central

    Araj, G. F.; Azzam, R. A.

    1996-01-01

    Prevalence of brucella-specific antibodies was measured in 597 persons in high-risk occupations living in 10 regions of Lebanon using the standard agglutination test (SAT), anti-human globulin (Coombs') test (AHGT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM and IgA. The study population consisted of butchers (54%), farmers (35%), laboratory technicians (8%), abbatoir workers (2%) and veterinarians (1%), with 82% males and 18% females. The overall seroprevalence based on SAT and AHGT titres of > or = 80 was 1.7% and 15%, respectively, but seroprevalence varied by region from 0-5% in SAT and from 3.4-34% for AHGT. The overall seroprevalence based on ELISA IgG (OD > or = 0.6), IgM (OD > or = 0.6) and IgA (OD > or = 0.3) was 57, 61 and 26%, respectively. The highest seroprevalence was noted in Biqaa (34%), Kisrwan (24%), Shouf (21%), Sidon (16%) and Aley (12%) regions. Nineteen percent of those surveyed reported symptoms that could be associated with brucellosis. We conclude that exposure to brucellosis is high among persons in high-risk occupations from all surveyed regions in Lebanon. Such findings should be used to design control measures especially now that the 17 years of civil strife is over. PMID:8870625

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infection in dairy cows in subtropical southern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, M J; Liu, Q Y; Fu, J H; Nisbet, A J; Shi, D S; He, X H; Pan, Y; Zhou, D H; Song, H Q; Zhu, X Q

    2012-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are closely related protozoan parasites which cause lowered production and increased abortion in dairy cows. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum infection in dairy cows in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GZAR), subtropical southern China. In total, 875 serum samples were collected from the tail veins of dairy cows in 6 main dairy cow-rearing districts of 4 administrative cities in GZAR. The samples were surveyed for T. gondii antibody using the Indirect Haemagglutination Test (IHA), and 365 of the serum samples were examined for N. caninum antibody by indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in dairy cows was 13·71% (120/875), and the average seroprevalence of N. caninum was 15·07% (55/365). There were significant differences in the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection between different districts (P = 0·002, χ 2 = 9·261). The highest prevalences of T. gondii and N. caninum were found in cows older than 8 years and those that had completed 5-6 pregnancies. Five cows (1·37%) presented antibodies against both T. gondii and N. caninum, and dairy cows with both T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies had higher abortion rates. The present results indicate widespread exposure of dairy cows to T. gondii and N. caninum in GZAR, subtropical southern China. PMID:22717118

  17. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Taenia solium Cysticercosis in Rural Pigs of Northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Jayashi, César M.; Arroyo, Gianfranco; Lightowlers, Marshall W.; García, Héctor H.; Rodríguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium is a cestode parasite that causes cysticercosis in both humans and pigs. A serological survey was undertaken to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with porcine cysticercosis in the rural district of Morropon, Peru. Pigs aged between 2 and 60 months were assessed by the Enzyme-linked Immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay to determine their serological status against porcine cysticercosis in a cross-sectional study. A total of 1,153 pigs were sampled. Porcine seroprevalence was 45.19% (42.31–48.06). The information about the animals and households was analyzed and risk factors associated with seroprevalence were determined by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the porcine population, the risk of being seropositive increased by 7% with every month of age (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.05–1.09), and by 148% for pigs living in East Morropon (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.82–3.37). Whereas, the presence of latrines in a household decreased the risk of being seropositive by 49% (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.39–0.67). Sex and rearing system did not represent either risk or protective factors associated with the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis. The findings of this study could be used for further development of control programs that might focus on similar population groups within rural communities of developing countries where cysticercosis is endemic. PMID:22816002

  18. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dairy cattle from north-west and centre of Romania

    PubMed Central

    Gavrea, R.R.; Iovu, A.; Losson, B.; Cozma, V.

    2011-01-01

    Neosporosis is a disease that mainly affects cattle in both dairy and beef herds. The main definitive host of this parasite is the dog. Since 1984 and its first description a large number of data were published worldwide on this parasite. In Romania, the research regarding this parasite is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle from six regions in north-western Romania and to evaluate the intensity of infection in different animals groups. A total number of 901 samples (862 sera from adult cows and 39 sera from calves) were collected from dairy farms and were screened for the presence of specific IgG anti-bodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall seroprevalence for neosporosis was 34.6%. In adult cows and calves seroprevalences reached 34.8% (300/862) and 30.8% for calves (12/39) respectively. In cattle which had previously aborted, seroprevalence was 40.9%. These results indicate that N. caninum infection is widespread among animals reared in dairy systems from Romania and a program for farmer training and a strategy for reducing the economic impact of the disease are needed. PMID:22091468

  19. Seroprevalence of Anti-Toxoplasma gondii Antibodies Among Pregnant Woman in South Khuzestan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Yad Yad, Mohammad Jafar; Jomehzadeh, Nabi; Jafar Sameri, Maryam; Noorshahi, Nooshin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acute toxoplasmosis may lead to congenital toxoplasmosis with fetal complications outcome during pregnancy. Anti- Toxoplasma gondii antibody seroprevalence is unclear in pregnant women of south of Khuzestan province, since limited data about T. gondii seroepidemiology has been published in pregnant women of this area (Abadan, Shadegan, Khoramshar). Objectives: The aim of this study was to clarify the status of T. gondii seroprevalence in pregnant women of south of Khuzestan province. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 501 full-term pregnant women were included. This study was carried out in Taleghani teaching hospital for six 6 months from May to October 2011. Informed consents signed by the patients were obtained. Blood IgG and IgM were measured using ELISA technique. The data was analyzed by SPSS 13 (Chicago, IL, USA). Chi-square test was used for comparison. Results: The participants’ age range was 15 to 45 years (average: 27.4 ± 13). Of the 501 pregnant women, 70.65 % (n = 354) were seronegative for T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies. There were statistical relationships between IgG seroprevalence and age, as well as IgG seroprevalence and cat holding. Conclusions: There was high percentage of seronegative (70.65 %) IgG and IgM antibodies in full-term pregnant women. They were susceptible to acute toxoplasmosis; thus, prenatal screening was recommend in our province after cost-beneficial analyses. PMID:25147724

  20. Neospora caninum seroprevalence in dairy and beef cattle from the northwest region of Spain, Galicia.

    PubMed

    Eiras, C; Arnaiz, I; Alvarez-García, G; Ortega-Mora, L M; Sanjuánl, M L; Yus, E; Diéguez, F J

    2011-02-01

    Herd and individual animal seroprevalence for Neospora caninum (N. caninum) in dairy, beef and mixed cattle were obtained in all populations within the Galician Farmer Sanitary Defence Associations (ADSG) in 2004. All animals ≥1 year of age were examined serologically by indirect ELISA. 1147 dairy herds (37,090 animals), 1464 beef herds (20,206 animals) and 141 mixed herds (2292 animals) were surveyed. True herd seroprevalence was estimated to be 80.6% (87.7% dairy, 76.7% beef and 78.4% mixed herds), true animal seroprevalence was estimated to be 23.2% (21.9% dairy, 25.1% beef and 24.9% animal to mixed herds), and within-herd seroprevalence was estimated to be 25.4% (23.6% dairy, 28.3% beef and 28.6% to mixed herds). Seropositivity was significantly associated with herd type (higher in dairies), herd size (increased when herd size increases), animal type (higher in beef) and age (lineal increase with the age). Results obtained in this study will be used for the development of a N. caninum control programme in the ADSG in Galicia. PMID:21145605

  1. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic goats in Durango State, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known concerning the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Mexico. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 562 goats in Durango, Mexico using the modified agglutination test. Goats were raised in 12 farms in two geographical regions: semi-desert (n=70) and mountains ...

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy goats in Michoacan, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Michoacán, Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 341 dairy goats in Michoacán, Mexico using the modified agglutination test. Goats were raised in 9 farms in 6 municipalities. Overall, antibodies to Toxoplasma w...

  3. Seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs in Veracruz State, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs has epidemiological concern for its contributing role in human infections. We determined seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 402 domestic pigs raised in backyards in Veracruz State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25); 182...

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma Gondii infection in domestic horses in Durango State, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in horses in Mexico is unknown. Therefore, antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 495 horses in Durango State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Horses were from 18 farms in 3 municipalities in the valley region of Durango State...

  5. Variations in Human Herpesvirus Type 8 Seroprevalence in Native Americans, South America

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Vanda A.U.F.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Petzl-Erler, Maria Luiza; Nascimento, Maria Claudia; Mayaud, Philippe; Borges, Jaila Dias

    2010-01-01

    To determine the epidemiology of human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) among non-Amazonian native populations, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraquay. Our data show striking ethnic and geographic variations in the distribution of HHV-8 seroprevalences in Amazonian (77%) and non-Amazonian native populations (range 0%–83%). PMID:20507758

  6. Variations in human herpesvirus type 8 seroprevalence in Native Americans, South America.

    PubMed

    Souza, Vanda A U F; Salzano, Francisco M; Petzl-Erler, Maria Luiza; Nascimento, Maria Claudia; Mayaud, Philippe; Borges, Jaila Dias; Pannuti, Claudio S

    2010-06-01

    To determine the epidemiology of human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) among non-Amazonian native populations, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay. Our data show striking ethnic and geographic variations in the distribution of HHV-8 seroprevalences in Amazonian (77%) and non-Amazonian native populations (range 0%-83%). PMID:20507758

  7. Seroprevalence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Isfahan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Morovati, Hassan; Shirvani, Edris; Noaman, Vahid; Lotfi, Mohsen; Kamalzadeh, Morteza; Hatami, Alireza; Bahreyari, Masoume; Shahramyar, Zahra; Morovati, Mohammad H; Azimi, Mahmoud; Sakhaei, Davoud

    2012-08-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an exogenous C-type oncovirus in the Retroviridae family. It causes significant economic losses associated with the costs of control and eradication programs due to carcass condemnation at slaughter and restrictions of export of cattle and semen to importing countries. The main objective of this research was to determine the seroprevalence of BLV infection in cattle herds in central region of Iran (Isfahan province) using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect serum antibodies against BLV. Samples of blood serum were collected from 403 female dairy cattle (Holstein-Friesian) from 21 livestock farms and 303 animals (81.9%) were BLV seropositive. A significant association was found between age as a potential risk factor and BVL seroprevalence with animals ≥ 4 years (86.6%) having a significantly (χ(2) = 35.6, p < 0.001) higher seroprevalence compared to those < 4 years (54.2%). We found no significant statistical association between seroprevalence and pregnancy, lactation status and farming systems as potential risk factors in this study (p > 0.1). It is concluded that BLV infection is a very common problem in the study area. Hence, control measures should be instituted to combat the disease and further studies are required to investigate the impact of this disease on dairy production in the country. PMID:22210288

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii Among Primary School Children in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Ke-Sheng; Liu, Hui; Wang, Hong-Bing; Yao, Zong-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Although Toxoplasma gondii infection in primary school children has been investigated in many countries, limited surveys have been available in primary school children in China. In the present study, we report the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in primary school children in Shandong province, China. Sera from 6,000 primary school children were evaluated for T. gondii antibodies with ELISA. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 16.0% (961/6,000), of which 14.5% (870/6,000) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies, 3.4% (206/6,000) positive for IgM, and 1.9% (115/6,000) were positive for both IgG and IgM. The results of the present investigation indicated a high seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in primary school children in Shandong province, China. Therefore, effective measures should be taken to prevent and control T. gondii infection in primary school children in this province. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of T. gondii seroprevalence in primary school children in Shandong province, China. PMID:26323849

  9. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Toxoplasma gondii Infection among Pregnant Women in Northeast Iran

    PubMed Central

    Babaie, Jalal; Amiri, Samira; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Hassan, Nayereh; Lotfi, Peyman; Esmaeili Rastaghi, Ahmad Reza

    2013-01-01

    We report Toxoplasma IgG seroprevalence of 34.4% among 419 pregnant women in Mashhad, northeast Iran. Soil contact, living in rural environment, and level of education were associated with infection. The prevalence did not increase with age, suggesting high infection rate during childhood and adolescence. PMID:24006138

  10. Low Seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii in the Horse Population in Israel.

    PubMed

    Aharonson-Raz, Karin; Baneth, Gad; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Brancal, Hugo; Schallig, Henk; Cardoso, Luís; Steinman, Amir

    2015-12-01

    A cross-sectional investigation was done on the seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii infection among apparently healthy horses in Israel. This survey included 383 horses distributed in 22 farms throughout Israel during the years 2011-2013. Serum samples were tested for the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using the direct agglutination test (DAT) specific to Leishmania and by the modified agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of IgG antibodies to T. gondii. Low seroprevalences were detected for both L. infantum and T. gondii in the horse population in Israel; of the 338 horses tested, 6 (1.4%) were found to be seropositive for L. infantum and 11 (2.5%) for T. gondii, with no significant association between seroprevalence and demographic/environmental factors. An ongoing geographical expansion of L. infantum, previously reported in humans and dogs in Israel, was also supported by our results in horses. Here we present evidence of exposure of horses to L. infantum and T. gondii in Israel. Continuous seroprevalence surveillance in horses, such as the one performed in this study, might further elucidate the eco-epidemiology of these two important zoonotic parasites in this country. PMID:26580094

  11. Representative seroprevalences of human and livestock brucellosis in two Mongolian provinces.

    PubMed

    Zolzaya, Baljinnyam; Selenge, Tsend; Narangarav, Tsegeen; Gantsetseg, Dorj; Erdenechimeg, Dashzevge; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2014-09-01

    Mongolia implemented a brucellosis livestock mass vaccination campaign from 2000 to 2009. However, the number of human cases did not decline since 2004 and the current epidemiological situation in Mongolia was uncertain. The objective of this study was to estimate the representative seroprevalences of humans and livestock in two provinces in view of their comparison with officially reported data. A representative cross-sectional study using cluster sampling proportional to size in humans, sheep, goats, cattle, yaks, horses, camels and dogs was undertaken to assess the apparent seroprevalence in humans and animals. A total of 8054 livestock and dog sera and 574 human sera were collected in Sukhbaatar and Zavkhan provinces. Human and animal sera were tested with the Rose Bengal and ELISA tests. The overall apparent seroprevalence of brucellosis was 27.3% in humans (95% CI 23.7-31.2%), 6.2% (95% CI 5.5-7.1%) in sheep, 5.2% (95% CI 4.4-5.9%) in goats, 16.0% (95% CI 13.7-18.7%) in cattle, 2.5% (95% CI 0.8-7.6%) in camels, 8.3 (95% CI 6.0-11.6%) in horses and 36.4% (95% CI 26.3-48.0%) in dogs. More women than men were seropositive (OR = 1.7; P < 0.0014). Human seroprevalence was not associated with small ruminant and cattle seroprevalence at the nomadic camp (hot ail) level. Annual incidence of clinical brucellosis, inferred from the seroprevalence using a catalytic model, was by a factor of 4.6 (1307/280) in Sukhbaatar and by a factor of 59 (1188/20) in Zavkhan. This represents a 15-fold underreporting of human brucellosis in Mongolia. The lack of access to brucellosis diagnostic testing at the village level hinders rural people from receiving appropriate treatment. In conclusion, this study confirms the high seroprevalence of human and livestock brucellosis in Mongolia. Stringent monitoring and quality control of operational management of a nationwide mass vaccination of small and large ruminants is warranted to assure its effectiveness. More research is needed to

  12. The Association of HIV Stigma and HIV/STD Knowledge With Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Adolescent and Adult Men Who Have Sex With Men in Ghana, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Nelson, LaRon E; Wilton, Leo; Agyarko-Poku, Thomas; Zhang, Nanhua; Aluoch, Marilyn; Thach, Chia T; Owiredu Hanson, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw

    2015-06-01

    Ghanaian men who have sex with men (MSM) have a high HIV seroprevalence, but despite a critical need to address this public health concern, research evidence has been extremely limited on influences on sexual risk behavior among MSM in Ghana. To investigate associations between HIV/STD knowledge, HIV stigma, and sexual behaviors in a sample of MSM in Ghana, we conducted a secondary data analysis of cross-sectional survey data from a non-probability sample of Ghanaian MSM (N = 137). Nearly all the men (93%) had more than one current sex partner (M = 5.11, SD = 7.4). Of those reported partners, the average number of current female sexual partners was 1.1 (SD = 2.6). Overall, knowledge levels about HIV and STDs were low, and HIV stigma was high. There was no age-related difference in HIV stigma. Younger MSM (≤25 years) used condoms less often for anal and vaginal sex than did those over 25. Relative frequency of condom use for oral sex was lower in younger men who had higher STD knowledge and also was lower in older men who reported high HIV stigma. Knowledge and stigma were not associated with condom use for anal or vaginal sex in either age group. These descriptive data highlight the need for the development of intervention programs that address HIV/STD prevention knowledge gaps and reduce HIV stigma in Ghanaian communities. Intervention research in Ghana should address age-group-specific HIV prevention needs of MSM youth. PMID:25809638

  13. Cocaine and HIV-1 Interplay: Molecular Mechanisms of Action and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Buch, Shilpa; Yao, Honghong; Guo, Minglei; Mori, Tomohisa; Su, Tsung-Ping; Wang, John

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is now being driven by drug-abusing populations. Epidemiological studies on drug abusers with AIDS link abuse of cocaine, even more than other drugs, to increased incidence of HIV seroprevalence and progression to AIDS. Both cell culture and animal studies demonstrate that cocaine can both potentiate HIV replication and can potentiate HIV proteins to cause enhanced glial cell activation, neurotoxicity, and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. Based on the ability of both HIV proteins and cocaine to modulate NMDA receptor on neurons, NMDA R has been suggested as a common link underlying the crosstalk between drug addiction and HIV infection. While the role of dopamine system as a major target of cocaine cannot be overlooked, recent studies on the role of sigma receptors in mediating the effects of cocaine in both cell and organ systems warrants a deeper understanding of their functional role in the field. In this review, recent findings on the interplay of HIV infection and cocaine abuse and their possible implications in mode of action and/or addiction will be discussed. PMID:21766222

  14. HIV seropositivity rates in outreach-based counseling and testing services: program evaluation.

    PubMed

    DiFranceisco, W; Holtgrave, D R; Hoxie, N; Reiser, W J; Resenhoeft, R; Pinkerton, S D; Vergeront, J

    1998-11-01

    A common assumption is that outreach-based HIV counseling and testing services reach a clientele with a higher HIV seroprevalence than clinic-based counseling and testing. To examine this assumption, we analyzed Wisconsin's anonymous counseling and testing client records for 62,299 contacts (testing episodes) from 1992 to 1995. Bivariate analysis of counseling and testing service setting (outreach-based or clinic-based) and HIV test results suggested that outreach contacts were 23% (odds ratio [OR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.0-1.5) more likely to test HIV-seropositive than clinic-based contacts. Relations between HIV test outcome and variables for client age, race, gender, previous testing history, mode of risk exposure, and region, as well as service setting, were examined by logistic regression. An inverted relation between service setting and seropositivity (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.5-0.8) indicated that, within some subpopulations, outreach contacts were significantly less likely to test HIV-positive than clinic-based contacts. Analysis of interactions among the covariates identified race as a critical codeterminant in the relation between service setting and test outcome. These results support retargeting outreach services to enhance their overall effectiveness. Specific recommendations include the need for aggressive strategies to better "market" HIV counseling and testing to nonwhite populations, and to focus resources more selectively on gay/bisexual men of all races. PMID:9803971

  15. HIV testing in national population-based surveys: experience from the Demographic and Health Surveys.

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Vinod; Vaessen, Martin; Boerma, J. Ties; Arnold, Fred; Way, Ann; Barrere, Bernard; Cross, Anne; Hong, Rathavuth; Sangha, Jasbir

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the methods used in the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) to collect nationally representative data on the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and assess the value of such data to country HIV surveillance systems. METHODS: During 2001-04, national samples of adult women and men in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Dominican Republic, Ghana, Mali, Kenya, United Republic of Tanzania and Zambia were tested for HIV. Dried blood spot samples were collected for HIV testing, following internationally accepted ethical standards. The results for each country are presented by age, sex, and urban versus rural residence. To estimate the effects of non-response, HIV prevalence among non-responding males and females was predicted using multivariate statistical models for those who were tested, with a common set of predictor variables. RESULTS: Rates of HIV testing varied from 70% among Kenyan men to 92% among women in Burkina Faso and Cameroon. Despite large differences in HIV prevalence between the surveys (1-16%), fairly consistent patterns of HIV infection were observed by age, sex and urban versus rural residence, with considerably higher rates in urban areas and in women, especially at younger ages. Analysis of non-response bias indicates that although predicted HIV prevalence tended to be higher in non-tested males and females than in those tested, the overall effects of non-response on the observed national estimates of HIV prevalence are insignificant. CONCLUSIONS: Population-based surveys can provide reliable, direct estimates of national and regional HIV seroprevalence among men and women irrespective of pregnancy status. Survey data greatly enhance surveillance systems and the accuracy of national estimates in generalized epidemics. PMID:16878227

  16. [Women and HIV/AIDS: stormy beginnings].

    PubMed

    Henrion, Roger

    2012-11-01

    Following the transfusion of a young woman with two units of blood infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during a Cesarean section performed at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit of Port-Royal Hospital in Paris in 1984, the author realized the danger that this virus would represent for women and their children, at a time when the infection seemed to be confined to homosexuals, drug addicts, hemophiliacs and transfusion recipients. He was confronted with a whole series of issues, including the rejection of HIV-positive women; the need for special precautions in the labor room and operating theater; and the need for these patients to be managed in a single center staffed by skilled and willing healthcare professionals who could help them decide whether or not to continue the pregnancy. The main risks at this time were the onset of life-threatening opportunistic infections during pregnancy and HIV transmission to the child (estimated at 20% to 30%). Other thorny issues included the case of couples wishing to have children when either of the two members was infected, and the question of professional confidentiality when an immunocompromised HIV-seropositive husband stubbornly refused to inform his wife or to use condoms. It seemed important to bring these women together, especially those of African origin, within a self-help group where they could express themselves openly and discuss their difficulties. Screening for HIV antibodies in early pregnancy became necessary to permit preventive treatment of mother-child HIV transmission, and to inform pediatricians. There was also a need to estimate and monitor the seroprevalence of HIV among pregnant women, and this was done by conducting a "sentinel" survey that was subsequently taken over by INSERM and the European Centre for the Epidemiological Monitoring of AIDS. After listing many other issues that were hotly debated over the years, the author describes how, at the beginning of the epidemic, new proposals

  17. Hepatitis C and HIV in injecting drug users in Armenia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Berbesi-Fernández, Dedsy; Segura-Cardona, Ángela; Montoya-Vélez, Liliana; Castaño-Perez, Guillermo A

    2015-01-01

    A constant and progressive increase in the availability of heroin in Colombia in recent decades and the intravenous use  of this drug have established the need to prevent a possible epidemic of HIV and hepatitis C. This research determined the sero-prevalence of hepatitis C and HIV according to sociodemographic characteristics and risk behaviors in people who inject drugs in Armenia, Colombia. This is a cross-sectional study on 265 users captured through respondent-driven sampling after informed consent. Sero-prevalence of hepatitis C was 22.3 % [95% CI 12.3 % -23.5 %]; for HIV infection, it was 2.6 % [95% CI 0.4 to 6.0]; 67.5% reported injecting for more than two years, 35 % shared needles and syringes, and 12.4 % had used a condom during their last sexual intercourse. Users who did not purchase syringes in drugstores in the last six months are 2.7 times [95% CI 1.32 to 5.48] more likely to contract hepatitis C; daily injection frequency was higher in HIV- positive cases [OR 2.87; 95% CI 0.55 to 15.9] but nonsignificant. One fourth of respondents are infected with HIV or hepatitis C, either as a single infection or co-infection. This study identified risk practices such as sharing needles and low condom use in the last six months, worldwide documented and discussed risk factors. This research is a first step in the search for strategies to prevent the spread of HIV infection and hepatitis C in networks of injecting drug users. PMID:26706807

  18. Burkholderia pseudomallei: Its Detection in Soil and Seroprevalence in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Robayet, Jamshedul Alam Mohammad; Mohiuddin, Md.; Hasan, Md. Rokib

    2016-01-01

    Background Melioidosis, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is an endemic disease in Bangladesh. No systematic study has yet been done to detect the environmental source of the organism and its true extent in Bangladesh. The present study attempted to isolate B. pseudomallei in soil samples and to determine its seroprevalence in several districts in Bangladesh. Methodology and Results Soil samples were collected from rural areas of four districts of Bangladesh from where culture confirmed melioidosis cases were detected earlier. Multiple soil samples, collected from 5–7 sampling points of 3–5 sites of each district, were cultured in Ashdown selective media. Suspected colonies of B. pseudomallei were identified by biochemical and serological test, and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using 16s rRNA specific primers. Blood samples were collected from 940 healthy individuals of four districts to determine anti- B. pseudomallei IgG antibody levels by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using sonicated crude antigen. Out of 179 soil samples, B. pseudomallei was isolated from two samples of Gazipur district which is located 58 km north of capital Dhaka city. Both the isolates were phenotypically identical, arabinose negative and showed specific 550bp band in PCR. Out of 940 blood samples, anti- B. pseudomallei IgG antibody, higher than the cut-off value (>0.8), was detected in 21.5% individuals. Seropositivity rate was 22.6%-30.8% in three districts from where melioidosis cases were detected earlier, compared to 9.8% in a district where no melioidosis case was either detected or reported (p<0.01). Seropositivity increased with the advancement of age from 5.3% to 30.4% among individuals aged 1–10 years and > 50 years respectively. The seropositivity rates were 26.0% and 20.6% in male and female respectively, while it was 20–27% among different occupational groups. No significant association was observed with gender (χ2 = 3.441, p = 0.064) or any

  19. Age-Related Toxoplasma gondii Seroprevalence in Dutch Wild Boar Inconsistent with Lifelong Persistence of Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Opsteegh, Marieke; Swart, Arno; Fonville, Manoj; Dekkers, Leo; van der Giessen, Joke

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen that is best known as a cause of abortion or abnormalities in the newborn after primary infection during pregnancy. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in wild boar to investigate the possible role of their meat in human infection and to get an indication of the environmental contamination with T. gondii. The presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was determined by in-house ELISA in 509 wild boar shot in 2002/2003 and 464 wild boar shot in 2007. Most of the boar originated from the “Roerstreek” (n = 673) or the “Veluwe” (n = 241). A binormal mixture model was fitted to the log-transformed optical density values for wild boar up to 20 months old to estimate the optimal cut-off value (−0.685) and accompanying sensitivity (90.6%) and specificity (93.6%). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 24.4% (95% CI: 21.1–27.7%). The prevalence did not show variation between sampling years or regions, indicating a stable and homogeneous infection pressure from the environment. The relation between age and seroprevalence was studied in two stages. Firstly, seroprevalence by age group was determined by fitting the binary mixture model to 200 animals per age category. The prevalence showed a steep increase until approximately 10 months of age but stabilized at approximately 35% thereafter. Secondly, we fitted the age-dependent seroprevalence data to several SIR-type models, with seropositives as infected (I) and seronegatives as either susceptible (S) or resistant (R). A model with a recovery rate (SIS) was superior to a model without a recovery rate (SI). This finding is not consistent with the traditional view of lifelong persistence of T. gondii infections. The high seroprevalence suggests that eating undercooked wild boar meat may pose a risk of infection with T. gondii. PMID:21283764

  20. Toxoplasma gondii in Ireland: seroprevalence and novel molecular detection method in sheep, pigs, deer and chickens.

    PubMed

    Halová, D; Mulcahy, G; Rafter, P; Turčeková, L; Grant, T; de Waal, T

    2013-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is among the most studied parasites worldwide but there is not much information about it published in Ireland. The objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in sheep, pigs, deer and chickens and the molecular detection of T. gondii DNA in muscle tissue. Serum samples were collected from these species at the time of slaughter at Irish abattoirs during 2007 and tested for anti-T. gondii antibodies using a commercial semi-quantitative latex agglutination test. Antibodies (titre ≥1 : 64) were found in 36% (105/292) sheep, 4.7% (15/317) pigs and 6.6% (23/348) deer. In chickens, 18% (65/364) had antibody titres, ranging between 1 : 5 and 1 : 1024. Significant (P ≤ 0.05) age-related differences in seroprevalence were found in adult sheep (58.1%) and pigs (23.1%). Significant gender differences in seroprevalence was also found in sheep with more females (43%) than males (22.4%) being positive. However, when adjusted for age through logistic regression gender was no longer significant. Seroprevalence was also evaluated on farm locations grouped to NUTS level 3, but the prevalence was too low to draw any statistical conclusions. Using a nested PCR, the presence of T. gondii DNA was detected in diaphragm samples from 3.6% (3/83) sheep, 13.0% (3/23) pig and 4.2% (3/71) deer. Meat digestion liquids from a Trichinella spp. survey in pigs were also used for the first time to detect T. gondii. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in 50% (10/20) of pooled samples. This is the first in depth study of T. gondii seroprevalence in animals in Ireland and a novel method, using digestion liquid from pooled diaphragm samples, for PCR detection in pigs is described. PMID:22697578

  1. Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia ruminantium antibodies and its associated risk factors in indigenous goats of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mdladla, Khanyisile; Dzomba, Edgar F; Muchadeyi, Farai C

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigated the seroprevalence of antibodies to Ehrlichia ruminantium and the associated risk factors in goats from five different farming provinces of South Africa. Sera collected from 686 goats of the commercial meat type (n=179), mohair type (n=9), non-descript indigenous goats from Eastern Cape (n=56), KwaZulu-Natal (n=209), Limpopo (n=111), North West (n=61) and Northern Cape (n=11) provinces and a feral Tankwa goat (n=50) were tested for the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to antigens of E. ruminantium using the indirect fluorescent-antibody test (IFAT). Fifty two percent of these goats had ticks. The overall seroprevalence of antibodies to E. ruminantium was 64.87% (445/686) with the highest seroprevalence reported for Limpopo (95.50%) and lowest for Northern Cape (20.29%). Highest seroprevalence for antibodies to E. ruminantium was observed in goats from endemic regions (76.09%), and from smallholder production systems (89.54%). High seroprevalence was also observed in non-descript indigenous goats (85.04%), adult goat (69.62%), in does (67.46%) and goats infested with ticks (85.79%). The logistic model showed a gradient of increasing risk for commercial meat type Savanna (OR=3.681; CI=1.335-10.149) and non-descript indigenous (OR=3.466; CI=1.57-7.645) compared to Boer goats and for goats from the smallholder production system (OR=2.582; CI=1.182-5.639) and those with ticks (OR=3.587; CI=2.105-6.112). Results from this study showed that E. ruminantium infections were prevalent but were widely and unevenly distributed throughout South Africa. Findings from the study facilitate identification and mapping of risk areas for heartwater and its endeminicity in South Africa and should be taken into consideration for future disease control strategies and local goat improvement programs. PMID:26829905

  2. High seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in inmates: A case control study in Durango City, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Tinoco, J.; Sánchez-Anguiano, L. F.; Ramos-Nevárez, A.; Cerrillo-Soto, S. M.; Sáenz-Soto, L.; Liesenfeld, O.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The seroprevalence of infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii and the association with risk factors has not been determined in inmates. Through a case-control study, 166 inmates from a state correctional facility in Durango City, Mexico and 166 age- and gender-matched non-incarcerated subjects were examined for the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Results Seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies was higher in inmates (35, 21.1%) than in controls (14, 8.4%) (OR = 2.90; 95% CI: 1.43–5.94; P = 0.001). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were detected in two (1.2%) inmates and in seven (4.2%) controls (P = 0.17). Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, incarceration, and behavioral characteristics of inmates revealed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with being born out of Durango State (OR = 3.91; 95% CI: 1.29–11.79; P = 0.01). In addition, T. gondii seroprevalence was higher (P = 0.03) in inmates that had suffered from injuries (17/56: 30.4%) than those without such history (18/110: 16.4%). Conclusions The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in inmates in Durango City is higher than the seroprevalences found in the general population in the same city, indicating that inmates may represent a new risk group for T. gondii infection. Further research on T. gondii infection in inmates is needed. PMID:24678408

  3. Age-related Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in Dutch wild boar inconsistent with lifelong persistence of antibodies.

    PubMed

    Opsteegh, Marieke; Swart, Arno; Fonville, Manoj; Dekkers, Leo; van der Giessen, Joke

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen that is best known as a cause of abortion or abnormalities in the newborn after primary infection during pregnancy. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in wild boar to investigate the possible role of their meat in human infection and to get an indication of the environmental contamination with T. gondii. The presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was determined by in-house ELISA in 509 wild boar shot in 2002/2003 and 464 wild boar shot in 2007. Most of the boar originated from the "Roerstreek" (n = 673) or the "Veluwe" (n = 241). A binormal mixture model was fitted to the log-transformed optical density values for wild boar up to 20 months old to estimate the optimal cut-off value (-0.685) and accompanying sensitivity (90.6%) and specificity (93.6%). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 24.4% (95% CI: 21.1-27.7%). The prevalence did not show variation between sampling years or regions, indicating a stable and homogeneous infection pressure from the environment. The relation between age and seroprevalence was studied in two stages. Firstly, seroprevalence by age group was determined by fitting the binary mixture model to 200 animals per age category. The prevalence showed a steep increase until approximately 10 months of age but stabilized at approximately 35% thereafter. Secondly, we fitted the age-dependent seroprevalence data to several SIR-type models, with seropositives as infected (I) and seronegatives as either susceptible (S) or resistant (R). A model with a recovery rate (SIS) was superior to a model without a recovery rate (SI). This finding is not consistent with the traditional view of lifelong persistence of T. gondii infections. The high seroprevalence suggests that eating undercooked wild boar meat may pose a risk of infection with T. gondii. PMID:21283764

  4. HIV infection among women entering the New York State correctional system.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, P F; Mikl, J; Truman, B I; Lessner, L; Lehman, J S; Stevens, R W; Lord, E A; Broaddus, R K; Morse, D L

    1991-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus infection is the leading medical problem among prison inmates in several states. In 1988 a blinded seroprevalence study was conducted on 480 New York female prison entrants to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for HIV infection in this population. Ninety (18.8 percent) women were HIV-seropositive. Seroprevalence was highest among women ages 30-39 (25.0 percent) and varied by ethnicity (Hispanics, 29.4 percent; Blacks, 14.4 percent; Whites, 7.1 percent) and residence (New York City, 23.8 percent; Upstate, 5.1 percent). Nearly half (44.9 percent) of the 136 acknowledged intravenous drug users and one-third (33.8 percent) of the 71 women with a positive syphilis serology were HIV-seropositive. There was no difference in fertility histories between seropositive and seronegative women, and two of 21 pregnant women were seropositive. This study led to increased clinical and prevention services for this high-risk population. PMID:2014882

  5. Update on HIV/AIDS in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ruxrungtham, K; Phanuphak, P

    2001-06-01

    improve the adherence and the long-term effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment. In reality, however, although the cost of triple regimen is dramatically declining, many patients still can not afford it. Primary prophylaxis and early diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic infection should be considered in patients with CD4+ <200 cells/microL. Modified short course ZDV studies and donation campaigns for preventing mother-to-child transmission, clinical trials to investigate the best use of expensive anti HIV medications in a poor resource setting have been or are being conducted. Nine phase I/II HIV-1 vaccine trial protocols have been or are being tested. A phase III trial of gp120 subtype B/E (AIDSVAX, VaxGen) was started in 1999, a total of 2,500 volunteers will be enrolled, and interim analysis is planned for August 2002. Thai investigators are also participating in pre-clinical development of recombinant BCG and DNA vaccines. Multidisciplinary and multi-level approaches, both by the government and private sectors, have had a positive impact on the HIV epidemic as shown by the declining seroprevalence of HIV infection in Thai male conscripts, and of major sexually transmitted diseases in men. Nevertheless, more effort at the grass roots level is needed to ensure further success and sustainability of the control of the HIV epidemic in Thailand. PMID:11529320

  6. HIV Prevalence among Pregnant Women in Brazil: A National Survey.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gerson Fernando Mendes; Sabidó, Meritxell; Caruso, Alessandro; Oliveira, Silvano Barbosa de; Mesquita, Fábio; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz

    2016-08-01

    Background This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of HIV among pregnant women in Brazil and to describe HIV testing coverage and the uptake of antenatal care (ANC). Methods Between October 2010 and January 2012, a probability sample survey of parturient women aged 15-49 years who visited public hospital delivery services in Brazil was conducted. Data were collected from prenatal reports and hospital records. Dried blood spot (DNS) samples were collected and tested for HIV. We describe the age-specific prevalence of HIV infection and ANC uptake with respect to sociodemographic factors. Results Of the 36,713 included women, 35,444 (96.6%) were tested for HIV during delivery admission. The overall HIV prevalence was of 0.38% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.31-0.48), and it was highest in: the 30 to 39 year-old age group (0.60% [0.40-0.88]), in the Southern region of Brazil (0.79% [0.59-1.04]), among women who had not completed primary (0.63% [0.30-1.31]) or secondary (0.67% [0.49-0.97]) school education, and among women who self-reported as Asian (0.94% [0.28-3.10]). The HIV testing coverage during prenatal care was of 86.6% for one test and of 38.2% for two tests. Overall, 98.5% of women attended at least 1 ANC visit, 90.4% attended at least 4 visits, 71% attended at least 6 visits, and 51.7% received ANC during the 1st trimester. HIV testing coverage and ANC uptake indicators increased with increasing age and education level of education, and were highest in the Southern region. Conclusions Brazil presents an HIV prevalence of less than 1% and almost universal coverage of ANC. However, gaps in HIV testing and ANC during the first trimester challenge the prevention of the vertical transmission of HIV. More efforts are needed to address regional and social disparities. PMID:27608165

  7. HIV infection among injecting drug users in north-east Malaysia, 1992.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Crofts, N

    1993-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has spread widely among injecting drug users (IDUs) in countries to the north and west of the 'Golden Triangle' region of South-East Asia; it is likely to have spread southwards to Malaysia as well. In order to assess HIV seroprevalence among IDUs in north-east Malaysia and describe risk factors for HIV infection in this population, we performed a cross-sectional seroepidemiological study among 210 IDUs recruited at the detoxification ward of the General Hospital in the capital city of the north-eastern Malaysian state, Kelantan. Subjects were sequential entrants to the detoxification ward, interviewed about HIV risk behaviour, and tested for antibody to HIV and to syphilis. Nearly a third (62/210, 30%) of these IDUs were HIV seropositive. Three-quarters (159/210) had travelled to Thailand in the preceding 5 years, of whom 32% (51/159) were HIV seropositive; this was associated with injecting in Thailand, but not with sexual contact there. Of those who had not left Malaysia in the preceding 5 years, 26% (11/43) were HIV seropositive, a rate not significantly different from those who had travelled. Travel within Malaysia was common (144/210, 69%) among IDUs interviewed, as was unsafe injecting and unsafe sexual behaviour (20% had shared injecting equipment and 21% had had unprotected intercourse) in other states. In every locale, rates of unsafe injecting behaviour were high (55% sharing in last month), even among those who knew they were HIV infected, and rates of condom usage were low (93% of 160 sexually active IDUs had never used a condom). Syphilis was not associated with HIV infection, but with contact with Thai prostitutes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8218462

  8. HIV/AIDS among pastoralists and refugees in north-east Africa: a neglected problem.

    PubMed

    Serbessa, Mirgissa Kaba; Mariam, Damen Haile; Kassa, Afework; Alwan, Fathia; Kloos, Helmut

    2016-03-01

    The eight member states (Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda) of the Intergovernmental Authority for Development (IGAD) have the largest proportions of cross-border mobile pastoralists and refugees in Africa. Although all IGAD countries have had national HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment programmes since the late 1980s, the IGAD Regional HIV & AIDS Partnership Program was (IRAPP) established in 2007 to mitigate the challenges of HIV among neglected pastoral and refugee communities. This article assesses vulnerability of pastoralists and refugee communities to HIV and interventions targeting these groups in the IGAD countries. Outcomes from this study may serve as a baseline for further research and to improve interventions. Published articles were accessed through web searches using PubMed and Google Scholar engines and unpublished documents were collected manually. The search terms were HIV risk behaviour, vulnerability, HIV prevalence and interventions, under the headings pastoralists, refugees, IGAD and north-east Africa for the period 2001-2014. Of the 214 documents reviewed, 78 met the inclusion criteria and were included. Most HIV/AIDS related studies focusing of pastoral communities in IGAD countries were found to be limited in scope and coverage but reveal precarious situations. Sero-prevalence among various pastoral populations ranged from 1% to 21% in Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia and Uganda and from 1% to 5% among refugees in Sudan, Kenya and Uganda. Socioeconomic, cultural, logistic, infrastructure and programmatic factors were found to contribute to continuing vulnerability to HIV. Interventions need to be further contextualised to the needs of those impoverished populations and integrated into national HIV/AIDS programmes. HIV/AIDS remains a major public health concern among the pastoral and refugee communities of IGAD countries. This calls for IGAD to collaborate with national and international partners in

  9. HIV Life Cycle

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Overview The HIV Life Cycle (Last updated 9/8/2016; last reviewed 9/8/2016) Key Points HIV gradually destroys the immune ... life cycle. What is the connection between the HIV life cycle and HIV medicines? Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ...

  10. Spatial Evaluation and Modeling of Dengue Seroprevalence and Vector Density in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Honório, Nildimar Alves; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra Magalhães, Mônica; de Araújo, Josélio Maria Galvão; de Araújo, Eliane Saraiva Machado; Gomes, Marcelo Quintela; Pinheiro, Luciane Silva; da Silva Pinel, Célio; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Background Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, experienced a severe dengue fever epidemic in 2008. This was the worst epidemic ever, characterized by a sharp increase in case-fatality rate, mainly among younger individuals. A combination of factors, such as climate, mosquito abundance, buildup of the susceptible population, or viral evolution, could explain the severity of this epidemic. The main objective of this study is to model the spatial patterns of dengue seroprevalence in three neighborhoods with different socioeconomic profiles in Rio de Janeiro. As blood sampling coincided with the peak of dengue transmission, we were also able to identify recent dengue infections and visually relate them to Aedes aegypti spatial distribution abundance. We analyzed individual and spatial factors associated with seroprevalence using Generalized Additive Model (GAM). Methodology/Principal Findings Three neighborhoods were investigated: a central urban neighborhood, and two isolated areas characterized as a slum and a suburban area. Weekly mosquito collections started in September 2006 and continued until March 2008. In each study area, 40 adult traps and 40 egg traps were installed in a random sample of premises, and two infestation indexes calculated: mean adult density and mean egg density. Sera from individuals living in the three neighborhoods were collected before the 2008 epidemic (July through November 2007) and during the epidemic (February through April 2008). Sera were tested for DENV-reactive IgM, IgG, Nested RT-PCR, and Real Time RT-PCR. From the before–after epidemics paired data, we described seroprevalence, recent dengue infections (asymptomatic or not), and seroconversion. Recent dengue infection varied from 1.3% to 14.1% among study areas. The highest IgM seropositivity occurred in the slum, where mosquito abundance was the lowest, but household conditions were the best for promoting contact between hosts and vectors. By fitting spatial GAM we found dengue

  11. A Cross-sectional Serological Study of Cysticercosis, Schistosomiasis, Toxocariasis and Echinococcosis in HIV-1 Infected People in Beira, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Noormahomed, Emilia Virginia; Nhacupe, Noémia; Mascaró-Lazcano, Carmen; Mauaie, Manuel Natane; Buene, Titos; Funzamo, Carlos Abel; Benson, Constance Ann

    2014-01-01

    Background Helminthic infections are highly endemic in Mozambique, due to limited access to healthcare and resources for disease prevention. Data on the subclinical prevalence of these diseases are scarce due to the fact that an immunological and imaging diagnosis is not often available in endemic areas. We conducted a cross-sectional study on HIV1+ patients from Beira city in order to determine the seroprevalence of cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, toxocariasis and echinoccocosis and its possible interaction with HIV infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Patients (601) were voluntarily recruited at the Ponta Gea Health Center and their demographic and clinical data were recorded (including CD4+ cell count and antiretroviral regimen). Mean age was 39.7 years, 378 (62.9%) were women and 223 (37.1%) were men. Four hundred seventy-five (475) patients (79%) were already on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and 90 started therapy after being enrolled in the study. For serological testing we used a Multiplex Western Blot IgG from LDBIO Diagnostics. The overall seroprevalence was 10.2% for cysticercosis, 23% for schistosomiasis, 7.3% for toxocariasis and 17.3% for echinococcosis. Conclusions/Significance Neither age nor the CD4+ count were significantly associated with the seroprevalence of the helminths studied. However, patients with CD4+ between 200–500/µl had a higher seroprevalence to all helminths than those with less than 200/µl cells/and those with more than 500 cells/µl. Female gender was significantly associated with cysticercosis and schistosomiasis, and being in HAART with toxocariasis. Headache was significantly associated with cysticercosis and toxocariasis. There was no association between epilepsy and seropositivity to any of the parasites. The study concluded that a clear understanding of the prevalence and manifestations of these coinfections, how best to diagnose subclinical cases, and how to manage diseases with concomitant

  12. Prevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women in Newfoundland.

    PubMed Central

    Ratnam, S; Hogan, K; Hankins, C

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women in Newfoundland. DESIGN: Anonymous unlinked seroprevalence study. SETTING: Newfoundland. PATIENTS: A total of 14911 women receiving prenatal care or undergoing an abortion, representing nearly all pregnancies in Newfoundland from Nov. 1, 1991, to Oct. 31, 1993. OUTCOME MEASURES: HIV antibody status, as determined by enzyme immunoassay of leftover serum samples (initially obtained for routine screening) and confirmation of reactive samples by the Western blot technique, health region of residence, and age group. RESULTS: Of the 14911 serum samples 13 were positive for HIV, for an overall crude prevalence rate of 1 per 1147 or 8.7 per 10000 pregnant women (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.7 to 14.9). Seven of the positive samples were from women residing in the Eastern Health Region of the province, for a crude prevalence rate of 1 per 376 or 26.6 per 10000 pregnant women (95% CI 10.7 to 54.8) for that region. All women found to be HIV positive were 15 to 29 years of age, the peak prevalence (20.8 per 10000 pregnant women [95% CI 9.5 to 39.4]) was observed among those 20 to 24 years. CONCLUSIONS: The overall prevalence rate of 8.7 per 10 000 pregnant women in Newfoundland is the highest provincial rate recorded among those from similar studies in Canada. Although it may be concluded that there are an estimated 125 HIV-positive women of childbearing age in Newfoundland (95% CI 67 to 213), the age-adjusted estimate is 84 (95% CI 36 to 131). This study provides an independent confirmation of an outbreak of HIV infection among women in the Eastern Health Region of the province. PMID:8625023

  13. Analysis of T cell responses to chimpanzee adenovirus vectors encoding HIV gag–pol–nef antigen

    PubMed Central

    Herath, S.; Le Heron, A.; Colloca, S.; Bergin, P.; Patterson, S.; Weber, J.; Tatoud, R.; Dickson, G.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses have been shown to be both immunogenic and efficient at presenting HIV proteins but recent trials have suggested that they may play a role in increasing the risk of HIV acquisition. This risk may be associated with the presence of pre-existing immunity to the viral vectors. Chimpanzee adenoviruses (chAd) have low seroprevalence in human populations and so reduce this risk. ChAd3 and chAd63 were used to deliver an HIV gag, pol and nef transgene. ELISpot analysis of T cell responses in mice showed that both chAd vectors were able to induce an immune response to Gag and Pol peptides but that only the chAd3 vector induced responses to Nef peptides. Although the route of injection did not influence the magnitude of immune responses to either chAd vector, the dose of vector did. Taken together these results demonstrate that chimpanzee adenoviruses are suitable vector candidates for the delivery of HIV proteins and could be used for an HIV vaccine and furthermore the chAd3 vector produces a broader response to the HIV transgene. PMID:26546736

  14. Analysis of T cell responses to chimpanzee adenovirus vectors encoding HIV gag-pol-nef antigen.

    PubMed

    Herath, S; Le Heron, A; Colloca, S; Bergin, P; Patterson, S; Weber, J; Tatoud, R; Dickson, G

    2015-12-16

    Adenoviruses have been shown to be both immunogenic and efficient at presenting HIV proteins but recent trials have suggested that they may play a role in increasing the risk of HIV acquisition. This risk may be associated with the presence of pre-existing immunity to the viral vectors. Chimpanzee adenoviruses (chAd) have low seroprevalence in human populations and so reduce this risk. ChAd3 and chAd63 were used to deliver an HIV gag, pol and nef transgene. ELISpot analysis of T cell responses in mice showed that both chAd vectors were able to induce an immune response to Gag and Pol peptides but that only the chAd3 vector induced responses to Nef peptides. Although the route of injection did not influence the magnitude of immune responses to either chAd vector, the dose of vector did. Taken together these results demonstrate that chimpanzee adenoviruses are suitable vector candidates for the delivery of HIV proteins and could be used for an HIV vaccine and furthermore the chAd3 vector produces a broader response to the HIV transgene. PMID:26546736

  15. HIV Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... the right way, every day. If you have health insurance, your insurer is required to cover some medicines ... to treat HIV. If you don’t have health insurance, or you’re unable to afford your co- ...

  16. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... HIV infections. HIV infection is often diagnosed through rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), which detect the presence or absence of ... accuracy. It is important to note that serological tests detect antibodies produced ... pathogens, rather than direct detection of HIV itself. Most ...

  17. Older People and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... common than they were before the use of anti-HIV drugs. It is difficult to know what is causing mental problems in older people with HIV. Is it normal aging, or is it HIV disease? Research studies have ...

  18. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  19. Preventing HIV with Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... information in Spanish ( en español ) Preventing HIV with medicine Get medicine right after you are exposed to ... to top More information on Preventing HIV with medicine Explore other publications and websites National HIV and ...

  20. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It kills or damages the body's immune system cells. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the most advanced stage of infection with HIV. HIV most ...

  1. How HIV Causes AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  2. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  3. HIV-AIDS Connection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 and ... is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in the human ...

  4. Age-specific seroprevalence of hepatitis A in Sari, northern Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Alian, S; Ajami, A; Ghasemian, R; Yadegarinia, D

    2011-10-01

    The declining incidence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in the Islamic Republic of Iran may be reducing the population's natural immunity. This was the first systemized, population-based survey of the seroprevalence of HAV antibodies in urban and rural inhabitants of Sari, Mazandaran province. Serum from 1034 individuals aged 1-25 years in 2007 were tested for anti-HAV lgG antibody using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit. The overall seroprevalence was 38.9%. The lowest prevalence (5.2%) was among the younger age group (1-5 years) from urban areas and the highest prevalence (82.0%) in the older age group (15-25 years) from rural areas. Seropositivity was significantly higher at higher age, among females and in rural areas. Sari is no longer classified as an area of high endemicity, and immunization against HAV may be needed in our population in the future. PMID:22256409

  5. Seroprevalence of rubella antibodies in The Netherlands after 32 years of high vaccination coverage.

    PubMed

    Smits, Gaby; Mollema, Liesbeth; Hahné, Susan; de Melker, Hester; Tcherniaeva, Irina; van der Klis, Fiona; Berbers, Guy

    2014-04-01

    Here we present rubella virus specific antibody levels in a large cross-sectional population-based serosurveillance study performed in The Netherlands in 2006/2007. In the nationwide sample, seroprevalence was high (95%). Higher levels of rubella specific antibodies were observed in the naturally infected cohorts compared with the vaccinated cohorts. After both vaccinations, the geometric mean concentration of rubella specific antibodies remained well above the protective level. However, antibody concentrations decreased faster after one than after two vaccinations. Infants too young to be vaccinated were a risk group in the nationwide sample. In the orthodox protestant group, individuals younger than 6 years of age were at risk for an infection with rubella, consistent with a small local outbreak that recently occurred at an orthodox protestant primary school. The general Dutch population is well protected against an infection with rubella virus. However, monitoring the rubella specific seroprevalence remains an important surveillance tool to assess possible groups at risk. PMID:24513012

  6. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs in southern Piauí.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Richard Átila; Lemos, Jezlon da Fonseca; Farias, Leonardo Atta; Lopes, Carla Duque; dos Santos, Karina Rodrigues

    2014-03-01

    This study is aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in pigs. We evaluated 143 pigs, in 10 randomly-chosen farms located in Southern Piauí. The pig's blood serum was analyzed through ELISA in detection of anti-T. gondii antibodies. A seroprevalence of 25.5% was observed in the pigs that reacted against T. gondii antigens. The data from the records demonstrated an association with some factors such as: age, diet, type of management, breed and presence of cats in the farms with a prevalence of T. gondii. With the exception of sex, all others features represent risk factors for T. gondii infection. Furthermore, our data contributed to the understanding of the T. gondii seroprevalence in pig farms located in Southern Piauí. PMID:24728369

  7. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs in Jilin Province, Northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, P; Cai, Y N; Leng, X; Wang, J; Ma, W; Mu, G D; Jiang, J; Liu, X Y; Wang, Z D; Zhao, Q; Yang, G L

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, a total of 1,235 porcine serum samples were collected from 9 counties in Jilin Province (40°52'~46°18'N,121°38'~131°19'E), northeastern China from August to October 2013, and the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection was tested by indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA). The results showed that antibodies to T. gondii were found in 19.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.9% to 21.3%), with higher seroprevalence in the breeding boars (28.6%, 95% CI, 20.0% to 37.2%), and breeding sows (32.0%, 95% CI, 25.2% to 38.9%). No significant difference was found among the slaughter pigs, fattening pigs and the piglets. These results indicated that infection with T. gondii in pigs is widespread in Jilin province, and is of public health concern. PMID:25801260

  8. Low Seroprevalence of West Nile Virus in Blood Donors from Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Piron, Maria; Plasencia, Antoni; Fleta-Soriano, Eric; Martinez, Ana; Martinez, Javier P; Torner, Nuria; Sauleda, Silvia; Meyerhans, Andreas; Escalé, Josefina; Trilla, Antoni; Pumarola, Tomás; Martinez, Miguel Julian

    2015-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging arbovirus first recognized in Europe in the 1950s. Since then, outbreaks have been reported in several European countries. In 2010, the first WNV outbreak was recorded in Spain, affecting the southern part of the country. We conducted a seroprevalence study in the Catalonia region (northeastern Spain), an area considered at high risk of arbovirus transmission. A total of 800 serum samples from blood donors were collected and screened for antibodies against WNV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmed by a microneutralization assay. More than 50 samples tested positive by ELISA, but only one sample contained neutralizing antibodies against WNV and was obtained from a donor native of Pakistan. The low seroprevalence detected may serve as reference baseline data for monitoring WNV activity in our region in future years. PMID:26581013

  9. Seroprevalence rates and transmission of plague (Yersinia pestis) in mammalian carnivores.

    PubMed

    Salkeld, D J; Stapp, P

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to plague (Yersinia pestis) by flea-bites or consumption of infected rodents is common in mammalian carnivores in North America. Most carnivore species exhibit seroprevalence rates ranging from 3% to 100% in areas where plague occurs. Seroprevalence is highest in mustelids, intermediate in ursids, felids, and canids, and lowest in procyonids, probably reflecting variation in exposure rates as a function of dietary habits. Although conventional wisdom suggests that carnivores may only be important in plague ecology as vectors of infective fleas, animal-to-human (zoonotic) transmission suggests that mammalian carnivores can act as infectious hosts. Furthermore, a review of clinical investigations reveals that plague can be harvested from canid and felid hosts, and suggests the possibility of plague transmission between carnivores. Further study of plague transmission by carnivores in both wild and laboratory conditions is needed to understand the possible role of carnivores as wildlife reservoirs of plague. PMID:16989561

  10. Seroprevalence of select bloodborne pathogens and associated risk behaviors among injection drug users in the Paso del Norte region of the United States – Mexico border

    PubMed Central

    Baumbach, Joan P; Foster, Lily N; Mueller, Mark; Cruz, Michelle Firestone; Arbona, Sonia; Melville, Sharon; Ramos, Rebeca; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2008-01-01

    Background The region situated where the borders of Mexico, Texas and New Mexico meet is known as 'Paso del Norte'. The Paso del Norte Collaborative was formed to study the seroprevalence of select pathogens and associated risk behaviors among injection drug users (IDUs) in the region. Methods Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used: 459 IDU participants included 204 from Mexico; 155 from Texas; and 100 from New Mexico. Each of the three sites used a standardized questionnaire that was verbally administered and testing was performed for select bloodborne infections. Results Participants were mostly male (87.4%) and Hispanic/Latino (84.7%) whose median age was 38. In Mexico, Texas and New Mexico, respectively: hepatitis B virus (HBV) was seen in 88.3%, 48.6% and 59.6% of participants; hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 98.7%, 76.4% and 80.0%; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 2.1%, 10.0% and 1.0%; and syphilis in 4.0%, 9.9% and 3.0%. Heroin was the drug injected most often. More IDUs in New Mexico were aware of and used needle exchange programs compared with Texas and Mexico. Conclusion There was mixed success using RDS: it was more successfully applied after establishing good working relationships with IDU populations. Study findings included similarities and distinctions between the three sites that will be used to inform prevention interventions. PMID:19014605