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Sample records for hiv surveillance system

  1. HIV surveillance systems in the Asia Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Loo, Virginia; Saidel, Tobi; Reddy, Amala; Htin, Khin Cho Win; Shwe, Ye Yu; Verbruggen, Bob

    2012-07-01

    In 2011, the United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) Regional Support Team for Asia-Pacific conducted a stock-taking process of available strategic information in the Asia Pacific region. This paper summarizes the progress of HIV surveillance for 20 countries in the region, covering population size estimates of key populations at higher risk, HIV case reporting, HIV sentinel surveillance and probability surveys of behavioural and biological markers. Information on surveillance activities was obtained from publically available surveillance reports and protocols, supplemented by personal communication with the UNAIDS monitoring and evaluation advisers and surveillance experts in country. Key findings include substantial efforts in broadening the number and types of HIV surveillance components included in national HIV surveillance systems and adopting approaches to make surveillance more cost-efficient, such as integrating routine programme monitoring data and passive surveillance case reporting systems. More investment in regularly analysing and applying surveillance data to programme strengthening at the subnational level is needed but will require additional capacity-building and resources. The ability to triangulate multiple sources of surveillance data into a more comprehensive view of the HIV epidemic will be enhanced if more investment is made in better documentation and dissemination of surveillance activities and findings. PMID:23908915

  2. HIV surveillance systems in the Asia Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Virginia; Reddy, Amala; Htin, Khin Cho Win; Shwe, Ye Yu; Verbruggen, Bob

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) Regional Support Team for Asia-Pacific conducted a stock-taking process of available strategic information in the Asia Pacific region. This paper summarizes the progress of HIV surveillance for 20 countries in the region, covering population size estimates of key populations at higher risk, HIV case reporting, HIV sentinel surveillance and probability surveys of behavioural and biological markers. Information on surveillance activities was obtained from publically available surveillance reports and protocols, supplemented by personal communication with the UNAIDS monitoring and evaluation advisers and surveillance experts in country. Key findings include substantial efforts in broadening the number and types of HIV surveillance components included in national HIV surveillance systems and adopting approaches to make surveillance more cost-efficient, such as integrating routine programme monitoring data and passive surveillance case reporting systems. More investment in regularly analysing and applying surveillance data to programme strengthening at the subnational level is needed but will require additional capacity-building and resources. The ability to triangulate multiple sources of surveillance data into a more comprehensive view of the HIV epidemic will be enhanced if more investment is made in better documentation and dissemination of surveillance activities and findings. PMID:23908915

  3. A national surveillance system for newly acquired HIV infection in Australia. National HIV Surveillance Committee.

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, A M; Gertig, D M; Crofts, N; Kaldor, J M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to describe the establishment of a national surveillance system for newly acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and present the first 3 years' results. METHODS. All new cases of diagnosed HIV infection were reported to the national HIV surveillance center through state and territory health authorities. Information sought on each case included evidence of whether the infection had been newly acquired, defined by the diagnosis of HIV seroconversion illness or by the report of a negative or indeterminate HIV antibody test result occurring within the 12 months prior to diagnosis of infection. RESULTS. Of 3602 reported cases of HIV infection in adults and adolescents newly diagnosed in Australia between 1991 and 1993, 11.4% were identified as newly acquired. The majority (85%) of cases of newly diagnosed HIV infection occurred among men who reported homosexual contact, and 15% of these cases were identified as newly acquired. Average age at diagnosis was 31 years for cases of newly acquired infection and 34 years for other cases. CONCLUSIONS. Surveillance for newly acquired HIV infection has been established at a national level in Australia and provides valuable information for planning primary HIV prevention programs. PMID:7998631

  4. Behavioral surveillance among people at risk for HIV infection in the U.S.: the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Kathleen M; Sullivan, Patrick S; Lansky, Amy; Onorato, Ida M

    2007-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in collaboration with 25 state and local health departments, began the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System (NHBS) in 2003. The system focuses on people at risk for HIV infection and surveys the three populations at highest risk for HIV in the United States: men who have sex with men, injecting drug users, and high-risk heterosexuals. The project collects information from these three populations during rotating 12-month cycles. Methods for recruiting participants vary for each at-risk population, but NHBS uses a standardized protocol and core questionnaire for each cycle. Participating health departments tailor their questionnaire to collect information about specific prevention programs offered in their geographic area and to address local data needs. Data collected from NHBS will be used to describe trends in key behavioral risk indicators and evaluate current HIV prevention programs. This information in turn can be used to identify gaps in prevention services and target new prevention activities with the goal of reducing new HIV infections in the United States. PMID:17354525

  5. Describing the Chinese HIV Surveillance System and the Influences of Political Structures and Social Stigma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Fung Chow, Eric Pui; Zhang, Jun; Jing, Jun; Wilson, David P

    2012-01-01

    China’s public health surveillance system for HIV was established in late 1980s and has evolved significantly during the past three decades. With the gradually changing mode of HIV transmission from sharing of intravenous injecting equipment to sexual exposure and the rapid spread of HIV infection among Chinese homosexual men in recent years, an efficient and comprehensive population-level surveillance system for describing epidemics trends and risk behaviours associated with HIV acquisition are essential for effective public health interventions for HIV. The current review describes the overall strength of the Chinese HIV surveillance system and its structural weaknesses from a political and social perspective. The HIV surveillance system in China has undergone substantial revamping leading to a comprehensive, timely and efficient reporting system. However, large data gaps and lack of quality control and sharing of information obstruct the full performance of the system. This is largely due to fragmented authoritarianism brought about by the underlying political structure. Social stigma and discrimination in health institutes are also key barriers for further improvements of HIV diagnosis and surveillance in China. PMID:23049665

  6. HIV surveillance in complex emergencies.

    PubMed

    Salama, P; Dondero, T J

    2001-04-01

    Many studies have shown a positive association between both migration and temporary expatriation and HIV risk. This association is likely to be similar or even more pronounced for forced migrants. In general, HIV transmission in host-migrant or host-forced-migrant interactions depends on the maturity of the HIV epidemic in both the host and the migrant population, the relative seroprevalence of HIV in the host and the migrant population, the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that may facilitate transmission, and the level of sexual interaction between the two communities. Complex emergencies are the major cause of mass population movement today. In complex emergencies, additional factors such as sexual interaction between forced-migrant populations and the military; sexual violence; increasing commercial sex work; psychological trauma; and disruption of preventive and curative health services may increase the risk for HIV transmission. Despite recent success in preventing HIV infection in stable populations in selected developing countries, internally displaced persons and refugees (or forced migrants) have not been systematically included in HIV surveillance systems, nor consequently in prevention activities. Standard surveillance systems that rely on functioning health services may not provide useful data in many complex emergency settings. Secondary sources can provide some information in these settings. Little attempt has been made, however, to develop innovative HIV surveillance systems in countries affected by complex emergencies. Consequently, data on the HIV epidemic in these countries are scarce and HIV prevention programs are either not implemented or interventions are not effectively targeted. Second generation surveillance methods such as cross-sectional, population-based surveys can provide rapid information on HIV, STIs, and sexual behavior. The risks for stigmatization and breaches of confidentiality must be recognized

  7. The role of formative research in the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Allen, Denise Roth; Finlayson, Teresa; Abdul-Quader, Abu; Lansky, Amy

    2009-01-01

    The National Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Behavioral Surveillance System (NHBS) is the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) newest system for measuring HIV risk behaviors among three adult populations at highest risk for HIV infection in the U.S.: men who have sex with men, injecting drug users, and heterosexuals at risk of HIV infection. The system is implemented by state and local health departments in designated metropolitan statistical areas with the highest HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevalence in the U.S. Prior to implementing the behavioral surveillance survey, project sites conduct a series of formative research activities. The data collected during this preparatory phase provide contextual information about HIV risk behaviors within the study population of interest and help project sites make decisions about field operations and other logistical issues. This article describes the activities undertaken in preparation for the first round of NHBS (2003-2007) and how those activities enhanced data collection for each behavioral surveillance cycle. PMID:19413025

  8. Evaluation of a statewide non-name-based HIV surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Solomon, L; Flynn, C; Eldred, L; Caldeira, E; Wasserman, M P; Benjamin, G

    1999-11-01

    Recent advances in AIDS-related therapies have delayed the onset of AIDS-defining illnesses and reduced the usefulness of AIDS surveillance in assessing the incidence of early HIV disease and estimating future needs of the HIV-infected population. These changes have prompted renewed interest in expanding surveillance to include HIV and have engendered national debate on whether an HIV surveillance system should be based on reports of the names of infected individuals or employ non-name-based data codes. In 1994, the state of Maryland implemented a program to require HIV surveillance by unique identifier (UI) patient code. This evaluation of Maryland's program found that when complete, the 12-digit UI number provided a virtually unduplicated count 99.8% unique, was 99.9% unique with only the last four digits of the U.S. government Social Security Number (SSN), date of birth (DOB), and race, and 77.7% unique if the last four digits of the SSN were missing. Health care providers were willing to create the UI, with DOB and gender present 98.3% and 98.8% of the time, race was complete 84.1% and last four digits of SSN were complete 72.4%. The overall completeness of reporting for HIV tests was 87.8%.and 84.8%, respectively, using different methodologies. Evidence from the Maryland UI evaluation demonstrates that a non-name-based system can provide accurate, timely and valid data concerning the scope of the HIV epidemic, without the creation of state-wide name-based registry. PMID:10770348

  9. Innovations in health and demographic surveillance systems to establish the causal impacts of HIV policies

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Kobus; Law, Matthew; Geldsetzer, Pascal; Tanser, Frank; Harling, Guy; Bärnighausen, Till

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSS), in conjunction with HIV treatment cohorts, have made important contributions to our understanding of the impact of HIV treatment and treatment-related interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this review is to describe and discuss innovations in data collection and data linkage that will create new opportunities to establish the impacts of HIV treatment, as well as policies affecting the treatment cascade, on population health, economic and social outcomes. Recent Findings Novel approaches to routine collection of (i) biomarkers, (ii) behavioural data, (iii) spatial data, (iv) social network information, (v) migration events and (vi) mobile phone records can significantly strengthen the potential of HDSS to generate exposure and outcome data for causal analysis of HIV treatment impact and policies affecting the HIV treatment cascade. Additionally, by linking HDSS data to health service administration, education, and welfare service records, researchers can substantial broaden opportunities to establish how HIV treatment affects health and economic outcomes, when delivered through public-sector health systems and at scale. Summary As the HIV treatment scale-up in sub-Saharan Africa enters its second decade, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the long-term causal impacts of large-scale HIV treatment and related policies on broader population health outcomes, such as non-communicable diseases, as well as on economic and social outcomes, such as family welfare and children’s educational attainment. By collecting novel data and linking existing data to public-sector records, HDSS can create near-unique opportunities to contribute to this research agenda. PMID:26371462

  10. DEFENSE MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (DMSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    AMSA operates the Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS), an executive information system whose database contains up-to-date and historical data on diseases and medical events (e.g., hospitalizations, ambulatory visits, reportable diseases, HIV tests, acute respiratory diseas...

  11. Increases in HIV Testing among Men Who Have Sex with Men — National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, 20 U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Areas, 2008 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Laura A.; Oster, Alexandra M.; Rose, Charles E.; Wejnert, Cyprian; Le, Binh C.; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, 62% of estimated new HIV diagnoses in the United States were attributed to male-to-male sexual contact (men who have sex with men, MSM); 39% of these MSM were black or African American. HIV testing, recommended at least annually by CDC for sexually active MSM, is an essential first step in HIV care and treatment for HIV-positive individuals. A variety of HIV testing initiatives, designed to reach populations disproportionately affected by HIV, have been developed at both national and local levels. We assessed changes in HIV testing behavior among MSM participating in the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System in 2008 and 2011. We compared the percentages tested in the previous 12 months in 2008 and 2011, overall and by race/ethnicity and age group. In unadjusted analyses, recent HIV testing increased from 63% in 2008 to 67% in 2011 overall (P<0.001), from 63% to 71% among black MSM (P<0.001), and from 63% to 75% among MSM of other/multiple races (P<0.001); testing did not increase significantly for white or Hispanic/Latino MSM. Multivariable model results indicated an overall increase in recent HIV testing (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 1.07, P<0.001). Increases were largest for black MSM (aPR = 1.12, P<0.001) and MSM of other/multiple races (aPR = 1.20, P<0.001). Among MSM aged 18–19 years, recent HIV testing was shown to increase significantly among black MSM (aPR = 1.20, P = 0.007), but not among MSM of other racial/ethnic groups. Increases in recent HIV testing among populations most affected by HIV are encouraging, but despite these increases, improved testing coverage is needed to meet CDC recommendations. PMID:25180514

  12. SOURCES OF DATA FOR IMPROVED SURVEILLANCE OF HIV/AIDS IN CHINA

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yujiang; Lu, Fan; Sun, Xinhua; Vermund, Sten H

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the evolution of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome surveillance in mainland China, with a focus on reviewing the sources of data being used for improved surveillance of HIV/AIDS. We review the development of HIV/AIDS surveillance and its multiple data sources to monitor the dynamics of HIV/AIDS in China. The surveillance system for HIV/AIDS in China was initiated in 1986. It has evolved in three stages: (1) passive surveillance, (2) HIV sentinel surveillance with coexisting active surveillance and passive surveillance, and (3) comprehensive surveillance. In parallel with the evolution of the surveillance system itself, the HIV epidemic in China has gone through increasing stages of complexity, through an Introduction Phase, a Spreading Phase, and a Rapidy Spreading Phase. More reliable data from improved surveillance suggest that the HIV/AIDS epidemic is expanding in China. HIV infections among 2005 estimates remain concentrated among injection drug users (IDUs), those buying and selling sex, and men who have sex with men. Better HIV/AIDS surveillance synthesizes multiple data sources to provide a more accurate picture of the dynamics of specific HIV/AIDS circumstances in different areas of China. Improved surveillance is meaningful insofar as data are used to implement more effective HIV prevention programs in China. Support for surveillance and strategic analyses can enable policy decision makers to make more effective program choices and mobilize adequate resources to contain HIV. PMID:18613545

  13. A Matter of Perspective: Comparison of the Characteristics of Persons with HIV Infection in the United States from the HIV Outpatient Study, Medical Monitoring Project, and National HIV Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Buchacz, Kate; Frazier, Emma L; Hall, H Irene; Hart, Rachel; Huang, Ping; Franklin, Dana; Hu, Xiaohong; Palella, Frank J; Chmiel, Joan S; Novak, Richard M; Wood, Kathy; Yangco, Bienvenido; Armon, Carl; Brooks, John T; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Comparative analyses of the characteristics of persons living with HIV infection (PLWH) in the United States (US) captured in surveillance and other observational databases are few. To explore potential joint data use to guide HIV treatment and prevention in the US, we examined three CDC-funded data sources in 2012: the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS), a multisite longitudinal cohort; the Medical Monitoring Project (MMP), a probability sample of PLWH receiving medical care; and the National HIV Surveillance System (NHSS), a surveillance system of all PLWH. Overall, data from 1,697 HOPS, 4,901 MMP, and 865,102 NHSS PLWH were analyzed. Compared with the MMP population, HOPS participants were more likely to be older, non-Hispanic/Latino white, not using injection drugs, insured, diagnosed with HIV before 2009, prescribed antiretroviral therapy, and to have most recent CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell count ≥500 cells/mm3 and most recent viral load test<2 00 copies/mL. The MMP population was demographically similar to all PLWH in NHSS, except it tended to be slightly older, HIV diagnosed more recently, and to have AIDS. Our comparative results provide an essential first step for combined epidemiologic data analyses to inform HIV care and prevention for PLWH in the US. PMID:26793282

  14. A Matter of Perspective: Comparison of the Characteristics of Persons with HIV Infection in the United States from the HIV Outpatient Study, Medical Monitoring Project, and National HIV Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Buchacz, Kate; Frazier, Emma L.; Hall, H. Irene; Hart, Rachel; Huang, Ping; Franklin, Dana; Hu, Xiaohong; Palella, Frank J.; Chmiel, Joan S.; Novak, Richard M.; Wood, Kathy; Yangco, Bienvenido; Armon, Carl; Brooks, John T.; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Comparative analyses of the characteristics of persons living with HIV infection (PLWH) in the United States (US) captured in surveillance and other observational databases are few. To explore potential joint data use to guide HIV treatment and prevention in the US, we examined three CDC-funded data sources in 2012: the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS), a multisite longitudinal cohort; the Medical Monitoring Project (MMP), a probability sample of PLWH receiving medical care; and the National HIV Surveillance System (NHSS), a surveillance system of all PLWH. Overall, data from 1,697 HOPS, 4,901 MMP, and 865,102 NHSS PLWH were analyzed. Compared with the MMP population, HOPS participants were more likely to be older, non-Hispanic/Latino white, not using injection drugs, insured, diagnosed with HIV before 2009, prescribed antiretroviral therapy, and to have most recent CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell count ≥500 cells/mm3 and most recent viral load test<2 00 copies/mL. The MMP population was demographically similar to all PLWH in NHSS, except it tended to be slightly older, HIV diagnosed more recently, and to have AIDS. Our comparative results provide an essential first step for combined epidemiologic data analyses to inform HIV care and prevention for PLWH in the US. PMID:26793282

  15. Effect of Recombination in the Evolutionary Dynamics of HIV under the Surveillance of Immune System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Weiqun; Yang, Wenjing; Wang, Guanyu

    2009-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which has become one of the most destructive pandemics in history. The fact that HIV virus evolves very fast plays a central role in AIDS immunopathogenesis and the difficulty we face in finding a cure or a vaccine for AIDS. A distinguishing feature of HIV is its high frequency of recombination. The effect of recombination in the HIV evolution is not clear. We establish a mathematical model of the evolutionary dynamics. This model incorporates both point mutation and recombination for genetic diversity, and employs a fitness function developed by Wang and Deem (PRL 97, 188106, 2006) that accounts for the effect of immune system. Using this model, we explore the role of recombination in the battle between the virus population and the immune system, with a special focus on the condition under which recombination helps the virus population to escape from the immune system.

  16. Recent HIV Testing Prevalence, Determinants, and Disparities Among US Older Adult Respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Chandra L.; Godette, Dionne C.; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Gaines, Tommi L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although routine human immune deficiency virus (HIV) testing during health care visits is recommended for most adults, many older adults (i.e., ages 50–64 years) do not receive it. This study identified factors associated with HIV testing in the past 12 months (i.e., recent HIV testing) among US adults in the 3 categories of older adulthood (50–54, 55–59, and 60–64 years) for which routine HIV testing is recommended. Method This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from US older adult respondents to the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We calculated prevalence (proportions) of HIV testing by age category and race/ethnicity. Using multiple logistic regression, we identified predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with recent HIV testing within and across age categories, by race/ethnicity and controlling for covariates. Results HIV testing prevalence was low (<5%), varied by race/ethnicity, and decreased with age. Within and across age categories, the odds of testing were highest among blacks (odds ratio [OR], 3.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.82–4.25) and higher among Latinos (OR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.50–2.84) and the oldest and youngest categories of American Indians/Alaska Natives (OR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.11–5.55; OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.49–5.95) than among whites. Those reporting a recent doctor visit (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.92–2.74) or HIV risk behaviors (OR, 3.50; 95% CI, 2.67–4.59) had higher odds of HIV testing. Conclusion Regardless of risk, the oldest older adults, whites, and older women may forego HIV testing. Doctor visits may facilitate HIV testing. Additional research is needed to understand why eligible older adults seen by providers may not be screened for HIV infection. PMID:26165428

  17. Second generation HIV surveillance in Pakistan: policy challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Michelle; Holte-McKenzie, Merydth; Ahmed, Sadia; Archibald, Chris P; Blanchard, James F; Thompson, Laura H

    2013-01-01

    From 2004 to 2011, the Canada-Pakistan HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project (HASP) worked with government and non-government partners in Pakistan to design and implement an HIV second generation surveillance (SGS) system. Insights into the development of scalable cost effective surveillance methodologies, implementation, use of data for HIV prevention and human rights were gained over the course of HASP. An ideal SGS system would be affordable, able to be implemented independently by local partners and produce data that could be readily applied in policy and programmes. Flexibility in design and implementation is important to ensure that any SGS system is responsive to information needs, political changes and changes in key population dynamics and HIV epidemics. HASP's mapping methodology is innovative and widely accepted as best practice, but sustainability of the SGS system it developed is a challenge. PMID:23220785

  18. Evaluation of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System among men who have sex with men in Denver, Colorado.

    PubMed

    DeYoung, Kathryn H; Al-Tayyib, Alia; Thrun, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Denver Public Health implements the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System (NHBS), a cyclical survey of populations at increased risk for HIV. We evaluated the implementation of NHBS among Denver men who have sex with men (MSM), considering the system's simplicity, data quality, representativeness, and sensitivity to trends. We found that the time required for implementation and the complexity of data management and analysis are barriers to disseminating local findings. Data quality has improved in each cycle of the study but must be protected by continually checking for errors and training field staff to be attentive to detail. Compared with the US census and other convenience samples of Denver MSM, the overall demographic representativeness of NHBS has improved over time. However, there is concern that the underlying population included in the study may be changing. NHBS survey data show evidence of two suspected trends in the local MSM population at risk for HIV: increasing sexual risk-taking and the transition away from bars as a dominant partner-finding location. It is unclear whether the increasing reports of sexual risk-taking reflect a real trend or simply a change in the population sampled, since most NHBS participants are recruited at gay bars and other venues. To ensure that the sample continues to represent the underlying population at risk and accurately identify trends, it is necessary to closely monitor MSM sample characteristics during implementation and incorporate weighted data provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention into analyses. PMID:25120229

  19. HPV vaccine coverage among men who have sex with men – National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, United States, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Meites, Elissa; Markowitz, Lauri E.; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Oster, Alexandra M.

    2015-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for disease associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). In late 2011, HPV vaccine was recommended for males through age 21 and MSM through age 26. Using data from the 2011 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, we assessed self-reported HPV vaccine uptake among MSM, using multivariate analysis to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Among 3221 MSM aged 18–26, 157 (4.9%) reported ≥1 vaccine dose. Uptake was higher among men who visited a healthcare provider (aPR 2.3, CI: 1.2–4.2), disclosed same-sex sexual attraction/behavior to a provider (aPR 2.1, CI: 1.3–3.3), reported a positive HIV test (aPR 2.2, CI: 1.5–3.2), or received hepatitis vaccine (aPR 3.9, CI: 2.4–6.4). Of 3064 unvaccinated MSM, 2326 (75.9%) had visited a healthcare provider within 1 year. These national data on HPV vaccine uptake among MSM provide a baseline as vaccination recommendations are implemented. PMID:25258097

  20. Mapping HIV/STI behavioural surveillance in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Used in conjunction with biological surveillance, behavioural surveillance provides data allowing for a more precise definition of HIV/STI prevention strategies. In 2008, mapping of behavioural surveillance in EU/EFTA countries was performed on behalf of the European Centre for Disease prevention and Control. Method Nine questionnaires were sent to all 31 member States and EEE/EFTA countries requesting data on the overall behavioural and second generation surveillance system and on surveillance in the general population, youth, men having sex with men (MSM), injecting drug users (IDU), sex workers (SW), migrants, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), and sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics patients. Requested data included information on system organisation (e.g. sustainability, funding, institutionalisation), topics covered in surveys and main indicators. Results Twenty-eight of the 31 countries contacted supplied data. Sixteen countries reported an established behavioural surveillance system, and 13 a second generation surveillance system (combination of biological surveillance of HIV/AIDS and STI with behavioural surveillance). There were wide differences as regards the year of survey initiation, number of populations surveyed, data collection methods used, organisation of surveillance and coordination with biological surveillance. The populations most regularly surveyed are the general population, youth, MSM and IDU. SW, patients of STI clinics and PLWHA are surveyed less regularly and in only a small number of countries, and few countries have undertaken behavioural surveys among migrant or ethnic minorities populations. In many cases, the identification of populations with risk behaviour and the selection of populations to be included in a BS system have not been formally conducted, or are incomplete. Topics most frequently covered are similar across countries, although many different indicators are used. In most countries, sustainability

  1. Monitoring HIV through sentinel surveillance in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Elharti, E; Zidouh, A; Mengad, R; Bennani, O; Elaouad, R

    2002-01-01

    HIV sentinel surveillance was performed in five provinces of Morocco in 1993, expanded to 10 provinces in 1996. The activity was done by unlinked anonymous testing procedures. We analysed the data from 1993 to 1999. The groups studied were sexually transmitted infections, clinic attendees, pregnant women and patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. The results show that overall HIV prevalence rate over the whole period in 10 cities was 0.10% (45/44,233). Casablanca had a significantly high rate with 0.39% (10/2567). The patients with pulmonary tuberculosis displayed the highest prevalence with 0.36% (9/2530). These data confirm the assumption that the HIV epidemic is low in Morocco. However, the increase of HIV prevalence lately calls for reinforcing preventive measures to limit its spread. PMID:15330569

  2. Improving data management practices in the Portuguese HIV/AIDS surveillance system during a time of public sector austerity.

    PubMed

    Shivaji, Tara; Cortes Martins, Helena

    2015-01-01

    In a climate of public sector austerity, the demand for accurate information about disease epidemiology rises as health program managers try to align spending to health needs. A policy of case re-notification to improve HIV information quality resulted in a nine-fold increase in the number of case reports received in 2013 by the Portuguese HIV surveillance office. We used value stream mapping to introduce improvements to data processing practices, identify and reduce waste. Two cycles of improvement were trialled. Before intervention, processing time was nine minutes and 28 seconds (95%CI 8:53-10:58) per report. Two months post intervention, it was six minutes and 34 seconds (95% CI 6:25-6:43). One year after the start of the project, processing time was five minutes and 20 seconds (95% CI 1:46-8:52). PMID:26734448

  3. Improving data management practices in the Portuguese HIV/AIDS surveillance system during a time of public sector austerity

    PubMed Central

    Shivaji, Tara; Cortes Martins, Helena

    2015-01-01

    In a climate of public sector austerity, the demand for accurate information about disease epidemiology rises as health program managers try to align spending to health needs. A policy of case re-notification to improve HIV information quality resulted in a nine-fold increase in the number of case reports received in 2013 by the Portuguese HIV surveillance office. We used value stream mapping to introduce improvements to data processing practices, identify and reduce waste. Two cycles of improvement were trialled. Before intervention, processing time was nine minutes and 28 seconds (95%CI 8:53–10:58) per report. Two months post intervention, it was six minutes and 34 seconds (95% CI 6:25–6:43). One year after the start of the project, processing time was five minutes and 20 seconds (95% CI 1:46–8:52). PMID:26734448

  4. Second-generation HIV surveillance: better data for decision-making.

    PubMed Central

    Rehle, Thomas; Lazzari, Stefano; Dallabetta, Gina; Asamoah-Odei, Emil

    2004-01-01

    This paper seeks to outline the key elements of the expanded surveillance efforts recommended by the second-generation HIV surveillance approach. Second-generation systems focus on improving and expanding existing surveillance methods and combine them in ways that have the greatest explanatory power. The main elements of this approach include: considering biological surveillance - HIV, AIDS, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) - and behavioural surveillance as integral components, targeting surveillance efforts at segments of the population where most new infections are concentrated - which might differ depending on the stage and type of the epidemic - and providing the rationale for the optimal use of data generated for monitoring the HIV epidemic and evaluating national AIDS control programmes. The paper emphasizes improvements in existing surveillance methodologies and discusses in detail crucial issues such as the validity of HIV prevalence data measured in pregnant women and linking HIV surveillance and behavioural data collection. In addition, a strategic partnership between second-generation surveillance and AIDS programme evaluation is proposed that stresses the complementary roles of these data collection activities in determining the effectiveness of prevention and care programmes and explaining the epidemiological trend data collected by sentinel serosurveillance systems. In conclusion, second-generation HIV surveillance systems provide a comprehensive, cost-effective and appropriate response to the information needs of AIDS control programmes. The implementation of such systems, including a better use of the data generated by the system, will ensure that national programmes are in the best possible position to respond to the challenges of the epidemic. PMID:15042234

  5. A low-cost, sustainable, second generation system for surveillance of people living with HIV in Spain: 10-year trends in behavioural and clinical indicators, 2002 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Diez, M; Diaz, A; Garriga, C; Pons, M; Ten, A; Marcos, H; Gutierrez, G; Moreno, S; Gonzalez-Garcia, J; Barrios, Am; Arponen, S; Garcia, Mt; Royo, Mc; Toledo, J; Gonzalez, G; Aranguren, R; Izquierdo, A; Viloria, Lj; Elizalde, L; Martinez, E; Castrillejo, D; Lopez, I; Redondo, C; Cano, A; The Hospital Survey Study Group, C

    2014-01-01

    A second-generation surveillance system of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been implemented in Spain. Behavioural and clinical data were collected between 2002 and 2011 through an annual one-day, cross-sectional survey in public hospitals, including all in- and outpatients receiving HIVrelated care on the survey day. Mean age increased over time (from 38.7 years in 2002 to 43.8 years in 2011) and 68.4% of the 7,205 subjects were male. The proportion of migrants increased from 6.1% to 15.9%, while people who inject or used to inject drugs (PWID and Ex-PWID) decreased and men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexuals increased. Unprotected intercourse at last sex increased among MSM and PWID/Ex-PWID. Patients receiving antiretroviral treatment increased significantly from 76.0% to 88.2% as did those with CD4 T-cell counts ≥350 (from 48.2% to 66.9%) and viral copies <200 (from 47.0% to 85.2%). HIV-infected people with hepatitis C virus RNA decreased from 36.0% in 2004 to 29.9% in 2011, while those with HBsAg remained stable at around 4.4%. Implementation of a low-cost, sustainable system for second-generation surveillance in people living with HIV is feasible. In Spain, the information obtained has helped to define and refine public health policy and document treatment effectiveness. PMID:24871758

  6. Shifting the Paradigm: Using HIV Surveillance Data as a Foundation for Improving HIV Care and Preventing HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Patricia; Gardner, Lytt I; Buchacz, Kate; Garland, Pamela Morse; Mugavero, Michael J; Bosshart, Jeffrey T; Shouse, R Luke; Bertolli, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Context Reducing HIV incidence in the United States and improving health outcomes for people living with HIV hinge on improving access to highly effective treatment and overcoming barriers to continuous treatment. Using laboratory tests routinely reported for HIV surveillance to monitor individuals’ receipt of HIV care and contacting them to facilitate optimal care could help achieve these objectives. Historically, surveillance-based public health intervention with individuals for HIV control has been controversial because of concerns that risks to privacy and autonomy could outweigh benefits. But with the availability of lifesaving, transmission-interrupting treatment for HIV infection, some health departments have begun surveillance-based outreach to facilitate HIV medical care. Methods Guided by ethics frameworks, we explored the ethical arguments for changing the uses of HIV surveillance data. To identify ethical, procedural, and strategic considerations, we reviewed the activities of health departments that are using HIV surveillance data to contact persons identified as needing assistance with initiating or returning to care. Findings Although privacy concerns surrounding the uses of HIV surveillance data still exist, there are ethical concerns associated with not using HIV surveillance to maximize the benefits from HIV medical care and treatment. Early efforts to use surveillance data to facilitate optimal HIV medical care illustrate how the ethical burdens may vary depending on the local context and the specifics of implementation. Health departments laid the foundation for these activities by engaging stakeholders to gain their trust in sharing sensitive information; establishing or strengthening legal, policy and governance infrastructure; and developing communication and follow-up protocols that protect privacy. Conclusions We describe a shift toward using HIV surveillance to facilitate optimal HIV care. Health departments should review the

  7. Improving HIV Surveillance Among Transgender Populations in Tennessee

    PubMed Central

    Rebeiro, Peter F.; McGoy, Shanell L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: HIV prevalence and outcome disparities among sexual and gender minorities are profound in the United States. Tennessee HIV surveillance practices have not been uniform for transgender status, although data collection capabilities exist. We, therefore, describe current reporting of data on transgender individuals in Tennessee to identify targets for improvement. Methods: Data for all HIV-diagnosed individuals living in Tennessee as of December 31, 2013, were extracted from the Enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System (eHARS). The birth_sex (“Male” or “Female”) and current_gender (“Male,” “Female,” “Male-to-Female,” “Female-to-Male,” or “Additional Gender Identity”) variables were examined, and proportion missing current_gender data by region was ascertained. Transgender individuals were defined as having different birth_sex and current_gender values. To ensure the protection of health information, data were cleaned, deidentified, and aggregated using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS) Version 9.3 (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC). Results: Among 16,063 HIV-diagnosed individuals in Tennessee, 27 were transgender: 52% (n = 14) with “Male-to-Female,” 26% (n = 7) with “Female,” and 22% (n = 6) with “Male” as their current_gender values. Proportions missing current_gender differed significantly by region across Tennessee (global, P < 0.01). Conclusion: While HIV-positive transgender individuals should be recognized as integral members of the LGBT community, they should also be acknowledged as a separate subgroup when appropriate. Collecting information about current self-identified gender identity should no longer be optional in Tennessee HIV surveillance. Although making efforts to collect both birth_sex and current_gender mandatory with each interview will improve surveillance, it is critical to train all staff properly on the correct way to inquire about gender identity in a culturally sensitive manner

  8. Mortar launched surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Carl E.; Carlton, Lindley A.

    2001-02-01

    Accurate Automation Corporation has completed the conceptual design of a mortar launched air vehicle system to perform close range or over-the-horizon surveillance missions. Law enforcement and military units require an organic capability to obtain real time intelligence information of time critical targets. Our design will permit law enforcement to detect, classify, locate and track these time critical targets. The surveillance system is a simple, unmanned fixed-winged aircraft deployed via a conventional mortar tube. The aircraft's flight surfaces are deployed following mortar launch to permit maximum range and time over target. The aircraft and sensor system are field retrievable. The aircraft can be configured with an engine to permit extended time over target or range. The aircraft has an integrated surveillance sensor system; a programmable CMOS sensor array. The integrated RF transmitted to capable of down- linking real-time video over line-of-sight distances exceeding 10 kilometers. The major benefit of the modular design is the ability to provide surveillance or tracking quickly at a low cost. Vehicle operational radius and sensor field coverage as well as design trade results of vehicle range and endurance performance and payload capacity at operational range are presented for various mortar configurations.

  9. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir New ... Minority Data Released! The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors ...

  10. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  11. Systems for persistent surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Keith

    2011-09-01

    The requirements for a persistent wide-area surveillance system are discussed in the context of evolving military operations. Significant emphasis has been placed on the development of new sensing technologies to meet the challenges posed by asymmetric threats. Within the UK, the Electro-Magnetic Remote Sensing Defence Technology Centre (EMRS DTC) has supported the research and development of new capabilities including radio-frequency (RF) and electro-optic (EO) systems, as well as work on sensor exploitation, with a goal of developing solutions for enhancing situational awareness. This activity has been supported by field trials to determine the efficacy of competing technologies in relation to realistic threat scenarios.

  12. HIV Surveillance and Epidemic Profile in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Shawky, Sherine; Soliman, Cherif; Kassak, Kassem M.; Oraby, Doaa; El-Khoury, Danielle; Kabore, Inoussa

    2011-01-01

    Summary HIV infection is the most devastating infection that has emerged in the recent history. The risk of being infected can be associated with both individual’s knowledge and behavior and community vulnerability influenced by cultural norms, laws, politics, and social practices. Despite that the countries in the Middle East and North Africa have succeeded in keeping low the HIV epidemic rates, the number of identified infected cases are increasing. Since the appearance of the first AIDS cases, all the national authorities devoted their efforts to abort the epidemic in its early stages. The rate of new HIV infections across the Middle East and North Africa region are not at an alarming level, but the need for a concerted effort from nation-states and nongovernmental organizations to stem the spread of the virus across the region is vital. Most countries of the region have put in place better information systems to track the HIV epidemic, yet the passive HIV/AIDS reporting remains the cornerstone in the HIV surveillance systems. Several countries still believe that their current strategies are optimal to the HIV status within their territories and that their national strategies are appropriate to their low epidemic status that is not expected to grow. Additionally, these countries fear that establishing an HIV national program to survey risk behaviors may be perceived as an approval of these behaviors that are culturally and religiously unacceptable. This background article aims to summarize the HIV surveillance strategies and epidemic profile in 17 Arab countries in the Middle East and North Africa. The article, also, displays the national surveillance system and the epidemic profile in Egypt and Lebanon as models for the region. This information aims to provide useful insights that may help the national authorities in finding out the best surveillance strategies that allow merging and collecting biological and risk data which is an integral part of their

  13. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  14. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    An effective public safety sensor system for heavily-populated applications requires sophisticated and geographically-distributed infrastructures, centralized supervision, and deployment of large-scale security and surveillance networks. Artificial intelligence in sensor systems is a critical design to raise awareness levels, improve the performance of the system and adapt to a changing scenario and environment. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energy-efficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide a 24/7 and all weather security operation in crowded environments or restricted areas. Technically, the S4 consists of a number of distributed sensor nodes integrated with specific passive sensors to rapidly collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data from near omni-directions. These distributed sensor nodes can cooperatively work to send immediate security information when new objects appear. When the new objects are detected, the S4 will smartly select the available node with a Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR camera to track the objects and capture associated imagery. The S4 provides applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. Other imaging processes can be updated to meet specific requirements and operations. In the S4, all the sensor nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology. This UWB RF technology can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The Service Oriented Architecture of S4 enables remote applications to interact with the S4

  15. Ten-year trends in HIV prevalence among visitors to public health centers under the National HIV Surveillance System in Korea, 2000 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Korea saw a sharp increase in HIV diagnosis from 2000. This serious public health concern must be monitored diligently. We identified the characteristics and trends in HIV prevalence among visitors to public health centers (PHCs) from 2000 to 2009. Methods We retrieved ten-year data of HIV tests from 253 PHCs. The HIV prevalence was analyzed by gender, age, nationality, region, and reason for HIV testing. Data were analyzed using logistic regression and score test for trend. Results HIV prevalence among PHCs’ visitors has rapidly increased for six years since 2000, decreased from 2006, and then remained stable. Approximately 50% of total HIV tests were performed for sexually transmitted infection risk group (STI RG), who were tested 1.4 times within a year. Women and the 20s comprised approximately 70% and 40% of PHCs’ visitors, respectively. The prevalence of voluntary test takers was the highest and showed most rapid increase (P = 0.007), but that of prisoners declined (P = 0.003). The prevalence of STI RG was lower than those of the other groups and remained stable throughout the ten-year period (P = 0.606). Percentage of anonymous tests was 2–3% of a total HIV tests, but overall HIV-positive rate showed a rapid increase (P < 0.001). Conclusions As voluntary or anonymous testing groups are actively engaged in learning their status of HIV, these groups showed the highest in HIV infection. Groups in the population with these characteristics should be located and encouraged to be tested, and offered anonymity. This study suggests that it is important to ascertain the characteristics of people choosing to take voluntary testing. PMID:23020818

  16. PEDIATRIC NUTRITION SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (PEDNSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS) is a program-based surveillance system designed to monitor the growth, anemia, and breast-feeding status of low-income U.S. children who participate in federally funded maternal and child health nutritional programs. The system...

  17. Spatio-temporal modelling of the HIV epidemic in Japan based on the national HIV/AIDS surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaya, Tomoki; Nakase, Katsumi; Osaka, Ken

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, we develop a multiregion epidemic model in order to provide the basic information on local HIV epidemic states in Japan. By considering the previous efforts of national epidemic projections in Japan, we statistically calibrate a model by employing an estimation method that allows the inclusion of geographically varying parameters. Using this model, we present a geographical projection of local epidemics until 2015 by examining geographical variations in future epidemic growth and spatial relationships in HIV transmission. We also discuss the implications of planning preventive measures and improvement in the Japanese HIV/AIDS surveillance system based on analytical results.

  18. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded

  19. Adjusting HIV prevalence estimates for non-participation: an application to demographic surveillance

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Mark E.; Marra, Giampiero; Radice, Rosalba; Canning, David; Newell, Marie-Louise; Bärnighausen, Till

    2015-01-01

    participated in testing, and 18% estimated with imputation. We provide new confidence intervals that correct for the fact that the relationship between testing and HIV status is unknown and requires estimation. Conclusions We confirm the feasibility and value of adopting selection models to account for missing data in population-based HIV surveys and surveillance systems. Elements of survey design, such as interviewer identity, present the opportunity to adopt this approach in routine applications. Where non-participation is high, true confidence intervals are much wider than those generated by standard approaches to dealing with missing data suggest. PMID:26613900

  20. PREGNANCY NUTRITION SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (PNSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System (PNSS) is a program based surveillance system developed in order to assist health professionals in achieving of the goals of identifying and reducing pregnancy-related health risks that contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Its purp...

  1. HIV and STI behavioural surveillance among men who have sex with men in Europe.

    PubMed

    Elford, J; Jeannin, A; Spencer, B; Gervasoni, J P; van de Laar, M J; Dubois-Arber, F

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes behavioural surveillance for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Europe, focusing on the methods and indicators used. In August 2008, questionnaires were sent to European Union Member States and European Free Trade Association countries seeking information on behavioural surveillance activities among eight population groups including MSM. Thirty-one countries were invited to take part in the survey and 27 returned a questionnaire on MSM. Of these 27 countries, 14 reported that there was a system of behavioural surveillance among MSM in their country while another four countries had conducted behavioural surveys of some kind in this subpopulation. In the absence of a sampling frame, all European countries used convenience samples for behavioural surveillance among MSM. Most European countries used the Internet for recruiting and surveying MSM for behavioural surveillance reflecting increasing use of the Internet by MSM for meeting sexual partners. While there was a general consensus about the main behavioural indicators (unprotected anal intercourse, condom use, number of partners, HIV testing), there was considerable diversity between countries in the specific indicators used. We suggest that European countries reach an agreement on a core set of indicators. In addition we recommend that the process of harmonising HIV and STI behavioural surveillance among MSM in Europe continues. PMID:19941807

  2. NATIONAL ELECTRONIC DISEASE SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (NEDSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS) project is a public health initiative to provide a standard-based, integrated approach to disease surveillance and to connect public health surveillance to the burgeoning clinical information systems infrastructure. NEDS...

  3. Assessment of an outreach street-based HIV rapid testing programme as a strategy to promote early diagnosis: a comparison with two surveillance systems in Spain, 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Belza, M J; Hoyos, J; Fernández-Balbuena, S; Diaz, A; Bravo, M J; de la Fuente, L

    2015-01-01

    We assess the added value of a multisite, street-based HIV rapid testing programme by comparing its results to pre-existing services and assessing its potential to reduce ongoing transmission. Between 2008 and 2011, 8,923 individuals underwent testing. We compare outcomes with those of a network of 20 sexually transmitted infections (STI)/HIV clinics (EPI-VIH) and the Spanish National HIV Surveillance System (SNHSS); evaluate whether good visibility prompts testing and assess whether it reaches under-tested populations. 89.2% of the new infections were in men who have sex with men (MSM) vs 78.0% in EPI-VIH and 56.0% in SNHSS. 83.6% of the MSM were linked to care and 20.9% had <350 CD4 HIV prevalence was substantially lower than in EPI-VIH. 56.5% of the HIV-positive MSM tested because they happened to see the programme, 18.4% were previously untested and 26.3% had their last test ≥2 years ago. The programme provided linkage to care and early diagnosis mainly to MSM but attendees presented a lower HIV prevalence than EPI-VIH. From a cost perspective it would benefit from being implemented in locations highly frequented by MSM. Conversely, its good visibility led to reduced periods of undiagnosed infection in a high proportion of MSM who were not testing with the recommended frequency. PMID:25884149

  4. HIV infection surveillance in Mogadishu, Somalia.

    PubMed

    Burans, J P; Fox, E; Omar, M A; Farah, A H; Abbass, S; Yusef, S; Guled, A; Mansour, M; Abu-Elyazeed, R; Woody, J N

    1990-07-01

    A group of 89 prostitutes and 45 patients attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in Mogadishu, Somalia were examined for evidence of HIV infection. Both groups reported more than 1 sexual partner routinely and had sexual contacts with prostitutes. There was a significant amount of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in these two groups, with 11.2% and 6.7% respectively being culture positive for N. gonorrhoea. Among the prostitutes, 28.1% were positive for antibodies to T. pallidum while only 4.4% of the STD patients were positive. One isolate of N. gonorrhoea was resistant to penicillin. All study participants were negative for antibodies to HIV suggesting an extremely low prevalence of HIV in high risk behaviour groups in the capital city of Somalia. PMID:2226225

  5. Estimating HIV Incidence, Time to Diagnosis, and the Undiagnosed HIV Epidemic Using Routine Surveillance Data

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Fumiyo; De Angelis, Daniela; Quinten, Chantal; Bezemer, Daniela; de Coul, Eline Op; Egger, Matthias; de Wolf, Frank; Fraser, Christophe; Phillips, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background: Estimates of the size of the undiagnosed HIV-infected population are important to understand the HIV epidemic and to plan interventions, including “test-and-treat” strategies. Methods: We developed a multi-state back-calculation model to estimate HIV incidence, time between infection and diagnosis, and the undiagnosed population by CD4 count strata, using surveillance data on new HIV and AIDS diagnoses. The HIV incidence curve was modelled using cubic splines. The model was tested on simulated data and applied to surveillance data on men who have sex with men in The Netherlands. Results: The number of HIV infections could be estimated accurately using simulated data, with most values within the 95% confidence intervals of model predictions. When applying the model to Dutch surveillance data, 15,400 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 15,000, 16,000) men who have sex with men were estimated to have been infected between 1980 and 2011. HIV incidence showed a bimodal distribution, with peaks around 1985 and 2005 and a decline in recent years. Mean time to diagnosis was 6.1 (95% CI = 5.8, 6.4) years between 1984 and 1995 and decreased to 2.6 (2.3, 3.0) years in 2011. By the end of 2011, 11,500 (11,000, 12,000) men who have sex with men in The Netherlands were estimated to be living with HIV, of whom 1,750 (1,450, 2,200) were still undiagnosed. Of the undiagnosed men who have sex with men, 29% (22, 37) were infected for less than 1 year, and 16% (13, 20) for more than 5 years. Conclusions: This multi-state back-calculation model will be useful to estimate HIV incidence, time to diagnosis, and the undiagnosed HIV epidemic based on routine surveillance data. PMID:26214334

  6. The Development of Surveillance Systems.

    PubMed

    Henderson, D A

    2016-03-01

    Surveillance systems in public health practice have increased in number and sophistication with advances in data collection, analysis, and communication. When the Communicable Disease Center (now the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) was founded some 70 years ago, surveillance referred to the close observation of individuals with suspected smallpox, plague, or cholera. Alexander Langmuir, head of the Epidemiology Branch, redefined surveillance as the epidemiology-based critical factor in infectious disease control. I joined Langmuir as assistant chief in 1955 and was appointed chief of the Surveillance Section in 1961. In this paper, I describe Langmuir's redefinition of surveillance. Langmuir asserted that its proper use in public health meant the systematic reporting of infectious diseases, the analysis and epidemiologic interpretation of data, and both prompt and widespread dissemination of results. I outline the Communicable Disease Center's first surveillance systems for malaria, poliomyelitis, and influenza. I also discuss the role of surveillance in the global smallpox eradication program, emphasizing that the establishment of systematic reporting systems and prompt action based on results were critical factors of the program. PMID:26928219

  7. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance System presents statistics and trends for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Data demonstrate details which provide information about STD morbidity in the United States, STD prevalence with subgroups and populations which are the f...

  8. [AIDS/HIV epidemiological surveillance in Navarra].

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    The incidence of AIDS in the European Union has been declining since 1996 as a result, at least in part, of the use of more efficient treatments for HIV infection. The same tendency can be observed in Navarra. In 1998 the incidence of AIDS in Navarra, 75 cases per million inhabitants, was situated at an intermediate level in the ranking of Spanish autonomous communities. In the same year, the highest rates of incidence in Europe were recorded in Spain (93.3 cases per million inhabitants) and Portugal (81.8), and the lowest in Ireland and Finland, with less than 5 cases per million inhabitants. With respect to the incidence of HIV infection, 2,240 cases were diagnosed in Navarra between 1985 and December 1998. The available data indicate that at least 1,864 of these cases were resident in Navarra. The annual number of new diagnoses of HIV infection show two high points in the years 1987 and 1991, with over 200 annual cases. From 1993 onwards, a progressive decline can be observed in the annual number, with 171, 145, 19, 86 and 63 cases in the final year, 1998. The figure of over 2,000 cases of HIV infection contrast with the 694 cases of AIDS registered in this autonomous community in the same period and help to resituate the epidemic in more accurate terms. The development of AIDS in 40% of the persons with HIV infection and the death of 26% have been confirmed, although lethality has been declining in recent years. The use of intravenous drugs in 73.2% of the AIDS cases is the most frequent category of transmission. 13.4% are due to transmission by heterosexual contact and 6.1% to homosexual practices between males. Although the cases of AIDS have been declining in Navarra since 1996, the data from the microbiology laboratories and from the hospital services that treat persons with HIV infection indicate that a considerable number of new infections will continue to occur, which justifies the need for maintaining the prevention programs in order to avoid new cases

  9. The Surveyor Mobile Surveillance System

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    This paper reports that KLM Technologies, Inc. delivered the Surveyor Mobile Surveillance System to Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (NMPC) in May 1986 for a long-term test and evaluation program at the Nine Mile Point Nuclear Plant. NMPC is leasing the Surveyor, and KLM personnel will be providing training and support during the test and evaluation program, which will cover various surveillance, inspection, and possible light maintenance tasks in high radiation and contamination areas of the plant. Prior to delivery to NMPC, the surveyor was demonstrated at Detroit Edison Company's Fermi II Nuclear Plant where it was judged to be rugged, compact, and easy to use for surveillance and inspection tasks.

  10. Estimating the Cost to U.S. Health Departments to Conduct HIV Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Sansom, Stephanie L.; Laffoon, Benjamin T.; Farnham, Paul G.; Shouse, R. Luke; MacMaster, Karen; Hall, H. Irene

    2014-01-01

    Objectives HIV case surveillance is a primary source of information for monitoring HIV burden in the United States and guiding the allocation of prevention and treatment funds. While the number of people living with HIV and the need for surveillance data have increased, little is known about the cost of surveillance. We estimated the economic cost to health departments of conducting high-quality HIV case surveillance. Methods We collected primary data on the unit cost and quantity of resources used to operate the HIV case surveillance program in Michigan, where HIV burden (i.e., the number of HIV cases) is moderate to high (n=14,864 cases). Based on Michigan's data, we projected the expected annual HIV surveillance cost for U.S., state, local, and territorial health departments. We based our cost projection on the variation in the number of new and established cases, area-specific wages, and potential economies of scale. Results We estimated the annual total HIV surveillance cost to the Michigan health department to be $1,286,524 ($87/case), the annual total cost of new cases to be $108,657 ($133/case), and the annual total cost of established cases to be $1,177,867 ($84/case). Our projected median annual HIV surveillance cost per health department ranged from $210,600 in low-HIV burden sites to $1,835,000 in high-HIV burden sites. Conclusions Our analysis shows that a systematic approach to costing HIV surveillance at the health department level is feasible. For HIV surveillance, a substantial portion of total surveillance costs is attributable to maintaining established cases. PMID:25364051

  11. How many people are living with undiagnosed HIV infection? An estimate for Italy, based on surveillance data

    PubMed Central

    Mammone, Alessia; Pezzotti, Patrizio; Regine, Vincenza; Camoni, Laura; Puro, Vincenzo; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Suligoi, Barbara; Girardi, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the size and characteristics of the undiagnosed HIV population in Italy in 2012 applying a method that does not require surveillance data from the beginning of the HIV epidemic. Methods: We adapted the method known as ‘London method 2’; the undiagnosed population is estimated as the ratio between the estimated annual number of simultaneous HIV/clinical AIDS diagnoses and the expected annual progression rate to clinical AIDS in the undiagnosed HIV population; the latter is estimated using the CD4+ cell count distribution of asymptomatic patients reported to surveillance. Under-reporting/ascertainment of new diagnoses was also considered. Also, the total number of people living with HIV was estimated. Results: The undiagnosed HIV population in 2012 was 13 729 (95% confidence interval: 12 152–15 592), 15 102 (13 366–17 151) and 16 475 (14 581–18 710), assuming no under-reporting/ascertainment, 10 and 20% of under-reporting/ascertainment, respectively. The percentage of undiagnosed cases was higher among HIV people aged below 25 years (25–28%), MSM (16–19%) and people born abroad (16–19%), whereas it was small among injection drug users (3%). Conclusion: The estimate of people in Italy with undiagnosed HIV in 2012 was in a plausible range of 12 000–18 000 cases, corresponding to 11–13% of the overall prevalence. The method is straightforward to implement only requiring annual information from the HIV surveillance system about CD4+ cell count and clinical stage at HIV diagnosis. Thus, it could be used to monitor if a certain prevention initiative lead to the reduction of the undiagnosed HIV population over time. It can also be easily implemented in other countries collecting the same basic information from the HIV surveillance system. PMID:26807973

  12. The social dynamics of consent and refusal in HIV surveillance in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Lindsey; Cousins, Thomas; Newell, Marie-Louise; Imrie, John

    2013-01-01

    In the context of low rates of participation in a prospective, population-based HIV surveillance programme, researchers at a surveillance site in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, conducted an operational study from January 2009 to February 2010, with the aim of improving participation rates, particularly in the provision of dried blood spots for the surveillance. Findings suggest, firstly, that consent to participation in the HIV surveillance is informed by the dynamics of relationality in the HIV surveillance “consent encounter.” Secondly, it emerged that both fieldworkers and participants found it difficult to differentiate between HIV surveillance and HIV testing in the surveillance procedure, and tended to understand and explain giving blood under the aegis of the surveillance as an HIV test. The conflation of surveillance and testing, we argue, is not merely a semantic confusion, but reveals an important tension inherent to global health research between individual risks and benefits and collective good, or between private morality and public good. Because of these structural tensions, we suggest, the HIV surveillance consent encounter activates multiple gift economies in the collection of blood samples. Thinking beyond the complex ethical dimensions provoked by new forms of long-term surveillance and health research, we therefore suggest that deepening relations between scientists, fieldworkers, and study participants in locality deserve more careful methodological consideration and descriptive attention. PMID:23219165

  13. SETI radio spectrum surveillance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, B.; Lokshin, A.; Marina, M.; Ching, L.

    1985-01-01

    The SETI Radio Spectrum Surveillance System (SRSSS) will provide a data base for assessing the radio frequency interference (RFI) environment for SETI and minimizing RFI disruptions during the search. The system's hardware and software are described and the sensitivity of the system is discussed.

  14. Relationship between a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expanded HIV testing initiative and past-year testing by race/ethnicity: a multilevel analysis of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Tommi L; Caldwell, Julia T; Ford, Chandra L; Mulatu, Mesfin S; Godette, Dionne C

    2016-05-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) expanded testing initiative (ETI) aims to bolster HIV testing among populations disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic by providing additional funding to health departments serving these communities. ETI prioritizes testing in clinical settings; therefore, we examined the relationship between state-level ETI participation and past-year HIV testing among a racially/ethnically diverse sample of adult respondents to the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System who accessed health services within the 12 months prior to being interviewed. Controlling for individual- and state-level characteristics in a multilevel logistic regression model, ETI participation was independently and positively associated with past-year testing, but this association varied by race/ethnicity. Hispanics had higher odds (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.11-2.02) and American Indian/Alaska Natives had lower odds (AOR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.43-0.99) of testing if they resided in states with (vs. without) ETI participation. State-level ETI participation did not significantly alter past-year testing among other racial/ethnic groups. Prioritizing public health resources in states most affected by HIV can improve testing patterns, but other mechanisms likely influence which racial/ethnic groups undergo testing. PMID:27045327

  15. Relationship between a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expanded HIV testing initiative and past-year testing by race/ethnicity: a multilevel analysis of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Tommi L.; Caldwell, Julia T.; Ford, Chandra L.; Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Godette, Dionne C.

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) expanded testing initiative (ETI) aims to bolster HIV testing among populations disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic by providing additional funding to health departments serving these communities. ETI prioritizes testing in clinical settings; therefore, we examined the relationship between state-level ETI participation and past-year HIV testing among a racially/ethnically diverse sample of adult respondents to the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System who accessed health services within the 12 months prior to being interviewed. Controlling for individual- and state-level characteristics in a multilevel logistic regression model, ETI participation was independently and positively associated with past-year testing, but this association varied by race/ethnicity. Hispanics had higher odds (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.11–2.02) and American Indian/Alaska Natives had lower odds (AOR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.43–0.99) of testing if they resided in states with (vs. without) ETI participation. State-level ETI participation did not significantly alter past-year testing among other racial/ethnic groups. Prioritizing public health resources in states most affected by HIV can improve testing patterns, but other mechanisms likely influence which racial/ethnic groups undergo testing. PMID:27045327

  16. Mortar-launched surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Carl E.; Cooper, Steve; Carlton, Lindley A.

    2001-09-01

    Accurate Automation Corporation has completed the conceptual design of a mortar launched air vehicle system to perform close range or over-the-horizon surveillance missions. Law enforcement and military units require an organic capability to obtain real time intelligence information of time critical targets. Our design will permit law enforcement to detect, classify, locate and track these time critical targets. The surveillance system is a simple, unmanned fixed-winged aircraft deployed via a conventional mortar tube. The aircraft's flight surfaces are deployed following mortar launch to permit maximum range and time over target. The aircraft and sensor system are field retrievable. The aircraft can be configured with an engine to permit extended time over target or range. The aircraft has an integrated surveillance sensor system; a programmable CMOS sensor array. The integrated RF transmitter is capable of down- linking real-time video over line-of-sight distances exceeding 10 kilometers. The major benefit of the modular design is the ability to provide surveillance or tracking quickly at a low cost. Vehicle operational radius and sensor field coverage as well as design trade results of vehicle range and endurance performance and payload capacity at operational range are presented for various mortar configurations.

  17. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZA DISEASES SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Haemophilus Influenzae System at NIP compiles information on all U.S. Haemophilus influenzae invasive disease cases reported to CDC via NETSS since 1991 (managed by EPO and NIP), or via active surveillance in several locales since 1989 (managed by NCIP). Information collected...

  18. Strengthening HIV surveillance: measurements to track the epidemic in real time.

    PubMed

    Buthelezi, Usangiphile E; Davidson, Candace L; Kharsany, Ayesha Bm

    2016-07-01

    Surveillance for HIV as a public health initiative requires timely, detailed and robust data to systematically understand burden of infection, transmission patterns, direct prevention efforts, guide funding, identify new infections and predict future trends in the epidemic. The methods for HIV surveillance have evolved to reliably track the epidemic and identify new infections in real time. Initially HIV surveillance relied primarily on the reporting of AIDS cases followed by measuring antibodies to HIV to determine prevalence in key populations. With the roll-out of antiretroviral therapy (ART) resulting in better survival and the corresponding increase in HIV prevalence, the landscape of surveillance shifted further to track HIV prevalence and incidence within the context of programmes. Recent developments in laboratory assays that potentially measure and differentiate recent versus established HIV infection offer a cost-effective method for the rapid estimation of HIV incidence. These tests continue to be validated and are increasingly useful in informing the status of the epidemic in real time. Surveillance of heterogeneity of infections contributing to sub-epidemics requires methods to identify affected populations, density, key geographical locations and phylogenetically linked or clustered infections. Such methods could provide a nuanced understanding of the epidemic and prioritise prevention efforts to those most vulnerable. This paper brings together recent developments and challenges facing HIV surveillance, together with the application of newer assays and methods to fast-track the HIV prevention and treatment response. PMID:27399039

  19. Trends in web-based HIV behavioural surveillance among gay and bisexual men in New Zealand: complementing location-based surveillance.

    PubMed

    Saxton, Peter J W; Dickson, Nigel P; Hughes, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Most HIV behavioural surveillance programmes for gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) sample from location-based (offline) or web-based (online) populations, but few combine these two streams. MSM sampled online have been found to differ demographically and behaviourally from those sampled offline, meaning trends identified in one system may not hold for the other. The aim was to examine trends among MSM responding to supplementary repeat online behavioural surveillance surveys who had not participated in offline surveillance earlier that year in the same city, to see whether trends were parallel, converged or diverged. We recruited a total of 1613 MSM from an Internet dating site in Auckland, New Zealand in 2006, 2008 and 2011 using identical questionnaires and eligibility criteria to offline surveillance. Condom use was stable over time, HIV testing rates rose, the proportion reporting over 20 recent male partners declined, and anal intercourse rates increased, consistent with trends in offline surveillance conducted concomitantly and reported elsewhere. Variant trends included greater stability in condom use with casual partners among online-recruited MSM, and a rise in regular fuckbuddy partnering not identified among offline-recruited MSM. Among MSM recruited online, the frequency of checking Internet dating profiles increased between 2008 and 2011. In conclusion, supplementary web-based behavioural surveillance among MSM generally corroborates trends identified in offline surveillance. There are however some divergent trends, that would have been overlooked if only one form of surveillance had been conducted. As MSM populations increasingly shift their socialising patterns online and diversify, multiple forms of HIV behavioural monitoring may be required. PMID:25599259

  20. Excess Burden of Depression among HIV-Infected Persons Receiving Medical Care in the United States: Data from the Medical Monitoring Project and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Do, Ann N.; Rosenberg, Eli S.; Sullivan, Patrick S.; Beer, Linda; Strine, Tara W.; Schulden, Jeffrey D.; Fagan, Jennifer L.; Freedman, Mark S.; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Background With increased life expectancy for HIV-infected persons, there is concern regarding comorbid depression because of its common occurrence and association with behaviors that may facilitate HIV transmission. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of current depression among HIV-infected persons receiving care and assess the burden of major depression, relative to that in the general population. Methods and Findings We used data from the Medical Monitoring Project (MMP) and the Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS). The eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire was used to identify depression. To assess the burden of major depression among HIV-infected persons receiving care, we compared the prevalence of current major depression between the MMP and BRFSS populations using stratified analyses that simultaneously controlled for gender and, in turn, each of the potentially confounding demographic factors of age, race/ethnicity, education, and income. Each unadjusted comparison was summarized as a prevalence ratio (PR), and each of the adjusted comparisons was summarized as a standardized prevalence ratio (SPR). Among HIV-infected persons receiving care, the prevalence of a current episode of major depression and other depression, respectively, was 12.4% (95% CI: 11.2, 13.7) and 13.2% (95% CI: 12.0%, 14.4%). Overall, the PR comparing the prevalence of current major depression between HIV-infected persons receiving care and the general population was 3.1. When controlling for gender and each of the factors age, race/ethnicity, and education, the SPR (3.3, 3.0, and 2.9, respectively) was similar to the PR. However, when controlling for gender and annual household income, the SPR decreased to 1.5. Conclusions Depression remains a common comorbidity among HIV-infected persons. The overall excess burden among HIV-infected persons receiving care is about three-times that among the general population and is associated with differences in annual

  1. Industrial process surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.; Singer, R.M.; Mott, J.E.

    1998-06-09

    A system and method are disclosed for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy. 96 figs.

  2. Industrial Process Surveillance System

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W; Singer, Ralph M.; Mott, Jack E.

    2001-01-30

    A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

  3. Industrial process surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Singer, Ralph M.; Mott, Jack E.

    1998-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

  4. Who is omitted from repeated offline HIV behavioural surveillance among MSM? Implications for interpreting trends.

    PubMed

    Saxton, Peter; Dickson, Nigel; Hughes, Anthony

    2013-11-01

    Repeated behavioural surveillance should sample all epidemiologically relevant subgroups to provide a complete picture of trends in HIV risk behaviours. Web-based recruitment has been mooted but little empirical data exist on country experiences. We describe who is omitted from three rounds of a conventional offline-only surveillance programme among men who have sex with men (MSM) 2006-2011, but recruited subsequently on Internet dating sites, and the implications of this for understanding trends. The latter were younger, less gay identified and less gay community attached. Importantly, they reported different partnering patterns, lower condom use with casual and fuckbuddy-type male partners, and lower rates of HIV testing, compared to MSM routinely captured in offline surveillance. The replacement of offline socio-sexual activity by the Internet among many MSM means that current venue-based surveillance systems may underestimate risk behaviours, overlook trends among unsampled online MSM, and misinterpret trends observed in sampled MSM due to "sample drift" of most-at-risk MSM. PMID:23605157

  5. Comparing HIV prevalence estimates from prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programme and the antenatal HIV surveillance in Addis Ababa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the absence of reliable data, antenatal HIV surveillance has been used to monitor the HIV epidemic since the late 1980s. Currently, routine data from Prevention of Mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programmes are increasingly available. Evaluating whether the PMTCT programme reports provide comparable HIV prevalence estimates with the antenatal surveillance reports is important. In this study, we compared HIV prevalence estimates from routine PMTCT programme and antenatal surveillance in Addis Ababa with the aim to come up with evidence based recommendation. Methods Summary data were collected from PMTCT programmes and antenatal surveillance reports within the catchment of Addis Ababa. The PMTCT programme data were obtained from routine monthly reports from 2004 to 2009 and from published antenatal HIV surveillance reports from 2003 to 2009. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results In Addis Ababa, PMTCT sites had increased from six in 2004 to 54 in 2009. The site expansion was accompanied by an increased number of women testing. There were marked increases in the rate of HIV testing following the introduction of routine opt-out HIV testing approach. Paralleling these increases, the HIV prevalence showed a steady decline from 10.0% in 2004 to 4.5% in 2009. There were five antenatal surveillance sites from 2003 to 2007 in Addis Ababa and they increased to seven by 2009. Four rounds of surveillance data from five sites showed a declining trend in HIV prevalence over the years. The overall antenatal surveillance data also showed that the HIV prevalence among antenatal attendees had declined from 12.4% in 2003 to 5.5% in 2009. The HIV prevalence estimates from PMTCT programme were 6.2% and 4.5% and from antenatal surveillance 6.1 and 5.5% in 2008 and 2009 respectively. Conclusions There were consistent HIV prevalence estimates from PMTCT programme and from antenatal surveillance reports. Both data sources showed a marked decline in

  6. NATIONAL WEST NILE VIRUS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to understand the implications of WN viruses introduction into the United States the Centers of Disease Control and the U.S. Department of Agriculture created a system of active bird surveillance, active mosquito surveillance, enhanced passive veterinary surveillance, an...

  7. Smart HIV testing system.

    PubMed

    El Kateeb, Ali; Law, Peter; Chan, King

    2005-06-01

    The quick HIV testing method called "MiraWell Rapid HIV Test" uses a specialized testing kit to determine whether an individual's blood is contaminated with the HIV virus or not. When a drop of blood is placed on the center of the testing kit, a simple pattern will appear in the middle of the kit to indicate the test status, i.e., positive or negative. This HIV test should be done in a small clinic or in a lab and the test must be conducted by a trained technician. A smart HIV testing system was developed through this research to eliminate the human error that is associated with the use of the quick HIV testing kits. Also, the smart HIV system will improve the testing productivity in comparison to those achieved by the trained technicians. In this research, we have developed a cost-effective system that analyzes the image produced by the HIV kits. We have used a System-On-Chip (SOC) design approach based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology and the Xilinx Virtex SOC chip in building the system's prototype. The system used a CMOS digital camera to capture the image and an FPGA chip to process the captured image and send the testing results to the display unit. The system can be used in small clinics and pharmacies and eliminates the need for trained technicians. The system has been tested successfully and 98% of the tests were correct. PMID:16078623

  8. Comparison of adult HIV prevalence from national population-based surveys and antenatal clinic surveillance in countries with generalised epidemics: implications for calibrating surveillance data

    PubMed Central

    Gouws, E; Mishra, V; Fowler, T B

    2008-01-01

    Background: Estimates of the impact of HIV in countries with generalised epidemics are generally based on antenatal clinic surveillance data collected over time. In an attempt to obtain geographically more representative estimates of HIV prevalence, many countries are now also conducting national population-based surveys in which HIV testing is included. We compare adult HIV prevalence estimates from antenatal clinic surveillance to those from national population-based surveys to assess the implications for calibrating surveillance data. Methods: HIV prevalence estimates derived from fitting prevalence curves to antenatal clinic surveillance data are statistically compared to prevalence from national population-based surveys using data from 26 countries with generalised epidemics for the year in which the survey was conducted. Appropriate transformations are applied to inform the correction factors needed to adjust prevalence in countries where population-based surveys have not been conducted. Results: HIV prevalence derived from antenatal clinic surveillance data generally overestimate population-based survey prevalence by about 20% (95% confidence interval: 10% to 30%) in both urban and rural areas. Conclusions: In countries where national population-based HIV surveys have been conducted, survey estimates of HIV prevalence (adjusted for potential survey biases as appropriate) can be used directly to calibrate antenatal clinic surveillance data. In countries where national HIV surveys have not been conducted, HIV prevalence derived from antenatal clinic surveillance data should be multiplied by about 0.8 to adjust for overestimation. PMID:18647861

  9. Anal Intercourse and HIV Risk Among Low-Income Heterosexual Women: Findings from Chicago HIV Behavioral Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Livak, Britt S; Prachand, Nikhil G; Benbow, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Background: Anal intercourse (AI) is a highly efficient route for HIV transmission and has not been well elucidated among heterosexual (HET) women. Heterosexual women living in impoverished urban areas in the US are at increased risk for HIV acquisition. We aim to describe rates of AI and characteristics associated with AI among heterosexual women at increased risk for HIV acquisition living in Chicago. Methods: The Chicago Department of Public Health conducted a survey of HET during 2007 as part of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System. Venue-based, time-location sampling was used to select participants from venues in high-risk areas (census tracts with concurrently high rates of heterosexual AIDS and household poverty). Eligible participants were interviewed anonymously and offered a HIV test. Results: In total, 407 heterosexual women were interviewed. Seventy-one (17%) women reported having AI in the past 12 months, with 61 of the 71 (86%) reporting unprotected AI. In multivariate analysis, women who engaged in AI were more than three times as likely to have three or more sex partners in the past 12 months (OR=3.27, 95% CI 1.53-6.99). AI was also independently associated with STI diagnosis in the past 12 months (2.13, 95% CI 1.06-4.26), and having sexual intercourse for the first time before the age of 15 years (2.23, 95% CI 1.28-3.89). Conclusion: AI was associated with multiple high risk behaviors including a greater number of sexual partners, STI diagnosis, and earlier age at first sex. The combination of risk factors found to be associated with AI call for new HIV prevention services tailored to the needs of women and young girls living in poverty. PMID:23049662

  10. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Magu Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Magu HDSS).

    PubMed

    Kishamawe, Coleman; Isingo, Raphael; Mtenga, Baltazar; Zaba, Basia; Todd, Jim; Clark, Benjamin; Changalucha, John; Urassa, Mark

    2015-12-01

    The Magu Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Magu HDSS) is part of Kisesa OpenCohort HIV Study located in a rural area of North-Western Tanzania. Since its establishment in 1994, information on pregnancies, births, marriages, migrations and deaths have been monitored and updated between one and three times a year by trained fieldworkers. Other research activities implemented in the cohort include: sero surveys which have been conducted every 2-3 years to collect socioeconomic data, HIV sero status and health knowledge attitude and behaviour in adults aged 15 years or more living in the area; verbal autopsy (VA) interviews conducted to establish cause of death in all deaths encountered in the area; Llnking data collected at health facilities to community-based data; monitoring voluntary counselling and testing (VCT); and assessing uptake of antiretroviral treatment (ART). In addition, within the community, qualitative studies have been conducted to address issues linked to HIV stigma, the perception of ART access and adherence.In 2014, the population was over 35 000 individuals. Magu HDSS has contributed to Tanzanian estimates of fertility and mortality, and is a member of the INDEPTH network. Demographic data for Magu HDSS are available via the INDEPTH Network's Sharing and Accessing Repository (iSHARE) and applications to access HDSS data for collaborative analysis are encouraged. PMID:26403815

  11. National nosocomial infections surveillance system (NNIS): description of surveillance methods.

    PubMed

    Emori, T G; Culver, D H; Horan, T C; Jarvis, W R; White, J W; Olson, D R; Banerjee, S; Edwards, J R; Martone, W J; Gaynes, R P

    1991-02-01

    The National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (NNIS) is an ongoing collaborative surveillance system sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to obtain national data on nosocomial infections. The CDC uses the data that are reported voluntarily by participating hospitals to estimate the magnitude of the nosocomial infection problem in the United States and to monitor trends in infections and risk factors. Hospitals collect data by prospectively monitoring specific groups of patients for infections with the use of protocols called surveillance components. The surveillance components used by the NNIS are hospitalwide, intensive care unit, high-risk nursery, and surgical patient. Detailed information including demographic characteristics, infections and related risk factors, pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibilities, and outcome, is collected on each infected patient. Data on risk factors in the population of patients being monitored are also collected; these permit the calculation of risk-specific rates. An infection risk index, which includes the traditional wound class, is being evaluated as a predictor of the likelihood that an infection will develop after an operation. A major goal of the NNIS is to use surveillance data to develop and evaluate strategies to prevent and control nosocomial infections. The data collected with the use of the surveillance components permit the calculation of risk-specific infection rates, which can be used by individual hospitals as well as national health-care planners to set priorities for their infection control programs and to evaluate the effectiveness of their efforts. The NNIS will continue to evolve in finding more effective and efficient ways to assess the influence of patient risk and changes in the financing of health care on the infection rate. PMID:1850582

  12. Geographical Information Systems for Dengue Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Duncombe, Jennifer; Clements, Archie; Hu, Wenbiao; Weinstein, Philip; Ritchie, Scott; Espino, Fe Esperanza

    2012-01-01

    This review provides details on the role of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in current dengue surveillance systems and focuses on the application of open access GIS technology to emphasize its importance in developing countries, where the dengue burden is greatest. It also advocates for increased international collaboration in transboundary disease surveillance to confront the emerging global challenge of dengue. PMID:22556070

  13. Wireless sensor network for mobile surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dijk, Gert J. A.; Maris, Marinus G.

    2004-11-01

    Guarding safety and security within industrial, commercial and military areas is an important issue nowadays. A specific challenge lies in the design of portable surveillance systems that can be rapidly deployed, installed and easily operated. Conventional surveillance systems typically employ stand alone sensors that transmit their data to a central control station for data-processing. One of the disadvantages of these kinds of systems is that they generate a lot of data that may induce processing or storage problems. Moreover, data from the sensors must be constantly observed and assessed by human operators. In this paper, a surveillance concept based on distributed intelligence in wireless sensor networks is proposed. In this concept, surveillance is automatically performed by means of many small sensing devices including cameras. The requirements for such surveillance systems are investigated. Experiments with a demonstration system were conducted to verify some of the claims made throughout this paper.

  14. Sentinel hospital surveillance of HIV infection in Quebec. Quebec Sentinel Hospital HIV-Seroprevalence Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Alary, M; Joly, J R; Parent, R; Fauvel, M; Dionne, M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the HIV seroprevalence rate in a surrogate sample of the general population in the province of Quebec, using a network of sentinel hospitals. DESIGN: Anonymous unlinked sentinel surveillance study. SETTING: Outpatient surgery units in 19 acute care hospitals throughout Quebec. PARTICIPANTS: All patients attending the outpatient surgery units from November 1990 to October 1992. A total of 61,547 plasma samples were obtained from leftover blood samples collected for cell counts. Fifty samples were excluded because of an insufficient amount of plasma and one because of an indeterminate result. INTERVENTION: HIV antibody testing with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; positive results confirmed with radioimmunoprecipitation assay. OUTCOME MEASURES: HIV antibody status, sex, year of birth and area of residence. RESULTS: The crude seroprevalence rate among the subjects aged 15 years or more was 0.4 per 1000 population (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2 to 0.7) among the women and 3.6 per 1000 population (95% CI 2.8 to 4.4) among the men (p < 0.001). The rate after adjustment for age, sex and geographic distribution of the study population was 2.3 per 1000 population (95% CI 1.9 to 2.7). The seroprevalence rate among the male patients in the City of Montreal was much higher than the rates elsewhere in the province. It increased progressively during each of the four 6-month intervals of the study: 8.1, 8.7, 13.9 and 18.3 per 1000 respectively (chi 2 linear trend = 4.76; p = 0.029). No similar trends were observed outside Montreal for the male patients. There were too few seropositive female patients to draw any solid conclusion. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the possible drawbacks of a nonrandomized sampling scheme, this study suggests that in the male population the HIV seroprevalence rate is increasing in Montreal and is stable in all other areas of the province. The continued surveillance of HIV infection through anonymous unlinked studies is useful to

  15. GLOBAL EMERGING INFECTIONS SURVEILLANCE AND RESPONSE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Department of Defense (DoD) Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP). The DoD Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (DoD-GEIS) partners with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) in the global surv...

  16. Revised surveillance case definition for HIV infection--United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    2014-04-11

    Following extensive consultation and peer review, CDC and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have revised and combined the surveillance case definitions for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection into a single case definition for persons of all ages (i.e., adults and adolescents aged ≥13 years and children aged <13 years). The revisions were made to address multiple issues, the most important of which was the need to adapt to recent changes in diagnostic criteria. Laboratory criteria for defining a confirmed case now accommodate new multitest algorithms, including criteria for differentiating between HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection and for recognizing early HIV infection. A confirmed case can be classified in one of five HIV infection stages (0, 1, 2, 3, or unknown); early infection, recognized by a negative HIV test within 6 months of HIV diagnosis, is classified as stage 0, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is classified as stage 3. Criteria for stage 3 have been simplified by eliminating the need to differentiate between definitive and presumptive diagnoses of opportunistic illnesses. Clinical (nonlaboratory) criteria for defining a case for surveillance purposes have been made more practical by eliminating the requirement for information about laboratory tests. The surveillance case definition is intended primarily for monitoring the HIV infection burden and planning for prevention and care on a population level, not as a basis for clinical decisions for individual patients. CDC and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists recommend that all states and territories conduct case surveillance of HIV infection using this revised surveillance case definition. PMID:24717910

  17. NATIONAL RESPIRATORY AND ENTERIC VIRUS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System is a lab based system which monitors temporal and geographic patterns associated with the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV), respiratory and enteric adenoviruses, and r...

  18. Auditing National HIV Guidelines and Policies: The United Kingdom CD4 Surveillance Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Alison E; Kall, Meaghan M; Smith, Ruth D; Yin, Zheng; Hunter, Alan; Hunter, Alan; Delpech, Valerie C

    2012-01-01

    The United Kingdom’s CD4 surveillance scheme monitors CD4 cell counts among HIV patients and is a national resource for HIV surveillance. It has driven public health policy and allowed auditing of national HIV testing, treatment and care guidelines. We demonstrate its utility through four example outputs: median CD4 count at HIV diagnosis; late HIV diagnosis and short-term mortality; the timing of first CD4 count to indicate entry into HIV care; and the proportion of patients with CD4 counts <350 cells/mm3 receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ARV). In 2009, 95% (61,502/64,420) of adults living with diagnosed HIV infection had CD4 counts available. The median CD4 count at diagnosis increased from 276 to 335 cells/mm3 between 2000 and 2009, indicating modest improvements in HIV testing. In 2009, 52% of patients were diagnosed at a late stage of HIV infection (CD4 <350 cells/mm3); these individuals had a ten-fold risk of dying within a year of their diagnosis compared to those diagnosed promptly. In 2008, the national target of performing a CD4 count within 14 days of diagnosis was met for 61% of patients. National treatment guidelines have largely been met with 83% patients with CD4 <350 cells/mm3 receiving ARV. The monitoring of CD4 counts is critical to HIV surveillance in the United Kingdom enabling the close monitoring of efforts to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with late diagnosis and underpins the auditing of policies and guidelines. These routine surveillance outputs can be generated at national and local levels to drive and monitor public health policy and prevention efforts. PMID:23049663

  19. Auditing national HIV guidelines and policies: The United Kingdom CD4 Surveillance Scheme.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alison E; Kall, Meaghan M; Smith, Ruth D; Yin, Zheng; Hunter, Alan; Hunter, Alan; Delpech, Valerie C

    2012-01-01

    The United Kingdom's CD4 surveillance scheme monitors CD4 cell counts among HIV patients and is a national resource for HIV surveillance. It has driven public health policy and allowed auditing of national HIV testing, treatment and care guidelines. WE DEMONSTRATE ITS UTILITY THROUGH FOUR EXAMPLE OUTPUTS: median CD4 count at HIV diagnosis; late HIV diagnosis and short-term mortality; the timing of first CD4 count to indicate entry into HIV care; and the proportion of patients with CD4 counts <350 cells/mm3 receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ARV). In 2009, 95% (61,502/64,420) of adults living with diagnosed HIV infection had CD4 counts available. The median CD4 count at diagnosis increased from 276 to 335 cells/mm3 between 2000 and 2009, indicating modest improvements in HIV testing. In 2009, 52% of patients were diagnosed at a late stage of HIV infection (CD4 <350 cells/mm(3)); these individuals had a ten-fold risk of dying within a year of their diagnosis compared to those diagnosed promptly. In 2008, the national target of performing a CD4 count within 14 days of diagnosis was met for 61% of patients. National treatment guidelines have largely been met with 83% patients with CD4 <350 cells/mm(3) receiving ARV. The monitoring of CD4 counts is critical to HIV surveillance in the United Kingdom enabling the close monitoring of efforts to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with late diagnosis and underpins the auditing of policies and guidelines. These routine surveillance outputs can be generated at national and local levels to drive and monitor public health policy and prevention efforts. PMID:23049663

  20. Assessing the use of HIV surveillance data to help gauge patient retention-in-care

    PubMed Central

    Lubelchek, Ronald J.; Finnegan, Katelynne J.; Hotton, Anna L.; Hazen, Ronald; Murphy, Patricia; Prachand, Nikhil G.; Benbow, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Background Improved retention-in-care may enhance health outcomes for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). While laboratory surveillance data may be used to gauge retention, no previous reports have compared surveillance lab vs. clinic visit-based measures of retention-in-care. We compared lab surveillance vs. clinic visit-based approaches for identifying retention status for PLWHA. Methods We examined 2011 patient visit data from the Ruth M. Rothstein CORE Center, Cook County's HIV clinic. We defined retained patients as those with visits every 6 months over 2 years and matched patients classified via visit data against HIV surveillance labs reported to the Chicago Department of Health. We determined the sensitivity, specificity and receiver operator characteristics of varying lab surveillance vs. clinic visit measures of retention. Results Of patients classified via clinic visit data, 91% of 1,714 in-care vs. 22% of 200 out-of-care patients met our most stringent surveillance based retention definition – having ≥ 2 viral load/CD4s performed 90 days apart reported by the same laboratory in 2011. Of surveillance lab-based definitions for retention, having ≥ 2 HIV viral load and/or CD4 values at least 3 months apart reported from the same facility possessed the best receiver operator parameters and the receiver operator characteristics curve comparing several surveillance lab vs. clinic-visit based retention measures had an area under the curve of 0.95. Discussion Our findings demonstrate that surveillance laboratory data can be used to assess retention-in-care for PLWHA. These data suggest that bi-directional data sharing between public health entities and care providers could advance re-engagement efforts. PMID:25867775

  1. Community perspectives on HIV, violence and health surveillance in rural South Africa: a participatory pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Hullur, Nitya; D’Ambruoso, Lucia; Edin, Kerstin; Wagner, Ryan G; Ngobeni, Sizzy; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Byass, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background South Africa faces a complex burden of disease consisting of infectious and non–communicable conditions, injury and interpersonal violence, and maternal and child mortality. Inequalities in income and opportunity push disease burdens towards vulnerable populations, a situation to which the health system struggles to respond. There is an urgent need for health planning to account for the needs of marginalized groups in this context. The study objectives were to develop a process to elicit the perspectives of local communities in the established Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance site (HDSS) in rural north–east South Africa on two leading causes of death: HIV/AIDS and violent assault, and on health surveillance as a means to generate information on health in the locality. Methods Drawing on community–based participatory research (CBPR) methods, three village–based groups of eight participants were convened, with whom a series of discussions were held to identify and define the causes of, treatments for, and problems surrounding, deaths due to HIV/AIDS and violent assault. The surveillance system was also discussed and recommendations generated. The discussion narratives were the main data source, examined using framework analysis. Results The groups identified a range of social and health systems issues including risky sexual health behaviors, entrenched traditional practices, alcohol and substance abuse, unstable relationships, and debt as causative. Participants also explained how compromised patient confidentiality in clinics, insensitive staff, and a biased judicial system were problematic for the treatment and reporting of both conditions. Views on health surveillance were positive. Recommendations to strengthen an already well–functioning system related to maintaining confidentiality and sensitivity, and extending ancillary care obligations. Conclusion The discussions provided information not available from other sources on

  2. NATIONAL NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (NNIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System is a cooperative effort that began in 1970 between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and participating hospitals to create a national nosocomial infections database. The database is used to describe ...

  3. TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (TBISS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) had developed and maintains a surveillance system to understand the magnitude and characteristics of hospitalized and fatal traumatic brain injuries in the United State...

  4. Acceptance of the Use of HIV Surveillance Data for Care Engagement: National and Local Community Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David; Van Gorder, Dana; Morin, Stephen F.; Steward, Wayne T.; Gaffney, Stuart; Charlebois, Edwin D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Use of surveillance data including laboratory results (e.g. CD4 and HIV RNA) by public health departments to facilitate linkage, retention, and re-engagement of HIV-infected individuals in health care is on the rise. This is part of the goal of increasing the proportion of infected persons achieving virologic suppression. However, this use of surveillance data is not without controversy, particularly among some providers and people living with HIV. Methods We conducted informal discussions with key stakeholders and a literature search, and held a national think tank in November 2012, bringing together 31 representatives of the federal government, county and state officials, health care providers, and community-based organizations. A follow-up community consultation specific to San Francisco was held January 24, 2014, with 10 participants. Notes from these activities were used as data for this analysis. Results The think tank identified three strategies utilizing HIV surveillance data to aid in care engagement: 1) provider-mediated – where health department staff work with the provider of record on re-engagement, 2) electronic linkages between surveillance databases and medical records databases, and 3) direct outreach – where trained health department staff reach out to persons out of care. Participants also developed recommendations for minimizing harm, guidance on meaningful stakeholder involvement, and a consensus statement in support of the use of HIV surveillance data in care engagement. Conclusions Acceptance of the use of surveillance data for HIV care linkage, retention, and re-engagement is achievable, particularly if stakeholders have been engaged in the design, conduct, and evaluation of programs. PMID:25867776

  5. Improving HIV Surveillance Data for Public Health Action in Washington, DC: A Novel Multiorganizational Data-Sharing Method

    PubMed Central

    Smart, JC

    2016-01-01

    Background The National HIV/AIDS Strategy calls for active surveillance programs for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to more accurately measure access to and retention in care across the HIV care continuum for persons living with HIV within their jurisdictions and to identify persons who may need public health services. However, traditional public health surveillance methods face substantial technological and privacy-related barriers to data sharing. Objective This study developed a novel data-sharing approach to improve the timeliness and quality of HIV surveillance data in three jurisdictions where persons may often travel across the borders of the District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia. Methods A deterministic algorithm of approximately 1000 lines was developed, including a person-matching system with Enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System (eHARS) variables. Person matching was defined in categories (from strongest to weakest): exact, very high, high, medium high, medium, medium low, low, and very low. The algorithm was verified using conventional component testing methods, manual code inspection, and comprehensive output file examination. Results were validated by jurisdictions using internal review processes. Results Of 161,343 uploaded eHARS records from District of Columbia (N=49,326), Maryland (N=66,200), and Virginia (N=45,817), a total of 21,472 persons were matched across jurisdictions over various strengths in a matching process totaling 21 minutes and 58 seconds in the privacy device, leaving 139,871 uniquely identified with only one jurisdiction. No records matched as medium low or low. Over 80% of the matches were identified as either exact or very high matches. Three separate validation methods were conducted for this study, and they all found ≥90% accuracy between records matched by this novel method and traditional matching methods. Conclusions This study illustrated a novel data-sharing approach that may facilitate timelier and better

  6. Epidemiology of the Viral Hepatitis-HIV Syndemic in San Francisco: A Collaborative Surveillance Approach

    PubMed Central

    Scheer, Susan; Shallow, Sue; Pipkin, Sharon; Huang, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe the epidemiology of people coinfected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV in San Francisco, the San Francisco Department of Public Health's Communicable Disease Control and Prevention Section and the HIV Epidemiology Section collaborated to link their registries. Methods In San Francisco, hepatitis reporting is primarily through passive laboratory-based surveillance, and HIV/AIDS reporting is primarily through laboratory-initiated active surveillance. We conducted the registry linkage in 2010 using a sequential algorithm. Results The registry match included 31,997 HBV-infected people who were reported starting in 1984; 10,121 HCV-infected people who were reported starting in 2001; and 34,551 HIV/AIDS cases reported beginning in 1981. Of the HBV and HCV cases, 6.3% and 12.6% were coinfected with HIV, respectively. The majority of cases were white males; however, black people were disproportionately affected. For more than 90% of the HBV/HIV cases, male-to-male sexual contact (men who have sex with men [MSM]) was the risk factor for HIV infection. Injection drug use was the most frequent risk factor for HIV infection among the HCV/HIV cases; however, 35.6% of the HCV/HIV coinfected males were MSM but not injection drug users. Conclusions By linking the two registries, we found new ways to foster collaborative work and expand our programmatic flexibility. This analysis identified particular populations at risk for coinfection, which can be used by viral hepatitis and HIV screening, prevention, and treatment programs to integrate, enhance, target, and prioritize prevention services and clinical care within the community to maximize health outcomes. PMID:24385655

  7. System For Surveillance Of Spectral Signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2004-10-12

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a Sequential Probability Ratio Test ("SPRT") methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  8. System for surveillance of spectral signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2006-02-14

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a Sequential Probability Ratio Test ("SPRT") methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  9. System For Surveillance Of Spectral Signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2003-04-22

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a Sequential Probability Ratio Test methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  10. System for surveillance of spectral signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2001-01-01

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a SPRT sequential probability ratio test methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  11. Laser Surveillance System for Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Fiarman, S.; Zucker, M.S.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools (SFSP's) will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a full size laser system operating in air and have used an array of 6 zircaloy BWR tubes to simulate an assembly. The reflective signal from the zircaloy rods is a strong function of position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of the background with no assembly. A design for a SFSP laser surveillance system incorporating laser ranging is discussed. 10 figures.

  12. Light armored vehicle reconnaissance and surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbeau, Nicolas R.

    1994-10-01

    The Canadian Department of National Defence (DND) has established a requirement for a fleet of reconnaissance vehicles equipped with a modern surveillance system to be used in a wide variety of scenarios. This includes conventional operations within NATO, contingency operations in troubled areas as well as UN peacekeeping missions. As such, the Light Armored Vehicles Reconnaissance and Surveillance System will be the first 24 hour all- weather reconnaissance system integrated into a combat vehicle. This paper intends to describe how the operational requirements defined by DND were translated into sensor and system requirements. After a summary of the current configuration, it focuses on product pre-planned improvements and future needs.

  13. Self tuning system for industrial surveillance

    DOEpatents

    Stephan, Wegerich W; Jarman, Kristin K.; Gross, Kenneth C.

    2000-01-01

    A method and system for automatically establishing operational parameters of a statistical surveillance system. The method and system performs a frequency domain transition on time dependent data, a first Fourier composite is formed, serial correlation is removed, a series of Gaussian whiteness tests are performed along with an autocorrelation test, Fourier coefficients are stored and a second Fourier composite is formed. Pseudorandom noise is added, a Monte Carlo simulation is performed to establish SPRT missed alarm probabilities and tested with a synthesized signal. A false alarm test is then emperically evaluated and if less than a desired target value, then SPRT probabilities are used for performing surveillance.

  14. Smart video surveillance system preserving privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufaux, Frederic; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2005-03-01

    In this paper, we present a smart video surveillance system based on standard technologies and wired or wireless IP networking. The key novelty of the system is that it protects the privacy of people under surveillance. More specifically, a video analysis module detects regions of interest in the scene by change detection or face detection techniques. It is assumed that these regions contain private and sensitive information. Scrambling is then applied only to the corresponding regions. Furthermore, the amount of distortion can be controlled by restricting scrambling to some resolution levels. As a result, the scene remains visible, but privacy-sensitive information is unidentifiable. The scrambling is controlled by a private encryption key which is kept under control of legal authorities. The latter are therefore the only ones who can grant authorization to unlock the protection and view the whole scene. Therefore, this system successfully addresses the loss of privacy issue associated with video surveillance.

  15. An emergency response UAV Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro A; Geckle, William J; Barton, Jeffrey D; Samsundar, John; Gao, Tia; Brown, Myron Z; Martin, Sean R

    2006-01-01

    A system using Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs), equipped for real time telemetry of video imagery, sensor support data, and GPS/INS navigation, is being developed to provide situational awareness (SA) to the central command of mass casualty incident response. UAVs provide an inexpensive and safe means of acquiring video surveillance in chaotic disaster scenes, while being durable and non-intrusive. The system provides autonomous surveillance of defined perimeters, video tracking and active following of targets of interest, and real time cueing to other imaging UAVs. PMID:17238697

  16. Nationwide surveillance of HIV-1 prevalence and subtype in young Thai men.

    PubMed

    Mason, C J; Kitsiripornchai, S; Markowitz, L E; Chanbancherd, P; Supapongse, T; Jugsudee, A; Sirisopana, N; Chuenchitra, C; Torugsa, K; VanCott, T C; Michael, R A; Nitayaphan, S

    1998-10-01

    As part of routine surveillance, an HIV-1 serosurvey of 366,074 members of successive cohorts of young Thai men entering service with the Royal Thai Army (RTA) was conducted between November 1989 and November 1995. We analyzed regional and temporal trends in HIV-1 seroprevalence in young men in Thailand and determined the proportion of infections resulting from subtypes E and B in this population in 1992 and 1995. The prevalence in 1992 was compared with that in 1995 by region and demographic group. The HIV-1 subtype was determined in a random sample of HIV-1-positive specimens in 1992 and 1995 using a V3 peptide enzyme immunoassay. From a peak of 3.7% in 1993, overall seroprevalence declined to 3.0% in 1994 and further in 1995 to 2.5%. Between 1992 and 1995, the absolute decrease in seroprevalence was greatest in the upper North (from 12.5% to 5.3%), where the prevalence has been the highest. Overall, 96.9% and 95.9% of typable specimens were determined to be subtype E in 1992 and 1995, respectively. Decline in HIV-1 seroprevalence among young men in Thailand has continued, which suggests that HIV control programs in Thailand may have been successful in decreasing spread of HIV-1. Almost all HIV-1 infections resulted from subtype E. PMID:9768626

  17. Surveillance systems test and evaluation facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matty, Jere J.; Dawbarn, Ronald

    1986-01-01

    In January of 1983, a team was formed to explore test methodologies and test facility concepts required to meet the needs of space-based surveillance systems. The output of this study was a road map of test methodologies and test facilities that will aid the development of this country's critical space-based sensor assets. A condensation of those results is given.

  18. YOUTH RISK BEHAVIOR SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (YRBSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) was developed to monitor priority health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of mortality, morbidity, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. The YRBSS monitors six categories of behavio...

  19. NATIONAL ORAL HEALTH SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (NOHSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Oral Health Surveillance System (NOHSS) is a collaborative effort between CDC's Division of Oral Health and The Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors (ASTDD). NOHSS is designed to help public health programs monitor the burden of oral disease, use of the ...

  20. Comparison of surveillance sample demographics over two cycles of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance Project, Houston, Texas.

    PubMed

    Risser, Jan M H; Montealegre, Jane R

    2014-04-01

    We examined differences in sample demographics across cycles of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance project, that examines HIV risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM), injection drug users (IDU), and heterosexuals living in areas of high HIV prevalence (HET). MSM were recruited through venue-based sampling, and IDU and HET through respondent driven sampling (RDS). RDS data were weighted to account for sampling bias. We compared crude prevalence estimates from MSM1 (2004) to those from MSM2 (2008) for demographic factors known to influence risky sexual and drug-use behaviors. We compared crude and adjusted prevalence estimates for IDU1 (2005) and IDU2 (2009) and HET1 (2006) and HET2 (2010). In the MSM cycle, we found differences in age, and the proportions seeking medical care and reporting a recent arrest. There were no differences in the comparison of crude and weighted estimates for the RDS collected samples, nor were there differences comparing HET1 and HET2 weighted estimates. IDU2 recruited a larger proportion of males, and had a higher percent who graduated from high school and who reported recent medical care and a previous HIV test. Differences across MSM cycles may be related to differences in venues identified for each cycle. Differences in the IDU cycles may be due to an effort on our part to increase the racial/ethnic and drug-use diversity of the sample in IDU2. Our findings show the importance of formative work for both venue-based and RDS samples to increase understanding of the dimensions that affect social networks and the dynamics of populations in space and time. With familiarity of the target population, we believe that both venue-based and RDS recruitment approaches for NHBS work well and can be used to evaluate changes in risky sexual and drug use behaviors and in HIV testing behaviors. PMID:23907399

  1. System specification for the integrated monitoring and surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This System Specification establishes the requirements for the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System (IMSS). In this document, ``Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System`` is used to describe the concept of integrated sensors, computers, personnel, and systems that perform the functions of sensing conditions, acquiring data, monitoring environmental safety and health, controlling and accounting for materials, monitoring material stability, monitoring container integrity, transferring data, and analyzing, reporting, and storing data. This concept encompasses systems (e.g. sensors, personnel, databases, etc.) that are already in place at the sites but may require modifications or additions to meet all identified surveillance requirements. The purpose of this System Specification is to provide Department of Energy (DOE) sites that store plutonium materials with a consolidation of all known requirements for the storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides. This compilation may be used (1) as a baseline for surveillance system design specifications where 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides will be stored and monitored; (2) as a checklist for evaluating existing surveillance systems to ensure that all requirements are met for the storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides; and (3) as a baseline for preparing procurement specifications tailored for site specific storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides.

  2. Advanced Querying Features for Disease Surveillance Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hashemian, Mohammad R.

    2010-01-01

    Most automated disease surveillance systems notify users of increases in the prevalence of reports in syndrome categories and allow users to view patient level data related to those increases. Occasionally, a more dynamic level of control is required to properly detect an emerging disease in a community. Dynamic querying features are invaluable when using existing surveillance systems to investigate outbreaks of newly emergent diseases or to identify cases of reportable diseases within data being captured for surveillance. The objective of the Advance Querying Tool (AQT) is to build a more flexible query interface for most web-based disease surveillance systems. This interface allows users to define and build their query as if they were writing a logical expression for a mathematical computation. The AQT allows users to develop, investigate, save, and share complex case definitions. It provides a flexible interface that accommodates both advanced and novice users, checks the validity of the expression as it is built, and marks errors for users. PMID:23569575

  3. Domestic violence surveillance system:a model

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Rafael; Gutiérrez, María Isabel; Mena-Muñoz, Jorge Humberto; Córdoba, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Objective To develop a domestic violence surveillance system. Material and Methods The strategies included implementation of a standard digitalized reporting and analysis system along with advocacy with community decision makers, strengthening inter-institutional attention networks, consultation for constructing internal flow charts, sensitizing and training network teams in charge of providing health care in cases of domestic violence and supporting improved public policy prevention initiatives. Results A total of 6 893 cases were observed using 2004 and 2005 surveillance system data. The system reports that 80% of the affected were women, followed by 36% children under 14 years. The identified aggressors were mainly females' partners. The system was useful for improving victim services. Conclusions Findings indicate that significant gains were made in facilitating the attention and treatment of victims of domestic violence, improving the procedural response process and enhancing the quality of information provided to policy-making bodies. PMID:18373003

  4. Systems pharmacology augments drug safety surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lorberbaum, T; Nasir, M; Keiser, M J; Vilar, S; Hripcsak, G; Tatonetti, N P

    2015-02-01

    Small molecule drugs are the foundation of modern medical practice, yet their use is limited by the onset of unexpected and severe adverse events (AEs). Regulatory agencies rely on postmarketing surveillance to monitor safety once drugs are approved for clinical use. Despite advances in pharmacovigilance methods that address issues of confounding bias, clinical data of AEs are inherently noisy. Systems pharmacology-the integration of systems biology and chemical genomics-can illuminate drug mechanisms of action. We hypothesize that these data can improve drug safety surveillance by highlighting drugs with a mechanistic connection to the target phenotype (enriching true positives) and filtering those that do not (depleting false positives). We present an algorithm, the modular assembly of drug safety subnetworks (MADSS), to combine systems pharmacology and pharmacovigilance data and significantly improve drug safety monitoring for four clinically relevant adverse drug reactions. PMID:25670520

  5. Which surveillance systems were operational after Typhoon Haiyan?

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Eireen; Pacho, Agnes; Galvan, Maria Adona; Corpuz, Aura

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Effective disease surveillance is vital for a successful disaster response. This study assessed the functionality of the three disease surveillance systems used post-Haiyan: Philippine Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (PIDSR), Event-based Surveillance and Response (ESR) and Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED). Methods A survey of 45 government health officers from affected areas was conducted in March 2014. The survey documented when each of the systems was operational and included questions that ranked the functionality of the three surveillance systems and whether they complemented each other. Results Two of 11 (18%) surveillance units had an operational SPEED system pre-event. PIDSR and ESR remained operational in five of 11 (45%) surveillance units without interruption of reporting. Ten surveillance units (91%) rated PIDSR as functional post-Typhoon; eight (72.7%) considered ESR functional. SPEED was rated as functional by three (27%) surveillance units. Seven of 11 (63.6%) surveillance units rated the three systems as being complementary to each other. Discussion In most of the areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan, the routine surveillance systems (PIDSR and ESR) were not disrupted; although, in Leyte it took seven weeks for these to be operational. Although SPEED is recommended for activation within 48 hours after a disaster, this did not occur in most of the surveyed areas. Most of the surveillance units rated PIDSR, ESR and SPEED to be complementary to each other. PMID:26767139

  6. Surveillance systems for intermodal transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovlev, Sergej; Voznak, Miroslav; Andziulis, Arunas

    2015-05-01

    Intermodal container monitoring is considered a major security issue in many major logistic companies and countries worldwide. Current representation of the problem, we face today, originated in 2002, right after the 9/11 attacks. Then, a new worldwide Container Security Initiative (CSI, 2002) was considered that shaped the perception of the transportation operations. Now more than 80 larger ports all over the world contribute to its further development and integration into everyday transportation operations and improve the regulations for the developing regions. Although, these new improvements allow us to feel safer and secure, constant management of transportation operations has become a very difficult problem for conventional data analysis methods and information systems. The paper deals with a proposal of a whole new concept for the improvement of the Containers Security Initiative (CSI) by virtually connecting safety, security processes and systems. A conceptual middleware approach with deployable intelligent agent modules is proposed to be used with possible scenarios and a testbed is used to test the solution. Middleware examples are visually programmed using National Instruments LabView software packages and Wireless sensor network hardware modules. An experimental software is used to evaluate he solution. This research is a contribution to the intermodal transportation and is intended to be used as a means or the development of intelligent transport systems.

  7. Enhanced Collection of Laboratory Data in HIV Surveillance Among 5 States with Confidential Name-based HIV Infection Reporting, 2005-2006

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kristen Mahle; Kajese, Tebitha; Crandell-Alden, Erin; Anderson, Bridget J; Wendell, Debbie; Crutchfield, Allison; Jackson, Terry; Hall, H. Irene

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory data reported through HIV surveillance can provide information about disease severity and linkage to care; however these measures are only as accurate as the quality and completeness of data reported. Using data from five states that implemented enhanced collection of laboratory data in HIV surveillance from 2005-2006, we determined completeness of reporting, stage of disease at diagnosis, the most common opportunistic illnesses (OI) at diagnosis, and linkage to medical care. Methods to enhance laboratory reporting included increasing active surveillance efforts, identifying laboratories not reporting to HIV surveillance, increasing electronic reporting, and using laboratory results from auxiliary databases. Of 3,065 persons ≥13 years of age diagnosed with HIV, 35.5% were diagnosed with stage 3 (AIDS) and 37.7% progressed to stage 3 within 12-months after diagnosis. Overall, 78.5% were linked to care within 3 months; however, a higher proportion of persons with ≥1 CD4 or viral load test was found among whites compared with blacks/African Americans (82.1% vs 73.6%, p<0.001). Few (12.3%) had an OI within 3 months of diagnosis. The completeness of laboratory data collected through surveillance was improved with enhanced reporting and provided a more accurate picture of stage of disease and gaps in linkage to care. Additional interventions are needed to meet the goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy on linkage to care and the reduction of HIV-related disparities. PMID:23056161

  8. 17 CFR 38.156 - Automated trade surveillance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated trade surveillance... DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Compliance With Rules § 38.156 Automated trade surveillance system. A designated contract market must maintain an automated trade surveillance system capable of detecting and...

  9. 17 CFR 38.156 - Automated trade surveillance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated trade surveillance... DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Compliance With Rules § 38.156 Automated trade surveillance system. A designated contract market must maintain an automated trade surveillance system capable of detecting and...

  10. Future trends in compact TV surveillance systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gaertner, K.; Heaysman, B.; Vodrazka, P.

    1985-01-01

    Up to now the IAEA's Safeguards Surveillance Program has been based upon 8 mm film camera systems. As this type of equipment availability is controlled by the needs of the amateur market, the Agency is forced to follow the changing world trend in replacing film with video. The eventual substitution of film with video systems should be influenced by two design approaches, namely integrated systems, resembling physically the present film cameras, and/or remote camera-control unit systems. This paper describes experiments being carried out on both types by some Member States as well as the Agency's activities in this field.

  11. An integrated national mortality surveillance system for death registration and mortality surveillance, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiwei; Wu, Xiaoling; Lopez, Alan D; Wang, Lijun; Cai, Yue; Page, Andrew; Yin, Peng; Liu, Yunning; Li, Yichong; Liu, Jiangmei; You, Jinling; Zhou, Maigeng

    2016-01-01

    In China, sample-based mortality surveillance systems, such as the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention's disease surveillance points system and the Ministry of Health's vital registration system, have been used for decades to provide nationally representative data on health status for health-care decision-making and performance evaluation. However, neither system provided representative mortality and cause-of-death data at the provincial level to inform regional health service needs and policy priorities. Moreover, the systems overlapped to a considerable extent, thereby entailing a duplication of effort. In 2013, the Chinese Government combined these two systems into an integrated national mortality surveillance system to provide a provincially representative picture of total and cause-specific mortality and to accelerate the development of a comprehensive vital registration and mortality surveillance system for the whole country. This new system increased the surveillance population from 6 to 24% of the Chinese population. The number of surveillance points, each of which covered a district or county, increased from 161 to 605. To ensure representativeness at the provincial level, the 605 surveillance points were selected to cover China's 31 provinces using an iterative method involving multistage stratification that took into account the sociodemographic characteristics of the population. This paper describes the development and operation of the new national mortality surveillance system, which is expected to yield representative provincial estimates of mortality in China for the first time. PMID:26769996

  12. Surveillance of transfusion-transmissible infections comparison of systems in five developed countries.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Sheila F; Zou, Shimian; Laperche, Syria; Brant, Lisa J; Seed, Clive R; Kleinman, Steven H

    2012-01-01

    Most industrialized countries maintain surveillance programs for monitoring transmissible infection in blood donations, revising approaches to methodology and risk assessment as new threats emerge. A comparison of programs in the United States, Canada, France, the UK, and Australia indicates that they have similar function, although the structure of blood programs vary as does the extent and nature of formal ties with public health. The emergence of HIV in the late 1970s and early 1980s was key in recognizing that surveillance systems specific to blood transfusion were essential. Hence, most industrialized countries monitor transfusion-transmissible infections in donors and evaluate the impact of new testing and of predonation screening strategies. Emerging infections since HIV have had different transmission pathways and challenged blood programs to draw upon resources for a rapid and effective response, with recognition that the original focus on sexual/drug-related risk of HIV and hepatitis was inadequate. The focus of surveillance programs on new and emerging pathogens fulfills a key role in risk assessment and policy formulation. The precise nature of such activities varies by country because of the structure of the blood programs and surveillance systems, the strategic focus of the blood programs, and the epidemiology of disease in each country. PMID:21944935

  13. HIV-1 Genetic Diversity and Transmitted Drug Resistance Among Recently Infected Individuals at Men Who Have Sex with Men Sentinel Surveillance Points in Hebei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinli; Kang, Xianjiang; Chen, Suliang; Zhao, Hongru; Liu, Yongjian; Zhao, Cuiying; Zhang, Yuqi; Li, Jingyun; Cui, Ze; Wang, Xianfeng

    2015-10-01

    For this study, 50 HIV-1 plasma samples of recently infected men who have sex with men (MSM) were amplified and sequenced. Multiple subtypes were identified by phylogenetic analyses of HIV-1 gag, env, and pol gene regions, including CRF01_AE (56.0%), CRF07_BC (30.0%), subtype B (12.0%), and unique recombinant forms (URFs, 6.0%). CRF01_AE was the most frequent genotype in the epidemic. Three recombination patterns of URFs were identified: 01BC, 01B, and 01C. The rate of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) mutation (M46L) was 2.08% (1/48). URFs and TDR first identified in this study suggest that HIV-1 prevalence is more and more complicated, and HIV-1 drug-resistant strains have begun to spread among at risk populations in Hebei. Our findings can provide vital information for an efficient surveillance system and strategic HIV prevention and control measures in China by revealing the evolutionary status and HIV-1 TDR of HIV-1 strains among recently infected MSM in Hebei Province. PMID:26200883

  14. Neural network based system for equipment surveillance

    DOEpatents

    Vilim, R.B.; Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.

    1998-04-28

    A method and system are disclosed for performing surveillance of transient signals of an industrial device to ascertain the operating state. The method and system involves the steps of reading into a memory training data, determining neural network weighting values until achieving target outputs close to the neural network output. If the target outputs are inadequate, wavelet parameters are determined to yield neural network outputs close to the desired set of target outputs and then providing signals characteristic of an industrial process and comparing the neural network output to the industrial process signals to evaluate the operating state of the industrial process. 33 figs.

  15. Neural network based system for equipment surveillance

    DOEpatents

    Vilim, Richard B.; Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.

    1998-01-01

    A method and system for performing surveillance of transient signals of an industrial device to ascertain the operating state. The method and system involves the steps of reading into a memory training data, determining neural network weighting values until achieving target outputs close to the neural network output. If the target outputs are inadequate, wavelet parameters are determined to yield neural network outputs close to the desired set of target outputs and then providing signals characteristic of an industrial process and comparing the neural network output to the industrial process signals to evaluate the operating state of the industrial process.

  16. Surveillance and reconnaissance ground system architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devambez, Francois

    2001-12-01

    Modern conflicts induces various modes of deployment, due to the type of conflict, the type of mission, and phase of conflict. It is then impossible to define fixed architecture systems for surveillance ground segments. Thales has developed a structure for a ground segment based on the operational functions required, and on the definition of modules and networks. Theses modules are software and hardware modules, including communications and networks. This ground segment is called MGS (Modular Ground Segment), and is intended for use in airborne reconnaissance systems, surveillance systems, and U.A.V. systems. Main parameters for the definition of a modular ground image exploitation system are : Compliance with various operational configurations, Easy adaptation to the evolution of theses configurations, Interoperability with NATO and multinational forces, Security, Multi-sensors, multi-platforms capabilities, Technical modularity, Evolutivity Reduction of life cycle cost The general performances of the MGS are presented : type of sensors, acquisition process, exploitation of images, report generation, data base management, dissemination, interface with C4I. The MGS is then described as a set of hardware and software modules, and their organization to build numerous operational configurations. Architectures are from minimal configuration intended for a mono-sensor image exploitation system, to a full image intelligence center, for a multilevel exploitation of multi-sensor.

  17. Integrated monitoring and surveillance system demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Aumeier, S.E.; Walters, G.; Kotter, D.; Walrath, W.M.; Zamecnik, R.J.

    1997-07-01

    We present a summary of efforts associated with the installation of an integrated system for the surveillance and monitoring of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides in long-term storage. The product of this effort will include a Pu storage requirements document, baseline integrated monitoring and surveillance system (IMSS) prototype and test bed that will be installed in the Fuel Manufacturing Facility (FMF) nuclear material vault at Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W), and a Pu tracking database including data analysis capabilities. The prototype will be based on a minimal set of vault and package monitoring requirements as derived from applicable DOE documentation and guidelines, detailed in the requirements document, including DOE-STD-3013-96. The use of standardized requirements will aid individual sites in the selection of sensors that best suit their needs while the prototype IMSS, located at ANL-W, will be used as a test bed to compare and contrast sensor performance against a baseline integrated system (the IMSS), demonstrate system capabilities, evaluate potential technology gaps, and test new hardware and software designs using various storage configurations. With efforts currently underway to repackage and store a substantial quantity of plutonium and plutonium-bearing material within the DOE complex, this is an opportune time to undertake such a project. 4 refs.

  18. Real-time holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H.D.; McMakin, D.L.; Hall, T.E.; Gribble, R.P.

    1995-10-03

    A holographic surveillance system is disclosed including means for generating electromagnetic waves; means for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and means for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The means for processing the electrical signals includes means for converting analog signals to digital signals followed by a computer means to apply a backward wave algorithm. 21 figs.

  19. Real-time holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H. Dale; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.; Gribble, R. Parks

    1995-01-01

    A holographic surveillance system including means for generating electromagnetic waves; means for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and means for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The means for processing the electrical signals includes means for converting analog signals to digital signals followed by a computer means to apply a backward wave algorithm.

  20. Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, D.M.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.; McMakin, D.L.; Gribble, R.P.; Severtsen, R.H.; Prince, J.M.; Reid, L.D.

    1996-09-17

    A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm. 28 figs.

  1. Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, David M.; Collins, H. Dale; Hall, Thomas E.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Gribble, R. Parks; Severtsen, Ronald H.; Prince, James M.; Reid, Larry D.

    1996-01-01

    A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm.

  2. HIV/AIDS among African Immigrants in the U.S.: The Need for Disaggregating HIV Surveillance Data by Country of Birth.

    PubMed

    Koku, Emmanuel F; Rajab-Gyagenda, Wardah M; Korto, Margaret D; Morrison, Sharon D; Beyene, Yewoubdar; Mbajah, Joy; Ashton, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    The goals of the United States' National HIV/AIDS Strategy are reducing HIV infections, increasing linkage to care, and reducing health disparities. To accomplish these, it is imperative to have accurate data about HIV prevalence, especially in high-burden populations, including immigrants, ethnic/racial minorities and other minority populations. However, recent increases in HIV prevalence among Black migrants from sub-Saharan Africa has drawn attention to the need to examine the epidemiological diversity of the Black population, and accurately account for HIV prevalence within it. In most HIV surveillance data, a single category, Black/African American, is used to combine data for U.S.-born and foreign-born Blacks, including migrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Such categorizations result in under-estimation of HIV prevalence in the African immigrant population, making it difficult to allocate resources appropriately for HIV prevention and treatment. This paper highlights and provides recommendations regarding the importance of disaggregating HIV surveillance data on Blacks by country of birth. PMID:27524770

  3. Automated intelligent video surveillance system for ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hai; Nguyen, Hieu; Ramu, Prakash; Raju, Chaitanya; Liu, Xiaoqing; Yadegar, Jacob

    2009-05-01

    To protect naval and commercial ships from attack by terrorists and pirates, it is important to have automatic surveillance systems able to detect, identify, track and alert the crew on small watercrafts that might pursue malicious intentions, while ruling out non-threat entities. Radar systems have limitations on the minimum detectable range and lack high-level classification power. In this paper, we present an innovative Automated Intelligent Video Surveillance System for Ships (AIVS3) as a vision-based solution for ship security. Capitalizing on advanced computer vision algorithms and practical machine learning methodologies, the developed AIVS3 is not only capable of efficiently and robustly detecting, classifying, and tracking various maritime targets, but also able to fuse heterogeneous target information to interpret scene activities, associate targets with levels of threat, and issue the corresponding alerts/recommendations to the man-in- the-loop (MITL). AIVS3 has been tested in various maritime scenarios and shown accurate and effective threat detection performance. By reducing the reliance on human eyes to monitor cluttered scenes, AIVS3 will save the manpower while increasing the accuracy in detection and identification of asymmetric attacks for ship protection.

  4. SCORPION II persistent surveillance system update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coster, Michael; Hunt, Cassandra

    2011-06-01

    This paper highlights the most recently added features and benefits available in the latest generation of Northrop Grumman SCORPION II persistent surveillance and target recognition systems. By leveraging smaller, lighter, and more power efficient SCORPION II sensor and universal gateway components, with foliage penetrating ad-hoc network communications, persistent field programmable systems that are easier to conceal can be optimized for both image capture and data exfiltration. In addition to the SCORPION II suite of sensor components, a growing list of over sixty different sensor and camera types from a variety of manufacturers have been integrated with the SCORPION Gateway family. In addition to updating several different COP systems, SCORPION and SCORPION II data can be directly processed using a common sensor status graphical user interface (GUI) that allows for viewing and analysis of images and sensor data from hundreds of SCORPION system gateways on single or multiple displays.

  5. Mass HIV Treatment and Sex Disparities in Life Expectancy: Demographic Surveillance in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bor, Jacob; Rosen, Sydney; Chimbindi, Natsayi; Haber, Noah; Herbst, Kobus; Mutevedzi, Tinofa; Tanser, Frank; Pillay, Deenan; Bärnighausen, Till

    2015-01-01

    Background Women have better patient outcomes in HIV care and treatment than men in sub-Saharan Africa. We assessed—at the population level—whether and to what extent mass HIV treatment is associated with changes in sex disparities in adult life expectancy, a summary metric of survival capturing mortality across the full cascade of HIV care. We also determined sex-specific trends in HIV mortality and the distribution of HIV-related deaths in men and women prior to and at each stage of the clinical cascade. Methods and Findings Data were collected on all deaths occurring from 2001 to 2011 in a large population-based surveillance cohort (52,964 women and 45,688 men, ages 15 y and older) in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Cause of death was ascertained by verbal autopsy (93% response rate). Demographic data were linked at the individual level to clinical records from the public sector HIV treatment and care program that serves the region. Annual rates of HIV-related mortality were assessed for men and women separately, and female-to-male rate ratios were estimated in exponential hazard models. Sex-specific trends in adult life expectancy and HIV-cause-deleted adult life expectancy were calculated. The proportions of HIV deaths that accrued to men and women at different stages in the HIV cascade of care were estimated annually. Following the beginning of HIV treatment scale-up in 2004, HIV mortality declined among both men and women. Female adult life expectancy increased from 51.3 y (95% CI 49.7, 52.8) in 2003 to 64.5 y (95% CI 62.7, 66.4) in 2011, a gain of 13.2 y. Male adult life expectancy increased from 46.9 y (95% CI 45.6, 48.2) in 2003 to 55.9 y (95% CI 54.3, 57.5) in 2011, a gain of 9.0 y. The gap between female and male adult life expectancy doubled, from 4.4 y in 2003 to 8.6 y in 2011, a difference of 4.3 y (95% CI 0.9, 7.6). For women, HIV mortality declined from 1.60 deaths per 100 person-years (95% CI 1.46, 1.75) in 2003 to 0.56 per 100 person

  6. Mental health surveillance and information systems.

    PubMed

    Gater, R; Chisholm, D; Dowrick, C

    2015-07-01

    Routine information systems for mental health in many Eastern Mediterranean Region countries are rudimentary or absent, making it difficult to understand the needs of local populations and to plan accordingly. Key components for mental health surveillance and information systems are: national commitment and leadership to ensure that relevant high quality information is collected and reported; a minimum data set of key mental health indicators; intersectoral collaboration with appropriate data sharing; routine data collection supplemented with periodic surveys; quality control and confidentiality; and technology and skills to support data collection, sharing and dissemination. Priority strategic interventions include: (1) periodically assessing and reporting the mental health resources and capacities available using standardized methodologies; (2) routine collection of information and reporting on service availability, coverage and continuity, for priority mental disorders disaggregated by age, sex and diagnosis; and (3) mandatory recording and reporting of suicides at the national level (using relevant ICD codes). PMID:26442892

  7. Methodology of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System--2013.

    PubMed

    Brener, Nancy D; Kann, Laura; Shanklin, Shari; Kinchen, Steve; Eaton, Danice K; Hawkins, Joseph; Flint, Katherine H

    2013-03-01

    Priority health-risk behaviors (i.e., interrelated and preventable behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youths and adults) often are established during childhood and adolescence and extend into adulthood. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), established in 1991, monitors six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youths and young adults: 1) behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; 2) sexual behaviors that contribute to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, other sexually transmitted diseases, and unintended pregnancy; 3) tobacco use; 4) alcohol and other drug use; 5) unhealthy dietary behaviors; and 6) physical inactivity. In addition, YRBSS monitors the prevalence of obesity and asthma among this population. YRBSS data are obtained from multiple sources including a national school-based survey conducted by CDC as well as schoolbased state, territorial, tribal, and large urban school district surveys conducted by education and health agencies. These surveys have been conducted biennially since 1991 and include representative samples of students in grades 9-12. In 2004, a description of the YRBSS methodology was published (CDC. Methodology of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. MMWR 2004;53 [No RR-12]). Since 2004, improvements have been made to YRBSS, including increases in coverage and expanded technical assistance.This report describes these changes and updates earlier descriptions of the system, including questionnaire content; operational procedures; sampling, weighting, and response rates; data-collection protocols; data-processing procedures; reports and publications; and data quality. This report also includes results of methods studies that systematically examined how different survey procedures affect prevalence estimates. YRBSS continues to evolve to meet the needs of CDC and other data users through the ongoing revision of the questionnaire

  8. HIV Infection Seems to Affect Nervous System

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159344.html HIV Infection Seems to Affect Nervous System But symptoms tend to subside once antiretroviral drugs ... mild, it is clear that HIV affects the nervous system within days of infection," she said in a ...

  9. Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    Traffic management can be thought of as a stochastic queuing process where the serving time at one of its control points is dynamically linked to the global traffic pattern, which is, in turn, dynamically linked to the control point. For this closed-loop system to be effective, the traffic management system must sense and interpret a large spatial projection of data originating from multiple sensor suites. This concept is the basis for the development of a Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) system. This paper presents the results of a study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to define the operational specifications and characteristics, to determine the constraints, and to examine the state of technology of a TFWAS system in terms of traffic management and control. In doing so, the functions and attributes of a TFWAS system are mapped into an operational structure consistent with the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) concept and the existing highway infrastructure. This mapping includes identifying candidate sensor suites and establishing criteria, requirements, and performance measures by which these systems can be graded in their ability and practicality to meet the operational requirements of a TFWAS system. In light of this, issues such as system integration, applicable technologies, impact on traffic management and control, and public acceptance are addressed.

  10. Sociobehavioral correlates of HIV risk among men who have sex with men in Chhattisgarh, India: analysis of sentinel surveillance data.

    PubMed

    Saha, Malay Kumar; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Biswas, Subrata; Ghosh, Piyali; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Deb, Aloke Kumar; Diwan, Kshitiz

    2015-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) in India are mostly hidden due to stigma and discrimination and are at a higher risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV Sentinel Surveillance (HSS) reported an increased HIV burden in Chhattisgarh, an important state in central India. This state has the distinction of having the highest HIV prevalence among MSM in India; therefore, it warrants special attention; hence, we focused on the role of MSM in the HIV epidemic in this state. Cross-sectional analysis of the most recent latest (2010-2011) HSS data of 227 MSM in Chhattisgarh revealed a HIV seropositivity of 14.98%. Older age, unemployment, and receiving money for sex with a man were associated with a higher HIV risk. Participants were mostly young (mean age, approximately 26 years), school-level educated (51.98%), urban residents (99.56%), in service (46.26%), not involved in heterosexual activity (97.36%), or paid sex (68.72%). None of the participants reported injection drug use, and almost all of them (98.68%) were kothis. Some of the observed associations lacked statistical power due to sparse data obtained during this initial surveillance among MSM in Chhattisgarh. Therefore, further studies involving a larger population are needed to understand the role of MSM in the dynamics of the HIV epidemic in this state to facilitate the planning of appropriate interventions, as the epidemic is likely to be concentrated among MSM in Chhattisgarh. PMID:25420644

  11. Asset surveillance system: apparatus and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    System and method for providing surveillance of an asset comprised of numerically fitting at least one mathematical model to obtained residual data correlative to asset operation; storing at least one mathematical model in a memory; obtaining a current set of signal data from the asset; retrieving at least one mathematical model from the memory, using the retrieved mathematical model in a sequential hypothesis test for determining if the current set of signal data is indicative of a fault condition; determining an asset fault cause correlative to a determined indication of a fault condition; providing an indication correlative to a determined fault cause, and an action when warranted. The residual data can be mode partitioned, a current mode of operation can be determined from the asset, and at least one mathematical model can be retrieved from the memory as a function of the determined mode of operation.

  12. Web surveillance system using platform-based design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shin-Yo; Tsai, Tsung-Han

    2004-04-01

    A revolutionary methodology of SOPC platform-based design environment for multimedia communications will be developed. We embed a softcore processor to perform the image compression in FPGA. Then, we plug-in an Ethernet daughter board in the SOPC development platform system. Afterward, a web surveillance platform system is presented. The web surveillance system consists of three parts: image capture, web server and JPEG compression. In this architecture, user can control the surveillance system by remote. By the IP address configures to Ethernet daughter board, the user can access the surveillance system via browser. When user access the surveillance system, the CMOS sensor presently capture the remote image. After that, it will feed the captured image with the embedded processor. The embedded processor immediately performs the JPEG compression. Afterward, the user receives the compressed data via Ethernet. To sum up of the above mentioned, the all system will be implemented on APEX20K200E484-2X device.

  13. SCORPION persistent surveillance system with universal gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coster, Michael; Chambers, Jon; Winters, Michael; Belesi, Joe

    2008-04-01

    This paper addresses benefits derived from the universal gateway utilized in Northrop Grumman Systems Corporation's (NGSC) SCORPION, a persistent surveillance and target recognition system produced by the Xetron campus in Cincinnati, Ohio. SCORPION is currently deployed in Operations Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Enduring Freedom (OEF). The SCORPION universal gateway is a flexible, field programmable system that provides integration of over forty Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) types from a variety of manufacturers, multiple visible and thermal electro-optical (EO) imagers, and numerous long haul satellite and terrestrial communications links, including the Army Research Lab (ARL) Blue Radio. Xetron has been integrating best in class sensors with this universal gateway to provide encrypted data exfiltration and remote sensor command and control since 1998. SCORPION data can be distributed point to point, or to multiple Common Operational Picture (COP) systems, including Command and Control Personal Computer (C2PC), Common Data Interchange Format for the Situational Awareness Display (CDIF/SAD), Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below (FBCB2), Defense Common Ground Systems (DCGS), and Remote Automated Position Identification System (RAPIDS).

  14. Survey of Clostridium difficile infection surveillance systems in Europe, 2011.

    PubMed

    Kola, Axel; Wiuff, Camilla; Akerlund, Thomas; van Benthem, Birgit H; Coignard, Bruno; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Weitzel-Kage, Doris; Suetens, Carl; Wilcox, Mark H; Kuijper, Ed J; Gastmeier, Petra

    2016-07-21

    To develop a European surveillance protocol for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), existing national CDI surveillance systems were assessed in 2011. A web-based electronic form was provided for all national coordinators of the European CDI Surveillance Network (ECDIS-Net). Of 35 national coordinators approached, 33 from 31 European countries replied. Surveillance of CDI was in place in 14 of the 31 countries, comprising 18 different nationwide systems. Three of 14 countries with CDI surveillance used public health notification of cases as the route of reporting, and in another three, reporting was limited to public health notification of cases of severe CDI. The CDI definitions published by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) were widely used, but there were differing definitions to distinguish between community- and healthcare-associated cases. All CDI surveillance systems except one reported annual national CDI rates (calculated as number of cases per patient-days). Only four surveillance systems regularly integrated microbiological data (typing and susceptibility testing results). Surveillance methods varied considerably between countries, which emphasises the need for a harmonised European protocol to allow consistent monitoring of the CDI epidemiology at European level. The results of this survey were used to develop a harmonised EU-wide hospital-based CDI surveillance protocol. PMID:27469420

  15. SCORPION II persistent surveillance system update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coster, Michael; Chambers, Jon

    2010-04-01

    This paper updates the improvements and benefits demonstrated in the next generation Northrop Grumman SCORPION II family of persistent surveillance and target recognition systems produced by the Xetron Campus in Cincinnati, Ohio. SCORPION II reduces the size, weight, and cost of all SCORPION components in a flexible, field programmable system that is easier to conceal and enables integration of over fifty different Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) and camera types from a variety of manufacturers, with a modular approach to supporting multiple Line of Sight (LOS) and Beyond Line of Sight (BLOS) communications interfaces. Since 1998 Northrop Grumman has been integrating best in class sensors with its proven universal modular Gateway to provide encrypted data exfiltration to Common Operational Picture (COP) systems and remote sensor command and control. In addition to feeding COP systems, SCORPION and SCORPION II data can be directly processed using a common sensor status graphical user interface (GUI) that allows for viewing and analysis of images and sensor data from up to seven hundred SCORPION system gateways on single or multiple displays. This GUI enables a large amount of sensor data and imagery to be used for actionable intelligence as well as remote sensor command and control by a minimum number of analysts.

  16. Respondent driven sampling for HIV biological and behavioral surveillance in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Montealegre, Jane R; Johnston, Lisa G; Murrill, Christopher; Monterroso, Edgar

    2013-09-01

    Since 2005, respondent driven sampling (RDS) has been widely used for HIV biological and behavioral surveillance surveys (BBSS) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). In this manuscript, we provide a focused review of RDS among hard-to-reach high-risk populations in LAC and describe their principal operational, design, and analytical considerations. We reviewed published and unpublished reports, protocols, and manuscripts for RDS studies conducted in LAC between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2011. We abstracted key operational information and generated summary statistics across all studies. Between 2005 and 2011, 87 RDS studies were conducted in 15 countries in LAC (68 % in South America, 18 % in Mexico and Central America, and 14 % in the Caribbean). The target populations were primarily men who have sex with men (43 %), sex workers (29 %), and drug users (26 %). Study considerations included establishing clear eligibility criteria, measuring social network sizes, collecting specimens for biological testing, among others. Most of the reviewed studies are the first in their respective countries to collect data on hard-to-reach populations and the first attempt to use a probability-based sampling method. These RDS studies allowed researchers and public health practitioners in LAC to access hard-to-reach HIV high-risk populations and collect valuable data on the prevalence of HIV and other infections, as well as related risk behaviors. PMID:23568227

  17. Profile: Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark A; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Mokoena, Obed; Twine, Rhian; Mee, Paul; Afolabi, Sulaimon A; Clark, Benjamin D; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W; Khosa, Audrey; Khoza, Simon; Shabangu, Mildred G; Silaule, Bernard; Tibane, Jeffrey B; Wagner, Ryan G; Garenne, Michel L; Clark, Samuel J; Tollman, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    The Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system (HDSS), located in rural northeast South Africa close to the Mozambique border, was established in 1992 to support district health systems development led by the post-apartheid ministry of health. The HDSS (90 000 people), based on an annual update of resident status and vital events, now supports multiple investigations into the causes and consequences of complex health, population and social transitions. Observational work includes cohorts focusing on different stages along the life course, evaluation of national policy at population, household and individual levels and examination of household responses to shocks and stresses and the resulting pathways influencing health and well-being. Trials target children and adolescents, including promoting psycho-social well-being, preventing HIV transmission and reducing metabolic disease risk. Efforts to enhance the research platform include using automated measurement techniques to estimate cause of death by verbal autopsy, full ‘reconciliation’ of in- and out-migrations, follow-up of migrants departing the study area, recording of extra-household social connections and linkage of individual HDSS records with those from sub-district clinics. Fostering effective collaborations (including INDEPTH multi-centre work in adult health and ageing and migration and urbanization), ensuring cross-site compatibility of common variables and optimizing public access to HDSS data are priorities. PMID:22933647

  18. Electronic integrated disease surveillance system and pathogen asset control system.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Tom G; Burdakov, Aleksey V; Oukharov, Andrey O; Zhilokov, Azamat K

    2012-01-01

    Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). PMID:23327375

  19. Secure Video Surveillance System (SVSS) for unannounced safeguards inspections.

    SciTech Connect

    Galdoz, Erwin G. , Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); Pinkalla, Mark

    2010-09-01

    The Secure Video Surveillance System (SVSS) is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC). The joint project addresses specific requirements of redundant surveillance systems installed in two South American nuclear facilities as a tool to support unannounced inspections conducted by ABACC and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The surveillance covers the critical time (as much as a few hours) between the notification of an inspection and the access of inspectors to the location in facility where surveillance equipment is installed. ABACC and the IAEA currently use the EURATOM Multiple Optical Surveillance System (EMOSS). This outdated system is no longer available or supported by the manufacturer. The current EMOSS system has met the project objective; however, the lack of available replacement parts and system support has made this system unsustainable and has increased the risk of an inoperable system. A new system that utilizes current technology and is maintainable is required to replace the aging EMOSS system. ABACC intends to replace one of the existing ABACC EMOSS systems by the Secure Video Surveillance System. SVSS utilizes commercial off-the shelf (COTS) technologies for all individual components. Sandia National Laboratories supported the system design for SVSS to meet Safeguards requirements, i.e. tamper indication, data authentication, etc. The SVSS consists of two video surveillance cameras linked securely to a data collection unit. The collection unit is capable of retaining historical surveillance data for at least three hours with picture intervals as short as 1sec. Images in .jpg format are available to inspectors using various software review tools. SNL has delivered two SVSS systems for test and evaluation at the ABACC Safeguards Laboratory. An additional 'proto-type' system remains

  20. Increasing HIV-1 Drug Resistance Between 2010 and 2012 in Adults Participating in Population-Based HIV Surveillance in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Manasa, Justen; Danaviah, Siva; Lessells, Richard; Elshareef, Muna; Tanser, Frank; Wilkinson, Eduan; Pillay, Sureshnee; Mthiyane, Hloniphile; Mwambi, Henry; Pillay, Deenan; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2016-08-01

    As more human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients access combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), higher proportions of newly infected patients may be infected with drug-resistant viruses. Regular surveillance of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is required in southern Africa where high rates of transmission persist despite rapid expansion of ART. Dried blood spot samples from cART-naive participants from two rounds of an annual population-based HIV surveillance program in rural KwaZulu-Natal were tested for HIV RNA, and samples with HIV RNA >10,000 copies/ml were genotyped for drug resistance. The 2009 surveillance of drug resistance mutation (SDRM) list was used for drug resistance interpretation. The data were added to previously published data from the same program, and the χ(2) test for trend was used to test for trend in estimated prevalence of any TDR. Seven hundred and one participants' data were analyzed: 67 (2010), 381 (2011), and 253 (2012). No TDR was detected in 2010. Years 2011 and 2012 had 18 participants with SDRMs 4.7% and 7.1%, respectively (p = .02, χ(2) test for trend). The nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutation, K103N, was the most common mutation, occurring in 27 (3.8%) of the participants, while nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) SDRMs were detected in 10 (1.4%) of the participants, of whom eight had only a single NRTI SDRM. The increase in levels of drug resistance observed in this population could be a signal of increasing transmission of drug-resistant HIV. Thus, continued surveillance is critical to inform public health policies around HIV treatment and prevention. PMID:27002368

  1. Increasing HIV-1 Drug Resistance Between 2010 and 2012 in Adults Participating in Population-Based HIV Surveillance in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Danaviah, Siva; Lessells, Richard; Elshareef, Muna; Tanser, Frank; Wilkinson, Eduan; Pillay, Sureshnee; Mthiyane, Hloniphile; Mwambi, Henry; Pillay, Deenan; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As more human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients access combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), higher proportions of newly infected patients may be infected with drug-resistant viruses. Regular surveillance of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is required in southern Africa where high rates of transmission persist despite rapid expansion of ART. Dried blood spot samples from cART-naive participants from two rounds of an annual population-based HIV surveillance program in rural KwaZulu-Natal were tested for HIV RNA, and samples with HIV RNA >10,000 copies/ml were genotyped for drug resistance. The 2009 surveillance of drug resistance mutation (SDRM) list was used for drug resistance interpretation. The data were added to previously published data from the same program, and the χ2 test for trend was used to test for trend in estimated prevalence of any TDR. Seven hundred and one participants' data were analyzed: 67 (2010), 381 (2011), and 253 (2012). No TDR was detected in 2010. Years 2011 and 2012 had 18 participants with SDRMs 4.7% and 7.1%, respectively (p = .02, χ2 test for trend). The nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutation, K103N, was the most common mutation, occurring in 27 (3.8%) of the participants, while nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) SDRMs were detected in 10 (1.4%) of the participants, of whom eight had only a single NRTI SDRM. The increase in levels of drug resistance observed in this population could be a signal of increasing transmission of drug-resistant HIV. Thus, continued surveillance is critical to inform public health policies around HIV treatment and prevention. PMID:27002368

  2. Potential Impact of Integrating HIV Surveillance and Clinic Data on Retention-in-Care Estimates and Re-Engagement Efforts.

    PubMed

    Enns, Eva A; Reilly, Cavan S; Virnig, Beth A; Baker, Karen; Vogenthaler, Nicholas; Henry, Keith

    2016-09-01

    Retention in care is essential to the health of people living with HIV and also for their communities. We sought to quantify the value of integrating HIV surveillance data with clinical records for improving the accuracy of retention-in-care estimates and the efficiency of efforts to re-engage out-of-care patients. Electronic medical records (EMRs) of HIV+ patients ≥18 years old from a public, hospital-based clinic in Minneapolis, MN between 2008 and 2014 were merged with state surveillance data on HIV-related laboratory tests, out-of-state relocation, and mortality. We calculated levels of retention and estimated the number of required case investigations to re-engage patients who appeared to be out of care over the study period with and without surveillance data integration. Retention was measured as the proportion of years in compliance with Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) guidelines (two clinical encounters >90 days apart annually) and the proportion of patients experiencing a gap in care >12 months. With data integration, retention estimates improved from an average HRSA compliance of 70.3% using EMR data alone to 77.5% with surveillance data, whereas the proportion of patients experiencing a >12-month gap in care decreased from 45.0% to 34.4%. If case investigations to re-engage patients were initiated after a 12-month gap in care, surveillance data would avoid 330 (29.3%) investigations over the study period. Surveillance data integration improves the accuracy of retention-in-care estimates and would avert a substantial number of unnecessary case investigations for patients who appear to be out of care but, in fact, receive care elsewhere or have died. PMID:27610462

  3. Profile: Nanoro Health and Demographic Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Derra, Karim; Rouamba, Eli; Kazienga, Adama; Ouedraogo, Sayouba; Tahita, Marc C; Sorgho, Hermann; Valea, Innocent; Tinto, Halidou

    2012-10-01

    The Nanoro Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), located in the rural centre of Burkina Faso, was established in 2009 by the Clinical Research Unit of Nanoro with the aim of providing a core framework for clinical trials and also to support the Burkina Faso health authorities in generating epidemiological data that can contribute to the setup and assessment of health interventions. In the baseline of initial census, 54 781 individuals were recorded of whom 56.1% are female. After the initial census, vital events such as pregnancies, births, migrations and deaths have been monitored, and data on individuals and household characteristics are updated during regular 4-monthly household visits. The available data are categorized into demographic, cultural, socio-economic and health information, and are used for monitoring and evaluation of population development issues. As a young site, our objective has been to strengthen our skills and knowledge and share new scientific experiences with INDEPTH and HDSS sites in Burkina Faso. In addition, all data produced by the Nanoro HDSS will be made publicly available through the INDEPTH data sharing system. PMID:23045201

  4. Surveillance of HIV and syphilis infections among antenatal clinic attendees in Tanzania-2003/2004

    PubMed Central

    Swai, Roland O; Somi G, Geofrey R; Matee, Mecky IN; Killewo, Japhet; Lyamuya, Eligius F; Kwesigabo, Gideon; Tulli, Tuhuma; Kabalimu, Titus K; Ng'ang'a, Lucy; Isingo, Raphael; Ndayongeje, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper presents the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis infections among women attending antenatal clinics (ANC) in Tanzania obtained during the 2003/2004 ANC surveillance. Methods Ten geographical regions; six of them were involved in a previous survey, while the remaining four were freshly selected on the basis of having the largest population among the remaining 20 regions. For each region, six ANC were selected, two from each of three strata (urban, peri-urban and rural). Three of the sites did not participate, resulting into 57 surveyed clinics. 17,813 women who were attending the chosen clinics for the first time for any pregnancy between October 2003 and January 2004. Patient particulars were obtained by interview and blood specimens were drawn for HIV and syphilis testing. HIV testing was done anonymously and the results were unlinked. Results Of the 17,813 women screened for HIV, 1,545 (8.7% (95% CI = 8.3–9.1)) tested positive with the highest prevalence in women aged 25–34 years (11%), being higher among single women (9.7%) than married women (8.6%) (p < 0.07), and increased with level of education from 5.2% among women with no education to 9.3% among those at least primary education (p < 0.001). Prevalence ranged from 4.8% (95% CI = 3.8% – 9.8%) in Kagera to 15.3% (95% CI = 13.9% – 16.8%) in Mbeya and was; 3.7%, 4.7%, 9.1%, 11.2% and 15.3% for rural, semi-urban, road side, urban and 15.3% border clinics, respectively (p < 0.001). Of the 17,323 women screened for syphilis, 1265 (7.3% (95%CI = 6.9–7.7)) were positive, with highest prevalence in the age group 35–49 yrs (10.4%) (p < 0.001), and being higher among women with no education than those with some education (9.8% versus 6.8%) (p < 0.0001), but marital status had no influence. Prevalence ranged from 2.1% (95% CI = 1.4% – 3.0%) in Kigoma to 14.9% (95% CI = 13.3%-16.6%) in Kagera and was 16.0% (95% CI = 13.3–18.9), 10.5% (95% CI = 9.5–11

  5. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) software requirements specification (SRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Glasscock, J.A.; Flanagan, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) Database, an Impact Level 3Q system. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organization with the requirements for the SACS Project.

  6. Early Warning Expert System for Equipment Operability Surveillance

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-12-18

    EWES is an Al-based expert system for signal validation and sensor operability surveillance in industrial applications that require high-reliability, high-sensitivity annunciation of degraded sensors, discrepant signals, or the onset or incipience of system disturbances.

  7. Date of first positive HIV test: reliability of information collected for HIV/AIDS surveillance in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, H. Irene; Li, Jianmin; Campsmith, Michael; Sweeny, Patricia; Lee, Lisa M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the reliability of the first positive HIV test date reported in the U.S. HIV/AIDS Reporting System (HARS). This date is essential to determine case counts for resource allocation for HIV treatment and prevention efforts. METHODS: The dates of first positive HIV tests reported by individuals with HIV in an interview survey conducted in 16 states (n=16,394, interviewed 1995-2002) were compared with the dates of HIV diagnosis reported to HARS. The percentage of agreement for the year of diagnosis and the weighed kappa (k) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated. RESULTS: Self-reported year of diagnosis agreed with the year of diagnosis in HARS for 56% of date pairs (k=0.69; 95% CI 0.68, 0.70); 30% reported an earlier diagnosis year. Agreement differed by sex, age, race, exposure, and reason or place of testing (p<.01). Lower agreement was found when the self-reported diagnostic test was anonymous (k=0.57; 95% CI 0.52, 0.62) compared with confidential tests (k=0.66; 95% CI 0.64, 0.68). Lower agreement was also found for cases first reported with AIDS (k=0.58; 95% CI 0.55, 0.62) compared with cases first reported with HIV not AIDS (k=0.71; 95% CI 0.70, 0.73) as well as for participants interviewed three years or more after their HARS diagnosis date (k=0.55; 95% CI 0.52, 0.57) compared with those interviewed within one year (k=0.62; 95% CI 0.61, 0.63). More than 20% of participants in almost all groups, however, reported earlier diagnosis years than those recorded in HARS. CONCLUSION: As many as 30% of HIV diagnoses may have occurred earlier than recorded in HARS. Additional studies need to determine mechanisms to adequately capture diagnosis dates in HARS. PMID:15736337

  8. Real Time Wide Area Radiation Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biafore, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). Within this project, we propose a novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance. The system is based on the integration of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit will include a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station which also uses a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system will also incorporate middleware and high level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information, and that will offer top level functionalities as management of users, mobile tags and environment data and alarms, database storage and management and a web-based graphical user interface. Effort will be spent to ensure that the software is modular and re-usable across as many architectural levels as possible. Finally, an expert system will continuously analyze the information from the radiation sensor and correlate it with historical data from the tag location in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. The system will be useful for many different scenarios, including such lost radioactive sources and radioactive contamination. It will be possible to deploy in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment. The sensing units will be highly portable thanks to their low size and low energy consumption. The complete system will be scalable in terms of complexity and cost and will offer very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system will allow for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a

  9. Surveillance system for hepatitis C infection: A practical approach

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Najmeh; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Ataei, Behrooz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious public health concern throughout the world. Despite its public health prominence, however, how surveillance systems for hepatitis C should be designed is still a challenging issue especially in developing countries such as Iran. Establishing a surveillance system needs an ongoing process of case investigation, data collection, analysis of data and also dissemination of data to public health professionals and health care providers. This review article tries to provide the best recommendations for planning and implantation a surveillance system for HCV infection. PMID:22826770

  10. A new video surveillance system based on AVS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tingwan; Chen, Chaofeng

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the key technology of current video surveillance systems, compared the performances, prices, and the prospects between the H.264 and AVS codec technologies, studied the advantages and disadvantages of different designs, particularly the data transmission, terminal reception facilities, decoding and demonstration of the video surveillance systems. We have optimized the core algorithms such as intra prediction, inter prediction and fast motion estimation, and performed some relevant simulations for these algorithms. Experimental results show that these new algorithms simplified the design and speeded up the compression rate. From the simulation results, we proposed a new video surveillance system based on AVS. The program reached low price, high efficiency, fast, high image quality, convenient application and operation, greatly improved the current video surveillance systems.

  11. HIV and AIDS, other sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis in ethnic minorities in United Kingdom: is surveillance serving its purpose?

    PubMed Central

    De Cock, K. M.; Low, N.

    1997-01-01

    Experience of disease differs across ethnic groups, and ethnicity is a relevant personal characteristic for descriptive epidemiology. Information about ethnicity and country of birth is omitted from the routine notification of many diseases. HIV infection and AIDS, other sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis have different incidence rates in different ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Omission of ethnic data from surveillance activities allows such differences in incidence to go undetected and unaddressed. Surveillance data that included ethnic details could guide interventions to reduce inequalities in health between different subpopulations. PMID:9202508

  12. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Rufiji HDSS).

    PubMed

    Mrema, Sigilbert; Kante, Almamy M; Levira, Francis; Mono, Amaniel; Irema, Kahema; de Savigny, Don; Masanja, Honorati

    2015-04-01

    The Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) was established in October 1998 to evaluate the impact on burden of disease of health system reforms based on locally generated data, prioritization, resource allocation and planning for essential health interventions. The Rufiji HDSS collects detailed information on health and survival and provides a framework for population-based health research of relevance to local and national health priorities.In December 2012 the population under surveillance was about 105,503 people, residing in 19,315 households. Monitoring of households and members within households is undertaken in regular 6-month cycles known as 'rounds'. Self reported information is collected on demographic, household, socioeconomic and geographical characteristics. Verbal autopsy is conducted using standardized questionnaires, to determine probable causes of death. In conjunction with core HDSS activities, the ongoing studies in Rufiji HDSS focus on maternal and new-born health, evaluation of safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) exposure in early pregnancy and the clinical safety of a fixed dose of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQP) in the community. Findings of studies conducted in Rufiji HDSS can be accessed at www.ihi.or.tz/IHI-Digital-Library. PMID:25747869

  13. [Proposal to establish an environmental contaminants surveillance system in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Huertas, Jancy Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Environmental pollution is a growing problem that negatively impacts health with social and economic high costs. In this sense, coordinated surveillance of conditions, risks, exposures and health effects related to pollution is a useful tool to guide decision-making processes. The objective of this essay was to describe a surveillance system for environmental contaminants in Colombia and its design background. Using the technical guidelines proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, a literature review was conducted to identify the key elements to be included in such surveillance system and to establish which of these elements were already present in the Colombian context. Moreover, these findings were compared with successful experiences in Latin America. The surveillance system includes five components: Epidemiological, environmental and biological surveillance, clinical monitoring and recommendations to guide policies or interventions. The key factors for a successful surveillance system are: interdisciplinary and inter-sector work, clear definition of functions, activities, data sources and information flow. The implementation of the system will be efficient if the structures and tools existing in each country are taken into account. The most important stakeholders are inter-sector public health and environmental commissions and government institutions working in research and surveillance issues related to health, sanitation, environment, drugs and food regulation and control. In conclusion, Colombia has the technical resources and a normative framework to design and implement the surveillance system. However, stakeholders´ coordination is essential to ensure the efficacy of the system so it may guide the implementation of cost-effective actions in environmental health. PMID:26535737

  14. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report: U.S. HIV and AIDS Cases Reported through December 2001. Year-End Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This report presents tables on: persons reported to be living with HIV infection and AIDS, by area and age group; AIDS cases and annual rates and HIV infection cases, by area and age group; male and female adult/adolescent annual AIDS and HIV infection rates; AIDS and HIV cases by age group, exposure category, and sex; male and female…

  15. Internet-based surveillance systems for monitoring emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Milinovich, Gabriel J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A; Hu, Wenbiao

    2014-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases present a complex challenge to public health officials and governments; these challenges have been compounded by rapidly shifting patterns of human behaviour and globalisation. The increase in emerging infectious diseases has led to calls for new technologies and approaches for detection, tracking, reporting, and response. Internet-based surveillance systems offer a novel and developing means of monitoring conditions of public health concern, including emerging infectious diseases. We review studies that have exploited internet use and search trends to monitor two such diseases: influenza and dengue. Internet-based surveillance systems have good congruence with traditional surveillance approaches. Additionally, internet-based approaches are logistically and economically appealing. However, they do not have the capacity to replace traditional surveillance systems; they should not be viewed as an alternative, but rather an extension. Future research should focus on using data generated through internet-based surveillance and response systems to bolster the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for emerging infectious diseases. PMID:24290841

  16. Laboratory for testing electro-optical surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, K.

    2011-05-01

    A modern laboratory capable to carry out expanded tests of all types of electro-optical surveillance systems (thermal imagers, TV/LLLTV cameras, night vision devices, laser range finders/designators/illuminators, multi-sensor surveillance systems) and basic modules of such surveillance systems (IR FPA/CCD/CMOS/EBAPS sensors, image intensifier tubes, optical objectives) was developed and is presented in this paper. The laboratory can be treated as a both scientific and technical achievement due to its several features. First, all important parameters of modern electro-optical surveillance systems or parameters of basic modules of such systems can be measured. Second, the laboratory is built using a set of semi-independent modular test stations. This modular concept enables easy creations of many versions optimized for different applications. Third, interpretation of the measurement data is supported by a set of specialized computer simulation programs. Fourth, all tests stations in the laboratory were developed by the same design team and are based on similar test concepts.. Because of these features the laboratory of electro-optical surveillance technology presented in this paper can be an optimal solutions for scientific centers or industrial companies who plan to enter and make quick progress in all main areas of surveillance technology.

  17. Conceptual Design of a European Space Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donath, T.; Michal, T.; Vanwijck, X.; Dugrosprez, B.; Flohrer, T.; Schildknecht, T.

    Space Surveillance denotes the task of systematically surveying and tracking all objects above a certain size and maintaining a catalogue with updated orbital and physical characteristics for these objects Space Surveillance is gaining increased importance as the operational safety of spacecraft is depending on it Presently Europe has no operational capability for Space Surveillance and is strongly dependant on external information from the USA and Russia Two design studies for a European Space Surveillance System ESSS were conducted for ESA since 2002 These studies have proposed a system covering the LEO MEO and GEO orbit regions This system associates dedicated sensors with the required survey strategies allowing for the autonomous maintenance of an orbital parameters catalogue including cold start capability Concerning the LEO surveillance system the main findings are the following begin itemize item For the surveillance of objects larger than 10 cm a survey strategy using a UHF bistatic radar with a large field of view 20 r in elevation and 180 r in azimuth and a long range 1500 km for a 10 cm sphere is proposed This proposition is based on the French experience with the GRAVES system development An interesting European location for this radar would be Spain item The optimal frequency for the detection of such objects is around 600 MHz UHF This option is very risky from the point of view of frequency allocation since it is reserved for TV broadcasting The 435 MHz frequency UHF also appears to be a good alternative in

  18. Multilevel Analysis of the Predictors of HIV Prevalence among Pregnant Women Enrolled in Annual HIV Sentinel Surveillance in Four States in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Thamattoor, Usha; Thomas, Tinku; Banandur, Pradeep; S, Rajaram; Duchesne, Thierry; Abdous, Belkacem; Washington, Reynold; B M, Ramesh; Moses, Stephen; Alary, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Background Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic across districts of south India is reflected in HIV positivity among antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees. Along with individual factors, contextual factors also need consideration for effective HIV interventions. Thus, identifying district and individual level factors that influence ANC HIV positivity assumes importance to intervene effectively. Methods Data on HIV sentinel surveillance among the ANC population were obtained from the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) between years 2004 and 2007. Data from serial cross-sectional studies among female sex workers (FSWs) conducted during this time period in 24 districts were used to generate district level variables corresponding to parameters concerning this high risk population. Other district level data were obtained from various official/governmental agencies. Multilevel logistic regression was used to identify individual and district level factors associated with ANC-HIV positivity. Results The average ANC-HIV prevalence from 2004 to 2007 in the 24 integrated biological and behavioural assessments (IBBA) districts ranged from 0.25 to 3.25%. HIV positivity was significantly higher among ANC women with age≥25 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR):1.49; 95% confidence interval (95%CI):1.27 to 1.76] compared to those with age<25 years; illiterate (AOR:1.62; 95%CI:1.03 to 2.54) compared to literate; employed in agriculture (AOR:1.34; 95%CI:1.11 to 1.62) or with occupations like driver/helper/industry/factory workers/hotel staff (AOR:1.59; 95%CI:1.26 to 2.01) compared to unemployed. District level HIV prevalence among FSWs (AOR:1.03; 95%CI:1.0 to 1.05) and percentage women marrying under 18 years were significantly associated with ANC-HIV positivity (AOR:1.02; 95%CI:1.00 to 1.04). Conclusion Illiteracy of the woman, higher HIV prevalence among FSWs and early marriage were associated with HIV positivity among pregnant women in southern India. In addition to targeted HIV

  19. Surveillance for quality assessment: IV. Surveillance using a hospital information system.

    PubMed

    Classen, D C; Burke, J P; Pestotnik, S L; Evans, R S; Stevens, L E

    1991-04-01

    Hospital surveillance for infection control purposes is a well-accepted method of following nosocomial infections in U.S. hospitals. However, hospital surveillance is being increasingly performed for nosocomial events in noninfectious areas, such as quality assurance and other areas of outcomes research. For the continued development of hospital surveillance in all these areas, dramatic growth in the amount of information collected will occur. To accommodate this growth and to validate new approaches in these areas, large amounts of data collection will be necessary. Collection of these data will be quite difficult without the creation of clinical hospital data bases in which large amounts of information are collected as a routine part of patient care, not as an elaborate addition to patient care. Automated hospital information systems, such as the HELP system, can facilitate the conduct of ongoing hospital surveillance not only in infection control but also in a broad range of areas, such as quality improvement outcomes research and cost-containment areas. PMID:2061582

  20. Descriptive review of tuberculosis surveillance systems across the circumpolar regions

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois, Annie-Claude; Zulz, Tammy; Soborg, Bolette; Koch, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is highly prevalent in many Arctic areas. Members of the International Circumpolar Surveillance Tuberculosis (ICS-TB) Working Group collaborate to increase knowledge about tuberculosis in Arctic regions. Objective To establish baseline knowledge of tuberculosis surveillance systems used by ICS-TB member jurisdictions. Design Three questionnaires were developed to reflect the different surveillance levels (local, regional and national); all 3 were forwarded to the official representative of each of the 15 ICS-TB member jurisdictions in 2013. Respondents self-identified the level of surveillance conducted in their region and completed the applicable questionnaire. Information collected included surveillance system objectives, case definitions, data collection methodology, storage and dissemination. Results Thirteen ICS-TB jurisdictions [Canada (Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nunavik, Nunavut, Yukon), Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Federation (Arkhangelsk, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, Yakutia (Sakha Republic), United States (Alaska)] voluntarily completed the survey – representing 2 local, 7 regional and 4 national levels. Tuberculosis reporting is mandatory in all jurisdictions, and case definitions are comparable across regions. The common objectives across systems are to detect outbreaks, and inform the evaluation/planning of public health programmes and policies. All jurisdictions collect data on confirmed active tuberculosis cases and treatment outcomes; 11 collect contact tracing results. Faxing of standardized case reporting forms is the most common reporting method. Similar core data elements are collected; 8 regions report genotyping results. Data are stored using customized programmes (n=7) and commercial software (n=6). Nine jurisdictions provide monthly, bi-annual or annual reports to principally government and/or scientific/medical audiences. Conclusion This review successfully establishes baseline knowledge

  1. Next Generation Space Surveillance System-of-Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McShane, B.

    2014-09-01

    International economic and military dependence on space assets is pervasive and ever-growing in an environment that is now congested, contested, and competitive. There are a number of natural and man-made risks that need to be monitored and characterized to protect and preserve the space environment and the assets within it. Unfortunately, today's space surveillance network (SSN) has gaps in coverage, is not resilient, and has a growing number of objects that get lost. Risks can be efficiently and effectively mitigated, gaps closed, resiliency improved, and performance increased within a next generation space surveillance network implemented as a system-of-systems with modern information architectures and analytic techniques. This also includes consideration for the newest SSN sensors (e.g. Space Fence) which are born Net-Centric out-of-the-box and able to seamlessly interface with the JSpOC Mission System, global information grid, and future unanticipated users. Significant opportunity exists to integrate legacy, traditional, and non-traditional sensors into a larger space system-of-systems (including command and control centers) for multiple clients through low cost sustainment, modification, and modernization efforts. Clients include operations centers (e.g. JSpOC, USSTRATCOM, CANSPOC), Intelligence centers (e.g. NASIC), space surveillance sensor sites (e.g. AMOS, GEODSS), international governments (e.g. Germany, UK), space agencies (e.g. NASA), and academic institutions. Each has differing priorities, networks, data needs, timeliness, security, accuracy requirements and formats. Enabling processes and technologies include: Standardized and type accredited methods for secure connections to multiple networks, machine-to-machine interfaces for near real-time data sharing and tip-and-queue activities, common data models for analytical processing across multiple radar and optical sensor types, an efficient way to automatically translate between differing client and

  2. Report on Surveillance Systems in Community College Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holleman, Peggy

    1983-01-01

    Details the results of a survey on surveillance systems in community college libraries. Lists the security systems utilized by 88 responding libraries and discusses the effectiveness of the individual systems. Finds 3M Tattletape and Check Point the most used systems. (CBC)

  3. HIV infection and the gastrointestinal immune system

    PubMed Central

    Brenchley, JM; Douek, DC

    2009-01-01

    There has recently been a resurgence of interest in the gastrointestinal pathology observed in patients infected with HIV. The gastrointestinal tract is a major site of HIV replication, which results in massive depletion of lamina propria CD4 T cells during acute infection. Highly active antiretroviral therapy leads to incomplete suppression of viral replication and substantially delayed and only partial restoration of gastrointestinal CD4 T cells. The gastrointestinal pathology associated with HIV infection comprises significant enteropathy with increased levels of inflammation and decreased levels of mucosal repair and regeneration. Assessment of gut mucosal immune system has provided novel directions for therapeutic interventions that modify the consequences of acute HIV infection. PMID:19079157

  4. Challenges in building health surveillance systems in saudi arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Saleem, Nouf; Househ, Mowafa; El Metwally, Ashraf

    2014-01-01

    This paper is aiming to briefly discuss the role of health surveillance system in strengthening public health at both the local and global level and the use of health informatics in effectively creating a database of health status for the population of Saudi Arabia. This review will specifically focus on the challenges that face the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in order to effectively implement surveillance programs making use of advances in health information technology. Data collection was performed through a web-based retrieval of reports and articles and via an interview with an epidemiologist in the Saudi Ministry of Health Surveillance unit. Based on the results of this research, it was found that the use of technology has led to an improvement in communication between various stakeholders (e.g. clinicians, epidemiologists, and decision makers) by providing timely and accurate information needed for informed decision making. However, implementing an ideal model of surveillance systems in Saudi Arabia faces many challenges particularly in training healthcare providers to be qualified and competent enough to ensure the successful implementation of a disease surveillance system. PMID:25000066

  5. HIV Drug Resistance Surveillance Among Jamaican Men Who Have Sex with Men Should Be Prioritized for Reducing HIV Transmission.

    PubMed

    Collins-Fairclough, Aneisha M; Dennis, Ann M; Nelson, Julie A E; Weir, Sharon S; Figueroa, J Peter

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is highest among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jamaica but no genotypic data are available on the virus strains that are responsible for the epidemic among this key population. HIV-1 polymerase (pol) genes from 65 MSM were sequenced and used to predict drug resistance mutations. An HIV drug resistance prevalence of 28% (minimum 13%) was observed among this cohort, with the most frequent mutations conferring resistance to efavirenz, nevirapine, and lamivudine. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences revealed 10 times the number of linked HIV infections among this cohort than respondent reporting. HIV treatment and prevention efforts in Jamaica could benefit significantly from Pol genotyping of the HIV strains infecting socially vulnerable MSM prior to initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), as this would guide suppressive ART and unearth HIV transmission clusters to enable more effective delivery of treatment and prevention programs. PMID:26133540

  6. HIV Drug Resistance Surveillance Among Jamaican Men Who Have Sex with Men Should Be Prioritized for Reducing HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Ann M.; Nelson, Julie A.E.; Weir, Sharon S.; Figueroa, J. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is highest among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jamaica but no genotypic data are available on the virus strains that are responsible for the epidemic among this key population. HIV-1 polymerase (pol) genes from 65 MSM were sequenced and used to predict drug resistance mutations. An HIV drug resistance prevalence of 28% (minimum 13%) was observed among this cohort, with the most frequent mutations conferring resistance to efavirenz, nevirapine, and lamivudine. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences revealed 10 times the number of linked HIV infections among this cohort than respondent reporting. HIV treatment and prevention efforts in Jamaica could benefit significantly from Pol genotyping of the HIV strains infecting socially vulnerable MSM prior to initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), as this would guide suppressive ART and unearth HIV transmission clusters to enable more effective delivery of treatment and prevention programs. PMID:26133540

  7. Sentinel surveillance system for early outbreak detection in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Following the outbreak of chikungunya in the Indian Ocean, the Ministry of Health directed the necessary development of an early outbreak detection system. A disease surveillance team including the Institut Pasteur in Madagascar (IPM) was organized to establish a sentinel syndromic-based surveillance system. The system, which was set up in March 2007, transmits patient data on a daily basis from the various voluntary general practitioners throughout the six provinces of the country to the IPM. We describe the challenges and steps involved in developing a sentinel surveillance system and the well-timed information it provides for improving public health decision-making. Methods Surveillance was based on data collected from sentinel general practitioners (SGP). The SGPs report the sex, age, visit date and time, and symptoms of each new patient weekly, using forms addressed to the management team. However, the system is original in that SGPs also report data at least once a day, from Monday to Friday (number of fever cases, rapid test confirmed malaria, influenza, arboviral syndromes or diarrhoeal disease), by cellular telephone (encrypted message SMS). Information can also be validated by the management team, by mobile phone. This data transmission costs 120 ariary per day, less than US$1 per month. Results In 2008, the sentinel surveillance system included 13 health centers, and identified 5 outbreaks. Of the 218,849 visits to SGPs, 12.2% were related to fever syndromes. Of these 26,669 fever cases, 12.3% were related to Dengue-like fever, 11.1% to Influenza-like illness and 9.7% to malaria cases confirmed by a specific rapid diagnostic test. Conclusion The sentinel surveillance system represents the first nationwide real-time-like surveillance system ever established in Madagascar. Our findings should encourage other African countries to develop their own syndromic surveillance systems. Prompt detection of an outbreak of infectious disease may lead to

  8. Information Systems to Support Surveillance for Malaria Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Ohrt, Colin; Roberts, Kathryn W.; Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Wegbreit, Jennifer; Lee, Bruce Y.; Gosling, Roly D.

    2015-01-01

    Robust and responsive surveillance systems are critical for malaria elimination. The ideal information system that supports malaria elimination includes: rapid and complete case reporting, incorporation of related data, such as census or health survey information, central data storage and management, automated and expert data analysis, and customized outputs and feedback that lead to timely and targeted responses. Spatial information enhances such a system, ensuring cases are tracked and mapped over time. Data sharing and coordination across borders are vital and new technologies can improve data speed, accuracy, and quality. Parts of this ideal information system exist and are in use, but have yet to be linked together coherently. Malaria elimination programs should support the implementation and refinement of information systems to support surveillance and response and ensure political and financial commitment to maintain the systems and the human resources needed to run them. National malaria programs should strive to improve the access and utility of these information systems and establish cross-border data sharing mechanisms through the use of standard indicators for malaria surveillance. Ultimately, investment in the information technologies that support a timely and targeted surveillance and response system is essential for malaria elimination. PMID:26013378

  9. Influenza Virus Surveillance in Coordinated Swine Production Systems, United States.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Bryan S; DeBeauchamp, Jennifer; Stigger-Rosser, Evelyn; Franks, John; Crumpton, Jeri Carol; Turner, Jasmine; Darnell, Daniel; Jeevan, Trushar; Kayali, Ghazi; Harding, Abbey; Webby, Richard J; Lowe, James F

    2015-10-01

    To clarify the epidemiology of influenza A viruses in coordinated swine production systems to which no animals from outside the system are introduced, we conducted virologic surveillance during September 2012-September 2013. Animal age, geographic location, and farm type were found to affect the prevalence of these viruses. PMID:26402228

  10. Patterns of knowledge and condom use among population groups: results from the 2005 Ethiopian behavioral surveillance surveys on HIV

    PubMed Central

    Kassie, Getnet M; Mariam, Damen H; Tsui, Amy O

    2008-01-01

    Background Behavioral surveys help interpret the magnitude of HIV/AIDS. We analyzed indicators of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and condom use among sub populations selected for behavioral surveillance in Ethiopia. Methods We used 2005 HIV/AIDS behavioral data from ten target groups. These were female sex workers, defense forces, police force, pastoralists, truck drivers, intercity bus drivers, road construction workers, teachers, factory workers and people in ANC catchment areas. Results Data from 14,524 individuals were analyzed. The majority were males (63.6%). Overall, knowledge of the three preventive methods, misconceptions and comprehensive knowledge was 57%, 75% and 18.5%, respectively. Female sex workers and the defense force showed some behavioral change in using a condom during the most recent sexual encounter and consistently used a condom with non-regular sexual partners and paying partners. Women, pastoralists and the illiterate were less likely to use condom. Conclusion Misconceptions about the transmission of HIV were high and comprehensive knowledge about HIV & AIDS was low, particularly among pastoralists. Consistent condom use and condom use during the last sexual encounter were high among both female sex workers and defense force employees, both with paying and non-regular sexual partners. This might be a positive sign, though a considerable proportion in each target group did not report using a condom during sex with non-regular partners. PMID:19117525

  11. IASM: A System for the Intelligent Active Surveillance of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Chen, Hechang; Gu, Xiao; Bai, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Malaria, a life-threatening infectious disease, spreads rapidly via parasites. Malaria prevention is more effective and efficient than treatment. However, the existing surveillance systems used to prevent malaria are inadequate, especially in areas with limited or no access to medical resources. In this paper, in order to monitor the spreading of malaria, we develop an intelligent surveillance system based on our existing algorithms. First, a visualization function and active surveillance were implemented in order to predict and categorize areas at high risk of infection. Next, socioeconomic and climatological characteristics were applied to the proposed prediction model. Then, the redundancy of the socioeconomic attribute values was reduced using the stepwise regression method to improve the accuracy of the proposed prediction model. The experimental results indicated that the proposed IASM predicted malaria outbreaks more close to the real data and with fewer variables than other models. Furthermore, the proposed model effectively identified areas at high risk of infection. PMID:27563343

  12. IASM: A System for the Intelligent Active Surveillance of Malaria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinlei; Yang, Bo; Huang, Jing; Chen, Hechang; Gu, Xiao; Bai, Yuan; Du, Zhanwei

    2016-01-01

    Malaria, a life-threatening infectious disease, spreads rapidly via parasites. Malaria prevention is more effective and efficient than treatment. However, the existing surveillance systems used to prevent malaria are inadequate, especially in areas with limited or no access to medical resources. In this paper, in order to monitor the spreading of malaria, we develop an intelligent surveillance system based on our existing algorithms. First, a visualization function and active surveillance were implemented in order to predict and categorize areas at high risk of infection. Next, socioeconomic and climatological characteristics were applied to the proposed prediction model. Then, the redundancy of the socioeconomic attribute values was reduced using the stepwise regression method to improve the accuracy of the proposed prediction model. The experimental results indicated that the proposed IASM predicted malaria outbreaks more close to the real data and with fewer variables than other models. Furthermore, the proposed model effectively identified areas at high risk of infection. PMID:27563343

  13. Do HIV Prevalence Trends in ANC Surveillance Represent Trends in the General Population in the ART Era? The Case of Manicaland, East Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Gregson, Simon; Dharmayat, Kanika; Pereboom, Monique; Takaruza, Albert; Mugurungi, Owen; Schur, Nadine; Nyamukapa, Constance A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective National estimates of HIV trends in generalised epidemics rely on HIV prevalence data from antenatal clinic (ANC) surveillance. We investigate whether HIV prevalence trends in ANC data reflect trends in men and women in the general population during the scale-up of anti-retroviral treatment (ART) in Manicaland, Zimbabwe. Methods Trends in HIV prevalence in local ANC attendees and adults aged 15-49yrs in towns, agricultural estates, and villages were compared using five rounds of parallel ANC (N≈1,200) and general-population surveys (N≈10,000) and multi-variable log-linear regression. Changes in the age-pattern of HIV prevalence and the age-distribution of ANC attendees were compared with those in the general population. Age-specific pregnancy prevalence rates were compared by HIV infection and ART status. Results Cumulatively, from 1998-2000 to 2009-2011, HIV prevalence fell by 60.0% (95% CI, 51.1%-67.3%) in ANC surveillance data and by 34.3% (30.8%-37.7%) in the general population. Most of the difference arose following the introduction of ART (2006-2011). The estates and villages reflected this overall pattern but HIV prevalence in the towns was lower at local ANCs than in the general population, largely due to attendance by pregnant women from outlying (lower prevalence) areas. The ageing of people living with HIV in the general population (52.4% aged >35yrs, 2009-2011) was under-represented in the ANC data (12.6%) due to lower fertility in older and HIV-infected women. Conclusion After the introduction of ART in Manicaland, HIV prevalence declined more steeply in ANC surveillance data than in the general population. Models used for HIV estimates must reflect this change in bias. PMID:26372390

  14. Distributed visual-target-surveillance system in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Sheng; Bi, Daowei

    2009-10-01

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a powerful unattended distributed measurement system, which is widely used in target surveillance because of its outstanding performance in distributed sensing and signal processing. This paper introduces a multiview visual-target-surveillance system in WSN, which can autonomously implement target classification and tracking with collaborative online learning and localization. The proposed system is a hybrid system of single-node and multinode fusion. It is constructed on a peer-to-peer (P2P)-based computing paradigm and consists of some simple but feasible methods for target detection and feature extraction. Importantly, a support-vector-machine-based semisupervised learning method is used to achieve online classifier learning with only unlabeled samples. To reduce the energy consumption and increase the accuracy, a novel progressive data-fusion paradigm is proposed for online learning and localization, where a feasible routing method is adopted to implement information transmission with the tradeoff between performance and cost. Experiment results verify that the proposed surveillance system is an effective, energy-efficient, and robust system for real-world application. Furthermore, the P2P-based progressive data-fusion paradigm can improve the energy efficiency and robustness of target surveillance. PMID:19336319

  15. Health & demographic surveillance system profile: the Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Northern Nigeria (Nahuche HDSS).

    PubMed

    Alabi, Olatunji; Doctor, Henry V; Jumare, Abdulazeez; Sahabi, Nasiru; Abdulwahab, Ahmad; Findley, Sally E; Abubakar, Sani D

    2014-12-01

    The Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) study site, established in 2009 with 137 823 individuals is located in Zamfara State, north western Nigeria. North-West Nigeria is a region with one of the worst maternal and child health indicators in Nigeria. For example, the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey estimated an under-five mortality rate of 185 deaths per 1000 live births for the north-west geo-political zone compared with a national average of 128 deaths per 1000 live births. The site comprises over 100 villages under the leadership of six district heads. Virtually all the residents of the catchment population are Hausa by ethnicity. After a baseline census in 2010, regular update rounds of data collection are conducted every 6 months. Data collection on births, deaths, migration events, pregnancies, marriages and marriage termination events are routinely conducted. Verbal autopsy (VA) data are collected on all deaths reported during routine data collection. Annual update data on antenatal care and household characteristics are also collected. Opportunities for collaborations are available at Nahuche HDSS. The Director of Nahuche HDSS, M.O. Oche at [ochedr@hotmail.com] is the contact person for all forms of collaboration. PMID:25399021

  16. Health & Demographic Surveillance System profile: the Muzaffarpur-TMRC Health and Demographic Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Malaviya, Paritosh; Picado, Albert; Hasker, Epco; Ostyn, Bart; Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Rudra Pratap; Shankar, Ravi; Boelaert, Marleen; Sundar, Shyam

    2014-10-01

    The Muzaffarpur-TMRC Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), established in 2007, was developed as an enlargement of the scope of a research collaboration on the project Visceral Leishmaniasis in Bihar, which had been ongoing since 2005. The HDSS is located in a visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-endemic area in the Muzaffarpur district of Bihar state in India. It is the only HDSS conducting research on VL, which is a vector-borne infectious disease transmitted by female phlebotomine sandflies and is fatal if left untreated. Currently the HDSS serves a population of over 105,000 in 66 villages. The HDSS collects data on vital events including pregnancies, births, deaths, migration and marriages, as well as other socio-economic indicators, at regular intervals. Incident VL cases are identified. The HDSS team is experienced in conducting both qualitative and quantitative studies, sample collection and rapid diagnostic tests in the field. In each village, volunteers connect the HDSS team with the community members. The Muzaffarpur-TMRC HDSS provides opportunities for studies on VL and other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and their interaction with demographic events such as migration. Queries related to research collaborations and data sharing can be sent to Dr Shyam Sundar at [drshyamsundar@hotmail.com]. PMID:25186307

  17. Neural Network Based System for Equipment Startup Surveillance

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-12-18

    NEBSESS is a system for equipment surveillance and fault detection which relies on a neural-network based means for diagnosing disturbances during startup and for automatically actuating the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) as a signal validation means during steady-state operation.

  18. Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others

    "Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of these, 3,181…

  19. Enhanced surveillance system based on panomorph panoramic lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, Simon

    2007-04-01

    Modern surveillance and security systems demand a technological approach because only technology can provide highly efficient vigilance, a certainty of detection and a fast response 100% of the time. Recent developments, including new wide-angle lenses, advanced cameras, IP networks and video analysis technology, provide significant improvements in system performance and flexibility. This paper presents a new advanced surveillance system featuring a panoramic Panomorph lens for event detection, recognition and identification over a 360-degree area with 100% coverage. This innovative approach provides enhanced performance with better pixel/cost ratio. Intelligent video technology enables the video camera to be "more" than just a video camera; it allows the panoramic image to follow events (such as moving objects or unauthorized behavior) in real time, which in turn allows the operator to focus his/her activity on a narrow field pan/tilt camera without losing any information in the field. Adding incremental capabilities such as a Panomorph lens-based imager to an existing surveillance video system can provide improvements in operational efficiency and effectiveness. Foreseen applications are in the fields of border surveillance, high-security environments, aerospace and defense, mass transit, public security and wherever the need for total awareness is a prerequisite.

  20. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20...

  1. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20...

  2. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20...

  3. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20...

  4. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20...

  5. Declining HIV Prevalence in Parallel With Safer Sex Behaviors in Burkina Faso: Evidence From Surveillance and Population-Based Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kirakoya-Samadoulougou, Fati; Nagot, Nicolas; Samadoulougou, Sekou; Sokey, Mamadou; Guiré, Abdoulaye; Sombié, Issiaka; Meda, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate trends in HIV prevalence and changes in reported sexual behaviors between 1998 and 2014 in Burkina Faso. Methods: We obtained data on HIV prevalence from antenatal care (ANC) surveillance sites (N = 9) that were consistently included in surveillance between 1998 and 2014. We also analyzed data on HIV prevalence and reported sex behaviors from 3 population-based surveys from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), conducted in 1998–99, 2003, and 2010. Sex behavior indicators comprised never-married youth who have never had sex; sex with more than 1 partner; sex with a nonmarital, non-cohabiting partner; condom use at last sex with a nonmarital, non-cohabiting partner; and sex before age 15. We calculated survey-specific HIV prevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and used the chi-square test or chi-square test for trend to compare HIV prevalence across survey years and to analyze trends in reported sex behaviors. Results: HIV prevalence among pregnant women ages 15–49 decreased by 72% in urban areas, from 7.1% in 1998 to 2.0% in 2014, and by 75% in rural areas, from 2.0% in 2003 to 0.5% in 2014. HIV declined most in younger age groups, which is a good reflection of recent incidence, with declines of 55% among 15–19-year-olds, 72% among 20–24-year-olds, 40% among 25–29-year-olds, and 7% among those ≥30 years old (considering urban and rural data combined). Data reported in the DHS corroborated these declines in HIV prevalence: between 2003 and 2010, HIV prevalence dropped significantly—by 89% among girls ages 15–19, from 0.9% (95% CI, 0.2 to 1.6) to 0.1% (95% CI, 0.0 to 0.4), and by 78% among young women ages 20–24, from 1.8% (95% CI, 1.6 to 3.0) to 0.4% (95% CI, 0.0 to 0.7). During the same time period, people reported safer sex behaviors. For example, significantly higher percentages of never-married youth reported they had never had sex, lower percentages of sexually active youth reported multiple

  6. Design of natural user interface of indoor surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lili; Liu, Dan; Jiang, Mu-Jin; Cao, Ning

    2015-03-01

    Conventional optical video surveillance systems usually just record what they view, but they can't make sense of what they are viewing. With lots of useless video information stored and transmitted, waste of memory space and increasing the bandwidth are produced every day. In order to reduce the overall cost of the system, and improve the application value of the monitoring system, we use the Kinect sensor with CMOS infrared sensor, as a supplement to the traditional video surveillance system, to establish the natural user interface system for indoor surveillance. In this paper, the architecture of the natural user interface system, complex background monitoring object separation, user behavior analysis algorithms are discussed. By the analysis of the monitoring object, instead of the command language grammar, when the monitored object need instant help, the system with the natural user interface sends help information. We introduce the method of combining the new system and traditional monitoring system. In conclusion, theoretical analysis and experimental results in this paper show that the proposed system is reasonable and efficient. It can satisfy the system requirements of non-contact, online, real time, higher precision and rapid speed to control the state of affairs at the scene.

  7. Design and implementation of distributed multimedia surveillance system based on object-oriented middleware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xuesong; Jiang, Ling; Hu, Ruimin

    2006-10-01

    Currently, the applications of surveillance system have been increasingly widespread. But there are few surveillance platforms that can meet the requirement of large-scale, cross-regional, and flexible surveillance business. In the paper, we present a distributed surveillance system platform to improve safety and security of the society. The system is constructed by an object-oriented middleware called as Internet Communications Engine (ICE). This middleware helps our platform to integrate a lot of surveillance resource of the society and accommodate diverse range of surveillance industry requirements. In the follow sections, we will describe in detail the design concepts of system and introduce traits of ICE.

  8. Development of real time alarm/surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Kajiyoshi, M.; Uchida, S.; Suenaga, S.; Iwabuchi, M.; Fujimoto, T.; Yoshimura, A.

    1987-07-01

    PNC has carried out real time alarm/surveillance system as a part of its r and d programs on the physical protection systems for its nuclear facilities from 1984 to 1986. The guard operates a closed circuit television (CCTV) camera to see whether the alarms are caused from intruders or from accident in the existing physical protection systems. But it is very difficult to assess rapidly moving objects using such a TV system. Monitor images are used to be continuously recorded by VTR, but it does not seem to be very suitable or it takes quite a long time to play back. Aiming at more effective and reliable physical protection systems, a new alarm/surveillance system was developed, the system detects persons entering into the surveillance zone and provides effective means to confirm. The system detects moving persons in a double fenced zone using image processing technique. Detection information such as time, position, detected images are displayed, printed and recorded, so that cause of false alarms, if occurred can be found easily.

  9. Launching a National Surveillance System after an earthquake --- Haiti, 2010.

    PubMed

    2010-08-01

    On January 12, 2010, Haiti experienced a magnitude-7.0 earthquake; Haitian government officials estimated that 230,000 persons died and 300,000 were injured. At the time, Haiti had no system capable of providing timely surveillance on a wide range of health conditions. Within 2 weeks, Haiti's Ministry of Public Health and Population (MSPP), the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO), CDC, and other national and international agencies launched the National Sentinel Site Surveillance (NSSS) System. The objectives were to monitor disease trends, detect outbreaks, and characterize the affected population to target relief efforts. Fifty-one hospital and clinic surveillance sites affiliated with the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) were selected to report daily counts by e-mail or telephone for 25 specified reportable conditions. During January 25-April 24, 2010, a total of 42,361 persons had a reportable condition; of these, 54.5% were female, and 32.6% were aged <5 years. Nationally, the three most frequently reported specified conditions were acute respiratory infection (ARI) (16.3%), suspected malaria (10.3%), and fever of unknown cause (10.0%). Injuries accounted for 12.0% of reported conditions. No epidemics or disease clusters were detected. The number of reports decreased over time. NSSS is ongoing and currently transitioning into becoming a long-term national surveillance system for Haiti. NSSS data could assist decision makers in allocation of resources and identifying effective public health interventions. However, data reporting and quality could be improved by additional surveillance education for health-care providers, laboratory confirmation of cases of disease, and Internet-based weekly reporting. PMID:20689497

  10. Surveillance of Transmitted HIV Drug Resistance Using Matched Plasma and Dried Blood Spot Specimens From Voluntary Counseling and Testing Sites in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2007–2008

    PubMed Central

    Hien, Bui Thu; Wagar, Nick; Tram, Tran Hong; Giang, Le Truong; Yang, Chunfu; Wolfe, Mitchell I.; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Tuan, Nguyen Anh

    2012-01-01

    During 2007–2008, surveillance of transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance (TDR) was performed following World Health Organization guidance among clients with newly diagnosed HIV infection attending voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) sites in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Moderate (5%–15%) TDR to nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) was observed among VCT clients aged 18–21 years. Follow-up surveillance of TDR in HCMC and other geographic regions of Vietnam is warranted. Data generated will guide the national HIV drug resistance surveillance strategy and support selection of current and future first-line antiretroviral therapy and HIV prevention programs. PMID:22544201

  11. NASA's Systems Engineering Approaches for Addressing Public Health Surveillance Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vann, Timi

    2003-01-01

    NASA's systems engineering has its heritage in space mission analysis and design, including the end-to-end approach to managing every facet of the extreme engineering required for successful space missions. NASA sensor technology, understanding of remote sensing, and knowledge of Earth system science, can be powerful new tools for improved disease surveillance and environmental public health tracking. NASA's systems engineering framework facilitates the match between facilitates the match between partner needs and decision support requirements in the areas of 1) Science/Data; 2) Technology; 3) Integration. Partnerships between NASA and other Federal agencies are diagrammed in this viewgraph presentation. NASA's role in these partnerships is to provide systemic and sustainable solutions that contribute to the measurable enhancement of a partner agency's disease surveillance efforts.

  12. Millimeter-wave high-resolution holographic surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Collins, H. D.; Hall, Thomas E.; Smith, Russell R.

    1994-03-01

    A prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system has been developed and demonstrated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system developed at PNL consists of a sequentially switched 2 X 64 element array coupled to a 35 GHz bi-static transceiver. The sequentially switched array of antennas can be used to obtain the holographic data at high speed by electronically sequencing the antennas along one dimension and performing a mechanical scan along the other dimension. A 1D mechanical scan can be performed in about one second. The prototype system scans an aperture of 0.75 by 2.05 m. This system has been demonstrated and images have been obtained on volunteers at Sea-Tac International airport in Seattle, Washington.

  13. Expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny C.; Singer, Ralph M.; Humenik, Keith E.

    1993-01-01

    An expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps. This system provides a means for early detection of pump or sensor degradation. Degradation is determined through the use of a statistical analysis technique, sequential probability ratio test, applied to information from several sensors which are responsive to differing physical parameters. The results of sequential testing of the data provide the operator with an early warning of possible sensor or pump failure.

  14. Integrated monitoring and surveillance system for SNM.

    SciTech Connect

    Aumeier, S.; Brush, B.; Ewing, T.; Gross, K.; Kotter, D.; Laurin-Kovitz, K.; Walters, G.; Wegerich, S.

    1999-08-04

    Complex special nuclear material (SNM) storage systems can benefit from automated monitoring and data integration systems that maximize safety and security and optimize system maintainability. Current methods of verification, which rely on physical access, are costly and labor intensive. A prototype data analysis. system for nuclear material monitoring is being developed through a joint effort by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO). The system synthesizes information from various sources and applies advanced data analysis to predict sensor faults and detect material instabilities and security/safeguards problems. The system makes use of Argonne's Multivariate State Estimation Technique, or MSET, to provide an early warning system for the performance of sensors and processes, The system is being implemented and tested at the Safeguard Technology Evaluation Laboratory (STEL) at ANL-W. The STEL was installed at a Fuel Manufacturing Facility (FMF) special nuclear materials vault at ANL-W in 1997 as part of a DOE Plutonium Focus Area Project. The STEL provides the infrastructure for the demonstration and integration of technologies for monitoring plutonium-bearing materials in various storage configurations. Real sensors located within the STEL are being used to ''calibrate'' and validate. software while simulated sensors are used to mockup larger-scale problems. Preliminary system design and testing results are discussed.

  15. HIV among Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS ... HIV infection—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2013 . HIV Surveillance Special Report 13 . Accessed January ...

  16. An intelligent crowdsourcing system for forensic analysis of surveillance video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahboub, Khalid; Gadgil, Neeraj; Ribera, Javier; Delgado, Blanca; Delp, Edward J.

    2015-03-01

    Video surveillance systems are of a great value for public safety. With an exponential increase in the number of cameras, videos obtained from surveillance systems are often archived for forensic purposes. Many automatic methods have been proposed to do video analytics such as anomaly detection and human activity recognition. However, such methods face significant challenges due to object occlusions, shadows and scene illumination changes. In recent years, crowdsourcing has become an effective tool that utilizes human intelligence to perform tasks that are challenging for machines. In this paper, we present an intelligent crowdsourcing system for forensic analysis of surveillance video that includes the video recorded as a part of search and rescue missions and large-scale investigation tasks. We describe a method to enhance crowdsourcing by incorporating human detection, re-identification and tracking. At the core of our system, we use a hierarchal pyramid model to distinguish the crowd members based on their ability, experience and performance record. Our proposed system operates in an autonomous fashion and produces a final output of the crowdsourcing analysis consisting of a set of video segments detailing the events of interest as one storyline.

  17. System integration and development for biological warfare agent surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, Jacob A.; Green, Lance D.; Deshpande, Alina; White, P. Scott

    2007-04-01

    A wide variety of technical needs exist for surveillance, monitoring, identifying, or detecting pathogens with potential use as biological terrorism or warfare agents. Because the needs vary greatly among diverse applications, tailored systems are needed that meet performance, information, and cost requirements. A systems perspective allows developers to identify chokepoints for each application, and focus R&D investments on the limiting factors. Surveillance and detection systems are comprised of three primary components: information (markers), chemistries (assays), and instrumentation for "readout". Careful consideration of these components within the context of each application will allow for increases in efficiency and performance not generally realized when researchers focus on a single component in isolation. In fact, many application requirements can be met with simple novel combinations of existing technologies, without the need for huge investments in basic research. Here we discuss some of the key parameters for surveillance, detection, and identification of biothreat agents, and provide examples of focused development that addresses key bottlenecks, and greatly improve system performance.

  18. Towards photometry pipeline of the Indonesian space surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyatikanto, Rhorom; Religia, Bahar; Rachman, Abdul; Dani, Tiar

    2015-09-01

    Optical observation through sub-meter telescope equipped with CCD camera becomes alternative method for increasing orbital debris detection and surveillance. This observational mode is expected to eye medium-sized objects in higher orbits (e.g. MEO, GTO, GSO & GEO), beyond the reach of usual radar system. However, such observation of fast moving objects demands special treatment and analysis technique. In this study, we performed photometric analysis of the satellite track images photographed using rehabilitated Schmidt Bima Sakti telescope in Bosscha Observatory. The Hough transformation was implemented to automatically detect linear streak from the images. From this analysis and comparison to USSPACECOM catalog, two satellites were identified and associated with inactive Thuraya-3 satellite and Satcom-3 debris which are located at geostationary orbit. Further aperture photometry analysis revealed the periodicity of tumbling Satcom-3 debris. In the near future, it is not impossible to apply similar scheme to establish an analysis pipeline for optical space surveillance system hosted in Indonesia.

  19. Reconciling surveillance systems with limited resources: an evaluation of passive surveillance for rabies in an endemic setting.

    PubMed

    Craighead, Laura; Gilbert, William; Subasinghe, Dynatra; Häsler, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Surveillance systems for rabies in endemic regions are often subject to severe constraints in terms of resources. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the World Health Organisation (WHO) propose the use of an active surveillance system to substantiate claims of disease freedom, including rabies. However, many countries do not have the resources to establish active surveillance systems for rabies and the testing of dead dogs poses logistical challenges. This paper explores the potential of using a scenario tree model parameterised with data collected via questionnaires and interviews to estimate the sensitivity of passive surveillance, assessing its potential as a viable low-cost alternative to active surveillance systems. The results of this explorative study illustrated that given a large enough sample size, in this case the entire population of Colombo City, the sensitivity of passive surveillance can be 100% even at a low disease prevalence (0.1%), despite the low sensitivity of individual surveillance components (mean values in the range 4.077×10(-5)-1.834×10(-3) at 1% prevalence). In addition, logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with increased recognition of rabies in dogs and reporting of rabies suspect dogs. Increased recognition was observed amongst dog owners (OR 3.8 (CI, 1.3-10.8)), people previously bitten by dogs (OR 5.9 (CI, 2.2-15.9)) and people who believed they had seen suspect dogs in the past (OR 4.7 (CI, 1.8-12.9)). Increased likelihood of reporting suspect dogs was observed amongst dog owners (OR 5.3 (CI, 1.1-25)). Further work is required to validate the data collection tool and the assumptions made in the model with respect to sample size in order to develop a robust methodology for evaluating passive rabies surveillance. PMID:26219675

  20. Secure Video Surveillance System Acquisition Software

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-04

    The SVSS Acquisition Software collects and displays video images from two cameras through a VPN, and store the images onto a collection controller. The software is configured to allow a user to enter a time window to display up to 2 1/2, hours of video review. The software collects images from the cameras at a rate of 1 image per second and automatically deletes images older than 3 hours. The software code operates in a linux environment and can be run in a virtual machine on Windows XP. The Sandia software integrates the different COTS software together to build the video review system.

  1. Secure Video Surveillance System Acquisition Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-12-04

    The SVSS Acquisition Software collects and displays video images from two cameras through a VPN, and store the images onto a collection controller. The software is configured to allow a user to enter a time window to display up to 2 1/2, hours of video review. The software collects images from the cameras at a rate of 1 image per second and automatically deletes images older than 3 hours. The software code operates in amore » linux environment and can be run in a virtual machine on Windows XP. The Sandia software integrates the different COTS software together to build the video review system.« less

  2. Demonstration of a noise-surveillance system at a PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The automated surveillance system has monitored the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant during its first fuel cycle. The system was able to acceptably adapt to different plant operating conditions. While evaluations are still ongoing, results indicate that the system was able to adapt to signals with different statistical character and that the discriminants are useful in detecting spectral changes. The system monitored long-term noise behavior, detected spectra that differ from what is considered normal, and provided concise storage of spectra together with the plant operating condition associated with the stored spectra.

  3. Integrated bio-behavioural HIV surveillance surveys among female sex workers in Sudan, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Elhadi, Magda; Elbadawi, Abdulateef; Abdelrahman, Samira; Mohammed, Ibtisam; Bozicevic, Ivana; Hassan, Ehab A; Elmukhtar, Mohammed; Ahmed, Sally; Abdelraheem, Mohammed Sidahmed; Mubarak, Nazik; Elsanousi, Salwa; Setayesh, Hamidreza

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess HIV and syphilis prevalence, HIV-related behaviours and testing for HIV in female sex workers (FSW) in Sudan. Design Bio-behavioural surveys using respondent-driven sampling were carried out among FSW in the capital cities of 14 states in Sudan in 2011–2012. HIV and syphilis testing was done by rapid tests. Results 4220 FSW aged 15–49 years were recruited. The median age of recruited women varied from 21 to 28 years per site. The highest HIV prevalence was measured at two sites in the eastern zone (5.0% and 7.7%), while in the other zones it ranged from 0% to 1.5%. Syphilis prevalence ranged from 1.5% in the northern zone to 8.9% in the eastern zone. Ever having been tested for HIV was reported by 4.4%–23.9% of FSW across all sites. Condom use at last sex with a client varied from 4.7% to 55.1%, while consistent condom use with clients in the month preceding the surveys was reported by 0.7%–24.5% of FSW. The highest reporting of ever injecting drugs was measured at a site in the western zone (5.0%). Conclusions The surveys’ findings indicate that the highest burden of HIV in FSW is in the eastern states of the country. Condom use and HIV testing data demonstrate the need for HIV interventions that should focus on HIV testing and risk reduction strategies that include stronger condom promotion programmes in FSW and their clients. PMID:23996450

  4. A Behavior Based Control System for Surveillance UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyekan, John; Lu, Bowen; Li, Bo; Gu, Dongbing; Hu, Huosheng

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is required to carry out duties such as surveillance, reconnaissance, search and rescue and security patrol missions. Autonomous operation of UAVs is a key to the success of these missions. In this chapter, we propose to use a behavior based control architecture to implement autonomous operation for UAV surveillance missions. This control architecture consists of two layers: a low level control layer and a behavior layer. The low level control layer decomposes 3D motion of UAVs into several atomic actions, such as yaw, roll, pitch, altitude, and 2D position control. These atomic actions together serve as a basis for the behavior layer. The behavior layer consists of a number of necessary behaviors used for surveillance missions, including take-off, object tracking, hovering, landing, trajectory following, obstacle avoidance amongst other behaviors. These behaviors can be instantiated individually or collectively to fulfill the required missions issued by human operators. To evaluate the proposed control architecture, the commercially available DraganFlyer QuadRotor was used as the UAV platform. With the aid of an indoor positioning system, several atomic actions and a group of behaviors were developed for the DraganFlyer. Real testing experiments were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of the proposed system.

  5. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.

    1988-01-21

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil area of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor. 2 figs.

  6. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny C.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil areas of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor.

  7. Anonymous HIV surveillance with risk-factor elicitation: at Perth (for men) and Cornton Vale (for women) prisons in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Gore, S M; Bird, A G; Burns, S; Ross, A J; Goldberg, D

    1997-03-01

    434 male and 145 female prisoners were available to participate in cross-sectional, voluntary anonymous HIV surveillance (using saliva samples) with linked self-completion questionnaire at HMP (Her Majesty's Prison) Perth on 17 May and at HMP Cornton Vale on 18 May 1995. Three hundred and four men (70%) and 136 women (94%) completed a risk-factor questionnaire and 304 and 135 samples were received for HIV antibody testing. Two hundred and eighty-two and 132 questionnaires passed logical checks. Six saliva samples from Perth (all injectors) out of 304 and none from Cornton Vale out of 134 tested were HIV antibody positive. Four were presumptively from known HIV-infected male inmates; the other 2 were local men, under 26 years, who began injecting in 1989-91, and both reported having had a recent HIV test. Overall HIV prevalence was estimated at 2% compared to a known prevalence of 1.4% (6/434), giving a 1.5 ratio of overall: disclosed HIV prevalence at HMP Perth. HIV prevalence was estimated at 7% (6/82) for injector-participants and 14% (5/35) for local injector participants. At Cornton Vale, where both known HIV-infected inmates abstained, overall and disclosed HIV prevalence, were equal at 1.4%. At Perth Prison, 29% of prisoners had injected drugs (82/278); 85% of injector-inmates reported having injected inside (some prison and 31% (25/80) had started to inject while inside, 7 during their present sentence. Of all 21 injector-inmates who first injected after 1991, 10 had started to inject inside, including one of 69 male inmates who had never been inside before. The corresponding figures for Cornton Vale, where 46% of inmates were injectors (58/132), were that 57% of injector-inmates had injected inside (32/56) but only one woman, for whom this was not her first sentence, had started to inject inside. Twenty-eight per cent of male prisoners (78/277) and 57% of male injector-inmates (47/82) had had a personal HIV test since January 1993, as had 35% of female

  8. Was the French clinical surveillance system of bovine brucellosis influenced by the occurrence and surveillance of other abortive diseases?

    PubMed

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Touratier, Anne; Gache, Kristel; Sala, Carole; Calavas, Didier

    2015-03-01

    The bovine brucellosis clinical surveillance system implemented in France aims to detect early any case of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which the country has been declared free since 2005. It relies on the mandatory notification of every bovine abortion. Following the spread of the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in France in 2012 and 2013, and the implementation in 2012 of a clinical surveillance programme of Q fever based on abortion notifications in ten pilot départements, our objective was to study whether these two events influenced the brucellosis clinical surveillance system. The proportion of notifying farmers was analyzed over each semester from June 1, 2009 to June 30, 2013 according to the size and production type of herds, SBV status of départements and the implementation of the Q fever surveillance. Our analysis showed a slight increase in the proportion of notifying farmers as départements became infected by SBV, and after the implementation of Q fever surveillance (during the first semester of 2013). These variations might be explained by an increase in abortion occurrence (congenital deformities in newborns, due to SBV) and/or by an increase in farmers' and veterinarians' awareness (due to the spread of SBV and the implementation of the Q fever surveillance). These results highlight the difficulties in interpreting variations in the proportion of notifying farmers as a consequence of an increase in abortion occurrence. As bovine abortion surveillance can play an important role in the early warning for several diseases, there is a need to explore other ways to monitor abortions in cattle, such as syndromic surveillance using the dates of artificial insemination or calving data. PMID:25617916

  9. Millimeter wave, high-resolution, holographic surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMakin, D. L.; Sheen, D. M.; Collins, H. D.; Hall, T. E.; Smith, R. R.; Droppo, J. G., Jr.

    Millimeter wave holographic imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing to detect contraband, metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons may provided a practical solution to personnel inspection needs in mass transportation centers. Traditional inspection systems, such as metal detectors and x-ray imaging systems, have limitations for the detection of concealed weapons. Metal detectors are limited because they cannot detect plastic weapons and x-ray imaging systems are limited in use due to radiological health considerations. A prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system has been developed and demonstrated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system developed at PNL consists of a sequentially switched 2 (times) 64 element array coupled to a 35 GHz bi-static transceiver. The sequentially switched array of antennas can be used to obtain the holographic data at high speed by electronically sequencing the antennas along one dimension and performing a mechanical scan along the other dimension. A one-dimensional mechanical scan be be performed in about one second. The prototype system scans an aperture of 0.75 by 2.05. This system has been demonstrated and images have been obtained on volunteers at Sea-Tac International airport in Seattle, Washington.

  10. Millimeter wave, high-resolution, holographic surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    McMakin, D.L.; Sheen, D.M.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.; Smith, R.R.; Droppo, J.G. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    Millimeter wave holographic imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing to detect contraband, metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons may provided a practical solution to personnel inspection needs in mass transportation centers. Traditional inspection systems, such as metal detectors and x-ray imaging systems, have limitations for the detection of concealed weapons. metal detectors are limited because they cannot detect plastic weapons and x-ray imaging systems are limited in use due to radiological health considerations. A prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system has been developed and demonstrated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system developed at PNL consists of a sequentially switched 2 {times} 64 element array coupled to a 35 GHz bi-static transceiver. The sequentially switched array of antennas can be used to obtain the holographic data at high speed by electonically sequencing the antennas along one dimension and performing a mechanical scan along the other dimension. A one-dimensional mechanical scan be be performed in about one second. The prototype system scans an aperture of 0.75 by 2.05. This system has been demonstrated and images have been obtained on volunteers at Sea-Tac International airport in Seattle, Washington.

  11. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report: U.S. HIV and AIDS Cases Reported through June 2001. Midyear Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This report includes new tables which present trends in estimated annual AIDS incidence from 1996-00, by U.S. region, race/ethnicity, and exposure category. Some of the tables include: persons reported to be living with HIV infection and with AIDS, by state and age group; AIDS cases and annual rates per 100,000 population, by metropolitan area and…

  12. The Emerging HIV Epidemic on the Mexico-US Border: An International Case Study Characterizing the Role of Epidemiology in Surveillance and Response

    PubMed Central

    Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Mays, Vickie M.; Jimenez, Richard; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose HIV/AIDS surveillance data are critical for monitoring epidemic trends, but can mask dynamic sub-epidemics, especially in vulnerable populations that under-utilize HIV testing. In this case study, we describe community-based epidemiologic data among injection drug users (IDU) and female sex workers (FSWs) in two northern Mexico-US Border States that identified an emerging HIV epidemic and generated a policy response. Methods We draw from quantitative and qualitative cross-sectional and prospective epidemiologic studies and behavioral intervention studies among IDUs and FSWs in Tijuana, Baja California and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua. Results Recognition that the HIV epidemic on Mexico’s northern border was already well established in subgroups where it had been presumed to be insignificant was met with calls for action and enhanced prevention efforts from researchers, NGOs and policy makers. Conclusions Successful policies and program outcomes included expansion of needle exchange programs, a nation-wide mobile HIV prevention program targeting marginalized populations, a successful funding bid from the Global Fund for HIV, TB and Malaria to scale up targeted HIV prevention programs and the establishment of binational training programs on prevention of HIV and substance use. We discuss how epidemiologic data informed HIV prevention policies and suggest how other countries may learn from Mexico’s experience. PMID:22626001

  13. Syndromic surveillance for health information system failures: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Mei-Sing; Magrabi, Farah; Coiera, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the applicability of a syndromic surveillance method to the early detection of health information technology (HIT) system failures. Methods A syndromic surveillance system was developed to monitor a laboratory information system at a tertiary hospital. Four indices were monitored: (1) total laboratory records being created; (2) total records with missing results; (3) average serum potassium results; and (4) total duplicated tests on a patient. The goal was to detect HIT system failures causing: data loss at the record level; data loss at the field level; erroneous data; and unintended duplication of data. Time-series models of the indices were constructed, and statistical process control charts were used to detect unexpected behaviors. The ability of the models to detect HIT system failures was evaluated using simulated failures, each lasting for 24 h, with error rates ranging from 1% to 35%. Results In detecting data loss at the record level, the model achieved a sensitivity of 0.26 when the simulated error rate was 1%, while maintaining a specificity of 0.98. Detection performance improved with increasing error rates, achieving a perfect sensitivity when the error rate was 35%. In the detection of missing results, erroneous serum potassium results and unintended repetition of tests, perfect sensitivity was attained when the error rate was as small as 5%. Decreasing the error rate to 1% resulted in a drop in sensitivity to 0.65–0.85. Conclusions Syndromic surveillance methods can potentially be applied to monitor HIT systems, to facilitate the early detection of failures. PMID:23184193

  14. Surveillance System and Method having an Adaptive Sequential Probability Fault Detection Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor); Herzog, James P. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    System and method providing surveillance of an asset such as a process and/or apparatus by providing training and surveillance procedures that numerically fit a probability density function to an observed residual error signal distribution that is correlative to normal asset operation and then utilizes the fitted probability density function in a dynamic statistical hypothesis test for providing improved asset surveillance.

  15. Surveillance system and method having an adaptive sequential probability fault detection test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor); Herzog, James P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    System and method providing surveillance of an asset such as a process and/or apparatus by providing training and surveillance procedures that numerically fit a probability density function to an observed residual error signal distribution that is correlative to normal asset operation and then utilizes the fitted probability density function in a dynamic statistical hypothesis test for providing improved asset surveillance.

  16. Surveillance system and method having an adaptive sequential probability fault detection test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzog, James P. (Inventor); Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    System and method providing surveillance of an asset such as a process and/or apparatus by providing training and surveillance procedures that numerically fit a probability density function to an observed residual error signal distribution that is correlative to normal asset operation and then utilizes the fitted probability density function in a dynamic statistical hypothesis test for providing improved asset surveillance.

  17. Progress in development of containment and surveillance systems at JAERI

    SciTech Connect

    Mukaiyama, T.; Yokota, Y.; Ogawa, H.; Kuroi, H.

    1987-07-01

    Several of Containment and Surveillance (C/S) systems have been developed for the international safeguards at JAERI. This paper describes the recent progress in the development of the following C/S systems: (1) Compact CCTV surveillance system ''COSMOS' is designed as a potential replacement for IAEA twin minolta film camera system. COSMOS has the capacity to record more than 30,000 still pictures for three months by battery operation without battery change. An unique one-shot Video Tape Recorder (VTR) was developed for COSMOS based on commercial 8mm VTS. Prototype of COSMOS was completed in October 1986, and demonstrated the expected performance. (2) FCA portal and penetration monitor is the comprehensive C/S system developed for the fast critical facility of JAERI. The system was completed in 1985. The field trial test of the entire system was started in September 1986 under real field conditions using regularly scheduled inspectors performing actual inspections to obtain performance data and to gain international credibility.

  18. Rotavirus Surveillance at a WHO-Coordinated Invasive Bacterial Disease Surveillance Site in Bangladesh: A Feasibility Study to Integrate Two Surveillance Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, ASM Nawshad Uddin; Arumugam, Rajesh; Marzan, Mahfuza; Saha, Shampa; Arifeen, Shams El; Baqui, Abdullah H.; Black, Robert E.; Kang, Gagandeep; Saha, Samir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) currently coordinates rotavirus diarrhea and invasive bacterial disease (IBD) surveillance at 178 sentinel sites in 60 countries. However, only 78 sites participate in both surveillance systems using a common sentinel site. Here, we explored the feasibility of extending a WHO-IBD surveillance platform to generate data on the burden of rotaviral diarrhea and its epidemiological characteristics to prepare the countries to measure the impact of rotaviral vaccine. A six-month (July to December, 2012) surveillance, managed by IBD team, collected stool samples and clinical data from under-five children with acute watery diarrhea at an IBD sentinel site. Samples were tested for rotavirus antigen by ELISA and genotyped by PCR at the regional reference laboratory (RRL). Specimens were collected from 79% (n = 297) of eligible cases (n = 375); 100% of which were tested for rotavirus by ELISA and 54% (159/297) of them were positive. At RRL, all the cases were confirmed by PCR and genotyped (99%; 158/159). The typing results revealed the predominance of G12 (40%; 64/159) genotype, followed by G1 (31%; 50/159) and G9 (19%; 31/159). All in all, this exploratory surveillance collected the desired demographic and epidemiological data and achieved almost all the benchmark indicators of WHO, starting from enrollment number to quality assurance through a number of case detection, collection, and testing of specimens and genotyping of strains at RRL. The success of this WHO-IBD site in achieving these benchmark indicators of WHO can be used by WHO as a proof-of-concept for considering integration of rotavirus surveillance with WHO-IBD platforms, specifically in countries with well performing IBD site and no ongoing rotavirus surveillance. PMID:27096958

  19. Video coding for next-generation surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klasen, Lena M.; Fahlander, Olov

    1997-02-01

    Video is used as recording media in surveillance system and also more frequently by the Swedish Police Force. Methods for analyzing video using an image processing system have recently been introduced at the Swedish National Laboratory of Forensic Science, and new methods are in focus in a research project at Linkoping University, Image Coding Group. The accuracy of the result of those forensic investigations often depends on the quality of the video recordings, and one of the major problems when analyzing videos from crime scenes is the poor quality of the recordings. Enhancing poor image quality might add manipulative or subjective effects and does not seem to be the right way of getting reliable analysis results. The surveillance system in use today is mainly based on video techniques, VHS or S-VHS, and the weakest link is the video cassette recorder, (VCR). Multiplexers for selecting one of many camera outputs for recording is another problem as it often filters the video signal, and recording is limited to only one of the available cameras connected to the VCR. A way to get around the problem of poor recording is to simultaneously record all camera outputs digitally. It is also very important to build such a system bearing in mind that image processing analysis methods becomes more important as a complement to the human eye. Using one or more cameras gives a large amount of data, and the need for data compression is more than obvious. Crime scenes often involve persons or moving objects, and the available coding techniques are more or less useful. Our goal is to propose a possible system, being the best compromise with respect to what needs to be recorded, movements in the recorded scene, loss of information and resolution etc., to secure the efficient recording of the crime and enable forensic analysis. The preventative effective of having a well functioning surveillance system and well established image analysis methods is not to be neglected. Aspects of

  20. Evaluation of the NASA Quality Surveillance System Pilot in Meeting Requirements for Contractor Surveillance Under Performance Based Contracting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmahl, Karen E.

    2002-01-01

    The use of performance-based contracting at Kennedy Space Center has necessitated a shift from intrusive oversight of contractor activities to an insight surveillance role. This paper describes the results of a pilot implementation of the NASA Quality Surveillance System (NQSS) in the Space Shuttle Main Engines Processing Facility. The NQSS is a system to sample contractor activities using documented procedures, specifications, drawings and observations of work in progress to answer the question "Is the contractor doing what they said they would do?" The concepts of the NQSS are shown to be effective in providing assurance of contractor quality. Many of the concepts proven in the pilot are being considered for incorporation into an overall KSC Quality Surveillance System.

  1. Evaluation Of The NASA Quality Surveillance System Pilot In Meeting Requirements For Contractor Surveillance Under Performance Based Contracting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmahl, Karen E.

    2001-01-01

    The use of performance-based contracting at Kennedy Space Center has necessitated a shift from intrusive oversight of contractor activities to an insight surveillance role. This paper describes the results of a pilot implementation of the NASA Quality Surveillance System (NQSS) in the Space Shuttle Main Engines Processing Facility. The NQSS is a system to sample contractor activities using documented procedures, specifications, drawings and observations of work in progress to answer the question "Is the contractor doing what they said they would do?" The concepts of the NQSS are shown to be effective in providing assurance of contractor quality. Many of the concepts proven in the pilot are being considered for incorporation into an overall KSC Quality Surveillance System.

  2. A multisensor system for airborne surveillance of oil pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, A. T.; Ketchal, R.; Catoe, C.

    1973-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard is developing a prototype airborne oil surveillance system for use in its Marine Environmental Protection Program. The prototype system utilizes an X-band side-looking radar, a 37-GHz imaging microwave radiometer, a multichannel line scanner, and a multispectral low light level system. The system is geared to detecting and mapping oil spills and potential pollution violators anywhere within a 25 nmi range of the aircraft flight track under all but extreme weather conditions. The system provides for false target discrimination and maximum identification of spilled materials. The system also provides an automated detection alarm, as well as a color display to achieve maximum coupling between the sensor data and the equipment operator.

  3. Real-time wideband cylindrical holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, D.M.; McMakin, D.L.; Hall, T.E.; Severtsen, R.H.

    1999-01-12

    A wideband holographic cylindrical surveillance system is disclosed including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply Fast Fourier Transforms and obtain a three dimensional cylindrical image. 13 figs.

  4. Real-time wideband cylindrical holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.; Severtsen, Ronald H.

    1999-01-01

    A wideband holographic cylindrical surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply Fast Fourier Transforms and obtain a three dimensional cylindrical image.

  5. Methods of surveillance for HIV infection in primary care outpatients in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, L R; Calonge, N B; Chamberland, M E; Engel, R H; Herring, N C

    1990-01-01

    Primary care outpatients provide a good sentinel population for monitoring levels and trends of HIV infection in the United States. Because a broad cross section of the population seeks primary medical care, excess blood from specimens routinely collected for other purposes is available for anonymous, unlinked HIV testing, and all age groups and both sexes can be sampled. The CDC family of surveys includes two surveys of primary care outpatients: (a) a survey of 100,000 blood specimens per year submitted by more than 6,000 primary care physicians to a national diagnostic laboratory for complete blood count or hematocrit and (b) a survey of approximately 10,000 blood specimens per year from a network of 242 primary care physicians. Each survey has different advantages: the laboratory-based survey has a large sample from a large population base, and the physician network survey has a well-defined patient population in which each patient's clinical condition can be determined. In the primary care physician network, a concurrent study of clinical patterns of disease in patients with recognized HIV infection provides additional information on the clinical syndromes associated with HIV infection and estimates of the occurrence of unrecognized HIV infection. PMID:2108462

  6. Developing a new syndromic surveillance system for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Harcourt, S E; Fletcher, J; Loveridge, P; Bains, A; Morbey, R; Yeates, A; McCloskey, B; Smyth, B; Ibbotson, S; Smith, G E; Elliot, A J

    2012-12-01

    Syndromic surveillance is vital for monitoring public health during mass gatherings. The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games represents a major challenge to health protection services and community surveillance. In response to this challenge the Health Protection Agency has developed a new syndromic surveillance system that monitors daily general practitioner out-of-hours and unscheduled care attendances. This new national system will fill a gap identified in the existing general practice-based syndromic surveillance systems by providing surveillance capability of general practice activity during evenings/nights, over weekends and public holidays. The system will complement and supplement the existing tele-health phone line, general practitioner and emergency department syndromic surveillance systems. This new national system will contribute to improving public health reassurance, especially to meet the challenges of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:22892324

  7. Weather-enabled future onboard surveillance and navigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutuel, L.; Baillon, B.; Barnetche, B.; Delpy, P.

    2009-09-01

    With the increasing traffic and the development of business trajectories, there is a widespread need to anticipate any adverse weather conditions that could impact the performance of the flight or to use of atmospheric parameters to optimize trajectories. Current sensors onboard air transport are challenged to provide the required service, while new products for business jets and general aviation open the door to innovative assimilation of weather information in onboard surveillance and navigation. The paper aims at surveying current technology available to air transport aircraft and pointing out their shortcomings in view of the modernization proposed in SESAR and NextGen implementation plans. Foreseen innovations are then illustrated via results of ongoing research like FLYSAFE or standardization efforts, in particular meteorological datalink services and impact on Human-Machine Interface. The paper covers the operational need to avoid adverse weather like thunderstorm, icing, turbulence, windshear and volcanic ash, but also the requirement to control in 4D the trajectory through the integration of wind and temperature grids in the flight management. The former will lead to enhanced surveillance systems onboard the aircraft with new displays and new alerting schemes, ranging from targeted information supporting better re-planning to auto-escape strategies. The latter will be standard in next generation flight management systems. Finally both will rely on ATM products that will also assimilate weather information so that situational awareness is shared and decision is collaborative.

  8. Profile: The Niakhar Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Delaunay, Valerie; Douillot, Laetitia; Diallo, Aldiouma; Dione, Djibril; Trape, Jean-François; Medianikov, Oleg; Raoult, Didier; Sokhna, Cheikh

    2013-01-01

    The Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in Niakhar, a rural area of Senegal, is located 135 km east of Dakar. The HDSS was established in 1962 by the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) of Senegal to face the shortcomings of the civil registration system and provide demographic indicators. Some 65 villages in the Niakhar area were followed annually by the HDSS from 1962–1969. The study zone was reduced to 8 villages from 1969–1983, and from then on the HDSS was extended to include 22 other villages, covering a total of 30 villages for a population estimated at 43 000 in January 2012. Thus, 8 villages in the Niakhar area have been under demographic surveillance for almost 50 years and 30 villages for 30 years. Vital events, migrations, marital changes, pregnancies, and immunizations are routinely recorded every 4 months. The HDSS data base also includes epidemiological, economic, and environmental information obtained from specific surveys. Data were collected through annual rounds from 1962 to 1987. The rounds became weekly from 1987–1997, followed by routine visits conducted every 3 months between 1997 and 2007 and every 4 months since then. The data collected in the HDSS are not open to access, but can be fairly shared under conditions of collaboration and endowment. PMID:24062286

  9. The SURVEYOR mobile surveillance system at Nine Mile Point

    SciTech Connect

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Darvish, A.R. ); Irving, T.L. )

    1987-07-01

    In 1984, Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation and KLM Technologies, Inc. began to investigate the use of mobile robotics systems as a means of reducing personnel radiation exposures. This paper reports that after reviewing the existing technology and developing reviewing the existing technology and developing performance criteria, ARD Corporation's SURVEYOR Mobile Surveillance System was chosen for pilot testing in a radwaste building retrofit project at Nine Mile Point Unit 1. The SURVEYOR is a small, two-tracked, radio-controlled robot with a unique stereo-optic operator viewing system. It is capable of measuring radiation, temperature, and relative humidity and performing visual inspections. The SURVEYOR underwent extensive testing at Nine Mile Point during 1986 and was used successfully to inspect a hazardous radwaste sump area.

  10. Prototyping of a Situation Awareness System in the Maritime Surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, D. O. D.; Sediono, W.; Shah, A.

    2013-12-01

    This paper discusses about the design of a Situation Awareness (SA) system to support vessel crews and control room operators in improving the decision making process. The architecture of the system is ontology based. The vessel crews and control room operators may face a loss of SA. They may have limited cognitive abilities which make it difficult to make a decision in a high stress level, short time availability and continuously evolving situation with incomplete information. In this work, we describe the application of Semantic Web Rule Language to represent corresponding knowledge in the maritime surveillance domain. The result of this research will demonstrate that an ontology based system can be used to remodel the information into a meaningful and valuable form to predict the future states of SA and improve the decision making process.

  11. Establishment, test and evaluation of a prototype volcano surveillance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, P. L.; Eaton, J. P.; Endo, E.; Harlow, D.; Marquez, D.; Allen, R.

    1973-01-01

    A volcano-surveillance system utilizing 23 multilevel earthquake counters and 6 biaxial borehole tiltmeters is being installed and tested on 15 volcanoes in 4 States and 4 foreign countries. The purpose of this system is to give early warning when apparently dormant volcanoes are becoming active. The data are relayed through the ERTS-Data Collection System to Menlo Park for analysis. Installation was completed in 1972 on the volcanoes St. Augustine and Iliamna in Alaska, Kilauea in Hawaii, Baker, Rainier and St. Helens in Washington, Lassen in California, and at a site near Reykjavik, Iceland. Installation continues and should be completed in April 1973 on the volcanoes Santiaguito, Fuego, Agua and Pacaya in Guatemala, Izalco in El Salvador and San Cristobal, Telica and Cerro Negro in Nicaragua.

  12. A Computer-Aided Large Scale Pacemaker Surveillance System*

    PubMed Central

    Covvey, H.D.; MacGregor, D.C.; Noble, E.J.; Goldman, B.S.; Wigle, E.D.

    1980-01-01

    Beginning in 1972 with a small PDP-8 based system, our Pacemaker Center has continued a commitment to the implementation of computer-based systems to reduce the cost and increase the safety of patient follow-up. Recently we brought into operation a new version of our patient surveillance system on our shared database management computer, the Sperry-Univac V-76. A complete set of optical mark readable forms has been developed to capture pacemaker data. A variety of operational support reports are produced. Pre-clinic and pre-telephone follow-up reports summarize patient status and serve as a basis for comparing the patient's current state to his history of encounters. Post-clinic and post-transtelephone reports document the encounter and are used as reports to the referring physician and for inclusion in the patient's chart. The surgical form set is used to generate a detailed operative note.

  13. Integrated monitoring and surveillance system demonstration project: Phase I accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Aumeier, S.E.; Walters, B.G.; Crawford, D.C.

    1997-01-15

    The authors present the results of the Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System (IMSS) demonstration project Phase I efforts. The rationale behind IMSS development is reviewed and progress in each of the 5 basic tasks is detailed. Significant results include decisions to use Echelon LonWorks networking protocol and Microsoft Access for the data system needs, a preliminary design for the plutonium canning system glovebox, identification of facilities and materials available for the demonstration, determination of possibly affected facility documentation, and a preliminary list of available sensor technologies. Recently imposed changes in the overall project schedule and scope are also discussed and budgetary requirements for competition of Phase II presented. The results show that the IMSS demonstration project team has met and in many cases exceeded the commitments made for Phase I deliverables.

  14. Application of infrared uncooled cameras in surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulski, R.; Bareła, J.; Trzaskawka, P.; PiÄ tkowski, T.

    2013-10-01

    The recent necessity to protect military bases, convoys and patrols gave serious impact to the development of multisensor security systems for perimeter protection. One of the most important devices used in such systems are IR cameras. The paper discusses technical possibilities and limitations to use uncooled IR camera in a multi-sensor surveillance system for perimeter protection. Effective ranges of detection depend on the class of the sensor used and the observed scene itself. Application of IR camera increases the probability of intruder detection regardless of the time of day or weather conditions. It also simultaneously decreased the false alarm rate produced by the surveillance system. The role of IR cameras in the system was discussed as well as technical possibilities to detect human being. Comparison of commercially available IR cameras, capable to achieve desired ranges was done. The required spatial resolution for detection, recognition and identification was calculated. The simulation of detection ranges was done using a new model for predicting target acquisition performance which uses the Targeting Task Performance (TTP) metric. Like its predecessor, the Johnson criteria, the new model bounds the range performance with image quality. The scope of presented analysis is limited to the estimation of detection, recognition and identification ranges for typical thermal cameras with uncooled microbolometer focal plane arrays. This type of cameras is most widely used in security systems because of competitive price to performance ratio. Detection, recognition and identification range calculations were made, and the appropriate results for the devices with selected technical specifications were compared and discussed.

  15. Evaluation of Active Mortality Surveillance System Data for Monitoring Hurricane-Related Deaths—Texas, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Ekta; Zane, David F.; Beasley, Crystal; Jones, Russell; Rey, Araceli; Noe, Rebecca S.; Martin, Colleen; Wolkin, Amy F.; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) implemented an active mortality surveillance system to enumerate and characterize hurricane-related deaths during Hurricane Ike in 2008. This surveillance system used established guidelines and case definitions to categorize deaths as directly, indirectly, and possibly related to Hurricane Ike. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate Texas DSHS’ active mortality surveillance system using US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) surveillance system evaluation guidelines. Methods Using CDC’s Updated Guidelines for Surveillance System Evaluation, the active mortality surveillance system of the Texas DSHS was evaluated. Data from the active mortality surveillance system were compared with Texas vital statistics data for the same time period to estimate the completeness of reported disaster-related deaths. Results From September 8 through October 13, 2008, medical examiners (MEs) and Justices of the Peace (JPs) in 44 affected counties reported deaths daily by using a one-page, standardized mortality form. The active mortality surveillance system identified 74 hurricane-related deaths, whereas a review of vital statistics data revealed only four deaths that were hurricane-related. The average time of reporting a death by active mortality surveillance and vital statistics was 14 days and 16 days, respectively. Conclusions Texas’s active mortality surveillance system successfully identified hurricane-related deaths. Evaluation of the active mortality surveillance system suggested that it is necessary to collect detailed and representative mortality data during a hurricane because vital statistics do not capture sufficient information to identify whether deaths are hurricane-related. The results from this evaluation will help improve active mortality surveillance during hurricanes which, in turn, will enhance preparedness and response plans and identify public health

  16. The integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibin; Yatawara, Mahendra; Huang, Shao-Chi; Dudley, Kevin; Szekely, Christine; Holden, Stuart; Piantadosi, Steven

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and implementation of the integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer (PASS-PC). The integrated PASS-PC is a multi-institutional web-based system aimed at collecting a variety of data on prostate cancer patients in a standardized and efficient way. The integrated PASS-PC was commissioned by the Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) and built through the joint of efforts by a group of experts in medical oncology, genetics, pathology, nutrition, and cancer research informatics. Their main goal is facilitating the efficient and uniform collection of critical demographic, lifestyle, nutritional, dietary and clinical information to be used in developing new strategies in diagnosing, preventing and treating prostate cancer.The integrated PASS-PC is designed based on common industry standards - a three tiered architecture and a Service- Oriented Architecture (SOA). It utilizes open source software and programming languages such as HTML, PHP, CSS, JQuery, Drupal and MySQL. We also use a commercial database management system - Oracle 11g. The integrated PASS-PC project uses a "confederation model" that encourages participation of any interested center, irrespective of its size or location. The integrated PASS-PC utilizes a standardized approach to data collection and reporting, and uses extensive validation procedures to prevent entering erroneous data. The integrated PASS-PC controlled vocabulary is harmonized with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Thesaurus. Currently, two cancer centers in the USA are participating in the integrated PASS-PC project.THE FINAL SYSTEM HAS THREE MAIN COMPONENTS: 1. National Prostate Surveillance Network (NPSN) website; 2. NPSN myConnect portal; 3. Proactive Surveillance System for Prostate Cancer (PASS-PC). PASS-PC is a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) compatible product. The integrated PASS-PC provides a foundation for collaborative prostate cancer research. It has been built to

  17. Systems Approaches to Animal Disease Surveillance and Resource Allocation: Methodological Frameworks for Behavioral Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Karl M.; Denwood, Matthew J.; Stott, Alistair W.; Mellor, Dominic J.; Reid, Stuart W. J.; Gunn, George J.

    2013-01-01

    While demands for animal disease surveillance systems are growing, there has been little applied research that has examined the interactions between resource allocation, cost-effectiveness, and behavioral considerations of actors throughout the livestock supply chain in a surveillance system context. These interactions are important as feedbacks between surveillance decisions and disease evolution may be modulated by their contextual drivers, influencing the cost-effectiveness of a given surveillance system. This paper identifies a number of key behavioral aspects involved in animal health surveillance systems and reviews some novel methodologies for their analysis. A generic framework for analysis is discussed, with exemplar results provided to demonstrate the utility of such an approach in guiding better disease control and surveillance decisions. PMID:24348922

  18. Complement - a key system for immune surveillance and homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Ricklin, Daniel; Hajishengallis, George; Yang, Kun; Lambris, John D.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly a century after the significance of the human complement system was recognized we have come to realize that its versatile functions extend far beyond the elimination of microbes. Indeed, complement acts as a rapid and efficient immune surveillance system that has distinct effects on healthy and altered host cells and foreign intruders. By eliminating cellular debris and infectious microbes, orchestrating immune responses, and sending `danger' signals, complement contributes substantially to homeostasis, but it may also take action against healthy cells if not properly controlled. This review describes our updated view of the function, structure, and dynamics of the complement network, highlights its interconnection with immunity at large and with other endogenous pathways, and illustrates its dual role in homeostasis and disease. PMID:20720586

  19. A community based surveillance system for perinatal and neonatal care.

    PubMed

    Dyal Chand, A; Khale, M

    1989-11-01

    The impact of maternal health services on perinatal and neonatal mortality depends on both the quantitative and qualitative coverage of pregnant women with obstetric services. In rural areas this becomes all the more difficult because of the requirement of a large decentralized infrastructure extending from village based health workers and subcentres to the Primary Health Centre and tertiary levels of referral. An effective introduction of socio-cultural, biomedical and managerial interventions is required to reduce perinatal and neonatal mortality. A community based surveillance and monitoring system is central to and facilitates the introduction of all other interventions. Finally, the system operated by grass-root level workers is a motivational tool for achieving expected levels of performance. PMID:2630471

  20. Development of a Prototype System for Statewide Asthma Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Deprez, Ronald D.; Asdigian, Nancy L.; Oliver, L. Christine; Anderson, Norman; Caldwell, Edgar; Baggott, Lee Ann

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. We developed and evaluated a statewide and community-level asthma surveillance system. Methods. Databases and measures included a community prevalence survey, hospital admissions data, emergency department/outpatient clinic visit records, and a physician survey of diagnosis and treatment practices. We evaluated the system in 5 Maine communities varying in population and income. Results. Asthma hospitalizations were high in the rural/low-socioeconomic-status communities studied, although diagnosed asthma was low. Males were more likely than females to experience asthma symptoms, although they were less likely to have been diagnosed with asthma or to have used hospital-based asthma care. Conclusions. Databases were useful for estimating asthma burden and identifying service needs as well as high-risk groups. They were less useful in estimating severity or in identifying environmental risks. PMID:12453814

  1. Geographic information system-based avian influenza surveillance systems for village poultry in Romania.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of surveillance data facilitates the planning, implementation and evaluation of disease control programmes. Geographic information systems (GIS) have several functions, including input (database functions), analysis (interpolation, cluster detection, identification of spatial risk factors) and output (sampling design, disease risk maps). This paper focuses on visualisation techniques that enable improved design and evaluation of surveillance data. Data generated within a pilot GIS-based surveillance programme for avian influenza in village poultry in the Romanian county of Tulcea is used as an example. The use of kriging helped highlight areas in the country where sampling potentially was sub-optimal, and error maps demonstrated the level of confidence that can be placed in serological surveillance results in different localities. Disease surveillance systems traditionally have not focused on the issues of disease risk and sample size visualisation. Standards need to be developed on how sampling and disease data generated within animal health surveillance systems are analysed and presented. This is particularly important for transboundary diseases such as avian influenza. PMID:20422525

  2. Epidemiological surveillance of the HIV/AIDS complex through the analysis of trends in the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma in Cali, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Saldarriaga-Cantillo, Alejandra; Londoño, Óscar; García, Luz Stella; Collazos, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) incidence has markedly changed in the general population since the onset of the AIDS epidemic in the eighties and after the introduction of the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in the nineties. Objective: To investigate incidence rate trends for Kaposi's sarcoma before and during the (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in Cali, Colombia. Methods: Exploratory ecological study that included all Kaposi's sarcoma cases identified by the Cali Cancer Registry from 1962-2007, and 12,887 cases of HIV/AIDS recorded in the Municipal Health Secretariat of Cali between 1986 and 2010. The joinpoint regression model was used to conduct the incidence rate analyses between the years 1962 and 2010. Results: A total of 349 KS cases were identified during the study period. Only 5.3% of the cases (n=20) were diagnosed in the pre-epidemic era (1963-1987), of these, 35% were women, and 90% of the tumors were located on the skin. In contrast, 94.7% of KS cases (n=329) were discovered after the emergence of HIV-AIDS. There was a significant decrease in the proportion of women (10.9%, p <0.001) and an increase in the frequency of tumors with an extra-cutaneous location (19.1%, p <0.01) compared to those cases diagnosed in the pre-epidemic era. Notification rates of HIV/AIDS have decreased since 2002 in both genders but KS incidence rates have decreased since 2004 in men only. Conclusion: The downward trend in the incidence of these diseases may be associated with factors that prevent the transmission of HIV infection or limit the spread of HIV in the community. Cancer registries represent a resource for timely, population-based surveil-lance of HIV-associated malignancies in Cali, Colombia. PMID:24893300

  3. The Missile Defense Agency's space tracking and surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, John; Zondervan, Keith

    2008-10-01

    The Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) is a layered system incorporating elements in space. In addition to missile warning systems at geosynchronous altitudes, an operational BMDS will include a low Earth orbit (LEO) system-the Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS). It will use infrared sensing technologies synergistically with the Space Based Infrared Systems (SBIRS) and will provide a seamless adjunct to radars and sensors on the ground and in airborne platforms. STSS is being designed for a future operational capability to defend against evolving threats. STSS development is divided into phases, commencing with a two-satellite demonstration constellation scheduled for launch in 2008. The demonstration satellites will conduct a menu of tests and experiments to prove the system concept, including the ground segment. They will have limited operational capability within the integrated BMDS. Data from the demonstration satellites will be received and processed by the Missile Defense Space Experiment Center (MDSEC), a part of the Missile Defense Integration and Operations Center (MDIOC). MDA launched in 2007 into LEO a satellite (NFIRE) designed to make near-field multispectral measurements of boosting targets and to demonstrate laser communication, the latter in conjunction with the German satellite TerraSAR-X. The gimbaled, lightweight laser terminal has demonstrated on orbit a 5.5 gbps rate in both directions. The filter passbands of NFIRE are similar to the STSS demonstrator track sensor. While providing useful phenomenology during its time on orbit, NFIRE will also serve as a pathfinder in the development of STSS operations procedures.

  4. Applying participatory approaches in the evaluation of surveillance systems: A pilot study on African swine fever surveillance in Corsica.

    PubMed

    Calba, Clémentine; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Charrier, François; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude; Peyre, Marisa; Goutard, Flavie L

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of regular and relevant evaluations of surveillance systems is critical in improving their effectiveness and their relevance whilst limiting their cost. The complex nature of these systems and the variable contexts in which they are implemented call for the development of flexible evaluation tools. Within this scope, participatory tools have been developed and implemented for the African swine fever (ASF) surveillance system in Corsica (France). The objectives of this pilot study were, firstly, to assess the applicability of participatory approaches within a developed environment involving various stakeholders and, secondly, to define and test methods developed to assess evaluation attributes. Two evaluation attributes were targeted: the acceptability of the surveillance system and its the non-monetary benefits. Individual semi-structured interviews and focus groups were implemented with representatives from every level of the system. Diagramming and scoring tools were used to assess the different elements that compose the definition of acceptability. A contingent valuation method, associated with proportional piling, was used to assess the non-monetary benefits, i.e., the value of sanitary information. Sixteen stakeholders were involved in the process, through 3 focus groups and 8 individual semi-structured interviews. Stakeholders were selected according to their role in the system and to their availability. Results highlighted a moderate acceptability of the system for farmers and hunters and a high acceptability for other representatives (e.g., private veterinarians, local laboratories). Out of the 5 farmers involved in assessing the non-monetary benefits, 3 were interested in sanitary information on ASF. The data collected via participatory approaches enable relevant recommendations to be made, based on the Corsican context, to improve the current surveillance system. PMID:26489602

  5. Creating a Bridge between Data Collection and Program Planning: A Technical Assistance Model to Maximize the Use of HIV/AIDS Surveillance and Service Utilization Data for Planning Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Jennifer A.; Beatty, Maile; Woliver, Renee; Rubinstein, Eric P.; Averbach, Abigail R.

    2005-01-01

    Over time, improvements in HIV/AIDS surveillance and service utilization data have increased their usefulness for planning programs, targeting resources, and otherwise informing HIV/AIDS policy. However, community planning groups, service providers, and health department staff often have difficulty in interpreting and applying the wide array of…

  6. Surveillance of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases using administrative data.

    PubMed

    Bernatsky, S; Lix, L; Hanly, J G; Hudson, M; Badley, E; Peschken, C; Pineau, C A; Clarke, A E; Fortin, P R; Smith, M; Bélisle, P; Lagace, C; Bergeron, L; Joseph, L

    2011-04-01

    There is growing interest in developing tools and methods for the surveillance of chronic rheumatic diseases, using existing resources such as administrative health databases. To illustrate how this might work, we used population-based administrative data to estimate and compare the prevalence of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs) across three Canadian provinces, assessing for regional differences and the effects of demographic factors. Cases of SARDs (systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, primary Sjogren's, polymyositis/dermatomyositis) were ascertained from provincial physician billing and hospitalization data. We combined information from three case definitions, using hierarchical Bayesian latent class regression models that account for the imperfect nature of each case definition. Using methods that account for the imperfect nature of both billing and hospitalization databases, we estimated the over-all prevalence of SARDs to be approximately 2-3 cases per 1,000 residents. Stratified prevalence estimates suggested similar demographic trends across provinces (i.e. greater prevalence in females-versus-males, and in persons of older age). The prevalence in older females approached or exceeded 1 in 100, which may reflect the high burden of primary Sjogren's syndrome in this group. Adjusting for demographics, there was a greater prevalence in urban-versus-rural settings. In our work, prevalence estimates had good face validity and provided useful information about potential regional and demographic variations. Our results suggest that surveillance of some rheumatic diseases using administrative data may indeed be feasible. Our work highlights the usefulness of using multiple data sources, adjusting for the error in each. PMID:20665025

  7. Terrain Commander: a next-generation remote surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finneral, Henry J.

    2003-09-01

    Terrain Commander is a fully automated forward observation post that provides the most advanced capability in surveillance and remote situational awareness. The Terrain Commander system was selected by the Australian Government for its NINOX Phase IIB Unattended Ground Sensor Program with the first systems delivered in August of 2002. Terrain Commander offers next generation target detection using multi-spectral peripheral sensors coupled with autonomous day/night image capture and processing. Subsequent intelligence is sent back through satellite communications with unlimited range to a highly sophisticated central monitoring station. The system can "stakeout" remote locations clandestinely for 24 hours a day for months at a time. With its fully integrated SATCOM system, almost any site in the world can be monitored from virtually any other location in the world. Terrain Commander automatically detects and discriminates intruders by precisely cueing its advanced EO subsystem. The system provides target detection capabilities with minimal nuisance alarms combined with the positive visual identification that authorities demand before committing a response. Terrain Commander uses an advanced beamforming acoustic sensor and a distributed array of seismic, magnetic and passive infrared sensors to detect, capture images and accurately track vehicles and personnel. Terrain Commander has a number of emerging military and non-military applications including border control, physical security, homeland defense, force protection and intelligence gathering. This paper reviews the development, capabilities and mission applications of the Terrain Commander system.

  8. Success Factors of European Syndromic Surveillance Systems: A Worked Example of Applying Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ziemann, Alexandra; Fouillet, Anne; Brand, Helmut; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Syndromic surveillance aims at augmenting traditional public health surveillance with timely information. To gain a head start, it mainly analyses existing data such as from web searches or patient records. Despite the setup of many syndromic surveillance systems, there is still much doubt about the benefit of the approach. There are diverse interactions between performance indicators such as timeliness and various system characteristics. This makes the performance assessment of syndromic surveillance systems a complex endeavour. We assessed if the comparison of several syndromic surveillance systems through Qualitative Comparative Analysis helps to evaluate performance and identify key success factors. Materials and Methods We compiled case-based, mixed data on performance and characteristics of 19 syndromic surveillance systems in Europe from scientific and grey literature and from site visits. We identified success factors by applying crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. We focused on two main areas of syndromic surveillance application: seasonal influenza surveillance and situational awareness during different types of potentially health threatening events. Results We found that syndromic surveillance systems might detect the onset or peak of seasonal influenza earlier if they analyse non-clinical data sources. Timely situational awareness during different types of events is supported by an automated syndromic surveillance system capable of analysing multiple syndromes. To our surprise, the analysis of multiple data sources was no key success factor for situational awareness. Conclusions We suggest to consider these key success factors when designing or further developing syndromic surveillance systems. Qualitative Comparative Analysis helped interpreting complex, mixed data on small-N cases and resulted in concrete and practically relevant findings. PMID:27182731

  9. Low-Cost National Media-Based Surveillance System for Public Health Events, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Trong T.; Rahman, Mahmudur; Haque, Farhana; Chakraborty, Apurba; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Haider, Sabbir; Alamgir, A.S.M.; Sobel, Jeremy; Luby, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed a media-based public health surveillance system in Bangladesh during 2010–2011. The system is a highly effective, low-cost, locally appropriate, and sustainable outbreak detection tool that could be used in other low-income, resource-poor settings to meet the capacity for surveillance outlined in the International Health Regulations 2005. PMID:26981877

  10. An autonomous surveillance system for blind sources localization and separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sean; Kulkarni, Raghavendra; Duraiswamy, Srikanth

    2013-05-01

    This paper aims at developing a new technology that will enable one to conduct an autonomous and silent surveillance to monitor sound sources stationary or moving in 3D space and a blind separation of target acoustic signals. The underlying principle of this technology is a hybrid approach that uses: 1) passive sonic detection and ranging method that consists of iterative triangulation and redundant checking to locate the Cartesian coordinates of arbitrary sound sources in 3D space, 2) advanced signal processing to sanitizing the measured data and enhance signal to noise ratio, and 3) short-time source localization and separation to extract the target acoustic signals from the directly measured mixed ones. A prototype based on this technology has been developed and its hardware includes six B and K 1/4-in condenser microphones, Type 4935, two 4-channel data acquisition units, Type NI-9234, with a maximum sampling rate of 51.2kS/s per channel, one NI-cDAQ 9174 chassis, a thermometer to measure the air temperature, a camera to view the relative positions of located sources, and a laptop to control data acquisition and post processing. Test results for locating arbitrary sound sources emitting continuous, random, impulsive, and transient signals, and blind separation of signals in various non-ideal environments is presented. This system is invisible to any anti-surveillance device since it uses the acoustic signal emitted by a target source. It can be mounted on a robot or an unmanned vehicle to perform various covert operations, including intelligence gathering in an open or a confined field, or to carry out the rescue mission to search people trapped inside ruins or buried under wreckages.