The scope of this review is to highlight the application of polymer therapeutics in an effort to curb the transmission and infection of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Following a description of the HIV life cycle, the use of approved antiretroviral drugs that inhibit critical steps in the HIV infection process is highlighted. After that, a comprehensive overview of the structure and inhibitory properties of polymeric anti-HIV therapeutic agents is presented. This overview will include inhibitors based on polysaccharides, synthetic polymers, dendritic polymers, polymer conjugates as well as polymeric DC-SIGN antagonists. The review will conclude with a section that discusses the applications of polymers and polymer conjugates as systemic and topical anti-HIV therapeutics. PMID:25185484
Danial, Maarten; Klok, Harm-Anton
Cone snails produce a distinctive repertoire of venom peptides that are used both as a defense mechanism and also to facilitate the immobilization and digestion of prey. These peptides target a wide variety of voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, which make them an invaluable resource for studying the properties of these ion channels in normal and diseased states, as well as being a collection of compounds of potential pharmacological use in their own right. Examples include the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved pharmaceutical drug, Ziconotide (Prialt®; Elan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.) that is the synthetic equivalent of the naturally occurring ?-conotoxin MVIIA, whilst several other conotoxins are currently being used as standard research tools and screened as potential therapeutic drugs in pre-clinical or clinical trials. These developments highlight the importance of driving conotoxin-related research. A PubMed query from 1 January 2007 to 31 August 2011 combined with hand-curation of the retrieved articles allowed for the collation of 98 recently identified conotoxins with therapeutic potential which are selectively discussed in this review. Protein sequence similarity analysis tentatively assigned uncharacterized conotoxins to predicted functional classes. Furthermore, conotoxin therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative disorders (NDD) was also inferred. PMID:22822370
Essack, Magbubah; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Archer, John A. C.
An unprecedented number of investigational drugs are in the development pipeline for the treatment of tuberculosis. Among patients with tuberculosis, co-infection with HIV is common, and concurrent treatment of tuberculosis and HIV is now the standard of care. To ensure that combinations of anti-tuberculosis drugs and antiretrovirals are safe and are tested at doses most likely to be effective, selected pharmacokinetic studies based on knowledge of their metabolic pathways and their capacity to induce or inhibit metabolizing enzymes of companion drugs must be conducted. Drug interaction studies should be followed up by evaluations in larger populations to evaluate safety and pharmacodynamics more fully. Involving patients with HIV in trials of TB drugs early in development enhances the knowledge gained from the trials and will ensure that promising new tuberculosis treatments are available to patients with HIV as early as possible. In this review, we summarize current and planned pharmacokinetic and drug interaction studies involving investigational and licensed tuberculosis drugs and antiretrovirals and suggest priorities for tuberculosis-HIV pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and drug-drug interaction studies for the future. Priority studies for children and pregnant women with HIV and tuberculosis co-infection are briefly discussed. PMID:22829999
Dooley, Kelly E.; Kim, Peter S.; Williams, Sharon D.; Hafner, Richard
Contemporary tendencies in dentistry are based on the concept of maximal protection of healthy tooth tissues. Caries removal has been done traditionally with mechanical rotary instruments that are fast and precise. However, conventional cavity preparation has potential adverse effects to the pulp due to heat, pressure and vibrations. Moreover, drilling often causes pain and requires local anaesthesia, and these procedures are frequently perceived as unpleasant. Etiology, development and prevention of dental caries are better understood today and new restorative materials that bond micromechanically and/or chemically to dental tissues have been introduced. Thus, development of a new, less destructive caries removal technique is allowed. In the last decades, many alternative methods have been introduced in an attempt to replace rotary instruments. These are claimed to be efficient and selective for diseased tissues and to offer comfortable treatment to the patients. New methods include air abrasion, air polishing, ultrasonic, polymer burs, enzymes, systems for chemo-mechanical caries removal, and lasers. The aim of this paper was to discuss various caries removal techniques and possibilities of their use in clinical practice. Based on the literature review it can be concluded that none of the new caries removal methods can completely replace conventional rotary instruments. PMID:19177833
Peri?, Tamara; Markovi?, Dejan; Zivkovi?, Slavoljub
Integration of the viral genome into host cell chromatin is a pivotal and unique step in the replication cycle of retroviruses, including HIV. Inhibiting HIV replication by specifically blocking the viral integrase enzyme that mediates this step is an obvious and attractive therapeutic strategy. After concerted efforts, the first viable integrase inhibitors were developed in the early 2000s, ultimately leading to the clinical licensure of the first integrase strand transfer inhibitor, raltegravir. Similarly structured compounds and derivative second generation integrase strand transfer inhibitors, such as elvitegravir and dolutegravir, are now in various stages of clinical development. Furthermore, other mechanisms aimed at the inhibition of viral integration are being explored in numerous preclinical studies, which include inhibition of 3' processing and chromatin targeting. The development of new clinically useful compounds will be aided by the characterization of the retroviral intasome crystal structure. This review considers the history of the clinical development of HIV integrase inhibitors, the development of antiviral drug resistance and the need for new antiviral compounds. PMID:22498430
The fight against HIV/AIDS poses enormous challenges worldwide, generating fears that success may be too difficult or even impossible to attain. Uganda has demonstrated that an early, consistent and multisectoral control strategy can reduce both the prevalence and the incidence of HIV infection. From only two AIDS cases in 1982, the epidemic in Uganda grew to a cumulative 2 million HIV infections by the end of 2000. The AIDS Control Programme established in 1987 in the Ministry of Health mounted a national response that expanded over time to reach other relevant sectors under the coordinating role of the Uganda AIDS Commission. The national response was to bring in new policies, expanded partnerships, increased institutional capacity for care and research, public health education for behaviour change, strengthened sexually transmitted disease (STD) management, improved blood transfusion services, care and support services for persons with HIV/AIDS, and a surveillance system to monitor the epidemic. After a decade of fighting on these fronts, Uganda became, in October 1996, the first African nation to report declining trends in HIV infection. Further decline in prevalence has since been noted. The Medical Research Council (UK) and the Uganda Virus Research Institute have demonstrated declining HIV incidence rates in the general population in the Kyamulibwa in Masaka Districts. Repeat knowledge, attitudes, behaviour and practice studies have shown positive changes in the priority prevention indicators. The data suggest that a comprehensive national response supported by strong political commitment may be responsible for the observed decline. Other countries in sub-Saharan Africa can achieve similar results by these means. Since success is possible, anything less is unacceptable. PMID:11799443
Okware, S.; Opio, A.; Musinguzi, J.; Waibale, P.
Since the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) pandemic began, few prophylactic vaccines have reached phase III trials. Only one has shown partial efficacy in preventing HIV-1 infection. The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has had considerable success in controlling infection and reducing transmission but in so doing has changed the nature of HIV-1 infection for those with access to ART. Access, compliance, and toxicity alongside the emergence of serious non-AIDS morbidity and the sometimes poor immune reconstitution in ART-treated patients have emphasized the need for additional therapies. Such therapy is intended to contribute to control of HIV-1 infection, permit structured treatment interruptions, or even establish a functional cure of permanently suppressed and controlled infection. Both immunotherapy and therapeutic vaccination have the potential to reach these goals. In this review, the latest developments in immunotherapy and therapeutic vaccination are discussed. PMID:24991420
Tanner, Helen; Dalgleish, Angus
Any therapeutic vaccination approach against HIV-1 must induce CTL and Th1 cells. But, therapeutic vaccination is more than that. For extensive application of a therapeutic vaccine several questions need to be solved in advance to achieve a global impact. In this commentary some of them are addressed. We analyze the epidemiology, sociology, economy and immunopathology related to the HIV/AIDS disease. Also, important technical issues and real possibilities to overcome at least some of the major limitation of the antiretroviral treatments in the pursuit of an effective vaccine are considered. From the integration of previous analyses some conclusions are drawn. Because it is just a commentary some arguments are not unveiled into their full extension. At the end, we discuss some issues in relation to the development of the vaccine candidate TERAVAC-HIV-1 as a case study. PMID:23571171
Abstract The HIV cure agenda has rekindled interest in the development of a therapeutic HIV vaccine. An iterative clinical trial strategy that proved successful for the development of effective cancer chemotherapies in the 1960s may be applicable to the development of a CD8 T lymphocyte-based therapeutic HIV vaccine. However, while cancer chemotherapy development could begin with iterative clinical trials to improve the use of active drugs, the first step in therapeutic HIV vaccine design should be discovery of immunogen constructs with potential for activity and their optimization to meet the challenges of HIV-1 sequence diversity and human polymorphism in T cell antigen presentation. A strategy for doing this is discussed in this article. The proposed strategy relies on a major commitment by funding organizations to fund organized and coordinated manufacture and clinical testing of a series of first- and second-generation constructs to test basic concepts in product design. This is presented as an alternative to funding a more traditional competition among private manufacturers and product champions of individual, already designed products. PMID:25286142
Shapiro, Stuart Z
The paper focuses on problems relating to fetal nutrition and its relation to maternal dietary habits. Following a rapid review of the role played by vitamins and oligoelements, the therapeutic value of integrating the diet with vitamin-mineral substances is assessed. The positive action of these substances is counterbalanced by the fact that materno-fetal nutritional phenomena pass through a pool of biochemical activities which depend on the anatomico-functional integrity of the placenta as the necessary condition for therapeutic efficacy. PMID:2290602
Borruto, F; Padovani, E M; Lauria, G C
HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) is a viral accessory protein that is required for HIV-1 infection due largely to its role in recruiting antiretroviral factors of the APOBEC3 (apolipoprotein B editing catalytic subunit-like 3) family to an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex for polyubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. The crystal structure of the (near) full-length Vif protein in complex with Elongin (Elo)B/C, core-binding factor (CBF)? and Cullin (Cul)5 revealed that Vif has a novel structural fold. In our opinion the structural data revealed not only the protein-protein interaction sites that determine Vif stability and interaction with cellular proteins, but also motifs driving Vif homodimerization, which are essential in Vif functionality and HIV-1 infection. Vif-mediated protein-protein interactions are excellent targets for a new class of antiretroviral therapeutics to combat AIDS. PMID:25124760
Salter, Jason D; Morales, Guillermo A; Smith, Harold C
Three-dimensional molecular structures can provide detailed information on biological mechanisms and, in cases where molecular function impacts on human health, significantly aid in the development of therapeutic interventions. Over the past 23 years, key components of the lentivirus HIV-1, including its envelope glycoproteins and capsid, and the replication enzymes reverse transcriptase, integrase and protease, have accordingly been scrutinized to near atomic scale resolution. Structural analyses of the interactions between viral and host cell components have moreover yielded key insights into the mechanisms of virus entry, chromosomal integration, transcription and egress from cells. Here, we review recent advances in HIV-1 structural biology, focusing on the impact these results have had on our understanding of virus replication and the development of new therapeutics. PMID:22421880
Engelman, Alan; Cherepanov, Peter
In this article, I put forward a therapeutic imaginaries framework, developed from previous geographic work on therapeutic landscapes. In particular, I briefly trace the history of HIV and HIV policy in these countries, resulting from field work I have conducted in Havana since 1997 and in Belize since 2005. I highlight how therapeutic imaginaries are created and experienced through governmental
Summary The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infects helper CD4+ T cells, and causes CD4+ T-cell depletion and immunodeficiency. In the past 30 years, significant progress has been made in antiretroviral therapy, and the disease has become manageable. Nevertheless, an effective vaccine is still nowhere in sight, and a cure or a functional cure awaits discovery. Among possible curative therapies, traditional antiretroviral therapy, mostly targeting viral proteins, has been proven ineffective. It is possible that targeting HIV-dependent host cofactors may offer alternatives, both for preventing HIV transmission and for forestalling disease progression. Recently, the actin cytoskeleton and its regulators in blood CD4+ T cells have emerged as major host cofactors that could be targeted. The novel concept that the cortical actin is a barrier to viral entry and early post-entry migration has led to the nascent model of virus-host interaction at the cortical actin layer. Deciphering the cellular regulatory pathways has manifested exciting prospects for future therapeutics. In this review, we describe the study of HIV interactions with actin cytoskeleton. We also examine potential pharmacological targets that emerge from this interaction. In addition, we briefly discuss several actin pathway-based anti-HIV drugs that are currently in development or testing. PMID:24117829
Spear, Mark; Guo, Jia; Wu, Yuntao
The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infects helper CD4(+) T cells, and causes CD4(+) T-cell depletion and immunodeficiency. In the past 30 years, significant progress has been made in antiretroviral therapy, and the disease has become manageable. Nevertheless, an effective vaccine is still nowhere in sight, and a cure or a functional cure awaits discovery. Among possible curative therapies, traditional antiretroviral therapy, mostly targeting viral proteins, has been proven ineffective. It is possible that targeting HIV-dependent host cofactors may offer alternatives, both for preventing HIV transmission and for forestalling disease progression. Recently, the actin cytoskeleton and its regulators in blood CD4(+) T cells have emerged as major host cofactors that could be targeted. The novel concept that the cortical actin is a barrier to viral entry and early post-entry migration has led to the nascent model of virus-host interaction at the cortical actin layer. Deciphering the cellular regulatory pathways has manifested exciting prospects for future therapeutics. In this review, we describe the study of HIV interactions with actin cytoskeleton. We also examine potential pharmacological targets that emerge from this interaction. In addition, we briefly discuss several actin pathway-based anti-HIV drugs that are currently in development or testing. PMID:24117829
Spear, Mark; Guo, Jia; Wu, Yuntao
Background More and more HIV therapeutic vaccines will enter clinical trials; however, little is known about the willingness to participate (WTP) in HIV therapeutic vaccine trials among HIV-positive individuals. Objective To investigate the WTP in HIV therapeutic vaccine trials among Chinese HIV-infected patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey on HIV-positive inpatients and outpatients at Shanghai Public Health Center. A total of 447 participants were recruited into this study. Following an introduction with general information on HIV therapeutic vaccine and its potential effectiveness and side effects, each participant completed a questionnaire in a self-administered form. The questionnaires covered demographics, high-risk behaviors, clinical characteristics and willingness to participate in HIV therapeutic vaccine trial. Results The overall willingness to participate in HIV therapeutic vaccine trials was 91.5%. Interestingly, multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that the willingness was higher for those sexually infected by HIV (odds ratio [OR]: 4.36; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.53–12.41), diagnosed as HIV-1 infection for greater than 5 years (OR: 7.12, 95% CI: 1.83–27.76), and with the presence of infectious complications (OR: 2.75; 95% CI: 1.02–7.45). The primary reason for participation was to delay or reduce antiretroviral treatment (ART) and to avoid ART side effects (76.6%), and then followed by delaying disease progression (74.9%), increasing immune response to suppress opportunistic infections (57.7%) and preventing the development of drug resistance (37.1%). Reasons for unwillingness to participate mainly included concern for safety (37.0%), lack of knowledge on therapeutic vaccine (33.3%), and satisfaction with ART effectiveness (22.2%). Conclusions The WTP in HIV therapeutic vaccine trials was high among HIV-infected Chinese patients. HIV+ subjects who acquired infection through sexual contact and who were diagnosed for more than 5 years may represent a good candidate population for enrollment in therapeutic vaccine trials. PMID:25372044
Dong, Yuan; Shen, Xiaoxing; Guo, Ruizhang; Liu, Baochi; Zhu, Lingyan; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Linxia; Sun, Jun; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Jianqing
Despite the rapidly increasing incidence of HIV infection worldwide and the increasing prevalence of HIVassociated cognitive impairment, even in patients adequately treated with antiretroviral therapy, currently no effective treatment exists for HIV dementia. A broad range of studies using either brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tissues from well-characterized patients with HIV dementia, animal models, and in vitro studies from several laboratories using HIV-infected cells or HIV proteins provide overwhelming evidence for oxidative stress in mediating neuronal injury in this patient population. These studies also suggest that patients with apolipoprotein E (ApoE) 4 allele are more susceptible to such oxidative damage. In this review, we provide a critical analysis of these studies, including the few clinical trials that have used antioxidants to treat HIV dementia. We also discuss several novel agents with potent antioxidative properties and provide a rationale for combination antioxidant and neuroprotective therapy. PMID:17034352
Steiner, Joseph; Haughey, Norman; Li, Wenxue; Venkatesan, Arun; Anderson, Caroline; Reid, Rollie; Malpica, Tanya; Pocernich, Chava; Butterfield, D Allan; Nath, Avindra
Currently, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not performed in the United States as part of routine clinical care of an HIV-infected adolescent patient. TDM is recommended to rule out subtherapeutic drug concentrations and to differentiate among malabsorption, drug interactions, poor adherence, or increased drug metabolism or clearance as possible causes of decreased drug exposure. The use of TDM is also considered to assist in finding the optimal dose of a drug in patients whose virus has shown reduced susceptibility to that drug. The dosing of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in adolescent patients with HIV infection depends on the chronologic age, weight, height, and the stage of sexual maturation. As a result of the limited data on the pharmacokinetics of ART during puberty, the transition of a dosing regimen from higher pediatric (weight and surface-based) to adult (fixed) range is not well defined. Developmental pharmacokinetic differences contribute to high variability in pediatric and adolescent patients and an increased frequency of suboptimal ARV exposure as compared to in adults. Individualized, concentration-targeted optimal dosing of ARV medications can be beneficial to patients for whom only limited dosing guidelines are available. This article describes three cases of the application of TDM in treatment-experienced adolescent patients whose ART was optimized using ARV TDM. TDM of ARV drugs is useful in managing the pharmacotherapy of HIV in adolescent patients and is well received by the adolescent patients with HIV and their families. Among others, the benefits of TDM provide evidence for adherence interventions and create grounds for enhanced education of the adolescent patient and involved adult caregivers about ART. Finally, TDM in adolescents provides valuable information about the clinical pharmacology of ART during puberty. PMID:20445485
Rakhmanina, Natella Y; van den Anker, John N; Soldin, Steven J; van Schaik, Ron H; Mordwinkin, Nick; Neely, Michael N
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects a significant percentage of the Italian population, particularly among the elderly. It is estimated that more than 300 patients per million population (pmp) are diagnosed as having CKD each year, and about 0.8% of Italians are thought to have serum creatinine levels >=1.5 mg/dL. The number of patients being admitted to renal replacement therapies (RRT) has been growing up rapidly in the last decades, leading to 134 patients pmp starting RRT throughout 2000 and to 804 patients pmp on chronic RRT in the same year. As such therapies are very expensive, CKD must be therefore considered as a striking problem also by a socio-economical point of view. As a consequence, any medical intervention being able to halt or at least to slow down the progression of CKD and/or to prevent the development of related complications or comorbidities is of paramount importance. Several therapeutical interventions, including hypertension and proteinuria control, protein restriction, anemia, calcium-phosphate disorders and dyslipidemia correction and smoking cessation, showed to be actually effective in at least partially achieving these objectives. Other emerging therapeutical approaches, although well promising, need further evidence to be definitively included in the management of CKD patients. Particular efforts should be made in order to refer these patients to the nephrologist as early as possible, as it has been widely demonstrated that an early and regular nephrological care leads to decreased morbidity and mortality and also to decreased social costs. PMID:12649529
Locatelli, Francesco; Pozzoni, Pietro; Del Vecchio, Lucia
From early in the HIV epidemic it was appreciated that many inflammatory markers such as neopterin and TNF-? were elevated in patients with AIDS. With the advent of modern technology able to measure a broad array of cytokines, we now know that from the earliest points of infection HIV induces a cytokine storm. This review will focus on how cytokines are disturbed in HIV infection and will explore potential therapeutic uses of cytokines. These factors can be used directly as therapy during HIV infection, either to suppress viral replication or prevent deleterious immune effects of infection, such as CD4+ T cell depletion. Cytokines also show great promise as adjuvants in the development of HIV vaccines, which would be critical for the eventual control of the epidemic. PMID:22743035
Keating, Sheila M.; Jacobs, Evan S.; Norris, Philip J.
The search for new drugs against HCV contains new ways to obtain pro-drugs which inhibit translation and block viral proteins, and inhibit host proteins important in HCV-induced pathogenesis. This group of agents are serine protease NS3 inhibitors (telaprevir, boceprevir, R-7227, TMC-435, SCH 900518, GS-9256). The most advanced studies are developed with telaprevir and boceprevir; at present their effect in combined therapy with PegIFN-alpha and RBV in the III clinical phase is tested. The sustained viral response (SVR) was achieved at the level of 60-75%. This group of agents contains also inhibitors of NS5A domain, e.g. PPI-461 which shows antiviral and cytotoxic activity. The following prodrugs are NS3 helicase inhibitors, e.g. p14 peptide, whose IC50 equals 725 nM. Studies are continued on viral entry inhibitors (ITX-5061), therapeutic vaccines (IC-41, civaci, TG-4040, CT-1011, GI-5005) and immunomodulating preparations (ANA-773, IMO-3649, NOV-205). The agents acting on host proteins are a.o. cyclophilin inhibitors. The most advanced studies concern DEBIO 025 preparation which after phase I and II, underwent phase III of clinical studies in February 2010. Since 5 years there is a possibility to investigate the effects of these comounds in vitro with the use of Huh-7 line infected with HCV. These investigations allow to estimate the antiviral effectiveness and cytotoxicity of agents, and resistance of viral strains. PMID:21473061
Godzik, Paulina; Komorowski, Marcin; Cielecka-Kuszyk, Joanna; Madali?ski, Kazimierz
The consequences of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection on progression of severe liver diseases is a serious public health issue, worldwide. In the co-infection cases, about 90% of HIV-infected population is seropositive for HBV where approximately 5%-40% individuals are chronically infected. In HIV co-infected individuals, liver-related mortality is estimated over 17 times higher than those with HBV mono-infection. The spectrum of HIV-induced liver diseases includes hepatitis, steatohepatitis, endothelialitis, necrosis, granulomatosis, cirrhosis and carcinoma. Moreover, HIV co-infection significantly alters the natural history of hepatitis B, and therefore complicates the disease management. Though several studies have demonstrated impact of HIV proteins on hepatocyte biology, only a few data is available on interactions between HBV and HIV proteins. Thus, the clinical spectrum as well as the complexity of the co-infection offers challenging fronts to study the underlying molecular mechanisms, and to design effective therapeutic strategies.
Parvez, Mohammad Khalid
The consequences of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection on progression of severe liver diseases is a serious public health issue, worldwide. In the co-infection cases, about 90% of HIV-infected population is seropositive for HBV where approximately 5%-40% individuals are chronically infected. In HIV co-infected individuals, liver-related mortality is estimated over 17 times higher than those with HBV mono-infection. The spectrum of HIV-induced liver diseases includes hepatitis, steatohepatitis, endothelialitis, necrosis, granulomatosis, cirrhosis and carcinoma. Moreover, HIV co-infection significantly alters the natural history of hepatitis B, and therefore complicates the disease management. Though several studies have demonstrated impact of HIV proteins on hepatocyte biology, only a few data is available on interactions between HBV and HIV proteins. Thus, the clinical spectrum as well as the complexity of the co-infection offers challenging fronts to study the underlying molecular mechanisms, and to design effective therapeutic strategies. PMID:25625003
Parvez, Mohammad Khalid
HIV and human defense mechanisms have co-evolved to counteract each other. In the process of infection, HIV takes advantage of cellular machinery and blocks the action of the host restriction factors (RF). A small subset of HIV+ individuals control HIV infection and progression to AIDS in the absence of treatment. These individuals known as long-term non-progressors (LNTPs) exhibit genetic and immunological characteristics that confer upon them an efficient resistance to infection and/or disease progression. The identification of some of these host factors led to the development of therapeutic approaches that attempted to mimic the natural control of HIV infection. Some of these approaches are currently being tested in clinical trials. While there are many genes which carry mutations and polymorphisms associated with non-progression, this review will be specifically focused on HIV host RF including both the main chemokine receptors and chemokines as well as intracellular RF including, APOBEC, TRIM, tetherin, and SAMHD1. The understanding of molecular profiles and mechanisms present in LTNPs should provide new insights to control HIV infection and contribute to the development of novel therapies against AIDS. PMID:24167505
Santa-Marta, Mariana; de Brito, Paula Matos; Godinho-Santos, Ana; Goncalves, Joao
Advances in cancer therapy have been substantial in terms of molecular understanding of disease mechanisms, however these advances have not translated into increased survival in the majority of cancer types. One unsolved problem in current cancer therapeutics is the substantial immune suppression seen in patients. Conventionally, investigations in this area have focused on antigen-nonspecific immune suppressive molecules such as cytokines and T cell apoptosis inducing molecules such as Fas ligand. More recently, studies have demonstrated nanovesicle particles termed exosomes are involved not only in stimulation but also inhibition of immunity in physiological conditions. Interestingly, exosomes secreted by cancer cells have been demonstrated to express tumor antigens, as well as immune suppressive molecules such as PD-1L and FasL. Concentrations of exosomes from plasma of cancer patients have been associated with spontaneous T cell apoptosis, which is associated in some situations with shortened survival. In this paper we place the "exosome-immune suppression" concept in perspective of other tumor immune evasion mechanisms. We conclude by discussing a novel therapeutic approach to cancer immune suppression by extracorporeal removal of exosomes using hollow fiber filtration technology PMID:18644158
Ichim, Thomas E; Zhong, Zhaohui; Kaushal, Shalesh; Zheng, Xiufen; Ren, Xiubao; Hao, Xishan; Joyce, James A; Hanley, Harold H; Riordan, Neil H; Koropatnick, James; Bogin, Vladimir; Minev, Boris R; Min, Wei-Ping; Tullis, Richard H
Advances in cancer therapy have been substantial in terms of molecular understanding of disease mechanisms, however these advances have not translated into increased survival in the majority of cancer types. One unsolved problem in current cancer therapeutics is the substantial immune suppression seen in patients. Conventionally, investigations in this area have focused on antigen-nonspecific immune suppressive molecules such as cytokines and T cell apoptosis inducing molecules such as Fas ligand. More recently, studies have demonstrated nanovesicle particles termed exosomes are involved not only in stimulation but also inhibition of immunity in physiological conditions. Interestingly, exosomes secreted by cancer cells have been demonstrated to express tumor antigens, as well as immune suppressive molecules such as PD-1L and FasL. Concentrations of exosomes from plasma of cancer patients have been associated with spontaneous T cell apoptosis, which is associated in some situations with shortened survival. In this paper we place the "exosome-immune suppression" concept in perspective of other tumor immune evasion mechanisms. We conclude by discussing a novel therapeutic approach to cancer immune suppression by extracorporeal removal of exosomes using hollow fiber filtration technology. PMID:18644158
Ichim, Thomas E; Zhong, Zhaohui; Kaushal, Shalesh; Zheng, Xiufen; Ren, Xiubao; Hao, Xishan; Joyce, James A; Hanley, Harold H; Riordan, Neil H; Koropatnick, James; Bogin, Vladimir; Minev, Boris R; Min, Wei-Ping; Tullis, Richard H
About a century ago, Metchnikoff first hypothesised that some intestinal bacteria "produce compounds useful against a premature ageing". Since then, studies progressed over last century, leading to a remarkable improvement of the knowledge about the role of intestinal micro-organisms. Nowadays a number of different micro-organisms satisfying certain requisites are named probiotics and are produced on a large scale. At present, a rational use of probiotics with preventive and therapeutic purposes has been proposed not only for some gastrointestinal pathologies, such as the infective diarrhea (as recommended by the Italian Society of Pediatric, the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, the Italian Society of Pediatric Infectious Disease, and by International Societies), but also for other pathologic conditions, such as the atopic dermatitis and related affections (as suggested by the American Academy of Dermatology Association guide lines). Moreover, the use of probiotics is going to be extended to other pathologies, such as the inflammatory intestinal and respiratory diseases, and even to the prevention of tooth decay, although the actual preventive and therapeutic effects of probiotics onto these pathologies have to be carefully investigated. It is unknown if the genius Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519), stating that "man's life is built up by food" imagined how nutrients can influence human health, besides being essential for life, as it is today increasingly evident. Avoiding an excessive optimism and the thought that an efficacious panacea for all troubles has been found, there are sound reasons to believe that probiotics, and prebiotics as well, can influence human health, through the prevention and therapy of many diseases, although further studies are still requested to fully clarify the mechanisms of action of these micro-organisms on each pathology. PMID:15529809
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology and is mainly characterized by the progressive erosion of cartilage leading to chronic polyarthritis and joint distortion. Although the exact pathogenesis of the disease has yet not been elucidated, however, studies suggest that cellular proliferation of synoviocytes result in pannus formation which damages the cartilage and bone. Recent reports also support the role of free radicals in its pathogenesis. Apart from the conventional treatment strategies using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, disease modifying antirheumatic drugs and glucocorticoids, newer and safer drugs are continuously being searched, as long term usage of these drugs have resulted in adverse effects. Alternative medicine provides another approach for treatment of RA and currently a number of medicinal plants are under scientific evaluation to develop a novel drug. There is a dire need to investigate the complete therapeutic potential and adverse effects, if any, of these herbals for providing newer and safer treatment options with minimum side effects. In this review we have tried to explore various Indian ancient Ayurvedic, Unani and Tibbi, as also some Chinese and Korean, herbals for their potential to treat RA. PMID:18392103
Rathore, Brijesh; Ali Mahdi, Abbas; Nath Paul, Bhola; Narayan Saxena, Prabhu; Kumar Das, Siddharth
Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of lung cancer, cardiovascular diseases, reproductive disorders, and delayed wound healing all over the world. The goals of smoking cessation are both to reduce health risks and to improve quality of life. The development of novel and more effective medications for smoking cessation is crucial in the treatment of nicotine dependence. Currently, first-line smoking cessation therapies include nicotine replacement products and bupropion. The partial nicotinic receptor agonist, varenicline, has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for smoking cessation. Clonidine and nortriptyline have demonstrated some efficacy, but side effects may limit their use to second-line treatment products. Other therapeutic drugs that are under development include rimonabant, mecamylamine, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, and dopamine D3 receptor antagonists. Nicotine vaccines are among newer products seeking approval from the FDA. Antidrug vaccines are irreversible, provide protection over years and need booster injections far beyond the critical phase of acute withdrawal symptoms. Interacting with the drug in the blood rather than with a receptor in the brain, the vaccines are free of side effects due to central interaction. For drugs like nicotine, which interacts with different types of receptors in many organs, this is a further advantage. Three anti-nicotine vaccines are today in an advanced stage of clinical evaluation. Results show that the efficiency of the vaccines is directly related to the antibody levels, a fact which will help to optimize the vaccine effect. The vaccines are expected to appear on the market between 2011 and 2012. PMID:21607018
Escobar-Chávez, José Juan; Domínguez-Delgado, Clara Luisa; Rodríguez-Cruz, Isabel Marlen
We studied the developmental mechanism of low myopia and the possibility of its drug treatment. I. Prevalence of myopia. According to surveys by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, the frequency of myopia in school children has gradually increased. We examined office workers from 20 to 60 years of age over a 3-year period. Myopia progression was observed in the thirties and fourties. Late-onset myopia is an important problem around the world. II. Developmental mechanism of low myopia. 1. Reduction of refraction after cycloplegia was statistically significant in adults after their twenties. We measured accommodative hysteresis after a close visual task. Accommodative hysteresis persisted for a long time in late-onset and adult-onset myopia. Continuous ciliary contraction seems to be related to late-onset myopia. 2. Bovine ciliary muscle strips were suspended in a Magnus double tube. The changes in isometric tension of the strips, when chemicals were added, were measured with a force-displacement transducer. After the addition of the cholinergic agonist carbachol, the strips of ciliary muscle produced a tonic contraction. When the muscarinic receptor antagonist cyclopentolate was added, relaxation was produced. After the addition of ET-1, a dual response occurred which consisted of a moderate relaxation and a long-lasting contraction. The mean contraction caused by ET-1 was weak but continuous compared to carbachol. The contractile response was inhibited by an ETA receptor antagonist. Also, when takusha, one component of gorei-san, a Chinese drug, was added to the ciliary muscle strips, contraction with ET-1 was attenuated. Contraction of the ciliary muscle with ET-1 was attenuated after addition of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an NO donor. This reaction suggests that NO causes relaxation of the bovine ciliary muscle through the activation of guanylyl cyclase and an increase in cyclic GMP. Currently, at least 5 muscarinic receptor subtypes are recognized; they are named M1 to M5. The effects of M1, M2, and M3 on the contractile response to transmural electrical stimulation of the bovine ciliary muscle were studied. The contractions produced by transmural electrical stimulation were greatly attenuated by 4-DAMP as an M3 antagonist. 3. We measured autofluorescence of the lens by fluorophotometry. A statistically significant relation was found between autofluorescence of the lens and refraction. 4. Possibility of axial elongation: The anterior and posterior suprachoroidal spaces are different anatomically and physiologically. When the choroid is stretched forward by accommodation, the intraocular pressure may exert more influence on the posterior part of the sclera, than on the anterior part. Using a fluorophotometer, fluorescence leakage at a site 3 mm in front of the retina was examined. Intensity of fluorescence 3 mm in front of the retina was strong in late-onset myopia. This may indicate disturbance of the barrier of the retinal pigment epithelium. When cultured fibroblasts of the sclera of the chick embryo was stretched by a stretching apparatus, proliferation of the cultured cells was inhibited. Therefore, some influence may involve the posterior part of the eyeball. III. Possibility of drug treatment of low myopia: From these results, muscarinic receptor antagonists (especially M3), ET receptor agtagonists, and NO donors are possible drugs for low myopia treatment. As there are many causative factors of low myopia, there are several treatment methods to be evaluated. PMID:10025113
The major obstacle towards HIV-1 eradication is the life-long persistence of the virus in reservoirs of latently infected cells. In these cells the proviral DNA is integrated in the host’s genome but it does not actively replicate, becoming invisible to the host immune system and unaffected by existing antiviral drugs. Rebound of viremia and recovery of systemic infection that follows interruption of therapy, necessitates life-long treatments with problems of compliance, toxicity, and untenable costs, especially in developing countries where the infection hits worst. Extensive research efforts have led to the proposal and preliminary testing of several anti-latency compounds, however, overall, eradication strategies have had, so far, limited clinical success while posing several risks for patients. This review will briefly summarize the more recent advances in the elucidation of mechanisms that regulates the establishment/maintenance of latency and therapeutic strategies currently under evaluation in order to eradicate HIV persistence. PMID:24736215
Battistini, Angela; Sgarbanti, Marco
More than 40 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been approved for a number of disease indications with only one of these (Synagis) - for a viral disease, and not for therapy but for prevention. However, in the last decade novel potent mAbs have been discovered and characterized with potential as therapeutics against viruses of major importance for public health and biosecurity including Hendra virus (HeV), Nipah virus (NiV), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Ebola virus (EBOV), West Nile virus (WNV), influenza virus (IFV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Here, we review such mAbs with an emphasis on antibodies of human origin, and highlight recent results as well as technologies and mechanisms related to their potential as therapeutics. PMID:23575729
Zhu, Zhongyu; Prabakaran, Ponraj; Chen, Weizao; Broder, Christopher C; Gong, Rui; Dimitrov, Dimiter S
The PEDVAC study is the first trial designed to analyze safety and immunogenicity of a therapeutic vaccination with a multiclade multigene HIV DNA vaccine (HIVIS) in infected children. Twenty HIV-1 vertically infected children (6-16 years of age), on stable antiretroviral treatment for at least 6 months with HIV-1 RNA<50 copies/ml and stable CD4 counts (> 400 cells/mm³ or 25%) over 12 months of follow-up, were recruited into the study. Enrolled patients have been randomized into two arms: a control group of 10 children who continued previous antiretroviral treatment (HAART) (arm A) and a group of 10 children immunized intramuscularly with the HIVIS DNA vaccine in addition to previous HAART (arm B). Immunizations took place at week 0, 4, 12 and the boosting dose is planned at week 36. The 10 children in the vaccine group have received the first 3 priming doses of the HIVIS vaccine. Safety data showed good tolerance to the vaccination schedule. Mild cutaneous self-limeted reactions consisted of local irritation, usually itching or erythema +/- swelling at the injection site, were reported. No severe systemic adverse events have been observed. No vaccinated children had a decrease of CD4 T-cell counts from baseline. None experienced virological failure. Analysis of cellular immune responses was scheduled at week 0, 4, 12, 16, 20, 40, 60, 72 and 96 by standard lymphoproliferation assay, intracellular cytokine staining and cell-ELISA, a miniaturized assay to measure antigen-induced IFN? secretion. Evaluation of these results is in progress and will provide key information on the status and changes of antigen specific immunity during HIV DNA immunization. PMID:21216310
Palma, Paolo; Romiti, Maria Luisa; Li Pira, Giuseppina; Montesano, Carla; Mora, Nadia; Aquilani, Angela; Santilli, Veronica; Tchidjou, Hyppolite K; Ivaldi, Federico; Giovannelli, Luigi; Pontrelli, Giuseppe; Borra, Giada; Blomberg, Pontus; Gudmundsdotter, Lindvi; Bråve, Andreas; Montano, Marco; Bernardi, Stefania; Manca, Fabrizio; Wahren, Britta; Rossi, Paolo
Leptin and adiponectin represent two newly discovered adipose tissue derived hormones with important roles in energy homeostasis and insulin resistance. Their interrelations with the manifestations of the HIV associated metabolic syndrome and specific somatomorphic changes i.e. fat redistribution is reviewed. A synopsis of published studies is presented and the potential role of leptin and adiponectin is discussed. We have described an association of the HIV metabolic syndrome with a state of reduced insulin sensitivity due to adiponectin deficiency. The metabolic syndrome is also accompanied by leptin deficiency in lipoatrophic subjects and possibly by a leptin resistance state in lipohypertrophic patients. Adiponectin and / or leptin therapy in a manner similar to other leptin deficiency states may assist in the future management of such patients. PMID:17183414
Tsiodras, Sotirios; Mantzoros, Christos
Background.?The licensing of herpes zoster vaccine has demonstrated that therapeutic vaccination can help control chronic viral infection. Unfortunately, human trials of immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine have shown only marginal efficacy. Methods.?In this double-blind study, 17 HIV-infected individuals with viral loads of <50 copies/mL and CD4+ T-cell counts of >350 cells/µL were randomly assigned to the vaccine or placebo arm. Vaccine recipients received 3 intramuscular injections of HIV DNA (4 mg) coding for clade B Gag, Pol, and Nef and clade A, B, and C Env, followed by a replication-deficient adenovirus type 5 boost (1010 particle units) encoding all DNA vaccine antigens except Nef. Humoral, total T-cell, and CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses were studied before and after vaccination. Single-copy viral loads and frequencies of latently infected CD4+ T cells were determined. Results.?Vaccination was safe and well tolerated. Significantly stronger HIV-specific T-cell responses against Gag, Pol, and Env, with increased polyfunctionality and a broadened epitope-specific CTL repertoire, were observed after vaccination. No changes in single-copy viral load or the frequency of latent infection were observed. Conclusions.?Vaccination of individuals with existing HIV-specific immunity improved the magnitude, breadth, and polyfunctionality of HIV-specific memory T-cell responses but did not impact markers of viral control. Clinical Trials Registration.?NCT00270465 PMID:23482645
Casazza, Joseph P.; Bowman, Kathryn A.; Adzaku, Selorm; Smith, Emily C.; Enama, Mary E.; Bailer, Robert T.; Price, David A.; Gostick, Emma; Gordon, Ingelise J.; Ambrozak, David R.; Nason, Martha C.; Roederer, Mario; Andrews, Charla A.; Maldarelli, Frank M.; Wiegand, Ann; Kearney, Mary F.; Persaud, Deborah; Ziemniak, Carrie; Gottardo, Raphael; Ledgerwood, Julie E.; Graham, Barney S.; Koup, Richard A.
Therapeutic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccines aim to reduce disease progression by inducing HIV-specific T cells. Vacc-4x are peptides derived from conserved domains within HIV-1 p24 Gag. Previously, Vacc-4x induced T cell responses in 90% of patients which were associated with reduced viral loads. Here we evaluate the effects of Vacc-4x boosters on T cell immunity and immune regulation seven years after primary immunization. Twenty-five patients on effective antiretroviral therapy received two Vacc-4x doses four weeks apart and were followed for 16 weeks. Vacc-4x T cell responses were measured by proliferation (CFSE), INF-?, CD107a, Granzyme B, Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity test (DTH) and cytokines and chemokines (Luminex). Functional regulation of Vacc-4x-specific T cell proliferation was estimated in vitro using anti-IL-10 and anti-TGF-ß monoclonal antibodies. Vacc-4x-specific CD8(+) T cell proliferation increased in 80% after either the first (64%) or second (16%) booster. Only 40% remained responders after two boosters with permanently increased Vacc-4x-specific proliferative responses (p=0.005) and improved CD8(+) T cell degranulation, IFN-? production and DTH. At baseline, responders had higher CD8(+) T cell degranulation (p=0.05) and CD4(+) INF-? production (p=0.01), whereas non-responders had higher production of proinflammatory TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-1ß (p<0.045) and regulatory IL-10 (p=0.07). Notably, IL-10 and TGF-ß mediated downregulation of Vacc-4x-specific CD8(+) T cell proliferation increased only in non-responders (p<0.001). Downregulation during the study correlated to higher PD-1 expression on Vacc-4x-specific CD8(+) T cells (r=0.44, p=0.037), but was inversely correlated to changes in Vacc4x-specific CD8(+) T cell proliferation (r=-0.52, p=0.012). These findings show that Vacc-4x boosters can improve T cell responses in selected patients, but also induce vaccine-specific downregulation of T cell responses in others. Broad surveillance of T cell functions during immunization may help to individualize boosting, where assessment of vaccine-related immune regulation should be further explored as a potential new parameter. PMID:23906886
Lind, Andreas; Brekke, Kristin; Sommerfelt, Maja; Holmberg, Jens O; Aass, Hans Christian D; Baksaas, Ingebjørg; Sørensen, Birger; Dyrhol-Riise, Anne Ma; Kvale, Dag
We conducted a critical literature review for possible reasons that may explain the lower HIV prevalence observed among API\\u000a MSM compared to MSM of other races\\/ethnicities. Trends emerging from the literature suggest that traditional individual-level\\u000a factors—unprotected anal intercourse, substance use, STD prevalence, rates and frequency of HIV testing, and utilization of\\u000a HIV prevention services—do not appear to be related to
Chongyi Wei; H. Fisher Raymond; Frank Y. Wong; Anthony J. Silvestre; Mark S. Friedman; Patricia Documét; Willi McFarland; Ron Stall
Chemokines are small proteins that primarily regulate the traffic of leukocytes under homeostatic conditions and during specific immune responses. The chemokine-chemokine receptor system comprises almost 50 chemokines and approximately 20 chemokine receptors; thus, there is no unique ligand for each receptor and the binding of different chemokines to the same receptor might have disparate effects. Complicating the system further, these effects depend on the cellular milieu. In cancer, although chemokines are associated primarily with the generation of a protumoral microenvironment and organ-directed metastasis, they also mediate other phenomena related to disease progression, such as angiogenesis and even chemoresistance. Therefore, the chemokine system is becoming a target in cancer therapeutics. We review the emerging data and correlations between chemokines/chemokine receptors and breast cancer, their implications in cancer progression, and possible therapeutic strategies that exploit the chemokine system. PMID:25165728
Palacios-Arreola, M. Isabel; Nava-Castro, Karen E.; Castro, Julieta I.; García-Zepeda, Eduardo; Carrero, Julio C.; Morales-Montor, Jorge
Sub-Saharan Africa is the region of the world most affected by HIV & AIDS, accounting for two-thirds of the global burden of the pandemic. People with disabilities are regarded as a high-risk group for HIV but have been largely neglected in programmes of education, treatment and support. This paper examines the possibilities for a learning…
Background Mucosal tissues represent major targets for HIV transmission, but differ in susceptibility and reservoir function by unknown mechanisms. Methods In a cross-sectional study, HIV RNA and infectious virus were compared between oral and genital compartments and blood in HIV-infected women, in association with clinical parameters, co-pathogens and putative innate and adaptive HIV inhibitors. Results HIV RNA was detectable in 24.5% of women from all 3 compartments, whereas 45% had RNA in only one or two sites. By comparison, infectious HIV, present in blood of the majority, was rare in mucosal sites. Innate mediators, SLPI and TSP, were highest in mucosae. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was associated with an 80% decreased probability of shedding. Multivariate logistic regression models revealed that mucosal HIV RNA was associated with higher plasma RNA, infectious virus, and total mucosal IgA, but not IgG. There was a 37-fold increased probability of detecting RNA in both genital and oral specimens (P=0.008;P=0.02, respectively) among women in highest vs lowest IgA tertiles. Conclusions Mucosal sites exhibit distinct characteristics of infectious HIV, viral shedding and responses to therapy, dependent upon both systemic and local factors. Of the putative innate and adaptive mucosal defense factors examined, only IgA was associated with HIV RNA shedding. However, rather than being protective, there was a striking increase in probability of detectable HIV RNA shedding in women with highest total IgA. PMID:21239996
Wahl, Sharon M.; Redford, Maryann; Christensen, Shawna; Mack, Wendy; Cohn, Jon; Janoff, Edward N.; Mestecky, Jiri; Jenson, Hal B.; Navazesh, Mahvash; Cohen, Mardge; Reichelderfer, Patricia; Kovacs, Andrea
Bone-derived mesenchymal stromal cells from HIV transgenic mice exhibit altered proliferation, differentiation capacity and paracrine functions along with impaired therapeutic potential in kidney injury
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete paracrine factors that could be cytoprotective and serve roles in immunoregulation during tissue injury. Although MSCs express HIV receptors, and co-receptors, and are susceptible to HIV infection, whether HIV-1 may affect biological properties of MSCs needs more study. We evaluated cellular proliferation, differentiation and paracrine functions of MSCs isolated from compact bones of healthy control mice and Tg26 HIV-1 transgenic mice. The ability of MSCs to protect against cisplatin toxicity was studied in cultured renal tubular cells as well as in intact mice. We successfully isolated MSCs from healthy mice and Tg26 HIV-1 transgenic mice and found the latter expressed viral Nef, Vpu, NL4-3 and Vif genes. The proliferation and differentiation of Tg26 HIV-1 MSCs was inferior to MSCs from healthy mice. Moreover, transplantation of Tg26 HIV-1 MSCs less effectively improved outcomes compared with healthy MSCs in mice with acute kidney injury. Also, Tg26 HIV-1 MSCs secreted multiple cytokines, but at significantly lower levels than healthy MSCs, which resulted in failure of conditioned medium from these MSCs to protect cultured renal tubular cells from cisplatin toxicity. Therefore, HIV-1 had adverse biological effects on MSCs extending to their proliferation, differentiation, function, and therapeutic potential. These findings will help in advancing mechanistical insight in renal injury and repair in the setting of HIV-1 infection. -- Highlights: •MSCs isolated from HIV mice displayed HIV genes. •MSCs isolated from HIV mice exhibited attenuated growth and paracrine functions. •AKI mice with transplanted HIV-MSC displayed poor outcome. •HIV-1 MSC secreted multiple cytokines but at a lower level.
Cheng, Kang; Rai, Partab; Lan, Xiqian; Plagov, Andrei; Malhotra, Ashwani [Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhassett, NY (United States); Gupta, Sanjeev [Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Marion Bessin Liver Research Center, Diabetes Center, Cancer Center, Ruth L. and David S. Gottesman Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research, Institute for Clinical and Translational Research, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Singhal, Pravin C., E-mail: email@example.com [Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhassett, NY (United States)
The toxicity of Cnidaria is a subject of concern for its influence on human activities and public health. During the last decades, the mechanisms of cell injury caused by cnidarian venoms have been studied utilizing extracts from several Cnidaria that have been tested in order to evaluate some fundamental parameters, such as the activity on cell survival, functioning and metabolism, and to improve the knowledge about the mechanisms of action of these compounds. In agreement with the modern tendency aimed to avoid the utilization of living animals in the experiments and to substitute them with in vitro systems, established cell lines or primary cultures have been employed to test cnidarian extracts or derivatives. Several cnidarian venoms have been found to have cytotoxic properties and have been also shown to cause hemolytic effects. Some studied substances have been shown to affect tumour cells and microorganisms, so making cnidarian extracts particularly interesting for their possible therapeutic employment. The review aims to emphasize the up-to-date knowledge about this subject taking in consideration the importance of such venoms in human pathology, the health implications and the possible therapeutic application of these natural compounds. PMID:24379089
Mariottini, Gian Luigi; Pane, Luigi
We report 2 cases coinfected with HIV and tuberculosis (HIV-TB), requiring drug dose adjustments guided by therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and/or serum drug concentrations. CASE 1: Over the course of the 9-months of TB treatment, drugs that required increased doses due to low concentrations included efavirenz (800 mg), rifampin (900 mg), and isoniazid (450 mg). Higher drug doses were well tolerated until the end of treatment. CASE 2: Over the 12-month course of TB therapy, drugs that required increased doses due to incomplete and/or delayed absorption were rifampin (1500 mg), moxifloxacin (800 mg), and ethambutol (1600 mg). Higher drug doses were well tolerated until the end of treatment. Due to delayed/incomplete drug absorption and weight gain during therapy, higher antituberculous doses may be required in patients coinfected with HIV-TB. A daily dose of efavirenz 800 mg was well tolerated in both patients (weight over 70 kg). Managing patients coinfected with HIV-TB is complex, and, therefore, TDM of drug concentrations can help guide clinical decision making. PMID:25425639
Newman, Michael; Foisy, Michelle M; Ahmed, Rabia A
Currently available antiviral drugs target the pol-encoded retroviral enzymes or integrases, in addition, inhibitors that target HIV-1 envelope-receptor interactions have also been recently approved. Recent understanding of the interactions between HIV-1 and host restriction factors has provided fresh avenues for development of novel antiviral drugs. For example, viral infectivity factor (Vif) now surfaced as an important therapeutic target in treatment of HIV infection. Vif suppresses A3G antiviral activity by targeting these proteins for polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. In the present study we analyzed the inhibitory potential of VEC5 and RN18 to inhibit the Vif-A3G interaction through protein- protein docking studies. Perusal of the study showed that, VEC5 and RN18 though inhibits the interaction however showed sub optimal potential. To overcome this set back, we identified 35 structural analogues of VEC5 and 18 analogues of RN18 through virtual screening approach. Analogue with PubCID 71624757 and 55358204 (AKOS006479723) -structurally akin to VEC5 and RN18 respectively showed much appreciable interaction than their respective parent compound. Evident from Vif-A3G; protein - protein docking studies, analogue PubCID 71624757 demonstrated 1.08 folds better inhibitory potential than its parent compound VEC5 while analogue PubCID 55358204 was 1.15 folds better than RN18. Further these analogues passed drug likeness filters and predicted to be non- toxic. We expect these analogues can be put to pharmacodynamic studies that can pave way the breakthrough in HIV therapeutics. PMID:25579575
Sinha, Chanda; Nischal, Anuradha; Bandaru, Srinivas; Kasera, Priyadarshani; Rajput, Ashish; Nayarisseri, Anuraj; Khattri, Sanjay
Several metabolic diseases present a high cardiovascular mortality due to endothelial dysfunction consequences. In the last years of the past century, it has come to light that the endothelial cells, previously considered as inert in what regards an eventual secretion activity, play a pivotal role in regulating different aspects of the vascular function (endothelial function). It was clearly demonstrated that the endothelium acts as a real active organ, owning endocrine, paracrine and autocrine modulation activities by means of which it is able to regulate the vascular homeostasis. The present review will investigate the relationship between some metabolic diseases and the endothelial dysfunction and in particular the mechanisms underlying the effects of metabolic pathologies on the endothelium. Furthermore, it will consider the possible therapeutic employment of the N-acetilcysteine in such conditions. PMID:25005185
Masha, A; Martina, V
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific monoclonal antibodies with extraordinary potency and breadth have recently been described. In humanized mice, combinations of monoclonal antibodies have been shown to ...
Barouch, Dan H.
HIV has posed a significant challenge due to the ability of the virus to both impair and evade the host’s immune system. One of the most important mechanisms it has employed to do so is the modulation of the host’s native apoptotic pathways and mechanisms. Viral proteins alter normal apoptotic signaling resulting in increased viral load and the formation of viral reservoirs which ultimately increase infectivity. Both the host’s pro- and anti-apoptotic responses are regulated by the interactions of viral proteins with cell surface receptors or apoptotic pathway components. This dynamic has led to the development of therapies aimed at altering the ability of the virus to modulate apoptotic pathways. These therapies are aimed at preventing or inhibiting viral infection, or treating viral associated pathologies. These drugs target both the viral proteins and the apoptotic pathways of the host. This review will examine the cell types targeted by HIV, the surface receptors exploited by the virus and the mechanisms whereby HIV encoded proteins influence the apoptotic pathways. The viral manipulation of the hosts’ cell type to evade the immune system, establish viral reservoirs and enhance viral proliferation will be reviewed. The pathologies associated with the ability of HIV to alter apoptotic signaling and the drugs and therapies currently under development that target the ability of apoptotic signaling within HIV infection will also be discussed. PMID:25196285
Mbita, Zukile; Hull, Rodney; Dlamini, Zodwa
This cross-sectional study examined the relationship among maternal HIV, pubertal development, gender, ethnicity, and spirituality and adolescent participation in sexual possibility situations (SPSs) and in sexual activity. SPSs are social encounters with cross-gender peers that afford the opportunity to engage in sexual activity. Heterosexual…
Lewis, Linwood J.; Mellins, Claude A.; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth
A concentrated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic might have started in the Philippines. A subsequent characterization of viruses was carried out to estimate HIV transmission modes. Most HIV strains from injecting drug users belonged to subtype-B. CRF-01 was a major subtype harbored by three other at-risk populations: male visa applicants who had sex with men, "men who have sex with men," and visa applicants. An HIV phylogeny suggested that two strain groups of injecting drug users and others circulated separately. In contrast, there was substantial genetic overlap between two strain groups from "men who have sex with men" and visa applicants. Mean nucleotide distance within strains was shorter among subtype-B strains harbored by the injecting drug users (0.010) than among CRF-01 strains of the other three populations: male visa applicants who had sex with men (0.034), "men who have sex with men" (0.023), and visa applicants (0.032). Closely related strains of hepatitis C virus were derived from not only HIV-positive but also -negative individuals. These results suggest that there is potential for transmission from visa applicants to "men who have sex with men," and that once HIV occurs in injecting drug users, it spreads rapidly among them. Close contacts of hepatitis C virus carriers composed of HIV-negative and -positive individuals indicated ongoing HIV spread via blood and possible intervention points. Large-scale analysis is needed to provide more precise information on the transmission directions and to help curb the growth of this HIV epidemic in the Philippines. PMID:23959846
Telan, Elizabeth Freda O; Samonte, Genesis May J; Palaypayon, Noel; Abellanosa-Tac-An, Ilya P; Leaño, Prisca Susan A; Tsuneki, Akeno; Kageyama, Seiji
Nano-medical approaches to develop drugs have attracted much attention in different arenas to design nanoparticle conjugates for better efficacy of the potential bio-molecules. A group of promising candidates of this category would be venom-toxins of animal origin of potential medicinal value. Traditional systems of medicine as well as folklores mention the use of venom-toxins for the treatment of various diseases. Research has led to scientific validation of medicinal applications of venoms-toxins and many active constituents derived from venoms-toxins are already in clinical use or under clinical trial. Nanomedicine is an emerging field of medicine where nanotechnology is used to develop molecules of nano-scale dimension, so that these molecules can be taken up by the cells more easily and have better efficacy, as compared to large molecules that may tend to get eliminated. This review will focus on some of the potential venoms and toxins along with nanoparticle conjugated venom-toxins of snakes, amphibians, scorpions and bees, etc., for possible therapeutic clues against emerging diseases. PMID:23236583
Biswas, Archita; Gomes, Aparna; Sengupta, Jayeeta; Datta, Poulami; Singha, Santiswarup; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr; Gomes, Antony
Francisella tularensis can bypass and suppress host immune responses, even to the point of manipulating immune cell phenotypes and intercellular inflammatory networks. Strengthening these responses such that immune cells more readily identify and destroy the bacteria is likely to become a viable (and perhaps necessary) strategy for combating infections with Francisella, especially given the likelihood of antibiotic resistance in the foreseeable future. Monocytes and macrophages offer a niche wherein Francisella can invade and replicate, resulting in substantially higher bacterial load that can overcome the host. As such, understanding their responses to Francisella may uncover potential avenues of therapy that could promote a lowering of bacterial burden and clearance of infection. These response pathways include Toll-like Receptor 2 (TLR2), the caspase-1 inflammasome, Interferons, NADPH oxidase, Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and the Ras pathway. In this review we summarize the literature pertaining to the roles of these pathways during Francisella infection, with an emphasis on monocyte/macrophage responses. The therapeutic targeting of one or more such pathways may ultimately become a valuable tool for the treatment of tularemia, and several possibilities are discussed. PMID:24600590
Gillette, Devyn D.; Tridandapani, Susheela; Butchar, Jonathan P.
Human tissues express cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors that can be activated by endogenously released ‘endocannabinoids’ or exogenously administered compounds in a manner that reduces the symptoms or opposes the underlying causes of several disorders in need of effective therapy. Three medicines that activate cannabinoid CB1/CB2 receptors are now in the clinic: Cesamet (nabilone), Marinol (dronabinol; ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC)) and Sativex (?9-THC with cannabidiol). These can be prescribed for the amelioration of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (Cesamet and Marinol), stimulation of appetite (Marinol) and symptomatic relief of cancer pain and/or management of neuropathic pain and spasticity in adults with multiple sclerosis (Sativex). This review mentions several possible additional therapeutic targets for cannabinoid receptor agonists. These include other kinds of pain, epilepsy, anxiety, depression, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, stroke, cancer, drug dependence, glaucoma, autoimmune uveitis, osteoporosis, sepsis, and hepatic, renal, intestinal and cardiovascular disorders. It also describes potential strategies for improving the efficacy and/or benefit-to-risk ratio of these agonists in the clinic. These are strategies that involve (i) targeting cannabinoid receptors located outside the blood-brain barrier, (ii) targeting cannabinoid receptors expressed by a particular tissue, (iii) targeting upregulated cannabinoid receptors, (iv) selectively targeting cannabinoid CB2 receptors, and/or (v) adjunctive ‘multi-targeting’. PMID:23108552
Pertwee, Roger G.
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is compromised in many systemic and CNS diseases, including HIV-1 infection of the brain. We studied BBB disruption caused by HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120) as a model. Exposure to gp120, whether acute [by direct intra-caudate-putamen (CP) injection] or chronic [using SV(gp120), an experimental model of ongoing production of gp120] disrupted the BBB, and led to leakage of vascular contents. Gp120 was directly toxic to brain endothelial cells. Abnormalities of the BBB reflect the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). These target laminin and attack the tight junctions between endothelial cells and BBB basal laminae. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were upregulated following gp120-injection. Gp120 reduced laminin and tight junction proteins. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate MMPs. Injecting gp120 induced lipid peroxidation. Gene transfer of antioxidant enzymes protected against gp120-induced BBB abnormalities. NMDA upregulates the proform of MMP-9. Using the NMDA receptor (NMDAR-1) inhibitor, memantine, we observed partial protection from gp120-induced BBB injury. Thus, (1) HIV-envelope gp120 disrupts the BBB; (2) this occurs via lesions in brain microvessels, MMP activation and degradation of vascular basement membrane and vascular tight junctions; (3) NMDAR-1 activation plays a role in this BBB injury; and (4) antioxidant gene delivery as well as NMDAR-1 antagonists may protect the BBB. PMID:22448134
Louboutin, Jean-Pierre; Strayer, David S.
This article reports the results of a study that explored the possibilities and limitations of service-learning by deconstructing the narratives about HIV/AIDS that emerged from five college students who participated in an alternative spring break program. Employing a critical (Rhoads, 1997) and anti-foundational (Butin, 2010) approach to inquiry,…
Jones, Susan Robb; LePeau, Lucy A.; Robbins, Claire K.
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin that plays important physiological roles in glucose homeostasis. Produced from intestine upon food intake, it stimulates insulin secretion and keeps pancreatic ?-cells healthy and proliferating. Because of these beneficial effects, it has attracted a great deal of attention in the past decade, and an entirely new line of diabetic therapeutics has emerged based on the peptide. In addition to the therapeutic applications, GLP-1 analogs have demonstrated a potential in molecular imaging of pancreatic ?-cells; this may be useful in early detection of the disease and evaluation of therapeutic interventions, including islet transplantation. In this Perspective, we focus on GLP-1 analogs for their studies on improvement of biological activities, enhancement of metabolic stability, investigation of receptor interaction, and visualization of the pancreatic islets. PMID:25349901
Manandhar, Bikash; Ahn, Jung-Mo
Close to one and a half million Kenyans reportedly live with HIV/AIDS. Using qualitative in-depth interviews this study explores the ways in which parents living with HIV/AIDS navigate their social and economic environment to provide educational opportunities for their children. Barriers identified include the economic costs of a free primary…
Factors that may influence engagement into a family–ecological psychosocial intervention and a nondirective psychosocial intervention designed for HIV+ asymptomatic women were examined. Participants were 136 HIV+ African American women. Participant characteristics and therapeutic alliance were examined as possible predictors of engagement. Both participant characteristics and therapeutic alliance had some power in predicting engagement. However, fewer participant characteristics than expected were
Guillermo Prado; José Szapocznik; Victoria B. Mitrani; Magaly H. Mauer; Lila Smith; Daniel J. Feaster
Pediatric sarcomas represent a diverse group of rare bone and soft tissue malignancies. Though the molecular mechanisms that propel the development of these cancers are not well understood, identification of tumor-specific translocations in many sarcomas has provided significant insight into their tumorigenesis. Each fusion protein resulting from these chromosomal translocations is thought to act as a driving force in the tumor, either as an aberrant transcription factor, constitutively active growth factor, or ligand-independent receptor tyrosine kinase. Identification of transcriptional targets or signaling pathways modulated by these oncogenic fusions has led to the discovery of potential therapeutic targets. Some of these targets have shown considerable promise in pre-clinical models and are currently being tested in clinical trials. This review summarizes the molecular pathology of a subset of pediatric sarcomas with tumor-associated translocations and how increased understanding at the molecular level is being translated to novel therapeutic advances. PMID:22546864
Anderson, Jennifer L.; Denny, Christopher T.; Tap, William D.; Federman, Noah
A series of degrasyn-like symmetrical compounds have been designed, synthesized, and screened against B cell malignancy (multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma) cell lines. The lead compounds T5165804 and CP2005 showed higher nanomolar potency against these tumor cells in comparison to degrasyn and inhibited Usp9x activity in vitro and in intact cells. These observations suggest that this new class of compounds holds promise as cancer therapeutic agents PMID:24457091
Peng, Zhenghong; Maxwell, David; Sun, Duoli; Bhanu Prasad, Basvoju A.; Schuber, Paul T.; Pal, Ashutosh; Ying, Yunming; Han, Dongmei; Gao, Liwei; Wang, Shimei; Levitzki, Alexander; Kapuria, Vaibhav; Talpaz, Moshe; Young, Matthew; Showalter, Hollis D.; Donato, Nicholas J.; Bornmann, William. G.
Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women, worldwide. Fortunately, breast cancer is relatively chemosensitive, with recent advances leading to the development of effective therapeutic strategies, significantly increasing disease cure rate. However, disease recurrence and treatment of cases lacking therapeutic molecular targets, such as epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and hormone receptors, referred to as triple-negative breast cancers, still pose major hurdles in the treatment of breast cancer. Thus, novel therapeutic approaches to treat aggressive breast cancers are essential. Blood coagulation factor VII (fVII) is produced in the liver and secreted into the blood stream. Tissue factor (TF), the cellular receptor for fVII, is an integral membrane protein that plays key roles in the extrinsic coagulation cascade. TF is overexpressed in breast cancer tissues. The TF-fVII complex may be formed in the absence of injury, because fVII potentially exists in the tissue fluid within cancer tissues. The active form of this complex (TF-fVIIa) may stimulate the expression of numerous malignant phenotypes in breast cancer cells. Thus, the TF-fVII pathway is a potentially attractive target for breast cancer treatment. To date, a number of studies investigating the mechanisms by which TF-fVII signaling contributes to breast cancer progression, have been conducted. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms controlling TF and fVII synthesis and regulation in breast cancer cells. Our current understanding of the TF-fVII pathway as a mediator of breast cancer progression will be also described. Finally, we will discuss how this knowledge can be applied to the design of future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25493229
Koizume, Shiro; Miyagi, Yohei
A series of degrasyn-like symmetrical compounds have been designed, synthesized, and screened against B cell malignancy (multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma) cell lines. The lead compounds T5165804 and CP2005 showed higher nanomolar potency against these tumor cells in comparison to degrasyn and inhibited Usp9x activity in vitro and in intact cells. These observations suggest that this new class of compounds holds promise as cancer therapeutic agents. PMID:24457091
Peng, Zhenghong; Maxwell, David S; Sun, Duoli; Bhanu Prasad, Basvoju A; Schuber, Paul T; Pal, Ashutosh; Ying, Yunming; Han, Dongmei; Gao, Liwei; Wang, Shimei; Levitzki, Alexander; Kapuria, Vaibhav; Talpaz, Moshe; Young, Matthew; Showalter, Hollis D; Donato, Nicholas J; Bornmann, William G
Therapeutic interventions for HIV-1 that successfully augment adaptive immunity to promote killing of infected cells may be a requisite component of strategies to reduce latent cellular reservoirs. Adoptive immunotherapies utilizing autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) that have been activated and antigen loaded ex vivo may serve to circumvent defects in DC function that are present during HIV infection in order to enhance adaptive immune responses. Here we detail the clinical preparation of DCs loaded with autologous aldrithiol-2 (AT-2)-inactivated HIV that have been potently activated with the viral mimic, Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-poly-l-lysine carboxymethylcellulose (Poly-ICLC). HIV is first propagated from CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected donors and then rendered non-replicative by chemical inactivation with aldrithiol-2 (AT-2), purified, and quantified. Viral inactivation is confirmed through measurement of Tat-regulated ?-galactosidase reporter gene expression following infection of TZM-bl cells. In-process testing for sterility, mycoplasma, LPS, adventitious agents, and removal of AT-2 is performed on viral preparations. Autologous DCs are generated and pulsed with autologous AT-2-inactivated virus and simultaneously stimulated with Poly-ICLC to constitute the final DC vaccine product. Phenotypic identity, maturation, and induction of HIV-specific adaptive immune responses are confirmed via flow cytometric analysis of DCs and cocultured autologous CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Lot release criteria for the DC vaccine have been defined in accordance with Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) guidelines. The demonstrated feasibility of this approach has resulted in approval by the FDA for investigational use in antiretroviral (ART) suppressed individuals. We discuss how this optimized DC formulation may enhance the quality of anti-HIV adaptive responses beyond what has been previously observed during DC immunotherapy trials for HIV infection. PMID:25444812
Miller, Elizabeth; Spadaccia, Meredith; Sabado, Rachel; Chertova, Elena; Bess, Julian; Trubey, Charles Mac; Holman, Rose Marie; Salazar, Andres; Lifson, Jeffrey; Bhardwaj, Nina
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is one type of breast cancer (BC), which is defined as negative for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (Her2). Its origins and development seem to be elusive. And for now, drugs like tamoxifen or trastuzumab which specifically apply to ER, PR or Her2 positive BC seem unforeseeable in TNBC clinical treatment. Due to its extreme malignancy, high recurrence rate and poor prognosis, a lot of work on the research of TNBC is needed. This review aims to summarize the latest findings in TNBC in risk factors, possible therapeutic targets and possible prognostic makers. PMID:25276378
Jiao, Qingli; Shao, Guoli; Peng, Haoyu; Wang, Mengchuan; Ji, Shufeng; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Jian
This clinical trial evaluated a modified therapeutic community aftercare (MTC-A) program for a population triply diagnosed with HIV\\/AIDS, a substance use disorder, and a mental disorder. After six months of MTC residential treatment (MTC-R), subjects were randomly assigned to MTC-A (n=42) or to standard aftercare (C; n=34). Follow-up interviews at six and 12 months assessed eight outcome domains and adherence
Stanley Sacks; Karen McKendrick; Peter Vazan; JoAnn Y. Sacks; Charles M. Cleland
In more than 20 years of medical practice, a surprising phenomenon has often occurred: some patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) decide not to go to the hospital and they do not let others know that they are suffering from the disease unless they believe that they are dieing. Zhang Shan (a pseudonym) is one such patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS who was reluctant to receive antiviral therapy as soon as possible, and this paper shares Zhang's story as he related it. Clearly, there are numerous views as to why patients in China behave as Zhang did. Presented here are several reasons, including society, history, morality and ideology, family, and education. Although all of these reasons do play a role, the patient's mindset and behavior is the most significant reason for a patient's reluctance to seek treatment or disclose his/her status. If the individual patient's mindset and behavior are not dealt with effectively, then HIV/AIDS can continue to spread and threaten additional lives and even the fabric of society. This paper analyzes the reasons why patients are hesitant to receive antiviral therapy, but this paper also suggests steps healthcare personnel can take to encourage patients to seek treatment. Such steps can save the lives of current patients with HIV/AIDS. In addition, sound public health measures and a rational approach to treatment are important to helping potential patients with HIV/AIDS. PMID:25030855
Sun, Yang; Lu, Hongzhou
Post-stroke depression is a common neuropsychiatric affective disorder that may develop after a stroke event. In addition to abnormalities in the biogenic amine neurotransmitters and cytokine expression induced by stroke we will focus on the role of oxidative stress and hypothesize that polyphenols may be useful as therapeutics targets for the treatment of post-stroke depression. In this paper, we discuss the hypothesis that increased oxidative stress in cerebral tissues during ischemia is implicated in the pathogenesis of depressive-like symptoms following stroke. There is substantive evidence regarding the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of both stroke and depression, which provides support to this hypothesis. Reactive oxygen species, generated during stroke, cause oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA damage in neural tissues. The resultant pathophysiological processes in the neural tissues could be considered a leading mechanism in the induction of post-stroke depression. Antioxidants including polyphenols therefore, may play an important role in the outcomes of ischemia and stroke, due to their ability to protect neurons against oxidative stress, to mitigate ischemic damage via inhibition of lipid peroxidation and ability to interact with the generation of nitric oxide from the vascular endothelium, and also to decrease inflammation. These data suggest that polyphenols may therefore be a useful new therapeutic target for the treatment of post-stroke depression. PMID:25386821
Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Dean, Olivia M; Turner, Alyna; Sureda, Antoni; Daglia, Maria; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad
A unique feature of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) that distinguishes them from other ionic receptors is that their activation requires more than one agonist to bind simultaneously to distinct binding sites on the receptor. D-serine, a co-agonist binding to the glycine site of NMDARs, has been implicated in several NMDAR-dependent physiological processes, and altered D-serine levels under certain pathophysiological conditions contribute to neural dysfunction via NMDARs in the central nervous system. Entry of HIV-1 in the brain causes neuronal injury leading to cognitive, behavioral and motor impairments known as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). As HIV-1 does not infect neurons, neuronal injury is believed to be primarily mediated by an indirect mechanism,that is, HIV-1-infected and/or immune-activated macrophages and microglial cells release soluble molecules leading to neuronal injury or death. Among the soluble factors is D-serine. In this article we try to address recent progresses on the role D-serine might play in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders with a particular emphasis of the involvement of D-serine in HIV-1-associated neurotoxicity. PMID:24044033
Xia, Jianxun; Xiong, Huangui
The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a heterogeneous group of autoimmune muscle disorders with distinct clinical and pathological features and underlying immunopathogenic mechanisms. Traditionally, CD4(+) Th1 cells or CD8(+) cytotoxic effector T cells and type I/II interferons have been primarily implicated in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory myopathies. The presence of IL-17A producing cells in the inflamed muscle tissue of myositis patients and the results of in vitro studies suggest that IL-17A and the Th17 pathway may also have a key role in these diseases. The contribution of IL-17A to other chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases has been well established and clinical trials of IL-17A inhibitors are now at an advanced stage. However the precise role of IL-17A in the various forms of myositis and the potential for therapeutic targeting is currently unknown and warrants further investigation. PMID:25052503
Moran, Ellen M; Mastaglia, Frank L
Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is a minimally invasive technique which is increasingly used in different thoracic aortic pathologies such as aortic aneurysm, complicated type B aortic dissection, aortic trauma, intramural hematoma and penetrating aortic ulcer. In this paper we discuss the main indications for endovascular stent-grafts in the treatment of thoracic aortic disease, based on three cases in which this procedure was used for three different conditions: degenerative aneurysm, complicated type B dissection and post-traumatic injury. These case reports add to the evidence that TEVAR is a safe and feasible therapeutic alternative in selected patients with thoracic aortic disease, improving aortic remodeling, with relatively low morbidity and mortality. The main complications and difficulties related to the procedure are also discussed. PMID:22285176
Fontes-Carvalho, Ricardo; Braga, Pedro; Rodrigues, Alberto; Bettencourt, Nuno; Santos, Lino; Melica, Bruno; Rocha, João; Gonçalves, Manuel; Ribeiro, Vasco Gama
Stimulation of vascular growth to treat limb ischemia is promising, and early results obtained from uncontrolled clinical trials using angiogenic agents, e.g., vascular endothelial growth factor, led to high expectations. However, negative results from recent placebo-controlled trials warrant further research. Here, current insights into mechanisms of vascular growth in the adult, in particular the role of angiogenic factors, the immune system, and bone marrow, were reviewed, together with modes of its therapeutic stimulation and results from recent clinical trials. Three concepts of vascular growth have been described to date-angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, and arteriogenesis (collateral artery growth)-which represent different aspects of an integrated process. Stimulation of arteriogenesis seems clinically most relevant and has most recently been attempted using autologous bone marrow transplantation with some beneficial results, although the mechanism of action is not completely understood. Better understanding of the highly complex molecular and cellular mechanisms of vascular growth may yet lead to meaningful clinical applications. PMID:18504100
van Weel, V; van Tongeren, R B; van Hinsbergh, V W M; van Bockel, J H; Quax, P H A
Nitric oxide (NO) is synthetized enzymatically from l-arginine (l-Arg) by three NO synthase isoforms, iNOS, eNOS and nNOS. The synthesis of NO is selectively inhibited by guanidino-substituted analogs of l-Arg or methylarginines such as asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), which results from protein degradation in cells. Many disease states, including cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, are associated with increased plasma levels of ADMA. The N-terminal catalytic domain of these NOS isoforms binds the heme prosthetic group as well as the redox cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) associated with a regulatory protein, calmodulin (CaM). The enzymatic activity of NOS depends on substrate and cofactor availability. The importance of BH(4) as a critical regulator of eNOS function suggests that BH(4) may be a rational therapeutic target in vascular disease states. BH(4) oxidation appears to be a major contributor to vascular dysfunction associated with hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetes and other cardiovascular diseases as it leads to the increased formation of oxygen-derived radicals due to NOS uncoupling rather than NO. Accordingly, abnormalities in vascular NO production and transport result in endothelial dysfunction leading to various cardiovascular disorders. However, some disorders including a wide range of functions in the neuronal, immune and cardiovascular system were associated with the over-production of NO. Inhibition of the enzyme should be a useful approach to treat these pathologies. Therefore, it appears that both a lack and excess of NO production in diseases can have various important pathological implications. In this context, NOS modulators (exogenous and endogenous) and their therapeutic effects are discussed. PMID:23859953
Rochette, Luc; Lorin, Julie; Zeller, Marianne; Guilland, Jean-Claude; Lorgis, Luc; Cottin, Yves; Vergely, Catherine
Diabetes mellitus is characterised by hyperglycaemia, lipidaemia and oxidative stress and predisposes affected individuals to long-term complications afflicting the eyes, skin, kidneys, nerves and blood vessels. Increased protein glycation and the subsequent build-up of tissue advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) contribute towards the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Protein glycation is accompanied by generation of free radicals through autoxidation of glucose and glycated proteins and via interaction of AGEs with their cell surface receptors (referred to as RAGE). Glycationderived free radicals can damage proteins, lipids and nucleic acids and contribute towards oxidative stress in diabetes. There is interest in compounds with anti-glycation activity as they may offer therapeutic potential in delaying or preventing the onset of diabetic complications. Although many different compounds are under study, only a few have successfully entered clinical trials but none have yet been approved for clinical use. Whilst the search for new synthetic inhibitors of glycation continues, little attention has been paid to anti-glycation compounds from natural sources. In the last few decades the traditional system of medicine has become a topic of global interest. Various studies have indicated that dietary supplementation with combined anti-glycation and antioxidant nutrients may be a safe and simple complement to traditional therapies targeting diabetic complications. Data for forty two plants/constituents studied for anti-glycation activity is presented in this review and some commonly used medicinal plants that possess anti-glycation activity are discussed in detail including their active ingredients, mechanism of action and therapeutic potential. PMID:22268395
Elosta, Abdulhakim; Ghous, Tahseen; Ahmed, Nessar
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-associated neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of cognitive function, loss of memory and insomnia, and abnormal behavioral signs and symptoms. Among the various theories that have been put forth to explain the pathophysiology of AD, the oxidative stress induced by amyloid ?-protein (A?) deposition has received great attention. Studies undertaken on postmortem brain samples of AD patients have consistently shown extensive lipid, protein, and DNA oxidation. Presence of abnormal tau protein, mitochondrial dysfunction, and protein hyperphosphorylation all have been demonstrated in neural tissues of AD patients. Moreover, AD patients exhibit severe sleep/wake disturbances and insomnia and these are associated with more rapid cognitive decline and memory impairment. On this basis, the successful management of AD patients requires an ideal drug that besides antagonizing A?-induced neurotoxicity could also correct the disturbed sleep-wake rhythm and improve sleep quality. Melatonin is an effective chronobiotic agent and has significant neuroprotective properties preventing A?-induced neurotoxic effects in a number of animal experimental models. Since melatonin levels in AD patients are greatly reduced, melatonin replacement has the potential value to be used as a therapeutic agent for treating AD, particularly at the early phases of the disease and especially in those in whom the relevant melatonin receptors are intact. As sleep deprivation has been shown to produce oxidative damage, impaired mitochondrial function, neurodegenerative inflammation, and altered proteosomal processing with abnormal activation of enzymes, treatment of sleep disturbances may be a priority for arresting the progression of AD. In this context the newly introduced melatonin agonist ramelteon can be of much therapeutic value because of its highly selective action on melatonin MT1/MT2 receptors in promoting sleep. PMID:21197086
Srinivasan, Venkatramanujam; Kaur, Charanjit; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu; Brown, Gregory M.; Cardinali, Daniel P.
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling controls many aspects of human development, regulates cell growth and differentiation in adult tissues, and is activated in a number of malignancies. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by chronic synovitis and pannus formation associated with activation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). We investigated whether Shh signaling plays a role in the proliferation of FLS in RA. Expression of Shh signaling related components (Shh, Ptch1, Smo, and Gli1) in RA synovial tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in FLS by IHC, immunofluorescence (IF), quantitative RT-PCR, and western blotting. Expression of Shh, Smo, and Gli1 in RA synovial tissue was higher than that in control tissue (P < 0.05). Cyclopamine (a specific inhibitor of Shh signaling) decreased mRNA expression of Shh, Ptch1, Smo, and Gli1 in cultured RA FLS, Shh, and Smo protein expression, and significantly decreased FLS proliferation. Flow cytometry analysis suggested that cyclopamine treatment resulted in cell cycle arrest of FLS in G1 phase. Our data show that Shh signaling is activated in synovium of RA patients in vivo and in cultured FLS form RA patients in vitro, suggesting a role in the proliferation of FLS in RA. It may therefore be a novel therapeutic target in RA. PMID:24741597
Wang, Mingxia; Zhu, Shangling; Peng, Weixiang; Li, Qiuxia; Li, Zhaoxia; Luo, Minqi; Feng, Xiaoxue; Lin, Zhuofeng; Huang, Jianlin
Oxidative stress caused by reactive species, including reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, and unbound, adventitious metal ions (e.g., iron [Fe] and copper [Cu]), is an underlying cause of various neurodegenerative diseases. These reactive species are an inevitable by-product of cellular respiration or other metabolic processes that may cause the oxidation of lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. Oxidative stress has recently been implicated in depression and anxiety-related disorders. Furthermore, the manifestation of anxiety in numerous psychiatric disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder, depressive disorder, panic disorder, phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder, highlights the importance of studying the underlying biology of these disorders to gain a better understanding of the disease and to identify common biomarkers for these disorders. Most recently, the expression of glutathione reductase 1 and glyoxalase 1, which are genes involved in antioxidative metabolism, were reported to be correlated with anxiety-related phenotypes. This review focuses on direct and indirect evidence of the potential involvement of oxidative stress in the genesis of anxiety and discusses different opinions that exist in this field. Antioxidant therapeutic strategies are also discussed, highlighting the importance of oxidative stress in the etiology, incidence, progression, and prevention of psychiatric disorders. PMID:24669207
Hassan, Waseem; Silva, Carlos Eduardo Barroso; Mohammadzai, Imdad Ullah; da Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira; Landeira-Fernandez, J.
Oxidative stress caused by reactive species, including reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, and unbound, adventitious metal ions (e.g., iron [Fe] and copper [Cu]), is an underlying cause of various neurodegenerative diseases. These reactive species are an inevitable by-product of cellular respiration or other metabolic processes that may cause the oxidation of lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. Oxidative stress has recently been implicated in depression and anxiety-related disorders. Furthermore, the manifestation of anxiety in numerous psychiatric disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder, depressive disorder, panic disorder, phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder, highlights the importance of studying the underlying biology of these disorders to gain a better understanding of the disease and to identify common biomarkers for these disorders. Most recently, the expression of glutathione reductase 1 and glyoxalase 1, which are genes involved in antioxidative metabolism, were reported to be correlated with anxiety-related phenotypes. This review focuses on direct and indirect evidence of the potential involvement of oxidative stress in the genesis of anxiety and discusses different opinions that exist in this field. Antioxidant therapeutic strategies are also discussed, highlighting the importance of oxidative stress in the etiology, incidence, progression, and prevention of psychiatric disorders. PMID:24669207
Hassan, Waseem; Silva, Carlos Eduardo Barroso; Mohammadzai, Imdad Ullah; da Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira; J, Landeira-Fernandez
HIV-associated neurologic disease continues to be a significant complication in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. A substantial subset of the HIV-infected population shows impaired neuropsychological performance as a result of HIV-mediated neuroinflammation and eventual central nervous system (CNS) injury. CNS compartmentalization of HIV, coupled with the evolution of genetically isolated populations in the CNS, is responsible for poor prognosis in patients with AIDS, warranting further investigation and possible additions to the current therapeutic strategy. This chapter reviews key advances in the field of neuropathogenesis and studies that have highlighted how molecular diversity within the HIV genome may impact HIV-associated neurologic disease. We also discuss the possible functional implications of genetic variation within the viral promoter and possibly other regions of the viral genome, especially in the cells of monocyte–macrophage lineage, which are arguably key cellular players in HIV-associated CNS disease. PMID:23809924
Nonnemacher, Michael R.; Wigdahl, Brian
We have studied interaction of well known antioxidant L-ascorbic acid with magnetic nanoparticles containing insoluble Fe(III) in their core. In analogy with ferritin, mobilization of iron in the form of water soluble Fe(II) was observed, especially pronounced at higher temperatures. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide cytotoxic hydroxyl radicals are produced. These results suggest possible harmful effects of widely used magnetic nanoparticles as a MRI contrast agents in combination with overload of organism with ascorbic acid in some specific conditions, like fever of patient. On the other hand combination of magnetic nanoparticles and ascorbic acid may be used for a cancer therapy using alternating magnetic field for the release of Fe(II) via Néel relaxation of magnetic moment of used nanoparticles. We have further found that lipoic acid is an efficient antioxidant scavenging hydroxyl radicals produced by Fenton reaction from Fe(II). PMID:23479451
Durdík, Stefan; Vrbovská, Hanka; Olas, Adam; Babincová, Melánia
STAT3 is important for transcriptional regulation in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML). STAT3 has thousands of potential DNA binding sites but usually shows cell type specific binding preferences to a limited number of these. Furthermore, AML is a very heterogeneous disease, and studies of the prognostic impact of STAT3 in human AML have also given conflicting results. A more detailed characterization of STAT3 functions and the expression of various isoforms in human AML will therefore be required before it is possible to design clinical studies of STAT3 inhibitors in this disease, and it will be especially important to investigate whether the functions of STAT3 differ between patients. Several other malignancies also show extensive biological heterogeneity, and the present discussion and the suggested scientific approaches may thus be relevant for other cancer patients. PMID:25374305
Bruserud, Øystein; Nepstad, Ina; Hauge, Michelle; Hatfield, Kimberley Joanne; Reikvam, Håkon
The two most common eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, are characterized by aberrant eating patterns and disturbances in body image. Treatment involves combining individual, behavioural, group, and family therapies, possibly with medications. Studies have found that medication, chiefly antidepressants, could be of help in bulimia nervosa but the evidence is weaker for use in anorexia nervosa. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive technique that briefly stimulates or depresses cortical areas within the brain. It has been used in the treatment of various psychiatric disorders, especially major depression, which is a condition that patients with eating disorders often experience as a significant comorbidity. Given that both disorders may share a common pathogenesis, this report proposes that rTMS may represent an alternative strategy for the treatment of eating disorders. Other evidence that supports this notion comes from animal studies that show that rTMS can change feeding behaviours and central neurotransmitters related to the regulation of eating behaviours. Further investigation into the dose, duration and type of rTMS stimulus is needed to verify the efficacy of this intervention in eating disorders. PMID:16005573
Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous molecule involved in multiple cellular functions. Inappropriate production of NO may lead to disease states. To date, pharmacologically active compounds that release NO within the body, such as organic nitrates, have been used as therapeutic agents, but their efficacy is significantly limited by unwanted side effects. Therefore, novel NO donors with better pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties are highly desirable. The S-nitrosothiol fraction in plasma is largely composed of endogenous S-nitrosated human serum albumin (Mono-SNO-HSA), and that is why we are testing whether this albumin form can be therapeutically useful. Recently, we developed SNO-HSA analogs such as SNO-HSA with many conjugated SNO groups (Poly-SNO-HSA) which were prepared using chemical modification. Unexpectedly, we found striking inverse effects between Poly-SNO-HSA and Mono-SNO-HSA. Despite the fact that Mono-SNO-HSA inhibits apoptosis, Poly-SNO-HSA possesses very strong proapoptotic effects against tumor cells. Furthermore, Poly-SNO-HSA can reduce or perhaps completely eliminate the multidrug resistance often developed by cancer cells. In this review, we forward the possibility that Poly-SNO-HSA can be used as a safe and effective multifunctional antitumor agent. PMID:24490156
Ishima, Yu; Kragh-Hansen, Ulrich; Maruyama, Toru; Otagiri, Masaki
At the end of 1992, according the World Health Organization, 611,589 AIDS cases had been reported, but the actual number of cases reached about two million. The actual number of HIV-infected people in the world, according to WHO, in 1992 ranged between 10 and 12 million. It is estimated that by the year 2000 there will be 30-40 million infected people and about 12-18 million AIDS cases. In the 1980's the increase was especially great in Sub-Saharan Africa, with about 6 million infected cases of whom 1/3 were pregnant women in big city maternity wards. In recent years the steep increase of cases in Africa led to its appellation as the AIDS continent. The percentage of infected people is put at 15-20% and it is steadily increasing. On the American continents by the end of 1992, a total of 313,083 cases were reported, of which 242,000 were in the US (970 per 1 million inhabitants). In Brazil there were 31,000, in Mexico 11,000, and in Canada 7000 cases. The highest figure was in the Bahamas: 4087 per 1 million inhabitants. In Asia only 2582 AIDS cases were reported at the end of 1992, because HIV still had not exploded on this continent. The latest data indicated an increase of the infection in Asia among IV drug users and prostitutes, so that seropositive persons were estimated at half a million. The highest number of clinical cases were in Thailand (909), Japan (508), and in Israel (192). In Europe there were 88,810 cases reported, of which 21,487 were in France. At the end of 1992 in Yugoslavia 268 cases were registered (25 per 1 million inhabitants). In Serbia there were 262 cases (in Belgrade 75% of them) and in Montenegro 3 cases. It is worrisome that about 2000 HIV-positive persons have been detected since 1985. AZT (azidothymidine, zidovudin) and ddI (dideoxyinosine) are the main drugs for treatment. Since an effective vaccine is still unavailable, the only means of halting the spread of HIV infection is warning and education, beginning with prepubescents, about first intercourse and IV drug use. PMID:8212657
Litvinjenko, S; Pocek, B
The global AIDS pandemic continues to expand and in some regions of the world, such as southern Africa, the prevalence of HIV-1 infection exceeds 20%. The devastating spread of the virus in young women in these countries appears disproportional to overall risk of infection. Regions with high prevalence of HIV-1 are often also highly endemic for other pathogenic viruses including HSV, CMV and HTLV. We propose that acquisition by HIV-1 of the envelope glycoproteins of other viruses, in a process we call “natural pseudotyping,” expands the cellular tropism of HIV-1, enabling it to infect female genital epithelial cells directly and thereby dramatically increasing risk of infection during sexual intercourse. In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrate that when HIV-1 co-infects T cells along with the gammaretrovirus xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), progeny HIV-1 particles are produced capable of infecting primary vaginal, ectocervical and endocervical epithelial cells. These cell types are normally resistant to HIV-1 infection. Infection of primary genital cells was neutralized by antisera against the XMRV glycoprotein, confirming that infection was mediated by the XMRV glycoprotein acquired through pseudotyping of HIV. Inhibition by AZT showed that active replication of HIV-1 occurred in these cells and ruled out non-specific endocytic uptake of the virus. These results demonstrate that natural pseudotyping can expand the tropism of HIV-1 to include genital epithelial cells and have potential implications for sexual transmission of the virus. PMID:25010677
Tang, Yuyang; George, Alvin; Nouvet, Franklin; Sweet, Stephanie; Emeagwali, Nkiruka; Taylor, Harry E.; Simmons, Glenn; Hildreth, James E. K.
No data are available on the long-term immunovirological outcome of HIV-positive pregnant women experiencing sub-therapeutic antiretroviral drug (ARV) concentrations during pregnancy. The objective of our study was to assess the long-term virological outcome in pregnant women treated with HAART. A prospective, multi-center study enrolled 60 HIV-infected pregnant women stratified into 3 groups according to the response to HAART. Group A, women successfully treated with HAART; Group B, women with confirmed virological failure during HAART; Group C, women successfully treated with HAART during pregnancy for prevention of vertical transmission only. Smoking, alcohol use, low adherence to therapy, and increased viral load at delivery were significantly associated to virological failure at univariate analysis. At multivariate regression analysis, only adherence to therapy was reported as an independent variable related to the virological response (p < 0.001). Virological failure during follow-up was reported in 2 (25.0%) of the 8 women with sub therapeutic Ctrough and in 4 of the 33 (12.1%) women with therapeutic Ctrough (p=0.33). In group C, the viro-immunological set points during follow-up did not differ from those observed before HAART initiation. No significantly increased rate of virological failure after delivery was reported in women with sub-therapeutic ARV concentrations during pregnancy and long-term follow-up. The long-term virological outcome was independently associated to reduced adherence to therapy. Evaluation of the clinical impact of the low plasma ARV concentrations during pregnancy on the long-term virological outcome deserves further larger studies. PMID:22762419
Nicastri, Emanuele; Ivanovic, Jelena; Signore, Fabrizio; Tempestilli, Massimo; Bellagamba, Rita; Viscione, Magdalena; Pisani, Giuseppe; Vallone, Cristina; Tommasi, Chiara; Gallo, Anna L; De Nardo, Pasquale; Pucillo, Paolo L; Narciso, Pasquale
Subjects Twenty vertically HIV-infected children, 6–16 years of age, with stable viral load control and CD4+ values above 400 cells/mm3. Intervention Ten subjects continued their ongoing antiretroviral treatment (ART, Group A) and 10 were immunized with a HIV-DNA vaccine in addition to their previous therapy (ART and vaccine, Group B). The genetic vaccine represented HIV-1 subtypes A, B and C, encoded Env, Rev, Gag and RT and had no additional adjuvant. Immunizations took place at weeks 0, 4 and 12, with a boosting dose at week 36. Monitoring was performed until week 60 and extended to week 96. Results Safety data showed good tolerance of the vaccine. Adherence to ART remained high and persistent during the study and did not differ significantly between controls and vaccinees. Neither group experienced either virological failure or a decline of CD4+ counts from baseline. Higher HIV-specific cellular immune responses were noted transiently to Gag but not to other components of the vaccine. Lymphoproliferative responses to a virion antigen HIV-1 MN were higher in the vaccinees than in the controls (p?=?0.047), whereas differences in reactivity to clade-specific Gag p24, RT or Env did not reach significance. Compared to baseline, the percentage of HIV-specific CD8+ lymphocytes releasing perforin in the Group B was higher after the vaccination schedule had been completed (p?=?0.031). No increased CD8+ perforin levels were observed in control Group A. Conclusions The present study demonstrates the feasibility, safety and moderate immunogenicity of genetic vaccination in vertically HIV-infected children, paving the way for amplified immunotherapeutic approaches in the pediatric population. Trial registration clinicaltrialsregister.eu _2007-002359-18IT PMID:24312194
Palma, Paolo; Romiti, Maria Luisa; Montesano, Carla; Santilli, Veronica; Mora, Nadia; Aquilani, Angela; Dispinseri, Stefania; Tchidjou, Hyppolite K.; Montano, Marco; Eriksson, Lars E.; Baldassari, Stefania; Bernardi, Stefania; Scarlatti, Gabriella
The use of chemotherapy to suppress replication of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has transformed the face of AIDS in the developed world. Pronounced reductions in illness and death have been achieved and healthcare utilization has diminished. HIV therapy has also provided many new insights into the pathogenesis and the viral and cellular dynamics of HIV infection. But challenges remain. Treatment does not suppress HIV replication in all patients, and the emergence of drug-resistant virus hinders subsequent treatment. Chronic therapy can also result in toxicity. These challenges prompt the search for new drugs and new therapeutic strategies to control chronic viral replication.
Richman, Douglas D.
Work from our laboratories has validated mixed lineage kinase type 3 (MLK3) as an enzyme pathologically activated in the central nervous system (CNS) by HIV-1 neurotoxins. In this review, we discuss MLK3 activation in the context of the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 associated neurocognitive deficits (HAND). We use findings from the literature to substantiate the neuropathologic relevance of MLK3 to neurodegenerative disease, with an emphasis on Parkinson’s disease (PD) that shares a number of important phenotypic and neuropathologic characteristics with HAND. We discuss signal transduction pathways downstream from MLK3 activation, with an emphasis on their involvement in microglia and neurons in preclinical models of HAND. Finally, we make a case for pharmacologic intervention targeted at inhibition of MLK3 as a strategy to reverse HAND in light of the fact that combination antiretroviral therapy, despite successfully managing systemic infection of HIV-1, has been largely unsuccessful in eradicating HAND. PMID:20880503
Gelbard, Harris A.; Dewhurst, Stephen; Maggirwar, Sanjay B.; Kiebala, Michelle; Polesskaya, Oksana; Gendelman, Howard E.
Methadone substitution is claimed to be the most effective way of pharmacological management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients addicted to opioids. Possible and clinically the most relevant drug interactions are those between methadone and antiretroviral agents [13,18,25,32]. HIV causes cognitive impairment by infiltrating the central nervous system (CNS) in the initial phase of infection. The consequence of this is damage to the hippocampus, caudate nucleus, and basal ganglia [2,26]. Eighty-six patients from the substitution program group were examined. The trial was conducted twice: before and about 1.5 hours after the administration of a therapeutic dose of methadone. The antisaccades task (AT) and latency task (LT) were performed using a saccadometer diagnostic system. The statistical analysis showed that the mean duration of latency measured by AT in HIV(-) and HIV(+) subjects after the administration of a therapeutic dose of methadone was significantly increased (p=0.03 HIV(-); p=0.04 HIV(+)). There was a statistically significant increase in the mean latency after the administration of methadone in HIV(+) subjects when compared to the control group measured by LT (p=0.03). The statistical analysis confirms the change in the saccadic refixation parameters in patients addicted to opioids. Methadone influences saccadic dynamic parameters less in HIV(+) than in HIV(-) drug users. Oculomotor disturbances are probably related to the neurotropic effects of HIV leading to damage of the striatum, which plays an important role in psychomotor functions. PMID:25531705
Feit, Julia; Kunc, Marek; Walecki, Piotr; Gorzela?czyk, Edward Jacek
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most frequent renal tumor and its incidence is increasing worldwide. Tumor angiogenesis is known to play a crucial role in the etiopathogenesis of RCC and over the last few years an even deeper knowledge of its contribution in metastatic RCC development has led to the development of numerous molecular targeting agents (such as sunitinib, sorafenib, pazopanib, axitinib, tivozanib, and dovitinib). The above agents are principally directed against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) members and also against c-Kit receptor (c-KitR). The role of c-kitR inhibition on clear cell RCC (ccRCC), the main RCC subtype, is less well established. Whether c-kitR activation through its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF) contributes significantly to the effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) treatment remains to be established. It is important to underscore that the c-KitR is expressed on mast cells (MCs) and cancer cells. After an examination of the c-KitR/SCF pathway, we review here the principal studies that have evaluated c-Kit expression in RCC. Moreover, we summarize some investigations that have observed the distribution of MCs in primary renal cancer and in adjacent normal tissue with appropriate histological immunohistochemical techniques. We also focus on few studies that have evaluated the correlation between RCC proliferation, MC count and microvessel density (MVD), as hallmarks of tumor angiogenesis. Thus, the aim of this review of the literature is to clarify if c-KitR expression, MC count and MVD could have prognostic significance and the possible predictive therapeutic implications in RCC. PMID:25056544
Marech, Ilaria; Gadaleta, Cosmo Damiano; Ranieri, Girolamo
We examined the influence of perfusion (Q) and ventilation (V) scans on therapeutic decision making and outcome among 229 patients referred for lung scans because embolism was suggested and found that specific V/Q scan patterns strongly influenced postscan decisions regarding initiation, maintenance or cessation of heparin therapy. These therapeutic decisions bore a relationship to outcome (recurrences and death) and disclosed decision-making deficits that need remedy by future investigational and educational efforts. PMID:4013250
Mercandetti, Alex J.; Kipper, Michael S.; Moser, Kenneth M.
BACKGROUND: In Malawi and other high HIV prevalence countries, studies suggest that more than 30% of all severely malnourished children admitted to inpatient nutrition rehabilitation units are HIV-infected. However, clinical algorithms designed to diagnose paediatric HIV are neither sensitive nor specific in severely malnourished children. The present study was conducted to assess : i) whether HIV testing can be integrated
Paluku Bahwere; Ellen Piwoz; Marthias C Joshua; Kate Sadler; Caroline H Grobler-Tanner; Saul Guerrero; Steve Collins
HIV antibody (Ab) functions capable of preventing mucosal cell-free or cell-to-cell HIV transmission are critical for the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. In addition to CD4+ T cells, other potential HIV-target cell types including antigen-presenting cells (APCs) (dendritic cells, macrophages) residing at mucosal sites are infected. Moreover, the interactions between APCs and HIV lead to HIV cell-to-cell transmission. Recently discovered broadly neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are able to neutralize a broad spectrum of HIV strains, inhibit cell-to-cell transfer, and efficiently protect from infection in the experimentally challenged macaque model. However, the 31% protection observed in the RV144 vaccine trial in the absence of detectable NAbs in blood samples pointed to the possible role of additional Ab inhibitory functions. Increasing evidence suggests that IgG Fc? receptor (Fc?R)-mediated inhibition of Abs present at the mucosal site may play a role in protection against HIV mucosal transmission. Moreover, mucosal IgA Abs may be determinant in protection against HIV sexual transmission. Therefore, defining Ab inhibitory functions that could lead to protection is critical for further HIV vaccine design. Here, we review different inhibitory properties of HIV-specific Abs and discuss their potential role in protection against HIV sexual transmission. PMID:24995008
Su, Bin; Moog, Christiane
The past few years have witnessed many promising advances in HIV prevention strategies involving pre-exposure prophylaxis approaches. Some may now wonder whether an HIV vaccine is still needed, and whether developing one is even possible. The partial efficacy reported in the RV144 trial and the encouraging results of the accompanying immune correlates analysis suggest that an effective HIV vaccine is achievable. These successes have provided a large impetus and guidance for conducting more HIV vaccine trials. A key lesson learned from RV144 is that assessment of HIV acquisition is now a feasible and valuable primary objective for HIV preventive vaccine trials. In this article we review how RV144 and other HIV vaccine efficacy trials have instructed the field and highlight some of the HIV vaccine concepts in clinical development. After a long and significant investment, HIV vaccine clinical research is paying off in the form of valuable lessons that, if applied effectively, will accelerate the path toward a safe and effective vaccine. Together with other HIV prevention approaches, preventive and therapeutic HIV vaccines will be invaluable tools in bringing the epidemic to an end. PMID:24033299
Day, Tracey A.; Kublin, James G.
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic adherence of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is poor. It is therefore necessary to determine the magnitude of non-adherence to develop strategies to correct this behaviour. The purpose of this study was to analyse the diagnostic validity of indirect adherence methods. METHODS: Sample: 195 COPD patients undergoing scheduled inhaled treatment attending 5 Primary Care Centres of
Pilar Barnestein-Fonseca; José Leiva-Fernández; Francisca Vidal-España; Antonio García-Ruiz; Daniel Prados-Torres; Francisca Leiva-Fernández
We estimated the HIV risk reduction that could be attained by using a rapid HIV home test (HT) to screen sexual partners versus using condoms in different proportions of anal intercourse (AI) occasions among men who have sex with men (MSM). Special attention was paid to the role of the window period during which infected cases go undetected. Our results show that if MSM engage in AI without condoms following a non-reactive HT result, they have lower chances of becoming infected by someone still in the window period than by following heuristics and using condoms inconsistently. For MSM who do not use condoms, use of HT as a screening device may be a useful risk reduction strategy. This advantage increases with higher HIV population prevalence. With higher HIV incidence, this strategy will not provide any advantage if condoms are used in as little as one out of four occasions. PMID:19415483
Ventuneac, Ana; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Levin, Bruce; Bauermeister, Jose; Woodman-Maynard, Emily; Giguere, Rebecca
Neuroinflammation is a key process in the neuropathogenesis of AIDS virus since as a result of the aberrant activation of the chemokine receptors (CXCR4, CX3CR1 and CR5) produces proinflammatory cytokine release by infected cells, increases microglial neurotoxicity and generates lipoperoxides and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that eventually damage the neuron. Moreover, the neurotoxin Tat produces dendritic loss by interacting with the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LRP) and also overstimulates N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDA). Furthermore, the aberrant interaction of glycoprotein gp120 with the CXCR4 chemokine receptor causes caspase-3-dependent apoptosis (ceramide is also released) activating apoptotic proteins (p53 and retinoblastoma), which are part of the neurotoxic mechanisms associated to neuronal dysfunction in neuroAIDS. Similarly, gliosis/microglial activation and the release of neurotoxic factors by infected monocytes with elevated amounts of certain chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (MCP-1 and fractalkine, among others) contribute to the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1. Alpha-synuclein and beta amyloid deposits have also been detected in post mortem brains of seropositives patients. In addition, there are studies have detected several systemic markers related with the degenerative effects of the virus and its neurotoxins on the central nervous system; such as osteopontin, CD163 and fractalkine, among others. Lastly, clinical trials have been conducted using protective strategies related that attempt to inhibit apoptotic proteins (GSK-3 beta), microglial activation inhibitors (minocycline), antioxidants (selegiline) or trophic factors (IGF-1, growth hormone or erythropoietin). These trials have shown that their treatments are beneficial and complementary to treat complications of HIV/AIDS. PMID:21271550
Merino, J J; Montes, M L; Blanco, A; Bustos, M J; Oreja-Guevara, C; Bayon, C; Cuadrado, A; Lubrini, G; Cambron, I; Munoz, A; Cebolla, S; Gutierrez-Fernandez, M; Bernardino, J I; Arribas, J R; Fiala, M
In the gastrointestinal tract, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) act as pacemaker cells to generate slow wave activity. Interstitial cells that resemble ICCs in the gastrointestinal tract have been identified by their morphological characteristics in the bladder. KIT is used as an identification marker of ICCs. ICCs in the bladder may be involved in signal transmission between smooth muscle bundles, from efferent nerves to smooth muscles, and from the urothelium to afferent nerves. Recent research has suggested that not only the disturbance of spontaneous contractility caused by altered detrusor ICC signal transduction between nerves and smooth muscle cells but also the disturbance of signal transduction between urothelial cells and sensory nerves via suburothelial ICC may induce overactive bladder (OAB). Recent reports have suggested that KIT is not only a detection marker of these cells, but also may play a crucial role in the control of bladder function. Research into the effect of a c-kit receptor inhibitor, imatinib mesylate, on bladder function implies that KIT-positive ICCs may be therapeutic target cells to reduce bladder overactivity and that the blockage of c-kit receptor may offer a new therapeutic strategy for OAB treatment, although further study will be needed. PMID:21785586
Kubota, Yasue; Kojima, Yoshiyuki; Shibata, Yasuhiro; Imura, Makoto; Sasaki, Shoichi; Kohri, Kenjiro
Recently identified broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) that potently neutralize most HIV-1 strains are key to potential antibody-based therapeutic approaches to combat HIV/AIDS in the absence of an effective vaccine. Increasing bNAb potencies and resistance to common routes of HIV-1 escape through mutation would facilitate their use as therapeutics. We previously used structure-based design to create the bNAb NIH45-46G54W, which exhibits superior potency and/or breadth compared with other bNAbs. We report new, more effective NIH45-46G54W variants designed using analyses of the NIH45-46–gp120 complex structure and sequences of NIH45-46G54W–resistant HIV-1 strains. One variant, 45-46m2, neutralizes 96% of HIV-1 strains in a cross-clade panel and viruses isolated from an HIV-infected individual that are resistant to all other known bNAbs, making it the single most broad and potent anti–HIV-1 antibody to date. A description of its mechanism is presented based on a 45-46m2–gp120 crystal structure. A second variant, 45-46m7, designed to thwart HIV-1 resistance to NIH45-46G54W arising from mutations in a gp120 consensus sequence, targets a common route of HIV-1 escape. In combination, 45-46m2 and 45-46m7 reduce the possible routes for the evolution of fit viral escape mutants in HIV-1YU-2–infected humanized mice, with viremic control exhibited when a third antibody, 10–1074, was added to the combination. PMID:23712429
Klein, Florian; Horwitz, Joshua A.; Halper-Stromberg, Ariel; Sather, D. Noah; Marcovecchio, Paola M.; Lee, Terri; West, Anthony P.; Gao, Han; Seaman, Michael S.; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.
Persistent serpentine supravenous hyperpigmentation (PSSH) describes a hyperpigmentation of the skin overlying peripheral veins. This cutaneous finding is typically seen in association with systemic chemotherapy or collagen vascular diseases such as progressive systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis. Three dark-skinned patients with idiopathic serpentine supravenous hyperpigmentation (ISSH) without collagen vascular disease or prior intravenous cytotoxic treatments were reported. All 3 patients were dark-skinned men with symmetric, uniform hyperpigmentation of the supravenous network of the bilateral lower extremities that had been present for years. The serpentine supravenous hyperpigmentation on the lower extremities was uniform in width and color, which contrasts with the darker discoloration near the site of infusion seen with PSSH associated with chemotherapy. Interestingly, 2 of the patients had advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease in association with their ISSH while the HIV status of the third patient was unknown. Thus, we contend that ISSH be considered a normal racial variant or a possible cutaneous manifestation of HIV disease. PMID:23745227
O'Malley, John T; Lieb, Jocelyn L; Weiser, Jessica A; Grossman, Marc E
Artemisia annua L., long used as a tea infusion in traditional Chinese medicine, produces artemisinin. Although artemisinin is currently used as artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) against malaria, oral consumption of dried leaves from the plant showed efficacy and will be less costly than ACT. Many compounds in the plant have some antimalarial activity. Unknown, however, is how these plant components change as leaves are processed into tablets for oral consumption. Here we compared extracts from fresh and dried leaf biomass with compressed leaf tablets of A. annua. Using GC-MS, nineteen endogenous compounds, including artemisinin and several of its pathway metabolites, nine flavonoids, three monoterpenes, a coumarin, and two phenolic acids, were identified and quantified from solvent extracts to determine how levels of these compounds changed during processing. Results showed that compared to dried leaves, artemisinin, arteannuin B, artemisinic acid, chlorogenic acid, scopoletin, chrysoplenetin, and quercetin increased or remained stable with powdering and compression into tablets. Dihydroartemisinic acid, monoterpenes, and chrysoplenol-D decreased with tablet formation. Five target compounds were not detectable in any of the extracts of this cultivar. In contrast to the individually measured aglycone flavonoids, using the AlCl3 method, total flavonoids increased nearly fivefold during the tablet formation. To our knowledge this is the first study documenting changes that occurred in processing dried leaves of A. annua into tablets. These results will improve our understanding of the potential use of not only this medicinal herb, but also others to afford better quality control of intact plant material for therapeutic use. PMID:25228784
Weathers, Pamela J; Towler, Melissa J
Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a super family of 11 enzyme families responsible for the hydrolysis of the intracellular secondary messengers cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP). PDE4, in particular, is highly expressed in brain regions involved with regulation of memory, anxiety, and depression, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens. Senescence has been shown to result in extreme dysregulation of the cAMP pathway in various brain regions. Thus, as a critical controller of intracellular cAMP levels, PDE4 may be a potential target for the treatment of senescence-related cognitive disorders, which could be pathological and/or non-pathological in origin. While there is great potential in the development of novel PDE4 inhibitors for treatment of senescent-cognition impairment, there are also currently many pitfalls that need to be overcome. PDE4 has four subfamilies (PDE4A, B, C, and D) that are differentially expressed throughout the brain and body, as well as at least 25 splice variants derived from alternative splicing and multiple promoter sites. PDE4 subtypes have been shown to have differential effects on behavior, and cAMP itself has also been shown to play a contrasting role in behavior in different brain regions. This review will focus on what is currently understood about PDE4 in aging, the potential for PDE4 modulation as a cognitive therapy, and current pitfalls and limitations that need to be overcome in the PDE4 field. Overall, furthering our understanding of this incredibly complex pathway may one day assist with the development of novel therapeutics for both pathological and non-pathological cognitive disorders associated with senescence. PMID:25159075
Hansen, Rolf T; Zhang, Han-Ting
We report the first successful treatment with the thrombopoietin receptor mimetic eltrombopag in a patient with severe aplastic anaemia (SAA) associated with HIV infection, thereby avoiding the use of standard immunosuppressive agents for treatment of SAA. Eltrombopag induced a trilineage haematological response. We also show that eltrombopag had an immunomodulatory role with a decrease in proinflammatory T helpers (Th1 and Th17 cells) with increased T-regulatory cell/T-helper ratio, thus contributing to recovery of haemopoiesis. PMID:25333665
Bart-Smith, Emily E; Kordasti, Shahram; Kulasekararaj, Austin G; Richardson, Daniel; Mufti, Ghulam J; Marsh, Judith C W
Associational loosening, slow and faulty information processing, poor gating of irrelevant stimuli, poor ability to shift attention, poor working memory, passivity, ambivalence, anhedonia, and impaired motor coordination are cardinal features of schizophrenia but, unlike delusions and hallucinations, they are related more to negative/deficit symptoms. As summarized by Bass, numerous studies have correlated leadership with 'ambition, initiative and persistence' (opposite of passivity), 'speed and accuracy of thought', 'finality of decision,' or decisiveness (the opposite of ambivalence), 'mood control, optimism and sense of humor' (opposite of anhedonia), etc. Andreasen et al postulate that a disruption in the circuitry among nodes located in the prefrontal regions, the thalamic nuclei, and the cerebellum produces 'cognitive dysmetria', meaning difficulty in prioritizing, coordinating, and responding to information, and that it can account for the broad diversity of symptoms of schizophrenia. A relationship between cognitive processes and cerebellar and basal ganglia functions, and a role of neocerebellum in rapidly shifting attention, have been demonstrated. The cognitive styles, including a proficiency to quickly shift attention, of several famous leaders are used as examples of this contrasting model. Julius Caesar and Napoleon, for instance, could dictate to up to six secretaries simultaneously, using their exceptional working memories, and proficiency in quickly and effortlessly shifting attention while flawlessly gating irrelevant external and internal stimuli. It is suggested that specific brain imaging studies could illustrate this contrast. Gray et al noted positive correlations between 'dominance', an important leadership trait, and serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone (T), but not of more potent dihydrotestosterone (DHT), in over 1700 older men. Though not scientifically rigorous, the author noted positive correlations (P = 0.0162) between the self-rated ratings of voice depth (promoted by T) and of leadership, but none between those of body hair (DHT dependent) and of leadership in 47 male US National Academy of Sciences members. And 43 male US Senators had deeper voices than 36 male House members (P<0.01) who, in turn, had deeper voices than either of two groups (numbers 102 and 72) of male scientists (P<0.01). Therapeutically, before chlorpromazine, DHEA had been used in young schizophrenics with modest success in improving deficit symptoms. DHEA, or other sex hormones, or some of their natural and synthetic derivatives may prove to be valuable to treat deficit symptoms of schizophrenia in both sexes. PMID:10859637
Alias, A G
Objectives: To investigate changing nutritional demographics of treated HIV-1-infected patients and explore causes of obesity, particularly in women of African origin. Methods: We prospectively reviewed nutritional demographics of clinic attenders at an urban European HIV clinic during four one-month periods at three-yearly intervals (2001, 2004, 2007, and 2010) and in two consecutive whole-year reviews (2010–2011 and 2011–2012). Risk-factors for obesity were assessed by multiple linear regression. A sub-study of 50 HIV-positive African female patients investigated body-size/shape perception using numerical, verbal, and pictorial cues. Results: We found a dramatic rise in the prevalence of obesity (BMI?>?30?kg/m2), from 8.5 (2001) to 28% (2011–2012) for all clinic attenders, of whom 86% were on antiretroviral treatment. Women of African origin were most affected, 49% being obese, with a further 32% overweight (BMI 25–30?kg/m2) in 2012. Clinical factors strongly associated with obesity included female gender, black African ethnicity, non-smoking, age, and CD4 count (all P?0.001); greater duration of cART did not predict obesity. Individual weight-time trends mostly showed slow long-term progressive weight gain. Investigating body-weight perception, we found that weight and adiposity were underestimated by obese subjects, who showed a greater disparity between perceived and actual adiposity (P?0.001). Obese subjects targeted more obese target “ideal” body shapes (P?0.01), but were less satisfied with their body shape overall (P?=?0.02). Conclusion: Seropositive African women on antiretroviral treatment are at heightened risk of obesity. Although multifactorial, body-weight perception represents a potential target for intervention. PMID:25431572
McCormick, Claire L.; Francis, Arianne M.; Iliffe, Kim; Webb, Helen; Douch, Catherine J.; Pakianathan, Mark; Macallan, Derek C.
Opiate abuse alters the progression of HIV and may increase the risk of neuroAIDS. As neuroAIDS is associated with altered microglial reactivity, the combined effects of HIV-Tat and morphine were determined in cultured microglia. Specifically, experiments determined the effects of Tat and morphine on microglial free radical production and oxidative stress, and on cytokine release. Data show that combined Tat and morphine cause early and synergistic increases in reactive oxygen species, with concomitant increases in protein oxidation. Furthermore, combined Tat and morphine, but not Tat or morphine alone, cause reversible decreases in proteasome activity. The effects of morphine on free radical production and oxidative stress are prevented by pretreatment with naloxone, illustrating the important role of opioid receptor activation in these phenomena. While Tat is well-known to induce cytokine release from cultured microglia, morphine decreases Tat-induced release of the cytokines TNF? and IL-6, as well as the chemokine MCP-1. Finally, experiments using the reversible proteasome inhibitor MG115 show that temporary, non-cytotoxic decreases in proteasome activity increase protein oxidation and decrease TNF?, IL-6, and MCP-1 release from microglia. Taken together, these data suggest that oxidative stress and proteasome inhibition may be involved in the immunomodulatory properties of opioid receptor activation in microglia. PMID:19054280
Turchan-Cholewo, Jadwiga; Dimayuga, Filomena O.; Gupta, Sunita; Keller, Jeffrey N.; Knapp, Pamela E.; Hauser, Kurt F.; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J.
There is growing interest in the pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of long-term complications of HIV disease and its therapies. Specifically, studies focused on cardiovascular, renal, bone, and fat abnormalities were prominent at the 17th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Although enthusiasm about the effectiveness of current antiretroviral therapy remains strong, collectively, the ongoing work in the area of HIV disease and treatment complications appears to reflect concerns that these clinical problems will continue to remain important and possibly increase over time in the current therapeutic era. This year’s conference also highlighted important data on prevention and optimal treatment of common coinfections that occur in HIV-infected individuals, including tuberculosis, influenza, and viral hepatitis. PMID:20516525
Luetkemeyer, Anne F.; Havlir, Diane V.; Currier, Judith S.
The importance of the active site region aspartyl residues 25 and 29 of the mature HIV-1 protease (PR) for the binding of five clinical and three experimental protease inhibitors (symmetric cyclic urea inhibitor DMP323, non-hydrolysable substrate analog (RPB) and the generic aspartic protease inhibitor acetyl-pepstatin (Ac-PEP)) was assessed by differential scanning calorimetry. ?Tm values, defined as the difference in Tm for a given protein in the presence and absence of inhibitor, for PR with DRV, ATV, SQV, RTV, APV, DMP323, RPB and Ac-PEP are 22.4, 20.8, 19.3, 15.6, 14.3, 14.7, 8.7, and 6.5 °C, respectively. Binding of APV and Ac-PEP is most sensitive to the D25N mutation, as shown by ?Tm ratios [?Tm(PR)/?Tm(PRD25N)] of 35.8 and 16.3, respectively, whereas binding of DMP323 and RPB (?Tm ratios of 1-2) is least affected. Binding of the substrate-like inhibitors RPB and Ac-PEP is nearly abolished (?Tm(PR)/?Tm(PRD29N) ? 44) by the D29N mutation, whereas this mutation only moderately affects binding of the smaller inhibitors (?Tm ratios of 1.4-2.2). Of the 9 FDA approved clinical HIV-1 protease inhibitors screened, APV, RTV and DRV competitively inhibit porcine pepsin with Ki values of 0.3, 0.6 and 2.14 ?M, respectively. DSC results were consistent with this relatively weak binding of APV (?Tm 2.7 °C) compared with the tight binding of AcPEP (?Tm ?17 °C). Comparison of superimposed structures of the PR/APV complex with those of PR/Ac-PEP and pepsin/pepstatin A complexes suggests a role for Asp215, Asp32 and Ser219 in pepsin, equivalent to Asp25, Asp25? and Asp29 in PR, in the binding and stabilization of the pepsin/APV complex. PMID:18951411
Sayer, Jane M.; Louis, John M.
HIV/AIDS remains a chronic and incurable disease, in spite of the notable successes of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Gene therapy offers the prospect of creating genetic resistance to HIV that supplants the need for antiviral drugs. In sight of this goal, a variety of anti-HIV genes have reached clinical testing, including gene-editing enzymes, protein-based inhibitors, and RNA-based therapeutics. Combinations of therapeutic genes against viral and host targets are designed to improve the overall antiviral potency and reduce the likelihood of viral resistance. In cell-based therapies, therapeutic genes are expressed in gene modified T lymphocytes or in hematopoietic stem cells that generate an HIV-resistant immune system. Such strategies must promote the selective proliferation of the transplanted cells and the prolonged expression of therapeutic genes. This review focuses on the current advances and limitations in genetic therapies against HIV, including the status of several recent and ongoing clinical studies. PMID:22985479
Burnett, John C.; Zaia, John A.; Rossi, John J.
In 2013 there will be an estimated 22,240 new diagnoses and 14,030 deaths from ovarian cancer in the United States. Despite the improved surgical approach and the novel active drugs that are available today in clinical practice, about 80% of women presenting with late-stage disease have a 5-year survival rate of only 30%. In the last years a growing scientific knowledge about the molecular pathways involved in ovarian carcinogenesis has led to the discovery and evaluation of several novel molecular targeted agents, with the aim to test alternative models of treatment in order to overcome the clinical problem of resistance. Cancer stem cells tend to be more resistant to chemotherapeutic agents and radiation than more differentiated cellular subtypes from the same tissue. In this context the study of ovarian cancer stem cells is taking on an increasingly important strategic role, mostly for the potential therapeutic application in the next future. In our review, we focused our attention on the molecular characteristics of epithelial ovarian cancer stem cells, in particular on possible targets to hit with targeted therapies. PMID:23902592
Factors that may influence engagement into a family—ecological psychosocial intervention and a nondirective psychosocial intervention designed for HIV+ asymptomatic women were examined. Participants were 136 HIV+ African American women. Participant characteristics and therapeutic alliance were examined as possible predictors of engagement. Both participant characteristics and therapeutic alliance had some power in predicting engagement. However, fewer participant characteristics than expected were statistically significant. Statistically significant results indicate that women who had more daily hassles, more distress, more social support, and more disagreements with their spouse were more likely to engage in the intervention. The strongest predictor of engagement was therapeutic alliance, indicating the importance of the alliance between the HIV+ participant and the interventionist. The importance of these findings is discussed. PMID:16715177
Prado, Guillermo; Szapocznik, José; Mitrani, Victoria B.; Mauer, Magaly H.; Smith, Lila; Feaster, Daniel J.
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have radically advanced the field of regenerative medicine by making possible the production of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells from adult individuals. By developing iPSCs to treat HIV, there is the potential for generating a continuous supply of therapeutic cells for transplantation into HIV-infected patients. In this study, we have used human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs)
Amal Kambal; Gaela Mitchell; Whitney Cary; William Gruenloh; Yunjoon Jung; Stefanos Kalomoiris; Catherine Nacey; Jeannine McGee; Matt Lindsey; Brian Fury; Gerhard Bauer; Jan A Nolta; Joseph S Anderson
Several studies have reported the benefits of exercise training for adults with HIV, although there is no consensus regarding the most efficient modalities. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different types of exercise on physiologic and functional measurements in patients with HIV using a systematic strategy for searching randomized controlled trials. The sources used in this review were the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PEDro from 1950 to August 2012. We selected randomized controlled trials examining the effects of exercise on body composition, muscle strength, aerobic capacity, and/or quality of life in adults with HIV. Two independent reviewers screened the abstracts using the Cochrane Collaboration's protocol. The PEDro score was used to evaluate methodological quality. In total, 29 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Individual studies suggested that exercise training contributed to improvement of physiologic and functional parameters, but that the gains were specific to the type of exercise performed. Resistance exercise training improved outcomes related to body composition and muscle strength, with little impact on quality of life. Aerobic exercise training improved body composition and aerobic capacity. Concurrent training produced significant gains in all outcomes evaluated, although moderate intensity and a long duration were necessary. We concluded that exercise training was shown to be a safe and beneficial intervention in the treatment of patients with HIV. PMID:24037014
Gomes-Neto, Mansueto; Conceição, Cristiano Sena; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; Brites, Carlos
Abnormalities in the intricate intracellular signalling pathways play a key role in the deregulation of either spontaneous (normal or pathological) or induced (therapeutic) cell death mechanisms. Some of these pathways are in- creasingly becoming molecular therapeutic targets in different processes, ranging from neurodegenerative diseases to can- cer. Recent discoveries in research and treatment have shown that failure to induce selective
Salvador Harguindey; Stephan J. Reshkin; Gorka Orive; Jose Luis Arranz; Eduardo Anitua
BACKGROUND: The etiology of Bell's palsy can vary but anterograde axonal degeneration may delay spontaneous functional recovery leading the necessity of therapeutic interventions. Corticotherapy and\\/or complementary rehabilitation interventions have been employed. Thus the natural history of the disease reports to a neurotrophic resistance of adult facial motoneurons leading a favorable evolution however the related molecular mechanisms that might be therapeutically
Karen F Coracini; Caio J Fernandes; Almir F Barbarini; César M Silva; Rodrigo T Scabello; Gabriela P Oliveira; Gerson Chadi
Eosinophilic folliculitis (EF) is a chronic, intensely pruritic condition of unknown pathogenesis that causes marked morbidity in those HIV patients whom it affects. There is a wide differential diagnosis of itchy skin conditions in HIV which are amenable to different treatments. It is therefore essential to take a biopsy of each suspected case and examine multiple sections of the biopsy to confirm or refute a diagnosis of EF. Treatment of EF can be difficult but we hope that by suggesting a rational approach to this and considering possible therapeutic options more patients may be helped with this troublesome dermatosis. ??? PMID:10616350
Simpson-Dent, S.; Fearfield, L. A.; Staughton, R. C.
Introduction HIV/HCV coinfection is a risk factor for hepatic injury in patients receiving HAART and previous studies support a favourable effect of antiretroviral regimens including maraviroc (MVC) on the course of coinfection compared with other antiretroviral drugs. There are few observations about MVC use in simplified treatment of coinfected patients.Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and the safety of simplification to darunavir (DRV)/ritonavir (r)/maraviroc (MVC) in virologically HIV-suppressed patients and to explore the effect of simplified treatment on coinfected patients. Material and Methods GUSTA study is a randomized two arms trial that compares the switch to DRV/r/MVC with standard HAART with three drugs. The study enrols patients with HIV-1 RNA<50cp/mL>6 months, R5 tropism, CD4>200 cells/mm. Survival analysis was used to analyze factors associated to time-to a single viral load (VL) over 50cp/mL and FIB-4>1.45. Results We included 62 patients with at least the 24 week follow-up for FIB-4 analysis: males 75.8%, heterosexuals 48.4%, HCV+12.9% median age 48.3 years (IQR41.1;53.5), time from HIV diagnosis 11.0 years (IQR7.3;16.7), CD4 cells 659/mm (IQR478;882), nadir CD4 203/mm (IQR115;286), FPR 46 (IQR30;70), baseline (BL) FIB-4 1.11 (IQR0.75;1.35). At BL no differences were observed in the two arms, except for platelets (?34.96 109/L, in the study arm, p=0.028) and CD4 at nadir (?70cell/µL, p0.051). After 24 weeks a significant reduction in total bilirubin (TB) (?0.55 mg/dL, p=0.025) and alkaline phosphatase(AP) (?12.96 UI/L, p=0.002) was observed in the study group. A statistically significant difference in mean change of TB (0.61 mg/dL, p=0.016) and AP (13.23 UI/L, p=0.04) at 24 week between control and study group was observed. No grade 3/4 transaminase elevation was observed for any patient even if HIV/HCV coinfected and receiving MVC. A single HCV negative patient in the control arm had grade 3 bilirubin increase. Including all patients with at least one follow-up HCV status was not associated with an increased risk of detectable VL (n=114, 4072 person-week-follow-up [IQR12;51.6]), nor with FIB-4>1.45 (n=98, 3513 person-week-follow-up [IQR11.4;50.9]). Conclusions The initial results from GUSTA study show that ART-regimen including MVC did not increase the incidence of adverse events or severe laboratory liver abnormalities in HIV-1-infected patients with or without HCV coinfection. Coinfected patients did not show an increased risk of failure on simplification treatment with MVC/DRV/r. PMID:25397562
Gagliardini, Roberta; Rossetti, Barbara; Bianco, Claudia; Rusconi, Stefano; Colafigli, Manuela; Prinapori, Roberta; Francisci, Daniela; Fantauzzi, Alessandra; Orofino, Giancarlo; Vignale, Francesca; Di Giambenedetto, Simona; De Luca, Andrea
Viremic controllers (VC) and elite controllers/suppressors (ES) maintain control over HIV-1 replication. Some studies suggested that control is a result of infection with a defective viral strain while others suggested host immune factors play a key role. Here we document two HIV-1 transmission pairs: one consisting of a patient with progressive disease and an individual who became an ES, and the second consisting of a patient with progressive disease and a VC. In contrast to another ES transmission pair, virus isolated from all patients was fully replication competent. These data suggests that some VC and ES are infected with HIV-1 isolates that replicate vigorously in vitro and are able to cause progressive disease in vivo. These data suggest that host factors play a dominant role in control of HIV-1 infection, thus it may be possible to control fully pathogenic HIV-1 isolates with therapeutic vaccination. PMID:22395607
Buckheit, Robert W.; Allen, Tracy G.; Alme, Angela; Salgado, Maria; O’Connell, Karen A.; Huculak, Sarah; Falade-Nwulia, Oluwaseun; Williams, Thomas M.; Gallant, Joel E.; Siliciano, Robert F.; Blankson, Joel N.
Lyme disease represents a disorder of potentially chronic proportions, and relatively little is known about the in vivo pharmacodynamic interactions of antimicrobial agents with borreliae. So far, evidence-based drug regimens for the effective treatment of Lyme disease have not been definitively established. Moreover, therapeutic failures have been reported for almost every suitable antimicrobial agent currently available. Resistance to treatment and
Klaus-Peter Hunfeld; Peter Kraiczy; Elena Kekoukh; Volker Schäfer; Volker Brade
Background Regardless of infection route, the intestine is the primary site for HIV-1 infection establishment and results in significant mucosal CD4+ T lymphocyte depletion, induces an inflammatory state that propagates viral dissemination, facilitates microbial translocation, and fosters establishment of one of the largest HIV reservoirs. Here we test the prediction that HIV infection modifies the composition and function of the mucosal commensal microbiota. Results Rectal mucosal microbiota were collected from human subjects using a sponge-based sampling methodology. Samples were collected from 20 HIV-positive men not receiving combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART), 20 HIV-positive men on cART and 20 healthy, HIV-negative men. Microbial composition of samples was analyzed using barcoded 16S Illumina deep sequencing (85,900 reads per sample after processing). Microbial metagenomic information for the samples was imputed using the bioinformatic tools PICRUST and HUMAnN. Microbial composition and imputed function in HIV-positive individuals not receiving cART was significantly different from HIV-negative individuals. Genera including Roseburia, Coprococcus, Ruminococcus, Eubacterium, Alistipes and Lachnospira were depleted in HIV-infected subjects not receiving cART, while Fusobacteria, Anaerococcus, Peptostreptococcus and Porphyromonas were significantly enriched. HIV-positive subjects receiving cART exhibited similar depletion and enrichment for these genera, but were of intermediate magnitude and did not achieve statistical significance. Imputed metagenomic functions, including amino acid metabolism, vitamin biosynthesis, and siderophore biosynthesis differed significantly between healthy controls and HIV-infected subjects not receiving cART. Conclusions HIV infection was associated with rectal mucosal changes in microbiota composition and imputed function that cART failed to completely reverse. HIV infection was associated with depletion of some commensal species and enrichment of a few opportunistic pathogens. Many imputed metagenomic functions differed between samples from HIV-negative and HIV-positive subjects not receiving cART, possibly reflecting mucosal metabolic changes associated with HIV infection. Such functional pathways may represent novel interventional targets for HIV therapy if normalizing the microbial composition or functional activity of the microbiota proves therapeutically useful. PMID:24451087
HIV quasispecies was analysed in plasma and proviral genomes hosted by duodenal mucosa and peripheral blood cells (PBMC) from patients with early or chronic infection, with respect to viral heterogeneity, tropism compartmentalization and extent of immune activation. Seventeen HIV-1-infected combined antiretroviral therapy naive patients were enrolled (11 early infection and six chronic infection). V3 and nef genomic regions were analysed by ultra-deep pyrosequencing. Sequences were used to infer co-receptor usage and to construct phylogenetic trees. As markers of immune activation, plasma sCD14 and soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor II (sTNFRII) levels were measured. Median diversity of HIV RNA was lower in patients with early infection versus chronic infection patients. Overall, direct correlation was observed between V3 diversity and X4 frequency; V3 diversity of HIV RNA was inversely correlated with CD4 T-cell count; median sCD14 and sTNFRII values were similar in early and chronic patients, but X4 frequency of HIV RNA was directly correlated with plasma sCD14. The proportion of patients harbouring X4 variants and median intra-patient X4 frequency of proviral genomes tended to be higher in chronic infection than early infection patients. More pronounced compartmentalization of proviral quasispecies in gut compared with PBMC samples was observed in patients with early infection compared with chronic patients. The loss of gut/PBMC compartmentalization in more advanced stages of HIV infection was confirmed by longitudinal observation. More studies are needed to understand the pathogenetic significance of early HIV quasispecies compartmentalization and progressive intermixing of viral variants in subsequent phases of the infection, as well as the role of immune activation in tropism switch. PMID:24134524
Rozera, G; Abbate, I; Vlassi, C; Giombini, E; Lionetti, R; Selleri, M; Zaccaro, P; Bartolini, B; Corpolongo, A; D'Offizi, G; Baiocchini, A; Del Nonno, F; Ippolito, G; Capobianchi, M R
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and is a global public health issue. Anti-HIV therapy involving chemical drugs has improved the life quality of HIV/AIDS patients. However, emergence of HIV drug resistance, side effects and the necessity for long-term anti-HIV treatment are the main reasons for failure of anti-HIV therapy. Therefore, it is essential to isolate novel anti-HIV therapeutics from natural resources. Recently, a great deal of interest has been expressed regarding marine-derived anti-HIV agents such as phlorotannins, sulfated chitooligosaccharides, sulfated polysaccharides, lectins and bioactive peptides. This contribution presents an overview of anti-HIV therapeutics derived from marine resources and their potential application in HIV therapy. PMID:21339954
Vo, Thanh-Sang; Kim, Se-Kwon
The term multivalency (polyvalency) in the biological science is defined as the simultaneous binding of multiple ligands to one receptor (or multiple receptors to one ligand). The possibility of gaining potency and selectivity was significantly increased through the use of multivalent ligand as a homo- or hetero-dimer, thus multivalent ligands provided a more attractive strategy to design novel anti-HIV agents with therapeutic applications. Moreover, similar to phenomenon of multivalency, an alternative strategy is called the "mixed sites inhibitor", viz. a single molecule that possesses enough chemical space to maximize interactions with its complementary binding pocket, or to bind simultaneously in more than one regions in a target. Actually, the addition of a third heterocyclic nucleus to the parent compound resulted in "mixed sites" anti-HIV agents with broad spectrum of activities against the mutant HIV-1 strains. Based on current representative examples, the present article provided a brief review on the rationale for the design of different classes of multivalency anti-HIV agents and also discussed the advantages over their monomeric counterparts, providing a novel paradigm to facilitate the development of anti-HIV/AIDS therapeutic agents in treatment of HIV infected community. PMID:23116144
Song, Yu'ning; Zhan, Peng; Li, Xiao; Rai, Diwakar; De Clercq, Erik; Liu, Xinyong
The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is one of the major coreceptors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and considered as an important therapeutic target. Knockdown of CXCR4 by RNA interference has emerged as a promising strategy for combating HIV-1 infection. However, there is a potential drawback to this strategy as undesired side effects may occur due to the loss of natural function of CXCR4. In this study, we developed a novel approach using a single lentiviral vector to express simultaneously CXCR4 dual-shRNAs and an shRNA-resistant CXCR4 mutant possessing the most possible natural functions of CXCR4 and reduced HIV-1 coreceptor activity. Via this approach we achieved the replacement of endogenous CXCR4 by CXCR4 mutant P191A that could compensate the functional loss of endogenous CXCR4 and significant reduction of HIV-1 replication by 59.2 %. Besides, we demonstrated that construction of recombinant lentiviral vector using 2A peptide-based strategy has significant advantages over using additional promoter-based strategy, including increase of lentivirus titer and avoidance of promoter competition. Therefore, the novel approach to block HIV-1 coreceptor CXCR4 without impairing its normal function provides a new strategy for CXCR4-targeted therapeutics for HIV-1 infection and potential universal applications to knock down a cellular protein in non-toxic manner. PMID:24845753
Liu, Ye; Zhou, Jieqiong; Pan, Ji-An; Mabiala, Prudence; Guo, Deyin
Early and accurate diagnosis is essential for optimal therapeutic outcomes in patients infected with HIV. Currently, none of the commercially available fourth-generation assays differentiate HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies (Ab) or the HIV-1 p24 antigen (Ag). The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a novel assay, the BioPlex 2200 HIV Ag-Ab. This assay uses a multiplex flow immunoassay design allowing the simultaneous detection and identification of antibodies to HIV-1 (groups M and O), HIV-2, and the HIV-1 p24 antigen, in addition to providing a traditional composite result. A total of 1,505 routine serum samples were prospectively tested. Results were compared with those from the Architect HIV Combo assay. The sensitivity of the BioPlex 2200 was 100%. The specificity assessed on repeated false-positive samples was 99.5%. In addition, 524 frozen specimens from patients known to be infected with HIV-1 or HIV-2 were tested. Of these specimens, 420 were infected with HIV-1, including 156 of known genotypes, 86 were infected with HIV-2, 7 were infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2, and 11 were from patients with acute HIV infection. Sensitivity was 100% for the HIV genotypes tested. The differentiation capabilities of the BioPlex 2200 HIV Ag-Ab assay for HIV-1, HIV-2, dual HIV-1/HIV-2, and early infections were 100%, 90.7%, 100%, and 90.9%, respectively. The BioPlex 2200 is a sensitive and specific assay that offers advantages over conventional HIV combo assays, also referred to as fourth-generation assays, to accurately differentiate and report HIV-1 p24 antigen and HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies. PMID:24153130
Salmona, Maud; Delarue, Severine; Delaugerre, Constance; Simon, François
Circumstantial evidence from laboratory studies, mathematical models, ecological studies and bio behavioural surveys, suggests that injection-related HIV epidemics may be averted or reversed if people who inject drugs (PWID) switch from using high dead-space to using low dead-space syringes. In laboratory experiments that simulated the injection process and rinsing with water, low dead space syringes retained 1000 times less blood than high dead space syringes. In mathematical models, switching PWID from high dead space to low dead space syringes prevents or reverses injection-related HIV epidemics. No one knows if such an intervention is feasible or what effect it would have on HIV transmission among PWID. Feasibility studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) will be needed to answer these questions definitively, but these studies will be very expensive and take years to complete. Rather than waiting for them to be completed, we argue for an approach similar to that used with needle and syringe programs (NSP), which were promoted and implemented before being tested more rigorously. Before implementation, rapid assessments that involve PWID will need to be conducted to ensure buy-in from PWID and other local stakeholders. This commentary summarizes the existing evidence regarding the protective effects of low dead space syringes and estimates potential impacts on HIV transmission; it describes potential barriers to transitioning PWID from high dead space to low dead space needles and syringes; and it presents strategies for overcoming these barriers. PMID:22884539
Zule, William A; Cross, Harry E; Stover, John; Pretorius, Carel
HIV infection and initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) have been consistently associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD), with growing evidence linking HIV to an increased risk of fracture. This is especially concerning with the expanding number of older persons living with HIV. Interestingly, recent data suggest that HIV-infected children and youth fail to achieve peak BMD, possibly increasing their lifetime risk of fracture. Elucidating the causes of the bone changes in HIV-positive persons is challenging because of the multifactorial nature of bone disease in HIV, including contribution of the virus, immunosuppression, ART toxicity, and traditional osteoporosis risk factors, such as age, lower weight, tobacco, and alcohol use. Thus, practitioners must recognize the risk of low BMD and fractures and appropriately screen patients for osteoporosis if risk factors exist. If fractures do occur or elevated fracture risk is detected through screening, treatment with bisphosphonate medications appears safe and effective in the HIV+population. PMID:25064454
Warriner, Amy H; Mugavero, Michael; Overton, E Turner
The therapeutic potential of pharmacologic inhibition of bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) proteins has recently emerged in hematological malignancies and chronic inflammation. We find that BET inhibitor compounds (JQ1, I-Bet, I-Bet151 and MS417) reactivate HIV from latency. This is evident in polyclonal Jurkat cell populations containing latent infectious HIV, as well as in a primary T-cell model of HIV latency. Importantly, we show that this activation is dependent on the positive transcription elongation factor p-TEFb but independent from the viral Tat protein, arguing against the possibility that removal of the BET protein BRD4, which functions as a cellular competitor for Tat, serves as a primary mechanism for BET inhibitor action. Instead, we find that the related BET protein, BRD2, enforces HIV latency in the absence of Tat, pointing to a new target for BET inhibitor treatment in HIV infection. In shRNA-mediated knockdown experiments, knockdown of BRD2 activates HIV transcription to the same extent as JQ1 treatment, while a lesser effect is observed with BRD4. In single-cell time-lapse fluorescence microscopy, quantitative analyses across ~2,000 viral integration sites confirm the Tat-independent effect of JQ1 and point to positive effects of JQ1 on transcription elongation, while delaying re-initiation of the polymerase complex at the viral promoter. Collectively, our results identify BRD2 as a new Tat-independent suppressor of HIV transcription in latently infected cells and underscore the therapeutic potential of BET inhibitors in the reversal of HIV latency. PMID:23255218
Boehm, Daniela; Calvanese, Vincenzo; Dar, Roy D; Xing, Sifei; Schroeder, Sebastian; Martins, Laura; Aull, Katherine; Li, Pao-Chen; Planelles, Vicente; Bradner, James E; Zhou, Ming-Ming; Siliciano, Robert F; Weinberger, Leor; Verdin, Eric; Ott, Melanie
Sarcoidosis is a systemic, inflammatory disorder, which in a proportion of patients runs a chronic progressive course despite immunosuppressive treatment. Therapeutic granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA) has been shown to be an effective treatment option for other systemic inflammatory disorders, but has not yet been investigated in sarcoidosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response to GMA in sarcoidosis. Seven patients with sarcoidosis refractory to standard immunosuppressive therapy received 10 GMA sessions. All patients underwent chest X-ray, spirometry, a Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ-SAS), blood tests and bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) before treatment and at 2-4 weeks and 3 months (except bronchoscopy) after the last treatment session. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell differential counts were recorded and T cells from blood and BALF were analysed for markers of activity, differentiation and T regulatory function. Compared to baseline, five of seven patients reported an improvement in dyspnoea score. In BALF there was an increase in the percentage of macrophages and a decrease in the percentage of lymphocytes and CD4(+) /FoxP3(+) T cells. Furthermore, the decrease in BALF CD4(+) /FoxP3(+) T cells correlated significantly with an improvement in dyspnoea score. In peripheral blood there was a statistically significant increase in the percentage of CD4(+) /CD27(-) T cells and a trend towards an initial increase in the percentage of CD4(+) /FoxP3(+) T cells, followed by a statistically significant decrease. The effects of GMA on regulatory T cells are consistent with those observed in other inflammatory disorders and could potentially translate into a clinical benefit. PMID:24773420
Olsen, H H; Muratov, V; Cederlund, K; Lundahl, J; Eklund, A; Grunewald, J
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is associated with the development of neurocognitive disorders in many infected individuals, including a broad spectrum of motor impairments and cognitive deficits. Despite extensive research, the pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is still not clear. This review provides a comprehensive view of HAND, including HIV neuroinvasion, HAND diagnosis and different level of disturbances, influence of highly-active antiretroviral therapy to HIV-associated dementia (HAD), possible pathogenesis of HAD, etc. Together, this review will give a thorough and clear understanding of HAND, especially HAD, which will be vital for future research, diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24470972
Zhou, Li; Saksena, Nitin K.
Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has improved the quality of life for HIV+ individuals but efficacy requires strict adherence and treatment is not curative. Recently, the use of T cells as therapeutic agents have been in the spotlight in the settings of post-transplant opportunistic infections and cancer. Whether T cell therapy can be harnessed for treating HIV remains to be determined but there are a few studies that seek to answer that question. Infusion of ex vivo expanded HIV-specific T cells showed limited efficacy but no adverse events. Genetically modified T cells expressing CD4 chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) have recently been shown to have persistence that outperforms CARs used for cancers. Although the results have not yet been published for many clinical studies using T cells for HIV, preclinical studies and the clinical data that is available highlight the potential for T cell therapy to decrease or eliminate HIV patients’ dependency on ART. PMID:23557423
Lam, Sharon; Bollard, Catherine
Background: Suicide ideation and psychological morbidity among HIV-positive patients has been the object of intense research. No study has investigated this area among injecting drug users (IDUs) infected with HIV and those infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which has the same patterns of transmission of the HIV and may favour HIV replication and, possibly, HIV disease progression. Methods:
Luigi Grassi; Domenico Mondardini; Michele Pavanati; Laura Sighinolfi; Alessia Serra; Florio Ghinelli
Objectives To investigate the impact of HAART-induced HIV suppression on levels of 24 serological biomarkers of inflammation and immune activation. Design Prospective cohort study. Methods Biomarkers were measured with multiplex assays in centralized laboratories using stored serum samples contributed by 1,697 men during 8,903 person-visits in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) from 1984–2009. Using generalized gamma models, we compared biomarker values across three groups, adjusting for possible confounders: HIV-uninfected (NEG); HIV+, HAART-naïve (NAI); and HAART-exposed with HIV RNA suppressed to <50 copies/mL plasma (SUP). We also estimated changes in biomarker levels associated with duration of HIV suppression, using splined generalized gamma regression with a knot at one year. Results Most biomarkers were relatively normalized in the SUP group relative to the NAI group; however, 12 biomarkers in the SUP group were distinct (p<0.002) from NEG values: CXCL10, CRP, sCD14, sTNFR2, TNF-?, sCD27, sGP130, IL-8, CCL13, BAFF, GM-CSF, and IL-12p70. Thirteen biomarkers exhibited significant changes in the first year after viral suppression, but none changed significantly after that time. Conclusions Biomarkers of inflammation and immune activation moved toward HIV-negative levels within the first year after HAART-induced HIV suppression. Although several markers of T cell activation returned to levels present in HIV-negative men, residual immune activation, particularly monocyte/macrophage activation, was present. This residual immune activation may represent a therapeutic target to improve the prognosis of HIV-infected individuals receiving HAART. PMID:25630041
Wada, Nikolas Itaru; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Breen, Elizabeth Crabb; Macatangay, Bernard; Penugonda, Sudhir; Martínez-maza, Otoniel; Bream, Jay H.
Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is neuropathic pain persisting after an acute episode of herpes zoster, and is associated with severe pain and sensory abnormalities that adversely affect the patient’s quality of life and increase health care costs. Up to 83% of patients with PHN describe localized neuropathic pain, defined as “a type of neuropathic pain characterized by consistent and circumscribed area(s) of maximum pain”. Topical treatments have been suggested as a first-line treatment for localized neuropathic pain. Use of 5% lidocaine medicated plaster could reduce abnormal nervous peripheral discharge and via the plaster could have a “protective” function in the affected area. It has been suggested that use of this plaster could reduce pain as well as the size of the painful area. To evaluate this possible outcome, we retrospectively reviewed eight patients with PHN, treated using 5% lidocaine medicated plaster. During a follow-up period of 3 months, we observed good pain relief, which was associated with a 46% reduction in size of the painful area after one month (from 236.38±140.34 cm2 to 128.80±95.7 cm2) and a 66% reduction after 3 months (81.38±59.19 cm2). Our study cohort was composed mainly of elderly patients taking multiple drugs to treat comorbidities, who have a high risk of drug–drug interactions. Such patients benefit greatly from topical treatment of PHN. Our observations confirm the effectiveness of lidocaine plasters in the treatment of PHN, indicating that 5% lidocaine medicated plaster could reduce the size of the painful area. This last observation has to be confirmed and the mechanisms clarified in appropriate larger randomized controlled trials. PMID:25018649
Casale, Roberto; Di Matteo, Maria; Minella, Cristina E; Fanelli, Guido; Allegri, Massimo
A joint conference on therapeutics with the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Medicine was held at the Royal College of Physicians on 28 June 1995, organised by Professor M C L'E Orme. A wide variety of topics was covered ranging from management of acute poisoning to the treatment of myocardial infarction, as well as the teaching of therapeutics in the new undergraduate medical curriculum. The aim of the conference was to provide an overview of the most recent therapeutic developments and controversies in the specific subject areas covered. PMID:8748111
Pirmohamed, M; Martin, U
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has transformed HIV from a deadly to a chronic disease, but HIV patients are still burdened with excess morbidity and mortality, long-term toxicities from cART, stigmatization, and insufficient access to cART worldwide. Thus, a cure for HIV would have enormous impact on society as well as the individual. As the complexity and mechanisms of HIV persistence during therapy are being unraveled, new therapeutic targets for HIV eradication are discovered. Substances that activate HIV production in the latently infected cells have recently received much attention. By turning on expression of latent HIV proviruses, reactivation strategies could contribute to the eradication HIV infection. Compounds that are currently being or soon to be tested in clinical trials are emphasized. The results from these trials will provide important clues as to whether or not reactivating strategies could become significant components of a cure for HIV. PMID:23563519
Rasmussen, Thomas A.; Tolstrup, Martin; Winckelmann, Anni; Østergaard, Lars; Søgaard, Ole S.
It is getting clearer that many drugs effective in different therapeutic areas act on multiple rather than single targets. The application of polypharmacology concepts might have numerous advantages especially for disease such as HIV/AIDS, where the rapid emergence of resistance requires a complex combination of more than one drug. In this paper, we have designed three hybrid molecules combining WM5, a quinolone derivative we previously identified as HIV Tat-mediated transcription (TMT) inhibitor, with the tricyclic core of nevirapine and BILR 355BS (BILR) non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) to investigate whether it could be possible to obtain molecules acting on both transcription steps of the HIV replicative cycle. One among the three designed multiple ligands, reached this goal. Indeed, compound 1 inhibited both TMT and reverse transcriptase (RT) activity. Unexpectedly, while the anti-TMT activity exerted by compound 1 resulted into a selective inhibition of HIV-1 reactivation from latently infected OM10.1 cells, the anti-RT properties shown by all of the synthesized compounds did not translate into an anti-HIV activity in acutely infected cells. Thus, we have herein produced the proof of concept that the design of dual TMT-RT inhibitors is indeed possible, but optimization efforts are needed to obtain more potent derivatives. PMID:25127466
Sancineto, Luca; Iraci, Nunzio; Barreca, Maria Letizia; Massari, Serena; Manfroni, Giuseppe; Corazza, Gianmarco; Cecchetti, Violetta; Marcello, Alessandro; Daelemans, Dirk; Pannecouque, Christophe; Tabarrini, Oriana
HIV infection has changed from an acute devastating disease to a more chronic illness due to combination anti-retroviral treatment (cART). In the cART era, the life expectancy of HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals has increased. More HIV+ individuals are aging with current projections suggesting that 50% of HIV+ individuals will be over 50 years old by 2015. With advancing age, HIV+ individuals may be at increased risk of developing other potential neurodegenerative disorders [especially Alzheimer’s disease (AD)]. Pathology studies have shown that HIV increases intra and possibly extracellular amyloid beta (A?42), a hallmark of AD. We review the synthesis and clearance of A?42 and the effects of HIV on the amyloid pathway, and contrast the impact of AD and HIV on A?42 metabolism. Biomarker studies (cerebrospinal fluid AB and amyloid imaging) in HIV+ have shown mixed results. CSF A?42 has been shown to be either normal or diminished in HIV+ patients with HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Amyloid imaging using [11C] PiB has also not demonstrated increased extracellular amyloid fibrillar deposits in HAND patients. We further demonstrate that A?42 deposition is not increased in older HIV+ patients using [11C] PiB amyloid imaging. Together, these results suggest that HIV and aging each independently affect A?42 deposition with no significant interaction present. Older HIV+ patients are probably not at increased risk for developing AD. However, future longitudinal studies of older HIV+ patients using multiple modalities (including the combination of CSF markers and amyloid imaging) are necessary for investigating the effects of HIV on A?42 metabolism. PMID:24816714
Ortega, Mario; Ances, Beau M.
Heterosexual transmission by vaginal intercourse accounts for most transmission of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) in Africa and Asia but is less important in the HIV-1 epidemics of the United States and Western Europe. Epithelial Langerhans' cells (LCs) represent a possible source of initial cell contact for vaginal infection. Fifteen primary isolates of HIV-1 from U.S. homosexuals and 18 HIV-1
Luis E. Soto-Ramirez; Boris Renjifo; Mary F. McLane; Richard Marlink; Carl O'Hara; Ruengpung Sutthent; Chantapong Wasi; Prakong Vithayasai; Vicharn Vithayasai; Chatchawann Apichartpiyakul; Prasert Auewarakul; Victor Pena Cruz; Dao-Shan Chui; Rapin Osathanondh; Kenneth Mayer; Tun-Hou Lee; Max Essex
Dendritic cells have a central role in HIV infection. On one hand, they are essential to induce strong HIV-specific CD4+ helper T-cell responses that are crucial to achieve a sustained and effective HIV-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte able to control HIV replication. On the other hand, DCs contribute to virus dissemination and HIV itself could avoid a correct antigen presentation. As the efficacy of immune therapy and therapeutic vaccines against HIV infection has been modest in the best of cases, it has been hypothesized that ex vivo generated DC therapeutic vaccines aimed to induce effective specific HIV immune responses might overcome some of these problems. In fact, DC-based vaccine clinical trials have yielded the best results in this field. However, despite these encouraging results, functional cure has not been reached with this strategy in any patient. In this Commentary, we discuss new approaches to improve the efficacy and feasibility of this type of therapeutic vaccine. PMID:23912672
García, Felipe; Plana, Montserrat; Climent, Nuria; León, Agathe; Gatell, Jose M; Gallart, Teresa
Purpose of review This review highlights recent studies undertaken to further advance the search for successful approaches to eradicate HIV infection. Recent findings Small pharmacological compounds such as histone deacetylase inhibitors, inhibitors of bromodomain and extraterminal proteins such as JQ1, and protein kinase C activators such as bryostatin and prostratin are proposed as putative candidates for inducing the expression of latent HIV in a so-called ‘shock and kill’ or ‘kick and kill’ strategy for HIV eradication. However, in order to achieve viral clearance, it is thought likely these compounds will have to be administered in concert with strategies that augment clearance of virus-infected cells in patients that have long been aviremic on successful antiretroviral therapy (ART). Several candidate therapies for this purpose are at hand, such as therapeutic HIV vaccines – recently shown to promote robust cytotoxic T cell responses and blunt viral rebound after ART interruption in clinical studies. HIV-infected patients treated during early infection may be ideal candidates for early studies to test these strategies, as early ART has been shown to limit the establishment of an HIV reservoir. Summary HIV latency is multifactorial and thus the eradication of HIV infection may require multiple approaches. Translational efforts employing pharmacological methods to target HIV latency should evaluate in parallel the additional potential benefits of invigorating the immune response of HIV-infected individuals, and limiting the size of the reservoir via early ART. PMID:24296585
Archin, Nancie M.; Margolis, David M.
-HIV Agents ; therapeutic use ; Breast Feeding ; adverse effects ; CD4 Lymphocyte Count ; Choice Behavior ; Male ; Nevirapine ; therapeutic use ; Pregnancy ; Pregnancy Complications, Infectious ; drug therapy( ) but is infrequently1 practised by mothers or effectively supported by health systems( ; ). Replacement feeding avoids
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2, the second AIDS-associated human retrovirus, differs from HIV-1 in its natural history, infectivity, and pathogenicity, as well as in details of its genomic structure and molecular behavior. We report here that HIV-2 inhibits the replication of HIV-1 at the molecular level. This inhibition was selective, dose-dependent, and nonreciprocal. The closely related simian immunodeficiency provirus also inhibited HIV-1. The selectivity of inhibition was shown by the observation that HIV-2 did not significantly downmodulate the expression of the unrelated murine leukemia virus; neither did the murine leukemia virus markedly affect HIV-1 or HIV-2 expression. Moreover, while HIV-2 potently inhibited HIV-1, the reverse did not happen, thus identifying yet another and remarkable difference between HIV-1 and HIV-2. Mutational analysis of the HIV-2 genome suggested that the inhibition follows a complex pathway, possibly involving multiple genes and redundant mechanisms. Introduction of inactivating mutations into the structural and regulatory/accessory genes did not render the HIV-2 provirus ineffective. Some of the HIV-2 gene defects, such as that of tat and rev genes, were phenotypically transcomplemented by HIV-1. The HIV-2 proviruses with deletions in the putative packaging signal and defective for virus replication were effective in inducing the suppressive phenotype. Though the exact mechanism remains to be defined, the inhibition appeared to be mainly due to an intracellular molecular event because it could not be explained solely on the basis of cell surface receptor mediated interference. The results support the notion that the inhibition likely occurred at the level of viral RNA, possibly involving competition between viral RNAs for some transcriptional factor essential for virus replication. Induction of a cytokine is another possibility. These findings might be relevant to the clinical-epidemiological data suggesting that infection with HIV-2 may offer some protection against HIV-1 infection. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8633095
Arya, S K; Gallo, R C
HIV infection has changed from an acute devastating disease to a more chronic illness due to combination anti-retroviral treatment (cART). In the cART era, the life expectancy of HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals has increased. More HIV?+?individuals are aging with current projections suggesting that 50% of HIV?+?individuals will be over 50 years old by 2015. With advancing age, HIV?+?individuals may be at increased risk of developing other potential neurodegenerative disorders [especially Alzheimer's disease (AD)]. Pathology studies have shown that HIV increases intra and possibly extracellular amyloid beta (A?42), a hallmark of AD. We review the synthesis and clearance of A?42; the effects of HIV on the amyloid pathway; and contrast the impact of AD and HIV on A?42 metabolism. Biomarker studies (cerebrospinal fluid AB and amyloid imaging) in HIV?+?participants have shown mixed results. CSF A?42 has been shown to be either normal or diminished in with HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Amyloid imaging using [(11)C] PiB has also not demonstrated increased extracellular amyloid fibrillar deposits in HAND. We further demonstrate that A?42 deposition is not increased in older HIV?+?participants using [(11)C] PiB amyloid imaging. Together, these results suggest that HIV and aging each independently affect A?42 deposition with no significant interaction present. Older HIV?+?individuals are probably not at increased risk for developing AD. However, future longitudinal studies of older HIV?+?individuals using multiple modalities (including the combination of CSF markers and amyloid imaging) are necessary for investigating the effects of HIV on A?42 metabolism. PMID:24816714
Ortega, Mario; Ances, Beau M
HIV-1-associated ocular complications, such as microvasculopathies, can lead to the loss of vision in HIV-1-infected patients. Even in patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy, ocular lesions are unavoidable. Ocular complications have been demonstrated to be closely related to the breakdown of the blood-retinal-barrier (BRB); however, the underlying mechanism is not clear. The data from this study indicated that the HIV-1 Tat protein induced the apoptosis of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs) and retinal pigmen epithelium (RPE) cells, which compose the inner BRB and the outer BRB, respectively. In addition, this study found that the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) was involved in the apoptosis of RPE cells, but it caused no changes in HRMECs. Furthermore, both cell types exhibited enhanced expression of Bak, Bax and Cytochrome c. The inhibition of Tat activity protected against the apoptosis induced by NMDAR activation and prevented the dysregulation of Bak, Bax and Cytochrome c, revealing an important role for the mitochondrial pathway in HIV-1 Tat-induced apoptosis. Together, these findings suggest a possible mechanism and may identify a potential therapeutic strategy for HIV-1-associated ocular complications. PMID:24739951
Che, Xin; He, Fanglin; Deng, Yuan; Xu, Shiqiong; Fan, Xianqun; Gu, Ping; Wang, Zhiliang
This review discusses recent progress in the development of anti-HIV agents targeting the viral entry process. The three main classes (attachment inhibitors, co-receptor binding inhibitors, and fusion inhibitors) are further broken down by specific mechanism of action and structure. Many of these inhibitors are in advanced clinical trials, including the HIV maturation inhibitor bevirimat, from the authors’ laboratories. In addition, the CCR5 inhibitor maraviroc has recently been FDA-approved. Possible roles for these agents in anti-HIV therapy, including treatment of virus resistant to current drugs, are also discussed. PMID:18720513
Qian, Keduo; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung
Summary: The unique nature of the HIV\\/AIDS epidemic and the needs of people living with HIV disease have required the expertise of clinicians and biomedical, clinical, behavioral, and social scien- tists. The successes achieved in the past 25 years are the collective product of committed individuals from within all these disciplines. This is particularly true in HIV care and therapeutics
Gerald H. Friedland
... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 652 HIV and Cardiovascular Disease HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE WHY SHOULD PEOPLE WITH HIV CARE ABOUT CVD? ... OF CVD? WHAT ABOUT CHANGING MEDICATIONS? HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes a group of problems ...
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is becoming increasingly more accessible within the health care system in Tanzania. However, the impact of the increased availability of ART on local conceptions about medicines, health and physical wellbeing has not been fully explored. In this article we examine how ART is constituted within local discourses about treatment and healing. Based on 21 focus group discussions with young people aged 14-24 years in a rural area (Kahe), we examine how local terms and descriptions of antiretroviral therapy relate to wider definitions about the body, health, illness and drug efficacy. Findings illustrate how local understandings of ART draw on a wider discourse about the therapeutic functions of medicines and clinical dimensions of HIV/AIDS. Therapeutic efficacy of antiretroviral medication appeared to overlap and sometimes contradict locally shared understandings of the clinical functions of medicines in the body. Implications of ART on bodily appearance and HIV signs may influence conceptions about sick role, perpetuate stigma and affect local strategies for HIV prevention. Structural inequities in access, limited information on therapeutic efficacy of ART and perceived difficulties with status disclosure appear to inform local conceptions and possible implications of ART. Policy and programme interventions to foster public understanding and acceptability of ART should emphasize treatment education about the benefits and limitations of therapy and increased access to ART in rural areas, and should integrate voluntary status disclosure and HIV prevention. PMID:19136190
Ezekiel, Mangi Job; Talle, Aud; Juma, James M; Klepp, Knut-Inge
Despite the great success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in ameliorating the course of HIV infection, alternative therapeutic approaches are being pursued because of practical problems associated with life-long therapy. The eradication of HIV in the so-called "Berlin patient" who received a bone marrow transplant from a CCR5-negative donor has rekindled interest in genome engineering strategies to achieve the same effect. Precise gene editing within the cells is now a realistic possibility with recent advances in understanding the DNA repair mechanisms, DNA interaction with transcription factors and bacterial defense mechanisms. Within the past few years, four novel technologies have emerged that can be engineered for recognition of specific DNA target sequences to enable site-specific gene editing: Homing Endonuclease, ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas9 system. The most recent CRISPR/Cas9 system uses a short stretch of complementary RNA bound to Cas9 nuclease to recognize and cleave target DNA, as opposed to the previous technologies that use DNA binding motifs of either zinc finger proteins or transcription activator-like effector molecules fused to an endonuclease to mediate sequence-specific DNA cleavage. Unlike RNA interference, which requires the continued presence of effector moieties to maintain gene silencing, the newer technologies allow permanent disruption of the targeted gene after a single treatment. Here, we review the applications, limitations and future prospects of novel gene-editing strategies for use as HIV therapy. PMID:24284874
Manjunath, N; Yi, Guohua; Dang, Ying; Shankar, Premlata
OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of facial stimulation over the superficial muscles of the face in individuals with facial lipoatrophy associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and with no indication for treatment with polymethyl methacrylate. METHOD: The study sample comprised four adolescents of both genders ranging from 13 to 17 years in age. To participate in the study, the participants had to score six or less points on the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. The facial stimulation program used in our study consisted of 12 weekly 30-minute sessions during which individuals received therapy. The therapy consisted of intra- and extra-oral muscle contraction and stretching maneuvers of the zygomaticus major and minor and the masseter muscles. Pre- and post-treatment results were obtained using anthropometric static measurements of the face and the Facial Lipoatrophy Index. RESULTS: The results suggest that the therapeutic program effectively improved the volume of the buccinators. No significant differences were observed for the measurements of the medial portion of the face, the lateral portion of the face, the volume of the masseter muscle, or Facial Lipoatrophy Index scores. CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that facial maneuvers applied to the superficial muscles of the face of adolescents with facial lipoatrophy associated with HIV improved the facial area volume related to the buccinators muscles. We believe that our results will encourage future research with HIV patients, especially for patients who do not have the possibility of receiving an alternative aesthetic treatment. PMID:25141118
Gabana-Silveira, Jesus Claudio; Mangilli, Laura Davison; Sassi, Fernanda C.; Braga, Arnaldo Feitosa; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim
Despite the great success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in ameliorating the course of HIV infection, alternative therapeutic approaches are being pursued because of practical problems associated with life-long therapy. The eradication of HIV in the so-called “Berlin patient” who received a bone marrow transplant from a CCR5-negative donor has rekindled interest in genome engineering strategies to achieve the same effect. Precise gene editing within the cells is now a realistic possibility with recent advances in understanding the DNA repair mechanisms, DNA interaction with transcription factors and bacterial defense mechanisms. Within the past few years, four novel technologies have emerged that can be engineered for recognition of specific DNA target sequences to enable site-specific gene editing: Homing Endonuclease, ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas9 system. The most recent CRISPR/Cas9 system uses a short stretch of complementary RNA bound to Cas9 nuclease to recognize and cleave target DNA, as opposed to the previous technologies that use DNA binding motifs of either zinc finger proteins or transcription activator-like effector molecules fused to an endonuclease to mediate sequence-specific DNA cleavage. Unlike RNA interference, which requires the continued presence of effector moieties to maintain gene silencing, the newer technologies allow permanent disruption of the targeted gene after a single treatment. Here, we review the applications, limitations and future prospects of novel gene-editing strategies for use as HIV therapy. PMID:24284874
Manjunath, N.; Yi, Guohua; Dang, Ying; Shankar, Premlata
Human apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (Apobec3) antiretroviral factors cause hypermutation of proviral DNA leading to degradation or replication-incompetent HIV-1. However, HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) suppresses Apobec3 activity through the Cullin 5-Elongin B-Elongin C E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. We examined the effect of genetic polymorphisms in the CUL5 gene (encoding Cullin 5 protein) on AIDS disease progression in five HIV-1 longitudinal cohorts. A total of 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning 93 kb in the CUL5 locus were genotyped and their haplotypes inferred. A phylogenetic network analysis revealed that CUL5 haplotypes were grouped into two clusters of evolutionarily related haplotypes. Cox survival analysis and mixed effects models were used to assess time to AIDS outcomes and CD4+ T cell trajectories, respectively. Relative to cluster I haplotypes, the collective cluster II haplotypes were associated with more rapid CD4+ T cell loss (relative hazards [RH] = 1.47 and p = 0.009), in a dose-dependent fashion. This effect was mainly attributable to a single cluster II haplotype (Hap10) (RH = 2.49 and p = 0.00001), possibly due to differential nuclear protein–binding efficiencies of a Hap10-specifying SNP as indicated by a gel shift assay. Consistent effects were observed for CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 viral load trajectories over time. The findings of both functional and genetic epidemiologic consequences of CUL5 polymorphism on CD4+ T cell and HIV-1 levels point to a role for Cullin 5 in HIV-1 pathogenesis and suggest interference with the Vif-Cullin 5 pathway as a possible anti-HIV-1 therapeutic strategy. PMID:17257057
An, Ping; Duggal, Priya; Wang, Li Hua; O'Brien, Stephen J; Donfield, Sharyne; Goedert, James J; Phair, John; Buchbinder, Susan; Kirk, Gregory D; Winkler, Cheryl A
The various neurological complications associated with HIV-1 infection, specifically HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) persist as a major public health burden worldwide. Despite the widespread use of anti-retroviral therapy, the prevalence of HAND is significantly high. HAND results from the direct effects of an HIV-1 infection as well as secondary effects of HIV-1-induced immune reaction and inflammatory response. Complement, a critical mediator of innate and acquired immunity, plays important roles in defeating many viral infections by the formation of a lytic pore or indirectly by opsonization and recruitment of phagocytes. While the role of complement in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection and HAND has been previously recognized for over 15 years, it has been largely underestimated thus far. Complement can be activated through HIV-1 envelope proteins, mannose-binding lectins (MBL), and anti-HIV-1 antibodies. Complement not only fights against HIV-1 infection but also enhances HIV-1 infection. In addition, HIV-1 can hijack complement regulators such as CD59 and CD55 and can utilize these regulators and factor H to escape from complement attack. Normally, complement levels in brain are much lower than plasma levels and there is no or little complement deposition in brain cells. Interestingly, local production and deposition of complement are dramatically increased in HIV-1-infected brain, indicating that complement may contribute to the pathogenesis of HAND. Here, we review the current understanding of the role of complement in HIV-1 infection and HAND, as well as potential therapeutic approaches targeting the complement system for the treatment and eradications of HIV-1 infection. PMID:24639397
Liu, Fengming; Dai, Shen; Gordon, Jennifer; Qin, Xuebin
Background Following mucosal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission, type 1 interferons (IFNs) are rapidly induced at sites of initial virus replication in the mucosa and draining lymph nodes. However, the role played by IFN-stimulated antiviral activity in restricting HIV-1 replication during the initial stages of infection is not clear. We hypothesized that if type 1 IFNs exert selective pressure on HIV-1 replication in the earliest stages of infection, the founder viruses that succeed in establishing systemic infection would be more IFN-resistant than viruses replicating during chronic infection, when type 1 IFNs are produced at much lower levels. To address this hypothesis, the relative resistance of virus isolates derived from HIV-1-infected individuals during acute and chronic infection to control by type 1 IFNs was analysed. Results The replication of plasma virus isolates generated from subjects acutely infected with HIV-1 and molecularly cloned founder HIV-1 strains could be reduced but not fully suppressed by type 1 IFNs in vitro. The mean IC50 value for IFN?2 (22 U/ml) was lower than that for IFN? (346 U/ml), although at maximally-inhibitory concentrations both IFN subtypes inhibited virus replication to similar extents. Individual virus isolates exhibited differential susceptibility to inhibition by IFN?2 and IFN?, likely reflecting variation in resistance to differentially up-regulated IFN-stimulated genes. Virus isolates from subjects acutely infected with HIV-1 were significantly more resistant to in vitro control by IFN? than virus isolates generated from the same individuals during chronic, asymptomatic infection. Viral IFN resistance declined rapidly after the acute phase of infection: in five subjects, viruses derived from six-month consensus molecular clones were significantly more sensitive to the antiviral effects of IFNs than the corresponding founder viruses. Conclusions The establishment of systemic HIV-1 infection by relatively IFN?-resistant founder viruses lends strong support to the hypothesis that IFN? plays an important role in the control of HIV-1 replication during the earliest stages of infection, prior to systemic viral spread. These findings suggest that it may be possible to harness the antiviral activity of type 1 IFNs in prophylactic and potentially also therapeutic strategies to combat HIV-1 infection. PMID:24299076
Background Therapeutic failure with antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a substantial issue where viral rebound, viral resistance and drug-related toxicity remain serious concerns. Drug exposure-response relationships have been described for the protease inhibitors, pharmacokinetic variability is substantial for this class of drugs and drug interactions can also alter ART exposure. Given this background we established a therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) service to monitor atazanavir (ATV) plasma concentrations early after the therapy was made available to treatment-experienced people infected with HIV who were managed in a clinical setting. Methods This was a prospective observational study which evaluated plasma samples from 110 highly treatment-experienced people with HIV using TDM and applied pharmacokinetic analysis over a five month period. Results ATV trough concentrations exhibited substantial intersubject variability (<25–2108 µg l?1). A substantial number of subjects (50%,13/26) who received ATV400 mg daily had low exposure to ATV. Serum bilirubin concentrations correlated significantly with higher ATV trough concentrations (? = 0.803; P < 0.001) and 55% (29/53) of subjects who received ATV300/100 mg RTV daily had plasma concentrations above a proposed target concentration associated with elevated bilirubin concentrations. This study confirmed low ATV exposure in eight subjects with HIV receiving ATV 400 mg daily. Reasons for low ATV exposure in this cohort include administration of interacting drugs, including a possible interaction with ritonavir, fluticasone and ATV, impaired ATV absorption secondary to suspected achlorhydria and potential interactions with colchicine and nandrolone. Viral load remained undetectable in most of these subjects with low ATV exposure. Conclusions TDM and targeted pharmacokinetic studies should be viewed as fundamental tools in the development and clinical application of ART, to improve pharmacotherapy for people with HIV. PMID:16120068
Ray, John E; Marriott, Debbie; Bloch, Mark T; McLachlan, Andrew J
Vertically transmitted HIV disease constitutes a significant problem in pediatrics. In order to characterize some of the possible host factors involved in HIV replication in fetuses and newborns, we surveyed the HIV-1 LTR binding factors present in nuclear extracts from cord blood mononuclear cells. A series of electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) showed that protein extracts from cord blood interacted
Padmini S. Kedar; Katherine Arden; Marie Foyle; John H. Pope; Steven L. Zeichner
Recombination is a common feature of retroviruses first described in the early 1970s. Although recognized as mutagenic strategy for rapid evolution and adaptation for avian and murine retroviruses, the implications or even possibility of recombination between heterogeneous HIV isolates was unclear until a few years ago. It is obvious that recombination can occur between HIV-1 quasispecies in a host, initially
Miguel E. Quiñones-Mateu; Eric J. Arts
Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), the increase in life expectancy and improved HIV viral detection methods, have all led to a change in attitude towards fertility in people living with HIV. There is now acknowledgment of the fundamental rights of HIV patients to parenthood and growing implementation of assisted fertility in this group. The aims of fertility treatment are prevention of infection in HIV-discordant couples, and treatment for fertility problems, identical to the general population. We review the influence of HIV on the reproduction systems of males and females, conditions requiring fertility intervention, various methods that are possible and describe the optional treatment existing in Israel for patients with viral infection, and specifically HIV. PMID:23844527
Kedem, Eynat; Shahar, Eduardo; Hassoun, Gammal; Pollack, Shimon
Objective HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is a frequent and heterogeneous complication of HIV, affecting nearly 50% of infected individuals in the combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) era. This is a particularly devastating statistic because the diagnosis of HAND confers an increased risk of HIV-associated morbidity and mortality in affected patients. While cART is helpful in the treatment of the more severe forms of HAND, there is a therapeutic gap in the milder forms of HAND, where cART is less effective. Multiple adjuvant therapies with various mechanisms of action have been studied (N-methyl D-aspartate [NMDA]-receptor antagonists, MAO-B inhibitors, tetracycline-class antibiotics, and others), but none have shown a clear positive effect in HAND. While this lack of efficacy may be because the appropriate therapeutic targets have not yet been determined, we aimed to discuss that study results may also influenced by clinical trial design. Methods This report is a systematic review of clinical trials of adjuvant therapies for HAND performed from January 1996 through June 2014. Results Possible drawbacks in study design, including lack of standardized case definitions, poorly defined target populations, inappropriate dose selection and measurable outcomes, and brief study durations may have masked true underlying mechanistic effects of previously investigated adjuvant therapies for HAND in specific patient populations. Conclusions A proposal for streamlining and maximizing the likelihood of success in future clinical studies using a ‘learning and confirming’ investigational paradigm, incorporating stronger adaptive Phase I/II study designs, computerized modeling, and population/goal of treatment-specific Phase III clinical trials is presented. PMID:25540809
McGuire, Jennifer L; Barrett, Jeffrey S; Vezina, Heather E; Spitsin, Sergei; Douglas, Steven D
The objectives of this study were to describe the clinical and therapeutic aspects in 5 children with cancrum oris infected by HIV. Patients aged between 4 and 6 years, were recruited between February 1999 and May 2004. The cancrum oris was in all cases located in the commisuro-jugal or in the jugal regions. Oral manifestations of HIV encountered were: candidosis and cervical lymphadenopathy. Medical treatment based on antibiotic (Ampiciline-100 mg/kg/day taken in 3 injections intravenously; Metronidazole 40 mg/kg/day in 3 injections per day intravenously) combined with conservative surgery has reduced the massive destruction of the tissues and get a healing of wounds by second intention. With the advanced stage of AIDS, all patients died of opportunistic infection in the absence of the possibility of anti-retroviral treatment. PMID:20093210
Diallo, O R; Camara, S A T; Bah, A T; Barry, M; Cisse, A
Patients with HIV-1 often present with a wide range of hematopoietic abnormalities, some of which may be due to the presence of opportunistic infections and to therapeutic drug treatments. However, many of these abnormalities are directly related to HIV-1 replication in the bone marrow (BM). Although the most primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) are resistant to HIV-1 infection, once these
Aikaterini Alexaki; Brian Wigdahl
cancer associated with HIV in the USA . In HIV-infected patients NHL poses particular therapeutic2009 #12;2 Abstract Background: Incidence and risk factors of HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL-effects models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for developing systemic NHL, including CD4 cell counts
Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25043543
BACKGROUND--HIV is present in bronchoalveolar lavage cells of some but not all HIV seropositive patients. Abnormalities of lung function have been described in such patients in the absence of clinically overt pneumonia or other respiratory infections. It is possible that the presence of HIV in alveolar macrophages could account for these abnormalities. It is also possible that the presence of
J R Clarke; I K Taylor; J Fleming; J D Williamson; D M Mitchell
We formulate a mathematical model for the cointeraction of schistosomiasis and HIV/AIDS in order to assess their synergistic relationship in the presence of therapeutic measures. Comprehensive mathematical techniques are used to analyze the model steady states. The disease-free equilibrium is shown to be locally asymptotically stable when the associated disease threshold parameter known as the basic reproduction number for the model is less than unity. Centre manifold theory is used to show that the schistosomiasis-only and HIV/AIDS-only endemic equilibria are locally asymptotically stable when the associated reproduction numbers are greater than unity. The impact of schistosomiasis and its treatment on the dynamics of HIV/AIDS is also investigated. To illustrate the analytical results, numerical simulations using a set of reasonable parameter values are provided, and the results suggest that schistosomiasis treatment will always have a positive impact on the control of HIV/AIDS. PMID:21350680
Mushayabasa, S.; Bhunu, C. P.
The metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, has become an important public health problem. Considerable differences in the prevalence of the MetS in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects have been reported, as a consequence of several limitations regarding the diagnostic critera for MetS. New evidence suggests that the use of optimal waist cut-off points specific for the various ethnic populations could represent a step forward in overcoming these limitations. Also the use of specific cut-off points for measuring upper trunk fat as an adjunctive criterion of MetS in HIV patients with lipodystrophy could represent an interesting new research topic. Although metabolic disorders have been associated indirectly with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), directly with HIV infection per se or with host conditions, current circumstances could change the framework of MetS in the HIV setting: For example, the aging HIV population and newer, less metabolically toxic antiretroviral drugs. Lipotoxicity and adipokines have been focused as key issues for explaining MetS in HIV patients. Several studies have investigated the pathophysiology of MetS and cardiovascular complications in HIV infection. Evidence shows that both HIV infection per se and HIV-related chronic immune activation despite antiretroviral therapy are critical factors linking MetS and cardiovascular complications. Current epidemiological and pathogenetic data on MetS in HIV infection, prevention strategies and therapeutic options for all MetS components are reviewed in the light of the recent Adult Treatment Panel IV recommendations and the new antiretroviral drugs. PMID:24320034
Li Vecchi, Valentina; Maggi, Paolo; Rizzo, Manfredi; Montalto, Giuseppe
The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is a member of the lentivirus genus. The virus does not rely exclusively on the host cell machinery, but also on viral proteins that act as molecular switches during the viral life cycle which play significant functions in viral pathogenesis, notably by modulating cell signaling. The role of HIV-1 proteins (Nef, Tat, Vpr, and gp120) in modulating macrophage signaling has been recently unveiled. Accessory, regulatory, and structural HIV-1 proteins interact with signaling pathways in infected macrophages. In addition, exogenous Nef, Tat, Vpr, and gp120 proteins have been detected in the serum of HIV-1 infected patients. Possibly, these proteins are released by infected/apoptotic cells. Exogenous accessory regulatory HIV-1 proteins are able to enter macrophages and modulate cellular machineries including those that affect viral transcription. Furthermore HIV-1 proteins, e.g., gp120, may exert their effects by interacting with cell surface membrane receptors, especially chemokine co-receptors. By activating the signaling pathways such as NF-kappaB, MAP kinase (MAPK) and JAK/STAT, HIV-1 proteins promote viral replication by stimulating transcription from the long terminal repeat (LTR) in infected macrophages; they are also involved in macrophage-mediated bystander T cell apoptosis. The role of HIV-1 proteins in the modulation of macrophage signaling will be discussed in regard to the formation of viral reservoirs and macrophage-mediated T cell apoptosis during HIV-1 infection. PMID:20380698
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) targets CD4+ T cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. HIV pathogenesis is characterized by the depletion of T lymphocytes and by the presence of a population of cells in which latency has been established called the HIV-1 reservoir. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly improved the life of HIV-1 infected patients. However, complete eradication of HIV-1 from infected individuals is not possible without targeting latent sources of infection. HIV-1 establishes latent infection in resting CD4+ T cells and findings indicate that latency can also be established in the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Monocyte/macrophage lineage includes among others, monocytes, macrophages and brain resident macrophages. These cells are relatively more resistant to apoptosis induced by HIV-1, thus are important stable hideouts of the virus. Much effort has been made in the direction of eliminating HIV-1 resting CD4+ T-cell reservoirs. However, it is impossible to achieve a cure for HIV-1 without considering these neglected latent reservoirs, the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. In this review we will describe our current understanding of the mechanism of latency in monocyte/macrophage lineage and how such cells can be specifically eliminated from the infected host. PMID:24759213
Kumar, Amit; Abbas, Wasim; Herbein, Georges
In Africa, herbal medicines are often used as primary treatment for HIV/AIDS and for HIV-related problems. In general, traditional medicines are not well researched, and are poorly regulated. We review the evidence and safety concerns related to the use of two specific African herbals, which are currently recommended by the Ministry of Health in South Africa and member states for use in HIV: African Potato and Sutherlandia. We review the pharmacology, toxicology and pharmacokinetics of these herbal medicines. Despite the popularity of their use and the support of Ministries of Health and NGOs in some African countries, no clinical trials of efficacy exist, and low-level evidence of harm identifies the potential for drug interactions with antiretroviral drugs. Efforts should be made by mainstream health professionals to provide validated information to traditional healers and patients on the judicious use of herbal remedies. This may reduce harm through failed expectations, pharmacologic adverse events including possible drug/herb interactions and unnecessary added therapeutic costs. Efforts should also be directed at evaluating the possible benefits of natural products in HIV/AIDS treatment. PMID:15927053
Mills, Edward; Cooper, Curtis; Seely, Dugald; Kanfer, Izzy
In Africa, herbal medicines are often used as primary treatment for HIV/AIDS and for HIV-related problems. In general, traditional medicines are not well researched, and are poorly regulated. We review the evidence and safety concerns related to the use of two specific African herbals, which are currently recommended by the Ministry of Health in South Africa and member states for use in HIV: African Potato and Sutherlandia. We review the pharmacology, toxicology and pharmacokinetics of these herbal medicines. Despite the popularity of their use and the support of Ministries of Health and NGOs in some African countries, no clinical trials of efficacy exist, and low-level evidence of harm identifies the potential for drug interactions with antiretroviral drugs. Efforts should be made by mainstream health professionals to provide validated information to traditional healers and patients on the judicious use of herbal remedies. This may reduce harm through failed expectations, pharmacologic adverse events including possible drug/herb interactions and unnecessary added therapeutic costs. Efforts should also be directed at evaluating the possible benefits of natural products in HIV/AIDS treatment. PMID:15927053
Mills, Edward; Cooper, Curtis; Seely, Dugald; Kanfer, Izzy
Background Apoptosis is one of the presumptive causes of CD4+ T cell depletion during HIV infection and progression to AIDS. However, the precise role of HIV-1 in this process remains unexplained. HIV-1 protease (PR) has been suggested as a possible factor, but a direct link between HIV-1 PR enzymatic activity and apoptosis has not been established. Results Here, we show that expression of active HIV-1 PR induces death in HeLa and HEK-293 cells via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. This conclusion is based on in vivo observations of the direct localization of HIV-1 PR in mitochondria, a key player in triggering apoptosis. Moreover, we observed an HIV-1 PR concentration-dependent decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and the role of HIV-1 PR in activation of caspase 9, PARP cleavage and DNA fragmentation. In addition, in vitro data demonstrated that HIV-1 PR mediates cleavage of mitochondrial proteins Tom22, VDAC and ANT, leading to release of AIF and Hsp60 proteins. By using yeast two-hybrid screening, we also identified a new HIV-1 PR interaction partner, breast carcinoma-associated protein 3 (BCA3). We found that BCA3 accelerates p53 transcriptional activity on the bax promoter, thus elevating the cellular level of pro-apoptotic Bax protein. Conclusion In summary, our results describe the involvement of HIV-1 PR in apoptosis, which is caused either by a direct effect of HIV-1 PR on mitochondrial membrane integrity or by its interaction with cellular protein BCA3. PMID:24886575
Researchers and ethicists have long been concerned about the expectations for direct medical benefit expressed by participants in early phase clinical trials. Early work on the issue considered the possibility that participants misunderstand the purpose of clinical research or that they are misinformed about the prospects for medical benefit from these trials. Recently, however, attention has turned to the possibility that research participants are simply expressing optimism or hope about their participation in these trials. The ethical significance of this therapeutic optimism remains unclear. This paper argues that there are two distinct phenomena that can be associated with the term ‘therapeutic optimism’—one is ethically benign and the other is potentially worrisome. Distinguishing these two phenomena is crucial for understanding the nature and ethical significance of therapeutic optimism. The failure to draw a distinction between these phenomena also helps to explain why different writers on the topic often speak past one another. PMID:21551464
Jansen, Lynn A
Antiretroviral therapy has improved continuously. Almost every year a new drug has been approved. Nucleoside analogs still build the backbone of antiretroviral therapy. They inhibit reverse transcriptase and thus the transcription of RNA to DNA. They are combined with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or protease inhibitors. New therapeutic approaches are attachment or entry inhibitors, integrase inhibitors and maturation inhibitors. Multiple prospective multicenter studies have proven the life prolonging effect of antiretroviral therapy. With the optimal therapy life expectancy of HIV patients is only slightly reduced, similar to that of those with chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. One result of the higher age of HIV patients is an increase in concomitant diseases and medications. Drug interactions have to be considered and avoided. There has been a long discussion about the best time point to start antiretroviral therapy. In the late 1990s, every infected patient was treated hoping to eliminate the virus, ignoring the CD4+ cell count and viral load. This caused multiple (long-term) side effects and a rising resistance problem. The guidelines now recommend starting therapy at about 350/microl CD4 lymphocytes. Due to its complexity antiretroviral therapy should be initiated and monitored in specialized centers. PMID:20096060
Potthoff, Anja Verena; Brockmeyer, Norbert H
The National Cancer Institute, Laboratory of Cellular Oncology is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize therapeutics for diseases or conditions associated with target receptors, such as cancer, angiogenesis, or HIV infections.
Despite efficient antiretroviral therapy, eradication of HIV-1 infection is challenging and requires novel biological insights and therapeutic strategies. Among other physiological and environmental factors, intracellular iron greatly affects HIV-1 replication. Higher iron stores were shown to be associated with faster progression of HIV-1 infection and to inversely correlate with the survival of HIV-1 infected patients. Iron is required for several steps in the HIV-1 life cycle, including reverse transcription, HIV-1 gene expression and capsid assembly. Here, the authors present a comprehensive review of the molecular mechanisms involved in iron- and oxygen-mediated regulation of HIV-1 replication. We also propose key intracellular pathways that may be involved in regulating HIV-1 replication, via protein kinase complexes, CDK9/cyclin T1 and CDK 2/cyclin E, protein phosphatase-1 and other host factors. PMID:23678366
Nekhai, Sergei; Kumari, Namita; Dhawan, Subhash
Successful treatment and control of HIV/AIDS is one of the biggest challenges of 21st century. More than 33 million individuals are infected with HIV worldwide and more than 2 million new cases of HIV infection have been reported. The situation demands development of effective prevention strategies to control the pandemic of AIDS. Due to lack of availability of an effective HIV vaccine, antiretroviral drugs and nucleic acid therapeutics like siRNA have been explored for HIV prophylaxis. Clinical trials shave shown that antiretroviral drugs, tenofovir and emtricitabine can offer some degree of HIV prevention. However, complete prevention of HIV infection has not been achieved yet. Nanotechnology has brought a paradigm shift in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of many diseases. The current review discusses potential of various nanocarriers such as dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, lipid nanocarriers, drug nanocrystals, inorganic nanocarriers and nanofibers in improving efficacy of various modalities available for HIV prophylaxis. PMID:23726227
Date, Abhijit A.; Destache, Christopher J.
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of target cells requires CD4 and a co-receptor, predominantly the chemokine receptor CCR5. CCR5-delta32 homozygosity results in a truncated protein providing natural protection against HIV infection—this without detrimental effects to the host—and transplantation of CCR5-delta32 stem cells in a patient with HIV (“Berlin patient”) achieved viral eradication. As a more feasible approach gene-modification strategies are being developed to engineer cellular resistance to HIV using autologous cells. We have developed a dual therapeutic anti-HIV lentiviral vector (LVsh5/C46) that down-regulates CCR5 and inhibits HIV-1 fusion via cell surface expression of the gp41-derived peptide, C46. This construct, effective against multiple strains of both R5- and X4-tropic HIV-1, is being tested in Phase I/II trials by engineering HIV-resistant hematopoietic cells. PMID:24381033
Burke, Bryan P.; Boyd, Maureen P.; Impey, Helen; Breton, Louis R.; Bartlett, Jeffrey S.; Symonds, Geoff P.; Hütter, Gero
In chronic HIV infection a progressive Th1 to Th2/Th0 cytokine-profile shift is related to disease progression. One of the possible benefits of a therapeutic vaccination might be to counterbalance this phenomenon to allow viral replication control under a Th1-type immune response. TERAVAC-HIV-1 is a multiantigenic formulation vaccine candidate against HIV-1 which comprises the recombinant protein CR3 that contains T cell epitopes and the surface and nucleocapsid antigens of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV). Previous studies showed that such virus like particles of the HBV provide a Th1 adjuvant effect. The present studies examined the capacity of TERAVAC to elicit a Th1 response in the presence of an ongoing HIV-specific Th2-type response in Balb/c mice. To examine this issue, we injected subcutaneously the animals with CR3 or viral lysate in alum which resulted in a Th2-type response. The CR3-specific Th2-type response was verified by induction of IL-4 and IL-10 secretion in ex vivo stimulated splenocytes without secretion of IFN-? and IgG2a antibodies in serum. Further subcutaneous and simultaneous subcutaneous-nasal immunizations of the same mice with TERAVAC promoted IFN-? secretion and production of IgG2a antibodies in accordance with a Th1-type response. This result suggests a therapeutic benefit of this vaccine candidate in the restoration of the Th1-type HIV-specific cellular response in seropositive patients. PMID:23183092
García-Díaz, Darien; Rodríguez, Ingrid; Santisteban, Yaimín; Márquez, Gabriel; Terrero, Yanet; Brown, Enma; Iglesias, Enrique
Soluble forms (sCD4) of human CD4, the HIV-1 primary receptor, are potent HIV-1 entry inhibitors. Both four-domain (D1-4) and two-domain (D1D2) sCD4 and their fusion proteins have been tested as candidate therapeutics in animal models and in human clinical trials and were well tolerated by patients with no significant clinical or immunologic toxicities and exhibited significant inhibitory activities. However, their activities were transient and the virus rapidly rebound.
The world is entering the third decade of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic. The primary cause of the disease has known to be human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1). Recently, peptides are shown to have high potency as drugs in the treatment of AIDS. Therefore, in the present study, we have developed a method to predict anti-HIV-1 peptides using support vector machine (SVM) as a powerful machine learning algorithm. Peptide descriptors were represented based on the concept of Chou's pseudo-amino acid composition (PseAAC). HIV-1 P24-derived peptides were examined to predict anti-HIV-1 activity among them. The efficacy of the prediction was then validated in vitro. The mutagenic effect of validated anti-HIV-1 peptides was further investigated by the Ames test. Computational classification using SVM showed the accuracy and sensitivity of 96.76% and 98.1%, respectively. Based on SVM classification algorithm, 3 out of 22 P24-derived peptides were predicted to be anti-HIV-1, while the rest were estimated to be inactive. HIV-1 replication was inhibited by the three predicted anti-HIV-1 peptides as revealed in vitro, while the results of the same test on two of non-anti-HIV-1 peptides showed complete inactivity. The three anti-HIV-1 peptides were shown to be not mutagenic because of the Ames test results. These data suggest that the proposed computational method is highly efficient for predicting the anti-HIV-1 activity of any unknown peptide having only its amino acid sequence. Moreover, further experimental studies can be performed on the mentioned peptides, which may lead to new anti-HIV-1 peptide therapeutics candidates. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25407510
Poorinmohammad, Naghmeh; Mohabatkar, Hassan; Behbahani, Mandana; Biria, Davood
... HIV medications for at least 3 months). Drug resistance: HIV can mutate (change form). The altered HIV can multiply even in the presence of anti-HIV medications that would normally kill the virus. One or more ... Drug resistance testing: laboratory testing to determine if ...
A parallel genome-wide mRNA and microRNA profiling of the frontal cortex of HIV patients with and without HIV-associated dementia shows the role of axon guidance and downstream pathways in HIV-mediated neurodegeneration
Background HIV-associated dementia (HAD) is the most common dementia type in young adults less than 40 years of age. Although the neurotoxins, oxidative/metabolic stress and impaired activity of neurotrophic factors are believed to be underlying reasons for the development of HAD, the genomic basis, which ultimately defines the virus-host interaction and leads to neurologic manifestation of HIV disease is lacking. Therefore, identifying HIV fingerprints on the host gene machinery and its regulation by microRNA holds a great promise and potential for improving our understanding of HAD pathogenesis, its diagnosis and therapy. Results A parallel profiling of mRNA and miRNA of the frontal cortex autopsies from HIV positive patients with and without dementia was performed using Illumina Human-6 BeadChip and Affymetrix version 1.0 miRNA array, respectively. The gene ontology and pathway analysis of the two data sets showed high concordance between miRNA and mRNAs, revealing significant interference with the host axon guidance and its downstream signalling pathways in HAD brains. Moreover, the differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs identified in this study, in particular miR-137, 153 and 218, based on which most correlations were built cumulatively targeted neurodegeneration related pathways, implying their future potential in diagnosis, prognosis and possible therapies for HIV-mediated and possibly other neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, this relationship between DE miRNAs and DE mRNAs was also reflected in correlation analysis using Bayesian networks by splitting-averaging strategy (SA-BNs), which revealed 195 statistically significant correlated miRNA-mRNA pairs according to Pearson’s correlation test (P<0.05). Conclusions Our study provides the first evidence on unambiguous support for intrinsic functional relationship between mRNA and miRNA in the context of HIV-mediated neurodegeneration, which shows that neurologic manifestation in HIV patients possibly occurs through the interference with the host axon guidance and its downstream signalling pathways. These data provide an excellent avenue for the development of new generation of diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic intervention strategies for HIV-associated neurodegeneration. PMID:23190615
Recent advances in the immunology, pathogenesis, and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continue to reveal clues to the mechanisms involved in the progressive immunodeficiency attributed to infection, but more importantly have shed light on the correlates of immunity to infection and disease progression. HIV selectively infects, eliminates, and/or dysregulates several key cells of the human immune system, thwarting multiple arms of the host immune response, and inflicting severe damage to mucosal barriers, resulting in tissue infiltration of 'symbiotic' intestinal bacteria and viruses that essentially become opportunistic infections promoting systemic immune activation. This leads to activation and recruitment or more target cells for perpetuating HIV infection, resulting in persistent, high-level viral replication in lymphoid tissues, rapid evolution of resistant strains, and continued evasion of immune responses. However, vaccine studies and studies of spontaneous controllers are finally providing correlates of immunity from protection and disease progression, including virus-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses, binding anti-bodies, innate immune responses, and generation of antibodies with potent antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity activity. Emerging correlates of immunity indicate that prevention of HIV infection may be possible through effective vaccine strategies that protect and stimulate key regulatory cells and immune responses in susceptible hosts. Furthermore, immune therapies specifically directed toward boosting specific aspects of the immune system may eventually lead to a cure for HIV-infected patients. PMID:23772612
Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Veazey, Ronald S
Use of neuropsychological tests to identify HIV-associated neurocognitive dysfunction must involve normative standards that are well suited to the population of interest. Norms should be based on a population of HIV-uninfected individuals as closely matched to the HIV-infected group as possible and must include examination of the potential effects of demographic factors on test performance. This is the first study
Jennifer J. Manly; Clifford Smith; Howard A. Crystal; Jean Richardson; Elizabeth T. Golub; Ruth Greenblatt; Esther Robison; Eileen M. Martin; Mary Young
HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD)-relevant proinflammatory cytokines robustly induce astrocyte tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1). As TIMP-1 displays pleotropic functions, we hypothesized that TIMP-1 expression may serve as a neuroprotective response of astrocytes. Previously, we reported that chronically activated astrocytes fail to maintain elevated TIMP-1 expression, and TIMP-1 levels are lower in the brain of HAD patients; a phenomenon that may contribute to central nervous system pathogenesis. Further, the role of TIMP-1 as a neurotrophic factor is incompletely understood. In this study, we report that staurosporine (STS) and HIV-1(ADA) virus, both led to induction of apoptosis in cultured primary human neurons. Interestingly, cotreatment with TIMP-1 protects neurons from apoptosis and reverses neuronal morphological changes induced by these toxins. Further, the anti-apoptotic effect was not observed with TIMP-2 or -3, but was retained in a mutant of the N-terminal TIMP-1 protein with threonine-2 mutated to glycine (T2G) that is deficient in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -2 and -3 inhibitory activity. Therefore, the mechanism is specific to TIMP-1 and partially independent of MMP-inhibition. Additionally, TIMP-1 modulates the Bcl-2 family of proteins and inhibits opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pores induced by HIV-1 or STS. Together, these findings describe a novel function, mechanism and direct role of TIMP-1 in neuroprotection, suggesting its therapeutic potential in HAD and possibly in other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22739984
Ashutosh; Chao, C; Borgmann, K; Brew, K; Ghorpade, A
HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD)-relevant proinflammatory cytokines robustly induce astrocyte tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1). As TIMP-1 displays pleotropic functions, we hypothesized that TIMP-1 expression may serve as a neuroprotective response of astrocytes. Previously, we reported that chronically activated astrocytes fail to maintain elevated TIMP-1 expression, and TIMP-1 levels are lower in the brain of HAD patients; a phenomenon that may contribute to central nervous system pathogenesis. Further, the role of TIMP-1 as a neurotrophic factor is incompletely understood. In this study, we report that staurosporine (STS) and HIV-1ADA virus, both led to induction of apoptosis in cultured primary human neurons. Interestingly, cotreatment with TIMP-1 protects neurons from apoptosis and reverses neuronal morphological changes induced by these toxins. Further, the anti-apoptotic effect was not observed with TIMP-2 or -3, but was retained in a mutant of the N-terminal TIMP-1 protein with threonine-2 mutated to glycine (T2G) that is deficient in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -2 and -3 inhibitory activity. Therefore, the mechanism is specific to TIMP-1 and partially independent of MMP-inhibition. Additionally, TIMP-1 modulates the Bcl-2 family of proteins and inhibits opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pores induced by HIV-1 or STS. Together, these findings describe a novel function, mechanism and direct role of TIMP-1 in neuroprotection, suggesting its therapeutic potential in HAD and possibly in other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22739984
Ashutosh; Chao, C; Borgmann, K; Brew, K; Ghorpade, A
Potent antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed HIV-1 infection into a chronic manageable disease; however drug resistance remains a common problem that limits the effectiveness and clinical benefits of this type of treatment. The discovery of viral reservoirs in the body, in which HIV-1 may persist, has helped to explain why therapeutic eradication of HIV-1 has proved so difficult. In the current study we utilized a combination of structure based analysis of Cyclin/CDK complexes with our previously published Tat peptide derivatives. We modeled the Tat peptide inhibitors with CDKs and found a particular pocket which showed the most stable binding site (Cavity 1) using in silico analysis. Furthermore, we were able to find peptide mimetics that bound to similar regions using in silico searches of a chemical library, followed by cell based biological assays. Using these methods we obtained the first generation mimetic drugs and tested these compounds on HIV-1 LTR activated transcription. Using biological assays followed by similar in silico analysis to find a 2nd generation drugs resembling the original mimetic, we found the new targets of Cavity 1 and Cavity 2 regions on CDK9. We examined the 2nd generation mimetic against various viral isolates, and observed a generalized suppression of most HIV-1 isolates. Finally, the drug inhibited viral replication in humanized mouse models of Rag2-/-?c-/- with no toxicity to the animals at tested concentrations. Our results suggest that it may be possible to model peptide inhibitors into available crystal structures and further find drug mimetics using in silico analysis. PMID:23247501
Van Duyne, Rachel; Guendel, Irene; Jaworski, Elizabeth; Sampey, Gavin; Klase, Zachary; Chen, Hao; Zeng, Chen; Kovalskyy, Dmytro; el Kouni, Mahmoud H.; Lepene, Benjamin; Patanarut, Alexis; Nekhai, Sergei; Price, David H.; Kashanchi, Fatah
HIV exploits the T-cell signaling network to gain access to downstream cellular components, which serves as effective tools to break the cellular barriers. Multiple host factors and their interaction with viral proteins contribute to the complexity of HIV-1 pathogenesis and disease progression. HIV-1 proteins gp120, Nef, Tat and Vpr alter the T-cell signaling pathways by activating multiple transcription factors including NF-?B, Sp1 and AP-1. HIV-1 evades the immune system by developing a multi-pronged strategy. Additionally, HIV-1 encoded proteins influence the apoptosis in the host cell favoring or blocking T-cell apoptosis. Thus, T-cell signaling hijacked by viral proteins accounts for both viral persistence and immune suppression during HIV-1 infection. Here, we summarize past and present studies on HIV-1 T-cell signaling with special focus on the possible role of T cells in facilitating viral infection and pathogenesis PMID:23986795
Abbas, Wasim; Herbein, Georges
Insufficient pharmacokinetic properties and poor cellular uptake are the main hurdles for successful therapeutic development of oligonucleotide agents. The covalent attachment of various ligands designed to influence the biodistribution and cellular uptake or for targeting specific tissues is an attractive possibility to advance therapeutic applications and to expand development options. In contrast to advanced formulations, which often consist of multiple reagents and are sensitive to a variety of preparation conditions, oligonucleotide conjugates are defined molecules, enabling structure-based analytics and quality control techniques. This review gives an overview of current developments of oligonucleotide conjugates for therapeutic applications. Attached ligands comprise peptides, proteins, carbohydrates, aptamers and small molecules, including cholesterol, tocopherol and folic acid. Important linkage types and conjugation methods are summarized. The distinct ligands directly influence biochemical parameters, uptake machanisms and pharmacokinetic properties. PMID:23883124
Oxcarbazepine is an analogue of carbamazepine, used for the treatment of partial seizure with or without secondary generalization. The two forms R and S of the mono-hydroxylated derivatives (MHD) are responsible for most of the anti-convulsant activity and it is the concentrations of MHD that are relevant in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Analysis of currently literature provides no well-established relationship between plasma concentration of MHD and efficiency or toxicity. Although there is not a validated therapeutic range, the residual concentrations of usually observed therapeutic MHD are situated between 12 and 30 mg/L. In certain pathological or physiological circumstances, the pharmacokinetic variability of the oxcarbazepine can be considerable, but this strong unpredictability does not nevertheless justify the TDM of the MHD. Based on the available evidence, TDM of MHD is not routinely warranted but may be possibly useful in specific situations such as pregnancy or renal insufficiency. PMID:20205998
Bouquié, Régis; Dailly, Eric; Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle
CXCR4 is a chemokine receptor that plays key roles with its specific ligand, CXCL12, in stem cell homing and immune trafficking. It is also used as a coreceptor by some HIV-1 strains (X4 strains), whereas other strains (R5 strains) use an alternative coreceptor, CCR5. X4 strains mainly emerge at late stages of the infection and are linked to disease progression. Two isoforms of this coreceptor have been described in humans: CXCR4-A and CXCR4-B, corresponding to an unspliced and a spliced mRNA, respectively. In this study, we show that CXCR4-B, but not CXCR4-A, mediates an efficient HIV-1 X4 entry and productive infection. Yet, the chemotactic activity of CXCL12 on both isoforms was similar. Furthermore, HIV-R5 infection favored CXCR4-B expression over that of CXCR4-A. In vitro infection with an R5 strain increased CXCR4-B/CXCR4-A mRNA ratio in PBMCs, and this ratio correlated with HIV RNA plasma level in R5-infected individuals. In addition, the presence of the CXCR4-B isoform favored R5 to X4 switch more efficiently than did CXCR4-A in vitro. Hence, the predominance of CXCR4-B over CXCR4-A expression in PBMCs was linked to the ability of circulating HIV-1 strains to use CXCR4, as determined by genotyping. These data suggest that R5 to X4 switch could be favored by R5 infection-induced overexpression of CXCR4-B. Finally, we achieved a specific small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of CXCR4-B. This represents a proof of concept for a possible gene-therapeutic approach aimed at blocking the HIV coreceptor activity of CXCR4 without knocking down its chemotactic activity. PMID:25230750
Duquenne, Charline; Psomas, Christina; Gimenez, Sandrine; Guigues, Adeline; Carles, Marie-Josée; Barbuat, Claudine; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Sotto, Albert; Reynes, Jacques; Guglielmi, Paul; Mettling, Clément; François, Vincent; Corbeau, Pierre
Some of the central challenges for developing effective vaccines against HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are similar. Both infections are caused by small, highly mutable, rapidly replicating RNA viruses with the ability to establish long-term chronic pathogenic infection in human hosts. HIV has caused 60 million infections globally and HCV 180 million and both viruses may co-exist among certain populations by virtue of common blood-borne, sexual, or vertical transmission. Persistence of both pathogens is achieved by evasion of intrinsic, innate, and adaptive immune defenses but with some distinct mechanisms reflecting their differences in evolutionary history, replication characteristics, cell tropism, and visibility to mucosal versus systemic and hepatic immune responses. A potent and durable antibody and T cell response is a likely requirement of future HIV and HCV vaccines. Perhaps the single biggest difference between the two vaccine design challenges is that in HCV, a natural model of protective immunity can be found in those who resolve acute infection spontaneously. Such spontaneous resolvers exhibit durable and functional CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses (Diepolder et al., 1995; Cooper et al., 1999; Thimme et al., 2001; Grakoui et al., 2003; Lauer et al., 2004; Schulze Zur Wiesch et al., 2012). However, frequent re-infection suggests partial or lack of protective immunity against heterologous HCV strains, possibly indicative of the degree of genetic diversity of circulating HCV genotypes and subtypes. There is no natural model of protective immunity in HIV, however, studies of “elite controllers,” or individuals who have durably suppressed levels of plasma HIV RNA without antiretroviral therapy, has provided the strongest evidence for CD8+ T cell responses in controlling viremia and limiting reservoir burden in established infection. Here we compare and contrast the specific mechanisms of immune evasion used by HIV and HCV, which subvert adaptive human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-restricted T cell immunity in natural infection, and the challenges these pose for designing effective preventative or therapeutic vaccines. PMID:25352836
John, Mina; Gaudieri, Silvana
HIV type-1 (HIV-1) accounts for more than 25 million deaths and nearly 40 million people are infected worldwide. A significant obstacle in clearing virus from infected individuals is latently infected viral reservoirs. Latent HIV-1 can emerge with recrudescence as a productive infection later in disease progression and could provide a source for the emergence of resistant HIV-1. It is widely recognized that macrophages represent a latently infected viral reservoir and are a significant and critical HIV-1 target cell in vivo. Macrophages can be divided into multiple subsets of macrophage-like cells, all of which are susceptible to HIV-1 infection, including dendritic cells, Langerhans cells, alveolar macrophages, mucosal macrophages and microglial cells. Current antiretroviral therapy (ART) often displays differential antiviral activity in macrophages relative to CD4+ T-lymphocytes. Significant work has been performed to establish antiviral activity of many clinically approved ART in macrophages; however, a direct link between antiviral activity and specific mechanisms responsible for these antiviral effects are incompletely understood. This review identifies many understudied areas of research, along with topics for further research in the field of HIV therapy and eradication. Discussion focuses upon the known cellular pharmacology and antiviral activity of antiretroviral agents in macrophages and its relationship to latency, chronic HIV-1 infection and therapeutic strategies to eradicate systemic HIV-1 infection. PMID:19843977
Gavegnano, Christina; Schinazi, Raymond F
Antiretroviral drug susceptibility tests facilitate therapeutic management of HIV-1-infected patients. Although genotyping systems are affordable, inaccuracy in the interpretation of complex mutational patterns may limit their usefulness. Currently available HIV-1 phenotypic assays are based on the generation of recombinant viruses in which the specific viral gene of interest, derived from a patient plasma sample, is cloned into a susceptible genetic viral backbone prior to in vitro drug susceptibility evaluation. Nevertheless, in the case of protease inhibitors, not only are mutations in the HIV-1 protease-coding region involved in resistance, but the role of Gag in drug susceptibility has also recently been reported. In order to avoid the inherent limitations resulting from partial cloning of the viral genome, we designed and evaluated a new experimental strategy to test the in vitro susceptibility of primary viral isolates to protease inhibitors. Our protocol, which is based on a two-round infection protocol using the reporter TZM-bl cell line, showed a good correlation with genotypic resistance prediction and with the Antivirogram phenotypic assay, in both protease-recombinant viruses and primary viral isolates. The protocol is suitable for any HIV-1 subtype and enables rapid in-house measurement of protease inhibitor susceptibility, thus making it possible to evaluate the concomitant effects of both patient-derived gag and protease-coding regions. PMID:23015664
Puertas, Maria C; Buzón, Maria J; Ballestero, Mònica; Van Den Eede, Peter; Clotet, Bonaventura; Prado, Julia G; Martinez-Picado, Javier
While modulation of regulatory T cell (Treg) function and adoptive Treg transfer are being explored as therapeutic modalities in the context of autoimmune diseases, transplantation and cancer, their role in HIV-1 pathogenesis ...
-Retroviral Agents ; economics ; therapeutic use ; Child ; Child, Preschool ; Developing Countries ; Drug Costs Immunodeficiency Syndrome ; drug therapy ; prevention & control ; transmission ; Adult ; Africa ; Anti & control ; Male ; Poverty ; Pregnancy Author Keywords HIV ; Africa ; children ; breastfeeding
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
INHIBITORS of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease have entered clinical study as potential therapeutic agents for HIV-1 infection. The clinical efficacy of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors has been limited by the emergence of resistant viral variants. Similarly, variants expressing resistance to protease inhibitors have been derived in cell culture1-10. We now report the characterization of resistant variants
Jon H. Condra; William A. Schleif; Olga M. Blahy; Lori J. Gabryelski; Donald J. Graham; Julio Quintero; Audrey Rhodes; Helen L. Robbins; Elizabeth Roth; Malathi Shivaprakash; Donna Titus; Tao Yang; Hedy Tepplert; Kathleen E. Squires; Paul J. Deutsch; Emilio A. Emini
Microglia represent the main cellular targets of HIV-1 in the brain. Infected and/or activated microglia play a pathogenic role in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) by instigating primary dysfunction and subsequent death of neurons. Although microglia are known to secrete neurotoxins when infected with HIV-1, the detailed mechanism of neurotoxicity remains unclear. Using a human microglia primary culture system and macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strains, we have now demonstrated that HIV-1 infection of microglia resulted in a significant increase in extracellular glutamate concentrations and elevated levels of neurotoxicity. RNA and protein analysis revealed upregulation of the glutamate-generating enzyme glutaminase isoform glutaminase C in HIV-1-infected microglia. The clinical relevance of these findings was further corroborated with investigation of post mortem brain tissues. The glutaminase C levels in the brain tissues of HIV dementia individuals were significantly higher than HIV serum negative control and correlated with elevated concentrations of glutamate. When glutaminase was subsequently inhibited by siRNA or by a small molecular inhibitor, the HIV-induced glutamate production and the neuronal loss was diminished. In conclusion, these findings support glutaminase as a potential component of the HAND pathogenic process as well as a novel therapeutic target in their treatment. PMID:22016553
Huang, Yunlong; Zhao, Lixia; Jia, Beibei; Wu, Li; Li, Yuju; Curthoys, Norman; Zheng, Jialin C.
Background Defensins are natural endogenous antimicrobial peptides with potent anti-HIV activity and immuno-modulatory effects. We recently demonstrated that immature dendritic cells (DC) produce ?-defensins1-3 and that ?-defensins1-3 modulate DC generation and maturation. Since DC-HIV interaction plays a critical role during the first steps of HIV infection, we investigated the possible impact of ?-defensins1-3 production by DC on disease progression. Methodology/Principal Findings Monocyte-derived DC (MDDC) were analyzed comparatively in healthy controls (HC) and HIV-infected patients, including untreated “elite” and “viremic” controllers, untreated viremic non-controllers and antiretroviral-treated patients. We found that production of ?-defensins1-3 was significantly increased in MDDC from HIV-infected patients versus HC, and this increase was mainly due to that observed in controllers, while in non-controllers the increase was not statistically significant (controllers vs. HC, p<0.005; controllers vs. non-controllers p<0.05). Secreted ?-defensins1-3 by immature MDDC positively correlated with CD4 T cell counts in controllers, but not in non-controllers. Moreover, independently of their clinical classification, HIV-infected patients with higher ?-defensins1-3 secretion by immature MDDC showed slower disease progression, measured as no decrease in the number of CD4+ T-cells below 350 cell/mm3, lower increase of plasma viral load and no initiation of treatment over time. Plasma alpha-defensins1-3 levels lacked any relationship with immunologic and virologic parameters. Conclusions/Significance High production of ?-defensins1-3 by immature DCs appears as a host protective factor against progression of HIV-1infection, suggesting potential diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive implications. This protective effect may arise from the activity of ?-defensins1-3 to damage the virions prior and/or after their internalization by immature DC, and hence favoring a more efficient viral processing and presentation to HIV-specific CD4+ T cells, without or with a minor rate of transmission of infectious HIV-1 virions. PMID:20195543
Rodríguez-García, Marta; Casanova, Víctor; Franco, Rafael; Leon, Agathe; Gatell, José M.; García, Felipe; Gallart, Teresa
Current drugs used for antiretroviral therapy against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a narrow spectrum of activity and, more often, have associated toxicities and severe side effects in addition to developing resistance. Thus, there is a need to develop new therapeutic strategies against HIV\\/AIDS to complement the already existing ones. Surprisingly, transactivator of transcription (Tat), an early virus-encoded protein required
Vivek Narayan; Kodihalli C. Ravindra; Chris Chiaro; Daniele Cary; Bharat B. Aggarwal; Andrew J. Henderson; K. Sandeep Prabhu
The concept of RNA interference (RNAi) is gaining popularity for the better management of various diseases, including HIV. Currently, the successful biomedical utilization of siRNA therapeutics is hampered, both in vivo and in vitro, mainly by the inherent inability of naked siRNA to cross the cell membrane. RNAi can potentially improve the weakness of current highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) by diminishing the chances of the appearance of antiHIV-resistant strains. Here, we discuss the nanocarrier-mediated delivery of siRNA delivery as well as highlighted the scope of siRNA-mediated gene-silencing technology for improved HIV treatment. PMID:25281591
Mishra, Vijay; Kesharwani, Prashant; Jain, Narendra K
Summary Recent advances of biological drugs have broadened the scope of therapeutic targets for a variety of human diseases. This holds true for dozens of RNA-based therapeutics currently under clinical investigation for diseases ranging from genetic disorders to HIV infection to various cancers. These emerging drugs, which include therapeutic ribozymes, aptamers, and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), demonstrate the unprecedented versatility of RNA. However, RNA is inherently unstable, potentially immunogenic, and typically requires a delivery vehicle for efficient transport to the targeted cells. These issues have hindered the clinical progress of some RNA-based drugs and have contributed to mixed results in clinical testing. Nevertheless, promising results from recent clinical trials suggest that these barriers may be overcome with improved synthetic delivery carriers and chemical modifications of the RNA therapeutics. This review focuses on the clinical results of siRNA, RNA aptamer, and ribozyme therapeutics and the prospects for future successes. PMID:22284355
Burnett, John C.; Rossi, John J.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) has been considered until recently as a contraindication for liver transplantation. This was due to the poor spontaneous prognosis of HIV infection. The advent of highly active antiretroviral drugs (HAART) was a therapeutic breakthrough, and the prognosis has been dramatically improved. 30 % and 10 % of HIV infected patients are coinfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and with hepatitis B virus (HBV), respectively. The progression of chronic hepatitis B and C seems more rapid in coinfected patients, and a high number of patients will develop life-threatening liver cirrhosis. There are numerous potential problems raised by liver transplantation in HIV infected patients: (1) the potential risk of needlestick injury during this type of hemorrhagic surgery at high risk of bleeding; (2) the timing for liver transplantation; (3) the risk of interference between HAART and calcineurin inhibitors; (4) The risk of HBV and HCV recurrence post-transplant. Since 1999, a program of liver transplantation has been started in patients coinfected with HIV and HBV or HCV with the support of the Agence Nationale de Recherche contre le Sida et les Hépatites virales (ANRS). The first results showed that liver transplantation in HIV-HCV and HIV-HBV infected patients is feasible, achieving 2-year survival of 70 % and 100 %, respectively. There was no acceleration of HIV disease after transplantation. HBV recurrence was well prevented by the combination of anti-HBs immunoglobulins plus nucleoside and nucleotide analogues effective against HBV. The main problem is HCV recurrence, which is more rapid and more severe in HIV coinfected patients than in HCV monoinfected patients. Understanding HCV recurrence mechanisms, and preventing and treating of HCV recurrence are major future challenges. PMID:17875290
Duclos-Vallée, Jean-Charles; Teicher, Elina; Vittecoq, Daniel; Samuel, Didier
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the average HIV infection duration and the level of quantitatively rated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and social support dimensions in a sample of 562 Polish HIV+ adults. Possible moderating effects of social support on the relationship between the average HIV infection duration and the level of PTSD symptoms were also analysed. The results of this study suggest that the average HIV infection duration may intensify PTSD symptoms and deteriorate the perceived availability of social support in HIV+ individuals. However, a positive relationship between HIV infection duration and the level of trauma symptoms was observed only in the group of HIV+ individuals with low perceived available social support, but not in the group of HIV-infected individuals with high perceived available social support. This research provided some new insight into the psychological and social aspects of living with HIV. In particular, our results suggest that although HIV infection duration may intensify trauma symptoms and deteriorate social support, perceived available social support may act as a buffer against HIV-related trauma symptoms. PMID:25296635
Rzeszutek, Marcin; Oniszczenko, W?odzimierz; ?ebrowska, Magdalena; Firl?g-Burkacka, Ewa
Innate immune system forms the first line of defense against microbial infections, as it exerts an immediate response. Innate immunity works through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which functions as primary sensors of pathogens. TLR activates multiple signaling cascades leading to the induction of genes responsible for the release of inflammatory cytokines and type I interferon. Thus, they induce antimicrobial responses and also have an instructive role in adaptive immunity. However, TLR-mediated inflammation is said to be responsible for many of the destructive host responses in inflammatory diseases like periodontitis. Hence, therapeutics targeting TLRs are being used to treat disease such as HIV, Hepatitis B, asthma etc. Recently, synthetic TLR agonists are tried as novel vaccine adjuvant in treating periodontal diseases. This paper reviews the scope of TLR-based therapeutics in treating periodontitis.
Maheaswari, Rajendran; Sivasankar, Kiruthika; Subbarayan, Sathya
Innate immune system forms the first line of defense against microbial infections, as it exerts an immediate response. Innate immunity works through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which functions as primary sensors of pathogens. TLR activates multiple signaling cascades leading to the induction of genes responsible for the release of inflammatory cytokines and type I interferon. Thus, they induce antimicrobial responses and also have an instructive role in adaptive immunity. However, TLR-mediated inflammation is said to be responsible for many of the destructive host responses in inflammatory diseases like periodontitis. Hence, therapeutics targeting TLRs are being used to treat disease such as HIV, Hepatitis B, asthma etc. Recently, synthetic TLR agonists are tried as novel vaccine adjuvant in treating periodontal diseases. This paper reviews the scope of TLR-based therapeutics in treating periodontitis. PMID:25624622
Maheaswari, Rajendran; Sivasankar, Kiruthika; Subbarayan, Sathya
Despite advances in the treatment of HIV infection, heterosexual transmission of HIV remains high, and vaccines to prevent HIV acquisition have been unfruitful. Vaginal microbicides, on the other hand, have demonstrated considerable potential for HIV prevention, and a variety of compounds have been screened for their activity and safety as anti-HIV microbicides. Among these are the naturally occurring host defense peptides, small peptides from diverse lineages with intrinsic antiviral activity. Naturally occurring host defense peptides with anti-HIV activity are promising candidates for vaginal microbicide development. Their structural variance and accompanying mechanistic diversity provide a wide range of inhibitors whose antiviral activity can be exerted at nearly every stage of the HIV lifecycle. Additionally, peptide modification has been explored as a method for improving the anti-HIV activity of host defense peptides. Structure- and sequence-based alterations have achieved varying success in improving the potency and specificity of anti-HIV peptides. Overall, peptides have been discovered or engineered to inhibit HIV with therapeutic indices of >1000, encouraging their advancement toward clinical trials. Here we review the naturally occurring anti-HIV host defense peptides, demonstrating their breadth of mechanistic diversity, and exploring approaches to enhance and optimize their activity in order to expedite their development as safe and effective anti-HIV vaginal microbicides. PMID:22264047
Eade, Colleen R.; Wood, Matthew P.; Cole, Alexander M.
INTRODUCTION: A poor appreciation of the science related to HIV contributes to an overly broad use of the criminal law against individuals living with HIV in cases of HIV nondisclosure. METHOD: To promote an evidence-informed application of the law in Canada, a team of six Canadian medical experts on HIV and transmission led the development of a consensus statement on HIV sexual transmission, HIV transmission associated with biting and spitting, and the natural history of HIV infection. The statement is based on a literature review of the most recent and relevant scientific evidence (current as of December 2013) regarding HIV and its transmission. It has been endorsed by >70 additional Canadian HIV experts and the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada. RESULTS: Scientific and medical evidence clearly indicate that HIV is difficult to transmit during sex. For the purpose of informing the justice system, the per-act possibility of HIV transmission through sex, biting or spitting is described along a continuum from low possibility, to negligible possibility, to no possibility of transmission. This possibility takes into account the impact of factors such as the type of sexual acts, condom use, antiretroviral therapy and viral load. Dramatic advances in HIV therapy have transformed HIV infection into a chronic manageable condition. DISCUSSION: HIV physicians and scientists have a professional and ethical responsibility to assist those in the criminal justice system to understand and interpret the science regarding HIV. This is critical to prevent miscarriage of justice and to remove unnecessary barriers to evidence-based HIV prevention strategies. PMID:25285108
Loutfy, Mona; Tyndall, Mark; Baril, Jean-Guy; Montaner, Julio SG; Kaul, Rupert; Hankins, Catherine
Depression is the most common neuropsychiatric complication in HIV-infected patients and may occur in all phases of the infection. Accurately, diagnosing major depressive disorder in the context of HIV is an ongoing challenge to clinicians and researchers, being complicated by the complex biological, psychological, and social factors associated with the HIV illness. Evidences exist to support the importance of improving the identification of depressive symptoms and their adequate treatment. Depression has long been recognized as a predictor of negative clinical outcomes in HIV-infected patients, such as reducing medication adherence, quality of life, and treatment outcome, and possibly worsening the progression of the illness and increasing mortality. By analyzing the most relevant studies (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycLit, Cochrane Library), the review discusses the epidemiology and the main clinical features of depression in HIV-infected patients, the causal pathways linking depression and HIV infection, the validity of screening tools, and the efficacy of different treatment approaches, including psychosocial interventions, psychopharmacology as well as HIV-specific health psychology health service models. PMID:25413636
Nanni, Maria Giulia; Caruso, Rosangela; Mitchell, Alex J; Meggiolaro, Elena; Grassi, Luigi
BackgroundWhile studies have suggested that depression and HIV-related stigma may impede access to care, a growing body of literature also suggests that access to HIV care itself may help to decrease internalized HIV-related stigma and symptoms of depression in the general population of persons living with HIV. However, this has not been investigated in postpartum women living with HIV. Furthermore, linkage to care itself may have additional impacts on postpartum depression beyond the effects of antiretroviral therapy. We examined associations between linkage to HIV care, postpartum depression, and internalized stigma in a population with a high risk of depression: newly diagnosed HIV-positive pregnant women.MethodsIn this prospective observational study, data were obtained from 135 HIV-positive women from eight antenatal clinics in the rural Nyanza Province of Kenya at their first antenatal visit (prior to testing HIV-positive for the first time) and subsequently at 6 weeks after giving birth.ResultsAt 6 weeks postpartum, women who had not linked to HIV care after testing positive at their first antenatal visit had higher levels of depression and internalized stigma, compared to women who had linked to care. Internalized stigma mediated the effect of linkage to care on depression. Furthermore, participants who had both linked to HIV care and initiated antiretroviral therapy reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms.ConclusionsThese results provide further support for current efforts to ensure that women who are newly diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy become linked to HIV care as early as possible, with important benefits for both physical and mental health. PMID:25467187
Turan, Bulent; Stringer, Kristi L; Onono, Maricianah; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Weiser, Sheri D; Cohen, Craig R; Turan, Janet M
Background: Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is the major protein of the caveolae and plays a role in multiple cellular functions and implicated to have anti-HIV activity. Regulated expression of Cav-1 is important for safe and effective use in order to exploit Cav-1 for HIV therapeutic applications. Methods: A series of Cav-1 and GFP expression vectors were constructed under the control of the HIV LTR for conditional expression or CMV promoter and the expression of Cav-1 was monitored in the presence or absence of Tat or HIV infection in order to establish the restricted expression of Cav-1 to HIV infected cells. Results: Cav-1 expression was evident under the control of the HIV LTR in the absence of Tat or HIV infection as demonstrated by immunoblot. Placing two internal ribosomal entry sequences (IRES) and a Rev response element, RRE (5’~ LTR-IRES-GFP-RRE-IRES-Cav-1~3’) resulted in no expression of Cav-1 in the absence of Tat with effective expression in the presence of Tat. Transduction of HIV permissive cells with this construct using a foamy virus vector show that Cav-1 was able to inhibit HIV replication by 82%. Cells that received LTR-IRES-GFP-RRE-IRES-Cav-1 remain healthy in the absence of Tat or HIV infection. Conclusion: These results taken together reveal the inclusion of two IRES establishes a significant reduction of leak through expression of Cav-1 in the absence of Tat or HIV infection. Such regulated expression will have therapeutic application of Cav-1 for HIV infection as well as broad applications which can be beneficial for other host-targeted interventions as therapeutics. PMID:25408776
Lo, Yung-Tsun; Nadeau, Peter E; Lin, Shanshan; Mergia, Ayalew
... in the vagina, persistent yeast infections, and severe pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) can be signs of HIV. Hormone changes, birth ... Women with HIV get vaginal infections, genital ulcers, pelvic inflammatory disease, and genital warts more often and more severely ...
The recent progress in human therapeutics has been made possible thanks to molecular biology and its use in producing proteins having the same sequence and structure as that of human proteins. The use of GMOs allows production of proteins with high added value in therapeutics, which are of satisfactory quality. GMOs may also be directly administered to patients as gene therapy vectors. However, the use of GMOs in therapeutics must take into consideration some risks, particularly those of microbiological contamination, of neo-antigenicity as well as environmental risks with regard to the way of use of the GMO. Nevertheless, those risks are taken in due consideration in the development of these new medicinal products; solutions have been found to allow their use in therapeutics with a very positive benefit/risk ratio. Medicinal products from biotechnology have enabled considerable therapeutic progress without compromising health security. PMID:12668948
We explored the possible augmenting effect of traumatic brain injury (TBI) history on HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) associated neurocognitive complications. HIV-infected participants with self-reported history of definite TBI were compared to HIV patients without TBI history. Groups were equated for relevant demographic and HIV-associated characteristics. The TBI group evidenced significantly greater deficits in executive functioning and working memory. N-acetylaspartate, a
Kenny Lin; Michael J Taylor; Robert Heaton; Donald Franklin; Terry Jernigan; Christine Fennema-Notestine; Allen McCutchan; J Hampton Atkinson; Ronald J Ellis; Justin McArthur; Susan Morgello; David Simpson; Ann C Collier; Christina Marra; Benjamin Gelman; David Clifford; Igor Grant
The human genome contains multiple copies of retrovirus genomes known as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) that have entered the germ-line at some point in evolution. Several of these proviruses have retained (partial) coding capacity, so that a number of viral proteins or even virus particles are expressed under various conditions. Human ERVs (HERVs) belong to the beta-, gamma-, or spuma- retrovirus groups. Endogenous delta- and lenti- viruses are notably absent in humans, although endogenous lentivirus genomes have been found in lower primates. Exogenous retroviruses that currently form a health threat to humans intriguingly belong to those absent groups. The best studied of the two infectious human retroviruses is the lentivirus human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which has an overwhelming influence on its host by infecting cells of the immune system. One HIV-induced change is the induction of HERV transcription, often leading to induced HERV protein expression. This review will discuss the potential HIV-HERV interactions. Several studies have suggested that HERV proteins are unlikely to complement defective HIV virions, nor is HIV able to package HERV transcripts, probably due to low levels of sequence similarity. It is unclear whether the expression of HERVs has a negative, neutral, or positive influence on HIV-AIDS disease progression. A positive effect was recently reported by the specific expression of HERVs in chronically HIV-infected patients, which results in the presentation of HERV-derived peptides to CD8+ T-cells. These cytotoxic T-cells were not tolerant to HERV peptides, as would be expected for self-antigens, and consequently lysed the HIV-infected, HERV-presenting cells. This novel mechanism could control HIV replication and result in a low plasma viral load. The possibility of developing a vaccination strategy based on these HERV peptides will be discussed. PMID:22248111
Oral candidosis (syn. Oral candidiasis; OC), is a collective term given to a group of oral mucosal disorders caused by the fugal pathogen belonging to the genus Candida. The association of OC with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been known since the advent of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic. OC is one of the earliest manifestations of HIV disease in high risk individuals not undergoing chemotherapy and is also a strong predictor of the subsequent risk of AIDS-related illness or death. With the advances in HIV therapy, such as highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), the prevalence and presenting features of OC have changed in HIV-infected individuals, especially those in industrialized countries. The presence of OC in "controlled" HIV-positive individuals may be indicative of a patient nonadherence to therapy or possible failure. The factors contributing to the genesis of OC and its progression in these individuals are poorly understood, but may include an interrelationship between HIV and Candida and/or a dysfunction in the local immunity, superimposed on weakened cell-mediated immunity and depletion of CD4 T cells. The dramatic increase in publications on this topic matches the increased importance and awareness of this opportunistic infection in HIV-infected individuals. In this review we first address the epidemiologic and clinical features of OC in HIV-infected persons, followed by the current understanding of the pathogenesis of OC in the context of HIV infection with a concluding section on the current management concepts of OC. PMID:18991614
Egusa, Hiroshi; Soysa, Niroshani S; Ellepola, Arjuna N; Yatani, Hirofumi; Samaranayake, Lakshman P
Football players who have either physical symptoms or disease after injury may need to be treated with specific medicines that are on the list of prohibited substances. Therapeutic use exemption may be granted to such players, in accordance with strictly defined criteria-these are presented in this article. Procedures of how to request for an abbreviated or a standard therapeutic use exemption are explained, and data on therapeutic use exemptions (UEFA and FIFA, 2004 and 2005) are also presented. PMID:16799102
Dvorak, J; Kirkendall, D; Vouillamoz, M
Thirty-six patients (33 males, 3 females) were screened for HIV antibodies at the Urological clinics, at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra because of chronic diarrhoea, unexplained weight loss, multiple sexual partners, recurrent sexually transmitted diseases, non resolution of symptoms or history of possible exposure to HIV. Ten patients (27.8%) were found to be HIV seropositive; 6 were confirmed as HIV-1, one as HIV-2 and 3 as both HIV-1 and HIV-2. The HIV seropositive patients presented as follows: recurrent cystitis and offensive vaginal discharge in 2 females, non-resolution or recurrence of urological symptoms and signs such as warts (genital, meatal and or urethral) in 4 males and recurrent penile ulcers in 4 males. This report indicates that physicians should be alert and screen high risk patients for both HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies. PMID:8312213
Yeboah, E D; Neequaye, A R; Mingle, J A; Asamoah-Adu, A
The invasion of circulating monocytes/macrophages (M?)s from the peripheral blood into the central nervous system (CNS) appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of HIV dementia (HIV-D), the most severe form of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), often confirmed histologically as HIV encephalitis (HIVE). In order to determine if trafficking of monocytes/M?s is exclusive to the CNS or if it also occurs in organs outside of the brain, we have focused our investigation on visceral tissues of patients with HIVE. Liver, lymph node, spleen, and kidney autopsy tissues from the same HIVE cases investigated in earlier studies were examined by immunohistochemistry for the presence of CD14, CD16, CD68, Ki-67, and HIV-1 p24 expression. Here, we report a statistically significant increase in accumulation of M?s in kidney, spleen, and lymph node tissues in specimens from patients with HIVE. In liver, we did not observe a significant increase in parenchymal macrophage accumulation, although perivascular macrophage accumulation was consistently observed with nodular lesions in 4 of 5 HIVE cases. We also observed an absence of CD14 expression on splenic M?s in HIVE cases, which may implicate the spleen as a potential source of increased plasma soluble CD14 in HIV infection. HIV-1 p24 expression was observed in liver, lymph node and spleen but not kidney. Interestingly, renal pathology suggestive of chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis (possibly due to chronic pyelonephritis), including tubulointerstitial scarring, chronic interstitial inflammation and focal global glomerulosclerosis, without evidence of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), was seen in four of eight HIVE cases. Focal segmental and global glomerulosclerosis with tubular dilatation and prominent interstitial inflammation, consistent with HIVAN, was observed in two of the eight cases. Abundant cells expressing monocyte/M? cell surface markers, CD14 and CD68, were also CD16+ and found surrounding dilated tubules and adjacent to areas of glomerulosclerosis. The finding of co-morbid HIVE and renal pathology characterized by prominent interstitial inflammation may suggest a common mechanism involving the invasion of activated monocytes/M?s from circulation. Monocyte/M? invasion of visceral tissues may play an important role in the immune dysfunction as well as comorbidity in AIDS and may, therefore, provide a high value target for the design of therapeutic strategies. PMID:25026899
Fischer, Tracy; Wyatt, Christina M.; D’Agati, Vivette D.; Croul, Sidney; McCourt, Laura; Morgello, Susan; Rappaport, Jay
Dramatic improvement in the survival of the HIV population has occurred with the ascendance of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In the foreseeable future, HIV-infected women who acquired disease during the peak years of the epidemic are expected to survive to experience menopause and even years beyond. The HIV epidemic may be viewed as 'mature', as its earlier victims become part of the geriatric population. Research about the process of menopause in HIV-infected women and, conversely, about HIV infection in women undergoing menopause is currently limited. Existing research suggests that the process of menopause is affected by HIV infection, inasmuch as infected women appear to experience menopause at an earlier age, with greater symptomatology, and with different reproductive hormone profiles compared with HIV-uninfected women. HIV infection also appears to affect bone mineral density, cardiovascular disease and cognition, with some age-related interactions. Lifestyle and demographic factors have pervasive importance for both HIV infection and the menopause in women. This article reviews the current state of knowledge about the menopausal process in HIV-infected women, and the common conditions in postmenopausal women that are likely to be affected by HIV infection. Clinicians should appreciate the potential role of HIV infection in caring for menopause-aged women. PMID:19037065
Fan, Maria D; Maslow, Bat-Sheva; Santoro, Nanette; Schoenbaum, Ellie
of testing in detecting, treating, and preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. HIV testing is the essential entry point to a continuum of prevention, healthcare, and social services that improve the quality of life and the length of survival for persons with HIV (1). Persons with HIV who receive appropriate treatment, monitoring, and health care also reduce their chances of transmitting HIV to others. CDC recommends that all persons aged 13–64 years be screened for HIV in health-care settings located in areas where the prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection is>0.1%, and that persons with increased risk for HIV be retested at least annually (2). In April 2013, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force updated its 2005 guidelines on HIV screening, to recommend that clinicians screen all persons aged 15–65 years for HIV infection at least once, regardless of their risk; that younger adolescents and older adults with increased risk also be screened; and that persons with increased risk be screened more frequently (3). These updated recommendations are based on increasing evidence of the benefits of early antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected persons and its effectiveness in preventing HIV transmission. Additional information is available at
Summary Background: Pancreatitis in the pediatric age group is not as common as in adults. Etiologies are various and differ from those in adults. Although infectious etiology accounts for a significant number of cases of pancreatitis, acute infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) was rarely reported as a possible etiology for acute pancreatitis in adults. Acute pancreatitis has never been reported as a presenting manifestation of acute HIV infection in children. Case Report: We describe a pediatric patient who presented with acute pancreatitis that revealed acute HIV infection. Conclusions: Acute pancreatitis as a primary manifestation of HIV infection is very rare. It may represent an uncommon aspect of primary HIV infection. We suggest that acute HIV infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute pancreatitis at all ages. PMID:23569476
Bitar, Anas; Altaf, Muhammad; Sferra, Thomas J.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) afflicts an estimated 30 million people globally, making it a continuing pandemic. Despite major research efforts, the rate of new infections has remained relatively static over time. This article reviews an emerging strategy for the treatment of HIV, the inhibition of the co-receptors necessary for HIV entry, CCR5 and CXCR4. The aim of this article is to highlight potential therapeutics derived from peptides and proteins that show particular promise in HIV treatment. Molecules that act on CCR5, CXCR4 or on both receptors will be discussed herein. PMID:23856897
von Recum, Horst A; Pokorski, Jonathan K
Dystonia is a neurological syndrome characterized by excessive involuntary muscle contractions leading to twisting movements and unnatural postures. It has many different clinical manifestations, and many different causes. More than 3 million people worldwide suffer from dystonia, yet there are few broadly effective treatments. In the past decade, progress in research has advanced our understanding of the pathogenesis of dystonia to a point where drug discovery efforts are now feasible. There are several strategies that can be used to develop novel therapeutics for dystonia. Existing therapies have only modest efficacy, but may be refined and improved to increase benefits while reducing side effects. Identifying rational targets for drug intervention based on the pathogenesis of dystonia is another strategy. The surge in both basic and clinical research discoveries has provided insights at all levels including etiological, physiological and nosological, to enable such a targeted approach. The empirical approach to drug discovery is complementary to the rational approach whereby compounds are identified using a non-mechanistic strategy. [MD1] With the recent development of multiple animal models of dystonia, it is now possible to develop assays and perform drug screens on vast number of compounds. This multifaceted approach to drug discovery in dystonia will likely provide lead compounds that can then be translated for clinical use. PMID:18394563
Jinnah, H. A.; Hess, Ellen J.
SUMMARY The aim of this study was to determine whether a temporary rise in sexual risk behaviour during war in Guinea–Bissau could explain the observed trends in HIV-1 and HIV-2 prevalence, and to explore the possible contribution of competitive elimination of HIV-2 by HIV-1. A simulation model of the heterosexual transmission of sexually transmitted infections was parameterized using demographic, behavioural and epidemiological data from rural Guinea–Bissau, and fitted to the observed HIV-1 and HIV-2 trends with and without a historic rise in risk behaviour. The observed trends could only be simulated by assuming a temporary rise in risk behaviour. Around 30% of the projected decline in HIV-2 prevalence from a peak of 8·7% to 4·3% in 2010 was due to competitive elimination by HIV-1. Importantly for public health, HIV-1 prevalence was predicted to continue increasing and to become the dominant HIV type by 2010. Data collection is required to validate this prediction. PMID:17559692
SCHMIDT, W. P.; SCHIM VAN DER LOEFF, M.; AABY, P.; WHITTLE, H.; BAKKER, R.; BUCKNER, M.; DIAS, F.; WHITE, R. G.
Currently, MVA virus vectors carrying HIV-1 genes are being developed as HIV-1/AIDS prophylactic/therapeutic vaccines. Nevertheless, little is known about the impact of these vectors on human dendritic cells (DC) and their capacity to present HIV-1 antigens to human HIV-specific T cells. This study aimed to characterize the interaction of MVA and MVA expressing the HIV-1 genes Env-Gag-Pol-Nef of clade B (referred to as MVA-B) in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) and the subsequent processes of HIV-1 antigen presentation and activation of memory HIV-1-specific T lymphocytes. For these purposes, we performed ex vivo assays with MDDC and autologous lymphocytes from asymptomatic HIV-infected patients. Infection of MDDC with MVA-B or MVA, at the optimal dose of 0.3 PFU/MDDC, induced by itself a moderate degree of maturation of MDDC, involving secretion of cytokines and chemokines (IL1-ra, IL-7, TNF-?, IL-6, IL-12, IL-15, IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1?, MIP-1?, RANTES, IP-10, MIG, and IFN-?). MDDC infected with MVA or MVA-B and following a period of 48 h or 72 h of maturation were able to migrate toward CCL19 or CCL21 chemokine gradients. MVA-B infection induced apoptosis of the infected cells and the resulting apoptotic bodies were engulfed by the uninfected MDDC, which cross-presented HIV-1 antigens to autologous CD8+ T lymphocytes. MVA-B-infected MDDC co-cultured with autologous T lymphocytes induced a highly functional HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response including proliferation, secretion of IFN-?, IL-2, TNF-?, MIP-1?, MIP-1?, RANTES and IL-6, and strong cytotoxic activity against autologous HIV-1-infected CD4+ T lymphocytes. These results evidence the adjuvant role of the vector itself (MVA) and support the clinical development of prophylactic and therapeutic anti-HIV vaccines based on MVA-B. PMID:21625608
Climent, Núria; Guerra, Susana; García, Felipe; Rovira, Cristina; Miralles, Laia; Gómez, Carmen Elena; Piqué, Núria; Gil, Cristina; Gatell, José María; Esteban, Mariano; Gallart, Teresa
Therapeutic devices provide new options for treating drug-resistant epilepsy. These devices act by a variety of mechanisms to modulate neuronal activity. Only vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), which continues to develop new technology, is approved for use in the United States. Deep brain stimulation of anterior thalamus for partial epilepsy recently was approved in Europe and several other countries. Responsive neurostimulation, which delivers stimuli to 1 or 2 seizure foci in response to a detected seizure, recently completed a successful multicenter trial. Several other trials of brain stimulation are in planning or underway. Transcutaneous magnetic stimulation (TMS) may provide a noninvasive method to stimulate cortex. Controlled studies of TMS are split on efficacy, which may depend on whether a seizure focus is near a possible region for stimulation. Seizure detection devices in the form of shake detectors via portable accelerometers can provide notification of an ongoing tonic-clonic seizure, or peace of mind in the absence of notification. Prediction of seizures from various aspects of electroencephalography (EEG) is in early stages. Prediction appears to be possible in a subpopulation of people with refractory seizures, and a clinical trial of an implantable prediction device is underway. Cooling of neocortex or hippocampus reversibly can attenuate epileptiform EEG activity and seizures, but engineering problems remain in its implementation. Optogenetics is a new technique that can control excitability of specific populations of neurons with light. Inhibition of epileptiform activity has been demonstrated in hippocampal slices, but use in humans will require more work. In general, devices provide useful palliation for otherwise uncontrollable seizures, but with a different risk profile than with most drugs. Optimizing the place of devices in therapy for epilepsy will require further development and clinical experience. PMID:22367987
Fisher, Robert S
Background HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is characterized by development of cognitive, behavioral and motor abnormalities, and occurs in approximately 50% of HIV infected individuals. In the United States, the prevalence of cigarette smoking ranges from 35-70% in HIV-infected individuals compared to 20% in general population. Cognitive impairment in heavy cigarette smokers has been well reported. However, the synergistic effects of nicotine and HIV infection and the underlying mechanisms in the development of HAND are unknown. Results In this study, we explored the role of nicotine in the progression of HAND using SK-N-MC, a neuronal cell line. SK-N-MC cells were infected with HIV-1 in the presence or absence of nicotine for 7 days. We observed significant increase in HIV infectivity in SK-N-MC treated with nicotine compared to untreated HIV-infected neuronal cells. HIV and nicotine synergize to significantly dysregulate the expression of synaptic plasticity genes and spine density; with a concomitant increase of HDAC2 levels in SK-N-MC cells. In addition, inhibition of HDAC2 up-regulation with the use of vorinostat resulted in HIV latency breakdown and recovery of synaptic plasticity genes expression and spine density in nicotine/HIV alone and in co-treated SK-N-MC cells. Furthermore, increased eIF2 alpha phosphorylation, which negatively regulates eukaryotic translational process, was observed in HIV alone and in co-treatment with nicotine compared to untreated control and nicotine alone treated SK-N-MC cells. Conclusions These results suggest that nicotine and HIV synergize to negatively regulate the synaptic plasticity gene expression and spine density and this may contribute to the increased risk of HAND in HIV infected smokers. Apart from disrupting latency, vorinostat may be a useful therapeutic to inhibit the negative regulatory effects on synaptic plasticity in HIV infected nicotine abusers. PMID:24886748
Summary: Rapid advances in the field of interventional neurology and the development of minimally invasive techniques have resulted in a great expansion of potential therapeutic applications. We discuss therapeutic interventional neurology as applied in clinical practice in one of the two possible ways: 1) embolization leading to occlusion of blood vessels; and 2) revascularization leading to reopening of blood vessels. These procedures can be applied to a broad range of cerebrovascular diseases. In the first section of this review, we will explore the evolution of these interventions to occlude aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, neurovascular tumors, and injuries. In the second section, revascularization in acute ischemic stroke, stenosis, and dural venous thrombosis will be discussed. PMID:15897952
Kirmani, Jawad F.; Janjua, Nazli; Al Kawi, Ammar; Ahmed, Shafiuddin; Khatri, Ismail; Ebrahimi, Ali; Divani, Afshin A.; Qureshi, Adnan I.
Describes Therapeutic Crisis Intervention (TCI) program as providing staff with skills, knowledge, and confidence to manage child in crisis to bring about a "maximum amount of lasting response." Contends that, by applying principles of TCI training, direct care worker can attain therapeutic control and maintain dignity of both adult and child…
Holden, Martha J.; Powers, Jane Levine
Visceral leishmaniasis is hypoendemic in Mediterranean countries, where it is caused by the flagellate protozoan Leishmania infantum. VL cases in this area account for 5%–6% of the global burden. Cases of Leishmania/HIV coinfection have been reported in the Mediterranean region, mainly in France, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. Since highly active antiretroviral therapy was introduced in 1997, a marked decrease in the number of coinfected cases in this region has been reported. The development of new diagnostic methods to accurately identify level of parasitemia and the risk of relapse is one of the main challenges in improving the treatment of coinfected patients. Clinical trials in the Mediterranean region are needed to determine the most adequate therapeutic options for Leishmania/HIV patients as well as the indications and regimes for secondary prophylaxis. This article reviews the epidemiological, diagnostic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of Leishmania/HIV coinfection in the Mediterranean region. PMID:25144380
Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Norman, Francesca F.; Cruz, Israel; Alvar, Jorge; López-Vélez, Rogelio
The present study reports promoter variants in four sub-Saharan African populations that may affect BST-2 gene regulation. Recently, an in/del within the BST-2 promoter has been associated with HIV-1 disease progression in a Spanish cohort. Hence, we sequenced the proximal promoter region of the BST-2 gene in 581 individuals from South Africa, Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Cameroon. Seven SNPs were identified: rs28413176 (+26i6/?6); rs28413175 (-160i1/?1), -187A>G (nucleotide position -17516614); rs28413174 (-193G>A); rs73921425 (-199G>A); rs12609479 (-201C>T); and rs112492472 (-225C>T). The -199A and -225T alleles showed interesting trends across the sub-Saharan continent. Using predictive bioinformatics tools, we show that allelic variation at -199 and -201 potentially affect key transcription factor binding sites including bHLH, c-Myb, and E47. Importantly, data available from the ENCODE study gave further credence to our hypothesis of transcriptional regulation of BST-2 by a bHLH TF such as Mxi1. The possible repressive transcriptional effect of Mxi1 combined with the allelic frequency trend seen at -199 between African populations overlays well with current HIV-1 prevalence data, and may be a contributing factor to this phenomenon. The differences in HIV-1 prevalence in African countries could be, in part, due to distribution of genetic variants that affect susceptibility to HIV-1. Our findings therefore have substantive value for the design of future diagnostics for global health oriented diagnostics for HIV-1 susceptibility, and rational therapeutics on the critical path to personalized medicine in the African continent. As HIV-1 epidemiology vastly impacts human populations around the world, the population genomics strategy we have utilized herein can have value for other global regions as well. PMID:24601767
Skelton, Michelle M; Kampira, Elizabeth E; Wonkam, Ambroise A; Mhandire, Kudakwashe K; Kumwenda, Johnstone J; Duri, Kerina K; Dandara, Collet C
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to describe the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) surveillance system in Lazio, Italy, and to analyze exposure patterns and time trends of HIV serodiagnoses from January 1985 to December 1994. METHODS: A linkage procedure made it possible to identify newly diagnosed HIV cases. Anonymous information was collected on demographic and exposure factors for each individual. RESULTS: Of 35,425 reports, 13,660 were newly diagnosed HIV cases, 70.9% of them in men. The proportion of women increased at the beginning of the study period (the male:female ratio declined from 3.5 in 1985 to 2.6 in 1986) and then remained stable. The proportion of subjects reporting heterosexual exposure, in men and women, respectively, increased from 1.5% and 2.0% in 1985 to 21.2% and 60.8% in 1994. Starting in 1992, heterosexual contact has become the main transmission route for women. CONCLUSIONS: A changing pattern in the HIV epidemic is emerging, with a shift in the incidence of HIV diagnosis from "core" high-risk groups (drug injectors) to the large low-risk population (the general population) exposed through heterosexual transmission. This is probably occurring in other areas (e.g., large urban centers in the United States) with a similar epidemiological situation. PMID:9357348
Brancato, G; Perucci, C A; Abeni, D D; Sangalli, M; Ippolito, G; Arcà, M
Despite the high prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among injection drug users also infected with Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the synergistic adverse effect of the two diseases on patients' health and survival, the research on the clinical management of these patients and particularly the low uptake of HCV therapy is limited. We conducted qualitative interviews with 17 HIV providers from two urban public hospitals. We discovered that the limitations of the current state of medical knowledge, the severe side effects of HIV and HCV therapies, and the psychosocial vulnerability of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients combined with their resistance to becoming informed about HCV posed significant challenges for providers. To contend with these challenges, providers incorporated key dimensions of patient-centered medicine in their practice such as considering their patients' psychosocial profiles and the meaning patients assign to being coinfected, and finding ways to engage their patients in a therapeutic alliance. PMID:21825278
Lekas, Helen-Maria; Siegel, Karolynn; Leider, Jason
Background A legacy of colonial rule coupled with a devastating 16-year civil war through 1992 left Mozambique economically impoverished just as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic swept over southern Africa in the late 1980s. The crumbling Mozambican health care system was wholly inadequate to support the need for new chronic disease services for people with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods To review the unique challenges faced by Mozambique as they have attempted to stem the HIV epidemic, we undertook a systematic literature review through multiple search engines (PubMed, Google Scholar™, SSRN, AnthropologyPlus, AnthroSource) using Mozambique as a required keyword. We searched for any articles that included the required keyword as well as the terms 'HIV' and/or 'AIDS', 'prevalence', 'behaviors', 'knowledge', 'attitudes', 'perceptions', 'prevention', 'gender', drugs, alcohol, and/or 'health care infrastructure'. Results UNAIDS 2008 prevalence estimates ranked Mozambique as the 8th most HIV-afflicted nation globally. In 2007, measured HIV prevalence in 36 antenatal clinic sites ranged from 3% to 35%; the national estimate of was 16%. Evidence suggests that the Mozambican HIV epidemic is characterized by a preponderance of heterosexual infections, among the world's most severe health worker shortages, relatively poor knowledge of HIV/AIDS in the general population, and lagging access to HIV preventive and therapeutic services compared to counterpart nations in southern Africa. Poor education systems, high levels of poverty and gender inequality further exacerbate HIV incidence. Conclusions Recommendations to reduce HIV incidence and AIDS mortality rates in Mozambique include: health system strengthening, rural outreach to increase testing and linkage to care, education about risk reduction and drug adherence, and partnerships with traditional healers and midwives to effect a lessening of stigma. PMID:20529358
Lipodystrophy (LD) associated with HIV infection is a syndrome of abnormal fat distribution observed in HIV-infected patients treated with various antiretroviral agents. In addition, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia can occur in HIV-infected patients with or without LD. The demonstration of the latter metabolic disorders in normal subjects using protease inhibitors suggests that these agents could play a causative role in their development independently of HIV status. Possible mechanisms whereby protease inhibitors can hinder insulin actions include inhibition of glucose transporter isoform Glut 4, and altered expression of leptin and tumor necrosis factor-a in adipose tissue. The presence of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia can potentially increase the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and death. However, short-term data in this regard are inconsistent. Treatment of HIV-related LD with metformin may ameliorate insulin resistance, but its impact on fat redistribution requires additional studies. Temporary cessation of antiretroviral therapy does not appear to reverse body fat changes or insulin resistance, but may partially improve the lipid profile. Further investigations are urgently needed to define the mechanisms and cardiovascular consequences of insulin resistance in HIV-related LD, and to find an effective treatment for this complex syndrome. PMID:12642010
Glycopeptides, peptides containing sugar ?-amino acids, have significant impact on medicinal chemistry research and pharmaceutical industr. In 1956, the discovery of one classic glycopeptide, vancomycin, broke the dawn of a new age for antibacterial research. Employing glycopeptides for the therapeutic purposes used to be regarded as proposals. Owing largely to the recent improvements in separation practices, characterization techniques, synthetic methods, and biological research, these proposals have been transformed into ongoing research projects in many laboratories around the world. Previously known as antibiotics, glycopeptides have been used as chemotherapeutic, antiviral, antitubercular, antifungal, antiproliferative and apoptotic agents. Nowadays they are even considered for the development of HIV and cancer vaccines. While several of them are in clinical trials, it could be expected that in the near future, treatment regimen of such difficult diseases might be reformed accordingly. Many interesting preliminary results are being produced in this emerging area. As witnesses and practitioners in this exciting area, however, we notice that the related communication in public domain is still limited due to the relatively small number of researchers involved. Thus, we feel the necessity to compile a timely issue about the special topic "Advances in Therapeutic Glycopeptides", covering state-of-the-art research papers and expert reviews from this area. We are glad that Protein & Peptide Letters is willing to realize the idea with us. The opening paper of this issue by Dr. Voglmeir and coauthor discusses three types of PNGases in respect of their general properties and applications of the commercially available PNGases in glycopeptide and glycoprotein analysis. Dr. Liu and coauthors describe current techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and mass spectrometry (MS), for the characterization of glycoproteins, with a focus on available therapeutic glycoproteins. Next three papers discuss the synthetic chemistry of glycopeptides. Dr. Zhu and coauthor describe a facile synthesis of differently protected cystathionines by the reaction of ?-bromohomoalanine with cysteine derivatives in an ethyl acetate/water biphasic system. Dr. Chen et al. report a neoglycopeptides synthesis by aqueous Suzuki-Miyaura reaction between glycosyl boronic acid and iodopeptides. Dr. Zeng et al. developed a novel strategy to prepare glycopeptide-based molecular imaging and therapy agents using fluorine-rich (fluorous) technology. The following review by Dr. Li et al. outlines a sample of mAbs currently approved for cancer treatment by the FDA, as well as antibody platforms in the research pipeline and clinic that have been engineered for greater tumor penetration, binding, and therapy efficacy. The asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) is a high-capacity C-type lectin receptor expressed on mammalian hepatocytes. Research in this field is summarized by Dr. Lu, Dr. Yin and coauthors. Recent progresses of cationic polysomes and liposomes as effective non-viral delivery system via ASGPR are also presented by these authors. Proteoglycans (PGs), a core protein and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) chain, play important roles in amyloid-beta protein as well as tau processing, and have potential significance in Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy. Next, Dr. Zeng and coworkers summarized recent advances of the chemistry and biology of glycopeptides with antibiotic activity. The last review of this issue by Dr. Ding and coworker provide the progress of PGs and GAGs in AD and their therapeutic implication. In summary, experts from different fields of therapeutic glycopeptides have showcased new results and expressed their opinions in this special thematic issue of Protein & Peptide Letters. As the guest editors, we wish that this diverse collection of valuable intellectual contributions will positively influence this emerging area and gain broad readership. At the end, we would like to express our since
Zeng, Wenbin; Chen, Yue-Lei
The report of the so-called Berlin patient cured of HIV with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and a few other studies raised tremendous hope, excitement, and curiosity in the field. The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health convened a Working Group to address emerging heart, lung, and blood research priorities related to HIV infection. Hematopoietic cells could contribute to HIV cure through allogeneic or autologous transplantation of naturally occurring or engineered cells with anti-HIV moieties. Protection of central memory T cells from HIV infection could be a critical determinant of achieving a functional cure. HIV cure can only be achieved if the virus is eradicated from reservoirs in resting T cells and possibly other hematopoietic cells. The Working Group recommended multidisciplinary efforts leveraging HIV and cell therapy expertise to answer the critical need to support research toward an HIV cure. PMID:24009230
Glynn, Simone; Kuritzkes, Daniel; Shah, Monica; Cook, Nakela; Berliner, Nancy; Berliner, Nancy; Kuritzkes, Daniel; Abrams, Charles; Ambinder, Richard; Busch, Michael; Deeks, Steven; Floris-Moore, Michelle; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Kitchen, Scott; Lederman, Michael; Lin, Nina; Narla, Mohandas; Pillai, Satish; Ragni, Margaret; Ribaudo, Heather; Scadden, David; Hoots, Keith; Dimichele, Donna; Glynn, Simone; Zou, Shimian
Immunosenescence is marked by accelerated degradation of host immune responses leading to the onset of opportunistic infections, where senescent T cells show remarkably higher ontogenic defects as compared to healthy T cells. The mechanistic association between T-cell immunosenescence and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression, and functional T-cell responses in HIV-tuberculosis (HIV-TB) co-infection remains to be elaborately discussed. Here, we discussed the association of immunosenescence and chronic immune activation in HIV-TB co-infection and reviewed the role played by mediators of immune deterioration in HIV-TB co-infection necessitating the importance of designing therapeutic strategies against HIV disease progression and pathogenesis. PMID:25674514
Shankar, Esaki M; Velu, Vijayakumar; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Larsson, Marie
In the absence of an effective vaccine and lack of a complete cure, gene therapy approaches to control HIV infection offer feasible alternatives. Due to the chronic nature of infection, a wide window of opportunity exists to gene modify the HIV susceptible cells that continuously arise from the bone marrow source. To evaluate promising gene therapy approaches that employ various anti-HIV therapeutic molecules, an ideal animal model is necessary to generate important efficacy and preclinical data. In this regard, the humanized mouse models that harbor human hematopoietic cells susceptible to HIV infection provide a suitable in vivo system. This review summarizes the currently used humanized mouse models and different anti-HIV molecules utilized for conferring HIV resistance. Humanized mouse models are compared for their utility in this context and provide perspectives for new directions. PMID:24351796
Bennett, Michael S.; Akkina, Ramesh
Immunosenescence is marked by accelerated degradation of host immune responses leading to the onset of opportunistic infections, where senescent T cells show remarkably higher ontogenic defects as compared to healthy T cells. The mechanistic association between T-cell immunosenescence and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression, and functional T-cell responses in HIV-tuberculosis (HIV-TB) co-infection remains to be elaborately discussed. Here, we discussed the association of immunosenescence and chronic immune activation in HIV-TB co-infection and reviewed the role played by mediators of immune deterioration in HIV-TB co-infection necessitating the importance of designing therapeutic strategies against HIV disease progression and pathogenesis. PMID:25674514
Shankar, Esaki M; Velu, Vijayakumar; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Larsson, Marie
Increased life expectancy due to improved efficacy of cART has uncovered an increased risk of age-related morbidities in HIV+ individuals and catalyzed significant research into mechanisms driving these diseases. HIV infection increases the risk of non-communicable diseases common in the aged, including cardiovascular disease, neurocognitive decline, non-AIDS malignancies, osteoporosis, and frailty. These observations suggest that HIV accelerates immunological ageing, and there are many immunological similarities with the aged, including shortened telomeres, accumulation of senescent T cells and altered monocyte phenotype/function. However, the most critical similarity between HIV+ individuals and the elderly, which most likely underpins the heightened risk of non-communicable diseases, is chronic inflammation and associated immune activation. Here, we review the similarities between HIV+ individuals and the aged regarding the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, the current evidence for mechanisms driving these processes and discuss current and potential therapeutic strategies for addressing inflammatory co-morbidity in HIV+ infection. PMID:24414166
Hearps, Anna C; Martin, Genevieve E; Rajasuriar, Reena; Crowe, Suzanne M
Andrographolide, a diterpene lactone of the Andrographis paniculata, displays anti-HIV activity in vitro. A series of andrographolide derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their anti-HIV activity in a cell-free virus infectivity assay using TZM-bl cells. As compared to andrographolide, 3-nitrobenzylidene derivative 6 showed higher in vitro anti-HIV activity, whereas 2',6'-dichloro-nicotinoyl ester derivative 9 showed higher Therapeutic Index. The andrographolide and its derivatives, 6 and 9, inhibited gp120-mediated cell fusion of HL2/3 cells (expressing gp120 on its surface) with TZM-bl cells (expressing CD4 and co-receptors CCR5 & CXCR4). Further, computational studies revealed that these molecules bind to the important residues of V3 loop of gp120. These results suggest that andrographolide derivatives may be promising candidates for prevention of HIV infection. PMID:22858223
Uttekar, Mayur M; Das, Tiyasa; Pawar, Rohan S; Bhandari, Beena; Menon, Vidya; Nutan; Gupta, Satish K; Bhat, Sujata V
Since the discovery of CCR5 as a coreceptor for HIV entry, there has been interest in blockade of the receptor for treatment and prevention of HIV infection. Although several CCR5 antagonists have been evaluated in clinical trials, only maraviroc has been approved for clinical use in the treatment of HIV-infected patients. The efficacy, safety and resistance profile of CCR5 antagonists with a focus on maraviroc are reviewed here along with their usage in special and emerging clinical situations. Despite being approved for use since 2007, the optimal use of maraviroc has yet to be well-defined in HIV and potentially in other diseases. Maraviroc and other CCR5 antagonists have the potential for use in a variety of other clinical situations such as the prevention of HIV transmission, intensification of HIV treatment and prevention of rejection in organ transplantation. The use of CCR5 antagonists may be potentiated by other agents such as rapamycin which downregulate CCR5 receptors thus decreasing CCR5 density. There may even be a role for their use in combination with other entry inhibitors. However, clinical use of CCR5 antagonists may have negative consequences in diseases such as West Nile and Tick-borne encephalitis virus infections. In summary, CCR5 antagonists have great therapeutic potential in the treatment and prevention of HIV as well as future use in novel situations such as organ transplantation. Their optimal use either alone or in combination with other agents will be defined by further investigation. PMID:21284908
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in people coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Several studies have shown that HIV infection promotes accelerated HCV hepatic fibrosis progression, even with HIV replication under full antiretroviral control. The pathogenesis of accelerated hepatic fibrosis among HIV/HCV coinfected individuals is complex and multifactorial. The most relevant mechanisms involved include direct viral effects, immune/cytokine dysregulation, altered levels of matrix metalloproteinases and fibrosis biomarkers, increased oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis, HIV-associated gut depletion of CD4 cells, and microbial translocation. In addition, metabolic alterations, heavy alcohol use, as well drug use, may have a potential role in liver disease progression. Understanding the pathophysiology and regulation of liver fibrosis in HIV/HCV co-infection may lead to the development of therapeutic strategies for the management of all patients with ongoing liver disease. In this review, we therefore discuss the evidence and potential molecular mechanisms involved in the accelerated liver fibrosis seen in patients coinfected with HIV and HCV. PMID:24865485
Mastroianni, Claudio M.; Lichtner, Miriam; Mascia, Claudia; Zuccalà, Paola; Vullo, Vincenzo
HIV persists in latently infected memory CD4+ T cells during antiretroviral therapy (ART). When administered to HIV-infected subjects receiving suppressive ART, interleukin-7 (IL-7) increases the number of CD4+ T cells by promoting their survival and proliferation. However, little is known about the impact of IL-7 on HIV persistence during ART. By isolating large numbers of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected subjects, we demonstrate that IL-7 enhances viral production in productively infected cells but does not disrupt viral latency in latently infected cells. When administered to virally suppressed subjects, IL-7 led to the rapid proliferation of memory CD4+ T cells, which resulted in a 70% increase in the absolute number of circulating CD4+ T cells harboring integrated HIV DNA 4 weeks after therapy. The genetic diversity of the viral reservoir increased transiently in the majority of the subjects studied before returning to baseline values. Altogether, our results indicate that IL-7 promotes the mechanisms of HIV persistence during ART by enhancing residual levels of viral production and inducing proliferation of latently infected cells, and suggest that IL-7 does not represent a suitable candidate therapeutic strategy for HIV eradication. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00099671 (AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 5214). PMID:23589672
Vandergeeten, Claire; Fromentin, Rémi; DaFonseca, Sandrina; Lawani, Mariam B.; Sereti, Irini; Lederman, Michael M.; Ramgopal, Moti; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Sékaly, Rafick-Pierre
Purpose of the review Recent breakthroughs in HIV-prevention science led us to evaluate the current state of combination HIV-prevention for injection drug users (IDUs). We review the recent literature focusing on possible reasons why coverage of prevention interventions for HIV, HCV and tuberculosis among IDUs remains dismal. We make recommendations for future HIV research and policy. Recent findings IDUs disproportionately under-utilize VCT, primary care and ART, especially in countries that have the largest burden of HIV among IDUs. IDUs present later in the course of HIV infection and experience greater morbidity and mortality. Why are IDUs under-represented in HIV-prevention research, access to treatment for both HIV and addiction, and access to HIV combination prevention? Possible explanations include addictophobia, apathy, and inattention, which we describe in the context of recent literature and events. Summary This commentary discusses the current state of HIV-prevention interventions for IDUs including, VCT, NSP, OST, ART and PrEP, and discusses ways to work towards true combination HIV-prevention for IDU populations. Communities need to overcome tacit assumptions that IDUs can navigate through systems that are maintained as separate silos, and take a rights-based approach to HIV-prevention to ensure that IDUs have equitable access to life-saving prevention and treatments. PMID:22498479
Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Shoptaw, Steven; Dyer, Typhanye Penniman; Quan, Vu Minh; Aramrattana, Apinun
The human retroviruses HIV-1 and HTLV-1/HTLV-2 share similar routes of transmission but cause significantly different diseases. In this review we have outlined the immune mediated mechanisms by which HTLVs affect HIV-1 disease in co-infected hosts. During co-infection with HIV-1, HTLV-2 modulates the cellular microenvironment favoring its own viability and inhibiting HIV-1 progression. This is achieved when the HTLV-2 proviral load is higher than that of HIV-1, and thanks to the ability of HTLV-2 to: (i) up-regulate viral suppressive CCL3L1 chemokine expression; (ii) overcome HIV-1 capacity to activate the JAK/STAT pathway; (iii) reduce the activation of T and NK cells; (iv) modulate the host miRNA profiles. These alterations of immune functions have been mainly attributed to the effects of the HTLV-2 regulatory protein Tax and suggest that HTLV-2 exerts a protective role against HIV-1 infection. Contrary to HIV-1/HTLV-2, the effect of HIV-1/HTLV-1 co-infection on immunological and pathological conditions is still controversial. There is evidence that indicates a worsening of HIV-1 infection, while other evidence does not show clinically relevant effects in HIV-positive people. Possible differences on innate immune mechanisms and a particularly impact on NK cells are becoming evident. The differences between the two HIV-1/HTLV-1 and HIV-1/HTLV-2 co-infections are highlighted and further discussed. PMID:24391628
Pilotti, Elisabetta; Bianchi, Maria V.; De Maria, Andrea; Bozzano, Federica; Romanelli, Maria G.; Bertazzoni, Umberto; Casoli, Claudio
... raise the possibility that Depo-Provera alters female biology in some way that increases HIV risk, said ... Depo-Provera use might be explained either by biology or human nature, Ralph said. But, she pointed ...
Despite of established and effective therapy for epilepsy, 20–25% patients develop therapeutic failure; this encourages finding newer drugs. Novel approaches target receptors which remain unaffected by conventional therapy or inhibit epileptogenesis. AMPA receptor antagonists have shown faster and complete protection compared to diazepam. Protein kinase (PK) plays an important role in the development of epilepsy. PK inhibitors such as K252a, VID-82925, and Herbimycin A have been found effective in inhibition of spread of epileptiform activity and epileptogenesis. Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are G protein-coupled receptors classified into three groups. Group 1 mGluRs antagonist and Groups 2 and 3 mGluRs agonists inhibited pentylenetetrazole-induced kindled seizures. Combined use of these agents has also shown favorable results. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a central role in multiple mechanisms of epileptogenesis. mTOR causes transcription, induction of proapoptotic proteins, and autophagy inhibition. Rapamycin was effective in suppression of recurrent seizures as well as in tuberous sclerosis and acute brain injury model. 5% CO2 showed potent effects on cortical epileptiform activity and convulsions in animal epilepsy models and in humans with drug-resistant partial epilepsy. It is found to be rapidly acting, safe and cheap, thus it can be a good option in emergency for suppression of seizure. Neurosteroids are considered as fourth generation neuromessengers, they act as positive allosteric modulators of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors. Clinical trial of ganaxolone, an allopregnanolone analogue, has shown a beneficial role in pharmacoresistant epilepsy. However, most of these drugs are tested in early phases of development and the possible use and safety in epilepsy has to be proven in clinical trials. PMID:22629084
Anovadiya, Ashish P.; Sanmukhani, Jayesh J.; Tripathi, C. B.
It has been about nine decades since the proposal of Otto Warburg on the metabolism of cancer cells. Unlike normal cells which undergo glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in the presence of oxygen, proliferating and cancer cells exhibit an increased uptake of glucose and increased rate of glycolysis and predominantly undergo lactic acid fermentation. Whether this phenomenon is the consequence of genetic dysregulation in cancer or is the cause of cancer still remains unknown. However, there is certainly a strong link between the genetic factors, epigenetic modulation, cancer immunosurveillance and the Warburg effect, which will be discussed in this review. Dichloroacetate and 3-bromopyruvate are among the substances that have been studied as potential cancer therapies. With our expanding knowledge of cellular metabolism, therapies targeting the Warburg effect appear very promising. This review discusses different aspects of these emerging therapies. PMID:25253100
Ngo, Hanh; Tortorella, Stephanie M; Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C
Diabetic osteopathy is a complication that leads to decreased bone mineral density, bone formation and having high risk of fractures that heals slowly. Diabetic osteopathy is a result of increase in osteoclastogenesis and decrease in osteoblastogenesis. Various factors viz., oxidative stress, increased inflammatory markers, PPAR-? activation in osteoblast, activation of apoptotic pathway, increased glucose levels and inhibitory effect on parathyroid hormone etc. are mainly responsible for decreased bone mineral density. Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid widely used in Asian countries as a traditional medicine. Berberine is extensively reported to be an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and having potential to treat diabetic complications and glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis. The osteoclastogenesis decreasing property of berberine can be hypothesized for inhibiting diabetic osteopathy. In addition, chronic treatment of berberine will be helpful for increasing the osteoblastic activity and expression of the modulators that affect osteoblastic differentiation. The apoptotic pathways stimulated due to increased inflammatory markers and nucleic acid damages could be reduced due to berberine. Another important consideration that berberine is having stimulatory effect on glucagon like peptide release and insulin sensitization that will be helpful for decreasing glucose levels and therefore, may exerts osteogenesis. Thiazolidinediones show bone loss due to activation of PPAR-? in osteoblasts, whereas berberine stimulates PPAR-? only in adipocytes and not in osteoblasts, and therefore the decreased bone loss due to use of thiazolidinediones may not be observed in berberine treatment conditions. Berberine decreases the advanced glycation end-products (AGE) formation in diabetic condition which will be ultimately helpful to decrease the stiffness of collagen fibers due to AGE-induced cross linking. Lastly, it is also reported that berberine has inhibitory effect on parathyroid hormone and enhances marker genes like osteocalcin, which are responsible for the osteoblastic activity. From these evidences, we hypothesized that berberine may have potential in the treatment of diabetic osteopathy. PMID:22840327
Rahigude, A B; Kaulaskar, S V; Bhutada, P S
Research conducted by Wei Zhang, Ph.D. and his colleagues describing a method to prevent the spread of ovarian cancer in both in-vitro and in-vivo models was published in the Feb. 11, 2013 issue of Cancer Cell. Ovarian cancer develops in the tissues of one or both ovaries, which are situated in the abdominal cavity and buffered by peritoneal fluid.
Depression, hallucinations, psychosis and cognitive deficits may often complicate advanced Parkinson's disease. Their detection and treatment have extraordinary importance, as they may cause significant invalidity and even an increase in mortality. Optimization of antiparkinsonian therapy may exert a positive influence on depressive symptoms, and should therefore be performed before antidepressant drugs are started. On the other hand, hallucinations and dementia do usually benefit from a discontinuation or dosage reduction of anticholinergic drugs, selegiline, DA-agonists and amantadine. When a levodopa monotherapy is indicated, slow-release formulations should be avoided. When a neuroleptic treatment is needed, clozapine and maybe quetiapine should be preferred. Preliminary evidence suggests that cholinesterase inhibitors might partially improve cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease. PMID:11933648
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a clinicopathologic syndrome that includes a range of disorders associated with fatty liver from steatosis to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, defined by the presence of liver fat accumulation exceeding 5% of hepatocytes in the absence of other causes of liver disease such as alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis, or any other specific etiology. Half the patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who undergo additional testing for unexplained liver test abnormalities may suffer from NAFLD, which is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. In HIV-infected patients, NAFLD can result from the HIV itself, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and/or lipodystrophy. Evaluation of the liver impact of NAFLD remains mainly based on liver biopsy, but numerous noninvasive procedures are under evaluation. In HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV-) coinfected patients, steatosis seems more frequent and severe by comparison with HCV-monoinfected patients, and is associated with significant liver fibrosis, which may contribute to the more rapid progression of liver disease. First-line treatment of NAFLD is mainly based on the adequate management of the metabolic syndrome, including lifestyle changes. Specific therapeutic approaches are under investigation. PMID:22760655
Vallet-Pichard, Anaïs; Mallet, Vincent; Pol, Stanislas
The lost hope of elimination of Kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis) by 2010 and cyclic occurrence of its outbreak in India, blame falls on vector control practices or co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus or therapeutic modalities?
The Kala-azar/visceral leishmaniasis (VL) turns epidemic form once in every 15 years in the endemic regions of Indian subcontinent. The goal of elimination of Kala-azar from India by 2010 was lost despite paramount efforts taken by the Government of India and World Health Organization and Regional Office for South East Asia. The main objective of this review was to elucidate the possible reason for the failure of Kala-azar elimination program and to suggest possible remedial measures to achieve the goal in future. The annual numbers of VL cases and deaths recorded in India since 1977 were plotted on a graph, to see if the temporal trends could be associated with changes in the vector control practices or co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or therapeutic modalities used against VL. The VL cases flares up whenever the effect of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) diminished after the withdrawal of spray. The fading effectiveness was clearly correlated with an increasing number of VL cases. Therapeutic modalities were found to be highly correlating with VL mortality not with VL morbidity. The diminishing efficacy of first and second line drugs and the introduction of new drugs and drugs combination were responsible for ups and downs in the VL mortality. The VL mortality is constantly declining since 1993, but cases started increasing from 2003 to 2007 and then recently again from 2010 to 2011. This shows a serious lacuna in the vector control practices applied. The extent of HIV co-infection did not show any correlation with number/trend of VL cases or death over the study period. It is concluded that, by strict vector control practices, the VL cases can be reduced and by applying proper therapeutic strategies, the VL mortality can be reduced. HIV-VL co-infection does not seem to be in a worried stage. PMID:24754021
Phosphodiester linked conjugates of various nucleosides such as d4U, d4T, IdUrd, ddI, ddA, virazole, ara-A and ara-C containing a glucosyl moiety have been described. These compounds were designed to act as prodrugs, where the corresponding 5?-monophosphates may be generated intracellularly. The synthesis of the glycoconjugates was achieved in good yields by condensation of a glucosyl phosphoramidite 7 with nucleosides in the presence of an activating agent. It was demonstrated that the glucose-conjugates improve water solubility of the nucleoside analogues, for example up to 31-fold for ara-A conjugate compared to ara-A alone. The new conjugates were tested for their anti-HIV-1 activity in human lymphocytes. These derivatives offer a convenient design for potential prodrug candidates with the possibility to improve the physicochemical properties and therapeutic activity of nucleoside analogues. PMID:21077659
Rodríguez-Pérez, Tatiana; Fernández, Susana; Sanghvi, Yogesh S.; Detorio, Mervi; Schinazi, Raymond F.; Gotor, Vicente; Ferrero, Miguel
This activity helps learners visualize the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) by constructing three-dimensional HIV particle models from paper. The model to be used is a 20-sided polyhedron (icosahedron) and represents a complete viral particle. Learners combine their finished models into one mass. This is a first step toward estimating how many HIV particles could be contained inside a white blood cell before being released into the blood stream to attack new cells.
Many pathogenic enveloped viruses, including HIV-1, escape complement-mediated virolysis by incorporating host cell regulators of complement activation into their own viral envelope. The presence of complement regulators including CD59 on the external surface of the viral envelope confers resistance to complement-mediated virolysis, which may explain why human pathogenic viruses such as HIV-1 are not neutralized by complement in human fluids, even in the presence of high Ab titers against the viral surface proteins. In this study, we report the development of a recombinant form of the fourth domain of the bacterial toxin intermedilysin (the recombinant domain 4 of intermedilysin [rILYd4]), a 114 aa protein that inhibits human CD59 function with high affinity and specificity. In the presence of rILYd4, HIV-1 virions derived from either cell lines or peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HIV-1–infected patients became highly sensitive to complement-mediated lysis activated by either anti–HIV-1 gp120 Abs or by viral infection-induced Abs present in the plasma of HIV-1–infected individuals. We also demonstrated that rILYd4 together with serum or plasma from HIV-1–infected patients as a source of anti–HIV-1 Abs and complement did not mediate complement-mediated lysis of either erythrocytes or peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These results indicate that rILYd4 may represent a novel therapeutic agent against HIV-1/AIDS PMID:19955519
Hu, Weiguo; Yu, Qigui; Hu, Ningjie; Byrd, Daniel; Amet, Tohti; Shikuma, Cecilia; Shiramizu, Bruce; Halperin, Jose A.; Qin, Xuebin
Clinicians care for lesbians and women sexually active with women (WSWs) routinely in the course of practice. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention now believe that there are small but significant numbers of lesbians with HIV infection and that woman?to?woman transmission of HIV is possible. Although the risk of HIV transmission between women, although underreported, is probably low, clinicians
Jocelyn C. White
In patients responding successfully to ART, the next therapeutic step is viral cure. An interesting strategy is antiviral vaccination, particularly involving CD8 T cell epitopes. However, attempts at vaccination are dependent on the immunogenetic background of individuals. The Provir/Latitude 45 project aims to investigate which CTL epitopes in proviral HIV-1 will be recognized by the immune system when HLA alleles are taken into consideration. A prior study (Papuchon et al, PLoS ONE 2013) showed that chronically-infected patients under successful ART exhibited variations of proviral CTL epitopes compared to a reference viral strain (HXB2) and that a generic vaccine may not be efficient. Here, we investigated viral and/or proviral CTL epitopes at different time points in recently infected individuals of the Canadian primary HIV infection cohort and assessed the affinity of these epitopes for HLA alleles during the study period. An analysis of the results confirms that it is not possible to fully predict which epitopes will be recognized by the HLA alleles of the patients if the reference sequences and epitopes are taken as the basis of simulation. Epitopes may be seen to vary in circulating RNA and proviral DNA. Despite this confirmation, the overall variability of the epitopes was low in these patients who are temporally close to primary infection. PMID:24964202
Papuchon, Jennifer; Pinson, Patricia; Guidicelli, Gwenda-Line; Bellecave, Pantxika; Thomas, Réjean; LeBlanc, Roger; Reigadas, Sandrine; Taupin, Jean-Luc; Baril, Jean Guy; Routy, Jean Pierre; Wainberg, Mark; Fleury, Hervé
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a highly inducible and ubiquitous cellular enzyme that subserves cytoprotective responses to toxic insults, including inflammation and oxidative stress. In neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis, HO-1 expression is increased, presumably reflecting an endogenous neuroprotective response against ongoing cellular injury. In contrast, we have found that in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of the brain, which is also associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and neurodegeneration, HO-1 expression is decreased, likely reflecting a unique role for HO-1 deficiency in neurodegeneration pathways activated by HIV infection. We have also shown that HO-1 expression is significantly suppressed by HIV replication in cultured macrophages which represent the primary cellular reservoir for HIV in the brain. HO-1 deficiency is associated with release of neurotoxic levels of glutamate from both HIV-infected and immune-activated macrophages; this glutamate-mediated neurotoxicity is suppressed by pharmacological induction of HO-1 expression in the macrophages. Thus, HO-1 induction could be a therapeutic strategy for neuroprotection against HIV infection and other neuroinflammatory brain diseases. Here, we review various stimuli and signaling pathways regulating HO-1 expression in macrophages, which could promote neuronal survival through HO-1-modulation of endogenous antioxidant and immune modulatory pathways, thus limiting the oxidative stress that can promote HIV disease progression in the CNS. The use of pharmacological inducers of endogenous HO-1 expression as potential adjunctive neuroprotective therapeutics in HIV infection is also discussed. PMID:24862327
Ambegaokar, Surendra S; Kolson, Dennis L
Summary The global spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is dependent on the ability of this virus to efficiently cross from one host to the next by traversing a mucosal membrane. Unraveling how mucosal exposure of HIV results in systemic infection is critical for the development of effective therapeutic strategies. This review focuses on understanding the immune events associated with the oral route of transmission (via breastfeeding or sexual oral intercourse), which occurs across the oral and/or gastrointestinal mucosa. Studies in both humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) monkey models have identified viral changes and immune events associated with oral HIV/SIV exposure. This review covers our current knowledge of HIV oral transmission in both infants and adults, the use of SIV models in understanding early immune events, oral immune factors that modulate HIV/SIV susceptibility (including mucosal inflammation), and interventions that may impact oral HIV transmission rates. Understanding the factors that influence oral HIV transmission will provide the foundation for developing immune therapeutic and vaccine strategies that can protect both infants and adults from oral HIV transmission. PMID:23772613
Wood, Lianna F.; Chahroudi, Ann; Chen, Hui-Ling; Jaspan, Heather B.; Sodora, Donald L.
HIV-1 blocks apoptosis, programmed cell death, an innate defense of cells against viral invasion. However, apoptosis can be selectively reactivated in HIV-infected cells by chemical agents that interfere with HIV-1 gene expression. We studied two globally used medicines, the topical antifungal ciclopirox and the iron chelator deferiprone, for their effect on apoptosis in HIV-infected H9 cells and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with clinical HIV-1 isolates. Both medicines activated apoptosis preferentially in HIV-infected cells, suggesting that the drugs mediate escape from the viral suppression of defensive apoptosis. In infected H9 cells, ciclopirox and deferiprone enhanced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, initiating the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis to execution, as evidenced by caspase-3 activation, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase proteolysis, DNA degradation, and apoptotic cell morphology. In isolate-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells, ciclopirox collapsed HIV-1 production to the limit of viral protein and RNA detection. Despite prolonged monotherapy, ciclopirox did not elicit breakthrough. No viral re-emergence was observed even 12 weeks after drug cessation, suggesting elimination of the proviral reservoir. Tests in mice predictive for cytotoxicity to human epithelia did not detect tissue damage or activation of apoptosis at a ciclopirox concentration that exceeded by orders of magnitude the concentration causing death of infected cells. We infer that ciclopirox and deferiprone act via therapeutic reclamation of apoptotic proficiency (TRAP) in HIV-infected cells and trigger their preferential elimination. Perturbations in viral protein expression suggest that the antiretroviral activity of both drugs stems from their ability to inhibit hydroxylation of cellular proteins essential for apoptosis and for viral infection, exemplified by eIF5A. Our findings identify ciclopirox and deferiprone as prototypes of selectively cytocidal antivirals that eliminate viral infection by destroying infected cells. A drug-based drug discovery program, based on these compounds, is warranted to determine the potential of such agents in clinical trials of HIV-infected patients. PMID:24086341
Hanauske-Abel, Hartmut M; Saxena, Deepti; Palumbo, Paul E; Hanauske, Axel-Rainer; Luchessi, Augusto D; Cambiaghi, Tavane D; Hoque, Mainul; Spino, Michael; D'Alliessi Gandolfi, Darlene; Heller, Debra S; Singh, Sukhwinder; Park, Myung Hee; Cracchiolo, Bernadette M; Tricta, Fernando; Connelly, John; Popowicz, Anthony M; Cone, Richard A; Holland, Bart; Pe'ery, Tsafi; Mathews, Michael B
Patients with HIV/AIDS are at increased risk for the development of malignancy. Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and cervical carcinoma in women are regarded as AIDS-defining malignancies. The spectrum of malignancy is, however, changing, particularly where patients receive highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). South Africa has the highest number of HIV-infected individuals globally. The possibility of the oral health care worker encountering HIV/AIDS-related pathology therefore seems inevitable. The aim of this article is to heighten the awareness of head and neck malignancies occurring in HIV/AIDS whilst highlighting some of the clinical features in order to facilitate early recognition and diagnosis. It is of clinical significance that in many instances, identification of these malignancies precedes HIV/AIDS diagnosis. Optimal patient management requires close co-operation between the oral health care practitioner and the extended health care team. PMID:23957103
Bunn, B K; van Heerden, W F P
HIV-related stigma is a multidimensional concept which has pervasive effects on the lives of HIV-infected people as well as serious consequences for the management of HIV/AIDS. In this research three parallel stigma scales were developed to assess personal views of stigma, stigma attributed to others, and internalized stigma experienced by HIV-infected individuals. The stigma scales were administered in two samples: a community sample of 1077 respondents and 317 HIV-infected pregnant women recruited at clinics from the same community in Tshwane (South Africa). A two-factor structure referring to moral judgment and interpersonal distancing was confirmed across scales and sample groups. The internal consistency of the scales was acceptable and evidence of validity is reported. Parallel scales to assess and compare different perspectives of stigma provide opportunities for research aimed at understanding of stigma, assessing the consequences or evaluating possible interventions aimed at reducing stigma. PMID:18266101
Visser, Maretha J.; Kershaw, Trace; Makin, Jennifer D.; Forsyth, Brian W.C.
... HIV medicines should know about this potential side effect of some HIV medicines. In some cases, liver damage can be life ... HIV medicines should know about this potential side effect of some HIV medicines. In some cases, damage to the liver can ...
... The condition is a rare but serious side effect of some HIV medicines. All HIV medicines in the nucleoside reverse transcriptase ... The condition is a rare but serious side effect of some HIV medicines. HIV medicines in the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor ( ...
Despite highly active antiretroviral therapy, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are still highly prevalent. Direct neurotoxicity of microglia activated by HIV-infected monocytes independent from viral replication may account for this observation. To investigate underlying molecular and viral determinants, human monocytoid cells (U937) transduced with HIV-particles were co-cultured with primary human microglia or astrocytes. Using genetically-engineered HIV-particles key steps of infection were examined. Levels of pro-inflammatory/neurotoxic cytokines were investigated in co-culture supernatants by flow cytometry. Neurotoxicity mediated by the supernatants was analysed using primary cortical rat neurons. To corroborate our findings, cytokine profiles in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of neuropsychologically asymptomatic HIV positive (HIV(+)) patients (n=45) were correlated with neurofilament H (NfH) as surrogate of neuronal/axonal degeneration. In contrast to direct exposure of HIV to microglia, only the presence of HIV-transduced monocytoid cells strongly activated human microglia as evidenced by enhanced secretion of CXCL10, CCL5, CCL2, and IL-6 (1.3-7.1-fold; p<0.01) leading to two-fold increased neurotoxicity (p<0.001). In direct comparison, astrocyte activation by HIV-transduced monocytoid cells was limited. Using different mutant HIV-particles we show that the presence of cytoplasmic HIV-RNA in monocytoid cells is the viral determinant for this unique microglial activation pattern and subsequent neuronal cell death; reverse transcription and expression of viral genes were not essential. In CSF of presymptomatic HIV(+) patients, CXCL10, CCL5 and IL-6 were correlated with NfH as surrogate marker of neurodegeneration as well as CSF-pleocytosis. In conclusion, cytosolic viral RNA in monocytes is mandatory for subsequent microglial activation and neurotoxicity; activated astrocytes may augment neuroinflammation. In addition, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration occur even in preclinical HIV(+) patients and are associated with cytokines regulated in vitro. Our data may aid in the development of biomarkers and glia-directed therapeutic approaches of HAND. PMID:25150097
Faissner, Simon; Ambrosius, Björn; Schanzmann, Kirsten; Grewe, Bastian; Potthoff, Anja; Münch, Jan; Sure, Ulrich; Gramberg, Thomas; Wittmann, Sabine; Brockmeyer, Norbert; Uberla, Klaus; Gold, Ralf; Grunwald, Thomas; Chan, Andrew
Reperfusion of ischemic brain can reduce injury and improve outcome, but secondary injury due to inflammatory mechanisms limits the efficacy and time window of such treatments for stroke. This review summarizes the cellular and molecular basis of inflammation in ischemic injury as well as possible therapeutic strategies. PMID:20976117
Efforts to address HIV infection have been highly successful, enabling chronic suppression of viral replication with once-daily regimens. More recent research into HCV therapeutics have also resulted in very promising clinical candidates. This Digest explores similarities and differences in the two fields and compares the chronology of drug discovery relative to the availability of enabling tools, and concludes that safe and convenient, once-daily regimens are likely to reach approval much more rapidly for HCV than was the case for HIV. PMID:23489621
Watkins, William J; Desai, Manoj C
Background Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is an immunosuppressive disease that results in life-threatening opportunistic infections. The general problems in current therapy include the constant emergence of drug-resistant HIV strains, adverse side effects and the unavailability of treatments in developing countries. Natural products from herbs with the abilities to inhibit HIV-1 life cycle at different stages, have served as excellent sources of new anti-HIV-1 drugs. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-HIV-1 activity of aqueous dandelion extract. Methods The pseudotyped HIV-1 virus has been utilized to explore the anti-HIV-1 activity of dandelion, the level of HIV-1 replication was assessed by the percentage of GFP-positive cells. The inhibitory effect of the dandelion extract on reverse transcriptase activity was assessed by the reverse transcriptase assay kit. Results Compared to control values obtained from cells infected without treatment, the level of HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The data suggest that dandelion extract has a potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity. The identification of HIV-1 antiviral compounds from Taraxacum officinale should be pursued. Conclusions The dandelion extract showed strong activity against HIV-1 RT and inhibited both the HIV-1 vector and the hybrid-MoMuLV/MoMuSV retrovirus replication. These findings provide additional support for the potential therapeutic efficacy of Taraxacum officinale. Extracts from this plant may be regarded as another starting point for the development of an antiretroviral therapy with fewer side effects. PMID:22078030
Medical gases are pharmaceutical gaseous molecules which offer solutions to medical needs and include traditional gases, such as oxygen and nitrous oxide, as well as gases with recently discovered roles as biological messenger molecules, such as carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and hydrogen sulphide. Medical gas therapy is a relatively unexplored field of medicine; however, a recent increasing in the number of publications on medical gas therapies clearly indicate that there are significant opportunities for use of gases as therapeutic tools for a variety of disease conditions. In this article, we review the recent advances in research on medical gases with antioxidant properties and discuss their clinical applications and therapeutic properties. PMID:19177183
Nakao, Atsunori; Sugimoto, Ryujiro; Billiar, Timothy R; McCurry, Kenneth R
The safety and efficacy of protein therapeutics are limited by three interrelated pharmaceutical issues, in vitro and in vivo instability, immunogenicity and shorter half-lives. Novel drug modifications for overcoming these issues are under investigation and include covalent attachment of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), polysialic acid, or glycolic acid, as well as developing new formulations containing nanoparticulate or colloidal systems (e.g. liposomes, polymeric microspheres, polymeric nanoparticles). Such strategies have the potential to develop as next generation protein therapeutics. This review includes a general discussion on these delivery approaches. PMID:20049941
Pisal, Dipak S.; Kosloski, Matthew P.; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V.
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Safe Thinking and Affect Regulation (STAR), a 14-session HIV-prevention program for adolescents at alternative/therapeutic schools. Because these youth frequently have difficulties with emotions and cognitions, it was designed to improve sexuality-specific affect management and cognitive monitoring, as…
Brown, Larry K.; Nugent, Nicole R.; Houck, Christopher D.; Lescano, Celia M.; Whiteley, Laura B.; Barker, David; Viau, Lisa; Zlotnick, Caron
We have approached the development of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) therapeutic product by producing immune cells stably resistant to HIV-1. Promonocytic CD4+ cells (U937) were made resistant to HIV-1 by the introduction of a DNA construct (pNDU1A,B,C) that contained three independent antisense sequences directed against two functional regions, transactivation response and tat/rev, of the HIV-1 target. Each sequence was incorporated into the transcribed region of a U1 snRNA gene to generate U1/HIV antisense RNA. Stably transfected cells expressed all three U1/HIV antisense transcripts, and these transcripts accumulated in the nucleus. These cells were subjected to two successive challenges with HIV-1 (BAL strain). The surviving cells showed normal growth characteristics and have retained their CD4+ phenotype. In situ hybridization assays showed that essentially all of the surviving cells produced U1/HIV antisense RNA. No detectable p24 antigen was observed, no syncytium formation was observed, and PCR-amplified HIV gag sequences were not detected. Rechallenge with HIV-1 (IIIB strain) similarly yielded no infection at a relatively high multiplicity of infection. As a further demonstration that the antisense RNA directed against HIV-1 was functioning in these transfected immune cells, Tat-activated expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase was shown to be specifically inhibited in cells expressing Tat and transactivation response region antisense sequences. PMID:9094686
Liu, D; Donegan, J; Nuovo, G; Mitra, D; Laurence, J
At the end of the 1980s, counselors largely lacked an integrated approach to counseling people living with HIV disease. This book describes the experience of counseling this group of persons. The major premise here is that counselors who counsel HIV-positive clients must come to understand and affirm their clients' experiences. The text defines a…
Kain, Craig D.
The subject of HIV/AIDS as it relates to fertility and conception has begun to generate interest among biological and sociobehavioral researchers. As a result, a better understanding of the fertility-related intentions and desires of HIV positive individuals, as well as advancing knowledge regarding reproductive technologies, now offer the hope of parenthood to childless couples. PMID:15386843
A list of 12 HIV/AIDS-related books is provided. Topics range from HIV treatment issues related to families, children, and African Americans to drug injectors' lives. HIV risk behavior, and the impact of new HIV therapies are also addressed. PMID:11366302
of HIV During Labor and Delivery Women Infected with HIV and Their Babies After Birth Telephone: 1 Pregnancy 5. Preventing Transmission of HIV During Labor and Delivery 6. Women Infected with HIV and Their Babies After Birth This information is based on the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Levin, Judith G.
... young white females. • The majority of young black females with HIV are infected through heterosexual contact. HIV treatment helps people with HIV live healthy lives and prevent transmission of the virus to partners. However, among African Americans who have been diagnosed with HIV, youth are ...
With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), women living with HIV can now enjoy longer lifespans in relative good health as well as the prospect of bearing children with an overwhelmingly low risk of vertical transmission. Thus, increasingly, seropositive women are now facing issues around longevity as well as those associated with fertility. The clinician caring for the HIV-infected woman must be alert to the gynecologic issues that are prevalent in this population. Among those faced by the gynecologist are menstrual abnormalities, lower genital tract neoplasia, sexually transmitted infections, the need for gynecologic surgery, and menopausal issues including osteopenia/osteoporosis. Contraception in HIV seropositive women presents unique management issues, because of the necessity for a dual role of prevention of both pregnancy and HIV transmission, the possible effect of birth control on HIV infection, and the interaction between birth control and HIV therapies. With ever increasing frequency, the gynecologist will be presented with the seropositive woman or couple who wishes to conceive. The purpose of this chapter is to review the current knowledge on the relationship between HIV infection and menstrual abnormalities, genital neoplasias, contraceptive options, surgical complications, and menopause with its associated disorders. Special considerations in the seropositive woman contemplating pregnancy will also be discussed. The treatment of pelvic infections is discussed elsewhere in this volume, and only changes in standard therapy because of concurrent HIV-infection will be discussed here. PMID:18954760
Cejtin, Helen E.
Background Most HIV infected patients will develop some sort of neurologic involvement of the disease throughout their lives, usually in advanced stages. Neurologic symptoms may occur in acute HIV infection but myelopathy in this setting is rare. Up until this date, only two cases of transverse myelitis as a manifestation of acute HIV infection have been reported in the literature. Therapeutic approach in these patients is not well defined. Case presentation A 35 year-old male Caucasian recently returned from the tropics presented to our hospital with urinary retention and acute paraparesis. After extensive diagnostic workup he was diagnosed with acute HIV infection presenting as transverse myelitis. Full neurologic recovery was observed without the use of anti-retroviral therapy. Conclusion Acute spinal cord disorders are challenging, as they present a wide array of differential diagnosis and may lead to devastating sequelae. Timely and rigorous diagnostic workup is of the utmost importance when managing these cases. Clinicians should be aware of the protean manifestations of acute HIV infection, including central nervous system involvement, and have a low threshold for HIV screening. PMID:24646059
The 'Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1), Human Interaction Database', available through the National Library of Medicine at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/viruses/retroviruses/hiv-1/interactions, serves the scientific community exploring the discovery of novel HIV vaccine candidates and therapeutic targets. Each HIV-1 human protein interaction can be retrieved without restriction by web-based downloads and ftp protocols and includes: Reference Sequence (RefSeq) protein accession numbers, National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene identification numbers, brief descriptions of the interactions, searchable keywords for interactions and PubMed identification numbers (PMIDs) of journal articles describing the interactions. In addition to specific HIV-1 protein-human protein interactions, included are interaction effects upon HIV-1 replication resulting when individual human gene expression is blocked using siRNA. A total of 3142 human genes are described participating in 12 786 protein-protein interactions, along with 1316 replication interactions described for each of 1250 human genes identified using small interfering RNA (siRNA). Together the data identifies 4006 human genes involved in 14 102 interactions. With the inclusion of siRNA interactions we introduce a redesigned web interface to enhance viewing, filtering and downloading of the combined data set. PMID:25378338
Ako-Adjei, Danso; Fu, William; Wallin, Craig; Katz, Kenneth S; Song, Guangfeng; Darji, Dakshesh; Brister, J Rodney; Ptak, Roger G; Pruitt, Kim D
Combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection has resulted in profound reductions in viremia and is associated with marked improvements in morbidity and mortality. Therapy is not curative, however, and prolonged therapy is complicated by drug toxicity and the emergence of drug resistance. Management of clinical drug resistance requires in depth evaluation, and includes extensive history, physical examination and laboratory studies. Appropriate use of resistance testing provides valuable information useful in constructing regimens for treatment-experienced individuals with viremia during therapy. This review outlines the emergence of drug resistance in vivo, and describes clinical evaluation and therapeutic options of the individual with rebound viremia during therapy. PMID:21994737
Cortez, Karoll J.; Maldarelli, Frank
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector borne disease caused by various species of the Leishmania parasite. CL is endemic in the province of Balochistan in Pakistan. In certain instances a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-related immunocompromised is associated with atypical clinical presentation and occurrence of reactivated lesions of CL. Such presentations respond poorly to the standard treatment and frequent relapses are noted. We are reporting three cases of localized and disseminated CL due to Leishmania tropica which responded to meglumine antimoniate. Due to the fact that CL is endemic in Balochistan, we did not consider HIV infection as a causative organism. It was their presentation with history of weight loss and fever that prompted Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) tests for HIV, which turned out to be positive. CL is becoming visible as an opportunistic infection associated with HIV/AIDS and may even be the first symptom in HIV positive patients in an endemic area. PMID:24906285
Talat, Humaira; Attarwala, Sharmeen; Saleem, Mubasshir
The authors integrate explorations by Blatt and colleagues of contributions of patient personality, therapeutic relationship, and change in mental representation to sustained therapeutic change. A pretreatment personality characteristic, self-critical perfectionism, a negative self-schema, significantly interfered with therapeutic progress in manual-directed, brief outpatient treatment for depression. The therapeutic relationship, however, facilitated changes in this negative self-representation, leading to sustained therapeutic change.
Sidney J. Blatt; David C. Zuroff; Lance L. Hawley; John S. Auerbach
Quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) proviral DNA is increasingly used to measure the HIV-1 cellular reservoirs, a helpful marker to evaluate the efficacy of antiretroviral therapeutic regimens in HIV-1-infected individuals. Furthermore, the proviral DNA load represents a specific marker for the early diagnosis of perinatal HIV-1 infection and might be predictive of HIV-1 disease progression independently of plasma HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4(+) T-cell counts. The high degree of genetic variability of HIV-1 poses a serious challenge for the design of a universal quantitative assay capable of detecting all the genetic subtypes within the main (M) HIV-1 group with similar efficiency. Here, we describe a highly sensitive real-time PCR protocol that allows for the correct quantification of virtually all group-M HIV-1 strains with a higher degree of accuracy compared with other methods. The protocol involves three stages, namely DNA extraction/lysis, cellular DNA quantification and HIV-1 proviral load assessment. Owing to the robustness of the PCR design, this assay can be performed on crude cellular extracts, and therefore it may be suitable for the routine analysis of clinical samples even in developing countries. An accurate quantification of the HIV-1 proviral load can be achieved within 1 d from blood withdrawal. PMID:18600229
Malnati, Mauro S; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Gatto, Francesca; Salvatori, Francesca; Cassina, Giulia; Rutigliano, Teresa; Volpi, Rosy; Lusso, Paolo
People with both HIV and alcohol use disorders are disproportionately concentrated within the U.S. criminal justice system; approximately one-quarter of all people with HIV cycle through the system each year. HIV-infected prisoners with alcohol problems face many obstacles as they transition back to the community. Specifically, although they have impressive HIV treatment outcomes during the period of incarceration while they are free from alcohol, upon release, however, they face inordinate challenges including relapse to alcohol use resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Randomized controlled trials affirm the role of pharmacotherapy using naltrexone (NTX) as the therapeutic option conferring the best treatment outcome for alcohol use disorders within the community. Absent from these trials were inclusion of prisoners or HIV-infected individuals. Relapse to alcohol use among HIV-infected prisoners is associated with reduced retention in care, poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy with consequential poor HIV treatment outcomes and higher levels of HIV risk behaviors. Untreated alcohol dependence, particularly for released HIV-infected prisoners, has both negative consequences for the individual and society and requires a concentrated effort and rethinking of our existing approaches for this vulnerable population. The specific aim of this manuscript is to review the existing literature regarding the relationship of HIV and treatment for alcohol use disorders in criminal justice populations in an effort to determine “best practices” that might effectively result in improved treatment of HIV and alcohol disorders for released prisoners. PMID:21171933
Springer, Sandra A.; Azar, Marwan M.; Altice, Frederick L.
The introduction of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) in 1996 radically changed the clinical course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection as it led to a dramatic reduction in mortality in these patients. However, these treatments have their limitations, including adverse effects, therapeutic failure, pharmacokinetic interactions, the development of resistance, and abnormal immune responses. In this article we review the current situation of cutaneous drug reactions in HIV-infected patients. PMID:19463228
Blanes, M; Belinchón, I; Portilla, J
Globally, an estimated 35 million people were living with HIV in 2012; of these, 69 % in sub-Saharan Africa. There were 2.3 million new HIV infections globally and 1.6 million AIDS deaths in 2012. As a result of large roll-out programs with integrated voluntary counselling and testing and prevention programs in resource limited settings, sexual transmission of HIV decreased substantially over the last years. However, the world is not on track to reduced HIV transmission among people who inject drugs. Especially in Eastern Europe and Asia prevention coverage for people who inject drugs remains low. In addition, effective prevention among these people is undermined by stigmatisation, discrimination, punitive policy frameworks and law enforcement practices, which discourage people from seeking the health and social services they need. Antiretroviral coverage among pregnant women living with HIV reached 62 % in 2012 resulting in a reduction of newly infected children by 35 % from 2009. In 2012, 9.7 million people in low and middle-income countries received antiretroviral therapy, representing 61 % of all who were eligible under the 2010 WHO HIV treatment guidelines. Under the 2013 guidelines, this represents only 34 % of the 28.3 million people eligible in 2013. A new concept to curb the HIV epidemic is "Test and Treat" which involves population-wide HIV tests with immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy among all HIV infected individuals. However, there are concerns regarding the sustainability of such treatment programs for decades due to lost to follow up and insufficient adherence and the danger of a large increase of resistant HIV which jeopardize the effectiveness of affordable treatments. PMID:25093307
Ledergerber, Bruno; Battegay, Manuel
During the last two decades, the rapid growth of biotechnology-derived techniques has led to a myriad of therapeutic recombinant monoclonal antibodies with significant clinical benefits. Recombinant monoclonal antibodies can be obtained from a number of natural sources such as animal cell cultures using recombinant DNA engineering. In contrast to…
The interaction between the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integrase (IN) and its cellular cofactor lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) is crucial for HIV replication. While recently discovered LEDGINs inhibit HIV-1 replication by occupying the LEDGF/p75 pocket in IN, it remained to be demonstrated whether LEDGF/p75 by itself can be targeted. By phage display we identified cyclic peptides (CPs) as the first LEDGF/p75 ligands that inhibit the LEDGF/p75–IN interaction. The CPs inhibit HIV replication in different cell lines without overt toxicity. In accord with the role of LEDGF/p75 in HIV integration and its inhibition by LEDGINs, CP64, and CP65 block HIV replication primarily by inhibiting the integration step. The CPs retained activity against HIV strains resistant to raltegravir or LEDGINs. Saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR showed residues in CP64 that strongly interact with LEDGF/p75 but not with HIV IN. Mutational analysis identified tryptophan as an important residue responsible for the activity of the peptides. Serial passaging of virus in the presence of CPs did not yield resistant strains. Our work provides proof-of-concept for direct targeting of LEDGF/p75 as novel therapeutic strategy and the CPs thereby serve as scaffold for future development of new HIV therapeutics. PMID:22828501
Desimmie, Belete A; Humbert, Michael; Lescrinier, Eveline; Hendrix, Jelle; Vets, Sofie; Gijsbers, Rik; Ruprecht, Ruth M; Dietrich, Ursula; Debyser, Zeger; Christ, Frauke
Purpose of review The long-lived viral reservoir is a major obstacle to achieving a cure for HIV. Therapeutic strategies, such as early antiretroviral therapy (ART), may be a prerequisite to achieving long-term control of viral replication upon ART withdrawal. Recent findings HIV persistence is established early in acute HIV infection (AHI) with infection in long-lived memory CD4+ T cells. Studies conducted in nonhuman primates have suggested that this could occur as early as 3 days postinfection; however, the timing in humans is uncertain. ART during AHI significantly restricts the HIV reservoirs as compared with later treatment. Early ART, particularly prior to the detection of HIV immunoglobulin M, may also reduce the contribution of the long-lived central memory CD4+ T cells to the total HIV reservoir, a profile observed in individuals who naturally control HIV without ART. Summary It is clear that early ART has a greater impact in limiting the HIV reservoirs than later treatment. However, latently infected long-lived memory CD4+ T cells persist in most early treated individuals. Therefore, additional interventions will likely be required to eliminate all cells capable of producing replication-competent virus but treatment in AHI may be the critical first step in containing the HIV reservoirs. PMID:25415421
Ananworanich, Jintanat; Dubé, Karine; Chomont, Nicolas
HIV type 1 (HIV-1) is characterized by its rapid genetic evolution, leading to challenges in anti-HIV therapy. However, the sequence variations in HIV-1 proteins are not randomly distributed due to a combination of functional constraints and genetic drift. In this study, we examined patterns of sequence variability for evidence of linked sequence changes (termed as coevolution or covariation) in 15 HIV-1 proteins. It shows that the percentage of charged residues in the coevolving residues is significantly higher than that in all the HIV-1 proteins. Most of the coevolving residues are spatially proximal in the protein structures and tend to form relatively compact and independent units in the tertiary structures, termed as “protein sectors”. These protein sectors are closely associated with anti-HIV drug resistance, T cell epitopes, and antibody binding sites. Finally, we explored candidate peptide inhibitors based on the protein sectors. Our results can establish an association between the coevolving residues and molecular functions of HIV-1 proteins, and then provide us with valuable knowledge of pathology of HIV-1 and therapeutics development. PMID:25671429
Zhao, Yuqi; Wang, Yanjie; Gao, Yuedong; Li, Gonghua; Huang, Jingfei
The pathway causing CD4 T-cell death in HIV-infected hosts remains poorly understood although apoptosis has been proposed as a key mechanism. We now show that caspase-3-mediated apoptosis accounts for the death of only a small fraction of CD4 T cells corresponding to those that are both activated and productively infected. The remaining over 95% of quiescent lymphoid CD4 T cells die by caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis triggered by abortive viral infection. Pyroptosis corresponds to an intensely inflammatory form of programmed cell death in which cytoplasmic contents and pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1?, are released. This death pathway thus links the two signature events in HIV infection--CD4 T-cell depletion and chronic inflammation--and creates a pathogenic vicious cycle in which dying CD4 T cells release inflammatory signals that attract more cells to die. This cycle can be broken by caspase 1 inhibitors shown to be safe in humans, raising the possibility of a new class of `anti-AIDS' therapeutics targeting the host rather than the virus.
Doitsh, Gilad; Galloway, Nicole L. K.; Geng, Xin; Yang, Zhiyuan; Monroe, Kathryn M.; Zepeda, Orlando; Hunt, Peter W.; Hatano, Hiroyu; Sowinski, Stefanie; Muñoz-Arias, Isa; Greene, Warner C.
"No virus, no transmission." Studies have repeatedly shown that viral load (the quantity of virus present in blood and sexual secretions) is the strongest predictor of HIV transmission during unprotected sex or transmission from infected mother to child. Effective treatment lowers viral load to undetectable levels. If one could identify and treat all HIV-infected people immediately after infection, the HIV/AIDS epidemic would eventually disappear. Such a radical solution is currently unrealistic. In reality, not all people get tested, especially when they fear stigma and discrimination. Thus, not all HIV-infected individuals are known. Of those HIV-positive individuals for whom the diagnosis is known, not all of them have access to therapy, agree to be treated, or are taking therapy effectively. Some on effective treatment will stop, and in others, the development of resistance will lead to treatment failure. Furthermore, resources are limited: should we provide drugs to asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals without indication for treatment according to guidelines in order to prevent HIV transmission at the risk of diverting funding from sick patients in urgent need? In fact, the preventive potential of anti-HIV drugs is unknown. Modellers have tried to fill the gap, but models differ depending on assumptions that are strongly debated. Further, indications for antiretroviral treatments expand; in places like Vancouver and San Francisco, the majority of HIV-positive individuals are now under treatment, and the incidence of new HIV infections has recently fallen. However, correlation does not necessarily imply causation. Finally, studies in couples where one partner is HIV-infected also appear to show that treatment reduces the risk of transmission. More definite studies, where a number of communities are randomized to either receive the "test-and-treat" approach or continue as before, are now in evaluation by funding agencies. Repeated waves of testing would precisely measure the incidence of HIV infection. Such trials face formidable logistical, practical and ethical obstacles. However, without definitive data, the intuitive appeal of "test-and-treat" is unlikely to translate into action on a global scale. In the meantime, based on the available evidence, we must strive to provide treatment to all those in medical need under the current medical guidelines. This will lead to a decrease in HIV transmission while "test-and-treat" is fully explored in prospective clinical trials. PMID:21612619
As a therapeutic intervention, homeopathy is the target of increased scepticism because in the main, its remedies are diluted and succussed (potentized) out of material existence. This puts homeopathy seemingly at odds with the paradigm of conventional science, in particular, that atoms and molecules are the fundamental building blocks of all matter. Accordingly, homeopathy cannot work, so that any reported beneficial effects must, at best, be due to the placebo effect. The purpose of this article is to challenge that conclusion and to suggest that there may well be conventional science-based explanations of how homeopathy could be possible. Homeopathy's key principles are first described. Then the double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT), the chief means by which homeopathic remedies and prescribing are tested, is shown to be based on a linear reductionism that is too blunt an instrument with which to test the efficacy of complex interventions such as homeopathy The memory of water hypothesis, as a mechanism for how potentized remedies might work, is reviewed, along with some evidence for its existence. A possible rationale for the water memory effect is proposed in terms of a dynamic 'ordering' of water's constantly switching network of intermolecular hydrogen bonds, induced by the manufacturing process of homeopathic remedies. This could lead to a long-range molecular 'coherence' between trillions of mobile water molecules. However, the water memory effect is an essentially pharmacological explanation of homeopathy's putative efficacy. It is pointed out that healing also entails an interaction between consenting beings. From this point of view, an explanation of any therapeutic procedure should include an attempt to describe the nature of the patient-practitioner interaction. From this perspective, a quantum theoretical treatment of the therapeutic process, involving a form of macro-entanglement between patient, practitioner and remedy (PPR), is advanced as another possible explanation of the homeopathy's efficacy. This shows that the reason double-blind RCTs deliver at best only equivocal results on homeopathy's efficacy is because it effectively breaks the PPR entangled state. A comparison is made between the entanglement-breaking effect of double-blind RCTs and the wave-function 'collapsing' effect of observation in orthodox quantum theory. The article concludes by suggesting that the memory of water and PPR entanglement are not competing but most likely complementary hypotheses, and that both are probably required in order to provide a complete description of the homeopathic process. While awaiting experimental evidence of these hypotheses, it is suggested that observations of clinical outcomes would be superior to RCTs for further testing homeopathy's efficacy. PMID:17004404
Milgrom, Lionel R
Rufinamide is a third-generation antiepileptic drug, available since early 2010 in France. It is indicated in combination therapy in the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome from the age of 4. It has orphan drug status. The bioavailability of rufinamide is high, but decreases with the dose and increases with food intake. Rufinamide is not metabolized by cytochromes but hydrolyzed by a carboxylesterase in an inactive carboxylic derivative. Elimination is mainly renal. The half-life varies from 6 to 10h. Although established from relatively few studies, exposure efficacy and exposure toxicity relationships are argued. A plasma concentration of 15 mg/L, obtained with a standard regimen, reduces the number of seizures of 25%. Few factors of intrinsic variability are described. There are few clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions and they concern combinations with other antiepileptic drugs, especially valproate. Although there is no validated therapeutic range, the level of evidence for this therapeutic drug monitoring has been estimated at "possibly useful". PMID:22850104
Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle; Tribut, Olivier; Verdier, Marie-Clémence
Background HIV-2, which was transmitted to humans from a distant primate species (sooty mangabey), differs remarkably from HIV-1 in its infectivity, transmissibility and pathogenicity. We have tested the possibility that a greater susceptibility of HIV-2 capsid (CA) to the human restriction factor TRIM5? (hTRIM5?) could contribute to these differences. Results We constructed recombinant clones expressing CA from a variety of HIV-2 viruses in the context of HIV-1 NL4-3-luciferase. CA sequences were amplified from the plasma of HIV-2 infected patients, including 8 subtype A and 7 subtype B viruses. CA from 6 non-epidemic HIV-2 subtypes, 3 HIV-2 CRF01_AB recombinants and 4 SIVsmm viruses were also tested. Susceptibility to hTRIM5? was measured by comparing single-cycle infectivity in human target cells expressing hTRIM5? to that measured in cells in which hTRIM5? activity was inhibited by overexpression of hTRIM5?. The insertion of HIV-2 CA sequences in the context of HIV-1 did not affect expression and maturation of the HIV-2 CA protein. The level of susceptibility hTRIM5? expressed by viruses carrying HIV-2 CA sequences was up to 9-fold higher than that of HIV-1 NL4-3 and markedly higher than a panel of primary HIV-1 CA sequences. This phenotype was found both for viruses carrying CA from primary HIV-2 sequences and viruses carrying CA from laboratory-adapted HIV-2 clones. High hTRIM5? susceptibility was found in all HIV-2 subtypes. In this series of viruses, susceptibility to hTRIM5? was not significantly affected by the presence of a proline at position 119 or by the number of prolines at positions 119, 159 or 178 in HIV-2 CA. No significant correlation was found between HIV-2 viremia and sensitivity to hTRIM5?. Conclusions HIV-2 capsid sequences expressed high levels of susceptibility to hTRIM5?. This property, common to all HIV-2 sequences tested, may contribute in part to the lower replication and pathogenicity of this virus in humans. PMID:23647667
Heat shock proteins (hsps) and cyclophilins (CypA) are intracellular chaperone molecules that facilitate protein folding and assembly. These proteins are selectively expressed in cells following exposure to a range of stress stimuli, including viral infection. Hsp species are highly immunogenic, eliciting humoral, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL), and natural killer (NK) cell responses against viruses, tumours, and infectious diseases. This review discusses the roles of stress proteins in immunity and viral life cycles, vis-à-vis the development of Hsp-based therapeutic strategies against human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Cumulative findings are cited implicating the requirement of CypA in HIV-1 replication and formation of infectious virions. Studies by our group show the upregulated expression of hsp27 and hsp70 during single-cycle HIV infections. These species redistribute to the cell surface following HIV-infection and heat stress, serving as targets for NK and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot studies show that hsp27, hsp70, and hsp78 complex with HIV-1 viral proteins intracellularly. Hsp70, hsp56, and CypA are assembled into HIV-1 virions. The ability of hsps to interact with HIV-1 viral proteins, combined with their inherent adjuvant and immunogenic properties, indicates that hsps may serve as vehicles for antigen delivery and the design of vaccines against acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. PMID:10231014
Brenner, B G; Wainberg, M A
Survival rates among HIV patients have significantly improved since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV management. However, persistent disease progression and clinical complications in virally suppressed individuals point to additional contributing factors other than HIV replication; microbial translocation is one such factor. The role of underlying commensal microbes and microbial products that traverse the intestinal lumen into systemic circulation in the absence of overt bacteraemia is under current investigation. This review focuses on current knowledge of the complex microbial communities and microbial markers involved in the disruption of mucosal immune T-cells in the promotion of inflammatory processes in HIV infections. Unanswered questions and aims for future studies are addressed. We provide perspective for discussing potential future therapeutic strategies focused on modulating the gut microbiota to abate HIV disease progression. PMID:25024700
Nwosu, Felix Chinweije; Avershina, Ekaterina; Wilson, Robert; Rudi, Knut
Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infections cause global health problems. Indole derivatives have been considered as one of the promising HIV inhibitors. Recent inventions have focused on substituted indole and azaindole derivatives that possess unique antiviral activities against HIV-1. In this review, the evaluation of recent advances in substituted indole and azaindole derivatives for the treatment or prevention of HIV-1 and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been focused. In this respect, compounds having drug and bio-active properties, including their synthesis and pharmacologic properties have been reported. In addition, anti-HIV properties of compounds, the structural features of inhibitors, the current progress in terms of therapeutic interventions and the leading groups in the field are discussed. Moreover, clinical and ADME (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination) properties of some clinically important compounds such as BMS-378806, L-737126 and IDX899 are reported. PMID:23895189
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are the most prevalent deadly chronic viral diseases. HIV is treated by small molecule inhibitors. HBV is treated by immunomodulation and small molecule inhibitors. HCV is currently treated primarily by immunomodulation but many small molecules are in clinical development. Although HIV is a retrovirus, HBV is a double-stranded DNA virus, and HCV is a single-stranded RNA virus, antiviral drug resistance complicates the development of drugs and the successful treatment of each of these viruses. Although their replication cycles, therapeutic targets, and evolutionary mechanisms are different, the fundamental approaches to identifying and characterizing HIV, HBV, and HCV drug resistance are similar. This review describes the evolution of HIV, HBV, and HCV within individuals and populations and the genetic mechanisms associated with drug resistance to each of the antiviral drug classes used for their treatment. PMID:21243082
Margeridon-Thermet, Severine; Shafer, Robert W.
Background Proper knowledge of HIV transmission is not enough for people to adopt protective behaviors, but deficits in this information may increase HIV/AIDS vulnerability. Objective To assess drug users' knowledge of HIV/AIDS and the possible association between knowledge and HIV testing. Methods A Cross-sectional study conducted in 2006/7 with a convenience sample of 295 illicit drug users in Rio de Janeiro, assessing knowledge on AIDS/HIV transmission and its relationship with HIV testing. Information from 108 randomly selected drug users who received an educational intervention using cards illustrating situations potentially associated with HIV transmission were assessed using Multidimensional Scaling (MDS). Results Almost 40% of drug users reported having never used condoms and more than 60% reported not using condoms under the influence of substances. Most drug users (80.6%) correctly answered that condoms make sex safer, but incorrect beliefs are still common (e.g. nearly 44% believed HIV can be transmitted through saliva and 55% reported that HIV infection can be transmitted by sharing toothbrushes), with significant differences between drug users who had and who had not been tested for HIV. MDS showed queries on vaginal/anal sex and sharing syringes/needles were classified in the same set as effective modes of HIV transmission. The event that was further away from this core of properly perceived risks referred to blood donation, perceived as risky. Other items were found to be dispersed, suggesting inchoate beliefs on transmission modes. Conclusions Drug users have an increased HIV infection vulnerability compared to the general population, this specific population expressed relevant doubts about HIV transmission, as well as high levels of risky behavior. Moreover, the findings suggest that possessing inaccurate HIV/AIDS knowledge may be a barrier to timely HIV testing. Interventions should be tailored to such specific characteristics. PMID:21324119
The hematopoietic failure in the majority of patients with progressive HIV infection is further aggravated by virustatic agents like azidothymidine. As an alternative therapeutic attempt, three derivatives of an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) against the splice acceptor site of the tat gene have been shown to inhibit HIV replication in vitro. This study was aimed at examining whether these agents are
R. G. Geissler; J. Muth; A. Maurer; U. Mentzel; M. Mag; J. W. Engels; D. Hoelzer; A. Ganser
The Net Gay Barometre is a biennial survey among users of France's most popular websites for men who have sex with men (MSM). Given the recent increases in HIV infection and sexual risk practices among French MSM, this study aims to: (1) create a socio-sexual profile of HIV-negative men (HIV-); (2) identify predictors of regular unprotected anal intercourse (RUAI) in this group, and responding to a call for stratifying analyses of online samples of MSM by HIV status; and (3) perform the former two aims by comparing HIV- men with HIV-positive men (HIV+). Statistical analyses were conducted with 11,771 HIV- men and 2130 HIV+ men who completed the online survey between December 2008 and March 2009. Regarding the first aim, fewer HIV- men, relative to HIV+ men, were exposed to factors conducive to sexually transmitted infection; in the previous 12 months, smaller proportions of this group had gone to venues where sexual encounters were possible, engaged in an esoteric sexual activity, had a high number of casual partners, and practiced unprotected anal sex, RUAI or barebacking. However, multivariate regression analyses identifying predictors of RUAI in each group revealed common predictors: sensation-seeking, esoteric activities, oral contact with sperm, and barebacking (in a couple), although odds were generally higher in HIV+ men. Our findings raise the possibility of a sexual culture accentuating pleasure and adventurism that may gain in amplitude once seroconversion takes place. PMID:21218274
Leobon, Alain; Velter, Annie; Engler, Kim; Drouin, Marie-Claude; Otis, Joanne
Sixteen flavonoids and their derivatives isolated from Desmos spp. were evaluated for inhibition of HIV replication in H9 lymphocyte cells. 2-Methoxy-3-methyl-4,6-dihydroxy-5-(3?-hydroxy)cinnamoylbenzaldehyde (12) and lawinal (6) demonstrated potent anti-HIV activity with EC50 values of 0.022 and 2.30 ?g\\/mL and therapeutic indexes of 489 and 45.2, respectively. Compound 12 appears to be an excellent lead for further anti-HIV drug development.
Jiu-Hong Wu; Xi-Hong Wang; Yang-Hua Yi; Kuo-Hsiung Lee
Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a known complication of HIV infection. Endothelial cell injury appears to be the primary event causing platelet activation and deposition in the microvasculature. Direct cytopathic roles of HIV as well as other factors such as malignancy, drugs, and infectious agents have been implicated in the pathogenesis of HIV-TMA. Although the the majority of patients present in a more advanced stage of HIV disease, TMA can be the initial presenting symptom of HIV infection. Clinical features are those of idiopathic TMA, and the diagnosis should be suspected in any patient with new onset thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia. Therapy with plasma exchange or infusion appears to be efficacious. A rapid diagnosis and institution of plasmapheresis is crucial for a favourable outcome. The long term prognosis of HIV-TMA is unfavourable and may depend on the stage of HIV infection. The recent data after the use of highly active retroviral treatment, however, are unavailable and current prognosis is therefore uncertain. PMID:12357011
Ahmed, S; Siddiqui, R; Siddiqui, A; Zaidi, S; Cervia, J
This paper explores the theoretical possibilities for applying a globally defined passivity-based control for a dynamical model of the HIV-1. This control law will define a treatment scheduling scheme for the anti-retroviral therapy. The controller structure is divided into two parts, the purpose of the first is to render passive the HIV-1 model while the second exploits the properties associated
Elvia Palacios; G. Espinosa-Perez; Daniel U. Campos-Delgado
Concordant with the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the community setting, colonization and infections with this pathogen have become a prevalent problem among the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive population. A variety of different host- and, possibly, pathogen-related factors may play a role in explaining the increased prevalence and incidence observed. In this article, we review pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of MRSA in the HIV-infected population. PMID:21694896
Hidron, Alicia I; Kempker, Russell; Moanna, Abeer; Rimland, David
Summary Human antibodies to HIV-1 can neutralize a broad range of viral isolates in vitro and protect non-human primates against infection1,2. Previous work showed that antibodies exert selective pressure on the virus but escape variants emerge within a short period of time3,4. However, these experiments were performed before the recent discovery of more potent anti-HIV-1 antibodies and their improvement by structure-based design5-9. Here we re-examine passive antibody transfer as a therapeutic modality in HIV-1-infected humanized mice (hu-mice). Although HIV-1 can escape from antibody monotherapy, combinations of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) can effectively control HIV-1 infection and suppress viral load to levels below detection. Moreover, in contrast to antiretroviral therapy (ART)10-12, the longer half-life of antibodies led to viremic control for an average of 60 days after cessation of therapy. Thus, combinations of potent monoclonal antibodies can effectively control HIV-1 replication in hu-mice, and should be re-examined as a therapeutic modality in HIV-1-infected individuals. PMID:23103874
Klein, Florian; Gruell, Henning; Scheid, Johannes F.; Bournazos, Stylianos; Mouquet, Hugo; Spatz, Linda A.; Diskin, Ron; Abadir, Alexander; Zang, Trinity; Dorner, Marcus; Billerbeck, Eva; Labitt, Rachael N.; Gaebler, Christian; Marcovecchio, Paola; Incesu, Reha-Baris; Eisenreich, Thomas R.; Bieniasz, Paul D.; Seaman, Michael S.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Ravetch, Jeffrey V.; Ploss, Alexander; Nussenzweig, Michel C.
Data on the HIV-prevalence children presenting to health care facilities in sub-Saharan Africa are scant in general, and the debate about opportunities for paediatric HIV screening is ongoing. Nine hundred and eighty-one children with unknown HIV-status presenting to a large general paediatric outpatient department in rural Cameroon were tested using the Determine HIV-1/2 rapid test (Abbott), and positive results were confirmed with the Hexagon HIV rapid test (Human Diagnostics). In children younger than 18 months, HIV infection was confirmed by PCR testing. Median age was 1.3 years and 52.8% were of male gender. In 514 children below 18 months of age, 16 (3.1%) tested positive. Of those, HIV-1 PCR was available for 11 children, of whom 6 had a positive PCR result. HIV prevalence was highest in the age group 5-9 years, being 8.8%. Malnutrition (33.3 vs 5.2%, p?0.001) was associated with HIV infection. Our study results indicate that HIV testing should be offered to all children at possible entry points to medical care, irrespective of symptoms, in order to reduce HIV-associated mortality through timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy. PMID:24469969
Zoufaly, A; Hammerl, R; Sunjoh, F; Jochum, J; Nassimi, N; Awasom, C; Tayong, G; Sauter, F; Schmiedel, S; van Lunzen, J; Burchard, G; Feldt, T
Most Internet online resources for investigating HIV biology contain either bioinformatics tools, protein information or sequence data. The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive online proteomics resource that integrates bioinformatics with the latest information on HIV-1 protein structure, gene expression, post-transcriptional/post-translational modification, functional activity, and protein-macromolecule interactions. The BioAfrica HIV-1 Proteomics Resource is a website that contains detailed information about the HIV-1 proteome and protease cleavage sites, as well as data-mining tools that can be used to manipulate and query protein sequence data, a BLAST tool for initiating structural analyses of HIV-1 proteins, and a proteomics tools directory. The Proteome section contains extensive data on each of 19 HIV-1 proteins, including their functional properties, a sample analysis of HIV-1HXB2, structural models and links to other online resources. The HIV-1 Protease Cleavage Sites section provides information on the position, subtype variation and genetic evolution of Gag, Gag-Pol and Nef cleavage sites. The HIV-1 Protein Data-mining Tool includes a set of 27 group M (subtypes A through K) reference sequences that can be used to assess the influence of genetic variation on immunological and functional domains of the protein. The BLAST Structure Tool identifies proteins with similar, experimentally determined topologies, and the Tools Directory provides a categorized list of websites and relevant software programs. This combined database and software repository is designed to facilitate the capture, retrieval and analysis of HIV-1 protein data, and to convert it into clinically useful information relating to the pathogenesis, transmission and therapeutic response of different HIV-1 variants. The HIV-1 Proteomics Resource is readily accessible through the BioAfrica website at: PMID:15757512
Doherty, Ryan S; De Oliveira, Tulio; Seebregts, Chris; Danaviah, Sivapragashini; Gordon, Michelle; Cassol, Sharon
Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS)-transformed human T cells expressing terminal membrane proteins (TMPs) tyrosine kinase interacting protein (Tip) and saimiri transformation associated protein strain C (StpC) are highly permissive for R5 and X4 strains of HIV-1. StpC expression enhances replication of R5 and X4 strains of HIV-1 and induces latent reservoirs of replication competent HIV-1 in cell lines derived from T cells or monocytes. Paradoxically Tip expression restricts replication and cytopathic effects of R5 and X4 strains of HIV-1 in T cells and monocytes post-retrotransposition. Understanding the canonical pathways whereby Tip and StpC alter HIV-1 replication may uncover novel therapeutic approaches to HIV-1 infection. Here we show Tip inhibits Tat-mediated transcriptional activation of the long terminal repeat (LTR). Tip mediated inhibition of Tat transactivation is reversed by Nef. Tip also mediates restriction of late-stage replication of HIV-1 by disrupting Nef interaction with lymphocyte-specific protein-tyrosine kinase (Lck) in lipid rafts. Specifically, in the presence of Tip, Lck does not localize to lipid rafts reducing Nef interaction with Lck within the lipid rafts. Finally, the permissive phenotype conferred by StpC is the result of synergy with Tat during transcriptional activation of the HIV-1 LTR. This transcriptional synergy between StpC and Tat requires Lck and NF-kappaB consensus binding sequences. These findings demonstrate that the HVS TMPs influence transcriptional and post-transcriptional stages in HIV-1 replication. We propose that HVS-encoded TMPs associated with T cell transformation have evolved ability to modulate the replication of competing retroviruses. Gene based approaches utilizing Tip and StpC may provide therapeutic models for treating acute and latent HIV-1 infections, respectively. PMID:17266559
Raymond, Andrea D; Hasham, Muneer; Tsygankov, Alexander Y; Henderson, Earl E
Development of an effective HIV/AIDS vaccine remains a big challenge, largely due to the enormous HIV diversity which propels immune escape. Thus novel vaccine strategies are targeting multiple variants of conserved antibody and T cell epitopic regions which would incur a huge fitness cost to the virus in the event of mutational escape. Besides immunogen design, the delivery modality is critical for vaccine potency and efficacy, and should be carefully selected in order to not only maximize transgene expression, but to also enhance the immuno-stimulatory potential to activate innate and adaptive immune systems. To date, five HIV vaccine candidates have been evaluated for efficacy and protection from acquisition was only achieved in a small proportion of vaccinees in the RV144 study which used a canarypox vector for delivery. Conversely, in the STEP study (HVTN 502) where human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) was used, strong immune responses were induced but vaccination was more associated with increased risk of HIV acquisition than protection in vaccinees with pre-existing Ad5 immunity. The possibility that pre-existing immunity to a highly promising delivery vector may alter the natural course of HIV to increase acquisition risk is quite worrisome and a huge setback for HIV vaccine development. Thus, HIV vaccine development efforts are now geared toward delivery platforms which attain superior immunogenicity while concurrently limiting potential catastrophic effects likely to arise from pre-existing immunity or vector-related immuno-modulation. However, it still remains unclear whether it is poor immunogenicity of HIV antigens or substandard immunological potency of the safer delivery vectors that has limited the success of HIV vaccines. This article discusses some of the promising delivery vectors to be harnessed for improved HIV vaccine efficacy. PMID:25202303
Ondondo, Beatrice O.
Recent findings indicate that the majority of all CD4+ T lymphocytes are lost during acute HIV infection, with mucosal compartments being most severely affected. The frequency of infection is very high in gut CD4+ T cells, and depletion of these cells persists into the chronic phase of infection. Infection is associated with increased gut permeability, with microbial translocation being evidenced by increased circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels. Plasma LPS levels correlate with systemic immune activation, which drives chronic HIV infection. Antiretroviral therapy reduces plasma LPS, and greater CD4+ T cell reconstitution is associated with lower LPS levels. These findings have a number of implications for therapeutic strategies. This article summarizes a presentation on HIV disease progression made by Daniel Douek, MD, PhD, at an International AIDS Society-USA Continuing Medical Education course in San Francisco in May 2007. The original presentation is available as a Webcast at www.iasusa.org. PMID:17720995
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is able to suppress HIV-1 replication indefinitely in individuals who have access to these medications, are able to tolerate these drugs, and are motivated to take them daily for life. However, ART is not curative. HIV-1 persists indefinitely during ART as quiescent integrated DNA within memory CD4+ T cells and perhaps other long-lived cellular reservoirs. In this review, we discuss the role of the immune system on the establishment and maintenance of this “latent” HIV-1 reservoir. A detailed understanding of how the host immune system shapes the size and distribution of the viral reservoir should lead to the development of a new generation of immune-based therapeutics, which might eventually contribute to a curative intervention. PMID:25013067
Barouch, Dan H.; Deeks, Steven G.
The HIV Molecular Immunology Database, associated with the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the University of California, and the US Department of Energy, "is an annotated, searchable collection of HIV-1 cytotoxic and helper T-cell epitopes and antibody binding sites." Links are provided to a number of other tools, as well as the associated HIV Immunology Database Compendia, which is downloadable in Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format. The search functions are fairly easy to use with several drop down boxes to select the fields of interest.
Antibody-based therapeutics against cancer are highly successful in clinic and currently enjoy unprecedented recognition of their potential; 13 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been approved for clinical use in the European Union and in the United States (one, mylotarg, was withdrawn from market in 2010). Three of the mAbs (bevacizumab, rituximab, trastuzumab) are in the top six selling protein therapeutics with sales in 2010 of more than $5 bln each. Hundreds of mAbs including bispecific mAbs and multispecific fusion proteins, mAbs conjugated with small molecule drugs and mAbs with optimized pharmacokinetics are in clinical trials. However, challenges remain and it appears that deeper understanding of mechanisms is needed to overcome major problems including resistance to therapy, access to targets, complexity of biological systems and individual variations. PMID:22520975
Adler, Mark J.; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.
Hawthorn (crataegus) has been used since antiquity for medicinal purposes. More recent research suggests it to be useful in congestive heart failure. Rigorous clinical trials show benefit concerning objective signs and subjective symptoms of congestive heart failure stage NYHA-II. No adverse drug reactions have been reported. It is therefore concluded that crataegus is an effective and safe therapeutic alternative for this indication. PMID:8647566
Weihmayr, T; Ernst, E
The identification of genetic factors that regulate HIV-1 infection and AIDS kinetics has clarified our view of viral pathogenesis\\u000a by illuminating the importance of host-virus interactions at virtually every stage of infection. Genetic studies often point\\u000a to unexpected roles for host factors, providing insights into immune regulation of HIV-1 replication and possible selective\\u000a forces that may influence HIV-1 quasispecies evolution.
Cheryl A. Winkler; Stephen J. O’Brien
The Therapeutic Recreation Directory has an abundance of information for the therapeutic recreation specialist, or those who study and teach in the field. There is an extensive collection of activity ideas, ranging from sports and cookery, for educators to experiment with in the classroom or for professionals to use on the job. This site also hosts inTeRlink, a long-running and constantly updated newsletter about developments in recreational therapy, found by clicking on the Ã¯Â¿Â½NewsÃ¯Â¿Â½ link on the left hand side of the home page. All articles from the last ten years are available in the archive. A bulletin board, chat room, and forum keep professionals and students informed about current TR issues, and surveys help to gather and disseminate information and ideas about new developments in TR services. Visitors will also find the Ã¯Â¿Â½FormsÃ¯Â¿Â½ link very helpful in nearly every aspect of providing recreational therapy to clients, including forms to help assess and treat patients, and guidelines on planning and implementing new therapeutic programs.
Dixon, Charles C.
Many attempts have been made or are ongoing for HIV prevention and HIV cure. Many successes are in the list, particularly for HIV drugs, recently proposed also for prevention. However, no eradication of infection has been achieved so far with any drug. Further, a residual immune dysregulation associated to chronic immune activation and incomplete restoration of B and T cell subsets, together with HIV DNA persistence in reservoirs, are still unmet needs of the highly active antiretroviral therapy, causing novel “non-AIDS related” diseases that account for a higher risk of death even in virologically suppressed patients. These “ART unmet needs” represent a problem, which is expected to increase by ART roll out. Further, in countries such as South Africa, where six millions of individuals are infected, ART appears unable to contain the epidemics. Regretfully, all the attempts at developing a preventative vaccine have been largely disappointing. However, recent therapeutic immunization strategies have opened new avenues for HIV treatment, which might be exploitable also for preventative vaccine approaches. For example, immunization strategies aimed at targeting key viral products responsible of virus transmission, activation, and maintenance of virus reservoirs may intensify drug efficacy and lead to a functional cure providing new perspectives also for prevention and future virus eradication strategies. However, this approach imposes new challenges to the scientific community, vaccine developers, and regulatory bodies, such as the identification of novel immunological and virological biomarkers to assess efficacy end-points, taking advantage from the natural history of infection and exploiting lessons from former trials. This review will focus first on recent advancement of therapeutic strategies, then on the progresses made in preventative approaches, discussing concepts, and problems for the way ahead for the development of vaccines for HIV treatment and prevention. PMID:25250026
Ensoli, Barbara; Cafaro, Aurelio; Monini, Paolo; Marcotullio, Simone; Ensoli, Fabrizio
OBJECTIVE--To determine whether the delayed conduction through the spinal cord and peripheral nerves seen in patients with AIDS is related to infection with HIV or to the presence of an immunodeficient state. DESIGN--Two year prospective follow up study of electrophysiological measurements in subjects positive for HIV antibody but without AIDS. SETTING--HIV screening clinic and clinical departments in a university hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark. SUBJECTS--Twelve homosexual men positive for HIV antibody who had not developed AIDS. RESULTS--Eight latencies were measured: from the ankle to T12, the wrist to C7, T12 to the cerebral cortex, C7 to the cerebral cortex, the ankle to the gluteal crease (tibial nerve), the gluteal crease to T12, the wrist to Erb's point (median nerve), and Erb's point to C7. Spinal latencies increased in all subjects at C7 by a mean of 4.2% (SE 0.9%) and in all except one at T12 by a mean of 5.5% (1.0%). The conduction time from the gluteal crease to T12 was increased by a mean of 32.0% (5.0%) whereas that in the median and tibial nerves by only 5.6% (1.0%) and 2.2% (2.2%) respectively. CONCLUSIONS--A mild and slowly progressive peripheral neuropathy of the axonal type and a more severe progressive myelopathy or myeloradiculopathy occur concomitantly with early HIV infection, possibly as the result of a direct neurotropic action of HIV. PMID:2548647
Jakobsen, J.; Smith, T.; Gaub, J.; Helweg-Larsen, S.; Trojaborg, W.
Background In some areas of the world mother-to-child transmission of HIV remains a significant problem in part due to widespread breastfeeding which is essential due to scarce supply of a safe replacement, protection conferred by breast milk against many enteric illnesses, and cultural norms. We propose that sustained, adequate levels of protective antibodies in breast milk will prevent transmission of HIV. Methods The HIV neutralizing human monoclonal antibody b12 (IgG1) has been expressed as an IgA2 in CHO cells and shown to retain full immunoreactivity and neutralizing activity as the parental IgG1. The expression plasmids containing the b12 heavy and light chains were also used to construct milk specific expression vectors using the GTC goat ?-casein expression vector to direct expression of linked genes to the mammary gland with subsequent secretion into the milk. Female transgenic mice were generated and following parturition, their milk was tested for antibody immunoreactivity with gp120 and neutralization of HIV. Results When compared to CHO derived b12 IgA2 (or IgG1), immunoreactivity was retained. When tested for neutralization, milk derived b12 IgA2 was at least comparable to CHO derived antibody and in some cases superior to CHO derived antibody. Furthermore, milk that expressed b12 IgA2 was significantly more effective at mediating antibody dependent cell killing. Conclusions These results suggest it is possible to achieve functional HIV-specific mAb in the milk of transgenic mice and further investigations are warranted to explore ways for inducing this type of antibody response in the breast milk of HIV infected women. PMID:23269241
Yu, Xiaocong; Pollock, Daniel; Duval, Mark; Lewis, Christopher; Joseph, Kristin; Meade, Harry; Cavacini, Lisa
Hispanics in Puerto Rico (PR) have a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (met-syn), partially explained by low physical activity (PA) and possibly low cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak). Met-syn is also associated with lipodystrophy in HIV infected (HIV+) adults taking antiretroviral therapies. However, associations between met-syn, VO2peak, PA, sedentary behavior and lipodystrophy among HIV+ Hispanics have not been adequately reported. Objective We tested the following hypotheses: 1) HIV+ Hispanics with lipodystrophy (HIV-Lipo) would have a higher prevalence of met-syn, lower VO2peak and PA, and higher sedentary behavior compared with those without lipodystrophy (HIV-no-Lipo) and without HIV infection (Non-HIV); and 2) met-syn would be inversely associated with VO2peak and PA, and directly associated with sedentary behavior. METHODS Ninety Hispanic adults (32 HIV-Lipo, 28 HIV-no-Lipo, 30 Non-HIV) completed measurements of VO2peak, anthropometry, PA and sedentary behavior with accelerometry, blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin, and lipids. ANOVA and chi-square tests were used to detect differences between groups, and regression analyses to test associations between variables. RESULTS More HIV-Lipo (69%) had met-syn compared with HIV-no-Lipo (39%) and Non-HIV (37%) (P=0.002). Sedentary behavior and PA were not different, but VO2peak differed between all groups: lowest in HIV-Lipo and highest in non-HIV. PA and sedentary behavior were not associated with met-syn, but PA was directly associated with VO peak (R2=0.26, p<0.01). Also, a lower odds ratio for met-syn was observed with higher VO2peak (0.87; 95% CI: 0.83-0.95). CONCLUSION Met-syn is related to lipodystrophy in HIV+ Hispanics in PR, and high VO2peak may protect against met-syn in this population. PMID:25563033
Ramírez-Marrero, Farah A.; Santana-Bagur, Jorge L.; Joyner, Michael J.; Rodríguez-Zayas, Jorge; Frontera, Walter
Protective or therapeutic immunity against HIV infection is currently believed to require both antibody and CTL responses against the envelope protein. In the present study, the adjuvant activity of a unique oil-in-water emulsion, in which liposomes containing lipid A (LA) and encapsulated antigen served as the emulsifying agent, was examined in mice using oligomeric gp140 (ogp140) derived from the HIV-1 envelope as the antigen. Emulsions rendered either highly stable or unstable by altering the ratio of liposomes to oil were used to examine the effect of stability of the emulsion on adjuvant activity. Stable and unstable emulsions had similar potencies for inducing both IgG antibodies to ogp140 and antigen-specific T-lymphocyte proliferation. Stable emulsions, but not unstable emulsions, induced antigen-specific CTL responses, possibly because of the depot effect of the stable emulsions. Furthermore, stable emulsions induced lower IgG2a/IgG1 ratios than the unstable emulsions. We conclude that stable liposomal oil-in-water emulsions provide an effective means of obtaining both antibody and CTL responses against an HIV envelope antigen. PMID:15479439
Richards, Roberta L; Rao, Mangala; Vancott, Thomas C; Matyas, Gary R; Birx, Deborah L; Alving, Carl R
Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an important risk factor for oropharyngeal cancer. Individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have higher oral HPV prevalence but the risk factors for oral HPV infection are not well understood for either HIV-positive or HIV-negative individuals. Methods This study was nested within the MACS (men) and WIHS (women) cohorts. Exfoliated oral epithelial cells were collected from 379 HIV-positive and 266 at-risk HIV-negative individuals using a rinse and gargle with Scope™ mouthwash. Samples were tested for 36 types of HPV DNA using PGMY09/11 consensus primers and reverse line blot hybridization. Risk factors for oral HPV infection were explored using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations (GEE) in this cross-sectional analysis. Results Prevalent oral HPV infection was common (34%), including HPV16 infection in 5.7% of participants. HIV-positive individuals had increased odds of prevalent oral HPV infection compared to HIV-negative individuals (aOR=2.1, 95%CI=1.6–2.8). Risk factors for prevalent oral HPV differed in HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants. Among HIV-negative individuals, higher number of recent oral sex or rimming partners were strong risk factors for prevalent oral HPV infection (each p-trend<0.01). In contrast, among HIV-positive individuals lower CD4 T-cell count (p-trend<0.001) and higher number of lifetime sexual partners (p-trend=0.03) were strong risk factors. Conclusions Oral HPV prevalence was elevated in HIV-positive individuals after controlling for differences in cigarette smoking and sexual behavior, supporting the possibility that HIV may affect the natural history of oral HPV. Impact Immunosuppression may contribute to increased persistence or progression of oral HPV infection. PMID:22045700
Beachler, Daniel C.; Weber, Kathleen M.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Strickler, Howard D.; Cranston, Ross D.; Burk, Robert D.; Wiley, Dorothy J.; Minkoff, Howard; Reddy, Susheel; Stammer, Emily E.; Gillison, Maura L.; D’Souza, Gypsyamber
... or not.) Bactrim helps prevent Pneu mocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) , a type of pneumonia that can develop in people with advanced HIV. ... to prevent and treat infection with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP). Bactrim is also called Septra, Sulfatrim, Sulfamethoxazole/ ...
The number of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is gradually increasing in Japan, and the morbidity rate from tuberculosis in the Japanese people is high. Accordingly, the number of cases with both infections is considered to increase in the future. Our hospital has already encountered 31 cases of HIV associated tuberculosis. HIV infects mainly CD4-positive cells. The extreme decrease in the cell count results in serious cellular immunological disorder. CD4-positive cell disorder induces disorders of B lymphocytes, cytotoxic T cells, natural killer cells, and macrophage functions. These destructive conditions show the state of immunodeficiency including macrophage that are most important for defense of acid-fast bacterial infection. Migration and activation of macrophages with cytokines derived from T cells are impaired to induce the following phenomena: hypoplasia of granuloma, failure of tubercule bacillus suppression, the spread to regional lymph nodes (hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes), and hematogenous dissemination. On this occasion, caseous necrosis and cavitation are unlikely to occur, and false-negative tuberculin reaction is often observed. The incidence of severe cases, which include miliary tuberculosis, tuberculous meningitis, etc., and extrapulmonary tuberculosis, are high among acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated tuberculosis cases. HIV-infected tuberculosis cases are generally regarded as endogenous exacerbation, but they include primary infection and reinfection as well. Even during the treatment for drug-sensitive strains particularly, some cases may have reinfection with multidrug-resistant bacteria, suggesting that caution should be taken against this point. Conversely, the association of tuberculosis is a factor for the poor prognosis of HIV infection, since it facilitates the development of HIV infection. If the bacteria belong to a drug-sensitive strain, the infection with them responds well to antituberculous drugs, the same as in tuberculosis cases without HIV infection, showing a favorable prognosis. However, the mortality rate of infection with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis is extremely high. The combined use of a protease inhibitor, i.e., anti-HIV drug, with rifampicin is regarded as contraindication for the treatment because rifampicin strongly induces hepatic cytochrome P-450 and increases the metabolism of protease inhibitors and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptases to markedly decrease the blood concentrations. Accordingly, the treatment for tuberculosis should take priority over that for HIV infection in HIV-infected tuberculosis, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may be administered after the treatment of tuberculosis. When HAART is necessary for the treatment during the tuberculosis treatment, rifampicin had better be exchanged to rifabutin because the effect of rifabutin to induce cytochrome P-450 is less potent than that of rifampicin. A report has recently shown that the exacerbation of pyrexia and chest X-ray findings was transiently observed approximately 2 weeks after potent anti-HIV therapy for HIV-infected tuberculosis, which included a protease inhibitor. The reason for the exacerbation has been believed to be that the impaired function of CD4-positive cells is improved by the administration of anti-HIV drugs to raise temporarily the reaction of the vital part to M. tuberculosis. A tuberculin skin test (TST) reaction size of > or = 5 mm of induration is considered positive (i.e., indicative of M. tuberculosis infection) in persons who are infected with HIV. Persons with a TST reaction size > or = 5 mm who have not previously received treatment for M. tuberculosis infection should receive tuberculosis preventive treatment. Prevention by BCG vaccination is regarded as contraindications for HIV-infected patients, because disseminated M. bovis infection may be associated with them. Many HIV-positive patients infected with tuberculosis show uneventful healing, when M. tuberculosis is the sensitive strain. However, since
\\u000a South Africa has one of the most extensive HIV epidemics in the world, and one where the burden of the epidemic is most conspicuously\\u000a borne by young black women. In the interests of epidemiological pragmatism, its course has until fairly recently been mapped\\u000a through women’s infections. One consequence of which has been to render men relatively invisible, both as HIV-related
It is well established that more than 90% of children with HIV acquired it through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). It is estimated that 750,000 children worldwide become infected with HIV every year, and most of these are in sub-Saharan Africa. Routes of MTCT include: transplacental during pregnancy, during birth, through breast milk and bleeding nipples. The percent risk of MTCT varies
Jane Helen Downs; Peter A. Cooper
OBJECTIVE--To estimate the HIV-1 seroprevalence, behavioural risks and attitude to HIV-1 infection among lesbians. SETTING--Institute of Infectious Diseases, University of Turin, Italy. SUBJECTS--From March 1992 to May 1993, 181 lesbians were tested for HIV-1 and included in the study. METHODS--Sociodemographic details, nonsexual risks for HIV-1, sexual behaviour, STD history and attitude to HIV-1 were obtained from an anonymous, standardised, self-administered, 30-item questionnaire. Snow-ball techniques were used to recruit the largest possible number of participants. RESULTS--11 lesbians (6.1%) were found to be HIV-1 antibody positive. Of them, 10 were intravenous (i.v.) drug users. STD episodes were higher among lesbians with HIV-1 than without (p = 0.04), increasing in both groups over time. Syphilis, genital herpes and viral hepatitis were highly associated with HIV-1 (p = 0.000). In univariate analysis, i.v. drug use, bisexual behaviour, history of STDs, sex during menses and vaginal/anal manipulation were significantly linked to HIV-1 (p = 0.000). In multivariate analysis only history of i.v. drug use (p = 0.04) and bisexual behaviour (p = 0.06) remained independently associated with HIV-1. Seventy-one participants (39.3%) had already undergone AIDS testing. Only 3.5% admitted to be at risk for HIV-1 and 11% changed their sex habits after first hearing of AIDS. No lesbian had ever practised safe-sex. Television was the most important source of information on HIV-1 (84%). CONCLUSION--I.v. drug use was the most likely means of HIV-1 infecting the lesbians of Turin. The high rate of STDs and the low perceived risk to HIV-1 require programmes of STD prevention and AIDS information to be targeted at the lesbian community. PMID:8039786
Raiteri, R; Fora, R; Gioannini, P; Russo, R; Lucchini, A; Terzi, M G; Giacobbi, D; Sinicco, A
This review examines the interactions of financial status and HIV and its implications for women. MEDLINE and Google scholar were searched using the keywords 'women', 'poverty' and 'HIV' in any field of the article. The search was limited to articles published in English over the last 10 years. The first section of the article tries to establish whether poverty or wealth is a risk factor for HIV. There is credible evidence for both arguments. While wealth shows an increased risk for both sexes, poverty places women at a special disadvantage. The second section explains how the financial status interacts with other 'non biological' factors to put women at increased risk. While discrimination based on these factors disadvantage women, there are some paradoxical observations that do not fit with the traditional line of explanation (e.g. paradoxical impact of wealth and education on HIV). The final section assesses the impact of HIV in driving poverty and the role of women in interventional programmes. The specific impact of poverty on females in families living with HIV is less explored. Though microfinance initiatives to empower women are a good idea in theory, the actual outcome of such a programme is less convincing. PMID:24037044
Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Rajapakse, Senaka
Summary Host genetic factors are a major contributing factor to the inter-individual variation observed in response to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and are linked to resistance to HIV infection among exposed individuals, as well as rate of disease progression and the likelihood of viral transmission. Of the genetic variants that have been shown to affect the natural history of HIV infection, the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I genes exhibit the strongest and most consistent association, underscoring a central role for CD8+ T cells in resistance to the virus. HLA proteins play important roles in T-cell-mediated adaptive immunity by presenting immunodominant HIV epitopes to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and CD4+ T cells. Genetic and functional data also indicate a function for HLA in natural killer (NK) cell-mediated innate immunity against HIV by interacting with killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). We review the HLA and KIR associations with HIV disease and discuss the mechanisms underlying these associations. PMID:23772624
Martin, Maureen P.; Carrington, Mary
Most of the people now living with HIV acquired the infection through heterosexual intercourse. HIV transmission has been facilitated by (a) concomitant sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), (b) the presence of social conditions that create core groups who have frequent and numerous partners, (c) sexual practices associated with bleeding (i.e., trauma, sex during menses) as well as noncircumcision, (d) cervical ectopy, and (e) anal sex. HIV may be found both cell-free and as intracellular virus in genital tract secretion, and may be sexually transmitted through either mechanism. HIV titers in genital tract secretions vary by several logs between people and within individuals over time, being greatest just after seroconversion and with advanced immunosuppression, concomitant genital tract inflammation (including STDs), and decreasing (but not to zero) with antiretroviral therapy. The per-contact transmission efficiency rate is highly variable, ranging from > 3% to < 1 per thousand contacts, with male-to-female HIV transmission generally being more efficient than vice versa. Control of the heterosexual HIV epidemic will necessitate a multidisciplinary approach, utilizing direct biological approaches (e.g., culturally specific and behavioral interventions, as well as more fundamental community changes that decrease societal norms that augment unsafe practices. PMID:8665090
Mayer, K H; Anderson, D J
While modulation of regulatory T cell (Treg) function and adoptive Treg transfer are being explored as therapeutic modalities in the context of autoimmune diseases, transplantation and cancer, their role in HIV-1 pathogenesis remains less well defined. Controversy persists regarding their beneficial or detrimental effects in HIV-1 disease, which warrants further detailed exploration. Our objectives were to investigate if functional CD4+ Tregs can be isolated and expanded from HIV-1-infected individuals for experimental or potential future therapeutic use and to determine phenotype and suppressive capacity of expanded Tregs from HIV-1 positive blood and tissue. Tregs and conventional T cell controls were isolated from blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissue of individuals with HIV-1 infection and healthy donors using flow-based cell-sorting. The phenotype of expanded Tregs was assessed by flow-cytometry and quantitative PCR. T-cell receptor ß-chain (TCR-?) repertoire diversity was investigated by deep sequencing. Flow-based T-cell proliferation and chromium release cytotoxicity assays were used to determine Treg suppressive function. Tregs from HIV-1 positive individuals, including infants, were successfully expanded from PBMC and GALT. Expanded Tregs expressed high levels of FOXP3, CTLA4, CD39 and HELIOS and exhibited a highly demethylated TSDR (Treg-specific demethylated region), characteristic of Treg lineage. The TCRß repertoire was maintained following Treg expansion and expanded Tregs remained highly suppressive in vitro. Our data demonstrate that Tregs can be expanded from blood and tissue compartments of HIV-1+ donors with preservation of Treg phenotype, function and TCR repertoire. These results are highly relevant for the investigation of potential future therapeutic use, as currently investigated for other disease states and hold great promise for detailed studies on the role of Tregs in HIV-1 infection. PMID:24498287
Angin, Mathieu; Klarenbeek, Paul L.; King, Melanie; Sharma, Siddhartha M.; Moodley, Eshia S.; Rezai, Ashley; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Toth, Ildiko; Chan, Andrew T.; Goulder, Philip J.; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Kwon, Douglas S.; Addo, Marylyn M.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with several human cancers, including cervical cancer, vulvar cancer, vaginal and anal cancer, and a subset of head and neck cancers. The identification of HPV as an etiological factor for HPV-associated malignancies creates the opportunity for the control of these cancers through vaccination. Currently, the preventive HPV vaccine using HPV virus-like particles has been proven to be safe and highly effective. However, this preventive vaccine does not have therapeutic effects, and a significant number of people have established HPV infection and HPV-associated lesions. Therefore, it is necessary to develop therapeutic HPV vaccines to facilitate the control of HPV-associated malignancies and their precursor lesions. Among the various forms of therapeutic HPV vaccines, DNA vaccines have emerged as a potentially promising approach for vaccine development due to their safety profile, ease of preparation and stability. However, since DNA does not have the intrinsic ability to amplify or spread in transfected cells like viral vectors, DNA vaccines can have limited immunogenicity. Therefore, it is important to develop innovative strategies to improve DNA vaccine potency. Since dendritic cells (DCs) are key players in the generation of antigen-specific immune responses, it is important to develop innovative strategies to modify the properties of the DNA-transfected DCs. These strategies include increasing the number of antigen-expressing/antigen-loaded DCs, improving antigen processing and presentation in DCs, and enhancing the interaction between DCs and T cells. Many of the studies on DNA vaccines have been performed on preclinical models. Encouraging results from impressive preclinical studies have led to several clinical trials. PMID:19722895
Monie, Archana; Tsen, Shaw-Wei D; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C
Several gene therapeutic approaches have been proposed to add to current antiretroviral therapy against HIV-1. U1 interference (U1i) is a promising new gene therapy tool that targets mRNAs with modified U1 snRNAs. For efficient inhibition, the 3'-terminal exon of pre-mRNAs must be recognized by the modified U1 snRNA. Subsequent interaction between the U1-associated 70K protein and poly(A) polymerase leads to inhibition of polyadenylation and consequently degradation of the pre-mRNA. We designed 14 new U1i inhibitors against HIV-1 mRNA regions that are 100% complementary to at least 70% of HIV-1 sequences listed in the HIV database. All U1i inhibitors were tested transiently in HIV-1 production assays as well as luciferase reporter experiments and three candidates were examined further in stably lentivirus-transduced T cell lines. We identified U1i-J that targets the region encoding the NF-?B binding sites as the most effective inhibitor that substantially reduced viral protein expression. The potency of J is determined in part by the presence of a duplicated target within the HIV-1 mRNA. The stably transduced SupT1 T cells were challenged with HIV-1 but no antiviral effect was detected. U1i inhibitors can be potent suppressors of HIV-1 production in transient assays but further optimization of this antiviral approach is needed. PMID:22507247
Knoepfel, Stefanie A; Abad, Amaya; Abad, Xabi; Fortes, Puri; Berkhout, Ben
To replicate, HIV-1 capitalizes on endogenous cellular activation pathways resulting in recruitment of key host transcription factors to its viral enhancer. RNA interference has been a powerful tool for blocking key checkpoints in HIV-1 entry into cells. Here we apply RNA interference to HIV-1 transcription in primary macrophages, a major reservoir of the virus, and specifically target the transcription factor NFAT5 (nuclear factor of activated T cells 5), which is the most evolutionarily divergent NFAT protein. By molecularly cloning and sequencing isolates from multiple viral subtypes, and performing DNase I footprinting, electrophoretic mobility shift, and promoter mutagenesis transfection assays, we demonstrate that NFAT5 functionally interacts with a specific enhancer binding site conserved in HIV-1, HIV-2, and multiple simian immunodeficiency viruses. Using small interfering RNA to ablate expression of endogenous NFAT5 protein, we show that the replication of three major HIV-1 viral subtypes (B, C, and E) is dependent upon NFAT5 in human primary differentiated macrophages. Our results define a novel host factor–viral enhancer interaction that reveals a new regulatory role for NFAT5 and defines a functional DNA motif conserved across HIV-1 subtypes and representative simian immunodeficiency viruses. Inhibition of the NFAT5–LTR interaction may thus present a novel therapeutic target to suppress HIV-1 replication and progression of AIDS. PMID:17173480
Lee, Sang-Kyung; Rajsbaum, Ricardo; Falvo, James V; Lieberman, Judy; Shankar, Premlata; Goldfeld, Anne E
The first stage of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection involves the fusion of viral and host cellular membranes mediated by viral envelope glycoprotein gp120. Inhibitors that specifically target gp120 are gaining increased attention as therapeutics or preventatives to prevent the spread of HIV-1. One promising new group of inhibitors is the peptide triazoles, which bind to gp120 and simultaneously block its interaction with both CD4 and the coreceptor. In this study, we assessed the most potent peptide triazole, HNG-156, for inhibitory breadth, cytotoxicity, and efficacy, both alone and in combination with other antiviral compounds, against HIV-1. HNG-156 inhibited a panel of 16 subtype B and C isolates of HIV-1 in a single-round infection assay. Inhibition of cell infection by replication-competent clinical isolates of HIV-1 was also observed with HNG-156. We found that HNG-156 had a greater than predicted effect when combined with several other entry inhibitors or the reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir. Overall, we find that HNG-156 is noncytotoxic, has a broad inhibition profile, and provides a positive combination with several inhibitors of the HIV-1 life cycle. These results support the pursuit of efficacy and toxicity analyses in more advanced cell and animal models to develop peptide triazole family inhibitors of HIV-1 into antagonists of HIV-1 infection. PMID:22083481
McFadden, Karyn; Fletcher, Patricia; Rossi, Fiorella; Kantharaju; Umashankara, Muddagowda; Pirrone, Vanessa; Rajagopal, Srivats; Gopi, Hosahudya; Krebs, Fred C.; Martin-Garcia, Julio; Shattock, Robin J.
Clinicians have witnessed an evolution from sulfasalazine and hydrocortisone to alternative aminosalicylates and steroids. Revolutionary changes beyond these, however, and other "nonspecific" anti-immunoinflammatory compounds require clarification of the primary events either activating inflammatory cascades or preventing the down-regulation of homeopathic inflammation. The authors remain encouraged by advances in basic research pertaining to IBD and optimistic that novel empiric observations and therapeutic trials will focus bench-side investigation as clinicians strive to improve the quality of life for patients. PMID:8809234
Hanauer, S B; Schulman, M I
Combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection improves immune function and eliminates the risk of AIDS-related complications, but does not restore full health. HIV-infected adults have excess risk of cardiovascular, liver, kidney, bone and neurologic diseases. Many markers of inflammation are elevated in HIV disease and strongly predictive of the risk of morbidity and mortality. A conceptual model has emerged to explain this syndrome of diseases where HIV-mediated destruction of gut mucosa leads to local and systemic inflammation. Translocated microbial products then pass through the liver, contributing to hepatic damage, impaired microbial clearance and impaired protein synthesis. Chronic activation of monocytes and altered liver protein synthesis subsequently contribute to a hypercoagulable state. The combined effect of systemic inflammation and excess clotting on tissue function leads to end-organ disease. Multiple therapeutic interventions designed to reverse these pathways are now being tested in the clinic. It is likely that knowledge gained on how inflammation affect health in HIV disease could have implications for our understanding of other chronic inflammatory diseases and the biology of aging. PMID:24138880
Deeks, Steven G.; Tracy, Russell; Douek, Daniel C.
During these last two years less drug regimens (LDRs) in HIV, and in particular protease inhibitor (PI)/r-based strategies, have been explored both in clinical trials and in clinical practice. Many results are now available and more is known about how to use them safely and effectively. Understanding that an LDR strategy represents a real tailored therapeutic approach for the patient is crucial for the long-term success and positive management of HIV infection. Trust between patients and HIV specialists and a real focus on the patient's life are key factors for long life treatment success, in particular when using a LDR strategy. This is clearly shown by the HIV patient's journey (HPJ) methodology, used in an Italian national workshop to better define the criteria and challenges of LDR strategies. This paper shows the results of this complex process. PMID:24858643
Marcotullio, Simone; Ammassari, Adriana; Andreoni, Massimo; Antinori, Andrea; Bonora, Stefano; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Di Perri, Giovanni; Galli, Massimo; Gervasoni, Cristina; Iardino, Rosaria; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Lo Caputo, Sergio; Nozza, Silvia; Perno, Carlo Federico; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Lazzarin, Adriano
We investigated the antiviral activity of olive leaf extract (OLE) preparations standardized by liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry (LC-MS) against HIV-1 infection and replication. We find that OLE inhibits acute infection and cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1 as assayed by syncytia formation using uninfected MT2 cells co-cultured with HIV-1-infected H9 T lymphocytes. OLE also inhibits HIV-1 replication as assayed by p24 expression in infected H9 cells. These anti-HIV effects of OLE are dose dependent, with EC(50)s of around 0.2 microg/ml. In the effective dose range, no cytotoxicity on uninfected target cells was detected. The therapeutic index of OLE is above 5000. To identify viral and host targets for OLE, we characterized gene expression profiles associated with HIV-1 infection and OLE treatment using cDNA microarrays. HIV-1 infection modulates the expression patterns of cellular genes involved in apoptosis, stress, cytokine, protein kinase C, and hedgehog signaling. HIV-1 infection up-regulates the expression of the heat-shock proteins hsp27 and hsp90, the DNA damage inducible transcript 1 gadd45, the p53-binding protein mdm2, and the hedgehog signal protein patched 1, while it down-regulates the expression of the anti-apoptotic BCL2-associated X protein Bax. Treatment with OLE reverses many of these HIV-1 infection-associated changes. Treatment of HIV-1-infected cells with OLE also up-regulates the expression of the apoptosis inhibitor proteins IAP1 and 2, as well as the calcium and protein kinase C pathway signaling molecules IL-2, IL-2Ralpha, and ornithine decarboxylase ODC1. PMID:12878215
Lee-Huang, Sylvia; Zhang, Li; Huang, Philip Lin; Chang, Young-Tae; Huang, Paul L
Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) is a severe and incurable X-linked genetic syndrome caused by the deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT), resulting in severe alterations of central nervous system, hyperuricemia and subsequent impaired renal functions. Therapeutic options consist in supportive care and treatments of complications, but the disease remains largely untreatable. Enzyme replacement of the malfunctioning cytosolic protein might represent a possible therapeutic approach for the LND treatment. Protein transduction domains, such as the TAT peptide derived from HIV TAT protein, have been used to transduce macromolecules into cells in vitro and in vivo. The present study was aimed to the generation of TAT peptide fused to human HPRT for cell transduction in enzyme deficient cells. Here we document the construction, expression and delivery of a functional HPRT enzyme into deficient cells by TAT transduction domain and by liposome mediated protein transfer. With this approach we demonstrate the correction of the enzymatic defect in HPRT deficient cells. Our data show for the first time the feasibility of the enzyme replacement therapy for the treatment of LND. PMID:24129187
Cattelan, Paola; Dolcetta, Diego; Hladnik, Uros; Fortunati, Elisabetta
... some people, changing HIV medicines may lessen the effects of lipodystrophy. Newer HIV medicines are less likely to cause lipodystrophy than HIV ... eyes and mouth. Medicines may help lessen the effects of ... (brand name: Egrifta) is a medicine used to reduce the buildup of abdominal fat ...
Interferon-? (IFN?) plays various roles in the pathogenesis of HIV/AIDS. In an HIV-1 infected individual, the production of IFN? is detected as early as the acute phase and continually detected throughout the course of infection. Initially produced to clear the primary infection, IFN? together with other inflammatory cytokines are involved in establishing a chronic immune activation that exacerbates clinical diseases associated with AIDS. Unlike Type 1 IFNs, IFN? has no direct antiviral activity against HIV-1 in primary cultures, as supported by the in vivo findings of IFN? therapy in infected subjects. Results from both in vitro and ex vivo studies show that IFN? can instead enhance HIV-1 replication and its associated diseases, and therapies aimed at decreasing its production are under consideration. On the other hand, IFN? has been shown to enhance cytotoxic T lymphocytes and NK cell activities against HIV-1 infected cells. These activities are important in controlling HIV-1 replication in an individual and will most likely play a role in the prophylaxis of an effective vaccine against HIV-1. Additionally, IFN? has been used in combination with HIV-1 vaccine to augment antiviral immunity. Technological advancements have focused on using IFN? as a biological marker to analyze the type(s) of immunity generated by candidate HIV vaccines and the levels of immunity restored by anti-retroviral drug therapies or novel immunotherapies. Hence, in addition to its valuable ancillary role as a biological marker for the development of effective HIV-1 prophylactic and therapeutic strategies, IFN? has a vital role in promoting the pathogenesis of HIV. PMID:24454311
Roff, Shannon R.; Noon-Song, Ezra N.; Yamamoto, Janet K.
... policy, and prevention. Mozambique Positive Prevention Toolkit I-TECH, the HIV/AIDS Twinning Center, and PEPFAR Mozambique. ... for Transgender Health Prevention, care, and treatment I-TECH International training and technical assistance VA National HIV/ ...
The female genital tract is a portal of entry for sexual HIV transmission and a possible viral reservoir. In this study, the ectocervical CD8+ T cell distribution was explored in situ and was related to expression of CD3 and HLA-DR and presence of HIV RNA. For this purpose, ectocervical tissue samples and genital secretions were collected from HIV-seropositive (HIV+) Kenyan female sex workers (FSWs) (n = 20), HIV-seronegative (HIV-) FSWs (n = 17), and HIV(-) lower-risk women (n = 21). Cell markers were assessed by in situ staining and by quantitative PCR. HIV RNA expression in tissue was analyzed by in situ hybridization, and viral shedding was assessed by quantitative PCR. The HIV+ FSW group had a higher amount of total cells and CD8+, CD3+, and HLA-DR+ cells compared with the HIV(-)FSW group and HIV- lower-risk women. The majority of CD8+ cells were CD3+ T cells, and the numbers of CD8+ cells correlated significantly with plasma and cervical viral load. HIV RNA expression in situ was found in 4 of the 20 HIV+FSW women but did not correlate with cervical or plasma viral load. Thus, the HIV+ women displayed high numbers of CD8+, CD3+, and HLA-DR+ cells, as well as a limited number of HIV RNA+ cells, in their ectocervical mucosa; hence, this localization cannot be neglected as a potential viral reservoir. The elevated levels of CD8+ T cells may play a role in the immunopathogenesis of HIV in the female genital tract. PMID:24639358
Gibbs, Anna; Hirbod, Taha; Li, Qingsheng; Bohman, Karin; Ball, Terry B; Plummer, Francis A; Kaul, Rupert; Kimani, Joshua; Broliden, Kristina; Tjernlund, Annelie
Purpose of review HIV infection is characterized by chronic immune system activation and inflammatory cytokine production. This review will highlight recent developments using plasma and cellular biomarkers of immune system activation and dysfunction to predict mortality and opportunistic disease in HIV-infected individuals. Recent findings HIV infection results in features characteristic of early aging of the immune system or ‘immune senescence’, driven by chronic antigen exposure and immune system activation. Microbial translocation of gut bacterial components is associated with chronic immune activation and possibly systemic inflammation. Antiretroviral therapy may not fully normalize this condition. Baseline elevations of certain biomarkers of inflammation or coagulopathy, notably interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and d-dimer, have been associated with mortality or opportunistic disease, after adjustment for appropriate variables, in several large randomized clinical trials. It is not known if elevated IL-6 or CRP causes this morbidity and mortality or if they are simply surrogate markers of a global inflammatory state. Summary Several inflammatory biomarkers appear to add to our ability to predict mortality or opportunistic disease in HIV-infected individuals. Before biomarkers will be useful, it will be necessary to identify interventions that moderate biomarker levels, and then determine if this moderation attenuates disease outcomes. PMID:20978393
Nixon, Daniel E.; Landay, Alan L.
The continuing paucity of effective interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS stigma is troubling, given that stigma has long been recognized as a significant barrier to HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support. Ineffectual HIV/AIDS stigma-reduction interventions are the product of inadequate conceptual frameworks and methodological tools. And while there is a paucity of effective interventions to reduce stigma, there is no shortage of conceptual frameworks intending to offer a comprehensive understanding of stigma, ranging from sociocognitive models at the individual level to structural models at the macrolevel. Observations highlighting inadequacies in the individualistic and structural models are offered, followed by the theory of structuration as a possible complementary conceptual base for designing HIV/AIDS stigma-reduction interventions. PMID:23563234
Renal transplantation is being performed in adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and increasingly in paediatric patients as well. A multidisciplinary team involving an infectious disease professional is required to assist with HIV viral-load monitoring and in choosing the most appropriate highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Drug interactions complicate immunosuppressant therapy and require careful management. The acute rejection rates appear to be similar in adults to those in noninfective transplant recipients. Induction with basiliximab and calcineurin-based immunosuppression appears to be safe and effective in these recipients. Prophylaxis is advised for a variety of infections and may need life-long administration, especially in children. Organ shortage remains a significant problem, and kidneys from deceased HIV-positive donors have been used successfully in a small study population. Overall, with careful planning and close follow-up, successful renal transplantation for paediatric HIV-infected recipients is possible. PMID:24691821
McCulloch, Mignon I; Kala, Udai K
Nitrones have the general chemical formula X-CH=NO-Y. They were first used to trap free radicals in chemical systems and then subsequently in biochemical systems. More recently several nitrones including PBN (?-phenyl-tert-butylnitrone) have been shown to have potent biological activity in many experimental animal models. Many diseases of aging including stroke, cancer development, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease are known to have enhanced levels of free radicals and oxidative stress. Some derivatives of PBN are significantly more potent than PBN and have undergone extensive commercial development in stroke. Recent research has shown that PBN-related nitrones also have anti-cancer activity in several experimental cancer models and have potential as therapeutics in some cancers. Also in recent observations nitrones have been shown to act synergistically in combination with antioxidants in the prevention of acute acoustic noise induced hearing loss. The mechanistic basis of the potent biological activity of PBN-related nitrones is not known. Even though PBN-related nitrones do decrease oxidative stress and oxidative damage, their potent biological anti-inflammatory activity and their ability to alter cellular signaling processes can not readily be explained by conventional notions of free radical trapping biochemistry. This review is focused on our observations and others where the use of selected nitrones as novel therapeutics have been evaluated in experimental models in the context of free radical biochemical and cellular processes considered important in pathologic conditions and age-related diseases. PMID:18793715
Floyd, Robert A.; Kopke, Richard D.; Choi, Chul-Hee; Foster, Steven B.; Doblas, Sabrina; Towner, Rheal A.
ABSTRACT The latent HIV reservoir is a major impediment to curing HIV infection. The contribution of CD4+ T cell activation status to the establishment and maintenance of the latent reservoir was investigated by enumerating viral DNA components in a cohort of 12 individuals commencing antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing raltegravir, an integrase inhibitor. Prior to ART, the levels of total HIV DNA were similar across HLA-DR+ and HLA-DR? (HLA-DR±) CD38± memory CD4+ T cell phenotypes; episomal two-long terminal repeat (2-LTR) HIV DNA levels were higher in resting (HLA-DR? CD38?) cells, and this phenotype exhibited a significantly higher ratio of 2-LTR to integrated HIV DNA (P = 0.002). After 1 year of ART, there were no significant differences across each of the memory phenotypes of any HIV DNA component. The decay dynamics of integrated HIV DNA were slow within each subset, and integrated HIV DNA in the resting HLA-DR? CD38? subset per mm3 of peripheral blood exhibited no significant decay (half-life of 25 years). Episomal 2-LTR HIV DNA decayed relative to integrated HIV DNA in resting cells with a half-life of 134 days. Surprisingly, from week 12 on, the decay rates of both total and episomal HIV DNA were lower in activated CD38+ cells. By weeks 24 and 52, HIV RNA levels in plasma were most significantly correlated with the numbers of resting cells containing integrated HIV DNA. On the other hand, total HIV DNA levels in all subsets were significantly correlated with the numbers of HLA-DR+ CD38? cells containing integrated HIV DNA. These results provide insights into the interrelatedness of cell activation and reservoir maintenance, with implications for the design of therapeutic strategies targeting HIV persistence. IMPORTANCE It is generally believed that HIV is not cleared by extensive antiretroviral therapy (ART) due to the difficulty in eradicating the latent reservoir in resting CD4+ T cells. New therapies that attempt to activate this reservoir so that immune or viral cytopathic mechanisms can remove those infected cells are currently being investigated. However, results obtained in this research indicate that activation, at least on some level, already occurs within this reservoir. Furthermore, we are the first to describe the dynamics of different HIV DNA species in resting and activated memory CD4+ T cell subsets that point to the role different levels of activation play in maintaining the HIV reservoir. PMID:24403590
Zaunders, John J.; McBride, Kristin L.; Xu, Yin; Bailey, Michelle; Suzuki, Kazuo; Cooper, David A.; Emery, Sean; Kelleher, Anthony D.; Koelsch, Kersten K.
Behçet's disease is an autoimmune systemic vasculitis that can occur after exposure to infectious agents. Behçet's disease also has been associated with HIV infection, including de novo development of this condition during chronic HIV infection and resolution of Behçet's disease symptoms following initiation of antiretroviral therapy. We describe a patient who presented with systemic vasculitis with skin and mucous membrane ulcerations in the setting of acute HIV infection, who was eventually diagnosed with Behçet's disease, demonstrating a possible link between acute HIV infection, immune activation and development of autoimmunity. PMID:24912539
Roscoe, Clay; Kinney, Rebecca; Gilles, Ryan; Blue, Sky
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) frequently causes neurological dysfunction and is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with HIV encephalitis or myelopathy. The virus is found mostly in cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage within the CNS, but the possibility of infection of other glial cells has been raised. Therefore, the effects of different
Brynmor A. Watkins; Henry H. Dorn; Walter B. Kelly; Regina C. Armstrong; Barbara J. Potts; Frank Michaels; Conrad V. Kufta; Monique Dubois-Dalcq
The advent of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and treatment as prevention (TasP) as means of HIV prevention raises issues of justice concerning how most fairly and equitably to apportion resources in support of the burgeoning variety of established HIV treatment and prevention measures and further HIV research, including HIV vaccine research. We apply contemporary approaches to social justice to assess the ethical justification for allocating resources in support of HIV vaccine research given competing priorities to support broad implementation of HIV treatment and prevention measures, including TasP and PrEP. We argue that there is prima facie reason to believe that a safe and effective preventive HIV vaccine would offer a distinct set of ethically significant benefits not provided by current HIV treatment or prevention methods. It is thereby possible to justify continued support for HIV vaccine research despite tension with priorities for treatment, prevention, and other research. We then consider a counter-argument to such a justification based on the uncertainty of successfully developing a safe and effective preventive HIV vaccine. Finally, we discuss how HIV vaccine research might now be ethically designed and conducted given the new preventive options of TasP and PrEP, focusing on the ethically appropriate standard of prevention for HIV vaccine trials. PMID:24033297
Bailey, Theodore C.; Sugarman, Jeremy
The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) recently updated its global targets for antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage for HIV-positive persons under which 90% of HIV-positive people are tested, 90% of those are on ART, and 90% of those achieve viral suppression. Treatment policy is moving toward treating all HIV-infected persons regardless of CD4 cell count—otherwise known as treatment as prevention—in order to realize the full therapeutic and preventive benefits of ART. Mathematical models have played an important role in guiding the development of these policies by projecting long-term health impacts and cost-effectiveness. To guide future policy, new mathematical models must consider the barriers patients face in receiving and taking ART. Here, we describe the HIV care cascade and ART delivery supply chain to examine how mathematical modeling can provide insight into cost-effective strategies for scaling-up ART coverage in sub-Saharan Africa and help achieve universal ART coverage. PMID:25249293
Ying, Roger; Barnabas, Ruanne V.; Williams, Brian G.
Background Recent studies have found high prevalences of asymptomatic rectal chlamydia among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Chlamydia could increase the infectivity of HIV and the susceptibility to HIV infection. We investigate the role of chlamydia in the spread of HIV among MSM and the possible impact of routine chlamydia screening among HIV-infected MSM at HIV treatment centres on the incidence of chlamydia and HIV in the overall MSM population. Methods A mathematical model was developed to describe the transmission of HIV and chlamydia among MSM. Parameters relating to sexual behaviour were estimated from data from the Amsterdam Cohort Study among MSM. Uncertainty analysis was carried out for model parameters without confident estimates. The effects of different screening strategies for chlamydia were investigated. Results Among all new HIV infections in MSM, 15% can be attributed to chlamydia infection. Introduction of routine chlamydia screening every six months among HIV-infected MSM during regular HIV consultations can reduce the incidence of both infections among MSM: after 10 years, the relative percentage reduction in chlamydia incidence would be 15% and in HIV incidence 4%, compared to the current situation. Chlamydia screening is more effective in reducing HIV incidence with more frequent screening and with higher participation of the most risky MSM in the screening program. Conclusions Chlamydia infection could contribute to the transmission of HIV among MSM. Preventive measures reducing chlamydia prevalence, such as routine chlamydia screening of HIV-infected MSM, can result in a decline in the incidence of chlamydia and HIV. PMID:24047261
3-Deazaadenosine (DZA), 3-deaza-(+/-)-aristeromycin (DZAri), and 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep) are powerful modulators of cellular processes. When tested against H9 cells infected acutely with two different strains of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and in the chronically infected monocytoid cell lines U1 and THP-1, the 3-deazanucleosides caused a marked reduction in p24 antigen production. Similar reductions in p24 antigen were seen in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with clinical HIV-1 isolates. Strikingly, in comparing the therapeutic indices between the paired pre- and post-3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) treatment HIV-1 isolates, DZNep and neplanocin A showed an increase of 3- to 18-fold in their potency against AZT-resistant HIV-1 isolates. In H9 cells treated with DZNep and DZAri, the formation of triphosphate nucleotides of DZNep and DZAri was observed. The mode of action of DZNep and DZAri appears complex, at least in part, at the level of infectivity as shown by decreases in syncytia formation in HIV-1-infected H9 cells and at the level of transcription as both drugs inhibited the expression of basal or tat-induced HIV-1 long terminal repeat chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity in stably transfected cell lines. Since DZNep induced in H9 cells a rapid expression of nuclear binding factors that recognize the AP-1 transcription site, the anti-HIV-1 activity of the DZA analogs could partly be the induction of critical factors in the host cells. Thus, the 3-deazanucleoside drugs belong to an unusual class of anti-HIV-1 drugs, which may have therapeutic potential, in particular against AZT-resistant strains. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7816820
Mayers, D L; Mikovits, J A; Joshi, B; Hewlett, I K; Estrada, J S; Wolfe, A D; Garcia, G E; Doctor, B P; Burke, D S; Gordon, R K
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common serious opportunistic infection in HIV positive patients and is the manifestation of AIDS in more than 50% of cases in developing countries. TB can occur at any time during the course of HIV infection. Aim: To describe the socio-demographic profile and prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (HIV/TB co-infection) among HIV positive patients been attended at the antiretroviral therapy clinic (ART) clinic at tertiary care teaching hospital of western Maharashtra, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out at the ART clinic of Pravara Rural Hospital, Loni, from June 2011 to May 2012. A total of 1012 HIV positive patients, who attended ART clinic, receiving ART treatment during the study period, were included in the analysis. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (Version 17.0). Results: This study showed 1012/172 (17%) prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis among HIV positive patients, of which 87 (50.58%) were males and 85 (48.42%) were females. Low CD4 count (< 50/?l) had statistically significant association with HIV/TB co-infection as compared to HIV infection only (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: The study showed that 17% of HIV infected persons had tuberculosis co-infection. More strategic preventive measures that enhance body immunity among HIV patients are highly needed as early as possible before they develop active tuberculosis. PMID:23923111
Giri, Purushottam A; Deshpande, Jayant D; Phalke, Deepak B
Purpose To determine whether HIV-1 produces microRNAs and elucidate whether these miRNAs can induce inflammatory response in macrophages (independent of the conventional miRNA function in RNA interference) leading to chronic immune activation. Methods Using sensitive quantitative Real Time RT-PCR and sequencing, we detected novel HIV-derived miRNAs in the sera of HIV+ persons, and associated with exosomes. Release of TNF? by macrophages challenged with HIV miRNAs was measured by ELISA. Results HIV infection of primary alveolar macrophages produced elevated levels of viral microRNAs vmiR88, vmiR99 and vmiR-TAR in cell extracts and in exosome preparations from conditioned medium. Furthermore, these miRNAs were also detected in exosome fraction of sera from HIV-infected persons. Importantly, vmiR88 and vmiR99 (but not vmiR-TAR) stimulated human macrophage TNF? release, which is dependent on macrophage TLR8 expression. These data support a potential role for HIV-derived vmiRNAs released from infected macrophages as contributing to chronic immune activation in HIV-infected persons, and may represent a novel therapeutic target to limit AIDS pathogenesis. Conclusion Novel HIV vmiR88 and vmiR99 are present in the systemic circulation of HIV+ persons and could exhibit biological function (independent of gene silencing) as ligands for TLR8 signaling that promote macrophage TNF? release, and may contribute to chronic immune activation. Targeting novel HIV-derived miRNAs may represent a therapeutic strategy to limit chronic immune activation and AIDS progression. PMID:25191859
Bernard, Mark A.; Zhao, Hui; Yue, Simon C.; Anandaiah, Asha; Koziel, Henry; Tachado, Souvenir D.
The molecular mechanisms involved in the assembly of newly synthesized Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) particles are poorly understood. Most of the work on HIV-1 assembly has been performed in T cells in which viral particle budding and assembly take place at the plasma membrane. In contrast, few studies have been performed on macrophages, the other major target of HIV-1. Infected
Philippe Benaroch; Elisabeth Billard; Raphaël Gaudin; Michae