Sample records for hiv therapeutic possibilities

  1. Polymeric anti-HIV therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Danial, Maarten; Klok, Harm-Anton

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this review is to highlight the application of polymer therapeutics in an effort to curb the transmission and infection of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Following a description of the HIV life cycle, the use of approved antiretroviral drugs that inhibit critical steps in the HIV infection process is highlighted. After that, a comprehensive overview of the structure and inhibitory properties of polymeric anti-HIV therapeutic agents is presented. This overview will include inhibitors based on polysaccharides, synthetic polymers, dendritic polymers, polymer conjugates as well as polymeric DC-SIGN antagonists. The review will conclude with a section that discusses the applications of polymers and polymer conjugates as systemic and topical anti-HIV therapeutics. PMID:25185484

  2. Therapeutic immunization for HIV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lindvi Gudmundsdotter; Anna Sjödin; Ann-Charlotte Boström; Bo Hejdeman; Rebecca Theve-Palm; Annette Alaeus; Knut Lidman; Britta Wahren

    2006-01-01

    Vaccines have entered into human clinical trials against infectious diseases and as therapies against cancer. The HIV virus establishes a latent infection at a very early stage and the T cell memory of the infected patient is rapidly destroyed. However, results of immunotherapy after DNA and protein immunization show that vaccine-induced immune responses might be present for a long period

  3. Th17, Gut, and HIV: Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of Review The purpose of this review is to discuss the apparent impact of persistent immune activation and inflammation on morbidity and mortality among treated HIV-infected individuals, to explore the potential role of Th17 T cell depletion in this process, and to discuss potential therapeutic implications. Recent Findings While the vast majority of HIV-infected individuals can now achieve and maintain viral suppression with modern antiretroviral therapy (ART), their life expectancy remains much shorter than the general population and they continue to be at much higher risk for non-AIDS-associated diseases commonly associated with aging (non-AIDS-associated cancer, cardiovascular disease, etc). Abnormal levels of immune activation and inflammation persist despite sustained viral suppression and may drive these clinical events. While the causes of persistent immune activation remain incompletely characterized, persistent low-level HIV replication and/or release from latently infected cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and microbial translocation likely play a major role. Failure to restore Th17 cells in GALT during ART might impair both the recovery of the gut mucosal barrier and the clearance of microbial products. Summary Insights from recent pathogenesis studies might suggest novel therapeutic approaches designed to restore Th17 cells in GALT, thereby decreasing microbial translocation, immune activation, and ultimately morbidity and mortality during treated HIV infection. PMID:20543599

  4. [Therapeutic possibilities after traumatic experiences].

    PubMed

    Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter

    2008-12-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are frequent, but not obligatory psychological sequelae following trauma. A major subgroup of patients face a chronic course of illness associated with an increased psychiatric comorbidity and significant impairments in psychosocial adaptation. The typical psychopathological symptoms of ASD and PTSD are best described within a multifactorial model integrating both neurobiological and psychosocial influences. The complex etiopathogenesis of acute and posttraumatic stress disorder favours multimodal approaches in the treatment. Differential psychotherapeutic and pharmacological strategies are available. In a critical survey on empirical studies, psychological debriefing cannot be considered as a positive approach to be recommended as general preventive measure during the immediate posttraumatic phase. Positive effects of cognitive-behavioral interventions can be established for ASD. Psychodynamic psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy and EMDR show promising results in the treatment of PTSD. Major clinical restrictions of patient sampling within special research facilities, however, do not allow an unconditional generalization of these data to psychiatric routine care. In an empirical analysis the SSRIs are the most and best studied medications for ASD and PTSD. In comparison to tricyclic antidepressants SSRIs demonstrate a broader spectrum of therapeutic effects and are better tolerated. The substance classes of SSNRI, DAS, SARI and NaSSA are to be considered as drugs of second choice. They promise a therapeutic efficacy equivalent to the SSRIs, being investigated so far only in open studies. MAO-inhibitors may dispose of a positive therapeutic potential, their profile of side effects must be respected, however. Mood stabilizers and atypical neuroleptics may be used first and foremost in add-on strategies. Benzodiazepines should be used only with increased caution for a short time in states of acute crisis. In early interventions, substances blocking the norepinephric hyperactivity seem to be promising alternatives. Stress doses of hydrocortisone may be considered as an experimental pharmacological strategy so far. PMID:19011595

  5. Novel therapeutic strategies targeting HIV integrase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Integration of the viral genome into host cell chromatin is a pivotal and unique step in the replication cycle of retroviruses, including HIV. Inhibiting HIV replication by specifically blocking the viral integrase enzyme that mediates this step is an obvious and attractive therapeutic strategy. After concerted efforts, the first viable integrase inhibitors were developed in the early 2000s, ultimately leading to the clinical licensure of the first integrase strand transfer inhibitor, raltegravir. Similarly structured compounds and derivative second generation integrase strand transfer inhibitors, such as elvitegravir and dolutegravir, are now in various stages of clinical development. Furthermore, other mechanisms aimed at the inhibition of viral integration are being explored in numerous preclinical studies, which include inhibition of 3' processing and chromatin targeting. The development of new clinically useful compounds will be aided by the characterization of the retroviral intasome crystal structure. This review considers the history of the clinical development of HIV integrase inhibitors, the development of antiviral drug resistance and the need for new antiviral compounds. PMID:22498430

  6. Putting an ‘End’ to HIV mRNAs: capping and polyadenylation as potential therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Like most cellular mRNAs, the 5? end of HIV mRNAs is capped and the 3? end matured by the process of polyadenylation. There are, however, several rather unique and interesting aspects of these post-transcriptional processes on HIV transcripts. Capping of the highly structured 5? end of HIV mRNAs is influenced by the viral TAT protein and a population of HIV mRNAs contains a trimethyl-G cap reminiscent of U snRNAs involved in splicing. HIV polyadenylation involves active repression of a promoter-proximal polyadenylation signal, auxiliary upstream regulatory elements and moonlighting polyadenylation factors that have additional impacts on HIV biology outside of the constraints of classical mRNA 3’ end formation. This review describes these post-transcriptional novelties of HIV gene expression as well as their implications in viral biology and as possible targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24330569

  7. Is there any room for therapeutic vaccination against the HIV-1/AIDS?

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Enrique

    2013-07-01

    Any therapeutic vaccination approach against HIV-1 must induce CTL and Th1 cells. But, therapeutic vaccination is more than that. For extensive application of a therapeutic vaccine several questions need to be solved in advance to achieve a global impact. In this commentary some of them are addressed. We analyze the epidemiology, sociology, economy and immunopathology related to the HIV/AIDS disease. Also, important technical issues and real possibilities to overcome at least some of the major limitation of the antiretroviral treatments in the pursuit of an effective vaccine are considered. From the integration of previous analyses some conclusions are drawn. Because it is just a commentary some arguments are not unveiled into their full extension. At the end, we discuss some issues in relation to the development of the vaccine candidate TERAVAC-HIV-1 as a case study. PMID:23571171

  8. Fighting HIV/AIDS: is success possible?

    PubMed Central

    Okware, S.; Opio, A.; Musinguzi, J.; Waibale, P.

    2001-01-01

    The fight against HIV/AIDS poses enormous challenges worldwide, generating fears that success may be too difficult or even impossible to attain. Uganda has demonstrated that an early, consistent and multisectoral control strategy can reduce both the prevalence and the incidence of HIV infection. From only two AIDS cases in 1982, the epidemic in Uganda grew to a cumulative 2 million HIV infections by the end of 2000. The AIDS Control Programme established in 1987 in the Ministry of Health mounted a national response that expanded over time to reach other relevant sectors under the coordinating role of the Uganda AIDS Commission. The national response was to bring in new policies, expanded partnerships, increased institutional capacity for care and research, public health education for behaviour change, strengthened sexually transmitted disease (STD) management, improved blood transfusion services, care and support services for persons with HIV/AIDS, and a surveillance system to monitor the epidemic. After a decade of fighting on these fronts, Uganda became, in October 1996, the first African nation to report declining trends in HIV infection. Further decline in prevalence has since been noted. The Medical Research Council (UK) and the Uganda Virus Research Institute have demonstrated declining HIV incidence rates in the general population in the Kyamulibwa in Masaka Districts. Repeat knowledge, attitudes, behaviour and practice studies have shown positive changes in the priority prevention indicators. The data suggest that a comprehensive national response supported by strong political commitment may be responsible for the observed decline. Other countries in sub-Saharan Africa can achieve similar results by these means. Since success is possible, anything less is unacceptable. PMID:11799443

  9. Monoclonal Antibody-Based Candidate Therapeutics Against HIV Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Dimiter S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Treatment of HIV-1 infection has been highly successful with small molecule drugs. However, resistance still develops. In addition, long-term use can lead to toxicity with unpredictable effects on health. Finally, current drugs do not lead to HIV-1 eradication. The presence of the virus leads to chronic inflammation, which can result in increased morbidity and mortality after prolonged periods of infection. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been highly successful during the past two decades for therapy of many diseases, primarily cancers and immune disorders. They are relatively safe, especially human mAbs that have evolved in humans at high concentrations to fight diseases and long-term use may not lead to toxicities. Several broadly neutralizing mAbs (bnmAbs) against HIV-1 can protect animals but are not effective when used for therapy of an established infection. We have hypothesized that HIV-1 has evolved strategies to effectively escape neutralization by full-size antibodies in natural infections but not by smaller antibody fragments. Therefore, a promising direction of research is to discover and exploit antibody fragments as potential candidate therapeutics against HIV-1. Here we review several bnmAbs and engineered antibody domains (eAds), their in vitro and in vivo antiviral efficacy, mechanisms used by HIV-1 to escape them, and strategies that could be effective to develop more powerful mAb-based HIV-1 therapeutics. PMID:21827278

  10. Structural insights for HIV-1 therapeutic strategies targeting Vif.

    PubMed

    Salter, Jason D; Morales, Guillermo A; Smith, Harold C

    2014-09-01

    HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) is a viral accessory protein that is required for HIV-1 infection due largely to its role in recruiting antiretroviral factors of the APOBEC3 (apolipoprotein B editing catalytic subunit-like 3) family to an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex for polyubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. The crystal structure of the (near) full-length Vif protein in complex with Elongin (Elo)B/C, core-binding factor (CBF)? and Cullin (Cul)5 revealed that Vif has a novel structural fold. In our opinion the structural data revealed not only the protein-protein interaction sites that determine Vif stability and interaction with cellular proteins, but also motifs driving Vif homodimerization, which are essential in Vif functionality and HIV-1 infection. Vif-mediated protein-protein interactions are excellent targets for a new class of antiretroviral therapeutics to combat AIDS. PMID:25124760

  11. Novel anti-HIV therapeutics targeting chemokine receptors and actin regulatory pathways

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Mark; Guo, Jia; Wu, Yuntao

    2013-01-01

    Summary The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infects helper CD4+ T cells, and causes CD4+ T-cell depletion and immunodeficiency. In the past 30 years, significant progress has been made in antiretroviral therapy, and the disease has become manageable. Nevertheless, an effective vaccine is still nowhere in sight, and a cure or a functional cure awaits discovery. Among possible curative therapies, traditional antiretroviral therapy, mostly targeting viral proteins, has been proven ineffective. It is possible that targeting HIV-dependent host cofactors may offer alternatives, both for preventing HIV transmission and for forestalling disease progression. Recently, the actin cytoskeleton and its regulators in blood CD4+ T cells have emerged as major host cofactors that could be targeted. The novel concept that the cortical actin is a barrier to viral entry and early post-entry migration has led to the nascent model of virus-host interaction at the cortical actin layer. Deciphering the cellular regulatory pathways has manifested exciting prospects for future therapeutics. In this review, we describe the study of HIV interactions with actin cytoskeleton. We also examine potential pharmacological targets that emerge from this interaction. In addition, we briefly discuss several actin pathway-based anti-HIV drugs that are currently in development or testing. PMID:24117829

  12. Virus Maturation as a Novel HIV-1 Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Catherine S.; Salzwedel, Karl; Freed, Eric O.

    2009-01-01

    Development of novel therapeutic targets against HIV-1 is a high research priority due to the serious clinical consequences associated with acquisition of resistance to current antiretroviral drugs. The HIV-1 structural protein Gag represents a potential novel therapeutic target as it plays a central role in virus particle production, yet is not targeted by any of the currently approved antiretroviral drugs. The Gag polyprotein precursor multimerizes to form immature particles that bud from the infected cell. Concomitant with virus release, the Gag precursor undergoes proteolytic processing by the viral protease to generate the mature Gag proteins, which include capsid (CA). Once liberated from the Gag polyprotein precursor, CA molecules interact to reassemble into a condensed conical core, which organizes the viral RNA genome and several viral proteins to facilitate virus replication in the next round of infection. Correct Gag proteolytic processing and core assembly are therefore essential for virus infectivity. In this review, we discuss novel strategies to inhibit maturation by targeting proteolytic cleavage sites in Gag or CA-CA interactions required for core formation. The identification and development of lead maturation inhibitors are highlighted. PMID:19534569

  13. Willingness to Participate in HIV Therapeutic Vaccine Trials among HIV-Infected Patients on ART in China

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yuan; Shen, Xiaoxing; Guo, Ruizhang; Liu, Baochi; Zhu, Lingyan; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Linxia; Sun, Jun; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Jianqing

    2014-01-01

    Background More and more HIV therapeutic vaccines will enter clinical trials; however, little is known about the willingness to participate (WTP) in HIV therapeutic vaccine trials among HIV-positive individuals. Objective To investigate the WTP in HIV therapeutic vaccine trials among Chinese HIV-infected patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey on HIV-positive inpatients and outpatients at Shanghai Public Health Center. A total of 447 participants were recruited into this study. Following an introduction with general information on HIV therapeutic vaccine and its potential effectiveness and side effects, each participant completed a questionnaire in a self-administered form. The questionnaires covered demographics, high-risk behaviors, clinical characteristics and willingness to participate in HIV therapeutic vaccine trial. Results The overall willingness to participate in HIV therapeutic vaccine trials was 91.5%. Interestingly, multivariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that the willingness was higher for those sexually infected by HIV (odds ratio [OR]: 4.36; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.53–12.41), diagnosed as HIV-1 infection for greater than 5 years (OR: 7.12, 95% CI: 1.83–27.76), and with the presence of infectious complications (OR: 2.75; 95% CI: 1.02–7.45). The primary reason for participation was to delay or reduce antiretroviral treatment (ART) and to avoid ART side effects (76.6%), and then followed by delaying disease progression (74.9%), increasing immune response to suppress opportunistic infections (57.7%) and preventing the development of drug resistance (37.1%). Reasons for unwillingness to participate mainly included concern for safety (37.0%), lack of knowledge on therapeutic vaccine (33.3%), and satisfaction with ART effectiveness (22.2%). Conclusions The WTP in HIV therapeutic vaccine trials was high among HIV-infected Chinese patients. HIV+ subjects who acquired infection through sexual contact and who were diagnosed for more than 5 years may represent a good candidate population for enrollment in therapeutic vaccine trials. PMID:25372044

  14. Short communication: HIV antigen-specific reactivation of HIV infection from cellular reservoirs: implications in the settings of therapeutic vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Shete, Ashwini; Thakar, Madhuri; Singh, Dharmesh P; Gangakhedkar, Raman; Gaikwad, Asmita; Pawar, Jyoti; Paranjape, Ramesh

    2012-08-01

    Therapeutic vaccinations using human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigens in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) have so far been attempted with the purpose of inducing CTL response. However, they can also be useful as a strategy for activation of latent HIV reservoir, which is thought to be mainly comprised of latently infected HIV-specific memory CD4 cells, eventually leading to elimination of the virus. The present study was carried out to explore the ability of different HIV antigens to activate HIV replication as assessed by intracellular P24 detection as well as to induce T cell responses in terms of cytokine expression by flow cytometry after stimulation of PBMCs from HIV-infected patients. HIV antigens were found to be able to activate most of the CD4 T cells harboring proviral DNA. HIV-1 Pol and Env were responsible for induction of higher HIV replication in terms of both magnitude and frequency followed by Gag and Nef. As opposed to this, Pol and Env contributed to fewer numbers of polyfunctional CD8 cells desirable for elimination of HIV-infected cells in comparison to Gag and Nef. Thus, HIV antigens may provide a strategy for the activation of a latent reservoir. It was observed that HIV replication started as early as half an hour after in vitro activation indicating a stringent need for maintaining effective concentrations of antiretroviral drugs to prevent further spread of HIV during this process. HIV-infected cells were found to be responsible for higher IL-10 secretion after activation, which could also serve as one of the reasons for suppressed CD8 responses to Pol and Env as more HIV-infected CD4 cells would be secreting IL-10 in response to these antigens. Since IL-10 blockade helped to improve immune responses in terms of cytokine secretion, it should be considered in settings of therapeutic vaccination to improve CTL responses, which will ultimately limit the persistence of the viral reservoir. PMID:21936714

  15. HIV-1 protease molecular dynamics of a wild-type and of the V82F/I84V mutant: Possible contributions to drug

    E-print Network

    Batzoglou, Serafim

    HIV-1 protease molecular dynamics of a wild-type and of the V82F/I84V mutant: Possible immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is a critical drug target against which many therapeutically useful inhibitors have water) of both a wild-type and the drug-resistant V82F/I84V mutant of HIV-1 protease. The V82F/I84V

  16. Nonneutralizing Antibodies Induced by the HIV-1 gp41 NHR Domain Gain Neutralizing Activity in the Presence of the HIV Fusion Inhibitor Enfuvirtide: a Potential Therapeutic Vaccine Strategy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Bi, Wenwen; Zhu, Xiaojie; Li, Haoyang; Qi, Qianqian; Yu, Fei; Lu, Lu; Jiang, Shibo

    2015-07-01

    A key barrier against developing preventive and therapeutic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccines is the inability of viral envelope glycoproteins to elicit broad and potent neutralizing antibodies. However, in the presence of fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide, we show that the nonneutralizing antibodies induced by the HIV type 1 (HIV-1) gp41 N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) domain (N63) exhibit potent and broad neutralizing activity against laboratory-adapted HIV-1 strains, including the drug-resistant variants, and primary HIV-1 isolates with different subtypes, suggesting the potential of developing gp41-targeted HIV therapeutic vaccines. PMID:25903343

  17. Can therapeutic drug monitoring improve pharmacotherapy of HIV infection in adolescents?

    PubMed

    Rakhmanina, Natella Y; van den Anker, John N; Soldin, Steven J; van Schaik, Ron H; Mordwinkin, Nick; Neely, Michael N

    2010-06-01

    Currently, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not performed in the United States as part of routine clinical care of an HIV-infected adolescent patient. TDM is recommended to rule out subtherapeutic drug concentrations and to differentiate among malabsorption, drug interactions, poor adherence, or increased drug metabolism or clearance as possible causes of decreased drug exposure. The use of TDM is also considered to assist in finding the optimal dose of a drug in patients whose virus has shown reduced susceptibility to that drug. The dosing of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in adolescent patients with HIV infection depends on the chronologic age, weight, height, and the stage of sexual maturation. As a result of the limited data on the pharmacokinetics of ART during puberty, the transition of a dosing regimen from higher pediatric (weight and surface-based) to adult (fixed) range is not well defined. Developmental pharmacokinetic differences contribute to high variability in pediatric and adolescent patients and an increased frequency of suboptimal ARV exposure as compared to in adults. Individualized, concentration-targeted optimal dosing of ARV medications can be beneficial to patients for whom only limited dosing guidelines are available. This article describes three cases of the application of TDM in treatment-experienced adolescent patients whose ART was optimized using ARV TDM. TDM of ARV drugs is useful in managing the pharmacotherapy of HIV in adolescent patients and is well received by the adolescent patients with HIV and their families. Among others, the benefits of TDM provide evidence for adherence interventions and create grounds for enhanced education of the adolescent patient and involved adult caregivers about ART. Finally, TDM in adolescents provides valuable information about the clinical pharmacology of ART during puberty. PMID:20445485

  18. Evaluating the potential of IL-27 as a novel therapeutic agent in HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Sanjay; Dai, Lue; Lane, H. Clifford; Imamichi, Tomozumi

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin 27 (IL-27) is an immunomodulatory cytokine with important roles in both the innate and adaptive immune systems. In the last five years, the addition of exogenous IL-27 to primary cell cultures has been demonstrated to decrease HIV-1 replication in a number of cell types including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), CD4+ T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. These in-vitro findings suggest that IL-27 may have therapeutic value in the setting of HIV-1 infection. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of the biology of IL-27, its effects primarily on HIV-1 replication but also in other viral infections and explore its potential role as a therapeutic cytokine for the treatment of patients with HIV-1 infection. PMID:23962745

  19. Engineering Cellular Resistance to HIV-1 Infection In Vivo Using a Dual Therapeutic Lentiviral Vector.

    PubMed

    Burke, Bryan P; Levin, Bernard R; Zhang, Jane; Sahakyan, Anna; Boyer, Joshua; Carroll, Maria V; Colón, Joanna Camba; Keech, Naomi; Rezek, Valerie; Bristol, Gregory; Eggers, Erica; Cortado, Ruth; Boyd, Maureen P; Impey, Helen; Shimizu, Saki; Lowe, Emily L; Ringpis, Gene-Errol E; Kim, Sohn G; Vatakis, Dimitrios N; Breton, Louis R; Bartlett, Jeffrey S; Chen, Irvin S Y; Kitchen, Scott G; An, Dong Sung; Symonds, Geoff P

    2015-01-01

    We described earlier a dual-combination anti-HIV type 1 (HIV-1) lentiviral vector (LVsh5/C46) that downregulates CCR5 expression of transduced cells via RNAi and inhibits HIV-1 fusion via cell surface expression of cell membrane-anchored C46 antiviral peptide. This combinatorial approach has two points of inhibition for R5-tropic HIV-1 and is also active against X4-tropic HIV-1. Here, we utilize the humanized bone marrow, liver, thymus (BLT) mouse model to characterize the in vivo efficacy of LVsh5/C46 (Cal-1) vector to engineer cellular resistance to HIV-1 pathogenesis. Human CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) either nonmodified or transduced with LVsh5/C46 vector were transplanted to generate control and treatment groups, respectively. Control and experimental groups displayed similar engraftment and multilineage hematopoietic differentiation that included robust CD4+ T-cell development. Splenocytes isolated from the treatment group were resistant to both R5- and X4-tropic HIV-1 during ex vivo challenge experiments. Treatment group animals challenged with R5-tropic HIV-1 displayed significant protection of CD4+ T-cells and reduced viral load within peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues up to 14 weeks postinfection. Gene-marking and transgene expression were confirmed stable at 26 weeks post-transplantation. These data strongly support the use of LVsh5/C46 lentiviral vector in gene and cell therapeutic applications for inhibition of HIV-1 infection. PMID:25872029

  20. Therapeutic vaccination with MVA-HIV1 nef elicits Nef-specific T-helper cell responses in chronically HIV1 infected individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Cosma; Rashmi Nagaraj; Silja Bühler; Jorma Hinkula; Dirk H. Busch; Gerd Sutter; Frank D. Goebel; Volker Erfle

    2003-01-01

    Vaccination is currently considered as an additional therapeutic approach to stimulate HIV-specific immune response in subjects that could not naturally control HIV. Ten chronically HIV infected individuals have been vaccinated with a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA)-HIV-1LAI-nef vector in order to assess safety and immunogenicity. No significant adverse effects were observed during the course of vaccination indicating for the first time

  1. Diacylglycerol kinase as a possible therapeutic target for neuronal diseases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is a lipid kinase converting diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid, and regulates many enzymes including protein kinase C, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase, and mTOR. To date, ten mammalian DGK subtypes have been cloned and divided into five groups, and they show subtype-specific tissue distribution. Therefore, each DGK subtype is thought to be involved in respective cellular responses by regulating balance of the two lipid messengers, diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. Indeed, the recent researches using DGK knockout mice have clearly demonstrated the importance of DGK in the immune system and its pathophysiological roles in heart and insulin resistance in diabetes. Especially, most subtypes show high expression in brain with subtype specific regional distribution, suggesting that each subtype has important and unique functions in brain. Recently, neuronal functions of some DGK subtypes have accumulated. Here, we introduce DGKs with their structural motifs, summarize the enzymatic properties and neuronal functions, and discuss the possibility of DGKs as a therapeutic target of the neuronal diseases. PMID:24708409

  2. Reflections on Therapeutic Recreation and Youth: Possibilities for Broadening Horizons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Linda L.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a special issue on youth, discussing current youth-focused therapeutic recreation research and practice, comparing this issue with another theme journal on youth (emphasizing the roles of professional preparation and professional organizations), examining the role of therapeutic recreation and adventure therapy, and noting theoretical…

  3. Possible Mechanisms Underlying the Therapeutic Effects of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chervyakov, Alexander V; Chernyavsky, Andrey Yu; Sinitsyn, Dmitry O; Piradov, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an effective method used to diagnose and treat many neurological disorders. Although repetitive TMS (rTMS) has been used to treat a variety of serious pathological conditions including stroke, depression, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, pain, and migraines, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of long-term TMS remain unclear. In the present review, the effects of rTMS on neurotransmitters and synaptic plasticity are described, including the classic interpretations of TMS effects on synaptic plasticity via long-term potentiation and long-term depression. We also discuss the effects of rTMS on the genetic apparatus of neurons, glial cells, and the prevention of neuronal death. The neurotrophic effects of rTMS on dendritic growth and sprouting and neurotrophic factors are described, including change in brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentration under the influence of rTMS. Also, non-classical effects of TMS related to biophysical effects of magnetic fields are described, including the quantum effects, the magnetic spin effects, genetic magnetoreception, the macromolecular effects of TMS, and the electromagnetic theory of consciousness. Finally, we discuss possible interpretations of TMS effects according to dynamical systems theory. Evidence suggests that a rTMS-induced magnetic field should be considered a separate physical factor that can be impactful at the subatomic level and that rTMS is capable of significantly altering the reactivity of molecules (radicals). It is thought that these factors underlie the therapeutic benefits of therapy with TMS. Future research on these mechanisms will be instrumental to the development of more powerful and reliable TMS treatment protocols. PMID:26136672

  4. Possible Mechanisms Underlying the Therapeutic Effects of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Chervyakov, Alexander V.; Chernyavsky, Andrey Yu.; Sinitsyn, Dmitry O.; Piradov, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an effective method used to diagnose and treat many neurological disorders. Although repetitive TMS (rTMS) has been used to treat a variety of serious pathological conditions including stroke, depression, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, pain, and migraines, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of long-term TMS remain unclear. In the present review, the effects of rTMS on neurotransmitters and synaptic plasticity are described, including the classic interpretations of TMS effects on synaptic plasticity via long-term potentiation and long-term depression. We also discuss the effects of rTMS on the genetic apparatus of neurons, glial cells, and the prevention of neuronal death. The neurotrophic effects of rTMS on dendritic growth and sprouting and neurotrophic factors are described, including change in brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentration under the influence of rTMS. Also, non-classical effects of TMS related to biophysical effects of magnetic fields are described, including the quantum effects, the magnetic spin effects, genetic magnetoreception, the macromolecular effects of TMS, and the electromagnetic theory of consciousness. Finally, we discuss possible interpretations of TMS effects according to dynamical systems theory. Evidence suggests that a rTMS-induced magnetic field should be considered a separate physical factor that can be impactful at the subatomic level and that rTMS is capable of significantly altering the reactivity of molecules (radicals). It is thought that these factors underlie the therapeutic benefits of therapy with TMS. Future research on these mechanisms will be instrumental to the development of more powerful and reliable TMS treatment protocols. PMID:26136672

  5. Host Factors and HIV-1 Replication: Clinical Evidence and Potential Therapeutic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Santa-Marta, Mariana; de Brito, Paula Matos; Godinho-Santos, Ana; Goncalves, Joao

    2013-01-01

    HIV and human defense mechanisms have co-evolved to counteract each other. In the process of infection, HIV takes advantage of cellular machinery and blocks the action of the host restriction factors (RF). A small subset of HIV+ individuals control HIV infection and progression to AIDS in the absence of treatment. These individuals known as long-term non-progressors (LNTPs) exhibit genetic and immunological characteristics that confer upon them an efficient resistance to infection and/or disease progression. The identification of some of these host factors led to the development of therapeutic approaches that attempted to mimic the natural control of HIV infection. Some of these approaches are currently being tested in clinical trials. While there are many genes which carry mutations and polymorphisms associated with non-progression, this review will be specifically focused on HIV host RF including both the main chemokine receptors and chemokines as well as intracellular RF including, APOBEC, TRIM, tetherin, and SAMHD1. The understanding of molecular profiles and mechanisms present in LTNPs should provide new insights to control HIV infection and contribute to the development of novel therapies against AIDS. PMID:24167505

  6. [Flower essences: vibrational intervention of diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities].

    PubMed

    Gimenes, Olympia Maria Piedade; da Silva, Maria Júlia Paes; Benko, Maria Antonieta

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to know the probable diagnosis and therapeutic action of the flower essences under the light of the Theory of the Imaginary by Gilbert Durand, through the AT.9 test and flower essence interview sessions. It was applied to 30 people, who were being treated with flower essences, by a private practitioner in São Paulo. The study contains 60 AT.9 test protocols and 60 flower essence formulae. It analyzed the common traces, both the attuned and the dissonant ones, by the relationships established between the AT.9 and the flower essence formulae, bringing forward evidences of the capacity diagnosis and the therapeutic actions of these essences. The two essences that translated the characteristic tone of this population were California Wild Rose and Evening Primrose. PMID:15688996

  7. Therapeutic efficacy of potent neutralizing HIV-1-specific monoclonal antibodies in SHIV-infected rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Barouch, Dan H; Whitney, James B; Moldt, Brian; Klein, Florian; Oliveira, Thiago Y; Liu, Jinyan; Stephenson, Kathryn E; Chang, Hui-Wen; Shekhar, Karthik; Gupta, Sanjana; Nkolola, Joseph P; Seaman, Michael S; Smith, Kaitlin M; Borducchi, Erica N; Cabral, Crystal; Smith, Jeffrey Y; Blackmore, Stephen; Sanisetty, Srisowmya; Perry, James R; Beck, Matthew; Lewis, Mark G; Rinaldi, William; Chakraborty, Arup K; Poignard, Pascal; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Burton, Dennis R

    2013-11-14

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific monoclonal antibodies with extraordinary potency and breadth have recently been described. In humanized mice, combinations of monoclonal antibodies have been shown to suppress viraemia, but the therapeutic potential of these monoclonal antibodies has not yet been evaluated in primates with an intact immune system. Here we show that administration of a cocktail of HIV-1-specific monoclonal antibodies, as well as the single glycan-dependent monoclonal antibody PGT121, resulted in a rapid and precipitous decline of plasma viraemia to undetectable levels in rhesus monkeys chronically infected with the pathogenic simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV-SF162P3. A single monoclonal antibody infusion afforded up to a 3.1 log decline of plasma viral RNA in 7?days and also reduced proviral DNA in peripheral blood, gastrointestinal mucosa and lymph nodes without the development of viral resistance. Moreover, after monoclonal antibody administration, host Gag-specific T-lymphocyte responses showed improved functionality. Virus rebounded in most animals after a median of 56?days when serum monoclonal antibody titres had declined to undetectable levels, although, notably, a subset of animals maintained long-term virological control in the absence of further monoclonal antibody infusions. These data demonstrate a profound therapeutic effect of potent neutralizing HIV-1-specific monoclonal antibodies in SHIV-infected rhesus monkeys as well as an impact on host immune responses. Our findings strongly encourage the investigation of monoclonal antibody therapy for HIV-1 in humans. PMID:24172905

  8. New diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities for diastolic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Euy-Myoung; Dudley, Samuel C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that up to half of all heart failure occurs in patients without evidence of systolic cardiac dysfunction, there are no universally accepted diagnostic markers and no approved therapies for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). HFpEF, otherwise known as diastolic heart failure, has nearly the same grim prognosis as systolic heart failure, and diastolic heart failure is increasing in incidence and prevalence. Major trials have shown that many of the treatments that are salutary in systolic heart failure have no beneficial effects in diastolic heart failure, suggesting different underlying mechanisms for these two disorders. Even criteria for diagnosis of HFpEF are still debated, and there is still no gold standard marker to detect diastolic dysfunction. Here, we will review some promising new insights into the pathogenesis of diastolic dysfunction that may lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic tools. PMID:24494212

  9. Molecular control of HIV-1 postintegration latency: implications for the development of new therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Colin, Laurence; Van Lint, Carine

    2009-01-01

    The persistence of HIV-1 latent reservoirs represents a major barrier to virus eradication in infected patients under HAART since interruption of the treatment inevitably leads to a rebound of plasma viremia. Latency establishes early after infection notably (but not only) in resting memory CD4+ T cells and involves numerous host and viral trans-acting proteins, as well as processes such as transcriptional interference, RNA silencing, epigenetic modifications and chromatin organization. In order to eliminate latent reservoirs, new strategies are envisaged and consist of reactivating HIV-1 transcription in latently-infected cells, while maintaining HAART in order to prevent de novo infection. The difficulty lies in the fact that a single residual latently-infected cell can in theory rekindle the infection. Here, we review our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the establishment and maintenance of HIV-1 latency and in the transcriptional reactivation from latency. We highlight the potential of new therapeutic strategies based on this understanding of latency. Combinations of various compounds used simultaneously allow for the targeting of transcriptional repression at multiple levels and can facilitate the escape from latency and the clearance of viral reservoirs. We describe the current advantages and limitations of immune T-cell activators, inducers of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway, and inhibitors of deacetylases and histone- and DNA- methyltransferases, used alone or in combinations. While a solution will not be achieved by tomorrow, the battle against HIV-1 latent reservoirs is well- underway. PMID:19961595

  10. Therapeutic Efficacy of Potent Neutralizing HIV-1-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies in SHIV-Infected Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Barouch, Dan H.; Whitney, James B.; Moldt, Brian; Klein, Florian; Oliveira, Thiago Y.; Liu, Jinyan; Stephenson, Kathryn E.; Chang, Hui-Wen; Shekhar, Karthik; Gupta, Sanjana; Nkolola, Joseph P.; Seaman, Michael S.; Smith, Kaitlin M.; Borducchi, Erica N.; Cabral, Crystal; Smith, Jeffrey Y.; Blackmore, Stephen; Sanisetty, Srisowmya; Perry, James R.; Beck, Matthew; Lewis, Mark G.; Rinaldi, William; Chakraborty, Arup K.; Poignard, Pascal; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Burton, Dennis R.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with extraordinary potency and breadth have recently been described. In humanized mice, combinations of mAbs have been shown to suppress viremia, but the therapeutic potential of these mAbs has not yet been evaluated in primates with an intact immune system. Here we show that administration of a cocktail of HIV-1-specific mAbs, as well as the single glycan-dependent mAb PGT121, resulted in a rapid and precipitous decline of plasma viremia to undetectable levels in rhesus monkeys chronically infected with the pathogenic virus SHIV-SF162P3. A single mAb infusion afforded up to a 3.1 log decline of plasma viral RNA in 7 days and also reduced proviral DNA in peripheral blood, gastrointestinal mucosa, and lymph nodes without the development of viral resistance. Moreover, following mAb administration, host Gag-specific T lymphocyte responses exhibited improved functionality. Virus rebounded in the majority of animals after a median of 56 days when serum mAb titers had declined to undetectable levels, although a subset of animals maintained long-term virologic control in the absence of further mAb infusions. These data demonstrate a profound therapeutic effect of potent neutralizing HIV-1-specific mAbs in SHIV-infected rhesus monkeys as well as an impact on host immune responses. Our findings strongly encourage the investigation of mAb therapy for HIV-1 in humans. PMID:24172905

  11. Preventive and therapeutic applications of neutralizing antibodies to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)

    PubMed Central

    Ringe, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    The development of a preventive vaccine to neutralize the highly variable and antigenically diverse human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been an indomitable goal. The recent discovery of a number of cross-neutralizing and potent monoclonal antibodies from elite neutralizers has provided important insights in this field. Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are useful in identifying neutralizing epitopes of vaccine utility and for understanding the mechanism of potent and broad cross-neutralization thus providing a modality of preventive and therapeutic value. In this article we review the current understanding on the potential use of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) in their full-length IgG structure, engineered domain antibody or bispecific versions towards preventive and therapeutic applications. The potential implications of NAbs are discussed in the light of the recent developments as key components in vaccination against HIV-1. The development of a vaccine immunogen which elicits bNAbs and confers protective immunity remains a real challenge. PMID:24757516

  12. Leptin and Adiponectin in the HIV Associated Metabolic Syndrome: Physiologic and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Tsiodras, Sotirios; Mantzoros, Christos

    2006-01-01

    Leptin and adiponectin represent two newly discovered adipose tissue derived hormones with important roles in energy homeostasis and insulin resistance. Their interrelations with the manifestations of the HIV associated metabolic syndrome and specific somatomorphic changes i.e. fat redistribution is reviewed. A synopsis of published studies is presented and the potential role of leptin and adiponectin is discussed. We have described an association of the HIV metabolic syndrome with a state of reduced insulin sensitivity due to adiponectin deficiency. The metabolic syndrome is also accompanied by leptin deficiency in lipoatrophic subjects and possibly by a leptin resistance state in lipohypertrophic patients. Adiponectin and / or leptin therapy in a manner similar to other leptin deficiency states may assist in the future management of such patients. PMID:17183414

  13. Co-receptor tropism prediction among 1045 Indian HIV-1 subtype C sequences: Therapeutic implications for India

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding co-receptor tropism of HIV-1 strains circulating in India will provide key analytical leverage for assessing the potential usefulness of newer antiretroviral drugs such as chemokine co-receptor antagonists among Indian HIV-infected populations. The objective of this study was to determine using in silico methods, HIV-1 tropism among a large number of Indian isolates both from primary clinical isolates as well as from database-derived sequences. Results R5-tropism was seen in 96.8% of a total of 1045 HIV-1 subtype C Indian sequences. Co-receptor prediction of 15 primary clinical isolates detected two X4-tropic strains using the C-PSSM matrix. R5-tropic HIV-1 subtype C V3 sequences were conserved to a greater extent than X4-tropic strains. X4-tropic strains were obtained from subjects who had a significantly longer time since HIV diagnosis (96.5 months) compared to R5-tropic strains (20.5 months). Conclusions High prevalence of R5 tropism and greater homogeneity of the V3 sequence among HIV-1 subtype C strains in India suggests the potential benefit of CCR5 antagonists as a therapeutic option in India. PMID:20646329

  14. Practical Therapeutic Drug Management in HIV-Infected Patients: Use of Population Pharmacokinetic Models Supplemented by Individualized Bayesian Dose Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Michael; Jelliffe, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Individualized, model-based, target-oriented optimal concentration-controlled dosing of HIV medications can be beneficial to patients for whom there are limited dosing guidelines, such as children, adolescents, or patients with altered physiologic function. Barriers to this approach include lack of training, expertise, and access to appropriate software to assist the clinician. The authors present 4 illustrative clinical cases of HIV-infected patients whose therapy was optimized using population pharmacokinetic models (here generated from published studies) and supplemented by individualized Bayesian adaptive control of dosage regimens as implemented in the MM-USCPACK software. These 4 cases illustrate how clinicians can maximize therapeutic success in (1) patients with reduced drug clearance, (2) young adolescents transitioning to adult physiology, (3) patients with dose-dependent toxicity, and (4) adolescents with limited therapeutic options. PMID:18635757

  15. Epigenetic Modulations in Activated Cells Early after HIV-1 Infection and Their Possible Functional Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Maricato, Juliana T.; Furtado, Maria N.; Takenaka, Maisa C.; Nunes, Edsel R. M.; Fincatti, Patricia; Meliso, Fabiana M.; da Silva, Ismael D. C. G.; Jasiulionis, Miriam G.; Cecília de Araripe Sucupira, Maria; Diaz, Ricardo Sobhie; Janini, Luiz M. R.

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications refer to a number of biological processes which alter the structure of chromatin and its transcriptional activity such as DNA methylation and histone post-translational processing. Studies have tried to elucidate how the viral genome and its products are affected by epigenetic modifications imposed by cell machinery and how it affects the ability of the virus to either, replicate and produce a viable progeny or be driven to latency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate epigenetic modifications in PBMCs and CD4+ cells after HIV-1 infection analyzing three approaches: (i) global DNA- methylation; (ii) qPCR array and (iii) western blot. HIV-1 infection led to methylation increases in the cellular DNA regardless the activation status of PBMCs. The analysis of H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 suggested a trend towards transcriptional repression in activated cells after HIV-1 infection. Using a qPCR array, we detected genes related to epigenetic processes highly modulated in activated HIV-1 infected cells. SETDB2 and RSK2 transcripts showed highest up-regulation levels. SETDB2 signaling is related to transcriptional silencing while RSK2 is related to either silencing or activation of gene expression depending on the signaling pathway triggered down-stream. In addition, activated cells infected by HIV-1 showed lower CD69 expression and a decrease of IL-2, IFN-? and metabolism-related factors transcripts indicating a possible functional consequence towards global transcriptional repression found in HIV-1 infected cells. Conversely, based on epigenetic markers studied here, non-stimulated cells infected by HIV-1, showed signs of global transcriptional activation. Our results suggest that HIV-1 infection exerts epigenetic modulations in activated cells that may lead these cells to transcriptional repression with important functional consequences. Moreover, non-stimulated cells seem to increase gene transcription after HIV-1 infection. Based on these observations, it is possible to speculate that the outcome of viral infections may be influenced by the cellular activation status at the moment of infection. PMID:25875202

  16. Identification of cell surface targets for HIV1 therapeutics using genetic screens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen J Dunn; Imran H Khan; Ursula A Chan; Robin L Scearce; Claudia L Melara; Amber M Paul; Vikram Sharma; Fong-Yih Bih; Tanya A Holzmayer; Paul A Luciw; Arie Abo

    2004-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drugs designed to interfere with obligatory utilization of certain host cell factors by virus are less likely to encounter development of resistant strains than drugs directed against viral components. Several cellular genes required for productive infection by HIV were identified by the use of genetic suppressor element (GSE) technology as potential targets for anti-HIV drug development.

  17. Cross-Learning: The Possibilities of a Learning Dialogue between the HIV and AIDS and Disability Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is the region of the world most affected by HIV & AIDS, accounting for two-thirds of the global burden of the pandemic. People with disabilities are regarded as a high-risk group for HIV but have been largely neglected in programmes of education, treatment and support. This paper examines the possibilities for a learning…

  18. siRNA Against KIR3DL1 as a Potential Gene Therapeutic Agent in Controlling HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Geng-Feng; Pan, Ji-Cheng; Lin, Nan; Hu, Hai-Yang; Tang, Wei-Ming; Xu, Jin-Shui; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Xu, Xiao-Qin; Qiu, Tao; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Guo-Hong; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Huan, Xi-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop a small interfering RNA (siRNA) against the expression of KIR3DL1 receptor on natural killer (NK) cells, in order to promote the ability of NK cells to destroy human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cells and thus prevent failure of siRNA therapy targeting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virus among HIV-1 infected patients in vitro. Methods: A siRNA targeting KIR3DL1 was synthesized and then modified with cholesterol, methylene, and sulfate. The inhibitory action of the siRNAs on primary cultured NK cells was detected. The amount of IFN-? and TNF-? secretions in NK cells was measured. The intended functions of NK cells in vitro were analyzed by CFSE and PI methods. Results: There were no significant differences in inhibiting the expression of KIR3DL1 on NK cells between the modified and unmodified siRNAs, while inhibition by each of them differed significantly from controls. The amount of IFN-? and TNF-? secretions in the NK cells was abundant due to unsuccessful expression of KIR3DL1 on NK cells, which further promoted function of the NK cells. Conclusion: The siRNA against KIR3DL1 could enhance the ability of the NK cells to kill the HIV-1 infected cells in vitro and successfully prevented the failure of siRNA therapy targeting the HIV-1 virus. Therefore, it can act as a potential gene therapeutic agent among HIV-1 infected people. PMID:24834927

  19. Bone-derived mesenchymal stromal cells from HIV transgenic mice exhibit altered proliferation, differentiation capacity and paracrine functions along with impaired therapeutic potential in kidney injury

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Kang; Rai, Partab; Lan, Xiqian; Plagov, Andrei; Malhotra, Ashwani [Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhassett, NY (United States); Gupta, Sanjeev [Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Marion Bessin Liver Research Center, Diabetes Center, Cancer Center, Ruth L. and David S. Gottesman Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research, Institute for Clinical and Translational Research, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Singhal, Pravin C., E-mail: psinghal@nshs.edu [Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhassett, NY (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete paracrine factors that could be cytoprotective and serve roles in immunoregulation during tissue injury. Although MSCs express HIV receptors, and co-receptors, and are susceptible to HIV infection, whether HIV-1 may affect biological properties of MSCs needs more study. We evaluated cellular proliferation, differentiation and paracrine functions of MSCs isolated from compact bones of healthy control mice and Tg26 HIV-1 transgenic mice. The ability of MSCs to protect against cisplatin toxicity was studied in cultured renal tubular cells as well as in intact mice. We successfully isolated MSCs from healthy mice and Tg26 HIV-1 transgenic mice and found the latter expressed viral Nef, Vpu, NL4-3 and Vif genes. The proliferation and differentiation of Tg26 HIV-1 MSCs was inferior to MSCs from healthy mice. Moreover, transplantation of Tg26 HIV-1 MSCs less effectively improved outcomes compared with healthy MSCs in mice with acute kidney injury. Also, Tg26 HIV-1 MSCs secreted multiple cytokines, but at significantly lower levels than healthy MSCs, which resulted in failure of conditioned medium from these MSCs to protect cultured renal tubular cells from cisplatin toxicity. Therefore, HIV-1 had adverse biological effects on MSCs extending to their proliferation, differentiation, function, and therapeutic potential. These findings will help in advancing mechanistical insight in renal injury and repair in the setting of HIV-1 infection. -- Highlights: •MSCs isolated from HIV mice displayed HIV genes. •MSCs isolated from HIV mice exhibited attenuated growth and paracrine functions. •AKI mice with transplanted HIV-MSC displayed poor outcome. •HIV-1 MSC secreted multiple cytokines but at a lower level.

  20. Chaperone proteins and brain tumors: Potential targets and possible therapeutics1

    PubMed Central

    Graner, Michael W.; Bigner, Darell D.

    2005-01-01

    Chaperone proteins are most notable for the proteo- and cyotoprotective capacities they afford during cellular stress. Under conditions of cellular normalcy, chaperones still play integral roles in the folding of nascent polypeptides into functional entities, in assisting in intracellular/intraorganellar transport, in assembly and maintenance of multi-subunit protein complexes, and in aiding and abetting the degradation of senescent proteins. Tumors frequently have relatively enhanced needs for chaperone number and activity because of the stresses of rapid proliferation, increased metabolism, and overall genetic instability. Thus, it may be possible to take advantage of this reliance that tumor cells have on chaperones by pharmacologic and biologic means. Certain chaperones are abundant in the brain, which implies important roles for them. While it is presumed that the requirements of brain tumors for chaperone proteins are similar to those of any other cell type, tumor or otherwise, very little inquiry has been directed at the possibility of using chaperone proteins as therapeutic targets or even as therapeutic agents against central nervous system malignancies. This review highlights some of the research on the functions of chaperone proteins, on what can be done to modify those functions, and on the physiological responses that tumors and organisms can have to chaperone-targeted or chaperone-based therapies. In particular, this review will also underscore areas of research where brain tumors have been part of the field, although in general those instances are few and far between. This relative dearth of research devoted to chaperone protein targets and therapeutics in brain tumors reveals much untrodden turf to explore for potential treatments of these dreadfully refractive diseases. PMID:16053701

  1. Cytotoxic and Cytolytic Cnidarian Venoms. A Review on Health Implications and Possible Therapeutic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Mariottini, Gian Luigi; Pane, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The toxicity of Cnidaria is a subject of concern for its influence on human activities and public health. During the last decades, the mechanisms of cell injury caused by cnidarian venoms have been studied utilizing extracts from several Cnidaria that have been tested in order to evaluate some fundamental parameters, such as the activity on cell survival, functioning and metabolism, and to improve the knowledge about the mechanisms of action of these compounds. In agreement with the modern tendency aimed to avoid the utilization of living animals in the experiments and to substitute them with in vitro systems, established cell lines or primary cultures have been employed to test cnidarian extracts or derivatives. Several cnidarian venoms have been found to have cytotoxic properties and have been also shown to cause hemolytic effects. Some studied substances have been shown to affect tumour cells and microorganisms, so making cnidarian extracts particularly interesting for their possible therapeutic employment. The review aims to emphasize the up-to-date knowledge about this subject taking in consideration the importance of such venoms in human pathology, the health implications and the possible therapeutic application of these natural compounds. PMID:24379089

  2. The Use of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Complex Antituberculous and Antiretroviral Drug Dosing in HIV-Tuberculosis Coinfected Patients.

    PubMed

    Newman, Michael; Foisy, Michelle M; Ahmed, Rabia A

    2014-11-25

    We report 2 cases coinfected with HIV and tuberculosis (HIV-TB), requiring drug dose adjustments guided by therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and/or serum drug concentrations. CASE 1: Over the course of the 9-months of TB treatment, drugs that required increased doses due to low concentrations included efavirenz (800 mg), rifampin (900 mg), and isoniazid (450 mg). Higher drug doses were well tolerated until the end of treatment. CASE 2: Over the 12-month course of TB therapy, drugs that required increased doses due to incomplete and/or delayed absorption were rifampin (1500 mg), moxifloxacin (800 mg), and ethambutol (1600 mg). Higher drug doses were well tolerated until the end of treatment. Due to delayed/incomplete drug absorption and weight gain during therapy, higher antituberculous doses may be required in patients coinfected with HIV-TB. A daily dose of efavirenz 800 mg was well tolerated in both patients (weight over 70 kg). Managing patients coinfected with HIV-TB is complex, and, therefore, TDM of drug concentrations can help guide clinical decision making. PMID:25425639

  3. Aging and HIV/AIDS: pathogenetic role of therapeutic side effects

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Rebecca A; Lewis, William

    2014-01-01

    The intersection of aging and HIV/AIDS is a looming ‘epidemic within an epidemic.’ This paper reviews how HIV/AIDS and its therapy cause premature aging or contribute mechanistically to HIV-associated non-AIDS illnesses (HANA). Survival with HIV/AIDS has markedly improved by therapy combinations containing nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and protease inhibitors (PIs) called HAART (highly active anti-retroviral therapy). Because NRTIs and PIs together prevent or attenuate HIV-1 replication, and prolong life, the population of aging patients with HIV/AIDS increases accordingly. However, illnesses frequently associated with aging in the absence of HIV/AIDS appear to occur prematurely in HIV/AIDS patients. Theories that help to explain biological aging include oxidative stress (where mitochondrial oxidative injury exceeds antioxidant defense), chromosome telomere shortening with associated cellular senescence, and accumulation of lamin A precursors (a nuclear envelop protein). Each of these has the potential to be enhanced or caused by HIV/AIDS, antiretroviral therapy, or both. Antiretroviral therapy has been shown to enhance events seen in biological aging. Specifically, antiretroviral NRTIs cause mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial DNA defects that resemble features of both HANA and aging. More recent clinical evidence points to telomere shortening caused by NRTI triphosphate-induced inhibition of telomerase, suggesting telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) inhibition as being a pathogenetic contributor to premature aging in HIV/AIDS. PIs may also have a role in premature aging in HIV/AIDS as they cause prelamin A accumulation. Overall, toxic side effects of HAART may both resemble and promote events of aging and are worthy of mechanistic studies. PMID:24336070

  4. From bone marrow transplantation to cellular therapies: possible therapeutic strategies in managing autoimmune disorders.

    PubMed

    Taddio, Andrea; Biondi, Andrea; Piscianz, Elisa; Valencic, Erica; Biagi, Ettore; Badolato, Raffaele

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory disorders occurring in childhood represent a serious therapeutic challenge. However, available therapies seem not to be targeted on the pathogenic mechanism of the disease and are often not actively affecting the natural history of the disease. Emerging treatments might be of some benefit to many patients who did not respond to conventional therapeutic options. Biological therapies with monoclonal antibodies and other recombinant proteins have been introduced in clinical practice. At the same time, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have gained attention as a savage treatment in patients subjected to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation who develop severe graft versus host disease (GvHD); in addition, recent reports from clinical trials on larger cohorts of patients support their use as second-line treatment after failure of corticosteroid treatment. For analogy, they have been proposed for the treatment of intractable autoimmune disorders. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been shown to be effective for treatment of rheumatic disorder cases that were resistant to traditional therapies especially if combined with cell manipulation techniques, such as selection of regulatory T cell and depletion of harmful lymphocytes. We herein present the rationale of different strategies, the preliminary data obtained in clinical trials, unsolved problems and possible next developments of novel treatment protocols of autoimmune disorders. PMID:22726117

  5. Brief report Therapeutic levels of human factor VIII and IX using HIV-1based

    E-print Network

    Kay, Mark A.

    an important role in hemophilia gene therapy. The present study used human immunodeficiency virus (HIV Gene therapy for hemophilia has been targeted to the liver because it is the normal site of factor VIII

  6. Therapeutic strategies underpinning the development of novel techniques for the treatment of HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jian J.; Cong, Xiao J.; Hu, Li M.; Wang, Cun X.; Jia, Lee; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2010-01-01

    The HIV replication cycle offers multiple targets for chemotherapeutic intervention, including the viral exterior envelope glycoprotein, gp120; viral co-receptors CXCR4 and CCR5; transmembrane glycoprotein, gp41; integrase; reverse transcriptase; protease and so on. Most currently used anti-HIV drugs are reverse transcriptase inhibitors or protease inhibitors. The expanding application of simulation to drug design combined with experimental techniques have developed a large amount of novel inhibitors that interact specifically with targets besides transcriptase and protease. This review presents details of the anti-HIV inhibitors discovered with computer-aided approaches and provides an overview of the recent five-year achievements in the treatment of HIV infection and the application of computational methods to current drug design. PMID:20096804

  7. Influence of IFN? CoExpression on the Safety and Antiviral Efficacy of Recombinant Fowlpox Virus HIV Therapeutic Vaccines Following Interruption of Antiretroviral Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean Emery; Anthony D. Kelleher; Cassy Workman; Rebekah L. Puls; Mark Bloch; David Baker; Jonathan Anderson; Jennifer Hoy; Susanna Ip; Kellie Nalliah; Larry D. Ward; Matthew G. Law; David A. Cooper

    Therapeutic immunization to stimulate host immune responses and control human immunodeficiency virus (HIV?1) replication is being investigated as a supplimentary treatment for the management of HIV infection. On completion of an earlier study involving three vaccinations while taking combina? tion antiretroviral therapy (CART), twenty?five subjects with plasma viral load (pVL) <50 copies\\/mL received a booster vaccination with either placebo (n

  8. HIV\\/HCV Co-infection: Pathogenesis, Clinical Complications, Treatment, and New Therapeutic Technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva A. Operskalski; Andrea Kovacs

    2011-01-01

    World-wide, hepatitis C virus (HCV) accounts for approximately 130 million chronic infections, with an overall 3% prevalence.\\u000a Four to 5 million persons are co-infected with HIV. It is well established that HIV has a negative impact on the natural history\\u000a of HCV, including a higher rate of viral persistence, increased viral load, and more rapid progression to fibrosis, end-stage\\u000a liver

  9. Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1)-Mediated Apoptosis: New Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Mbita, Zukile; Hull, Rodney; Dlamini, Zodwa

    2014-01-01

    HIV has posed a significant challenge due to the ability of the virus to both impair and evade the host’s immune system. One of the most important mechanisms it has employed to do so is the modulation of the host’s native apoptotic pathways and mechanisms. Viral proteins alter normal apoptotic signaling resulting in increased viral load and the formation of viral reservoirs which ultimately increase infectivity. Both the host’s pro- and anti-apoptotic responses are regulated by the interactions of viral proteins with cell surface receptors or apoptotic pathway components. This dynamic has led to the development of therapies aimed at altering the ability of the virus to modulate apoptotic pathways. These therapies are aimed at preventing or inhibiting viral infection, or treating viral associated pathologies. These drugs target both the viral proteins and the apoptotic pathways of the host. This review will examine the cell types targeted by HIV, the surface receptors exploited by the virus and the mechanisms whereby HIV encoded proteins influence the apoptotic pathways. The viral manipulation of the hosts’ cell type to evade the immune system, establish viral reservoirs and enhance viral proliferation will be reviewed. The pathologies associated with the ability of HIV to alter apoptotic signaling and the drugs and therapies currently under development that target the ability of apoptotic signaling within HIV infection will also be discussed. PMID:25196285

  10. Uptake of HIV testing and outcomes within a Community-based Therapeutic Care (CTC) programme to treat Severe Acute Malnutrition in Malawi: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Bahwere, Paluku; Piwoz, Ellen; Joshua, Marthias C; Sadler, Kate; Grobler-Tanner, Caroline H; Guerrero, Saul; Collins, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Background In Malawi and other high HIV prevalence countries, studies suggest that more than 30% of all severely malnourished children admitted to inpatient nutrition rehabilitation units are HIV-infected. However, clinical algorithms designed to diagnose paediatric HIV are neither sensitive nor specific in severely malnourished children. The present study was conducted to assess : i) whether HIV testing can be integrated into Community-based Therapeutic Care (CTC); ii) to determine if CTC can improve the identification of HIV infected children; and iii) to assess the impact of CTC programmes on the rehabilitation of HIV-infected children with Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM). Methods This community-based cohort study was conducted in Dowa District, Central Malawi, a rural area 50 km from the capital, Lilongwe. Caregivers and children admitted in the Dowa CTC programme were prospectively (Prospective Cohort = PC) and retrospectively (Retrospective Cohort = RC) admitted into the study and offered HIV testing and counseling. Basic medical care and community nutrition rehabilitation was provided for children with SAM. The outcomes of interest were uptake of HIV testing, and recovery, relapse, and growth rates of HIV-positive and uninfected children in the CTC programme. Student's t-test and analysis of variance were used to compare means and Kruskall Wallis tests were used to compare medians. Dichotomous variables were compared using Chi2 analyses and Fisher's exact test. Stepwise logistic regression with backward elimination was used to identify predictors of HIV infection (? = 0.05). Results 1273 and 735 children were enrolled in the RC and PC. For the RC, the average age (SD) at CTC admission was 30.0 (17.2) months. For the PC, the average age at admission was 26.5 (13.7) months. Overall uptake of HIV testing was 60.7% for parents and 94% for children. HIV prevalence in severely malnourished children was 3%, much lower than anticipated. 59% of HIV-positive and 83% of HIV-negative children achieved discharge Weight-For-Height (WFH) ? 80% of the NCHS reference median (p = 0.003). Clinical algorithms for diagnosing HIV in SAM children had poor sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion CTC is a potentially valuable entry point for providing HIV testing and care in the community to HIV infected children with SAM. PMID:18671876

  11. Nanoparticle-conjugated animal venom-toxins and their possible therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Archita; Gomes, Aparna; Sengupta, Jayeeta; Datta, Poulami; Singha, Santiswarup; Dasgupta, Anjan Kr; Gomes, Antony

    2012-01-01

    Nano-medical approaches to develop drugs have attracted much attention in different arenas to design nanoparticle conjugates for better efficacy of the potential bio-molecules. A group of promising candidates of this category would be venom-toxins of animal origin of potential medicinal value. Traditional systems of medicine as well as folklores mention the use of venom-toxins for the treatment of various diseases. Research has led to scientific validation of medicinal applications of venoms-toxins and many active constituents derived from venoms-toxins are already in clinical use or under clinical trial. Nanomedicine is an emerging field of medicine where nanotechnology is used to develop molecules of nano-scale dimension, so that these molecules can be taken up by the cells more easily and have better efficacy, as compared to large molecules that may tend to get eliminated. This review will focus on some of the potential venoms and toxins along with nanoparticle conjugated venom-toxins of snakes, amphibians, scorpions and bees, etc., for possible therapeutic clues against emerging diseases. PMID:23236583

  12. Targeting the endocannabinoid system with cannabinoid receptor agonists: pharmacological strategies and therapeutic possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Pertwee, Roger G.

    2012-01-01

    Human tissues express cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors that can be activated by endogenously released ‘endocannabinoids’ or exogenously administered compounds in a manner that reduces the symptoms or opposes the underlying causes of several disorders in need of effective therapy. Three medicines that activate cannabinoid CB1/CB2 receptors are now in the clinic: Cesamet (nabilone), Marinol (dronabinol; ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC)) and Sativex (?9-THC with cannabidiol). These can be prescribed for the amelioration of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (Cesamet and Marinol), stimulation of appetite (Marinol) and symptomatic relief of cancer pain and/or management of neuropathic pain and spasticity in adults with multiple sclerosis (Sativex). This review mentions several possible additional therapeutic targets for cannabinoid receptor agonists. These include other kinds of pain, epilepsy, anxiety, depression, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, stroke, cancer, drug dependence, glaucoma, autoimmune uveitis, osteoporosis, sepsis, and hepatic, renal, intestinal and cardiovascular disorders. It also describes potential strategies for improving the efficacy and/or benefit-to-risk ratio of these agonists in the clinic. These are strategies that involve (i) targeting cannabinoid receptors located outside the blood-brain barrier, (ii) targeting cannabinoid receptors expressed by a particular tissue, (iii) targeting upregulated cannabinoid receptors, (iv) selectively targeting cannabinoid CB2 receptors, and/or (v) adjunctive ‘multi-targeting’. PMID:23108552

  13. Targeting the endocannabinoid system with cannabinoid receptor agonists: pharmacological strategies and therapeutic possibilities.

    PubMed

    Pertwee, Roger G

    2012-12-01

    Human tissues express cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptors that can be activated by endogenously released 'endocannabinoids' or exogenously administered compounds in a manner that reduces the symptoms or opposes the underlying causes of several disorders in need of effective therapy. Three medicines that activate cannabinoid CB(1)/CB(2) receptors are now in the clinic: Cesamet (nabilone), Marinol (dronabinol; ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (?(9)-THC)) and Sativex (?(9)-THC with cannabidiol). These can be prescribed for the amelioration of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (Cesamet and Marinol), stimulation of appetite (Marinol) and symptomatic relief of cancer pain and/or management of neuropathic pain and spasticity in adults with multiple sclerosis (Sativex). This review mentions several possible additional therapeutic targets for cannabinoid receptor agonists. These include other kinds of pain, epilepsy, anxiety, depression, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, stroke, cancer, drug dependence, glaucoma, autoimmune uveitis, osteoporosis, sepsis, and hepatic, renal, intestinal and cardiovascular disorders. It also describes potential strategies for improving the efficacy and/or benefit-to-risk ratio of these agonists in the clinic. These are strategies that involve (i) targeting cannabinoid receptors located outside the blood-brain barrier, (ii) targeting cannabinoid receptors expressed by a particular tissue, (iii) targeting upregulated cannabinoid receptors, (iv) selectively targeting cannabinoid CB(2) receptors, and/or (v) adjunctive 'multi-targeting'. PMID:23108552

  14. HIV infection and AIDS: new biology, therapeutic advances, and clinical implications. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Miles, S A

    1997-01-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease and the important role that viral load plays in the initial selection of antiretroviral therapy significantly alters our management of this disease. Guidelines from the British HIV Association, International AIDS Society-USA, and United States Public Health Service panels regarding the selection of appropriate antiretroviral therapy, and from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on prophylaxis for opportunistic infections, have recently been published. Despite tremendous advances in treating the disease and its related complications, a comprehensive, long-term disease management plan that includes recognition of patient concerns about quality of life is lacking. New approaches to managing HIV disease must now include strategies that address patient concerns about fatigue, gastrointestinal distress, malnutrition, and weight loss. Patients must become more involved in decisions about selection of specific drugs and drug regimens and must be consulted about their expectations and needs. We have made significant strides in the treatment of HIV disease. We can readily reduce the viral burden to virtually undetectable levels, and we must continue to develop even more potent and tolerable treatment regimens. We can make patients live longer. Helping patients live better quality lives deserves further study. PMID:9389309

  15. Effects on Innate Immunity of a Therapeutic Dendritic Cell-Based Vaccine for HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Frías, Mario; Castro-Orgaz, Laura; González, Rafael; García, Felipe; Gallart, Teresa; Gatell, Jose María; Plana, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Changes in natural killer (NK) cells according to their phenotype and expression of certain regulatory receptors were analyzed in a double-blind, controlled study of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-untreated HIV-seropositive patients, who had been vaccinated with monocyte-derived dendritic cells pulsed with inactivated HIV-1 autologous virus. This work extends other recently published studies of the same group of HIV-1+ vaccinated patients, which demonstrated that the viral load significantly decreases and correlates inversely with an increase in HIV-specific T-cell responses in vaccinated patients, but not in controls who received placebo. Our results indicate that this vaccine raises the level of the NK CD56neg cell subpopulation, while levels of the NK CD56dim and NK CD56bright cells expressing the inhibitory receptor CD85j/ILT-2 fell in vaccinated patients. Taken together, these results suggest that this vaccine might enhance innate immunity by amplifying the inflammatory and cytolytic capacity. PMID:22233253

  16. DNA vaccination with HIV1 expressing constructs elicits immune responses in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth E. Ugen; Susan B. Nyland; Jean D. Boyer; Cristina Vidal; Liana Lera; Sowsan Rasheid; Michael Chattergoon; Mark L. Bagarazzi; Richard Ciccarelli; Terry Higgins; Yaila Baine; Richard Ginsberg; Rob Roy Macgregor; David B. Weiner

    1998-01-01

    Humoral and cellular immune responses have been produced by intramuscular vaccination with DNA plasmids expressing HIV-1 genes, suggesting possible immunotherapeutic and prophylactic value for these constructs. Vaccination with these constructs has decreased HIV-1 viral load in HIV-1-infected chimpanzees. In addition, naive (i.e. non-HIV-1-infected) chimpanzees were protected against a heterologous challenge with HIV-1. Ongoing phase I clinical trials show that therapeutic

  17. Communication, recruitment and enrolment in the preventative and therapeutic phase I clinical trial against HIV/AIDS based on the recombinant HIV-1 Tat protein.

    PubMed

    Luzi, Anna Maria; Gallo, Pietro; Colucci, Anna; Marcotullio, Simone; Bellino, Stefania; Longo, Olimpia; Ensoli, Barbara

    2011-08-01

    The role of volunteer recruitment in HIV vaccine trials has recently been considered particularly with respect to critical issues, such as motivation, psychological assessment and social impact. The preventative and therapeutic phase I trials based on the recombinant biologically active Tat vaccine candidate, sponsored in Italy by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità, included a specific centralised procedure (SCP) developed to support both the sponsor and the volunteers during trial enrolment and conduction. This process, which is an integrated, multidisciplinary, biomedical and psycho-socio-behavioural network, represented a novel and important aspect for the conduction and success of the clinical study. A specific flow of information from the sponsor to the population was developed through the SCP which started from the national announcement of the trials (through a press conference and a press release) to the enrolment of the volunteers. To this aim a telephone counselling intervention was performed to supply the scientific information translated in personalised message, allowing to select potential participants prior to the first contact with the clinical sites. Furthermore, the multi-step procedure contributed in reinforcing the motivation to participation and trial retention, providing important hints for the design of standardised enrolment procedures to be used in clinical studies. Indeed, this methodological approach, which foresees the joined participation of researchers and expert of communication, could be followed in future vaccine trials in order to improve the effectiveness of enrolment procedures. PMID:21390884

  18. A Future of Possibilities: Educating Children Living in HIV Impacted Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagotho, Njeri

    2012-01-01

    Close to one and a half million Kenyans reportedly live with HIV/AIDS. Using qualitative in-depth interviews this study explores the ways in which parents living with HIV/AIDS navigate their social and economic environment to provide educational opportunities for their children. Barriers identified include the economic costs of a free primary…

  19. Regulation of Posttranscriptional Modification as a Possible Therapeutic Approach for Retinal Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Ozawa, Yoko; Kurihara, Toshihide; Tsubota, Kazuo; Okano, Hideyuki

    2011-01-01

    Understanding pathogenesis at the molecular level is the first step toward developing new therapeutic approaches. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms of visual dysfunction in two common diseases, innate chorioretinal inflammation and diabetic retinopathy, and the role of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in both processes. In innate chorioretinal inflammation, interleukin-6 family ligands induce STAT3 activation in photoreceptors, which causes UPS-mediated excessive degradation of the visual substance, rhodopsin. In diabetic retinopathy, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) signaling activates ERK in the inner layers of the retina, causing UPS-mediated excessive degradation of the synaptic vesicle protein, synaptophysin. This latter effect may decrease synaptic activity, in turn adversely affecting neuronal survival. Both mechanisms involve increased UPS activity and the subsequent excessive degradation of a protein required for visual function. Finally, we review the therapeutic potential of regulating the UPS to protect tissue function, citing examples from clinical applications in other medical fields. PMID:21076532

  20. Targeting specific HATs for neurodegenerative disease treatment: translating basic biology to therapeutic possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Pirooznia, Sheila K.; Elefant, Felice

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic epigenetic regulation of neurons is emerging as a fundamental mechanism by which neurons adapt their transcriptional responses to specific developmental and environmental cues. While defects within the neural epigenome have traditionally been studied in the context of early developmental and heritable cognitive disorders, recent studies point to aberrant histone acetylation status as a key mechanism underlying acquired inappropriate alterations of genome structure and function in post-mitotic neurons during the aging process. Indeed, it is becoming increasingly evident that chromatin acetylation status can be impaired during the lifetime of neurons through mechanisms related to loss of function of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity. Several HATs have been shown to participate in vital neuronal functions such as regulation of neuronal plasticity and memory formation. As such, dysregulation of such HATs has been implicated in the pathogenesis associated with age-associated neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive decline. In order to counteract the loss of HAT function in neurodegenerative diseases, the current therapeutic strategies involve the use of small molecules called histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors that antagonize HDAC activity and thus enhance acetylation levels. Although this strategy has displayed promising therapeutic effects, currently used HDAC inhibitors lack target specificity, raising concerns about their applicability. With rapidly evolving literature on HATs and their respective functions in mediating neuronal survival and higher order brain function such as learning and memory, modulating the function of specific HATs holds new promises as a therapeutic tool in neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we focus on the recent progress in research regarding epigenetic histone acetylation mechanisms underlying neuronal activity and cognitive function. We discuss the current understanding of specific HDACs and HATs in neurodegenerative diseases and the future promising prospects of using specific HAT based therapeutic approaches. PMID:23543406

  1. Degrasyn-like Symmetrical Compounds: Possible Therapeutic Agents for Multiple Myeloma (MM-I)

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zhenghong; Maxwell, David; Sun, Duoli; Bhanu Prasad, Basvoju A.; Schuber, Paul T.; Pal, Ashutosh; Ying, Yunming; Han, Dongmei; Gao, Liwei; Wang, Shimei; Levitzki, Alexander; Kapuria, Vaibhav; Talpaz, Moshe; Young, Matthew; Showalter, Hollis D.; Donato, Nicholas J.; Bornmann, William. G.

    2014-01-01

    A series of degrasyn-like symmetrical compounds have been designed, synthesized, and screened against B cell malignancy (multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma) cell lines. The lead compounds T5165804 and CP2005 showed higher nanomolar potency against these tumor cells in comparison to degrasyn and inhibited Usp9x activity in vitro and in intact cells. These observations suggest that this new class of compounds holds promise as cancer therapeutic agents PMID:24457091

  2. Ironing out Parkinson's disease: is therapeutic treatment with iron chelators a real possibility?

    PubMed

    Kaur, Deepinder; Andersen, Julie K

    2002-10-01

    Levels of iron are increased in the brains of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients compared to age-matched controls. This has been postulated to contribute to progression of the disease via several mechanisms including exacerbation of oxidative stress, initiation of inflammatory responses and triggering of Lewy body formation. In this minireview, we examine the putative role of iron in PD and its pharmacological chelation as a prospective therapeutic for the disease. PMID:12882349

  3. Autologous aldrithiol-2-inactivated HIV-1 combined with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-poly-L-lysine carboxymethylcellulose as a vaccine platform for therapeutic dendritic cell immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth; Spadaccia, Meredith; Sabado, Rachel; Chertova, Elena; Bess, Julian; Trubey, Charles Mac; Holman, Rose Marie; Salazar, Andres; Lifson, Jeffrey; Bhardwaj, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic interventions for HIV-1 that successfully augment adaptive immunity to promote killing of infected cells may be a requisite component of strategies to reduce latent cellular reservoirs. Adoptive immunotherapies utilizing autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) that have been activated and antigen loaded ex vivo may serve to circumvent defects in DC function that are present during HIV infection in order to enhance adaptive immune responses. Here we detail the clinical preparation of DCs loaded with autologous aldrithiol-2 (AT-2)-inactivated HIV that have been potently activated with the viral mimic, Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid-poly-l-lysine carboxymethylcellulose (Poly-ICLC). HIV is first propagated from CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected donors and then rendered non-replicative by chemical inactivation with aldrithiol-2 (AT-2), purified, and quantified. Viral inactivation is confirmed through measurement of Tat-regulated ?-galactosidase reporter gene expression following infection of TZM-bl cells. In-process testing for sterility, mycoplasma, LPS, adventitious agents, and removal of AT-2 is performed on viral preparations. Autologous DCs are generated and pulsed with autologous AT-2-inactivated virus and simultaneously stimulated with Poly-ICLC to constitute the final DC vaccine product. Phenotypic identity, maturation, and induction of HIV-specific adaptive immune responses are confirmed via flow cytometric analysis of DCs and cocultured autologous CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Lot release criteria for the DC vaccine have been defined in accordance with Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) guidelines. The demonstrated feasibility of this approach has resulted in approval by the FDA for investigational use in antiretroviral (ART) suppressed individuals. We discuss how this optimized DC formulation may enhance the quality of anti-HIV adaptive responses beyond what has been previously observed during DC immunotherapy trials for HIV infection. PMID:25444812

  4. Influence of IFNgamma co-expression on the safety and antiviral efficacy of recombinant fowlpox virus HIV therapeutic vaccines following interruption of antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Emery, S; Kelleher, A D; Workman, C; Puls, R L; Bloch, M; Baker, D; Anderson, J; Hoy, J; Ip, S; Nalliah, K; Ward, L D; Law, M G; Cooper, D A

    2007-01-01

    Therapeutic immunization to stimulate host immune responses and control human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) replication is being investigated as a supplementary treatment for the management of HIV infection. On completion of an earlier study involving three vaccinations while taking combination antiretroviral therapy (CART), twenty-five subjects with plasma viral load (pVL) <50 copies/mL received a booster vaccination with either placebo (n = 7); fowl pox vaccine (rFPV) expressing HIV-1 Gag/Pol; [partial construct- PC (n = 8)] or rFPV coexpressing HIV-1 Gag/Pol and human interferon gamma[full construct - FC (n = 10)]. One week after the booster vaccination, participants stopped ART and were monitored for safety, pVL and immunological parameters for < or =20 weeks. The time weighted mean change (SD) from baseline plasma HIV RNA was 1.80 (0.72), 1.78 (0.91) and 0.96 (0.91) log(10) copies/mL for placebo, PC and FC recipients respectively (p = 0.06; mean differences between placebo and FC). Laboratory evaluations did not reveal differences in anti-HIV specific immune responses between study arms. No difference between treatment arms for host genetic factors known to affect pVL was demonstrated. In conclusion, vaccination with FC was associated with a trend toward lower rates of HIV replication following cessation of ART relative to placebo or PC. The promising antiretrovirological effect supports further study of FC in a larger trial with a broader population of patients with HIV disease. PMID:18340117

  5. Geophysical variables and behavior: LXX. Testing electromagnetic explanations for a possible psychokinetic effect of therapeutic touch on germinating corn seed.

    PubMed

    Bush, A M; Geist, C R

    1992-06-01

    Designs used to test claims for psychic healing of living systems not amenable to suggestion may produce artifact in the results when there is failure to control for other possible explanations. Some experimental methods in psychokinesis may produce electromagnetic field flux which could lead to erroneous conclusions. This study adds electrical and magnetic controls to assess their effect, leading to the conclusion that therapeutically touched corn seeds did not recover from saline injury significantly better than untreated controls. PMID:1620780

  6. Acceptability and effectiveness of chickpea sesame-based ready-to-use therapeutic food in malnourished HIV-positive adults

    PubMed Central

    Bahwere, Paluku; Sadler, Kate; Collins, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Objective: A prospective descriptive study to assess acceptability and effectiveness of a locally made ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) in HIV-infected chronically sick adults (CSA) with mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) <210 mm or pitting edema. Methods: Sixty-three wasted AIDS adults were prescribed 500 g representing ~2600 kcal/day of locally made RUTF for three months and routine cotrimoxazole. Weight, height, MUAC, Karnofsky score and morbidity were measured at admission and at monthly intervals. The amount of RUTF intake and acceptability were assessed monthly. Results: Ninety-five percent (60/63) of the CSA that were invited to join the study agreed to participate. Mean daily intake in these 60 patients was 300 g/person/day (~1590 Kcal and 40 g of protein). Overall, 73.3% (44/60) gained weight, BMI, and MUAC. The median weight, MUAC and BMI gains after three months were 3.0 kg, 25.4 mm, and 1.1 kg/m2, respectively. The intervention improved the physical activity performance of participants and 78.3% (47/60) regained sufficient strength to walk to the nearest health facility. Mortality at three months was 18.3% (11/60). Conclusion: Locally made RUTF was acceptable to patients and was associated with a rapid weight gain and physical activity performance. The intervention is likely to be more cost effective than nutritional support using usual food-aid commodities. PMID:19936147

  7. The nitric oxide pathway and possible therapeutic options in pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Johal, Tamanrit; Lees, Christoph C; Everett, Thomas R; Wilkinson, Ian B

    2014-08-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a serious multisystem disorder with diverse clinical manifestations. Although not causal, endothelial dysfunction and reduced nitric oxide bioavailability are likely to play an important role in the maternal and fetal pathophysiology of this condition. Lack of treatment modalities that can target the underlying pathophysiological changes and reverse the endothelial dysfunction frequently leads to iatrogenic preterm delivery of the fetus, causing neonatal morbidity and mortality, and the condition itself is associated with short- and longer term maternal morbidity and mortality. Drugs that target various components of the nitric oxide-soluble guanylyl cyclase pathway can help to increase NO bioavailability. The purpose of this review is to outline the current status of clinical research involving these therapeutic modalities in the context of pre-eclampsia, with the focus being on the following: nitric oxide donors, including organic nitrates and S-nitrosothiols; l-arginine, the endogenous precursor of NO; inhibitors of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate breakdown, including sildenafil; and other novel inhibitors of NO donor metabolism. The advantages and limitations of each modality are outlined, and scope for development into established therapeutic options for pre-eclampsia is explored. PMID:24313856

  8. Melatonin and Its Agonist Ramelteon in Alzheimer's Disease: Possible Therapeutic Value

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Venkatramanujam; Kaur, Charanjit; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu; Brown, Gregory M.; Cardinali, Daniel P.

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-associated neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of cognitive function, loss of memory and insomnia, and abnormal behavioral signs and symptoms. Among the various theories that have been put forth to explain the pathophysiology of AD, the oxidative stress induced by amyloid ?-protein (A?) deposition has received great attention. Studies undertaken on postmortem brain samples of AD patients have consistently shown extensive lipid, protein, and DNA oxidation. Presence of abnormal tau protein, mitochondrial dysfunction, and protein hyperphosphorylation all have been demonstrated in neural tissues of AD patients. Moreover, AD patients exhibit severe sleep/wake disturbances and insomnia and these are associated with more rapid cognitive decline and memory impairment. On this basis, the successful management of AD patients requires an ideal drug that besides antagonizing A?-induced neurotoxicity could also correct the disturbed sleep-wake rhythm and improve sleep quality. Melatonin is an effective chronobiotic agent and has significant neuroprotective properties preventing A?-induced neurotoxic effects in a number of animal experimental models. Since melatonin levels in AD patients are greatly reduced, melatonin replacement has the potential value to be used as a therapeutic agent for treating AD, particularly at the early phases of the disease and especially in those in whom the relevant melatonin receptors are intact. As sleep deprivation has been shown to produce oxidative damage, impaired mitochondrial function, neurodegenerative inflammation, and altered proteosomal processing with abnormal activation of enzymes, treatment of sleep disturbances may be a priority for arresting the progression of AD. In this context the newly introduced melatonin agonist ramelteon can be of much therapeutic value because of its highly selective action on melatonin MT1/MT2 receptors in promoting sleep. PMID:21197086

  9. Why are some HIV/AIDS patients reluctant to receive antiviral therapy as soon as possible in China?

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Lu, Hongzhou

    2014-06-01

    In more than 20 years of medical practice, a surprising phenomenon has often occurred: some patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) decide not to go to the hospital and they do not let others know that they are suffering from the disease unless they believe that they are dieing. Zhang Shan (a pseudonym) is one such patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS who was reluctant to receive antiviral therapy as soon as possible, and this paper shares Zhang's story as he related it. Clearly, there are numerous views as to why patients in China behave as Zhang did. Presented here are several reasons, including society, history, morality and ideology, family, and education. Although all of these reasons do play a role, the patient's mindset and behavior is the most significant reason for a patient's reluctance to seek treatment or disclose his/her status. If the individual patient's mindset and behavior are not dealt with effectively, then HIV/AIDS can continue to spread and threaten additional lives and even the fabric of society. This paper analyzes the reasons why patients are hesitant to receive antiviral therapy, but this paper also suggests steps healthcare personnel can take to encourage patients to seek treatment. Such steps can save the lives of current patients with HIV/AIDS. In addition, sound public health measures and a rational approach to treatment are important to helping potential patients with HIV/AIDS. PMID:25030855

  10. Trop2: a possible therapeutic target for late stage epithelial carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Cubas, Rafael; Li, Min; Chen, Changyi; Yao, Qizhi

    2009-12-01

    Trop2 is a cell-surface glycoprotein overexpressed in a variety of late stage epithelial carcinomas with low to no expression in normal tissues. Some of the important roles that Trop2 plays in epithelial cancers have recently been revealed. Trop2 overexpression is associated with decreased patient survival as well as increased tumor aggressiveness and metastasis. Its overexpression in metastatic tissue makes it a very attractive and potential therapeutic target for late stage disease. This protein can transduce an intracellular calcium signal and contains a conserved phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) binding motif as well as a serine phosphorylation site which interacts with protein kinase C. This protein has recently being found to be expressed in cells with stem-like properties which allude to a potential role in progenitor cell biology. Further understanding of the signaling pathways involved with this molecule and its important role in metastasis will shed new light on the mechanism of Trop2 overexpression in late stage disease and could result in the development of new therapies targeting this widely overexpressed oncogene. PMID:19683559

  11. Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Drives Proliferation of Synoviocytes in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Possible Novel Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingxia; Zhu, Shangling; Peng, Weixiang; Li, Qiuxia; Li, Zhaoxia; Luo, Minqi; Feng, Xiaoxue; Lin, Zhuofeng; Huang, Jianlin

    2014-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling controls many aspects of human development, regulates cell growth and differentiation in adult tissues, and is activated in a number of malignancies. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by chronic synovitis and pannus formation associated with activation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). We investigated whether Shh signaling plays a role in the proliferation of FLS in RA. Expression of Shh signaling related components (Shh, Ptch1, Smo, and Gli1) in RA synovial tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in FLS by IHC, immunofluorescence (IF), quantitative RT-PCR, and western blotting. Expression of Shh, Smo, and Gli1 in RA synovial tissue was higher than that in control tissue (P < 0.05). Cyclopamine (a specific inhibitor of Shh signaling) decreased mRNA expression of Shh, Ptch1, Smo, and Gli1 in cultured RA FLS, Shh, and Smo protein expression, and significantly decreased FLS proliferation. Flow cytometry analysis suggested that cyclopamine treatment resulted in cell cycle arrest of FLS in G1 phase. Our data show that Shh signaling is activated in synovium of RA patients in vivo and in cultured FLS form RA patients in vitro, suggesting a role in the proliferation of FLS in RA. It may therefore be a novel therapeutic target in RA. PMID:24741597

  12. Association of Oxidative Stress to the Genesis of Anxiety: Implications for Possible Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Waseem; Silva, Carlos Eduardo Barroso; Mohammadzai, Imdad Ullah; da Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira; Landeira-Fernandez, J.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress caused by reactive species, including reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, and unbound, adventitious metal ions (e.g., iron [Fe] and copper [Cu]), is an underlying cause of various neurodegenerative diseases. These reactive species are an inevitable by-product of cellular respiration or other metabolic processes that may cause the oxidation of lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. Oxidative stress has recently been implicated in depression and anxiety-related disorders. Furthermore, the manifestation of anxiety in numerous psychiatric disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder, depressive disorder, panic disorder, phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder, highlights the importance of studying the underlying biology of these disorders to gain a better understanding of the disease and to identify common biomarkers for these disorders. Most recently, the expression of glutathione reductase 1 and glyoxalase 1, which are genes involved in antioxidative metabolism, were reported to be correlated with anxiety-related phenotypes. This review focuses on direct and indirect evidence of the potential involvement of oxidative stress in the genesis of anxiety and discusses different opinions that exist in this field. Antioxidant therapeutic strategies are also discussed, highlighting the importance of oxidative stress in the etiology, incidence, progression, and prevention of psychiatric disorders. PMID:24669207

  13. Neuropathogenesis of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders: a possible involvement of D-serine

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jianxun; Xiong, Huangui

    2013-01-01

    A unique feature of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) that distinguishes them from other ionic receptors is that their activation requires more than one agonist to bind simultaneously to distinct binding sites on the receptor. D-serine, a co-agonist binding to the glycine site of NMDARs, has been implicated in several NMDAR-dependent physiological processes, and altered D-serine levels under certain pathophysiological conditions contribute to neural dysfunction via NMDARs in the central nervous system. Entry of HIV-1 in the brain causes neuronal injury leading to cognitive, behavioral and motor impairments known as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). As HIV-1 does not infect neurons, neuronal injury is believed to be primarily mediated by an indirect mechanism,that is, HIV-1-infected and/or immune-activated macrophages and microglial cells release soluble molecules leading to neuronal injury or death. Among the soluble factors is D-serine. In this article we try to address recent progresses on the role D-serine might play in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders with a particular emphasis of the involvement of D-serine in HIV-1-associated neurotoxicity. PMID:24044033

  14. [Reversibility of advanced liver fibrosis--therapeutic possibility and biochemical monitoring of the disease].

    PubMed

    Lebensztejn, Dariusz Marek

    2005-01-01

    The advanced liver fibrosis and cirrhosis had been regarded irreversible until quite lately. However, experimental and clinical studies confirmed possibility of stopping or even decreasing the stage of liver fibrosis through causal factor elimination and application of pharmacological preparation of potential antifibrotic activity. The morphological examination of liver bioptate is a "gold standard" in assessment of liver fibrosis stage. However it is an invasive procedure and has several limitation such as "sampling error". Therefore several biochemical blood tests for liver fibrosis have been evaluated which are less invasive and give possibility of long-term monitoring of the course of disease and possible changes caused by treatment. The non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis include extracellular matrix components (ECM) as well as non-ECM biochemical panels (FibroTest, Forns index, APRI). Significant progress in diagnostics and treatment confirmed the reversibility of liver fibrosis. However, reversibility of cirrhosis still becomes controversial. Further investigations of antifibrotic drugs and settlement of proper biochemical blood panel for better monitoring of possible disease regression are needed. PMID:16190564

  15. [Extending therapeutic possibilities in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: dimethyl fumarate].

    PubMed

    Matolcsi, Judit; Rózsa, Csilla

    2015-01-30

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is a novel oral therapy that has recently been approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Dimethyl fumarate shows anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective properties that are thought to be mediated primarily via activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2- Nrf2 transcriptional pathway, which up-regulates the genes involved in the cellular response to oxidative stress. The drug was evaluated in 2 large, randomized, double-blind, multicentric, multinational, 2-year, phase III clinical trials. The DEFINE and CONFIRM trials, conducted with over 2600 adult patients suffering from RRMS, unequivocally confirmed the efficacy of DMF (2 x 240 mg daily) in reducing the annualized relapse rate (ARR) and reducing the proportion of patients with MS relapse at 2 years. Significantly reduced sustained disability progression was observed with the drug versus placebo in DEFINE, while the same tendency was seen in CONFIRM. The MRI results of the studies were also convincing: DMF significantly reduced the number of new/enlarging T2-hyperintense lesions and the number of Gd-enhancing lesions compared to placebo. Dimethyl fumarate was generally well tolerated and no safety concern has been raised. Adverse events that occurred most frequently included flushing and gastrointestinal events. The long-term efficacy and tolerability of dimethyl fumarate is currently being investigated in the ENDORSE trial, with interim results demonstrating the same results as the two previous studies. In conclusion, although further, mostly comparative data are needed to fully establish the relative efficacy and tolerability of dimethyl fumarate compared with other therapies, dimethyl-fumarate is a valuable addition to the therapeutic options available for RRMS. PMID:25842911

  16. Minority report: hidden memory genomes in HIV-1 quasispecies and possible clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Briones, Carlos; Domingo, Esteban

    2008-01-01

    The RNA viruses replicate as complex distributions of closely related genomes termed viral quasispecies. The behavior of the evolving quasispecies and its response to selective pressures such as antiviral treatment is influenced by the ensemble of mutants that compose the viral population. One such influence is the presence of minority subpopulations in the mutant spectra of viral quasispecies. Biologically relevant mutants have long been known to be present as minority components of replicating viral populations. However, experiments designed with specific mutants of the animal pathogen foot-and-mouth disease virus in cell culture explained the presence of a class of minority genomes termed memory genomes. They descend from those variants that were dominant at an earlier phase of quasispecies evolution, and arise as a consequence of quasispecies dynamics, when viral populations are subjected to discontinuous selective pressures. The presence of memory genomes has also been documented during intrahost evolution of HIV-1 in vivo. The analysis of sequential viral samples of different HIV-1-infected patients showed that two distinct types of memory can operate in retroviruses: a replicative memory analogous to that observed in foot-and-mouth disease virus, as well as a reservoir memory derived from the integrative phase of the retroviral lifecycle. Despite being hidden as minority components of the HIV-1 viral population (ranging from about 0.1 to 20% of the total number of genomes in the quasispecies analyzed), memory genomes can drive the evolution of the virus during HIV-1 infections under antiviral therapy. The limited availability of current experimental data on minority HIV-1 subpopulations in vivo implies that further studies are required in order to define the cutoffs of clinically relevant minority genomes. Nevertheless, it is already evident that such low-abundance genomes remain undetectable by traditional genotyping methods such as consensus sequencing or conventional hybridization techniques. Several experimental systems are currently available for the detection and characterization of minority components of the mutant spectra of viral quasispecies including HIV, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus. Some of these biotechnological approaches could, in the near future, be taken over and exploited in the clinical setting as useful biosensors with which to improve the management of HIV-infected patients. PMID:18615120

  17. Ready to Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF) improves undernutrition among ART-treated, HIV-positive children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV/AIDS is associated with an increased burden of undernutrition among children even under antiretroviral therapy (ART). To treat undernutrition, WHO endorsed the use of Ready to Use Therapeutic Foods (RUTF) that can reduce case fatality and undernutrition among ART-naïve HIV-positive children. However, its effects are not studied among ART-treated, HIV-positive children. Therefore, we examined the association between RUTF use with underweight, wasting, and stunting statuses among ART-treated HIV-positive children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from September-October 2010. The target population was 219 ART-treated, HIV-positive children and the same number of their caregivers. We used questionnaires to measure socio-economic factors, food security, RUTF-use, and ART-duration. Our outcome variables were underweight, wasting, and stunting statuses. Results Of 219 ART-treated, HIV-positive children, 140 (63.9%) had received RUTF intervention prior to the interview. The percentages of underweight and wasting among non-RUTF-receivers were 12.4% and 16.5%; whereas those of RUTF-receivers were 3.0% (P?=?0.006) and 2.8% (P?=?0.001), respectively. RUTF-receivers were less likely to have underweight (Adjusted Odd Ratio (AOR) =0.19, CI: 0.04, 0.78), and wasting (AOR?=?0.24, CI: 0.07, 0.81), compared to non RUTF-receivers. Among RUTF receivers, children treated for at least four months (n?=?84) were less likely to have underweight (P?=?0.049), wasting (P?=?0.049) and stunting (P?HIV-positive children under ART, the provision of RUTF for at least four months was associated with low proportions of undernutrition status. RUTF has a potential to improve undernutrition among HIV-positive children under ART in the clinical settings in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. PMID:22931107

  18. Local ELF-magnetic field: a possible novel therapeutic approach to psychology symptoms.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, Seyed Ali; Firoozabadi, Seyed Mohammad

    2014-11-01

    The recorded EEG of some brain regions of patients such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression and etc. are different in comparison to healthy people. The disease improves with modifying the patient EEG that this is the basis of neurofeedback training. The main disadvantage of neurofeedback training demands patient's collaborative and active participation during treatment sessions, while some of patients such as addicts, depressed people and ADHD children cannot easily concentrate in direction of therapist's purpose. Furthermore, extremely low frequency magnetic fields (MFs) can affect brain signals and change them that in some cases lead to clinical effects. This report proposes if by locating small coils in desired region proceeds to local exposure of brain and happens in different frequencies or intensities and the effects of each MF in brain signals get analyzed then by knowing its effects we can make changes in patient voluntary without direct participation of patient in his/her brain signal changes. In the other words by changing type of the MF exposure and immediate record of brain signals we can fallow brain signals by observing the immediate record after exposure, with changes in the amplitude and the next exposure frequency, the therapist tries to direct the brain signal of desired region to the purpose. The possibility of approving this hypothesis in spite of contradictory effects about recovery or appearance of depression because of the MF and ability of local magnetic field exposures in changing of brain signals get reinforced to some extent. PMID:25073696

  19. Nutrition outcomes of HIV-infected malnourished adults treated with ready-to-use therapeutic food in sub-Saharan Africa: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Among people living with HIV/AIDS, nutritional support is increasingly recognized as a critical part of the essential package of care, especially for patients in sub-Saharan Africa. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the outcomes of HIV-positive malnourished adults treated with ready-to-use therapeutic food and to identify factors associated with nutrition programme failure. Methods We present results from a retrospective cohort analysis of patients aged 15 years or older with a body mass index of less than 17 kg/m2 enrolled in three HIV/AIDS care programmes in Africa between March 2006 and August 2008. Factors associated with nutrition programme failure (patients discharged uncured after six or more months of nutritional care, defaulting from nutritional care, remaining in nutritional care for six or more months, or dead) were investigated using multiple logistic regression. Results Overall, 1340 of 8685 (15.4%) HIV-positive adults were enrolled in the nutrition programme. At admission, median body mass index was 15.8 kg/m2 (IQR 14.9-16.4) and 12% received combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). After a median of four months of follow up (IQR 2.2-6.1), 524 of 1106 (47.4%) patients were considered cured. An overall total of 531 of 1106 (48.0%) patients failed nutrition therapy, 132 (11.9%) of whom died and 250 (22.6%) defaulted from care. Men (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-2.0), patients with severe malnutrition at nutrition programme enrolment (OR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.7-2.8), and those never started on ART (OR = 4.5, 95% CI 2.7-7.7 for those eligible; OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.5 for those ineligible for ART at enrolment) were at increased risk of nutrition programme failure. Diagnosed tuberculosis at nutrition programme admission or during follow up, and presence of diarrhoeal disease or extensive candidiasis at admission, were unrelated to nutrition programme failure. Conclusions Concomitant administration of ART and ready-to-use therapeutic food increases the chances of nutritional recovery in these high-risk patients. While adequate nutrition is necessary to treat malnourished HIV patients, development of improved strategies for the management of severely malnourished patients with HIV/AIDS are urgently needed. PMID:21219607

  20. Therapeutical Aspects and Outcome of HIV\\/HCV Coinfected Patients Treated with Pegylated Interferon plus Ribavirin in an Italian Cohort

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Righi; A. Beltrame; M. Bassetti; V. Lindstrom; G. Mazzarello; C. Dentone; A. Di Biagio; S. Ratto; C. Viscoli

    2008-01-01

    Background: One-third of HIV-infected individuals suffer from chronic hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) in Europe. Recommendations from HCV–HIV International Panel advise current treatment with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin. We assessed the impact of interferon and ribavirin combination in 43 patients between 2002 and 2006. Patients and Methods: All coinfected patients treated for HCV during the 5-year period were included in

  1. [HIV associated neurocognitive disorders].

    PubMed

    Bragança, Miguel; Palha, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    With the development of new antiretroviral therapies, there has been significant developments in the understanding of the neuropathogenesis of HIV-associated brain disease and the effects of these drugs in the CNS. This fact originated a substantial improvement in the survival of patients and influenced the course of cognitive impairment associated with HIV infection. This review intends to be an update on the epidemiological, etiopathogenic, clinical and therapeutic aspects related to neurodeterioration. A key challenge for the clinician working in this area is to diagnose, as early as possible, the cognitive deficits ocuring in the primary stages of the disease, to determine the prognosis (according to clinical, laboratory and neuropsychological findings) and establish a therapeutic approach. So the neuropsychological assessment should be included in the routine evaluation of these patients. This would have an important impact on their quality of life and improve, the antiretroviral therapy compliance. PMID:22127910

  2. Rebuilding Synaptic Architecture in HIV-1 Associated Neurocognitive Disease (HAND) – A Therapeutic Strategy Based on Modulation of Mixed Lineage Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Gelbard, Harris A.; Dewhurst, Stephen; Maggirwar, Sanjay B.; Kiebala, Michelle; Polesskaya, Oksana; Gendelman, Howard E.

    2010-01-01

    Work from our laboratories has validated mixed lineage kinase type 3 (MLK3) as an enzyme pathologically activated in the central nervous system (CNS) by HIV-1 neurotoxins. In this review, we discuss MLK3 activation in the context of the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 associated neurocognitive deficits (HAND). We use findings from the literature to substantiate the neuropathologic relevance of MLK3 to neurodegenerative disease, with an emphasis on Parkinson’s disease (PD) that shares a number of important phenotypic and neuropathologic characteristics with HAND. We discuss signal transduction pathways downstream from MLK3 activation, with an emphasis on their involvement in microglia and neurons in preclinical models of HAND. Finally, we make a case for pharmacologic intervention targeted at inhibition of MLK3 as a strategy to reverse HAND in light of the fact that combination antiretroviral therapy, despite successfully managing systemic infection of HIV-1, has been largely unsuccessful in eradicating HAND. PMID:20880503

  3. Safety, Tolerability and Immunogenicity of Repeated Doses of DermaVir, a Candidate Therapeutic HIV Vaccine, in HIV Infected Patients Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy. Results of the ACTG 5176 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Benigno; Asmuth, David M.; Matining, Roy M.; Spritzler, John; Jacobson, Jeffrey; Mailliard, Robbie; Li, Xiao-Dong; Martinez, Ana I.; Tenorio, Allan; Lori, Franco; Lisziewicz, Julianna; Yesmin, Suria; Rinaldo, Charles R.; Pollard, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-specific cellular immune responses are associated with control of viremia and delayed disease progression. An effective therapeutic vaccine could mimic these effects and reduce the need for continued antiretroviral therapy. DermaVir, a topically administered pDNA-nanomedicine expressing HIV (CladeB) virus-like particles consisting of 15 antigens, induces predominantly central memory T-cell responses. Methods Treated HIV-infected adults (HIV RNA<50, CD4>350) were randomized to placebo or escalating DermaVir doses (0.1 or 0.4 mg pDNA at weeks 1/7/13 in the low and intermediate-dose groups, 0.8 mg at weeks 0/1/6/7/12/13 in the high-dose group), n=5–6 evaluable subjects/group. Immunogenicity was assessed by a 12-day cultured IFN-? ELISPOT assay, at baseline and at 9/17/37 weeks, using one Tat/Rev and three overlapping Gag peptide pools (p17/p24/p15). Results Groups were comparable at baseline. The study intervention was well tolerated, without dose-limiting toxicities. Most responses were highest at week 17 (4 weeks after last vaccination), when Gag p24 responses were significantly greater among intermediate-dose compared to control subjects (median [IQR]: 67,600 [5,633 – 74,368] vs. 1,194 [9 – 1,667] net spot-forming units/million cells, p = 0.032. In the intermediate-dose group, there was also a marginal Gag p15 response increase from baseline to week 17 (2859 [1867 – 56933], p=0.06), and this change was significantly greater than in the placebo group (0 [?713 – 297], p=0.016). Conclusions DermaVIr administration was associated with a trend toward greater HIV-specific, predominantly central memory T-cell responses. The intermediate DermaVir dose tended to show the greatest immunogenicity, consistent with previous studies in different HIV-infected patient populations. PMID:24169120

  4. Loss of anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies following therapeutic sustained virological response in a HIV co-infected patient.

    PubMed

    Maylin, Sarah; de Verdière, Nathalie Colin; Salmona, Maud; Simon, François; Delaugerre, Constance

    2014-06-01

    No data are available for the kinetics of anti-Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) antibodies in HIV/HCV co-infected patients after sustained virological response (SVR). We present a case of a HIV/HCV co-infected patient, showing a significant anti-HCV antibodies decrease during therapy, who achieved a HCV seroreversion 3 years after SVR. Among them, antibodies to core protein, the most strongly antigenic protein showed significant decrease. Our results indicate an absence of antigenic stimulation suggesting a total clearance of HCV. PMID:24613600

  5. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection in a cohort of HIV positive long-term non-progressors: Possible protective effect of infecting HCV genotype on HIV disease progression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giulia Morsica; Sabrina Bagaglio; Silvia Ghezzi; Chiara Lodrini; Elisa Vicenzi; Elena Santagostino; Alessandro Gringeri; Marco Cusini; Guido Carminati; Giampaolo Bianchi; Laura Galli; Adriano Lazzarin; Guido Poli

    2007-01-01

    Background and objectiveHepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is frequent in HIV-positive subjects. We evaluated the potential impact of HCV coinfection and other determinants on HIV disease progression in a cohort of long-term non-progressors (LTNPs).

  6. Possible Prognostic and Therapeutic Significance of c-Kit Expression, Mast Cell Count and Microvessel Density in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Marech, Ilaria; Gadaleta, Cosmo Damiano; Ranieri, Girolamo

    2014-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most frequent renal tumor and its incidence is increasing worldwide. Tumor angiogenesis is known to play a crucial role in the etiopathogenesis of RCC and over the last few years an even deeper knowledge of its contribution in metastatic RCC development has led to the development of numerous molecular targeting agents (such as sunitinib, sorafenib, pazopanib, axitinib, tivozanib, and dovitinib). The above agents are principally directed against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) members and also against c-Kit receptor (c-KitR). The role of c-kitR inhibition on clear cell RCC (ccRCC), the main RCC subtype, is less well established. Whether c-kitR activation through its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF) contributes significantly to the effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) treatment remains to be established. It is important to underscore that the c-KitR is expressed on mast cells (MCs) and cancer cells. After an examination of the c-KitR/SCF pathway, we review here the principal studies that have evaluated c-Kit expression in RCC. Moreover, we summarize some investigations that have observed the distribution of MCs in primary renal cancer and in adjacent normal tissue with appropriate histological immunohistochemical techniques. We also focus on few studies that have evaluated the correlation between RCC proliferation, MC count and microvessel density (MVD), as hallmarks of tumor angiogenesis. Thus, the aim of this review of the literature is to clarify if c-KitR expression, MC count and MVD could have prognostic significance and the possible predictive therapeutic implications in RCC. PMID:25056544

  7. Possible prognostic and therapeutic significance of c-Kit expression, mast cell count and microvessel density in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Marech, Ilaria; Gadaleta, Cosmo Damiano; Ranieri, Girolamo

    2014-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most frequent renal tumor and its incidence is increasing worldwide. Tumor angiogenesis is known to play a crucial role in the etiopathogenesis of RCC and over the last few years an even deeper knowledge of its contribution in metastatic RCC development has led to the development of numerous molecular targeting agents (such as sunitinib, sorafenib, pazopanib, axitinib, tivozanib, and dovitinib). The above agents are principally directed against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) members and also against c-Kit receptor (c-KitR). The role of c-kitR inhibition on clear cell RCC (ccRCC), the main RCC subtype, is less well established. Whether c-kitR activation through its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF) contributes significantly to the effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) treatment remains to be established. It is important to underscore that the c-KitR is expressed on mast cells (MCs) and cancer cells. After an examination of the c-KitR/SCF pathway, we review here the principal studies that have evaluated c-Kit expression in RCC. Moreover, we summarize some investigations that have observed the distribution of MCs in primary renal cancer and in adjacent normal tissue with appropriate histological immunohistochemical techniques. We also focus on few studies that have evaluated the correlation between RCC proliferation, MC count and microvessel density (MVD), as hallmarks of tumor angiogenesis. Thus, the aim of this review of the literature is to clarify if c-KitR expression, MC count and MVD could have prognostic significance and the possible predictive therapeutic implications in RCC. PMID:25056544

  8. In Vitro Downregulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Rat Glial Cells by CCR5 Antagonist Maraviroc: Therapeutic Implication for HIV Brain Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gramegna, Pasqua; Latronico, Tiziana; Branà, Maria Teresa; Di Bari, Gaetano; Mengoni, Fabio; Belvisi, Valeria; Mascellino, Maria T.; Lichtner, Miriam; Vullo, Vincenzo; Mastroianni, Claudio M.; Liuzzi, Grazia M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) released by glial cells are important mediators of neuroinflammation and neurologic damage in HIV infection. The use of antiretroviral drugs able to combat the detrimental effect of chronic inflammation and target the exaggerated MMP activity might represent an attractive therapeutic challenge. Recent studies suggest that CCR5 antagonist maraviroc (MVC) exerts immunomodulant and anti-inflammatory activity beyond its anti-HIV properties. We investigated the in vitro effect of MVC on the activity of MMPs in astrocyte and microglia cultures. Methodology/Principal Findings Primary cultures of rat astrocytes and microglia were activated by exposure to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or lypopolysaccharide (LPS) and treated in vitro with MVC. Culture supernatants were subjected to gelatin zymography and quantitative determination of MMP-9 and MMP-2 was done by computerized scanning densitometry. MMP-9 levels were significantly elevated in culture supernatants from both LPS- and PMA-activated astrocytes and microglia in comparison to controls. The treatment with MVC significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the levels and expression of MMP-9 in PMA-activated astrocytes (p<0,05) and, to a lesser extent, in PMA-activated microglia. By contrast, levels of MMP-2 did not significantly change, although a tendency to decrease was seen in PMA-activated astrocytes after treatment with MVC. The inhibition of levels and expression of MMP-9 in PMA-activated glial cells did not depend on cytotoxic effects of MVC. No inhibition of MMP-9 and MMP-2 were found in both LPS-activated astrocytes and microglia. Conclusions The present in vitro study suggests that CCR5 antagonist compounds, through their ability to inhibit MMP-9 expression and levels, might have a great potential for the treatment of HIV-associated neurologic damage. PMID:22174822

  9. HIV and the Gut Microbiota, Partners in Crime: Breaking the Vicious Cycle to Unearth New Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota plays a key role in health and immune system education and surveillance. The delicate balance between microbial growth and containment is controlled by the immune system. However, this balance is disrupted in cases of chronic viral infections such as HIV. This virus is capable of drastically altering the immune system and gastrointestinal environment leading to significant changes to the gut microbiota and mucosal permeability resulting in microbial translocation from the gut into the peripheral blood. The changes made locally in the gut have far-reaching consequences on the other organs of the body starting in the liver, where microbes and their products are normally filtered out, and extending to the blood and even brain. Microbial translocation and their downstream effects such as increased indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) enzyme expression and activity create a self-sustaining feedback loop which enhances HIV disease progression and constitute a vicious cycle of inflammation and immune activation combining viral and bacterial factors. Understanding this self-perpetuating cycle could be a key element in developing new therapies aimed at the gut microbiota and its fallout after infection. PMID:25759844

  10. Bioactive molecules from amphibian skin: their biological activities with reference to therapeutic potentials for possible drug development.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Antony; Giri, Biplab; Saha, Archita; Mishra, R; Dasgupta, Subir C; Debnath, A; Gomes, Aparna

    2007-07-01

    The amphibian skin contains various bioactive molecules (peptides, proteins, steroids, alkaloids, opiods) that possess potent therapeutic activities like antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antidiabetic, antineoplastic, analgesic and sleep inducing properties. Research on amphibian skin derived biomolecules can provide potential clue towards newer drug development to combat various pathophysiological conditions. An overview on the bioactive molecules of various amphibian skins has been discussed. PMID:17821852

  11. Lessons Learned from HIV Vaccine Clinical Efficacy Trials

    PubMed Central

    Day, Tracey A.; Kublin, James G.

    2014-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed many promising advances in HIV prevention strategies involving pre-exposure prophylaxis approaches. Some may now wonder whether an HIV vaccine is still needed, and whether developing one is even possible. The partial efficacy reported in the RV144 trial and the encouraging results of the accompanying immune correlates analysis suggest that an effective HIV vaccine is achievable. These successes have provided a large impetus and guidance for conducting more HIV vaccine trials. A key lesson learned from RV144 is that assessment of HIV acquisition is now a feasible and valuable primary objective for HIV preventive vaccine trials. In this article we review how RV144 and other HIV vaccine efficacy trials have instructed the field and highlight some of the HIV vaccine concepts in clinical development. After a long and significant investment, HIV vaccine clinical research is paying off in the form of valuable lessons that, if applied effectively, will accelerate the path toward a safe and effective vaccine. Together with other HIV prevention approaches, preventive and therapeutic HIV vaccines will be invaluable tools in bringing the epidemic to an end. PMID:24033299

  12. Which Antibody Functions are Important for an HIV Vaccine?

    PubMed Central

    Su, Bin; Moog, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    HIV antibody (Ab) functions capable of preventing mucosal cell-free or cell-to-cell HIV transmission are critical for the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. In addition to CD4+ T cells, other potential HIV-target cell types including antigen-presenting cells (APCs) (dendritic cells, macrophages) residing at mucosal sites are infected. Moreover, the interactions between APCs and HIV lead to HIV cell-to-cell transmission. Recently discovered broadly neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are able to neutralize a broad spectrum of HIV strains, inhibit cell-to-cell transfer, and efficiently protect from infection in the experimentally challenged macaque model. However, the 31% protection observed in the RV144 vaccine trial in the absence of detectable NAbs in blood samples pointed to the possible role of additional Ab inhibitory functions. Increasing evidence suggests that IgG Fc? receptor (Fc?R)-mediated inhibition of Abs present at the mucosal site may play a role in protection against HIV mucosal transmission. Moreover, mucosal IgA Abs may be determinant in protection against HIV sexual transmission. Therefore, defining Ab inhibitory functions that could lead to protection is critical for further HIV vaccine design. Here, we review different inhibitory properties of HIV-specific Abs and discuss their potential role in protection against HIV sexual transmission. PMID:24995008

  13. Influence of body weight on achieving indinavir concentrations within its therapeutic window in HIV-infected Thai patients receiving indinavir boosted with ritonavir.

    PubMed

    Cressey, Tim R; Urien, Saik; Hirt, Deborah; Halue, Guttiga; Techapornroong, Malee; Bowonwatanuwong, Chureeratana; Leenasirimakul, Prattana; Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Jourdain, Gonzague; Lallemant, Marc

    2011-02-01

    Indinavir boosted with ritonavir (IDV/r) dosing with 400/100 mg, twice daily, is preferred in Thai adults, but this dose can lead to concentrations close to the boundaries of its therapeutic window. The objectives of this analysis were to validate a population pharmacokinetic model to describe IDV/r concentrations in HIV-infected Thai patients and to investigate the impact of patient characteristics on achieving adequate IDV concentrations. IDV/r concentration data from 513 plasma samples were available. Population means and variances of pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using a nonlinear mixed effects regression model (NONMEM Version VI). Monte Carlo simulations were performed to estimate the probability of achieving IDV concentrations within its therapeutic window. IDV/r pharmacokinetics were best described by a one-compartment model coupled with a single transit compartment absorption model. Body weight influenced indinavir apparent oral clearance and volume of distribution and allometric scaling significantly reduced the interindividual variability. Final population estimates (interindividual variability in percentage) of indinavir apparent oral clearance and volume of distribution were 21.3 L/h/70 kg (30%) and 90.7 L/70 kg (22%), respectively. Based on model simulations, the probability of achieving an IDV trough concentration greater than 0.1 mg/L was greater than 99% for 600/100 mg and greater than 98% for 400/100 mg, twice daily, in patients weighing 40 to 80 kg. However, the probability of achieving IDV concentrations associated with an increased risk of drug toxicity (greater than 10.0 mg/L) increased from 1% to 10% with 600/100 mg compared with less than 1% with 400/100 mg when body weight decreased from 80 to 40 kg. The validated model developed predicts that 400/100 mg of IDV/r, twice daily, provides indinavir concentrations within the recommended therapeutic window for the majority of patients. The risk of toxic drug concentrations increases rapidly with IDV/r dose of 600/100 mg for patients less than 50 kg and therapeutic drug monitoring of IDV concentrations would help to reduce the risk of IDV-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:21233689

  14. Influence of body weight on achieving indinavir concentrations within its therapeutic window in HIV-infected Thai patients receiving indinavir boosted with ritonavir

    PubMed Central

    Cressey, Tim R.; Urien, Saik; Hirt, Deborah; Halue, Guttiga; Techapornroong, Malee; Bowonwatanuwong, Chureeratana; Leenasirimakul, Prattana; Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Jourdain, Gonzague; Lallemant, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Indinavir boosted with ritonavir (IDV/r) dosing with 400/100 mg, twice daily, is preferred in Thai adults, but this dose can lead to concentrations close to the boundaries of its therapeutic window. The objectives of this analysis were to validate a population pharmacokinetic model to describe IDV/r concentrations in HIV-infected Thai patients and to investigate the impact of patient characteristics on achieving adequate IDV concentrations. IDV/r concentration data from 513 plasma samples were available. Population means and variances of pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using a non-linear mixed effects regression model (NONMEM Version VI). Monte Carlo simulations were performed to estimate the probability of achieving IDV concentrations within its therapeutic window. IDV/r pharmacokinetics was best described by a one compartment model coupled with a single transit compartment absorption model. Body weight influenced indinavir apparent oral clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution (Vd/F) and allometric scaling significantly reduced the interindividual variability. Final population estimates (interindividual variability in percentage) of indinavir CL/F and Vd/F were 21.3 L/h/70kg (30%) and 90.7 L/70kg (22%), respectively. Based on model simulations, the probability of achieving an IDV trough concentration > 0.1 mg/L was >99% for 600/100 mg and >98% for 400/100 mg, twice daily, in patients 40–80 kg. However, the probability of achieving IDV concentrations associated with an increased risk of drug toxicity (>10.0 mg/L), increased from 1% to 10% with 600/100 mg, compared to <1% with 400/100 mg when body weight decreased from 80 to 40 kg. The validated model developed predicts that 400/100 mg of IDV/r, twice daily, provides indinavir concentrations within the recommended therapeutic window for the majority of patients. The risk of toxic drug concentrations increases rapidly with IDV/r dose of 600/100 mg for patients <50 kg and therapeutic drug monitoring of IDV concentrations would help to reduce the risk of IDV-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:21233689

  15. Therapeutic Immunization with HIV-1 Tat Reduces Immune Activation and Loss of Regulatory T-Cells and Improves Immune Function in Subjects on HAART

    PubMed Central

    Ensoli, Barbara; Bellino, Stefania; Tripiciano, Antonella; Longo, Olimpia; Francavilla, Vittorio; Marcotullio, Simone; Cafaro, Aurelio; Picconi, Orietta; Paniccia, Giovanni; Scoglio, Arianna; Arancio, Angela; Ariola, Cristina; Ruiz Alvarez, Maria J.; Campagna, Massimo; Scaramuzzi, Donato; Iori, Cristina; Esposito, Roberto; Mussini, Cristina; Ghinelli, Florio; Sighinolfi, Laura; Palamara, Guido; Latini, Alessandra; Angarano, Gioacchino; Ladisa, Nicoletta; Soscia, Fabrizio; Mercurio, Vito S.; Lazzarin, Adriano; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Visintini, Raffaele; Mazzotta, Francesco; Di Pietro, Massimo; Galli, Massimo; Rusconi, Stefano; Carosi, Giampiero; Torti, Carlo; Di Perri, Giovanni; Bonora, Stefano; Ensoli, Fabrizio; Garaci, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    Although HAART suppresses HIV replication, it is often unable to restore immune homeostasis. Consequently, non-AIDS-defining diseases are increasingly seen in treated individuals. This is attributed to persistent virus expression in reservoirs and to cell activation. Of note, in CD4+ T cells and monocyte-macrophages of virologically-suppressed individuals, there is continued expression of multi-spliced transcripts encoding HIV regulatory proteins. Among them, Tat is essential for virus gene expression and replication, either in primary infection or for virus reactivation during HAART, when Tat is expressed, released extracellularly and exerts, on both the virus and the immune system, effects that contribute to disease maintenance. Here we report results of an ad hoc exploratory interim analysis (up to 48 weeks) on 87 virologically-suppressed HAART-treated individuals enrolled in a phase II randomized open-label multicentric clinical trial of therapeutic immunization with Tat (ISS T-002). Eighty-eight virologically-suppressed HAART-treated individuals, enrolled in a parallel prospective observational study at the same sites (ISS OBS T-002), served for intergroup comparison. Immunization with Tat was safe, induced durable immune responses, and modified the pattern of CD4+ and CD8+ cellular activation (CD38 and HLA-DR) together with reduction of biochemical activation markers and persistent increases of regulatory T cells. This was accompanied by a progressive increment of CD4+ T cells and B cells with reduction of CD8+ T cells and NK cells, which were independent from the type of antiretroviral regimen. Increase in central and effector memory and reduction in terminally-differentiated effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were accompanied by increases of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses against Env and recall antigens. Of note, more immune-compromised individuals experienced greater therapeutic effects. In contrast, these changes were opposite, absent or partial in the OBS population. These findings support the use of Tat immunization to intensify HAART efficacy and to restore immune homeostasis. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00751595 PMID:21085635

  16. Use of a Rapid HIV Home Test to Screen Sexual Partners: An Evaluation of its Possible Use and Relative Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Ventuneac; Alex Carballo-Diéguez; Cheng-Shiun Leu; Bruce Levin; Jose Bauermeister; Emily Woodman-Maynard; Rebecca Giguere

    2009-01-01

    We estimated the HIV risk reduction that could be attained by using a rapid HIV home test (HT) to screen sexual partners versus\\u000a using condoms in different proportions of anal intercourse (AI) occasions among men who have sex with men (MSM). Special attention\\u000a was paid to the role of the window period during which infected cases go undetected. Our results

  17. The use of data mining to investigate a possible quality problem with ultrasensitive HIV viral load data at a large reference laboratory.

    PubMed

    Koski, Eileen; Heseltine, Peter N R; Kagan, Ron M; Maddo, Ann E; Geller, Jake

    2003-01-01

    Suppression of HIV viral load to <50 copies/mL, the lower limit of detection for the ultrasensitive assays, has been shown to correlate with favorable clinical outcome. Patients periodically exhibited transient or sustained low-level viremia based on this test. In order to investigate a possible quality concern, we used our corporate data warehouse to examine the patterns in our data over time as well as across geographic regions. PMID:14728404

  18. [Development of agonists/antagonists for protease-activated receptors (PARs) and the possible therapeutic application to gastrointestinal diseases].

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Fumiko

    2005-06-01

    Protease-activated receptors (PARs), a family of G-protein-coupled seven-transmembrane-domain receptors, are activated by proteolytic unmasking of the N-terminal cryptic tethered ligand by certain serine proteases. Among four PAR family members cloned to date, PAR-1, PAR-2, and PAR-4 can also be activated through a non-enzymatic mechanism, which is achieved by direct binding of exogenously applied synthetic peptides based on the tethered ligand sequence, known as PARs-activating peptides, to the body of the receptor. Various peptide mimetics have been synthesized as agonists for PARs with improved potency, selectivity, and stability. Some peptide mimetics and/or nonpeptide compounds have also been developed as antagonists for PAR-1 and PAR-4. PARs are widely distributed in the mammalian body, especially throughout the alimentary systems, and play various roles in physiological/pathophysiological conditions, i.e., modulation of salivary, gastric, or pancreatic glandular exocrine secretion, gastrointestinal smooth muscle motility, gastric mucosal cytoprotection, suppression/facilitation of visceral pain and inflammation, etc. Thus PARs are now considered novel therapeutic targets, and development of selective agonists and/or antagonists for PARs might provide a novel strategy for the treatment of various diseases that are resistant to current therapeutics. PMID:15930817

  19. CXCL12/CXCR4 axis in the pathogenesis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL): a possible therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    de Lourdes Perim, Aparecida; Amarante, Marla Karine; Guembarovski, Roberta Losi; de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Coral; Watanabe, Maria Angelica Ehara

    2015-05-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the commonest childhood malignancy, accounting for approximately 80 % of leukemia in the pediatric group, and its etiology is unknown. This neoplasia is characterized by male predominance, high-risk features and poor outcome, mainly in recurrence patients and adults. In recent years, advances in the success of childhood ALL treatment were verified, and the rate of cure is over 80 % of individuals. However, there is a considerable scope for improving therapeutic outcome in this neoplasia. Improvements in ALL therapy might readily be achieved by developing additional biomarkers that can predict and refine prognosis in patients with ALL. In normal hematopoietic cells, cytokines provide the stimulus for proliferation, survival, self-renewal, differentiation and functional activation. Abnormalities of cytokines are characteristic in all forms of leukemia, including ALL. The stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1 or CXCL12) is a member of the CXC chemokine family that binds to CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis appears to play a role in dissemination of solid tumors and hematopoietic diseases. Understanding the mechanisms by which ALL cells are disseminated will provide additional information to expand therapeutic approach. Therefore, this review summarizes information relating to ALL cell biology, focusing specifically in a cytokine receptor important axis, CXCL12/CXCR4, that may have implications for novel treatment strategies to improve life expectancy of patients with this neoplasia. PMID:25572297

  20. HIV/AIDS: modified stem cells in the spotlight.

    PubMed

    Armijo, Enrique; Soto, Claudio; Davis, Brian R

    2014-07-01

    Since HIV/AIDS was first recognized in 1981, an urgent need has existed for the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat the disease. Due to the current antiretroviral therapy not being curative, human stem cell-based therapeutic intervention has emerged as an approach for its treatment. Genetically modified hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) possess the potential to self-renew, reconstitute the immune system with HIV-resistant cells, and thus control, or even eliminate, viral replication. However, HSCs may be difficult to isolate in sufficient number from HIV-infected individuals for transplantation and/or re-infusion of autologous HSCs preparations would also include some contaminating HIV-infected cells. Furthermore, since genetic modification of HSCs is not completely efficient, the risk of providing unprotected immune cells to become new targets for HIV to infect could contribute to continued immune system failure. Therefore, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) should be considered a new potential source of cells to be engineered for HIV resistance and subsequently differentiated into clonal anti-HIV HSCs or hematopoietic progeny for transplant. In this article, we provide an overview of the current possible cellular therapies for treating HIV/AIDS. PMID:24509823

  1. 2-BFI ameliorates EAE-induced mouse spinal cord damage: effective therapeutic time window and possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang; Zhang, Zheng-Xue; Liu, Yin-Feng; Xu, Hui-Qin; Hou, Sheng-Tao; Zheng, Rong-Yuan

    2012-11-01

    Our previous studies showed that ligands to type 2 imidazoline receptors (I?R), including 2-(2-Benzofuranyl)-2-imidazoline (2-BFI) and Idazoxan, were effective in reducing spinal cord inflammation caused by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In the present study, we determined the effective therapeutic time window of 2-BFI and found that administration of 2-BFI in mice before the appearance of ascending flaccid paralysis (1-10 days post immunization), but not during the period when neurological deficits occurred (11-20 days post immunization), significantly ameliorated EAE-induced neurobehavioral deficits, reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the spinal cord, and reduced the level of demyelination. More interestingly, giving 2-BFI during 1-10 days post immunization selectively suppressed IL-17 levels in the peripheral blood, which strongly suggests that IL-17 may be a good early marker to indicate EAE progression and that 2-BFI may target CD4? T lymphocytes, especially Th17 cells to reduce IL-17 expression. Collectively, these studies led us to envisage that 2-BFI can be a useful drug to treat multiple sclerosis (MS) when used in combination with an early indicator of MS progression, such as IL-17. PMID:22985669

  2. Accelerating HIV-1 Vaccine Efficacy Trials.

    PubMed

    Barouch, Dan H; Michael, Nelson L

    2014-11-20

    Despite major advances in HIV-1 therapeutics and prevention strategies, the development of a safe and effective prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine will likely be critical for ending the global HIV-1 epidemic. Yet only four HIV-1 vaccine concepts have been tested for clinical efficacy over the past 30 years. In this Commentary, we describe key hurdles facing the HIV-1 vaccine development field and outline strategies to accelerate efficacy evaluation of novel HIV-1 vaccine candidates. PMID:25416935

  3. Biological role, clinical significance, and therapeutic possibilities of the recently discovered metabolic hormone fibroblastic growth factor 21.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Pedro; Selgas, Rafael; Romero, Sara; Díez, Juan J

    2012-09-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a 181 amino acid circulating protein, is a member of the FGF superfamily, with relevant metabolic actions. It acts through the interaction with specific FGF receptors and a cofactor called ?-Klotho, whose expression is predominantly detected in metabolically active organs. FGF21 stimulates glucose uptake in adipocytes via the induction of glucose transporter-1. This action is additive and independent of insulin. ?-Cell function and survival are preserved, and glucagon secretion is reduced by this protein, thus decreasing hepatic glucose production and improving insulin sensitivity. Lipid profile has been shown to be improved by FGF21 in several animal models. FGF21 increases energy expenditure in rodents and induces weight loss in diabetic nonhuman primates. It also exerts favorable effects on hepatic steatosis and reduces tissue lipid content in rodents. Adaptive metabolic responses to fasting, including stimulation of ketogenesis and fatty acid oxidation, seem to be partially mediated by FGF21. In humans, serum FGF21 concentrations have been found elevated in insulin-resistant states, such as impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. FGF21 levels are correlated with hepatic insulin resistance index, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, and blood glucose after an oral glucose tolerance test. A relationship between FGF21 levels and long-term diabetic complications, such as nephropathy and carotid atheromatosis, has been reported. FGF21 levels decreased in diabetic patients after starting therapy with insulin or oral agents. Increased FGF21 serum levels have also been found to be associated with obesity. In children, it is correlated with BMI and leptin levels, whereas in adults, FGF21 levels are mainly related to several components of the metabolic syndrome. Serum FGF21 levels have been found to be elevated in patients with ischemic heart disease. In patients with renal disease, FGF21 levels exhibited a progressive increase as renal function deteriorates. Circulating FGF21 levels seem to be related to insulin resistance and inflammation in dialysis patients. In summary, FGF21 is a recently identified hormone with antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and thermogenic properties. Direct or indirect potentiation of its effects might be a potential therapeutic target in insulin-resistant states. PMID:22740503

  4. Schizotypy and leadership: a contrasting model for deficit symptoms, and a possible therapeutic role for sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Alias, A G

    2000-04-01

    Associational loosening, slow and faulty information processing, poor gating of irrelevant stimuli, poor ability to shift attention, poor working memory, passivity, ambivalence, anhedonia, and impaired motor coordination are cardinal features of schizophrenia but, unlike delusions and hallucinations, they are related more to negative/deficit symptoms. As summarized by Bass, numerous studies have correlated leadership with 'ambition, initiative and persistence' (opposite of passivity), 'speed and accuracy of thought', 'finality of decision,' or decisiveness (the opposite of ambivalence), 'mood control, optimism and sense of humor' (opposite of anhedonia), etc. Andreasen et al postulate that a disruption in the circuitry among nodes located in the prefrontal regions, the thalamic nuclei, and the cerebellum produces 'cognitive dysmetria', meaning difficulty in prioritizing, coordinating, and responding to information, and that it can account for the broad diversity of symptoms of schizophrenia. A relationship between cognitive processes and cerebellar and basal ganglia functions, and a role of neocerebellum in rapidly shifting attention, have been demonstrated. The cognitive styles, including a proficiency to quickly shift attention, of several famous leaders are used as examples of this contrasting model. Julius Caesar and Napoleon, for instance, could dictate to up to six secretaries simultaneously, using their exceptional working memories, and proficiency in quickly and effortlessly shifting attention while flawlessly gating irrelevant external and internal stimuli. It is suggested that specific brain imaging studies could illustrate this contrast. Gray et al noted positive correlations between 'dominance', an important leadership trait, and serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone (T), but not of more potent dihydrotestosterone (DHT), in over 1700 older men. Though not scientifically rigorous, the author noted positive correlations (P = 0.0162) between the self-rated ratings of voice depth (promoted by T) and of leadership, but none between those of body hair (DHT dependent) and of leadership in 47 male US National Academy of Sciences members. And 43 male US Senators had deeper voices than 36 male House members (P<0.01) who, in turn, had deeper voices than either of two groups (numbers 102 and 72) of male scientists (P<0.01). Therapeutically, before chlorpromazine, DHEA had been used in young schizophrenics with modest success in improving deficit symptoms. DHEA, or other sex hormones, or some of their natural and synthetic derivatives may prove to be valuable to treat deficit symptoms of schizophrenia in both sexes. PMID:10859637

  5. Pin1 liberates the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1): Must we stop it?

    PubMed

    Hou, Hai; Wang, Jing-Zhang; Liu, Bao-Guo; Zhang, Ting

    2015-07-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is mainly caused by the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). To our knowledge, this is the first review focusing on the vital role of Pin1 in the infection of HIV-1 and the development of AIDS. We and others have demonstrated that Pin1, the only known cis-to-trans isomerase recognizing the pThr/pSer-Pro motifs in proteins, plays striking roles in several human diseases. Interestingly, recent evidence gradually indicates that Pin1 regulates several key steps of the life cycle of HIV-1, including the uncoating of the HIV-1 core, the reverse transcription of the RNA genome of HIV-1, and the integration of the HIV-1 cDNA into human chromosomes. Whereas inhibiting Pin1 suppresses all of these key steps and attenuates the replication of HIV-1, at the same time different PIN1 gene variants are correlated with the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, Pin1 potentially promotes HIV-1 infection by activating multiple oncogenes and inactivating multiple tumor suppressors, extending the life span of HIV-infected cells. These descriptions suggest Pin1 as a promising therapeutic target for the prevention of HIV-1 and highlight the possibility of blocking the development of AIDS by Pin1 inhibitors. PMID:25913034

  6. Morphine and HIV-Tat Increase Microglial Free Radical Production and Oxidative Stress: Possible Role in Cytokine Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Turchan-Cholewo, Jadwiga; Dimayuga, Filomena O.; Gupta, Sunita; Keller, Jeffrey N.; Knapp, Pamela E.; Hauser, Kurt F.; Bruce-Keller, Annadora J.

    2009-01-01

    Opiate abuse alters the progression of HIV and may increase the risk of neuroAIDS. As neuroAIDS is associated with altered microglial reactivity, the combined effects of HIV-Tat and morphine were determined in cultured microglia. Specifically, experiments determined the effects of Tat and morphine on microglial free radical production and oxidative stress, and on cytokine release. Data show that combined Tat and morphine cause early and synergistic increases in reactive oxygen species, with concomitant increases in protein oxidation. Furthermore, combined Tat and morphine, but not Tat or morphine alone, cause reversible decreases in proteasome activity. The effects of morphine on free radical production and oxidative stress are prevented by pretreatment with naloxone, illustrating the important role of opioid receptor activation in these phenomena. While Tat is well-known to induce cytokine release from cultured microglia, morphine decreases Tat-induced release of the cytokines TNF? and IL-6, as well as the chemokine MCP-1. Finally, experiments using the reversible proteasome inhibitor MG115 show that temporary, non-cytotoxic decreases in proteasome activity increase protein oxidation and decrease TNF?, IL-6, and MCP-1 release from microglia. Taken together, these data suggest that oxidative stress and proteasome inhibition may be involved in the immunomodulatory properties of opioid receptor activation in microglia. PMID:19054280

  7. [Diabetic retinopathy: new therapeutic possibilities].

    PubMed

    Guex-Crosier, Yan; Behar-Cohen, Francine

    2015-01-14

    Diabetic retinopathy affects an increasing number of persons, about 4 millions in Europe, a number that will probably double until 2030. If we consider that 25-30% of patients are affected by diabetic retinopathy, an ophthalmologic screening and early therapy will allow a better visual prognosis and avoid severe ocular complications such as diabetic macular edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. A summary of current ophthalmologic literature was performed and was focused on the role of anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) therapies and intraocular drug delivery of corticosteroids in a pathology that was recently classified in inflammatory pathologies. PMID:25799661

  8. HIV2 Infection and Chemokine Receptors Usage - Clues to Reduced Virulence of HIV2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Miguel Azevedo-Pereira; José Moniz-Pereira

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2) are the causative agents of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Without therapeutic intervention, HIV-1 or HIV-2 infections in humans are characterized by a gradual and irreversible immunologic failure that ultimately leads to the onset of a severe immunodeficiency that constitutes the hallmark of AIDS. In the last two decades AIDS has

  9. Interactions of different inhibitors with active-site aspartyl residues of HIV-1 protease and possible relevance to pepsin.

    PubMed

    Sayer, Jane M; Louis, John M

    2009-05-15

    The importance of the active site region aspartyl residues 25 and 29 of the mature HIV-1 protease (PR) for the binding of five clinical and three experimental protease inhibitors [symmetric cyclic urea inhibitor DMP323, nonhydrolyzable substrate analog (RPB) and the generic aspartic protease inhibitor acetyl-pepstatin (Ac-PEP)] was assessed by differential scanning calorimetry. DeltaT(m) values, defined as the difference in T(m) for a given protein in the presence and absence of inhibitor, for PR with DRV, ATV, SQV, RTV, APV, DMP323, RPB, and Ac-PEP are 22.4, 20.8, 19.3, 15.6, 14.3, 14.7, 8.7, and 6.5 degrees C, respectively. Binding of APV and Ac-PEP is most sensitive to the D25N mutation, as shown by DeltaT(m) ratios [DeltaT(m)(PR)/DeltaT(m)(PR(D25N))] of 35.8 and 16.3, respectively, whereas binding of DMP323 and RPB (DeltaT(m) ratios of 1-2) is least affected. Binding of the substrate-like inhibitors RPB and Ac-PEP is nearly abolished (DeltaT(m)(PR)/DeltaT(m)(PR(D29N)) > or = 44) by the D29N mutation, whereas this mutation only moderately affects binding of the smaller inhibitors (DeltaT(m) ratios of 1.4-2.2). Of the nine FDA-approved clinical HIV-1 protease inhibitors screened, APV, RTV, and DRV competitively inhibit porcine pepsin with K(i) values of 0.3, 0.6, and 2.14 microM, respectively. DSC results were consistent with this relatively weak binding of APV (DeltaT(m) 2.7 degrees C) compared with the tight binding of Ac-PEP (DeltaT(m) > or = 17 degrees C). Comparison of superimposed structures of the PR/APV complex with those of PR/Ac-PEP and pepsin/pepstatin A complexes suggests a role for Asp215, Asp32, and Ser219 in pepsin, equivalent to Asp25, Asp25', and Asp29 in PR in the binding and stabilization of the pepsin/APV complex. PMID:18951411

  10. INTERACTIONS OF DIFFERENT INHIBITORS WITH ACTIVE-SITE ASPARTYL RESIDUES OF HIV-1 PROTEASE AND POSSIBLE RELEVANCE TO PEPSINS

    PubMed Central

    Sayer, Jane M.; Louis, John M.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of the active site region aspartyl residues 25 and 29 of the mature HIV-1 protease (PR) for the binding of five clinical and three experimental protease inhibitors (symmetric cyclic urea inhibitor DMP323, non-hydrolysable substrate analog (RPB) and the generic aspartic protease inhibitor acetyl-pepstatin (Ac-PEP)) was assessed by differential scanning calorimetry. ?Tm values, defined as the difference in Tm for a given protein in the presence and absence of inhibitor, for PR with DRV, ATV, SQV, RTV, APV, DMP323, RPB and Ac-PEP are 22.4, 20.8, 19.3, 15.6, 14.3, 14.7, 8.7, and 6.5 °C, respectively. Binding of APV and Ac-PEP is most sensitive to the D25N mutation, as shown by ?Tm ratios [?Tm(PR)/?Tm(PRD25N)] of 35.8 and 16.3, respectively, whereas binding of DMP323 and RPB (?Tm ratios of 1-2) is least affected. Binding of the substrate-like inhibitors RPB and Ac-PEP is nearly abolished (?Tm(PR)/?Tm(PRD29N) ? 44) by the D29N mutation, whereas this mutation only moderately affects binding of the smaller inhibitors (?Tm ratios of 1.4-2.2). Of the 9 FDA approved clinical HIV-1 protease inhibitors screened, APV, RTV and DRV competitively inhibit porcine pepsin with Ki values of 0.3, 0.6 and 2.14 ?M, respectively. DSC results were consistent with this relatively weak binding of APV (?Tm 2.7 °C) compared with the tight binding of AcPEP (?Tm ?17 °C). Comparison of superimposed structures of the PR/APV complex with those of PR/Ac-PEP and pepsin/pepstatin A complexes suggests a role for Asp215, Asp32 and Ser219 in pepsin, equivalent to Asp25, Asp25? and Asp29 in PR, in the binding and stabilization of the pepsin/APV complex. PMID:18951411

  11. Clinical performance of the Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 rapid test to correctly differentiate HIV-2 from HIV-1 infection in screening algorithms using third and fourth generation assays and to identify cross reactivity with the HIV-1 Western Blot

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Eric M.; Harb, Socorro; Dragavon, Joan; Coombs, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Background An accurate and rapid serologic method to differentiate HIV-2 from HIV-1 infection is required since the confirmatory HIV-1 Western Blot (WB) may demonstrate cross-reactivity with HIV-2 antibodies. Objectives To evaluate the performance of the Bio-Rad Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 rapid assay as a supplemental test to correctly identify HIV-2 infection and identify HIV-1 WB cross-reactivity with HIV-2 in clinical samples tested at an academic medical center. Study design Between August 2008 and July 2012, clinical samples were screened for HIV using either 3rd-or 4th-generation HIV-1/2 antibody or combination antibody and HIV-1 p24 antigen assays, respectively. All repeatedly reactive samples were reflexed for Multispot rapid testing. Multispot HIV-2 and HIV-1 and HIV-2-reactive samples were further tested using an HIV-2 immunoblot assay and HIV-1 or HIV-2 RNA assays when possible. The HIV-1 WB was performed routinely for additional confirmation and to assess for HIV-2 antibody cross-reactivity. Results Of 46,061 samples screened, 890 (89.6%) of 993 repeatedly reactive samples were also Multispot-reactive: 882 for HIV-1; three for only HIV-2; and five for both HIV-1 and HIV-2. All three HIV-2-only Multispot-positives along with a single dually reactive HIV-1/2 Multispot-positive were also HIV-2 immunoblot-positive; the latter was HIV-1 RNA negative and HIV-2 RNA positive. Conclusions The Multispot rapid test performed well as a supplemental test for HIV-1/2 diagnostic testing. Four new HIV-2 infections (0.45%) were identified from among 890 Multispot-reactive tests. The use of HIV-1 WB alone to confirm HIV-1/2 screening assays may underestimate the true prevalence of HIV-2 infection in the United States. PMID:24342468

  12. Emerging role of cancer stem cells in the biology and treatment of ovarian cancer: basic knowledge and therapeutic possibilities for an innovative approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In 2013 there will be an estimated 22,240 new diagnoses and 14,030 deaths from ovarian cancer in the United States. Despite the improved surgical approach and the novel active drugs that are available today in clinical practice, about 80% of women presenting with late-stage disease have a 5-year survival rate of only 30%. In the last years a growing scientific knowledge about the molecular pathways involved in ovarian carcinogenesis has led to the discovery and evaluation of several novel molecular targeted agents, with the aim to test alternative models of treatment in order to overcome the clinical problem of resistance. Cancer stem cells tend to be more resistant to chemotherapeutic agents and radiation than more differentiated cellular subtypes from the same tissue. In this context the study of ovarian cancer stem cells is taking on an increasingly important strategic role, mostly for the potential therapeutic application in the next future. In our review, we focused our attention on the molecular characteristics of epithelial ovarian cancer stem cells, in particular on possible targets to hit with targeted therapies. PMID:23902592

  13. A Possible Novel Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism for the Pharmacological Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitor 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoate: Implications for Use as a Therapeutic for Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chinta, Shankar J.; Rajagopalan, Subramanian; Ganesan, Abirami; Andersen, Julie K.

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized in part by the preferential loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Although the precise etiology of PD is unknown, accumulating evidence suggests that PD involves microglial activation that exerts neurotoxic effects through production of proinflammatory cytokines and increased oxidative and nitrosative stress. Thus, controlling microglial activation has been suggested as a therapeutic target for combating PD. Previously we demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition of a class of enzymes known as prolyl hydroxylases via 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate administration protected against MPTP-induced neurotoxicity, however the exact mechanisms involved were not elucidated. Here we show that this may be due to DHB's ability to inhibit microglial activation. DHB significantly attenuated LPS-mediated induction of nitric oxide synthase and pro-inflammatory cytokines in murine BV2 microglial cells in vitro in conjunction with reduced ROS production and activation of NF?B and MAPK pathways possibly due to up-regulation of HO-1 levels. HO-1 inhibition partially abrogates LPS-mediated NF?B activity and subsequent NO induction. In vivo, DHB pre-treatment suppresses microglial activation elicited by MPTP treatment. Our results suggest that DHB's neuroprotective properties could be due to its ability to dampen induction of microglial activation via induction of HO-1. PMID:22666629

  14. Proteomics identified overexpression of SET oncogene product and possible therapeutic utility of protein phosphatase 2A in alveolar soft part sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Daisuke; Yoshida, Akihiko; Kawai, Akira; Kondo, Tadashi

    2014-05-01

    Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is an exceedingly rare sarcoma refractory to standard chemotherapy. Although several molecular targeting drugs have been applied for ASPS, their clinical significance has not yet been established, and novel therapeutic strategies have long been required. The aim of this study was to identify proteins aberrantly regulated in ASPS and to clarify their clinical significance. Protein expression profiling of tumor and nontumor tissues from 12 ASPS patients was performed by 2-D difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. We found that the expression of 145 proteins differed significantly. Among them, further investigation was focused on the SET protein, which has multifunctional roles in cancers. Immunohistochemistry confirmed overexpression of SET in all 15 ASPS cases examined. Gene silencing of SET significantly decreased cell proliferation, invasion, and migration against a background of induced apoptosis. SET is known to be an inhibitor of phosphatase 2A (PP2A), which functions as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting the signal transduction pathway and inducing apoptosis. We found that a PP2A activator, FTY720, decreased cell proliferation through apoptosis. Together, our findings may suggest the possible contribution of SET to the tumor progression and the utility of FTY720 for treatment of ASPS. PMID:24621013

  15. HIV UPDATE: AGING & HIV

    E-print Network

    Bushman, Frederic

    HIV UPDATE: AGING & HIV SEPTEMBER 2012, Issue 9 Tlaleletso is a monthly publication produced-friendly format. This month's Taleletso provides an introduction to the topic of HIV and Aging. For a more is an invaluable resource for doctors managing HIV patients. Next month Tlaleletso will discuss the Management

  16. HIV UPDATE: BOTSWANA HIV

    E-print Network

    Bushman, Frederic

    HIV UPDATE: BOTSWANA HIV CONFERENCE OCTOBER 2012, Issue 10 Tlaleletso is a monthly publication presentations from the Botswana HIV conference, which was held in Gaborone from September 19th to 22nd, 2012. Next month's Tlaleletso will discuss HIV and Cancer. If there are other topics you would like

  17. Growth and Trophic Factors, pH and the Na+\\/H+ Exchanger in Alzheimer's Disease, Other Neurodegenerative Diseases and Cancer: New Therapeutic Possibilities and Potential Dangers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salvador Harguindey; Stephan J. Reshkin; Gorka Orive; Jose Luis Arranz; Eduardo Anitua

    2007-01-01

    Abnormalities in the intricate intracellular signalling pathways play a key role in the deregulation of either spontaneous (normal or pathological) or induced (therapeutic) cell death mechanisms. Some of these pathways are in- creasingly becoming molecular therapeutic targets in different processes, ranging from neurodegenerative diseases to can- cer. Recent discoveries in research and treatment have shown that failure to induce selective

  18. Therapeutic effect of RANTES-KDEL on inhibition of HIV-1 in CD34(+) human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSC).

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Zhang, Ying; Huang, Chang-Xing; Qu, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Jiu-Cong; Wei, Xin; Zhuang, Yan; Zhai, Song; Peng, Mei-Juan; Jiang, Hong; Hao, Chun-Qiu; Li, Yan-Hong; Lu, Jiang; Lian, Jian-Qi; Sun, Yong-Tao; Bai, Xue-Fan

    2008-12-01

    Cell surface receptors, such as the CCR5 chemokine receptors, represent key determinants of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry into target cells. The CC-chemokine, RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted), a ligand for CCR5, have been targeted to the lumen of endocytoplasmic reticulum (ER) using a KDEL (ER-retention signal) fusion termed RANTES-KDEL and this construct was found to prevent effectively transport of newly synthesized CCR5 to the cell surface. Lentiviral vectors have emerged as potent and versatile tools of gene transfer for basic and applied research are able to transduce nondividing cells and maintain sustained long-term expression of transgenes. For this reason, an HIV-based lentiviral vector expressing RANTES-KDEL, pLenti6/V5-R-K, was constructed and then cotransfected with the ViraPower Packaging Mix (pLP1, pLP2, and pLP/VSVG) into 293FT cells to produce a replication-incompetent lentivirus stock. The lentiviral stock was titrated using HeLa cells, and the expression of the gene of interest, RANTES, was detected by indirect immunofluorescence. Based on the above results, the lentiviral stock was transduced into CD34(+) human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSC) separated magnetically from the cord blood (the purity was 96.8% evaluated by flow cytometry). Finally, the levels of p24 in the cultures of pLenti6/V5-R-K-transduced CD34(+) hHSC were detected after infection by HIV-1 DP1 (a R5-tropic HIV-1 strain, which was isolated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of China in Henan province in 2000 from a Chinese man who had asymptomatic HIV-1 infection with a history of blood transfusions). It was shown that pLenti6/V5-R-K transduction inhibited expression of the DP1 p24 antigen by 51%, 58% and 60% on the 4th, 7th and 10th day respectively (P<0.05). PMID:18706447

  19. A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled, First-In-Human Study of a Novel Clade C Therapeutic Peptide Vaccine Administered Ex Vivo to Autologous White Blood Cells in HIV Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Akil; Kløverpris, Henrik N.; Boffito, Marta; Handley, Amanda; Atkins, Mark; Hayes, Peter; Gilmour, Jill; Riddel, Lynn; Chen, Fabian; Bailey-Tippets, Melanie; Walker, Bruce; Ackland, Jim; Sullivan, Mark; Goulder, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Background Preclinical studies of overlapping 15mer peptides, spanning SIV, SHIV or HIV, pulsed on autologous PBMC ex vivo have demonstrated high level, virus-specific T cell responses and viral suppression in non-human primates (NHP). Opal-HIV-Gag(c) consists of 120 synthetic 15mer peptides spanning Clade C, consensus Gag, manufactured to current good manufacturing practice; having been evaluated in a good laboratory practice toxicology study in Macaca mulatta. We evaluated the safety and preliminary immunogenicity of such peptides administered intravenously after short-duration ex vivo incubation, to HIV-positive adults on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Methods and Findings A first-in-human, placebo-controlled, double-blind, dose escalation study was conducted. Twenty-three patients with virus suppressed by antiretroviral therapy were enrolled in four groups 12 mg (n?=?6), 24 mg (n?=?6), 48 mg (n?=?2) or matching placebo (n?=?8). Treatment was administered intravenously after bedside enrichment of 120 mL whole blood for white cells using a closed system (Sepax S-100 device), with ex vivo peptide admixture (or diluent alone) and 37°C incubation for one hour prior to reinfusion. Patients received 4 administrations at monthly intervals followed by a 12-week observation post-treatment. Opal-HIV-Gag(c) was reasonably tolerated at doses of 12 and 24 mg. There was an increased incidence of temporally associated pyrexia, chills, and transient/self-limiting lymphopenia in Opal-HIV-Gag(c) recipients compared to placebo. The study was terminated early, after two patients were recruited to the 48 mg cohort; a serious adverse event of hypotension, tachycardia secondary to diarrhoea occurred following a single product administration. An infectious cause for the event could not be identified, leaving the possibility of immunologically mediated product reaction. Conclusions A serious, potentially life-threatening event of hypotension led to early, precautionary termination of the study. In the absence of a clearly defined mechanism or ability to predict such occurrence, further development of Opal-HIV-Gag(c) will not be undertaken in the current form. Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01123915; EudraCT: 2008-005142-23 PMID:24069230

  20. Computer simulations to predict the availability of peptides with known HLA class I motifs possibly generated by proteolysis of HIV1 proteins in infected cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yechiel Becker

    1995-01-01

    Cytotoxic T cells that recognize HIV-1 peptides generated from all viral proteins were reported. To predict the cleavage pattern of HIV-1 proteins by cytoplasmic proteasomes into peptides with motifs fitting known HLA class I molecules, the computer program Findpatterns was used. In this paper the combined amino acids patterns for proteolytic cleavages and the HLA class I haplotype-restricted peptides motifs

  1. Eggshell membrane: A possible new natural therapeutic for joint and connective tissue disorders. Results from two open-label human clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, Kevin J; DeVore, Dale P; Leu, Michael D; Robinson, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Natural Eggshell Membrane (NEM®) is a novel dietary supplement that contains naturally occurring glycosaminoglycans and proteins essential for maintaining healthy joint and connective tissues. Two single center, open-label human clinical studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of NEM® as a treatment for pain and inflexibility associated with joint and connective tissue disorders. Methods: Eleven (single-arm trial) and 28 (double-arm trial) patients received oral NEM® 500 mg once daily for four weeks. The primary outcome measure was to evaluate the change in general pain associated with the treatment joints/areas (both studies). In the single-arm trial, range of motion (ROM) and related ROM-associated pain was also evaluated. The primary treatment response endpoints were at seven and 30 days. Both clinical assessments were performed on the intent-to-treat (ITT) population within each study. Results: Single-arm trial: Supplementation with NEM® produced a significant treatment response at seven days for flexibility (27.8% increase; P = 0.038) and at 30 days for general pain (72.5% reduction; P = 0.007), flexibility (43.7% increase; P = 0.006), and ROM-associated pain (75.9% reduction; P = 0.021). Double-arm trial: Supplementation with NEM® produced a significant treatment response for pain at seven days for both treatment arms (X: 18.4% reduction; P = 0.021. Y: 31.3% reduction; P = 0.014). There was no clinically meaningful difference between treatment arms at seven days, so the Y arm crossed over to the X formulation for the remainder of the study. The significant treatment response continued through 30 days for pain (30.2% reduction; P = 0.0001). There were no adverse events reported during either study and the treatment was reported to be well tolerated by study participants. Conclusions: Natural Eggshell Membrane (NEM®) is a possible new effective and safe therapeutic option for the treatment of pain and inflexibility associated with joint and connective tissue (JCT) disorders. Supplementation with NEM®, 500 mg taken once daily, significantly reduced pain, both rapidly (seven days) and continuously (30 days). It also showed clinically meaningful results from a brief responder analysis, demonstrating that significant proportions of treated patients may be helped considerably from NEM® supplementation. The Clinical Trial Registration numbers for these trials are: NCT00750230 and NCT00750854. PMID:19554094

  2. HIV UPDATE: cancer & HIV

    E-print Network

    Bushman, Frederic

    HIV UPDATE: cancer & HIV NOVEMBER 2012, Issue 11 This month's Taleletso provides an introduction to the topic of HIV and Cancer. This month we would also like to raise your awareness of a global cancer initiative, MOVEMBER, which is committed to raise money to diagnose and treat cancers in men. As part

  3. Prison Therapeutic Community Treatment for Female Offenders: Profiles and Preliminary Findings for Mental Health and Other Variables (Crime, Substance Use and HIV Risk)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Joann Y.; Sacks, Stanley; Mckendrick, Karen; Banks, Steven; Schoeneberger, Marlies; Hamilton, Zachary; Stommel, Joseph; Shoemaker, Joanie

    2008-01-01

    This random assignment study compared women in a prison Therapeutic Community (TC) program with those in a cognitive-behavioral intervention. Over two thirds of study subjects received a lifetime diagnosis of severe mental disorder, nearly one-half received a diagnosis of PTSD, and virtually all reported exposure to trauma. Preliminary analysis (n…

  4. HIV restriction by APOBEC3 in humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Krisko, John F; Martinez-Torres, Francisco; Foster, John L; Garcia, J Victor

    2013-03-01

    Innate immune restriction factors represent important specialized barriers to zoonotic transmission of viruses. Significant consideration has been given to their possible use for therapeutic benefit. The apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide 3 (APOBEC3) family of cytidine deaminases are potent immune defense molecules capable of efficiently restricting endogenous retroelements as well as a broad range of viruses including Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Human Papilloma virus (HPV), and Human T Cell Leukemia virus (HTLV). The best characterized members of this family are APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F) and their restriction of HIV. HIV has evolved to counteract these powerful restriction factors by encoding an accessory gene designated viral infectivity factor (vif). Here we demonstrate that APOBEC3 efficiently restricts CCR5-tropic HIV in the absence of Vif. However, our results also show that CXCR4-tropic HIV can escape from APOBEC3 restriction and replicate in vivo independent of Vif. Molecular analysis identified thymocytes as cells with reduced A3G and A3F expression. Direct injection of vif-defective HIV into the thymus resulted in viral replication and dissemination detected by plasma viral load analysis; however, vif-defective viruses remained sensitive to APOBEC3 restriction as extensive G to A mutation was observed in proviral DNA recovered from other organs. Remarkably, HIV replication persisted despite the inability of HIV to develop resistance to APOBEC3 in the absence of Vif. Our results provide novel insight into a highly specific subset of cells that potentially circumvent the action of APOBEC3; however our results also demonstrate the massive inactivation of CCR5-tropic HIV in the absence of Vif. PMID:23555255

  5. APOBEC3G and HIV-1: strike and counterstrike.

    PubMed

    Soros, Vanessa B; Greene, Warner C

    2006-06-01

    APOBEC3G (A3G), a deoxycytidine deaminase, is a powerful host antiretroviral factor that can restrict HIV-1 infection. This restriction is counteracted by the HIV-1 virion infectivity factor (Vif) protein, whose activity culminates in depletion of A3G from infected cells. In the absence of Vif, viruses encapsidate A3G, which acts in part to mutate viral DNA formed during reverse transcription upon subsequent infection of a new cell. Cellular A3G also functions as a post-entry restriction factor for HIV in resting CD4 T cells, where it resides in a low molecular mass form. Unfortunately, this barrier is forfeited when CD4 T cells are activated because A3G is recruited into inactive high molecular mass ribonucleoprotein complexes. In addition to restricting HIV, A3G and related deaminases may counter other retroviruses and protect the cell from endogenous mobile retroelements. Understanding A3G complex assembly and its interplay with HIV Vif may make possible future development of a new class of HIV therapeutic agents. PMID:16822376

  6. APOBEC3G and HIV-1: strike and counterstrike.

    PubMed

    Soros, Vanessa B; Greene, Warner C

    2007-02-01

    APOBEC3G (A3G), a deoxycytidine deaminase, is a powerful host antiretroviral factor that can restrict HIV-1 infection. This restriction is counteracted by the HIV-1 virion infectivity factor (Vif) protein, whose activity culminates in depletion of A3G from infected cells. In the absence of Vif, viruses encapsidate A3G, which acts in part to mutate viral DNA formed during reverse transcription upon subsequent infection of a new cell. Cellular A3G also functions as a post-entry restriction factor for HIV in resting CD4 T cells, where it resides in a low molecular mass form. Unfortunately, this barrier is forfeited when CD4 T cells are activated because A3G is recruited into inactive high molecular mass ribonucleoprotein complexes. In addition to restricting HIV, A3G and related deaminases may counter other retroviruses and protect the cell from endogenous mobile retroelements. Understanding A3G complex assembly and its interplay with HIV Vif may make possible future development of a new class of HIV therapeutic agents. PMID:17338854

  7. Estimation of “needs” and “probable uptake” for HIV\\/AIDS preventive vaccines based on possible policies and likely acceptance (a WHO\\/UNAIDS\\/IAVI study)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Esparza; Marie-Louise Chang; Roy Widdus; Yvette Madrid; Neff Walker; Peter D. Ghys

    2003-01-01

    Once an effective HIV vaccine is discovered, a major challenge will be to ensure its world wide access. A preventive vaccine with low or moderate efficacy (30–50%) could be a valuable prevention tool, especially if targeted to populations at higher risk of HIV infection. High efficacy vaccines (80–90%) could be used in larger segments of the population.Estimated “needs” for future

  8. Differential cellular FGF-2 upregulation in the rat facial nucleus following axotomy, functional electrical stimulation and corticosterone: a possible therapeutic target to Bell's palsy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The etiology of Bell's palsy can vary but anterograde axonal degeneration may delay spontaneous functional recovery leading the necessity of therapeutic interventions. Corticotherapy and/or complementary rehabilitation interventions have been employed. Thus the natural history of the disease reports to a neurotrophic resistance of adult facial motoneurons leading a favorable evolution however the related molecular mechanisms that might be therapeutically addressed in the resistant cases are not known. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) pathway signaling is a potential candidate for therapeutic development because its role on wound repair and autocrine/paracrine trophic mechanisms in the lesioned nervous system. Methods Adult rats received unilateral facial nerve crush, transection with amputation of nerve branches, or sham operation. Other group of unlesioned rats received a daily functional electrical stimulation in the levator labii superioris muscle (1 mA, 30 Hz, square wave) or systemic corticosterone (10 mgkg-1). Animals were sacrificed seven days later. Results Crush and transection lesions promoted no changes in the number of neurons but increased the neurofilament in the neuronal neuropil of axotomized facial nuclei. Axotomy also elevated the number of GFAP astrocytes (143% after crush; 277% after transection) and nuclear FGF-2 (57% after transection) in astrocytes (confirmed by two-color immunoperoxidase) in the ipsilateral facial nucleus. Image analysis reveled that a seven days functional electrical stimulation or corticosterone led to elevations of FGF-2 in the cytoplasm of neurons and in the nucleus of reactive astrocytes, respectively, without astrocytic reaction. Conclusion FGF-2 may exert paracrine/autocrine trophic actions in the facial nucleus and may be relevant as a therapeutic target to Bell's palsy. PMID:21062430

  9. Cross-Reactivity, Epitope Spreading, and De Novo Immune Stimulation Are Possible Mechanisms of Cross-Protection of Nonvaccine Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types in Recipients of HPV Therapeutic Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Mayumi; Greenfield, William; Moerman-Herzog, Andrea; Coleman, Hannah N

    2015-07-01

    Numerous versions of human papillomavirus (HPV) therapeutic vaccines designed to treat individuals with established HPV infection, including those with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), are in development because approved prophylactic vaccines are not effective once HPV infection is established. As human papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16) is the most commonly detected type worldwide, all versions of HPV therapeutic vaccines contain HPV-16, and some also contain HPV-18. While these two HPV types are responsible for approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases, there are other high-risk HPV types known to cause malignancy. Therefore, it would be of interest to assess whether these HPV therapeutic vaccines may confer cross-protection against other high-risk HPV types. Data available from a few clinical trials that enrolled subjects with CINs regardless of the HPV type(s) present demonstrated clinical responses, as measured by CIN regression, in subjects with both vaccine-matched and nonvaccine HPV types. The currently available evidence demonstrating cross-reactivity, epitope spreading, and de novo immune stimulation as possible mechanisms of cross-protection conferred by investigational HPV therapeutic vaccines is discussed. PMID:25947147

  10. HIV Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Submit Home > HIV/AIDS > What is HIV/AIDS? HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) HIV symptoms Photo courtesy of AIDS.gov Facing AIDS ... and brain Return to top More information on HIV symptoms Explore other publications and websites Basic Information ...

  11. Understanding HIV compartments and reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Svicher, Valentina; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Antinori, Andrea; Aquaro, Stefano; Perno, Carlo Federico

    2014-06-01

    The spectrum of HIV-1 cellular reservoirs is highly diversified, and their role varies according to the milieu of the anatomical sites in which the virus replicates. In this light, mechanisms underlying HIV-1 persistence in anatomical compartments may be profoundly different from what is observed in peripheral blood. This scenario is further complicated by sub-optimal drug penetration in tissues allowing persistent and cryptic HIV-1 replication in body districts despite undetectable viremia. On this basis, this review aims at providing recent insights regarding the critical role of HIV-1 cellular reservoirs in different anatomical compartments, and their relationship with the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. A comprehensive definition of the complex interplay between the virus and its reservoir is critical in order to set up prophylactic and therapeutic strategies aimed at achieving the maximal virological suppression and hopefully in the near future the cure of HIV-1 infection (either functional or biological). PMID:24729094

  12. What to Start: Selecting a First HIV Regimen

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the person with HIV may have Possible side effects of HIV medicines Potential interactions between HIV medicines or between HIV medicines and other medicines the person with HIV is taking Results of drug-resistance testing (and other tests). Drug-resistance testing identifies ...

  13. HIV Life Cycle

    MedlinePLUS

    ... HIV life cycle. What is the connection between HIV medicines and the HIV life cycle? Without treatment, HIV infection gradually destroys ... the risk of HIV drug resistance . What is HIV drug resistance? Drug resistance is when HIV is ...

  14. Are major reductions in new HIV infections possible with people who inject drugs? The case for low dead-space syringes in highly affected countries.

    PubMed

    Zule, William A; Cross, Harry E; Stover, John; Pretorius, Carel

    2013-01-01

    Circumstantial evidence from laboratory studies, mathematical models, ecological studies and bio behavioural surveys, suggests that injection-related HIV epidemics may be averted or reversed if people who inject drugs (PWID) switch from using high dead-space to using low dead-space syringes. In laboratory experiments that simulated the injection process and rinsing with water, low dead space syringes retained 1000 times less blood than high dead space syringes. In mathematical models, switching PWID from high dead space to low dead space syringes prevents or reverses injection-related HIV epidemics. No one knows if such an intervention is feasible or what effect it would have on HIV transmission among PWID. Feasibility studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) will be needed to answer these questions definitively, but these studies will be very expensive and take years to complete. Rather than waiting for them to be completed, we argue for an approach similar to that used with needle and syringe programs (NSP), which were promoted and implemented before being tested more rigorously. Before implementation, rapid assessments that involve PWID will need to be conducted to ensure buy-in from PWID and other local stakeholders. This commentary summarizes the existing evidence regarding the protective effects of low dead space syringes and estimates potential impacts on HIV transmission; it describes potential barriers to transitioning PWID from high dead space to low dead space needles and syringes; and it presents strategies for overcoming these barriers. PMID:22884539

  15. Structure-activity relationship of pyrrolyl diketo acid derivatives as dual inhibitors of HIV-1 integrase and reverse transcriptase ribonuclease H domain.

    PubMed

    Cuzzucoli Crucitti, Giuliana; Métifiot, Mathieu; Pescatori, Luca; Messore, Antonella; Madia, Valentina Noemi; Pupo, Giovanni; Saccoliti, Francesco; Scipione, Luigi; Tortorella, Silvano; Esposito, Francesca; Corona, Angela; Cadeddu, Marta; Marchand, Christophe; Pommier, Yves; Tramontano, Enzo; Costi, Roberta; Di Santo, Roberto

    2015-02-26

    The development of HIV-1 dual inhibitors is a highly innovative approach aimed at reducing drug toxic side effects as well as therapeutic costs. HIV-1 integrase (IN) and reverse transcriptase-associated ribonuclease H (RNase H) are both selective targets for HIV-1 chemotherapy, and the identification of dual IN/RNase H inhibitors is an attractive strategy for new drug development. We newly synthesized pyrrolyl derivatives that exhibited good potency against IN and a moderate inhibition of the RNase H function of RT, confirming the possibility of developing dual HIV-1 IN/RNase H inhibitors and obtaining new information for the further development of more effective dual HIV-1 inhibitors. PMID:25629256

  16. HIV-1 Entry Inhibitor

    Cancer.gov

    Soluble forms (sCD4) of human CD4, the HIV-1 primary receptor, are potent HIV-1 entry inhibitors. Both four-domain (D1-4) and two-domain (D1D2) sCD4 and their fusion proteins have been tested as candidate therapeutics in animal models and in human clinical trials and were well tolerated by patients with no significant clinical or immunologic toxicities and exhibited significant inhibitory activities. However, their activities were transient and the virus rapidly rebound.

  17. BET bromodomain-targeting compounds reactivate HIV from latency via a Tat-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Daniela; Calvanese, Vincenzo; Dar, Roy D; Xing, Sifei; Schroeder, Sebastian; Martins, Laura; Aull, Katherine; Li, Pao-Chen; Planelles, Vicente; Bradner, James E; Zhou, Ming-Ming; Siliciano, Robert F; Weinberger, Leor; Verdin, Eric; Ott, Melanie

    2013-02-01

    The therapeutic potential of pharmacologic inhibition of bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) proteins has recently emerged in hematological malignancies and chronic inflammation. We find that BET inhibitor compounds (JQ1, I-Bet, I-Bet151 and MS417) reactivate HIV from latency. This is evident in polyclonal Jurkat cell populations containing latent infectious HIV, as well as in a primary T-cell model of HIV latency. Importantly, we show that this activation is dependent on the positive transcription elongation factor p-TEFb but independent from the viral Tat protein, arguing against the possibility that removal of the BET protein BRD4, which functions as a cellular competitor for Tat, serves as a primary mechanism for BET inhibitor action. Instead, we find that the related BET protein, BRD2, enforces HIV latency in the absence of Tat, pointing to a new target for BET inhibitor treatment in HIV infection. In shRNA-mediated knockdown experiments, knockdown of BRD2 activates HIV transcription to the same extent as JQ1 treatment, while a lesser effect is observed with BRD4. In single-cell time-lapse fluorescence microscopy, quantitative analyses across ~2,000 viral integration sites confirm the Tat-independent effect of JQ1 and point to positive effects of JQ1 on transcription elongation, while delaying re-initiation of the polymerase complex at the viral promoter. Collectively, our results identify BRD2 as a new Tat-independent suppressor of HIV transcription in latently infected cells and underscore the therapeutic potential of BET inhibitors in the reversal of HIV latency. PMID:23255218

  18. H3.3 G34R mutations in pediatric primitive neuroectodermal tumors of central nervous system (CNS-PNET) and pediatric glioblastomas: possible diagnostic and therapeutic implications?

    PubMed

    Gessi, Marco; Gielen, Gerrit H; Hammes, Jennifer; Dörner, Evelyn; Mühlen, Anja Zur; Waha, Andreas; Pietsch, Torsten

    2013-03-01

    Pediatric glioblastomas recently have been exon sequenced with evidence that approximately 30 % of cases harbour mutations of the histone H3.3 gene. Although studies to determinate their role in risk stratification are on-going, it remains to be determined whether H3.3 mutations could be found in other tumors such as pediatric primitive neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS-PNETs) and whether the presence of H3.3 mutations in glioblastomas could be used as diagnostic tool in their differential diagnosis with CNS-PNETs. We performed a large mutational pyrosequencing-based screening on 123 pediatric glioblastomas and 33 CNS-PNET. The analysis revealed that 39/123 (31.7 %) glioblastomas carry H3.3 mutations. The K27M (AAG ? ATG, lysine ? methionine) mutation was found in 33 glioblastomas (26 %); the G34R (GGG ? AGG, glycine ? arginine) was observed in 6 glioblastomas (5.5 %). However, we also identified 4 of 33 cases (11 %) of CNS-PNETs harbouring a H3.3 G34R mutation. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis revealed PDGFR-alpha amplification and EGFR gain in two cases and N-Myc amplification in one case of H3.3 G34R mutated CNS-PNET. None of H3.3 mutated tumors presented a CDKN2A loss. In conclusion, because pediatric patients with glioblastoma and CNS-PNET are treated according to different therapeutic protocols, these findings may raise further concerns about the reliability of the histological diagnosis in the case of an undifferentiated brain tumor harbouring G34R H3.3 mutation. In this view, additional studies are needed to determine whether H3.3 G34 mutated CNS-PNET/glioblastomas may represent a defined tumor subtype. PMID:23354654

  19. Colchicine suppresses the release of fibroblast growth factors from alveolar macrophages in vitro. The basis of a possible therapeutic approach ot the fibrotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Rennard, S I; Bitterman, P B; Ozaki, T; Rom, W N; Crystal, R G

    1988-01-01

    Fibrosis is the accumulation of fibroblasts and the connective tissue products secreted by these cells, usually subsequent to tissue injury. While fibrosis can be useful in preserving the general structural integrity of a tissue, it often alters cell-cell and cell-connective tissue interactions, which leads to loss of tissue function. On the basis of the concept that mononuclear phagocytes can direct the development of fibrosis through the release of specific mediators that stimulate fibroblast proliferation, we propose a therapeutic strategy to prevent fibrosis by preventing the release of these specific mediators. The present study demonstrated that colchicine, a widely used and well-tolerated drug, can block alveolar macrophage release of 2 mediators associated with the development of fibrosis in interstitial lung diseases, fibronectin, and the alveolar-macrophage-derived growth factor (AMDGF). Colchicine blocked the spontaneous release of fibronectin by alveolar macrophages obtained from patients with fibrotic lung disease by 23 +/- 4% after 24 h and by greater than 90% after 72 h. AMDGF release was blocked by 68 +/- 10% after 4 h (p less than 0.01, all comparisons). The effect of colchicine was not due to nonspecific toxicity since [14C]proline tracer studies demonstrated that macrophages treated with colchicine were capable of de novo protein synthesis and the secretion of several protein products, despite the fact that fibronectin and AMDGF release were suppressed. The effect of colchicine on the spontaneous release of both fibronectin and AMDGF could be observed at concentrations less than 10 ng/ml, levels that can be achieved in vivo.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3337460

  20. G-quartets assembly within a G-rich DNA flap. A possible event at the center of the HIV1 genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastien Lyonnais; Candide Hounsou; Marie-Paule Teulade-Fichou; Josette Jeusset; Eric Le Cam; Gilles Mirambeau

    2002-01-01

    Stretches of guanines can associate in vitro through Hoogsteen hydrogen bonding to form four-stranded structures. In the HIV-1 central DNA flap, generated by reverse transcriptase at the end of retrotranscrip- tion, both the two 99 nt-long overlapping (+) strands contain two adjacent tracts of guanines. This study demonstrates that oligonucleotides containing these G-clusters form highly stable G-quadruplexes of various structures

  1. Bone alterations associated with HIV.

    PubMed

    Warriner, Amy H; Mugavero, Michael; Overton, E Turner

    2014-09-01

    HIV infection and initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) have been consistently associated with decreased bone mineral density (BMD), with growing evidence linking HIV to an increased risk of fracture. This is especially concerning with the expanding number of older persons living with HIV. Interestingly, recent data suggest that HIV-infected children and youth fail to achieve peak BMD, possibly increasing their lifetime risk of fracture. Elucidating the causes of the bone changes in HIV-positive persons is challenging because of the multifactorial nature of bone disease in HIV, including contribution of the virus, immunosuppression, ART toxicity, and traditional osteoporosis risk factors, such as age, lower weight, tobacco, and alcohol use. Thus, practitioners must recognize the risk of low BMD and fractures and appropriately screen patients for osteoporosis if risk factors exist. If fractures do occur or elevated fracture risk is detected through screening, treatment with bisphosphonate medications appears safe and effective in the HIV+population. PMID:25064454

  2. Estimating the Impact of Plasma HIV-1 RNA Reductions on Heterosexual HIV-1 Transmission Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lingappa, Jairam R.; Hughes, James P.; Wang, Richard S.; Baeten, Jared M.; Celum, Connie; Gray, Glenda E.; Stevens, Wendy S.; Donnell, Deborah; Campbell, Mary S.; Farquhar, Carey; Essex, M.; Mullins, James I.; Coombs, Robert W.; Rees, Helen; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Background The risk of sexual transmission of HIV-1 is strongly associated with the level of HIV-1 RNA in plasma making reduction in HIV-1 plasma levels an important target for HIV-1 prevention interventions. A quantitative understanding of the relationship of plasma HIV-1 RNA and HIV-1 transmission risk could help predict the impact of candidate HIV-1 prevention interventions that operate by reducing plasma HIV-1 levels, such as antiretroviral therapy (ART), therapeutic vaccines, and other non-ART interventions. Methodology/Principal Findings We use prospective data collected from 2004 to 2008 in East and Southern African HIV-1 serodiscordant couples to model the relationship of plasma HIV-1 RNA levels and heterosexual transmission risk with confirmation of HIV-1 transmission events by HIV-1 sequencing. The model is based on follow-up of 3381 HIV-1 serodiscordant couples over 5017 person-years encompassing 108 genetically-linked HIV-1 transmission events. HIV-1 transmission risk was 2.27 per 100 person-years with a log-linear relationship to log10 plasma HIV-1 RNA. The model predicts that a decrease in average plasma HIV-1 RNA of 0.74 log10 copies/mL (95% CI 0.60 to 0.97) reduces heterosexual transmission risk by 50%, regardless of the average starting plasma HIV-1 level in the population and independent of other HIV-1-related population characteristics. In a simulated population with a similar plasma HIV-1 RNA distribution the model estimates that 90% of overall HIV-1 infections averted by a 0.74 copies/mL reduction in plasma HIV-1 RNA could be achieved by targeting this reduction to the 58% of the cohort with plasma HIV-1 levels ?4 log10 copies/mL. Conclusions/Significance This log-linear model of plasma HIV-1 levels and risk of sexual HIV-1 transmission may help estimate the impact on HIV-1 transmission and infections averted from candidate interventions that reduce plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. PMID:20856886

  3. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | Subscribe ... Get Email Updates on HIV Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  4. Association Between HIV-1 Coreceptor Usage and Resistance to Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Hauke; Lengauer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recently discovered broadly neutralizing antibodies have revitalized hopes of developing a universal vaccine against HIV-1. Mainly responsible for new infections are variants only using CCR5 for cell entry, whereas CXCR4-using variants can become dominant in later infection stages. Methods: We performed a statistical analysis on two different previously published data sets. The first data set was a panel of 199 diverse HIV-1 isolates for which IC50 neutralization titers were determined for the broadly neutralizing antibodies VRC01, VRC-PG04, PG9, and PG16. The second data set contained env sequences of viral variants extracted from HIV-1–infected humanized mice treated with the antibody PGT128 and from untreated control mice. Results: For the panel of 199 diverse HIV-1 isolates, we found a statistically significant association between viral resistance to PG9 and PG16 and CXCR4 coreceptor usage (P = 0.0011 and P = 0.0010, respectively). Our analysis of viral variants from HIV-1–infected humanized mice under treatment with the broadly neutralizing antibody PGT128 indicated that certain antibodies might drive a viral population toward developing CXCR4 coreceptor usage capability (P = 0.0011 for the comparison between PGT128 and control measurement). Conclusions: These analyses highlight the importance of accounting for a possible coreceptor usage bias pertaining to the effectiveness of an HIV vaccine and to passive antibody transfer as therapeutic approach. PMID:25072615

  5. Zinc-finger-nucleases mediate specific and efficient excision of HIV-1 proviral DNA from infected and latently infected human T cells

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Xiying; Wang, Pengfei; Ding, Donglin; Li, Lin; Wang, Haibo; Ma, Li; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Shaohui; Lin, Shiguan; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Gongmin; Liu, Sijie; Liu, Lin; Wang, Jianhua; Zhang, Feng; Lu, Daru; Zhu, Huanzhang

    2013-01-01

    HIV-infected individuals currently cannot be completely cured because existing antiviral therapy regimens do not address HIV provirus DNA, flanked by long terminal repeats (LTRs), already integrated into host genome. Here, we present a possible alternative therapeutic approach to specifically and directly mediate deletion of the integrated full-length HIV provirus from infected and latently infected human T cell genomes by using specially designed zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) to target a sequence within the LTR that is well conserved across all clades. We designed and screened one pair of ZFN to target the highly conserved HIV-1 5?-LTR and 3?-LTR DNA sequences, named ZFN-LTR. We found that ZFN-LTR can specifically target and cleave the full-length HIV-1 proviral DNA in several infected and latently infected cell types and also HIV-1 infected human primary cells in vitro. We observed that the frequency of excision was 45.9% in infected human cell lines after treatment with ZFN-LTR, without significant host-cell genotoxicity. Taken together, our data demonstrate that a single ZFN-LTR pair can specifically and effectively cleave integrated full-length HIV-1 proviral DNA and mediate antiretroviral activity in infected and latently infected cells, suggesting that this strategy could offer a novel approach to eradicate the HIV-1 virus from the infected host in the future. PMID:23804764

  6. HIV Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your HIV-positive partner is taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) consistently and correctly, especially if his/her viral ... your partner to get and stay on treatment. ART reduces the amount of HIV virus (viral load) ...

  7. HIV Transmission

    MedlinePLUS

    ... whether the partner with HIV is using antiretroviral therapy (ART) consistently and correctly and whether the partner who ... if the partner with HIV is taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) consistently and correctly, and if the partner who ...

  8. HIV virus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carl Henderson (National Institutes of Health; )

    2005-12-09

    HIV is a virus that can be transmitted through fluids exchanged in sexual activity. HIV eventually causes AIDS. AIDS patients have compromised immune systems and they eventually die from diseases that healthy humans would normally fight off very easily.

  9. HIV/AIDS and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    If you have HIV/AIDS and find out you are pregnant or think you may be pregnant, you should let your health care provider know as soon as possible. Some HIV/AIDS medicines may harm your baby. Your health care ...

  10. Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) Variants (Vs) a possible link between Heroin-associated Nephropathy (HAN) and HIV-associated Nephropathy (HIVAN)

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Xiqian; Rao, T. K. S.; Chander, Praveen N.; Skorecki, Karl; Singhal, Pravin C.

    2015-01-01

    In 1970s, Heroin-associated Nephropathy (HAN), one form of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), was a predominant cause of End-stage Kidney Disease (ESKD) in African-Americans (AAs). In 1980s, with the surge of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in AAs, HAN more or less disappeared, and the incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus associated Nephropathy (HIVAN) markedly increased. Recent studies in AAs have identified APOL1 variants (Vs) as a major risk factor for the development and progression of non-diabetic kidney diseases including idiopathic FSGS and hypertension-attributed nephrosclerosis. These observations have also offered partial insights into the mechanisms of development, and higher rate of occurrence of both HAN and HIVAN in AAs. AAs with APOL1Vs develop idiopathic FSGS at four-fold higher rate compared to European Americans (EAs). Similarly, HIV infected AAs with APOL1Vs (if not on antiviral therapy), risk a 50% (10-fold greater) chance of developing HIVAN. It has been suggested that APOL1Vs expression may render podocytes more vulnerable to various types of injury: bacterial, viral, and others. However, in addition to genetic variants, additional factors such as persistence of a second hit may determine the nature and severity of glomerular disease. In patients with HAN, heroin or contaminants may have been the offending second insult(s) which caused renal disease in susceptible AA patients. In the 80's, since heroin-induced second hit was neither consistent nor sustained (depending on drug availability in the street), the disease was masked or replaced HIV infected patients (especially in untreated subjects), by an overwhelming second hit by the virus which was both intense as well as persistent. It appears that APOL1Vs may be one of the links between the disappearance of HAN and emergence of HIVAN in AA patients.

  11. Therapeutic Nanodevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Stephen C.; Ruegsegger, Mark; Barnes, Philip D.; Smith, Bryan R.; Ferrari, Mauro

    Therapeutic nanotechnology offers minimally invasive therapies with high densities of function concentrated in small volumes, features that may reduce patient morbidity and mortality. Unlike other areas of nanotechnology, novel physical properties associated with nanoscale dimensionality are not the raison d'etre of therapeutic nanotechnology, whereas the aggregation of multiple biochemical (or comparably precise) functions into controlled nanoarchitectures is. Multifunctionality is a hallmark of emerging nanotherapeutic devices, and multifunctionality can allow nanotherapeutic devices to perform multi-step work processes, with each functional component contributing to one or more nanodevice subroutine such that, in aggregate, subroutines sum to a cogent work process. Cannonical nanotherapeutic subroutines include tethering (targeting) to sites of disease, dispensing measured doses of drug (or bioactive compound), detection of residual disease after therapy and communication with an external clinician/operator. Emerging nanotherapeutics thus blur the boundaries between medical devices and traditional pharmaceuticals. Assembly of therapeutic nanodevices generally exploits either (bio)material self assembly properties or chemoselective bioconjugation techniques, or both. Given the complexity, composition, and the necessity for their tight chemical and structural definition inherent in the nature of nanotherapeutics, their cost of goods (COGs) might exceed that of (already expensive) biologics. Early therapeutic nanodevices will likely be applied to disease states which exhibit significant unmet patient need (cancer and cardiovascular disease), while application to other disease states well-served by conventional therapy may await perfection of nanotherapeutic design and assembly protocols.

  12. Therapeutic Nanodevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Stephen; Ruegsegger, Mark; Barnes, Philip; Smith, Bryan; Ferrari, Mauro

    Therapeutic nanotechnology offers minimally invasive therapies with high densities of function concentrated in small volumes, features that may reduce patient morbidity and mortality. Unlike other areas of nanotechnology, novel physical properties associated with nanoscale dimensionality are not the raison d'être of therapeutic nanotechnology, whereas the aggregation of multiple biochemical (or comparably precise) functions into controlled nanoarchitectures is. Multifunctionality is a hallmark of emerging nanotherapeutic devices, and multifunctionality can allow nanotherapeutic devices to perform multistep work processes, with each functional component contributing to one or more nanodevice subroutine such that, in aggregate, subroutines sum to a cogent work process. Cannonical nanotherapeutic subroutines include tethering (targeting) to sites of disease, dispensing measured doses of drug (or bioactive compound), detection of residual disease after therapy and communication with an external clinician/operator. Emerging nanotherapeutics thus blur the boundaries between medical devices and traditional pharmaceuticals. Assembly of therapeutic nanodevices generally exploits either (bio)material self-assembly properties or chemoselective bioconjugation techniques, or both. Given the complexity, composition, and the necessity for their tight chemical and structural definition inherent in the nature of nanotherapeutics, their cost of goods (COGs) might exceed that of (already expensive) biologics. Early therapeutic nanodevices will likely be applied to disease states which exhibit significant unmet patient need (cancer and cardiovascular disease), while application to other disease states well-served by conventional therapy may await perfection of nanotherapeutic design and assembly protocols.

  13. HIV specific responses induced in nonhuman primates with ANRS HIV-Lipo-5 vaccine combined with rMVA-HIV prime or boost immunizations.

    PubMed

    Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Baron, Marie-Laurence; Contreras, Vanessa; Gosse, Leslie; Mangeot, Isabelle; Martinon, Frédéric; Yousfi, Rahima; Clayette, Pascal; Levy, Yves; Le Grand, Roger

    2015-05-11

    We evaluated the immunogenicity of a prime/boost vaccine strategy combining 5 lipopeptides (HIV-Lipo-5) and a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA-HIV) in cynomolgus macaques. Both of these vaccine components deliver HIV LAI Gag, Pol, and Nef antigens. Systemic and local safety was excellent in all groups. Immunization with HIV-Lipo-5 alone induced significant serum anti-HIV antibody titers which were not modified by rMVA-HIV immunization. However, induction of T-cell responses, as measured by IFN? and IL-2 producing cells upon short-term stimulation with HIV peptide pools, required combined immunization with rMVA-HIV. Responses were preferentially observed against Gag antigen. Interestingly, HIV-Lipo-5 efficiently primed HIV induced T-cell responses upon the injection of rMVA-HIV, which may help to reduce the required number of vector injections. Our results provide a rationale for the use of a strategy involving HIV-Lipo-5 priming followed by rMVA-HIV booster immunization as a prophylactic or therapeutic vaccine approach against HIV infection and AIDS. PMID:25839103

  14. HIV DNA in circulating monocytes as a mechanism to dementia and other HIV complications.

    PubMed

    Valcour, Victor G; Shiramizu, Bruce T; Shikuma, Cecilia M

    2010-04-01

    It is broadly accepted that HIV DNA in lymphoid and myeloid cells persists despite combination antiretroviral therapy. Recognized as the Achilles heel to HIV eradication, the role of these peripheral reservoirs in HIV morbidity is less well developed. The burden of HIV DNA in peripheral mononuclear cells is linked to HIV disease outcomes such as time to AIDS diagnosis, survival, and CD4 T-lymphocyte counts. Monocytes are a minor HIV DNA reservoir, and the burden of HIV DNA in these cells appears to be linked to dementia, suggesting that residual infection in this subset is linked to tissue-related HIV complications. Since monocytes are likely involved in trafficking virus to the brain, there is a strong mechanistic link underlying this discovery. Herein, we summarize our current understanding of monocyte HIV DNA and central nervous system dysfunction in humans. We present a model to understand these relationships and suggest possible treatment approaches to be tested. PMID:20130221

  15. HIV-associated Obstructive Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gingo, Matthew R.; Morris, Alison; Crothers, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    In the era of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), epidemiologic studies have found that HIV-infected persons have a higher prevalence and incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease than HIV-uninfected persons. Recently, pulmonary function studies in HIV-infected persons have shown a high prevalence of airway obstruction, bronchodilator reversibility, and impaired diffusing capacity. In comparison to HIV-uninfected persons and those with well-controlled HIV disease, HIV-infected persons with poor viral control or lower CD4 cell count have more airflow obstruction, a greater decline in lung function, and possibly more severe diffusing impairment. This chapter will review the evidence linking HIV infection to obstructive lung disease and discuss management issues related to the treatment of obstructive lung disease in HIV-infected patients. PMID:23702176

  16. Expansion and Diversification of Virus-Specific T Cells following Immunization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV1)Infected Individuals with a Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara\\/HIV1 Gag Vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucy Dorrell; Hongbing Yang; Beatrice Ondondo; Tao Dong; K. di Gleria; A. Suttill; C. Conlon; D. Brown; P. Williams; P. Bowness; N. Goonetilleke; T. Rostron; S. Rowland-Jones; T. Hanke; A. McMichael

    2006-01-01

    Affordable therapeutic strategies that induce sustained control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication and are tailored to the developing world are urgently needed. Since CD8 and CD4 T cells are crucial to HIV-1 control, stimulation of potent cellular responses by therapeutic vaccination might be exploited to reduce antiretroviral drug exposure. However, therapeutic vaccines tested to date have shown

  17. HIV Prevention Capacity Building: A Framework for Strengthening and Sustaining HIV Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motamed, Cathy; de Palomo, Frank Beadle; Pritchett, Joy; Wahlstrom, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    To combat the HIV epidemic, health service providers and public health professionals must use the best possible science and proven program models to reach and influence HIV-positive individuals and others at high risk of becoming infected. The large number and complexity of approaches that are necessary to institute and maintain HIV prevention…

  18. [Therapeutic strategy].

    PubMed

    Fournier, M

    1992-12-01

    The clinical manifestations of bronchial asthma fall into two categories: acute asthma which consists of asthmatic attacks and their variants, and chronic asthma. The treatment of acute asthma is now well established, while that of chronic asthma, more difficult to organize, is part of a true therapeutic strategy which has two aspects: 1. A more global approach to the treatment must be developed. This means full management of asthmatic patients who must be instructed and considered as active partners in the prevention of acute attacks, the evaluation of the severity of their disease and the application of the treatment prescribed. 2. An asthma severity scale must be devised and a specific therapeutic programme must be offered for each stage of the disease. The general principle, beside treatment of acute asthma, is to pay much attention to the intercritical situation and, in particular, to treat effectively the bronchial inflammation. PMID:1296323

  19. [Therapeutic plasmas].

    PubMed

    Schneider, T

    2012-11-01

    Three different therapeutic plasmas preparations are currently available in France and are issued by EFS to the hospitals: quarantine fresh frozen plasma, amotosalen-inactivated plasma and solvent/detergent-treated plasma. All these products insure a microbiological safety, an immunologic compatibility and a hemostatic potential for the patients. These plasmas are in accordance with the Guidelines established by the French Authorities (ANSM). PMID:22999855

  20. Study the drug adherence and possible factor influencing drug adherence in HIV/AIDS patients in north eastern part of India

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Lalit Prashant; Pandey, Shant Kumar; Rai, Madhukar; Bharti, Anju; Chakravarty, Jaya; Sundar, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Majority of HIV/AIDS patients who are on Highly Active Anti Retroviral Therapy (HAART), are not aware about drug adherence and its importance which is the most important factor for drug adherence. Objectives: To study the level of drug adherence in patients accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) through the National program and factor influencing drug adherence. Materials and Methods: In present study, we enrolled 102 newly diagnosed patients, among them in 79 patients, ART was started. To study the drug adherence a pretested, semistructured questionnaire was formed and patients were followed up for 6 months of the study. Pretest and posttest counseling was done to all such patients. Results: A total of 28 patients missed the dose in 1st follow-up, nine patients missed in 2nd follow-up, eight patients missed in 3rd follow-up. Three patients lost follow-up in 2nd follow-up, three patients further lost follow-up in 3rd follow-up. Running out of pills (40.0%), side effect (15.5%), and family problem (13.3%), poor transport facility for taking drug (8.9%) and forgetfulness (11.1%) are five major causes related to miss dose. In females patients, drug adherence (69%) was initially less than male patients (76%) but latter on female patients (96.3%) had better adherence than males (95.2%). Conclusion: This study suggest that drug adherence can be increased by proper counseling and close monitoring of the patients which may have a great role in preventing the drug resistance and ART response. PMID:25013824

  1. Role of HIV in Amyloid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Mario; Ances, Beau M.

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection has changed from an acute devastating disease to a more chronic illness due to combination anti-retroviral treatment (cART). In the cART era, the life expectancy of HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals has increased. More HIV+ individuals are aging with current projections suggesting that 50% of HIV+ individuals will be over 50 years old by 2015. With advancing age, HIV+ individuals may be at increased risk of developing other potential neurodegenerative disorders [especially Alzheimer’s disease (AD)]. Pathology studies have shown that HIV increases intra and possibly extracellular amyloid beta (A?42), a hallmark of AD. We review the synthesis and clearance of A?42 and the effects of HIV on the amyloid pathway, and contrast the impact of AD and HIV on A?42 metabolism. Biomarker studies (cerebrospinal fluid AB and amyloid imaging) in HIV+ have shown mixed results. CSF A?42 has been shown to be either normal or diminished in HIV+ patients with HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Amyloid imaging using [11C] PiB has also not demonstrated increased extracellular amyloid fibrillar deposits in HAND patients. We further demonstrate that A?42 deposition is not increased in older HIV+ patients using [11C] PiB amyloid imaging. Together, these results suggest that HIV and aging each independently affect A?42 deposition with no significant interaction present. Older HIV+ patients are probably not at increased risk for developing AD. However, future longitudinal studies of older HIV+ patients using multiple modalities (including the combination of CSF markers and amyloid imaging) are necessary for investigating the effects of HIV on A?42 metabolism. PMID:24816714

  2. Emerging strategies to deplete the HIV reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Archin, Nancie M.; Margolis, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review This review highlights recent studies undertaken to further advance the search for successful approaches to eradicate HIV infection. Recent findings Small pharmacological compounds such as histone deacetylase inhibitors, inhibitors of bromodomain and extraterminal proteins such as JQ1, and protein kinase C activators such as bryostatin and prostratin are proposed as putative candidates for inducing the expression of latent HIV in a so-called ‘shock and kill’ or ‘kick and kill’ strategy for HIV eradication. However, in order to achieve viral clearance, it is thought likely these compounds will have to be administered in concert with strategies that augment clearance of virus-infected cells in patients that have long been aviremic on successful antiretroviral therapy (ART). Several candidate therapies for this purpose are at hand, such as therapeutic HIV vaccines – recently shown to promote robust cytotoxic T cell responses and blunt viral rebound after ART interruption in clinical studies. HIV-infected patients treated during early infection may be ideal candidates for early studies to test these strategies, as early ART has been shown to limit the establishment of an HIV reservoir. Summary HIV latency is multifactorial and thus the eradication of HIV infection may require multiple approaches. Translational efforts employing pharmacological methods to target HIV latency should evaluate in parallel the additional potential benefits of invigorating the immune response of HIV-infected individuals, and limiting the size of the reservoir via early ART. PMID:24296585

  3. Dendritic cell dysregulation during HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth; Bhardwaj, Nina

    2013-07-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are a diverse subset of innate immune cells that are key regulators of the host response to human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. HIV-1 directly and indirectly modulates DC function to hinder the formation of effective antiviral immunity and fuel immune activation. This review focuses upon the differential dysregulation of myeloid DCs (mDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) at various stages of HIV-1 infection providing insights into pathogenesis. HIV-1 evades innate immune sensing by mDCs resulting in suboptimal maturation, lending to poor generation of antiviral adaptive responses and contributing to T-regulatory cell (Treg) development. Dependent upon the stage of HIV-1 infection, mDC function is altered in response to Toll-like receptor ligands, which further hinders adaptive immunity and limits feasibility of therapeutic vaccine strategies. pDC interactions with HIV-1 are pleotropic, modulating immune responses on an axis between immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive. pDCs promote immune activation through an altered phenotype of persistent type I interferon secretion and weak antigen presentation capacity. Conversely, HIV-1 stimulates secretion of indolemine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) by pDCs resulting in Treg induction. An improved understanding of the roles and underlying mechanisms of DC dysfunction will be valuable to the development of therapeutics to enhance HIV-specific adaptive responses and to dampen immune activation. PMID:23772620

  4. HIV Medicine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From Flying Publisher, _HIV Medicine 2005_ is a free, online "medical textbook that provides a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the treatment of HIV Infection." This edition is an update of the 2003 version of the textbook (reported on in the June 13, 2003 NSDL Scout Report for Life Sciences). Chapter titles in the textbook include HIV Testing, HIV and Pulmonary Diseases, Mitochondrial Toxicity, HIV and HBV Coinfections, and Traveling with HIV, to name a few. The textbook is available in both German and English. Please note that while certain sections of the 2005 edition are currently available, many sections are still in the process of being published on the site. Sections from the 2003 edition are standing in for some of the forthcoming 2005 sections. The entire 352-page 2003 edition is available for download at this site as well.

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2-mediated inhibition of HIV type 1: a new approach to gene therapy of HIV-infection.

    PubMed

    Arya, S K; Gallo, R C

    1996-04-30

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2, the second AIDS-associated human retrovirus, differs from HIV-1 in its natural history, infectivity, and pathogenicity, as well as in details of its genomic structure and molecular behavior. We report here that HIV-2 inhibits the replication of HIV-1 at the molecular level. This inhibition was selective, dose-dependent, and nonreciprocal. The closely related simian immunodeficiency provirus also inhibited HIV-1. The selectivity of inhibition was shown by the observation that HIV-2 did not significantly downmodulate the expression of the unrelated murine leukemia virus; neither did the murine leukemia virus markedly affect HIV-1 or HIV-2 expression. Moreover, while HIV-2 potently inhibited HIV-1, the reverse did not happen, thus identifying yet another and remarkable difference between HIV-1 and HIV-2. Mutational analysis of the HIV-2 genome suggested that the inhibition follows a complex pathway, possibly involving multiple genes and redundant mechanisms. Introduction of inactivating mutations into the structural and regulatory/accessory genes did not render the HIV-2 provirus ineffective. Some of the HIV-2 gene defects, such as that of tat and rev genes, were phenotypically transcomplemented by HIV-1. The HIV-2 proviruses with deletions in the putative packaging signal and defective for virus replication were effective in inducing the suppressive phenotype. Though the exact mechanism remains to be defined, the inhibition appeared to be mainly due to an intracellular molecular event because it could not be explained solely on the basis of cell surface receptor mediated interference. The results support the notion that the inhibition likely occurred at the level of viral RNA, possibly involving competition between viral RNAs for some transcriptional factor essential for virus replication. Induction of a cytokine is another possibility. These findings might be relevant to the clinical-epidemiological data suggesting that infection with HIV-2 may offer some protection against HIV-1 infection. PMID:8633095

  6. HIV-1 Coreceptor Usage Assessment by Ultra-Deep Pyrosequencing and Response to Maraviroc

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Christophe; Soulié, Cathia; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Calvez, Vincent; Descamps, Diane; Charpentier, Charlotte; Flandre, Philippe; Recordon-Pinson, Patricia; Bellecave, Pantxika; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Background Maraviroc is an HIV entry inhibitor that alters the conformation of CCR5 and is poorly efficient in patients infected by viruses that use CXCR4 as an entry coreceptor. The goal of this study was to assess the capacity of ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS) and different data analysis approaches to characterize HIV tropism at baseline and predict the therapeutic outcome on maraviroc treatment. Methods 113 patients with detectable HIV-1 RNA on HAART were treated with maraviroc. The virological response was assessed at months 1, 3 and 6. The sequence of the HIV V3 loop was determined at baseline and prediction of maraviroc response by different software and interpretation algorithms was analyzed. Results UDPS followed by analysis with the Pyrotrop software or geno2pheno algorithm provided better prediction of the response to maraviroc than Sanger sequencing. We also found that the H34Y/S substitution in the V3 loop was the strongest individual predictor of maraviroc response, stronger than substitutions at positions 11 or 25 classically used in interpretation algorithms. Conclusions UDPS is a powerful tool that can be used with confidence to predict maraviroc response in HIV-1-infected patients. Improvement of the predictive value of interpretation algorithms is possible and our results suggest that adding the H34S/Y substitution would substantially improve the performance of the 11/25/charge rule. PMID:26068869

  7. Pharmacotherapy of Pediatric HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rakhmanina, Natella; Phelps, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS With the ongoing epidemic of human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infections in the pediatric age group, the delivery of safe and effective antiretroviral therapy to children and adolescents is crucial to save the lives of millions of children worldwide. Antiretroviral drugs have been demonstrated to significantly decrease HIV-associated morbidity and mortality, assure normal growth and development, and improve survival and quality of life in children and adolescents. The immunologic response to HIV infection is closely related to the child’s development and creates age specific parameters for the evaluation of therapeutic response to antiretroviral therapy in pediatric HIV disease. In addition to the changes in immunological response to HIV infection, the development and maturation of organ systems involved in drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination determines significant changes in the pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs throughout the childhood. Multiple factors including age-specific adherence barriers, changes in social and economical surroundings, and psychological and sexual maturation affect the choices and outcomes of the treatment of pediatric HIV disease. In this chapter we will review the evolution of antiretroviral treatment from early infancy through adolescence. PMID:23036246

  8. Strategies for induction of catalytic antibodies toward HIV1 glycoprotein gp120 in autoimmune prone mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oxana M. Durova; Ivan I. Vorobiev; Ivan V. Smirnov; Andrew V. Reshetnyak; Georgy B. Telegin; Olga G. Shamborant; Nadezda A. Orlova; Dmitry D. Genkin; Andrew Bacon; Natalia A. Ponomarenko; Alain Friboulet; Alexander G. Gabibov

    2009-01-01

    Tremendous efforts to produce an efficient vaccine for HIV infection have been unsuccessful. The ability of HIV to utilize sophisticated mechanisms to escape killing by host immune system rises dramatic problems in the development of antiviral therapeutics. The HIV infection proceeds by interaction of coat viral glycoprotein gp120 trimer with CD4+ receptor of the lymphocyte. Thus this surface antigen may

  9. Infection with human retroviruses other than HIV-1: HIV-2, HTLV-1, HTLV-2, HTLV-3 and HTLV-4.

    PubMed

    Nicolás, David; Ambrosioni, Juan; Paredes, Roger; Marcos, M Ángeles; Manzardo, Christian; Moreno, Asunción; Miró, José M

    2015-08-01

    HIV-1 is the most prevalent retrovirus, with over 30 million people infected worldwide. Nevertheless, infection caused by other human retroviruses like HIV-2, HTLV-1, HTLV-2, HTLV-3 and HTLV-4 is gaining importance. Initially confined to specific geographical areas, HIV-2, HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are becoming a major concern in non-endemic countries due to international migration flows. Clinical manifestations of retroviruses range from asymptomatic carriers to life-threatening conditions, such as AIDS in HIV-2 infection or adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia or tropical spastic paraparesis in HTLV-1 infection. HIV-2 is naturally resistant to some antiretrovirals frequently used to treat HIV-1 infection, but it does have effective antiretroviral therapy options. Unfortunately, HTLV still has limited therapeutic options. In this article, we will review the epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic, pathogenic and therapeutic aspects of infections caused by these human retroviruses. PMID:26112187

  10. Liver and Kidney Transplantation in HIV-Infected Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clara C. Tan-Tam; Lynda A. Frassetto; Peter G. Stock

    2009-01-01

    HIV infection has evolved into a chronic condition as a result of improvements in therapeutic options. Chronic exposure with HIV and associated co-pathogens as well as toxicities from prolonged therapy with antiviral medications has resulted in increased morbidity and mortality rates from end-stage liver and kidney disease in the HIV-infected population. Since the definitive treatment for end-stage organ failure is

  11. Injury to white matter tracts in relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis: A possible therapeutic window within the first 5 years from onset using diffusion-tensor imaging tract-based spatial statistics

    PubMed Central

    Asaf, Achiron; Evan, Stone; Anat, Achiron

    2015-01-01

    DTI studies in multiple sclerosis (MS) reveal white matter (WM) injury that occurs with disease progression. In the present study we aimed to elucidate the relationship of microstructural WM damage in patients with varying periods of disease duration. DTI scans were acquired from 90 MS patients and 25 healthy controls. Patients were grouped to short (<1 year), moderate (1 up to 6 years) and long (6–10 years) disease duration periods. Statistical analyses of the fractional anisotropy (FA) data were performed using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Whole-brain skeletal FA measurements showed a significant decrease between healthy controls and the short MS disease duration group, as well as between moderate disease duration and long disease duration groups, but failed to show a significant difference between short and moderate disease duration groups. Voxelwise analysis revealed clusters of diffuse FA reductions in 40 WM tracts when comparing healthy controls and MS short disease duration group, with the point of maximal significant difference located in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Comparing short with long disease duration groups, progressive FA reduction was demonstrated across 30 WM tracts, with the point of maximal significant difference migrating to the body of the corpus callosum. A non-linear pattern of WM microstructure disruption occurs in RRMS. Alterations are seen early in the disease course within 1 year from onset, reach a plateau within the next 5 years, and only later additional WM changes are detected. An important period of a possible therapeutic window therefore exists within the early disease stage.

  12. Urinary Proteomic Analysis for Assessment of HIV Clinical Mary Pacold

    E-print Network

    Gleeson, Joseph G.

    Urinary Proteomic Analysis for Assessment of HIV Clinical Status Mary Pacold Med-into-Grad Research in utilizing this biologic sample for analysis. High concentrations of albumin, globulins, and interfering for diagnostic or therapeutic monitoring purposes. Renal disease is a relatively common complication of HIV

  13. "When in the body, it makes you look fat and HIV negative": the constitution of antiretroviral therapy in local discourse among youth in Kahe, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ezekiel, Mangi Job; Talle, Aud; Juma, James M; Klepp, Knut-Inge

    2009-03-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is becoming increasingly more accessible within the health care system in Tanzania. However, the impact of the increased availability of ART on local conceptions about medicines, health and physical wellbeing has not been fully explored. In this article we examine how ART is constituted within local discourses about treatment and healing. Based on 21 focus group discussions with young people aged 14-24 years in a rural area (Kahe), we examine how local terms and descriptions of antiretroviral therapy relate to wider definitions about the body, health, illness and drug efficacy. Findings illustrate how local understandings of ART draw on a wider discourse about the therapeutic functions of medicines and clinical dimensions of HIV/AIDS. Therapeutic efficacy of antiretroviral medication appeared to overlap and sometimes contradict locally shared understandings of the clinical functions of medicines in the body. Implications of ART on bodily appearance and HIV signs may influence conceptions about sick role, perpetuate stigma and affect local strategies for HIV prevention. Structural inequities in access, limited information on therapeutic efficacy of ART and perceived difficulties with status disclosure appear to inform local conceptions and possible implications of ART. Policy and programme interventions to foster public understanding and acceptability of ART should emphasize treatment education about the benefits and limitations of therapy and increased access to ART in rural areas, and should integrate voluntary status disclosure and HIV prevention. PMID:19136190

  14. HIV and Rheumatic Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Patient Resources > Diseases & Conditions Back to Diseases & Conditions HIV and Rheumatic Disease PRINT Download PDF HIV infection ... treatment and HIV infection all overlap. What are HIV-associated rheumatic diseases? Some diseases of the joints ...

  15. Get Tested for HIV

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for HIV? Types of HIV tests Confidential versus anonymous testing Know your partner's HIV status Diagnosing AIDS ... acute HIV infection ). Return to top Confidential versus anonymous testing In some states, you can get tested ...

  16. HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, George M.; Hunter, Eric

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 is transmitted by sexual contact across mucosal surfaces, by maternal-infant exposure, and by percutaneous inoculation. For reasons that are still incompletely understood, CCR5-tropic viruses (R5 viruses) are preferentially transmitted by all routes. Transmission is followed by an orderly appearance of viral and host markers of infection in the blood plasma. In the acute phase of infection, HIV-1 replicates exponentially and diversifies randomly, allowing for an unambiguous molecular identification of transmitted/founder virus genomes and a precise characterization of the population bottleneck to virus transmission. Sexual transmission of HIV-1 most often results in productive clinical infection arising from a single virus, highlighting the extreme bottleneck and inherent inefficiency in virus transmission. It remains to be determined if HIV-1 transmission is largely a stochastic process whereby any reasonably fit R5 virus can be transmitted or if there are features of transmitted/founder viruses that facilitate their transmission in a biologically meaningful way. Human tissue explant models of HIV-1 infection and animal models of SIV/SHIV/HIV-1 transmission, coupled with new challenge virus strains that more closely reflect transmitted/founder viruses, have the potential to elucidate fundamental mechanisms in HIV-1 transmission relevant to vaccine design and other prevention strategies. PMID:23043157

  17. HIV and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Alison; George, M. Patricia; Crothers, Kristina; Huang, Laurence; Lucht, Lorrie; Kessinger, Cathy; Kleerup, Eric C.

    2011-01-01

    Smoking-related diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are of particular concern in the HIV-infected population. Smoking rates are high in this population, and long-term exposure to cigarette smoke in the setting of HIV infection may increase the number of complications seen. Before the era of combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected persons were noted to have an accelerated form of COPD, with significant emphysematous disease seen in individuals less than 40 years old. Unlike many of the AIDS-defining opportunistic infections, HIV-associated COPD may be more common in the current era of HIV because it is frequently reported in patients without a history of AIDS-related pulmonary complications and because many aging HIV-infected individuals have had a longer exposure to smoking and HIV. In this review, we document the epidemiology of HIV-associated COPD before and after the institution of combination antiretroviral therapy, review data suggesting that COPD is accelerated in those with HIV, and discuss possible mechanisms of HIV-associated COPD, including an increased susceptibility to chronic, latent infections; an aberrant inflammatory response; altered oxidant-antioxidant balance; increased apoptosis associated with HIV; and the effects of antiretroviral therapy. PMID:21653535

  18. Telomere Length, Telomerase Activity, and Replicative Potential in HIV Infection: Analysis of CD4 1 and CD8 1 T Cells from HIV-discordant Monozygotic Twins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry D. Palmer; Nan-ping Weng; Bruce L. Levine; Carl H. June; Richard J. Hodes

    Summary To address the possible role of replicative senescence in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, telomere length, telomerase activity, and in vitro replicative capacity were assessed in peripheral blood T cells from HIV 1 and HIV 2 donors. Genetic and age-specific effects on these parameters were controlled by studying HIV-discordant pairs of monozygotic twins. Telo- mere terminal restriction fragment (TRF)

  19. Long-acting injectable antiretrovirals for HIV treatment and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Spreen, William R.; Margolis, David A.; Pottage, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Long-acting antiretroviral (ARV) drugs may improve adherence to therapy and extend opportunities for therapeutic or prophylactic intervention to underserved patient populations. This review focuses on recent advances in the development of small molecule long-acting injectable ARV agents. Recent findings The need for combination ART and physicochemical and dosing limitations of current ARV drugs impede attempts to redevelop them as long-acting injectable formulations. However, the intrinsic properties of rilpivirine, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, and GSK1265744, an HIV-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitor, have enabled crystalline nanoparticle formulations to progress to clinical trials. Summary Investigational long-acting injectable nanoformulations of rilpivirine and GSK1265744 are clinical-stage development candidates. Complementary pharmacologic properties of both agents – different mechanisms of action, resistance profiles, metabolic pathways, lack of drug interactions and low daily oral doses – offer the potential for combination use. Phase I studies of the pharmacokinetics and safety of each long-acting formulation alone and in combination indicate that a monthly dosing regimen is possible for HIV treatment. An ongoing phase IIb trial of oral GSK1265744 and oral rilpivirine is evaluating this two-drug regimen for maintenance of virologic suppression; results will inform future studies using the injectable formulations. Additional preclinical and clinical studies indicate a potential use of each agent for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis. PMID:24100877

  20. Newer Gene Editing Technologies toward HIV Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Manjunath, N.; Yi, Guohua; Dang, Ying; Shankar, Premlata

    2013-01-01

    Despite the great success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in ameliorating the course of HIV infection, alternative therapeutic approaches are being pursued because of practical problems associated with life-long therapy. The eradication of HIV in the so-called “Berlin patient” who received a bone marrow transplant from a CCR5-negative donor has rekindled interest in genome engineering strategies to achieve the same effect. Precise gene editing within the cells is now a realistic possibility with recent advances in understanding the DNA repair mechanisms, DNA interaction with transcription factors and bacterial defense mechanisms. Within the past few years, four novel technologies have emerged that can be engineered for recognition of specific DNA target sequences to enable site-specific gene editing: Homing Endonuclease, ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas9 system. The most recent CRISPR/Cas9 system uses a short stretch of complementary RNA bound to Cas9 nuclease to recognize and cleave target DNA, as opposed to the previous technologies that use DNA binding motifs of either zinc finger proteins or transcription activator-like effector molecules fused to an endonuclease to mediate sequence-specific DNA cleavage. Unlike RNA interference, which requires the continued presence of effector moieties to maintain gene silencing, the newer technologies allow permanent disruption of the targeted gene after a single treatment. Here, we review the applications, limitations and future prospects of novel gene-editing strategies for use as HIV therapy. PMID:24284874

  1. Polymorphisms of CUL5 Are Associated with CD4+ T Cell Loss in HIV-1 Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    An, Ping; Duggal, Priya; Wang, Li Hua; O'Brien, Stephen J; Donfield, Sharyne; Goedert, James J; Phair, John; Buchbinder, Susan; Kirk, Gregory D; Winkler, Cheryl A

    2007-01-01

    Human apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (Apobec3) antiretroviral factors cause hypermutation of proviral DNA leading to degradation or replication-incompetent HIV-1. However, HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) suppresses Apobec3 activity through the Cullin 5-Elongin B-Elongin C E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. We examined the effect of genetic polymorphisms in the CUL5 gene (encoding Cullin 5 protein) on AIDS disease progression in five HIV-1 longitudinal cohorts. A total of 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning 93 kb in the CUL5 locus were genotyped and their haplotypes inferred. A phylogenetic network analysis revealed that CUL5 haplotypes were grouped into two clusters of evolutionarily related haplotypes. Cox survival analysis and mixed effects models were used to assess time to AIDS outcomes and CD4+ T cell trajectories, respectively. Relative to cluster I haplotypes, the collective cluster II haplotypes were associated with more rapid CD4+ T cell loss (relative hazards [RH] = 1.47 and p = 0.009), in a dose-dependent fashion. This effect was mainly attributable to a single cluster II haplotype (Hap10) (RH = 2.49 and p = 0.00001), possibly due to differential nuclear protein–binding efficiencies of a Hap10-specifying SNP as indicated by a gel shift assay. Consistent effects were observed for CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 viral load trajectories over time. The findings of both functional and genetic epidemiologic consequences of CUL5 polymorphism on CD4+ T cell and HIV-1 levels point to a role for Cullin 5 in HIV-1 pathogenesis and suggest interference with the Vif-Cullin 5 pathway as a possible anti-HIV-1 therapeutic strategy. PMID:17257057

  2. Relative resistance of HIV-1 founder viruses to control by interferon-alpha

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Following mucosal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission, type 1 interferons (IFNs) are rapidly induced at sites of initial virus replication in the mucosa and draining lymph nodes. However, the role played by IFN-stimulated antiviral activity in restricting HIV-1 replication during the initial stages of infection is not clear. We hypothesized that if type 1 IFNs exert selective pressure on HIV-1 replication in the earliest stages of infection, the founder viruses that succeed in establishing systemic infection would be more IFN-resistant than viruses replicating during chronic infection, when type 1 IFNs are produced at much lower levels. To address this hypothesis, the relative resistance of virus isolates derived from HIV-1-infected individuals during acute and chronic infection to control by type 1 IFNs was analysed. Results The replication of plasma virus isolates generated from subjects acutely infected with HIV-1 and molecularly cloned founder HIV-1 strains could be reduced but not fully suppressed by type 1 IFNs in vitro. The mean IC50 value for IFN?2 (22 U/ml) was lower than that for IFN? (346 U/ml), although at maximally-inhibitory concentrations both IFN subtypes inhibited virus replication to similar extents. Individual virus isolates exhibited differential susceptibility to inhibition by IFN?2 and IFN?, likely reflecting variation in resistance to differentially up-regulated IFN-stimulated genes. Virus isolates from subjects acutely infected with HIV-1 were significantly more resistant to in vitro control by IFN? than virus isolates generated from the same individuals during chronic, asymptomatic infection. Viral IFN resistance declined rapidly after the acute phase of infection: in five subjects, viruses derived from six-month consensus molecular clones were significantly more sensitive to the antiviral effects of IFNs than the corresponding founder viruses. Conclusions The establishment of systemic HIV-1 infection by relatively IFN?-resistant founder viruses lends strong support to the hypothesis that IFN? plays an important role in the control of HIV-1 replication during the earliest stages of infection, prior to systemic viral spread. These findings suggest that it may be possible to harness the antiviral activity of type 1 IFNs in prophylactic and potentially also therapeutic strategies to combat HIV-1 infection. PMID:24299076

  3. Complement and HIV-I infection/ HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fengming; Dai, Shen; Gordon, Jennifer; Qin, Xuebin

    2014-01-01

    The various neurological complications associated with HIV-1 infection, specifically HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) persist as a major public health burden worldwide. Despite the widespread use of anti-retroviral therapy, the prevalence of HAND is significantly high. HAND results from the direct effects of an HIV-1 infection as well as secondary effects of HIV-1-induced immune reaction and inflammatory response. Complement, a critical mediator of innate and acquired immunity, plays important roles in defeating many viral infections by the formation of a lytic pore or indirectly by opsonization and recruitment of phagocytes. While the role of complement in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection and HAND has been previously recognized for over fifteen years, it has been largely underestimated thus far. Complement can be activated through HIV-1 envelope proteins, mannose binding lectins (MBL) and anti-HIV-1 antibodies. Complement not only fights against HIV-1 infection but also enhances HIV-1 infection. Also, HIV-1 can hijack complement regulators such as CD59 and CD55 and can utilize these regulators and factor H to escape from complement attack. Normally, complement levels in brain are much lower than plasma levels and there is no or little complement deposition in brain cells. Interestingly, local production and deposition of complement are dramatically increased in HIV-1-infected brain, indicating that complement may contribute to the pathogenesis of HAND. Here, we review the current understanding of the role of complement in HIV-1 infection and HAND as well as potential therapeutic approaches targeting to the complement system for the treatment and eradications of HIV-1 infection. PMID:24639397

  4. HIV envelope: challenges and opportunities for development of entry inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Caffrey, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The HIV envelope proteins gp120 and gp41 play critical roles in HIV entry and thus are of extreme interest for the development of novel therapeutics. Study by diverse methods, including structural biology and mutagenesis, has resulted in a detailed model for envelope-mediated entry, which consists of multiple conformations, each a potential target for therapeutic intervention. In this review we discuss the challenges, strategies and progress to date for developing novel entry inhibitors directed at disrupting HIV gp120 and gp41 function. PMID:21377881

  5. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Cuba: description and tentative explanation of its low HIV prevalence

    PubMed Central

    de Arazoza, Héctor; Joanes, Jose; Lounes, Rachid; Legeai, Camille; Clémençon, Stéphan; Pérez, Jorge; Auvert, Bertran

    2007-01-01

    Background The Cuban HIV/AIDS epidemic has the lowest prevalence rate of the Caribbean region. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Cuba and to explore the reasons for this low prevalence. Methods Data were obtained from the Cuban HIV/AIDS programme established in 1983. This programme has an extensive adult HIV testing policy, including testing of all pregnant women. HIV and AIDS cases have been recorded since 1986. Persons found to be HIV-positive are interviewed on their sexual behaviour and partners. Tracing and voluntary testing of these partners are organised. Epidemiological description of this epidemic was obtained from analysis of this data set. Using elementary mathematical analyses, we estimated the coverage of the detection system (percentage of HIV-positive adults detected) and the average period between HIV infection and detection. Estimated HIV prevalence rates were corrected to account for the coverage. Results HIV prevalence has increased since 1996. In 2005, the prevalence among pregnant women was 1.2 per 10,000 (16/137000). Estimated HIV prevalence among 15- to 49-year-olds was 8.1 per 10,000 (4913/6065000; 95%CI: 7.9 per 10,000 – 8.3 per 10,000). Most (77%) of the HIV-positive adults were men, most (85.1%) of the detected HIV-positive men were reported as having sex with men (MSM), and most of the HIV-positive women reported having had sex with MSM. The average period between HIV infection and detection was estimated to be 2.1 years (IQR = 1.7 – 2.2 years). We estimated that, for the year 2005, 79.6% (IQR: 77.3 – 81.4%) of the HIV-positive persons were detected. Conclusion MSM drive the HIV epidemic in Cuba. The extensive HIV testing policy may be an important factor in explaining the low HIV prevalence. To reduce the HIV epidemic in Cuba, the epidemic among MSM should be addressed. To understand this epidemic further, data on sexual behaviour should be collected. Now that antiretroviral therapy is more widely available, the Cuban policy, based on intensive HIV testing and tracing of partners, may be considered as a possible policy to control HIV/AIDS epidemics in other countries. PMID:17996109

  6. Peptidomimetic inhibitors of HIV protease.

    PubMed

    Randolph, John T; DeGoey, David A

    2004-01-01

    There are currently (July, 2002) six protease inhibitors approved for the treatment of HIV infection, each of which can be classified as peptidomimetic in structure. These agents, when used in combination with other antiretroviral agents, produce a sustained decrease in viral load, often to levels below the limits of quantifiable detection, and a significant reconstitution of the immune system. Therapeutic regimens containing one or more HIV protease inhibitors thus provide a highly effective method for disease management. The important role of protease inhibitors in HIV therapy, combined with numerous challenges remaining in HIV treatment, have resulted in a continued effort both to optimize regimens using the existing agents and to identify new protease inhibitors that may provide unique properties. This review will provide an overview of the discovery and clinical trials of the currently approved HIV protease inhibitors, followed by an examination of important aspects of therapy, such as pharmacokinetic enhancement, resistance and side effects. A description of new peptidomimetic compounds currently being investigated in the clinic and in preclinical discovery will follow. PMID:15193140

  7. [Therapeutic plasmas available worldwide].

    PubMed

    Martinaud, C; Cauet, A; Sailliol, A

    2013-05-01

    Therapeutic plasma is a current product; French guidelines were reviewed in 2012. Connections between more or less closed countries are frequent, during relief disasters as well as in war settings. This is associated with the increasing use of plasma in the management of casualties. Additionally, The real possibility of lack of plasma supply in some countries provides a fundamental interest of the knowledge of foreign blood supply organizations. We present here the main divergences and mutual point between plasmas available worldwide. We present the main characteristics of each product. PMID:23522688

  8. Nanotechnology: a magic bullet for HIV AIDS treatment.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Lalit; Verma, Shivani; Prasad, Deo Nandan; Bhardwaj, Ankur; Vaidya, Bhuvaneshwar; Jain, Amit Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Human immunode?ciency virus (HIV) infection has become devastating in last a few years. Nearly 7400 new infection cases are coming every day. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which involves combination of at least three antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, has been used to extend the life span of the HIV-infected patients. HAART has played an important role to reduce mortality rate in the developed countries but in the developing countries condition is still worst with millions of people being infected by this disease. For the improvement of the situation, nanotechnology-based drug system has been explored for the HIV therapeutics. Nanosystems used for HIV therapeutics offer some unique advantage like enhancement of bioavailability, water solubility, stability, and targeting ability of ARV drugs. Main nanotechnology-based systems explored for HIV therapeutics are liposomes, nanoparticles, niosomes, polymeric micelles, and dendrimers. Present manuscript reviews conventional method of HIV therapeutics and recent advances in the field of nanotechnology-based systems for treatment of HIV-AIDS. PMID:24564348

  9. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this website will be limited. Search Help? Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Drugs | Common Questions | Related Pages What is therapeutic drug monitoring? Therapeutic drug monitoring is the measurement of ...

  10. HIV and AIDS

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (; )

    2004-01-01

    The Science Inside: HIV and AIDSThis booklet helps to explain what doctors and scientists know about the HIV and AIDS epidemic. It summarizes what HIV and AIDS are and what happens when HIV becomes AIDS, including the health problems that can result. The e-book explains how the diseases are spread, what groups suffer most from them, how they may be prevented, how they are treated, and what the latest research reveals.The Science Inside e-book series is intended to be a bridge between the consumer health brochure and the scientific paper, the booklets in this series focus on the science that is inside of, or behind, the disease its cause, its possible cure, its treatment, promising research, and so on. These booklets are designed to appeal to people who have not had the opportunity to study the science and to understand why they may have been given some of the advice that they have been given through some of the more consumer-oriented materials.

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of HIV Testing: An Analysis of University Students in Jamaica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa R Norman; Yitades Gebre

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevention programs often promote HIV testing as one possible strategy of combating the spread of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To examine levels of HIV testing practices among a large sample of university students and the relationship among HIV testing, sociodemographic variables, and HIV-related behaviors. METHODS: A total of 1252 students were surveyed between June 2001 and February 2002 using a

  12. Phenotypic characteristics and tendency to apoptosis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV+ long term non progressors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudio Franceschi; Maria Grazia Franceschini; Antonio Boschini; Tommaso Trenti; Cira Nuzzo; Gastone Castellani; Camillo Smacchia; Bruno De Rienzo; Roberto Roncaglia; Marinella Portolani; Paola Pietrosemoli; Marisa Meacci; Monica Pecorari; Anna Sabbatini; Walter Malorni; Andrea Cossarizza

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze (i) phenotype, (ii) in vitro spontaneous and induced apoptosis, (iii) glutathione (GSH) intracellular content and (iv) inhibitors of apoptosis of potential therapeutical use in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HIV+ long term non progressors (LTNP), in comparison with progressors (HIV+P) and seronegative controls (HIV?). Three groups of subjects were studied: 15

  13. HIV?2 antibody detection after indeterminate or negative HIV?1 Western blot in Cuba, 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Dervel F; Ortiz, Eva; Martín, Dayamí; Nibot, Carmen; Rizo, Adis; Silva, Eladio

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Differentiating between HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection is the first step to understanding HIV transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis in geographical areas where both viruses circulate. In Cuba, positive results in mixed HIV-1/2 screening assays are confirmed by HIV-1 Western blot. Indeterminate results constitute the main limitation of this test and HIV-2 infection is among their possible causes; hence the importance of second-stage screening and confirmatory tests for HIV-2 infection. OBJECTIVE Investigate the contribution of HIV-2 antibodies to negative or indeterminate HIV-1 Western blot results in serum samples from 2005 through 2008 in Cuba. METHODS HIV-2 reactivity was studied using the ELISA DAVIH-VIH-2 diagnostic kit (Cuba) in 1723 serum samples with negative or indeterminate results for HIV-1 Western blot from January 2005 through December 2008. Duplicate sera reactive by ELISA were confirmed by HIV-2 Western blot, results interpreted according to WHO criteria. The epidemiological interview established by Cuba's National Program for Prevention and Control Sexually-Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS was applied to HIV-2 Western blot-positive patients. RESULTS Among all sera studied, HIV-2 ELISA identified 12 reactive serum samples (0.70%) and 1711 non-reactive (99.30%). Western blot analysis of the 12 ELISA-reactive samples confirmed two positive samples (16.67%), 4 negative (33.33%) and 6 indeterminate (50%). Positive samples reacted against the p16, p26, gp36, p53, p56, p68 and gp105 proteins. All 12 ELISA-reactive samples belonged to the HIV-1 Western blot indeterminate group. The two HIV-2-positive samples showed well defined reactivity to gp160, p53, p55 and p34 of HIV-1. HIV-1 seroconversion was observed in all 10 remaining samples during serological followup. CONCLUSIONS Two new HIV-2 seropositive cases were diagnosed using DAVIH-VIH-2 and HIV-2 Western blot in indeterminate HIV-1 Western blot samples. Results support the recommendation that HIV-2 Western blot be included in the diagnostic algorithm for HIV-1/2 to followup negative or indeterminate HIV-1 Western blot results. KEYWORDS Diagnosis, laboratory techniques and procedures, antibodies, HIV-2, Western blot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, algorithm, Cuba. PMID:22334109

  14. The Effects of the Recombinant CCR5 T4 Lysozyme Fusion Protein on HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Qingwen; Chen, Hong; Wang, Xingxia; Zhao, Liandong; Xu, Qingchen; Wang, Huijuan; Li, Guanyu; Yang, Xiaofan; Ma, Hongming; Wu, Haoquan; Ji, Xiaohui

    2015-01-01

    Background Insertion of T4 lysozyme (T4L) into the GPCR successfully enhanced GPCR protein stability and solubilization. However, the biological functions of the recombinant GPCR protein have not been analyzed. Methods We engineered the CCR5-T4L mutant and expressed and purified the soluble recombinant protein using an E.coli expression system. The antiviral effects of this recombinant protein in THP-1 cell lines, primary human macrophages, and PBMCs from different donors were investigated. We also explored the possible mechanisms underlying the observed antiviral effects. Results Our data showed the biphasic inhibitory and promotion effects of different concentrations of soluble recombinant CCR5-T4L protein on R5 tropic human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection in THP-1 cell lines, human macrophages, and PBMCs from clinical isolates. We demonstrated that soluble recombinant CCR5-T4L acts as a HIV-1 co-receptor, interacts with wild type CCR5, down-regulates the surface CCR5 expression in human macrophages, and interacts with CCL5 to inhibit macrophage migration. Using binding assays, we further determined that recombinant CCR5-T4L and [125I]-CCL5 compete for the same binding site on wild type CCR5. Conclusions Our results suggest that recombinant CCR5-T4L protein marginally promotes HIV-1 infection at low concentrations and markedly inhibits infection at higher concentrations. This recombinant protein may be helpful in the future development of anti-HIV-1 therapeutic agents. PMID:26154172

  15. The Pharmacology of TUG-891, a Potent and Selective Agonist of the Free Fatty Acid Receptor 4 (FFA4/GPR120), Demonstrates Both Potential Opportunity and Possible Challenges to Therapeutic Agonism

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Brian D.; Shimpukade, Bharat; Mackenzie, Amanda E.; Butcher, Adrian J.; Pediani, John D.; Christiansen, Elisabeth; Heathcote, Helen; Tobin, Andrew B.; Ulven, Trond

    2013-01-01

    TUG-891 [3-(4-((4-fluoro-4?-methyl-[1,1?-biphenyl]-2-yl)methoxy)phenyl)propanoic acid] was recently described as a potent and selective agonist for the long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) receptor 4 (FFA4; previously G protein–coupled receptor 120, or GPR120). Herein, we have used TUG-891 to further define the function of FFA4 and used this compound in proof of principle studies to indicate the therapeutic potential of this receptor. TUG-891 displayed similar signaling properties to the LCFA ?-linolenic acid at human FFA4 across various assay end points, including stimulation of Ca2+ mobilization, ?-arrestin-1 and ?-arrestin-2 recruitment, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation. Activation of human FFA4 by TUG-891 also resulted in rapid phosphorylation and internalization of the receptor. While these latter events were associated with desensitization of the FFA4 signaling response, removal of TUG-891 allowed both rapid recycling of FFA4 back to the cell surface and resensitization of the FFA4 Ca2+ signaling response. TUG-891 was also a potent agonist of mouse FFA4, but it showed only limited selectivity over mouse FFA1, complicating its use in vivo in this species. Pharmacologic dissection of responses to TUG-891 in model murine cell systems indicated that activation of FFA4 was able to mimic many potentially beneficial therapeutic properties previously reported for LCFAs, including stimulating glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion from enteroendocrine cells, enhancing glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and inhibiting release of proinflammatory mediators from RAW264.7 macrophages, which suggests promise for FFA4 as a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes and obesity. Together, these results demonstrate both potential but also significant challenges that still need to be overcome to therapeutically target FFA4. PMID:23979972

  16. Gene therapy in HIV-infected cells to decrease viral impact by using an alternative delivery method.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo, Teresa; Clemente, Maria Isabel; Chonco, Louis; Weber, Nick D; Díaz, Laura; Serramía, María Jesús; Gras, Rafael; Ortega, Paula; de la Mata, F Javier; Gómez, Rafael; Lopez-Fernández, Luis A; Muñoz-Fernández, Maria Angeles; Jiménez, José Luís

    2010-06-01

    The ability of dendrimer 2G-[Si{O(CH(2))(2)N(Me)(2) (+)(CH(2))(2)NMe(3) (+)(I(-))(2)}](8) (NN16) to transfect a wide range of cell types, as well as the possible biomedical application in direct or indirect inhibition of HIV replication, was investigated. Cells implicated in HIV infection such as primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and immortalized suspension cells (lymphocytes), primary macrophages and dendritic cells, and immortalized adherent cells (astrocytes and trophoblasts) were analyzed. Dendrimer toxicity was evaluated by mitochondrial activity, cell membrane rupture, release of lactate dehydrogenase, erythrocyte hemolysis, and the effect on global gene expression profiles using whole-genome human microarrays. Cellular uptake of genetic material was determined using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Transfection efficiency and gene knockdown was investigated using dendrimer-delivered antisense oligonucleotides and small interfering RNA (siRNA). Very little cytotoxicity was detected in a variety of cells relevant to HIV infection and erythrocytes after NN16 dendrimer treatment. Imaging of cellular uptake showed high transfection efficiency of genetic material in all cells tested. Interestingly, NN16 further enhanced the reduction of HIV protein 24 antigen release by antisense oligonucleotides due to improved transfection efficiency. Finally, the dendrimer complexed with siRNA exhibited therapeutic potential by specifically inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression in HIV-infected nervous system cells. NN16 dendrimers demonstrated the ability to transfect genetic material into a vast array of cells relevant to HIV pathology, combining high efficacy with low toxicity. These results suggest that NN16 dendrimers have the potential to be used as a versatile non-viral vector for gene therapy against HIV infection. PMID:20414916

  17. Modeling Schistosomiasis and HIV/AIDS Codynamics

    PubMed Central

    Mushayabasa, S.; Bhunu, C. P.

    2011-01-01

    We formulate a mathematical model for the cointeraction of schistosomiasis and HIV/AIDS in order to assess their synergistic relationship in the presence of therapeutic measures. Comprehensive mathematical techniques are used to analyze the model steady states. The disease-free equilibrium is shown to be locally asymptotically stable when the associated disease threshold parameter known as the basic reproduction number for the model is less than unity. Centre manifold theory is used to show that the schistosomiasis-only and HIV/AIDS-only endemic equilibria are locally asymptotically stable when the associated reproduction numbers are greater than unity. The impact of schistosomiasis and its treatment on the dynamics of HIV/AIDS is also investigated. To illustrate the analytical results, numerical simulations using a set of reasonable parameter values are provided, and the results suggest that schistosomiasis treatment will always have a positive impact on the control of HIV/AIDS. PMID:21350680

  18. Technology evaluation: StealthVector (HIV) Enzo.

    PubMed

    Günzburg, W; Mhashilkar, A M; Hindi, M

    1999-10-01

    Efficient inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) replication with intracellularly expressed antiviral genes would be an important step toward clinical gene therapy for HIV-1 disease. Enzo Biochem is investigating and developing antisense genes as a potential gene therapy approach against a variety of conditions including acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), cancer and hepatitis. The subsidiary of Enzo Biochem, Enzo Therapeutics, utilized its StealthVector technology and initiated phase I trials in July 1998 [291511,307156]. StealthVector, which is comprised of independent antisense sequences directed against two functional HIV-1 regions, is involved in regulation of gene expression soon after HIV infection, transactivation response (TAR) and tat/rev. StealthVector localizes primarily in the cell nucleus, where it could be most effective in inhibiting viral growth. PMID:11249672

  19. Living with HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Finding your HIV care team Mental health and HIV/AIDS Pregnancy and HIV/AIDS Parenting a child with HIV ... Finding your HIV care team Mental health and HIV/AIDS Pregnancy and HIV/AIDS Parenting a child with HIV ...

  20. HIV-1 differentially modulates autophagy in neurons and astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Mehla, Rajeev; Chauhan, Ashok

    2015-08-15

    Autophagy, a lysosomal degradative pathway that maintains cellular homeostasis, has emerged as an innate immune defense against pathogens. The role of autophagy in the deregulated HIV-infected central nervous system (CNS) is unclear. We have found that HIV-1-induced neuro-glial (neurons and astrocytes) damage involves modulation of the autophagy pathway. Neuro-glial stress induced by HIV-1 led to biochemical and morphological dysfunctions. X4 HIV-1 produced neuro-glial toxicity coupled with suppression of autophagy, while R5 HIV-1-induced toxicity was restricted to neurons. Rapamycin, a specific mTOR inhibitor (autophagy inducer) relieved the blockage of the autophagy pathway caused by HIV-1 and resulted in neuro-glial protection. Further understanding of the regulation of autophagy by cytokines and chemokines or other signaling events may lead to recognition of therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26198926

  1. Pulmonary Hypertension Associated With HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cicalini, Stefania; Petrosillo, Nicola; Flores, Sonia C.

    2010-01-01

    The success of antiretroviral therapies in improving the survival of patients infected with HIV and reducing HIV-associated opportunistic infections is undisputed. Nevertheless, long-term outcomes such as noninfectious cardiovascular complications, including cardiomegaly, pericarditis, myocarditis, and pulmonary arterial hypertension, are now serious concerns. The lung is a frequent target organ for disorders associated with HIV infection. HIV-related pulmonary arterial hypertension (HRPAH) affects more individuals who are infected with HIV than individuals who are uninfected. Moreover, the long-standing estimated prevalence of HRPAH in developed countries (calculated at 0.5%) is increasing as more clinician-scientists unify their efforts to screen patients who are pulmonary asymptomatic for pulmonary arterial hypertension. In order to decrease mortality, efforts are directed at early detection, diagnosis, and therapeutic interventions before the disease compromises patients’ quality of life. This article reviews the logistics of screening approaches for HRPAH and discusses the substantial disease burden currently faced by developing countries, where the prevalence of HIV infection is higher and complicated by hyperendemic risk factors, limited access to antiretrovirals, and lack of screening tools. We also present mechanistic insights into HRPAH, including the role of HIV proteins and their potential use as screening tools, and, finally, areas that still need intense research. PMID:20522575

  2. HIV-related neuropathy: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Schütz, Sonja G; Robinson-Papp, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP) related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the most common neurologic complications of HIV, possibly affecting as many as 50% of all individuals infected with HIV. Two potentially neurotoxic mechanisms have been proposed to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HIV DSP: neurotoxicity resulting from the virus and its products; as well as adverse neurotoxic effects of medications used in the treatment of HIV. Clinically, HIV DSP is characterized by a combination of signs and symptoms that include decreased deep tendon reflexes at the ankles and decreased sensation in the distal extremities as well as paresthesias, dysesthesias, and pain in a symmetric stocking–glove distribution. These symptoms are generally static or slowly progressive over time, and depending on the severity, may interfere significantly with the patient’s daily activities. In addition to the clinical picture, nerve conduction studies and skin biopsies are often pursued to support the diagnosis of HIV DSP. Anticonvulsants, antidepressants, topical agents, and nonspecific analgesics may help relieve neuropathic pain. Specifically, gabapentin, lamotrigine, pregabalin, amitriptyline, duloxetine, and high-dose topical capsaicin patches have been used in research and clinical practice. Further research is needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of HIV DSP, thus facilitating the development of novel treatment strategies. This review discusses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical findings, diagnosis, and management of DSP in the setting of HIV. PMID:24049460

  3. Sexual health for people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Kathy; Ray, Sunanda

    2007-05-01

    Sexual health is defined in terms of well-being, but is challenged by the social, cultural and economic realities faced by women and men with HIV. A sexual rights approach puts women and men with HIV in charge of their sexual health. Accurate, accessible information to make informed choices and safe, pleasurable sexual relationships possible is best delivered through peer education and health professionals trained in empathetic approaches to sensitive issues. Young people with HIV especially need appropriate sex education and support for dealing with sexuality and self-identity with HIV. Women and men with HIV need condoms, appropriate services for sexually transmitted infections, sexual dysfunction and management of cervical and anogenital cancers. Interventions based on positive prevention, that combine protection of personal health with avoiding HIV/STI transmission to partners, are recommended. HIV counselling following a positive test has increased condom use and decreased coercive sex and outside sexual contacts among discordant couples. HIV treatment and care have reduced stigma and increased uptake of HIV testing and disclosure of positive status to partners. High adherence to antiretroviral therapy and safer sexual behaviour must go hand-in-hand. Sexual health services have worked with peer educators and volunteer groups to reach those at higher risk, such as sex workers. Technological advances in diagnosis of STIs, microbicide development and screening and vaccination for human papillomavirus must be available in developing countries and for those with the highest need globally. PMID:17531749

  4. Epidemiology and clinical features of HIV-1 associated neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Verma, A

    2001-03-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is common in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Peripheral neuropathies complicate all stages of the HIV-1 disease and cause considerable morbidity and disability in HIV-1 infected individuals and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Whereas symptomatic neuropathies occur in approximately 10% to 15% of HIV-1-infected patients overall, pathologic evidence of peripheral nerve involvement is present in virtually all end-stage AIDS patients. There are 6 major clinical types of HIV-associated neuropathies that are regularly seen in large HIV-1 clinics. Distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) is the most common among the HIV-1-associated neuropathies. DSP generally occurs in later stages of HIV-1 infection and it follows an indolent and protracted clinical course. The dominant clinical features in DSP include distal pain, paresthesia and numbness in a typical length-dependent fashion with proximal to distal gradient. Whereas toxic neuropathies--secondary to certain antiretroviral agents--are clinically similar to DSP, their temporal relation to neurotoxic medication helps distinguish them from other HIV-1-associated neuropathies. DSP and toxic neuropathy may coexist in a single patient. Acute and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathies (AIDP and CIDP) produce global limb weakness. AIDP may occur at seroconversion and it can therefore be the initial manifestation of HIV-1 infection. CIDP generally occurs in the mid to late stages of HIV-1 infection. Progressive polyradiculopathy (PP) occurs in patients with advanced immunodeficiency and is generally caused by the opportunist cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Mononeuropathy multiplex (MM) in early stages of HIV-1 infection is immune mediated, whereas in advanced AIDS it is caused by the CMV infection. Finally, subclinical autonomic nervous system involvement is common in all stages of HIV-1 infection. Because HIV-1-associated neuropathies are diverse in their etiology and pathogenesis, a precise clinical diagnosis is required to formulate a rational therapeutic intervention. PMID:11293807

  5. Preventing HIV with Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... information in Spanish ( en español ) Preventing HIV with medicine Get medicine right after you are exposed to ... to top More information on Preventing HIV with medicine Explore other publications and websites National HIV and ...

  6. Th2-Th1 shift with the multiantigenic formulation TERAVAC-HIV-1 in Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    García-Díaz, Darien; Rodríguez, Ingrid; Santisteban, Yaimín; Márquez, Gabriel; Terrero, Yanet; Brown, Enma; Iglesias, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    In chronic HIV infection a progressive Th1 to Th2/Th0 cytokine-profile shift is related to disease progression. One of the possible benefits of a therapeutic vaccination might be to counterbalance this phenomenon to allow viral replication control under a Th1-type immune response. TERAVAC-HIV-1 is a multiantigenic formulation vaccine candidate against HIV-1 which comprises the recombinant protein CR3 that contains T cell epitopes and the surface and nucleocapsid antigens of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV). Previous studies showed that such virus like particles of the HBV provide a Th1 adjuvant effect. The present studies examined the capacity of TERAVAC to elicit a Th1 response in the presence of an ongoing HIV-specific Th2-type response in Balb/c mice. To examine this issue, we injected subcutaneously the animals with CR3 or viral lysate in alum which resulted in a Th2-type response. The CR3-specific Th2-type response was verified by induction of IL-4 and IL-10 secretion in ex vivo stimulated splenocytes without secretion of IFN-? and IgG2a antibodies in serum. Further subcutaneous and simultaneous subcutaneous-nasal immunizations of the same mice with TERAVAC promoted IFN-? secretion and production of IgG2a antibodies in accordance with a Th1-type response. This result suggests a therapeutic benefit of this vaccine candidate in the restoration of the Th1-type HIV-specific cellular response in seropositive patients. PMID:23183092

  7. Antiretroviral therapy for adults infected with HIV: Guidelines for health care professionals from the Quebec HIV care committee

    PubMed Central

    Rouleau, Danielle; Fortin, Claude; Trottier, Benoît; Lalonde, Richard; Lapointe, Normand; Côté, Pierre; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Matte, Marie-France; Tsarevsky, Irina; Baril, Jean-Guy

    2011-01-01

    The appropriate use of antiretrovirals reduces morbidity and mortality caused by HIV infection. The present article provides health care professionals with a practical guide for the use of antiretrovirals. Therapy should be initiated based predominantly on clinical presentation and CD4 count, and should consist of three active drugs or at least two active drugs when this is not possible, as in cases of some treatment-experienced patients. This is the most effective way to achieve long-term suppression of viral replication. Selection of individual drugs in the regimen should consider the weight of the evidence supporting these choices, as well as their tolerability profiles and ease of use, the patients’ comorbidities and treatment history. Treatment interruption is not recommended, either in aviremic patients or in those who have experienced virological failure. Instead, the therapeutic regimen should be adjusted to minimize side effects, promote adherence and suppress viral replication. PMID:22654926

  8. A review of nanotechnological approaches for the prophylaxis of HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Date, Abhijit A.; Destache, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Successful treatment and control of HIV/AIDS is one of the biggest challenges of 21st century. More than 33 million individuals are infected with HIV worldwide and more than 2 million new cases of HIV infection have been reported. The situation demands development of effective prevention strategies to control the pandemic of AIDS. Due to lack of availability of an effective HIV vaccine, antiretroviral drugs and nucleic acid therapeutics like siRNA have been explored for HIV prophylaxis. Clinical trials shave shown that antiretroviral drugs, tenofovir and emtricitabine can offer some degree of HIV prevention. However, complete prevention of HIV infection has not been achieved yet. Nanotechnology has brought a paradigm shift in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of many diseases. The current review discusses potential of various nanocarriers such as dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, lipid nanocarriers, drug nanocrystals, inorganic nanocarriers and nanofibers in improving efficacy of various modalities available for HIV prophylaxis. PMID:23726227

  9. Effects of interferon-? on gene expression of chemokines and members of the tumour necrosis factor superfamily in HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Stylianou, E; Yndestad, A; Sikkeland, L I; Bjerkeli, V; Damås, J K; Haug, T; Eiken, H G; Aukrust, P; Frøland, S S

    2002-01-01

    We examined the effect of interferon (IFN)-? on the expression of 375 genes relevant to inflammatory and immunological reactions in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HIV-infected patients by cDNA expression array and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Our main findings were: (i) IFN-? induced up-regulation of several genes in the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily including the ligands APRIL, FasL, TNF-? and TRAIL, with particularly enhancing effects on the latter in HIV-infected patients. (ii) While IFN-? markedly up-regulated the expression of anti-angionetic ELR– CXC-chemokines (e.g. MIG and IP-10), it suppressed the expression of angiogenic ELR+ CXC-chemokines (e.g. GRO-?, IL-8 and ENA-78), with similar patterns in both patients and controls. (iii) IFN-? induced a marked increase in gene expression of the HIV co-receptor CCR5 in both patients and controls. We suggest that these effects may contribute to both the therapeutic and toxic effects of IFN-?. Moreover, our findings underscore that the biological effects of IFN-? in HIV infection are complex and that the clinical net effects of IFN-? treatment may be difficult to predict. However, the potent enhancing effect of IFN-? on several pro-apoptotic genes in the TNF superfamily and the enhancing effect on CCR5 expression suggest a possible pathogenic role of IFN-? in the progression of HIV-related immunodeficiency and suggests caution in the therapeutic use of IFN-? in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:12390316

  10. Therapeutic gene targeting.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, R J; Porter, A C

    1998-02-01

    Gene targeting is the use of homologous recombination to make defined alterations to the genome. One of the possible outcomes of gene targeting is the accurate correction of genetic defects, and this would make it the ideal method of gene therapy for single gene disorder. While gene targeting has been achieved both in human cell lines and in nontransformed, primary human cells, its low efficiency has been a major limitation to its therapeutic potential. Gene therapy in vivo gene targeting is there for impractical without dramatic improvements in targeting efficiency. Ex vivo approaches might more realistically be considered, but would benefit from progress in the isolation and growth of somatic stem cells and improvements in targeting efficiency. We provide here a brief review of the challenges of gene therapy by gene targeting. This is followed by a critical overview of recent developments in gene targeting techniques, and in our understanding of the underlying processes of homologous and nonhomologous recombination. PMID:9578833

  11. [Cytomegalovirus-induced colitis in HIV infection. Considerations on its diagnosis, treatment and complications].

    PubMed

    Sousa, A E; Lucas, M; Palhano, M J; de Deus, J; Damião, J; Victorino, R M

    1995-04-01

    The diagnosis of cytomegalovirus intestinal disease in patients with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection frequently raises diagnostic problems in view of the absence of definite pathological, serological or virological markers of active CMV infection. We describe the case of a 47-year-old man with a CMV colitis which illustrates several diagnostic and therapeutic problems and that was complicated by an intestinal perforation. We emphasize that in HIV+ patients with chronic diarrhea, the presence of abdominal pain should suggest the possibility of a CMV colitis and that in such cases a colonoscopy with biopsies of the right colon should be performed, in view of the higher frequency of the typical histopathological changes at this level. On the other hand, this case presented a marked thickening of the colon wall, simulating pseudotumoral images on CAT scans, as recently described in literature. The therapeutic possibilities as well as the complications of CMV colitis are discussed in the context of the occurrence of an ileal perforation, which represents the first report of this complication in Portuguese literature and which had the particularity of having a long survival after surgery in comparison with the previous cases described in international literature. PMID:7625221

  12. American Therapeutic Recreation Association

    MedlinePLUS

    American Therapeutic Recreation Association Promoting Health & Wellness Services Access to Inpt Rehab Therapy Act - ACT NOW 2015 Annual Conference will ... Policy Matters to Every RT Join thousands of Therapeutic Recreation specialists today Join Now Renew your membership today ...

  13. FACT SHEETS HIV and Pregnancy

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    FACT SHEETS HIV and Pregnancy HIV Testing and Pregnancy Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Anti-HIV Medications for Use in Pregnancy Safety of Anti-HIV Medications During Pregnancy Preventing Transmission and Pregnancy These fact sheets on HIV and pregnancy are intended for women infected with HIV who are pregnant

  14. Laser palliation of the HIV+ patient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Convissar, Robert A.

    2003-12-01

    Many oral manifestations of HIV infection can be used as markers for degree of immunosupression. These manifestations may be treated with antibiotics, analgesics, and antineoplastics, which may interact and interfere with antiviral agents used to treat the disease, and possibly exacerbate it. Dentists will see more HIV-infected patients as medical research transforms this disease into a chronic illness. Lasers have been shown to be effective instruments in palliation of oral manifestations of HIV infection. The use of lasers to palliate the painful symptoms of three oral manifestations of HIV infection is described. The advantages and benefits to both patient and dentist will be discussed. The paper does not address the use of lasers as a modality to treat or cure HIV infection -- only to palliate some of its symptoms.

  15. Elimination of HIV-1-Infected Primary T Cell Reservoirs in an In Vitro Model of Latency

    PubMed Central

    Rawlings, Stephen A.; Alonzo, Francis; Kozhaya, Lina; Torres, Victor J.; Unutmaz, Derya

    2015-01-01

    Establishment of long-lived cellular reservoirs of HIV-1 represents a major therapeutic challenge to virus eradication. In this study, we utilized a human primary cell model of HIV-1 latency to evaluate the requirements for efficient virus reactivation from, and the selective elimination of, latently infected human T cells. Ectopic expression of BCL2 supported the replication and spread of R5-tropic HIV-1 in activated CD4+ T cells. After IL-2 withdrawal, the HIV-1-infected T cells survived as resting cells for several months. Unexpectedly, these resting T cells continue to produce detectable levels of infectious virus, albeit at a lower frequency than cells maintained in IL-2. In the presence of HIV-1 inhibitors, reactivation of the resting T cells with ?c-cytokines and allogeneic dendritic cells completely extinguished HIV-1 infectivity. We also evaluated the ability of the bacterial LukED cytotoxin to target and kill CCR5-expressing cells. After ?c-cytokine stimulation, LukED treatment eliminated both HIV-1-infected resting cells and the non-infected CCR5+ cells. Importantly, complete clearance of in vitro HIV-1 reservoirs by LukED required a lower threshold of cytokine signals relative to HIV-1 inhibitors. Thus, the primary T cell-based HIV-1 latency model could facilitate the development of novel agents and therapeutic strategies that could effectively eradicate HIV-1. PMID:25993666

  16. Autophagy in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV infections

    PubMed Central

    Espert, Lucile; Beaumelle, Bruno; Vergne, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) are among the most lethal human pathogens worldwide, each being responsible for around 1.5 million deaths annually. Moreover, synergy between acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and tuberculosis (TB) has turned HIV/M.tb co-infection into a major public health threat in developing countries. In the past decade, autophagy, a lysosomal catabolic process, has emerged as a major host immune defense mechanism against infectious agents like M.tb and HIV. Nevertheless, in some instances, autophagy machinery appears to be instrumental for HIV infection. Finally, there is mounting evidence that both pathogens deploy various countermeasures to thwart autophagy. This mini-review proposes an overview of the roles and regulations of autophagy in HIV and M.tb infections with an emphasis on microbial factors. We also discuss the role of autophagy manipulation in the context of HIV/M.tb co-infection. In future, a comprehensive understanding of autophagy interaction with these pathogens will be critical for development of autophagy-based prophylactic and therapeutic interventions for AIDS and TB.

  17. FIV as a Model for HIV: An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen E. Sparger

    Animal models for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection play a key role in understanding the pathogenesis of AIDS and\\u000a the development of therapeutic agents and vaccines. As the only lentivirus that causes an immunodeficiency resembling that\\u000a of HIV infection, in its natural host, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) has been a unique and powerful model for AIDS research.\\u000a FIV was first

  18. Regulatory T Cells Expanded from Hiv-1-Infected Individuals Maintain Phenotype, Tcr Repertoire and Suppressive Capacity

    E-print Network

    Angin, Mathieu

    While modulation of regulatory T cell (Treg) function and adoptive Treg transfer are being explored as therapeutic modalities in the context of autoimmune diseases, transplantation and cancer, their role in HIV-1 pathogenesis ...

  19. Potent Cell-Intrinsic Immune Responses in Dendritic Cells Facilitate HIV-1-Specific T Cell Immunity in HIV-1 Elite Controllers

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Gayo, Enrique; Buzon, Maria Jose; Ouyang, Zhengyu; Hickman, Taylor; Cronin, Jacqueline; Pimenova, Dina; Walker, Bruce D.; Lichterfeld, Mathias; Yu, Xu G.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of HIV-1 elite controllers (EC) restrict HIV-1 replication through highly functional HIV-1-specific T cell responses, but mechanisms supporting the evolution of effective HIV-1-specific T cell immunity in these patients remain undefined. Cytosolic immune recognition of HIV-1 in conventional dendritic cells (cDC) can facilitate priming and expansion of HIV-1-specific T cells; however, HIV-1 seems to be able to avoid intracellular immune recognition in cDCs in most infected individuals. Here, we show that exposure of cDCs from EC to HIV-1 leads to a rapid and sustained production of type I interferons and upregulation of several interferon-stimulated effector genes. Emergence of these cell-intrinsic immune responses was associated with a reduced induction of SAMHD1 and LEDGF/p75, and an accumulation of viral reverse transcripts, but inhibited by pharmacological blockade of viral reverse transcription or siRNA-mediated silencing of the cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS. Importantly, improved cell-intrinsic immune recognition of HIV-1 in cDCs from elite controllers translated into stronger abilities to stimulate and expand HIV-1-specific CD8 T cell responses. These data suggest an important role of cell-intrinsic type I interferon secretion in dendritic cells for the induction of effective HIV-1-specific CD8 T cells, and may be helpful for eliciting functional T cell immunity against HIV-1 for preventative or therapeutic clinical purposes. PMID:26067651

  20. HIV Structural Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 102 HIV Structural Database (Web, free access)   The HIV Protease Structural Database is an archive of experimentally determined 3-D structures of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1), Human Immunodeficiency Virus 2 (HIV-2) and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Proteases and their complexes with inhibitors or products of substrate cleavage.

  1. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    MedlinePLUS

    Key Points Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the use of HIV medicines to treat HIV infection. People on ART take a combination of HIV medicines ( ... and treatment failure. What is antiretroviral therapy? Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the use of HIV medicines to treat ...

  2. In vivo emergence of HIV1 variants resistant to multiple protease inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon H. Condra; William A. Schleif; Olga M. Blahy; Lori J. Gabryelski; Donald J. Graham; Julio Quintero; Audrey Rhodes; Helen L. Robbins; Elizabeth Roth; Malathi Shivaprakash; Donna Titus; Tao Yang; Hedy Tepplert; Kathleen E. Squires; Paul J. Deutsch; Emilio A. Emini

    1995-01-01

    INHIBITORS of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease have entered clinical study as potential therapeutic agents for HIV-1 infection. The clinical efficacy of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors has been limited by the emergence of resistant viral variants. Similarly, variants expressing resistance to protease inhibitors have been derived in cell culture1-10. We now report the characterization of resistant variants

  3. Antiretroviral therapy in macrophages: implication for HIV eradication

    PubMed Central

    Gavegnano, Christina; Schinazi, Raymond F

    2010-01-01

    HIV type-1 (HIV-1) accounts for more than 25 million deaths and nearly 40 million people are infected worldwide. A significant obstacle in clearing virus from infected individuals is latently infected viral reservoirs. Latent HIV-1 can emerge with recrudescence as a productive infection later in disease progression and could provide a source for the emergence of resistant HIV-1. It is widely recognized that macrophages represent a latently infected viral reservoir and are a significant and critical HIV-1 target cell in vivo. Macrophages can be divided into multiple subsets of macrophage-like cells, all of which are susceptible to HIV-1 infection, including dendritic cells, Langerhans cells, alveolar macrophages, mucosal macrophages and microglial cells. Current antiretroviral therapy (ART) often displays differential antiviral activity in macrophages relative to CD4+ T-lymphocytes. Significant work has been performed to establish antiviral activity of many clinically approved ART in macrophages; however, a direct link between antiviral activity and specific mechanisms responsible for these antiviral effects are incompletely understood. This review identifies many understudied areas of research, along with topics for further research in the field of HIV therapy and eradication. Discussion focuses upon the known cellular pharmacology and antiviral activity of antiretroviral agents in macrophages and its relationship to latency, chronic HIV-1 infection and therapeutic strategies to eradicate systemic HIV-1 infection. PMID:19843977

  4. A Challenge for the Future: Aging and HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rickabaugh, Tammy M.; Jamieson, Beth D.

    2010-01-01

    Older individuals (? 50 years of age) are increasingly becoming a new at-risk group for HIV-1 infection and, together with those surviving longer due to the introduction of anti-retroviral therapy (ART), it is predicted that more than half of all HIV-1-infected individuals in the U.S. will be greater than 50 years of age in the year 2015. Older individuals diagnosed with HIV-1 are prone to faster disease progression and reduced T-cell reconstitution despite successful virologic control with anti-retroviral therapy (ART). There is also growing evidence that the T-cell compartment in HIV-1+ adults displays an aged phenotype and HIV-1-infected individuals are increasingly diagnosed with clinical conditions more commonly seen in older uninfected persons. As aging in the absence of HIV infection is associated with alterations in T-cell function and immunosenescence, the combined impact of both HIV-1 infection and aging may provide an explanation for poorer clinical outcomes observed in older HIV-1-infected individuals. Thus, the development of novel therapeutics to stimulate immune function and delay immunosenescence is critical and would be beneficial to both the elderly and HIV-1 infected individuals. PMID:20734158

  5. In Vitro Selection of Highly Darunavir-Resistant and Replication-Competent HIV-1 Variants by Using a Mixture of Clinical HIV-1 Isolates Resistant to Multiple Conventional Protease Inhibitors? †

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Yasuhiro; Amano, Masayuki; Towata, Tomomi; Danish, Matthew; Leshchenko-Yashchuk, Sofiya; Das, Debananda; Nakayama, Maki; Tojo, Yasushi; Ghosh, Arun K.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    We attempted to select HIV-1 variants resistant to darunavir (DRV), which potently inhibits the enzymatic activity and dimerization of protease and has a high genetic barrier to HIV-1 development of resistance to DRV. We conducted selection using a mixture of 8 highly multi-protease inhibitor (PI)-resistant, DRV-susceptible clinical HIV-1 variants (HIV-1MIX) containing 9 to 14 PI resistance-associated amino acid substitutions in protease. HIV-1MIX became highly resistant to DRV, with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) ?333-fold greater than that against HIV-1NL4-3. HIV-1MIX at passage 51 (HIV-1MIXP51) replicated well in the presence of 5 ?M DRV and contained 14 mutations. HIV-1MIXP51 was highly resistant to amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, lopinavir, and atazanavir and moderately resistant to saquinavir and tipranavir. HIV-1MIXP51 had a resemblance with HIV-1C of the HIV-1MIX population, and selection using HIV-1C was also performed; however, its DRV resistance acquisition was substantially delayed. The H219Q and I223V substitutions in Gag, lacking in HIV-1CP51, likely contributed to conferring a replication advantage on HIV-1MIXP51 by reducing intravirion cyclophilin A content. HIV-1MIXP51 apparently acquired the substitutions from another HIV-1 strain(s) of HIV-1MIX through possible homologous recombination. The present data suggest that the use of multiple drug-resistant HIV-1 isolates is of utility in selecting drug-resistant variants and that DRV would not easily permit HIV-1 to develop significant resistance; however, HIV-1 can develop high levels of DRV resistance when a variety of PI-resistant HIV-1 strains are generated, as seen in patients experiencing sequential PI failure, and ensuing homologous recombination takes place. HIV-1MIXP51 should be useful in elucidating the mechanisms of HIV-1 resistance to DRV and related agents. PMID:20810732

  6. HIV-1 and interferons: who's interfering with whom?

    PubMed

    Doyle, Tomas; Goujon, Caroline; Malim, Michael H

    2015-07-01

    The ability of interferons (IFNs) to inhibit HIV-1 replication in cell culture models has long been recognized, and the therapeutic administration of IFN? to HIV-1-infected patients who are not receiving antiretroviral therapy produces a clear but transient decrease in plasma viral load. Conversely, studies of chronic HIV-1 infection in humans and SIV-infected animal models of AIDS show positive correlations between elevated plasma levels of IFNs, increased expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), biomarkers of inflammation and disease progression. In this Review, we discuss the evidence that IFNs can control HIV-1 replication in vivo and debate the controversial role of IFNs in promoting the pathological sequelae of chronic HIV-1 infection. PMID:25915633

  7. RNA interference approaches for treatment of HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Bobbin, Maggie L; Burnett, John C; Rossi, John J

    2015-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is a chronic and debilitating disease that cannot be cured with current antiretroviral drugs. While combinatorial antiretroviral therapy (cART) can potently suppress HIV-1 replication and delay the onset of AIDS, viral mutagenesis often leads to viral escape from multiple drugs. In addition to the pharmacological agents that comprise cART drug cocktails, new biological therapeutics are reaching the clinic. These include gene-based therapies that utilize RNA interference (RNAi) to silence the expression of viral or host mRNA targets that are required for HIV-1 infection and/or replication. RNAi allows sequence-specific design to compensate for viral mutants and natural variants, thereby drastically expanding the number of therapeutic targets beyond the capabilities of cART. Recent advances in clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated the promise of RNAi therapeutics, reinforcing the concept that RNAi-based agents might offer a safe, effective, and more durable approach for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Nevertheless, there are challenges that must be overcome in order for RNAi therapeutics to reach their clinical potential. These include the refinement of strategies for delivery and to reduce the risk of mutational escape. In this review, we provide an overview of RNAi-based therapies for HIV-1, examine a variety of combinatorial RNAi strategies, and discuss approaches for ex vivo delivery and in vivo delivery. PMID:26019725

  8. Quality of life assessment in HIV-infection: validation of the European Portuguese version of WHOQOL-HIV.

    PubMed

    Canavarro, Maria C; Pereira, Marco; Simoes, Mario R; Pintassilgo, Ana L

    2011-02-01

    The assessment of quality of life (QOL) in HIV infection has emerged as being vital to research and clinical practice. This assessment is also a challenge due to the specific characteristics of the infection, the increased availability of therapeutics, as well as the epidemiological variability inherent to HIV infection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the European Portuguese version of the World Health Organization's QOL Instrument in HIV Infection (WHOQOL-HIV) and to test its performance in a sample of HIV-infected patients. The European Portuguese version of WHOQOL-HIV was administered in a sample of 200 HIV-positive patients. The patients also completed the Portuguese versions of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). The WHOQOL-HIV showed quite an acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's ? ranged from 0.86 to 0.95 across domains). Convergent validity with BDI and BSI was satisfactory for all domains (all r>0.50; p<0.001). Moreover, correlations between domains and between domains and overall QOL were all statistically significant (p<0.001). The reliability and validity studies of the European Portuguese version of the WHOQOL-HIV revealed good psychometric characteristics, which allows for the use of this version of WHOQOL in our country, and cross-cultural comparability. PMID:21259131

  9. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    MedlinePLUS

    ... depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people with ... are common short-term side effects from HIV medicines? When starting an HIV medicine for the first ...

  10. HIV-1 Subtypes and Recombinants in Northern Tanzania: Distribution of Viral Quasispecies

    PubMed Central

    Kiwelu, Ireen E.; Novitsky, Vladimir; Margolin, Lauren; Baca, Jeannie; Manongi, Rachel; Sam, Noel; Shao, John; McLane, Mary F.; Kapiga, Saidi H.; Essex, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed the distribution and prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes, multiplicity of HIV-1 infection, and frequency of inter-subtype recombination among HIV-1-infected female bar and hotel workers in Moshi, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania, from 2004 to 2007. The HIV-1 viral sequences spanning the V1-C5 region of HIV-1 env gp120 were analyzed from 50 subjects by single genome amplification and sequencing (SGA/S) technique. A total of 1740 sequences were amplified and sequenced from the HIV-1 proviral DNA template. The median env sequences analyzed per subject per two time points was 38 (IQR 28–50) over one year of HIV infection. In a subset of 14 subjects, a total of 239 sequences were obtained from HIV-1 RNA template at the baseline visit. The most prevalent HIV-1 subtypes were A1 (56%) and C (30%), while HIV-1 subtype D and inter-subtype recombinant viruses were found in 6% and 8% of subjects respectively. Transmission of multiple HIV-1 variants was evident in 27% of the subjects infected with pure HIV-1 subtypes A1, C, or D. The HIV-1 inter-subtype recombinants were found in 8% including HIV-1 C/A, D/A, and complex mosaic recombinants. Multiple viral variants were found in two subjects infected with inter-subtype recombinants. One subject harbored quasispecies of both pure HIV-1 A1 and C/A recombinant. The other subject was infected with two complex mosaic inter-subtype recombinant variants belonging to subtype D. HIV-1 multiple infections and ongoing recombination contribute significantly to the genetic diversity of circulating HIV-1 in Tanzania and have important implications for vaccine design and the development of therapeutic strategies. PMID:23118882

  11. HIV infection en route to endogenization: two cases

    PubMed Central

    Colson, P; Ravaux, I; Tamalet, C; Glazunova, O; Baptiste, E; Chabriere, E; Wiedemann, A; Lacabaratz, C; Chefrour, M; Picard, C; Stein, A; Levy, Y; Raoult, D

    2014-01-01

    The long-term spontaneous evolution of humans and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is not well characterized; many vertebrate species, including humans, exhibit remnants of other retroviruses in their genomes that question such possible endogenization of HIV. We investigated two HIV-infected patients with no HIV-related disease and no detection with routine tests of plasma HIV RNA or cell-associated HIV DNA. We used Sanger and deep sequencing to retrieve HIV DNA sequences integrated in the human genome and tested the host humoral and cellular immune responses. We noticed that viruses from both patients were inactivated by the high prevalence of the transformation of tryptophan codons into stop codons (25% overall (3–100% per gene) and 24% overall (0–50% per gene)). In contrast, the humoral and/or cellular responses were strong for one patient and moderate for the other, indicating that a productive infection occurred at one stage of the infection. We speculate that the stimulation of APOBEC, the enzyme group that exchanges G for A in viral nucleic acids and is usually inhibited by the HIV protein Vif, has been amplified and made effective from the initial stage of the infection. Furthermore, we propose that a cure for HIV may occur through HIV endogenization in humans, as observed for many other retroviruses in mammals, rather than clearance of all traces of HIV from human cells, which defines viral eradication. PMID:25366539

  12. Interaction of the HIV-1 gp120 Viral Protein V3 Loop with Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Majerle, Andreja; Pristovšek, Primož; Man?ek-Keber, Mateja; Jerala, Roman

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 represents an elusive target for therapeutic compounds due to its high rate of mutation. Targeting structural patterns instead of a constantly changing specific three-dimensional structure may represent an approach that is less sensitive to viral mutations. The V3 loop of gp120 of HIV-1, which is responsible for binding of viral gp120 to CCR5 or CXCR4 coreceptors, has already been identified as an effective target for the inhibition of viral entry. The peptide derived from the V3 loop of gp120 specifically interacts with the lipid A moiety of LPS, as does the full gp120 protein. NMR analysis of V3 in complex with LPS shows formation of an amphipathic turn. The interaction between LPS and V3 relies on the structural pattern, comprising a combination of hydrophobic and charge interactions, similar to the interaction between antimicrobial peptides and LPS. LPS inhibited binding of gp120 to the surface of target T cells. Nonendotoxic LPS antagonists inhibited viral infection, demonstrating the possibility for the development of an inhibitor of HIV-1 attachment to T cells based on the recognition of a conserved structural pattern. PMID:21636577

  13. HIV screening practices for living organ donors, New York State, 2010: need for standard policies.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Candice K; Al-Samarrai, Teeb; Smith, Lou C; Sabharwal, Charulata J; Valente, Kim A; Torian, Lucia V; McMurdo, Lisa M; Shepard, Colin W; Brooks, John T; Kuehnert, Matthew J

    2012-10-01

    Our survey of kidney and liver transplant centers in New York State found a wide variation among transplant centers in evaluation and screening for HIV risk and infection among prospective living donors. Survey results underscore the need to standardize practices. A recent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from a living donor to a kidney recipient revealed a possible limitation in existing screening protocols for HIV infection in living donors. We surveyed kidney and liver transplant centers (N = 18) in New York State to assess HIV screening protocols for living donors. Although most transplant centers evaluated HIV risk behaviors in living donors, evaluation practices varied widely, as did the extent of HIV testing and prevention counseling. All centers screened living donors for serologic evidence of HIV infection, either during initial evaluation or ?1 month before surgery; however, only 50% of transplant centers repeated HIV testing within 14 days before surgery for all donors or donors with specific risk behaviors. Forty-four percent of transplant centers used HIV nucleic acid testing (NAT) to screen either all donors or donors with recognized risk behaviors, and 55% never performed HIV NAT. Results suggest the need to standardize evaluation of HIV risk behaviors and prevention counseling in New York State to prevent acquisition of HIV by prospective living organ donors, and to conduct HIV antibody testing and NAT as close to the time of donation as possible to prevent HIV transmission to recipients. PMID:22752517

  14. Racial Disparities in HIV Seroprevalence Among Male Street Sex Workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry Morton

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examined whether racial disparities in HIV\\/AIDS between African American and Caucasian male street sex workers (MSSWs) existed and, if so, what were the possible reasons for these disparities. African American MSSWs were significantly more likely to report being HIV\\/AIDS-positive. However, when included in binary logistic models, the relationship between HIV risk factors (of syphilis and sexual assault) and

  15. UNDERLYING PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF HCV INFECTION IN HIV-POSITIVE DRUG USERS

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Anuradha; Groopman, Jerome E.; Ganju, Ramesh K.

    2009-01-01

    HCV and HIV infections are very common among injection drug users (IDUs). It is well known that 80–90% of HIV-infected IDUs are also infected with HCV. Furthermore, patients with HCV/HIV co-infection are at a higher risk of progressing to end-stage liver disease, namely cirrhosis. Even though there is increasing global awareness of HCV/HIV co-infection and extended therapeutic programs for this infected population, little is known about the HCV/HIV pathophysiology that mediates the rapid progression to hepatic disease. Liver disease caused by HCV/HIV co-infection is characterized by inflammation and cell-death. Recent reports suggest that the HIV and HCV envelope proteins may induce apoptosis and inflammation in hepatocytes via a novel pathway involving collaborative signaling. Moreover, HCV/HIV co-infection may also alter the cytokine production in vivo. Further studies to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of HCV and HIV-mediated pathogenesis will help in the development of therapeutic strategies against HCV/HIV co-infection in these patients. PMID:18681194

  16. Pathogenicity and immunogenicity of attenuated, nef-deleted HIV-1 strains in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gorry, Paul R; McPhee, Dale A; Verity, Erin; Dyer, Wayne B; Wesselingh, Steven L; Learmont, Jennifer; Sullivan, John S; Roche, Michael; Zaunders, John J; Gabuzda, Dana; Crowe, Suzanne M; Mills, John; Lewin, Sharon R; Brew, Bruce J; Cunningham, Anthony L; Churchill, Melissa J

    2007-01-01

    In efforts to develop an effective vaccine, sterilizing immunity to primate lentiviruses has only been achieved by the use of live attenuated viruses carrying major deletions in nef and other accessory genes. Although live attenuated HIV vaccines are unlikely to be developed due to a myriad of safety concerns, opportunities exist to better understand the correlates of immune protection against HIV infection by studying rare cohorts of long-term survivors infected with attenuated, nef-deleted HIV strains such as the Sydney blood bank cohort (SBBC). Here, we review studies of viral evolution, pathogenicity, and immune responses to HIV infection in SBBC members. The studies show that potent, broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies and robust CD8+ T-cell responses to HIV infection were not necessary for long-term control of HIV infection in a subset of SBBC members, and were not sufficient to prevent HIV sequence evolution, augmentation of pathogenicity and eventual progression of HIV infection in another subset. However, a persistent T-helper proliferative response to HIV p24 antigen was associated with long-term control of infection. Together, these results underscore the importance of the host in the eventual outcome of infection. Thus, whilst generating an effective antibody and CD8+ T-cell response are an essential component of vaccines aimed at preventing primary HIV infection, T-helper responses may be important in the generation of an effective therapeutic vaccine aimed at blunting chronic HIV infection. PMID:17888184

  17. HIV-associated obstructive lung diseases: insights and implications for the clinician

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, M Bradley; Kirk, Gregory D

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy to control HIV infection has led to the emergence of an older HIV population who are at risk of chronic diseases. Through a comprehensive search of major databases, this Review summarises information about the associations between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and HIV infection. Asthma and COPD are more prevalent in HIV-infected populations; 16–20% of individuals with HIV infection have asthma or COPD, and poorly controlled HIV infection worsens spirometric and diffusing capacity measurements, and accelerates lung function decline by about 55–75 mL/year. Up to 21% of HIV-infected individuals have obstructive ventilatory defects and reduced diffusing capacity is seen in more than 50% of HIV-infected populations. Specific pharmacotherapy considerations are needed to care for HIV-infected populations with asthma or COPD–protease inhibitor regimens to treat HIV (such as ritonavir) can result in systemic accumulation of inhaled corticosteroids and might increase pneumonia risk, exacerbating the toxicity of this therapy. Therefore, it is essential for clinicians to have a heightened awareness of the increased risk and manifestations of obstructive lung diseases in HIV-infected patients and specific therapeutic considerations to care for this population. Screening spirometry and tests of diffusing capacity might be beneficial in HIV-infected people with a history of smoking or respiratory symptoms. PMID:24831854

  18. Therapeutic Devices for Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic devices provide new options for treating drug-resistant epilepsy. These devices act by a variety of mechanisms to modulate neuronal activity. Only vagus nerve stimulation, which continues to develop new technology, is approved for use in the United States. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of anterior thalamus for partial epilepsy recently was approved in Europe and several other countries. Responsive neurostimulation, which delivers stimuli to one or two seizure foci in response to a detected seizure, recently completed a successful multicenter trial. Several other trials of brain stimulation are in planning or underway. Transcutaneous magnetic stimulation (TMS) may provide a noninvasive method to stimulate cortex. Controlled studies of TMS split on efficacy, and may depend on whether a seizure focus is near a possible region for stimulation. Seizure detection devices in the form of “shake” detectors via portable accelerometers can provide notification of an ongoing tonic-clonic seizure, or peace of mind in the absence of notification. Prediction of seizures from various aspects of EEG is in early stages. Prediction appears to be possible in a subpopulation of people with refractory seizures and a clinical trial of an implantable prediction device is underway. Cooling of neocortex or hippocampus reversibly can attenuate epileptiform EEG activity and seizures, but engineering problems remain in its implementation. Optogenetics is a new technique that can control excitability of specific populations of neurons with light. Inhibition of epileptiform activity has been demonstrated in hippocampal slices, but use in humans will require more work. In general, devices provide useful palliation for otherwise uncontrollable seizures, but with a different risk profile than with most drugs. Optimizing the place of devices in therapy for epilepsy will require further development and clinical experience. PMID:22367987

  19. Evolutionary origin on HIV zThe closest relatives of HIV-1 and HIV-2

    E-print Network

    Moehlis, Jeff

    Evolutionary origin on HIV zThe closest relatives of HIV-1 and HIV-2 are simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV). zThere is evidence for multiple transmissions from SIV into humans. zHIV-1 is very closely of virulence. #12;HIV is a quasispecies zViral replication is error prone. zHIV reverse transcriptase and RNA

  20. HIV and Its Treatment Changing an HIV Treatment Regimen Changing an HIV Treatment Regimen

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    HIV and Its Treatment ­ Changing an HIV Treatment Regimen Changing an HIV Treatment Regimen Will my HIV treatment regimen ever change? At some point, you may need to adjust or change your regimen an HIV treatment regimen? There are several reasons why a person may switch to another HIV regimen

  1. HIV Eradication: Combinatorial Approaches to Activate Latent Viruses

    PubMed Central

    De Crignis, Elisa; Mahmoudi, Tokameh

    2014-01-01

    The concept of eradication of the Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) from infected patients has gained much attention in the last few years. While combination Anti-Retroviral Therapy (c-ART) has been extremely effective in suppressing viral replication, it is not curative. This is due to the presence of a reservoir of latent HIV infected cells, which persist in the presence of c-ART. Recently, pharmaceutical approaches have focused on the development of molecules able to induce HIV-1 replication from latently infected cells in order to render them susceptible to viral cytopathic effects and host immune responses. Alternative pathways and transcription complexes function to regulate the activity of the HIV promoter and might serve as molecular targets for compounds to activate latent HIV. A combined therapy coupling various depressors and activators will likely be the most effective in promoting HIV replication while avoiding pleiotropic effects at the cellular level. Moreover, in light of differences among HIV subtypes and variability in integration sites, the combination of multiple agents targeting multiple pathways will increase likelihood of therapeutic effectiveness and prevent mutational escape. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms that can be targeted to induce HIV activation focusing on potential combinatorial approaches. PMID:25421889

  2. HIV eradication: combinatorial approaches to activate latent viruses.

    PubMed

    De Crignis, Elisa; Mahmoudi, Tokameh

    2014-11-01

    The concept of eradication of the Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) from infected patients has gained much attention in the last few years. While combination Anti-Retroviral Therapy (c-ART) has been extremely effective in suppressing viral replication, it is not curative. This is due to the presence of a reservoir of latent HIV infected cells, which persist in the presence of c-ART. Recently, pharmaceutical approaches have focused on the development of molecules able to induce HIV-1 replication from latently infected cells in order to render them susceptible to viral cytopathic effects and host immune responses. Alternative pathways and transcription complexes function to regulate the activity of the HIV promoter and might serve as molecular targets for compounds to activate latent HIV. A combined therapy coupling various depressors and activators will likely be the most effective in promoting HIV replication while avoiding pleiotropic effects at the cellular level. Moreover, in light of differences among HIV subtypes and variability in integration sites, the combination of multiple agents targeting multiple pathways will increase likelihood of therapeutic effectiveness and prevent mutational escape. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms that can be targeted to induce HIV activation focusing on potential combinatorial approaches. PMID:25421889

  3. Hepatitis C Virus and HIV Type 1 Co-Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Around 33 million people worldwide are living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, and approximately 20-30% of HIV-infected individuals are also infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV). The main form of HCV transmission is via the blood borne route; high rates of co-infection are found in intravenous drug users with HCV prevalence rates as high as 90%. Introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to a significant decline in HIV-related morbidity, but at the same time the incidence of HCV related liver disease is increasing in the co-infected population. Meta analysis has revealed that individuals who are co-infected with HIV/HCV harbor three times greater risk of progression to liver disease than those infected with HCV alone. Increased risk of progression to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related deaths is shown among the co-infected patients by some studies, suggesting that HCV infection may accelerate the clinical course of HIV infection. HCV may also affect the incidence of liver toxicity associated with ART, affecting the management of HIV infection. There is a lack of optimal therapeutic approaches to treat HCV infection in HIV co-infected patients. This review discusses recent literature pertaining HIV/HCV co-infection, in addition to providing a snapshot of impact of co-infection on human genome at the level of gene expression and its regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs). PMID:24470971

  4. Surveying the Therapeutic Landscape

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Stephans Kavanagh; Thomas A. Musiak

    1994-01-01

    This paper is an initial report on the nationwide survey of outdoor facilities of horticultural therapy programs conducted from Texas Tech University. This report is intended to encourage discussions which explore areas of future research into the optimum physical design of outdoor plant-oriented therapeutic landscapes. The premise for these discussions is found in the perception of therapeutic landscapes therapy as

  5. Peptide and protein-based inhibitors of HIV-1 co-receptors

    PubMed Central

    von Recum, Horst A; Pokorski, Jonathan K

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) afflicts an estimated 30 million people globally, making it a continuing pandemic. Despite major research efforts, the rate of new infections has remained relatively static over time. This article reviews an emerging strategy for the treatment of HIV, the inhibition of the co-receptors necessary for HIV entry, CCR5 and CXCR4. The aim of this article is to highlight potential therapeutics derived from peptides and proteins that show particular promise in HIV treatment. Molecules that act on CCR5, CXCR4 or on both receptors will be discussed herein. PMID:23856897

  6. Paying for HIV Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Co-Payment Programs (Copyright © AIDS Treatment Data Network) - This online resource offers information on government and drug company-sponsored programs that help pay for HIV medicines. Social Security for People Living With HIV/AIDS - If you ...

  7. HIV Wellness Numbers

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... viral load Once your HIV is diagnosed, your immune system health will depend on two important indicators: Your ... cells in a normal healthy range. When your immune system is strong, it keeps the HIV virus from ...

  8. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV positive have been tested ... to everyone in the world. When the person's immune system has weakened and more of the blood's T ...

  9. Stages of HIV Infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... thereâ??s good news: when used consistently, antiretroviral therapy (ART) prevents the HIV virus from multiplying and from ... AIDS. In addition, research has shown that taking ART can help prevent the spread of HIV to ...

  10. Antiretroviral Therapy as HIV Prevention: Status and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Kartik K.

    2010-01-01

    As antiretroviral treatment of HIV infection has become increasingly accessible, attention has focused on whether these drugs can used for prevention because of increased tolerability of newer medications, decreased cost, and the limitations of other approaches. We review the status of antiretroviral HIV prevention, including chemoprophylaxis, as well as the effects of treatment of infected individuals on prevention. It is possible that the life-saving agents that have transformed the natural history of AIDS can be a critical component of HIV prevention efforts, but their ultimate role in affecting HIV transmission dynamics remains to be defined. PMID:20724682

  11. Silence, Sexuality and HIV/AIDS in South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Robert

    2003-01-01

    In South Africa where there is a very high HIV infection rate among teenagers and young adults, it is surprising to find that students and teachers are very unwilling to talk about the possibility of being or becoming HIV positive. While AIDS messages dominate public discourse, there is a silence in schools about the personal in relation to AIDS.…

  12. REVIEW Open Access Rational design of HIV vaccines and microbicides

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    such combined effects. Possible combinations suggested were: · The use of vaccines in circumcised men to furtherREVIEW Open Access Rational design of HIV vaccines and microbicides: report of the EUROPRISE including integrated developmental research on HIV vaccines and microbicides from discovery to early

  13. HIV infection and HERV expression: a review.

    PubMed

    van der Kuyl, Antoinette C

    2012-01-01

    The human genome contains multiple copies of retrovirus genomes known as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) that have entered the germ-line at some point in evolution. Several of these proviruses have retained (partial) coding capacity, so that a number of viral proteins or even virus particles are expressed under various conditions. Human ERVs (HERVs) belong to the beta-, gamma-, or spuma- retrovirus groups. Endogenous delta- and lenti- viruses are notably absent in humans, although endogenous lentivirus genomes have been found in lower primates. Exogenous retroviruses that currently form a health threat to humans intriguingly belong to those absent groups. The best studied of the two infectious human retroviruses is the lentivirus human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which has an overwhelming influence on its host by infecting cells of the immune system. One HIV-induced change is the induction of HERV transcription, often leading to induced HERV protein expression. This review will discuss the potential HIV-HERV interactions.Several studies have suggested that HERV proteins are unlikely to complement defective HIV virions, nor is HIV able to package HERV transcripts, probably due to low levels of sequence similarity. It is unclear whether the expression of HERVs has a negative, neutral, or positive influence on HIV-AIDS disease progression. A positive effect was recently reported by the specific expression of HERVs in chronically HIV-infected patients, which results in the presentation of HERV-derived peptides to CD8+ T-cells. These cytotoxic T-cells were not tolerant to HERV peptides, as would be expected for self-antigens, and consequently lysed the HIV-infected, HERV-presenting cells. This novel mechanism could control HIV replication and result in a low plasma viral load. The possibility of developing a vaccination strategy based on these HERV peptides will be discussed. PMID:22248111

  14. [Pathogenesis of HIV-1].

    PubMed

    Metzner, Karin J

    2014-08-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) establishes a chronic, lifelong infection finally leading to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which is characterized by the onset of opportunistic infections and tumors. The natural course of HIV-1 infections is very variable and depends on the virus and its replication competence as well as the host. This review summarizes our current knowledge on HIV-1 and host factors influencing the pathogenesis of HIV-1. PMID:25093308

  15. Dendritic Cells Exposed to MVA-Based HIV-1 Vaccine Induce Highly Functional HIV-1-Specific CD8+ T Cell Responses in HIV-1-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Climent, Núria; Guerra, Susana; García, Felipe; Rovira, Cristina; Miralles, Laia; Gómez, Carmen Elena; Piqué, Núria; Gil, Cristina; Gatell, José María; Esteban, Mariano; Gallart, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Currently, MVA virus vectors carrying HIV-1 genes are being developed as HIV-1/AIDS prophylactic/therapeutic vaccines. Nevertheless, little is known about the impact of these vectors on human dendritic cells (DC) and their capacity to present HIV-1 antigens to human HIV-specific T cells. This study aimed to characterize the interaction of MVA and MVA expressing the HIV-1 genes Env-Gag-Pol-Nef of clade B (referred to as MVA-B) in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) and the subsequent processes of HIV-1 antigen presentation and activation of memory HIV-1-specific T lymphocytes. For these purposes, we performed ex vivo assays with MDDC and autologous lymphocytes from asymptomatic HIV-infected patients. Infection of MDDC with MVA-B or MVA, at the optimal dose of 0.3 PFU/MDDC, induced by itself a moderate degree of maturation of MDDC, involving secretion of cytokines and chemokines (IL1-ra, IL-7, TNF-?, IL-6, IL-12, IL-15, IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1?, MIP-1?, RANTES, IP-10, MIG, and IFN-?). MDDC infected with MVA or MVA-B and following a period of 48 h or 72 h of maturation were able to migrate toward CCL19 or CCL21 chemokine gradients. MVA-B infection induced apoptosis of the infected cells and the resulting apoptotic bodies were engulfed by the uninfected MDDC, which cross-presented HIV-1 antigens to autologous CD8+ T lymphocytes. MVA-B-infected MDDC co-cultured with autologous T lymphocytes induced a highly functional HIV-specific CD8+ T cell response including proliferation, secretion of IFN-?, IL-2, TNF-?, MIP-1?, MIP-1?, RANTES and IL-6, and strong cytotoxic activity against autologous HIV-1-infected CD4+ T lymphocytes. These results evidence the adjuvant role of the vector itself (MVA) and support the clinical development of prophylactic and therapeutic anti-HIV vaccines based on MVA-B. PMID:21625608

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of initial HIV treatment under Italian guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Giorgio L; Colangeli, Vincenzo; Di Biagio, Antonio; Di Matteo, Sergio; Viscoli, Claudio; Viale, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Since the mid-1990s, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has modified the clinical course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, reducing the rate of disease progression, the incidence of opportunistic infections, and mortality. The authors of this paper performed an economic analysis to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the HAART regimens in Italy for managing HIV-infected patients according to national guidelines. Patients and methods The incremental cost-effectiveness analysis was carried out by means of a Markov model, which through a decision-analytic approach, made it possible to compare the studied antiretroviral regimens. The population considered in the model consisted of adult subjects with HIV who received antiretroviral HAART treatment for the first time. The population considered in the analysis reflects the patients’ characteristics according to one of the regional surveillance systems HIV/AIDS infection report currently operating in Italy. The analysis was carried out from the point of view of the Italian health care system. The considered outcome measures were quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and direct health costs calculated for the year 2010. Both the outcomes (QALYs) and the costs were discounted by 3.5%. The time horizon adopted in the model was 10 years. Results The model shows, in terms of cost per gained QALY, single tablet regimen (STR) appeared to be the most cost-effective therapeutic choice (€22,017), followed by tenofovir (TDF) + lamivudine + efavirenz (EFV) (€24,526), and TDF/emtricitabine (FTC) + nevirapine (€26,416), and TDF + FTC + EFV (€26,558); the remaining strategies have an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) value varying from €28,000 to €41,000 per QALY. The sensitivity analysis on the main variables confirmed the validity of the base case scenario. Conclusion STR is the most cost-effective treatment strategy, compared with the other therapeutic regimens recommended by the Italian guidelines. All the ICER values of the various regimens considered by the Italian guidelines were lower than the threshold value of €50,000 commonly accepted at the international level. The model developed represents a tool for policy makers and health care professionals to make short- and long-term cost projections and thus evaluate their impact on the available budgets for HIV patients. PMID:22163167

  17. Editorial: advances in therapeutic glycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wenbin; Chen, Yue-Lei

    2014-01-01

    Glycopeptides, peptides containing sugar ?-amino acids, have significant impact on medicinal chemistry research and pharmaceutical industr. In 1956, the discovery of one classic glycopeptide, vancomycin, broke the dawn of a new age for antibacterial research. Employing glycopeptides for the therapeutic purposes used to be regarded as proposals. Owing largely to the recent improvements in separation practices, characterization techniques, synthetic methods, and biological research, these proposals have been transformed into ongoing research projects in many laboratories around the world. Previously known as antibiotics, glycopeptides have been used as chemotherapeutic, antiviral, antitubercular, antifungal, antiproliferative and apoptotic agents. Nowadays they are even considered for the development of HIV and cancer vaccines. While several of them are in clinical trials, it could be expected that in the near future, treatment regimen of such difficult diseases might be reformed accordingly. Many interesting preliminary results are being produced in this emerging area. As witnesses and practitioners in this exciting area, however, we notice that the related communication in public domain is still limited due to the relatively small number of researchers involved. Thus, we feel the necessity to compile a timely issue about the special topic "Advances in Therapeutic Glycopeptides", covering state-of-the-art research papers and expert reviews from this area. We are glad that Protein & Peptide Letters is willing to realize the idea with us. The opening paper of this issue by Dr. Voglmeir and coauthor discusses three types of PNGases in respect of their general properties and applications of the commercially available PNGases in glycopeptide and glycoprotein analysis. Dr. Liu and coauthors describe current techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE), and mass spectrometry (MS), for the characterization of glycoproteins, with a focus on available therapeutic glycoproteins. Next three papers discuss the synthetic chemistry of glycopeptides. Dr. Zhu and coauthor describe a facile synthesis of differently protected cystathionines by the reaction of ?-bromohomoalanine with cysteine derivatives in an ethyl acetate/water biphasic system. Dr. Chen et al. report a neoglycopeptides synthesis by aqueous Suzuki-Miyaura reaction between glycosyl boronic acid and iodopeptides. Dr. Zeng et al. developed a novel strategy to prepare glycopeptide-based molecular imaging and therapy agents using fluorine-rich (fluorous) technology. The following review by Dr. Li et al. outlines a sample of mAbs currently approved for cancer treatment by the FDA, as well as antibody platforms in the research pipeline and clinic that have been engineered for greater tumor penetration, binding, and therapy efficacy. The asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) is a high-capacity C-type lectin receptor expressed on mammalian hepatocytes. Research in this field is summarized by Dr. Lu, Dr. Yin and coauthors. Recent progresses of cationic polysomes and liposomes as effective non-viral delivery system via ASGPR are also presented by these authors. Proteoglycans (PGs), a core protein and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) chain, play important roles in amyloid-beta protein as well as tau processing, and have potential significance in Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy. Next, Dr. Zeng and coworkers summarized recent advances of the chemistry and biology of glycopeptides with antibiotic activity. The last review of this issue by Dr. Ding and coworker provide the progress of PGs and GAGs in AD and their therapeutic implication. In summary, experts from different fields of therapeutic glycopeptides have showcased new results and expressed their opinions in this special thematic issue of Protein & Peptide Letters. As the guest editors, we wish that this diverse collection of valuable intellectual contributions will positively influence this emerging area and gain broad readership. At the end, we would like to express our since

  18. Women and HIV

    MedlinePLUS

    ... studies that track women with HIV who take HIV medicines during pregnancy. To Learn More AIDS.gov National Library of ... Women's Health Topics Mammography Women and Diabetes HPV, HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy Menopause More Women's Health Topics Resources for You ...

  19. HIV and adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus; Cheryl Koopman

    1991-01-01

    Seroprevalence studies and documented sex and drug use risk behaviors indicate the importance of primary prevention programs for HIV among adolescents. Females and minority adolescents are at particular risk. Prevention workers must decide which strategies to advocate: abstinence, monogamy, HIV testing, screening partners, or explicit instruction of safer acts. Youths must be helped to personalize knowledge of HIV, acquire coping

  20. HIV-Associated Cancers

    Cancer.gov

    Published on Office of Cancer Genomics (http://ocg.cancer.gov) Home > HIV-Associated Cancers HIV-Associated Cancers [1] The Office of Cancer Genomics (OCG)Opens in a New Tab [2], along with the Office of HIV and AIDS Malignancies (OHAM)Opens in a New

  1. HIV-Associated Cancers

    Cancer.gov

    Published on Office of Cancer Genomics (https://ocg.cancer.gov) Home > HIV-Associated Cancers HIV-Associated Cancers [1] The Office of Cancer Genomics (OCG)Opens in a New Tab [2], along with the Office of HIV and AIDS Malignancies (OHAM)Opens in a New

  2. Coping with HIV in adolescence Scientific news Actualidad cientifica

    E-print Network

    N° 407 June 2012 Coping with HIV in adolescence Scientific news Actualidad cientifica Actualité of adolescence, a period where doctors have observed a resurgence of therapeutic failures. A pressing social people. Epidemiologists and demographers interviewed 800 adolescents from 12 to 19 years old who were

  3. Low birthweight in infants born to African HIV-infected women: relationship with maternal body weight during pregnancy: Pregnancy and HIV Study Group (EGE).

    PubMed

    Castetbon, K; Ladner, J; Leroy, V; Chauliac, M; Karita, E; De Clercq, A; Van de Perre, P; Dabis, F

    1999-06-01

    The effect of maternal HIV infection on birthweight was estimated. In the prenatal clinic of the Centre Hospitalier de Kigali, HIV screening was proposed to women with a gestational age (GA) of less than 28 weeks. HIV-infected (HIV+) and uninfected (HIV-) women were recruited, when they consented. At inclusion, socioeconomic, obstetrical data, and body weight were collected, a clinical examination was performed, and tests for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and malaria were performed. Two prenatal visits were made, at 28-32 and 32-36 weeks, with clinical data and weight measurement. At delivery, birthweight, body length, and head circumference of the infant were documented. At inclusion and at the second follow-up visit, HIV+ women (N = 177) weighed less than HIV- women (N = 194) (p = 0.004). Mean birthweight in infants born to HIV+ women was 2947 g (SD = 429) and 3104 g (SD = 461) in infants born to HIV- women (p = 0.001). Frequencies of low birthweight (LBW, weight < 2500 g), prematurity (GA < 37 weeks, according to Finnström score at birth), and intrauterine growth retardation (defined by LBW and GA > or = 37 weeks) were higher in infants born to HIV+ women than to HIV- women (p = 0.009, 0.01, and 0.053, respectively). In multivariate logistic regression, the association between maternal HIV infection and LBW disappeared (p = 0.61), while low GA (p = 0.01) and low last prenatal weight (p = 0.01) were independant risk factors of LBW. LBW in infants born to HIV+ women could be partly attributable to impaired maternal weight. These results underline the need for nutritional surveillance and dietary counselling, hoping to improve the prognosis of pregnancy in HIV+ women, regardless of other therapeutic interventions. PMID:10401193

  4. Natural Plant Alkaloid (Emetine) Inhibits HIV-1 Replication by Interfering with Reverse Transcriptase Activity.

    PubMed

    Chaves Valadão, Ana Luiza; Abreu, Celina Monteiro; Dias, Juliana Zanatta; Arantes, Pablo; Verli, Hugo; Tanuri, Amilcar; de Aguiar, Renato Santana

    2015-01-01

    Ipecac alkaloids are secondary metabolites produced in the medicinal plant Psychotria ipecacuanha. Emetine is the main alkaloid of ipecac and one of the active compounds in syrup of Ipecac with emetic property. Here we evaluated emetine's potential as an antiviral agent against Human Immunodeficiency Virus. We performed in vitro Reverse Transcriptase (RT) Assay and Natural Endogenous Reverse Transcriptase Activity Assay (NERT) to evaluate HIV RT inhibition. Emetine molecular docking on HIV-1 RT was also analyzed. Phenotypic assays were performed in non-lymphocytic and in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) with HIV-1 wild-type and HIV-harboring RT-resistant mutation to Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (M184V). Our results showed that HIV-1 RT was blocked in the presence of emetine in both models: in vitro reactions with isolated HIV-1 RT and intravirion, measured by NERT. Emetine revealed a strong potential of inhibiting HIV-1 replication in both cellular models, reaching 80% of reduction in HIV-1 infection, with low cytotoxic effect. Emetine also blocked HIV-1 infection of RT M184V mutant. These results suggest that emetine is able to penetrate in intact HIV particles, and bind and block reverse transcription reaction, suggesting that it can be used as anti-HIV microbicide. Taken together, our findings provide additional pharmacological information on the potential therapeutic effects of emetine. PMID:26111177

  5. [Prevention strategies to control the HIV epidemic. Successes, problems, and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Marcus, U

    2007-04-01

    After the recognition of AIDS as a new disease entity and isolation of HIV as the causative agent in the early 1980s, a controversial debate about adequate measures to reduce the spread of HIV developed. In all developed countries a strategy based on education about modes of HIV transmission, condom promotion and harm reduction approaches to intravenous drug use finally succeeded and became instrumental for the relative containment of HIV within most at risk populations. However, in most developing countries as well as in the countries of Eastern Europe, the success of HIV pre vention remained limited for various reasons. In addition, for several years now, in the western developed countries sexual risk behaviour, newly diagnosed HIV infections, and the incidence of various other sexually transmitted infections seem to re-increase, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM). These increases coincide with a dramatic improvement of therapeutic options for the treatment of HIV infection. The relationship between improvement of therapy and changes in sexual risk behaviour has to be further defined. It is hypothesized that HIV serosorting as a predominant risk management strategy among MSM results in an accumulation of health risks in the HIV-positive MSM population. In addition to and beyond established condom promotion, additional biomedical approaches to reduce transmissibility and susceptibility for HIV will be necessary to regain control of the spread of HIV in highly sexually active populations. PMID:17377725

  6. Transient Mobilization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)Specific CD4 T-Helper Cells Fails To Control Virus Rebounds during Intermittent Antiretroviral Therapy in Chronic HIV Type 1 Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GUISLAINE CARCELAIN; ROLAND TUBIANA; ASSIA SAMRI; VINCENT CALVEZ; CONSTANCE DELAUGERRE; HENRI AGUT; CHRISTINE KATLAMA; BRIGITTE AUTRAN

    2001-01-01

    Immune control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is not restored by highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) during chronic infection. We examined the capacity of repeated structured therapeutic interruptions (STI) to restore HIV-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses that controlled virus production. Eleven STI (median duration, 7 days; ranges, 4 to 24 days) were performed in three chronically HIV-infected patients with

  7. Differential signaling mechanism for HIV-1 Nef-mediated production of IL-6 and IL-8 in human astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xun; Kumar, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Variety of HIV-1 viral proteins including HIV-1 Nef are known to activate astrocytes and microglia in the brain and cause the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which is thought to be one of the mechanisms leading to HIV-1- mediated neurotoxicity. IL-6 and IL-8 have been found in the CSF of patients with HIV-1 associated dementia (HAD), suggesting that they might play important roles in HIV-1 neuropathology. In the present study we examined the effects of HIV-1 Nef on IL-6 and IL-8 induction in astrocytes. The results demonstrate that both IL-6 and IL-8 are significantly induced in HIV-1 Nef-transfected SVGA astrocytes and HIV-1 Nef-treated primary fetal astrocytes. We also determined the molecular mechanisms responsible for the HIV-1 Nef-induced increased IL-6 and IL-8 by using chemical inhibitors and siRNAs against PI3K/Akt/PKC, p38 MAPK, NF-?B, CEBP and AP-1. Our results clearly demonstrate that the PI3K/PKC, p38 MAPK, NF-?B and AP-1 pathways are involved in HIV-1 Nef-induced IL-6 production in astrocytes, while PI3K/PKC and NF-?B pathways are involved in HIV-1 Nef-induced IL-8 production. These results offer new potential targets to develop therapeutic strategy for treatment of HIV-1 associated neurological disorders, prevalent in > 40% of individuals infected with HIV-1. PMID:26075907

  8. Recent advances in humanized mice: accelerating the development of an HIV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Tager, Andrew M; Pensiero, Michael; Allen, Todd M

    2013-11-01

    Recent advances in the development of humanized mice hold great promise to advance our understanding of protective immunity to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and to aid in the design of an effective HIV vaccine. This supplement of the Journal of Infectious Diseases summarizes work in the humanized mouse model presented at an HIV Humanized Mouse workshop in Boston, Massachusetts, in November 2012, including recent advances in the development of humanized mice, the trafficking of human immune cells following mucosal HIV transmission, the role of immune activation and Toll-like receptor agonists in the control of HIV, the induction and efficacy of HIV-specific cellular and humoral immune responses, and the preclinical modeling of novel anti-HIV therapeutics. Many gaps remain in our understanding of how to design an effective HIV vaccine and novel therapeutics to eliminate the viral reservoir. Promising early results from studies in humanized mice suggest great potential and enthusiasm for this model to accelerate these critical areas of HIV research. PMID:24151317

  9. Recent Advances in Humanized Mice: Accelerating the Development of an HIV Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Tager, Andrew M.; Pensiero, Michael; Allen, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the development of humanized mice hold great promise to advance our understanding of protective immunity to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and to aid in the design of an effective HIV vaccine. This supplement of the Journal of Infectious Diseases summarizes work in the humanized mouse model presented at an HIV Humanized Mouse workshop in Boston, Massachusetts, in November 2012, including recent advances in the development of humanized mice, the trafficking of human immune cells following mucosal HIV transmission, the role of immune activation and Toll-like receptor agonists in the control of HIV, the induction and efficacy of HIV-specific cellular and humoral immune responses, and the preclinical modeling of novel anti-HIV therapeutics. Many gaps remain in our understanding of how to design an effective HIV vaccine and novel therapeutics to eliminate the viral reservoir. Promising early results from studies in humanized mice suggest great potential and enthusiasm for this model to accelerate these critical areas of HIV research. PMID:24151317

  10. The evolutionary significance of certain amino acid substitutions and their consequences for HIV-1 immunogenicity toward HLA's A*0201 and B*27

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Luke; Dormer, Anton

    2013-01-01

    In silico tools are employed to examine the evolutionary relationship to possible vaccine peptide candidates' development. This perspective sheds light on the proteomic changes affecting the creation of HLA specific T-cell stimulating peptide vaccines for HIV. Full-length sequences of the envelope protein of the HIV subtypes A, B, C and D were obtained through the NCBI Protein database were aligned using CLUSTALW. They were then analyzed using RANKPEP specific to Human Leukocyte Antigen A*02 and B*27. Geneious was used to catalogue the collected gp160 sequences and to construct a phylogenic tree. Mesquite was employed for ancestral state reconstruction to infer the order of amino acid substitutions in the epitopes examined. The results showed that consensus peptide identified SLAEKNITI had changes that indicated predicted escape mutation in strains of HIV responding to pressure exerted by CD8+ cells expressing HLA A*02. The predominating 9-mers IRIGPGQAF of gp120 are significantly less immunogenic toward HLA B*27 than to HLA A*02. The data confirms previous findings on the importance for efficacious binding, of an arginine residue at the 2nd position of the gag SL9 epitope, and extends this principle to other epitopes which interacts with HLA B*27. This study shows that the understanding of viral evolution relating T-cell peptide vaccine design is a development that has much relevance for the creation of personalized therapeutics for HIV treatment. PMID:23745018

  11. HIV-negative Men-who-Have-Sex-with-Men who Bareback are Concerned about HIV Infection: Implications for HIV Risk Reduction Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Balán, Iván C.; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ventuneac, Ana; Remien, Robert H.; Dolezal, Curtis; Ford, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of barebacking (intentional unprotected anal intercourse in situations where there is risk of HIV infection) among men who have sex with men (MSM) has been partially attributed to a decrease in HIV-related concerns due to improved anti-retroviral treatment. It is important to understand the level of concern these men have regarding HIV infection because it can affect their interest in risk reduction behaviors as well as their possible engagement in risk reduction interventions. As part of a study on MSM who use the Internet to seek sexual partners, 89 ethnic and racially diverse men who reported never having an HIV-positive test result completed an in-depth qualitative interview and a computer-based quantitative assessment. Of the 82 men who were asked about concerns of HIV infection during the qualitative interviews, 30 expressed “significant concern” about acquiring HIV, while 42 expressed “moderate concern,” and 10 expressed “minimal concern. Themes that emerged across the different levels of concern were their perceptions of the severity of HIV infection, having friends who are HIV positive, and their own vulnerability to HIV infection. However, these themes differed depending on the level of concern. Among the most frequently mentioned approaches to decrease risk of HIV infection, participants mentioned avoiding HIV-positive sex partners, limiting the number of partners with whom they barebacked, and not allowing partners to ejaculate inside their rectum. Findings suggest that many MSM who bareback would be amenable to HIV prevention efforts that do not depend solely on condom use. PMID:22218787

  12. Therapeutics for Bowel Disorders

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute''s Laboratory of Metabolism is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize therapeutics that ameliorate bowel disorders.

  13. Disruption of gut homeostasis by opioids accelerates HIV disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jingjing; Sindberg, Gregory M.; Roy, Sabita

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative studies during the past 30 years have established the correlation between opioid abuse and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Further studies also demonstrate that opioid addiction is associated with faster progression to AIDS in patients. Recently, it was revealed that disruption of gut homeostasis and subsequent microbial translocation play important roles in pathological activation of the immune system during HIV infection and contributes to accelerated disease progression. Similarly, opioids have been shown to modulate gut immunity and induce gut bacterial translocation. This review will explore the mechanisms by which opioids accelerate HIV disease progression by disrupting gut homeostasis. Better understanding of these mechanisms will facilitate the search for new therapeutic interventions to treat HIV infection especially in opioid abusing population.

  14. Cross-Clade Ultrasensitive PCR-Based Assays To Measure HIV Persistence in Large-Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Vandergeeten, Claire; Fromentin, Rémi; Merlini, Esther; Lawani, Mariam B.; DaFonseca, Sandrina; Bakeman, Wendy; McNulty, Amanda; Ramgopal, Moti; Michael, Nelson; Kim, Jerome H.; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A small pool of infected cells persists in HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Here, we developed ultrasensitive assays to precisely measure the frequency of cells harboring total HIV DNA, integrated HIV DNA, and two long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circles. These assays are performed on cell lysates, which circumvents the labor-intensive step of DNA extraction, and rely on the coquantification of each HIV molecular form together with CD3 gene sequences to precisely measure cell input. Using primary isolates from HIV subtypes A, B, C, D, and CRF01_A/E, we demonstrate that these assays can efficiently quantify low target copy numbers from diverse HIV subtypes. We further used these assays to measure total HIV DNA, integrated HIV DNA, and 2-LTR circles in CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected subjects infected with subtype B. All samples obtained from ART-naive subjects were positive for the three HIV molecular forms (n = 15). Total HIV DNA, integrated HIV DNA, and 2-LTR circles were detected in, respectively, 100%, 94%, and 77% of the samples from individuals in which HIV was suppressed by ART. Higher levels of total HIV DNA and 2-LTR circles were detected in untreated subjects than individuals on ART (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.0004, respectively), while the frequency of CD4+ T cells harboring integrated HIV DNA did not differ between the two groups. These results demonstrate that these novel assays have the ability to quantify very low levels of HIV DNA of multiple HIV subtypes without the need for nucleic acid extraction, making them well suited for the monitoring of viral persistence in large populations of HIV-infected individuals. IMPORTANCE Since the discovery of viral reservoirs in HIV-infected subjects receiving suppressive ART, measuring the degree of viral persistence has been one of the greatest challenges in the field of HIV research. Here, we report the development and validation of ultrasensitive assays to measure HIV persistence in HIV-infected individuals from multiple geographical regions. These assays are relatively inexpensive, do not require DNA extraction, and can be completed in a single day. Therefore, they are perfectly adapted to monitor HIV persistence in large cohorts of HIV-infected individuals and, given their sensitivity, can be used to monitor the efficacy of therapeutic strategies aimed at interfering with HIV persistence after prolonged ART. PMID:25122785

  15. The changing distribution of HIV infection: HIV surveillance in Lazio, Italy, 1985 through 1994. Lazio HIV Surveillance Collaborative Group.

    PubMed Central

    Brancato, G; Perucci, C A; Abeni, D D; Sangalli, M; Ippolito, G; Arcà, M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to describe the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) surveillance system in Lazio, Italy, and to analyze exposure patterns and time trends of HIV serodiagnoses from January 1985 to December 1994. METHODS: A linkage procedure made it possible to identify newly diagnosed HIV cases. Anonymous information was collected on demographic and exposure factors for each individual. RESULTS: Of 35,425 reports, 13,660 were newly diagnosed HIV cases, 70.9% of them in men. The proportion of women increased at the beginning of the study period (the male:female ratio declined from 3.5 in 1985 to 2.6 in 1986) and then remained stable. The proportion of subjects reporting heterosexual exposure, in men and women, respectively, increased from 1.5% and 2.0% in 1985 to 21.2% and 60.8% in 1994. Starting in 1992, heterosexual contact has become the main transmission route for women. CONCLUSIONS: A changing pattern in the HIV epidemic is emerging, with a shift in the incidence of HIV diagnosis from "core" high-risk groups (drug injectors) to the large low-risk population (the general population) exposed through heterosexual transmission. This is probably occurring in other areas (e.g., large urban centers in the United States) with a similar epidemiological situation. PMID:9357348

  16. [HIV-associated neuropathies].

    PubMed

    Hahn, K; Husstedt, I W

    2010-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated polyneuropathy has become the most common neurological complication of HIV infection and is one of the main risk factors for development of a neuropathy worldwide. Therefore HIV should always be considered as an underlying cause in patients with neuropathy. Many types of peripheral neuropathies are seen in HIV infection depending on the stage of infection. The inflammatory demyelinating neuropathies both acute (Guillain-Barré syndrome, GBS) and chronic (chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy, CIDP) occur mainly at the time of seroconversion or early in the course of the disease while syndromes associated with opportunistic infections like CMV (i.e. polyradiculoneuropathy) occur in the late phase of HIV infection and are related to the loss of immune function. Distal symmetrical polyneuropathy (DSP) is the most common neuropathy in HIV-infected patients. We review the clinical manifestations, epidemiology, clinical diagnostics, pathophysiology and management strategies for HIV-associated polyneuropathies. PMID:20195565

  17. Identification of human endogenous retrovirus-specific T cell responses in vertically HIV-1-infected subjects.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Ravi; SenGupta, Devi; Ndhlovu, Lishomwa C; Vieira, Raphaella G S; Jones, R Brad; York, Vanessa A; Vieira, Vinicius A; Sharp, Elizabeth R; Wiznia, Andrew A; Ostrowski, Mario A; Rosenberg, Michael G; Nixon, Douglas F

    2011-11-01

    Human endogenous retrovirus (HERV)-specific T cell responses in HIV-1-infected adults have been reported. Whether HERV-specific immunity exists in vertically HIV-1-infected children is unknown. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of HERV-specific T cell responses in 42 vertically HIV-1-infected children. HERV (-H, -K, and -L family)-specific T cell responses were identified in 26 of 42 subjects, with the greatest magnitude observed for the responses to HERV-L. These HERV-specific T cell responses were inversely correlated with the HIV-1 plasma viral load and positively correlated with CD4(+) T cell counts. These data indicate that HERV-specific T cells may participate in controlling HIV-1 replication and that certain highly conserved HERV-derived proteins may serve as promising therapeutic vaccine targets in HIV-1-infected children. PMID:21880743

  18. Mechanistic insights on immunosenescence and chronic immune activation in HIV-tuberculosis co-infection.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Esaki M; Velu, Vijayakumar; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Larsson, Marie

    2015-02-12

    Immunosenescence is marked by accelerated degradation of host immune responses leading to the onset of opportunistic infections, where senescent T cells show remarkably higher ontogenic defects as compared to healthy T cells. The mechanistic association between T-cell immunosenescence and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression, and functional T-cell responses in HIV-tuberculosis (HIV-TB) co-infection remains to be elaborately discussed. Here, we discussed the association of immunosenescence and chronic immune activation in HIV-TB co-infection and reviewed the role played by mediators of immune deterioration in HIV-TB co-infection necessitating the importance of designing therapeutic strategies against HIV disease progression and pathogenesis. PMID:25674514

  19. Renal Leishmaniasis as Unusual Cause of Nephrotic Syndrome in an HIV Patient

    PubMed Central

    Bogdan, Christian; Harrer, Thomas; Rech, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    Renal involvement is a rare complication in HIV-1–infected patients leading to various pathologies and clinical symptoms. In addition to the classic HIV-1–associated nephropathy with collapsing-type focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and characteristic tubulocystic changes, which is more common in Afro-American than in Caucasian HIV-1 patients, immune complex GNs such as membranous GN and membranoproliferative GN are particularly common renal manifestations. Besides HIV-1 itself, a number of opportunistic infections may cause renal disease in HIV-1–infected patients. In this study, we report an unusual case of HIV-1 infection with a severe renal manifestation of systemic leishmaniasis that developed years after repeated visits to Mediterranean countries. The case presents several remarkable clinical, pathologic, and therapeutic aspects that may be important for daily clinical practice. PMID:22282598

  20. Salk's HIV immunogen: an immune-based therapy in human trials since 1988.

    PubMed

    Jonas Salk, the developer of the first polio vaccine, has created a therapeutic vaccine for HIV which helps the immune system fight disease progression. Salk uses inactivated HIV-1 virus combined with Incomplete Freund's Adjuvant (IFA) in the vaccine preparation. The resulting HIV-1 immunogen was first studied in 1987, and since then, 235 seropositive individuals have received inoculations without serious adverse effects. Data from the first 25 subjects indicate that immunization with the HIV-1 immunogen results in improvement of cell-mediated response against the virus, a slower increase in the amount of virus present, and a reduced rate of clinical progression. Subsequent studies also show that higher doses of immunogen may produce stronger cell-mediated responses and high HIV-DTH (delayed-type hypersensitivity responsiveness immunogen) is associated with better outcome. Additional trials of HIV-1 immunogen are awaiting Food and Drug Administration approval. PMID:11362152

  1. New Perspectives of HIV/AIDS Therapy Study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Da-Yong; Lu, Ting-Ren; Che, Jin-Yu; Wu, Hong-Ying; Xu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    HIV/AIDS (acquired immune deficient syndrome), a human infectious disease was once listed as the No. 1 disease killer in US (1993). After the invention of antiviral drug cocktails-high active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), most HIV-infected patients can survive much longer than with single antiviral drugs or vaccines alone. However, it turns out to be a chronic disease owing to being incapable to eradicate HIV from infectious patients. Furthermore, potential newly outbreak of HIV epidemics caused by widespread drug-resistance or viral mutations is still looming over the globe. In order to counteract these drawbacks and possibilities of HAART, many hurdles must be passed. More creative and revolutionary ideas and worldwide cooperation efforts among academics, drug developers and governmental funding bodies must be encouraged and promoted. In this perspective, many important drawbacks and weaknesses relating to HIV/AIDS therapies are outlined and possible future solutions are highlighted. PMID:25578060

  2. Molecular Mechanisms of Liver Fibrosis in HIV/HCV Coinfection

    PubMed Central

    Mastroianni, Claudio M.; Lichtner, Miriam; Mascia, Claudia; Zuccalà, Paola; Vullo, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in people coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Several studies have shown that HIV infection promotes accelerated HCV hepatic fibrosis progression, even with HIV replication under full antiretroviral control. The pathogenesis of accelerated hepatic fibrosis among HIV/HCV coinfected individuals is complex and multifactorial. The most relevant mechanisms involved include direct viral effects, immune/cytokine dysregulation, altered levels of matrix metalloproteinases and fibrosis biomarkers, increased oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis, HIV-associated gut depletion of CD4 cells, and microbial translocation. In addition, metabolic alterations, heavy alcohol use, as well drug use, may have a potential role in liver disease progression. Understanding the pathophysiology and regulation of liver fibrosis in HIV/HCV co-infection may lead to the development of therapeutic strategies for the management of all patients with ongoing liver disease. In this review, we therefore discuss the evidence and potential molecular mechanisms involved in the accelerated liver fibrosis seen in patients coinfected with HIV and HCV. PMID:24865485

  3. Care of HIV-infected patients in China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yun Zhen; Lu, Hong Zhou

    2005-01-01

    Compared with high infection areas of the world, the total HIV infection rate in China is relatively low. Nonetheless, because of China's vast territory and large population, the potential infection risk must be taken seriously. In the next few years, needle sharing among injection drug users will remain the most common route of transmission for the HIV/AIDS epidemic in China. Unprotected sex is gradually becoming a major route of transmission. China began to implement HAART in 1999 according to international standards. Prior to 2003, there were only about 150 HIV/AIDS patients were treated with HAART in some clinical trials and about 100 HIV/AIDS patients were treated by private sources. Results of those treatments are the scientific basis for development of the therapeutic strategies in China. In March of 2003, the Chinese government initiated China CARES program. In November of 2003, the Chinese Ministry of Health announced a national policy of free ARV treatment to all HIV+ Chinese citizens who were in poverty and required ARV therapy. There are total of 19,456 HIV/AIDS patients received free ARV drugs to date in 159 regions and 441 towns. Current challenges are how to follow-up and evaluate those patients in the clinical settings. The longer the therapy is postponed, the more side effects and the higher probability of drug resistance are going to occur. It remains unclear, therefore, when HAART regimen should be started in the HIV/AIDS population in China. PMID:16354564

  4. Targeting strategies for delivery of anti-HIV drugs.

    PubMed

    Ramana, Lakshmi Narashimhan; Anand, Appakkudal R; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari

    2014-10-28

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection remains a significant cause of mortality globally. Though antiretroviral therapy has significantly reduced AIDS-related morbidity and mortality, there are several drawbacks in the current therapy, including toxicity, drug-drug interactions, development of drug resistance, necessity for long-term drug therapy, poor bio-availability and lack of access to tissues and reservoirs. To circumvent these problems, recent anti-HIV therapeutic research has focused on improving drug delivery systems through drug delivery targeted specifically to host cells infected with HIV or could potentially get infected with HIV. In this regard, several surface molecules of both viral and host cell origin have been described in recent years, that would enable targeted drug delivery in HIV infection. In the present review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the need for novel drug delivery systems, and the successes and challenges in the identification of novel viral and host-cell molecules for the targeted drug delivery of anti-HIV drugs. Such targeted anti-retroviral drug delivery approaches could pave the way for effective treatment and eradication of HIV from the body. PMID:25119469

  5. [Use of darunavir in HIV-infected women during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Afonina, L Iu; Voronin, E E

    2013-01-01

    The use of antiretroviral drugs (ARVDs) in a mother and a child can reduce the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to less than 1%; therefore, highly active antiretroviral therapy is used in all pregnant women regardless of indications for HIV-infection treatment. The major requirements for choosing an ARVD to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission are its high safety for a pregnant woman, a fetus, and a baby and its high therapeutic efficacy. Clinical trials of darunavir (DRV) in adults and children have shown a high virologic response, good tolerance, and safety. Trials and observations have demonstrated the high efficacy and safety of a DRV when used in pregnant women. Pharmacokinetic studies in pregnant women have indicated the effective and well-tolerated concentration of a DRV when it is co-administered with low-dose ritonavir, which permits the use of a DRV for both the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission and the treatment of pregnant women who require antiretroviral therapy. The Russian clinical protocol "Use of ARVDs in the package of measures for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission" approved by the National Scientific Society of Infectiologists in 2013 recommends DRV as an alternative drug in antiretroviral therapy regimens for pregnant women to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission and to treat maternal HIV infection. PMID:24432610

  6. Therapeutic protein transduction of mammalian cells and mice by nucleic acid-free lentiviral nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corinne Aubel; Jens M. Kelm; David Greber; Valentin Djonov; Jean Bourhis; Wilfried Weber; Martin Fussenegger

    The straightforward production and dose-controlled administration of protein therapeutics remain major challenges for the biopharmaceutical manufacturing and gene therapy communities. Transgenes linked to HIV-1-derived vpr and pol-based protease cleav- age (PC) sequences were co-produced as chimeric fusion proteins in a lentivirus production setting, encapsidated and processed to fusion peptide-free native protein in pseudotyped lentivirions for intra- cellular delivery and therapeutic

  7. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Hepatotoxicity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... away without stopping the HIV medicine. What is hepatotoxicity? Hepatotoxicity means damage to the liver caused by ... be life threatening. What HIV medicines can cause hepatotoxicity? HIV medicines in the following drug classes can ...

  8. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Hyperlipidemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... levels: All HIV medicines in the protease inhibitor (PI) drug class . (HIV medicines are grouped into drug ... for all HIV medicines, including those in the PI drug class. Efavirenz (brand name: Sustiva), which belongs ...

  9. Foreign-Born Persons Diagnosed with HIV: Where are They From and Where Were They Infected?

    PubMed

    Wiewel, Ellen W; Torian, Lucia V; Hanna, David B; Bocour, Angelica; Shepard, Colin W

    2015-05-01

    We sought to calculate rates of HIV diagnoses by area of birth among foreign-born persons in a high-incidence US city with many immigrants, and determine probable place of HIV acquisition. Data from the New York City HIV surveillance registry and American Community Survey were used to calculate HIV diagnosis rates by area of birth and determine probable place of HIV acquisition among foreign-born diagnosed in 2006-2012. HIV diagnosis rates varied by area of birth and were highest among African-born persons; absolute numbers were highest among Caribbean-born persons. Probable place of acquisition was a foreign country for 23 % (from 9 % among Middle Easterners to 43 % among Africans), US for 61 % (from 34 % among Africans to 76 % among South Americans), and not possible to estimate for 16 %. HIV prevention and testing initiatives should take into account variability by foreign area of birth in HIV diagnosis rates and place of acquisition. PMID:25524308

  10. New therapeutic possibilities in primary invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Cady, B; Stone, M D; Wayne, J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Current therapy for small invasive breast cancer, particularly when discovered mammographically, was re-examined. Axillary dissection may be avoided when lymph node metastases incidence is low (< 10%) or when primary cancer features determine adjuvant therapy. Radiation therapy may be avoided when risk of recurrence is very low. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Recent studies by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program (SEER) have shown increases in small invasive breast cancers (< 1 cm) attributable to mammographic screening. The incidence of axillary metastases in mammographically discovered small cancers (< 1 cm) may be less than 10%. Follow-up data from the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project (BCDDP) indicate a disease-free survival rate exceeding 95% at 8 years if the cancer was discovered mammographically. METHODS: Maximum diameter and lymph node metastases of invasive breast cancer diagnosed between 1969 and 1988 were analyzed and compared to cases diagnosed between 1929 and 1968. One hundred thirty patients have been treated without either axillary dissection or radiation therapy since 1980. RESULTS: The mean and median diameters of invasive breast cancers decreased to 2.31 and 2.0 cm, respectively, between 1984 and 1988; 13% were less than 1 cm in diameter. Only 13% of patients had axillary metastases if the primary cancer was 1 cm or less in diameter in the last 10 years; 71% had only 1 or 2 nodes involved. Isolated local recurrence, total local recurrence, and distant metastases were unchanged when radiated and nonirradiated patients were compared. Axillary nodal recurrence was decreased in irradiated patients because the lower half of the axilla was treated. CONCLUSION: In selected patients with very small invasive breast cancers detected by mammography, breast conservation without axillary dissection or radiation therapy may be used. Entirely outpatient treatment markedly reduces morbidity and cost, and furthers the gains from screening programs. PMID:8373276

  11. Analysis Using TCGA Data Identifies New Therapeutic Possibility

    Cancer.gov

    Research conducted by Wei Zhang, Ph.D. and his colleagues describing a method to prevent the spread of ovarian cancer in both in-vitro and in-vivo models was published in the Feb. 11, 2013 issue of Cancer Cell. Ovarian cancer develops in the tissues of one or both ovaries, which are situated in the abdominal cavity and buffered by peritoneal fluid.

  12. USING ART IN NARRATIVE THERAPY: ENHANCING THERAPEUTIC POSSIBILITIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas D. Carlson

    1997-01-01

    Narrative therapy attempts to help families “reauthor” their lives through a process of externalization, unique outcomes, and performance before an audience. The interventions in this model are accomplished mostly through language. This may make narrative therapy a complicated process for many therapists and clients. The purpose of this article is to show how applying art therapy techniques to the basic

  13. Towards Combination HIV Prevention for Injection Drug Users: Addressing Addictophobia, Apathy and Inattention

    PubMed Central

    Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Shoptaw, Steven; Dyer, Typhanye Penniman; Quan, Vu Minh; Aramrattana, Apinun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the review Recent breakthroughs in HIV-prevention science led us to evaluate the current state of combination HIV-prevention for injection drug users (IDUs). We review the recent literature focusing on possible reasons why coverage of prevention interventions for HIV, HCV and tuberculosis among IDUs remains dismal. We make recommendations for future HIV research and policy. Recent findings IDUs disproportionately under-utilize VCT, primary care and ART, especially in countries that have the largest burden of HIV among IDUs. IDUs present later in the course of HIV infection and experience greater morbidity and mortality. Why are IDUs under-represented in HIV-prevention research, access to treatment for both HIV and addiction, and access to HIV combination prevention? Possible explanations include addictophobia, apathy, and inattention, which we describe in the context of recent literature and events. Summary This commentary discusses the current state of HIV-prevention interventions for IDUs including, VCT, NSP, OST, ART and PrEP, and discusses ways to work towards true combination HIV-prevention for IDU populations. Communities need to overcome tacit assumptions that IDUs can navigate through systems that are maintained as separate silos, and take a rights-based approach to HIV-prevention to ensure that IDUs have equitable access to life-saving prevention and treatments. PMID:22498479

  14. HTLV-1/-2 and HIV-1 co-infections: retroviral interference on host immune status

    PubMed Central

    Pilotti, Elisabetta; Bianchi, Maria V.; De Maria, Andrea; Bozzano, Federica; Romanelli, Maria G.; Bertazzoni, Umberto; Casoli, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    The human retroviruses HIV-1 and HTLV-1/HTLV-2 share similar routes of transmission but cause significantly different diseases. In this review we have outlined the immune mediated mechanisms by which HTLVs affect HIV-1 disease in co-infected hosts. During co-infection with HIV-1, HTLV-2 modulates the cellular microenvironment favoring its own viability and inhibiting HIV-1 progression. This is achieved when the HTLV-2 proviral load is higher than that of HIV-1, and thanks to the ability of HTLV-2 to: (i) up-regulate viral suppressive CCL3L1 chemokine expression; (ii) overcome HIV-1 capacity to activate the JAK/STAT pathway; (iii) reduce the activation of T and NK cells; (iv) modulate the host miRNA profiles. These alterations of immune functions have been mainly attributed to the effects of the HTLV-2 regulatory protein Tax and suggest that HTLV-2 exerts a protective role against HIV-1 infection. Contrary to HIV-1/HTLV-2, the effect of HIV-1/HTLV-1 co-infection on immunological and pathological conditions is still controversial. There is evidence that indicates a worsening of HIV-1 infection, while other evidence does not show clinically relevant effects in HIV-positive people. Possible differences on innate immune mechanisms and a particularly impact on NK cells are becoming evident. The differences between the two HIV-1/HTLV-1 and HIV-1/HTLV-2 co-infections are highlighted and further discussed. PMID:24391628

  15. HIV-1 Induced Nuclear Factor I-B (NF-IB) Expression Negatively Regulates HIV-1 Replication through Interaction with the Long Terminal Repeat Region

    PubMed Central

    Vemula, Sai Vikram; Veerasamy, Ravichandran; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Biswas, Santanu; Devadas, Krishnakumar; Hewlett, Indira

    2015-01-01

    Background: Retroviruses rely on host factors for cell entry, replication, transcription, and other major steps during their life cycle. Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) is well known for utilizing a plethora of strategies to evade the host immune response, including the establishment of latent infection within a subpopulation of susceptible cells. HIV-1 also manipulates cellular factors in latently infected cells and persists for long periods of time, despite the presence of successful highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Results: In this study we demonstrate that Nuclear Factor-IB (NF-IB) is induced during HIV-1 infection and its expression negatively impacts viral replication. During HIV-1 infection in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and the T cell line, Jurkat or during induction of virus replication in latently infected cells, ACH2 and J1.1, we observed a time-dependent alteration in NF-IB expression pattern that correlated with HIV-1 viral expression. Using the Chip assay, we observed an association of NF-IB with the long terminal repeat region of HIV-1 (LTR) (-386 to -453 nt), and this association negatively correlated with HIV-1 transcription. Furthermore, knock-down of NF-IB levels in J1.1 cells resulted in an increase of HIV-1 levels. Knock-down of NF-IB levels in J-Lat-Tat-GFP (A1), (a Jurkat cell GFP reporter model for latent HIV-1 infection) resulted in an increase in GFP levels, indicating a potential negative regulatory role of NF-IB in HIV-1 replication. Conclusion: Overall, our results suggest that NF-IB may play a role in intrinsic antiretroviral defenses against HIV-1. These observations may offer new insights into the correlation of the latently infected host cell types and HIV-1, and help to define new therapeutic approaches for triggering the switch from latency to active replication thereby eliminating HIV-1 latent infection. PMID:25664610

  16. Haematological abnormalities in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease.

    PubMed Central

    Costello, C

    1988-01-01

    Peripheral blood and bone marrow changes are commonly seen in disease associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This annotation aims to summarise these changes and to suggest possible factors entailed in their occurrence. PMID:3045157

  17. Review of HIV Testing Efforts in Historically Black Churches.

    PubMed

    Pichon, Latrice Crystal; Powell, Terrinieka Williams

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to critically assess the state of HIV testing in African American churches. A comprehensive review of peer-reviewed publications on HIV testing in church-based settings was conducted by two independent coders. Twenty-six papers published between 1991 and 2015, representing 24 unique projects, were identified addressing at least one dimension of HIV testing. Thirteen faith-based projects have implemented HIV testing events or had clergy promote the importance of testing and knowing one's HIV status, but empirical data and rigorous study designs were limited. Only eight papers reported onsite HIV testing in churches. Less than 5% of the studies reported the percentage of congregants who returned for their test results. Finally, no study has examined at baseline or post-intervention behavioral intentions to be screened for HIV. Future research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of HIV testing in churches and to explore the possibilities of the role of the church and leadership structure in the promotion of HIV treatment and care. PMID:26030470

  18. Antiviral agents and HIV prevention: controversies, conflicts, and consensus

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Myron S.; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Smith, M. Kumi; Powers, Kimberly A.; Kashuba, Angela D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Antiviral agents can be used to prevent HIV transmission before exposure as preexpo-sure prophylaxis (PrEP), after exposure as postexposure prophylaxis, and as treatment of infected people for secondary prevention. Considerable research has shed new light on antiviral agents for PrEP and for prevention of secondary HIV transmission. While promising results have emerged from several PrEP trials, the challenges of poor adherence among HIV-negative clients and possible increase in sexual risk behaviors remain a concern. In addition, a broader pipeline of antiviral agents for PrEP that focuses on genital tract pharmacology and safety and resistance issues must be developed. Antiretroviral drugs have also been used to prevent HIV transmission from HIV-infected patients to their HIV-discordant sexual partners. The HIV Prevention Trials Network 052 trial demonstrated nearly complete prevention of HIV transmission by early treatment of infection, but the generalizability of the results to other risk groups – including intravenous drug users and MSM – has not been determined. Most importantly, the best strategy for use of antiretroviral agents to reduce the spread of HIV at either the individual level or the population level has not been developed, and remains the ultimate goal of this area of investigation. PMID:22507927

  19. Review of HIV Testing Efforts in Historically Black Churches

    PubMed Central

    Pichon, Latrice Crystal; Powell, Terrinieka Williams

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to critically assess the state of HIV testing in African American churches. A comprehensive review of peer-reviewed publications on HIV testing in church-based settings was conducted by two independent coders. Twenty-six papers published between 1991 and 2015, representing 24 unique projects, were identified addressing at least one dimension of HIV testing. Thirteen faith-based projects have implemented HIV testing events or had clergy promote the importance of testing and knowing one’s HIV status, but empirical data and rigorous study designs were limited. Only eight papers reported onsite HIV testing in churches. Less than 5% of the studies reported the percentage of congregants who returned for their test results. Finally, no study has examined at baseline or post-intervention behavioral intentions to be screened for HIV. Future research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of HIV testing in churches and to explore the possibilities of the role of the church and leadership structure in the promotion of HIV treatment and care. PMID:26030470

  20. HIV/AIDS, conflict and security in Africa: rethinking relationships

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The effect of conflict on HIV transmission and regional and global security has been the subject of much recent discussion and debate. Many long held assumptions regarding these relationships are being reconsidered. Conflict has long been assumed to contribute significantly to the spread of HIV infection. However, new research is casting doubt on this assumption. Studies from Africa suggest that conflict does not necessarily predispose to HIV transmission and indeed, there is evidence to suggest that recovery in the "post-conflict" state is potentially dangerous from the standpoint of HIV transmission. As well, refugee populations have been previously considered as highly infected vectors of HIV transmission. But in light of new investigation this belief is also being reconsidered. There has additionally been concern that high rates of HIV infection among many of the militaries of sub-Saharan Africa poses a threat to regional security. However, data is lacking on both dramatically elevated prevalence amongst soldiers and a possible negative effect on regional security. Nevertheless, HIV/AIDS remain a serious threat to population health and economic well being in this region. These issues are of vital importance for HIV programming and health sector development in conflict and "post-conflict" societies and will constitute formidable challenges to the international community. Further research is required to better inform the discussion of HIV, conflict, and security in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:19014653

  1. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

  2. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home » HIV/AIDS » Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) — the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) — has been with us for three decades now. ...

  3. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  4. HIV/AIDS Statistics Overview

    MedlinePLUS

    ... expenditure data from the Kaiser Family Foundation. International Statistics HIV disease continues to be a serious health ... impact. Other resources for international HIV and AIDS statistics: For information on international HIV infection and AIDS ...

  5. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in HIV infection and disease.

    PubMed

    Chrousos, George P; Zapanti, Evangelia D

    2014-09-01

    HIV infection induces hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis derangements. Partial glucocorticoid resistance has been observed in a subset of AIDS patients, possibly owing to HIV-induced altered cytokine secretion and action. Because glucocorticoids have immunomodulatory effects, the severity of the HPA axis disorder could play a central role in disease progression. The characteristic phenotype of AIDS patients (visceral obesity, lipodystrophy) may be owing to effects of HIV proteins on the HPA axis, including changes in glucocorticoid and insulin sensitivity of target tissues, as well as altered cytokine production and interaction with the HPA axis, genetic causes, comorbidities, and, possibly, use of antiretroviral agents. PMID:25169568

  6. Skin Metabolism in Transdermal Therapeutic Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Hikima; K. Tojo; H. I. Maibach

    2005-01-01

    Skin has at least two barriers with protective functions: the stratum corneum physical barrier and a biochemical barrier in the epidermis and dermis. Numerous chemical and physical enhancers exist for transdermal therapeutic systems; some cause irritation, and possibly influence enzyme deactivation. Knowledge of enzymatic skin reactions is important for developing safe and efficacious transdermal systems for treatment not only of

  7. Detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in Pools of Sera Negative for Antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2

    PubMed Central

    Morandi, Pierre-Alain; Schockmel, Gérard A.; Yerly, Sabine; Burgisser, Philippe; Erb, Peter; Matter, Lukas; Sitavanc, Radan; Perrin, Luc

    1998-01-01

    A total of 234 pools were prepared from 10,692 consecutive serum samples negative for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 collected at five virological laboratories (average pool size, 45 serum samples). Pools were screened for the presence of HIV-1 RNA by a modified commercial assay (Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor test) which included an additional polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation step prior to purification of viral RNA (PEG Amplicor assay). The sensitivity of this assay for HIV-1 RNA detection in individual serum samples within pools matches that of standard commercial assays for individual serum samples, i.e., 500 HIV-1 RNA copies per ml. Five pools were identified as positive, and each one contained one antibody-negative, HIV-1 RNA-positive serum sample, corresponding to an average of 1 infected sample per 2,138 serum samples. Retrospective analysis revealed that the five HIV-1 RNA-positive specimens originated from individuals who had symptomatic primary HIV-1 infection at the time of sample collection and who were also positive for p24 antigenemia. We next assessed the possibility of performing the prepurification step by high-speed centrifugation (50,000 × g for 80 min) of 1.5-ml pools containing 25 ?l of 60 individual serum samples, of which only 1 contained HIV-1 RNA (centrifugation Amplicor assay). The sensitivity of this assay also matches the sensitivities of standard commercial assays for HIV-1 RNA detection in individual serum samples. The results demonstrate that both assays with pooled sera can be applied to the screening of large numbers of serum samples in a time- and cost-efficient manner. PMID:9620372

  8. Kinetics of HIV-1 CTL Epitopes Recognized by HLA I Alleles in HIV-Infected Individuals at Times near Primary Infection: The Provir/Latitude45 Study

    PubMed Central

    Papuchon, Jennifer; Pinson, Patricia; Guidicelli, Gwenda-Line; Bellecave, Pantxika; Thomas, Réjean; LeBlanc, Roger; Reigadas, Sandrine; Taupin, Jean-Luc; Baril, Jean Guy; Routy, Jean Pierre; Wainberg, Mark; Fleury, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    In patients responding successfully to ART, the next therapeutic step is viral cure. An interesting strategy is antiviral vaccination, particularly involving CD8 T cell epitopes. However, attempts at vaccination are dependent on the immunogenetic background of individuals. The Provir/Latitude 45 project aims to investigate which CTL epitopes in proviral HIV-1 will be recognized by the immune system when HLA alleles are taken into consideration. A prior study (Papuchon et al, PLoS ONE 2013) showed that chronically-infected patients under successful ART exhibited variations of proviral CTL epitopes compared to a reference viral strain (HXB2) and that a generic vaccine may not be efficient. Here, we investigated viral and/or proviral CTL epitopes at different time points in recently infected individuals of the Canadian primary HIV infection cohort and assessed the affinity of these epitopes for HLA alleles during the study period. An analysis of the results confirms that it is not possible to fully predict which epitopes will be recognized by the HLA alleles of the patients if the reference sequences and epitopes are taken as the basis of simulation. Epitopes may be seen to vary in circulating RNA and proviral DNA. Despite this confirmation, the overall variability of the epitopes was low in these patients who are temporally close to primary infection. PMID:24964202

  9. Kinetics of HIV-1 CTL epitopes recognized by HLA I alleles in HIV-infected individuals at times near primary infection: the Provir/Latitude45 study.

    PubMed

    Papuchon, Jennifer; Pinson, Patricia; Guidicelli, Gwenda-Line; Bellecave, Pantxika; Thomas, Réjean; LeBlanc, Roger; Reigadas, Sandrine; Taupin, Jean-Luc; Baril, Jean Guy; Routy, Jean Pierre; Wainberg, Mark; Fleury, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    In patients responding successfully to ART, the next therapeutic step is viral cure. An interesting strategy is antiviral vaccination, particularly involving CD8 T cell epitopes. However, attempts at vaccination are dependent on the immunogenetic background of individuals. The Provir/Latitude 45 project aims to investigate which CTL epitopes in proviral HIV-1 will be recognized by the immune system when HLA alleles are taken into consideration. A prior study (Papuchon et al, PLoS ONE 2013) showed that chronically-infected patients under successful ART exhibited variations of proviral CTL epitopes compared to a reference viral strain (HXB2) and that a generic vaccine may not be efficient. Here, we investigated viral and/or proviral CTL epitopes at different time points in recently infected individuals of the Canadian primary HIV infection cohort and assessed the affinity of these epitopes for HLA alleles during the study period. An analysis of the results confirms that it is not possible to fully predict which epitopes will be recognized by the HLA alleles of the patients if the reference sequences and epitopes are taken as the basis of simulation. Epitopes may be seen to vary in circulating RNA and proviral DNA. Despite this confirmation, the overall variability of the epitopes was low in these patients who are temporally close to primary infection. PMID:24964202

  10. Heme Oxygenase-1 Dysregulation in the Brain: Implications for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ambegaokar, Surendra S; Kolson, Dennis L

    2014-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a highly inducible and ubiquitous cellular enzyme that subserves cytoprotective responses to toxic insults, including inflammation and oxidative stress. In neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis, HO-1 expression is increased, presumably reflecting an endogenous neuroprotective response against ongoing cellular injury. In contrast, we have found that in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of the brain, which is also associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and neurodegeneration, HO-1 expression is decreased, likely reflecting a unique role for HO-1 deficiency in neurodegeneration pathways activated by HIV infection. We have also shown that HO-1 expression is significantly suppressed by HIV replication in cultured macrophages which represent the primary cellular reservoir for HIV in the brain. HO-1 deficiency is associated with release of neurotoxic levels of glutamate from both HIV-infected and immune-activated macrophages; this glutamate-mediated neurotoxicity is suppressed by pharmacological induction of HO-1 expression in the macrophages. Thus, HO-1 induction could be a therapeutic strategy for neuroprotection against HIV infection and other neuroinflammatory brain diseases. Here, we review various stimuli and signaling pathways regulating HO-1 expression in macrophages, which could promote neuronal survival through HO-1-modulation of endogenous antioxidant and immune modulatory pathways, thus limiting the oxidative stress that can promote HIV disease progression in the CNS. The use of pharmacological inducers of endogenous HO-1 expression as potential adjunctive neuroprotective therapeutics in HIV infection is also discussed. PMID:24862327

  11. HIV\\/AIDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Heinz; Th. Poehlke; H. Stöver

    \\u000a Erreger der Immunschwächekrankheit ist das Retrovirus HIV (Human Immune Deficiency Virus). Es werden dabei die Virustypen\\u000a HIV-1 und HIV-2 unterschieden. Sie variieren in Häufigkeit und Ausprägung. Das HI-Virus gehört zu den sog. RNS-haltigen Retroviren,\\u000a die das Enzym Reverse Transkriptase besitzen und danach benannt sind. Das Virus ist lymphozytotrop und neurotrop, d. h., das\\u000a Immun- und Nervensystem wird direkt geschädigt. Der

  12. Modeling an HIV Particle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-05-15

    This activity helps learners visualize the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) by constructing three-dimensional HIV particle models from paper. The model to be used is a 20-sided polyhedron (icosahedron) and represents a complete viral particle. Learners combine their finished models into one mass. This is a first step toward estimating how many HIV particles could be contained inside a white blood cell before being released into the blood stream to attack new cells.

  13. HIV risk assessment and prevention in lesbians and women who have sex with women: Practical information for clinicians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jocelyn C. White

    1997-01-01

    Clinicians care for lesbians and women sexually active with women (WSWs) routinely in the course of practice. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention now believe that there are small but significant numbers of lesbians with HIV infection and that woman?to?woman transmission of HIV is possible. Although the risk of HIV transmission between women, although underreported, is probably low, clinicians

  14. Antimicrobial peptides: therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijuan; Falla, Timothy J

    2006-04-01

    A significant component of the innate immune system of a wide variety of animals and plants is arbitrated by cationic host defence peptides. In man, these peptides, in addition to exhibiting a direct antimicrobial activity, seems to provide a range of non-antimicrobial bioactivities related to defence, inflammation and wound healing. Despite the fact that such peptides have so far failed to reach the market, there are continued initiatives to advance such potential therapeutics to, and through, the clinic. The reasons behind such initiatives include: reduced manufacturing costs for peptides; allowing entry into therapeutic areas previously inaccessible due to cost; the continued identification of previously unknown bioactivities of such peptides; and the resurgence of interest in peptide therapeutics. As a result, clinical programmes based on cationic host defence peptides exist in the areas of infection, dermatology, cancer and inflammation. The probability of clinical success for host defence peptide-based therapeutics is on the rise as options for a wider range of clinical indications emerge. PMID:16556083

  15. Aptamers as therapeutics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony D. Keefe; Supriya Pai; Andrew Ellington

    2010-01-01

    Nucleic acid aptamers can be selected from pools of random-sequence oligonucleotides to bind a wide range of biomedically relevant proteins with affinities and specificities that are comparable to antibodies. Aptamers exhibit significant advantages relative to protein therapeutics in terms of size, synthetic accessibility and modification by medicinal chemistry. Despite these properties, aptamers have been slow to reach the marketplace, with

  16. Psychopathy and therapeutic pessimism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randall T Salekin

    2002-01-01

    It is a widely held belief that psychopathic individuals are extremely difficult to treat, if not immune to treatment. This therapeutic pessimism is pervasive and undermines motivation to search for effective modes of intervention for psychopathic individuals. A review of 42 treatment studies on psychopathy revealed that there is little scientific basis for the belief that psychopathy is an untreatable

  17. Therapeutic laparoscopy in trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Stephen Smith; William R. Fry; Diane J. Morabito; Richard H. Koehler; Claude H. Organ

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the therapeutic potential of emergent laparoscopy in the trauma setting, a retrospective review was performed in a busy urban trauma center.Patients and methods: Between December 1991 and October 1993, 133 hemodynamically stable patients with suspected abdominal injury were evaluated laparoscopically. All laparoscopic procedures were performed in the operating room under general anesthesia. Mechanism of injury was stab

  18. Developing Therapeutic Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Billy; Prior, Seamus

    2013-01-01

    We present an experience-near account of the development of therapeutic listening in first year counselling students. A phenomenological approach was employed to articulate the trainees' lived experiences of their learning. Six students who had just completed a one-year postgraduate certificate in counselling skills were interviewed and the…

  19. Therapeutic Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas E. Albers; Andreas M. Kaufmann

    2009-01-01

    Despite impressive progress in prevention and therapy of premalignant and malignant dysplasia the worldwide burden of cancer is relatively unchanged. Supplementation of the therapeutic arsenal by immunotherapeutic methods would have the potential to make a significant impact. Dysplastic lesions and cancer of the cervix show strong association with human papillomaviruses (HPV), as do tumours of other mucosal epithelia like squamous

  20. HIV-specific CD8+ T cells from HIV+ individuals receiving HAART can be expanded ex vivo to augment systemic and mucosal immunity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chapuis, Aude G; Casper, Corey; Kuntz, Steve; Zhu, Jia; Tjernlund, Annelie; Diem, Kurt; Turtle, Cameron J; Cigal, Melinda L; Velez, Roxanne; Riddell, Stanley; Corey, Lawrence; Greenberg, Philip D

    2011-05-19

    Most HIV+ individuals require lifelong highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to suppress HIV replication, but fail to eliminate the virus in part because of residual replication in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). Naturally elicited HIV-specific CD8+ T cells generated in the acute and chronic infectious phases exhibit antiviral activity, but decrease in number after HAART. Therapeutic vaccines represent a potential strategy to expand cellular responses, although previous efforts have been largely unsuccessful, conceivably because of a lack of responding HIV-specific central-memory CD8+ T cells (Tcm). To determine whether patients receiving HAART possess CD8+ T cells with Tcm qualities that are amenable to augmentation, HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell clones were derived from HIV-reactive CD28+CD8+ T-cell lines isolated from 7 HIV+ HAART-treated patients, expanded ex vivo, and reinfused into their autologous host. Tracking of the cells in vivo revealed that clones could persist for ? 84 days, maintain expression and/or re-express CD28, up-regulate CD62L, secrete IL-2, proliferate on cognate Ag encounter and localize to the rectal mucosa. These results suggest some infused cells exhibited phenotypic and functional characteristics shared with Tcm in vivo, and imply that more effective therapeutic vaccination strategies targeting CD8+ Tcm in patients on HAART might provide hosts with expanded, long-lasting immune responses not only systemically but also in GALT. PMID:21422474

  1. Hospital treatment of HIV patients.

    PubMed

    Ola, Samuel Olawale

    2006-12-01

    Treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria has progressed from the stage of inactivity, unconcern, abandonment and neglect to the present stage of holistic care involving treatment of the infection with Highly Active Anti Retroviral Agents, complications of the disease and side effects of antiretroviral therapy as well as that of human behavioural responses towards the disease with hope and promising outcome. The goal of the treatment is to prolong the patient's life while maintaining the best possible quality of health and life. It is now a continuum of care between the hospital and the different sectors of the community. Hospital treatment of patients with HIV-AIDS is complex and yet a simple task if there is healthy interaction of the patients and health care providers in a milieu of well equipped hospital setting with available treatment facilities for proper management of diseases. Similarly, for the care to achieve its goal, it requires a joint participation of the community and the commitment of the government not only on curtailment of the reservoir of HIV infection by antiretroviral therapy but total eradication of diseases, poverty and ignorance in all its entirety. PMID:18050774

  2. [New therapeutic trends in AIDS].

    PubMed

    Perno, C F; Caliò, R

    1992-02-01

    In this paper we describe the current status of the chemotherapy of HIV-related disease, and the newly emerging approaches to this problem. Azidothymidine, the first anti-HIV drug, is now used by thousands of patients with AIDS, and is able to induce a substantial improvement of their clinical status. However, due to its toxicity and its very limited activity against HIV replication in chronically infected cells (the natural reservoir of the virus in the body), it is crucial that new drugs be developed. A number of compounds belonging to the dideoxynucleoside family (the same of AZT) have been synthesized and used in HIV-infected patients, with promising results. Nevertheless, new compounds with different mechanisms of action, and with excellent anti-HIV efficacy need to be developed, particularly those that can inhibit the late stages of HIV replication. This will permit a polychemotherapeutic approach against HIV infection that, as in the case of anticancer chemotherapy, has conceivably better chances to be effective in patients with HIV-related disease. PMID:1314726

  3. HCV versus HIV drug discovery: Déjà vu all over again?

    PubMed

    Watkins, William J; Desai, Manoj C

    2013-04-15

    Efforts to address HIV infection have been highly successful, enabling chronic suppression of viral replication with once-daily regimens. More recent research into HCV therapeutics have also resulted in very promising clinical candidates. This Digest explores similarities and differences in the two fields and compares the chronology of drug discovery relative to the availability of enabling tools, and concludes that safe and convenient, once-daily regimens are likely to reach approval much more rapidly for HCV than was the case for HIV. PMID:23489621

  4. HIV/AIDS associated malignancies of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Bunn, B K; van Heerden, W F P

    2012-11-01

    Patients with HIV/AIDS are at increased risk for the development of malignancy. Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and cervical carcinoma in women are regarded as AIDS-defining malignancies. The spectrum of malignancy is, however, changing, particularly where patients receive highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). South Africa has the highest number of HIV-infected individuals globally. The possibility of the oral health care worker encountering HIV/AIDS-related pathology therefore seems inevitable. The aim of this article is to heighten the awareness of head and neck malignancies occurring in HIV/AIDS whilst highlighting some of the clinical features in order to facilitate early recognition and diagnosis. It is of clinical significance that in many instances, identification of these malignancies precedes HIV/AIDS diagnosis. Optimal patient management requires close co-operation between the oral health care practitioner and the extended health care team. PMID:23957103

  5. Challenges in implementing HIV laboratory monitoring in resource-constrained settings: how to do more with less.

    PubMed

    Bélec, Laurent; Bonn, Jean-Paul

    2011-11-01

    Laboratory monitoring for HIV disease in resource-limited settings has now become one of the key challenges for antiretroviral treatment (ART) access and success, as emphasized by the 2010 revised WHO guidelines for ART in resource-limited settings. Thus, the most common method for initiating ART, and monitoring treatment response in resource-constrained environments is the measurement of CD4 T-cell count. Affordable CD4 T-cell counting has gradually been made possible by using simple, compact and robust, low-cost, new-generation cytometers, operating as single-platform volumetric instruments. Several cost-effective point-of-care CD4 T-cell testing options are also already on the market, in order to improve access to CD4 T-cell monitoring, especially for rural patients, and to reduce loss-to-follow-up of patients. In addition, HIV RNA viral load measurement is becoming increasingly important, mainly for a systematic confirmation of first-line ART failure before switching to second-line treatment to avoid belated as well as premature therapeutic decisions and their potentially negative consequences. Viral load testing should now be considered as the standard of care for therapeutic failure in all resource-limited settings. However, the measurement of HIV viral load remains a centralized marker, carried out in a limited number of reference laboratories. Finally, the costs of second-line ART regimens, rather than the laboratory test costs themselves, currently constitute the primary determinant of the total cost in ART switching. Laboratory monitoring strategies may become more attractive as price negotiations render second-line ART regimens less expensive worldwide. PMID:22082287

  6. HERV-K-specific T cells eliminate diverse HIV-1/2 and SIV primary isolates.

    PubMed

    Jones, R Brad; Garrison, Keith E; Mujib, Shariq; Mihajlovic, Vesna; Aidarus, Nasra; Hunter, Diana V; Martin, Eric; John, Vivek M; Zhan, Wei; Faruk, Nabil F; Gyenes, Gabor; Sheppard, Neil C; Priumboom-Brees, Ingrid M; Goodwin, David A; Chen, Lianchun; Rieger, Melanie; Muscat-King, Sophie; Loudon, Peter T; Stanley, Cole; Holditch, Sara J; Wong, Jessica C; Clayton, Kiera; Duan, Erick; Song, Haihan; Xu, Yang; SenGupta, Devi; Tandon, Ravi; Sacha, Jonah B; Brockman, Mark A; Benko, Erika; Kovacs, Colin; Nixon, Douglas F; Ostrowski, Mario A

    2012-12-01

    The genetic diversity of HIV-1 represents a major challenge in vaccine development. In this study, we establish a rationale for eliminating HIV-1-infected cells by targeting cellular immune responses against stable human endogenous retroviral (HERV) antigens. HERV DNA sequences in the human genome represent the remnants of ancient infectious retroviruses. We show that the infection of CD4+ T cells with HIV-1 resulted in transcription of the HML-2 lineage of HERV type K [HERV-K(HML-2)] and the expression of Gag and Env proteins. HERV-K(HML-2)-specific CD8+ T cells obtained from HIV-1-infected human subjects responded to HIV-1-infected cells in a Vif-dependent manner in vitro. Consistent with the proposed mode of action, a HERV-K(HML-2)-specific CD8+ T cell clone exhibited comprehensive elimination of cells infected with a panel of globally diverse HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV isolates in vitro. We identified a second T cell response that exhibited cross-reactivity between homologous HIV-1-Pol and HERV-K(HML-2)-Pol determinants, raising the possibility that homology between HIV-1 and HERVs plays a role in shaping, and perhaps enhancing, the T cell response to HIV-1. This justifies the consideration of HERV-K(HML-2)-specific and cross-reactive T cell responses in the natural control of HIV-1 infection and for exploring HERV-K(HML-2)-targeted HIV-1 vaccines and immunotherapeutics. PMID:23143309

  7. HIV infection among homosexual/bisexual males attending genitourinary clinics in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, D.; Scott, G.; Weir, M.; Cameron, S.; Peutherer, J.; McMillan, A.; Leadbetter, G.; Scoular, A.; Codere, G.; Allardice, G.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since 1991, unlinked anonymous HIV testing of homosexual/bisexual males attending genitourinary clinics in Edinburgh and Glasgow has been conducted and resulting prevalence data have been published annually. More detailed information which provides an understanding of what proportion of HIV infected men attending genitourinary clinics in central Scotland (i) remain undetected, (ii) acquire sexually transmitted infections following HIV diagnosis, and (iii) possibly become HIV infected either abroad or following sex with someone from abroad, is reported by the authors. METHODS: Unlinked anonymous HIV testing of syphilis serology specimens from homosexual/bisexual males attending genitourinary clinics during 1991-5. RESULTS: Of 3468 specimens tested, 165 (4.8%) were HIV positive. Thirty five per cent (57) of all HIV positive specimens were from men whose infection remained undetected following clinic attendance. Of the 80 attenders who knew themselves to be HIV positive before their clinic visit, 13 had clinical and/or laboratory evidence of a sexually transmitted infection. Men who had a sexual risk associated with America or who were American, had a 2.4-fold greater risk of being HIV infected than those with United Kingdom only connections. CONCLUSION: Increased efforts should be made to ensure that HIV infected men are diagnosed early after infection and do not engage in high risk sexual behaviour, and that all homosexual men are educated about the particular risks of acquiring HIV infection abroad. More effective interventions to prevent indigenous HIV transmissions need to be developed. ??? PMID:9849553

  8. Inhibitory effect of aqueous dandelion extract on HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), is an immunosuppressive disease that results in life-threatening opportunistic infections. The general problems in current therapy include the constant emergence of drug-resistant HIV strains, adverse side effects and the unavailability of treatments in developing countries. Natural products from herbs with the abilities to inhibit HIV-1 life cycle at different stages, have served as excellent sources of new anti-HIV-1 drugs. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-HIV-1 activity of aqueous dandelion extract. Methods The pseudotyped HIV-1 virus has been utilized to explore the anti-HIV-1 activity of dandelion, the level of HIV-1 replication was assessed by the percentage of GFP-positive cells. The inhibitory effect of the dandelion extract on reverse transcriptase activity was assessed by the reverse transcriptase assay kit. Results Compared to control values obtained from cells infected without treatment, the level of HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. The data suggest that dandelion extract has a potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity. The identification of HIV-1 antiviral compounds from Taraxacum officinale should be pursued. Conclusions The dandelion extract showed strong activity against HIV-1 RT and inhibited both the HIV-1 vector and the hybrid-MoMuLV/MoMuSV retrovirus replication. These findings provide additional support for the potential therapeutic efficacy of Taraxacum officinale. Extracts from this plant may be regarded as another starting point for the development of an antiretroviral therapy with fewer side effects. PMID:22078030

  9. Cardiac effects in perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children and adolescents: a view from the United States of America

    PubMed Central

    Lipshultz, Steven E; Miller, Tracie L; Wilkinson, James D; Scott, Gwendolyn B; Somarriba, Gabriel; Cochran, Thomas R; Fisher, Stacy D

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a primary cause of acquired heart disease, particularly of accelerated atherosclerosis, symptomatic heart failure, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Cardiac complications often occur in late-stage HIV infections as prolonged viral infection is becoming more relevant as longevity improves. Thus, multi-agent HIV therapies that help sustain life may also increase the risk of cardiovascular events and accelerated atherosclerosis. Discussion Before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the two-to-five-year incidence of symptomatic heart failure ranged from 4 to 28% in HIV patients. Patients both before and after HAART also frequently have asymptomatic abnormalities in cardiovascular structure. Echocardiographic measurements indicate left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction in 18%, LV hypertrophy in 6.5%, and left atrial dilation in 40% of patients followed on HAART therapy. Diastolic dysfunction is also common in long-term survivors of HIV infection. Accelerated atherosclerosis has been found in HIV-infected young adults and children without traditional coronary risk factors. Infective endocarditis, although rare in children, has high mortality in late-stage AIDS patients with poor nutritional status and severely compromised immune systems. Although lymphomas have been found in HIV-infected children, the incidence is low and cardiac malignancy is rare. Rates of congenital cardiovascular malformations range from 5.6 to 8.9% in cohorts of HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected children with HIV-infected mothers. In non-HIV-infected infants born to HIV-infected mothers, foetal exposure to ART is associated with reduced LV dimension, LV mass, and septal wall thickness and with higher LV fractional shortening and contractility during the first two years of life. Conclusions Routine, systematic, and comprehensive cardiac evaluation, including a thorough history and directed laboratory assays, is essential for the care of HIV-infected adults and children as cardiovascular illness has become a part of care for long-term survivors of HIV infection. The history should include traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, prior opportunistic infections, environmental exposures, and therapeutic and illicit drug use. Laboratory tests should include a lipid profile, fasting glucose, and HIV viral load. Asymptomatic cardiac disease related to HIV can be fatal, and secondary effects of HIV infection often disguise cardiac symptoms, so systematic echocardiographic monitoring is warranted. PMID:23782480

  10. Negotiating Risk: Knowledge and Use of HIV Prevention by Persons With Serious Mental Illness Living in Supportive Housing

    PubMed Central

    Kloos, Bret; Gross, Steven M.; Meese, Katharine J.; Meade, Christina S.; Doughty, Jhan D.; Hawkins, Dietra D.; Zimmerman, Susan O.; Snow, David L.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2008-01-01

    As a population, persons with serious mental illness (SMI) have an elevated risk for HIV infection. However, relatively little is known about how the risk of HIV has affected their lives, how persons with SMI evaluate their HIV risk, and what preventive measures they undertake. Furthermore, relatively little is known about community-based HIV prevention for persons with SMI as most interventions have been restricted to clinical settings. This report presents findings on the HIV-related experiences of persons with SMI living in supportive housing programs, one possible setting for implementing community-based HIV prevention with this population. The qualitative investigation interviewed 41 men and women living in five supportive housing programs. In-depth, qualitative interviews elicited discussion of research participants’ (a) experiences with HIV, (b) knowledge about HIV and HIV prevention, (c) assessments of their own risk, (d) descriptions of how they apply their prevention knowledge, and (e) reports of barriers for HIV prevention. Research participants describe social networks that have substantial contact with persons affected by HIV. However, contrary to some expectations of persons with SMI, research participants report using HIV prevention knowledge in negotiating their risk of contracting HIV. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for implementing community-based HIV prevention for persons with SMI. PMID:16389505

  11. Stable human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) resistance in transformed CD4+ monocytic cells treated with multitargeting HIV-1 antisense sequences incorporated into U1 snRNA.

    PubMed

    Liu, D; Donegan, J; Nuovo, G; Mitra, D; Laurence, J

    1997-05-01

    We have approached the development of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) therapeutic product by producing immune cells stably resistant to HIV-1. Promonocytic CD4+ cells (U937) were made resistant to HIV-1 by the introduction of a DNA construct (pNDU1A,B,C) that contained three independent antisense sequences directed against two functional regions, transactivation response and tat/rev, of the HIV-1 target. Each sequence was incorporated into the transcribed region of a U1 snRNA gene to generate U1/HIV antisense RNA. Stably transfected cells expressed all three U1/HIV antisense transcripts, and these transcripts accumulated in the nucleus. These cells were subjected to two successive challenges with HIV-1 (BAL strain). The surviving cells showed normal growth characteristics and have retained their CD4+ phenotype. In situ hybridization assays showed that essentially all of the surviving cells produced U1/HIV antisense RNA. No detectable p24 antigen was observed, no syncytium formation was observed, and PCR-amplified HIV gag sequences were not detected. Rechallenge with HIV-1 (IIIB strain) similarly yielded no infection at a relatively high multiplicity of infection. As a further demonstration that the antisense RNA directed against HIV-1 was functioning in these transfected immune cells, Tat-activated expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase was shown to be specifically inhibited in cells expressing Tat and transactivation response region antisense sequences. PMID:9094686

  12. Antiviral medication in sexually transmitted diseases. Part II: HIV.

    PubMed

    Majewska, Anna; Mlynarczyk-Bonikowska, Beata; Malejczyk, Magdalena; Mlynarczyk, Grazyna; Majewski, Slawomir

    2015-01-01

    This is a second part of a review under a main title Antiviral medication in sexually transmitted diseases. In the part we published in Mini Rev Med Chem. 2013,13(13):1837-45, we have described mechanisms of action and mechanism of resistance to antiviral agents used in genital herpes and genital HPV infection. The Part II review focuses on therapeutic options in HIV infection. In 1987, 6 years after the recognition of AIDS, the FDA approved the first drug against HIV--zidovudine. Since then a lot of antiretroviral drugs are available. The most effective treatment for HIV is highly active antiretroviral therapy--a combination of several antiretroviral medicines that cause a reduction of HIV blood concentration and often results in substantial recovery of impaired immunologic function. At present, there are over 20 drugs licensed and used for the treatment of HIV/AIDS, and these drugs are divided into one of six classes. Investigational agents include GS-7340, the prodrug of tenofovir and BMS-663068--the first in a novel class of drugs that blocks the binding of the HIV gp120 to the CD4 receptor. PMID:25751258

  13. Transverse myelitis and acute HIV infection: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most HIV infected patients will develop some sort of neurologic involvement of the disease throughout their lives, usually in advanced stages. Neurologic symptoms may occur in acute HIV infection but myelopathy in this setting is rare. Up until this date, only two cases of transverse myelitis as a manifestation of acute HIV infection have been reported in the literature. Therapeutic approach in these patients is not well defined. Case presentation A 35 year-old male Caucasian recently returned from the tropics presented to our hospital with urinary retention and acute paraparesis. After extensive diagnostic workup he was diagnosed with acute HIV infection presenting as transverse myelitis. Full neurologic recovery was observed without the use of anti-retroviral therapy. Conclusion Acute spinal cord disorders are challenging, as they present a wide array of differential diagnosis and may lead to devastating sequelae. Timely and rigorous diagnostic workup is of the utmost importance when managing these cases. Clinicians should be aware of the protean manifestations of acute HIV infection, including central nervous system involvement, and have a low threshold for HIV screening. PMID:24646059

  14. HIV-1, human interaction database: current status and new features

    PubMed Central

    Ako-Adjei, Danso; Fu, William; Wallin, Craig; Katz, Kenneth S.; Song, Guangfeng; Darji, Dakshesh; Brister, J. Rodney; Ptak, Roger G.; Pruitt, Kim D.

    2015-01-01

    The ‘Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1), Human Interaction Database’, available through the National Library of Medicine at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/viruses/retroviruses/hiv-1/interactions, serves the scientific community exploring the discovery of novel HIV vaccine candidates and therapeutic targets. Each HIV-1 human protein interaction can be retrieved without restriction by web-based downloads and ftp protocols and includes: Reference Sequence (RefSeq) protein accession numbers, National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene identification numbers, brief descriptions of the interactions, searchable keywords for interactions and PubMed identification numbers (PMIDs) of journal articles describing the interactions. In addition to specific HIV-1 protein–human protein interactions, included are interaction effects upon HIV-1 replication resulting when individual human gene expression is blocked using siRNA. A total of 3142 human genes are described participating in 12 786 protein–protein interactions, along with 1316 replication interactions described for each of 1250 human genes identified using small interfering RNA (siRNA). Together the data identifies 4006 human genes involved in 14 102 interactions. With the inclusion of siRNA interactions we introduce a redesigned web interface to enhance viewing, filtering and downloading of the combined data set. PMID:25378338

  15. Autophagy induction by histone deacetylase inhibitors inhibits HIV type 1.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Grant R; Bruckman, Rachel S; Chu, Yen-Lin; Spector, Stephen A

    2015-02-20

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are being evaluated in a "shock-and-kill" therapeutic approach to reverse human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV) latency from CD4(+) T cells. Using this approach, HDACi have induced HIV RNA synthesis in latently infected cells from some patients. The hope is that the increase in viral production will lead to killing of the infected cell either by the virus itself or by the patient's immune system, a "sterilizing cure." Although administered within the context of combination antiretroviral therapy, the infection of bystander cells remains a concern. In this study, we investigated the effect of HDACi (belinostat, givinostat, panobinostat, romidepsin, and vorinostat) on the productive infection of macrophages. We demonstrate that the HDACi tested do not alter the initial susceptibility of macrophages to HIV infection. However, we demonstrate that HDACi decrease HIV release from macrophages in a dose-dependent manner (belinostat < givinostat < vorinostat < panobinostat < romidepsin) via degradation of intracellular HIV through the canonical autophagy pathway. This mechanism involves unc-51-like autophagy-activating kinase 1 (ULK1) and the inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin and requires the formation of autophagosomes and their maturation into autolysosomes in the absence of increased cell death. These data provide further evidence in support of a role for autophagy in the control of HIV infection and suggest that careful consideration of off-target effects will be essential if HDACi are to be a component of a multipronged approach to eliminate latently infected cells. PMID:25540204

  16. Exubera. Inhale therapeutic systems.

    PubMed

    Bindra, Sanjit; Cefalu, William T

    2002-05-01

    Inhale, in colaboration with Pfizer and Aventis Pharma (formerly Hoechst Marion Roussel; HMR), is developing an insulin formulation utilizing its pulmonary delivery technology for macromolecules for the potential treatment of type I and II diabetes. By July 2001, the phase III program had been completed and the companies had begun to assemble data for MAA and NDA filings; however, it was already clear at this time that additional data might be required for filing. By December 2001, it had been decided that the NDA should include an increased level of controlled, long-term pulmonary safety data in diabetic patients and a major study was planned to be completed in 2002, with the NDA filed thereafter (during 2002). US-05997848 was issued to Inhale Therapeutic Systems in December 1999, and corresponds to WO-09524183, filed in February 1995. Equivalent applications have appeared to date in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Europe, Finland, Hungary, Japan, Norway, New Zealand, Poland and South Africa. This family of applications is specific to pulmonary delivery of insulin. In February 1999, Lehman Brothers gave this inhaled insulin a 60% probability of reaching market, with a possible launch date of 2001. The analysts estimated peak sales at $3 billion in 2011. In May 2000, Aventis predicted that estimated peak sales would be in excess of $1 billion. In February 2000, Merrill Lynch expected product launch in 2002 and predicted that it would be a multibillion-dollar product. Analysts Merril Lynch predicted, in September and November 2000, that the product would be launched by 2002, with sales in that year of e75 million, rising to euro 500 million in 2004. In April 2001, Merrill Lynch predicted that filing for this drug would occur in 2001. Following the report of the potential delay in regulatory filing, issued in July 2001, Deutsche Banc Alex Brown predicted a filing would take place in the fourth quarter of 2002 and launch would take place in the first quarter of 2003. In August 2001, Lehman Brothers predicted that launch would take place in the first half of 2002 and that the product would make sales of $475 million in 2003, rising to $875 million in 2004. In the same month, Deutsche Bank predicted that there would be worldwide sales of $50 million in 2003, rising to $400 million in 2005. At this time, analysts at Credit Suisse predicted a launch of the product in 2003, with sales of $70 million in that year, rising to $550 million in 2005. By October 2001, Deutsche Bank predicted sales of $50 million in 2004 and $250 million in 2005. In September 2001, Morgan Stanley predicted sales of $500 million in 2002, rising to $1250 million in 2006. PMID:12090549

  17. Xanthohumol, a novel anti-HIV-1 agent purified from Hops Humulus lupulus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qian Wang; Zhi-Hui Ding; Ji-Kai Liu; Yong-Tang Zheng

    2004-01-01

    Xanthohumol, prenylchacone flavonoid, is a natural product with multi-biofunctions purified from Hops Humulus lupulus. Its anti-HIV-1 activity was tested in the present study. Results showed that xanthohumol inhibited HIV-1 induced cytopathic effects, the production of viral p24 antigen and reverse transcriptase in C8166 lymphocytes at non-cytotoxic concentration. The EC50 values were 0.82, 1.28 and 0.50?g\\/ml, respectively. The therapeutic index (TI)

  18. Relationship of ethnicity, age, education, and reading level to speed and executive function among HIV+ and HIV- women: the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) Neurocognitive Substudy.

    PubMed

    Manly, Jennifer J; Smith, Clifford; Crystal, Howard A; Richardson, Jean; Golub, Elizabeth T; Greenblatt, Ruth; Robison, Esther; Martin, Eileen M; Young, Mary

    2011-10-01

    Use of neuropsychological tests to identify HIV-associated neurocognitive dysfunction must involve normative standards that are well suited to the population of interest. Norms should be based on a population of HIV-uninfected individuals as closely matched to the HIV-infected group as possible and must include examination of the potential effects of demographic factors on test performance. This is the first study to determine the normal range of scores on measures of psychomotor speed and executive function among a large group of ethnically and educationally diverse HIV-uninfected, high-risk women, as well as their HIV-infected counterparts. Participants (n?=?1,653) were administered the Trail Making Test Parts A and B (Trails A and Trails B), the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and the Wide Range Achievement Test-3 (WRAT-3). Among HIV-uninfected women, race/ethnicity accounted for almost 5% of the variance in cognitive test performance. The proportions ofvariance in cognitive test performance accounted for by age (13.8%), years of school (4.1%), and WRAT-3 score (11.5%) were each significant, but did not completely account for the effect of race (3%). HIV-infected women obtained lower scores than HIV-uninfected women on time to complete Trails A and B, SDMT total correct, and SDMT incidental recall score, but after adjustment for age, years of education, racial/ethnic classification, and reading level, only the difference on SDMT total correct remained significant. Results highlight the need to adjust for demographic variables when diagnosing cognitive impairment in HIV-infected women. Advantages of demographically adjusted regression equations developed using data from HIV-uninfected women are discussed. PMID:21950512

  19. Ruxolitinib and Tofacitinib Are Potent and Selective Inhibitors of HIV-1 Replication and Virus Reactivation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Gavegnano, Christina; Detorio, Mervi; Montero, Catherine; Bosque, Alberto; Planelles, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    The JAK-STAT pathway is activated in both macrophages and lymphocytes upon human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and thus represents an attractive cellular target to achieve HIV suppression and reduced inflammation, which may impact virus sanctuaries. Ruxolitinib and tofacitinib are JAK1/2 inhibitors that are FDA approved for rheumatoid arthritis and myelofibrosis, respectively, but their therapeutic application for treatment of HIV infection was unexplored. Both drugs demonstrated submicromolar inhibition of infection with HIV-1, HIV-2, and a simian-human immunodeficiency virus, RT-SHIV, across primary human or rhesus macaque lymphocytes and macrophages, with no apparent significant cytotoxicity at 2 to 3 logs above the median effective antiviral concentration. Combination of tofacitinib and ruxolitinib increased the efficacy by 53- to 161-fold versus that observed for monotherapy, respectively, and each drug applied alone to primary human lymphocytes displayed similar efficacy against HIV-1 containing various polymerase substitutions. Both drugs inhibited virus replication in lymphocytes stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) plus interleukin-2 (IL-2), but not PHA alone, and inhibited reactivation of latent HIV-1 at low-micromolar concentrations across the J-Lat T cell latency model and in primary human central memory lymphocytes. Thus, targeted inhibition of JAK provided a selective, potent, and novel mechanism to inhibit HIV-1 replication in lymphocytes and macrophages, replication of drug-resistant HIV-1, and reactivation of latent HIV-1 and has the potential to reset the immunologic milieu in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:24419350

  20. 63 FR 68289 - Draft Guidelines for HIV Case Surveillance, Including Monitoring HIV Infection and Acquired...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-12-10

    ...Prevention Draft Guidelines for HIV Case Surveillance, Including Monitoring HIV Infection...entitled ``Draft Guidelines for HIV Case Surveillance, Including Monitoring HIV Infection...Requests for copies of the Draft HIV Case Surveillance Guidelines should be submitted to...

  1. In vitro anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activities of transition state mimetic HIV protease inhibitors containing allophenylnorstatine.

    PubMed Central

    Kageyama, S; Mimoto, T; Murakawa, Y; Nomizu, M; Ford, H; Shirasaka, T; Gulnik, S; Erickson, J; Takada, K; Hayashi, H

    1993-01-01

    Transition state mimetic tripeptide human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors containing allophenylnorstatine [(2S,3S)-3-amino-2-hydroxy-4-phenylbutyric acid] were synthesized and tested for activity against HIV in vitro. Two compounds, KNI-227 and KNI-272, which were highly potent against HIV protease with little inhibition of other aspartic proteases, showed the most potent activity against the infectivity and cytopathic effect of a wide spectrum of HIV strains. As tested in target CD4+ ATH8 cells, the 50% inhibitory concentrations of KNI-227 against HIV type 1 LAI (HIV-1LAI), HIV-1RF, HIV-1MN, and HIV-2ROD were 0.1, 0.02, 0.03, and 0.1 microM, respectively, while those of KNI-272 were 0.1, 0.02, 0.04, and 0.1 microM, respectively. Both agents completely blocked the replication of 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine-sensitive and -insensitive clinical HIV-1 isolates at 0.08 microM as tested in target phytohemagglutinin-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The ratios of 50% cytotoxic concentrations to 50% inhibitory concentrations for KNI-227 and KNI-272 were approximately 2,500 and > 4,000, respectively, as assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Both compounds blocked the posttranslational cleavage of the p55 precursor protein to generate the mature p24 Gag protein in stably HIV-1-infected cells. The n-octanol-water partition coefficients of KNI-227 and KNI-272 were high, with log Po/w values of 3.79 and 3.56, respectively. Degradation of KNI-227 and KNI-272 in the presence of pepsin (1 mg/ml, pH 2.2) at 37 degrees C for 24 h was negligible. Current data warrant further careful investigations toward possible clinical application of these two novel compounds. Images PMID:8494379

  2. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > STDs & Other Infections > HIV and AIDS Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? What ... one HIV test by the time they are teens. If you are having sex, have had sex in the past, or shared ...

  3. HIV-AIDS Connection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... immune system. In fact, depletion of CD4+ T cells in HIV-infected individuals is an extremely powerful predictor of the ... people have revealed that most who are HIV-infected carry the virus for ... in CD4+ T cell numbers and development of AIDS. Furthermore, reducing the ...

  4. HIV and Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeilly, L.G.

    2005-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to plague many countries across the globe, including the United States, Africa, China and India. Children and adults have been infected with HIV, and both populations can present with communication disorders that coexist with the presence of the virus. The purpose of this paper is to present an…

  5. Get Tested for HIV

    MedlinePLUS

    ... protect yourself from HIV is to not have sex until you are in a relationship with only one person and you have both tested negative. Here are other steps you can take to help prevent HIV: ... time you have vaginal or anal sex. When you have oral sex, use a condom ...

  6. Positive: HIV Affirmative Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kain, Craig D.

    At the end of the 1980s, counselors largely lacked an integrated approach to counseling people living with HIV disease. This book describes the experience of counseling this group of persons. The major premise here is that counselors who counsel HIV-positive clients must come to understand and affirm their clients' experiences. The text defines a…

  7. AIDS and HIV vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Klein

    1999-01-01

    In spite of extensive prevention programs, the HIV epidemics is still spreading worldwide, in particularly in developing countries where clade C viruses predominate. WHO estimates that there are 16,000 new cases of HIV infection daily and that 100 M individuals will be infected by the end of the next decade. In spite of its spectacular results in seropositive patients, high-activity

  8. Mental Health and HIV

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Enter ZIP code here Coping with HIV/AIDS: Mental Health for Veterans and the Public Mental Health and HIV: Entire Lesson Overview If you are ... deal with. Along with the physical illness are mental health conditions that may come up. Mental health refers ...

  9. Pharmacologic Opportunities for HIV Prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M R Nicol; A D M Kashuba; ADM Kashuba

    2010-01-01

    Innovations in antiretroviral (ARV) treatment strategies have resulted in treated HIV-infected patients having life expectancies similar to those of uninfected individuals. Yet the number of individuals capable of HIV transmission is increasing—for every person in whom ARV treatment is initiated, four others are becoming newly infected with HIV. The limited progress with microbicides and vaccines for HIV prevention reinforce the

  10. HIV dementia: an evolving disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin C. McArthur

    2004-01-01

    Several advances have led to improvements in the care and prognosis of HIV+ individuals. The first is an understanding of the direct relationship between HIV replication and subsequent immunological and clinical progression, reinforcing the need to completely suppress HIV replication to control disease progression. The second is the wider availability of HAART which can provide effective suppression of HIV. The

  11. Living with HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    Infection with HIV is serious. But the outlook for people with HIV/AIDS is improving. If you are infected with HIV, there are many things you can do to ... health care provider who knows how to treat HIV. You may want to join a support group. ...

  12. Therapeutic antibodies against cancer

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Mark J.; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.

    2012-01-01

    Antibody-based therapeutics against cancer are highly successful in clinic and currently enjoy unprecedented recognition of their potential; 13 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been approved for clinical use in the European Union and in the United States (one, mylotarg, was withdrawn from market in 2010). Three of the mAbs (bevacizumab, rituximab, trastuzumab) are in the top six selling protein therapeutics with sales in 2010 of more than $5 bln each. Hundreds of mAbs including bispecific mAbs and multispecific fusion proteins, mAbs conjugated with small molecule drugs and mAbs with optimized pharmacokinetics are in clinical trials. However, challenges remain and it appears that deeper understanding of mechanisms is needed to overcome major problems including resistance to therapy, access to targets, complexity of biological systems and individual variations. PMID:22520975

  13. Strategies for therapeutic hypometabothermia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shimin; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2013-01-01

    Although therapeutic hypothermia and metabolic suppression have shown robust neuroprotection in experimental brain ischemia, systemic complications have limited their use in treating acute stroke patients. The core temperature and basic metabolic rate are tightly regulated and maintained in a very stable level in mammals. Simply lowering body temperature or metabolic rate is actually a brutal therapy that may cause more systemic as well as regional problems other than providing protection. These problems are commonly seen in hypothermia and barbiturate coma. The main innovative concept of this review is to propose thermogenically optimal and synergistic reduction of core temperature and metabolic rate in therapeutic hypometabothermia using novel and clinically practical approaches. When metabolism and body temperature are reduced in a systematically synergistic manner, the outcome will be maximal protection and safe recovery, which happen in natural process, such as in hibernation, daily torpor and estivation. PMID:24179563

  14. Therapeutic Hypothermia for Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Karnatovskaia, Lioudmila V.; Wartenberg, Katja E.

    2014-01-01

    The earliest recorded application of therapeutic hypothermia in medicine spans about 5000 years; however, its use has become widespread since 2002, following the demonstration of both safety and efficacy of regimens requiring only a mild (32°C-35°C) degree of cooling after cardiac arrest. We review the mechanisms by which hypothermia confers neuroprotection as well as its physiological effects by body system and its associated risks. With regard to clinical applications, we present evidence on the role of hypothermia in traumatic brain injury, intracranial pressure elevation, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, spinal cord injury, hepatic encephalopathy, and neonatal peripartum encephalopathy. Based on the current knowledge and areas undergoing or in need of further exploration, we feel that therapeutic hypothermia holds promise in the treatment of patients with various forms of neurologic injury; however, additional quality studies are needed before its true role is fully known. PMID:24982721

  15. Cell death by pyroptosis drives CD4 T-cell depletion in HIV-1 infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doitsh, Gilad; Galloway, Nicole L. K.; Geng, Xin; Yang, Zhiyuan; Monroe, Kathryn M.; Zepeda, Orlando; Hunt, Peter W.; Hatano, Hiroyu; Sowinski, Stefanie; Muñoz-Arias, Isa; Greene, Warner C.

    2014-01-01

    The pathway causing CD4 T-cell death in HIV-infected hosts remains poorly understood although apoptosis has been proposed as a key mechanism. We now show that caspase-3-mediated apoptosis accounts for the death of only a small fraction of CD4 T cells corresponding to those that are both activated and productively infected. The remaining over 95% of quiescent lymphoid CD4 T cells die by caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis triggered by abortive viral infection. Pyroptosis corresponds to an intensely inflammatory form of programmed cell death in which cytoplasmic contents and pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1?, are released. This death pathway thus links the two signature events in HIV infection--CD4 T-cell depletion and chronic inflammation--and creates a pathogenic vicious cycle in which dying CD4 T cells release inflammatory signals that attract more cells to die. This cycle can be broken by caspase 1 inhibitors shown to be safe in humans, raising the possibility of a new class of `anti-AIDS' therapeutics targeting the host rather than the virus.

  16. Pyroptosis drives CD4 T-cell depletion in HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Doitsh, Gilad; Galloway, Nicole LK; Geng, Xin; Yang, Zhiyuan; Monroe, Kathryn M.; Zepeda, Orlando; Hunt, Peter W.; Hatano, Hiroyu; Sowinski, Stefanie; Muñoz-Arias, Isa; Greene, Warner C.

    2014-01-01

    The pathway causing CD4 T-cell death in HIV-infected hosts remains poorly understood. Apoptosis has been proposed as the key mechanism for CD4 T-cell loss. We now show that caspase-3-mediated apoptosis accounts for the death of only a small fraction of productively infected cells. The remaining >95% of quiescent lymphoid CD4 T-cells die by caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis triggered by abortive viral infection. Pyroptosis corresponds to an intensely inflammatory form of programmed cell death where cytoplasmic contents and pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1?, are released. This death pathway thus links the two signature events in HIV infection––CD4 T-cell depletion and chronic inflammation––and creates a vicious pathogenic cycle where dying CD4 T-cells release inflammatory signals that attract more cells to die. This cycle can be broken by caspase-1 inhibitors shown to be safe in humans, raising the possibility of a new class of “anti-AIDS” therapeutics targeting the host rather than the virus. PMID:24356306

  17. Mitochondrial Diseases: Therapeutic Approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salvatore DiMauro; Michelangelo Mancuso

    2007-01-01

    Therapy of mitochondrial encephalomyopathies (defined restrictively as defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain) is\\u000a woefully inadequate, despite great progress in our understanding of the molecular bases of these disorders. In this review,\\u000a we consider sequentially several different therapeutic approaches. Palliative therapy is dictated by good medical practice\\u000a and includes anticonvulsant medication, control of endocrine dysfunction, and surgical procedures. Removal of

  18. The kidney as a reservoir for HIV-1 after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Canaud, Guillaume; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie; Avettand-Fenoël, Véronique; Viard, Jean-Paul; Anglicheau, Dany; Bienaimé, Frank; Muorah, Mordi; Galmiche, Louise; Gribouval, Olivier; Noël, Laure-Helene; Satie, Anne-Pascale; Martinez, Frank; Sberro-Soussan, Rebecca; Scemla, Anne; Gubler, Marie-Claire; Friedlander, Gérard; Antignac, Corinne; Timsit, Marc-Olivier; Onetti Muda, Andrea; Terzi, Fabiola; Rouzioux, Christine; Legendre, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    Since the recent publication of data showing favorable outcomes for patients with HIV-1 and ESRD, kidney transplantation has become a therapeutic option in this population. However, reports have documented unexplained reduced allograft survival in these patients. We hypothesized that the unrecognized infection of the transplanted kidney by HIV-1 can compromise long-term allograft function. Using electron microscopy and molecular biology, we examined protocol renal transplant biopsies from 19 recipients with HIV-1 who did not have detectable levels of plasma HIV-1 RNA at transplantation. We found that HIV-1 infected the kidney allograft in 68% of these patients. Notably, HIV-1 infection was detected in either podocytes predominately (38% of recipients) or tubular cells only (62% of recipients). Podocyte infection associated with podocyte apoptosis and loss of differentiation markers as well as a faster decline in allograft function compared with tubular cell infection. In allografts with tubular cell infection, epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubules frequently contained abnormal mitochondria, and both patients who developed features of subclinical acute cellular rejection had allografts with tubular cell infection. Finally, we provide a novel noninvasive test for determining HIV-1 infection of the kidney allograft by measuring HIV-1 DNA and RNA levels in patients' urine. In conclusion, HIV-1 can infect kidney allografts after transplantation despite undetectable viremia, and this infection might influence graft outcome. PMID:24309185

  19. Hybrid Spreading Mechanisms and T Cell Activation Shape the Dynamics of HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Changwang; Zhou, Shi; Groppelli, Elisabetta; Pellegrino, Pierre; Williams, Ian; Borrow, Persephone; Chain, Benjamin M.; Jolly, Clare

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 can disseminate between susceptible cells by two mechanisms: cell-free infection following fluid-phase diffusion of virions and by highly-efficient direct cell-to-cell transmission at immune cell contacts. The contribution of this hybrid spreading mechanism, which is also a characteristic of some important computer worm outbreaks, to HIV-1 progression in vivo remains unknown. Here we present a new mathematical model that explicitly incorporates the ability of HIV-1 to use hybrid spreading mechanisms and evaluate the consequences for HIV-1 pathogenenesis. The model captures the major phases of the HIV-1 infection course of a cohort of treatment naive patients and also accurately predicts the results of the Short Pulse Anti-Retroviral Therapy at Seroconversion (SPARTAC) trial. Using this model we find that hybrid spreading is critical to seed and establish infection, and that cell-to-cell spread and increased CD4+ T cell activation are important for HIV-1 progression. Notably, the model predicts that cell-to-cell spread becomes increasingly effective as infection progresses and thus may present a considerable treatment barrier. Deriving predictions of various treatments’ influence on HIV-1 progression highlights the importance of earlier intervention and suggests that treatments effectively targeting cell-to-cell HIV-1 spread can delay progression to AIDS. This study suggests that hybrid spreading is a fundamental feature of HIV infection, and provides the mathematical framework incorporating this feature with which to evaluate future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25837979

  20. Therapeutic Hypothermia: Applications in Pediatric Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Ericka L.; Bell, Michael J.; Bayir, Hülya; Clark, Robert S.B.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract There is a rich history for the use of therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest in neonatology and pediatrics. Laboratory reports date back to 1824 in experimental perinatal asphyxia. Similarly, clinical reports in pediatric cold water drowning victims represented key initiating work in the field. The application of therapeutic hypothermia in pediatric drowning victims represented some of the seminal clinical use of this modality in modern neurointensive care. Uncontrolled application (too deep and too long) and unique facets of asphyxial cardiac arrest in children (a very difficult insult to affect any benefit) likely combined to result in abandonment of therapeutic hypothermia in the mid to late 1980s. Important studies in perinatal medicine have built upon the landmark clinical trials in adults, and are once again bringing therapeutic hypothermia into standard care for pediatrics. Although more work is needed, particularly in the use of mild therapeutic hypothermia in children, there is a strong possibility that this important therapy will ultimately have broad applications after cardiac arrest and central nervous system (CNS) insults in the pediatric arena. PMID:19271968

  1. Therapeutic Recreation Directory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dixon, Charles C.

    The Therapeutic Recreation Directory has an abundance of information for the therapeutic recreation specialist, or those who study and teach in the field. There is an extensive collection of activity ideas, ranging from sports and cookery, for educators to experiment with in the classroom or for professionals to use on the job. This site also hosts inTeRlink, a long-running and constantly updated newsletter about developments in recreational therapy, found by clicking on the �News� link on the left hand side of the home page. All articles from the last ten years are available in the archive. A bulletin board, chat room, and forum keep professionals and students informed about current TR issues, and surveys help to gather and disseminate information and ideas about new developments in TR services. Visitors will also find the �Forms� link very helpful in nearly every aspect of providing recreational therapy to clients, including forms to help assess and treat patients, and guidelines on planning and implementing new therapeutic programs.

  2. Therapeutic targets for neuroblastomas

    PubMed Central

    Brodeur, Garrett M; lIyer, Radhika; Croucher, Jamie L; Zhuang, Tiangang; Higashi, Mayumi; Kolla, Venkatadri

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common and deadly solid tumor in children. Despite recent improvements, the long-term outlook for high-risk NB is still < 50%. Further, there is considerable short- and long-term toxicity. More effective, less toxic therapy is needed, and the development of targeted therapies offers great promise. Areas covered Relevant literature was reviewed to identify current and future therapeutic targets that are critical to malignant transformation and progression of NB. The potential or actual NB therapeutic targets are classified into four categories: i) genes activated by amplification, mutation, translocation or autocrine overexpression; ii) genes inactivated by deletion, mutation or epigenetic silencing; iii) membrane-associated genes expressed on most NBs but few other tissues; or iv) common target genes relevant to NB as well as other tumors. Expert opinion Therapeutic approaches have been developed to some of these targets, but many remain untargeted at the present time. It is unlikely that single targeted agents will be sufficient for long-term cure, at least for high-risk NBs. The challenge will be how to integrate targeted agents with each other and with conventional therapy to enhance their efficacy, while simultaneously reducing systemic toxicity. PMID:24387342

  3. Polymer-Based Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuang; Maheshwari, Ronak; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2009-01-01

    Polymeric materials have been applied in therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue regeneration, for decades owing to their biocompatibility and suitable mechanical properties. In addition, select polymer–drug conjugates have been used as bioactive pharmaceuticals owing to their increased drug efficacy, solubility, and target specificity compared with small-molecule drugs. Increased synthetic control of polymer properties has permitted the production of polymer assemblies for the targeted and controlled delivery of drugs, and polymeric sequestrants take advantage of their lack of solubility for the sequestration of target molecules in vivo. In more recent studies reviewed in greater detail here, the properties of polymers that distinguish them from small-molecule drugs, such as their high molecular weight and their ability to display multiple pendant moieties, have been specifically exploited for activating cellular targets or inhibiting the binding of pathogens. The elucidation of relevant structure–function relationships in investigations of this kind has relied on the combination of living polymerization methods with chemical conjugation methods, and protein engineering methods have shown increasing potential in the manipulation of architectural features of such polymer therapeutics. Garnering a detailed understanding of the various mechanisms by which multivalent polymers engage biological targets is certain to expand the role of polymers as therapeutics, by enabling highly specific activities of designed polymers in the biological environment. PMID:21494423

  4. BET bromodomain inhibition as a novel strategy for reactivation of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Camellia; Archin, Nancie; Michaels, Daniel; Belkina, Anna C; Denis, Gerald V; Bradner, James; Sebastiani, Paola; Margolis, David M; Montano, Monty

    2012-12-01

    The persistence of latent HIV-1 remains a major challenge in therapeutic efforts to eradicate infection. We report the capacity for HIV reactivation by a selective small molecule inhibitor of BET family bromodomains, JQ1, a promising therapeutic agent with antioncogenic properties. JQ1 reactivated HIV transcription in models of latent T cell infection and latent monocyte infection. We also tested the effect of exposure to JQ1 to allow recovery of replication-competent HIV from pools of resting CD4(+) T cells isolated from HIV-infected, ART-treated patients. In one of three patients, JQ1 allowed recovery of virus at a frequency above unstimulated conditions. JQ1 potently suppressed T cell proliferation with minimal cytotoxic effect. Transcriptional profiling of T cells with JQ1 showed potent down-regulation of T cell activation genes, including CD3, CD28, and CXCR4, similar to HDAC inhibitors, but JQ1 also showed potent up-regulation of chromatin modification genes, including SIRT1, HDAC6, and multiple lysine demethylases (KDMs). Thus, JQ1 reactivates HIV-1 while suppressing T cell activation genes and up-regulating histone modification genes predicted to favor increased Tat activity. Thus, JQ1 may be useful in studies of potentially novel mechanisms for transcriptional control as well as in translational efforts to identify therapeutic molecules to achieve viral eradication. PMID:22802445

  5. Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in CNS disease.

    PubMed

    Croxford, J Ludovic

    2003-01-01

    The major psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa, delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta(9)-THC), and endogenous cannabinoid ligands, such as anandamide, signal through G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors localised to regions of the brain associated with important neurological processes. Signalling is mostly inhibitory and suggests a role for cannabinoids as therapeutic agents in CNS disease where inhibition of neurotransmitter release would be beneficial. Anecdotal evidence suggests that patients with disorders such as multiple sclerosis smoke cannabis to relieve disease-related symptoms. Cannabinoids can alleviate tremor and spasticity in animal models of multiple sclerosis, and clinical trials of the use of these compounds for these symptoms are in progress. The cannabinoid nabilone is currently licensed for use as an antiemetic agent in chemotherapy-induced emesis. Evidence suggests that cannabinoids may prove useful in Parkinson's disease by inhibiting the excitotoxic neurotransmitter glutamate and counteracting oxidative damage to dopaminergic neurons. The inhibitory effect of cannabinoids on reactive oxygen species, glutamate and tumour necrosis factor suggests that they may be potent neuroprotective agents. Dexanabinol (HU-211), a synthetic cannabinoid, is currently being assessed in clinical trials for traumatic brain injury and stroke. Animal models of mechanical, thermal and noxious pain suggest that cannabinoids may be effective analgesics. Indeed, in clinical trials of postoperative and cancer pain and pain associated with spinal cord injury, cannabinoids have proven more effective than placebo but may be less effective than existing therapies. Dronabinol, a commercially available form of delta(9)-THC, has been used successfully for increasing appetite in patients with HIV wasting disease, and cannabinoid receptor antagonists may reduce obesity. Acute adverse effects following cannabis usage include sedation and anxiety. These effects are usually transient and may be less severe than those that occur with existing therapeutic agents. The use of nonpsychoactive cannabinoids such as cannabidiol and dexanabinol may allow the dissociation of unwanted psychoactive effects from potential therapeutic benefits. The existence of other cannabinoid receptors may provide novel therapeutic targets that are independent of CB(1) receptors (at which most currently available cannabinoids act) and the development of compounds that are not associated with CB(1) receptor-mediated adverse effects. Further understanding of the most appropriate route of delivery and the pharmacokinetics of agents that act via the endocannabinoid system may also reduce adverse effects and increase the efficacy of cannabinoid treatment. This review highlights recent advances in understanding of the endocannabinoid system and indicates CNS disorders that may benefit from the therapeutic effects of cannabinoid treatment. Where applicable, reference is made to ongoing clinical trials of cannabinoids to alleviate symptoms of these disorders. PMID:12617697

  6. Project: Natural Setting Therapeutic Management

    E-print Network

    Garfunkel, Eric

    Project: Natural Setting Therapeutic Management Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology Doctoral Internship Project: Natural Setting Therapeutic Management (NSTM) is a behavioral to parents of individuals with developmental disabilities for over 30 years. In the schools, NSTM consultants

  7. Novel histone deacetylase inhibitor NCH-51 activates latent HIV-1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Victoriano, Ann Florence B; Imai, Kenichi; Togami, Hiroaki; Ueno, Takaharu; Asamitsu, Kaori; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Miyata, Naoki; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Okamoto, Takashi

    2011-04-01

    Pharmacological manipulations to purge human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from latent reservoirs have been considered as an adjuvant therapeutic approach to highly-active antiretroviral therapy for the eradication of HIV. Our novel histone deacetylase inhibitor NCH-51 induced expression of latent HIV-1 with minimal cytotoxicity. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we observed a reduction of HDAC1 occupancy, histone hyperacetylation and the recruitment of positive transcription factors at the HIV-1 promoter in latently infected-cells under the treatment with NCH-51. Mutation studies of the long terminal repeat (LTR) revealed NCH-51 mediated gene expression through the Sp1 sites. When Sp1 expression was knocked-down by small interfering RNA, the NCH-51-mediated activation of a stably integrated HIV-1 LTR was attenuated. Moreover, the Sp1 inhibitor mithramycin A abolished the effects of NCH-51. PMID:21402072

  8. HIV-1 antiviral behavior of anionic PPI metallo-dendrimers with EDA core.

    PubMed

    García-Gallego, Sandra; Díaz, Laura; Jiménez, José Luis; Gómez, Rafael; de la Mata, F Javier; Muñoz-Fernández, M Ángeles

    2015-06-15

    The development of novel strategies to prevent HIV-1 infection is of outstanding relevance. Metal complexes of Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Co(2+) and Zn(2+) derived from sulfonated and carboxylated poly(propylene imine) dendrimers with ethylenediamine core were evaluated as tunable antiviral agents against HIV-1. After demonstrating their biocompatibility, specific trends in the antiviral properties were found, related to both the dendritic scaffold (peripheral group, generation) and the bound metal ions (sort, amount). In HEC-1A and VK-2 cell lines, as model of the first barrier against HIV-1 infection, a high preventive inhibitory action was found, which also avoided virus internalization inside cells and inhibited both CCR5 and CXCR4 HIV-1 strains. In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), as model of the second barrier, a dual preventive and therapeutic behavior was observed. A rational design of such metallodendrimers opens new avenues for the production of versatile and efficient treatments against HIV-1 infection. PMID:26005027

  9. Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in ophthalmology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo B. Rodrigues; Michel E. Farah; Maurício Maia; Fernando M. Penha; Caio Regatieri; Gustavo B. Melo; Marcelo M. Pinheiro; Carlos R. Zanetti

    2009-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can be used therapeutically by binding to molecular targets with high specificity. Therefore, they have excellent therapeutic applications in ophthalmology. This manuscript presents four aspects of the therapeutic use of mAbs in ophthalmology: the scientific rationale, the unique characteristics of selected mAbs, the current state-of-the-art application, and relevant therapeutic mAbs for future applications in ophthalmology. We identified

  10. HIV-Related Pulmonary Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ATIKUN LIMSUKON; ALI IMRAN SAEED; VIMALA RAMASAMY; JHANSI NALAMATI; SUNIL DHUPER

    2006-01-01

    With the availability of better treatment and prophylactic regimens for the infectious complications of human immunod- eficiency virus (HIV), the non-infectious complications are gaining greater attention. HIV-related pulmonary arterial hypertension (HIV-PAH) is one of these. The incidence of HIV-PAH is estimated at 0.5% of HIV-infected individuals. The pathogenesis remains unclear. Patients present with symptoms as diverse as progressive shortness of

  11. Neither human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) nor HIV-2 infects most-primitive human hematopoietic stem cells as assessed in long-term bone marrow cultures.

    PubMed

    Weichold, F F; Zella, D; Barabitskaja, O; Maciejewski, J P; Dunn, D E; Sloand, E M; Young, N S

    1998-02-01

    Attempts to clarify the pathophysiology of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-mediated bone marrow (BM) dysfunction have yielded inconsistent results regarding the susceptibility of BM progenitors to the viral infection. To specifically address this question, we exposed highly purified subpopulations of human BM progenitor cells to various HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains and assessed (pro)viral gene presence and expression in more-committed (CD34+CD38+) as well as most-primitive (CD34+CD38-) cells in long-term BM cultures. Quantitative analysis of long-term culture-initiating cells (LTCIC) failed to demonstrate adverse effects of exposing hematopoietic stem cells to HIV. Our results show that HIV-2, similar to HIV-1, does not infect hematopoietic stem cells in vitro with any significant frequency and infected cells are not present within LTCICs. Cytofluorometric analysis of CD34+ cells for surface molecules that facilitate HIV entry was consistent with the functional assay in that expression of virus receptors was predominantly on the more-committed subsets of BM progenitors. The failure to detect productive or latent HIV in the most-primitive human BM progenitor and stem cells has important implications for future therapeutic strategies, including those dealing with transduction of these cells with protective genes as a treatment modality for AIDS. PMID:9446651

  12. Emergence of Individual HIV-Specific CD8 T Cell Responses during Primary HIV-1 Infection Can Determine Long-Term Disease Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Richard; Beckwith, Noor; Milazzo, Mark; Liu, Michelle; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Little, Susan; Jessen, Heiko; Kelleher, Anthony D.; Hecht, Frederick; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Alter, Galit; Heckerman, David; Carrington, Mary; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Altfeld, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Events during primary HIV-1 infection have been shown to be critical for the subsequent rate of disease progression. Early control of viral replication, resolution of clinical symptoms and development of a viral set point have been associated with the emergence of HIV-specific CD8 T cell responses. Here we assessed which particular HIV-specific CD8 T cell responses contribute to long-term control of HIV-1. A total of 620 individuals with primary HIV-1 infection were screened by gamma interferon (IFN-?) enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay for HLA class I-restricted, epitope-specific CD8 T cell responses using optimally defined epitopes approximately 2 months after initial presentation. The cohort was predominantly male (97%) and Caucasian (83%) (Fiebig stages II/III [n = 157], IV [n = 64], V [n = 286], and VI [n = 88] and Fiebig stage not determined [n = 25]). Longitudinal viral loads, CD4 count, and time to ART were collected for all patients. We observed strong associations between viral load at baseline (initial viremia) and the established early viral set points (P < 0.0001). Both were significantly associated with HLA class I genotypes (P = 0.0009). While neither the breadth nor the magnitude of HIV-specific CD8 T cell responses showed an influence on the early viral set point, a broader HIV-specific CD8 T cell response targeting epitopes within HIV-1 Gag during primary HIV-1 infection was associated with slower disease progression. Moreover, the induction of certain HIV-specific CD8 T cell responses—but not others—significantly influenced the time to ART initiation. Individual epitope-specific CD8 T cell responses contribute significantly to HIV-1 disease control, demonstrating that the specificity of the initial HIV-specific CD8 T cell response rather than the restricting HLA class I molecule alone is a critical determinant of antiviral function. IMPORTANCE Understanding which factors are involved in the control of HIV-1 infection is critical for the design of therapeutic strategies for patients living with HIV/AIDS. Here, using a cohort of over 600 individuals with acute and early HIV-1 infection, we assessed in unprecedented detail the individual contribution of epitope-specific CD8 T cell responses directed against HIV-1 to control of viremia and their impact on the overall course of disease progression. PMID:25165102

  13. HLA-G 3' UTR haplotypes and HIV vertical transmission.

    PubMed

    Segat, Ludovica; Catamo, Eulalia; Fabris, Annalisa; Padovan, Lara; Morgutti, Marcello; Crovella, Sergio

    2009-09-10

    We evaluated the possible association of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) 3777G>C and 14-bp deletion/insertion (D/I) polymorphisms haplotypes and combined genotypes with perinatal HIV transmission in Brazilian children. The 3777G>C polymorphism alone has no effect on HIV vertical transmission but, when linked with the D allele, exerts a positive role in the protection. Indeed, we identified the DC HLA-G haplotype as significantly associated with a protective effect towards HIV vertical transmission. PMID:19581790

  14. Dual role of ?-defensin-1 in anti–HIV-1 innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Theresa L.; Vargas, Jesus; DelPortillo, Armando; Klotman, Mary E.

    2005-01-01

    ?-Defensins are abundant antimicrobial peptides in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and play an important role in innate immunity. We have previously shown that ?-defensin-1 can inhibit HIV-1 replication following viral entry. Here we examined the molecular mechanism(s) of ?-defensin-1–mediated HIV-1 inhibition. ?-Defensin-1 had a direct effect on HIV-1 virions at a low MOI in the absence of serum. The direct effect on HIV-1 virions was abolished by the presence of serum or an increase in virus particles. Studying the kinetics of the HIV life cycle revealed that ?-defensin-1 inhibited steps following reverse transcription and integration. Analysis of PKC phosphorylation in primary CD4+ T cells in response to ?-defensin-1 indicated that ?-defensin-1 inhibited PKC activity. Pretreatment of infected CD4+ T cells with a PKC activator, bryostatin 1, partially reversed ?-defensin-1–mediated HIV inhibition. Like ?-defensin-1, the PKC isoform–selective inhibitor Go6976 blocked HIV-1 infection in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, kinetic studies and analysis of HIV-1 products indicated that ?-defensin-1 and Go6976 blocked HIV-1 infection at similar stages in its life cycle, including nuclear import and transcription. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that, in the absence of serum, ?-defensin-1 may act directly on the virus, but, in the presence of serum, its effects are on the cell, where it inhibits HIV-1 replication. At least 1 of the cellular effects associated with HIV inhibition is interference with PKC signaling in primary CD4+ T cells. Studying the complex function of ?-defensin-1 in innate immunity against HIV has implications for prevention as well as therapeutics. PMID:15719067

  15. Peptide substrates and inhibitors of the HIV-1 protease.

    PubMed

    Moore, M L; Bryan, W M; Fakhoury, S A; Magaard, V W; Huffman, W F; Dayton, B D; Meek, T D; Hyland, L; Dreyer, G B; Metcalf, B W

    1989-03-15

    Oligopeptides containing the consensus retroviral protease cleavage sequence Ser/Thr-X-Y-Tyr/Phe-Pro are substrates for purified recombinant HIV-1 protease with Km's in the millimolar range. The minimum sequence containing the consensus pentapeptide which serves as a good substrate is a heptapeptide spanning the P4-P3' residues. Substitution of reduced Phe-Pro or Tyr-Pro dipeptide isosteres or the statine analog 3-hydroxy-4-amino-5-phenylpentanoic acid for the scissile dipeptide afforded inhibitors of HIV-1 protease with Ki values in the micromolar range, three orders of magnitude better in affinity than the corresponding substrates. Inhibitors of HIV-1 protease may provide a novel and potentially useful therapeutic approach to the treatment of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). PMID:2649094

  16. [Identification and characterization of HIV-1 transmitted /founder viruses].

    PubMed

    Jianyuan, Zhao; Jiwei, Ding; Zeyun, Mi; Tao, Wei; Shan, Cen

    2015-05-01

    During the spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the mucosa, the entire genetic diversity of the viruses is significantly reduced. The vast majority of HIV-1 mucosal infections are established by one or a few viruses and ultimately develop into systemic infections, thus the initial virus is called transmitted/founder virus (T/F virus). The study of T/F virus will benefit understanding its key characteristics resulting in successful viral replication in the new host body, which may provide novel strategies for the development of AIDS vaccines, pre-exposure prophylaxis and other therapeutic interventions. In this review, we summarize the discovery and evolutionary characteristics of T/F virus as well as early immune response after HIV-1 infection, which will establish the basis to explore the features of T/F viruses. PMID:25998429

  17. Role of FAP48 in HIV-associated lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Vincenzo; Manente, Lucrezia; Lucariello, Angela; Perna, Angelica; Viglietti, Rosaria; Gargiulo, Miriam; Parrella, Roberto; Parrella, Giovanni; Baldi, Alfonso; De Luca, Antonio; Chirianni, Antonio

    2012-11-01

    The highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can cause a metabolic syndrome consisting of lipodystropy/lipoatrophy, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus with an increased cardiovascular risk. The pathogenetic bases of HAART-associated lipodystrophy are poorly known. A genetic screen was used to evaluate proteins that are modulated in HIV-1-infected patients with or without lipodystrophy syndrome, that are routinely treated with HAART regimens. The most significant modulation was represented by FAP48 expression. Stable over-expression of FAP48 was able to alter, in vitro, adipogenesis, acting both on calcineurin and glucocorticoid pathways. Finally, we demonstrated that FAP48 over-expression was able to influence the capacity of some HIV drugs, Saquinavir and Efavirenz, but not Stavudine, Amprenavir, and Indinavir to inhibit adipocyte formation. In conclusion, this molecule could be a potential target for novel therapeutic approaches to the HAART related lipodystrophy in HIV patients. PMID:22678819

  18. [HIV-AIDS 2008: the year in review].

    PubMed

    El Amari, Emmanuelle Boffi; Hirschel, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    In the world, the prevalence of HIV is stable, the number of deaths is decreasing, as is the number of infections in children. In Switzerland, the number of new positive tests is approximatively 780 per year and increasing in the MSM population. The CDC recommends a new "opt-out" strategy for HIV testing which is still debated, as is the publication of the absence of risk of HIV transmission in patients with an undetectable viremia. This has however relaunched the concept of treatment as an aid to prevention. New drugs have been commercialised in Switzerland enabling patients with virologic failure to receive an effective treatment. Vaccine trials have failed until now, but the discovery of new viral molecules capable of antagonising cellular defence mechanisms ("cellular restrictions") could become potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:19216329

  19. Immunologic Strategies for HIV-1 Remission and Eradication

    PubMed Central

    Barouch, Dan H.; Deeks, Steven G.

    2014-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is able to suppress HIV-1 replication indefinitely in individuals who have access to these medications, are able to tolerate these drugs, and are motivated to take them daily for life. However, ART is not curative. HIV-1 persists indefinitely during ART as quiescent integrated DNA within memory CD4+ T cells and perhaps other long-lived cellular reservoirs. In this review, we discuss the role of the immune system on the establishment and maintenance of this “latent” HIV-1 reservoir. A detailed understanding of how the host immune system shapes the size and distribution of the viral reservoir should lead to the development of a new generation of immune-based therapeutics, which might eventually contribute to a curative intervention. PMID:25013067

  20. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Fact Sheet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and effective in people. What is an HIV/AIDS clinical trial? HIV/AIDS clinical trials help researchers ... to HIV Can anyone participate in an HIV/AIDS clinical trial? It depends on the study. Some ...

  1. Use of HIV Medicines during Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... childbirth. Are HIV medicines safe to use during pregnancy? Pregnant women with HIV can safely use many ... How can I learn more about HIV and pregnancy? Visit this website on HIV and Pregnancy . This ...

  2. Women Are at Risk of HIV

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of all races and ethnicities can get HIV Violence against women and HIV risk Alcohol and substance abuse and ... of all races and ethnicities can get HIV Violence against women and HIV risk Alcohol and substance abuse and ...

  3. [The advances of HIV in the Netherlands: indications but still no definite answers].

    PubMed

    Coutinho, R A

    2002-03-23

    Investigations in the province of Limburg demonstrate an increasing HIV prevalence and a high prevalence of injecting and sexual risk behaviour as well as a substantial risk of HIV transmission to the general population. It is recommended that HIV surveillance be directed towards 'bridge populations' such as prostitutes, their customers and immigrants from HIV endemic countries, instead of just drug users. In view of the apparent increase in sexual risk behaviour and sexually transmitted diseases in homosexual men (possibly due to a reduced fear of the disease because of the availability of anti-HIV medication) surveillance should be intensified in that area as well. Only then will it be possible to ascertain whether or not the incidence of HIV in the Netherlands is increasing. PMID:11938575

  4. HIV associated thrombotic microangiopathy.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S; Siddiqui, R K; Siddiqui, A K; Zaidi, S A; Cervia, J

    2002-09-01

    Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a known complication of HIV infection. Endothelial cell injury appears to be the primary event causing platelet activation and deposition in the microvasculature. Direct cytopathic roles of HIV as well as other factors such as malignancy, drugs, and infectious agents have been implicated in the pathogenesis of HIV-TMA. Although the the majority of patients present in a more advanced stage of HIV disease, TMA can be the initial presenting symptom of HIV infection. Clinical features are those of idiopathic TMA, and the diagnosis should be suspected in any patient with new onset thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia. Therapy with plasma exchange or infusion appears to be efficacious. A rapid diagnosis and institution of plasmapheresis is crucial for a favourable outcome. The long term prognosis of HIV-TMA is unfavourable and may depend on the stage of HIV infection. The recent data after the use of highly active retroviral treatment, however, are unavailable and current prognosis is therefore uncertain. PMID:12357011

  5. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Hidron, Alicia I; Kempker, Russell; Moanna, Abeer; Rimland, David

    2010-01-01

    Concordant with the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the community setting, colonization and infections with this pathogen have become a prevalent problem among the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive population. A variety of different host- and, possibly, pathogen-related factors may play a role in explaining the increased prevalence and incidence observed. In this article, we review pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of MRSA in the HIV-infected population. PMID:21694896

  6. HIV and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: is it worse and why?

    PubMed

    Morris, Alison; George, M Patricia; Crothers, Kristina; Huang, Laurence; Lucht, Lorrie; Kessinger, Cathy; Kleerup, Eric C

    2011-06-01

    Smoking-related diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are of particular concern in the HIV-infected population. Smoking rates are high in this population, and long-term exposure to cigarette smoke in the setting of HIV infection may increase the number of complications seen. Before the era of combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected persons were noted to have an accelerated form of COPD, with significant emphysematous disease seen in individuals less than 40 years old. Unlike many of the AIDS-defining opportunistic infections, HIV-associated COPD may be more common in the current era of HIV because it is frequently reported in patients without a history of AIDS-related pulmonary complications and because many aging HIV-infected individuals have had a longer exposure to smoking and HIV. In this review, we document the epidemiology of HIV-associated COPD before and after the institution of combination antiretroviral therapy, review data suggesting that COPD is accelerated in those with HIV, and discuss possible mechanisms of HIV-associated COPD, including an increased susceptibility to chronic, latent infections; an aberrant inflammatory response; altered oxidant-antioxidant balance; increased apoptosis associated with HIV; and the effects of antiretroviral therapy. PMID:21653535

  7. Binding of HIV-2 envelope glycoprotein to CD8 molecules and related chemokine production.

    PubMed Central

    Akimoto, H; Kaneko, H; Sekigawa, I; Hashimoto, H; Kaneko, Y; Yamamoto, N

    1998-01-01

    We recently found that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-2 envelope glycoprotein, but not that of HIV-1, could bind to CD4 and CD8 molecules on T cells, and that the binding site of HIV-2 envelope glycoprotein was located on the alpha-chain (but not the beta-chain) of CD8. This study showed that the binding of HIV-2 envelope glycoprotein could induce phosphorylation of protein tyrosine kinase p56lck in CD8+ T cells. We also found that production of beta-chemokines in response to HIV-2 envelope glycoprotein was significantly higher than that in response to HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, and that CD8+ T cells were the main source of beta-chemokines production among the T-cell population. These findings indicate the possibility that the binding of envelope glycoprotein to CD8 molecules are related to signal transduction into CD8+ T cells and the resultant beta-chemokine production in HIV-2 infection. Our results may help to explain the differences in disease manifestations between HIV-1 and HIV-2, including the lower virulence of HIV-2 and the longer survival of HIV-2-infected individuals. Images Figure 2 PMID:9824478

  8. I am pregnant. Will I be tested for HIV? HIV testing is recommended for all pregnant women. HIV

    E-print Network

    Bezrukov, Sergey M.

    I am pregnant. Will I be tested for HIV? HIV testing is recommended for all pregnant women. HIV, women may be offered HIV testing. Women who accept testing will need to sign an HIV testing consent form. In areas with opt-out testing, HIV testing is automatically included as part of rou- tine prenatal care

  9. Pathogenesis of HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Naif, Hassan M.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past three decades of intense research on the contribution of viral and host factors determining the variability in HIV-1 infection outcome, HIV pathogenesis is still a fascinating topic that requires further study. An understanding of the exact mechanism of how these factors influencing HIV pathogenesis is critical to the development of effective strategies to prevent infection. Significant progress has been made in identifying the role of CCR5 (R5) and CXCR4 (X4) HIV strains in disease progression, particularly with the persistence of R5 HIV-1 strains at the AIDS stage. This indicates that R5 strains are as fit as X4 in causing CD4+ T cell depletion and in contribution to disease outcome, and so questions the prerequisite of the shift from R5 to X4 for disease progression. In contrast, the ability of certain HIV strains to readily use CXCR4 for infection or entry into macrophages, as the case with viruses are homozygous for tropism by CCR5delta32. This raises another major paradox in HIV pathogenesis about the source of X4 variants and how do they emerge from a relatively homogeneous R5 viral population after transmission. The interactions between viral phenotypes, tropism and co-receptor usage and how they influence HIV pathogenesis are the main themes addressed in this review. A better understanding of the viral and host genetic factors involved in the fitness of X4 and R5 strains of HIV-1 may facilitate development of specific inhibitors against these viral populations to at least reduce the risk of disease progression. PMID:24470970

  10. Novel topical therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Bleier, Benjamin S

    2010-06-01

    Intranasal drug delivery is a rapidly growing field that offers the potential for enhanced treatment of local and systemic disease. Novel preclinical screening tools such as in vitro assays and 3-dimensional imaging are currently being used to improve drug design and delivery. In addition, new evidence has emerged underlining the importance of surgical marsupialization of the sinuses to allow for improved topical delivery. Although multiple barriers to administration and absorption exist, implantable therapeutics using new classes of drug-eluting polymers allow for prolonged, site-specific drug delivery and hold great promise in overcoming these obstacles. PMID:20525509

  11. Revitalizing Psychiatric Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, Steven E

    2014-01-01

    Despite high prevalence and enormous unmet medical need, the pharmaceutical industry has recently de-emphasized neuropsychiatric disorders as ‘too difficult' a challenge to warrant major investment. Here I describe major obstacles to drug discovery and development including a lack of new molecular targets, shortcomings of current animal models, and the lack of biomarkers for clinical trials. My major focus, however, is on new technologies and scientific approaches to neuropsychiatric disorders that give promise for revitalizing therapeutics and may thus answer industry's concerns. PMID:24317307

  12. HIV charge dropped.

    PubMed

    1997-07-25

    Guilford County Superior Court Judge James Webb ruled there was not enough evidence to convict HIV-positive [name removed] on charges of attempted murder and assault with a deadly weapon in connection with the rape of a 12-year-old girl. Prosecutors argued [name removed] knew he was HIV-positive when the rape occurred and defense attorney Randy Jones argued that there was no medical proof of [name removed]'s HIV status at the time of the attack. The judge dismissed the two charges against [name removed]. A jury later convicted [name removed] of statutory rape and taking indecent liberties with a minor. PMID:11364510

  13. A patient carrying HIV.

    PubMed

    Adeela, Bashir

    2009-01-01

    A 52-year-old Caucasian man presented to hospital with confusion and was treated for a urinary tract infection. He developed new and unexpected signs and symptoms during his stay in hospital. On further questioning, the story of his social background unfolded and, following further investigation, he was diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This case reminds all clinicians to think about HIV in the older patient and it also gives direction for investigation and management of similar cases in the future. Identifying HIV early is imperative because it allows effective treatment to be initiated and this will impact upon the patient's quality and longevity of life. PMID:21686917

  14. Prospects for antisense peptide nucleic acid (PNA) therapies for HIV

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Virendra N.; Upadhyay, Alok; Chaubey, Binay

    2009-01-01

    Since the discovery and synthesis of a novel DNA mimic, peptide nucleic acid (PNA) in 1991, PNAs have attracted tremendous interest and have shown great promise as potential antisense drugs. They have been used extensively as tools for specific modulation of genes expression by targeting translation or transcription processes. This review discusses the present and future therapeutic potential of this class of compound as anti-HIV-1 drugs. PMID:19534584

  15. An RNAi in silico approach to find an optimal shRNA cocktail against HIV1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María C Méndez-Ortega; Silvia Restrepo; Luis M Rodríguez-R; Iván Pérez; Juan C Mendoza; Andrés P Martínez; Roberto Sierra; Gloria J Rey-Benito

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV-1 can be inhibited by RNA interference in vitro through the expression of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) that target conserved genome sequences. In silico shRNA design for HIV has lacked a detailed study of virus variability constituting a possible breaking point in a clinical setting. We designed shRNAs against HIV-1 considering the variability observed in naïve and drug-resistant isolates

  16. Frontal cortex indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase activity is increased in HIV1-associated dementia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asif M. Sardar; Gavin P. Reynolds

    1995-01-01

    HIV-associated dementia is a frequent consequence of HIV infection and relates to neuronal damage, possibly as a result of increased neurotoxic kynurenine metabolites. Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity, which regulates kynurenine metabolism, may thus be increased in HIV infection. We measured IDO activity in post-mortem brain tissue from AIDS patients, including a subgroup that exhibited dementia, and age-matched control subjects. IDO activity

  17. Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV Coinfection in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Lindoso, José Angelo; Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; da Cruz, Alda Maria; Goto, Hiro; Maia-Elkhoury, Ana Nilce Silveira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; de Sousa-Gomes, Márcia Leite; Santos-Oliveira, Joanna Reis; Rabello, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an endemic zoonotic disease in Latin America caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, which is transmitted by sand flies from the genus Lutzomyia. VL occurs in 12 countries of Latin America, with 96% of cases reported in Brazil. Recently, an increase in VL, primarily affecting children and young adults, has been observed in urban areas of Latin America. The area in which this spread of VL is occurring overlaps regions with individuals living with HIV, the number of whom is estimated to be 1.4 million people by the World Health Organization. This overlap is suggested to be a leading cause of the increased number of reported VL-HIV coinfections. The clinical progression of HIV and L. infantum infections are both highly dependent on the specific immune response of an individual. Furthermore, the impact on the immune system caused by either pathogen and by VL-HIV coinfection can contribute to an accelerated progression of the diseases. Clinical presentation of VL in HIV positive patients is similar to patients without HIV, with symptoms characterized by fever, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly, but diarrhea appears to be more common in coinfected patients. In addition, VL relapses are higher in coinfected patients, affecting 10% to 56.5% of cases and with a lethality ranging from 8.7% to 23.5% in Latin America, depending on the study. With regards to the diagnosis of VL, parasitological tests of bone marrow aspirates have proven to be the most sensitive test in HIV-infected patients. Serologic tests have demonstrated a variable sensitivity according to the method and antigens used, with the standard tests used for diagnosing VL in Latin America displaying lower sensitivity. For this review, few articles were identified that related to VL-HIV coinfections and originated from Latin America, highlighting the need for improving research within the regions most greatly affected. We strongly support the formation of a Latin American network for coinfections of Leishmania and HIV to improve the consistency of research on the current situation of VL-HIV coinfections. Such a network would improve the collection of vital data and samples for better understanding of the clinical manifestations and immunopathogenic aspects of VL in immunosuppressed patients. Ultimately, a concerted effort would improve trials for new diagnostic methodologies and therapeutics, which could accelerate the implementation of more specific and effective diagnosis as well as public policies for treatments to reduce the impact of VL-HIV coinfections on the Latin American population. PMID:25233461

  18. Nitrones as Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Robert A.; Kopke, Richard D.; Choi, Chul-Hee; Foster, Steven B.; Doblas, Sabrina; Towner, Rheal A.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrones have the general chemical formula X-CH=NO-Y. They were first used to trap free radicals in chemical systems and then subsequently in biochemical systems. More recently several nitrones including PBN (?-phenyl-tert-butylnitrone) have been shown to have potent biological activity in many experimental animal models. Many diseases of aging including stroke, cancer development, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease are known to have enhanced levels of free radicals and oxidative stress. Some derivatives of PBN are significantly more potent than PBN and have undergone extensive commercial development in stroke. Recent research has shown that PBN-related nitrones also have anti-cancer activity in several experimental cancer models and have potential as therapeutics in some cancers. Also in recent observations nitrones have been shown to act synergistically in combination with antioxidants in the prevention of acute acoustic noise induced hearing loss. The mechanistic basis of the potent biological activity of PBN-related nitrones is not known. Even though PBN-related nitrones do decrease oxidative stress and oxidative damage, their potent biological anti-inflammatory activity and their ability to alter cellular signaling processes can not readily be explained by conventional notions of free radical trapping biochemistry. This review is focused on our observations and others where the use of selected nitrones as novel therapeutics have been evaluated in experimental models in the context of free radical biochemical and cellular processes considered important in pathologic conditions and age-related diseases. PMID:18793715

  19. Person-centered Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Cloninger, C. Robert; Cloninger, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    A clinician’s effectiveness in treatment depends substantially on his or her attitude toward -- and understanding of -- the patient as a person endowed with self-awareness and the will to direct his or her own future. The assessment of personality in the therapeutic encounter is a crucial foundation for forming an effective working alliance with shared goals. Helping a person to reflect on their personality provides a mirror image of their strengths and weaknesses in adapting to life’s many challenges. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) provides an effective way to describe personality thoroughly and to predict both the positive and negative aspects of health. Strengths and weaknesses in TCI personality traits allow strong predictions of individual differences of all aspects of well-being. Diverse therapeutic techniques, such as diet, exercise, mood self-regulation, meditation, or acts of kindness, influence health and personality development in ways that are largely indistinguishable from one another or from effective allopathic treatments. Hence the development of well-being appears to be the result of activating a synergistic set of mechanisms of well-being, which are expressed as fuller functioning, plasticity, and virtue in adapting to life’s challenges PMID:26052429

  20. Mismatched double-stranded RNA (polyI-polyC(12)U) is synergistic with multiple anti-HIV drugs and is active against drug-sensitive and drug-resistant HIV-1 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Essey, R J; McDougall, B R; Robinson, W E

    2001-09-01

    Although highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) is successful in the treatment of HIV infection, problems with toxicity, drug-resistant variants, and therapeutic failures have compromised the long-term utility of existing combination regimens. Mismatched double-stranded RNA (polyI-polyC(12)U) is an immune modulator with inherent anti-HIV activity. Cell toxicities and anti-HIV activities of fourteen anti-HIV agents were determined alone and in combination with polyI-polyC(12)U. Combination analyses for anti-HIV activity were performed at three drug ratios. Using Mixed Dose Effect analyses and the CalcuSyn for Windows software package, combination indeces were determined for all drug combinations. In general, polyI-polyC(12)U was synergistic in combination with abacavir, zidovudine, zalcitabine, didanosine, stavudine, efavirenz, indinavir, ritonavir, nelfinavir, and amprenavir. It was synergistic to antagonistic with lamivudine, delavirdine, nevirapine, and saquinavir. Thus, polyI-polyC(12)U is synergistic with most anti-HIV agents at most drug ratios and across most effective concentrations in vitro, although, certain members of each class were exceptions. PolyI-polyC(12)U alone was equally active against wild-type HIV and HIV resistant to nevirapine, protease inhibitors, or nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors. These results suggest that polyI-polyC(12)U should be re-evaluated as a potential adjunct therapy in patients who have failed current anti-retroviral therapeutic regimens. PMID:11448730

  1. Association between nutritional status and the immune response in HIV?+?patients under HAART: protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over 850 million people worldwide and 200 million adults in Sub-Saharan Africa suffer from malnutrition. Countries most affected by HIV are also stricken by elevated rates of food insecurity and malnutrition. HIV infection and insufficient nutritional intake are part of a vicious cycle that contributes to immunodeficiency and negative health outcomes. However, the effect of the overlap between HIV infection and undernutrition on the immune response following antiretroviral initiation remains unclear. A possible explanation could be the lack of consensus concerning the definition and assessment of nutritional status. Our objectives are to investigate the existence of an association between undernutrition and immune response at antiretroviral treatment initiation and the following year in low- and middle-income countries where malnutrition is most prevalent. Methods/design Our systematic review will identify studies originating from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) published from 1996 onwards, through searches in MEDLINE (PubMed interface), EMBASE (OVID interface), Cochrane Central (OVID interface) and grey literature. No language restrictions will be applied. We will seek out studies of any design investigating the association between the nutritional status (for example, undernourished versus well nourished) and the immune response, either in terms of CD4 count or immune failure, in seropositive patients initiating antiretroviral therapy or in their first year of treatment. Two reviewers will independently screen articles, extract data and assess scientific quality using standardized forms and published quality assessment tools tailored for each study design. Where feasible, pooled measures of association will be obtained through meta-analyses. Results will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement. This protocol has been registered in the PROSPERO database (registration number: CRD42014005961). Conclusion Undernutrition and weight loss are prevalent amongst highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-treated patients in LMICs and contribute to excess early mortality. A possible intermediate pathway could be poor immune reconstitution secondary to deficient nutritional status. In the face of limited access to second line treatments, raising HIV resistance and cut backs to HIV programs, it is crucial to identify the factors associated with suboptimal response and therapeutic failure in order to better customize the care strategies employed in LMICs. PMID:24513015

  2. Impact of Multi-Targeted Antiretroviral Treatment on Gut T Cell Depletion and HIV Reservoir Seeding during Acute HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ananworanich, Jintanat; Schuetz, Alexandra; Vandergeeten, Claire; Sereti, Irini; de Souza, Mark; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Dewar, Robin; Marovich, Mary; van Griensven, Frits; Sekaly, Rafick; Pinyakorn, Suteeraporn; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Trichavaroj, Rapee; Rutvisuttinunt, Wiriya; Chomchey, Nitiya; Paris, Robert; Peel, Sheila; Valcour, Victor; Maldarelli, Frank; Chomont, Nicolas; Michael, Nelson; Phanuphak, Praphan; Kim, Jerome H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited knowledge exists on early HIV events that may inform preventive and therapeutic strategies. This study aims to characterize the earliest immunologic and virologic HIV events following infection and investigates the usage of a novel therapeutic strategy. Methods and Findings We prospectively screened 24,430 subjects in Bangkok and identified 40 AHI individuals. Thirty Thais were enrolled (8 Fiebig I, 5 Fiebig II, 15 Fiebig III, 2 Fiebig IV) of whom 15 completed 24 weeks of megaHAART (tenofovir/emtricitabine/efavirenz/raltegravir/maraviroc). Sigmoid biopsies were completed in 24/30 at baseline and 13/15 at week 24. At baseline, the median age was 29 years and 83% were MSM. Most were symptomatic (87%), and were infected with R5-tropic (77%) CRF01_AE (70%). Median CD4 was 406 cells/mm3. HIV RNA was 5.5 log10 copies/ml. Median total blood HIV DNA was higher in Fiebig III (550 copy/106 PBMC) vs. Fiebig I (8 copy/106 PBMC) (p?=?0.01) while the median %CD4+CCR5+ gut T cells was lower in Fiebig III (19%) vs. Fiebig I (59%) (p?=?0.0008). After 24 weeks of megaHAART, HIV RNA levels of <50 copies were achieved in 14/15 in blood and 13/13 in gut. Total blood HIV DNA at week 0 predicted reservoir size at week 24 (p<0.001). Total HIV DNA declined significantly and was undetectable in 3 of 15 in blood and 3 of 7 in gut. Frequency of CD4+CCR5+ gut T cells increased from 41% at baseline to 64% at week 24 (p>0.050); subjects with less than 40% at baseline had a significant increase in CD4+CCR5+ T cells from baseline to week 24 (14% vs. 71%, p?=?0.02). Conclusions Gut T cell depletion and HIV reservoir seeding increases with progression of AHI. MegaHAART was associated with immune restoration and reduced reservoir size. Our findings could inform research on strategies to achieve HIV drug-free remission. PMID:22479485

  3. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ways: Through sexual contact -- including oral, vaginal, and anal sex Through blood -- by blood transfusions (now extremely ... risk activities (such as injection drug use or anal sex) After HIV infects the body, the virus ...

  4. HIV and Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that were reported had occurred in patients with hemophilia (a congenital tendency to What do I need ... the cause of HIV-associated PAH was the hemophilia itself or perhaps had to do with problems ...

  5. HIV Vaccine Glossary

    MedlinePLUS

    ... whose brightness depends on the amount of viral RNA present. breakthrough infection : an infection, which the vaccine ... the protein capsule surrounding a virus’ DNA or RNA. In HIV, p55, the precursor molecule to the ...

  6. Exercise and HIV

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 21, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 802 Exercise and HIV WHY IS EXERCISE IMPORTANT? WHAT ARE ... may prevent you from losing lean body mass. Exercise with Weights Weight training (resistance exercise) is one ...

  7. HIV Testing Site Directory

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and others at risk. CDC recommends that health care providers test everyone for HIV between the ages of 13 and 64 at least once as part of routine health care. Talk to a healthcare provider about getting tested. ...

  8. HIV at Work

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Addressing the question of HIV and AIDS in the workplace remains a subject that many employers (and employees) may have difficulty dealing with. This Web site developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention offers some valuable resources to counteract this problem. Persons viewing the site for the first time may want to take a 10-question interactive quiz that deals with basic information about AIDS before browsing at length. One of the centerpieces of the site is the HIV/ AIDS Resource Guide, which contains fact sheets and other resources to help labor leaders conduct HIV/ AIDS prevention programs and raise general awareness about these conditions. The other sections of the site contain material for employers looking to develop an in-house awareness program, and material on legal issues in the workplace as they relate to HIV/ AIDS. Finally, the site also features a search engine, allowing users to quickly look for information on specific topics.

  9. Drugs, Alcohol and HIV

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Keep in mind that recreational drugs aren't regulated, so you never know exactly how much you ... HIV positive (AIDSmap). The Drinkers Check-up A self-evaluation tool for people who drink alcohol and ...

  10. Hepatitis B and HIV

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Problems : Hepatitis B Translate Text Size Print Hepatitis B What is Hepatitis? Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. This condition ... our related pages, Hepatitis A and Hepatitis C . Hepatitis B and HIV About 10% of people living ...

  11. HIV/AIDS Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... few years. But today, there are many effective medicines to fight the infection, and people with HIV ... healthier lives. There are five major types of medicines: Reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors - interfere with a critical ...

  12. How HIV Causes AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tools Print this page Get email updates Order publications Volunteer for Clinical Studies Help people who are suffering from chronic, serious, or life-threatening illnesses related to HIV/AIDS by volunteering for NIAID clinical ...

  13. HIV-Associated Dementia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel G. Madariaga; Susan Swindells

    This chapter reviews the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) including its impact in altering the natural course of human\\u000a immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease; an overview of current regimens in use; factors influencing the choice of initial therapy;\\u000a complications and adverse effects; and treatment failure, and resistance. The focus is on management of primary HIV-related\\u000a diseases of the nervous system. While

  14. HIV and Lactation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Helen Downs; Peter A. Cooper

    2007-01-01

    It is well established that more than 90% of children with HIV acquired it through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). It is estimated that 750,000 children worldwide become infected with HIV every year, and most of these are in sub-Saharan Africa. Routes of MTCT include: transplacental during pregnancy, during birth, through breast milk and bleeding nipples. The percent risk of MTCT varies

  15. Advances in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated kidney diseases.

    PubMed

    Ross, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    Despite improved outcomes among persons living with HIV who are treated with antiretroviral therapy, they remain at increased risk for acute and chronic kidney diseases. Moreover, since HIV can infect renal epithelial cells, the kidney might serve as a viral reservoir that would need to be eradicated when attempting to achieve full virologic cure. In recent years, much progress has been made in elucidating the mechanism by which HIV infects renal epithelial cells and the viral and host factors that promote development of kidney disease. Polymorphisms in APOL1 confer markedly increased risk of HIV-associated nephropathy; however, the mechanism by which ApoL1 variants may promote kidney disease remains unclear. HIV-positive persons are at increased risk of acute kidney injury, which may be a result of a high burden of subclinical kidney disease and/or viral factors and frequent exposure to nephrotoxins. Despite the beneficial effect of antiretroviral therapy in preventing and treating HIVAN, and possibly other forms of kidney disease in persons living with HIV, some of these medications, including tenofovir, indinavir, and atazanavir can induce acute and/or chronic kidney injury via mitochondrial toxicity or intratubular crystallization. Further research is needed to better understand factors that contribute to acute and chronic kidney injury in HIV-positive patients and to develop more effective strategies to prevent and treat kidney disease in this vulnerable population. PMID:24827777

  16. Poxvirus vectors as HIV/AIDS vaccines in humans

    PubMed Central

    Elena Gómez, Carmen; Perdiguero, Beatriz; García-Arriaza, Juan; Esteban, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    The RV144 phase III clinical trial with the combination of the poxvirus vector ALVAC and the HIV gp120 protein has taught us that a vaccine against HIV/AIDS is possible but further improvements are still needed. Although the HIV protective effect of RV144 was modest (31.2%), these encouraging results reinforce the use of poxvirus vectors as HIV/AIDS vaccine candidates. In this review we focus on the prophylactic clinical studies thus far performed with the more widely studied poxvirus vectors, ALVAC, MVA, NYVAC and fowlpox expressing HIV antigens. We describe the characteristics of each vector administered either alone or in combination with other vectors, with emphasis on the immune parameters evaluated in healthy volunteers, percentage of responders and triggering of humoral and T cell responses. Some of these immunogens induced broad, polyfunctional and long-lasting CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to HIV-1 antigens in most volunteers, with preference for effector memory T cells, and neutralizing antibodies, immune parameters that might be relevant in protection. Finally, we consider improvements in immunogenicity of the poxvirus vectors by the selective deletion of viral immunomodulatory genes and insertion of host range genes in the poxvirus genome. Overall, the poxvirus vectors have proven to be excellent HIV/AIDS vaccine candidates, with distinct behavior among them, and the future implementation will be dictated by their optimized immune profile in clinical trials. PMID:22906946

  17. TNF and TNF Receptor Superfamily Members in HIV infection: New Cellular Targets for Therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Wasim; Herbein, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and TNF receptors (TNFR) superfamily members are engaged in diverse cellular phenomena such as cellular proliferation, morphogenesis, apoptosis, inflammation, and immune regulation. Their role in regulating viral infections has been well documented. Viruses have evolved with numerous strategies to interfere with TNF-mediated signaling indicating the importance of TNF and TNFR superfamily in viral pathogenesis. Recent research reports suggest that TNF and TNFRs play an important role in the pathogenesis of HIV. TNFR signaling modulates HIV replication and HIV proteins interfere with TNF/TNFR pathways. Since immune activation and inflammation are the hallmark of HIV infection, the use of TNF inhibitors can have significant impact on HIV disease progression. In this review, we will describe how HIV infection is modulated by signaling mediated through members of TNF and TNFR superfamily and in turn how these latter could be targeted by HIV proteins. Finally, we will discuss the emerging therapeutics options based on modulation of TNF activity that could ultimately lead to the cure of HIV-infected patients. PMID:24453421

  18. HIV in Europe.

    PubMed

    Põder, Airi; Haldre, Madli

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the estimated number of people living with HIV in Europe and Central Asia was 2.3 million. This is more than twice the 2001 figure. At the same time, approximately 50% of the infected people may not know their HIV status. The Europe/Central Asia region is one of only two regions in which HIV infections continue to increase. The estimated prevalence rate in the west and center of the region, however, has remained stable at 0.2%. The HIV epidemics in Eastern Europe and Central Asia are typically driven by unsafe drug injection and by onward transmission to the sexual partners of people who inject drugs. In the western part of the region, the epidemic remains concentrated among men who have sex with men and migrants from countries with generalized epidemics. Means of preventing and fighting HIV should, first and foremost, be directed to those parts of the population that are most exposed to the risk of the infection. Proceeding from the data presented, recommendations are given for ways of decreasing HIV prevalence in the region, such as promoting dialogue and awareness among multistakeholders, including policy makers, donors, and population groups most exposed to the infection. PMID:24559564

  19. Introduction: HIV and development.

    PubMed

    Ballard, J

    2000-06-01

    As part of the global effort to fight the effects of AIDS on the economic development, Australia has placed HIV on the agenda of aid-nongovernmental organizations. Such effort led AusAID and Commonwealth Authorities to fund an HIV and Development Network. As a result, Australia became frequently cited as exemplary for its response to HIV. With the legitimacy of community mobilization, open discussion of sexual issues and health promotion are specific preconditions for much of their response to the epidemic. Yet, there is a broader context within which Australians function: an established value of open and critical debate, including reasonably lively and independent media; the availability of resources for a public health system which ensures treatment and care; and a high degree of public security. All these suggest that Australian programs for HIV and development abroad need to be conceived more broadly in order to encourage a political and social climate for harm reduction. Human rights and law reform are already very much on the HIV and development agenda. However, health sector reform can have deleterious effects on HIV prevention and care. PMID:12179448

  20. Immunogenetics of HIV disease

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Maureen P.; Carrington, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Summary Host genetic factors are a major contributing factor to the inter-individual variation observed in response to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and are linked to resistance to HIV infection among exposed individuals, as well as rate of disease progression and the likelihood of viral transmission. Of the genetic variants that have been shown to affect the natural history of HIV infection, the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I genes exhibit the strongest and most consistent association, underscoring a central role for CD8+ T cells in resistance to the virus. HLA proteins play important roles in T-cell-mediated adaptive immunity by presenting immunodominant HIV epitopes to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and CD4+ T cells. Genetic and functional data also indicate a function for HLA in natural killer (NK) cell-mediated innate immunity against HIV by interacting with killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). We review the HLA and KIR associations with HIV disease and discuss the mechanisms underlying these associations. PMID:23772624

  1. HIV / AIDS and tourism.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, S

    1999-01-01

    Since it tends to be significantly affected by HIV/AIDS, the tourism sector is a likely target for HIV/AIDS interventions in many countries. The tourist industry is at particular risk from the pandemic because of the mobility of the work force, the presence of sex tourists, and the heavy reliance of many countries upon tourism revenues. Indeed, tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in many countries. Some people have speculated that potential tourists' fear of AIDS could discourage them from visiting certain countries, while others have even suggested that tourism should be discouraged because the industry contributes to the spread of HIV/AIDS. When traveling, tourists often take risks that they would not take at home. They tend to drink more, use drugs more, and be generally more adventurous while on holiday. Such adventures often include taking sexual risks. When tourists have sex with prostitutes, hotel staff, and others in the local population, a bridge can be created for HIV to cross back and forth between the tourist's home country and the tourist destination. The author reviews selected studies on the relationship between HIV/AIDS and tourism. Overall, the existing literature offers no definitive evidence that AIDS has had any lasting impact upon the tourism industry anywhere in the world. Rather, promoting a healthy tourism industry and HIV/AIDS prevention are likely complementary in many ways. PMID:12349153

  2. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Rash

    MedlinePLUS

    ... requires immediate medical attention. Why do people with HIV develop rash? A rash is an irritated area ... your health care provider tells you to. What HIV medicines can cause a hypersensitivity reaction? Nevirapine (brand ...

  3. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Lipodystrophy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Body Shape Changes with HIV From the Health Resources and Services Administration: Guide for HIV/AIDS Clinical Care/Abnormalities of Body-Fat Distribution From the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious ...

  4. HIV Protease Inhibitors: Effect on the Opportunistic Protozoan Parasites.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Yenisey; Monzote, Lianet

    2011-01-01

    The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the natural history of AIDS disease has been allowed to prolong the survival of people with HIV infection, particularly whose with increased HIV viral load. Additionally, the antiretroviral therapy could exert a certain degree of protection against parasitic diseases. A number of studies have been evidenced a decrease in the incidence of opportunistic parasitic infections in the era of HAART. Although these changes have been attributed to the restoration of cell-mediated immunity, induced by either non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or HIV protease inhibitors, in combination with at least two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors included in HAART, there are evidence that the control of these parasitic infections in HIV-positive persons under HAART, is also induced by the inhibition of the proteases of the parasites. This review focuses on the principal available data related with therapeutic HIV-protease inhibitors and their in vitro and in vivo effects on the opportunistic protozoan parasites. PMID:21629510

  5. HIV-1 ENVELOPE. Effect of the cytoplasmic domain on antigenic characteristics of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Kovacs, James M; Peng, Hanqin; Rits-Volloch, Sophia; Lu, Jianming; Park, Donghyun; Zablowsky, Elise; Seaman, Michael S; Chen, Bing

    2015-07-10

    A major goal for HIV-1 vaccine development is the production of an immunogen to mimic native, functional HIV-1 envelope trimeric spikes (Env) on the virion surface. We lack a reliable description of a native, functional trimer, however, because of inherent instability and heterogeneity in most preparations. We describe here two conformationally homogeneous Envs derived from difficult-to-neutralize primary isolates. All their non-neutralizing epitopes are fully concealed and independent of their proteolytic processing. Most broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) recognize these native trimers. Truncation of their cytoplasmic tail has little effect on membrane fusion, but it diminishes binding to trimer-specific bnAbs while exposing non-neutralizing epitopes. These results yield a more accurate antigenic picture than hitherto possible of a genuinely untriggered and functional HIV-1 Env; they can guide effective vaccine development. PMID:26113642

  6. Antibody Engineering and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Almagro, Juan Carlos; Gilliland, Gary L; Breden, Felix; Scott, Jamie K; Sok, Devin; Pauthner, Matthias; Reichert, Janice M; Helguera, Gustavo; Andrabi, Raiees; Mabry, Robert; Bléry, Mathieu; Voss, James E; Laurén, Juha; Abuqayyas, Lubna; Barghorn, Stefan; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Crowe, James E; Huston, James S; Johnston, Stephen Albert; Krauland, Eric; Lund-Johansen, Fridtjof; Marasco, Wayne A; Parren, Paul WHI; Xu, Kai Y

    2014-01-01

    The 24th Antibody Engineering & Therapeutics meeting brought together a broad range of participants who were updated on the latest advances in antibody research and development. Organized by IBC Life Sciences, the gathering is the annual meeting of The Antibody Society, which serves as the scientific sponsor. Preconference workshops on 3D modeling and delineation of clonal lineages were featured, and the conference included sessions on a wide variety of topics relevant to researchers, including systems biology; antibody deep sequencing and repertoires; the effects of antibody gene variation and usage on antibody response; directed evolution; knowledge-based design; antibodies in a complex environment; polyreactive antibodies and polyspecificity; the interface between antibody therapy and cellular immunity in cancer; antibodies in cardiometabolic medicine; antibody pharmacokinetics, distribution and off-target toxicity; optimizing antibody formats for immunotherapy; polyclonals, oligoclonals and bispecifics; antibody discovery platforms; and antibody-drug conjugates. PMID:24589717

  7. Mitochondrial Energetics and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Douglas C.; Fan, Weiwei; Procaccio, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to a wide range of degenerative and metabolic diseases, cancer, and aging. All these clinical manifestations arise from the central role of bioenergetics in cell biology. Although genetic therapies are maturing as the rules of bioenergetic genetics are clarified, metabolic therapies have been ineffectual. This failure results from our limited appreciation of the role of bioenergetics as the interface between the environment and the cell. A systems approach, which, ironically, was first successfully applied over 80 years ago with the introduction of the ketogenic diet, is required. Analysis of the many ways that a shift from carbohydrate glycolytic metabolism to fatty acid and ketone oxidative metabolism may modulate metabolism, signal transduction pathways, and the epigenome gives us an appreciation of the ketogenic diet and the potential for bioenergetic therapeutics. PMID:20078222

  8. Therapeutic antibody expression technology.

    PubMed

    Chadd, H E; Chamow, S M

    2001-04-01

    With the technological advances made during the past decade, antibodies now represent an important and growing class of biotherapeutics. With the potential new targets resulting from genomics and with methods now in place to make fully human antibodies, the potential of antibodies as valuable therapeutics in oncology, inflammation and cardiovascular disease can be fully realised. Systems to produce these antibodies as full-length molecules and as fragments include expression in both mammalian and bacterial cells grown in bioreactors and in transgenic organisms. Factors including molecular fidelity and the cost of goods are critical in evaluating expression systems. Mammalian cell culture and transgenic organisms show the greatest promise for the expression of full-length, recombinant human antibodies, and bacterial fermentation seems most favorable for the expression of antibody fragments. PMID:11287236

  9. Acceleration of Age-Associated Methylation Patterns in HIV-1-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sehl, Mary; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Hultin, Patricia M.; Hultin, Lance E.; Quach, Austin; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Horvath, Steve; Vilain, Eric; Jamieson, Beth D.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with treated HIV-1-infection experience earlier occurrence of aging-associated diseases, raising speculation that HIV-1-infection, or antiretroviral treatment, may accelerate aging. We recently described an age-related co-methylation module comprised of hundreds of CpGs; however, it is unknown whether aging and HIV-1-infection exert negative health effects through similar, or disparate, mechanisms. We investigated whether HIV-1-infection would induce age-associated methylation changes. We evaluated DNA methylation levels at >450,000 CpG sites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of young (20-35) and older (36-56) adults in two separate groups of participants. Each age group for each data set consisted of 12 HIV-1-infected and 12 age-matched HIV-1-uninfected samples for a total of 96 samples. The effects of age and HIV-1 infection on methylation at each CpG revealed a strong correlation of 0.49, p<1 x10-200 and 0.47, p<1x10-200. Weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA) identified 17 co-methylation modules; module 3 (ME3) was significantly correlated with age (cor=0.70) and HIV-1 status (cor=0.31). Older HIV-1+ individuals had a greater number of hypermethylated CpGs across ME3 (p=0.015). In a multivariate model, ME3 was significantly associated with age and HIV status (Data set 1: ?age= 0.007088, p=2.08 x 10-9; ?HIV= 0.099574, p=0.0011; Data set 2: ?age= 0.008762, p=1.27x 10-5; ?HIV= 0.128649, p= 0.0001). Using this model, we estimate that HIV-1 infection accelerates age-related methylation by approximately 13.7 years in data set 1 and 14.7 years in data set 2. The genes related to CpGs in ME3 are enriched for polycomb group target genes known to be involved in cell renewal and aging. The overlap between ME3 and an aging methylation module found in solid tissues is also highly significant (Fisher-exact p=5.6 x 10-6, odds ratio=1.91). These data demonstrate that HIV-1 infection is associated with methylation patterns that are similar to age-associated patterns and suggest that general aging and HIV-1 related aging work through some common cellular and molecular mechanisms. These results are an important first step for finding potential therapeutic targets and novel clinical approaches to mitigate the detrimental effects of both HIV-1-infection and aging. PMID:25807146

  10. GTI-2040. Lorus Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Orr, R M

    2001-10-01

    Loris Therapeutics (formerly GeneSense Therapeutics) is developing the antisense oligonucleotide GTI-2040, directed against the R2 component of ribonucleotide reductase, for the potential treatment of cancer [348194]. It is in phase I/II trials [353796] and Lorus had anticipated phase II trials would be initiated in July 2001. By August 2001, GTI-2040 was undergoing a phase II trial as a monotherapy for the potential treatment of renal cell carcinoma, and was about to enter a phase II combination study for this indication with capecitabine (Hoffmann-La Roche). At this time, the company was also planning a phase II trial to study the drug's potential in the treatment of colorectal cancer [418739]. GTI-2040 has been tested in nine different tumor models, including tumors derived from colon, liver, lung, breast, kidney and ovary. Depending on the tumor model, significant inhibition of tumor growth, disease stabilization and dramatic tumor regressions was observed [347683]. Lorus filed an IND to commence phase I/II trials with GTI-2040 in the US in November 1999 [347683], and received approval for the trials in December 1999 [349623]. As of January 2000, these trials had commenced at the University of Chicago Cancer Research Center; it was reported in February 2000 that dosing to date had been well tolerated with no apparent safety concerns [357449]. Lorus has entered into a strategic supply alliance with Proligo to provide the higher volumes of drug product required for the planned multiple phase II trials [385976]. In February 1998, Genesense (now Lorus) received patent WO-09805769. Loris also received a patent (subsequently identified as WO-00047733) from the USPTO in January 2000, entitled 'Antitumor antisense sequences directed against components of ribonucleotide reductase' covering the design and use of unique antisense anticancer drugs, including GTI-2040 and GTI-2501 [353538]. PMID:11890366

  11. Antioxidant therapeutics: Pandora's box.

    PubMed

    Day, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Evolution has favored the utilization of dioxygen (O2) in the development of complex multicellular organisms. O2 is actually a toxic mutagenic gas that is highly oxidizing and combustible. It is thought that plants are largely to blame for polluting the earth's atmosphere with O2 owing to the development of photosynthesis by blue-green algae over 2 billion years ago. The rise of the plants and atmospheric O2 levels placed evolutionary stress on organisms to adapt or become extinct. This implies that all the surviving creatures on our planet are mutants that have adapted to the "abnormal biology" of O2. Much of the adaptation to the presence of O2 in biological systems comes from well-coordinated antioxidant and repair systems that focus on converting O2 to its most reduced form, water (H2O), and the repair and replacement of damaged cellular macromolecules. Biological systems have also harnessed O2's reactive properties for energy production, xenobiotic metabolism, and host defense and as a signaling messenger and redox modulator of a number of cell signaling pathways. Many of these systems involve electron transport systems and offer many different mechanisms by which antioxidant therapeutics can alternatively produce an antioxidant effect without directly scavenging oxygen-derived reactive species. It is likely that each agent will have a different set of mechanisms that may change depending on the model of oxidative stress, organ system, or disease state. An important point is that all biological processes of aerobes have coevolved with O2 and this creates a Pandora's box for trying to understand the mechanism(s) of action of antioxidants being developed as therapeutic agents. PMID:23856377

  12. Bryostatin-1 synergizes with histone deacetylase inhibitors to reactivate HIV-1 from latency.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Moisés; de Vinuesa, Amaya García; Sanchez-Duffhues, Gonzalo; Marquez, Nieves; Bellido, M Luz; Muñoz-Fernandez, M Angeles; Moreno, Santiago; Castor, Trevor P; Calzado, Marco A; Muñoz, Eduardo

    2010-09-01

    The persistence of latent HIV-infected cellular reservoirs represents the major hurdle to virus eradication on patients treated with HAART. It has been suggested that successful depletion of such latent reservoirs will require a combination of therapeutic agents that can specifically and efficiently act on cells harboring latent HIV-1 provirus. Using Jurkat-LAT-GFP cells, a tractable model of HIV-1 latency, we have found that bryostatin -1 reactivates HIV-1 through a classical PKC-dependent pathway. Bryostatin-1 also activates MAPKs and NF-?B pathways and synergizes with HDAC inhibitors to reactivate HIV-1 from latency. Bryostatin-1 downregulates the expression of the HIV-1 co-receptors CD4 and CXCR4 and prevented de novo HIV-1 infection in susceptible cells. We applied proteomic methods to investigate major changes in protein expression in Jurkat-LAT-GFP under latency and reactivation conditions. We identified up-regulation of proteins that may be involved in the innate anti-HIV-1 response (NKEF-A and MHD2) and in different cell functions (i.e. cofilin-1 and transgelin-2) of the host cells. PKC agonists may represent a valuable pharmacological approach to purge latent HIV from cellular reservoirs and at the moment, the only clinically available PKC agonist is bryostatin-1. This drug has been tested in numerous clinical trials and its pharmacokinetics and toxicity in humans is well known. Moreover, bryostatin-1 potently synergizes with other HDAC inhibitors commonly used in the medical practice such as valproic acid. Therefore, bryostatin-1, alone or in combination with HDAC inhibitors, could be used in HAART treated patients to validate the hypothesis that reactivating HIV-1 from latency could purge HIV-1 reservoirs. PMID:20636281

  13. Pharmacotherapy of HIV-1 Infection: Focus on CCR5 Antagonist Maraviroc

    PubMed Central

    Latinovic, Olga; Kuruppu, Janaki; Davis, Charles; Le, Nhut; Heredia, Alonso

    2009-01-01

    Sustained inhibition of HIV-1, the goal of antiretroviral therapy, is often impeded by the emergence of viral drug resistance. For patients infected with HIV-1 resistant to conventional drugs from the viral reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitor classes, the recently approved entry and integration inhibitors effectively suppress HIV-1 and offer additional therapeutic options. Entry inhibitors are particularly attractive because, unlike conventional antiretrovirals, they target HIV-1 extracellularly, thereby sparing cells from both viral- and drug-induced toxicities. The fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide and the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc are the first entry inhibitors licensed for patients with drug-resistant HIV-1, with maraviroc restricted to those infected with CCR5-tropic HIV-1 (R5 HIV-1) only. Vicriviroc (another CCR5 antagonist) is in Phase III clinical trials, whereas the CCR5 antibodies PRO 140 and HGS 004 are in early stages of clinical development. Potent antiviral synergy between maraviroc and CCR5 antibodies, coupled with distinct patterns of resistance, suggest their combinations might be particularly effective in patients. In addition, given that oral administration of maraviroc achieves high drug levels in cervicovaginal fluid, combinations of maraviroc and other CCR5 inhibitors could be effective in preventing HIV-1 transmission. Moreover, since CCR5 antagonists prevent rejection of transplanted organs, maraviroc could both suppress HIV-1 and prolong organ survival for the growing number of HIV-1 patients with kidney or liver failure necessitating organ transplantation. Thus, maraviroc offers an important treatment option for patients with drug-resistant R5 HIV-1, who presently account for >50% of drug-resistance cases. PMID:19920876

  14. PPAR? activation suppresses HIV-1 replication in an animal model of encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Potula, Raghava; Ramirez, Servio H.; Knipe, Bryan; Leibhart, Jessica; Schall, Kathy; Heilman, David; Morsey, Brenda; Mercer, Aaron; Papugani, Anil; Dou, Huanyu; Persidsky, Yuri

    2009-01-01

    Objective Poor penetration of anti-retroviral therapy across the blood brain barrier (BBB) poses an impediment on control of HIV-1 infection in brain macrophages. PPAR?, a member of the nuclear receptors family, regulates important physiological functions (including anti-inflammatory effects) in response to ligand-mediated activation. Since PPAR? agonists are rapidly absorbed by oral administration and efficiently permeate the BBB we hypothesized that PPAR? stimulation may suppress HIV-1 replication. Design & Methods We investigated the effect of PPAR? ligand (rosiglitazone) on HIV-1 replication in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) and in vivo using a murine model (immunodeficient mice reconstituted with human lymphocytes and intracerebrally inoculated with HIV-1 infected macrophages) of HIV-1 encephalitis (HIVE). Results Treatment with rosiglitazone caused a significant decrease of virus infection in macrophages. PPAR? stimulation inhibited virus replication by modulating NF-?B activation in a receptor-depended manner, leading to down-regulation of HIV-1 LTR promoter activity and suppression of HIV-1 replication. These effects were PPAR? specific as PPAR? silencing or addition of PPAR? antagonist abolished effects of PPAR? stimulation on HIV-1 LTR and virus replication. Using a murine model for HIVE, we demonstrated that PPAR? ligand suppressed HIV-1 replication in macrophages in brain tissue and reduced viremia by 50%. Conclusion In vitro data delineated the novel mechanism by which PPAR? activation suppresses HIV-1 replication, and in vivo findings underscored the ability of PPAR? agonists to reduce HIV-1 replication in lymphocytes and brain macrophages offering new therapeutic intervention in brain and systemic infection. PMID:18670212

  15. Occult hepatitis B in Cuban HIV patients.

    PubMed

    Marité, Bello; Montalvo, María Caridad; Rodríguez, Licel de Los Ángeles; Sariego, Susel; Verdasquera, Denis; Vincent, Marguerite; Gutiérrez, Aidonis; Sánchez, Meilin

    2011-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Co-infections between hepatitis B and HIV viruses are frequent due to their similar epidemiological characteristics. Worldwide, hepatitis B infection is one of the main causes of hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. In Cuba as elsewhere, prevalences of hepatitis B and hepatitis C viral infections are higher in persons with HIV. These hepatitis viruses act as opportunistic infections in persons with HIV. In other contexts, persons with HIV have been found to be at higher risk for occult hepatitis B, defined as the presence in serum or plasma of hepatitis B virus DNA and antibodies to its core antigen, in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen. OBJECTIVES Describe occult hepatitis B prevalence in Cuban HIV-positive patients and explore possible associations with their clinical characteristics. METHODS A total of 325 serum samples from patients positive for HIV and negative for hepatitis B surface antigen were studied, divided into two groups, Group 1, negative for hepatitis C virus; and Group 2, positive for hepatitis C virus. Exposure to hepatitis B was determined by testing for hepatitis B core antigen; samples positive for hepatitis B core antigen were then examined for presence of antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen. Both determinations were done by ultramicroELISA. In samples positive for hepatitis B core antigen with levels of antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen of <50 IU/L, real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect hepatitis B DNA and its presence examined in relation to several clinical variables. All data were obtained from patients' clinical records. RESULTS In the hepatitis-C-negative group, 27.9% (68/243) of serum samples tested were positive for hepatitis B core antigen. In the hepatitis-C-positive group, 37.8% (31/82) were positive for hepatitis B core antigen. Total hepatitis B virus exposure prevalence was 30.4% (99/325); 54.5% (54/99) showing low immunity (hepatitis B virus surface antigen <50 IU/L) and 24% of these (13/54), occult hepatitis. There was no statistically significant association between hepatitis B virus DNA and any of the clinical variables studied. CONCLUSIONS Low-immunity HIV-positive persons in our study were exposed to hepatitis B virus. Diagnosis of occult hepatitis B infection is frequent in these patients. This study suggests that diagnostic protocols for persons with HIV and without hepatitis B surface antigen should include testing for hepatitis B core antigen, with positive results followed by molecular techniques to detect occult hepatitis B. This study makes a useful contribution to prevention and control of hepatitis B in Cuba. PMID:21654589

  16. Challenges in virological diagnosis of HIV -1 transmission from sexual abuse--HIV-1 genetic links are mandatory.

    PubMed

    Ehrnst, Anneka

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to set forth possible strategies and techniques of analysis to diagnose or identify the source of HIV transmission in victims of sexual abuse. Diagnosis of HIV-1 transmission from sexual abuse is complicated. Timely blood samples are important. The right to confidentiality of the HIV diagnosis may prevent sampling from the offender. Hideous rapes occur during war, which victimize many women. Women delivering a child, seeking an abortion, or having a miscarriage may include victims of sexual abuse. HIV-infected children, where vertical transmission has been excluded, are important for investigation. Men who have sex with men may abuse young men. HIV-infected teenagers with signs of early infection should also be considered. Hundreds of single HIV-1 sequences can be created from one or more blood samples from the case and the alleged abuser. The more HIV-1 genes and sequences that are included, the better the outcomes of the phylogenetic relation. Evidence in support of transmission may be obtained from phylogenetic tree analysis and may also free someone from suspicion. PMID:23387930

  17. Excision of HIV-1 proviral DNA by recombinant cell permeable tre-recombinase.

    PubMed

    Mariyanna, Lakshmikanth; Priyadarshini, Poornima; Hofmann-Sieber, Helga; Krepstakies, Marcel; Walz, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam; Buchholz, Frank; Hildt, Eberhard; Hauber, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Over the previous years, comprehensive studies on antiretroviral drugs resulted in the successful introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) into clinical practice for treatment of HIV/AIDS. However, there is still need for new therapeutic approaches, since HAART cannot eradicate HIV-1 from the infected organism and, unfortunately, can be associated with long-term toxicity and the development of drug resistance. In contrast, novel gene therapy strategies may have the potential to reverse the infection by eradicating HIV-1. For example, expression of long terminal repeat (LTR)-specific recombinase (Tre-recombinase) has been shown to result in chromosomal excision of proviral DNA and, in consequence, in the eradication of HIV-1 from infected cell cultures. However, the delivery of Tre-recombinase currently depends on the genetic manipulation of target cells, a process that is complicating such therapeutic approaches and, thus, might be undesirable in a clinical setting. In this report we demonstrate that E.coli expressed Tre-recombinases, tagged either with the protein transduction domain (PTD) from the HIV-1 Tat trans-activator or the translocation motif (TLM) of the Hepatitis B virus PreS2 protein, were able to translocate efficiently into cells and showed significant recombination activity on HIV-1 LTR sequences. Tre activity was observed using episomal and stable integrated reporter constructs in transfected HeLa cells. Furthermore, the TLM-tagged enzyme was able to excise the full-length proviral DNA from chromosomal integration sites of HIV-1-infected HeLa and CEM-SS cells. The presented data confirm Tre-recombinase activity on integrated HIV-1 and provide the basis for the non-genetic transient application of engineered recombinases, which may be a valuable component of future HIV eradication strategies. PMID:22348110

  18. Global Efforts against HIV Epidemic and HIV Vaccine Development.

    PubMed

    Tanuma, Junko

    2014-06-01

    Although the tremendous effort has been paid by scientists for creating HIV vaccine over the past three decades since the discovery of HIV-1, the HIV vaccine development still has a long way to go. Only one HIV vaccine, RV144, has been proved to be moderately effective by the clinical trials, but there has been much debate about its usefulness. The difficulties of HIV vaccine development includes the attacks to host's immune system by HIV and the emergence of various escape mutants. The necessity of large clinical trials for the proof of efficacy also makes HIV vaccine development difficult. One the other hand, Treatment as Prevention (TasP) or Preexposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) has revealed to be highly effective for HIV prevention. Those preventive strategies using antiretroviral therapy is one of the recent main stream of HIV policy worldwide. However, it is believed that a sustained end of the HIV pandemic is guaranteed by the combination of nonvaccine prevention and the development of a safe and effective HIV vaccine. The continuous efforts are needed for the HIV vaccine development. PMID:25425957

  19. Hundreds with HIV Could Donate Organs to Others with HIV

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152551.html Hundreds With HIV Could Donate Organs to Others With HIV: Study Although ban was lifted on such surgeries ... THURSDAY, May 14, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Nearly 400 HIV-positive potential organ donors in the United States ...

  20. Therapeutic cloning: The ethical limits

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, Peter A. [ESRC Centre for Economic and Social Aspects of Genomics, Lancaster University, Furness College, Lancaster LA1 4YG (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: p.whittaker@lancaster.ac.uk

    2005-09-01

    A brief outline of stem cells, stem cell therapy and therapeutic cloning is given. The position of therapeutic cloning with regard to other embryonic manipulations - IVF-based reproduction, embryonic stem formation from IVF embryos and reproductive cloning - is indicated. The main ethically challenging stages in therapeutic cloning are considered to be the nuclear transfer process including the source of eggs for this and the destruction of an embryo to provide stem cells for therapeutic use. The extremely polarised nature of the debate regarding the status of an early human embryo is noted, and some potential alternative strategies for preparing immunocompatible pluripotent stem cells are indicated.

  1. Novel HIV-1 MiRNAs Stimulate TNF? Release in Human Macrophages via TLR8 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Mark A.; Zhao, Hui; Yue, Simon C.; Anandaiah, Asha; Koziel, Henry; Tachado, Souvenir D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether HIV-1 produces microRNAs and elucidate whether these miRNAs can induce inflammatory response in macrophages (independent of the conventional miRNA function in RNA interference) leading to chronic immune activation. Methods Using sensitive quantitative Real Time RT-PCR and sequencing, we detected novel HIV-derived miRNAs in the sera of HIV+ persons, and associated with exosomes. Release of TNF? by macrophages challenged with HIV miRNAs was measured by ELISA. Results HIV infection of primary alveolar macrophages produced elevated levels of viral microRNAs vmiR88, vmiR99 and vmiR-TAR in cell extracts and in exosome preparations from conditioned medium. Furthermore, these miRNAs were also detected in exosome fraction of sera from HIV-infected persons. Importantly, vmiR88 and vmiR99 (but not vmiR-TAR) stimulated human macrophage TNF? release, which is dependent on macrophage TLR8 expression. These data support a potential role for HIV-derived vmiRNAs released from infected macrophages as contributing to chronic immune activation in HIV-infected persons, and may represent a novel therapeutic target to limit AIDS pathogenesis. Conclusion Novel HIV vmiR88 and vmiR99 are present in the systemic circulation of HIV+ persons and could exhibit biological function (independent of gene silencing) as ligands for TLR8 signaling that promote macrophage TNF? release, and may contribute to chronic immune activation. Targeting novel HIV-derived miRNAs may represent a therapeutic strategy to limit chronic immune activation and AIDS progression. PMID:25191859

  2. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    MedlinePLUS

    ... other health challenges, as well as cultural and economic hardships. "Many of our patients are obese, HIV- ... HIV-uninfected (tested negative). Both groups need our attention," she says. "If the person tests positive, there ...

  3. Latinos and HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... do not include U.S. dependent areas. ? Return to text CDC. HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report , Vol. 17, No. ... do not include U.S. dependent areas. ? Return to text CDC. Fact Sheet: HIV in the United States ; ...

  4. HIV/AIDS and Vaccines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... HIV have access to life-saving antiretroviral therapy (ART) than ever before, which is good for their ... have access to Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP), or ART being used to prevent HIV. Yet, unfortunately, approximately ...

  5. [Lipodystrophy and 'buffalo hump' during treatment with HIV protease inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Dieleman, J P; Hillebrand-Haverkort, M E; van der Ende, M E; Sturkenboom, M C; Lange, J M; Stricker, B H

    1998-12-26

    In three patients, a 36-year-old HIV seropositive homosexual man and two women aged 35 and 59 years who had acquired HIV infection through heterosexual contact, signs of lipodystrophy developed after prolonged anti-HIV triple therapy. The observed syndrome is seen after prolonged use of HIV protease inhibitors: it is characterized by peripheral fat wasting, central fat accumulation, hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance. Typically the subcutaneous fatty tissue disappears resulting in prominent zygomata, veins and muscles and thinning of extremities and buttocks. In addition to abdominal fat accumulation, there have been reports on the occurrence of a dorsocervical fat pad, the so-called buffalo hump. Lipodystrophy caused by protease inhibitors is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recognition of the syndrome is essential for adequate follow-up and possible treatment. PMID:10065260

  6. Current practices in laboratory monitoring of HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Vajpayee, Madhu; Mohan, Teena

    2011-01-01

    After a diagnosis of HIV infection is made, the patient needs to be monitored using both clinical assessment and laboratory markers. HIV/AIDS monitoring is essential in guiding when to recommend initiation of therapy. Clinical monitoring will include staging of the HIV/AIDS disease using either the presence or absence of HIV-related signs and symptoms using the WHO staging system. Various laboratory methods can be used to monitor the disease progression and to guide whether the patient will need antiretroviral therapy or not. Laboratory monitoring for patients who are not on drugs is done to provide information about the stage of illness; to enable the clinician to make decisions on treatment and to give information on prognosis of the patient. Patients on drugs are monitored to assess their response to treatment with antiretroviral drugs and to detect any possible toxicity and improvement associated with the antiretroviral drugs. PMID:22310815

  7. Behçet's disease diagnosed after acute HIV infection: viral replication activating underlying autoimmunity?

    PubMed

    Roscoe, Clay; Kinney, Rebecca; Gilles, Ryan; Blue, Sky

    2015-05-01

    Behçet's disease is an autoimmune systemic vasculitis that can occur after exposure to infectious agents. Behçet's disease also has been associated with HIV infection, including de novo development of this condition during chronic HIV infection and resolution of Behçet's disease symptoms following initiation of antiretroviral therapy. We describe a patient who presented with systemic vasculitis with skin and mucous membrane ulcerations in the setting of acute HIV infection, who was eventually diagnosed with Behçet's disease, demonstrating a possible link between acute HIV infection, immune activation and development of autoimmunity. PMID:24912539

  8. Knowledge of AIDS and HIV transmission among drug users in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neilane Bertoni; Merril Singer; Cosme MFP Silva; Scott Clair; Monica Malta; Francisco I Bastos

    2011-01-01

    Background  Proper knowledge of HIV transmission is not enough for people to adopt protective behaviors, but deficits in this information\\u000a may increase HIV\\/AIDS vulnerability.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To assess drug users' knowledge of HIV\\/AIDS and the possible association between knowledge and HIV testing.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A Cross-sectional study conducted in 2006\\/7 with a convenience sample of 295 illicit drug users in Rio de Janeiro, assessing\\u000a knowledge

  9. Sex issues in HIV1-infected persons during highly active antiretroviral therapy: a systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emanuele Nicastri; Sebastiano Leone; Claudio Angeletti; Lucia Palmisano; Loredana Sarmati; Antonio Chiesi; Andrea Geraci; Stefano Vella; Pasquale Narciso; Angela Corpolongo; Massimo Andreoni

    2007-01-01

    Background: Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), morbidity and mortality rates have sharply decreased among HIV-infected patients. Studies of possible differences between men and women in the course of HIV infection give conflicting results. The objective of this study was to assess sex differences during HAART. Methods: A literature search by using the MEDLINE database between March

  10. The HIV\\/AIDS epidemic in Ukraine: its potential social and economic impact

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony Barnett; Alan Whiteside; Lev Khodakevich; Yuri Kruglov; Valentyna Steshenko

    2000-01-01

    Present and immediately foreseeable medical knowledge suggest that HIV infection cannot be avoided by vaccination and that an affordable cure for the resulting syndrome, AIDS, is a long way off. There is a strong possibility that Ukraine is confronted by an HIV epidemic which will spread into the general population and that the most common mode of transmission will be

  11. Therapeutic approach to bronchiolitis: why pediatricians continue to overprescribe drugs?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniele De Brasi; Fortunato Pannuti; Fabio Antonelli; Federica de Seta; Paolo Siani; Luciano de Seta

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis guidelines suggest that neither bronchodilators nor corticosteroids, antiviral and antibacterial agents should be routinely used. Although recommendations, many clinicians persistently prescribe drugs for bronchiolitis. AIM OF THE STUDY: To unravel main reasons of pediatricians in prescribing drugs to infants with bronchiolitis, and to possibly correlate therapeutic choices to the severity of clinical presentation. Also possible influence of socially

  12. Transmission of HIV and hepatitis C virus from a nursing home patient to a health care worker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elise M. Beltrami; Anne Kozak; Ian T. Williams; Ae M. Saekhou; Marcia L. Kalish; Omana V. Nainan; Susan L. Stramer; Mei-Chen H. Fucci; Debra Frederickson; Denise M. Cardo

    2003-01-01

    Background: We report a case of simultaneous HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission from a nursing home patient to a health care worker (HCW) whose HIV and HCV infections were diagnosed during routine blood donor screening. Methods: Detailed information about the HCW, possible occupational and nonoccupational blood and body fluid exposures, and possible source patient was collected. Blood samples

  13. HIV enhancing activity of semen impairs the antiviral efficacy of microbicides

    PubMed Central

    Zirafi, Onofrio; Kim, Kyeong-Ae; Roan, Nadia R.; Kluge, Silvia F.; Müller, Janis A.; Jiang, Shibo; Mayer, Benjamin; Greene, Warner C.; Kirchhoff, Frank; Münch, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Topically applied microbicides potently inhibit HIV in vitro but have largely failed to exert protective effects in clinical trials. One possible reason for this discrepancy is that the preclinical testing of microbicides does not faithfully reflect the conditions of HIV sexual transmission. Here, we report that candidate microbicides that target HIV components show greatly reduced antiviral efficacy in the presence of semen, the main vector for HIV transmission. This diminished antiviral activity was dependent on the ability of amyloid fibrils in semen to enhance the infectivity of HIV. Thus, the anti-HIV efficacy of microbicides determined in the absence of semen greatly underestimated the drug concentrations needed to block semen-exposed virus. One notable exception was Maraviroc. This HIV entry inhibitor targets the host cell CCR5 coreceptor and was highly active against both untreated and semen-exposed HIV. These data help explain why microbicides have failed to protect against HIV in clinical trials and suggest that antiviral compounds targeting host factors hold promise for further development. These findings also suggest that the in vitro efficacy of candidate microbicides should be determined in the presence of semen to identify the best candidates for the prevention of HIV sexual transmission. PMID:25391483

  14. Therapeutic approach to epileptic encephalopathies.

    PubMed

    Vigevano, Federico; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Plouin, Perrine; Specchio, Nicola

    2013-11-01

    Epileptic encephalopathies (EEs) are electroclinical entities with a peculiar course of disease; seizures and electroencephalographic (EEG) epileptiform abnormalities, ictal and interictal, contribute to progressive disturbance of cerebral functions. Frequently EEs are drug resistant, and consequences may be catastrophic. The main goal of treatment is to stop the peculiar course of epilepsy, operating on three parameters: seizure control, reduction of EEG abnormalities, and developmental outcome. For a correct therapeutic approach it is mandatory to have an as accurate as possible syndromic and etiologic diagnosis. Given the poor efficacy of conventional antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), the use of specific drugs for EEs, such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosteroids or stiripentol is suggested. In some cases the choice of treatment is strictly related to the etiology: vigabatrin in tuberous sclerosis, ketogenic diet in glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT-1) deficiency, and pyridoxine in pyridoxine deficiency. Some AEDs combinations, such as sodium valproate with lamotrigine, have also provided interesting results, for example, in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, although controlled studies are lacking. Finally, early surgery can be an option in children with focal structural abnormalities responsible for EEs preferably before irreversible damage on developmental outcome. Multispecialist support is recommended in EE. Management should be global from the onset, integrating not only seizure control but also all issues related to comorbidities, particularly neuropsychological and psychiatric. PMID:24571117

  15. HIV diagnostic tests: An overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Onyinye I Iweala

    2004-01-01

    This article provides an overview of different HIV diagnostic tests, describing how they work and the advantages and limitations of the various tests. This article also briefly reviews the structure and genetic diversity of HIV, the mechanism the virus uses to infect host cells and the different phases of HIV infection. This information is included to facilitate understanding of how

  16. UPDATES IN HIV: March 2012,

    E-print Network

    Sharp, Kim

    UPDATES IN HIV: Adherence March 2012, Issue 3 Many people with HIV in Botswana are living longer, maintaining this level of adherence is challenging for many persons living with HIV. 1,2 This edition of Tlaleletso offers an overview of the factors that influence adherence and highlights some of the strategies

  17. Social Vaccine for HIV Prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ubaidullah

    2005-01-01

    Nearly everywhere that AIDS has been found, HIV infection is fast spreading. No one is known to have recovered from HIV infection. There is no vaccine to cure AIDS (Population Reports, 1989 and The Hindu, dated 9.3.2000). Until a cure or vaccine for HIV infection is found, the only way to prevent the spread of the disease is by changing

  18. Communication of pharmacogenetic research results to HIV-infected treated patients: standpoints of professionals and patients

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    their efficacy and minimising the likelihood of adverse side effects. Since the advent of personalised medicine1 Communication of pharmacogenetic research results to HIV-infected treated patients: standpoints of pharmacogenetic studies is to adapt therapeutic strategies to individual genetic profiles, thus maximising

  19. Remembering Camp Dreamcatcher: Art Therapy with Children Whose Lives Have Been Touched by HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrenko, Kathy D.

    2005-01-01

    Society calls upon art therapists to meet the needs of troubled community members. This article describes one art therapist?s experience of "giving back" to the community by volunteering to provide art therapy at a therapeutic camp for children whose lives have been touched by HIV/AIDS. Some of the medical, social, and psychological issues…

  20. HIV testing of pregnant women: an ethical analysis.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Kjell Arne; Pedersen, Kirsten Bjerkreim; Andersson, Anna-Karin

    2011-12-01

    Recent global advances in available technology to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission necessitate a rethinking of contemporary and previous ethical debates on HIV testing as a means to preventing vertical transmission. In this paper, we will provide an ethical analysis of HIV-testing strategies of pregnant women. First, we argue that provider-initiated opt-out HIV testing seems to be the most effective HIV test strategy. The flip-side of an opt-out strategy is that it may end up as involuntary testing in a clinical setting. We analyse this ethical puzzle from a novel perspective, taking into account the moral importance of certain hypothetical preferences of the child, as well as the moral importance of certain actual preferences of the mother. Finally, we balance the conflicting concerns and try to arrive at an ethically sound solution to this dilemma. Our aim is to introduce a novel perspective from which to analyse testing strategies, and to explore the implications and possible benefits of our proposal. The conclusion from our analysis is that policies that recommend provider-initiated opt-out HIV testing of pregnant mothers, with a risk of becoming involuntary testing in a clinical setting, are acceptable. The rationale behind this is that the increased availability of very effective and inexpensive life-saving drugs makes the ethical problems raised by the possible intrusiveness of HIV testing less important than the child's hypothetical preferences to be born healthy. Health care providers, therefore, have a duty to offer both opt-out HIV testing and available PMTCT (preventing mother-to-child transmission) interventions. PMID:21790963

  1. Demographic characteristics of retroviral infections (HIV-1, HIV-2, and HTLV-I) among female professional sex workers in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Dada, A J; Oyewole, F; Onofowokan, R; Nasidi, A; Harris, B; Levin, A; Diamondstone, L; Quinn, T C; Blattner, W A

    1993-12-01

    In 1990/1991, 885 prostitutes residing in 11 of the 12 Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Lagos State, Nigeria, participated in a cross-sectional study to determine current seroprevalence of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2), and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I). The overall prevalence of HIV-1 was 12.3%, of HIV-2, 2.1%, and of HTLV-I, 2.8%. HIV-1 seropositivity did not vary significantly by age, socioeconomic class, or nationality, but HIV-1 seroprevalence was significantly elevated for prostitutes resident in the Port area of Lagos which serves as a crossroads for international and national commerce (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.1, 4.6). HIV-2 infection was significantly associated with low socioeconomic class (OR = 3.7; 95% CI = 1.2, 10.8) and non-Nigerian nationality (OR = 6.7; 95% CI = 2.5, 18.4). Prevalence of HTLV-I infection increased significantly with age (OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.0, 5.3). The high seroprevalence of HIV-1 in this survey, compared with previous surveys reported in the last several years and the correlation between high prevalence and areas of international commerce suggest that HIV-1 is spreading in this area of Nigeria. Intensified prevention campaigns are needed to address this possible emerging epidemic. PMID:8254475

  2. Identification of Proteasome Gene Regulation in a Rat Model for HIV Protease Inhibitor-induced Hyperlipidemia Using Microarray Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey F. Waring; Rita Ciurlionis; Kennan Marsh; Larry L. Klein; David A. Degoey; John T. Randolph; Brian Spear; Dale J. Kempf

    Abstract Objectives\\/Aims: HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs) are widely used for the therapeutic intervention of HIV infection. However, some PIs produce elevations in serum triglycerides, cholesterol and low- density lipoproteins (LDLs) that may be associated with long-term cardiovascular disease. Identifying new PIs that are not associated with dyslipidemia has been hindered by the lack of mechanistic information and the unavailability of

  3. HIV-1 single-stranded RNA induces CXCL13 secretion in human monocytes via TLR7 activation and plasmacytoid dendritic cell-derived type I IFN.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Kristen W; Dugast, Anne-Sophie; Alter, Galit; McElrath, M Juliana; Stamatatos, Leonidas

    2015-03-15

    Elevated levels of the chemokine CXCL13 have been observed in the plasma of chronically HIV-1-infected subjects and have been correlated with plasma viremia, which in turn has been linked to progressive dysregulation of humoral responses. In this study we sought to identify mechanisms of CXCL13 induction in response to HIV-1 infection. Plasma levels of CXCL13 in HIV-1-infected antiretroviral therapy-naive subjects correlated with viral load and were higher compared with antiretroviral therapy-treated HIV-1-infected and HIV-1-uninfected subjects. To elucidate the relationship between HIV-1 viremia and CXCL13 plasma levels, PBMCs from uninfected donors were stimulated with HIV-1 infectious virions, HIV-1 ssRNA, TLR 7 and 8 agonists, or IFN-?. The cellular sources of CXCL13 were determined by intracellular cytokine staining of cell populations. CXCL13 was produced by monocytes after stimulation with TLR 7 and 8 ligands or HIV-1-derived ssRNA. CXCL13 production by monocytes required TLR7 activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells and secretion of type I IFN. IFN-? alone was sufficient to induce CXCL13 expression in human monocytes. In sum, we identified a novel mechanism of HIV-1-induced CXCL13 secretion-one caused by TLR7 induction of type I IFN by plasmacytoid dendritic cells and subsequent IFN stimulation of monocytes. Our findings are relevant in understanding how HIV-1 infection leads to immune dysregulation and provide the opportunity to develop and test potential therapeutic interventions. PMID:25667414

  4. HIV sequence compendium 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiken, Carla; Foley, Brian; Freed, Eric; Hahn, Beatrice; Marx, Preston; McCutchan, Francine; Mellors, John; Wolinsky, Steven; Korber, Bette

    2002-12-31

    This compendium is an annual printed summary of the data contained in the HIV sequence database. In these compendia we try to present a judicious selection of the data in such a way that it is of maximum utility to HIV researchers. Traditionally, we present the sequence data themselves in the form of alignments: Section II, an alignment of a selection of HIV-1/SIVcpz full-length genomes (a lot of LAI-like sequences, for example, have been omitted because they are so similar that they bias the alignment); Section III, a combined HIV-1/HIV-2/SIV whole genome alignment; Sections IV–VI, amino acid alignments for HIV-1/SIV-cpz, HIV-2/SIV, and SIVagm. The HIV-2/SIV and SIVagm amino acid alignments are separate because the genetic distances between these groups are so great that presenting them in one alignment would make it very elongated because of the large number of gaps that have to be inserted. As always, tables with extensive background information gathered from the literature accompany the whole genome alignments. The collection of whole-gene sequences in the database is now large enough that we have abundant representation of most subtypes. For many subtypes, and especially for subtype B, a large number of sequences that span entire genes were not included in the printed alignments to conserve space. A more complete version of all alignments is available on our website, http://hiv-web.lanl.gov/content/hiv-db/ALIGN_CURRENT/ALIGN-INDEX.html. Importantly, all these alignments have been edited to include only one sequence per person, based on phylogenetic trees that were created for all of them, as well as on the literature. Because of the number of sequences available, we have decided to use a different selection principle this year, based on the epidemiological importance of the subtypes. Subtypes A–D and CRFs 01 and 02 are by far the most widespread variants, and for these (when available) we have included 8–10 representatives in the alignments. The other subtypes and CRFs are of lesser importance, and of these 4–5 each, or as many as are available, were included. In the alignments we have also included the ‘Circulating Recombinant Forms’, mosaic genomes that have epidemiological significance. See the 1999 review of nomenclature (http://hiv-web.lanl.gov/content/hiv-db/REVIEWS/nomenclature/Nomen.html) for more on CRFs, and see for an overview of the patterns of known CRFs. Amino acid alignment chapters begin with an annotation table that includes sequence names, accession numbers, genomic region represented, author, and references. We have made an effort to bring the HIV-2/SIV and SIVagm alignments up-to-date as well.

  5. [Hypercholesterolemia: a therapeutic approach].

    PubMed

    Moráis López, A; Lama More, R A; Dalmau Serra, J

    2009-05-01

    High blood cholesterol levels represent an important cardiovascular risk factor. Hypercholesterolemia is defined as levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol above 95th percentile for age and gender. For the paediatric population, selective screening is recommended in children older than 2 years who are overweight, with a family history of early cardiovascular disease or whose parents have high cholesterol levels. Initial therapeutic approach includes diet therapy, appropriate physical activity and healthy lifestyle changes. Drug treatment should be considered in children from the age of 10 who, after having followed appropriate diet recommendations, still have very high LDL-cholesterol levels or moderately high levels with concomitant risk factors. In case of extremely high LDL-cholesterol levels, drug treatment should be taken into consideration at earlier ages (8 years old). Modest response is usually observed with bile acid-binding resins. Statins can be considered first-choice drugs, once evidence on their efficacy and safety has been shown. PMID:19427823

  6. Renaissance of cancer therapeutic antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin J. Glennie

    2003-01-01

    In the past five years therapeutic monoclonal antibodies have established themselves as perhaps the most important and rapidly expanding class of therapeutic drugs. More than 25% of pharmacological agents that are currently under development are based on antibodies and the total income generated from them in 2002 exceeded $3 billion, and is predicted to rise to $10–20 billion by 2010.

  7. Identification and Characterization of a Broadly Cross-Reactive HIV-1 Human Monoclonal Antibody That Binds to Both gp120 and gp41

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mei-Yun; Yuan, Tingting; Li, Jingjing; Rosa Borges, Andrew; Watkins, Jennifer D.; Guenaga, Javier; Yang, Zheng; Wang, Yanping; Wilson, Richard; Li, Yuxing; Polonis, Victoria R.; Pincus, Seth H.; Ruprecht, Ruth M.; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.

    2012-01-01

    Identification of broadly cross-reactive HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) may assist vaccine immunogen design. Here we report a novel human monoclonal antibody (mAb), designated m43, which co-targets the gp120 and gp41 subunits of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env). M43 bound to recombinant gp140 s from various primary isolates, to membrane-associated Envs on transfected cells and HIV-1 infected cells, as well as to recombinant gp120 s and gp41 fusion intermediate structures containing N-trimer structure, but did not bind to denatured recombinant gp140 s and the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) mutant, gp120 D368R, suggesting that the m43 epitope is conformational and overlaps the CD4bs on gp120 and the N-trimer structure on gp41. M43 neutralized 34% of the HIV-1 primary isolates from different clades and all the SHIVs tested in assays based on infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by replication-competent virus, but was less potent in cell line-based pseudovirus assays. In contrast to CD4, m43 did not induce Env conformational changes upon binding leading to exposure of the coreceptor binding site, enhanced binding of mAbs 2F5 and 4E10 specific for the membrane proximal external region (MPER) of gp41 Envs, or increased gp120 shedding. The overall modest neutralization activity of m43 is likely due to the limited binding of m43 to functional Envs which could be increased by antibody engineering if needed. M43 may represent a new class of bnAbs targeting conformational epitopes overlapping structures on both gp120 and gp41. Its novel epitope and possibly new mechanism(s) of neutralization could helpdesign improved vaccine immunogens and candidate therapeutics. PMID:22970187

  8. Identification of IL7RA risk alleles for rapid progression during HIV-1 infection: a comprehensive study in the GRIV cohort.

    PubMed

    Limou, Sophie; Melica, Giovanna; Coulonges, Cédric; Lelièvre, Jean-Daniel; Do, Hervé; McGinn, Steven; Gut, Ivo G; Lévy, Yves; Zagury, Jean-François

    2012-03-01

    Interleukin 7 (IL7) is a critical factor for lymphocyte homeostasis. A dysfunction of the IL7/IL7R pathway has previously been described in HIV-1 infection, and promising results were observed in recent analyses of IL7 for therapeutic use in HIV infected individuals. However, further investigations are still warranted to understand the possible roles of this cytokine. Here, we explored whether the IL7 and IL7RA genetic polymorphisms were associated with the progression of HIV infection. We extensively genotyped the IL7 and IL7RA genes in the GRIV (Genomics of Resistance to Immunodeficiency Virus) cohort, composed of patients with extreme progression profiles - long-term non (LTNP) and rapid (RP) progressors--, and in a healthy control group (CTR). Statistical case-control analyses were performed using the Fisher's exact test, comparing either LTNP vs CTR or RP vs CTR. Three IL7RA SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms--rs7701176, rs987106 and rs10491434), but no IL7 SNPs, were significantly associated with rapid disease progression (P < 0.01). In a multi-marker analysis focusing on functional variants, a strong association between an IL7RA haplotype and rapid progression was observed (P = 5.59 x 10(-3)). In summary, our comprehensive genetic study revealed three SNPs and a risk of haplotype associated with rapid progression to AIDS in the IL7RA gene. Interestingly, the haplotype is composed of SNPs previously identified in other inflammatory diseases (e.g., multiple sclerosis) by GWAS and by functional studies. Our results contribute to the growing understanding of the role of IL7/IL7R in HIV disease progression, and more widely, in CD4+ T cell homeostasis. PMID:22329520

  9. Microbicides for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Ramjee, Gita

    2011-01-01

    Although the HIV incidence rate has slowed in some countries, HIV remains a serious health challenge, particularly in the developing world. The epidemic is increasingly feminised, with young women at high risk of acquiring the virus. There is thus a clear requirement for acceptable woman-initiated methods of HIV prevention. Foremost among these are vaginally-applied substances known as microbicides; early research into potential microbicides focussed on non-HIV-specific compounds such as surfactants and polyanionic entry inhibitors. However, proof of the microbicide concept as a viable prevention strategy was not provided until the CAPRISA 004 trial of a microbicide containing the HIV-specific antiretroviral tenofovir was completed in mid-2010. Confirmation of the proof of concept provided by CAPRISA 004 by at least two major trials will hopefully lead to licensure of the product by 2018. Parallel studies are planned to ascertain the feasibility of implementation of these products in the public sector with subsequent research focussed on appropriate and acceptable methods of delivery of the active ingredient, and to increase adherence through other delivery systems such as vaginal rings. PMID:22310825

  10. HIV in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Abrams, S

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Southeast Asia. Prostitution and injecting drug use are two major factors in the appearance of HIV/AIDS in a country. But, it is the correct social network that assures its transmission to epidemic proportions. Heterosexual transmission in Cambodia, Myanmar, and Thailand is linked with prevalence among female sex workers and their clients. In Malaysia, the Ministry of Health responded immediately, but the number of new infections continued to increase. The failures suggest the need for more effective, intensive health education programs, outreach by nongovernmental organizations, and peer education at the grassroots level and in remote areas. Public health officials need to promote political change. International agencies could play an important role, if countries such as Myanmar, Cambodia, and Viet Nam were open to international exchanges. In Myanmar, political unrest has a priority over the need for aggressive health interventions. In Indonesia, the Islamic influence prevents recognition of the country's significant sex industry or the existence of a homosexual community. In Cambodia, health officials warned about the high number of sexual partners, high mobility rate, and low condom use, but HIV spread rapidly in the 1990s. Thailand initiated a 100% condom campaign to combat HIV prevalence in the 1990s, and HIV prevalence declined among sex workers and military recruits. Risk factors for rapid transmission include mobility, the number of sexual partners/sex worker, the proportion engaging in commercial sex, and the rate of regular condom use among sex workers. PMID:12294443

  11. Phenyl-1-Pyridin-2yl-Ethanone-Based Iron Chelators Increase I?B-? Expression, Modulate CDK2 and CDK9 Activities, and Inhibit HIV-1 Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Namita; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Kovalskyy, Dmytro; Breuer, Denitra; Niu, Xiaomei; Lin, Xionghao; Xu, Min; Gavrilenko, Konstantin; Kashanchi, Fatah; Dhawan, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 transcription is activated by the Tat protein, which recruits CDK9/cyclin T1 to the HIV-1 promoter. CDK9 is phosphorylated by CDK2, which facilitates formation of the high-molecular-weight positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) complex. We previously showed that chelation of intracellular iron inhibits CDK2 and CDK9 activities and suppresses HIV-1 transcription, but the mechanism of the inhibition was not understood. In the present study, we tested a set of novel iron chelators for the ability to inhibit HIV-1 transcription and elucidated their mechanism of action. Novel phenyl-1-pyridin-2yl-ethanone (PPY)-based iron chelators were synthesized and examined for their effects on cellular iron, HIV-1 inhibition, and cytotoxicity. Activities of CDK2 and CDK9, expression of CDK9-dependent and CDK2-inhibitory mRNAs, NF-?B expression, and HIV-1- and NF-?B-dependent transcription were determined. PPY-based iron chelators significantly inhibited HIV-1, with minimal cytotoxicity, in cultured and primary cells chronically or acutely infected with HIV-1 subtype B, but they had less of an effect on HIV-1 subtype C. Iron chelators upregulated the expression of I?B-?, with increased accumulation of cytoplasmic NF-?B. The iron chelators inhibited CDK2 activity and reduced the amount of CDK9/cyclin T1 in the large P-TEFb complex. Iron chelators reduced HIV-1 Gag and Env mRNA synthesis but had no effect on HIV-1 reverse transcription. In addition, iron chelators moderately inhibited basal HIV-1 transcription, equally affecting HIV-1 and Sp1- or NF-?B-driven transcription. By virtue of their involvement in targeting several key steps in HIV-1 transcription, these novel iron chelators have the potential for the development of new therapeutics for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. PMID:25155598

  12. HIV incidence estimate combining HIV/AIDS surveillance, testing history information and HIV test to identify recent infections in Lazio, Italy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The application of serological methods in HIV/AIDS routine surveillance systems to identify persons with recently acquired HIV infection has been proposed as a tool which may provide an accurate description of the current transmission patterns of HIV. Using the information about recent infection it is possible to estimate HIV incidence, according to the model proposed by Karon et al. in 2008, that accounts for the effect of testing practices on the number of persons detected as recently infected. Methods We used data from HIV/AIDS surveillance in the period 2004-2008 to identify newly diagnosed persons. These were classified with recent/non-recent infection on the basis of an avidity index result, or laboratory evidence of recently acquired infection (i.e., previous documented negative HIV test within 6 months; or presence of HIV RNA or p24 antigen with simultaneous negative/indeterminate HIV antibody test). Multiple imputation was used to impute missing information. The incidence estimate was obtained as the number of persons detected as recently infected divided by the estimated probability of detection. Estimates were stratified by calendar year, transmission category, gender and nationality. Results During the period considered 3,633 new HIV diagnoses were reported to the regional surveillance system. Applying the model, we estimated that in 2004-2008 there were 5,465 new infections (95%CI: 4,538-6,461); stratifying by transmission category, the estimated number of infections was 2,599 among heterosexual contacts, 2,208 among men-who-have-sex-with-men, and 763 among injecting-drug-users. In 2008 there were 952 (625-1,229) new HIV infections (incidence of 19.9 per 100,000 person-years). In 2008, for men-who-have-sex-with-men (691 per 100,000 person-years) and injecting drug users (577 per 100,000 person-years) the incidence remained comparatively high with respect to the general population, although a decreasing pattern during 2004-2008 was observed for injecting-drug-users. Conclusions These estimates suggest that the transmission of HIV infection in Lazio remains frequent and men-who-have-sex-with men and injecting-drug-users are still greatly affected although the majority of new infections occurs among heterosexual individuals. PMID:22433313

  13. Activity and Safety of Synthetic Lectins Based on Benzoboroxole-Functionalized Polymers for Inhibition of HIV Entry

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingam, Alamelu; Geonnotti, Anthony R.; Balzarini, Jan; Kiser, Patrick F.

    2011-01-01

    Lectins derived from plant and microbial sources constitute a vital class of entry inhibitors that target the oligomannose residues on the HIV envelope gp120. Despite their potency and specificity, success of lectin-based entry inhibitors may be impeded by issues in regards to economical production, formulation and potential mitogenicity. Therefore, there exists a gap in the HIV therapeutics pipeline that underscores the need for mass producible, synthetic, broad-spectrum, and biocomptabile inhibitors of HIV entry. Here, we present the development of a polymeric synthetic lectin, based on benzoboroxole (BzB), which exhibits weak affinity (~25 M?1) for non-reducing sugars, similar to those found on the HIV envelope. High molecular weight BzB-functionalized polymers demonstrated antiviral activity that increased with an increase in ligand density and molecular weight of the polymer construct; revealing that polyvalency improves activity. Polymers showed significant increase in activity from 25 to 75 mol% BzB functionalization with EC50 of 15 ?M and 15 nM, respectively. A further increase in mole functionalization to 90% resulted in an increase of the EC50 (59 ± 5 nM), likely due to the elongated rigid structure of the polymer chain compelled by electrostatic repulsion between the boronic acid groups. An increase in molecular weight of the polymer at 50 mol% BzB functionalization showed a gradual but significant increase in antiviral activity, with the highest activity seen with the 382 kDa polymer (EC50 of 1.1 ± 0.5 nM in CEM cells and 11 ± 3 nM in TZM-bl cells). Supplementing the polymer backbone with 10 mol% sulfonic acid not only increased the aqueous solubility of the polymers by at least 50-fold, but also demonstrated a synergistic increase in anti-HIV activity (4.0 ± 1.5 nM in TZM-bl cells), possibly due to electrostatic interactions between the negatively charged polymer backbone and the positively charged V3-loop in the gp120. The benzoboroxole-sulfonic acid copolymers showed no decrease in activity in the presence of a seminal concentration of fructose (p > 0.05). Additionally, the co-polymers exhibit minimal, if any effect on the cellular viability, barrier properties, or cytokine levels in human reconstructed ecto-cervical tissue after 3 days of repeated exposure and did not show pronounced activity against a variety of other RNA and DNA viruses. PMID:21879735

  14. What motivates participation in HIV cure trials? A call for real-time assessment to improve informed consent

    PubMed Central

    Peay, Holly L; Henderson, Gail E

    2015-01-01

    HIV cure research, a diverse set of studies aimed at eradicating or greatly reducing HIV in latent reservoirs, has become a strategic priority for global AIDS research. However, in early-phase HIV cure research there are ethical challenges related to the uncertainty around potential risks and the risk–benefit balance. Similar to clinical trials in other disease areas, these concerns may impact clinical trial participants' comprehension and decision making. Here we suggest attention to the terminology used to describe HIV cure research that may promote therapeutic misconception, and exploration of the decision-making influences and processes of those who accept and decline participation in HIV cure trials. These data will facilitate efforts to improve protocols and informed consent based on an understanding of participant preferences and needs. PMID:25866844

  15. Stapled HIV-1 Peptides Recapitulate Antigenic Structures and Engage Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Gregory H.; Irimia, Adriana; Ofek, Gilad; Kwong, Peter D.; Wilson, Ian A.; Walensky, Loren D.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocarbon stapling can restore bioactive, ?-helical structure to natural peptides, yielding research tools and prototype therapeutics to dissect and target protein interactions. Here, we explore the capacity of peptide stapling to generate high fidelity, protease-resistant mimics of antigenic structures for vaccine development. HIV-1 has been refractory to vaccine technologies thus far, although select human antibodies can broadly neutralize HIV-1 by targeting sequences of the gp41 juxtamembrane fusion apparatus. To develop candidate HIV-1 immunogens, we generated and characterized stabilized ?-helices of the membrane proximal external region (SAH-MPER) of gp41. SAH-MPER peptides were remarkably protease-resistant and bound to the broadly neutralizing 4E10 and 10E8 antibodies with high affinity, recapitulating the structure of the MPER epitope when differentially engaged by the two anti-HIV Fabs. Thus, stapled peptides may provide a new opportunity to develop chemically-stabilized antigens for vaccination. PMID:25420104

  16. Triggering HIV polyprotein processing by light using rapid photodegradation of a tight-binding protease inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Schimer, Ji?í; Pávová, Marcela; Anders, Maria; Pachl, Petr; Šácha, Pavel; Cígler, Petr; Weber, Jan; Majer, Pavel; ?ezá?ová, Pavlína; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Müller, Barbara; Konvalinka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    HIV protease (PR) is required for proteolytic maturation in the late phase of HIV replication and represents a prime therapeutic target. The regulation and kinetics of viral polyprotein processing and maturation are currently not understood in detail. Here we design, synthesize, validate and apply a potent, photodegradable HIV PR inhibitor to achieve synchronized induction of proteolysis. The compound exhibits subnanomolar inhibition in vitro. Its photolabile moiety is released on light irradiation, reducing the inhibitory potential by 4 orders of magnitude. We determine the structure of the PR-inhibitor complex, analyze its photolytic products, and show that the enzymatic activity of inhibited PR can be fully restored on inhibitor photolysis. We also demonstrate that proteolysis of immature HIV particles produced in the presence of the inhibitor can be rapidly triggered by light enabling thus to analyze the timing, regulation and spatial requirements of viral processing in real time. PMID:25751579

  17. HIV Problem Space

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anton Weisstein (Truman State University; )

    2003-06-25

    In this problem space, you will have access to the following materials: * background information on HIV/AIDS, * the original Markham et al. reference and other primary literature, * viral sequences from each visit of each patient, * patients' CD4 counts at each visit, * phylogenetic trees of the virus sequences from each patient, * a phylogenetic tree of each patient's starting consensus viral sequence, * a published activity using this data from the book Microbes Count!, * and additional materials prepared by other users of the problem space.You can use this data to explore a number of different questions. Here are a few general questions to get you started: * Does the virus evolve the same way in different patients? * Are there any specific mutations that cause rapid immune decline? * What types of natural selection might be influencing HIV evolution? * Is HIV being transmitted between patients after initial infection?

  18. Immunology of Pediatric HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Nicole H.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Most infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women escape HIV infection. Infants evade infection despite an immature immune system and, in the case of breastfeeding, prolonged repetitive, exposure. If infants become infected, the course of their infection and response to treatment differs dramatically depending upon the timing (in utero, intrapartum, or during breastfeeding) and potentially the route of their infection. Perinatally acquired HIV infection occurs during a critical window of immune development. HIV’s perturbation of this dynamic process may account for the striking age-dependent differences in HIV disease progression. HIV infection also profoundly disrupts the maternal immune system upon which infants rely for protection and immune instruction. Therefore, it is not surprising that infants who escape HIV infection still suffer adverse effects. In this review, we highlight the unique aspects of pediatric HIV transmission and pathogenesis with a focus on mechanisms by which HIV infection during immune ontogeny may allow discovery of key elements for protection and control from HIV. PMID:23772619

  19. An autoreactive antibody from an SLE/HIV-1 individual broadly neutralizes HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Bonsignori, Mattia; Wiehe, Kevin; Grimm, Sebastian K.; Lynch, Rebecca; Yang, Guang; Kozink, Daniel M.; Perrin, Florence; Cooper, Abby J.; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Chen, Xi; Liu, Mengfei; McKee, Krisha; Parks, Robert J.; Eudailey, Joshua; Wang, Minyue; Clowse, Megan; Criscione-Schreiber, Lisa G.; Moody, M. Anthony; Ackerman, Margaret E.; Boyd, Scott D.; Gao, Feng; Kelsoe, Garnett; Verkoczy, Laurent; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Kepler, Thomas B.; Montefiori, David C.; Mascola, John R.; Haynes, Barton F.

    2014-01-01

    Broadly HIV-1–neutralizing antibodies (BnAbs) display one or more unusual traits, including a long heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 (HCDR3), polyreactivity, and high levels of somatic mutations. These shared characteristics suggest that BnAb development might be limited by immune tolerance controls. It has been postulated that HIV-1–infected individuals with autoimmune disease and defective immune tolerance mechanisms may produce BnAbs more readily than those without autoimmune diseases. In this study, we identified an HIV-1–infected individual with SLE who exhibited controlled viral load (<5,000 copies/ml) in the absence of controlling HLA phenotypes and developed plasma HIV-1 neutralization breadth. We collected memory B cells from this individual and isolated a BnAb, CH98, that targets the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120). CH98 bound to human antigens including dsDNA, which is specifically associated with SLE. Anti-dsDNA reactivity was also present in the patient’s plasma. CH98 had a mutation frequency of 25% and 15% nt somatic mutations in the heavy and light chain variable domains, respectively, a long HCDR3, and a deletion in the light chain CDR1. The occurrence of anti-dsDNA reactivity by a HIV-1 CD4bs BnAb in an individual with SLE raises the possibility that some BnAbs and SLE-associated autoantibodies arise from similar pools of B cells. PMID:24614107

  20. HIV Testing & Risky Sexual Behavior September 2010

    E-print Network

    Silver, Whendee

    HIV Testing & Risky Sexual Behavior Erick Gong September 2010 Abstract A puzzle in HIV prevention is that while HIV tests provide important information about a person's health status, it has little eect about their HIV status. Using data from a study that randomly assigns oers of HIV testing in two urban

  1. HIV-Associated lymphomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Straus

    2001-01-01

    Intermediate and high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) with a B-cell phenotype are AIDS-defining illnesses. The incidence\\u000a of systemic NHL is over 100 times increased, primary central nervous system NHL is over 3000 times increased, and Hodgkin’s\\u000a disease is approximately 10 times increased in the HIV-infected population. Unusual extranodal presentations of NHL and Hodgkin’s\\u000a disease are seen in HIV-infected individuals. High-grade histologies

  2. Slowing heterosexual HIV transmission.

    PubMed

    Ronald, A R

    1995-06-01

    HIV-1 is spreading rapidly through heterosexual intercourse in many societies. Slowing the transmission of this virus is the most urgent global public health priority. Our understanding of the biologic differences between societies that account for most vacancies in heterosexual HIV transmission are now understood. Effective interventions to slow transmission must be designed, implemented, and evaluated. Human and fiscal resources must be provided through a shared global effort. The consequences of failing to do so will lead to a world catastrophe of unprecedented magnitude. PMID:7673667

  3. Women's HIV disclosure to family and friends.

    PubMed

    Serovich, Julianne Maria; Craft, Shonda M; Reed, Sandra J

    2012-04-01

    Previous researchers have documented rates of HIV disclosure to family at discrete time periods, yet none have taken a dynamic approach to this phenomenon. The purpose of this study is to take the next step and provide a retrospective comparison of rates of women's HIV disclosure to family and friends over a 15-year time span. Of particular interest are the possible influences of social network and relationship characteristics on the time-to-disclosure of serostatus. Time-to-disclosure was analyzed from data provided by 125 HIV-positive women. Participants were primarily married or dating (42%), unemployed (79.2%), African American (68%) women with a high school diploma or less (54.4%). Length of time since diagnosis ranged from 1 month to over 19 years (M=7.1 years). Results pointed to statistically significant differences in time-to-disclosure between family, friends, and sexual partners. Additionally, females and persons with whom the participant had more frequent contact were more likely to be disclosed to, regardless of the type of relationship. The results of this study underscore possible challenges with existing studies which have employed point prevalence designs, and point to new methods which could be helpful in family research. PMID:22313348

  4. Inhibitors of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase—Associated Ribonuclease H Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ilina, Tatiana; LaBarge, Krystal; Sarafianos, Stefan G.; Ishima, Rieko; Parniak, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 enzyme reverse transcriptase (RT) is a major target for antiviral drug development, with over half of current FDA-approved therapeutics against HIV infection targeting the DNA polymerase activity of this enzyme. HIV-1 RT is a multifunctional enzyme that has RNA and DNA dependent polymerase activity, along with ribonuclease H (RNase H) activity. The latter is responsible for degradation of the viral genomic RNA template during first strand DNA synthesis to allow completion of reverse transcription and the viral dsDNA. While the RNase H activity of RT has been shown to be essential for virus infectivity, all currently used drugs directed at RT inhibit the polymerase activity of the enzyme; none target RNase H. In the last decade, the increasing prevalence of HIV variants resistant to clinically used antiretrovirals has stimulated the search for inhibitors directed at stages of HIV replication different than those targeted by current drugs. HIV RNase H is one such novel target and, over the past few years, significant progress has been made in identifying and characterizing new RNase H inhibitor pharmacophores. In this review we focus mainly on the most potent low micromolar potency compounds, as these provide logical bases for further development. We also discuss why HIV RNase H has been a difficult target for antiretroviral drug development. PMID:23599900

  5. Role of MicroRNA Modulation in the Interferon-?/Ribavirin Suppression of HIV-1 In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Mohsen, Mohamed; Deng, Xutao; Danesh, Ali; Liegler, Teri; Jacobs, Evan S.; Rauch, Andri; Ledergerber, Bruno; Norris, Philip J.; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Wong, Joseph K.; Pillai, Satish K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Interferon-? (IFN-?) treatment suppresses HIV-1 viremia and reduces the size of the HIV-1 latent reservoir. Therefore, investigation of the molecular and immunologic effects of IFN-? may provide insights that contribute to the development of novel prophylactic, therapeutic and curative strategies for HIV-1 infection. In this study, we hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to the IFN-?-mediated suppression of HIV-1. To inform the development of novel miRNA-based antiretroviral strategies, we investigated the effects of exogenous IFN-? treatment on global miRNA expression profile, HIV-1 viremia, and potential regulatory networks between miRNAs and cell-intrinsic anti-HIV-1 host factors in vivo. Methods Global miRNA expression was examined in longitudinal PBMC samples obtained from seven HIV/HCV-coinfected, antiretroviral therapy-naïve individuals before, during, and after pegylated interferon-?/ribavirin therapy (IFN-?/RBV). We implemented novel hybrid computational-empirical approaches to characterize regulatory networks between miRNAs and anti-HIV-1 host restriction factors. Results miR-422a was the only miRNA significantly modulated by IFN-?/RBV in vivo (p<0.0001, paired t test; FDR<0.037). Our interactome mapping revealed extensive regulatory involvement of miR-422a in p53-dependent apoptotic and pyroptotic pathways. Based on sequence homology and inverse expression relationships, 29 unique miRNAs may regulate anti-HIV-1 restriction factor expression in vivo. Conclusions The specific reduction of miR-422a is associated with exogenous IFN-? treatment, and likely contributes to the IFN-? suppression of HIV-1 through the enhancement of anti-HIV-1 restriction factor expression and regulation of genes involved in programmed cell death. Moreover, our regulatory network analysis presents additional candidate miRNAs that may be targeted to enhance anti-HIV-1 restriction factor expression in vivo. PMID:25275557

  6. HIV peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Gabbai, Alberto Alain; Castelo, Adauto; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathies are the most common neurological manifestations occurring in HIV-infected individuals. Distal symmetrical sensory neuropathy is the most common form encountered today and is one of the few that are specific to HIV infection or its treatment. The wide variety of other neuropathies is akin to the neuropathies seen in the general population and should be managed accordingly. In the pre-ART era, neuropathies were categorized according to the CD4 count and HIV viral load. In the early stages of HIV infection when CD4 count is high, the inflammatory demyelinating neuropathies predominate and in the late stages with the decline of CD4 count opportunistic infection-related neuropathies prevail. That scenario has changed with the present almost universal use of ART (antiretroviral therapy). Hence, HIV-associated peripheral neuropathies are better classified according to their clinical presentations: distal symmetrical polyneuropathy, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), mononeuropathies, mononeuropathies multiplex and cranial neuropathies, autonomic neuropathy, lumbosacral polyradiculomyelopathy, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-like motor neuropathy. Treated with ART, HIV-infected individuals are living longer and are at a higher risk of metabolic and age-related complications; moreover they are also prone to the potentially neurotoxic effects of ART. There are no epidemiological data regarding the incidence and prevalence of the peripheral neuropathies. In the pre-ART era, most data were from case reports, series of patients, and pooled autopsy data. At that time the histopathological evidence of neuropathies in autopsy series was almost 100%. In large prospective cohorts presently being evaluated, it has been found that 57% of HIV-infected individuals have distal symmetrical sensory neuropathy and 38% have neuropathic pain. It is now clear that distal symmetrical sensory neuropathy is caused predominantly by the ART's neurotoxic effect but may also be caused by the HIV itself. With a sizeable morbidity, the neuropathic pain caused by distal symmetrical sensory neuropathy is very difficult to manage; it is often necessary to change the ART regimen before deciding upon the putative role of HIV infection itself. If the change does not improve the pain, there are few options available; the most common drugs used for neuropathic pain are usually not effective. One is left with cannabis, which cannot be recommended as routine therapy, recombinant human nerve growth factor, which is unavailable, and topical capsaicin with its side-effects. Much has been done to and learned from HIV infection in humans; HIV-infected individuals, treated with ART, are now dying mostly from cardiovascular disease and non-AIDS-related cancers. It hence behooves us to find new approaches to mitigate the residual neurological morbidity that still impacts the quality of life of that population. PMID:23931799

  7. Local biologies and HIV/AIDS in highlands Papua, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Butt, Leslie

    2013-03-01

    The province of Papua, Indonesia has one of the fastest growing rates of HIV infection in Asia. Within volatile political conditions, HIV has reached generalized epidemic status for indigenous Papuans. This article explores the merits of using the concept of local biologies as an analytic tool to assess the range of factors which affect a local pattern of untreated HIV and rapid onset of AIDS. A research team conducted 32 in-depth interviews with HIV-positive indigenous persons and 15 interviews with health care workers in urban and peri-urban sites in the central highlands region. The results show fear of gossip and stigmatization, regional political conditions and gaps in care interweave to create local biological conditions of evasion of care and rapid onset of AIDS. The normative emphasis in contemporary scholarship on stigma as shaping subjective responses to HIV needs to be complemented by a full assessment of the physiological impact of health services, and the ways political conditions trickle down and mediate local biological patterns. The concept of local biologies is highly effective for explaining the full scope of possible factors affecting the intersection of social and physical realms for HIV-positive persons. PMID:23242628

  8. HIV vaccine development: would more (public) money bring quicker results?

    PubMed

    Winsbury, R

    1999-01-01

    Globally, $200-250 million/year are devoted to HIV vaccine research. Most of those funds pay for basic research rather than product development. Moreover, most of the funds are aimed at the HIV strain commonly found in the US and Europe, and not at the strains common to Africa and other developing countries. While US President Bill Clinton set in 1997 a 10-year target for the development of an HIV vaccine, that target date is looking increasingly unlikely. International vaccine and pharmaceutical companies typically drive vaccine research and development. However, concern over the ultimate profitability of developing and marketing an HIV vaccine, and the fear of major litigation should an eventual vaccine go awry have caused such firms to shy away from investing large amounts of money into HIV vaccine development. These companies somehow have to be attracted back into the field. A World Bank special task force is slated to present its report by mid-1999 on possible funding mechanisms to promote HIV vaccine development. It remains to be resolved whether public funds could and should be used, perhaps through a pooled international vaccine development fund. 2 new International AIDS Vaccine Initiative projects are described. PMID:12295120

  9. HIV PREVENTION RESEARCH: TAKING STOCK AND THE WAY FORWARD

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Richard; Kapiga, Saidi; Padian, Nancy; McCormack, Sheena; Wasserheit, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Previous papers in this supplement have reviewed the evidence of the effectiveness of alternative HIV prevention methods from randomised controlled trials and other studies. This paper draws together the main conclusions from these reviews. A conceptual framework is presented that maps the proximal and distal determinants of sexual HIV transmission and helps to identify the stages in the causal pathway at which each intervention approach acts. The advances, gaps and challenges emerging from the reviews of individual intervention methods are summarised and cross-cutting themes identified. Approximately 90% of HIV prevention trials have found no effect on HIV incidence and we explore the alternative explanations for the large number of “flat” trials. We conclude that there is no single explanation for these flat results which may be due to interventions that are ineffective or inappropriately targeted or implemented, or to factors related to the design or conduct of trials. We examine the lessons from these flat results and provide recommendations on what should be done differently in future trials. HIV prevention remains of critical importance in an era of expanded delivery of antiretroviral therapy. In future HIV prevention research, it is important that resources are used as efficiently as possible to provide rigorous evidence of the effectiveness of a wider array of complementary prevention tools. PMID:21042056

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cytochrome P450 in HIV pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rao, P S S; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    High prevalence of cigarette smoking in HIV patients is associated with increased HIV pathogenesis and disease progression. While the effect of smoking on the occurrence of lung cancer has been studied extensively, the association between smoking and HIV pathogenesis is poorly studied. We have recently shown the possible role of cytochrome P450 (CYP) in smoking/nicotine-mediated viral replication. In this review, we focus on the potential role of CYP pathway in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), important constituents of cigarette smoke, mediated HIV pathogenesis. More specifically, we will discuss the role of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, which are the major PAH-activating CYP enzymes. Our results have shown that treatment with cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) increases viral replication in HIV-infected macrophages. CSC contains PAH, which are known to be activated by CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 into procarcinogens/toxic metabolites. The expression of these CYPs is regulated by aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AHR), the cellular target of PAH, and an important player in various diseases including cancer. We propose that PAH/AHR-mediated CYP pathway is a novel target to develop new interventions for HIV positive smokers. PMID:26082767

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cytochrome P450 in HIV pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rao, P. S. S.; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    High prevalence of cigarette smoking in HIV patients is associated with increased HIV pathogenesis and disease progression. While the effect of smoking on the occurrence of lung cancer has been studied extensively, the association between smoking and HIV pathogenesis is poorly studied. We have recently shown the possible role of cytochrome P450 (CYP) in smoking/nicotine-mediated viral replication. In this review, we focus on the potential role of CYP pathway in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), important constituents of cigarette smoke, mediated HIV pathogenesis. More specifically, we will discuss the role of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, which are the major PAH-activating CYP enzymes. Our results have shown that treatment with cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) increases viral replication in HIV-infected macrophages. CSC contains PAH, which are known to be activated by CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 into procarcinogens/toxic metabolites. The expression of these CYPs is regulated by aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AHR), the cellular target of PAH, and an important player in various diseases including cancer. We propose that PAH/AHR-mediated CYP pathway is a novel target to develop new interventions for HIV positive smokers. PMID:26082767

  12. The Transmission Dynamics of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, R. M.; Anderson, R. M.

    1988-10-01

    The paper first reviews data on HIV infections and AIDS disease among homosexual men, heterosexuals, intravenous (IV) drug abusers and children born to infected mothers, in both developed and developing countries. We survey such information as is currently available about the distribution of incubation times that elapse between HIV infection and the appearance of AIDS, about the fraction of those infected with HIV who eventually go on to develop AIDS, about time-dependent patterns of infectiousness and about distributions of rates of acquiring new sexual or needle-sharing partners. With this information, models for the transmission dynamics of HIV are developed, beginning with deliberately oversimplified models and progressing - on the basis of the understanding thus gained - to more complex ones. Where possible, estimates of the model's parameters are derived from the epidemiological data, and predictions are compared with observed trends. We also combine these epidemiological models with demographic considerations to assess the effects that heterosexually-transmitted HIV/AIDS may eventually have on rates of population growth, on age profiles and on associated economic and social indicators, in African and other countries. The degree to which sexual or other habits must change to bring the `basic reproductive rate', R_0, of HIV infections below unity is discussed. We conclude by outlining some research needs, both in the refinement and development of models and in the collection of epidemiological data.

  13. HIV-1 and the self-nonself connection: how to sleep with the enemy and be much better off.

    PubMed

    Lopalco, Lucia; Burastero, Samuele E

    2008-01-01

    Envelope-based immunogens capable of generating high titers of neutralizing antibodies have until now been difficult to generate, or failed to act as useful vaccines to prevent HIV-1 infection and disease progression. On the other hand, humoral immune responses to self and allogeneic cellular antigens involved in HIV-1 docking and entry are present both in infected patients and in subjects with natural resistance to HIV-1 infection, where they share similarities but also display definite differences. By dissecting these subtle differences, crucial cellular and molecular markers, possibly correlated with natural resistance to HIV-1 and with the modulation of clinical progression in stably infected patients, have been identified. Here, state-of-the art knowledge on anti-self immune responses following infection or exposure to HIV will be reviewed. The possible implications of these mechanisms in the design of unconventional therapies aimed to counteract the peculiar HIV-1 capability to circumvent the immune system will be discussed. PMID:18820718

  14. Incorporation of chimeric HIV-SIV-Env and modified HIV-Env proteins into HIV pseudovirions

    SciTech Connect

    Devitt, Gerard [Forschungsschwerpunkt Infektion und Krebs, F020, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 242, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Emerson, Vanessa [Forschungsschwerpunkt Infektion und Krebs, F020, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 242, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Holtkotte, Denise [Forschungsschwerpunkt Infektion und Krebs, F020, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 242, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Pfeiffer, Tanya [Forschungsschwerpunkt Infektion und Krebs, F020, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 242, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Pisch, Thorsten [Forschungsschwerpunkt Infektion und Krebs, F020, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 242, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bosch, Valerie [Forschungsschwerpunkt Infektion und Krebs, F020, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 242, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: v.bosch@dkfz.de

    2007-05-10

    Low level incorporation of the viral glycoprotein (Env) into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) particles is a major drawback for vaccine strategies against HIV/AIDS in which HIV particles are used as immunogen. Within this study, we have examined two strategies aimed at achieving higher levels of Env incorporation into non-infectious pseudovirions (PVs). First, we have generated chimeric HIV/SIV Env proteins containing the truncated C-terminal tail region of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac239-Env767{sup stop}, which mediates strongly increased incorporation of SIV-Env into SIV particles. In a second strategy, we have employed a truncated HIV-Env protein (Env-Tr752{sup N750K}) which we have previously demonstrated to be incorporated into HIV virions, generated in infected T-cells, to a higher level than that of Wt-HIV-Env. Although the chimeric HIV/SIV Env proteins were expressed at the cell surface and induced increased levels of cell-cell fusion in comparison to Wt-HIV-Env, they did not exhibit increased incorporation into either HIV-PVs or SIV-PVs. Only Env-Tr752{sup N750K} exhibited significantly higher (threefold) levels of incorporation into HIV-PVs, an improvement, which, although not dramatic, is worthwhile for the large-scale preparation of non-infectious PVs for vaccine studies aimed at inducing Env humoral responses.

  15. A Synthetic Bivalent Ligand of CXCR4 Inhibits HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Duggineni, Srinivas; Espitia, Stephen; Richman, Douglas D.; An, Jing; Huang, Ziwei

    2013-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are cell membrane protein receptors that transduce signals across the cell membrane and are important targets for therapeutic interventions. As members of the GPCR superfamily, chemokine receptors such as CXCR4 play critical roles in normal physiology as well as the pathology of many human diseases including cancer, inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Here we report the discovery and study of a novel peptide ligand of CXCR4 using D-amino acids and bivalent ligand approach. This peptide, DV1-K-(DV3), shows very high affinity for CXCR4 with an IC50 of 4 nM in anti-CXCR4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) 12G5 competitive assay, which is more potent than full length natural ligand SDF-1?, even though the peptide is less than half of the number of residues of SDF-1?. This peptide can block the calcium influx stimulated by SDF-1? and inhibit cancer cell migration in vitro via CXCR4, thus functioning as a CXCR4 antagonist. Furthermore, DV1-K-(DV3) peptide displayed anti-HIV activity by inhibiting HIV-1 infection mediated by CXCR4. With its high receptor affinity and stability from D-amino acids, this peptide may be a new probe of CXCR4 functions in physiology and pathology and promising lead for therapeutic development. PMID:23688427

  16. Development of therapeutic splice-switching oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Disterer, Petra; Kryczka, Adrianna; Liu, Yuqi; Badi, Yusef E; Wong, Jessie J; Owen, James S; Khoo, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Synthetic splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSOs) target nuclear pre-mRNA molecules to change exon splicing and generate an alternative protein isoform. Clinical trials with two competitive SSO drugs are underway to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Beyond DMD, many additional therapeutic applications are possible, with some in phase 1 clinical trials or advanced preclinical evaluation. Here, we present an overview of the central factors involved in developing therapeutic SSOs for the treatment of diseases. The selection of susceptible pre-mRNA target sequences, as well as the design and chemical modification of SSOs to increase SSO stability and effectiveness, are key initial considerations. Identification of effective SSO target sequences is still largely empirical and published guidelines are not a universal guarantee for success. Specifically, exon-targeted SSOs, which are successful in modifying dystrophin splicing, can be ineffective for splice-switching in other contexts. Chemical modifications, importantly, are associated with certain characteristic toxicities, which need to be addressed as target diseases require chronic treatment with SSOs. Moreover, SSO delivery in adequate quantities to the nucleus of target cells without toxicity can prove difficult. Last, the means by which these SSOs are administered needs to be acceptable to the patient. Engineering an efficient therapeutic SSO, therefore, necessarily entails a compromise between desirable qualities and effectiveness. Here, we describe how the application of optimal solutions may differ from case to case. PMID:24826963

  17. Therapeutic drug monitoring in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Kopylov, Uri; Ben-Horin, Shomron; Seidman, Ernest

    2014-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? inhibitors and thiopurines are among the most important classes of medications utilized in the clinical management of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. A significant proportion of patients loses response to these agents or develops adverse effects during the course of the treatment. Monitoring of drug levels and anti-drug antibodies (for TNF-? inhibitors) and metabolite levels (for thiopurines) can provide valuable insight into the possible etiology of unfavorable outcomes and allow for an appropriate management strategy for these patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the clinical implications of therapeutic drug monitoring in inflammatory bowel disease patients treated with TNF-? inhibitors and thiopurines. PMID:25331715

  18. Prion degradation pathways: Potential for therapeutic intervention

    PubMed Central

    Goold, Rob; McKinnon, Chris; Tabrizi, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders. Pathology is closely linked to the misfolding of native cellular PrPC into the disease-associated form PrPSc that accumulates in the brain as disease progresses. Although treatments have yet to be developed, strategies aimed at stimulating the degradation of PrPSc have shown efficacy in experimental models of prion disease. Here, we describe the cellular pathways that mediate PrPSc degradation and review possible targets for therapeutic intervention. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Neuronal Protein’. PMID:25584786

  19. Targeting concatenated HIV antigens to human CD40 expands a broad repertoire of multifunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Flamar, Anne-Laure; Xue, Yaming; Zurawski, Sandra M.; Montes, Monica; King, Bryan; Sloan, Louis; Oh, SangKon; Banchereau, Jacques; Levy, Yves; Zurawski, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Objective Targeting HIV antigens directly to dendritic cells using monoclonal antibodies against cell-surface receptors has been shown to evoke potent cellular immunity in animal models. The objective of this study was to configure an anti-human CD40 antibody fused to a string of five highly conserved CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell epitope-rich regions of HIV-1 Gag, Nef and Pol (?CD40.HIV5pep), and then to demonstrate the capacity of this candidate therapeutic vaccine to target these HIV peptide antigens to human dendritic cells to expand functional HIV-specific T cells. Methods Antigen-specific cytokine production using intracellular flow cytometry and multiplex bead-based assay, and suppression of viral inhibition, were used to characterize the T cells expanded by ?CD40.HIV5pep from HIV-infected patient peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) and dendritic cell/T-cell co-cultures. Results This candidate vaccine expands memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells specific to multiple epitopes within all five peptide regions across a wide range of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotypes from HIV-infected patient PBMC and dendritic cell/T-cell co-cultures. These in vitro expanded HIV antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells produce multiple cytokines and chemokines. ?CD40.HIV5pep-expanded CD8+ T cells have characteristics of cytotoxic effector cells and are able to kill autologous target cells and suppress HIV-1 replication in vitro. Conclusion Our data demonstrate the therapeutic potential of this CD40-targeting HIV candidate vaccine in inducing a broad repertoire of multifunctional T cells in patients. PMID:23615121

  20. Measuring Glutathione Redox Potential of HIV-1-infected Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Ashima; Munshi, MohamedHusen; Khan, Sohrab Zafar; Fatima, Sadaf; Arya, Rahul; Jameel, Shahid; Singh, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Redox signaling plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). The majority of HIV redox research relies on measuring redox stress using invasive technologies, which are unreliable and do not provide information about the contributions of subcellular compartments. A major technological leap emerges from the development of genetically encoded redox-sensitive green fluorescent proteins (roGFPs), which provide sensitive and compartment-specific insights into redox homeostasis. Here, we exploited a roGFP-based specific bioprobe of glutathione redox potential (EGSH; Grx1-roGFP2) and measured subcellular changes in EGSH during various phases of HIV-1 infection using U1 monocytic cells (latently infected U937 cells with HIV-1). We show that although U937 and U1 cells demonstrate significantly reduced cytosolic and mitochondrial EGSH (approximately ?310 mV), active viral replication induces substantial oxidative stress (EGSH more than ?240 mV). Furthermore, exposure to a physiologically relevant oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), induces significant deviations in subcellular EGSH between U937 and U1, which distinctly modulates susceptibility to apoptosis. Using Grx1-roGFP2, we demonstrate that a marginal increase of about ?25 mV in EGSH is sufficient to switch HIV-1 from latency to reactivation, raising the possibility of purging HIV-1 by redox modulators without triggering detrimental changes in cellular physiology. Importantly, we show that bioactive lipids synthesized by clinical drug-resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis reactivate HIV-1 through modulation of intracellular EGSH. Finally, the expression analysis of U1 and patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells demonstrated a major recalibration of cellular redox homeostatic pathways during persistence and active replication of HIV. PMID:25406321