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  1. Virion encapsidated HIV-1 Vpr induces NFAT to prime non-activated T cells for productive infection

    PubMed Central

    Höhne, Kristin; Businger, Ramona; van Nuffel, Anouk; Bolduan, Sebastian; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Baeyens, Ann; Vermeire, Jolien; Malatinkova, Eva; Verhasselt, Bruno; Schindler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The majority of T cells encountered by HIV-1 are non-activated and do not readily allow productive infection. HIV-1 Vpr is highly abundant in progeny virions, and induces signalling and HIV-1 LTR transcription. We hence hypothesized that Vpr might be a determinant of non-activated T-cell infection. Virion-delivered Vpr activated nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) through Ca2+ influx and interference with the NFAT export kinase GSK3β. This leads to NFAT translocation and accumulation within the nucleus and was required for productive infection of unstimulated primary CD4+ T cells. A mutagenesis approach revealed correlation of Vpr-mediated NFAT activation with its ability to enhance LTR transcription and mediate cell cycle arrest. Upon NFAT inhibition, Vpr did not augment resting T-cell infection, and showed reduced G2/M arrest and LTR transactivation. Altogether, Vpr renders unstimulated T cells more permissive for productive HIV-1 infection and stimulates activation of productively infected as well as virus-exposed T cells. Therefore, it could be involved in the establishment and reactivation of HIV-1 from viral reservoirs and might have an impact on the levels of immune activation, which are determinants of HIV-1 pathogenesis. PMID:27383627

  2. Antigenic Properties of the HIV Envelope on Virions in Solution

    PubMed Central

    Mengistu, Meron; Lewis, George K.; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    The structural flexibility found in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope glycoproteins creates a complex relationship between antigenicity and sensitivity to antiviral antibodies. The study of this issue in the context of viral particles is particularly problematic as conventional virus capture approaches can perturb antigenicity profiles. Here, we employed a unique analytical system based on fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), which measures antibody-virion binding with all reactants continuously in solution. Panels of nine anti-envelope monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and five virus types were used to connect antibody binding profiles with neutralizing activities. Anti-gp120 MAbs against the 2G12 or b12 epitope, which marks functional envelope structures, neutralized viruses expressing CCR5-tropic envelopes and exhibited efficient virion binding in solution. MAbs against CD4-induced (CD4i) epitopes considered hidden on functional envelope structures poorly bound these viruses and were not neutralizing. Anti-gp41 MAb 2F5 was neutralizing despite limited virion binding. Similar antigenicity patterns occurred on CXCR4-tropic viruses, except that anti-CD4i MAbs 17b and 19e were neutralizing despite little or no virion binding. Notably, anti-gp120 MAb PG9 and anti-gp41 MAb F240 bound to both CCR5-tropic and CXCR4-tropic viruses without exerting neutralizing activity. Differences in the virus production system altered the binding efficiencies of some antibodies but did not enhance antigenicity of aberrant gp120 structures. Of all viruses tested, only JRFL pseudoviruses showed a direct relationship between MAb binding efficiency and neutralizing potency. Collectively, these data indicate that the antigenic profiles of free HIV particles generally favor the exposure of functional over aberrant gp120 structures. However, the efficiency of virion-antibody interactions in solution inconsistently predicts neutralizing activity in vitro. PMID:24284318

  3. Antibodies elicited by yeast glycoproteins recognize HIV-1 virions and potently neutralize virions with high mannose N-glycans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Fu, Hu; Luallen, Robert J; Liu, Bingfen; Lee, Fang-Hua; Doms, Robert W; Geng, Yu

    2015-09-22

    The glycan shield on the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) glycoprotein has drawn attention as a target for HIV-1 vaccine design given that an increasing number of potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) recognize epitopes entirely or partially comprised of high mannose type N-linked glycans. In an attempt to generate immunogens that target the glycan shield of HIV-1, we previously engineered a triple mutant (TM) strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that results in exclusive presentation of high mannose type N-glycans, and identified five TM yeast glycoproteins that support strong binding of 2G12, a bNAb that targets a cluster of high mannose glycans on the gp120 subunit of Env. Here, we further analyzed the antigenicity and immunogenicity of these proteins in inducing anti-HIV responses. Our study demonstrated that the 2G12-reactive TM yeast glycoproteins efficiently bound to recently identified bNAbs including PGT125-130 and PGT135 that recognize high mannose glycan-dependent epitopes. Immunization of rabbits with a single TM yeast glycoprotein (Gp38 or Pst1), when conjugated to a promiscuous T-cell epitope peptide and coadministered with a Toll-like receptor 2 agonist, induced glycan-specific HIV-1 Env cross-reactive antibodies. The immune sera bound to both synthetic mannose oligosaccharides and gp120 proteins from a broad range of HIV-1 strains. The purified antibodies recognized and captured virions that contain both complex- and high mannose-type of N-glycans, and potently neutralized virions from different HIV-1 clades but only when the virions were enforced to retain high mannose N-glycans. This study provides insights into the elicitation of anti-carbohydrate, HIV-1 Env-cross reactive antibodies with a heterologous glycoprotein and may have applications in the design and administration of immunogens that target the viral glycan shield for development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine. PMID:26277072

  4. Antibody-Mediated Internalization of Infectious HIV-1 Virions Differs among Antibody Isotypes and Subclasses.

    PubMed

    Tay, Matthew Zirui; Liu, Pinghuang; Williams, LaTonya D; McRaven, Michael D; Sawant, Sheetal; Gurley, Thaddeus C; Xu, Thomas T; Dennison, S Moses; Liao, Hua-Xin; Chenine, Agnès-Laurence; Alam, S Munir; Moody, M Anthony; Hope, Thomas J; Haynes, Barton F; Tomaras, Georgia D

    2016-08-01

    Emerging data support a role for antibody Fc-mediated antiviral activity in vaccine efficacy and in the control of HIV-1 replication by broadly neutralizing antibodies. Antibody-mediated virus internalization is an Fc-mediated function that may act at the portal of entry whereby effector cells may be triggered by pre-existing antibodies to prevent HIV-1 acquisition. Understanding the capacity of HIV-1 antibodies in mediating internalization of HIV-1 virions by primary monocytes is critical to understanding their full antiviral potency. Antibody isotypes/subclasses differ in functional profile, with consequences for their antiviral activity. For instance, in the RV144 vaccine trial that achieved partial efficacy, Env IgA correlated with increased risk of HIV-1 infection (i.e. decreased vaccine efficacy), whereas V1-V2 IgG3 correlated with decreased risk of HIV-1 infection (i.e. increased vaccine efficacy). Thus, understanding the different functional attributes of HIV-1 specific IgG1, IgG3 and IgA antibodies will help define the mechanisms of immune protection. Here, we utilized an in vitro flow cytometric method utilizing primary monocytes as phagocytes and infectious HIV-1 virions as targets to determine the capacity of Env IgA (IgA1, IgA2), IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies to mediate HIV-1 infectious virion internalization. Importantly, both broadly neutralizing antibodies (i.e. PG9, 2G12, CH31, VRC01 IgG) and non-broadly neutralizing antibodies (i.e. 7B2 mAb, mucosal HIV-1+ IgG) mediated internalization of HIV-1 virions. Furthermore, we found that Env IgG3 of multiple specificities (i.e. CD4bs, V1-V2 and gp41) mediated increased infectious virion internalization over Env IgG1 of the same specificity, while Env IgA mediated decreased infectious virion internalization compared to IgG1. These data demonstrate that antibody-mediated internalization of HIV-1 virions depends on antibody specificity and isotype. Evaluation of the phagocytic potency of vaccine-induced

  5. Multiscale Computer Simulation of the Immature HIV-1 Virion

    PubMed Central

    Ayton, Gary S.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Multiscale computer simulations, employing a combination of experimental data and coarse-graining methods, are used to explore the structure of the immature HIV-1 virion. A coarse-grained (CG) representation is developed for the virion membrane shell and Gag polypeptides using molecular level information. Building on the results from electron cryotomography experiments, the simulations under certain conditions reveal the existence of an incomplete p6 hexameric lattice formed from hexameric bundles of the Gag CA domains. In particular, the formation and stability of the immature Gag lattice at the CG level requires enhanced interfacial interactions of the CA protein C-terminal domains (CTDs). An exact mapping of the CG representation back to the molecular level then allows for detailed atomistic molecular dynamics studies to confirm the existence of these enhanced CACTD interactions and to probe their possible origin. The multiscale simulations further provide insight into potential CACTD mutations that may disrupt or modify the Gag immature lattice assembly process in the immature HIV-1 virion. PMID:21044572

  6. Stoichiometry of the antiviral protein APOBEC3G in HIV-1 virions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongzhan; Chertova, Elena; Chen, Jianbo; Ott, David E; Roser, James D; Hu, Wei-Shau; Pathak, Vinay K

    2007-04-10

    A host cytidine deaminase, APOBEC3G (A3G), inhibits replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by incorporating into virions in the absence of the virally encoded Vif protein (Deltavif virions), at least in part by causing G-to-A hypermutation. To gain insight into the antiretroviral function of A3G, we determined the quantities of A3G molecules that are incorporated in Deltavif virions. We combined three experimental approaches-reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), scintillation proximity assay (SPA), and quantitative immunoblotting-to determine the molar ratio of A3G to HIV-1 capsid protein in Deltavif virions. Our studies revealed that the amount of the A3G incorporated into Deltavif virions was proportional to the level of its expression in the viral producing cells, and the ratio of the A3G to Gag in the Deltavif virions produced from activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was approximately 1:439. Based on previous estimates of the stoichiometry of HIV-1 Gag in virions (1400-5000), we conclude that approximately 7 (+/-4) molecules of A3G are incorporated into Deltavif virions produced from human PBMCs. These results indicate that virion incorporation of only a few molecules of A3G is sufficient to inhibit HIV-1 replication. PMID:17126871

  7. Cell-to-Cell Transfer of HIV-1 via Virological Synapses Leads to Endosomal Virion Maturation that Activates Viral Membrane Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Benjamin M.; McNerney, Gregory P.; Thompson, Deanna L.; Hubner, Wolfgang; de los Reyes, Kevin; Chuang, Frank Y.S.; Huser, Thomas; Chen, Benjamin K.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY HIV-1 can infect T cells by cell-free virus or by direct virion transfer between cells through cell contact-induced structures called virological synapses (VS). During VS-mediated infection, virions accumulate within target cell endosomes. We show that after crossing the VS, the transferred virus undergoes both maturation and viral membrane fusion. Following VS transfer, viral membrane fusion occurs with delayed kinetics and transferred virions display reduced sensitivity to patient antisera compared to mature, cell-free virus. Furthermore, particle fusion requires that the transferred virions undergo proteolytic maturation within acceptor cell endosomes, which occurs over several hours. Rapid, live cell confocal microscopy demonstrated that viral fusion can occur in compartments that have moved away from the VS. Thus, HIV particle maturation activates viral fusion in target CD4+ T cell endosomes following transfer across the VS and may represent a pathway by which HIV evades antibody neutralization. PMID:22177560

  8. The choreography of HIV-1 proteolytic processing and virion assembly.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook-Kyung; Potempa, Marc; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2012-11-30

    HIV-1 has been the target of intensive research at the molecular and biochemical levels for >25 years. Collectively, this work has led to a detailed understanding of viral replication and the development of 24 approved drugs that have five different targets on various viral proteins and one cellular target (CCR5). Although most drugs target viral enzymatic activities, our detailed knowledge of so much of the viral life cycle is leading us into other types of inhibitors that can block or disrupt protein-protein interactions. Viruses have compact genomes and employ a strategy of using a small number of proteins that can form repeating structures to enclose space (i.e. condensing the viral genome inside of a protein shell), thus minimizing the need for a large protein coding capacity. This creates a relatively small number of critical protein-protein interactions that are essential for viral replication. For HIV-1, the Gag protein has the role of a polyprotein precursor that contains all of the structural proteins of the virion: matrix, capsid, spacer peptide 1, nucleocapsid, spacer peptide 2, and p6 (which contains protein-binding domains that interact with host proteins during budding). Similarly, the Gag-Pro-Pol precursor encodes most of the Gag protein but now includes the viral enzymes: protease, reverse transcriptase (with its associated RNase H activity), and integrase. Gag and Gag-Pro-Pol are the substrates of the viral protease, which is responsible for cleaving these precursors into their mature and fully active forms (see Fig. 1A). PMID:23043111

  9. HIV-1 Integrase Binds the Viral RNA Genome and Is Essential during Virion Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kessl, Jacques J; Kutluay, Sebla B; Townsend, Dana; Rebensburg, Stephanie; Slaughter, Alison; Larue, Ross C; Shkriabai, Nikoloz; Bakouche, Nordine; Fuchs, James R; Bieniasz, Paul D; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka

    2016-08-25

    While an essential role of HIV-1 integrase (IN) for integration of viral cDNA into human chromosome is established, studies with IN mutants and allosteric IN inhibitors (ALLINIs) have suggested that IN can also influence viral particle maturation. However, it has remained enigmatic as to how IN contributes to virion morphogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that IN directly binds the viral RNA genome in virions. These interactions have specificity, as IN exhibits distinct preference for select viral RNA structural elements. We show that IN substitutions that selectively impair its binding to viral RNA result in eccentric, non-infectious virions without affecting nucleocapsid-RNA interactions. Likewise, ALLINIs impair IN binding to viral RNA in virions of wild-type, but not escape mutant, virus. These results reveal an unexpected biological role of IN binding to the viral RNA genome during virion morphogenesis and elucidate the mode of action of ALLINIs. PMID:27565348

  10. M2BP inhibits HIV-1 virion production in a vimentin filaments-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qin; Zhang, Xiaolin; Han, Yuling; Wang, Xinlu; Gao, Guangxia

    2016-01-01

    M2BP (also called 90K) is an interferon-stimulated gene product that is upregulated in HIV-1 infection. A recent study revealed that M2BP reduces the infectivity of HIV-1 by inhibiting the processing of the viral envelope protein. Here we report that in addition to reducing viral infectivity, M2BP inhibits HIV-1 virion production. We provide evidence showing that M2BP inhibits HIV-1 Gag trafficking to the plasma membrane in a vimentin-dependent manner. When vimentin filaments were collapsed by treating cells with acrylamide or by overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of vimentin, M2BP inhibition of HIV-1 virion production was significantly relieved. We further show that M2BP interacts with both HIV-1 Gag and vimentin and thereby mediates their interactions. We propose that M2BP traps HIV-1 Gag to vimentin filaments to inhibit the transportation of HIV-1 Gag to the plasma membrane. These findings uncover a novel mechanism by which a host antiviral factor inhibits HIV-1 virion production. PMID:27604950

  11. M2BP inhibits HIV-1 virion production in a vimentin filaments-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Zhang, Xiaolin; Han, Yuling; Wang, Xinlu; Gao, Guangxia

    2016-01-01

    M2BP (also called 90K) is an interferon-stimulated gene product that is upregulated in HIV-1 infection. A recent study revealed that M2BP reduces the infectivity of HIV-1 by inhibiting the processing of the viral envelope protein. Here we report that in addition to reducing viral infectivity, M2BP inhibits HIV-1 virion production. We provide evidence showing that M2BP inhibits HIV-1 Gag trafficking to the plasma membrane in a vimentin-dependent manner. When vimentin filaments were collapsed by treating cells with acrylamide or by overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of vimentin, M2BP inhibition of HIV-1 virion production was significantly relieved. We further show that M2BP interacts with both HIV-1 Gag and vimentin and thereby mediates their interactions. We propose that M2BP traps HIV-1 Gag to vimentin filaments to inhibit the transportation of HIV-1 Gag to the plasma membrane. These findings uncover a novel mechanism by which a host antiviral factor inhibits HIV-1 virion production. PMID:27604950

  12. Recruitment of a SAP18-HDAC1 complex into HIV-1 virions and its requirement for viral replication.

    PubMed

    Sorin, Masha; Cano, Jennifer; Das, Supratik; Mathew, Sheeba; Wu, Xuhong; Davies, Kelvin P; Shi, Xuanling; Cheng, S-W Grace; Ott, David; Kalpana, Ganjam V

    2009-06-01

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) is a virally encoded protein required for integration of viral cDNA into host chromosomes. INI1/hSNF5 is a component of the SWI/SNF complex that interacts with HIV-1 IN, is selectively incorporated into HIV-1 (but not other retroviral) virions, and modulates multiple steps, including particle production and infectivity. To gain further insight into the role of INI1 in HIV-1 replication, we screened for INI1-interacting proteins using the yeast two-hybrid system. We found that SAP18 (Sin3a associated protein 18 kD), a component of the Sin3a-HDAC1 complex, directly binds to INI1 in yeast, in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, we found that IN also binds to SAP18 in vitro and in vivo. SAP18 and components of a Sin3A-HDAC1 complex were specifically incorporated into HIV-1 (but not SIV and HTLV-1) virions in an HIV-1 IN-dependent manner. Using a fluorescence-based assay, we found that HIV-1 (but not SIV) virion preparations harbour significant deacetylase activity, indicating the specific recruitment of catalytically active HDAC into the virions. To determine the requirement of virion-associated HDAC1 to HIV-1 replication, an inactive, transdominant negative mutant of HDAC1 (HDAC1(H141A)) was utilized. Incorporation of HDAC1(H141A) decreased the virion-associated histone deacetylase activity. Furthermore, incorporation of HDAC1(H141A) decreased the infectivity of HIV-1 (but not SIV) virions. The block in infectivity due to virion-associated HDAC1(H141A) occurred specifically at the early reverse transcription stage, while entry of the virions was unaffected. RNA-interference mediated knock-down of HDAC1 in producer cells resulted in decreased virion-associated HDAC1 activity and a reduction in infectivity of these virions. These studies indicate that HIV-1 IN and INI1/hSNF5 bind SAP18 and selectively recruit components of Sin3a-HDAC1 complex into HIV-1 virions. Furthermore, HIV-1 virion-associated HDAC1 is required for efficient early post

  13. Dynamic Antibody Specificities and Virion Concentrations in Circulating Immune Complexes in Acute to Chronic HIV-1 Infection ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pinghuang; Overman, R. Glenn; Yates, Nicole L.; Alam, S. Munir; Vandergrift, Nathan; Chen, Yue; Graw, Frederik; Freel, Stephanie A.; Kappes, John C.; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Montefiori, David C.; Gao, Feng; Perelson, Alan S.; Cohen, Myron S.; Haynes, Barton F.; Tomaras, Georgia D.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the interactions between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions and antibodies (Ab) produced during acute HIV-1 infection (AHI) is critical for defining antibody antiviral capabilities. Antibodies that bind virions may prevent transmission by neutralization of virus or mechanically prevent HIV-1 migration through mucosal layers. In this study, we quantified circulating HIV-1 virion-immune complexes (ICs), present in approximately 90% of AHI subjects, and compared the levels and antibody specificity to those in chronic infection. Circulating HIV-1 virions coated with IgG (immune complexes) were in significantly lower levels relative to the viral load in acute infection than in chronic HIV-1 infection. The specificities of the antibodies in the immune complexes differed between acute and chronic infection (anti-gp41 Ab in acute infection and anti-gp120 in chronic infection), potentially suggesting different roles in immunopathogenesis for complexes arising at different stages of infection. We also determined the ability of circulating IgG from AHI to bind infectious versus noninfectious virions. Similar to a nonneutralizing anti-gp41 monoclonal antibody (MAb), purified plasma IgG from acute HIV-1 subjects bound both infectious and noninfectious virions. This was in contrast to the neutralizing antibody 2G12 MAb that bound predominantly infectious virions. Moreover, the initial antibody response captured acute HIV-1 virions without selection for different HIV-1 envelope sequences. In total, this study demonstrates that the composition of immune complexes are dynamic over the course of HIV-1 infection and are comprised initially of antibodies that nonselectively opsonize both infectious and noninfectious virions, likely contributing to the lack of efficacy of the antibody response during acute infection. PMID:21865397

  14. DHX9/RHA Binding to the PBS-Segment of the Genomic RNA during HIV-1 Assembly Bolsters Virion Infectivity.

    PubMed

    Boeras, Ioana; Song, Zhenwei; Moran, Andrew; Franklin, Jarryd; Brown, William Clay; Johnson, Marc; Boris-Lawrie, Kathleen; Heng, Xiao

    2016-06-01

    Cellular RNA-binding proteins incorporated into virions during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) assembly promote the replication efficiency of progeny virions. Despite its critical role in bolstering virion infectivity, the molecular basis for the incorporation of DHX9/RNA helicase A (RHA) to virions remains unclear. Here, cell-based experiments demonstrate that the truncation of segments of the HIV-1 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) distinct from the core encapsidation sequence eliminated virion incorporation of RHA, indicating that RHA recruitment is mediated by specific interactions with the HIV-1 5'-UTR. In agreement with biological data, isothermal titration calorimetry determined that the dimer conformation of the 5'-UTR binds one RHA molecule per RNA strand, and the interaction is independent of nucleocapsid protein binding. NMR spectra employing a deuterium-labeling approach enabled resolution of the dimeric 5'-UTR in complex with the RHA N-terminal domain. The structure of the large molecular mass complex was dependent on RHA binding to a double-stranded region of the primer binding site (PBS)-segment of the 5'-UTR. A single A-to-C substitution was sufficient to disrupt biophysical conformation and attenuate virion infectivity in cell-based assays. Taken together, our studies demonstrate the structural basis for HIV-1 genomic RNA to recruit beneficial cellular cofactor to virions. The support of progeny virion infectivity by RHA is attributable to structure-dependent binding at the PBS-segment of the HIV-1 5'-UTR during virus assembly. PMID:27107641

  15. Estimating the fraction of progeny virions that must incorporate APOBEC3G for suppression of productive HIV-1 infection

    SciTech Connect

    Thangavelu, Pulari U.; Gupta, Vipul; Dixit, Narendra M.

    2014-01-20

    The contest between the host factor APOBEC3G (A3G) and the HIV-1 protein Vif presents an attractive target of intervention. The extent to which the A3G–Vif interaction must be suppressed to tilt the balance in favor of A3G remains unknown. We employed stochastic simulations and mathematical modeling of the within-host dynamics and evolution of HIV-1 to estimate the fraction of progeny virions that must incorporate A3G to render productive infection unsustainable. Using three different approaches, we found consistently that a transition from sustained infection to suppression of productive infection occurred when the latter fraction exceeded ∼0.8. The transition was triggered by A3G-induced hypermutations that led to premature stop codons compromising viral production and was consistent with driving the basic reproductive number, R{sub 0}, below unity. The fraction identified may serve as a quantitative guideline for strategies targeting the A3G–Vif axis. - Highlights: • We perform simulations and mathematical modeling of the role of APOBEC3G in suppressing HIV-1 infection. • In three distinct ways, we estimate that when over 80% of progeny virions carry APOBEC3G, productive HIV-1 infection would be suppressed. • Our estimate of this critical fraction presents quantitative guidelines for strategies targeting the APOBEC3G–Vif axis.

  16. HIV-1 Nef promotes infection by excluding SERINC5 from virion incorporation

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Annachiara; Chande, Ajit; Ziglio, Serena; Sanctis, Veronica De; Bertorelli, Roberto; Goh, Shih Lin; McCauley, Sean M.; Nowosielska, Anetta; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Luban, Jeremy; Santoni, Federico Andrea; Pizzato, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Nef, a protein important for the development of AIDS, has well-characterized effects on host membrane trafficking and receptor downregulation. By an unidentified mechanism, Nef increases the intrinsic infectivity of HIV-1 virions in a host-cell-dependent manner. Here we identify the host transmembrane protein SERINC5, and to a lesser extent SERINC3, as a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 particle infectivity that is counteracted by Nef. SERINC5 localizes to the plasma membrane, where it is efficiently incorporated into budding HIV-1 virions and impairs subsequent virion penetration of susceptible target cells. Nef redirects SERINC5 to a Rab7-positive endosomal compartment and thereby excludes it from HIV-1 particles. The ability to counteract SERINC5 was conserved in Nef encoded by diverse primate immunodeficiency viruses, as well as in the structurally unrelated glycosylated Gag from murine leukaemia virus. These examples of functional conservation and convergent evolution emphasize the fundamental importance of SERINC5 as a potent anti-retroviral factor. PMID:26416734

  17. Physiological Levels of Virion-Associated Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Induce Coreceptor-Dependent Calcium Flux▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Melar, Marta; Ott, David E.; Hope, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry into target cells requires the engagement of receptor and coreceptor by envelope glycoprotein (Env). Coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 are chemokine receptors that generate signals manifested as calcium fluxes in response to binding of the appropriate ligand. It has previously been shown that engagement of the coreceptors by HIV Env can also generate Ca2+ fluxing. Since the sensitivity and therefore the physiological consequence of signaling activation in target cells is not well understood, we addressed it by using a microscopy-based approach to measure Ca2+ levels in individual CD4+ T cells in response to low Env concentrations. Monomeric Env subunit gp120 and virion-bound Env were able to activate a signaling cascade that is qualitatively different from the one induced by chemokines. Env-mediated Ca2+ fluxing was coreceptor mediated, coreceptor specific, and CD4 dependent. Comparison of the observed virion-mediated Ca2+ fluxing with the exact number of viral particles revealed that the viral threshold necessary for coreceptor activation of signaling in CD4+ T cells was quite low, as few as two virions. These results indicate that the physiological levels of virion binding can activate signaling in CD4+ T cells in vivo and therefore might contribute to HIV-induced pathogenesis. PMID:17121788

  18. Gp120 on HIV-1 Virions Lacks O-Linked Carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Stansell, Elizabeth; Panico, Maria; Canis, Kevin; Pang, Poh-Choo; Bouché, Laura; Binet, Daniel; O'Connor, Michael-John; Chertova, Elena; Bess, Julian; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Haslam, Stuart M; Morris, Howard R; Desrosiers, Ronald C; Dell, Anne

    2015-01-01

    As HIV-1-encoded envelope protein traverses the secretory pathway, it may be modified with N- and O-linked carbohydrate. When the gp120s of HIV-1 NL4-3, HIV-1 YU2, HIV-1 Bal, HIV-1 JRFL, and HIV-1 JRCSF were expressed as secreted proteins, the threonine at consensus position 499 was found to be O-glycosylated. For SIVmac239, the corresponding threonine was also glycosylated when gp120 was recombinantly expressed. Similarly-positioned, highly-conserved threonines in the influenza A virus H1N1 HA1 and H5N1 HA1 envelope proteins were also found to carry O-glycans when expressed as secreted proteins. In all cases, the threonines were modified predominantly with disialylated core 1 glycans, together with related core 1 and core 2 structures. Secreted HIV-1 gp140 was modified to a lesser extent with mainly monosialylated core 1 O-glycans, suggesting that the ectodomain of the gp41 transmembrane component may limit the accessibility of Thr499 to glycosyltransferases. In striking contrast to these findings, gp120 on purified virions of HIV-1 Bal and SIV CP-MAC lacked any detectable O-glycosylation of the C-terminal threonine. Our results indicate the absence of O-linked carbohydrates on Thr499 as it exists on the surface of virions and suggest caution in the interpretation of analyses of post-translational modifications that utilize recombinant forms of envelope protein. PMID:25915761

  19. Gp120 on HIV-1 Virions Lacks O-Linked Carbohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Stansell, Elizabeth; Panico, Maria; Canis, Kevin; Pang, Poh-Choo; Bouché, Laura; Binet, Daniel; O'Connor, Michael-John; Chertova, Elena; Bess, Julian; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Haslam, Stuart M.; Morris, Howard R.; Desrosiers, Ronald C.; Dell, Anne

    2015-01-01

    As HIV-1-encoded envelope protein traverses the secretory pathway, it may be modified with N- and O-linked carbohydrate. When the gp120s of HIV-1 NL4-3, HIV-1 YU2, HIV-1 Bal, HIV-1 JRFL, and HIV-1 JRCSF were expressed as secreted proteins, the threonine at consensus position 499 was found to be O-glycosylated. For SIVmac239, the corresponding threonine was also glycosylated when gp120 was recombinantly expressed. Similarly-positioned, highly-conserved threonines in the influenza A virus H1N1 HA1 and H5N1 HA1 envelope proteins were also found to carry O-glycans when expressed as secreted proteins. In all cases, the threonines were modified predominantly with disialylated core 1 glycans, together with related core 1 and core 2 structures. Secreted HIV-1 gp140 was modified to a lesser extent with mainly monosialylated core 1 O-glycans, suggesting that the ectodomain of the gp41 transmembrane component may limit the accessibility of Thr499 to glycosyltransferases. In striking contrast to these findings, gp120 on purified virions of HIV-1 Bal and SIV CP-MAC lacked any detectable O-glycosylation of the C-terminal threonine. Our results indicate the absence of O-linked carbohydrates on Thr499 as it exists on the surface of virions and suggest caution in the interpretation of analyses of post-translational modifications that utilize recombinant forms of envelope protein. PMID:25915761

  20. Quantitative Correlation between Infectivity and Gp120 Density on HIV-1 Virions Revealed by Optical Trapping Virometry.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, Michael C; Kim, Jin H; Song, Hanna; Klasse, Per Johan; Cheng, Wei

    2016-06-17

    The envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120/gp41 is required for HIV-1 infection of host cells. Although in general it has been perceived that more Env gives rise to higher infectivity, the precise quantitative dependence of HIV-1 virion infectivity on Env density has remained unknown. Here we have developed a method to examine this dependence. This method involves 1) production of a set of single-cycle HIV-1 virions with varied density of Env on their surface, 2) site-specific labeling of Env-specific antibody Fab with a fluorophore at high efficiency, and 3) optical trapping virometry to measure the number of gp120 molecules on individual HIV-1 virions. The resulting gp120 density per virion is then correlated with the infectivity of the virions measured in cell culture. In the presence of DEAE-dextran, the polycation known to enhance HIV-1 infectivity in cell culture, virion infectivity follows gp120 density as a sigmoidal dependence and reaches an apparent plateau. This quantitative dependence can be described by a Hill equation, with a Hill coefficient of 2.4 ± 0.6. In contrast, in the absence of DEAE-dextran, virion infectivity increases monotonically with gp120 density and no saturation is observed under the experimental conditions. These results provide the first quantitative evidence that Env trimers cooperate on the virion surface to mediate productive infection by HIV-1. Moreover, as a result of the low number of Env trimers on individual virions, the number of additional Env trimers per virion that is required for the optimal infectivity will depend on the inclusion of facilitating agents during infection. PMID:27129237

  1. LEDGINs inhibit late stage HIV-1 replication by modulating integrase multimerization in the virions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background LEDGINs are novel allosteric HIV integrase (IN) inhibitors that target the lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF)/p75 binding pocket of IN. They block HIV-1 integration by abrogating the interaction between LEDGF/p75 and IN as well as by allosterically inhibiting the catalytic activity of IN. Results Here we demonstrate that LEDGINs reduce the replication capacity of HIV particles produced in their presence. We systematically studied the molecular basis of this late effect of LEDGINs and demonstrate that HIV virions produced in their presence display a severe replication defect. Both the late effect and the previously described, early effect on integration contribute to LEDGIN antiviral activity as shown by time-of-addition, qPCR and infectivity assays. The late effect phenotype requires binding of LEDGINs to integrase without influencing proteolytic cleavage or production of viral particles. LEDGINs augment IN multimerization during virion assembly or in the released viral particles and severely hamper the infectivity of progeny virions. About 70% of the particles produced in LEDGIN-treated cells do not form a core or display aberrant empty cores with a mislocalized electron-dense ribonucleoprotein. The LEDGIN-treated virus displays defective reverse transcription and nuclear import steps in the target cells. The LEDGIN effect is possibly exerted at the level of the Pol precursor polyprotein. Conclusion Our results suggest that LEDGINs modulate IN multimerization in progeny virions and impair the formation of regular cores during the maturation step, resulting in a decreased infectivity of the viral particles in the target cells. LEDGINs thus profile as unique antivirals with combined early (integration) and late (IN assembly) effects on the HIV replication cycle. PMID:23721378

  2. Capillarity-induced disassembly of virions in carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaobin; Barclay, J. Elaine; Peng, Wenchao; Li, Yang; Li, Xianyu; Zhang, Guoliang; Evans, David J.; Zhang, Fengbao

    2008-04-01

    Studying the transport and fate of viruses through nanochannels is of great importance. By using the nanochannel of a carbon nanotube (CNT) as an ideal model, we evaluated the possibility of capillarity-induced viral transport through a closely fitting nanochannel and explored the mechanisms involved. It is shown both experimentally and theoretically that Cowpea mosaic virus can enter CNTs by capillarity. However, when introduced into a nanotube the protein capsid may disassemble. During the initial capillary filling stage, anomalous needle-shaped high pressure exists in the centre of the nanotube's entrance. This high pressure, combining with the significant negative pressure within the nanotube, may account for the disassembly of the virions.

  3. The morphology of the immature HIV-1 virion.

    PubMed

    Ohagen, A; Luftig, R B; Reicin, A S; Yin, L; Ikuta, K; Kimura, T; Goff, S P; Höglund, S

    1997-02-01

    Newly released HIV-1 particles exhibit an immature morphology, previously reported to be characterized by a doughnut/ring-shaped structure. In this study we showed that among immature extracellular virus particles not only were particles with doughnut-shaped morphology present, but particles with a crescent morphology were also observed. These particles occurred with different frequencies, depending on whether they were in the cell or in cell-free fractions. The crescent-shaped particles were more abundant in the cell-free fractions, whereas the particles in the cell fraction mainly exhibited doughnut-shaped morphology. The crescent-shaped structure may represent an assembly intermediate. PMID:9024816

  4. Retromer Regulates HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Trafficking and Incorporation into Virions

    PubMed Central

    Groppelli, Elisabetta; Jolly, Clare

    2014-01-01

    The envelope glycoprotein (Env) of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1) is a critical determinant of viral infectivity, tropism and is the main target for humoral immunity; however, little is known about the cellular machinery that directs Env trafficking and its incorporation into nascent virions. Here we identify the mammalian retromer complex as a novel and important cellular factor regulating Env trafficking. Retromer mediates endosomal sorting and is most closely associated with endosome-to-Golgi transport. Consistent with this function, inactivating retromer using RNAi targeting the cargo selective trimer complex inhibited retrograde trafficking of endocytosed Env to the Golgi. Notably, in HIV-1 infected cells, inactivating retromer modulated plasma membrane expression of Env, along with Env incorporation into virions and particle infectivity. Mutagenesis studies coupled with coimmunoprecipitations revealed that retromer-mediated trafficking requires the Env cytoplasmic tail that we show binds directly to retromer components Vps35 and Vps26. Taken together these results provide novel insight into regulation of HIV-1 Env trafficking and infectious HIV-1 morphogenesis and show for the first time a role for retromer in the late-steps of viral replication and assembly of a virus. PMID:25393110

  5. Virus-producing cells determine the host protein profiles of HIV-1 virion cores

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Upon HIV entry into target cells, viral cores are released and rearranged into reverse transcription complexes (RTCs), which support reverse transcription and also protect and transport viral cDNA to the site of integration. RTCs are composed of viral and cellular proteins that originate from both target and producer cells, the latter entering the target cell within the viral core. However, the proteome of HIV-1 viral cores in the context of the type of producer cells has not yet been characterized. Results We examined the proteomic profiles of the cores purified from HIV-1 NL4-3 virions assembled in Sup-T1 cells (T lymphocytes), PMA and vitamin D3 activated THP1 (model of macrophages, mMΦ), and non-activated THP1 cells (model of monocytes, mMN) and assessed potential involvement of identified proteins in the early stages of infection using gene ontology information and data from genome-wide screens on proteins important for HIV-1 replication. We identified 202 cellular proteins incorporated in the viral cores (T cells: 125, mMΦ: 110, mMN: 90) with the overlap between these sets limited to 42 proteins. The groups of RNA binding (29), DNA binding (17), cytoskeleton (15), cytoskeleton regulation (21), chaperone (18), vesicular trafficking-associated (12) and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway-associated proteins (9) were most numerous. Cores of the virions from SupT1 cells contained twice as many RNA binding proteins as cores of THP1-derived virus, whereas cores of virions from mMΦ and mMN were enriched in components of cytoskeleton and vesicular transport machinery, most probably due to differences in virion assembly pathways between these cells. Spectra of chaperones, cytoskeletal proteins and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway components were similar between viral cores from different cell types, whereas DNA-binding and especially RNA-binding proteins were highly diverse. Western blot analysis showed that within the group of overlapping proteins, the level of

  6. Use of RT-Defective HIV Virions: New Tool to Evaluate Specific Response in Chronic Asymptomatic HIV-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Arberas, Hodei; García-Pérez, Javier; García, Felipe; Bargalló, Manuel Enric; Maleno, María José; Gatell, José María; Mothe, Beatriz; Alcami, José; Sánchez-Palomino, Sonsoles; Plana, Montserrat

    2013-01-01

    Background Generation of new reagents that can be used to screen or monitor HIV-1-specific responses constituted an interesting field in the development of HIV vaccines to improve their efficacy. Methods We have evaluated the specific T cell response against different types of NL4-3 virions (including NL4-3 aldrithiol-2 treated, NL4-3/ΔRT and R5 envelopes: NL4-3/ΔRT/ΔEnv[AC10] and NL4-3/ΔRT/ΔEnv[Bal]) and against pools of overlapping peptides (15 mer) encompassing the HIV-1 Gag and Nef regions. Cryopreserved PBMC from a subset of 69 chronic asymptomatic HIV positive individuals have been employed using different techniques including IFN-γ ELISPOT assay, surface activation markers and intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) by flow cytometry. Results The differential response obtained against NL4-3 aldrithiol-2 treated and NL4-3/ΔRT virions (25% vs 55%, respectively) allow us to divide the population in three groups: “full-responders” (positive response against both viral particles), “partial-responders” (positive response only against NL4-3/ΔRT virions) and “non-responders” (negative responses). There was no difference between X4 and R5 envelopes. The magnitude of the total responses was higher against NL4-3/ΔRT and was positively correlated with gender and inverse correlated with viral load. On the contrary CD4+ T cell count was not associated with this response. In any case responses to the viruses tended to be lower in magnitude than those detected by the overlapping peptides tested. Finally we have found an increased frequency of HLA-B27 allele (23% vs 9%) and a significant reduction in some activation markers (CD69 and CD38) on T cells surface in responders vs non-responders individuals. Conclusions In summary these virions could be considered as alternative and useful reagents for screening HIV-1-specific T cell responses in HIV exposed uninfected people, HIV infected patients and to assess immunogenicity of new prototypes both in vitro and

  7. Prostaglandin E2 Reduces the Release and Infectivity of New Cell-Free Virions and Cell-To-Cell HIV-1 Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Serramía, María Jesús; Martínez-Bonet, Marta; Muñoz-Fernández, María Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    Background The course of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection is influenced by a complex interplay between viral and host factors. HIV infection stimulates several proinflammatory genes, such as cyclooxigense-2 (COX-2), which leads to an increase in prostaglandin (PG) levels in the plasma of HIV-1-infected patients. These genes play an indeterminate role in HIV replication and pathogenesis. The effect of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on HIV infection is quite controversial and even contradictory, so we sought to determine the role of PGE2 and the signal transduction pathways involved in HIV infection to elucidate possible new targets for antiretrovirals. Results Our results suggest that PGE2 post-infection treatment acts in the late stages of the viral cycle to reduce HIV replication. Interestingly, viral protein synthesis was not affected, but a loss of progeny virus production was observed. No modulation of CD4 CXCR4 and CCR5 receptor expression, cell proliferation, or activation after PGE2 treatment was detected. Moreover, PGE2 induced an increase in intracellular cAMP (cyclic AMP) levels through the EP2/EP4 receptors. PGE2 effects were mimicked by dbcAMP and by a specific Epac (exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP) agonist, 8-Cpt-cAMP. Treatment with PGE2 increased Rap1 activity, decreased RhoA activity and subsequently reduced the polymerization of actin by approximately 30% compared with untreated cells. In connection with this finding, polarized viral assembly platforms enriched in Gag were disrupted, altering HIV cell-to-cell transfer and the infectivity of new virions. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that PGE2, through Epac and Rap activation, alters the transport of newly synthesized HIV-1 components to the assembly site, reducing the release and infectivity of new cell-free virions and cell-to-cell HIV-1 transfer. PMID:24586238

  8. The Interferon-Inducible Protein Tetherin Inhibits Hepatitis B Virus Virion Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ran; Zhao, Xuesen; Cai, Dawei; Liu, Yuanjie; Block, Timothy M.; Guo, Ju-Tao

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Interferon alpha (IFN-α) is an approved medication for chronic hepatitis B therapy. Besides acting as an immunomodulator, IFN-α elicits a pleiotropic antiviral state in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected hepatocytes, but whether or not IFN-α impedes the late steps of the HBV life cycle, such as HBV secretion, remains elusive. Here we report that IFN-α treatment of HepAD38 cells with established HBV replication selectively reduced HBV virion release without altering intracellular viral replication or the secretion of HBV subviral particles and nonenveloped capsids. In search of the interferon-stimulated gene(s) that is responsible for the reduction of HBV virion release, we found that tetherin, a broad-spectrum antiviral transmembrane protein that inhibits the egress of a variety of enveloped viruses, was highly induced by IFN-α in HepAD38 cells and in primary human hepatocytes. We further demonstrated that the expression of full-length tetherin, but not the C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor-truncated form, inhibited HBV virion egress from HepAD38 cells. In addition, GPI anchor-truncated tetherin exhibited a dominant-negative effect and was incorporated into the liberated virions. We also found colocalization of tetherin and HBV L protein at the intracellular multivesicular body, where the budding of HBV virions takes place. In line with this, electron microscopy demonstrated that HBV virions were tethered in the lumen of the cisterna membrane under tetherin expression. Finally, knockdown of tetherin or overexpression of dominant negative tetherin attenuated the IFN-α-mediated reduction of HBV virion release. Taken together, our study suggests that IFN-α inhibits HBV virion egress from hepatocytes through the induction of tetherin. IMPORTANCE Tetherin is a host restriction factor that blocks the egress of a variety of enveloped viruses through tethering the budding virions on the cell surface with its membrane anchor domains. Here we

  9. HIV Virions as Nanoscopic Test Tubes for Probing Oligomerization of the Integrase Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Employing viruses as nanoscopic lipid-enveloped test tubes allows the miniaturization of protein–protein interaction (PPI) assays while preserving the physiological environment necessary for particular biological processes. Applied to the study of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), viral biology and pathology can also be investigated in novel ways, both in vitro as well as in infected cells. In this work we report on an experimental strategy that makes use of engineered HIV-1 viral particles, to allow for probing PPIs of the HIV-1 integrase (IN) inside viruses with single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) using fluorescent proteins (FP). We show that infectious fluorescently labeled viruses can be obtained and that the quantity of labels can be accurately measured and controlled inside individual viral particles. We demonstrate, with proper control experiments, the formation of IN oligomers in single viral particles and inside viral complexes in infected cells. Finally, we show a clear effect on IN oligomerization of small molecule inhibitors of interactions of IN with its natural human cofactor LEDGF/p75, corroborating that IN oligomer enhancing drugs are active already at the level of the virus and strongly suggesting the presence of a dynamic, enhanceable equilibrium between the IN dimer and tetramer in viral particles. Although applied to the HIV-1 IN enzyme, our methodology for utilizing HIV virions as nanoscopic test tubes for probing PPIs is generic, i.e., other PPIs targeted into the HIV-1, or PPIs targeted into other viruses, can potentially be studied with a similar strategy. PMID:24654558

  10. A phenyl-thiadiazolylidene-amine derivative ejects zinc from retroviral nucleocapsid zinc fingers and inactivates HIV virions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sexual acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through mucosal transmission may be prevented by using topically applied agents that block HIV transmission from one individual to another. Therefore, virucidal agents that inactivate HIV virions may be used as a component in topical microbicides. Results Here, we have identified 2-methyl-3-phenyl-2H-[1,2,4]thiadiazol-5-ylideneamine (WDO-217) as a low-molecular-weight molecule that inactivates HIV particles. Both HIV-1 and HIV-2 virions pretreated with this compound were unable to infect permissive cells. Moreover, WDO-217 was able to inhibit infections of a wide spectrum of wild-type and drug-resistant HIV-1, including clinical isolates, HIV-2 and SIV strains. Whereas the capture of virus by DC-SIGN was unaffected by the compound, it efficiently prevented the transmission of DC-SIGN-captured virus to CD4+ T-lymphocytes. Interestingly, exposure of virions to WDO-217 reduced the amount of virion-associated genomic RNA as measured by real-time RT-qPCR. Further mechanism-of-action studies demonstrated that WDO-217 efficiently ejects zinc from the zinc fingers of the retroviral nucleocapsid protein NCp7 and inhibits the cTAR destabilization properties of this protein. Importantly, WDO-217 was able to eject zinc from both zinc fingers, even when NCp7 was bound to oligonucleotides, while no covalent interaction between NCp7 and WDO-217 could be observed. Conclusion This compound is a new lead structure that can be used for the development of a new series of NCp7 zinc ejectors as candidate topical microbicide agents. PMID:23146561

  11. The phosphorylation of HIV-1 Gag by atypical protein kinase C facilitates viral infectivity by promoting Vpr incorporation into virions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag is the main structural protein that mediates the assembly and release of virus-like particles (VLPs) from an infected cell membrane. The Gag C-terminal p6 domain contains short sequence motifs that facilitate virus release from the plasma membrane and mediate incorporation of the viral Vpr protein. Gag p6 has also been found to be phosphorylated during HIV-1 infection and this event may affect virus replication. However, the kinase that directs the phosphorylation of Gag p6 toward virus replication remains to be identified. In our present study, we identified this kinase using a proteomic approach and further delineate its role in HIV-1 replication. Results A proteomic approach was designed to systematically identify human protein kinases that potently interact with HIV-1 Gag and successfully identified 22 candidates. Among this panel, atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) was found to phosphorylate HIV-1 Gag p6. Subsequent LC-MS/MS and immunoblotting analysis with a phospho-specific antibody confirmed both in vitro and in vivo that aPKC phosphorylates HIV-1 Gag at Ser487. Computer-assisted structural modeling and a subsequent cell-based assay revealed that this phosphorylation event is necessary for the interaction between Gag and Vpr and results in the incorporation of Vpr into virions. Moreover, the inhibition of aPKC activity reduced the Vpr levels in virions and impaired HIV-1 infectivity of human primary macrophages. Conclusion Our current results indicate for the first time that HIV-1 Gag phosphorylation on Ser487 is mediated by aPKC and that this kinase may regulate the incorporation of Vpr into HIV-1 virions and thereby supports virus infectivity. Furthermore, aPKC inhibition efficiently suppresses HIV-1 infectivity in macrophages. aPKC may therefore be an intriguing therapeutic target for HIV-1 infection. PMID:24447338

  12. HIV-1 dynamics in vivo: Virion clearance rate, infected cell life-span, and viral generation time

    SciTech Connect

    Perelson, A.S.; Neumann, A.U.; Markowitz, M.; Ho, D.D.; Leonard, J.M.

    1996-03-15

    A new mathematical model was used to analyze a detailed set of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) viral load data collected from five infected individuals after the administration of a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 protease. Productively infected cells were estimated to have, on average, a life-span of 2.2 days (half-life t{sub 1/2} = 1.6 days), and plasma virions were estimated to have, on average, a mean life-span of 0.3 days (t{sub 1/2} = 0.24 days). The estimated average total HIV-1 production was 10.3 x 10{sup 9}virions per day, which is substantially greater than previous minimum estimates. The results also suggest that the minimum duration of the HIV-1 life cycle in vivo is 1.2 days on average, and that the average HIV-1 generation time-defined as the time from release of a virion until it infects another cell and causes the release of a new generation of viral particles-is 2.6 days. These findings on viral dynamics provide not only a kinetic picture of HIV-1 pathogenesis, but also theoretical principles to guide the development of treatment strategies. 22 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. Concentration and purification of HIV-1 virions by microfluidic separation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Grace Dongqing; Alberts, Catharina Johanna

    2009-01-01

    The low concentration and complex sample matrix of many clinical and environmental viral samples presents a significant challenge in the development of low cost, point-of-care viral assays. To address this problem, we investigated the use of a microfluidic passive magnetic separator combined with on-chip mixer to both purify and concentrate whole particle HIV-1 virions. Virus-containing plasma samples are first mixed to allow specific binding of the viral particles with antibody-conjugated superparamagnetic nanoparticles, and several passive mixer geometries were assessed for their mixing efficiencies. The virus-nanoparticle complexes are then separated from the plasma in a novel magnetic separation chamber, where packed micron-sized ferromagnetic particles serve as high magnetic gradient concentrators for an externally applied magnetic field. Thereafter, a viral lysis buffer was flowed through the chip and the released HIV proteins were assayed off-chip. Viral protein extraction efficiencies of 62% and 45% were achieved at 10uL/min and 30uL/min throughputs respectively. More importantly, an 80-fold concentration was observed for an initial sample volume of 1mL, and a 44-fold concentration for an initial sample volume of 0.5mL. The system is broadly applicable to microscale sample preparation of any viral sample and can be used for nucleic acid extraction as well as 40–80 fold enrichment of target viruses. PMID:19954210

  14. Dextran Sulfate Suppression of Viruses in the HIV Family: Inhibition of Virion Binding to CD4+ Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Looney, David J.; Kuno, Sachiko; Ueno, Ryuji; Wong-Staal, Flossie; Broder, Samuel

    1988-04-01

    The first step in the infection of human T lymphocytes by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is attachment to the target cell receptor, the CD4 antigen. This step may be vulnerable to attack by antibodies, chemicals, or small peptides. Dextran sulfate (molecular weight approximately 8000), which has been given to patients as an anticoagulant or antilipemic agent for more than two decades, was found to block the binding of virions to various target T lymphocytes, inhibit syncytia formation, and exert a potent inhibitory effect against HIV-1 in vitro at concentrations that may be clinically attainable in human beings. This drug also suppressed the replication of HIV-2 in vitro. These observations could have theoretical and clinical implications in the strategy to develop drugs against HIV types 1 and 2.

  15. The use of Nanotrap particles technology in capturing HIV-1 virions and viral proteins from infected cells.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Elizabeth; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Sampey, Gavin; Shafagati, Nazly; Van Duyne, Rachel; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Liotta, Lance; Petricoin, Emanuel; Young, Mary; Lepene, Benjamin; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 infection results in a chronic but incurable illness since long-term HAART can keep the virus to an undetectable level. However, discontinuation of therapy rapidly increases viral burden. Moreover, patients under HAART frequently develop various metabolic disorders and HIV-associated neuronal disease. Today, the main challenge of HIV-1 research is the elimination of the residual virus in infected individuals. The current HIV-1 diagnostics are largely comprised of serological and nucleic acid based technologies. Our goal is to integrate the nanotrap technology into a standard research tool that will allow sensitive detection of HIV-1 infection. This study demonstrates that majority of HIV-1 virions in culture supernatants and Tat/Nef proteins spiked in culture medium can be captured by nanotrap particles. To determine the binding affinities of different baits, we incubated target molecules with nanotrap particles at room temperature. After short sequestration, materials were either eluted or remained attached to nanotrap particles prior to analysis. The unique affinity baits of nanotrap particles preferentially bound HIV-1 materials while excluded albumin. A high level capture of Tat or Tat peptide by NT082 and NT084 particles was measured by western blot (WB). Intracellular Nef protein was captured by NT080, while membrane-associated Nef was captured by NT086 and also detected by WB. Selective capture of HIV-1 particles by NT073 and NT086 was measured by reverse transcriptase assay, while capture of infectious HIV-1 by these nanoparticles was demonstrated by functional transactivation in TZM-bl cells. We also demonstrated specific capture of HIV-1 particles and exosomes-containing TAR-RNA in patients' serum by NT086 and NT082 particles, respectively, using specific qRT-PCR. Collectively, our data indicate that certain types of nanotrap particles selectively capture specific HIV-1 molecules, and we propose to use this technology as a platform to enhance HIV-1

  16. The Use of Nanotrap Particles Technology in Capturing HIV-1 Virions and Viral Proteins from Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sampey, Gavin; Shafagati, Nazly; Van Duyne, Rachel; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Liotta, Lance; Petricoin, Emanuel; Young, Mary; Lepene, Benjamin; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 infection results in a chronic but incurable illness since long-term HAART can keep the virus to an undetectable level. However, discontinuation of therapy rapidly increases viral burden. Moreover, patients under HAART frequently develop various metabolic disorders and HIV-associated neuronal disease. Today, the main challenge of HIV-1 research is the elimination of the residual virus in infected individuals. The current HIV-1 diagnostics are largely comprised of serological and nucleic acid based technologies. Our goal is to integrate the nanotrap technology into a standard research tool that will allow sensitive detection of HIV-1 infection. This study demonstrates that majority of HIV-1 virions in culture supernatants and Tat/Nef proteins spiked in culture medium can be captured by nanotrap particles. To determine the binding affinities of different baits, we incubated target molecules with nanotrap particles at room temperature. After short sequestration, materials were either eluted or remained attached to nanotrap particles prior to analysis. The unique affinity baits of nanotrap particles preferentially bound HIV-1 materials while excluded albumin. A high level capture of Tat or Tat peptide by NT082 and NT084 particles was measured by western blot (WB). Intracellular Nef protein was captured by NT080, while membrane-associated Nef was captured by NT086 and also detected by WB. Selective capture of HIV-1 particles by NT073 and NT086 was measured by reverse transcriptase assay, while capture of infectious HIV-1 by these nanoparticles was demonstrated by functional transactivation in TZM-bl cells. We also demonstrated specific capture of HIV-1 particles and exosomes-containing TAR-RNA in patients' serum by NT086 and NT082 particles, respectively, using specific qRT-PCR. Collectively, our data indicate that certain types of nanotrap particles selectively capture specific HIV-1 molecules, and we propose to use this technology as a platform to enhance HIV-1

  17. Fully-spliced HIV-1 RNAs are reverse transcribed with similar efficiencies as the genomic RNA in virions and cells, but more efficiently in AZT-treated cells

    PubMed Central

    Houzet, Laurent; Morichaud, Zakia; Mougel, Marylène

    2007-01-01

    We have shown previously that HIV actively and selectively packages the spliced HIV RNAs into progeny virions. In the present study, by using a RT-QPCR and QPCR strategies, we show that spliced viral RNAs are present in infectious particles and consequently participate, along with the unspliced genomic RNA, to some of the early steps of infection such as the reverse transcription step. This work provides the first quantitative data on reverse transcription of the fully spliced viral RNAs, also called the early transcripts, in target cells but also inside virions. The latter results were obtained by measuring the natural endogenous reverse transcription activity directly on intact HIV-1 particles. Our study reveals that spliced HIV RNAs are reverse transcribed as efficiently as the genomic RNA, both in cells and virions. Interestingly, we also show that reverse transcription of spliced RNAs is 56-fold less sensitive to the inhibitor AZT than reverse transcription of the genomic RNA. Therefore, the selection mediated by inhibitors of reverse transcription used to treat patients could lead to increased representativeness of spliced forms of HIV, thus favoring recombination between the HIV DNA species and facilitating HIV recovery. PMID:17474982

  18. Mapping the complete glycoproteome of virion-derived HIV-1 gp120 provides insights into broadly neutralizing antibody binding

    PubMed Central

    Panico, Maria; Bouché, Laura; Binet, Daniel; O’Connor, Michael-John; Rahman, Dinah; Pang, Poh-Choo; Canis, Kevin; North, Simon J.; Desrosiers, Ronald C.; Chertova, Elena; Keele, Brandon F.; Bess, Julian W.; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Haslam, Stuart M.; Dell, Anne; Morris, Howard R.

    2016-01-01

    The surface envelope glycoprotein (SU) of Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), gp120SU plays an essential role in virus binding to target CD4+ T-cells and is a major vaccine target. Gp120 has remarkably high levels of N-linked glycosylation and there is considerable evidence that this “glycan shield” can help protect the virus from antibody-mediated neutralization. In recent years, however, it has become clear that gp120 glycosylation can also be included in the targets of recognition by some of the most potent broadly neutralizing antibodies. Knowing the site-specific glycosylation of gp120 can facilitate the rational design of glycopeptide antigens for HIV vaccine development. While most prior studies have focused on glycan analysis of recombinant forms of gp120, here we report the first systematic glycosylation site analysis of gp120 derived from virions produced by infected T lymphoid cells and show that a single site is exclusively substituted with complex glycans. These results should help guide the design of vaccine immunogens. PMID:27604319

  19. Mapping the complete glycoproteome of virion-derived HIV-1 gp120 provides insights into broadly neutralizing antibody binding.

    PubMed

    Panico, Maria; Bouché, Laura; Binet, Daniel; O'Connor, Michael-John; Rahman, Dinah; Pang, Poh-Choo; Canis, Kevin; North, Simon J; Desrosiers, Ronald C; Chertova, Elena; Keele, Brandon F; Bess, Julian W; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Haslam, Stuart M; Dell, Anne; Morris, Howard R

    2016-01-01

    The surface envelope glycoprotein (SU) of Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), gp120(SU) plays an essential role in virus binding to target CD4+ T-cells and is a major vaccine target. Gp120 has remarkably high levels of N-linked glycosylation and there is considerable evidence that this "glycan shield" can help protect the virus from antibody-mediated neutralization. In recent years, however, it has become clear that gp120 glycosylation can also be included in the targets of recognition by some of the most potent broadly neutralizing antibodies. Knowing the site-specific glycosylation of gp120 can facilitate the rational design of glycopeptide antigens for HIV vaccine development. While most prior studies have focused on glycan analysis of recombinant forms of gp120, here we report the first systematic glycosylation site analysis of gp120 derived from virions produced by infected T lymphoid cells and show that a single site is exclusively substituted with complex glycans. These results should help guide the design of vaccine immunogens. PMID:27604319

  20. 3D molecular models of whole HIV-1 virions generated with cellPACK

    PubMed Central

    Goodsell, David S.; Autin, Ludovic; Forli, Stefano; Sanner, Michel F.; Olson, Arthur J.

    2014-01-01

    As knowledge of individual biological processes grows, it becomes increasingly useful to frame new findings within their larger biological contexts in order to generate new systems-scale hypotheses. This report highlights two major iterations of a whole virus model of HIV-1, generated with the cellPACK software. cellPACK integrates structural and systems biology data with packing algorithms to assemble comprehensive 3D models of cell-scale structures in molecular detail. This report describes the biological data, modeling parameters and cellPACK methods used to specify and construct editable models for HIV-1. Anticipating that cellPACK interfaces under development will enable researchers from diverse backgrounds to critique and improve the biological models, we discuss how cellPACK can be used as a framework to unify different types of data across all scales of biology. PMID:25253262

  1. Cocaine enhances HIV-1-induced CD4(+) T-cell apoptosis: implications in disease progression in cocaine-abusing HIV-1 patients.

    PubMed

    Pandhare, Jui; Addai, Amma B; Mantri, Chinmay K; Hager, Cynthia; Smith, Rita M; Barnett, Louis; Villalta, Fernando; Kalams, Spyros A; Dash, Chandravanu

    2014-04-01

    Substance abuse is a major barrier in eradication of the HIV epidemic because it serves as a powerful cofactor for viral transmission, disease progression, and AIDS-related mortality. Cocaine, one of the commonly abused drugs among HIV-1 patients, has been suggested to accelerate HIV disease progression. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Therefore, we tested whether cocaine augments HIV-1-associated CD4(+) T-cell decline, a predictor of HIV disease progression. We examined apoptosis of resting CD4(+) T cells from HIV-1-negative and HIV-1-positive donors in our study, because decline of uninfected cells plays a major role in HIV-1 disease progression. Treatment of resting CD4(+) T cells with cocaine (up to 100 μmol/L concentrations) did not induce apoptosis, but 200 to 1000 μmol/L cocaine induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, treatment of CD4(+) T cells isolated from healthy donors with both HIV-1 virions and cocaine significantly increased apoptosis compared with the apoptosis induced by cocaine or virions alone. Most important, our biochemical data suggest that cocaine induces CD4(+) T-cell apoptosis by increasing intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and inducing mitochondrial depolarization. Collectively, our results provide evidence of a synergy between cocaine and HIV-1 on CD4(+) T-cell apoptosis that may, in part, explain the accelerated disease observed in HIV-1-infected drug abusers. PMID:24486327

  2. The Allosteric HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitor BI-D Affects Virion Maturation but Does Not Influence Packaging of a Functional RNA Genome

    PubMed Central

    van Bel, Nikki; van der Velden, Yme; Bonnard, Damien; Le Rouzic, Erwann; Das, Atze T.; Benarous, Richard; Berkhout, Ben

    2014-01-01

    The viral integrase (IN) is an essential protein for HIV-1 replication. IN inserts the viral dsDNA into the host chromosome, thereby aided by the cellular co-factor LEDGF/p75. Recently a new class of integrase inhibitors was described: allosteric IN inhibitors (ALLINIs). Although designed to interfere with the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction to block HIV DNA integration during the early phase of HIV-1 replication, the major impact was surprisingly found on the process of virus maturation during the late phase, causing a reverse transcription defect upon infection of target cells. Virus particles produced in the presence of an ALLINI are misformed with the ribonucleoprotein located outside the virus core. Virus assembly and maturation are highly orchestrated and regulated processes in which several viral proteins and RNA molecules closely interact. It is therefore of interest to study whether ALLINIs have unpredicted pleiotropic effects on these RNA-related processes. We confirm that the ALLINI BI-D inhibits virus replication and that the produced virus is non-infectious. Furthermore, we show that the wild-type level of HIV-1 genomic RNA is packaged in virions and these genomes are in a dimeric state. The tRNAlys3 primer for reverse transcription was properly placed on this genomic RNA and could be extended ex vivo. In addition, the packaged reverse transcriptase enzyme was fully active when extracted from virions. As the RNA and enzyme components for reverse transcription are properly present in virions produced in the presence of BI-D, the inhibition of reverse transcription is likely to reflect the mislocalization of the components in the aberrant virus particle. PMID:25072705

  3. Effect of the ionophore monensin on herpes simplex virus type 1-induced cell fusion, glycoprotein synthesis, and virion infectivity.

    PubMed

    Kousoulas, K G; Bzik, D J; Person, S

    1983-01-01

    The ionophore monensin inhibited the formation of mature, fully glycosylated glycoproteins gB, gC, and gD during herpes simplex virus type 1 infection of human embryonic lung cells. Underglycosylated forms, including the apparent high-mannose precursor forms of the major glycoproteins, appeared. Monensin inhibited virus-induced cell fusion. Infectious virions produced in the presence of monensin appeared to contain predominantly underglycosylated glycoproteins. PMID:6307921

  4. Effects of HCV on basal and tat-induced HIV LTR activation.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Satarupa; Powell, Eleanor; Kong, Ling; Blackard, Jason T

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection occurs in ∼30-40% of the HIV-infected population in the US. While a significant body of research suggests an adverse effect of HIV on HCV replication and disease progression, the impact of HCV on HIV infection has not been well studied. Increasing data suggest that hepatocytes and other liver cell populations can serve as reservoirs for HIV replication. Therefore, to gain insight into the impact of HCV on HIV, the effects of the HCV Core protein and infectious hepatitis C virions were evaluated on basal and Tat-induced activation of the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) in hepatocytes. The HIV LTR was highly induced by the HIV transactivator protein Tat in hepatocytes. Activation varied according to the number of NF-kB binding sites present in the LTRs from different HIV subtypes. Involvement of the NF-kB binding pathway in LTR activation was demonstrated using an NF-kB inhibitor and deletion of the NF-kB binding sites. TNFα, a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in HIV pathogenesis, also induced LTR activity in hepatocytes. However, HIV LTR activity was suppressed in hepatocytes in the presence of HCV Core protein, and the suppressive effect persisted in the presence of TNFα. In contrast, infectious hepatitis C virions upregulated HIV LTR activation and gene transcription. Core-mediated suppression remained unaltered in the presence of HCV NS3/4A protein, suggesting the involvement of other viral/cellular factors. These findings have significant clinical implications as they imply that HCV could accelerate HIV disease progression in HIV/HCV co-infected patients. Such analyses are important to elucidate the mechanisms by which these viruses interact and could facilitate the development of more effective therapies to treat HIV/HCV co-infection. PMID:23762271

  5. HIV-1 Vpr reactivates latent HIV-1 provirus by inducing depletion of class I HDACs on chromatin.

    PubMed

    Romani, Bizhan; Kamali Jamil, Razieh; Hamidi-Fard, Mojtaba; Rahimi, Pooneh; Momen, Seyed Bahman; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Allahbakhshi, Elham

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Vpr is an accessory protein that induces proteasomal degradation of multiple proteins. We recently showed that Vpr targets class I HDACs on chromatin for proteasomal degradation. Here we show that Vpr induces degradation of HDAC1 and HDAC3 in HIV-1 latently infected J-Lat cells. Degradation of HDAC1 and HDAC3 was also observed on the HIV-1 LTR and as a result, markers of active transcription were recruited to the viral promoter and induced viral activation. Knockdown of HDAC1 and HDAC3 activated the latent HIV-1 provirus and complementation with HDAC3 inhibited Vpr-induced HIV-1 reactivation. Viral reactivation and degradation of HDAC1 and HDAC3 was conserved among Vpr proteins of HV-1 group M. Serum Vpr isolated from patients or the release of virion-incorporated Vpr from viral lysates also activated HIV-1 in latently infected cell lines and PBMCs from HIV-1 infected patients. Our results indicate that Vpr counteracts HIV-1 latency by inducing proteasomal degradation of HDAC1 and 3 leading to reactivation of the viral promoter. PMID:27550312

  6. HIV-1 Vpr reactivates latent HIV-1 provirus by inducing depletion of class I HDACs on chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Romani, Bizhan; Kamali Jamil, Razieh; Hamidi-Fard, Mojtaba; Rahimi, Pooneh; Momen, Seyed Bahman; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Allahbakhshi, Elham

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Vpr is an accessory protein that induces proteasomal degradation of multiple proteins. We recently showed that Vpr targets class I HDACs on chromatin for proteasomal degradation. Here we show that Vpr induces degradation of HDAC1 and HDAC3 in HIV-1 latently infected J-Lat cells. Degradation of HDAC1 and HDAC3 was also observed on the HIV-1 LTR and as a result, markers of active transcription were recruited to the viral promoter and induced viral activation. Knockdown of HDAC1 and HDAC3 activated the latent HIV-1 provirus and complementation with HDAC3 inhibited Vpr-induced HIV-1 reactivation. Viral reactivation and degradation of HDAC1 and HDAC3 was conserved among Vpr proteins of HV-1 group M. Serum Vpr isolated from patients or the release of virion-incorporated Vpr from viral lysates also activated HIV-1 in latently infected cell lines and PBMCs from HIV-1 infected patients. Our results indicate that Vpr counteracts HIV-1 latency by inducing proteasomal degradation of HDAC1 and 3 leading to reactivation of the viral promoter. PMID:27550312

  7. HIV-1 infection of T cells and macrophages are differentially modulated by virion-associated Hck: a Nef-dependent phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Cornall, Alyssa; Mak, Johnson; Greenway, Alison; Tachedjian, Gilda

    2013-09-01

    The proline repeat motif (PxxP) of Nef is required for interaction with the SH3 domains of macrophage-specific Src kinase Hck. However, the implication of this interaction for viral replication and infectivity in macrophages and T lymphocytes remains unclear. Experiments in HIV-1 infected macrophages confirmed the presence of a Nef:Hck complex which was dependent on the Nef proline repeat motif. The proline repeat motif of Nef also enhanced both HIV-1 infection and replication in macrophages, and was required for incorporation of Hck into viral particles. Unexpectedly, wild-type Hck inhibited infection of macrophages, but Hck was shown to enhance infection of primary T lymphocytes. These results indicate that the interaction between Nef and Hck is important for Nef-dependent modulation of viral infectivity. Hck-dependent enhancement of HIV-1 infection of T cells suggests that Nef-Hck interaction may contribute to the spread of HIV-1 infection from macrophages to T cells by modulating events in the producer cell, virion and target cell. PMID:24051604

  8. Detection of Receptor-Induced Glycoprotein Conformational Changes on Enveloped Virions by Using Confocal Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaonan; Liu, Qian; Benavides-Montano, Javier A.; Nicola, Anthony V.; Aston, D. Eric; Rasco, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Conformational changes in the glycoproteins of enveloped viruses are critical for membrane fusion, which enables viral entry into cells and the pathological cell-cell fusion (syncytia) associated with some viral infections. However, technological capabilities for identifying viral glycoproteins and their conformational changes on actual enveloped virus surfaces are generally scarce, challenging, and time-consuming. Our model, Nipah virus (NiV), is a syncytium-forming biosafety level 4 pathogen with a high mortality rate (40 to 75%) in humans. Once the NiV attachment glycoprotein (G) (NiV-G) binds the cell receptor ephrinB2 or -B3, G triggers conformational changes in the fusion glycoprotein (F) that result in membrane fusion and viral entry. We demonstrate that confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy can, within minutes, simultaneously identify specific G and F glycoprotein signals and receptor-induced conformational changes in NiV-F on NiV virus-like particles (VLPs). First, we identified reproducible G- and F-specific Raman spectral features on NiV VLPs containing M (assembly matrix protein), G, and/or F or on NiV/vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotyped virions via second-derivative transformations and principal component analysis (PCA). Statistical analyses validated our PCA models. Dynamic temperature-induced conformational changes in F and G or receptor-induced target membrane-dependent conformational changes in F were monitored in NiV pseudovirions in situ in real time by confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy. Advantageously, Raman spectroscopy can identify specific protein signals in relatively impure samples. Thus, this proof-of-principle technological development has implications for the rapid identification and biostability characterization of viruses in medical, veterinary, and food samples and for the analysis of virion glycoprotein conformational changes in situ during viral entry. PMID:23283947

  9. Two potential recombinant rabies vaccines expressing canine parvovirus virion protein 2 induce immunogenicity to canine parvovirus and rabies virus.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun; Shi, Hehe; Tan, Yeping; Niu, Xuefeng; Long, Teng; Zhao, Jing; Tian, Qin; Wang, Yifei; Chen, Hao; Guo, Xiaofeng

    2016-08-17

    Both rabies virus (RABV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) cause lethal diseases in dogs. In this study, both high egg passage Flury (HEP-Flury) strains of RABV and recombinant RABV carrying double RABV glycoprotein (G) gene were used to express the CPV virion protein 2 (VP2) gene, and were designated rHEP-VP2 and, rHEP-dG-VP2 respectively. The two recombinant RABVs maintained optimal virus titration according to their viral growth kinetics assay compared with the parental strain HEP-Flury. Western blotting indicated that G protein and VP2 were expressed in vitro. The expression of VP2 in Crandell feline kidney cells post-infection by rHEP-VP2 and rHEP-dG-VP2 was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence assay with antibody against VP2. Immunogenicity of recombinant rabies viruses was tested in Kunming mice. Both rHEP-VP2 and rHEP-dG-VP2 induced high levels of rabies antibody compared with HEP-Flury. Mice immunized with rHEP-VP2 and rHEP-dG-VP2 both had a high level of antibodies against VP2, which can protect against CPV infection. A challenge experiment indicated that more than 80% mice immunized with recombinant RABVs survived after infection of challenge virus standard 24 (CVS-24). Together, this study showed that recombinant RABVs expressing VP2 induced protective immune responses to RABV and CPV. Therefore, rHEP-VP2 and rHEP-dG-VP2 might be potential combined vaccines for RABV and CPV. PMID:27449079

  10. Anti-phospholipid human monoclonal antibodies inhibit CCR5-tropic HIV-1 and induce β-chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Hua-Xin; Alam, S. Munir; Scearce, Richard M.; Plonk, M. Kelly; Kozink, Daniel M.; Drinker, Mark S.; Zhang, Ruijun; Xia, Shi-Mao; Sutherland, Laura L.; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Giles, Ian P.; Kappes, John C.; Ochsenbauer-Jambor, Christina; Edmonds, Tara G.; Soares, Melina; Barbero, Gustavo; Forthal, Donald N.; Landucci, Gary; Chang, Connie; King, Steven W.; Kavlie, Anita; Denny, Thomas N.; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Chen, Pojen P.; Thorpe, Philip E.; Montefiori, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional antibody-mediated neutralization of HIV-1 infection is thought to result from the binding of antibodies to virions, thus preventing virus entry. However, antibodies that broadly neutralize HIV-1 are rare and are not induced by current vaccines. We report that four human anti-phospholipid monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) (PGN632, P1, IS4, and CL1) inhibit HIV-1 CCR5-tropic (R5) primary isolate infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with 80% inhibitory concentrations of <0.02 to ∼10 µg/ml. Anti-phospholipid mAbs inhibited PBMC HIV-1 infection in vitro by mechanisms involving binding to monocytes and triggering the release of MIP-1α and MIP-1β. The release of these β-chemokines explains both the specificity for R5 HIV-1 and the activity of these mAbs in PBMC cultures containing both primary lymphocytes and monocytes. PMID:20368576

  11. Lentiviral Delivery of HIV-1 Vpr Protein Induces Apoptosis in Transformed Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Sheila A.; Poon, Betty; Jowett, Jeremy B. M.; Xie, Yiming; Chen, Irvin S. Y.

    1999-10-01

    Most current anticancer therapies act by inducing tumor cell stasis followed by apoptosis. HIV-1 Vpr effectively induces apoptosis of T cells after arrest of cells at a G2/M checkpoint. Here, we investigated whether this property of Vpr could be exploited for use as a potential anticancer agent. As a potentially safer alternative to transfer of genes encoding Vpr, we developed a method to efficiently introduce Vpr protein directly into cells. Vpr packaged into HIV-1 virions lacking a genome induced efficient cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Introduction of Vpr into tumor cell lines of various tissue origin, including those bearing predisposing mutations in p53, XPA, and hMLH1, induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis with high efficiency. Significantly, apoptosis mediated by virion-associated Vpr was more effective on rapidly dividing cells compared with slow-growing cells, thus, in concept, providing a potential differential effect between some types of tumor cells and surrounding normal cells. This model system provides a rationale and proof of concept for the development of potential cancer therapeutic agents based on the growth-arresting and apoptotic properties of Vpr.

  12. HIV transcription is induced in dying cells

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei; Schreck, S. |; Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R.

    1996-02-01

    Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct, we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. {gamma} rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that {gamma}-ray-induced apoptotic death requires functional p53, which is not present in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture. Doses which caused over 99% cell killing induced HIV-LTR transcription maximally, demonstrating that cells that will go on to die by 14 days are the cells expressing HIV-LTR-CAT.

  13. Guanylate Binding Protein (GBP) 5 Is an Interferon-Inducible Inhibitor of HIV-1 Infectivity.

    PubMed

    Krapp, Christian; Hotter, Dominik; Gawanbacht, Ali; McLaren, Paul J; Kluge, Silvia F; Stürzel, Christina M; Mack, Katharina; Reith, Elisabeth; Engelhart, Susanne; Ciuffi, Angela; Hornung, Veit; Sauter, Daniel; Telenti, Amalio; Kirchhoff, Frank

    2016-04-13

    Guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) are an interferon (IFN)-inducible subfamily of guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) with well-established activity against intracellular bacteria and parasites. Here we show that GBP5 potently restricts HIV-1 and other retroviruses. GBP5 is expressed in the primary target cells of HIV-1, where it impairs viral infectivity by interfering with the processing and virion incorporation of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env). GBP5 levels in macrophages determine and inversely correlate with infectious HIV-1 yield over several orders of magnitude, which may explain the high donor variability in macrophage susceptibility to HIV. Antiviral activity requires Golgi localization of GBP5, but not its GTPase activity. Start codon mutations in the accessory vpu gene from macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strains conferred partial resistance to GBP5 inhibition by increasing Env expression. Our results identify GBP5 as an antiviral effector of the IFN response and may explain the increased frequency of defective vpu genes in primary HIV-1 strains. PMID:26996307

  14. HIV-1 protease-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Apoptosis is one of the presumptive causes of CD4+ T cell depletion during HIV infection and progression to AIDS. However, the precise role of HIV-1 in this process remains unexplained. HIV-1 protease (PR) has been suggested as a possible factor, but a direct link between HIV-1 PR enzymatic activity and apoptosis has not been established. Results Here, we show that expression of active HIV-1 PR induces death in HeLa and HEK-293 cells via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. This conclusion is based on in vivo observations of the direct localization of HIV-1 PR in mitochondria, a key player in triggering apoptosis. Moreover, we observed an HIV-1 PR concentration-dependent decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and the role of HIV-1 PR in activation of caspase 9, PARP cleavage and DNA fragmentation. In addition, in vitro data demonstrated that HIV-1 PR mediates cleavage of mitochondrial proteins Tom22, VDAC and ANT, leading to release of AIF and Hsp60 proteins. By using yeast two-hybrid screening, we also identified a new HIV-1 PR interaction partner, breast carcinoma-associated protein 3 (BCA3). We found that BCA3 accelerates p53 transcriptional activity on the bax promoter, thus elevating the cellular level of pro-apoptotic Bax protein. Conclusion In summary, our results describe the involvement of HIV-1 PR in apoptosis, which is caused either by a direct effect of HIV-1 PR on mitochondrial membrane integrity or by its interaction with cellular protein BCA3. PMID:24886575

  15. Physicochemical Studies on L-Cell Virions

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, J. L.; Quade, Kristina; Luftig, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    The L-cell virion (LCV) has been purified from supernatant fluids of mouse L cells grown in suspension culture. The virion is similar to other RNA tumor viruses by several criteria: (i) the density of the virion is 1.16 g/cm3; (ii) the virion appears as a rounded membranous particle with an outer diameter of 146.7 ± 11.8 nm, and contains knobs (7-nm diameter) over its surface; (iii) 15 polypeptides (ranging in molecular weight from 7,000 to 110,000) are detectable after electrophoresis of virion protein in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels; (iv) three species of RNA can be isolated—high molecular weight (80 to 88s) (50%), 7s (35%) and 4s (15%); (v) heat denaturation of the high-molecular-weight RNA yields a heterogeneous population of molecules (20 to 35s) as well as a 7s and 4s species. Despite the general similarity to infectious RNA tumor viruses, LCV is apparently defective as evidenced by the fact that it does not induce tumors in animals or transform normal mouse cells in vitro (Kindig and Kirsten [17]). The defective nature of the LCV might be related to the fact that assays for DNA polymerase in the virion showed only a negligible activity when compared to Rous sarcoma virus. Images PMID:4120638

  16. Contact-Induced Mitochondrial Polarization Supports HIV-1 Virological Synapse Formation

    PubMed Central

    Groppelli, Elisabetta; Starling, Shimona

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rapid HIV-1 spread between CD4 T lymphocytes occurs at retrovirus-induced immune cell contacts called virological synapses (VS). VS are associated with striking T cell polarization and localized virus budding at the site of contact that facilitates cell-cell spread. In addition to this, spatial clustering of organelles, including mitochondria, to the contact zone has been previously shown. However, whether cell-cell contact specifically induces dynamic T cell remodeling during VS formation and what regulates this process remain unclear. Here, we report that contact between an HIV-1-infected T cell and an uninfected target T cell specifically triggers polarization of mitochondria concomitant with recruitment of the major HIV-1 structural protein Gag to the site of cell-cell contact. Using fixed and live-cell imaging, we show that mitochondrial and Gag polarization in HIV-1-infected T cells occurs within minutes of contact with target T cells, requires the formation of stable cell-cell contacts, and is an active, calcium-dependent process. We also find that perturbation of mitochondrial polarization impairs cell-cell spread of HIV-1 at the VS. Taken together, these data suggest that HIV-1-infected T cells are able to sense and respond to contact with susceptible target cells and undergo dynamic cytoplasmic remodeling to create a synaptic environment that supports efficient HIV-1 VS formation between CD4 T lymphocytes. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 remains one of the major global health challenges of modern times. The capacity of HIV-1 to cause disease depends on the virus's ability to spread between immune cells, most notably CD4 T lymphocytes. Cell-cell transmission is the most efficient way of HIV-1 spread and occurs at the virological synapse (VS). The VS forms at the site of contact between an infected cell and an uninfected cell and is characterized by polarized assembly and budding of virions and clustering of cellular organelles, including mitochondria. Here, we

  17. Potential of Radiation-Induced Cellular Stress for Reactivation of Latent HIV-1 and Killing of Infected Cells.

    PubMed

    Iordanskiy, Sergey; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2016-02-01

    The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy against HIV-1 for last two decades has reduced mortality of patients through extension of nonsymptomatic phase of infection. However, HIV-1 can be preserved in long-lived resting CD4(+) T cells, which form a viral reservoir in infected individuals, and potentially in macrophages and astrocytes. Reactivation of viral replication is critical since the host immune response in combination with antiretroviral therapy may eradicate the virus (shock and kill strategy). In this opinion piece, we consider potential application of therapeutic doses of irradiation, the well-known and effective stress signal that induces DNA damage and activates cellular stress response, to resolve two problems: activate HIV-1 replication and virion production in persistent reservoirs under cART and deplete infected cells through selective cell killing using DNA damage responses. PMID:26765533

  18. Modeling of Virion Collisions in Cervicovaginal Mucus Reveals Limits on Agglutination as the Protective Mechanism of Secretory Immunoglobulin A

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Alex; McKinley, Scott A.; Shi, Feng; Wang, Simi; Mucha, Peter J.; Harit, Dimple; Forest, M. Gregory; Lai, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), a dimeric antibody found in high quantities in the gastrointestinal mucosa, is broadly associated with mucosal immune protection. A distinguishing feature of sIgA is its ability to crosslink pathogens, thereby creating pathogen/sIgA aggregates that are too large to traverse the dense matrix of mucin fibers in mucus layers overlying epithelial cells and consequently reducing infectivity. Here, we use modeling to investigate this mechanism of “immune exclusion” based on sIgA-mediated agglutination, in particular the potential use of sIgA to agglutinate HIV in cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) and prevent HIV transmission. Utilizing reported data on HIV diffusion in CVM and semen, we simulate HIV collision kinetics in physiologically-thick mucus layers–a necessary first step for sIgA-induced aggregation. We find that even at the median HIV load in semen of acutely infected individuals possessing high viral titers, over 99% of HIV virions will penetrate CVM and reach the vaginal epithelium without colliding with another virion. These findings imply that agglutination is unlikely to be the dominant mechanism of sIgA-mediated protection against HIV or other sexually transmitted pathogens. Rather, we surmise that agglutination is most effective against pathogens either present at exceedingly high concentrations or that possess motility mechanisms other than Brownian diffusion that significantly enhance encounter rates. PMID:26132216

  19. HIV transcription is induced with cell killing

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Chang-Liu, Chin Mei; Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    Previous work has shown that HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct are induced to express chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) following exposure to DNA-damaging agents such as ultraviolet radiation, {gamma} rays, neutrons, and others. In this report, the authors demonstrate that this induction of HIV-LTR transcription occurs when stably transfected HeLa cells are exposed to agents which mediate cell killing, such as UV radiation, electroporation of sucrose buffer, prolonged heating, and low and high pH. Cells cultured following UV exposure demonstrated a peak in CAT expression that is evidence in viable (but not necessarily cell division-competent) cells 24 h after exposure; this inductive response continued until at least 72 h after exposure. HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent, and the amount of CAT transcription induced was correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture. Other agents which caused no cell killing (such as heat-shock for up to 2 h, treatment with metronidazole, exposure to sunlight, vitamin C treatment, and others) had no effect on HIV-LTR induction. These results suggest that HIV transcription is induced as a consequence of the turn on of a cellular death or apoptotic pathway.

  20. HIV transcription is induced in dying cells

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei; Schreck, S. |

    1995-06-01

    Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct, we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. {gamma} rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that {gamma}-ray-induced apoptotic death requires functional p53, which is not present in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. A rev1-vpu polymorphism unique to HIV-1 subtype A and C strains impairs envelope glycoprotein expression from rev-vpu-env cassettes and reduces virion infectivity in pseudotyping assays

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, Matthias H.; Parrish, Nicholas F.; Shaw, Katharina S.; Decker, Julie M.; Keele, Brandon F.; Salazar-Gonzalez, Jesus F.; Grayson, Truman; McPherson, David T.; Ping, Li-Hua; Anderson, Jeffrey A.; Swanstrom, Ronald; Williamson, Carolyn; Shaw, George M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.

    2010-02-20

    Functional studies of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs) commonly include the generation of pseudoviruses, which are produced by co-transfection of rev-vpu-env cassettes with an env-deficient provirus. Here, we describe six Env constructs from transmitted/founder HIV-1 that were defective in the pseudotyping assay, although two produced infectious virions when expressed from their cognate proviruses. All of these constructs exhibited an unusual gene arrangement in which the first exon of rev (rev1) and vpu were in the same reading frame without an intervening stop codon. Disruption of the rev1-vpu fusion gene by frameshift mutation, stop codon, or abrogation of the rev initiation codon restored pseudovirion infectivity. Introduction of the fusion gene into wildtype Env cassettes severely compromised their function. The defect was not due to altered env and rev transcription or a dominant negative effect of the expressed fusion protein, but seemed to be caused by inefficient translation at the env initiation codon. Although the rev1-vpu polymorphism affects Env expression only in vitro, it can cause problems in studies requiring Env complementation, such as analyses of co-receptor usage and neutralization properties, since 3% of subtype A, 20% of subtype C and 5% of CRF01{sub A}/E viruses encode the fusion gene. A solution is to eliminate the rev initiation codon when amplifying rev-vpu-env cassettes since this increases Env expression irrespective of the presence of the polymorphism.

  2. M48U1 CD4 mimetic has a sustained inhibitory effect on cell-associated HIV-1 by attenuating virion infectivity through gp120 shedding

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-1 infected cells can establish new infections by crossing the vaginal epithelia and subsequently producing virus in a milieu that avoids the high microbicide concentrations of the vaginal lumen. Findings To address this problem, here, we report that pretreatment of HIV-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with a 27 amino acid CD4-mimetic, M48U1, causes dramatic and prolonged reduction of infectious virus output, due to its induction of gp120 shedding. Conclusions M48U1 may, therefore, be valuable for prophylaxis of mucosal HIV-1 transmission. PMID:23375046

  3. HIV transcription is induced with cell killing

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei; Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R.

    1993-11-01

    In this report, we demonstrate that this induction of HIV-LTR transcription occurs when stably transfected HeLa cells are exposed to agents which mediate cell killing, such as UV radiation, electroporation of sucrose buffer, prolonged heating, and low and high pH. Cells cultured following UV exposure demonstrated a peak in CAT expression that is evident in viable (but not necessarily cell division-competent) cells 24 h after exposure; this inductive response continued until at least 72 h after exposure. HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent, and the amount of CAT transcription induced was correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture.

  4. Nanoparticle-based flow virometry for the analysis of individual virions.

    PubMed

    Arakelyan, Anush; Fitzgerald, Wendy; Margolis, Leonid; Grivel, Jean-Charles

    2013-09-01

    While flow cytometry has been used to analyze the antigenic composition of individual cells, the antigenic makeup of viral particles is still characterized predominantly in bulk. Here, we describe a technology, "flow virometry," that can be used for antigen detection on individual virions. The technology is based on binding magnetic nanoparticles to virions, staining the virions with monoclonal antibodies, separating the formed complexes with magnetic columns, and characterizing them with flow cytometers. We used this technology to study the distribution of two antigens (HLA-DR and LFA-1) that HIV-1 acquires from infected cells among individual HIV-1 virions. Flow virometry revealed that the antigenic makeup of virions from a single preparation is heterogeneous. This heterogeneity could not be detected with bulk analysis of viruses. Moreover, in two preparations of the same HIV-1 produced by different cells, the distribution of antigens among virions was different. In contrast, HIV-1 of two different HIV-1 genotypes replicating in the same cells became somewhat antigenically similar. This nanotechnology allows the study of virions in bodily fluids without virus propagation and in principle is not restricted to the analysis of HIV, but can be applied to the analysis of the individual surface antigenic makeup of any virus. PMID:23925291

  5. HIV-1 Vpr- and Reverse Transcription-Induced Apoptosis in Resting Peripheral Blood CD4 T Cells and Protection by Common Gamma-Chain Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Trinité, Benjamin; Chan, Chi N.; Lee, Caroline S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1 infection leads to the progressive depletion of the CD4 T cell compartment by various known and unknown mechanisms. In vivo, HIV-1 infects both activated and resting CD4 T cells, but in vitro, in the absence of any stimuli, resting CD4 T cells from peripheral blood are resistant to infection. This resistance is generally attributed to an intracellular environment that does not efficiently support processes such as reverse transcription (RT), resulting in abortive infection. Here, we show that in vitro HIV-1 infection of resting CD4 T cells induces substantial cell death, leading to abortive infection. In vivo, however, various microenvironmental stimuli in lymphoid and mucosal tissues provide support for HIV-1 replication. For example, common gamma-chain cytokines (CGCC), such as interleukin-7 (IL-7), render resting CD4 T cells permissible to HIV-1 infection without inducing T cell activation. Here, we find that CGCC primarily allow productive infection by preventing HIV-1 triggering of apoptosis, as evidenced by early release of cytochrome c and caspase 3/7 activation. Cell death is triggered both by products of reverse transcription and by virion-borne Vpr protein, and CGCC block both mechanisms. When HIV-1 RT efficiency was enhanced by SIVmac239 Vpx protein, cell death was still observed, indicating that the speed of reverse transcription and the efficiency of its completion contributed little to HIV-1-induced cell death in this system. These results show that a major restriction on HIV-1 infection in resting CD4 T cells resides in the capacity of these cells to survive the early steps of HIV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE A major consequence of HIV-1 infection is the destruction of CD4 T cells. Here, we show that delivery of virion-associated Vpr protein and the process of reverse transcription are each sufficient to trigger apoptosis of resting CD4 T cells isolated from peripheral blood. While these 2 mechanisms have been previously described in

  6. Extracellular ATP induces the rapid release of HIV-1 from virus containing compartments of human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Francesca; Desdouits, Marion; Garzetti, Livia; Podini, Paola; Alfano, Massimo; Rubartelli, Anna; Furlan, Roberto; Benaroch, Philippe; Poli, Guido

    2015-06-23

    HIV type 1 (HIV-1) infects CD4(+) T lymphocytes and tissue macrophages. Infected macrophages differ from T cells in terms of decreased to absent cytopathicity and for active accumulation of new progeny HIV-1 virions in virus-containing compartments (VCC). For these reasons, infected macrophages are believed to act as "Trojan horses" carrying infectious particles to be released on cell necrosis or functional stimulation. Here we explored the hypothesis that extracellular ATP (eATP) could represent a microenvironmental signal potentially affecting virion release from VCC of infected macrophages. Indeed, eATP triggered the rapid release of infectious HIV-1 from primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) acutely infected with the CCR5-dependent HIV-1 strain. A similar phenomenon was observed in chronically infected promonocytic U1 cells differentiated to macrophage-like cells (D-U1) by costimulation with phorbol esters and urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Worthy of note, eATP did not cause necrotic, apoptotic, or pyroptotic cell death, and its effect on HIV-1 release was suppressed by Imipramine (an antidepressant agent known to inhibit microvesicle formation by interfering with membrane-associated acid sphingomyelinase). Virion release was not triggered by oxidized ATP, whereas the effect of eATP was inhibited by a specific inhibitor of the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). Thus, eATP triggered the discharge of virions actively accumulating in VCC of infected macrophages via interaction with the P2X7R in the absence of significant cytopathicity. These findings suggest that the microvesicle pathway and P2X7R could represent exploitable targets for interfering with the VCC-associated reservoir of infectious HIV-1 virions in tissue macrophages. PMID:26056317

  7. Herpes simplex virus virion stimulatory protein mRNA leader contains sequence elements which increase both virus-induced transcription and mRNA stability.

    PubMed

    Blair, E D; Blair, C C; Wagner, E K

    1987-08-01

    To investigate the role of 5' noncoding leader sequence of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) mRNA in infected cells, the promoter for the 65,000-dalton virion stimulatory protein (VSP), a beta-gamma polypeptide, was introduced into plasmids bearing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene together with various lengths of adjacent viral leader sequences. Plasmids containing longer lengths of leader sequence gave rise to significantly higher levels of CAT enzyme in transfected cells superinfected with HSV-1. RNase T2 protection assays of CAT mRNA showed that transcription was initiated from an authentic viral cap site in all VSP-CAT constructs and that CAT mRNA levels corresponded to CAT enzyme levels. Use of cis-linked simian virus 40 enhancer sequences demonstrated that the effect was virus specific. Constructs containing 12 and 48 base pairs of the VSP mRNA leader gave HSV infection-induced CAT activities intermediate between those of the leaderless construct and the VSP-(+77)-CAT construct. Actinomycin D chase experiments demonstrated that the longest leader sequences increased hybrid CAT mRNA stability at least twofold in infected cells. Cotransfection experiments with a cosmid bearing four virus-specified transcription factors (ICP4, ICP0, ICP27, and VSP-65K) showed that sequences from -3 to +77, with respect to the viral mRNA cap site, also contained signals responsive to transcriptional activation. PMID:3037112

  8. A monoclonal antibody to CD4 domain 2 blocks soluble CD4-induced conformational changes in the envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-1 infection of CD4+ cells.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, J P; Sattentau, Q J; Klasse, P J; Burkly, L C

    1992-01-01

    The murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) 5A8, which is reactive with domain 2 of CD4, blocks human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and syncytium formation of CD4+ cells (L. C. Burkly, D. Olson, R. Shapiro, G. Winkler, J. J. Rosa, D. W. Thomas, C. Williams, and P. Chisholm, J. Immunol., in press). Here we show that, in contrast to the CD4 domain 1 MAb 6H10, 5A8 and its Fab fragment do not block soluble CD4 (sCD4) binding to virions, whereas they do inhibit sCD4-induced exposure of cryptic epitopes on gp41 and dissociation of gp120 from virions. Two other MAbs, OKT4 and L120, which are reactive with domains 3 and 4 of CD4, have little or no effect on HIV-1 infection, syncytium formation, or sCD4-induced conformational changes in the envelope glycoproteins. The mechanisms of action of 5A8 and 6H10 can be further distinguished in syncytium inhibition assays: 6H10 blocks competitively, while 5A8 does not. We opine that 5A8 blocks HIV-1 infection and fusion by interfering with conformational changes in gp120/gp41 and/or CD4 that are necessary for virus-cell fusion. Images PMID:1378510

  9. Signal transduction induced by apoptotic cells inhibits HIV transcription in monocytes/macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gekonge, Bethsebah N; Schiralli, Gillian; Schlegel, Robert A; Henderson, Andrew J

    2006-10-01

    The primary targets of HIV are CD4(+) T cells and macrophages. HIV infection is associated with an increase in apoptosis of infected and uninfected CD4(+) T cells, and these infected cells undergo apoptosis and produce HIV virions with phosphatidylserine (PS) on their surface. During phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, macrophages, using an array of receptors, are able to perceive various surface changes on apoptotic cells. The engagement of phagocytic receptors by ligands on the apoptotic cell surface results in the activation of signaling cascades, which facilitate engulfment. In this study, we examined how PS associated with virions and apoptotic cells influences HIV replication. We demonstrate that virus-associated PS is required for HIV infection of macrophages at a step prior to integration but following strong-stop, indicating that PS-initiated signals alter the establishment of HIV provirus. Conversely, apoptotic cells inhibited HIV transcription in infected macrophages, although this ability to suppress transcription was independent of PS. Furthermore, we show that ELMO, a key signaling molecule that participates in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, inhibited HIV transcription; however, knocking down endogenous ELMO expression in infected U937 cells rescued HIV transcription when these cells were coincubated with apoptotic targets. Taken together, these data show that apoptotic cells and the signals, which they initiate upon recognition by macrophages, influence the successful establishment of HIV infection and provirus transcription. PMID:16885500

  10. Neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 induced by immunization

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    Most neutralizing antibodies act at the earliest steps of viral infection and block interaction of the virus with cellular receptors to prevent entry into host cells. The inability to induce neutralizing antibodies to HIV has been a major obstacle to HIV vaccine research since the early days of the epidemic. However, in the past three years, the definition of a neutralizing antibody against HIV has been revolutionized by the isolation of extremely broad and potent neutralizing antibodies from HIV-infected individuals. Considerable hurdles remain for inducing neutralizing antibodies to a protective level after immunization. Meanwhile, novel technologies to bypass the induction of antibodies are being explored to provide prophylactic antibody-based interventions. This review addresses the challenge of inducing HIV neutralizing antibodies upon immunization and considers notable recent advances in the field. A greater understanding of the successes and failures for inducing a neutralizing response upon immunization is required to accelerate the development of an effective HIV vaccine. PMID:23401570

  11. Protective Immunity to Vaccinia Virus Induced by Vaccination with Multiple Recombinant Outer Membrane Proteins of Intracellular and Extracellular Virions

    PubMed Central

    Fogg, Christiana; Lustig, Shlomo; Whitbeck, J. Charles; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Cohen, Gary H.; Moss, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    Infectious intracellular and extracellular forms of vaccinia virus have different outer membrane proteins, presenting multiple targets to the immune system. We investigated the immunogenicity of soluble forms of L1, an outer membrane protein of the intracellular mature virus, and of A33 and B5, outer membrane proteins of the extracellular enveloped virus. The recombinant proteins, in 10-μg amounts mixed with a Ribi- or saponin-type adjuvant, were administered subcutaneously to mice. Antibody titers to each protein rose sharply after the first and second boosts, reaching levels that surpassed those induced by percutaneous immunization with live vaccinia virus. Immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibody predominated after the protein immunizations, indicative of a T-helper cell type 2 response, whereas live vaccinia virus induced mainly IgG2a, indicative of a T-helper cell type 1 response. Mice immunized with any one of the recombinant proteins survived an intranasal challenge with 5 times the 50% lethal dose of the pathogenic WR strain of vaccinia virus. Measurements of weight loss indicated that the A33 immunization most effectively prevented disease. The superiority of protein combinations was demonstrated when the challenge virus dose was increased 20-fold. The best protection was obtained with a vaccine made by combining recombinant proteins of the outer membranes of intracellular and extracellular virus. Indeed, mice immunized with A33 plus B5 plus L1 or with A33 plus L1 were better protected than mice immunized with live vaccinia virus. Three immunizations with the three-protein combination were necessary and sufficient for complete protection. These studies suggest the feasibility of a multiprotein smallpox vaccine. PMID:15367588

  12. HIV-Induced Epigenetic Alterations in Host Cells.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hameed, Enass A; Ji, Hong; Shata, Mohamed Tarek

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a member of the Retroviridae family, is a positive-sense, enveloped RNA virus. HIV, the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has two major types, HIV-1 and HIV-2 In HIV-infected cells the single stranded viral RNA genome is reverse transcribed and the double-stranded viral DNA integrates into the cellular DNA, forming a provirus. The proviral HIV genome is controlled by the host epigenetic regulatory machinery. Cellular epigenetic regulators control HIV latency and reactivation by affecting the chromatin state in the vicinity of the viral promoter located to the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR) sequence. In turn, distinct HIV proteins affect the epigenotype and gene expression pattern of the host cells. HIV-1 infection of CD4(+) T cells in vitro upregulated DNMT activity and induced hypermethylation of distinct cellular promoters. In contrast, in the colon mucosa and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected patients demethylation of the FOXP3 promoter was observed, possibly due to the downregulation of DNA methyltransferase 1. For a curative therapy of HIV infected individuals and AIDS patients, a combination of antiretroviral drugs with epigenetic modifying compounds have been suggested for the reactivation of latent HIV-1 genomes. These epigenetic drugs include histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI), histone methyltransferase inhibitors (HMTI), histone demethylase inhibitors, and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTI). PMID:26659262

  13. Minimal Contribution of APOBEC3-Induced G-to-A Hypermutation to HIV-1 Recombination and Genetic Variation

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaitchik, Olga A.; Burdick, Ryan C.; Gorelick, Robert J.; Keele, Brandon F.; Hu, Wei-Shau; Pathak, Vinay K.

    2016-01-01

    Although the predominant effect of host restriction APOBEC3 proteins on HIV-1 infection is to block viral replication, they might inadvertently increase retroviral genetic variation by inducing G-to-A hypermutation. Numerous studies have disagreed on the contribution of hypermutation to viral genetic diversity and evolution. Confounding factors contributing to the debate include the extent of lethal (stop codon) and sublethal hypermutation induced by different APOBEC3 proteins, the inability to distinguish between G-to-A mutations induced by APOBEC3 proteins and error-prone viral replication, the potential impact of hypermutation on the frequency of retroviral recombination, and the extent to which viral recombination occurs in vivo, which can reassort mutations in hypermutated genomes. Here, we determined the effects of hypermutation on the HIV-1 recombination rate and its contribution to genetic variation through recombination to generate progeny genomes containing portions of hypermutated genomes without lethal mutations. We found that hypermutation did not significantly affect the rate of recombination, and recombination between hypermutated and wild-type genomes only increased the viral mutation rate by 3.9 × 10−5 mutations/bp/replication cycle in heterozygous virions, which is similar to the HIV-1 mutation rate. Since copackaging of hypermutated and wild-type genomes occurs very rarely in vivo, recombination between hypermutated and wild-type genomes does not significantly contribute to the genetic variation of replicating HIV-1. We also analyzed previously reported hypermutated sequences from infected patients and determined that the frequency of sublethal mutagenesis for A3G and A3F is negligible (4 × 10−21 and1 × 10−11, respectively) and its contribution to viral mutations is far below mutations generated during error-prone reverse transcription. Taken together, we conclude that the contribution of APOBEC3-induced hypermutation to HIV-1 genetic

  14. Minimal Contribution of APOBEC3-Induced G-to-A Hypermutation to HIV-1 Recombination and Genetic Variation.

    PubMed

    Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista A; Nikolaitchik, Olga A; Burdick, Ryan C; Gorelick, Robert J; Keele, Brandon F; Hu, Wei-Shau; Pathak, Vinay K

    2016-05-01

    Although the predominant effect of host restriction APOBEC3 proteins on HIV-1 infection is to block viral replication, they might inadvertently increase retroviral genetic variation by inducing G-to-A hypermutation. Numerous studies have disagreed on the contribution of hypermutation to viral genetic diversity and evolution. Confounding factors contributing to the debate include the extent of lethal (stop codon) and sublethal hypermutation induced by different APOBEC3 proteins, the inability to distinguish between G-to-A mutations induced by APOBEC3 proteins and error-prone viral replication, the potential impact of hypermutation on the frequency of retroviral recombination, and the extent to which viral recombination occurs in vivo, which can reassort mutations in hypermutated genomes. Here, we determined the effects of hypermutation on the HIV-1 recombination rate and its contribution to genetic variation through recombination to generate progeny genomes containing portions of hypermutated genomes without lethal mutations. We found that hypermutation did not significantly affect the rate of recombination, and recombination between hypermutated and wild-type genomes only increased the viral mutation rate by 3.9 × 10-5 mutations/bp/replication cycle in heterozygous virions, which is similar to the HIV-1 mutation rate. Since copackaging of hypermutated and wild-type genomes occurs very rarely in vivo, recombination between hypermutated and wild-type genomes does not significantly contribute to the genetic variation of replicating HIV-1. We also analyzed previously reported hypermutated sequences from infected patients and determined that the frequency of sublethal mutagenesis for A3G and A3F is negligible (4 × 10-21 and1 × 10-11, respectively) and its contribution to viral mutations is far below mutations generated during error-prone reverse transcription. Taken together, we conclude that the contribution of APOBEC3-induced hypermutation to HIV-1 genetic

  15. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Romidepsin Induces HIV Expression in CD4 T Cells from Patients on Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy at Concentrations Achieved by Clinical Dosing

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Datsen George; Chiang, Vicki; Fyne, Elizabeth; Balakrishnan, Mini; Barnes, Tiffany; Graupe, Michael; Hesselgesser, Joseph; Irrinki, Alivelu; Murry, Jeffrey P.; Stepan, George; Stray, Kirsten M.; Tsai, Angela; Yu, Helen; Spindler, Jonathan; Kearney, Mary; Spina, Celsa A.; McMahon, Deborah; Lalezari, Jacob; Sloan, Derek; Mellors, John; Geleziunas, Romas; Cihlar, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Persistent latent reservoir of replication-competent proviruses in memory CD4 T cells is a major obstacle to curing HIV infection. Pharmacological activation of HIV expression in latently infected cells is being explored as one of the strategies to deplete the latent HIV reservoir. In this study, we characterized the ability of romidepsin (RMD), a histone deacetylase inhibitor approved for the treatment of T-cell lymphomas, to activate the expression of latent HIV. In an in vitro T-cell model of HIV latency, RMD was the most potent inducer of HIV (EC50 = 4.5 nM) compared with vorinostat (VOR; EC50 = 3,950 nM) and other histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors in clinical development including panobinostat (PNB; EC50 = 10 nM). The HIV induction potencies of RMD, VOR, and PNB paralleled their inhibitory activities against multiple human HDAC isoenzymes. In both resting and memory CD4 T cells isolated from HIV-infected patients on suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), a 4-hour exposure to 40 nM RMD induced a mean 6-fold increase in intracellular HIV RNA levels, whereas a 24-hour treatment with 1 µM VOR resulted in 2- to 3-fold increases. RMD-induced intracellular HIV RNA expression persisted for 48 hours and correlated with sustained inhibition of cell-associated HDAC activity. By comparison, the induction of HIV RNA by VOR and PNB was transient and diminished after 24 hours. RMD also increased levels of extracellular HIV RNA and virions from both memory and resting CD4 T-cell cultures. The activation of HIV expression was observed at RMD concentrations below the drug plasma levels achieved by doses used in patients treated for T-cell lymphomas. In conclusion, RMD induces HIV expression ex vivo at concentrations that can be achieved clinically, indicating that the drug may reactivate latent HIV in patients on suppressive cART. PMID:24722454

  16. Incorporation of chimeric HIV-SIV-Env and modified HIV-Env proteins into HIV pseudovirions

    SciTech Connect

    Devitt, Gerard; Emerson, Vanessa; Holtkotte, Denise; Pfeiffer, Tanya; Pisch, Thorsten; Bosch, Valerie . E-mail: v.bosch@dkfz.de

    2007-05-10

    Low level incorporation of the viral glycoprotein (Env) into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) particles is a major drawback for vaccine strategies against HIV/AIDS in which HIV particles are used as immunogen. Within this study, we have examined two strategies aimed at achieving higher levels of Env incorporation into non-infectious pseudovirions (PVs). First, we have generated chimeric HIV/SIV Env proteins containing the truncated C-terminal tail region of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac239-Env767{sup stop}, which mediates strongly increased incorporation of SIV-Env into SIV particles. In a second strategy, we have employed a truncated HIV-Env protein (Env-Tr752{sup N750K}) which we have previously demonstrated to be incorporated into HIV virions, generated in infected T-cells, to a higher level than that of Wt-HIV-Env. Although the chimeric HIV/SIV Env proteins were expressed at the cell surface and induced increased levels of cell-cell fusion in comparison to Wt-HIV-Env, they did not exhibit increased incorporation into either HIV-PVs or SIV-PVs. Only Env-Tr752{sup N750K} exhibited significantly higher (threefold) levels of incorporation into HIV-PVs, an improvement, which, although not dramatic, is worthwhile for the large-scale preparation of non-infectious PVs for vaccine studies aimed at inducing Env humoral responses.

  17. Nef Enhances Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infectivity Resulting from Intervirion Fusion: Evidence Supporting a Role for Nef at the Virion Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jing; Aiken, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory protein Nef stimulates viral infectivity by facilitating an early event in the HIV-1 life cycle. Although no structural or biochemical defects in Nef-defective HIV-1 particles have been demonstrated, the Nef protein is incorporated into HIV-1 particles. To localize the function of Nef within the virus particle, we developed a novel technology involving fusion of enveloped donor HIV-1 particles bearing core defects with envelope-defective target virions bearing HIV-1 receptors. Although neither virus alone was capable of infecting CD4+ target cells, the incubation of donor and target virions prior to addition to target cells resulted in infection. This effect, termed “virion transcomplementation,” required a functional Env protein on the donor virus and CD4 and an appropriate coreceptor on target virions. To provide evidence for intervirion fusion as the mechanism of complementation, experiments were performed using dual-enveloped HIV-1 particles bearing both HIV-1 and ecotropic murine leukemia virus (E-MLV) Env proteins as donor virions. Infection of CD4-negative target cells bearing E-MLV receptors was prevented by HIV-1 entry inhibitors when added before, but not after, incubation of donor and target virions prior to the addition to cells. When we used Nef+ and Nef− donor and target virions, Nef enhanced infection when present in donor virions. In contrast, no effect of Nef was detected when present in the target virus. These results reveal a potential mechanism for enhancing HIV-1 diversity in vivo through the rescue of defective viral genomes and provide a novel genetic system for the functional analysis of virion-associated proteins in HIV-1 infection. PMID:11390586

  18. HIV transcription is induced with some forms of cell killing

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Panozzo, J.; Chang-Liu, C.-M.; Libertin, C.R.

    1996-11-01

    Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct`, we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. {Gamma} rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that {gamma}-ray-induced apoptotic death requires function p53, which is missing in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture.

  19. HIV-1 VACCINES. HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies induced by native-like envelope trimers.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Rogier W; van Gils, Marit J; Derking, Ronald; Sok, Devin; Ketas, Thomas J; Burger, Judith A; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Cupo, Albert; Simonich, Cassandra; Goo, Leslie; Arendt, Heather; Kim, Helen J; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Pugach, Pavel; Williams, Melissa; Debnath, Gargi; Moldt, Brian; van Breemen, Mariëlle J; Isik, Gözde; Medina-Ramírez, Max; Back, Jaap Willem; Koff, Wayne C; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Rakasz, Eva G; Seaman, Michael S; Guttman, Miklos; Lee, Kelly K; Klasse, Per Johan; LaBranche, Celia; Schief, William R; Wilson, Ian A; Overbaugh, Julie; Burton, Dennis R; Ward, Andrew B; Montefiori, David C; Dean, Hansi; Moore, John P

    2015-07-10

    A challenge for HIV-1 immunogen design is the difficulty of inducing neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against neutralization-resistant (tier 2) viruses that dominate human transmissions. We show that a soluble recombinant HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer that adopts a native conformation, BG505 SOSIP.664, induced NAbs potently against the sequence-matched tier 2 virus in rabbits and similar but weaker responses in macaques. The trimer also consistently induced cross-reactive NAbs against more sensitive (tier 1) viruses. Tier 2 NAbs recognized conformational epitopes that differed between animals and in some cases overlapped with those recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), whereas tier 1 responses targeted linear V3 epitopes. A second trimer, B41 SOSIP.664, also induced a strong autologous tier 2 NAb response in rabbits. Thus, native-like trimers represent a promising starting point for the development of HIV-1 vaccines aimed at inducing bNAbs. PMID:26089353

  20. BST2/CD317 counteracts human coronavirus 229E productive infection by tethering virions at the cell surface

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shiu-Mei; Huang, Kuo-Jung; Wang, Chin-Tien

    2014-01-20

    Bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST2), an interferon-inducible antiviral factor, has been shown to block the release of various enveloped viruses from cells. It has also been identified as an innate immune system component. Most enveloped viruses subject to BST2 restriction bud at the plasma membrane. Here we report our findings that (a) the production of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) progeny viruses, whose budding occurs at the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC), markedly decreases in the presence of BST2; and (b) BST2 knockdown expression results in enhanced HCoV-229E virion production. Electron microscopy analyses indicate that HCoV-229E virions are tethered to cell surfaces or intracellular membranes by BST2. Our results suggest that BST2 exerts a broad blocking effect against enveloped virus release, regardless of whether budding occurs at the plasma membrane or intracellular compartments. - Highlights: • BST2 knockdown expression results in enhanced HCoV-229E egress. • HCoV-229E virions are tethered to cell surfaces or intracellular membranes by BST2. • HCoV-229E infection at high MOI can significantly downregulate HeLa BST2 and rescue HIV-1 egress.

  1. Nef Stimulates Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication in Primary T Cells by Enhancing Virion-Associated gp120 Levels: Coreceptor-Dependent Requirement for Nef in Viral Replication†

    PubMed Central

    Lundquist, Christopher A.; Zhou, Jing; Aiken, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    The Nef protein enhances human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication through an unknown mechanism. We and others have previously reported that efficient HIV-1 replication in activated primary CD4+ T cells depends on the ability of Nef to downregulate CD4 from the cell surface. Here we demonstrate that Nef greatly enhances the infectivity of HIV-1 particles produced in primary T cells. Nef-defective HIV-1 particles contained significantly reduced quantities of gp120 on their surface; however, Nef did not affect the levels of virion-associated gp41, indicating that Nef indirectly stabilizes the association of gp120 with gp41. Surprisingly, Nef was not required for efficient replication of viruses that use CCR5 for entry, nor did Nef influence the infectivity or gp120 content of these virions. Nef also inhibited the incorporation of CD4 into HIV-1 particles released from primary T cells. We propose that Nef, by downregulating cell surface CD4, enhances HIV-1 replication by inhibiting CD4-induced dissociation of gp120 from gp41. The preferential requirement for Nef in the replication of X4-tropic HIV-1 suggests that the ability of Nef to downregulate CD4 may be most important at later stages of disease when X4-tropic viruses emerge. PMID:15163722

  2. HIV Neutralizing Antibodies Induced by Native-like Envelope Trimers

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Rogier W.; van Gils, Marit J.; Derking, Ronald; Sok, Devin; Ketas, Thomas J.; Burger, Judith A.; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Cupo, Albert; Simonich, Cassandra; Goo, Leslie; Arendt, Heather; Kim, Helen J.; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Pugach, Pavel; Williams, Melissa; Debnath, Gargi; Moldt, Brian; van Breemen, Mariëlle J.; Isik, Gözde; Medina-Ramírez, Max; Back, Jaap Willem; Koff, Wayne; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Rakasz, Eva G.; Seaman, Michael S.; Guttman, Miklos; Lee, Kelly K.; Klasse, Per Johan; LaBranche, Celia; Schief, William R.; Wilson, Ian A.; Overbaugh, Julie; Burton, Dennis R.; Ward, Andrew B.; Montefiori, David C.; Dean, Hansi; Moore, John P.

    2015-01-01

    A challenge for HIV-1 immunogen design is inducing neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against neutralization-resistant (Tier-2) viruses that dominate human transmissions. We show that a soluble recombinant HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer that adopts a native conformation (BG505 SOSIP.664) induced NAbs potently against the sequence-matched Tier-2 virus in rabbits and similar but weaker responses in macaques. The trimer also consistently induced cross-reactive NAbs against more sensitive (Tier-1) viruses. Tier-2 NAbs recognized conformational epitopes that differed between animals and in some cases overlapped with those recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), whereas Tier-1 responses targeted linear V3 epitopes. A second trimer, B41 SOSIP.664, also induced a strong autologous Tier-2 NAb response in rabbits. Thus, native-like trimers represent a promising starting point for developing HIV-1 vaccines aimed at inducing bNAbs. PMID:26089353

  3. Noninfectious X4 but not R5 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virions inhibit humoral immune responses in human lymphoid tissue ex vivo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, Wendy; Sylwester, Andrew W.; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Margolis, Leonid B.

    2004-01-01

    Ex vivo human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of human lymphoid tissue recapitulates some aspects of in vivo HIV-1 infection, including a severe depletion of CD4(+) T cells and suppression of humoral immune responses to recall antigens or to polyclonal stimuli. These effects are induced by infection with X4 HIV-1 variants, whereas infection with R5 variants results in only mild depletion of CD4(+) T cells and no suppression of immune responses. To study the mechanisms of suppression of immune responses in this ex vivo system, we used aldrithiol-2 (AT-2)-inactivated virions that have functional envelope glycoproteins but are not infectious and do not deplete CD4(+) T cells in human lymphoid tissues ex vivo. Nevertheless, AT-2-inactivated X4 (but not R5) HIV-1 virions, even with only a brief exposure, inhibit antibody responses in human lymphoid tissue ex vivo, similarly to infectious virus. This phenomenon is mediated by soluble immunosuppressive factor(s) secreted by tissue exposed to virus.

  4. TIM-family proteins inhibit HIV-1 release

    PubMed Central

    Li, Minghua; Ablan, Sherimay D.; Miao, Chunhui; Zheng, Yi-Min; Fuller, Matthew S.; Rennert, Paul D.; Maury, Wendy; Johnson, Marc C.; Freed, Eric O.; Liu, Shan-Lu

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that T-cell immunoglobulin (Ig) and mucin domain (TIM) proteins play critical roles in viral infections. Herein, we report that the TIM-family proteins strongly inhibit HIV-1 release, resulting in diminished viral production and replication. Expression of TIM-1 causes HIV-1 Gag and mature viral particles to accumulate on the plasma membrane. Mutation of the phosphatidylserine (PS) binding sites of TIM-1 abolishes its ability to block HIV-1 release. TIM-1, but to a much lesser extent PS-binding deficient mutants, induces PS flipping onto the cell surface; TIM-1 is also found to be incorporated into HIV-1 virions. Importantly, TIM-1 inhibits HIV-1 replication in CD4-positive Jurkat cells, despite its capability of up-regulating CD4 and promoting HIV-1 entry. In addition to TIM-1, TIM-3 and TIM-4 also block the release of HIV-1, as well as that of murine leukemia virus (MLV) and Ebola virus (EBOV); knockdown of TIM-3 in differentiated monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) enhances HIV-1 production. The inhibitory effects of TIM-family proteins on virus release are extended to other PS receptors, such as Axl and RAGE. Overall, our study uncovers a novel ability of TIM-family proteins to block the release of HIV-1 and other viruses by interaction with virion- and cell-associated PS. Our work provides new insights into a virus-cell interaction that is mediated by TIMs and PS receptors. PMID:25136083

  5. Rigid proteins and softening of biological membranes—with application to HIV-induced cell membrane softening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Himani; Zelisko, Matthew; Liu, Liping; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-05-01

    A key step in the HIV-infection process is the fusion of the virion membrane with the target cell membrane and the concomitant transfer of the viral RNA. Experimental evidence suggests that the fusion is preceded by considerable elastic softening of the cell membranes due to the insertion of fusion peptide in the membrane. What are the mechanisms underpinning the elastic softening of the membrane upon peptide insertion? A broader question may be posed: insertion of rigid proteins in soft membranes ought to stiffen the membranes not soften them. However, experimental observations perplexingly appear to show that rigid proteins may either soften or harden membranes even though conventional wisdom only suggests stiffening. In this work, we argue that regarding proteins as merely non-specific rigid inclusions is flawed, and each protein has a unique mechanical signature dictated by its specific interfacial coupling to the surrounding membrane. Predicated on this hypothesis, we have carried out atomistic simulations to investigate peptide-membrane interactions. Together with a continuum model, we reconcile contrasting experimental data in the literature including the case of HIV-fusion peptide induced softening. We conclude that the structural rearrangements of the lipids around the inclusions cause the softening or stiffening of the biological membranes.

  6. Rigid proteins and softening of biological membranes—with application to HIV-induced cell membrane softening

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Himani; Zelisko, Matthew; Liu, Liping; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    A key step in the HIV-infection process is the fusion of the virion membrane with the target cell membrane and the concomitant transfer of the viral RNA. Experimental evidence suggests that the fusion is preceded by considerable elastic softening of the cell membranes due to the insertion of fusion peptide in the membrane. What are the mechanisms underpinning the elastic softening of the membrane upon peptide insertion? A broader question may be posed: insertion of rigid proteins in soft membranes ought to stiffen the membranes not soften them. However, experimental observations perplexingly appear to show that rigid proteins may either soften or harden membranes even though conventional wisdom only suggests stiffening. In this work, we argue that regarding proteins as merely non-specific rigid inclusions is flawed, and each protein has a unique mechanical signature dictated by its specific interfacial coupling to the surrounding membrane. Predicated on this hypothesis, we have carried out atomistic simulations to investigate peptide-membrane interactions. Together with a continuum model, we reconcile contrasting experimental data in the literature including the case of HIV-fusion peptide induced softening. We conclude that the structural rearrangements of the lipids around the inclusions cause the softening or stiffening of the biological membranes. PMID:27149877

  7. Herpes simplex virus type-2 stimulates HIV-1 replication in cervical tissues: implications for HIV-1 transmission and efficacy of anti-HIV-1 microbicides

    PubMed Central

    Rollenhagen, C; Lathrop, M J; Macura, S L; Doncel, G F; Asin, S N

    2014-01-01

    Herpes Simplex virus Type-2 (HSV-2) increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition, yet the mechanism for this viral pathogen to regulate the susceptibility of the cervicovaginal mucosa to HIV-1 is virtually unknown. Using ex vivo human ectocervical tissue models, we report greater levels of HIV-1 reverse transcription, DNA integration, RNA expression, and virions release in HIV-1/HSV-2 co-infected tissues compared with HIV-1 only infected tissues (P<0.05). Enhanced HIV-1 replication was associated with increased CD4, CCR5, and CD38 transcription (P<0.05) and increased number of CD4+/CCR5+/CD38+ T cells in HIV-1/HSV-2 co-infected tissues compared with tissues infected with HIV-1 alone. Tenofovir (TFV) 1% gel, the leading microbicide candidate, demonstrated only partial protection against HIV-1, when applied vaginally before and after sexual intercourse. It is possible that mucosal inflammation, in particular that induced by HSV-2 infection, may have decreased TFV efficacy. HSV-2 upregulated the number of HIV-1-infected cells and elevated the concentration of TFV needed to decrease HIV-1 infection. Similarly, only high concentrations of TFV inhibited HSV-2 replication in HIV-1/HSV-2-infected tissues. Thus, HSV-2 co-infection and mucosal immune cell activation should be taken into consideration when designing preventative strategies for sexual transmission of HIV-1. PMID:24496317

  8. Total HIV-1 DNA, a Marker of Viral Reservoir Dynamics with Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Avettand-Fènoël, Véronique; Hocqueloux, Laurent; Ghosn, Jade; Cheret, Antoine; Frange, Pierre; Melard, Adeline; Viard, Jean-Paul; Rouzioux, Christine

    2016-10-01

    HIV-1 DNA persists in infected cells despite combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), forming viral reservoirs. Recent trials of strategies targeting latent HIV reservoirs have rekindled hopes of curing HIV infection, and reliable markers are thus needed to evaluate viral reservoirs. Total HIV DNA quantification is simple, standardized, sensitive, and reproducible. Total HIV DNA load influences the course of the infection and is therefore clinically relevant. In particular, it is predictive of progression to AIDS and death, independently of HIV RNA load and the CD4 cell count. Baseline total HIV DNA load is predictive of the response to cART. It declines during cART but remains quantifiable, at a level that reflects both the history of infection (HIV RNA zenith, CD4 cell count nadir) and treatment efficacy (residual viremia, cumulative viremia, immune restoration, immune cell activation). Total HIV DNA load in blood is also predictive of the presence and severity of some HIV-1-associated end-organ disorders. It can be useful to guide individual treatment, notably, therapeutic de-escalation. Although it does not distinguish between replication-competent and -defective latent viruses, the total HIV DNA load in blood, tissues, and cells provides insights into HIV pathogenesis, probably because all viral forms participate in host cell activation and HIV pathogenesis. Total HIV DNA is thus a biomarker of HIV reservoirs, which can be defined as all infected cells and tissues containing all forms of HIV persistence that participate in pathogenesis. This participation may occur through the production of new virions, creating new cycles of infection and disseminating infected cells; maintenance or amplification of reservoirs by homeostatic cell proliferation; and viral transcription and synthesis of viral proteins without new virion production. These proteins can induce immune activation, thus participating in the vicious circle of HIV pathogenesis. PMID:27559075

  9. Immunotherapy of HIV-infected patients with Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Ushijima, Naofumi; Koga, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Serum Gc protein (known as vitamin D3-binding protein) is the precursor for the principal macrophage activating factor (MAF). The MAF precursor activity of serum Gc protein of HIV-infected patients was lost or reduced because Gc protein is deglycosylated by alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) secreted from HIV-infected cells. Therefore, macrophages of HIV-infected patients having deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be activated, leading to immunosuppression. Since Nagalase is the intrinsic component of the envelope protein gp120, serum Nagalase activity is the sum of enzyme activities carried by both HIV virions and envelope proteins. These Nagalase carriers were already complexed with anti-HIV immunoglobulin G (IgG) but retained Nagalase activity that is required for infectivity. Stepwise treatment of purified Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated the most potent macrophage activating factor (termed GcMAF), which produces no side effects in humans. Macrophages activated by administration of 100 ng GcMAF develop a large amount of Fc-receptors as well as an enormous variation of receptors that recognize IgG-bound and unbound HIV virions. Since latently HIV-infected cells are unstable and constantly release HIV virions, the activated macrophages rapidly intercept the released HIV virions to prevent reinfection resulting in exhaustion of infected cells. After less than 18 weekly administrations of 100 ng GcMAF for nonanemic patients, they exhibited low serum Nagalase activities equivalent to healthy controls, indicating eradication of HIV-infection, which was also confirmed by no infectious center formation by provirus inducing agent-treated patient PBMCs. No recurrence occurred and their healthy CD + cell counts were maintained for 7 years. PMID:19031451

  10. Non-catalytic site HIV-1 integrase inhibitors disrupt core maturation and induce a reverse transcription block in target cells.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Mini; Yant, Stephen R; Tsai, Luong; O'Sullivan, Christopher; Bam, Rujuta A; Tsai, Angela; Niedziela-Majka, Anita; Stray, Kirsten M; Sakowicz, Roman; Cihlar, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) is the target for two classes of antiretrovirals: i) the integrase strand-transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) and ii) the non-catalytic site integrase inhibitors (NCINIs). NCINIs bind at the IN dimer interface and are thought to interfere primarily with viral DNA (vDNA) integration in the target cell by blocking IN-vDNA assembly as well as the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction. Herein we show that treatment of virus-producing cells, but not of mature virions or target cells, drives NCINI antiviral potency. NCINIs target an essential late-stage event in HIV replication that is insensitive to LEDGF levels in the producer cells. Virus particles produced in the presence of NCINIs displayed normal Gag-Pol processing and endogenous reverse transcriptase activity, but were defective at initiating vDNA synthesis following entry into the target cell. NCINI-resistant virus carrying a T174I mutation in the IN dimer interface was less sensitive to the compound-induced late-stage effects, including the reverse transcription block. Wild-type, but not T174I virus, produced in the presence of NCINIs exhibited striking defects in core morphology and an increased level of IN oligomers that was not observed upon treatment of mature cell-free particles. Collectively, these results reveal that NCINIs act through a novel mechanism that is unrelated to the previously observed inhibition of IN activity or IN-LEDGF interaction, and instead involves the disruption of an IN function during HIV-1 core maturation and assembly. PMID:24040198

  11. Non-Catalytic Site HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors Disrupt Core Maturation and Induce a Reverse Transcription Block in Target Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Luong; O’Sullivan, Christopher; Bam, Rujuta A.; Tsai, Angela; Niedziela-Majka, Anita; Stray, Kirsten M.; Sakowicz, Roman; Cihlar, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) is the target for two classes of antiretrovirals: i) the integrase strand-transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) and ii) the non-catalytic site integrase inhibitors (NCINIs). NCINIs bind at the IN dimer interface and are thought to interfere primarily with viral DNA (vDNA) integration in the target cell by blocking IN-vDNA assembly as well as the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction. Herein we show that treatment of virus-producing cells, but not of mature virions or target cells, drives NCINI antiviral potency. NCINIs target an essential late-stage event in HIV replication that is insensitive to LEDGF levels in the producer cells. Virus particles produced in the presence of NCINIs displayed normal Gag-Pol processing and endogenous reverse transcriptase activity, but were defective at initiating vDNA synthesis following entry into the target cell. NCINI-resistant virus carrying a T174I mutation in the IN dimer interface was less sensitive to the compound-induced late-stage effects, including the reverse transcription block. Wild-type, but not T174I virus, produced in the presence of NCINIs exhibited striking defects in core morphology and an increased level of IN oligomers that was not observed upon treatment of mature cell-free particles. Collectively, these results reveal that NCINIs act through a novel mechanism that is unrelated to the previously observed inhibition of IN activity or IN-LEDGF interaction, and instead involves the disruption of an IN function during HIV-1 core maturation and assembly. PMID:24040198

  12. Sexual transmission of single human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virions encoding highly polymorphic multisite cytotoxic T-lymphocyte escape variants.

    PubMed

    Milicic, Anita; Edwards, Charles T T; Hué, Stéphane; Fox, Julie; Brown, Helen; Pillay, Tilly; Drijfhout, Jan W; Weber, Jonathan N; Holmes, Edward C; Fidler, Sarah J; Zhang, Hua-Tang; Phillips, Rodney E

    2005-11-01

    Antigenic variation inherent in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions that successfully instigate new infections transferred by sex has not been well defined. Yet this is the viral "challenge" which any vaccine-induced immunity must deal with. Closely timed comparisons of the virus circulating in the "donor" and that which initiates new infection are difficult to carry out rigorously, as suitable samples are very hard to get in the face of ethical hurdles. Here we investigate HIV-1 variation in four homosexual couples where we sampled blood from both parties within several weeks of the estimated transmission event. We analyzed variation within highly immunogenic HIV-1 internal proteins encoding epitopes recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). These responses are believed to be crucial as a means of containing viral replication. In the donors we detected virions capable of evading host CTL recognition at several linked epitopes of distinct HLA class I restriction. When a donor transmitted escape variants to a recipient with whom he had HLA class I molecules in common, the recipient's CTL response to those epitopes was prevented, thus impeding adequate viral control. In addition, we show that even when HLA class I alleles are disparate in the transmitting couple, a single polymorphism can abolish CTL recognition of an overlapping epitope of distinct restriction and so confer immune escape properties to the recipient's seroconversion virus. In donors who are themselves controlling an early, acute infection, the precise timing of onward transmission is a crucial determinant of the viral variants available to compose the inoculum. PMID:16254331

  13. Creatine protects against mitochondrial dysfunction associated with HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal injury

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Patrick R.; Gawryluk, Jeremy W.; Hui, Liang; Chen, Xuesong; Geiger, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 infected individuals are living longer but experiencing a prevalence rate of over 50% for HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) for which no effective treatment is available. Viral and cellular factors secreted by HIV-1 infected cells leads to neuronal injury and HIV-1 Tat continues to be implicated in the pathogenesis of HAND. Here we tested the hypothesis that creatine protected against HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal injury by preventing mitochondrial bioenergetic crisis and/or redox catastrophe. Creatine blocked HIV-1 Tat1-72-induced increases in neuron cell death and synaptic area loss. Creatine protected against HIV-1 Tat-induced decreases in ATP. Creatine and creatine plus HIV-1 Tat increased cellular levels of creatine, and creatine plus HIV-1 Tat further decreased ratios of phosphocreatine to creatine observed with creatine or HIV-1 Tat treatments alone. Additionally, creatine protected against HIV-1 Tat-induced mitochondrial hypopolarization and HIV-1 Tat-induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. Thus, creatine may be a useful adjunctive therapy against HAND. PMID:25613139

  14. A Small Molecule Inhibits Virion Attachment to Heparan Sulfate- or Sialic Acid-Containing Glycans

    PubMed Central

    Colpitts, Che C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Primary attachment to cellular glycans is a critical entry step for most human viruses. Some viruses, such as herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), bind to heparan sulfate, whereas others, such as influenza A virus (IAV), bind to sialic acid. Receptor mimetics that interfere with these interactions are active against viruses that bind to either heparan sulfate or to sialic acid. However, no molecule that inhibits the attachment of viruses in both groups has yet been identified. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea catechin, is active against many unrelated viruses, including several that bind to heparan sulfate or to sialic acid. We sought to identify the basis for the broad-spectrum activity of EGCG. Here, we show that EGCG inhibits the infectivity of a diverse group of enveloped and nonenveloped human viruses. EGCG acts directly on the virions, without affecting the fluidity or integrity of the virion envelopes. Instead, EGCG interacts with virion surface proteins to inhibit the attachment of HSV-1, HCV, IAV, vaccinia virus, adenovirus, reovirus, and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) virions. We further show that EGCG competes with heparan sulfate for binding of HSV-1 and HCV virions and with sialic acid for binding of IAV virions. Therefore, EGCG inhibits unrelated viruses by a common mechanism. Most importantly, we have identified EGCG as the first broad-spectrum attachment inhibitor. Our results open the possibility for the development of small molecule broad-spectrum antivirals targeting virion attachment. IMPORTANCE This study shows that it is possible to develop a small molecule antiviral or microbicide active against the two largest groups of human viruses: those that bind to glycosaminoglycans and those that bind to sialoglycans. This group includes the vast majority of human viruses, including herpes simplex viruses, cytomegalovirus, influenza virus, poxvirus, hepatitis C virus, HIV, and many others. PMID

  15. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Nef protein modulates the lipid composition of virions and host cell membrane microdomains

    PubMed Central

    Brügger, Britta; Krautkrämer, Ellen; Tibroni, Nadine; Munte, Claudia E; Rauch, Susanne; Leibrecht, Iris; Glass, Bärbel; Breuer, Sebastian; Geyer, Matthias; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert; Wieland, Felix T; Fackler, Oliver T

    2007-01-01

    Background The Nef protein of Human Immunodeficiency Viruses optimizes viral spread in the infected host by manipulating cellular transport and signal transduction machineries. Nef also boosts the infectivity of HIV particles by an unknown mechanism. Recent studies suggested a correlation between the association of Nef with lipid raft microdomains and its positive effects on virion infectivity. Furthermore, the lipidome analysis of HIV-1 particles revealed a marked enrichment of classical raft lipids and thus identified HIV-1 virions as an example for naturally occurring membrane microdomains. Since Nef modulates the protein composition and function of membrane microdomains we tested here if Nef also has the propensity to alter microdomain lipid composition. Results Quantitative mass spectrometric lipidome analysis of highly purified HIV-1 particles revealed that the presence of Nef during virus production from T lymphocytes enforced their raft character via a significant reduction of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine species and a specific enrichment of sphingomyelin. In contrast, Nef did not significantly affect virion levels of phosphoglycerolipids or cholesterol. The observed alterations in virion lipid composition were insufficient to mediate Nef's effect on particle infectivity and Nef augmented virion infectivity independently of whether virus entry was targeted to or excluded from membrane microdomains. However, altered lipid compositions similar to those observed in virions were also detected in detergent-resistant membrane preparations of virus producing cells. Conclusion Nef alters not only the proteome but also the lipid composition of host cell microdomains. This novel activity represents a previously unrecognized mechanism by which Nef could manipulate HIV-1 target cells to facilitate virus propagation in vivo. PMID:17908312

  16. HIV Vaccine-Induced Sero-Reactivity: A Challenge for Trial Participants, Researchers, and Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Voronin, Yegor; Zinszner, Helene; Karg, Carissa; Brooks, Katie; Coombs, Robert; Hural, John; Holt, Renee; Fast, Pat; Allen, Mary; Allen, Mary; Busch, Michael; Fast, Pat; Fruth, Ulrich; Golding, Hana; Khurana, Surender; Mulenga, Joseph; Peel, Sheila; Schito, Marco; Voronin, Yegor; Barnabas, Nomampondo; Bentsen, Christopher; Graham, Barney; Gray, Glenda; Levin, Andrew; McCluskey, Margaret; O'Connell, Robert; Snow, Bill; Ware, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Antibody-inducing vaccines are a major focus in the preventive HIV vaccine field. Because the most common tests for HIV infection rely on detecting antibodies to HIV, they may also detect antibodies induced by a candidate HIV vaccine. The detection of vaccine-induced antibodies to HIV by serological tests is most commonly referred to as vaccine-induced sero-reactivity (VISR). VISR can be misinterpreted as a sign of HIV infection in a healthy study participant. In a participant who has developed vaccine-induced antibodies, accurate diagnosis of HIV infection (or lack thereof) may require specialized tests and algorithms (differential testing) that are usually not available in community settings. Organizations sponsoring clinical testing of preventive HIV vaccine candidates have an ethical obligation not only to inform healthy volunteers about the potential problems associated with participating in a clinical trial but also to help manage any resulting issues. This article explores the scope of VISR-related issues that become increasingly prevalent as the search for an effective HIV vaccine continues and will be paramount once a preventive vaccine is deployed. We also describe ways in which organizations conducting HIV vaccine trials have addressed these issues and outline areas where more work is needed. PMID:25649349

  17. Glutathione is required for efficient production of infectious picornavirus virions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Allen D. . E-mail: smitha@ba.ars.usda.gov; Dawson, Harry . E-mail: dawsonh@ba.ars.usda.gov

    2006-09-30

    Glutathione is an intracellular reducing agent that helps maintain the redox potential of the cell and is important for immune function. The drug L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) selectively inhibits glutathione synthesis. Glutathione has been reported to block replication of HIV, HSV-1, and influenza virus, whereas cells treated with BSO exhibit increased replication of Sendai virus. Pre-treatment of HeLa cell monolayers with BSO inhibited replication of CVB3, CVB4, and HRV14 with viral titers reduced by approximately 6, 5, and 3 log{sub 1}, respectively. The addition of glutathione ethyl ester, but not dithiothreitol or 2-mercaptoethanol, to the culture medium reversed the inhibitory effect of BSO. Viral RNA and protein synthesis were not inhibited by BSO treatment. Fractionation of lysates from CVB3-infected BSO-treated cells on cesium chloride and sucrose gradients revealed that empty capsids but not mature virions were being produced. The levels of the 5S and 14S assembly intermediates, however, were not affected by BSO treatment. These results demonstrate that glutathione is important for production of mature infectious picornavirus virions.

  18. Conserved and host-specific features of influenza virion architecture

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Edward C; Charles, Philip D; Hester, Svenja S; Thomas, Benjamin; Trudgian, David; Martínez-Alonso, Mónica; Fodor, Ervin

    2014-01-01

    Viruses use virions to spread between hosts, and virion composition is therefore the primary determinant of viral transmissibility and immunogenicity. However, the virions of many viruses are complex and pleomorphic, making them difficult to analyse in detail. Here we address this by identifying and quantifying virion proteins with mass spectrometry, producing a complete and quantified model of the hundreds of viral and host-encoded proteins that make up the pleomorphic virions of influenza viruses. We show that a conserved influenza virion architecture is maintained across diverse combinations of virus and host. This ‘core’ architecture, which includes substantial quantities of host proteins as well as the viral protein NS1, is elaborated with abundant host-dependent features. As a result, influenza virions produced by mammalian and avian hosts have distinct protein compositions. Finally we note that influenza virions share an underlying protein composition with exosomes, suggesting that influenza virions form by subverting microvesicle production. PMID:25226414

  19. HIV-1 induces IL-10 production in human monocytes via a CD4-independent pathway.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jiaxiang; Sahu, Gautam K; Braciale, Vivian L; Cloyd, Miles W

    2005-06-01

    In HIV-infected patients, increased levels of IL-10, mainly produced by virally infected monocytes, were reported to be associated with impaired cell-mediated immune responses. In this study, we investigated how HIV-1 induces IL-10 production in human monocytes. We found that CD14(+) monocytes infected by either HIV-1(213) (X4) or HIV-1(BaL) (R5) produced IL-10, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and to a lesser extent, IFN-gamma. However, the capacity of HIV-1 to induce these cytokines was not dependent on virus replication since UV-inactivated HIV-1 induced similar levels of these cytokines. In addition, soluble HIV-1 gp160 could induce CD14(+) monocytes to produce IL-10 but at lower levels. Cross-linking CD4 molecules (XLCD4) with anti-CD4 mAbs and goat anti-mouse IgG (GAM) resulted in high levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma but no IL-10 production by CD14(+) monocytes. Interestingly, neither anti-CD4 mAbs nor recombinant soluble CD4 (sCD4) receptor could block IL-10 secretion induced by HIV-1(213), HIV-1(BaL) or HIV-1 gp160 in CD14(+) monocytes, whereas anti-CD4 mAb or sCD4 almost completely blocked the secretion of the other cytokines. Furthermore, HIV-1(213) could induce IL-10 mRNA expression in CD14(+) monocytes while XLCD4 by anti-CD4 mAb and GAM failed to do so. As with IL-10 protein levels, HIV-1(213)-induced IL-10 mRNA expression in CD14(+) monocytes could not be inhibited by anti-CD4 mAb or sCD4. Taken together, HIV-1 binding to CD14(+) monocytes can induce CD4-independent IL-10 production at both mRNA and protein levels. This finding suggests that HIV induces the immunosuppressive IL-10 production in monocytes and is not dependent on CD4 molecules and that interference with HIV entry through CD4 molecules may have no impact on counteracting the effects of IL-10 during HIV infection. PMID:15937058

  20. Cocaine enhances HIV-1 gp120-induced lymphatic endothelial dysfunction in the lung.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Jiang, Susan; Yu, Jinlong; Kuzontkoski, Paula M; Groopman, Jerome E

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary complications are common in both AIDS patients and cocaine users. We addressed the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which HIV and cocaine may partner to induce their deleterious effects. Using primary lung lymphatic endothelial cells (L-LECs), we examined how cocaine and HIV-1 gp120, alone and together, modulate signaling and functional properties of L-LECs. We found that brief cocaine exposure activated paxillin and induced cytoskeletal rearrangement, while sustained exposure increased fibronectin (FN) expression, decreased Robo4 expression, and enhanced the permeability of L-LEC monolayers. Moreover, incubating L-LECs with both cocaine and HIV-1 gp120 exacerbated hyperpermeability, significantly enhanced apoptosis, and further impaired in vitro wound healing as compared with cocaine alone. Our studies also suggested that the sigma-1 receptor (Sigma-1R) and the dopamine-4 receptor (D4R) are involved in cocaine-induced pathology in L-LECs. Seeking clinical correlation, we found that FN levels in sera and lung tissue of HIV(+) donors were significantly elevated as compared to HIV(-) donors. Our in vitro data demonstrate that cocaine and HIV-1 gp120 induce dysfunction and damage of lung lymphatics, and suggest that cocaine use may exacerbate pulmonary edema and fibrosis associated with HIV infection. Continued exploration of the interplay between cocaine and HIV should assist the design of therapeutics to ameliorate HIV-induced pulmonary disorders within the drug using population. PMID:26311830

  1. Expression of the highly conserved vaccinia virus E6 protein is required for virion morphogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Resch, Wolfgang; Weisberg, Andrea S.; Moss, Bernard

    2009-04-10

    The vaccinia virus E6R gene (VACVWR062) is conserved in all members of the poxvirus family and encodes a protein associated with the mature virion. We confirmed this association and provided evidence for an internal location. An inducible mutant that conditionally expresses E6 was constructed. In the absence of inducer, plaque formation and virus production were severely inhibited in several cell lines, whereas some replication occurred in others. This difference could be due to variation in the stringency of repression, since we could not isolate a stable deletion mutant even in the more 'permissive' cells. Under non-permissive conditions, viral late proteins were synthesized but processing of core proteins was inefficient, indicative of an assembly block. Transmission electron microscopy of sections of cells infected with the mutant in the absence of inducer revealed morphogenetic defects with crescents and empty immature virions adjacent to dense inclusions of viroplasm. Mature virions were infrequent and cores appeared to have lucent centers.

  2. Coupling of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Fusion to Virion Maturation: a Novel Role of the gp41 Cytoplasmic Tail

    PubMed Central

    Wyma, Donald J.; Jiang, Jiyang; Shi, Jiong; Zhou, Jing; Lineberger, Janet E.; Miller, Michael D.; Aiken, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Retrovirus particles are not infectious until they undergo proteolytic maturation to form a functional core. Here we report a link between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) core maturation and the ability of the virus to fuse with target cells. Using a recently developed reporter assay of HIV-1 virus-cell fusion, we show that immature HIV-1 particles are 5- to 10-fold less active for fusion with target cells than are mature virions. The fusion of mature and immature virions was rendered equivalent by truncating the gp41 cytoplasmic domain or by pseudotyping viruses with the glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus. An analysis of a panel of mutants containing mutated cleavage sites indicated that HIV-1 fusion competence is activated by the cleavage of Gag at any site between the MA and NC segments and not as an indirect consequence of an altered core structure. These results suggest a mechanism by which binding of the gp41 cytoplasmic tail to Gag within immature HIV-1 particles inhibits Env conformational changes on the surface of the virion that are required for membrane fusion. This “inside-out” regulation of HIV-1 fusion could play an important role in the virus life cycle by preventing the entry of immature, noninfectious particles. PMID:15016865

  3. Cocaine Enhances HIV-1 Transcription in Macrophages by Inducing p38 MAPK Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Swepson, Chelsie; Ranjan, Alok; Balasubramaniam, Muthukumar; Pandhare, Jui; Dash, Chandravanu

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine is a commonly used illicit drug among HIV-1 infected individuals and is known to increase HIV-1 replication in permissive cells including PBMCs, CD4+ T cells, and macrophages. Cocaine’s potentiating effects on HIV-1 replication in macrophages- the primary targets of the virus in the central nervous system, has been suggested to play an important role in HIV-1 neuro-pathogenesis. However, the mechanism by which cocaine enhances HIV-1 replication in macrophages remain poorly understood. Here, we report the identification of cocaine-induced signaling events that lead to enhanced HIV-1 transcription in macrophages. Treatment of physiologically relevant concentrations of cocaine enhanced HIV-1 transcription in a dose-dependent manner in infected THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages (THP-1macs) and primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Toward decoding the underlying mechanism, results presented in this report demonstrate that cocaine induces the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), a known activator of HIV-1 transcription. We also present data suggesting that the p38 MAPK-driven HIV-1 transcription is dependent on the induction of mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1). Consequently, MSK1 mediates the phosphorylation of serine 10 residue of histone 3 (H3 Ser10), which is known to activate transcription of genes including that of HIV-1 in macrophages. Importantly, our results show that inhibition of p38 MAPK/MSK1 signaling by specific pharmacological inhibitors abrogated the positive effect of cocaine on HIV-1 transcription. These results validate the functional link between cocaine and p38 MAPK/MSK1 pathways. Together, our results demonstrate for the first time that the p38 MAPK/MSK1 signaling pathway plays a critical role in the cocaine-induced potentiating effects on HIV-1 infection, thus providing new insights into the interplay between cocaine abuse and HIV-1 neuro-pathogenesis. PMID:27375565

  4. Cocaine enhances HIV-1 gp120-induced lymphatic endothelial dysfunction in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Jiang, Susan; Yu, Jinlong; Kuzontkoski, Paula M; Groopman, Jerome E

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary complications are common in both AIDS patients and cocaine users. We addressed the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which HIV and cocaine may partner to induce their deleterious effects. Using primary lung lymphatic endothelial cells (L-LECs), we examined how cocaine and HIV-1 gp120, alone and together, modulate signaling and functional properties of L-LECs. We found that brief cocaine exposure activated paxillin and induced cytoskeletal rearrangement, while sustained exposure increased fibronectin (FN) expression, decreased Robo4 expression, and enhanced the permeability of L-LEC monolayers. Moreover, incubating L-LECs with both cocaine and HIV-1 gp120 exacerbated hyperpermeability, significantly enhanced apoptosis, and further impaired in vitro wound healing as compared with cocaine alone. Our studies also suggested that the sigma-1 receptor (Sigma-1R) and the dopamine-4 receptor (D4R) are involved in cocaine-induced pathology in L-LECs. Seeking clinical correlation, we found that FN levels in sera and lung tissue of HIV+ donors were significantly elevated as compared to HIV− donors. Our in vitro data demonstrate that cocaine and HIV-1 gp120 induce dysfunction and damage of lung lymphatics, and suggest that cocaine use may exacerbate pulmonary edema and fibrosis associated with HIV infection. Continued exploration of the interplay between cocaine and HIV should assist the design of therapeutics to ameliorate HIV-induced pulmonary disorders within the drug using population. PMID:26311830

  5. Hypophosphatemic osteomalacia induced by tenofovir in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Lourdes; Holgado, Susana; Mariñoso, Maria Luisa; Pérez-Andrés, Ricard; Bonjoch, Anna; Romeu, Joan; Olivé, Alejandro

    2016-05-01

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is an adenine analogue reverse transcription inhibitor widely used in first-line treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and also in hepatitis B virus infection. Its use has been linked to sporadic Fanconi syndrome, renal failure and bone disease. We present the clinical characteristics of tenofovir-induced osteomalacia, discuss bone biopsy findings, describe predisposing factors and compare our results with other reported cases. We describe five cases of hypophosphatemic osteomalacia induced by TDF and recorded at the rheumatology service of a university hospital between 2010 and 2014. We also report the characteristics of bone biopsies of this pathology, which have not been previously described. We include a review of published cases of proximal renal tubulopathy (PRT) and osteomalacia induced by TDF (PubMed 1995-2014; keywords: osteomalacia, tenofovir, Fanconi syndrome, hypophosphatemic osteomalacia, proximal renal tubulopathy, bone biopsy). Five HIV patients who developed hypophosphatemic osteomalacia under TDF treatment (>5 years) presented increasing bone pain and a progressive inability to walk without assistance as a result of multiple insufficiency fractures. Bone biopsy performed in three patients after tetracycline labelling showed increased osteoid thickness, confirming osteomalacia. A literature review retrieved 17 publications on this condition, including 53 cases: 26 patients developed isolated PRT, 25 presented PRT and with multiple insufficiency fractures and two presented isolated bone disease, including osteomalacia and osteoporosis. Rheumatologists should be alert to this complication in patients receiving tenofovir. The main complaint reported by these patients is diffuse pain, predominantly in the lower limbs, indicating multiple stress fractures. Serum phosphate and appropriate screening for abnormal proximal tubule function should be monitored. Bone scintigraphy should be carried out in

  6. HIV-1 Modulates the tRNA Pool to Improve Translation Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    van Weringh, Anna; Ragonnet-Cronin, Manon; Pranckeviciene, Erinija; Pavon-Eternod, Mariana; Kleiman, Lawrence; Xia, Xuhua

    2011-01-01

    Despite its poorly adapted codon usage, HIV-1 replicates and is expressed extremely well in human host cells. HIV-1 has recently been shown to package non-lysyl transfer RNAs (tRNAs) in addition to the tRNALys needed for priming reverse transcription and integration of the HIV-1 genome. By comparing the codon usage of HIV-1 genes with that of its human host, we found that tRNAs decoding codons that are highly used by HIV-1 but avoided by its host are overrepresented in HIV-1 virions. In particular, tRNAs decoding A-ending codons, required for the expression of HIV's A-rich genome, are highly enriched. Because the affinity of Gag-Pol for all tRNAs is nonspecific, HIV packaging is most likely passive and reflects the tRNA pool at the time of viral particle formation. Codon usage of HIV-1 early genes is similar to that of highly expressed host genes, but codon usage of HIV-1 late genes was better adapted to the selectively enriched tRNA pool, suggesting that alterations in the tRNA pool are induced late in viral infection. If HIV-1 genes are adapting to an altered tRNA pool, codon adaptation of HIV-1 may be better than previously thought. PMID:21216840

  7. Modulation of virion incorporation of Ebolavirus glycoprotein: effects on attachment, cellular entry and neutralization.

    PubMed

    Marzi, Andrea; Wegele, Anja; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2006-09-01

    The filoviruses Ebolavirus (EBOV) and Marburgvirus (MARV) cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and are potential agents of biological warfare. The envelope glycoprotein (GP) of filoviruses mediates viral entry into cells and is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention and vaccine design. Here, we asked if the efficiency of virion incorporation of EBOV-GP impacts attachment and entry into target cells and modulates susceptibility to neutralizing antibodies. In order to control the level of EBOV-GP expression, we generated cell lines expressing the GPs of the four known EBOV subspecies in an inducible fashion. Regulated expression of GP on the cell surface allowed production of reporter viruses harboring different amounts of GP. A pronounced reduction of virion incorporation of EBOV-GP had relatively little effect on virion infectivity, suggesting that only a few copies of GP might be sufficient for efficient engagement of cellular receptors. In contrast, optimal interactions with cellular attachment factors like the DC-SIGN protein required incorporation of high amounts of GP. Antibody-mediated neutralization of virions bearing high amounts of GP was slightly more efficient than neutralization of virions harboring low amounts of GP, suggesting that the efficiency of GP incorporation into virions might modulate susceptibility to neutralizing antibodies. Finally, regulated expression of GP in permissive 293 cells did not reduce EBOV-GP-driven infection but diminished vesicular stomatitis virus GP (VSV-G) and amphotropic murine leukemia virus (A-MLV) GP mediated entry in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, intracellular GP does not seem to downmodulate expression of its receptor(s) but might alter expression and/or function of molecules involved in VSV-G and A-MLV-GP-dependent entry. Our results suggest that the efficiency of virion incorporation of GP could impact EBOV attachment to target cells and might modulate control of viral spread by the humoral

  8. Pharmacologic Inhibition of Nedd8 Activation Enzyme Exposes CD4-Induced Epitopes within Env on Cells Expressing HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Tokarev, Andrey; Stoneham, Charlotte; Lewinski, Mary K.; Mukim, Amey; Deshmukh, Savitha; Vollbrecht, Thomas; Spina, Celsa A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1 Vpu decreases the exposure of epitopes within the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) on the surface of infected cells by downregulating both BST2 and CD4. To test the hypothesis that inhibiting Vpu activity would increase the exposure of these epitopes and sensitize infected cells to antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), we treated cells with the Nedd8 activation enzyme (NAE) inhibitor MLN4924, which inhibits the cullin1-based ubiquitin ligase complex coopted by Vpu to degrade cellular targets. Treatment of HeLa cells with MLN4924 or expression of a dominant negative mutant of cullin1 inhibited the Vpu-mediated downregulation of CD4 but not the downregulation of BST2. NAE inhibition also increased the surface exposure of CD4-induced epitopes within Env on HEK293 cells containing an inducible HIV genome, on infected CEM T cells, and on infected primary T cells. In contrast, the Vpu-mediated downregulation of BST2 was substantially inhibited by MLN4924 only when T cells were treated with alpha interferon (IFN-α) to induce high levels of BST2 expression. As reported previously, the absence of vpu or nef and even more so the combined absence of these two genes sensitized infected cells to ADCC. However, NAE inhibition affected ADCC minimally. Paradoxically, even in infected, IFN-treated cells in which NAE inhibition substantially rescued the surface level of BST2, the surface level of Env detected with an antibody recognizing a CD4-independent epitope (2G12) was minimally increased. Mutation of the C-terminal Vpu residue W76, which supports the ability of Vpu to stimulate virion release by displacing BST2 from assembly sites on the plasma membrane by a cullin1-independent mechanism, increased the exposure of Env detected by 2G12 on infected T cells. Thus, inhibiting the displacement function of Vpu together with its ability to degrade CD4 and BST2 may be required to sensitize infected cells to ADCC. IMPORTANCE Pathogenic viruses encode gene

  9. Induction of Type C Virions from Normal Rat Kidney Cells by 2-Deoxy-d-Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Prochownik, Edward V.; Panem, Sandra; Kirsten, Werner H.

    1976-01-01

    The sugar 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) induced the release of type C virions from an established line of normal rat kidney (NRK) cells. Within 20 h after the addition of 5 mg of 2-DG per ml to exponentially growing NRK cultures, more than 80% of the cells expressed the mammalian type C virus interspecies-specific antigen (p30) as determined by indirect cytoplasmic immunofluorescence. Maximal virion release occurred 1 to 2 days after 2-DG was added for 24 h to the growth medium, although a low level of virion production was detected as early as 2.5 h after 2-DG treatment. Studies with inhibitors of RNA synthesis indicated a requirement for de novo RNA synthesis after the addition of 2-DG. Sensitivity of NRK cells to type C virion induction was limited to a relatively short period of in vitro growth and preceded spontaneous virion release by 8 to 10 subculture generations. A model is presented for the sequential derepression of latent type C virus information in serially propagated NRK cells. Images PMID:54442

  10. Structural Rearrangement and Subunit Composition of RNA from Released Soehner-Dmochowski Murine Sarcoma Virions

    PubMed Central

    East, James L.; Allen, Patton T.; Knesek, John E.; Chan, James C.; Bowen, James M.; Dmochowski, Leon

    1973-01-01

    Two types of genomic, high-molecular-weight RNA species were found in Soehner-Dmochowski murine sarcoma virions released from virus-induced rat tumor cells grown in tissue culture. The type of RNA species observed depended on the length of exposure of the tumor cells to radioactive precursor. Early RNA of virions labeled up to 4 h with radioactive uridine had a sedimentation coefficient of 50S, and late RNA of virions labeled for 24 h had a sedimentation coefficient of 58S. Thermal transitions of early and late RNA indicated a difference in the configuration or structure of these two types of RNA. The late RNA may represent either a different configurational state of the early RNA or an aggregate molecule of two early RNA components joined together. Heat dissociation revealed that the major subunit of both RNA types was a 28S species, which was not susceptible to degradation by the addition of micrococcal nuclease to virions. A transitional, intermediate RNA species with a sedimentation coefficient of 37 to 40S was detected when early RNA was dissociated by dimethyl sulfoxide or heat at temperatures suboptimal for complete conversion. No free RNA subunit components were detected in virions harvested at intervals as short as 30 s or 5 min. A model for the assembly of genomic RNA from 28S RNA subunits is proposed. PMID:4350715

  11. Enhancement of the basal-level activity of HIV-1 long terminal repeat by HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J L; Sharma, P L; Crumpacker, C S

    2000-03-15

    Two HIV-1 proteins, Tat and NCp7 (NC), have zinc finger-like structures. NC is a virion protein and has been shown to accumulate in the nucleus 8 h postinfection. Since transcription factors with zinc fingers assist the transcriptional activity of both RNA polymerases II and III, we examined the effect of NC on HIV-1 LTR-directed gene expression. The HIV-1 NC binds to the HIV-1 LTR and results in a mobility shift in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Competition assays with cold probes revealed that the binding of NC and formation of a DNA-protein complex could be prevented by the addition of excess unlabeled LTR self-probe, but not the HIV-1 V3 envelope gene. The DNase I footprint analysis showed that NC binds to six regions within HIV-1 LTR, four of which are near the transcription start site. The NC alone enhances LTR basal-level activity in RNA runoff experiments. When the general transcription factors (GTFs) were added in the assay, NC enhances NF-kappaB, Sp1, and TFIIB-induced HIV-1 LTR-directed RNA transcription. RNA transcription directed by the adenovirus major late promoter, however, is not significantly affected by NC in the cell-free system. Transient transfection of human T lymphocytes with the plasmids containing HIV-1 nc or gag showed enhancement of LTR-CAT activity. Moreover, transfection of HIV-1 provirus containing mutations in NC zinc-finger domains dramatically decreases the enhancement activity in human T cells, in which HIV-1 LTR is stably integrated into the cellular genome. These observations show that NC binds to HIV-1 LTR and cooperatively enhances GTFs and NF-kappaB induced HIV-1 LTR basal-level activity. NC may play the role of a nucleation protein, which binds to LTR and enhances basal-level transcription by recruiting cellular transcription factors to the HIV-1 promoter in competition with cellular promoters. PMID:10704334

  12. Impaired NK Cell Activation and Chemotaxis toward Dendritic Cells Exposed to Complement-Opsonized HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Ellegård, Rada; Crisci, Elisa; Andersson, Jonas; Shankar, Esaki M.; Nyström, Sofia; Hinkula, Jorma

    2015-01-01

    Mucosa resident dendritic cells (DCs) may represent one of the first immune cells that HIV-1 encounters during sexual transmission. The virions in body fluids can be opsonized with complement factors because of HIV-mediated triggering of the complement cascade, and this appears to influence numerous aspects of the immune defense targeting the virus. One key attribute of host defense is the ability to attract immune cells to the site of infection. In this study, we investigated whether the opsonization of HIV with complement (C-HIV) or a mixture of complement and Abs (CI-HIV) affected the cytokine and chemokine responses generated by DCs, as well as their ability to attract other immune cells. We found that the expression levels of CXCL8, CXCL10, CCL3, and CCL17 were lowered after exposure to either C-HIV or CI-HIV relative to free HIV (F-HIV). DCs exposed to F-HIV induced higher cell migration, consisting mainly of NK cells, compared with opsonized virus, and the chemotaxis of NK cells was dependent on CCL3 and CXCL10. NK cell exposure to supernatants derived from HIV-exposed DCs showed that F-HIV induced phenotypic activation (e.g., increased levels of TIM3, CD69, and CD25) and effector function (e.g., production of IFNγ and killing of target cells) in NK cells, whereas C-HIV and CI-HIV did not. The impairment of NK cell recruitment by DCs exposed to complement-opsonized HIV and the lack of NK activation may contribute to the failure of innate immune responses to control HIV at the site of initial mucosa infection. PMID:26157174

  13. Impaired NK Cell Activation and Chemotaxis toward Dendritic Cells Exposed to Complement-Opsonized HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Ellegård, Rada; Crisci, Elisa; Andersson, Jonas; Shankar, Esaki M; Nyström, Sofia; Hinkula, Jorma; Larsson, Marie

    2015-08-15

    Mucosa resident dendritic cells (DCs) may represent one of the first immune cells that HIV-1 encounters during sexual transmission. The virions in body fluids can be opsonized with complement factors because of HIV-mediated triggering of the complement cascade, and this appears to influence numerous aspects of the immune defense targeting the virus. One key attribute of host defense is the ability to attract immune cells to the site of infection. In this study, we investigated whether the opsonization of HIV with complement (C-HIV) or a mixture of complement and Abs (CI-HIV) affected the cytokine and chemokine responses generated by DCs, as well as their ability to attract other immune cells. We found that the expression levels of CXCL8, CXCL10, CCL3, and CCL17 were lowered after exposure to either C-HIV or CI-HIV relative to free HIV (F-HIV). DCs exposed to F-HIV induced higher cell migration, consisting mainly of NK cells, compared with opsonized virus, and the chemotaxis of NK cells was dependent on CCL3 and CXCL10. NK cell exposure to supernatants derived from HIV-exposed DCs showed that F-HIV induced phenotypic activation (e.g., increased levels of TIM3, CD69, and CD25) and effector function (e.g., production of IFNγ and killing of target cells) in NK cells, whereas C-HIV and CI-HIV did not. The impairment of NK cell recruitment by DCs exposed to complement-opsonized HIV and the lack of NK activation may contribute to the failure of innate immune responses to control HIV at the site of initial mucosa infection. PMID:26157174

  14. Early events in herpes simplex virus type 1 infection: photosensitivity of fluorescein isothiocyanate-treated virions.

    PubMed Central

    DeLuca, N; Bzik, D; Person, S; Snipes, W

    1981-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 is photosensitized by treatment with fluorescein isothiocyante (FITC). The inactivation of FITC-treated virions upon subsequent exposure to light is inhibited by the presence of sodium azide, suggesting the involvement of singlet oxygen in the process. Sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that treatment with FITC plus light induces crosslinks in viral envelope glycoproteins. Treatment of virions with high concentrations of FITC (50 micrograms/ml) plus light causes a reduction in the adsorption of the virus to monolayers of human embryonic lung cells. For lower concentrations of FITC (10 micrograms/ml) plus light, treated virions adsorb to the host cells, but remain sensitive to light until entry occurs. The loss of light sensitivity coincides with the development of resistance to antibodies. These results are most consistent with a mechanism of entry for herpes simplex virus involving fusion of the viral membrane with the plasma membrane of the host cell. Images PMID:6262783

  15. Early events in herpes simplex virus type 1 infection: photosensitivity of fluorescein isothiocyanate-treated virions.

    PubMed

    DeLuca, N; Bzik, D; Person, S; Snipes, W

    1981-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 is photosensitized by treatment with fluorescein isothiocyante (FITC). The inactivation of FITC-treated virions upon subsequent exposure to light is inhibited by the presence of sodium azide, suggesting the involvement of singlet oxygen in the process. Sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that treatment with FITC plus light induces crosslinks in viral envelope glycoproteins. Treatment of virions with high concentrations of FITC (50 micrograms/ml) plus light causes a reduction in the adsorption of the virus to monolayers of human embryonic lung cells. For lower concentrations of FITC (10 micrograms/ml) plus light, treated virions adsorb to the host cells, but remain sensitive to light until entry occurs. The loss of light sensitivity coincides with the development of resistance to antibodies. These results are most consistent with a mechanism of entry for herpes simplex virus involving fusion of the viral membrane with the plasma membrane of the host cell. PMID:6262783

  16. Early events in herpes simplex virus type 1 infection: photosensitivity of fluorescein isothiocyanate-treated virions

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, N.; Bzik, D.; Person, S.; Snipes, W.

    1981-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 is photosensitized by treatment with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). The inactivation of FITC-treated virions upon subsequent exposure to light is inhibited by the presence of sodium azide, suggesting the involvement of singlet oxygen in the process. Sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that treatment with FITC plus light induces crosslinks in viral envelope glycoproteins. Treatment of virions with high concentrations of FITC (50 ..mu..g/ml) plus light causes a reduction in the adsorption of the virus to monolayers of human embryonic lung cells. For lower concentrations of FITC (10 ..mu..g/ml) plus light, treated virions adsorb to the host cells, but remain sensitive to light until entry occurs. The loss of light sensitivity coincides with the development of resistance to antibodies. These results are most consistent with a mechanism of entry for herpes simplex virus involving fusion of the viral membrane with the plasma membrane of the host cell.

  17. Neisseria gonorrhoeae-induced human defensins 5 and 6 increase HIV infectivity: role in enhanced transmission.

    PubMed

    Klotman, Mary E; Rapista, Aprille; Teleshova, Natalia; Micsenyi, Amanda; Jarvis, Gary A; Lu, Wuyuan; Porter, Edith; Chang, Theresa L

    2008-05-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) increase the likelihood of HIV transmission. Defensins are part of the innate mucosal immune response to STIs and therefore we investigated their role in HIV infection. We found that human defensins 5 and 6 (HD5 and HD6) promoted HIV infection, and this effect was primarily during viral entry. Enhancement was seen with primary viral isolates in primary CD4(+) T cells and the effect was more pronounced with R5 virus compared with X4 virus. HD5 and HD6 promoted HIV reporter viruses pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus and murine leukemia virus envelopes, indicating that defensin-mediated enhancement was not dependent on CD4 and coreceptors. Enhancement of HIV by HD5 and HD6 was influenced by the structure of the peptides, as loss of the intramolecular cysteine bonds was associated with loss of the HIV-enhancing effect. Pro-HD5, the precursor and intracellular form of HD5, also exhibited HIV-enhancing effect. Using a cervicovaginal tissue culture system, we found that expression of HD5 and HD6 was induced in response to Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC, for gonococcus) infection and that conditioned medium from GC-exposed cervicovaginal epithelial cells with elevated levels of HD5 also enhanced HIV infection. Introduction of small interfering RNAs for HD5 or HD6 abolished the HIV-enhancing effect mediated by GC. Thus, the induction of these defensins in the mucosa in the setting of GC infection could facilitate HIV infection. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the complexity of defensins as innate immune mediators in HIV transmission and warrants further investigation of the mechanism by which defensins modulate HIV infection. PMID:18424739

  18. Structural Lability of Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus Virions

    PubMed Central

    Semenyuk, Pavel I.; Abashkin, Dmitry A.; Kalinina, Natalya O.; Arutyunyan, Alexsandr M.; Solovyev, Andrey G.; Dobrov, Eugeny N.

    2013-01-01

    Virions of Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) were neglected for more than thirty years after their basic properties were determined. In this paper, the physicochemical characteristics of BSMV virions and virion-derived viral capsid protein (CP) were analyzed, namely, the absorption and intrinsic fluorescence spectra, circular dichroism spectra, differential scanning calorimetry curves, and size distributions by dynamic laser light scattering. The structural properties of BSMV virions proved to be intermediate between those of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), a well-characterized virus with rigid rod-shaped virions, and flexuous filamentous plant viruses. The BSMV virions were found to be considerably more labile than expected from their rod-like morphology and a distant sequence relation of the BSMV and TMV CPs. The circular dichroism spectra of BSMV CP subunits incorporated into the virions, but not subunits of free CP, demonstrated a significant proportion of beta-structure elements, which were proposed to be localized mostly in the protein regions exposed on the virion outer surface. These beta-structure elements likely formed during virion assembly can comprise the N- and C-terminal protein regions unstructured in the non-virion CP and can mediate inter-subunit interactions. Based on computer-assisted structure modeling, a model for BSMV CP subunit structural fold compliant with the available experimental data was proposed. PMID:23613760

  19. Autoantibodies induced by chimeric cytokine - HIV envelope glycoprotein immunogens

    PubMed Central

    Isik, Gözde; van Montfort, Thijs; Chung, Nancy P.Y.; Moore, John P.; Sanders, Rogier W.

    2014-01-01

    Cytokines are often used as adjuvants to increase the immunogenicity of vaccines as they can improve the immune response and/or direct it into a desired direction. As an alternative to co-delivering antigens and cytokines separately they can be fused into a composite protein, with the advantage that both moieties act on the same immune cells. The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) spike, located on the outside of virus particles and the only relevant protein for the induction of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), is poorly immunogenic. The induction of anti-Env Abs can be improved by coupling Env proteins to co-stimulatory molecules such as a proliferation inducing ligand (APRIL). Here, we evaluated the immunogenicity of chimeric molecules containing uncleaved Env gp140 fused to the species-matched cytokines IL-21 or GM-CSF in rabbits and mice. Each cytokine was either fused to the C-terminus of Env or embedded within Env at the position of the variable loops 1 and 2 (V1V2). The cytokine components of the chimeric Env-GM-CSF and Env-IL-21 molecules were functional in vitro, but none of the Env-cytokine fusion proteins resulted in improved Ab responses in vivo. Both the Env-GM-CSF and the Env-IL-21 molecules induced strong anti-cytokine Ab responses, in both test species. These autoimmune responses were independent of the location of the cytokine in the chimeric Env molecules; in that they were induced by cytokines inserted within the V1V2 of Env or fused to its Ct. The induction of undesired autoimmune responses should be considered when using cytokines as co-stimulatory molecules in fusion proteins. PMID:24729614

  20. X4 and R5 HIV-1 have distinct post-entry requirements for uracil DNA glycosylase during infection of primary cells.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kate L; Roche, Michael; Gantier, Michael P; Begum, Nasim A; Honjo, Tasuku; Caradonna, Salvatore; Williams, Bryan R G; Mak, Johnson

    2010-06-11

    It has been assumed that R5 and X4 HIV utilize similar strategies to support viral cDNA synthesis post viral entry. In this study, we provide evidence to show that R5 and X4 HIV have distinct requirements for host cell uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG2) during the early stage of infection. UNG2 has been previously implicated in HIV infection, but its precise role remains controversial. In this study we show that, although UNG2 is highly expressed in different cell lines, UNG2 levels are low in the natural host cells of HIV. Short interfering RNA knockdown of endogenous UNG2 in primary cells showed that UNG2 is required for R5 but not X4 HIV infection and that this requirement is bypassed when HIV enters the target cell via vesicular stomatitis virus envelope-glycoprotein-mediated endocytosis. We also show that short interfering RNA knockdown of UNG2 in virus-producing primary cells leads to defective R5 HIV virions that are unable to complete viral cDNA synthesis. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that endogenous UNG2 levels are transiently up-regulated post HIV infection, and this increase in UNG2 mRNA is approximately 10-20 times higher in R5 versus X4 HIV-infected cells. Our data show that both virion-associated UNG2 and HIV infection-induced UNG2 expression are critical for reverse transcription during R5 but not X4 HIV infection. More importantly, we have made the novel observation that R5 and X4 HIV have distinct host cell factor requirements and differential capacities to induce gene expression during the early stages of infection. These differences may result from activation of distinct signaling cascades and/or infection of divergent T-lymphocyte subpopulations. PMID:20371602

  1. X4 and R5 HIV-1 Have Distinct Post-entry Requirements for Uracil DNA Glycosylase during Infection of Primary Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kate L.; Roche, Michael; Gantier, Michael P.; Begum, Nasim A.; Honjo, Tasuku; Caradonna, Salvatore; Williams, Bryan R. G.; Mak, Johnson

    2010-01-01

    It has been assumed that R5 and X4 HIV utilize similar strategies to support viral cDNA synthesis post viral entry. In this study, we provide evidence to show that R5 and X4 HIV have distinct requirements for host cell uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG2) during the early stage of infection. UNG2 has been previously implicated in HIV infection, but its precise role remains controversial. In this study we show that, although UNG2 is highly expressed in different cell lines, UNG2 levels are low in the natural host cells of HIV. Short interfering RNA knockdown of endogenous UNG2 in primary cells showed that UNG2 is required for R5 but not X4 HIV infection and that this requirement is bypassed when HIV enters the target cell via vesicular stomatitis virus envelope-glycoprotein-mediated endocytosis. We also show that short interfering RNA knockdown of UNG2 in virus-producing primary cells leads to defective R5 HIV virions that are unable to complete viral cDNA synthesis. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that endogenous UNG2 levels are transiently up-regulated post HIV infection, and this increase in UNG2 mRNA is ∼10–20 times higher in R5 versus X4 HIV-infected cells. Our data show that both virion-associated UNG2 and HIV infection-induced UNG2 expression are critical for reverse transcription during R5 but not X4 HIV infection. More importantly, we have made the novel observation that R5 and X4 HIV have distinct host cell factor requirements and differential capacities to induce gene expression during the early stages of infection. These differences may result from activation of distinct signaling cascades and/or infection of divergent T-lymphocyte subpopulations. PMID:20371602

  2. HIV binding, penetration, and primary infection in human cervicovaginal tissue

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Diane; Wu, Xiaoyun; Schacker, Timothy; Horbul, Julie; Southern, Peter

    2005-01-01

    We have developed human cervicovaginal organ culture systems to examine the initiating events in HIV transmission after exposure to various sources of HIV infectivity, including semen. Newly infected cells were detected in the cervical submucosa 3–4 days after exposure to a primary HIV isolate. At earlier times, extensive and stable binding occurred when cervical surfaces were exposed to virions or seminal cells. Cervical mucus provided some protection for the endocervical surface, by physically trapping virions and seminal cells. Confocal microscopy combined with 3D surface reconstruction revealed that virions could both bind to the external surface of the cervical epithelium and actually penetrate beneath the epithelial surface. In quantitative assays, pretreatment with a blocking antibody directed against β1 integrin reduced HIV virion binding. Collectively, these results highlight a continuum of complex interactions that occurs when natural sources of HIV infectivity are deposited onto mucosal surfaces in the female reproductive tract. PMID:16061810

  3. Pseudovirion Particles Bearing Native HIV Envelope Trimers Facilitate a Novel Method for Generating Human Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies against HIV

    PubMed Central

    Hicar, Mark D.; Chen, Xuemin; Briney, Bryan; Hammonds, Jason; Wang, Jaang-Jiun; Kalams, Spyros; Spearman, Paul W.; Crowe, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Monomeric HIV envelope vaccines fail to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies or to protect against infection. Neutralizing antibodies against HIV bind to native, functionally active Env trimers on the virion surface. Gag-Env pseudovirions recapitulate the native trimer, and could serve as an effective epitope presentation platform for study of the neutralizing antibody response in HIV-infected individuals. To address if pseudovirions can recapitulate native HIV virion epitope structures, we carefully characterized these particles, concentrating on the antigenic structure of the coreceptor binding site. By blue native gel shift assays, Gag-Env pseudovirions were shown to contain native trimers that were competent for binding to neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. In ELISA, pseudovirions exhibited increased binding of known CD4-induced antibodies following addition of CD4. Using flow cytometric analysis, fluorescently labeled pseudovirions specifically identified a subset of antigen-specific B cells in HIV-infected subjects. Interestingly, the sequence of one of these novel human antibodies, identified during cloning of single HIV-specific B cells and designated 2C6, exhibited homology to mAb 47e, a known anti-CD4-induced coreceptor binding site antibody. The secreted monoclonal antibody 2C6 did not bind monomeric gp120, but specifically bound envelope on pseudovirions. A recombinant form of the antibody 2C6 acted as a CD4-induced epitope-specific antibody in neutralization assays, yet did not bind monomeric gp120. These findings imply specificity against a quaternary epitope presented on the pseudovirion envelope spike. These data demonstrate that Gag-Env pseudovirions recapitulate CD4 and coreceptor binding pocket antigenic structures and can facilitate identification of B cell clones that secrete neutralizing antibodies. PMID:20531016

  4. Antigenic Properties of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Envelope Glycoprotein Gp120 on Virions Bound to Target Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mengistu, Meron; Ray, Krishanu; Lewis, George K.; DeVico, Anthony L.

    2015-01-01

    The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120, undergoes multiple molecular interactions and structural rearrangements during the course of host cell attachment and viral entry, which are being increasingly defined at the atomic level using isolated proteins. In comparison, antigenic markers of these dynamic changes are essentially unknown for single HIV-1 particles bound to target cells. Such markers should indicate how neutralizing and/or non-neutralizing antibodies might interdict infection by either blocking infection or sensitizing host cells for elimination by Fc-mediated effector function. Here we address this deficit by imaging fluorescently labeled CCR5-tropic HIV-1 pseudoviruses using confocal and superresolution microscopy to track the exposure of neutralizing and non-neutralizing epitopes as they appear on single HIV-1 particles bound to target cells. Epitope exposure was followed under conditions permissive or non-permissive for viral entry to delimit changes associated with virion binding from those associated with post-attachment events. We find that a previously unexpected array of gp120 epitopes is exposed rapidly upon target cell binding. This array comprises both neutralizing and non-neutralizing epitopes, the latter being hidden on free virions yet capable of serving as potent targets for Fc-mediated effector function. Under non-permissive conditions for viral entry, both neutralizing and non-neutralizing epitope exposures were relatively static over time for the majority of bound virions. Under entry-permissive conditions, epitope exposure patterns changed over time on subsets of virions that exhibited concurrent variations in virion contents. These studies reveal that bound virions are distinguished by a broad array of both neutralizing and non-neutralizing gp120 epitopes that potentially sensitize a freshly engaged target cell for destruction by Fc-mediated effector function and/or for direct neutralization at a post-binding step. The elucidation of

  5. Insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor is an IFNgamma-inducible microglial protein that facilitates intracellular HIV replication: implications for HIV-induced neurocognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Suh, Hyeon-Sook; Cosenza-Nashat, Melissa; Choi, Namjong; Zhao, Meng-Liang; Li, Jiu-feng; Pollard, Jeffrey W; Jirtle, Randy L; Goldstein, Harris; Lee, Sunhee C

    2010-11-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (IGF2R), also known as cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) receptor, is a transmembrane glycoprotein localized in the trans-Golgi region and is involved in targeting both M6P-bearing enzymes and IGF2 to the lysosomal compartment. During development, IGF2R plays a crucial role in removing excess growth factors from both tissue and blood. Due to the perinatal lethality of the global Igf2r knockout, the function of IGF2R in adults, particularly in the CNS, is not known. We made a novel observation that IGF2R is highly expressed in microglial nodules in human brains with HIV encephalitis. In vitro, microglial IGF2R expression was uniquely enhanced by IFNγ among the several cytokines and TLR ligands examined. Furthermore, in several in vitro models of HIV infection, including human and murine microglia, macrophages, and nonmacrophage cells, IGF2R is repeatedly shown to be a positive regulator of HIV infection. IGF2R RNAi also down-regulated the production of the IP-10 chemokine in HIV-infected human microglia. Injection of VSVg env HIV into mouse brain induced HIV p24 expression in neurons, the only cell type normally expressing IGF2R in the adult brain. Our results demonstrate a novel role for IGF2R as an inducible microglial protein involved in regulation of HIV and chemokine expression. Mice with the Csf1r- driven Igf2r knockout should be useful for the investigation of macrophage-specific IGF2R function. PMID:20889566

  6. Herpes simplex virus virion host shutoff function.

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, A D; Kruper, J A; Frenkel, N

    1988-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) virions contain one or more functions which mediate the shutoff of host protein synthesis and the degradation of host mRNA. HSV type 1 (HSV-1) mutants deficient in the virion shutoff of host protein synthesis (vhs mutants) were isolated and were found to be defective in their ability to degrade host mRNA. Furthermore, it was found that viral mRNAs in cells infected with the vhs 1 mutant have a significantly longer functional half-life than viral mRNAs in wild-type virus-infected cells. In the present study we have mapped the vhs1 mutation affecting the virion shutoff of host protein synthesis to a 265-base-pair NruI-XmaIII fragment spanning map coordinates 0.604 to 0.606 of the HSV-1 genome. The mutation(s) affecting the functional half-lives of host mRNA as well as the alpha (immediate-early), beta (early), and gamma (late) viral mRNAs were also mapped within this 265-base-pair fragment. Thus, the shutoff of host protein synthesis is most likely mediated by the same function which decreases the half-life of viral mRNA. The shorter half-life of infected-cell mRNAs may allow a more rapid modulation of viral gene expression in response to changes in the transcription of viral genes. Interestingly, the vhs1 mutation of HSV-1 maps within a region which overlaps the Bg/II-N sequences of HSV-2 DNA shown previously to transform cells in culture. The possible relationship between the transformation and host shutoff functions are discussed. Images PMID:2828686

  7. Highly potent, synthetically accessible prostratin analogs induce latent HIV expression in vitro and ex vivo

    PubMed Central

    Beans, Elizabeth J.; Fournogerakis, Dennis; Gauntlett, Carolyn; Heumann, Lars V.; Kramer, Rainer; Marsden, Matthew D.; Murray, Danielle; Zack, Jerome A.; Wender, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) decreases plasma viremia below the limits of detection in the majority of HIV-infected individuals, thus serving to slow disease progression. However, HAART targets only actively replicating virus and is unable to eliminate latently infected, resting CD4+ T cells. Such infected cells are potentially capable of reinitiating virus replication upon cessation of HAART, thus leading to viral rebound. Agents that would eliminate these reservoirs, when used in combination with HAART, could thus provide a strategy for the eradication of HIV. Prostratin is a preclinical candidate that induces HIV expression from latently infected CD4+ T cells, potentially leading to their elimination through a virus-induced cytopathic effect or host anti-HIV immunity. Here, we report the synthesis of a series of designed prostratin analogs and report in vitro and ex vivo studies of their activity relevant to induction of HIV expression. Members of this series are up to 100-fold more potent than the preclinical lead (prostratin) in binding to cell-free PKC, and in inducing HIV expression in a latently infected cell line and prostratin-like modulation of cell surface receptor expression in primary cells from HIV-negative donors. Significantly, selected members were also tested for HIV induction in resting CD4+ T cells isolated from infected individuals receiving HAART and were found to exhibit potent induction activity. These more potent agents and by extension related tunable analogs now accessible through the studies described herein should facilitate research and preclinical advancement of this strategy for HIV/AIDS eradication. PMID:23812750

  8. HIV-1 gp120 induces NFAT nuclear translocation in resting CD4+ T-cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cicala, Claudia . E-mail: ccicala@nih.gov; Arthos, James; Censoplano, Nina; Cruz, Catherine; Chung, Eva; Martinelli, Elena; Lempicki, Richard A.; Natarajan, Ven; VanRyk, Donald; Daucher, Marybeth; Fauci, Anthony S.

    2006-02-05

    The replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in CD4+ T-cells is strongly dependent upon the state of activation of infected cells. Infection of sub-optimally activated cells is believed to play a critical role in both the transmission of virus and the persistence of CD4+ T-cell reservoirs. There is accumulating evidence that HIV can modulate signal-transduction pathways in a manner that may facilitate replication in such cells. We previously demonstrated that HIV gp120 induces virus replication in resting CD4+ T cells isolated from HIV-infected individuals. Here, we show that in resting CD4+ T-cells, gp120 activates NFATs and induces their translocation into the nucleus. The HIV LTR encodes NFAT recognition sites, and NFATs may play a critical role in promoting viral replication in sub-optimally activated cells. These observations provide insight into a potential mechanism by which HIV is able to establish infection in resting cells, which may have implications for both transmission of HIV and the persistence of viral reservoirs.

  9. Quantitation of HLA Class II Protein Incorporated into Human Immunodeficiency Type 1 Virions Purified by Anti-CD45 Immunoaffinity Depletion of Microvesicles

    PubMed Central

    Trubey, Charles M.; Chertova, Elena; Coren, Lori V.; Hilburn, Joanne M.; Hixson, Catherine V.; Nagashima, Kunio; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Ott, David E.

    2003-01-01

    Among the many host cell-derived proteins found in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), HLA class II (HLA-II) appears to be selectively incorporated onto virions and may contribute to mechanisms of indirect imunopathogenesis in HIV infection and AIDS. However, the amount of HLA-II on the surface of HIV-1 particles has not been reliably determined due to contamination of virus preparations by microvesicles containing host cell proteins, including HLA-II. Even rigorous sucrose density centrifugation is unable to completely separate HIV-1 from microvesicles. CD45, a leukocyte integral membrane protein, is found on microvesicles, yet appears to be excluded from HIV-1 particles. Exploiting this observation, we have developed a CD45-based immunoaffinity depletion method for removing CD45-containing microvesicles that yields highly purified preparations of virions. Examination of CD45-depleted HIV-1MN by high-pressure liquid chromatography, protein sequencing, and amino acid analyses determined a molar ratio of HLA-II to Gag of 0.04 to 0.05 in the purified virions, corresponding to an estimated average of 50 to 63 native HLA-II complexes (i.e., a dimer of α and β heterodimers) per virion. These values are approximately 5- to 10-fold lower than those previously determined for other virion preparations that contained microvesicles. Our observations demonstrate the utility of CD45 immunoaffinity-based approaches for producing highly purified retrovirus preparations for applications that would benefit from the use of virus that is essentially free of microvesicles. PMID:14610192

  10. Designed, synthetically accessible bryostatin analogues potently induce activation of latent HIV reservoirs in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechristopher, Brian A.; Loy, Brian A.; Marsden, Matthew D.; Schrier, Adam J.; Zack, Jerome A.; Wender, Paul A.

    2012-09-01

    Bryostatin is a unique lead in the development of potentially transformative therapies for cancer, Alzheimer's disease and the eradication of HIV/AIDS. However, the clinical use of bryostatin has been hampered by its limited supply, difficulties in accessing clinically relevant derivatives, and side effects. Here, we address these problems through the step-economical syntheses of seven members of a new family of designed bryostatin analogues using a highly convergent Prins-macrocyclization strategy. We also demonstrate for the first time that such analogues effectively induce latent HIV activation in vitro with potencies similar to or better than bryostatin. Significantly, these analogues are up to 1,000-fold more potent in inducing latent HIV expression than prostratin, the current clinical candidate for latent virus induction. This study provides the first demonstration that designed, synthetically accessible bryostatin analogues could serve as superior candidates for the eradication of HIV/AIDS through induction of latent viral reservoirs in conjunction with current antiretroviral therapy.

  11. [Research Advances in Baculovirus Occlusion-derived Virions].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shimao; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Baculoviruses are a family of arthropod-specific viruses that produce two morphologically distinct types of virions (budded and occlusion-derived) in their lifecycle. Baculoviruses establish infection in the midgut of their host via the oral route: occlusion-derived virions have pivotal roles in these processes. This review summarizes the basic characteristics of baculoviruses, and discusses the composition and classification of baculovirus occlusion-derived virions. The latter focuses mainly on the evolution and role of multiple occlusion-derived virions in the lifecycle of baculoviruses. These achievements should aid understanding the evolution and infection mechanisms of baculoviruses. PMID:27295890

  12. STAT1 signaling modulates HIV-1-induced inflammatory responses and leukocyte transmigration across the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Anathbandhu; Yang, Bo; Gendelman, Howard E; Persidsky, Yuri; Kanmogne, Georgette D

    2008-02-15

    The relationship among neuroinflammation, blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, and progressive HIV-1 infection as they affect the onset and development of neuroAIDS is incompletely understood. One possible link is signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) pathways. These respond to proinflammatory and regulatory factors and could affect neuroinflammatory responses induced from infected cells and disease-affected brain tissue. Our previous works demonstrated that HIV-1 activates pro-inflammatory and interferon-alpha-inducible genes in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) and that these genes are linked to the Janus kinase (JAK)/STAT pathway. We now demonstrate that HIV-1 activates STAT1, induces IL-6 expression, and diminishes expression of claudin-5, ZO-1, and ZO-2 in HBMECs. The STAT1 inhibitor, fludarabine, blocked HIV-1-induced IL-6, diminished HIV-1-induced claudin-5 and ZO-1 down-regulation, and blocked HIV-1- and IL-6-induced monocyte migration across a BBB model. Enhanced expression and activation of STAT1 and decreased claudin-5 were observed in microvessels from autopsied brains of patients with HIV-1-associated dementia. These data support the notion that STAT1 plays an integral role in HIV-1-induced BBB damage and is relevant to viral neuropathogenesis. Inhibition of STAT1 activation could provide a unique therapeutic strategy to attenuate HIV-1-induced BBB compromise and as such improve clinical outcomes. PMID:18003888

  13. Drug-Induced Reactivation of Apoptosis Abrogates HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hanauske-Abel, Hartmut M.; Saxena, Deepti; Palumbo, Paul E.; Hanauske, Axel-Rainer; Luchessi, Augusto D.; Cambiaghi, Tavane D.; Hoque, Mainul; Spino, Michael; Gandolfi, Darlene D'Alliessi; Heller, Debra S.; Singh, Sukhwinder; Park, Myung Hee; Cracchiolo, Bernadette M.; Tricta, Fernando; Connelly, John; Popowicz, Anthony M.; Cone, Richard A.; Holland, Bart; Pe’ery, Tsafi; Mathews, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 blocks apoptosis, programmed cell death, an innate defense of cells against viral invasion. However, apoptosis can be selectively reactivated in HIV-infected cells by chemical agents that interfere with HIV-1 gene expression. We studied two globally used medicines, the topical antifungal ciclopirox and the iron chelator deferiprone, for their effect on apoptosis in HIV-infected H9 cells and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with clinical HIV-1 isolates. Both medicines activated apoptosis preferentially in HIV-infected cells, suggesting that the drugs mediate escape from the viral suppression of defensive apoptosis. In infected H9 cells, ciclopirox and deferiprone enhanced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, initiating the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis to execution, as evidenced by caspase-3 activation, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase proteolysis, DNA degradation, and apoptotic cell morphology. In isolate-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells, ciclopirox collapsed HIV-1 production to the limit of viral protein and RNA detection. Despite prolonged monotherapy, ciclopirox did not elicit breakthrough. No viral re-emergence was observed even 12 weeks after drug cessation, suggesting elimination of the proviral reservoir. Tests in mice predictive for cytotoxicity to human epithelia did not detect tissue damage or activation of apoptosis at a ciclopirox concentration that exceeded by orders of magnitude the concentration causing death of infected cells. We infer that ciclopirox and deferiprone act via therapeutic reclamation of apoptotic proficiency (TRAP) in HIV-infected cells and trigger their preferential elimination. Perturbations in viral protein expression suggest that the antiretroviral activity of both drugs stems from their ability to inhibit hydroxylation of cellular proteins essential for apoptosis and for viral infection, exemplified by eIF5A. Our findings identify ciclopirox and deferiprone as prototypes of selectively cytocidal

  14. Lifetime Induced Abortion: A Comparison between Women Living and Not Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Pilecco, Flávia Bulegon; Teixeira, Luciana Barcellos; Vigo, Álvaro; Dewey, Michael E.; Knauth, Daniela Riva

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies aimed at understanding the association between induced abortion and HIV are scarce and differ on the direction of the association. This paper aims to show the prevalence of induced abortion in a sample of pregnancies of women living and not living with HIV/Aids, determining variables associated with pregnancy termination and linked to the life course of women and to the specific context of the pregnancy. Methods Data came from a cross-sectional study, using interviewer-administered questionnaire, developed with women that attended public health services in Porto Alegre, Brazil. A generalized estimating equation model with logit link measured the association between determinants and abortion. Findings The final sample was composed of 684 women living with HIV/Aids (2,039 pregnancies) and 639 women not living with HIV/Aids (1,539 pregnancies). The prevalence of induced abortion among pregnancies in women living with HIV/Aids was 6.5%, while in women not living with HIV/Aids was 2.9%. Among women living with HIV/Aids, the following were associated with induced abortion in the multivariable analysis: being older, having a higher education level, having had more sexual partners (i.e., variables linked to the life course of women), having had children prior to the index pregnancy and living with a sexual partner during pregnancy (i.e., variables linked to the context of each pregnancy). On the other hand, among women not living with HIV/Aids, only having a higher education level and having had more sexual partners (i.e., determinants linked to the life course of women) were associated with voluntary pregnancy termination in multivariable analysis. Conclusion Although determinants are similar between women living and not living with HIV/Aids, prevalence of induced abortion is higher among pregnancies in women living with HIV/Aids, pointing to their greater social vulnerability and to the need for public policy to address prevention and treatment of HIV

  15. Both necrosis and apoptosis contribute to HIV-1-induced killing of CD4 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plymale, D. R.; Tang, D. S.; Comardelle, A. M.; Fermin, C. D.; Lewis, D. E.; Garry, R. F.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data currently available on HIV-1-induced cytopathology is unclear regarding the mechanism of cell killing. OBJECTIVE: To clarify the extent to which apoptosis or necrosis is involved in HIV-1-induced cell death in view of conflicting existing data. METHODS: T lymphoblastoid cells or peripheral blood mononuclear cells were infected by various strains of HIV-1 and the numbers of apoptotic or necrotic cells were quantified at various times after infection using video-image analysis techniques; the results were compared with the amount of fragmented DNA using a quantitative method. Measurement of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (deltapsi(m)) and intracellular calcium concentrations [Ca2+]i was performed with fluorescent probes and fluorescence concentration analysis (FCA). RESULTS: Although lymphoblastoid and monocytoid cells acutely infected by HIV-1 had increased levels of fragmented DNA, a marker of apoptotic cell death, few (<12%) had condensed chromatin and fragmented nuclei, the morphological features of apoptosis. The predominant alterations in acutely infected cells were distended endoplasmic reticulum and abnormal mitochondria; these ultrastructural changes are consistent with necrosis, although some infected cells simultaneously displayed features of both necrosis and apoptosis. Viability of cells persistently infected by HIV-1 was only minimally reduced from that of uninfected cells. This reduction was accounted for by an increased propensity of the persistently infected cells to die by apoptosis. Alterations in [Ca2+]i and deltapsi(m) occurred in both acutely and persistently infected cells. CONCLUSION: Both necrosis and apoptosis contribute to HIV-1-induced killing of CD4 cells.

  16. HIV

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Sumit; Sahoo, Soumya Swaroop; Jain, Rambilas; Khanna, Pardeep; Mehta, Bharti; Singh, Inderjeet

    2014-01-01

    Getting to zero: zero new HIV infections, zero deaths from AIDS-related illness, zero discrimination is the theme of World AIDS Day 2012. Given the spread of the epidemic today, getting to zero may sound difficult, but significant progress is underway. The total annual loss for the entire country due to HIV is 7% of GDP, which exceeds India’s annual health expenditure in 2004. The additional loss due to loss of labor income and increased medical expenditure as measured by the external transfers, account for 5% of the country’s health expenditure and 0.23% of GDP. Given that the HIV incidence rate is only 0.27% in India, these losses are quite staggering. Despite the remarkable achievements in development of anti-retroviral therapies against HIV and the recent advances in new prevention technologies, the rate of new HIV infections continue to outpace efforts on HIV prevention and control. Thus, the development of a safe and effective vaccine for prevention and control of AIDS remains a global public health priority and the greatest opportunity to eventually end the AIDS pandemic. PMID:24056755

  17. Complement opsonization of HIV-1 results in a different intracellular processing pattern and enhanced MHC class I presentation by dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Tjomsland, Veronica; Ellegård, Rada; Burgener, Adam; Mogk, Kenzie; Che, Karlhans F; Westmacott, Garrett; Hinkula, Jorma; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Larsson, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Induction of optimal HIV-1-specific T-cell responses, which can contribute to controlling viral infection in vivo, depends on antigen processing and presentation processes occurring in DCs. Opsonization can influence the routing of antigen processing and pathways used for presentation. We studied antigen proteolysis and the role of endocytic receptors in MHC class I (MHCI) and II (MHCII) presentation of antigens derived from HIV-1 in human monocyte-derived immature DCs (IDCs) and mature DCs, comparing free and complement opsonized HIV-1 particles. Opsonization of virions promoted MHCI presentation by DCs, indicating that complement opsonization routes more virions toward the MHCI presentation pathway. Blockade of macrophage mannose receptor (MMR) and β7-integrin enhanced MHCI and MHCII presentation by IDCs and mature DCs, whereas the block of complement receptor 3 decreased MHCI and MHCII presentation. In addition, we found that IDC and MDC proteolytic activities were modulated by HIV-1 exposure; complement-opsonized HIV-1 induced an increased proteasome activity in IDCs. Taken together, these findings indicate that endocytic receptors such as MMR, complement receptor 3, and β7-integrin can promote or disfavor antigen presentation probably by routing HIV-1 into different endosomal compartments with distinct efficiencies for degradation of viral antigens and MHCI and MHCII presentation, and that HIV-1 affects the antigen-processing machinery. PMID:23526630

  18. HIV-1 Induced Nuclear Factor I-B (NF-IB) Expression Negatively Regulates HIV-1 Replication through Interaction with the Long Terminal Repeat Region

    PubMed Central

    Vemula, Sai Vikram; Veerasamy, Ravichandran; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Biswas, Santanu; Devadas, Krishnakumar; Hewlett, Indira

    2015-01-01

    Background: Retroviruses rely on host factors for cell entry, replication, transcription, and other major steps during their life cycle. Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) is well known for utilizing a plethora of strategies to evade the host immune response, including the establishment of latent infection within a subpopulation of susceptible cells. HIV-1 also manipulates cellular factors in latently infected cells and persists for long periods of time, despite the presence of successful highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Results: In this study we demonstrate that Nuclear Factor-IB (NF-IB) is induced during HIV-1 infection and its expression negatively impacts viral replication. During HIV-1 infection in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and the T cell line, Jurkat or during induction of virus replication in latently infected cells, ACH2 and J1.1, we observed a time-dependent alteration in NF-IB expression pattern that correlated with HIV-1 viral expression. Using the Chip assay, we observed an association of NF-IB with the long terminal repeat region of HIV-1 (LTR) (-386 to -453 nt), and this association negatively correlated with HIV-1 transcription. Furthermore, knock-down of NF-IB levels in J1.1 cells resulted in an increase of HIV-1 levels. Knock-down of NF-IB levels in J-Lat-Tat-GFP (A1), (a Jurkat cell GFP reporter model for latent HIV-1 infection) resulted in an increase in GFP levels, indicating a potential negative regulatory role of NF-IB in HIV-1 replication. Conclusion: Overall, our results suggest that NF-IB may play a role in intrinsic antiretroviral defenses against HIV-1. These observations may offer new insights into the correlation of the latently infected host cell types and HIV-1, and help to define new therapeutic approaches for triggering the switch from latency to active replication thereby eliminating HIV-1 latent infection. PMID:25664610

  19. The HIV matrix protein p17 induces hepatic lipid accumulation via modulation of nuclear receptor transcriptoma

    PubMed Central

    Renga, Barbara; Francisci, Daniela; Carino, Adriana; Marchianò, Silvia; Cipriani, Sabrina; Chiara Monti, Maria; Del Sordo, Rachele; Schiaroli, Elisabetta; Distrutti, Eleonora; Baldelli, Franco; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Liver disease is the second most common cause of mortality in HIV-infected persons. Exactly how HIV infection per se affects liver disease progression is unknown. Here we have investigated mRNA expression of 49 nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) and 35 transcriptional coregulators in HepG2 cells upon stimulation with the HIV matrix protein p17. This viral protein regulated mRNA expression of some NRs among which LXRα and its transcriptional co-activator MED1 were highly induced at mRNA level. Dissection of p17 downstream intracellular pathway demonstrated that p17 mediated activation of Jak/STAT signaling is responsible for the promoter dependent activation of LXR. The treatment of both HepG2 as well as primary hepatocytes with HIV p17 results in the transcriptional activation of LXR target genes (SREBP1c and FAS) and lipid accumulation. These effects are lost in HepG2 cells pre-incubated with a serum from HIV positive person who underwent a vaccination with a p17 peptide as well as in HepG2 cells pre-incubated with the natural LXR antagonist gymnestrogenin. These results suggest that HIV p17 affects NRs and their related signal transduction thus contributing to the progression of liver disease in HIV infected patients. PMID:26469385

  20. Antibodies of symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals are directed to the V3 domain of noninfectious and not of infectious virions present in autologous serum.

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, M; Petersen, H; Wachsmuth, C; Müller, H; Hufert, F T; Schmitz, H

    1994-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the antibody specificity for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) V3 domains of infectious and noninfectious virions present in the serum of AIDS patients. To accomplish this, HIV-1 was isolated in the presence of autologous antibodies from the serum samples of six AIDS patients in HIV-1-negative donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells by short-term cultivation. The isolated virus, defined as the infectious cell-free virus (iCFV), was characterized by sequence analysis of the proviral DNA coding for the third hypervariable (V3) region of the external glycoprotein gp120. This was carried out by amplifying and cloning the V3 region. In all six cases studied, 20 randomly selected V3 clones derived from the proviral DNA of the iCFV, 20 clones from patient cell-free virus, and 20 clones from cell-integrated virus were sequenced to study the distribution and frequency of the intrapatient virus population. The number of major virus variants in the six patients ranged from three to nine. The various V3 sequences found in the AIDS patients showed the typical amino acid pattern of the syncytium-inducing and non-syncytium-inducing viral phenotypes characteristic for the late stage of infection. However, only one patient-specific iCFV variant was detected within the 20 V3 clones analyzed per virus isolation. For the six patients a total of 34 V3-loop variants, either iCFV or non-iCFV, was observed. All 34 V3-loop sequences were expressed as glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins (V3-GST). The autologous antibody response to the V3-GST fusion proteins was studied by Western immunoblot analysis. A strong antibody response to almost all non-iCFV V3-GST proteins was found in the sera of the six patients. In contrast, the autologous antibody response to the six iCFV V3 loops was undetectable (in four patients) or very faint (in two patients) compared with that to the non-iCFV V3 loops. Five of the six iCFV loops showed

  1. HIV infection induces morphometrical changes on the oral (buccal mucosa and tongue) epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pompermayer, Adriane Bastos; Gil, Francisca Berenice Dias; França, Beatriz Helena Sottile; Machado, Maria Ângela Naval; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina; Fernandes, Angela; de Lima, Antônio Adilson Soares

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess morphological and morphometrical alterations of oral squamous epithelial cells in type 1 HIV infected individuals. Oral smears were collected from tongue and buccal mucosa of 30 HIV infected (experimental) and 30 non-infected (control) individuals by liquid-based exfoliative cytology. The cells were morphologically analyzed and the nuclear area (NA), the cytoplasmic area (CA) and the nucleus-to-cytoplasm area ratio (NA/CA) were calculated. No morphological differences were found between the groups. The mean values of CA were decreased in tongue (P=.00006) and buccal mucosa (P=.00242) in HIV infected individual, while mean values of NA were increased (P=.00308 and .00095, respectively) in the same group. NA/CA ratio for experimental group was increased in both collected places, with P=.00001 (tongue) and P=.00000 (buccal mucosa). This study revealed that HIV infection was able to induce morphometrical changes on the oral epithelial cells. PMID:21198427

  2. Long noncoding RNA NRON contributes to HIV-1 latency by specifically inducing tat protein degradation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Chen, Cancan; Ma, Xiancai; Geng, Guannan; Liu, Bingfeng; Zhang, Yijun; Zhang, Shaoyang; Zhong, Fudi; Liu, Chao; Yin, Yue; Cai, Weiping; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play multiple key regulatory roles in various cellular pathways. However, their functions in HIV-1 latent infection remain largely unknown. Here we show that a lncRNA named NRON, which is highly expressed in resting CD4+ T lymphocytes, could be involved in HIV-1 latency by specifically inducing Tat protein degradation. Our results suggest that NRON lncRNA potently suppresses the viral transcription by decreasing the cellular abundance of viral transactivator protein Tat. NRON directly links Tat to the ubiquitin/proteasome components including CUL4B and PSMD11, thus facilitating Tat degradation. Depletion of NRON, especially in combination with a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, significantly reactivates the viral production from the HIV-1-latently infected primary CD4+ T lymphocytes. Our data indicate that lncRNAs play a role in HIV-1 latency and their manipulation could be a novel approach for developing latency-reversing agents. PMID:27291871

  3. New Approach for Inhibition of HIV Entry: Modifying CD4 Binding Sites by Thiolated Pyrimidine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Kanizsai, Szilvia; Ongrádi, József; Aradi, János; Nagy, Károly

    2016-07-01

    Thiolated pyrimidine derivatives have been synthetized and their antiretroviral effect against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1IIIB) and HIV-1 chimeric pseudovirions have been quantitatively determined in cell-based viral infectivity assays including syncytium inhibition assay as well as a single-cycle viral infection assay on HeLaCD4-LTR/ß-gal cells. Pseudotype virions prepared bearing HIV-1 envelope preference for CCR5 coreceptor, CXCR4 coreceptor or for both, respectively, with a HIV-1 core containing luciferase reporter gene were able to infect susceptible cells but are replication defective so unable to replicate in the cells . Data indicate that thiolated pyrimidine derivatives inhibited effectively virally induced cell fusion in vitro as well as infectivity of primary HIV-1IIIB strain and HIV-1 pseudovirions using chemokine receptors CCR5 or CXCR4 or both for virus entry a dose dependent manner. Inhibition was selective, depended on the pseudovirus coreceptor preference. Our results suggest that some of these sulfur containing pyrimidines interact with redoxactive -SH groups required for successful HIV entry, including a redox active disulfide in the CD4 molecule as well as -SH groups in HIV viral envelope gp120. This mode of action is unique representing a new class of potential HIV entry inhibitors. PMID:26860867

  4. Dimethyl fumarate, an immune modulator and inducer of the antioxidant response, suppresses HIV replication and macrophage-mediated neurotoxicity; a novel candidate for HIV-neuroprotection1

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Stephanie A.; Cook, Denise R.; Chi, Anthony W.S.; Vance, Patricia J.; Kolson, Lorraine L.; Wong, Bethany J.; Jordan-Sciutto, Kelly L.; Kolson, Dennis L.

    2011-01-01

    Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV infection promotes cognitive dysfunction and neurodegeneration through persistent inflammation and neurotoxin release from infected and/or activated macrophages/microglia. Furthermore, inflammation and immune activation within both the central nervous system (CNS) and periphery correlate with disease progression and morbidity in ART-treated individuals. Accordingly, drugs targeting these pathological processes in the CNS and systemic compartments are needed for effective, adjunctive therapy. Using our in vitro model of HIV-mediated neurotoxicity, in which HIV infected monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) release excitatory neurotoxins, we show that HIV infection dysregulates the macrophage antioxidant response and reduces levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Furthermore, restoration of HO-1 expression in HIV-infected MDM reduces neurotoxin release without altering HIV replication. Given these novel observations, we have identified dimethyl fumarate (DMF), used to treat psoriasis and showing promising results in clinical trials for multiple sclerosis, as a potential neuroprotectant and HIV disease-modifying agent. DMF, an immune modulator and inducer of the antioxidant response, suppresses HIV replication and neurotoxin release. Two distinct mechanisms are proposed; inhibition of NF-κB nuclear translocation and signaling, which could contribute to the suppression of HIV replication, and induction of HO-1, which is associated with decreased neurotoxin release. Finally, we found that DMF attenuates CCL2-induced monocyte chemotaxis, suggesting that DMF could decrease recruitment of activated monocytes to the CNS in response to inflammatory mediators. We propose that dysregulation of the antioxidant response during HIV infection drives macrophage-mediated neurotoxicity and that DMF could serve as an adjunctive neuroprotectant and HIV disease modifier in ART-treated individuals. PMID:21976775

  5. HIV-1 Nef Inhibits Ruffles, Induces Filopodia, and Modulates Migration of Infected Lymphocytes▿

    PubMed Central

    Nobile, Cinzia; Rudnicka, Dominika; Hasan, Milena; Aulner, Nathalie; Porrot, Françoise; Machu, Christophe; Renaud, Olivier; Prévost, Marie-Christine; Hivroz, Claire; Schwartz, Olivier; Sol-Foulon, Nathalie

    2010-01-01

    The HIV-1 Nef protein is a pathogenic factor modulating the behavior of infected cells. Nef induces actin cytoskeleton changes and impairs cell migration toward chemokines. We further characterized the morphology, cytoskeleton dynamics, and motility of HIV-1-infected lymphocytes. By using scanning electron microscopy, confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, and ImageStream technology, which combines flow cytometry and automated imaging, we report that HIV-1 induces a characteristic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. In infected lymphocytes, ruffle formation is inhibited, whereas long, thin filopodium-like protrusions are induced. Cells infected with HIV with nef deleted display a normal phenotype, and Nef expression alone, in the absence of other viral proteins, induces morphological changes. We also used an innovative imaging system to immobilize and visualize living individual cells in suspension. When combined with confocal “axial tomography,” this technique greatly enhances three-dimensional optical resolution. With this technique, we confirmed the induction of long filopodium-like structures in unfixed Nef-expressing lymphocytes. The cytoskeleton reorganization induced by Nef is associated with an important impairment of cell movements. The adhesion and spreading of infected cells to fibronectin, their spontaneous motility, and their migration toward chemokines (CXCL12, CCL3, and CCL19) were all significantly decreased. Therefore, Nef induces complex effects on the lymphocyte actin cytoskeleton and cellular morphology, which likely impacts the capacity of infected cells to circulate and to encounter and communicate with bystander cells. PMID:20015995

  6. Structure of avian orthoreovirus virion by electron cryomicroscopy and image reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xing; Tang Jinghua; Walker, Stephen B.; O'Hara, David; Nibert, Max L. . E-mail: mnibert@hms.harvard.edu; Duncan, Roy . E-mail: roy.duncan@dal.ca; Baker, Timothy S. . E-mail: tsb@chem.ucsd.edu

    2005-12-05

    Among members of the genus Orthoreovirus, family Reoviridae, a group of non-enveloped viruses with genomes comprising ten segments of double-stranded RNA, only the 'non-fusogenic' mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs) have been studied to date by electron cryomicroscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction. In addition to MRVs, this genus comprises other species that induce syncytium formation in cultured cells, a property shared with members of the related genus Aquareovirus. To augment studies of these 'fusogenic' orthoreoviruses, we used electron cryomicroscopy and image reconstruction to analyze the virions of a fusogenic avian orthoreovirus (ARV). The structure of the ARV virion, determined from data at an effective resolution of 14.6 A, showed strong similarities to that of MRVs. Of particular note, the ARV virion has its pentameric {lambda}-class core turret protein in a closed conformation as in MRVs, not in a more open conformation as reported for aquareovirus. Similarly, the ARV virion contains 150 copies of its monomeric {sigma}-class core-nodule protein as in MRVs, not 120 copies as reported for aquareovirus. On the other hand, unlike that of MRVs, the ARV virion lacks 'hub-and-spokes' complexes within the solvent channels at sites of local sixfold symmetry in the incomplete T = 13l outer capsid. In MRVs, these complexes are formed by C-terminal sequences in the trimeric {mu}-class outer-capsid protein, sequences that are genetically missing from the homologous protein of ARVs. The channel structures and C-terminal sequences of the homologous outer-capsid protein are also genetically missing from aquareoviruses. Overall, the results place ARVs between MRVs and aquareoviruses with respect to the highlighted features.

  7. HIV-1 Assembly, Budding, and Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Sundquist, Wesley I.; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg

    2012-01-01

    A defining property of retroviruses is their ability to assemble into particles that can leave producer cells and spread infection to susceptible cells and hosts. Virion morphogenesis can be divided into three stages: assembly, wherein the virion is created and essential components are packaged; budding, wherein the virion crosses the plasma membrane and obtains its lipid envelope; and maturation, wherein the virion changes structure and becomes infectious. All of these stages are coordinated by the Gag polyprotein and its proteolytic maturation products, which function as the major structural proteins of the virus. Here, we review our current understanding of the mechanisms of HIV-1 assembly, budding, and maturation, starting with a general overview and then providing detailed descriptions of each of the different stages of virion morphogenesis. PMID:22762019

  8. 8-Modified-2′-Deoxyadenosine Analogues Induce Delayed Polymerization Arrest during HIV-1 Reverse Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Sleiman, Marwan; Smyth, Redmond; Ben Gaied, Nouha; Barhoum, Patrick; Laumond, Géraldine; Bec, Guillaume; Götte, Matthias; Mak, Johnson; Aubertin, Anne-Marie; Burger, Alain; Marquet, Roland

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of resistant viruses to any of the anti-HIV-1 compounds used in the current therapies against AIDS underlies the urge for the development of new drug targets and/or new drugs acting through novel mechanisms. While all anti-HIV-1 nucleoside analogues in clinical use and in clinical trials rely on ribose modifications for activity, we designed nucleosides with a natural deoxyribose moiety and modifications of position 8 of the adenine base. Such modifications might induce a steric clash with helix αH in the thumb domain of the p66 subunit of HIV-1 RT at a distance from the catalytic site, causing delayed chain termination. Eleven new 2′-deoxyadenosine analogues modified on position 8 of the purine base were synthesized and tested in vitro and in cell-based assays. In this paper we demonstrate for the first time that chemical modifications on position 8 of 2′-deoxyadenosine induce delayed chain termination in vitro, and also inhibit DNA synthesis when incorporated in a DNA template strand. Furthermore, one of them had moderate anti-HIV-1 activity in cell-culture. Our results constitute a proof of concept indicating that modification on the base moiety of nucleosides can induce delayed polymerization arrest and inhibit HIV-1 replication. PMID:22087320

  9. Human tissue mast cells are an inducible reservoir of persistent HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Sundstrom, J Bruce; Ellis, Jane E; Hair, Gregory A; Kirshenbaum, Arnold S; Metcalfe, Dean D; Yi, Hong; Cardona, Adriana C; Lindsay, Michael K; Ansari, Aftab A

    2007-06-15

    We have proposed that, unlike other HIV-vulnerable cell lineages, progenitor mast cells (prMCs), cultured in vitro from undifferentiated bone marrow-derived CD34(+) pluripotent progenitors (PPPs), are susceptible to infection during a limited period of their ontogeny. As infected prMCs mature in culture, they lose expression of viral chemokine coreceptors necessary for viral entry and develop into long-lived, latently infected mature tissue mast cells (MCs), resistant to new infection. In vivo recruitment of prMCs to different tissue compartments occurs in response to tissue injury, growth, and remodeling or allergic inflammation, allowing populations of circulating and potentially HIV-susceptible prMCs to spread persistent infection to diverse tissue compartments. In this report, we provide in vivo evidence to confirm this model by demonstrating that HIV-infected women have both circulating prMCs and placental tissue MCs (PLMCs) that harbor inducible infectious HIV even after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) during pregnancy. Furthermore, infectious virus, capable of infecting alloactivated fetal cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs), could be induced in isolated latently infected PLMCs after weeks in culture in vitro. These data provide the first in vivo evidence that tissue MCs, developed from infected circulating prMCs, comprise a long-lived inducible reservoir of persistent HIV in infected persons during HAART. PMID:17351109

  10. Human tissue mast cells are an inducible reservoir of persistent HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Jane E.; Hair, Gregory A.; Kirshenbaum, Arnold S.; Metcalfe, Dean D.; Yi, Hong; Cardona, Adriana C.; Lindsay, Michael K.; Ansari, Aftab A.

    2007-01-01

    We have proposed that, unlike other HIV-vulnerable cell lineages, progenitor mast cells (prMCs), cultured in vitro from undifferentiated bone marrow–derived CD34+ pluripotent progenitors (PPPs), are susceptible to infection during a limited period of their ontogeny. As infected prMCs mature in culture, they lose expression of viral chemokine coreceptors necessary for viral entry and develop into long-lived, latently infected mature tissue mast cells (MCs), resistant to new infection. In vivo recruitment of prMCs to different tissue compartments occurs in response to tissue injury, growth, and remodeling or allergic inflammation, allowing populations of circulating and potentially HIV-susceptible prMCs to spread persistent infection to diverse tissue compartments. In this report, we provide in vivo evidence to confirm this model by demonstrating that HIV-infected women have both circulating prMCs and placental tissue MCs (PLMCs) that harbor inducible infectious HIV even after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) during pregnancy. Furthermore, infectious virus, capable of infecting alloactivated fetal cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs), could be induced in isolated latently infected PLMCs after weeks in culture in vitro. These data provide the first in vivo evidence that tissue MCs, developed from infected circulating prMCs, comprise a long-lived inducible reservoir of persistent HIV in infected persons during HAART. PMID:17351109

  11. Microbial exposure alters HIV-1-induced mucosal CD4+ T cell death pathways Ex vivo

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Early HIV-1 infection causes massive CD4+ T cell death in the gut and translocation of bacteria into the circulation. However, the programmed cell death (PCD) pathways used by HIV-1 to kill CD4+ T cells in the gut, and the impact of microbial exposure on T cell loss, remain unclear. Understanding mucosal HIV-1 triggered PCD could be advanced by an ex vivo system involving lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs). We therefore modeled the interactions of gut LPMCs, CCR5-tropic HIV-1 and a commensal gut bacterial species, Escherichia coli. In this Lamina Propria Aggregate Culture (LPAC) model, LPMCs were infected with HIV-1BaL by spinoculation and cultured in the presence or absence of heat killed E.coli. CD4+ T cell numbers derived from flow cytometry and viable cell counts were reported relative to mock infection. Viable cells were identified by viability dye exclusion (AqVi), and intracellular HIV-1 Gag p24 protein was used to identify infected cells. Annexin V and AqVi were used to identify apoptotic versus necrotic cells. Caspase-1 and Caspase-3 activities were blocked using specific inhibitors YVAD and DEVD, respectively. Results CD4+ T cell depletion following HIV-1 infection was reproducibly observed by 6 days post infection (dpi). Depletion at 6 dpi strongly correlated with infection frequency at 4 dpi, was significantly blocked by Efavirenz treatment, and was primarily driven by p24-negative cells that were predominantly necrotic. HIV-1 infection significantly induced CD4+ T-cell intrinsic Caspase-1 activity, whereas Caspase-1 inhibition, but not Caspase-3 inhibition, significantly blocked CD4+ T cell depletion. Exposure to E.coli enhanced HIV-1 infection and CD4+ T depletion, and significantly increased the number of apoptotic p24+ cells. Notably, CD4+ T cell depletion in the presence of E.coli was partially blocked by Caspase-3, but not by Caspase-1 inhibition. Conclusions In the LPAC model, HIV-1 induced Caspase-1 mediated pyroptosis in

  12. The E6 protein from vaccinia virus is required for the formation of immature virions

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Olga; Turner, Peter C.; Moyer, Richard W.; Condit, Richard C.; Moussatche, Nissin

    2010-04-10

    An IPTG-inducible mutant in the E6R gene of vaccinia virus was used to study the role of the E6 virion core protein in viral replication. In the absence of the inducer, the mutant exhibited a normal pattern DNA replication, concatemer resolution and late gene expression, but it showed an inhibition of virion structural protein processing it failed to produce infectious particles. Electron microscopic analysis showed that in the absence of IPTG viral morphogenesis was arrested before IV formation: crescents, aberrant or empty IV-like structures, and large aggregated virosomes were observed throughout the cytoplasm. The addition of IPTG to release a 12-h block showed that virus infectious particles could be formed in the absence of de novo DNA synthesis. Our observations show that in the absence of E6 the association of viroplasm with viral membrane crescents is impaired.

  13. Nullbasic, a potent anti-HIV tat mutant, induces CRM1-dependent disruption of HIV rev trafficking.

    PubMed

    Lin, Min-Hsuan; Sivakumaran, Haran; Apolloni, Ann; Wei, Ting; Jans, David A; Harrich, David

    2012-01-01

    Nullbasic, a mutant of the HIV-1 Tat protein, has anti-HIV-1 activity through mechanisms that include inhibition of Rev function and redistribution of the HIV-1 Rev protein from the nucleolus to the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. Here we investigate the mechanism of this effect for the first time, establishing that redistribution of Rev by Nullbasic is not due to direct interaction between the two proteins. Rather, Nullbasic affects subcellular localization of cellular proteins that regulate Rev trafficking. In particular, Nullbasic induced redistribution of exportin 1 (CRM1), nucleophosmin (B23) and nucleolin (C23) from the nucleolus to the nucleus when Rev was coexpressed, but never in its absence. Inhibition of the Rev:CRM1 interaction by leptomycin B or a non-interacting RevM10 mutant completely blocked redistribution of Rev by Nullbasic. Finally, Nullbasic did not inhibit importin β- or transportin 1-mediated nuclear import, suggesting that cytoplasmic accumulation of Rev was due to increased export by CRM1. Overall, our data support the conclusion that CRM1-dependent subcellular redistribution of Rev from the nucleolus by Nullbasic is not through general perturbation of either nuclear import or export. Rather, Nullbasic appears to interact with and disrupt specific components of a Rev trafficking complex required for its nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and, in particular, its nucleolar accumulation. PMID:23251541

  14. Phosphorylation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid protein at serine 16, required for peptidyl-prolyl isomerase-dependent uncoating, is mediated by virion-incorporated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2.

    PubMed

    Dochi, Takeo; Nakano, Takashi; Inoue, Mutsumi; Takamune, Nobutoki; Shoji, Shozo; Sano, Kouichi; Misumi, Shogo

    2014-05-01

    We reported previously that Pin1 facilitates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) uncoating by interacting with the capsid core through the phosphorylated Ser(16)-Pro(17) motif. However, the specific kinase responsible for Ser(16) phosphorylation has remained unknown. Here, we showed that virion-associated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylates Ser(16). The characterization of immature virions produced by exposing chronically HIV-1LAV-1-infected CEM/LAV-1 cells to 10 µM saquinavir indicated that Ser(16) is phosphorylated after the initiation of Pr55(Gag) processing. Furthermore, a mass spectrometry-based in vitro kinase assay demonstrated that ERK2 specifically phosphorylated the Ser(16) residue in the Ser(16)-Pro(17) motif-containing substrate. The treatment of CEM/LAV-1 cells with the ERK2 inhibitor sc-222229 decreased the Ser(16) phosphorylation level inside virions, and virus partially defective in Ser(16) phosphorylation showed impaired reverse transcription and attenuated replication owing to attenuated Pin1-dependent uncoating. Furthermore, the suppression of ERK2 expression by RNA interference in CEM/LAV-1 cells resulted in suppressed ERK2 packaging inside virions and decreased the Ser(16) phosphorylation level inside virions. Interestingly, the ERK2-packaging-defective virus showed impaired reverse transcription and attenuated HIV-1 replication. Taken together, these findings provide insights into the as-yet-obscure processes in Pin1-dependent HIV-1 uncoating. PMID:24509437

  15. MSM ameliorates HIV-1 Tat induced neuronal oxidative stress via rebalance of the glutathione cycle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seol-Hee; Smith, Adam J; Tan, Jun; Shytle, R Douglas; Giunta, Brian

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 Tat protein is a key neuropathological element in HIV associated neurogcognitive disorders (HAND); a type of cognitive syndrome thought to be at least partially mediated by increased levels of brain reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a sulfur-containing compound known to reduce oxidative stress. This study was conducted to determine whether administration of MSM attenuates HIV-1 Tat induced oxidative stress in mouse neuronal cells. MSM treatment significantly decreased neuronal cell NO and ROS secretion. Further, MSM significantly reversed HIV-1 Tat mediated reductions in reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as HIV-1 Tat mediated increases in oxidized glutathione (GSSG). In addition, Tat reduced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key nuclear promoter of antioxidant activity, while MSM increased its translocation to the nucleus in the presence of Tat. These results suggest that HIV-1 Tat reduces the resiliency of neuron cells to oxidative stress which can be reversed by MSM. Given the clinical safety of MSM, future preclinical in vivo studies will be required to further confirm these results in effort to validate MSM as a neuroprotectant in patients at risk of, or who are already diagnosed with, HAND. PMID:25893035

  16. MSM ameliorates HIV-1 Tat induced neuronal oxidative stress via rebalance of the glutathione cycle

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seol-hee; Smith, Adam J; Tan, Jun; Shytle, R Douglas; Giunta, Brian

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 Tat protein is a key neuropathological element in HIV associated neurogcognitive disorders (HAND); a type of cognitive syndrome thought to be at least partially mediated by increased levels of brain reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a sulfur-containing compound known to reduce oxidative stress. This study was conducted to determine whether administration of MSM attenuates HIV-1 Tat induced oxidative stress in mouse neuronal cells. MSM treatment significantly decreased neuronal cell NO and ROS secretion. Further, MSM significantly reversed HIV-1 Tat mediated reductions in reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as HIV-1 Tat mediated increases in oxidized glutathione (GSSG). In addition, Tat reduced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key nuclear promoter of antioxidant activity, while MSM increased its translocation to the nucleus in the presence of Tat. These results suggest that HIV-1 Tat reduces the resiliency of neuron cells to oxidative stress which can be reversed by MSM. Given the clinical safety of MSM, future preclinical in vivo studies will be required to further confirm these results in effort to validate MSM as a neuroprotectant in patients at risk of, or who are already diagnosed with, HAND. PMID:25893035

  17. [Motives and circumstances surrounding induced abortion among women living with HIV in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Villela, Wilza Vieira; Barbosa, Regina Maria; Portella, Ana Paula; de Oliveira, Luzia Aparecida

    2012-07-01

    The impact of HIV/AIDS infection on the decision of women living with HIV/AIDS to interrupt a pregnancy remains an understudied topic. In an effort to understand the influence of HIV/AIDS diagnosis on abortion practices, a qualitative study was carried out in seven Brazilian municipalities with women living with HIV/AIDS who reported inducing an abortion at some point in their lives. This study presents the analysis of interviews with thirty women who became pregnant after diagnosis. The results show that for some women, infection was the primary motive for terminating their pregnancy, while for others, the motives for abortion were predominantly related to life circumstances. The decision to abort due to HIV infection is not the same for all women. It is related to the timing of the diagnosis and other aspects of the woman's life during her pregnancy, such as the relationship with her partner, her job and family support. The results suggest the need for more attention from health services to the reproductive decisions of women living with HIV/Aids; the incorporation of men into sexual and reproductive health prevention actions; and a deeper discussion of the illegality of abortion in Brazil and its harmful consequences for women, men, and children. PMID:22872332

  18. HIV-1 Vpr Protein Induces Proteasomal Degradation of Chromatin-associated Class I HDACs to Overcome Latent Infection of Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Romani, Bizhan; Baygloo, Nima Shaykh; Hamidi-Fard, Mojtaba; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Allahbakhshi, Elham

    2016-02-01

    Mechanisms underlying HIV-1 latency remain among the most crucial questions that need to be answered to adopt strategies for purging the latent viral reservoirs. Here we show that HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr induces depletion of class I HDACs, including HDAC1, 2, 3, and 8, to overcome latency in macrophages. We found that Vpr binds and depletes chromatin-associated class I HDACs through a VprBP-dependent mechanism, with HDAC3 as the most affected class I HDAC. De novo expression of Vpr in infected macrophages induced depletion of HDAC1 and 3 on the HIV-1 LTR that was associated with hyperacetylation of histones on the HIV-1 LTR. As a result of hyperacetylation of histones on HIV-1 promotor, the virus established an active promotor and this contributed to the acute infection of macrophages. Collectively, HIV-1 Vpr down-regulates class I HDACs on chromatin to counteract latent infections of macrophages. PMID:26679995

  19. Apoptosis and telomeres shortening related to HIV-1 induced oxidative stress in an astrocytoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Pollicita, Michela; Muscoli, Carolina; Sgura, Antonella; Biasin, Alberto; Granato, Teresa; Masuelli, Laura; Mollace, Vincenzo; Tanzarella, Caterina; Del Duca, Claudio; Rodinò, Paola; Perno, Carlo Federico; Aquaro, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress plays a key role in the neuropathogenesis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) infection causing apoptosis of astroglia cells and neurons. Recent data have shown that oxidative stress is also responsible for the acceleration of human fibroblast telomere shortening in vitro. In the present study we analyzed the potential relations occurring between free radicals formation and telomere length during HIV-1 mediated astroglial death. Results To this end, U373 human astrocytoma cells have been directly exposed to X4-using HIV-1IIIB strain, for 1, 3 or 5 days and treated (where requested) with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a cysteine donor involved in the synthesis of glutathione (GSH, a cellular antioxidant) and apoptosis has been evaluated by FACS analysis. Quantitative-FISH (Q-FISH) has been employed for studying the telomere length while intracellular reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio has been determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Incubation of U373 with HIV-1IIIB led to significant induction of cellular apoptosis that was reduced in the presence of 1 mM NAC. Moreover, NAC improved the GSH/GSSG, a sensitive indicator of oxidative stress, that significantly decreased after HIV-1IIIB exposure in U373. Analysis of telomere length in HIV-1 exposed U373 showed a statistically significant telomere shortening, that was completely reverted in NAC-treated U373. Conclusion Our results support the role of HIV-1-mediated oxidative stress in astrocytic death and the importance of antioxidant compounds in preventing these cellular damages. Moreover, these data indicate that the telomere structure, target for oxidative damage, could be the key sensor of cell apoptosis induced by oxidative stress after HIV infection. PMID:19463156

  20. Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies and Viral inducers decrease rebound from HIV-1 latent reservoirs in humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Halper-Stromberg, Ariel; Lu, Ching-Lan; Klein, Florian; Horwitz, Joshua A.; Bournazos, Stylianos; Nogueira, Lillian; Eisenreich, Thomas R.; Liu, Cassie; Gazumyan, Anna; Schaefer, Uwe; Furze, Rebecca C.; Seaman, Michael S.; Prinjha, Rab; Tarakhovsky, Alexander; Ravetch, Jeffrey V.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Latent reservoirs of HIV-1 infected cells are refractory to antiretroviral therapies (ART) and remain the major barrier to curing HIV-1. Because latently infected cells are long-lived, immunologically invisible, and may undergo homeostatic proliferation, a “shock and kill” approach has been proposed to eradicate this reservoir by combining ART with inducers of viral transcription. However, all attempts to alter the HIV-1 reservoir in vivo have failed to date. Using humanized mice, we show that broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) can interfere with establishment of a silent reservoir by Fc-FcR mediated mechanisms. In established infection, bNAbs or bNAbs plus single inducers are ineffective in preventing viral rebound. However, bNAbs plus a combination of inducers that act by independent mechanisms synergize to decrease the reservoir as measured by viral rebound. Thus, combinations of inducers and bNAbs constitute a therapeutic strategy that impacts the establishment and maintenance of the HIV-1 reservoir in humanized mice. PMID:25131989

  1. CD4- and dynamin-dependent endocytosis of HIV-1 into plasmacytoid dendritic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pritschet, Kathrin; Donhauser, Norbert; Schuster, Philipp; Ries, Moritz; Haupt, Sabrina; Kittan, Nicolai A.; Korn, Klaus; Poehlmann, Stefan; Holland, Gudrun; Bannert, Norbert; Bogner, Elke; Schmidt, Barbara

    2012-02-20

    Chronic immune activation, triggered by plasmacytoid dendritic cell (PDC) interferon (IFN)-alpha production, plays an important role in HIV-1 pathogenesis. As the entry of HIV-1 seems to be important for the activation of PDC, we directly characterized the viral entry into these cells using immuno-electron microscopy, cellular fractionation, confocal imaging, and functional experiments. After attachment to PDC, viruses were taken up in an energy-dependent manner. The virions were located in compartments positive for caveolin; early endosomal antigen 1; Rab GTPases 5, 7 and 9; lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1. PDC harbored more virus in endocytic vesicles than CD4+ T cells (p < 0.05). Blocking CD4 inhibited the uptake of virions into cytosolic and endosomal compartments. Dynasore, an inhibitor of dynamin-dependent endocytosis, not the fusion inhibitor T-20, reduced the HIV-1 induced IFN-alpha production. Altogether, our morphological and functional data support the role of endocytosis for the entry and IFN-alpha induction of HIV-1 in PDC.

  2. Broad HIV Epitope Specificity and Viral Inhibition Induced by Multigenic HIV-1 Adenovirus Subtype 35 Vector Vaccine in Healthy Uninfected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kopycinski, Jakub; Hayes, Peter; Ashraf, Ambreen; Cheeseman, Hannah; Lala, Francesco; Czyzewska-Khan, Justyna; Spentzou, Aggeliki; Gill, Dilbinder K.; Keefer, Michael C.; Excler, Jean-Louis; Fast, Patricia; Cox, Josephine; Gilmour, Jill

    2014-01-01

    A correlation between in vivo and in vitro virus control mediated by CD8+ T-cell populations has been demonstrated by CD8 T-cell-mediated inhibition of HIV-1 and SIV replication in vitro in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from infected humans and non-human primates (NHPs), respectively. Here, the breadth and specificity of T-cell responses induced following vaccination with replication-defective adenovirus serotype 35 (Ad35) vectors containing a fusion protein of Gag, reverse transcriptase (RT), Integrase (Int) and Nef (Ad35-GRIN) and Env (Ad35-ENV), derived from HIV-1 subtype A isolates, was assessed in 25 individuals. The vaccine induced responses to a median of 4 epitopes per vaccinee. We correlated the CD8 responses to conserved vs. variable regions with the ability to inhibit a panel of 7 HIV-1 isolates representing multiple clades in a virus inhibition assay (VIA). The results indicate that targeting immunodominant responses to highly conserved regions of the HIV-1 proteome may result in an increased ability to inhibit multiple clades of HIV-1 in vitro. The data further validate the use of the VIA to screen and select future HIV vaccine candidates. Moreover, our data suggest that future T cell-focused vaccine design should aim to induce immunodominant responses to highly conserved regions of the virus. PMID:24609066

  3. Broad HIV epitope specificity and viral inhibition induced by multigenic HIV-1 adenovirus subtype 35 vector vaccine in healthy uninfected adults.

    PubMed

    Kopycinski, Jakub; Hayes, Peter; Ashraf, Ambreen; Cheeseman, Hannah; Lala, Francesco; Czyzewska-Khan, Justyna; Spentzou, Aggeliki; Gill, Dilbinder K; Keefer, Michael C; Excler, Jean-Louis; Fast, Patricia; Cox, Josephine; Gilmour, Jill

    2014-01-01

    A correlation between in vivo and in vitro virus control mediated by CD8+ T-cell populations has been demonstrated by CD8 T-cell-mediated inhibition of HIV-1 and SIV replication in vitro in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from infected humans and non-human primates (NHPs), respectively. Here, the breadth and specificity of T-cell responses induced following vaccination with replication-defective adenovirus serotype 35 (Ad35) vectors containing a fusion protein of Gag, reverse transcriptase (RT), Integrase (Int) and Nef (Ad35-GRIN) and Env (Ad35-ENV), derived from HIV-1 subtype A isolates, was assessed in 25 individuals. The vaccine induced responses to a median of 4 epitopes per vaccinee. We correlated the CD8 responses to conserved vs. variable regions with the ability to inhibit a panel of 7 HIV-1 isolates representing multiple clades in a virus inhibition assay (VIA). The results indicate that targeting immunodominant responses to highly conserved regions of the HIV-1 proteome may result in an increased ability to inhibit multiple clades of HIV-1 in vitro. The data further validate the use of the VIA to screen and select future HIV vaccine candidates. Moreover, our data suggest that future T cell-focused vaccine design should aim to induce immunodominant responses to highly conserved regions of the virus. PMID:24609066

  4. Structure of Hepatitis E Virion-Sized Particle Reveals an RNA-Dependent Viral Assembly Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, L.; Wall, J.; Li, T.-C.; Mayazaki, N.; Simon, M. N.; Moore, M.; Wang, C.-Y.; Takeda, N.; Wakita, T.; Miyamura, T.; Cheng, R. H.

    2010-10-22

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) induces acute hepatitis in humans with a high fatality rate in pregnant women. There is a need for anti-HEV research to understand the assembly process of HEV native capsid. Here, we produced a large virion-sized and a small T=1 capsid by expressing the HEV capsid protein in insect cells with and without the N-terminal 111 residues, respectively, for comparative structural analysis. The virion-sized capsid demonstrates a T=3 icosahedral lattice and contains RNA fragment in contrast to the RNA-free T=1 capsid. However, both capsids shared common decameric organization. The in vitro assembly further demonstrated that HEV capsid protein had the intrinsic ability to form decameric intermediate. Our data suggest that RNA binding is the extrinsic factor essential for the assembly of HEV native capsids.

  5. Virion and soluble antigens of japanese encephalitis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Eckels, K H; Hetrick, F M; Russell, P K

    1975-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virions contain a 58 X 10-3-molecular-weight envelope glycoprotein antigen that can be solubilized with sodium lauryl sulfate and separated from other virion structural polypeptides and viral ribonucleic acid by gel filtration chromatography. The 58 X 10-3-molecular-weight envelope protein is the major antigen responsible for cross-reactivity of the virion in complement fixation tests with other closely related arboviruses. A naturally occurring soluble complement-fixing antigen is found in Japanese encephalitis mouse brain preparations after removal of particulate antigens. After partial purification by gel filtration and isoelectric focusing, the 53 X 10-3-molecular weight soluble complement-fixing antigen is more type specific than the Japanese encephalitis envelope antigen in complement fixation tests. Further, the Japanese encephalitis soluble complement-fixing antigen is stable to treatment with sodium lauryl sulfate and 2-mercaptoethanol, whereas virion complement-fixing antigens are unstable after this treatment. Images PMID:47312

  6. HIV Provirus Stably Reproduces Parental Latent and Induced Transcription Phenotypes Regardless of the Chromosomal Integration Site

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Farhad B.; Barreto, Kris; Bernhard, Wendy; Hashemi, Pargol; Lomness, Adam

    2016-01-01

    of therapies to eliminate latently infected cells from HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. One proposed strategy, known as “shock and kill,” would involve treatment with therapies capable of inducing expression of latent provirus, with the expectation that the latently infected cells could be killed by a host immune response or virus-induced apoptosis. In clinical trials, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors were shown to cause reactivation of latent provirus but did not produce a significant effect toward eliminating the latently infected population. Results shown here indicate that integration of HIV provirus at different chromosomal locations produces significant effects on the responsiveness of virus expression to T cell signaling agonists and chromatin-modifying compounds. Given the variety of phenotypes produced by integrated provirus, it is unlikely that any single potential shock-and-kill therapy will be effective toward purging the latently infected population. PMID:26984732

  7. A Wnt5a signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 gp120-induced pain

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Su-Bo; Ji, Guangchen; Li, Bei; Andersson, Tommy; Neugebauer, Volker; Tang, Shao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Pathological pain is one of the most common neurological complications in HIV-1/AIDS patients. However, the pathogenic process is unclear. Our recent studies show that Wnt5a is up-regulated in the spinal cord dorsal horn of the HIV patients who develop pain and that HIV-1 gp120, a potential causal factor of the HIV-associated pain, rapidly up-regulates Wnt5a in the mouse SDH. Using a mouse model, we show here that a specific Wnt5a antagonist, Box-5, attenuated gp120-induced mechanical allodynia. Conversely, a Wnt5a agonist, Foxy5, facilitated the allodynia. To elucidate the molecular mechanism by which Wnt5a regulates gp120-induced allodynia, we tested the role of the JNK/TNF-α pathway. We observed that the JNK-specific inhibitor SP600125 blocked either gp120- or Foxy5-induced allodynia. Similarly, the TNF-α-specific antagonist Enbrel also reversed either gp120- or Foxy5-induced allodynia. These data suggest that JNK and TNF-α mediate the biological effects of Wnt5a in regulating gp120-induced allodynia. To investigate the cellular mechanism, we performed extracellular single-unit recording from SDH neurons in anesthetized mice. Both Box5 and SP600125 negated gp120-induced potentiation of SDH neuron spiking evoked by mechanical stimulation of the hindpaw. Furthermore, while Foxy5 potentiated spike frequency of SDH neurons, either SP600125 or Enbrel blocked the potentiation. The data indicate that Wnt5a potentiates the activity of SDH neurons via the JNK-TNF-α pathway. Collectively, our findings suggest that Wnt5a regulates the pathogenesis of gp120-induced pain, likely by sensitizing pain-processing SDH neurons via JNK/TNF-α signaling. PMID:25840108

  8. Dissecting Polyclonal Vaccine-Induced Humoral Immunity against HIV Using Systems Serology.

    PubMed

    Chung, Amy W; Kumar, Manu P; Arnold, Kelly B; Yu, Wen Han; Schoen, Matthew K; Dunphy, Laura J; Suscovich, Todd J; Frahm, Nicole; Linde, Caitlyn; Mahan, Alison E; Hoffner, Michelle; Streeck, Hendrik; Ackerman, Margaret E; McElrath, M Juliana; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Pau, Maria G; Baden, Lindsey R; Kim, Jerome H; Michael, Nelson L; Barouch, Dan H; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Alter, Galit

    2015-11-01

    While antibody titers and neutralization are considered the gold standard for the selection of successful vaccines, these parameters are often inadequate predictors of protective immunity. As antibodies mediate an array of extra-neutralizing Fc functions, when neutralization fails to predict protection, investigating Fc-mediated activity may help identify immunological correlates and mechanism(s) of humoral protection. Here, we used an integrative approach termed Systems Serology to analyze relationships among humoral responses elicited in four HIV vaccine trials. Each vaccine regimen induced a unique humoral "Fc fingerprint." Moreover, analysis of case:control data from the first moderately protective HIV vaccine trial, RV144, pointed to mechanistic insights into immune complex composition that may underlie protective immunity to HIV. Thus, multi-dimensional relational comparisons of vaccine humoral fingerprints offer a unique approach for the evaluation and design of novel vaccines against pathogens for which correlates of protection remain elusive. PMID:26544943

  9. HIV-1 gp120 impairs the differentiation and survival of cord blood CD34+ HPCs induced to the erythroid lineage.

    PubMed

    Morini, Silvia; Musumeci, Giuseppina; Bon, Isabella; Miserocchi, Anna; Alviano, Francesco; Longo, Serena; Bertoldi, Alessia; Velati, Claudio V; Gibellini, Davide; Re, Maria Carla

    2016-01-01

    Anemia is the most common hematological abnormality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Besides chronic disease, opportunistic infections, nutritional deficiencies and antiretroviral drug toxicity, the direct role of HIV in the development of anemia has not yet been fully investigated. To explore the HIV-related mechanisms involved in the genesis of anemia, we used two experimental designs. In the first, HPCs purified from cord blood were challenged with HIV-1IIIb or recombinant gp120 (rgp120) and then committed to erythrocyte differentiation (EPO-post-treated HPCs). In the second, HPCs were first committed to differentiate towards the erythroid lineage and only afterwards challenged with HIV-1IIIb or rgp120 (EPO-pre-treated HPCs). Our results showed that HPCs and EPO-induced HPCs were not susceptible to HIV-1 infection. In addition, the two experimental designs (EPO post or pre-treated HPCs) independently showed that HIV-1IIIb or rgp120 were able to induce the impairment of survival, proliferation, and differentiation albeit differing in kinetics and extent. Interestingly, the gp120 interaction with CD4 and CXCR4 played a pivotal role in the impairment of erythrocyte differentiation by inducing TGF-b1 expression. These observations reveal an important additional mechanism involved in the genesis of anemia suggesting a complex competition between EPO-positive regulation and HIV-negative priming regarding erythrocyte survival, proliferation and maturation. PMID:26922982

  10. HIV-1 expression induces cyclin D1 expression and pRb phosphorylation in infected podocytes: cell-cycle mechanisms contributing to the proliferative phenotype in HIV-associated nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Peter J; Sunamoto, Masaaki; Husain, Mohammad; Gelman, Irwin H

    2002-01-01

    Background The aberrant cell-cycle progression of HIV-1-infected kidney cells plays a major role in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated nephropathy, however the mechanisms whereby HIV-1 induces infected glomerular podocytes or infected tubular epithelium to exit quiescence are largely unknown. Here, we ask whether the expression of HIV-1 genes in infected podocytes induces cyclin D1 and phospho-pRb (Ser780) expression, hallmarks of cyclin D1-mediated G1 → S phase progression. Results We assessed cyclin D1 and phospho-pRb (Ser780) expression in two well-characterized models of HIV-associated nephropathy pathogenesis: HIV-1 infection of cultured podocytes and HIV-1 transgenic mice (Tg26). Compared to controls, cultured podocytes expressing HIV-1 genes, and podocytes and tubular epithelium from hyperplastic nephrons in Tg26 kidneys, had increased levels of phospho-pRb (Ser780), a target of active cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase-4/6 known to promote G1 → S phase progression. HIV-1-infected podocytes showed markedly elevated cyclin D1 mRNA and cyclin D1 protein, the latter of which did not down-regulate during cell-cell contact or differentiation, suggesting post-transcriptional stabilization of cyclin D1 protein levels by HIV-1. The selective suppression of HIV-1 transcription by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, flavopiridol, abrogated cyclin D1 expression, underlying the requirement for HIV-1 encoded products to induce cyclin D1. Indeed, HIV-1 virus deleted of nef failed to induce cyclin D1 mRNA to the level of other single gene mutant viruses. Conclusions HIV-1 expression induces cyclin D1 and phospho-pRb (Ser780) expression in infected podocytes, suggesting that HIV-1 activates cyclin D1-dependent cell-cycle mechanisms to promote proliferation of infected renal epithelium. PMID:12241561

  11. Complex Interplay between HIV-1 Capsid and MX2-Independent Alpha Interferon-Induced Antiviral Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bulli, Lorenzo; Apolonia, Luis; Kutzner, Juliane; Pollpeter, Darja; Goujon, Caroline; Herold, Nikolas; Schwarz, Sarah-Marie; Giernat, Yannick; Keppler, Oliver T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Type I interferons (IFNs), including IFN-α, upregulate an array of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) and potently suppress Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infectivity in CD4+ T cells, monocyte-derived macrophages, and dendritic cells. Recently, we and others identified ISG myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2) as an inhibitor of HIV-1 nuclear entry. However, additional antiviral blocks exist upstream of nuclear import, but the ISGs that suppress infection, e.g., prior to (or during) reverse transcription, remain to be defined. We show here that the HIV-1 CA mutations N74D and A105T, both of which allow escape from inhibition by MX2 and the truncated version of cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 6 (CPSF6), as well as the cyclophilin A (CypA)-binding loop mutation P90A, all increase sensitivity to IFN-α-mediated inhibition. Using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 technology, we demonstrate that the IFN-α hypersensitivity of these mutants in THP-1 cells is independent of MX2 or CPSF6. As expected, CypA depletion had no additional effect on the behavior of the P90A mutant but modestly increased the IFN-α sensitivity of wild-type virus. Interestingly, the infectivity of wild-type or P90A virus could be rescued from the MX2-independent IFN-α-induced blocks in THP-1 cells by treatment with cyclosporine (Cs) or its nonimmunosuppressive analogue SDZ-NIM811, indicating that Cs-sensitive host cell cyclophilins other than CypA contribute to the activity of IFN-α-induced blocks. We propose that cellular interactions with incoming HIV-1 capsids help shield the virus from recognition by antiviral effector mechanisms. Thus, the CA protein is a fulcrum for the dynamic interplay between cell-encoded functions that inhibit or promote HIV-1 infection. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 is the causative agent of AIDS. During acute HIV-1 infection, numerous proinflammatory cytokines are produced, including type I interferons (IFNs). IFNs can

  12. Pulsed EPR Characterization of HIV-1 Protease Conformational Sampling and Inhibitor-Induced Population Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhanglong; Casey, Thomas M.; Blackburn, Mandy E.; Huang, Xi; Pham, Linh; de Vera, Ian Mitchelle S.; Carter, Jeffrey D.; Kear-Scott, Jamie L.; Veloro, Angelo M.; Galiano, Luis; Fanucci, Gail E.

    2015-01-01

    The conformational landscape of HIV-1 protease (PR) can be experimentally characterized by pulsed-EPR double electron-electron resonance (DEER). For this characterization, nitroxide spin labels are attached to an engineered cysteine residue in the flap region of HIV-1 PR. DEER distance measurements from spin-labels contained within each flap of the homodimer provide a detailed description of the conformational sampling of apo-enzyme as well as induced conformational shifts as a function inhibitor binding. The distance distribution profiles are further interpreted in terms of a conformational ensemble scheme that consists of four unique states termed “curled/tucked”, “closed”, “semi-open” and “wide-open” conformations. Reported here are the DEER results for a drug-resistant variant clinical isolate sequence, V6, in the presence of FDA approved protease inhibitors (PIs) as well as a non-hydrolyzable substrate mimic, CaP2. Results are interpreted in the context of the current understanding of the relationship between conformational sampling, drug resistance, and kinetic efficiency of HIV-1PR as derived from previous DEER and kinetic data for a series of HIV-1PR constructs that contain drug-pressure selected mutations or natural polymorphisms. Specifically, these collective results support the notion that inhibitor-induced closure of the flaps correlates with inhibitor efficiency and drug resistance. This body of work also suggests DEER as a tool for studying conformational sampling in flexible enzymes as it relates to function. PMID:26489725

  13. Pulsed EPR characterization of HIV-1 protease conformational sampling and inhibitor-induced population shifts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhanglong; Casey, Thomas M; Blackburn, Mandy E; Huang, Xi; Pham, Linh; de Vera, Ian Mitchelle S; Carter, Jeffrey D; Kear-Scott, Jamie L; Veloro, Angelo M; Galiano, Luis; Fanucci, Gail E

    2016-02-17

    The conformational landscape of HIV-1 protease (PR) can be experimentally characterized by pulsed-EPR double electron-electron resonance (DEER). For this characterization, nitroxide spin labels are attached to an engineered cysteine residue in the flap region of HIV-1 PR. DEER distance measurements from spin-labels contained within each flap of the homodimer provide a detailed description of the conformational sampling of apo-enzyme as well as induced conformational shifts as a function of inhibitor binding. The distance distribution profiles are further interpreted in terms of a conformational ensemble scheme that consists of four unique states termed "curled/tucked", "closed", "semi-open" and "wide-open" conformations. Reported here are the DEER results for a drug-resistant variant clinical isolate sequence, V6, in the presence of FDA approved protease inhibitors (PIs) as well as a non-hydrolyzable substrate mimic, CaP2. Results are interpreted in the context of the current understanding of the relationship between conformational sampling, drug resistance, and kinetic efficiency of HIV-1PR as derived from previous DEER and kinetic data for a series of HIV-1PR constructs that contain drug-pressure selected mutations or natural polymorphisms. Specifically, these collective results support the notion that inhibitor-induced closure of the flaps correlates with inhibitor efficiency and drug resistance. This body of work also suggests DEER as a tool for studying conformational sampling in flexible enzymes as it relates to function. PMID:26489725

  14. HIV-1-infected macrophages induce astrogliosis by SDF-1{alpha} and matrix metalloproteinases

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Mika; Wang, Xin; Baba, Masanori . E-mail: baba@m.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp

    2005-11-04

    Brain macrophages/microglia and astrocytes are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). To clarify their interaction and contribution to the pathogenesis, HIV-1-infected or uninfected macrophages were used as a model of brain macrophages/microglia, and their effects on human astrocytes in vitro were examined. The culture supernatants of HIV-1-infected or uninfected macrophages induced significant astrocyte proliferation, which was annihilated with a neutralizing antibody to stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1{alpha} or a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor. In these astrocytes, CXCR4, MMP, and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase mRNA expression and SDF-1{alpha} production were significantly up-regulated. The supernatants of infected macrophages were always more effective than those of uninfected cells. Moreover, the enhanced production of SDF-1{alpha} was suppressed by the MMP inhibitor. These results indicate that the activated and HIV-1-infected macrophages can indirectly induce astrocyte proliferation through up-regulating SDF-1{alpha} and MMP production, which implies a mechanism of astrogliosis in HAD.

  15. HIV-1 Fusion Assay

    PubMed Central

    Cavrois, Marielle; Neidleman, Jason; Greene, Warner C.

    2016-01-01

    The HIV-1 fusion assay measures all steps in the HIV-1 life cycle up to and including viral fusion. It relies on the incorporation of a β-lactamase Vpr (BlaM-Vpr) protein chimera into the virion and the subsequent transfer of this chimera into the target cell by fusion (Figure 1). The transfer is monitored by the enzymatic cleavage of CCF2, a fluorescent dye substrate of β-lactamase, loaded into the target cells. Cleavage of the β-lactam ring in CCF2 by β-lactamase changes the fluorescence emission spectrum of the dye from green (520 nm) to blue (447 nm). This change reflects virion fusion and can be detected by flow cytometry (Figure 2).

  16. Kinase control prevents HIV-1 reactivation in spite of high levels of induced NF-κB activity.

    PubMed

    Wolschendorf, Frank; Bosque, Alberto; Shishido, Takao; Duverger, Alexandra; Jones, Jennifer; Planelles, Vicente; Kutsch, Olaf

    2012-04-01

    Despite its clinical importance, the molecular biology of HIV-1 latency control is at best partially understood, and the literature remains conflicting. The most recent description that latent HIV-1 is integrated into actively expressed host genes has further confounded the situation. This lack of molecular understanding complicates our efforts to identify therapeutic compounds or strategies that could reactivate latent HIV-1 infection in patients, a prerequisite for the eradication of HIV-1 infection. Currently, many therapeutic development efforts operate under the assumption that a restrictive histone code could govern latent infection and that either dissipation of the histone-based restrictions or NF-κB activation could be sufficient to trigger HIV-1 reactivation. We here present data that suggest an additional, higher level of molecular control. During a high-content drug screening effort, we identified AS601245 as a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 reactivation in latently infected primary T cells and T cell lines. In either system, AS601245 inhibited HIV-1 reactivation despite high levels of induced NF-κB activation. This finding suggests the presence of a gatekeeper kinase activity that controls latent HIV-1 infection even in the presence of high levels of NF-κB activity. Potential therapeutic stimuli that do not target this gatekeeper kinase will likely fail to trigger efficient system-wide HIV-1 reactivation. PMID:22345467

  17. Kinase Control Prevents HIV-1 Reactivation in Spite of High Levels of Induced NF-κB Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wolschendorf, Frank; Bosque, Alberto; Shishido, Takao; Duverger, Alexandra; Jones, Jennifer; Planelles, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Despite its clinical importance, the molecular biology of HIV-1 latency control is at best partially understood, and the literature remains conflicting. The most recent description that latent HIV-1 is integrated into actively expressed host genes has further confounded the situation. This lack of molecular understanding complicates our efforts to identify therapeutic compounds or strategies that could reactivate latent HIV-1 infection in patients, a prerequisite for the eradication of HIV-1 infection. Currently, many therapeutic development efforts operate under the assumption that a restrictive histone code could govern latent infection and that either dissipation of the histone-based restrictions or NF-κB activation could be sufficient to trigger HIV-1 reactivation. We here present data that suggest an additional, higher level of molecular control. During a high-content drug screening effort, we identified AS601245 as a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 reactivation in latently infected primary T cells and T cell lines. In either system, AS601245 inhibited HIV-1 reactivation despite high levels of induced NF-κB activation. This finding suggests the presence of a gatekeeper kinase activity that controls latent HIV-1 infection even in the presence of high levels of NF-κB activity. Potential therapeutic stimuli that do not target this gatekeeper kinase will likely fail to trigger efficient system-wide HIV-1 reactivation. PMID:22345467

  18. HIV-2 genomic RNA accumulates in stress granules in the absence of active translation

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Valiente-Echeverria, Fernando; Rubilar, Paulina S.; Garcia-de-Gracia, Francisco; Ricci, Emiliano P.; Limousin, Taran; Décimo, Didier; Mouland, Andrew J.; Ohlmann, Théophile

    2014-01-01

    During the post-transcriptional events of the HIV-2 replication cycle, the full-length unspliced genomic RNA (gRNA) is first used as an mRNA to synthesize Gag and Gag-Pol proteins and then packaged into progeny virions. However, the mechanisms responsible for the coordinate usage of the gRNA during these two mutually exclusive events are poorly understood. Here, we present evidence showing that HIV-2 expression induces stress granule assembly in cultured cells. This contrasts with HIV-1, which interferes with stress granules assembly even upon induced cellular stress. Moreover, we observed that the RNA-binding protein and stress granules assembly factor TIAR associates with the gRNA to form a TIAR-HIV-2 ribonucleoprotein (TH2RNP) complex localizing diffuse in the cytoplasm or aggregated in stress granules. Although the assembly of TH2RNP in stress granules did not require the binding of the Gag protein to the gRNA, we observed that increased levels of Gag promoted both translational arrest and stress granule assembly. Moreover, HIV-2 Gag also localizes to stress granules in the absence of a ‘packageable’ gRNA. Our results indicate that the HIV-2 gRNA is compartmentalized in stress granules in the absence of active translation prior to being selected for packaging by the Gag polyprotein. PMID:25352557

  19. Murine Antibody Responses to Cleaved Soluble HIV-1 Envelope Trimers Are Highly Restricted in Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Joyce K.; Crampton, Jordan C.; Cupo, Albert; Ketas, Thomas; van Gils, Marit J.; Sliepen, Kwinten; de Taeye, Steven W.; Sok, Devin; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Deresa, Isaiah; Stanfield, Robyn; Ward, Andrew B.; Burton, Dennis R.; Klasse, Per Johan; Sanders, Rogier W.; Moore, John P.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Generating neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) is a major goal of many current HIV-1 vaccine efforts. To be of practical value, these nAbs must be both potent and cross-reactive in order to be capable of preventing the transmission of the highly diverse and generally neutralization resistant (Tier-2) HIV-1 strains that are in circulation. The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) spike is the only target for nAbs. To explore whether Tier-2 nAbs can be induced by Env proteins, we immunized conventional mice with soluble BG505 SOSIP.664 trimers that mimic the native Env spike. Here, we report that it is extremely difficult for murine B cells to recognize the Env epitopes necessary for inducing Tier-2 nAbs. Thus, while trimer-immunized mice raised Env-binding IgG Abs and had high-quality T follicular helper (Tfh) cell and germinal center (GC) responses, they did not make BG505.T332N nAbs. Epitope mapping studies showed that Ab responses in mice were specific to areas near the base of the soluble trimer. These areas are not well shielded by glycans and likely are occluded on virions, which is consistent with the lack of BG505.T332N nAbs. These data inform immunogen design and suggest that it is useful to obscure nonneutralizing epitopes presented on the base of soluble Env trimers and that the glycan shield of well-formed HIV Env trimers is virtually impenetrable for murine B cell receptors (BCRs). IMPORTANCE Human HIV vaccine efficacy trials have not generated meaningful neutralizing antibodies to circulating HIV strains. One possible hindrance has been the lack of immunogens that properly mimic the native conformation of the HIV envelope trimer protein. Here, we tested the first generation of soluble, native-like envelope trimer immunogens in a conventional mouse model. We attempted to generate neutralizing antibodies to neutralization-resistant circulating HIV strains. Various vaccine strategies failed to induce neutralizing antibodies to a neutralization

  20. A dendritic cell targeted vaccine induces long-term HIV-specific immunity within the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Ruane, D; Do, Y; Brane, L; Garg, A; Bozzacco, L; Kraus, T; Caskey, M; Salazar, A; Trumpheller, C; Mehandru, S

    2016-09-01

    Despite significant therapeutic advances for HIV-1 infected individuals, a preventative HIV-1 vaccine remains elusive. Studies focusing on early transmission events, including the observation that there is a profound loss of gastrointestinal (GI) CD4(+) T cells during acute HIV-1 infection, highlight the importance of inducing HIV-specific immunity within the gut. Here we report on the generation of cellular and humoral immune responses in the intestines by a mucosally administered, dendritic cell (DC) targeted vaccine. Our results show that nasally delivered α-CD205-p24 vaccine in combination with polyICLC, induced polyfunctional immune responses within naso-pulmonary lymphoid sites that disseminated widely to systemic and mucosal (GI tract and the vaginal epithelium) sites. Qualitatively, while α-CD205-p24 prime-boost immunization generated CD4(+) T-cell responses, heterologous prime-boost immunization with α-CD205-p24 and NYVAC gag-p24 generated high levels of HIV-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells within the GI tract. Finally, DC-targeting enhanced the amplitude and longevity of vaccine-induced immune responses in the GI tract. This is the first report of a nasally delivered, DC-targeted vaccine to generate HIV-specific immune responses in the GI tract and will potentially inform the design of preventative approaches against HIV-1 and other mucosal infections. PMID:26732678

  1. PPARα and PPARγ protect against HIV-1-induced MMP-9 overexpression via caveolae-associated ERK and Akt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen; András, Ibolya E.; Rha, Geun Bae; Hennig, Bernhard; Toborek, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is involved in HIV-1-induced disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In the present study, we hypothesize that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α or PPARγ can protect against HIV-1-induced MMP-9 overexpression in brain endothelial cells (hCMEC cell line) by attenuating cellular oxidative stress and down-regulation of caveolae-associated redox signaling. Exposure to HIV-1-infected monocytes induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt in hCMEC by 2.5- and 3.6-fold, respectively; however, these effects were attenuated by overexpression of PPARα or PPARγ and by silencing of caveolin-1 (cav-1). Coculture of hCMEC with HIV-1-infected monocytes significantly induced MMP-9 promoter and enzyme activity by 3- to 3.5-fold. Promoter mutation studies indicated that SP-1 (g1940t_g1941t) is an essential transcription factor involved in induction of MMP-9 promoter by HIV-1. In addition, HIV-1-stimulated activity of MMP-9 promoter was inhibited by mutation of AP-1 site 2 (c1918t_a1919g) and both (but not individual) NF-κB binding sites (g1389c and g1664c). PPAR overexpression, ERK1/2 or Akt inhibition, and silencing of cav-1 all effectively protected against HIV-1-induced MMP-9 promoter activity, indicating a close relationship among HIV-1-induced cerebrovascular toxicity, redox-regulated mechanisms, and functional caveolae. Such a link was further confirmed in MMP-9-deficient mice exposed to PPARα or PPARγ agonist and injected with the HIV-1-specific protein Tat into cerebral vasculature. Overall, our results indicate that ERK1/2, Akt, and cav-1 are involved in the regulatory mechanisms of PPAR-mediated protection against HIV-1-induced MMP-9 expression in brain endothelial cells.—Huang, W., András, I. E., Rha, G. B., Hennig, B., Toborek, M. PPARα and PPARγ protect against HIV-1-induced MMP-9 overexpression via caveolae-associated ERK and Akt signaling. PMID:21840940

  2. Incorporation of Spike and Membrane Glycoproteins into Coronavirus Virions

    PubMed Central

    Ujike, Makoto; Taguchi, Fumihiro

    2015-01-01

    The envelopes of coronaviruses (CoVs) contain primarily three proteins; the two major glycoproteins spike (S) and membrane (M), and envelope (E), a non-glycosylated protein. Unlike other enveloped viruses, CoVs bud and assemble at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC). For efficient virion assembly, these proteins must be targeted to the budding site and to interact with each other or the ribonucleoprotein. Thus, the efficient incorporation of viral envelope proteins into CoV virions depends on protein trafficking and protein–protein interactions near the ERGIC. The goal of this review is to summarize recent findings on the mechanism of incorporation of the M and S glycoproteins into the CoV virion, focusing on protein trafficking and protein–protein interactions. PMID:25855243

  3. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Tat Induces Nitric-oxide Synthase in Human Astroglia*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaojuan; Jana, Malabendu; Dasgupta, Subhajit; Koka, Sreenivas; He, Jun; Wood, Charles; Pahan, Kalipada

    2007-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is known to cause neuronal injury and dementia in a significant proportion of patients. However, the mechanism by which HIV-1 mediates its deleterious effects in the brain is poorly defined. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of the HIV-1 tat gene on the expression of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) in human U373MG astroglial cells and primary astroglia. Expression of the tat gene as RSV-tat but not that of the CAT gene as RSV-CAT in U373MG astroglial cells led to the induction of NO production and the expression of iNOS protein and mRNA. Induction of NO production by recombinant HIV-1 Tat protein and inhibition of RSV-tat-induced NO production by anti-Tat antibodies suggest that RSV-tat-induced production of NO is dependent on Tat and that Tat is secreted from RSV-tat-transfected astroglia. Similar to U373MG astroglial cells, RSV-tat also induced the production of NO in human primary astroglia. The induction of human iNOS promoter-derived luciferase activity by the expression of RSV-tat suggests that RSV-tat induces the transcription of iNOS. To understand the mechanism of induction of iNOS, we investigated the role of NF-κB and C/EBPβ, transcription factors responsible for the induction of iNOS. Activation of NF-κB as well as C/EBPβ by RSV-tat, stimulation of RSV-tat-induced production of NO by the wild type of p65 and C/EBPβ, and inhibition of RSV-tat-induced production of NO by Δp65, a dominant-negative mutant of p65, and ΔC/EBPβ, a dominant-negative mutant of C/EBPβ, suggest that RSV-tat induces iNOS through the activation of NF-κB and C/EBPβ. In addition, we show that extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) but not that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is involved in RSV-tat induced production of NO. Interestingly, PD98059, an inhibitor of the ERK pathway, and ΔERK2, a dominant-negative mutant of ERK2, inhibited RSV-tat-induced production of NO

  4. Inhibition of the receptor-mediated virion attachment to a lipid membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2012-10-01

    The forefront of the anti-viral defence is sometimes aimed at virion attachment to a host membrane. This step or, more specifically, virion contacts with cellular membrane receptors (or, e.g., glycolipids) can be inhibited by antibodies (or specially chosen or designed compounds) via their association with virions. In this case, the full-scale attachment of virions to a host membrane occurs via a subtle interplay of the formation and rupture of multiple virion-inhibitor and virion-receptor bonds. We present a kinetic model describing this interplay and illustrating general trends in the process under consideration.

  5. Vpr Promotes Macrophage-Dependent HIV-1 Infection of CD4+ T Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Collins, David R; Lubow, Jay; Lukic, Zana; Mashiba, Michael; Collins, Kathleen L

    2015-07-01

    Vpr is a conserved primate lentiviral protein that promotes infection of T lymphocytes in vivo by an unknown mechanism. Here we demonstrate that Vpr and its cellular co-factor, DCAF1, are necessary for efficient cell-to-cell spread of HIV-1 from macrophages to CD4+ T lymphocytes when there is inadequate cell-free virus to support direct T lymphocyte infection. Remarkably, Vpr functioned to counteract a macrophage-specific intrinsic antiviral pathway that targeted Env-containing virions to LAMP1+ lysosomal compartments. This restriction of Env also impaired virological synapses formed through interactions between HIV-1 Env on infected macrophages and CD4 on T lymphocytes. Treatment of infected macrophages with exogenous interferon-alpha induced virion degradation and blocked synapse formation, overcoming the effects of Vpr. These results provide a mechanism that helps explain the in vivo requirement for Vpr and suggests that a macrophage-dependent stage of HIV-1 infection drives the evolutionary conservation of Vpr. PMID:26186441

  6. Vpr Promotes Macrophage-Dependent HIV-1 Infection of CD4+ T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Collins, David R.; Lubow, Jay; Lukic, Zana; Mashiba, Michael; Collins, Kathleen L.

    2015-01-01

    Vpr is a conserved primate lentiviral protein that promotes infection of T lymphocytes in vivo by an unknown mechanism. Here we demonstrate that Vpr and its cellular co-factor, DCAF1, are necessary for efficient cell-to-cell spread of HIV-1 from macrophages to CD4+ T lymphocytes when there is inadequate cell-free virus to support direct T lymphocyte infection. Remarkably, Vpr functioned to counteract a macrophage-specific intrinsic antiviral pathway that targeted Env-containing virions to LAMP1+ lysosomal compartments. This restriction of Env also impaired virological synapses formed through interactions between HIV-1 Env on infected macrophages and CD4 on T lymphocytes. Treatment of infected macrophages with exogenous interferon-alpha induced virion degradation and blocked synapse formation, overcoming the effects of Vpr. These results provide a mechanism that helps explain the in vivo requirement for Vpr and suggests that a macrophage-dependent stage of HIV-1 infection drives the evolutionary conservation of Vpr. PMID:26186441

  7. Increased Sensitivity to Binge Alcohol-Induced Gut Leakiness and Inflammatory Liver Disease in HIV Transgenic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Atrayee; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Jang, Sehwan; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of alcohol-mediated advanced liver injury in HIV-infected individuals are poorly understood. Thus, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of binge alcohol on the inflammatory liver disease in HIV transgenic rats as a model for simulating human conditions. Female wild-type (WT) or HIV transgenic rats were treated with three consecutive doses of binge ethanol (EtOH) (3.5 g/kg/dose oral gavages at 12-h intervals) or dextrose (Control). Blood and liver tissues were collected at 1 or 6-h following the last dose of ethanol or dextrose for the measurements of serum endotoxin and liver pathology, respectively. Compared to the WT, the HIV rats showed increased sensitivity to alcohol-mediated gut leakiness, hepatic steatosis and inflammation, as evidenced with the significantly elevated levels of serum endotoxin, hepatic triglycerides, histological fat accumulation and F4/80 staining. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that hepatic levels of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), leptin and the downstream target monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly up-regulated in the HIV-EtOH rats, compared to all other groups. Subsequent experiments with primary cultured cells showed that both hepatocytes and hepatic Kupffer cells were the sources of the elevated MCP-1 in HIV-EtOH rats. Further, TLR4 and MCP-1 were found to be upregulated by leptin. Collectively, these results show that HIV rats, similar to HIV-infected people being treated with the highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), are more susceptible to binge alcohol-induced gut leakiness and inflammatory liver disease than the corresponding WT, possibly due to additive or synergistic interaction between binge alcohol exposure and HIV infection. Based on these results, HIV transgenic rats can be used as a surrogate model to study the molecular mechanisms of many disease states caused by heavy alcohol intake in HIV-infected people on HAART. PMID:26484872

  8. HIV-1 induces complement factor C3 synthesis in astrocytes and neurons by modulation of promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Bruder, Cornelia; Hagleitner, Magdalena; Darlington, Gretchen; Mohsenipour, Iradj; Würzner, Reinhard; Höllmüller, Isolde; Stoiber, Heribert; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Dierich, Manfred P; Speth, Cornelia

    2004-02-01

    Virus-induced complement expression and activation in the brain is hypothesized to contribute to the process of neurodegeneration in AIDS-associated neurological disorders. Previous experiments have shown that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) upregulates the low basal production of complement factor C3 in astrocytes and neurons. Since inhibition of complement synthesis and activation in the brain may represent a putative therapeutic goal to prevent virus-induced damage, we analysed the mechanism of the HIV-induced modulation of C3 expression. Detailed studies using different C3 promoter constructs revealed that HIV activates the synthesis of C3 by stimulation of the promoter. This HIV-induced promoter activation could be measured both in different astrocytic cell lines and in neurons. Deletion constructs of the C3 promoter defined the IL-6/IL-1beta responsive element within the promoter region as a central element for the responsiveness of the C3 promoter towards the influence of HIV. A binding site for the transcription factor C/EBPdelta was identified as important regulatory domain within the IL-6/IL-1beta responsive element, since a point mutation which eliminates the binding capacity of C/EBPdelta to this site also abolishes the induction by HIV-1. Similarly, the viral proteins Nef and gp41 which had also been shown to stimulate the synthesis of C3, exert their effect via the IL-6/IL-1beta responsive element with binding of the transcription factor C/EBPdelta representing the critical step. Our experiments clearly define the mechanism for the induction of complement factors in the HIV-infected brain and reveal a decisive role of the regulator protein C/EBPdelta for the HIV-induced increase in C3 expression. PMID:14725791

  9. HIV-associated disruption of tight and adherens junctions of oral epithelial cells facilitates HSV-1 infection and spread.

    PubMed

    Sufiawati, Irna; Tugizov, Sharof M

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 are the most common opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS. In these immunocompromised individuals, HSV-1 reactivates and replicates in oral epithelium, leading to oral disorders such as ulcers, gingivitis, and necrotic lesions. Although the increased risk of HSV infection may be mediated in part by HIV-induced immune dysfunction, direct or indirect interactions of HIV and HSV at the molecular level may also play a role. In this report we show that prolonged interaction of the HIV proteins tat and gp120 and cell-free HIV virions with polarized oral epithelial cells leads to disruption of tight and adherens junctions of epithelial cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. HIV-induced disruption of oral epithelial junctions facilitates HSV-1 paracellular spread between the epithelial cells. Furthermore, HIV-associated disruption of adherens junctions exposes sequestered nectin-1, an adhesion protein and critical receptor for HSV envelope glycoprotein D (gD). Exposure of nectin-1 facilitates binding of HSV-1 gD, which substantially increases HSV-1 infection of epithelial cells with disrupted junctions over that of cells with intact junctions. Exposed nectin-1 from disrupted adherens junctions also increases the cell-to-cell spread of HSV-1 from infected to uninfected oral epithelial cells. Antibodies to nectin-1 and HSV-1 gD substantially reduce HSV-1 infection and cell-to-cell spread, indicating that HIV-promoted HSV infection and spread are mediated by the interaction of HSV gD with HIV-exposed nectin-1. Our data suggest that HIV-associated disruption of oral epithelial junctions may potentiate HSV-1 infection and its paracellular and cell-to-cell spread within the oral mucosal epithelium. This could be one of the possible mechanisms of rapid development of HSV-associated oral lesions in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:24586397

  10. HIV-Associated Disruption of Tight and Adherens Junctions of Oral Epithelial Cells Facilitates HSV-1 Infection and Spread

    PubMed Central

    Sufiawati, Irna; Tugizov, Sharof M.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 are the most common opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS. In these immunocompromised individuals, HSV-1 reactivates and replicates in oral epithelium, leading to oral disorders such as ulcers, gingivitis, and necrotic lesions. Although the increased risk of HSV infection may be mediated in part by HIV-induced immune dysfunction, direct or indirect interactions of HIV and HSV at the molecular level may also play a role. In this report we show that prolonged interaction of the HIV proteins tat and gp120 and cell-free HIV virions with polarized oral epithelial cells leads to disruption of tight and adherens junctions of epithelial cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. HIV-induced disruption of oral epithelial junctions facilitates HSV-1 paracellular spread between the epithelial cells. Furthermore, HIV-associated disruption of adherens junctions exposes sequestered nectin-1, an adhesion protein and critical receptor for HSV envelope glycoprotein D (gD). Exposure of nectin-1 facilitates binding of HSV-1 gD, which substantially increases HSV-1 infection of epithelial cells with disrupted junctions over that of cells with intact junctions. Exposed nectin-1 from disrupted adherens junctions also increases the cell-to-cell spread of HSV-1 from infected to uninfected oral epithelial cells. Antibodies to nectin-1 and HSV-1 gD substantially reduce HSV-1 infection and cell-to-cell spread, indicating that HIV-promoted HSV infection and spread are mediated by the interaction of HSV gD with HIV-exposed nectin-1. Our data suggest that HIV-associated disruption of oral epithelial junctions may potentiate HSV-1 infection and its paracellular and cell-to-cell spread within the oral mucosal epithelium. This could be one of the possible mechanisms of rapid development of HSV-associated oral lesions in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:24586397

  11. DNA driven self-assembly of micron-sized rods using DNA-grafted bacteriophage fd virions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unwin, R. R.; Cabanas, R. A.; Yanagishima, T.; Blower, T. R.; Takahashi, H.; Salmond, G. P. C.; Edwardson, J. M.; Fraden, S.; Eiser, E.

    We have functionalized the sides of fd bacteriophage virions with oligonucleotides to induce DNA hybridization driven self-assembly of high aspect ratio filamentous particles. Potential impacts of this new structure range from an entirely new building block in DNA origami structures, inclusion of virions in DNA nanostructures and nanomachines, to a new means of adding thermotropic control to lyotropic liquid crystal systems. A protocol for producing the virions in bulk is reviewed. Thiolated oligonucleotides are attached to the viral capsid using a heterobifunctional chemical linker. A commonly used system is utilized, where a sticky, single-stranded DNA strand is connected to an inert double-stranded spacer to increase inter-particle connectivity. Solutions of fd virions carrying complementary strands are mixed, annealed, and their aggregation is studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS), fluorescence microscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Aggregation is clearly observed on cooling, with some degree of local order, and is reversible when temperature is cycled through the DNA hybridization transition.

  12. DNA driven self-assembly of micron-sized rods using DNA-grafted bacteriophage fd virions.

    PubMed

    Unwin, R R; Cabanas, R A; Yanagishima, T; Blower, T R; Takahashi, H; Salmond, G P C; Edwardson, J M; Fraden, S; Eiser, E

    2015-03-28

    We have functionalized the sides of fd bacteriophage virions with oligonucleotides to induce DNA hybridization driven self-assembly of high aspect ratio filamentous particles. Potential impacts of this new structure range from an entirely new building block in DNA origami structures, inclusion of virions in DNA nanostructures and nanomachines, to a new means of adding thermotropic control to lyotropic liquid crystal systems. A protocol for producing the virions in bulk is reviewed. Thiolated oligonucleotides are attached to the viral capsid using a heterobifunctional chemical linker. A commonly used system is utilized, where a sticky, single-stranded DNA strand is connected to an inert double-stranded spacer to increase inter-particle connectivity. Solutions of fd virions carrying complementary strands are mixed, annealed, and their aggregation is studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS), fluorescence microscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Aggregation is clearly observed on cooling, with some degree of local order, and is reversible when temperature is cycled through the DNA hybridization transition. PMID:25732957

  13. Small-Molecule Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication by Specific Targeting of the Final Step of Virion Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jing; Yuan, Xiong; Dismuke, David; Forshey, Brett M.; Lundquist, Christopher; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Aiken, Christopher; Chen, Chin Ho

    2004-01-01

    Despite the effectiveness of currently available human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) therapies, a continuing need exists for new drugs to treat HIV-1 infection. We investigated the mechanism by which 3-O-{3′,3′-dimethylsuccinyl}-betulinic acid (DSB) inhibits HIV-1 replication. DSB functions at a late stage of the virus life cycle but does not inhibit the HIV-1 protease in vitro or interfere with virus assembly or release. DSB specifically delays the cleavage of Gag between the capsid (CA) and p2, resulting in delayed formation of the mature viral core and reduced HIV-1 infectivity. Replication of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) was resistant to DSB; however, a chimeric SIV carrying CA-p2 sequences from HIV-1 was inhibited by the drug, indicating that susceptibility to DSB maps to the CA-p2 region of the HIV-1 Gag protein. A single point mutation at the CA-p2 cleavage site of HIV-1 conferred strong resistance to DSB, confirming the target of the drug. HIV-1 strains that are resistant to a variety of protease inhibitors were sensitive to DSB. These findings indicate that DSB specifically protects the CA-p2 cleavage site from processing by the viral protease during virion maturation, thereby revealing a novel mechanism for pharmacologic inhibition of HIV-1 replication. PMID:14694123

  14. Structural Constraints of Vaccine-Induced Tier-2 Autologous HIV Neutralizing Antibodies Targeting the Receptor-Binding Site.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Todd; Fera, Daniela; Bhiman, Jinal; Eslamizar, Leila; Lu, Xiaozhi; Anasti, Kara; Zhang, Ruijung; Sutherland, Laura L; Scearce, Richard M; Bowman, Cindy M; Stolarchuk, Christina; Lloyd, Krissey E; Parks, Robert; Eaton, Amanda; Foulger, Andrew; Nie, Xiaoyan; Karim, Salim S Abdool; Barnett, Susan; Kelsoe, Garnett; Kepler, Thomas B; Alam, S Munir; Montefiori, David C; Moody, M Anthony; Liao, Hua-Xin; Morris, Lynn; Santra, Sampa; Harrison, Stephen C; Haynes, Barton F

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies that neutralize autologous transmitted/founder (TF) HIV occur in most HIV-infected individuals and can evolve to neutralization breadth. Autologous neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against neutralization-resistant (Tier-2) viruses are rarely induced by vaccination. Whereas broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb)-HIV-Envelope structures have been defined, the structures of autologous nAbs have not. Here, we show that immunization with TF mutant Envs gp140 oligomers induced high-titer, V5-dependent plasma neutralization for a Tier-2 autologous TF evolved mutant virus. Structural analysis of autologous nAb DH427 revealed binding to V5, demonstrating the source of narrow nAb specificity and explaining the failure to acquire breadth. Thus, oligomeric TF Envs can elicit autologous nAbs to Tier-2 HIVs, but induction of bnAbs will require targeting of precursors of B cell lineages that can mature to heterologous neutralization. PMID:26725118

  15. Asymptomatic Tuberculosis-Induced Ileal Perforation in an HIV- Infected Individual; A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tahmasebi, Sedigheh; Moslemi, Sam; Tahamtan, Maryam; Taheri, Lohrasb; Davarpanah, Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    The co-existence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality because of a widespread organ involvement. The gastrointestinal tract is a common site for localization of opportunistic microorganisms in AIDS. However, surgical abdominal emergencies such as intestinal perforation resulted from tuberculosis are uncommon in these patients. The asymptomatic occurrence of such intestinal perforation has not been reported our knowledge. We represent an HIV and HCV co-infected man with miliary tuberculosis and an incidentally detected free air under  diaphragm in the chest X-ray eventually resulting in exploratory laparotomy which then revealed two tubercular-induced intestinal perforations. It seems that as the tuberculosis is increasing in incidence, mostly due to reactivation in HIV-infected patients especially in developing countries, we should not underestimate its acute abdominal emergencies such as bowel perforation. PMID:27162854

  16. TLR9-adjuvanted pneumococcal conjugate vaccine induces antibody-independent memory responses in HIV-infected adults.

    PubMed

    Offersen, Rasmus; Melchjorsen, Jesper; Paludan, Søren R; Østergaard, Lars; Tolstrup, Martin; Søgaard, Ole S

    2012-08-01

    HIV-patients have excess of pneumococcal infection. We immunized 40 HIV-patients twice with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevnar, Pfizer) +/- a TLR9 agonist (CPG 7909). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with pneumococcal polysaccharides and cytokine concentrations measured. The CPG 7909 adjuvant group had significantly higher relative cytokine responses than the placebo group for IL-1β, IL-2R, IL-6, IFN-γ and MIP-β, which, did not correlate with IgG antibody responses. These findings suggests that CPG 7909 as adjuvant to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine induces cellular memory to pneumococcal polysaccharides in HIV-patients, independently of the humoral response. PMID:22854665

  17. Celastrol ameliorates HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses via NF-kappaB and AP-1 inhibition and heme oxygenase-1 induction in astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Youn, Gi Soo; Kwon, Dong-Joo; Ju, Sung Mi; Rhim, Hyangshuk; Bae, Yong Soo; Choi, Soo Young; Park, Jinseu

    2014-10-01

    HIV-1 Tat causes extensive neuroinflammation that may progress to AIDS-related encephalitis and dementia. Celastrol possesses various biological activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the modulatory effects of celastrol on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses and the molecular mechanisms underlying its action in astrocytes. Pre-treatment of CRT-MG human astroglioma cells with celastrol significantly inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of ICAM-1/VCAM-1 and subsequent monocyte adhesiveness in CRT-MG cells. In addition, celastrol suppressed HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of pro-inflammatory chemokines, such as CXCL10, IL-8, and MCP-1. Celastrol decreased HIV-1 Tat-induced activation of JNK MAPK, AP-1, and NF-κB. Furthermore, celastrol induced mRNA and protein expression of HO-1 as well as Nrf2 activation. Blockage of HO-1 expression using siRNA reversed the inhibitory effect of celastrol on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses. These results suggest that celastrol has regulatory effects on HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses by blocking the JNK MAPK-AP-1/NF-κB signaling pathways and inducing HO-1 expression in astrocytes. - Highlights: • Celastrol suppressed HIV-1 Tat-induced expression of pro-inflammatory genes. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat -induced activation of JNK MAPK. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced activation of both NF-κB and AP-1. • Celastrol inhibited HIV-1 Tat-induced inflammatory responses via HO-1 induction.

  18. HIV-1 and HIV-2 Vif Interact with Human APOBEC3 Proteins Using Completely Different Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jessica L.; Izumi, Taisuke; Borbet, Timothy C.; Hagedorn, Ariel N.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human APOBEC3 (A3) restriction factors provide intrinsic immunity against zoonotic transmission of pathogenic viruses. A3D, A3F, A3G, and A3H haplotype II (A3H-hapII) can be packaged into virion infectivity factor (Vif)-deficient HIVs to inhibit viral replication. To overcome these restriction factors, Vif binds to the A3 proteins in viral producer cells to target them for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, thus preventing their packaging into assembling virions. Therefore, the Vif-A3 interactions are attractive targets for novel drug development. HIV-1 and HIV-2 arose via distinct zoonotic transmission events of simian immunodeficiency viruses from chimpanzees and sooty mangabeys, respectively, and Vifs from these viruses have limited homology. To gain insights into the evolution of virus-host interactions that led to successful cross-species transmission of lentiviruses, we characterized the determinants of the interaction between HIV-2 Vif (Vif2) with human A3 proteins and compared them to the previously identified HIV-1 Vif (Vif1) interactions with the A3 proteins. We found that A3G, A3F, and A3H-hapII, but not A3D, were susceptible to Vif2-induced degradation. Alanine-scanning mutational analysis of the first 62 amino acids of Vif2 indicated that Vif2 determinants important for degradation of A3G and A3F are completely distinct from these regions in Vif1, as are the determinants in A3G and A3F that are critical for Vif2-induced degradation. These observations suggest that distinct Vif-A3 interactions evolved independently in different SIVs and their nonhuman primate hosts and conservation of the A3 determinants targeted by the SIV Vif proteins resulted in successful zoonotic transmission into humans. IMPORTANCE Primate APOBEC3 proteins provide innate immunity against invading pathogens, and Vif proteins of primate lentiviruses have evolved to overcome these host defenses by interacting with them and inducing their proteasomal degradation. HIV

  19. Bacteriophage virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolases: potential new enzybiotics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virion-associated peptidoglycan hydrolases (VAPGH) are phage-encoded lytic enzymes that locally degrade the peptidoglycan (PG) of the bacterial cell wall during infection. Their action usually generates a small hole through which the phage tail crosses the cell envelope to inject the phage genetic m...

  20. Synergistic Reactivation of Latent HIV Expression by Ingenol-3-Angelate, PEP005, Targeted NF-kB Signaling in Combination with JQ1 Induced p-TEFb Activation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Guochun; Mendes, Erica A.; Kaiser, Philipp; Wong, Daniel P.; Tang, Yuyang; Cai, Ivy; Fenton, Anne; Melcher, Gregory P.; Hildreth, James E. K.; Thompson, George R.; Wong, Joseph K.; Dandekar, Satya

    2015-01-01

    Although anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is highly effective in suppressing HIV replication, it fails to eradicate the virus from HIV-infected individuals. Stable latent HIV reservoirs are rapidly established early after HIV infection. Therefore, effective strategies for eradication of the HIV reservoirs are urgently needed. We report that ingenol-3-angelate (PEP005), the only active component in a previously FDA approved drug (PICATO) for the topical treatment of precancerous actinic keratosis, can effectively reactivate latent HIV in vitro and ex vivo with relatively low cellular toxicity. Biochemical analysis showed that PEP005 reactivated latent HIV through the induction of the pS643/S676-PKCδ/θ-IκBα/ε-NF-κB signaling pathway. Importantly, PEP005 alone was sufficient to induce expression of fully elongated and processed HIV RNAs in primary CD4+ T cells from HIV infected individuals receiving suppressive ART. Furthermore, PEP005 and the P-TEFb agonist, JQ1, exhibited synergism in reactivation of latent HIV with a combined effect that is 7.5-fold higher than the effect of PEP005 alone. Conversely, PEP005 suppressed HIV infection of primary CD4+ T cells through down-modulation of cell surface expression of HIV co-receptors. This anti-cancer compound is a potential candidate for advancing HIV eradication strategies. PMID:26225771

  1. Synergistic Reactivation of Latent HIV Expression by Ingenol-3-Angelate, PEP005, Targeted NF-kB Signaling in Combination with JQ1 Induced p-TEFb Activation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guochun; Mendes, Erica A; Kaiser, Philipp; Wong, Daniel P; Tang, Yuyang; Cai, Ivy; Fenton, Anne; Melcher, Gregory P; Hildreth, James E K; Thompson, George R; Wong, Joseph K; Dandekar, Satya

    2015-07-01

    Although anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is highly effective in suppressing HIV replication, it fails to eradicate the virus from HIV-infected individuals. Stable latent HIV reservoirs are rapidly established early after HIV infection. Therefore, effective strategies for eradication of the HIV reservoirs are urgently needed. We report that ingenol-3-angelate (PEP005), the only active component in a previously FDA approved drug (PICATO) for the topical treatment of precancerous actinic keratosis, can effectively reactivate latent HIV in vitro and ex vivo with relatively low cellular toxicity. Biochemical analysis showed that PEP005 reactivated latent HIV through the induction of the pS643/S676-PKCδ/θ-IκBα/ε-NF-κB signaling pathway. Importantly, PEP005 alone was sufficient to induce expression of fully elongated and processed HIV RNAs in primary CD4+ T cells from HIV infected individuals receiving suppressive ART. Furthermore, PEP005 and the P-TEFb agonist, JQ1, exhibited synergism in reactivation of latent HIV with a combined effect that is 7.5-fold higher than the effect of PEP005 alone. Conversely, PEP005 suppressed HIV infection of primary CD4+ T cells through down-modulation of cell surface expression of HIV co-receptors. This anti-cancer compound is a potential candidate for advancing HIV eradication strategies. PMID:26225771

  2. HIV-1 Vpu accessory protein induces caspase-mediated cleavage of IRF3 transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Yoon; Waheed, Abdul A; Zhang, Zai-Rong; Freed, Eric O; Bonifacino, Juan S

    2014-12-19

    Vpu is an accessory protein encoded by HIV-1 that interferes with multiple host-cell functions. Herein we report that expression of Vpu by transfection into 293T cells causes partial proteolytic cleavage of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), a key transcription factor in the innate anti-viral response. Vpu-induced IRF3 cleavage is mediated by caspases and occurs mainly at Asp-121. Cleavage produces a C-terminal fragment of ∼37 kDa that comprises the IRF dimerization and transactivation domains but lacks the DNA-binding domain. A similar cleavage is observed upon infection of the Jurkat T-cell line with vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein (VSV-G)-pseudotyped HIV-1. Two other HIV-1 accessory proteins, Vif and Vpr, also contribute to the induction of IRF3 cleavage in both the transfection and the infection systems. The C-terminal IRF3 fragment interferes with the transcriptional activity of full-length IRF3. Cleavage of IRF3 under all of these conditions correlates with cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, an indicator of apoptosis. We conclude that Vpu contributes to the attenuation of the anti-viral response by partial inactivation of IRF3 while host cells undergo apoptosis. PMID:25352594

  3. Why do cells die in HIV infection? Potential mechanisms inducing programmed cell death/apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Del Llano, A M; Lavergne, J A

    1994-06-01

    This work reviews the suggested mechanisms which result in programmed cell death in human HIV infection. Here we present state-of-the-art scientific information related to the newly rediscovered phenomenon of Apoptosis, and to its biological relevance in the pathogenesis of HIV disease. General features of this phenomenon are reviewed, as well as available evidence for its occurrence and possible role in AIDS pathogenesis. A complex series of cellular and molecular events leading to cellular apoptosis are also reviewed and discussed. They include events which take place at the cell membrane level and those which occur at the intramembrane level and cytoplasmic locations, which result from the immunological activation of affected cells. Cellular events which follow and occur within the mitochondrial space and at the nuclear level are also discussed. The biological significance of all these phenomena is summarized in a theoretical scheme, which attempts to integrate all cellular events leading a primed cell into its HIV-induced programmed death. PMID:7938404

  4. Syncytial apoptosis signaling network induced by the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex: an overview.

    PubMed

    Nardacci, R; Perfettini, J-L; Grieco, L; Thieffry, D; Kroemer, G; Piacentini, M

    2015-01-01

    Infection by human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is associated with a progressive decrease in CD4 T-cell numbers and the consequent collapse of host immune defenses. The major pathogenic mechanism of AIDS is the massive apoptotic destruction of the immunocompetent cells, including uninfected cells. The latter process, also known as by-stander killing, operates by various mechanisms one of which involves the formation of syncytia which undergo cell death by following a complex pathway. We present here a detailed and curated map of the syncytial apoptosis signaling network, aimed at simplifying the whole mechanism that we have characterized at the molecular level in the last 15 years. The map was created using Systems Biology Graphical Notation language with the help of CellDesigner software and encompasses 36 components (proteins/genes) and 54 interactions. The simplification of this complex network paves the way for the development of novel therapeutic strategies to eradicate HIV-1 infection. Agents that induce the selective death of HIV-1-elicited syncytia might lead to the elimination of viral reservoirs and hence constitute an important complement to current antiretroviral therapies. PMID:26247731

  5. Syncytial apoptosis signaling network induced by the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Nardacci, R; Perfettini, J-L; Grieco, L; Thieffry, D; Kroemer, G; Piacentini, M

    2015-01-01

    Infection by human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is associated with a progressive decrease in CD4 T-cell numbers and the consequent collapse of host immune defenses. The major pathogenic mechanism of AIDS is the massive apoptotic destruction of the immunocompetent cells, including uninfected cells. The latter process, also known as by-stander killing, operates by various mechanisms one of which involves the formation of syncytia which undergo cell death by following a complex pathway. We present here a detailed and curated map of the syncytial apoptosis signaling network, aimed at simplifying the whole mechanism that we have characterized at the molecular level in the last 15 years. The map was created using Systems Biology Graphical Notation language with the help of CellDesigner software and encompasses 36 components (proteins/genes) and 54 interactions. The simplification of this complex network paves the way for the development of novel therapeutic strategies to eradicate HIV-1 infection. Agents that induce the selective death of HIV-1-elicited syncytia might lead to the elimination of viral reservoirs and hence constitute an important complement to current antiretroviral therapies. PMID:26247731

  6. Cannabinoids Occlude the HIV-1 Tat-Induced Decrease in GABAergic Neurotransmission in Prefrontal Cortex Slices.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changqing; Hermes, Douglas J; Mackie, Ken; Lichtman, Aron H; Ignatowska-Jankowska, Bogna M; Fitting, Sylvia

    2016-06-01

    In the era of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is now considered a chronic disease that specifically targets the brain and causes HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Endocannabinoids exhibit neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties in several central nervous system (CNS) disease models, but their effects in HAND are poorly understood. To address this issue, whole-cell recordings were performed on young (14-24 day old) C57BL/6J mice. We investigated the actions of the synthetic cannabinoid WIN55,212-2 (1 μM) and the endocannabinoid N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (anandamide; AEA, 1 μM) in the presence of HIV-1 Tat on GABAergic neurotransmission in mouse prefrontal cortex (PFC) slices. We found a Tat concentration-dependent (5-50 nM) decrease in the frequency and amplitude of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs). The cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) antagonist rimonabant (1 μM) and zero extracellular calcium prevented the significant Tat-induced decrease in mIPSCs. Further, bath-applied WIN55,212-2 or AEA by itself, significantly decreased the frequency, but not amplitude of mIPSCs and/or spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs), and occluded a further downregulation of IPSCs by Tat. Pretreatment with rimonabant but not the CB2R antagonist AM630 (1 μM) prevented the WIN55,212-2- and AEA-induced decrease in IPSCs frequency without any further Tat effect. Results indicated a Tat-induced decrease in GABAergic neurotransmission, which was occluded by cannabinoids via a CB1R-related mechanism. Understanding the relationship between Tat toxicity and endocannabinoid signaling has the potential to identify novel therapeutic interventions to benefit individuals suffering from HAND and other cognitive impairments. PMID:26993829

  7. IL-21 induces antiviral microRNA-29 in CD4 T cells to limit HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Adoro, Stanley; Cubillos-Ruiz, Juan R; Chen, Xi; Deruaz, Maud; Vrbanac, Vladimir D; Song, Minkyung; Park, Suna; Murooka, Thomas T; Dudek, Timothy E; Luster, Andrew D; Tager, Andrew M; Streeck, Hendrik; Bowman, Brittany; Walker, Bruce D; Kwon, Douglas S; Lazarevic, Vanja; Glimcher, Laurie H

    2015-01-01

    Initial events after exposure determine HIV-1 disease progression, underscoring a critical need to understand host mechanisms that interfere with initial viral replication. Although associated with chronic HIV-1 control, it is not known whether interleukin-21 (IL-21) contributes to early HIV-1 immunity. Here we take advantage of tractable primary human lymphoid organ aggregate cultures to show that IL-21 directly suppresses HIV-1 replication, and identify microRNA-29 (miR-29) as an antiviral factor induced by IL-21 in CD4 T cells. IL-21 promotes transcription of all miR-29 species through STAT3, whose binding to putative regulatory regions within the MIR29 gene is enriched by IL-21 signalling. Notably, exogenous IL-21 limits early HIV-1 infection in humanized mice, and lower viremia in vivo is associated with higher miR-29 expression. Together, these findings reveal a novel antiviral IL-21-miR-29 axis that promotes CD4 T-cell-intrinsic resistance to HIV-1 infection, and suggest a role for IL-21 in initial HIV-1 control in vivo. PMID:26108174

  8. Modeling HIV-1 Induced Neuroinflammation in Mice: Role of Platelets in Mediating Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Letitia D.; Jackson, Joseph W.; Maggirwar, Sanjay B.

    2016-01-01

    The number of HIV-1 positive individuals developing some form of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is increasing. In these individuals, the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is compromised due to an increase in exposure to pro-inflammatory mediators, viral proteins, and virus released from infected cells. It has been shown that soluble CD40L (sCD40L) is released upon platelet activation and is an important mediator of the pathogenesis of HAND but the underlying mechanisms are unclear, emphasizing the need of an effective animal model. Here, we have utilized a novel animal model in which wild-type (WT) mice were infected with EcoHIV; a derivative of HIV-1 that contains a substitution of envelope protein gp120 with that of gp80 derived from murine leukemia virus-1 (MuLV-1). As early as two-weeks post-infection, EcoHIV led to increased permeability of the BBB associated with decreased expression of tight junction protein claudin-5, in CD40L and platelet activation-dependent manner. Treatment with an antiplatelet drug, eptifibatide, in EcoHIV-infected mice normalized BBB function, sCD40L release and platelet activity, thus implicating platelet activation and platelet-derived CD40L in virally induced BBB dysfunction. Our results also validate and underscore the importance of EcoHIV infection mouse model as a tool to explore therapeutic targets for HAND. PMID:26986758

  9. Are Structural Changes Induced by Lithium in the HIV Brain Accompanied by Changes in Functional Connectivity?

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Christoph; Lehmann, Thomas; Zhu, Tong; Zhong, Jianhui; Leistritz, Lutz; Schifitto, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Lithium therapy has been shown to affect imaging measures of brain function and microstructure in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects with cognitive impairment. The aim of this proof-of-concept study was to explore whether changes in brain microstructure also entail changes in functional connectivity. Functional MRI data of seven cognitively impaired HIV infected individuals enrolled in an open-label lithium study were included in the connectivity analysis. Seven regions of interest (ROI) were defined based on previously observed lithium induced microstructural changes measured by Diffusion Tensor Imaging. Generalized partial directed coherence (gPDC), based on time-variant multivariate autoregressive models, was used to quantify the degree of connectivity between the selected ROIs. Statistical analyses using a linear mixed model showed significant differences in the average node strength between pre and post lithium therapy conditions. Specifically, we found that lithium treatment in this population induced changes suggestive of increased strength in functional connectivity. Therefore, by exploiting the information about the strength of functional interactions provided by gPDC we can quantify the connectivity changes observed in relation to a given intervention. Furthermore, in conditions where the intervention is associated with clinical changes, we suggest that this methodology could enable an interpretation of such changes in the context of disease or treatment induced modulations in functional networks. PMID:26436895

  10. Ex vivo analysis identifies effective HIV-1 latency-reversing drug combinations.

    PubMed

    Laird, Gregory M; Bullen, C Korin; Rosenbloom, Daniel I S; Martin, Alyssa R; Hill, Alison L; Durand, Christine M; Siliciano, Janet D; Siliciano, Robert F

    2015-05-01

    Reversal of HIV-1 latency by small molecules is a potential cure strategy. This approach will likely require effective drug combinations to achieve high levels of latency reversal. Using resting CD4+ T cells (rCD4s) from infected individuals, we developed an experimental and theoretical framework to identify effective latency-reversing agent (LRA) combinations. Utilizing ex vivo assays for intracellular HIV-1 mRNA and virion production, we compared 2-drug combinations of leading candidate LRAs and identified multiple combinations that effectively reverse latency. We showed that protein kinase C agonists in combination with bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 or histone deacetylase inhibitors robustly induce HIV-1 transcription and virus production when directly compared with maximum reactivation by T cell activation. Using the Bliss independence model to quantitate combined drug effects, we demonstrated that these combinations synergize to induce HIV-1 transcription. This robust latency reversal occurred without release of proinflammatory cytokines by rCD4s. To extend the clinical utility of our findings, we applied a mathematical model that estimates in vivo changes in plasma HIV-1 RNA from ex vivo measurements of virus production. Our study reconciles diverse findings from previous studies, establishes a quantitative experimental approach to evaluate combinatorial LRA efficacy, and presents a model to predict in vivo responses to LRAs. PMID:25822022

  11. Subtype selective NMDA receptor antagonists induce recovery of synapses lost following exposure to HIV-1 Tat

    PubMed Central

    Shin, AH; Kim, HJ; Thayer, SA

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Neurocognitive disorders afflict approximately 20% of HIV-infected patients. HIV-1-infected cells in the brain shed viral proteins such as transactivator of transcription (Tat). Tat elicits cell death and synapse loss via processes initiated by NMDA receptor activation but mediated by separate downstream signalling pathways. Subunit selective NMDA receptor antagonists may differentially modulate survival relative to synaptic changes. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Tat-evoked cell death was quantified by measuring propidium iodide uptake into rat hippocampal neurons in culture. The effects of Tat on synaptic changes were measured using an imaging-based assay that quantified clusters of the scaffolding protein postsynaptic density 95 fused to green fluorescent protein. KEY RESULTS Dizocilpine, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, inhibited Tat-induced synapse loss, subsequent synapse recovery and Tat-induced cell death with comparable potencies. Memantine (10 µM) and ifenprodil (10 µM), which preferentially inhibit GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors, protected from Tat-induced cell death with no effect on synapse loss. Surprisingly, memantine and ifenprodil induced synapse recovery in the presence of Tat. In contrast, the GluN2A-prefering antagonist TCN201 prevented synapse loss and recovery with no effect on cell death. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Synapse loss is a protective mechanism that enables the cell to cope with excess excitatory input. Thus, memantine and ifenprodil are promising neuroprotective drugs because they spare synaptic changes and promote survival. These GluN2B-preferring drugs induced recovery from Tat-evoked synapse loss, suggesting that synaptic pharmacology changed during the neurotoxic process. NMDA receptor subtypes differentially participate in the adaptation and death induced by excitotoxic insult. PMID:22142193

  12. T Cells Detect Intracellular DNA but Fail to Induce Type I IFN Responses: Implications for Restriction of HIV Replication

    PubMed Central

    Kofod-Olsen, Emil; Holm, Christian K.; Melchjorsen, Jesper; Jensen, David G.; Hansen, Anne Louise; Jørgensen, Louise B.; Ostergaard, Lars; Tolstrup, Martin; Larsen, Carsten S.; Paludan, Søren R.; Jakobsen, Martin R.; Mogensen, Trine H.

    2014-01-01

    HIV infects key cell types of the immune system, most notably macrophages and CD4+ T cells. Whereas macrophages represent an important viral reservoir, activated CD4+ T cells are the most permissive cell types supporting high levels of viral replication. In recent years, it has been appreciated that the innate immune system plays an important role in controlling HIV replication, e.g. via interferon (IFN)-inducible restriction factors. Moreover, innate immune responses are involved in driving chronic immune activation and the pathogenesis of progressive immunodeficiency. Several pattern recognition receptors detecting HIV have been reported, including Toll-like receptor 7 and Retinoic-inducible gene-I, which detects viral RNA. Here we report that human primary T cells fail to induce strong IFN responses, despite the fact that this cell type does express key molecules involved in DNA signaling pathways. We demonstrate that the DNA sensor IFI16 migrates to sites of foreign DNA localization in the cytoplasm and recruits the signaling molecules stimulator of IFN genes and Tank-binding kinase, but this does not result in expression of IFN and IFN-stimulated genes. Importantly, we show that cytosolic DNA fails to affect HIV replication. However, exogenous treatment of activated T cells with type I IFN has the capacity to induce expression of IFN-stimulated genes and suppress HIV replication. Our data suggest the existence of an impaired DNA signaling machinery in T cells, which may prevent this cell type from activating cell-autonomous anti-HIV responses. This phenomenon could contribute to the high permissiveness of CD4+ T cells for HIV-1. PMID:24404168

  13. An Ensemble Method to Distinguish Bacteriophage Virion from Non-Virion Proteins Based on Protein Sequence Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Chengjin; Gao, Rui; Yang, Runtao

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriophage virion proteins and non-virion proteins have distinct functions in biological processes, such as specificity determination for host bacteria, bacteriophage replication and transcription. Accurate identification of bacteriophage virion proteins from bacteriophage protein sequences is significant to understand the complex virulence mechanism in host bacteria and the influence of bacteriophages on the development of antibacterial drugs. In this study, an ensemble method for bacteriophage virion protein prediction from bacteriophage protein sequences is put forward with hybrid feature spaces incorporating CTD (composition, transition and distribution), bi-profile Bayes, PseAAC (pseudo-amino acid composition) and PSSM (position-specific scoring matrix). When performing on the training dataset 10-fold cross-validation, the presented method achieves a satisfactory prediction result with a sensitivity of 0.870, a specificity of 0.830, an accuracy of 0.850 and Matthew’s correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.701, respectively. To evaluate the prediction performance objectively, an independent testing dataset is used to evaluate the proposed method. Encouragingly, our proposed method performs better than previous studies with a sensitivity of 0.853, a specificity of 0.815, an accuracy of 0.831 and MCC of 0.662 on the independent testing dataset. These results suggest that the proposed method can be a potential candidate for bacteriophage virion protein prediction, which may provide a useful tool to find novel antibacterial drugs and to understand the relationship between bacteriophage and host bacteria. For the convenience of the vast majority of experimental scientists, a user-friendly and publicly-accessible web-server for the proposed ensemble method is established. PMID:26370987

  14. Heat-Stable Molecule Derived from Streptococcus cristatus Induces APOBEC3 Expression and Inhibits HIV-1 Replication

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Qiujia; Kinlock, Ballington L.; Wang, Chenliang; Hildreth, James E. K.; Xie, Hua; Liu, Bindong

    2014-01-01

    Although most human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) cases worldwide are transmitted through mucosal surfaces, transmission through the oral mucosal surface is a rare event. More than 700 bacterial species have been detected in the oral cavity. Despite great efforts to discover oral inhibitors of HIV, little information is available concerning the anti-HIV activity of oral bacterial components. Here we show that a molecule from an oral commensal bacterium, Streptococcus cristatus CC5A can induce expression of APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F) and inhibit HIV-1 replication in THP-1 cells. We show by qRT-PCR that expression levels of A3G and A3F increase in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of a CC5A extract, as does A3G protein levels by Western blot assay. In addition, when the human monocytic cell line THP-1 was treated with CC5A extract, the replication of HIV-1 IIIB was significantly suppressed compared with IIIB replication in untreated THP-1 cells. Knock down of A3G expression in THP-1 cells compromised the ability of CC5A to inhibit HIV-1 IIIB infectivity. Furthermore, SupT1 cells infected with virus produced from CC5A extract-treated THP-1 cells replicated virus with a higher G to A hypermutation rate (a known consequence of A3G activity) than virus used from untreated THP-1 cells. This suggests that S. cristatus CC5A contains a molecule that induces A3G/F expression and thereby inhibits HIV replication. These findings might lead to the discovery of a novel anti-HIV/AIDS therapeutic. PMID:25165817

  15. Methamphetamine activates nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and induces human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transcription in human microglial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wires, Emily S.; Alvarez, David; Dobrowolski, Curtis; Wang, Yun; Morales, Marisela; Karn, Jonathan; Harvey, Brandon K.

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) primarily infects glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Recent evidence suggests that HIV-infected individuals who abuse drugs such as methamphetamine (METH) have higher viral loads and experience more severe neurological complications than HIV-infected individuals who do not abuse drugs. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of METH on HIV expression from the HIV long terminal repeats (LTR) promoter and on an HIV integrated provirus in microglial cells, the primary host cells for HIV in the CNS. Primary human microglial cells immortalized with SV40 T-antigen (CHME-5 cells) were co-transfected with an HIV LTR reporter and the HIV Tat gene, a key regulator of viral replication and gene expression, and exposed to METH. Our results demonstrate that METH treatment induced LTR activation, an effect potentiated in the presence of Tat. We also found that METH increased the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), a key cellular transcriptional regulator of the LTR promoter, and the activity of an NF-κB-specific reporter plasmid in CHME-5 cells. The presence of a dominant-negative regulator of NF-κB blocked METH-related activation of the HIV LTR. Furthermore, treatment of HIV-latently infected CHME-5 (CHME-5/HIV) cells with METH induced HIV expression in a dose-dependent manner, and nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB. These results suggest that METH can stimulate HIV gene expression in microglia cells through activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. This mechanism may outline the initial biochemical events leading to the observed increased neurodegeneration in HIV-positive individuals who use METH. PMID:22618514

  16. Delivering HIV Gagp24 to DCIR Induces Strong Antibody Responses In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Flamar, Anne-Laure; Contreras, Vanessa; Zurawski, Sandra; Montes, Monica; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathatlie; Martinon, Frédéric; Banchereau, Jacques; Le Grand, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Targeting dendritic cell-specific endocytic receptors using monoclonal antibodies fused to desired antigens is an approach widely used in vaccine development to enhance the poor immunogenicity of protein-based vaccines and to induce immune responses. Here, we engineered an anti-human DCIR recombinant antibody, which cross-reacts with the homologous cynomolgous macaque receptor and was fused via the heavy chain C-terminus to HIV Gagp24 protein (αDCIR.Gagp24). In vitro, αDCIR.Gagp24 expanded multifunctional antigen-specific memory CD4+ T cells recognizing multiple Gagp24 peptides from HIV-infected patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In non human primates, priming with αDCIR.Gagp24 without adjuvant elicited a strong anti-Gagp24 antibody response after the second immunization, while in the non-targeted HIV Gagp24 protein control groups the titers were weak. The presence of the double-stranded RNA poly(I:C) adjuvant significantly enhanced the anti-Gagp24 antibody response in all the groups and reduced the discrimination between the different vaccine groups. The avidity of the anti-Gagp24 antibody responses was similar with either αDCIR.Gagp24 or Gagp24 immunization, but increased from medium to high avidity in both groups when poly(I:C) was co-administered. This data provides a comparative analysis of DC-targeted and non-targeted proteins for their capacity to induce antigen-specific antibody responses in vivo. This study supports the further development of DCIR-based DC-targeting vaccines for protective durable antibody induction, especially in the absence of adjuvant. PMID:26407317

  17. HIV antiretroviral drug combination induces endothelial mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species production, but not apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Bo; Hebert, Valeria Y.; Li, Yuchi; Mathis, J. Michael; Alexander, J. Steven; Dugas, Tammy R.

    2007-10-01

    Numerous reports now indicate that HIV patients administered long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at a greater risk for developing cardiovascular diseases. Endothelial dysfunction is an initiating event in atherogenesis and may contribute to HIV-associated atherosclerosis. We previously reported that ART induces direct endothelial dysfunction in rodents. In vitro treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with ART indicated endothelial mitochondrial dysfunction and a significant increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we determined whether ART-induced endothelial dysfunction is mediated via mitochondria-derived ROS and whether this mitochondrial injury culminates in endothelial cell apoptosis. Two major components of ART combination therapy, a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor and a protease inhibitor, were tested, using AZT and indinavir as representatives for each. Microscopy utilizing fluorescent indicators of ROS and mitochondria demonstrated the mitochondrial localization of ART-induced ROS. MnTBAP, a cell-permeable metalloporphyrin antioxidant, abolished ART-induced ROS production. As a final step in confirming the mitochondrial origin of the ART-induced ROS, HUVEC were transduced with a cytosolic- compared to a mitochondria-targeted catalase. Transduction with the mitochondria-targeted catalase was more effective than cytoplasmic catalase in inhibiting the ROS and 8-isoprostane (8-iso-PGF{sub 2{alpha}}) produced after treatment with either AZT or indinavir. However, both mitochondrial and cytoplasmic catalase attenuated ROS and 8-iso-PGF{sub 2{alpha}} production induced by the combination treatment, suggesting that in this case, the formation of cytoplasmic ROS may also occur, and thus, that the mechanism of toxicity in the combination treatment group may be different compared to treatment with AZT or indinavir alone. Finally, to determine whether ART-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and

  18. In situ hybridization for detection of HIV RNA.

    PubMed

    Fox, C H; Cottler-Fox, M

    2001-05-01

    In HIV studies, in situ hybridization can be used for identifying virion RNA, mRNA being produced for virion packaging, and proviral DNA in the cytoplasm or integrated in the nucleus. This unit focuses primarily on identifying virion RNA, because this is the most sensitive means by which in situ hybridization can be employed to detect HIV expression. In situ hybridization, as developed for HIV RNA detection, involves several protocols: (1) preparation of a radioactive or nonradioactive RNA probe; (2) in situ hybridization of probe to cells and paraffin sections of tissue; (3) detection of radiolabeled probe by emulsion autoradiography; (4) development, staining, and mounting of slides; and finally (5) examination of slides by bright-field, dark-field, specular reflectance, or laser-scanning confocal microscopy. The protocols presented in this unit describe a setup involving up to 150 slides. PMID:18432712

  19. HIV-1 gp41 Core with Exposed Membrane-Proximal External Region Inducing Broad HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Leilei; Xu, Liling; Jiang, Shibo; Chen, Ying-hua

    2011-01-01

    The membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 gp41 consists of epitopes for the broadly cross-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies 2F5 and 4E10. However, antigens containing the linear sequence of these epitopes are unable to elicit potent and broad neutralizing antibody responses in vaccinated hosts, possibly because of inappropriate conformation of these epitopes. Here we designed a recombinant antigen, designated NCM, which comprises the N- and C-terminal heptad repeats that can form a six-helix bundle (6HB) core and the MPER domain of gp41. Two mutations (T569A and I675V) previously reported to expose the neutralization epitopes were introduced into NCM to generate mutants named NCM(TA), NCM(IV), and NCM(TAIV). Our results showed that NCM and its mutants could react with antibodies specific for 6HB and MPER of gp41, suggesting that these antigens are in the form of a trimer of heterodimer (i.e., 6HB) with three exposed MPER tails. Antigen with double mutations, NCM(TAIV), elicited much stronger antibody response in rabbits than immunogens with single mutation, NCM(TA) and NCM(IV), or no mutation, NCM. The purified MPER-specific antibodies induced by NCM(TAIV) exhibited broad neutralizing activity, while the purified 6HB-specific antibodies showed no detectable neutralizing activity. Our recombinant antigen design supported by an investigation of its underlying molecular mechanisms provides a strong scientific platform for the discovery of a gp41 MPER-based AIDS vaccine. PMID:21483871

  20. The vaccinia virus E6 protein influences virion protein localization during virus assembly.

    PubMed

    Condit, Richard C; Moussatche, Nissin

    2015-08-01

    Vaccinia virus mutants in which expression of the virion core protein gene E6R is repressed are defective in virion morphogenesis. E6 deficient infections fail to properly package viroplasm into viral membranes, resulting in an accumulation of empty immature virions and large aggregates of viroplasm. We have used immunogold electron microscopy and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy to assess the intracellular localization of several virion structural proteins and enzymes during E6R mutant infections. We find that during E6R mutant infections virion membrane proteins and virion transcription enzymes maintain a normal localization within viral factories while several major core and lateral body proteins accumulate in aggregated virosomes. The results support a model in which vaccinia virions are assembled from at least three substructures, the membrane, the viroplasm and a "pre-nucleocapsid", and that the E6 protein is essential for maintaining proper localization of the seven-protein complex and the viroplasm during assembly. PMID:25863879

  1. Vaccinia virions deficient in transcription enzymes lack a nucleocapsid

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, Baron D.H.; Moussatche, Nissin; Kelley, Karen; Kang, Byung-Ho; Condit, Richard C.

    2012-12-05

    The poxvirus virion contains an inner tubular nucleocapsid structure. The nucleocapsid is apparently labile to conventional electron microscopy fixation procedures and has therefore been largely ignored for decades. Advancements in electron microscopy sample preparation, notably high pressure freezing, better preserve the nucleocapsid structure. Using high pressure freezing and electron microscopy, we have compared the virion structures of wt virus and mutant viruses known to be deficient in packaging of viral transcription enzymes. We show that the mutant viruses lack a defined nucleocapsid. These results support the hypothesis that the nucleocapsid contains the viral DNA genome complexed with viral transcription enzymes and structural proteins. The studies open the door to further investigation of the composition and ultrastructure of the poxvirus nucleocapsid.

  2. Vaccinia Virions Deficient in Transcription Enzymes Lack a Nucleocapsid

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Baron D.H.; Moussatche, Nissin; Kelley, Karen; Kang, Byung-Ho; Condit, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    The poxvirus virion contains an inner tubular nucleocapsid structure. The nucleocapsid is apparently labile to conventional electron microscopy fixation procedures and has therefore been largely ignored for decades. Advancements in electron microscopy sample preparation, notably high pressure freezing, better preserve the nucleocapsid structure. Using high pressure freezing and electron microscopy, we have compared the virion structures of wt virus and mutant viruses known to be deficient in packaging of viral transcription enzymes. We show that the mutant viruses lack a defined nucleocapsid. These results support the hypothesis that the nucleocapsid contains the viral DNA genome complexed with viral transcription enzymes and structural proteins. The studies open the door to further investigation of the composition and ultrastructure of the poxvirus nucleocapsid. PMID:22944110

  3. Role of fever in infection: has induced fever any therapeutic potential in HIV infection?

    PubMed Central

    Morton, R S; Rashid, S

    1997-01-01

    Ancient societies had no rational understanding of fever. The Greeks were the first to recognise that it may be part of nature's method of effecting cure in some diseases. How best to assist nature went through many trials and errors. Appreciation of the prognostic value of fever and how it may be controlled was slow to appear. That there was a place in the therapeutic arsenal for induced fever came only with the 20th century. Finding a suitable, safe, and satisfactory means came slowly. The curative power of well controlled and reproducible levels of fever was proved by the arrest of one deadly and incurable complication of a sexually transmitted disease in the first half of this century. The purpose of this review is to promote discussion and, hopefully, well ordered laboratory and clinical trials aimed at learning whether or not induced fevers have a place in the care of patients with HIV/AIDS. Images PMID:9306904

  4. Getting IN on Viral RNA Condensation and Virion Maturation.

    PubMed

    Freed, Eric O

    2016-08-25

    The retroviral enzyme integrase plays an essential role in the virus replication cycle by catalyzing the covalent insertion of newly synthesized viral DNA into the host cell chromosome early after infection. Now, Kessl et al. report a second function of integrase: binding to the viral RNA genome in virion particles late in the virus replication cycle to promote particle maturation. PMID:27565339

  5. Genetically modified anthrax lethal toxin safely delivers whole HIV protein antigens into the cytosol to induce T cell immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yichen; Friedman, Rachel; Kushner, Nicholas; Doling, Amy; Thomas, Lawrence; Touzjian, Neal; Starnbach, Michael; Lieberman, Judy

    2000-07-01

    Bacillus anthrax lethal toxin can be engineered to deliver foreign proteins to the cytosol for antigen presentation to CD8 T cells. Vaccination with modified toxins carrying 8-9 amino acid peptide epitopes induces protective immunity in mice. To evaluate whether large protein antigens can be used with this system, recombinant constructs encoding several HIV antigens up to 500 amino acids were produced. These candidate HIV vaccines are safe in animals and induce CD8 T cells in mice. Constructs encoding gag p24 and nef stimulate gag-specific CD4 proliferation and a secondary cytotoxic T lymphocyte response in HIV-infected donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. These results lay the foundation for future clinical vaccine studies.

  6. Genetically modified anthrax lethal toxin safely delivers whole HIV protein antigens into the cytosol to induce T cell immunity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yichen; Friedman, Rachel; Kushner, Nicholas; Doling, Amy; Thomas, Lawrence; Touzjian, Neal; Starnbach, Michael; Lieberman, Judy

    2000-01-01

    Bacillus anthrax lethal toxin can be engineered to deliver foreign proteins to the cytosol for antigen presentation to CD8 T cells. Vaccination with modified toxins carrying 8–9 amino acid peptide epitopes induces protective immunity in mice. To evaluate whether large protein antigens can be used with this system, recombinant constructs encoding several HIV antigens up to 500 amino acids were produced. These candidate HIV vaccines are safe in animals and induce CD8 T cells in mice. Constructs encoding gag p24 and nef stimulate gag-specific CD4 proliferation and a secondary cytotoxic T lymphocyte response in HIV-infected donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. These results lay the foundation for future clinical vaccine studies. PMID:10884430

  7. Activation of Cannabinoid Type 2 Receptors Inhibits HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein gp120-Induced Synapse Loss

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Jung; Shin, Angela H.

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system is associated with dendritic and synaptic damage that correlates with cognitive decline in patients with HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). HAD is due in part to the release of viral proteins from infected cells. Because cannabinoids modulate neurotoxic and inflammatory processes, we investigated their effects on changes in synaptic connections induced by the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120. Morphology and synapses between cultured hippocampal neurons were visualized by confocal imaging of neurons expressing DsRed2 and postsynaptic density protein 95 fused to green fluorescent protein (PSD95-GFP). Twenty-four-hour treatment with gp120 IIIB decreased the number of PSD95-GFP puncta by 37 ± 4%. The decrease was concentration-dependent (EC50 = 153 ± 50 pM). Synapse loss preceded cell death as defined by retention of DsRed2 fluorescence gp120 activated CXCR4 on microglia to evoke interleukin-1β (IL-1β) release. Pharmacological studies determined that sequential activation of CXCR4, the IL-1β receptor, and the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor was required. Expression of alternative reading frame polypeptide, which inhibits the ubiquitin ligase murine double minute 2, protected synapses, implicating the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Cannabimimetic drugs are of particular relevance to HAD because of their clinical and illicit use in patients with AIDS. The cannabinoid receptor full agonist [(R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3[(4-morpholinyl)methyl]pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazinyl]-(1-naphthalenyl) methanone mesylate salt] (Win55,212-2) inhibited gp120-induced IL-1β production and synapse in a manner reversed by a cannabinoid type 2 receptor antagonist. In contrast, Win55,212-2 did not inhibit synapse loss elicited by exposure to the HIV-1 protein Tat. These results indicate that cannabinoids prevent the impairment of network function produced by gp120 and, thus, might have therapeutic potential in HAD. PMID:21670103

  8. Protein Composition of the Vaccinia Virus Mature Virion

    SciTech Connect

    Resch, Wolfgang; Hixson, Kim K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Lipton, Mary S.; Moss, Bernard

    2007-02-05

    The protein content of vaccinia virus mature virions, purified by rate zonal and isopycnic centrifugation and solubilized by SDS or a solution of urea and thiourea, was determined by the accurate mass and time tag technology which uses both tandem mass spectrometry and Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry to detect tryptic peptides separated by high-resolution liquid chromatography. Eighty vaccinia virus-encoded proteins representing 37% of the 218 genes annotated in the complete genome sequence were detected in at least three analyses. Ten proteins accounted for approximately 80% of the mass, while the least abundant proteins made up 1% or less of the mass. Thirteen identified proteins were not previously reported as components of virions. On the other hand, 8 previously described virion proteins were not detected here, presumably due to technical reasons including small size and hydrophobicity. In addition to vaccinia virus-encoded proteins, 24 host proteins omitting isoforms were detected. The most abundant of these were cytoskeletal proteins, heat shock proteins, and proteins involved in translation.

  9. Immunogenicity Studies of Bivalent Inactivated Virions of EV71/CVA16 Formulated with Submicron Emulsion Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Wei; Lu, Tsung-Chun; Chow, Yen-Hung; Huang, Ming-Hsi

    2014-01-01

    We assessed two strategies for preparing candidate vaccines against hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused mainly by infections of enterovirus (EV) 71 and coxsackievirus (CV) A16. We firstly design and optimize the potency of adjuvant combinations of emulsion-based delivery systems, using EV71 candidate vaccine as a model. We then perform immunogenicity studies in mice of EV71/CVA16 antigen combinations formulated with PELC/CpG. A single dose of inactivated EV71 virion (0.2 μg) emulsified in submicron particles was found (i) to induce potent antigen-specific neutralizing antibody responses and (ii) consistently to elicit broad antibody responses against EV71 neutralization epitopes. A single dose immunogenicity study of bivalent activated EV71/CVA16 virion formulated with either Alum or PELC/CpG adjuvant showed that CVA16 antigen failed to elicit CVA16 neutralizing antibody responses and did not affect EV71-specific neutralizing antibody responses. A boosting dose of emulsified EV71/CVA16 bivalent vaccine candidate was found to be necessary to achieve high seroconversion of CVA16-specific neutralizing antibody responses. The current results are important for the design and development of prophylactic vaccines against HFMD and other emerging infectious diseases. PMID:25006583

  10. HIV-Nef and ADAM17-Containing Plasma Extracellular Vesicles Induce and Correlate with Immune Pathogenesis in Chronic HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Hyun; Schierer, Stephan; Blume, Katja; Dindorf, Jochen; Wittki, Sebastian; Xiang, Wei; Ostalecki, Christian; Koliha, Nina; Wild, Stefan; Schuler, Gerold; Fackler, Oliver T.; Saksela, Kalle; Harrer, Thomas; Baur, Andreas S.

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) efficiently suppresses HIV replication but immune activation and low CD4 T cell counts often persist. The underlying mechanism of this ART-resistant pathogenesis is not clear. We observed that levels of plasma extracellular vesicles (pEV) are strongly elevated in HIV infection and do not decline during ART. Surprisingly, these vesicles contained the viral accessory proteins Nef and Vpu, which are assumed to be not expressed under efficient ART, as well as pro-inflammatory effectors, including activated ADAM17. HIV pEV were characterized by the presence of activated αvβ3 and absence of CD81 and Tsg101. Correlating with immune activation, peripheral monocytes ingested large amounts of pEV, giving rise to an increased population of CD1c+ CD14+ cells that secreted inflammatory cytokines. Importantly, the pro-inflammatory content, particularly ADAM17 activity, correlated with low T cell counts. Preliminary evidence suggested that HIV pEV derived from peripheral mononuclear cells and from an unknown myeloid cell population. In summary we propose an important role of pro-inflammatory pEV in chronic HIV infection due to ongoing viral Nef activity. PMID:27211553

  11. Synthetic Consensus HIV-1 DNA Induces Potent Cellular Immune Responses and Synthesis of Granzyme B, Perforin in HIV Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Matthew P; Tebas, Pablo; Yan, Jian; Ramirez, Lorenzo; Slager, Anna; Kraynyak, Kim; Diehl, Malissa; Shah, Divya; Khan, Amir; Lee, Jessica; Boyer, Jean; Kim, J Joseph; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Weiner, David B; Bagarazzi, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of PENNVAX-B in 12 HIV infected individuals. PENNVAX-B is a combination of three optimized synthetic plasmids encoding for multiclade HIV Gag and Pol and a consensus CladeB Env delivered by electroporation. HIV infected individuals whose virus was effectively suppressed using highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) received PENNVAX-B DNA followed by electroporation with CELLECTRA-5P at study weeks 0, 4, 8, and 16. Local administration site and systemic reactions to PENNVAX-B were recorded after each treatment along with any adverse events. Pain of the treatment procedure was assessed using a Visual Analog Scale. Whole PBMCs were isolated for use in IFN ELISpot and Flow Cytometric assays. PENNVAX-B was generally safe and well tolerated. Overall, the four dose regimen was not associated with any serious adverse events or severe local or systemic reactions. A rise in antigen-specific SFU was detected in the INFγ ELISpot assay in all 12 participants. T cells from 8/12 participants loaded with both granzyme B and perforin in response to HIV antigen, an immune finding characteristic of long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) and elite controllers (ECs). Thus administration of PENNVAX-B may prove useful adjunctive therapy to ART for treatment and control of HIV infection. PMID:25531694

  12. Synthetic consensus HIV-1 DNA induces potent cellular immune responses and synthesis of granzyme B, perforin in HIV infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Matthew P; Tebas, Pablo; Yan, Jian; Ramirez, Lorenzo; Slager, Anna; Kraynyak, Kim; Diehl, Malissa; Shah, Divya; Khan, Amir; Lee, Jessica; Boyer, Jean; Kim, J Joseph; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Weiner, David B; Bagarazzi, Mark L

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of PENNVAX-B in 12 HIV infected individuals. PENNVAX-B is a combination of three optimized synthetic plasmids encoding for multiclade HIV Gag and Pol and a consensus CladeB Env delivered by electroporation. HIV infected individuals whose virus was effectively suppressed using highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) received PENNVAX-B DNA followed by electroporation with CELLECTRA-5P at study weeks 0, 4, 8, and 16. Local administration site and systemic reactions to PENNVAX-B were recorded after each treatment along with any adverse events. Pain of the treatment procedure was assessed using a Visual Analog Scale. Whole PBMCs were isolated for use in IFN ELISpot and Flow Cytometric assays. PENNVAX-B was generally safe and well tolerated. Overall, the four dose regimen was not associated with any serious adverse events or severe local or systemic reactions. A rise in antigen-specific SFU was detected in the INFγ ELISpot assay in all 12 participants. T cells from 8/12 participants loaded with both granzyme B and perforin in response to HIV antigen, an immune finding characteristic of long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) and elite controllers (ECs). Thus administration of PENNVAX-B may prove useful adjunctive therapy to ART for treatment and control of HIV infection. PMID:25531694

  13. A Rhesus Rhadinovirus Viral Interferon (IFN) Regulatory Factor Is Virion Associated and Inhibits the Early IFN Antiviral Response

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Gabriela; Robinson, Bridget A.; Rogers, Kelsey S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The interferon (IFN) response is the earliest host immune response dedicated to combating viral infection. As such, viruses have evolved strategies to subvert this potent antiviral response. Two closely related gammaherpesviruses, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and rhesus macaque rhadinovirus (RRV), are unique in that they express viral homologues to cellular interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), termed viral IRFs (vIRFs). Cellular IRFs are a family of transcription factors that are particularly important for the transcription of type I IFNs. Here, we demonstrate a strategy employed by RRV to ensure rapid inhibition of virus-induced type I IFN induction. We found that RRV vIRF R6, when expressed ectopically, interacts with a transcriptional coactivator, CREB-binding protein (CBP), in the nucleus. As a result, phosphorylated IRF3, an important transcriptional regulator in beta interferon (IFN-β) transcription, fails to effectively bind to the IFN-β promoter, thus inhibiting the activation of IFN-β genes. In addition, we found R6 within RRV virion particles via immunoelectron microscopy and, furthermore, that virion-associated R6 is capable of inhibiting the type I IFN response by preventing efficient binding of IRF3/CBP complexes to the IFN-β promoter in the context of infection. The work shown here is the first example of a vIRF being associated with either the KSHV or RRV virion. The presence of this immunomodulatory protein in the RRV virion provides the virus with an immediate mechanism to evade the host IFN response, thus enabling the virus to effectively establish an infection within the host. IMPORTANCE Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and the closely related rhesus macaque rhadinovirus (RRV) are the only viruses known to encode viral homologues to cellular interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), known as vIRFs. In KSHV, these proteins have been shown to play major roles in a variety of cellular processes and are

  14. A Cytoplasmic Tail Determinant in HIV-1 Vpu Mediates Targeting of Tetherin for Endosomal Degradation and Counteracts Interferon-Induced Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Kueck, Tonya; Neil, Stuart J. D.

    2012-01-01

    The HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu counteracts tetherin (BST-2/CD317) by preventing its incorporation into virions, reducing its surface expression, and ultimately promoting its degradation. Here we characterize a putative trafficking motif, EXXXLV, in the second alpha helix of the subtype-B Vpu cytoplasmic tail as being required for efficient tetherin antagonism. Mutation of this motif prevents ESCRT-dependent degradation of tetherin/Vpu complexes, tetherin cell surface downregulation, but not its physical interaction with Vpu. Importantly, this motif is required for efficient cell-free virion release from CD4+ T cells, particularly after their exposure to type-1 interferon, indicating that the ability to reduce surface tetherin levels and promote its degradation is important to counteract restriction under conditions that the virus likely encounters in vivo. Vpu EXXXLV mutants accumulate with tetherin at the cell surface and in endosomal compartments, but retain the ability to bind both β-TrCP2 and HRS, indicating that this motif is required for a post-binding trafficking event that commits tetherin for ESCRT-dependent degradation and prevents its transit to the plasma membrane and viral budding zones. We further found that while Vpu function is dependent on clathrin, and the entire second alpha helix of the Vpu tail can be functionally complemented by a clathrin adaptor binding peptide derived from HIV-1 Nef, none of the canonical clathrin adaptors nor retromer are required for this process. Finally we show that residual activity of Vpu EXXXLV mutants requires an intact endocytic motif in tetherin, suggesting that physical association of Vpu with tetherin during its recycling may be sufficient to compromise tetherin activity to some degree. PMID:22479182

  15. APOBEC3G ubiquitination by Nedd4-1 favors its packaging into HIV-1 particles.

    PubMed

    Dussart, Sylvie; Douaisi, Marc; Courcoul, Marianne; Bessou, Gilles; Vigne, Robert; Decroly, Etienne

    2005-01-21

    APOBEC3G is a cytidine deaminase that limits the replication of many retroviruses. This antiviral host factor is packaged into retrovirus particles, where it targets single-stranded DNA generated during reverse transcription and induces up to 2% of G-to-A mutations, which are lethal for the HIV-1 provirus. Vif protein counteracts this antiviral factor by decreasing its packaging into lentivirus particles. Here, we demonstrate that Nedd4-1, an HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase, interacts with APOBEC3G, through its WW2 and WW3 domains. As a result of this interaction, APOBEC3G undergoes post-translational modification by addition of ubiquitin moieties. Accordingly, we demonstrate that the dominant negative Nedd4-1 C/S form prevents APOBEC3G ubiquitination. Moreover, the packaging of APOBEC3G into Pr55 Gag virus-like particles and into HIV-1 virions is reduced when Nedd4-1 C/S is expressed. During HIV-1 viral production in the presence of APOBEC3G, Nedd4-1 C/S restores partially the infectivity of Deltavif HIV-1. We conclude that the ubiquitination of APOBEC3G by Nedd4-1 favors its targeting to the virus assembly site where APOBEC3G interacts with Gag and is packaged into HIV-1 particles in the absence of Vif. PMID:15581898

  16. Mechanisms and structural determinants of HIV-1 coat protein, gp41-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Adamson, D C; Kopnisky, K L; Dawson, T M; Dawson, V L

    1999-01-01

    Of the individuals with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, 20-30% will develop the neurological complication of HIV-associated dementia (HAD). The mechanisms underlying HAD are unknown; however, indirect immunologically mediated mechanisms are theorized to play a role. Recently, the HIV-1 coat protein gp41 has been implicated as a major mediator of HAD through induction of neurocytokines and subsequent neuronal cell death. Using primary mixed cortical cultures from neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) null (nNOS-/-) mice and immunological NOS null (iNOS-/-) mice, we establish iNOS-derived NO as a major mediator of gp41 neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicity elicited by gp41 is markedly attenuated in iNOS-/- cultures compared with wild-type and nNOS-/- cultures. The NOS inhibitor L-nitroarginine methyl ester is neuroprotective in wild-type and nNOS-/- cultures, confirming the role of iNOS-derived NO in gp41 neurotoxicity. Confirming that iNOS-/- cultures lack iNOS, gp41 did not induce iNOS in iNOS-/- cultures, but it markedly induced iNOS in wild-type and nNOS-/- cultures. We elucidate the region of gp41 that is critical for iNOS induction and neuronal cell death by monitoring iNOS induction with overlapping peptides spanning gp41. We show that the N-terminal region of gp41, which we designate as the neurotoxic domain, induces iNOS protein activity and iNOS-dependent neurotoxicity at picomolar concentrations in a manner similar to recombinant gp41 protein. Our experiments suggest that gp41 is eliciting the induction of iNOS through potential cell surface receptors or binding sites because the induction of iNOS is dose dependent and saturable and occurs at physiologically relevant concentrations. These data confirm that the induction of iNOS by gp41 and the production of NO are primary mediators of neuronal damage and identify a neurotoxic domain of gp41 that may play an important role in HAD. PMID:9870939

  17. Observation of HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein induced TAR DNA melting at the single molecule level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosa, Gonzalo; Harbron, Elizabeth; O'Connor, Donald; Musier-Forsyth, Karin; Barbara, Paul

    2003-03-01

    Reverse transcription of the HIV-1 RNA genome involves several nucleic acid rearrangement steps, and the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) plays a key role in this process. NC is a nucleic acid chaperone protein, which facilitates the formation of the most stable nucleic acid structures. Single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (SM-FRET) measurements enable us to observe the NC-induced conformational fluctuations of a transactivation response region (TAR) DNA hairpin, which is part of the initial product of reverse transcription known as minus-strand strong-stop DNA. SM-FRET studies show that the majority of conformational fluctuations of the fluorescently-labeled TAR DNA hairpin in the presence of NC occur in <100 ms. A single molecule explores a wide range of confomations unpon NC binding, with fluctuations encompassing as many as 40 bases in both arms of the hairpin. No conformational fluctuations are observed with the dye-labeled TAR DNA hairpin in the absence of NC or when a labeled TAR DNA hairpin variant lacking bulges and internal loops is analyzed in the presence of NC. This study represents the first real-time observation of NC-mediated nucleic acid conformational fluctuations, revealing new insights into NC's nucleic acid chaperone activity.

  18. The Race against Protease Activation Defines the Role of ESCRTs in HIV Budding

    PubMed Central

    Bendjennat, Mourad; Saffarian, Saveez

    2016-01-01

    HIV virions assemble on the plasma membrane and bud out of infected cells using interactions with endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs). HIV protease activation is essential for maturation and infectivity of progeny virions, however, the precise timing of protease activation and its relationship to budding has not been well defined. We show that compromised interactions with ESCRTs result in delayed budding of virions from host cells. Specifically, we show that Gag mutants with compromised interactions with ALIX and Tsg101, two early ESCRT factors, have an average budding delay of ~75 minutes and ~10 hours, respectively. Virions with inactive proteases incorporated the full Gag-Pol and had ~60 minutes delay in budding. We demonstrate that during budding delay, activated proteases release critical HIV enzymes back to host cytosol leading to production of non-infectious progeny virions. To explain the molecular mechanism of the observed budding delay, we modulated the Pol size artificially and show that virion release delays are size-dependent and also show size-dependency in requirements for Tsg101 and ALIX. We highlight the sensitivity of HIV to budding “on-time” and suggest that budding delay is a potent mechanism for inhibition of infectious retroviral release. PMID:27280284

  19. Differentiation between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 isolates by nonradioisotopic reverse transcriptase-typing assay.

    PubMed Central

    Urabe, T; Sano, K; Nakano, T; Odawara, F; Lee, M H; Otake, T; Okubo, S; Hayami, M; Misaki, H; Baba, M

    1994-01-01

    We tested whether human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) could be differentiated from HIV-2 by a reverse transcriptase (RT)-typing assay that measured the reduction of enzyme activity owing to specific antibody. RT-inhibiting antibody was examined for HIV type specificity by a new nonradioisotopic RT assay. Antibodies from four rabbits immunized with recombinant HIV-1 RT and from 23 HIV-1-seropositive individuals all specifically inhibited the enzyme activities of two HIV-1 strains (LAV-1 and GH-3), three zidovudine-resistant HIV-1 mutants, and a recombinant HIV-1 RT. However, none of these antisera affected the activities of six HIV-2 strains (GH-1, GH-2, GH-4, GH-5, GH-6, LAV-2ROD), Rous-associated virus type 2, and DNA polymerase I from Escherichia coli. In contrast, HIV-2 antibody from a rabbit immunized with disrupted GH-1 virions blocked the enzyme activities of the six HIV-2 strains but not those of the three HIV-1 strains, Rous-associated virus type 2, or DNA polymerase I. These results indicate that the antigenic domains of HIV-1 and HIV-2 RTs recognized by their inhibiting antibodies are distinct from each other and are highly conserved. Clinical HIV isolates from 18 HIV-1-seropositive individuals and 3 HIV-2-seropositive Ghanaian individuals were identified as HIV-1 and HIV-2, respectively, by the nonradioisotopic RT-typing assay. Images PMID:7527425

  20. Identification of regions of the Beet mild curly top virus (family Geminiviridae) capsid protein involved in systemic infection, virion formation and leafhopper transmission.

    PubMed

    Soto, Maria J; Chen, Li-Fang; Seo, Young-Su; Gilbertson, Robert L

    2005-10-25

    Plant viruses in the genus Curtovirus (family Geminiviridae) are vectored by the beet leafhopper (Circulifer tenellus) and cause curly top disease in a wide range of dicotyledonous plants. An infectious clone of an isolate of Beet mild curly top virus (BMCTV-[W4]), associated with an outbreak of curly top in pepper and tomato crops, was characterized and used to investigate the role of the capsid protein (CP) in viral biology and pathogenesis. Frameshift mutations were introduced into the overlapping CP and V2 genes, and a series of CP alanine scanning mutations were generated. All mutants replicated in tobacco protoplasts or systemically infected plants, consistent with these gene products not being required for viral DNA replication. The CP frameshift mutant and most C-terminal alanine scanning mutants did not systemically infect Nicotiana benthamiana plants or form detectable virions, and were not leafhopper-transmitted. In contrast, most N-terminal alanine scanning mutants systemically infected N. benthamiana and induced disease symptoms, formed virions and were leafhopper-transmissible; thus, these substitution mutations did not significantly alter the functional properties of this region. One N-terminal mutant (CP49-51) systemically infected N. benthamiana, but did not form detectable virions; whereas another (CP25-28) systemically infected N. benthamiana and formed virions, but was not insect-transmissible. These mutants may reveal regions involved in virus movement through the plant and/or leafhopper vector. Together, these results indicate an important role for virions in systemic infection (long-distance movement) and insect transmission, and strongly suggest that virions are the form in which BMCTV moves, long distance, in the phloem. PMID:16085227

  1. Cyclophilin A regulates HIV-1 infectivity, as demonstrated by gene targeting in human T cells

    PubMed Central

    Braaten, Douglas; Luban, Jeremy

    2001-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag polyprotein binds most members of the cyclophilin family of peptidyl-prolyl isomerases. Of 15 known human cyclophilins, cyclophilin A (CypA) has been the focus of investigation because it was detected in HIV-1 virions. To determine whether CypA promotes HIV-1 replication, we deleted the gene encoding CypA (PPIA) in human CD4+ T cells by homologous recombination. HIV-1 replication in PPIA–/– cells was decreased and not inhibited further by cyclosporin or gag mutations that disrupt Gag’s interaction with cyclophilins, indicating that no other cyclophilin family members promote HIV-1 replication. The defective replication phenotype was specific for wild-type HIV-1 since HIV-2/SIV isolates, as well as HIV-1 bearing a gag mutation that confers cyclosporin resistance, replicated the same in PPIA+/+ and PPIA–/– cells. Stable re-expression of CypA in PPIA–/– cells restored HIV-1 replication to an extent that correlated with steady-state levels of CypA. Finally, virions from PPIA–/– cells possessed no obvious biochemical abnormalities but were less infectious than virions from wild-type cells. These data formally demonstrate that CypA regulates the infectivity of HIV-1 virions. PMID:11250896

  2. Evidence for biphasic uncoating during HIV-1 infection from a novel imaging assay

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Uncoating of the HIV-1 core plays a critical role during early post-fusion stages of infection but is poorly understood. Microscopy-based assays are unable to easily distinguish between intact and partially uncoated viral cores. Results In this study, we used 5-ethynyl uridine (EU) to label viral-associated RNA during HIV production. At early time points after infection with EU-labeled virions, the viral-associated RNA was stained with an EU-specific dye and was detected by confocal microscopy together with viral proteins. We observed that detection of the viral-associated RNA was specific for EU-labeled virions, was detected only after viral fusion with target cells, and occurred after an initial opening of the core. In vitro staining of cores showed that the opening of the core allowed the small molecule dye, but not RNase A or antibodies, inside. Also, staining of the viral-associated RNA, which is co-localized with nucleocapsid, decays over time after viral infection. The decay rate of RNA staining is dependent on capsid (CA) stability, which was altered by CA mutations or a small molecule inducer of HIV-1 uncoating. While the staining of EU-labeled RNA was not affected by inhibition of reverse transcription, the kinetics of core opening of different CA mutants correlated with initiation of reverse transcription. Analysis of the E45A CA mutant suggests that initial core opening is independent of complete capsid disassembly. Conclusions Taken together, our results establish a novel RNA accessibility-based assay that detects an early event in HIV-1 uncoating and can be used to further define this process. PMID:23835323

  3. Therapeutic doses of irradiation activate viral transcription and induce apoptosis in HIV-1 infected cells.

    PubMed

    Iordanskiy, Sergey; Van Duyne, Rachel; Sampey, Gavin C; Woodson, Caitlin M; Fry, Kelsi; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Guo, Jia; Wu, Yuntao; Romerio, Fabio; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2015-11-01

    The highly active antiretroviral therapy reduces HIV-1 RNA in plasma to undetectable levels. However, the virus continues to persist in the long-lived resting CD4(+) T cells, macrophages and astrocytes which form a viral reservoir in infected individuals. Reactivation of viral transcription is critical since the host immune response in combination with antiretroviral therapy may eradicate the virus. Using the chronically HIV-1 infected T lymphoblastoid and monocytic cell lines, primary quiescent CD4(+) T cells and humanized mice infected with dual-tropic HIV-1 89.6, we examined the effect of various X-ray irradiation (IR) doses (used for HIV-related lymphoma treatment and lower doses) on HIV-1 transcription and viability of infected cells. Treatment of both T cells and monocytes with IR, a well-defined stress signal, led to increase of HIV-1 transcription, as evidenced by the presence of RNA polymerase II and reduction of HDAC1 and methyl transferase SUV39H1 on the HIV-1 promoter. This correlated with the increased GFP signal and elevated level of intracellular HIV-1 RNA in the IR-treated quiescent CD4(+) T cells infected with GFP-encoding HIV-1. Exposition of latently HIV-1infected monocytes treated with PKC agonist bryostatin 1 to IR enhanced transcription activation effect of this latency-reversing agent. Increased HIV-1 replication after IR correlated with higher cell death: the level of phosphorylated Ser46 in p53, responsible for apoptosis induction, was markedly higher in the HIV-1 infected cells following IR treatment. Exposure of HIV-1 infected humanized mice with undetectable viral RNA level to IR resulted in a significant increase of HIV-1 RNA in plasma, lung and brain tissues. Collectively, these data point to the use of low to moderate dose of IR alone or in combination with HIV-1 transcription activators as a potential application for the "Shock and Kill" strategy for latently HIV-1 infected cells. PMID:26184775

  4. IL-7 Induces SAMHD1 Phosphorylation in CD4+ T Lymphocytes, Improving Early Steps of HIV-1 Life Cycle.

    PubMed

    Coiras, Mayte; Bermejo, Mercedes; Descours, Benjamin; Mateos, Elena; García-Pérez, Javier; López-Huertas, María-Rosa; Lederman, Michael M; Benkirane, Monsef; Alcamí, José

    2016-03-01

    HIV-1 post-integration latency in CD4+ lymphocytes is responsible for viral persistence despite treatment, but mechanisms involved in the establishment of latent viral reservoirs are not fully understood. We determined that both interleukin 2 (IL-2) and IL-7 induced SAMHD1 phosphorylation in T592, abrogating its antiviral activity. However, IL-7 caused a much more profound stimulatory effect on HIV-1 reverse transcription and integration than IL-2 that required chemokine co-stimulation. Both cytokines barely induced transcription due to low NF-κB induction, favoring the establishment of latent reservoirs. Effect of IL-7 on SAMHD1 phosphorylation was confirmed in IL-7-treated patients (ACTG 5214 study). Dasatinib--a tyrosine-kinase inhibitor--blocked SAMHD1 phosphorylation induced by IL-2 and IL-7 and restored HIV-1 restriction. We propose that γc-cytokines play a major role in the reservoir establishment not only by driving homeostatic proliferation but also by increasing susceptibility of CD4+ lymphocytes to HIV-1 infection through SAMHD1 inactivation. PMID:26923586

  5. Differential expression of HERV-K (HML-2) proviruses in cells and virions of the teratocarcinoma cell line Tera-1.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Neeru; Montesion, Meagan; Roy, Farrah; Coffin, John M

    2015-03-01

    Human endogenous retrovirus (HERV-K (HML-2)) proviruses are among the few endogenous retroviral elements in the human genome that retain coding sequence. HML-2 expression has been widely associated with human disease states, including different types of cancers as well as with HIV-1 infection. Understanding of the potential impact of this expression requires that it be annotated at the proviral level. Here, we utilized the high throughput capabilities of next-generation sequencing to profile HML-2 expression at the level of individual proviruses and secreted virions in the teratocarcinoma cell line Tera-1. We identified well-defined expression patterns, with transcripts emanating primarily from two proviruses located on chromosome 22, only one of which was efficiently packaged. Interestingly, there was a preference for transcripts of recently integrated proviruses, over those from other highly expressed but older elements, to be packaged into virions. We also assessed the promoter competence of the 5' long terminal repeats (LTRs) of expressed proviruses via a luciferase assay following transfection of Tera-1 cells. Consistent with the RNASeq results, we found that the activity of most LTRs corresponded to their transcript levels. PMID:25746218

  6. Suboptimal inhibition of protease activity in human immunodeficiency virus type 1: Effects on virion morphogenesis and RNA maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Michael D.; Fu, William; Soheilian, Ferri; Nagashima, Kunio; Ptak, Roger G.; Pathak, Vinay K.; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2008-09-15

    Protease activity within nascently released human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particles is responsible for the cleavage of the viral polyproteins Gag and Gag-Pol into their constituent parts, which results in the subsequent condensation of the mature conical core surrounding the viral genomic RNA. Concomitant with viral maturation is a conformational change in the packaged viral RNA from a loosely associated dimer into a more thermodynamically stable form. In this study we used suboptimal concentrations of two protease inhibitors, lopinavir and atazanavir, to study their effects on Gag polyprotein processing and on the properties of the RNA in treated virions. Analysis of the treated virions demonstrated that even with high levels of inhibition of viral infectivity (IC{sub 90}), most of the Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins were processed, although slight but significant increases in processing intermediates of Gag were detected. Drug treatments also caused a significant increase in the proportion of viruses displaying either immature or aberrant mature morphologies. The aberrant mature particles were characterized by an electron-dense region at the viral periphery and an electron-lucent core structure in the viral center, possibly indicating exclusion of the genomic RNA from these viral cores. Intriguingly, drug treatments caused only a slight decrease in overall thermodynamic stability of the viral RNA dimer, suggesting that the dimeric viral RNA was able to mature in the absence of correct core condensation.

  7. Elimination of helminth infection restores HIV-1C vaccine specific T cell responses independent of helminth-induced IL-10

    PubMed Central

    Da’dara, Akram A.; Harn, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    HIV-1 prevalence is highest in developing countries; similarly helminth parasites are often highly endemic in these same areas. Helminths are strong immune modulators, and negatively impact the ability of the infected hosts to mount protective vaccine specific T cell immune responses for HIV-1 and other pathogens. Indeed, previously we found that Schistosoma mansoni infected mice had significantly impaired HIV-1C vaccine specific T cell responses. Anthelminthics are available and inexpensive; therefore, in this study, we evaluated whether elimination of schistosome infection prior to vaccination with an HIV-1C DNA vaccine would increase recipients vaccine specific responses. As expected, splenocytes from S. mansoni infected mice produced significantly elevated amounts of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10, and significantly lower amounts of interferon (IFN)-γ than splenocytes from naïve mice. Following elimination of parasites by praziquantel (PZQ) treatment, splenomegaly was significantly reduced, though splenocytes produced similar or higher levels of IL-10 than splenocytes from infected mice. However, we found that PZQ treatment significantly increased levels of IFN-γ in response to Concanavalin A or SEA compared to splenocytes from untreated mice. Importantly, PZQ treatment resulted in complete restoration of HIV-1C vaccine specific T cell responses at 8 weeks post PZQ treatment. Restoration of HIV-1C vaccine specific T cell responses following elimination of helminth infection was time dependent, but surprisingly independent of the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 induced by parasite antigens. Our study shows that elimination of worms offers an affordable and a simple means to restore immune responsiveness to T cell based vaccines for HIV-1 and other infectious diseases in helminth endemic settings. PMID:19941988

  8. Mechanism of HIV-1 Tat induced inhibition of antigen-specific T cell responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Subramanyam, M; Gutheil, W G; Bachovchin, W W; Huber, B T

    1993-03-15

    HIV-1 Tat has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the Ag-specific responsiveness of human peripheral T cells. We have previously demonstrated that this retroviral protein binds to and partially inhibits the enzymatic activity of dipeptidyl aminopeptidase type IV (DP IV), also known as CD26, which is expressed on a variety of mammalian tissue, including T lymphocytes. A number of studies have implicated a role for DP IV in the activation of T lymphocytes. By utilizing HIV-1 Tat, as well as ProboroPro, a potent and specific boronic acid analog inhibitor of DP IV, we show here that blocking DP IV partially inactivates Ag and anti-CD3-mediated T cell proliferation. Neither mitogen nor anti-CD2 mediated proliferation of T lymphocytes, however, is impaired by blocking DP IV. The target molecule for the inhibition induced by both compounds was confirmed by the finding that soluble DP IV neutralized the reduced Ag responsiveness. The Ag-specific inhibition could be overcome by the addition of exogenous IL-2, suggesting that blocking or inactivation of DP IV results in a state of anergy, probably by interfering with the delivery or amplification of a signal necessary for IL-2 production. This is further substantiated by the finding that costimulation of human PBMC via the CD28 molecule, which initiates a non-TCR-dependent signaling pathway, overcomes the reduced Ag responsiveness induced by Tat and ProboroPro. The fact that ProboroPro has no impact on stimulation of T cells with PMA and ionomycin implies that blocking DP IV is influencing events before the activation of protein kinase C and Ca2+ flux. These results suggest that DP IV is necessary for amplification of signals generated by the engagement of the TCR-CD3 complex by nominal Ag. PMID:8095514

  9. HIV-1 Envelope Resistance to Proteasomal Cleavage: Implications for Vaccine Induced Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Steers, Nicholas J.; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; de Souza, Mark S.; Currier, Jeffrey R.; Kim, Jerome H.; Michael, Nelson L.; Alving, Carl R.; Rao, Mangala

    2012-01-01

    Background Antigen processing involves many proteolytic enzymes such as proteasomes and cathepsins. The processed antigen is then presented on the cell surface bound to either MHC class I or class II molecules and induces/interacts with antigen-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T-cells, respectively. Preliminary immunological data from the RV144 phase III trial indicated that the immune responses were biased towards the Env antigen with a dominant CD4+ T-cell response. Methods In this study, we examined the susceptibility of HIV-1 Env-A244 gp120 protein, one of the protein boost subunits of the RV144 Phase III vaccine trial, to proteasomes and cathepsins and identified the generated peptide epitope repertoire by mass spectrometry. The peptide fragments were tested for cytokine production in CD4+ T-cell lines derived from RV144 volunteers. Results Env-A244 was resistant to proteasomes, thus diminishing the possibility of the generation of class I epitopes by the classical MHC class I pathway. However, Env-A244 was efficiently cleaved by cathepsins generating peptide arrays identified by mass spectrometry that contained both MHC class I and class II epitopes as reported in the Los Alamos database. Each of the cathepsins generated distinct degradation patterns containing regions of light and dense epitope clusters. The sequence DKKQKVHALF that is part of the V2 loop of gp120 produced by cathepsins induced a polyfunctional cytokine response including the generation of IFN-γ from CD4+ T-cell lines-derived from RV144 vaccinees. This sequence is significant since antibodies to the V1/V2-loop region correlated inversely with HIV-1 infection in the RV144 trial. Conclusions Based on our results, the susceptibility of Env-A244 to cathepsins and not to proteasomes suggests a possible mechanism for the generation of Env-specific CD4+T cell and antibody responses in the RV144 vaccinees. PMID:22880042

  10. A Novel Assay to Measure the Magnitude of the Inducible Viral Reservoir in HIV-infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Procopio, Francesco Andrea; Fromentin, Rémi; Kulpa, Deanna A.; Brehm, Jessica H.; Bebin, Anne-Gaelle; Strain, Matthew C.; Richman, Douglas D.; O'Doherty, Una; Palmer, Sarah; Hecht, Frederick M.; Hoh, Rebecca; Barnard, Richard J.O.; Miller, Michael D.; Hazuda, Daria J.; Deeks, Steven G.; Sékaly, Rafick-Pierre; Chomont, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Background Quantifying latently infected cells is critical to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing the size of the long-lived viral reservoir, but the low frequency of these cells makes this very challenging. Methods We developed TILDA (Tat/rev Induced Limiting Dilution Assay) to measure the frequency of cells with inducible multiply-spliced HIV RNA, as these transcripts are usually absent in latently infected cells but induced upon viral reactivation. TILDA requires less than a million cells, does not require RNA extraction and can be completed in two days. Findings In suppressed individuals on ART, we found the median frequency of latently infected CD4 + T cells as estimated by TILDA to be 24 cells/million, which was 48 times more than the frequency measured by the quantitative viral outgrowth assay, and 6–27 times less than the frequencies of cells harbouring viral DNA measured by PCR-based assays. TILDA measurements strongly correlated with most HIV DNA assays. The size of the latent reservoir measured by TILDA was lower in subjects who initiated ART during the early compared to late stage of infection (p = 0.011). In untreated HIV disease, the frequency of CD4 + cells carrying latent but inducible HIV largely exceeded the frequency of actively producing cells, demonstrating that the majority of infected cells are transcriptionally silent even in the absence of ART. Interpretations Our results suggest that TILDA is a reproducible and sensitive approach to measure the frequency of productively and latently infected cells in clinical settings. We demonstrate that the latent reservoir represents a substantial fraction of all infected cells prior to ART initiation. Research in context In this manuscript, we describe the development of a novel assay that measures the magnitude of the latent HIV reservoir, the main barrier to HIV eradication. This novel assay, termed TILDA for Tat/rev Induced Limiting Dilution Assay, requires only

  11. A Novel Prime and Boost Regimen of HIV Virus-Like Particles with TLR4 Adjuvant MPLA Induces Th1 Oriented Immune Responses against HIV.

    PubMed

    Poteet, Ethan; Lewis, Phoebe; Li, Feng; Zhang, Sheng; Gu, Jianhua; Chen, Changyi; Ho, Sam On; Do, Thai; Chiang, SuMing; Fujii, Gary; Yao, Qizhi

    2015-01-01

    HIV virus-like particles (VLPs) present the HIV envelope protein in its native conformation, providing an ideal vaccine antigen. To enhance the immunogenicity of the VLP vaccine, we sought to improve upon two components; the route of administration and the additional adjuvant. Using HIV VLPs, we evaluated sub-cheek as a novel route of vaccine administration when combined with other conventional routes of immunization. Of five combinations of distinct prime and boost sequences, which included sub-cheek, intranasal, and intradermal routes of administration, intranasal prime and sub-cheek boost (IN+SC) resulted in the highest HIV-specific IgG titers among the groups tested. Using the IN+SC regimen we tested the adjuvant VesiVax Conjugatable Adjuvant Lipid Vesicles (CALV) + monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) at MPLA concentrations of 0, 7.5, 12.5, and 25 μg/dose in combination with our VLPs. Mice that received 12.5 or 25 μg/dose MPLA had the highest concentrations of Env-specific IgG2c (20.7 and 18.4 μg/ml respectively), which represents a Th1 type of immune response in C57BL/6 mice. This was in sharp contrast to mice which received 0 or 7.5 μg MPLA adjuvant (6.05 and 5.68 μg/ml of IgG2c respectively). In contrast to IgG2c, MPLA had minor effects on Env-specific IgG1; therefore, 12.5 and 25 μg/dose of MPLA induced the optimal IgG1/IgG2c ratio of 1.3. Additionally, the percentage of germinal center B cells increased significantly from 15.4% in the control group to 31.9% in the CALV + 25 μg MPLA group. These mice also had significantly more IL-2 and less IL-4 Env-specific CD8+ T cells than controls, correlating with an increased percentage of Env-specific central memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Our study shows the strong potential of IN+SC as an efficacious route of administration and the effectiveness of VLPs combined with MPLA adjuvant to induce Env specific Th1-oriented HIV-specific immune responses. PMID:26312747

  12. Interferon-α Subtypes in an Ex Vivo Model of Acute HIV-1 Infection: Expression, Potency and Effector Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Michael S.; Guo, Kejun; Gibbert, Kathrin; Lee, Eric J.; Dillon, Stephanie M.; Barrett, Bradley S.; McCarter, Martin D.; Hasenkrug, Kim J.; Dittmer, Ulf; Wilson, Cara C.; Santiago, Mario L.

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 is transmitted primarily across mucosal surfaces and rapidly spreads within the intestinal mucosa during acute infection. The type I interferons (IFNs) likely serve as a first line of defense, but the relative expression and antiviral properties of the 12 IFNα subtypes against HIV-1 infection of mucosal tissues remain unknown. Here, we evaluated the expression of all IFNα subtypes in HIV-1-exposed plasmacytoid dendritic cells by next-generation sequencing. We then determined the relative antiviral potency of each IFNα subtype ex vivo using the human intestinal Lamina Propria Aggregate Culture model. IFNα subtype transcripts from the centromeric half of the IFNA gene complex were highly expressed in pDCs following HIV-1 exposure. There was an inverse relationship between IFNA subtype expression and potency. IFNα8, IFNα6 and IFNα14 were the most potent in restricting HIV-1 infection. IFNα2, the clinically-approved subtype, and IFNα1 were both highly expressed but exhibited relatively weak antiviral activity. The relative potencies correlated with binding affinity to the type I IFN receptor and the induction levels of HIV-1 restriction factors Mx2 and Tetherin/BST-2 but not APOBEC3G, F and D. However, despite the lack of APOBEC3 transcriptional induction, the higher relative potency of IFNα8 and IFNα14 correlated with stronger inhibition of virion infectivity, which is linked to deaminase-independent APOBEC3 restriction activity. By contrast, both potent (IFNα8) and weak (IFNα1) subtypes significantly induced HIV-1 GG-to-AG hypermutation. The results unravel non-redundant functions of the IFNα subtypes against HIV-1 infection, with strong implications for HIV-1 mucosal immunity, viral evolution and IFNα-based functional cure strategies. PMID:26529416

  13. Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) Vpr induced downregulation of NHE1 induces alteration in intracellular pH and loss of ERM complex in target cells

    PubMed Central

    Janket, Michelle L.; DeRicco, Jeremy S.; Borowski, LuAnn; Ayyavoo, Velpandi

    2007-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr is known to dysregulate host cellular functions through its interaction with cellular proteins. Using a protein array we assessed Vpr-mediated differential regulation of host cellular proteins expression. Results demonstrated that Vpr differentially regulated host factors that are involved in functions such as cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. One of the most highly downregulated proteins attained was the sodium hydrogen exchanger, isoform 1 (NHE1), which showed a significant (60%) decrease in HIV-1 vpr(+) virus infected cells as compared to HIV-1 vpr(−) virus infected control. NHE1 downregulation further led to acidification of cells and was directly correlated with loss of ezrin, radixin and moesin (ERM) protein complex and decreased AKT phosphorylation. Vpr-mediated NHE1 dyregulation is in part through GR pathway as GR antagonist, mifepristone reversed Vpr-induced NHE1 downregulation. PMID:17349711

  14. Architectural Insight into Inovirus-Associated Vectors (IAVs) and Development of IAV-Based Vaccines Inducing Humoral and Cellular Responses: Implications in HIV-1 Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Hassapis, Kyriakos A.; Stylianou, Dora C.; Kostrikis, Leondios G.

    2014-01-01

    Inovirus-associated vectors (IAVs) are engineered, non-lytic, filamentous bacteriophages that are assembled primarily from thousands of copies of the major coat protein gp8 and just five copies of each of the four minor coat proteins gp3, gp6, gp7 and gp9. Inovirus display studies have shown that the architecture of inoviruses makes all coat proteins of the inoviral particle accessible to the outside. This particular feature of IAVs allows foreign antigenic peptides to be displayed on the outer surface of the virion fused to its coat proteins and for more than two decades has been exploited in many applications including antibody or peptide display libraries, drug design, and vaccine development against infectious and non-infectious diseases. As vaccine carriers, IAVs have been shown to elicit both a cellular and humoral response against various pathogens through the display of antibody epitopes on their coat proteins. Despite their high immunogenicity, the goal of developing an effective vaccine against HIV-1 has not yet materialized. One possible limitation of previous efforts was the use of broadly neutralizing antibodies, which exhibited autoreactivity properties. In the past five years, however, new, more potent broadly neutralizing antibodies that do not exhibit autoreactivity properties have been isolated from HIV-1 infected individuals, suggesting that vaccination strategies aimed at producing such broadly neutralizing antibodies may confer protection against infection. The utilization of these new, broadly neutralizing antibodies in combination with the architectural traits of IAVs have driven the current developments in the design of an inovirus-based vaccine against HIV-1. This article reviews the applications of IAVs in vaccine development, with particular emphasis on the design of inoviral-based vaccines against HIV-1. PMID:25525909

  15. Movements of HIV-1 genomic RNA-APOBEC3F complexes and PKR reveal cytoplasmic and nuclear PKR defenses and HIV-1 evasion strategies.

    PubMed

    Marin, Mariana; Golem, Sheetal; Kozak, Susan L; Kabat, David

    2016-02-01

    APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases and viral genomic RNA (gRNA) occur in virions, polysomes, and cytoplasmic granules, but have not been tracked together. Moreover, gRNA traffic is important, but the factors that move it into granules are unknown. Using in situ hybridization of transfected cells and protein synthesis inhibitors that drive mRNAs between locales, we observed APOBEC3F cotrafficking with gRNA without altering its movements. Whereas cells with little cytoplasmic gRNA were translationally active and accumulated Gag, suprathreshold amounts induced autophosphorylation of the cytoplasmic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase (PKR), causing eIF2α phosphorylation, protein synthesis suppression, and gRNA sequestration in stress granules. Additionally, we confirmed recent evidence that PKR is activated by chromosome-associated cellular dsRNAs after nuclear membranes disperse in prophase. By arresting cells in G2, HIV-1 blocks this mechanism for PKR activation and eIF2α phosphorylation. However, cytopathic membrane damage in CD4- and coreceptor-positive cultures infected with laboratory-adapted fusogenic HIV-1LAI eventually enabled PKR entry and activation in interphase nuclei. These results reveal multiple stages in the PKR-HIV-1 battleground that culminate in cell death. We discuss evidence suggesting that HIV-1s evolve in vivo to prevent or delay PKR activation by all these mechanisms. PMID:26626364

  16. Multifaceted counter-APOBEC3G mechanisms employed by HIV-1 Vif

    PubMed Central

    Britan-Rosich, Elena; Nowarski, Roni; Kotler, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    In the absence of HIV-1 Vif protein, the host antiviral deaminase APOBEC3G (A3G) restricts the production of infectious HIV-1 by deamination of dC residues in the negative ssDNA produced by reverse transcription. The Vif protein averts the lethal threat of deamination by precluding the packaging of A3G into assembling virions by mediating proteasomal degradation of A3G. In spite of this robust Vif activity, residual A3G molecules that escape degradation and incorporate into newly assembled virions are potentially deleterious to the virus. We hypothesized that virion-associated Vif inhibits A3G enzymatic activity, and therefore prevents lethal mutagenesis of the newly synthesized viral DNA. Here we show that: (i) Vif-proficient HIV-1 particles released from H9 cells contain A3G with lower specific activity compared with Δvif virus associated A3G; (ii) Encapsidated HIV-1 Vif inhibits the deamination activity of recombinant A3G, and (iii) Purified HIV-1 Vif protein and the Vif-derived peptide Vif25-39 inhibit A3G activity in vitro at nanomolar concentrations in an uncompetitive manner. Our results manifest the potentiality of Vif to control the deamination threat in virions or in the pre-integration complexes (PICs) following entry to target cells. Hence, virion-associated Vif could serve as a last line of defense, protecting the virus against A3G anti-viral activity. PMID:21763507

  17. The RNA Binding Specificity of Human APOBEC3 Proteins Resembles That of HIV-1 Nucleocapsid.

    PubMed

    York, Ashley; Kutluay, Sebla B; Errando, Manel; Bieniasz, Paul D

    2016-08-01

    The APOBEC3 (A3) cytidine deaminases are antiretroviral proteins, whose targets include human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Their incorporation into viral particles is critical for antiviral activity and is driven by interactions with the RNA molecules that are packaged into virions. However, it is unclear whether A3 proteins preferentially target RNA molecules that are destined to be packaged and if so, how. Using cross-linking immunoprecipitation sequencing (CLIP-seq), we determined the RNA binding preferences of the A3F, A3G and A3H proteins. We found that A3 proteins bind preferentially to RNA segments with particular properties, both in cells and in virions. Specifically, A3 proteins target RNA sequences that are G-rich and/or A-rich and are not scanned by ribosomes during translation. Comparative analyses of HIV-1 Gag, nucleocapsid (NC) and A3 RNA binding to HIV-1 RNA in cells and virions revealed the striking finding that A3 proteins partially mimic the RNA binding specificity of the HIV-1 NC protein. These findings suggest a model for A3 incorporation into HIV-1 virions in which an NC-like RNA binding specificity is determined by nucleotide composition rather than sequence. This model reconciles the promiscuity of A3 RNA binding that has been observed in previous studies with a presumed advantage that would accompany selective binding to RNAs that are destined to be packaged into virions. PMID:27541140

  18. The RNA Binding Specificity of Human APOBEC3 Proteins Resembles That of HIV-1 Nucleocapsid

    PubMed Central

    Errando, Manel; Bieniasz, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    The APOBEC3 (A3) cytidine deaminases are antiretroviral proteins, whose targets include human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Their incorporation into viral particles is critical for antiviral activity and is driven by interactions with the RNA molecules that are packaged into virions. However, it is unclear whether A3 proteins preferentially target RNA molecules that are destined to be packaged and if so, how. Using cross-linking immunoprecipitation sequencing (CLIP-seq), we determined the RNA binding preferences of the A3F, A3G and A3H proteins. We found that A3 proteins bind preferentially to RNA segments with particular properties, both in cells and in virions. Specifically, A3 proteins target RNA sequences that are G-rich and/or A-rich and are not scanned by ribosomes during translation. Comparative analyses of HIV-1 Gag, nucleocapsid (NC) and A3 RNA binding to HIV-1 RNA in cells and virions revealed the striking finding that A3 proteins partially mimic the RNA binding specificity of the HIV-1 NC protein. These findings suggest a model for A3 incorporation into HIV-1 virions in which an NC-like RNA binding specificity is determined by nucleotide composition rather than sequence. This model reconciles the promiscuity of A3 RNA binding that has been observed in previous studies with a presumed advantage that would accompany selective binding to RNAs that are destined to be packaged into virions. PMID:27541140

  19. Engineering Recombinant Reoviruses To Display gp41 Membrane-Proximal External-Region Epitopes from HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Boehme, Karl W; Ikizler, Mine'; Iskarpatyoti, Jason A; Wetzel, J Denise; Willis, Jordan; Crowe, James E; LaBranche, Celia C; Montefiori, David C; Wilson, Gregory J; Dermody, Terence S

    2016-01-01

    The gp41 membrane-proximal external region (MPER) is a target for broadly neutralizing antibody responses against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However, replication-defective virus vaccines currently under evaluation in clinical trials do not efficiently elicit MPER-specific antibodies. Structural modeling suggests that the MPER forms an α-helical coiled coil that is required for function and immunogenicity. To maintain the native MPER conformation, we used reverse genetics to engineer replication-competent reovirus vectors that displayed MPER sequences in the α-helical coiled-coil tail domain of viral attachment protein σ1. Sequences in reovirus strain type 1 Lang (T1L) σ1 were exchanged with sequences encoding HIV-1 strain Ba-L MPER epitope 2F5 or the entire MPER. Individual 2F5 or MPER substitutions were introduced at virion-proximal or virion-distal sites in the σ1 tail. Recombinant reoviruses containing heterologous HIV-1 sequences were viable and produced progeny yields comparable to those with wild-type virus. HIV-1 sequences were retained following 10 serial passages in cell culture, indicating that the substitutions were genetically stable. Recombinant viruses engineered to display the 2F5 epitope or full-length MPER in σ1 were recognized by purified 2F5 antibody. Inoculation of mice with 2F5-containing vectors or rabbits with 2F5- or MPER-containing vectors elicited anti-reovirus antibodies, but HIV-1-specific antibodies were not detected. Together, these findings indicate that heterologous sequences that form α-helices can functionally replace native sequences in the α-helical tail domain of reovirus attachment protein σ1. However, although these vectors retain native antigenicity, they were not immunogenic, illustrating the difficulty of experimentally inducing immune responses to this essential region of HIV-1. IMPORTANCE Vaccines to protect against HIV-1, the causative agent of AIDS, are not approved for use. Antibodies that

  20. Engineering Recombinant Reoviruses To Display gp41 Membrane-Proximal External-Region Epitopes from HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Boehme, Karl W.; Ikizler, Mine'; Iskarpatyoti, Jason A.; Wetzel, J. Denise; Willis, Jordan; Crowe, James E.; LaBranche, Celia C.; Montefiori, David C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The gp41 membrane-proximal external region (MPER) is a target for broadly neutralizing antibody responses against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However, replication-defective virus vaccines currently under evaluation in clinical trials do not efficiently elicit MPER-specific antibodies. Structural modeling suggests that the MPER forms an α-helical coiled coil that is required for function and immunogenicity. To maintain the native MPER conformation, we used reverse genetics to engineer replication-competent reovirus vectors that displayed MPER sequences in the α-helical coiled-coil tail domain of viral attachment protein σ1. Sequences in reovirus strain type 1 Lang (T1L) σ1 were exchanged with sequences encoding HIV-1 strain Ba-L MPER epitope 2F5 or the entire MPER. Individual 2F5 or MPER substitutions were introduced at virion-proximal or virion-distal sites in the σ1 tail. Recombinant reoviruses containing heterologous HIV-1 sequences were viable and produced progeny yields comparable to those with wild-type virus. HIV-1 sequences were retained following 10 serial passages in cell culture, indicating that the substitutions were genetically stable. Recombinant viruses engineered to display the 2F5 epitope or full-length MPER in σ1 were recognized by purified 2F5 antibody. Inoculation of mice with 2F5-containing vectors or rabbits with 2F5- or MPER-containing vectors elicited anti-reovirus antibodies, but HIV-1-specific antibodies were not detected. Together, these findings indicate that heterologous sequences that form α-helices can functionally replace native sequences in the α-helical tail domain of reovirus attachment protein σ1. However, although these vectors retain native antigenicity, they were not immunogenic, illustrating the difficulty of experimentally inducing immune responses to this essential region of HIV-1. IMPORTANCE Vaccines to protect against HIV-1, the causative agent of AIDS, are not approved for use

  1. The herpes simplex virus virion host shutoff function.

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, A D; Frenkel, N

    1989-01-01

    The virion host shutoff (vhs) function of herpes simplex virus (HSV) limits the expression of genes in the infected cells by destabilizing both host and viral mRNAs. vhs function mutants have been isolated which are defective in their ability to degrade host mRNA. Furthermore, the half-life of viral mRNAs is significantly longer in cells infected with the vhs-1 mutant virus than in cells infected with the wild-type (wt) virus. Recent data have shown that the vhs-1 mutation resides within the open reading frame UL41. We have analyzed the shutoff of host protein synthesis in cells infected with a mixture of the wt HSV-1 (KOS) and the vhs-1 mutant virus. The results of these experiments revealed that (i) the wt virus shutoff activity requires a threshold level of input virions per cell and (ii) the mutant vhs-1 virus protein can irreversibly block the wt virus shutoff activity. These results are consistent with a stoichiometric model in which the wt vhs protein interacts with a cellular factor which controls the half-life of cell mRNA. This wt virus interaction results in the destabilization of both host and viral mRNAs. In contrast, the mutant vhs function interacts with the cellular factor irreversibly, resulting in the increased half-life of both host and viral mRNAs. Images PMID:2552156

  2. A small molecule compound IMB-LA inhibits HIV-1 infection by preventing viral Vpu from antagonizing the host restriction factor BST-2

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Zeyun; Ding, Jiwei; Zhang, Quan; Zhao, Jianyuan; Ma, Ling; Yu, Haisheng; Liu, Zhenlong; Shan, Guangzhi; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Jinming; Wei, Tao; Zhang, Liguo; Guo, Fei; Liang, Chen; Cen, Shan

    2015-01-01

    Human BST-2 inhibits HIV-1 replication by tethering nascent virions to the cell surface. HIV-1 codes Vpu that counteracts BST-2 by down-regulating this restriction factor from the cell surface. This important function makes Vpu a potential therapeutic target. Yet, no agents have been reported to block Vpu from antagonizing BST-2. In this study, we report a small molecule compound IMB-LA that abrogates the function of Vpu and thereby strongly suppresses HIV-1 replication by sensitizing the virus to BST-2 restriction. Further studies revealed that IMB-LA specifically inhibits Vpu-mediated degradation of BST-2 and restores the expression of BST-2 at the cell surface. Although IMB-LA does not prevent Vpu from interacting with BST-2 or β-TrCP2-containing ubiquitin E3 ligase, sorting of BST-2 into lysosomes in Vpu-expressing cells is blocked by IMB-LA. Most importantly, HIV-1 release and infection is inhibited by IMB-LA only in BST-2-expressing cells. In summary, results herein demonstrated that IMB-LA could specifically inhibit the degradation of BST-2 induced by Vpu, and impair HIV-1 replication in a BST-2 dependent manner, suggesting the feasibility of utilizing small molecule compounds to disable the antagonist function of Vpu and thereby expose HIV-1 to the restriction by BST-2. PMID:26669976

  3. A new cell line for high throughput HIV-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and cell-to-cell virus transmission studies.

    PubMed

    Orlandi, Chiara; Flinko, Robin; Lewis, George K

    2016-06-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (Wren et al., 2013) is important in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. Namely, ADCC is induced during natural HIV-1 infection or in HIV-1 vaccine studies, the latter demonstrated by the RV144 vaccine trial. To expedite the assessment of ADCC in studies of HIV, we have developed a high throughput assay. We have optimized the rapid fluorometric antibody-mediated cytotoxicity assay (RFADCC) by transfecting the EGFP-CEM-NKr cell line to constitutively express SNAP-tagged CCR5. This cell line can then serve as a source of HIV-specific targets when coated with monomeric gp120, spinoculated with inactivated intact virions, infected by cell-free viral diffusion or infected by cell-to-cell transmission of virus. The optimized strategy has two significant advantages over the original RFADCC method: First, the preparation of detectable target cells is less labor intensive and faster as it does not rely on multiple staining and washing steps for target cells. Second, because the target cell markers GFP and SNAP are constitutively expressed, the assay provides highly reproducible data. These strengths make the optimized RFADCC assay suitable not only for studies of HIV-1 specific cytotoxicity but also for studies of cell-cell transmission of virus. In conclusion, this assay provides a new generation T cell line that can expedite large clinical studies as well as research studies in humans or non-human primates. PMID:26969387

  4. A new cell line for high throughput HIV-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and cell-to-cell virus transmission studies

    PubMed Central

    Orlandi, Chiara; Flinko, Robin; Lewis, George K.

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (Wren et al., 2013) is important in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. Namely, ADCC is induced during natural HIV-1 infection or in HIV-1 vaccine studies, the latter demonstrated by the RV144 vaccine trial. To expedite the assessment of ADCC in studies of HIV, we have developed a high throughput assay. We have optimized the rapid fluorometric antibody-mediated cytotoxicity assay (RFADCC) by transfecting the EGFP-CEM-NKr cell line to constitutively express SNAP-tagged CCR5. This cell line can then serve as a source of HIV-specific targets when coated with monomeric gp120, spinoculated with inactivated intact virions, infected by cell-free viral diffusion or infected by cell-to-cell transmission of virus. The optimized strategy has two significant advantages over the original RFADCC method: First, the preparation of detectable target cells is less labor intensive and faster as it does not rely on multiple staining and washing steps for target cells. Second, because the target cell markers GFP and SNAP are constitutively expressed, the assay provides highly reproducible data. These strengths make the optimized RFADCC assay suitable not only for studies of HIV-1 specific cytotoxicity but also for studies of cell–cell transmission of virus. In conclusion, this assay provides a new generation T cell line that can expedite large clinical studies as well as research studies in humans or non-human primates. PMID:26969387

  5. A virus capsid component mediates virion retention and transmission by its insect vector

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Angel Y. S.; Walker, Gregory P.; Carter, David; Ng, James C. K.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous pathogens of humans, animals, and plants are transmitted by specific arthropod vectors. However, understanding the mechanisms governing these pathogen–vector interactions is hampered, in part, by the lack of easy-to-use analytical tools. We investigated whitefly transmission of Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV) by using a unique immunofluorescent localization approach in which we fed virions or recombinant virus capsid components to whiteflies, followed by feeding them antibodies to the virions or capsid components, respectively. Fluorescent signals, indicating the retention of virions, were localized in the anterior foregut or cibarium of a whitefly vector biotype but not within those of a whitefly nonvector biotype. Retention of virions in these locations strongly corresponded with the whitefly vector transmission of LIYV. When four recombinant LIYV capsid components were individually fed to whitefly vectors, significantly more whiteflies retained the recombinant minor coat protein (CPm). As demonstrated previously and in the present study, whitefly vectors failed to transmit virions preincubated with anti-CPm antibodies but transmitted virions preincubated with antibodies recognizing the major coat protein (CP). Correspondingly, the number of insects that specifically retained virions preincubated with anti-CPm antibodies were significantly reduced compared with those that specifically retained virions preincubated with anti-CP antibodies. Notably, a transmission-defective CPm mutant was deficient in specific virion retention, whereas the CPm-restored virus showed WT levels of specific virion retention and transmission. These data provide strong evidence that transmission of LIYV is determined by a CPm-mediated virion retention mechanism in the anterior foregut or cibarium of whitefly vectors. PMID:21930903

  6. HIV-1 Tat protein directly induces mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and inactivates cytochrome c oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Lecoeur, H; Borgne-Sanchez, A; Chaloin, O; El-Khoury, R; Brabant, M; Langonné, A; Porceddu, M; Brière, J-J; Buron, N; Rebouillat, D; Péchoux, C; Deniaud, A; Brenner, C; Briand, J-P; Muller, S; Rustin, P; Jacotot, E

    2012-01-01

    The Trans-activator protein (Tat) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a pleiotropic protein involved in different aspects of AIDS pathogenesis. As a number of viral proteins Tat is suspected to disturb mitochondrial function. We prepared pure synthetic full-length Tat by native chemical ligation (NCL), and Tat peptides, to evaluate their direct effects on isolated mitochondria. Submicromolar doses of synthetic Tat cause a rapid dissipation of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) as well as cytochrome c release in mitochondria isolated from mouse liver, heart, and brain. Accordingly, Tat decreases substrate oxidation by mitochondria isolated from these tissues, with oxygen uptake being initially restored by adding cytochrome c. The anion-channel inhibitor 4,4′-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (DIDS) protects isolated mitochondria against Tat-induced mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP), whereas ruthenium red, a ryanodine receptor blocker, does not. Pharmacologic inhibitors of the permeability transition pore, Bax/Bak inhibitors, and recombinant Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL proteins do not reduce Tat-induced MMP. We finally observed that Tat inhibits cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity in disrupted mitochondria isolated from liver, heart, and brain of both mouse and human samples, making it the first described viral protein to be a potential COX inhibitor. PMID:22419111

  7. HIV-induced alteration in gut microbiota: driving factors, consequences, and effects of antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Lozupone, Catherine A; Rhodes, Matthew E; Neff, Charles P; Fontenot, Andrew P; Campbell, Thomas B; Palmer, Brent E

    2014-07-01

    Consistent with an important role for adaptive immunity in modulating interactions between intestinal bacteria and host, dramatic alteration in the composition of gut microbes during chronic HIV infection was recently reported by ourselves and independently by four other research groups. Here we evaluate our results in the context of these other studies and delve into the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Although gut microbiota of HIV-positive individuals on ART usually does not resemble that of HIV-negative individuals, the degree to which ART restores health-associated prevalence varies across bacterial taxa. Finally, we discuss potential drivers and health consequences of gut microbiota alterations. We propose that understanding the mechanism of HIV-associated gut microbiota changes will elucidate the role of adaptive immunity in shaping gut microbiota composition, and lay the foundation for therapeutics targeting the microbiota to attenuate HIV disease progression and reduce the risk of gut-linked disease in people with HIV. PMID:25078714

  8. CRISPR/gRNA-directed synergistic activation mediator (SAM) induces specific, persistent and robust reactivation of the HIV-1 latent reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yonggang; Yin, Chaoran; Zhang, Ting; Li, Fang; Yang, Wensheng; Kaminski, Rafal; Fagan, Philip Regis; Putatunda, Raj; Young, Won-Bin; Khalili, Kamel; Hu, Wenhui

    2015-01-01

    Current antiretroviral therapy does not eliminate the integrated and transcriptionally silent HIV-1 provirus in latently infected cells. Recently, a "shock and kill" strategy has been extensively explored to eradicate the HIV-1 latent reservoirs for a permanent cure of AIDS. The therapeutic efficacy of currently used agents remains disappointing because of low efficiency, non-specificity and cellular toxicity. Here we present a novel catalytically-deficient Cas9-synergistic activation mediator (dCas9-SAM) technology to selectively, potently and persistently reactivate the HIV-1 latent reservoirs. By screening 16 MS2-mediated single guide RNAs, we identified long terminal repeat (LTR)-L and O that surround the enhancer region (-165/-145 for L and -92/-112 for O) and induce robust reactivation of HIV-1 provirus in HIV-1 latent TZM-bI epithelial, Jurkat T lymphocytic and CHME5 microglial cells. This compulsory reactivation induced cellular suicide via toxic buildup of viral proteins within HIV-1 latent Jurkat T and CHME5 microglial cells. These results suggest that this highly effective and target-specific dCas9-SAM system can serve as a novel HIV-latency-reversing therapeutic tool for the permanent elimination of HIV-1 latent reservoirs. PMID:26538064

  9. CRISPR/gRNA-directed synergistic activation mediator (SAM) induces specific, persistent and robust reactivation of the HIV-1 latent reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yonggang; Yin, Chaoran; Zhang, Ting; Li, Fang; Yang, Wensheng; Kaminski, Rafal; Fagan, Philip Regis; Putatunda, Raj; Young, Won-Bin; Khalili, Kamel; Hu, Wenhui

    2015-01-01

    Current antiretroviral therapy does not eliminate the integrated and transcriptionally silent HIV-1 provirus in latently infected cells. Recently, a “shock and kill” strategy has been extensively explored to eradicate the HIV-1 latent reservoirs for a permanent cure of AIDS. The therapeutic efficacy of currently used agents remains disappointing because of low efficiency, non-specificity and cellular toxicity. Here we present a novel catalytically-deficient Cas9-synergistic activation mediator (dCas9-SAM) technology to selectively, potently and persistently reactivate the HIV-1 latent reservoirs. By screening 16 MS2-mediated single guide RNAs, we identified long terminal repeat (LTR)-L and O that surround the enhancer region (-165/-145 for L and -92/-112 for O) and induce robust reactivation of HIV-1 provirus in HIV-1 latent TZM-bI epithelial, Jurkat T lymphocytic and CHME5 microglial cells. This compulsory reactivation induced cellular suicide via toxic buildup of viral proteins within HIV-1 latent Jurkat T and CHME5 microglial cells. These results suggest that this highly effective and target-specific dCas9-SAM system can serve as a novel HIV-latency-reversing therapeutic tool for the permanent elimination of HIV-1 latent reservoirs. PMID:26538064

  10. Nuclear import, virion incorporation, and cell cycle arrest/differentiation are mediated by distinct functional domains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr.

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingam, S; Ayyavoo, V; Patel, M; Kieber-Emmons, T; Weiner, D B

    1997-01-01

    The vpr gene product of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a virion-associated protein that is essential for efficient viral replication in monocytes/macrophages. Vpr is primarily localized in the nucleus when expressed in the absence of other viral proteins. Vpr is packaged efficiently into viral particles through interactions with the p6 domain of the Gag precursor polyprotein p55gag. We developed a panel of expression vectors encoding Vpr molecules mutated in the amino-terminal helical domain, leucine-isoleucine (LR) domain, and carboxy-terminal domain to map the different functional domains and to define the interrelationships between virion incorporation, nuclear localization, cell cycle arrest, and differentiation functions of Vpr. We observed that substitution mutations in the N-terminal domain of Vpr impaired both nuclear localization and virion packaging, suggesting that the helical structure may play a vital role in modulating both of these biological properties. The LR domain was found to be involved in the nuclear localization of Vpr. In contrast, cell cycle arrest appears to be largely controlled by the C-terminal domain of Vpr. The LR and C-terminal domains do not appear to be essential for virion incorporation of Vpr. Interestingly, we found that two Vpr mutants harboring single amino acid substitutions (A30L and G75A) retained the ability to translocate to the nucleus but were impaired in the cell cycle arrest function. In contrast, mutation of Leu68 to Ser resulted in a protein that localizes in the cytoplasm while retaining the ability to arrest host cell proliferation. We speculate that the nuclear localization and cell cycle arrest functions of Vpr are not interrelated and that these functions are mediated by separable putative functional domains of Vpr. PMID:9261351

  11. Neuroinflammation-Induced Interactions between Protease-Activated Receptor 1 and Proprotein Convertases in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kim, WooJin; Zekas, Erin; Lodge, Robert; Susan-Resiga, Delia; Marcinkiewicz, Edwidge; Essalmani, Rachid; Mihara, Koichiro; Ramachandran, Rithwik; Asahchop, Eugene; Gelman, Benjamin; Cohen, Éric A; Power, Christopher; Hollenberg, Morley D; Seidah, Nabil G

    2015-11-01

    The proprotein convertases (PCs) furin, PC5, PACE4, and PC7 cleave secretory proteins after basic residues, including the HIV envelope glycoprotein (gp160) and Vpr. We evaluated the abundance of PC mRNAs in postmortem brains of individuals exhibiting HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), likely driven by neuroinflammation and neurotoxic HIV proteins (e.g., envelope and Vpr). Concomitant with increased inflammation-related gene expression (interleukin-1β [IL-1β]), the mRNA levels of the above PCs are significantly increased, together with those of the proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), an inflammation-associated receptor that is cleaved by thrombin at ProArg41↓ (where the down arrow indicates the cleavage location), and potentially by PCs at Arg41XXXXArg46↓. The latter motif in PAR1, but not its R46A mutant, drives its interactions with PCs. Indeed, PAR1 upregulation leads to the inhibition of membrane-bound furin, PC5B, and PC7 and inhibits gp160 processing and HIV infectivity. Additionally, a proximity ligation assay revealed that furin and PC7 interact with PAR1. Reciprocally, increased furin expression reduces the plasma membrane abundance of PAR1 by trapping it in the trans-Golgi network. Furthermore, soluble PC5A/PACE4 can target/disarm cell surface PAR1 through cleavage at Arg46↓. PACE4/PC5A decreased calcium mobilization induced by thrombin stimulation. Our data reveal a new PC-PAR1-interaction pathway, which offsets the effects of HIV-induced neuroinflammation, viral infection, and potentially the development of HAND. PMID:26283733

  12. Neuroinflammation-Induced Interactions between Protease-Activated Receptor 1 and Proprotein Convertases in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, WooJin; Zekas, Erin; Lodge, Robert; Susan-Resiga, Delia; Marcinkiewicz, Edwidge; Essalmani, Rachid; Mihara, Koichiro; Ramachandran, Rithwik; Asahchop, Eugene; Gelman, Benjamin; Cohen, Éric A.; Power, Christopher; Hollenberg, Morley D.

    2015-01-01

    The proprotein convertases (PCs) furin, PC5, PACE4, and PC7 cleave secretory proteins after basic residues, including the HIV envelope glycoprotein (gp160) and Vpr. We evaluated the abundance of PC mRNAs in postmortem brains of individuals exhibiting HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), likely driven by neuroinflammation and neurotoxic HIV proteins (e.g., envelope and Vpr). Concomitant with increased inflammation-related gene expression (interleukin-1β [IL-1β]), the mRNA levels of the above PCs are significantly increased, together with those of the proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), an inflammation-associated receptor that is cleaved by thrombin at ProArg41↓ (where the down arrow indicates the cleavage location), and potentially by PCs at Arg41XXXXArg46↓. The latter motif in PAR1, but not its R46A mutant, drives its interactions with PCs. Indeed, PAR1 upregulation leads to the inhibition of membrane-bound furin, PC5B, and PC7 and inhibits gp160 processing and HIV infectivity. Additionally, a proximity ligation assay revealed that furin and PC7 interact with PAR1. Reciprocally, increased furin expression reduces the plasma membrane abundance of PAR1 by trapping it in the trans-Golgi network. Furthermore, soluble PC5A/PACE4 can target/disarm cell surface PAR1 through cleavage at Arg46↓. PACE4/PC5A decreased calcium mobilization induced by thrombin stimulation. Our data reveal a new PC-PAR1-interaction pathway, which offsets the effects of HIV-induced neuroinflammation, viral infection, and potentially the development of HAND. PMID:26283733

  13. Inhibition of p66ShcA Longevity Gene Rescues Podocytes from HIV-1-induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis*

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Mohammad; Meggs, Leonard G.; Vashistha, Himanshu; Simoes, Sonia; Griffiths, Kevin O.; Kumar, Dileep; Mikulak, Joanna; Mathieson, Peter W.; Saleem, Moin A.; Del Valle, Luis; Pina-Oviedo, Sergio; Wang, Jin Ying; Seshan, Surya V.; Malhotra, Ashwani; Reiss, Krzysztof; Singhal, Pravin C.

    2009-01-01

    Glomerular visceral epithelial cells (podocytes) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy. A key question concerns the mechanism(s) by which the HIV-1 genome alters the phenotype of the highly specialized, terminally differentiated podocytes. Here, using an in vitro system of conditionally immortalized differentiated human podocytes (CIDHPs), we document a pivotal role for the p66ShcA protein in HIV-1-induced reactive oxygen species generation and CIDHP apoptosis. CIDHP transfected with truncated HIV-1 construct (NL4-3) exhibit increased reactive oxygen species metabolism, DNA strand breaks, and a 5-fold increase in apoptosis, whereas the opposite was true for NL4-3/CIDHP co-transfected with mu-36p66ShcA (mu-36) dominant negative expression vector or isoform-specific p66-small interfering RNA. Phosphorylation at Ser-36 of the wild type p66ShcA protein, required for p66ShcA redox function and inhibition of the potent stress response regulator Foxo3a, was unchanged in mu-36/NL4-3/CIDHP but increased in NL4-3/CIDHP. Acute knockdown of Foxo3a by small interfering RNA induced a 50% increase in mu-36/NL4-3/CIDHP apoptosis, indicating that Foxo3a-dependent responses promote the survival phenotype in mu-36 cells. We conclude that inhibition of p66ShcA redox activity prevents generation of HIV-1 stress signals and activation of the CIDHP apoptosis program. PMID:19383602

  14. Isolation of a herpes simplex virus type 1 mutant with a deletion in the virion host shutoff gene and identification of multiple forms of the vhs (UL41) polypeptide.

    PubMed Central

    Read, G S; Karr, B M; Knight, K

    1993-01-01

    The virion host shutoff (vhs) gene (UL41) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encodes a virion component that induces degradation of host mRNAs and the shutoff of most host protein synthesis. Subsequently, the vhs protein accelerates the turnover of all kinetic classes of viral mRNA. To identify the vhs (UL41) polypeptide within infected cells and virions, antisera raised against a UL41-lacZ fusion protein were used to characterize the polypeptides encoded by wild-type HSV-1 and two mutants: vhs1, a previously characterized mutant that lacks detectable virion host shutoff activity, and vhs-delta Sma, a newly constructed mutant containing a deletion of 196 codons from UL41. Two forms of the vhs (UL41) polypeptide were identified in cells infected with the wild-type virus or vhs1. Wild-type HSV-1 produced a major 58-kDa polypeptide, as well as a less abundant 59.5-kDa form of the protein, while vhs1 produced 57- and 59-kDa polypeptides that were approximately equally abundant. Although for either virus, both forms of the protein were phosphorylated, they differed in the extent of phosphorylation. While both vhs polypeptides were found in infected cells, only the faster migrating, less phosphorylated form was incorporated into virions. vhs-delta Sma encoded a smaller, 31-kDa polypeptide which, although present in infected cells, was not incorporated into virions. The results identify multiple forms of the vhs (UL41) polypeptide and suggest that posttranslational processing affects its packaging into virions, as well as its ability to induce mRNA degradation. Images PMID:8230437

  15. Fine structure of the vaccinia virion determined by controlled degradation and immunolocalization

    PubMed Central

    Moussatche, Nissin; Condit, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    The vaccinia virion is a membraned, slightly flattened, barrel-shaped particle, with a complex internal structure featuring a biconcave core flanked by lateral bodies. Although the architecture of the purified mature virion has been intensely characterized by electron microscopy, the distribution of the proteins within the virion has been examined primarily using biochemical procedures. Thus, it has been shown that non-ionic and ionic detergents combined or not with a sulfhydryl reagent can be used to disrupt virions and, to a limited degree, separate the constituent proteins in different fractions. Applying a controlled degradation technique to virions adsorbed on EM grids, we were able to immuno-localize viral proteins within the virion particle. Our results show after NP40 and DTT treatment, membrane proteins are removed from the virion surface revealing proteins that are associated with the lateral bodies and the outer layer of the core wall. Combined treatment using high salt and high DTT removed lateral body proteins and exposed proteins of the internal core wall. Cores treated with proteases could be disrupted and the internal components were exposed. Cts8, a mutant in the A3 protein, produces aberrant virus that, when treated with NP-40 and DTT, release to the exterior the virus DNA associated with other internal core proteins. With these results, we are able to propose a model for the structure the vaccinia virion. PMID:25486587

  16. Fine structure of the vaccinia virion determined by controlled degradation and immunolocalization

    SciTech Connect

    Moussatche, Nissin Condit, Richard C.

    2015-01-15

    The vaccinia virion is a membraned, slightly flattened, barrel-shaped particle, with a complex internal structure featuring a biconcave core flanked by lateral bodies. Although the architecture of the purified mature virion has been intensely characterized by electron microscopy, the distribution of the proteins within the virion has been examined primarily using biochemical procedures. Thus, it has been shown that non-ionic and ionic detergents combined or not with a sulfhydryl reagent can be used to disrupt virions and, to a limited degree, separate the constituent proteins in different fractions. Applying a controlled degradation technique to virions adsorbed on EM grids, we were able to immuno-localize viral proteins within the virion particle. Our results show after NP40 and DTT treatment, membrane proteins are removed from the virion surface revealing proteins that are associated with the lateral bodies and the outer layer of the core wall. Combined treatment using high salt and high DTT removed lateral body proteins and exposed proteins of the internal core wall. Cores treated with proteases could be disrupted and the internal components were exposed. Cts8, a mutant in the A3 protein, produces aberrant virus that, when treated with NP-40 and DTT, releases to the exterior the virus DNA associated with other internal core proteins. With these results, we are able to propose a model for the structure the vaccinia virion.

  17. Cocaine promotes both initiation and elongation phase of HIV-1 transcription by activating NF-κB and MSK1 and inducing selective epigenetic modifications at HIV-1 LTR

    SciTech Connect

    Sahu, Geetaram; Farley, Kalamo; El-Hage, Nazira; Aiamkitsumrit, Benjamas; Fassnacht, Ryan; Kashanchi, Fatah; Ochem, Alex; Simon, Gary L.; Karn, Jonathan; Hauser, Kurt F.; Tyagi, Mudit

    2015-09-15

    Cocaine accelerates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) replication by altering specific cell-signaling and epigenetic pathways. We have elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms through which cocaine exerts its effect in myeloid cells, a major target of HIV-1 in central nervous system (CNS). We demonstrate that cocaine treatment promotes HIV-1 gene expression by activating both nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-ĸB) and mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1). MSK1 subsequently catalyzes the phosphorylation of histone H3 at serine 10, and p65 subunit of NF-ĸB at 276th serine residue. These modifications enhance the interaction of NF-ĸB with P300 and promote the recruitment of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) to the HIV-1 LTR, supporting the development of an open/relaxed chromatin configuration, and facilitating the initiation and elongation phases of HIV-1 transcription. Results are also confirmed in primary monocyte derived macrophages (MDM). Overall, our study provides detailed insights into cocaine-driven HIV-1 transcription and replication. - Highlights: • Cocaine induces the initiation phase of HIV transcription by activating NF-ĸB. • Cocaine induced NF-ĸB phosphorylation promotes its interaction with P300. • Cocaine enhances the elongation phase of HIV transcription by stimulating MSK1. • Cocaine activated MSK1 catalyzes the phosphorylation of histone H3 at its Ser10. • Cocaine induced H3S10 phosphorylation facilitates the recruitment of P-TEFb at LTR.

  18. The HIV Matrix Protein p17 Subverts Nuclear Receptors Expression and Induces a STAT1-Dependent Proinflammatory Phenotype in Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Renga, Barbara; Francisci, Daniela; D'Amore, Claudio; Schiaroli, Elisabetta; Mencarelli, Andrea; Cipriani, Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    Background Long-term remission of HIV-1 disease can be readily achieved by combinations of highly effective antiretroviral therapy (HAART). However, a residual persistent immune activation caused by circulating non infectious particles or viral proteins is observed under HAART and might contribute to an higher risk of non-AIDS pathologies and death in HIV infected persons. A sustained immune activation supports lipid dysmetabolism and increased risk for development of accelerated atehrosclerosis and ischemic complication in virologically suppressed HIV-infected persons receiving HAART. Aim While several HIV proteins have been identified and characterized for their ability to maintain immune activation, the role of HIV-p17, a matrix protein involved in the viral replication, is still undefined. Results Here, we report that exposure of macrophages to recombinant human p17 induces the expression of proinflammatory and proatherogenic genes (MCP-1, ICAM-1, CD40, CD86 and CD36) while downregulating the expression of nuclear receptors (FXR and PPARγ) that counter-regulate the proinflammatory response and modulate lipid metabolism in these cells. Exposure of macrophage cell lines to p17 activates a signaling pathway mediated by Rack-1/Jak-1/STAT-1 and causes a promoter-dependent regulation of STAT-1 target genes. These effects are abrogated by sera obtained from HIV-infected persons vaccinated with a p17 peptide. Ligands for FXR and PPARγ counteract the effects of p17. Conclusions The results of this study show that HIV p17 highjacks a Rack-1/Jak-1/STAT-1 pathway in macrophages, and that the activation of this pathway leads to a simultaneous dysregulation of immune and metabolic functions. The binding of STAT-1 to specific responsive elements in the promoter of PPARγ and FXR and MCP-1 shifts macrophages toward a pro-atherogenetic phenotype characterized by high levels of expression of the scavenger receptor CD36. The present work identifies p17 as a novel target in HIV

  19. Acrolein enhances epigenetic modifications, FasL expression and hepatocyte toxicity induced by anti-HIV drug Zidovudine.

    PubMed

    Ghare, Smita S; Donde, Hridgandh; Chen, Wei-Yang; Barker, David F; Gobejishvilli, Leila; McClain, Craig J; Barve, Shirish S; Joshi-Barve, Swati

    2016-09-01

    Zidovudine (AZT) remains the mainstay of antiretroviral therapy against HIV in resource-poor countries; however, its use is frequently associated with hepatotoxicity. Not all HIV patients on AZT develop hepatotoxicity, and the determining factors are unclear. Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are known risk factors for HIV hepatotoxicity, and both are significant sources of acrolein, a highly reactive and toxic aldehyde. This study examines the potential hepatotoxic interactions between acrolein and AZT. Our data demonstrate that acrolein markedly enhanced AZT-induced transcriptionally permissive histone modifications (H3K9Ac and H3K9Me3) allowing the recruitment of transcription factor NF-kB and RNA polymerase II at the FasL gene promoter, resulting in FasL upregulation and apoptosis in hepatocytes. Notably, the acrolein scavenger, hydralazine prevented these promoter-associated epigenetic changes and inhibited FasL upregulation and apoptosis induced by the combination of AZT and acrolein, as well as AZT alone. Our data strongly suggest that acrolein enhancement of promoter histone modifications and FasL upregulation are major pathogenic mechanisms driving AZT-induced hepatotoxicity. Moreover, these data also indicate the therapeutic potential of hydralazine in mitigating AZT hepatotoxicity. PMID:27238871

  20. Localization of the Houdinisome (Ejection Proteins) inside the Bacteriophage P22 Virion by Bubblegram Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weimin; Leavitt, Justin C.; Cheng, Naiqian; Gilcrease, Eddie B.; Motwani, Tina; Teschke, Carolyn M.; Casjens, Sherwood R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The P22 capsid is a T=7 icosahedrally symmetric protein shell with a portal protein dodecamer at one 5-fold vertex. Extending outwards from that vertex is a short tail, and putatively extending inwards is a 15-nm-long α-helical barrel formed by the C-terminal domains of portal protein subunits. In addition to the densely packed genome, the capsid contains three “ejection proteins” (E-proteins [gp7, gp16, and gp20]) destined to exit from the tightly sealed capsid during the process of DNA delivery into target cells. We estimated their copy numbers by quantitative SDS-PAGE as approximately 12 molecules per virion of gp16 and gp7 and 30 copies of gp20. To localize them, we used bubblegram imaging, an adaptation of cryo-electron microscopy in which gaseous bubbles induced in proteins by prolonged irradiation are used to map the proteins’ locations. We applied this technique to wild-type P22, a triple mutant lacking all three E-proteins, and three mutants each lacking one E-protein. We conclude that all three E-proteins are loosely clustered around the portal axis, in the region displaced radially inwards from the portal crown. The bubblegram data imply that approximately half of the α-helical barrel seen in the portal crystal structure is disordered in the mature virion, and parts of the disordered region present binding sites for E-proteins. Thus positioned, the E-proteins are strategically placed to pass down the shortened barrel and through the portal ring and the tail, as they exit from the capsid during an infection. PMID:27507825

  1. Blocking Type I Interferon Production: A New Therapeutic Option to Reduce the HIV-1-Induced Immune Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ries, Moritz; Pritschet, Kathrin; Schmidt, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy has dramatically improved the morbidity and mortality of HIV-1-infected individuals. A total of 25 licensed drugs provide the basis for an optimized virus-suppressive treatment of nearly each subject. The promises of immune reconstitution and normal life expectancy, however, fall short for a number of patients, either through inadequate recovery of CD4+ T-cell counts or the occurrence of non-AIDS defining malignancies. In this respect, the prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus-associated Hodgkin lymphoma and human papillomavirus-related anal neoplasia is rising in aging HIV-1-infected individuals despite antiretroviral therapy. An important cause appears to be the HIV-1-induced chronic immune activation, propagated by inappropriate release of proinflammatory cytokines and type I interferons. This immune dysregulation can be reduced in vitro by inhibitors blocking the endosomal acidification. Recent data suggest that this concept is also of relevance in vivo, which opens the door for adjuvant immunomodulatory therapies in HIV-1 infection. PMID:22203858

  2. Topographical analysis of the G virion of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Barnard, D L; Johnson, F B

    1992-01-01

    The topography of the Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) G virion was analyzed with monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal antiserum. There was homology between the two major structural proteins as others have previously reported. Trypsin treatment of the virion with subsequent immunoblotting revealed that VP2 represents the main peptide on the exterior of virion and that VP1 is probably embedded within the capsid. Additional analyses of the trypsin-treated virions showed that VP2 is responsible for binding complement and that it also represents the structural part of the virion that binds to cellular receptors. A third protein, p34, was detected that might represent a third structural polypeptide because of its many unique epitopes relative to the other peptides detected. PMID:1280944

  3. The Role of the Membrane in the Structure and Biophysical Robustness of the Dengue Virion Envelope

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Tyler; Sansom, Mark S.P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The dengue virion is surrounded by an envelope of membrane proteins surrounding a lipid bilayer. We have combined the cryoelectron microscopy structures of the membrane proteins (PDB: 3J27) with a lipid bilayer whose composition is based on lipidomics data for insect cell membranes, to obtain a near-atomic resolution computational model of the envelope of the dengue virion. A coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation on the microsecond timescale enables analysis of key biophysical properties of the dengue outer envelope. Properties analyzed include area per lipid values (for a spherical virion with a mixed lipid composition), bilayer thickness, and lipid diffusion coefficients. Despite the absence of cholesterol from the lipid bilayer, the virion exhibits biophysical robustness (slow lipid diffusion alongside stable bilayer thickness, virion diameter, and shape) that matches the cholesterol-rich membrane of influenza A, with similarly anomalous diffusion of lipids. Biophysical robustness of the envelope may confer resilience to environmental perturbations. PMID:26833387

  4. A human recombinant Fab identifies a human immunodeficiency virus type 1-induced conformational change in cell surface-expressed CD4.

    PubMed Central

    Bachelder, R E; Bilancieri, J; Lin, W; Letvin, N L

    1995-01-01

    To explore the role of the CD4 molecule in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection following initial virus-CD4 binding, we have characterized CD4-specific antibodies raised by immunizing an HIV-1-infected human with human recombinant soluble CD4 (rsCD4). Fabs were selected from a human recombinant Fab library constructed from the bone marrow of this immunized individual. Here, we describe a human rsCD4-specific recombinant Fab clone selected by panning the library over complexes of human rsCD4 and recombinant HIV-1 envelope protein. While this Fab does not bind to CD4-positive T-cell lines or to human T lymphocytes, it recognizes cell surface-expressed CD4 following the incubation of these cells with a recombinant form of HIV-1 gp120 or with HIV-1 virions. The Fab is not HIV-1 envelope specific, since it does not bind to recombinant gp120 or to native cell surface-expressed HIV-1 envelope proteins. As confirmation of its CD4 specificity, we show that this Fab immunoprecipitates a 55-kDa protein, corresponding to the molecular mass of cellular CD4, from an H9 cell lysate. The specificity of this human Fab provides evidence for a virus-induced conformational change in cell surface-expressed on CD4. The characterization of this altered CD4 conformation and its effects on the host cell will be important in defining postbinding events in HIV infection. PMID:7637018

  5. Abacavir-induced fulminant hepatic failure in a HIV/HCV co-infected patient.

    PubMed

    Haas, Christopher; Ziccardi, Mary Rodriguez; Borgman, Jody

    2015-01-01

    Abacavir hypersensitivity is a rare, yet significant adverse reaction that results in a spectrum of physical and laboratory abnormalities, and has been postulated to stem from a variety of aetiological factors. The major histocompatibility complex haplotype human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B5701 is a significant risk factor in development of hypersensitivity reactions, yet only 55% of HLA-B5701+ individuals develop such reactions, suggesting a multifactorial aetiology. Nevertheless, prospective screening and avoidance of abacavir in these patients has limited adverse events. Within this spectrum of adverse events, abacavir-induced liver toxicity is exceedingly rare and reported events have ranged from mild elevations of aminotransferases to fulminant hepatic failure. We report the case of a 50-year-old Caucasian woman with a history significant for HIV, hepatitis C virus and a HLA-B5701+ status, transferred to our emergency department in a hypotensive state and found to have acute liver failure, acute renal failure and significant rhabdomyolysis following a change of highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen. PMID:26670894

  6. Methods for the Analyses of Inhibitor-Induced Aberrant Multimerization of HIV-1 Integrase

    PubMed Central

    Kessl, Jacques J.; Sharma, Amit; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) is an important therapeutic target as its function is essential for the viral lifecycle. The discovery of multifunctional allosteric IN inhibitors or ALLINIs, which potently impair viral replication by promoting aberrant, higher order IN multimerization as well as inhibit IN interactions with its cellular cofactor, LEDGF/p75, has opened new venues to exploit IN multimerization as a therapeutic target. Furthermore, the recent discovery of multimerization selective IN inhibitors or MINIs, has provided new investigational probes to study the direct effects of aberrant IN multimerization in vitro and in infected cells. Here we describe three complementary methods designed to detect and quantify the effects of these new classes of inhibitors on IN multimerization. These methods include a homogenous time-resolved fluorescence-based assay which allows for measuring EC50 values for the inhibitor-induced aberrant IN multimerization, a dynamic light scattering-based assay which allows for monitoring the formation and sizes of oligomeric IN particles in a time-dependent manner, and a chemical cross-linking-based assay of interacting IN subunits which allows for the determination of IN oligomers in viral particles. PMID:26714710

  7. Methods for the Analyses of Inhibitor-Induced Aberrant Multimerization of HIV-1 Integrase.

    PubMed

    Kessl, Jacques J; Sharma, Amit; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) is an important therapeutic target as its function is essential for the viral lifecycle. The discovery of multifunctional allosteric IN inhibitors or ALLINIs, which potently impair viral replication by promoting aberrant, higher order IN multimerization as well as inhibit IN interactions with its cellular cofactor, LEDGF/p75, has opened new venues to exploit IN multimerization as a therapeutic target. Furthermore, the recent discovery of multimerization selective IN inhibitors or MINIs, has provided new investigational probes to study the direct effects of aberrant IN multimerization in vitro and in infected cells. Here we describe three complementary methods designed to detect and quantify the effects of these new classes of inhibitors on IN multimerization. These methods include a homogenous time-resolved fluorescence-based assay which allows for measuring EC50 values for the inhibitor-induced aberrant IN multimerization, a dynamic light scattering-based assay which allows for monitoring the formation and sizes of oligomeric IN particles in a time-dependent manner, and a chemical cross-linking-based assay of interacting IN subunits which allows for the determination of IN oligomers in viral particles. PMID:26714710

  8. Anti-HIV Designer T Cells Progressively Eradicate a Latently Infected Cell Line by Sequentially Inducing HIV Reactivation then Killing the Newly Gp120-Positive Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Gautam K; Sango, Kaori; Selliah, Nithianandan; Ma, Qiangzhong; Skowron, Gail; Junghans, Richard P

    2013-01-01

    The current antiretroviral therapy (ART) can effectively reduce plasma HIV loads to undetectable levels, but cannot eliminate latently infected resting memory CD4 T cells that persist for the lifetime of infected patients. Therefore, designing new therapeutic approaches to eliminate these latently infected cells or the cells that produce HIV upon reactivation from latency is a priority in the ART era in order to progress to a cure of HIV. Here, we show that “designer” T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), CD4-CD28-CD3ζ, can target and kill HIV Env-expressing cells. Further, they secrete effector cytokines upon contact with HIV Env+ target cells that can reactivate latent HIV in a cell line model, thereby exposing those cells to recognition and killing by anti-HIV CAR+ T cells. Taken to the limit, this process could form the basis for an eventual functional or sterilizing cure for HIV in patients. PMID:24074590

  9. Drug fever induced by piperacillin/tazobactam in an elderly patient with underlying human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.

    PubMed

    Swe, Thein; Ali, Mir; Naing, Akari Thein

    2016-01-01

    Our search of the literature revealed no detailed case reports about drug fever induced by piperacillin/tazobactam in a patient with HIV infection although there were a few case reports about drug fever due to piperacillin/tazobactam with other comorbidities. A 63-year-old male patient with HIV positive was admitted for acute cholecystitis. He was started on piperacillin/tazobactam. For the next 8 days, he had intermittent fever up to 103°F (39.4°C) with relative bradycardia although he showed clinical improvement. There was no laboratory or imaging findings suggestive of another infectious source and drug fever was suspected. The antibiotics were stopped and after 48 hours no fever was observed until the day of discharge. Piperacillin/tazobactam can induce fever in patients with cystic fibrosis and in patients with other conditions. Drug fever may be more prevalent in patients with HIV infection. It has no characteristic pattern and may not be associated with eosinophilia. PMID:27440850

  10. Nef enhances HIV-1 infectivity via association with the virus assembly complex

    SciTech Connect

    Qi Mingli; Aiken, Christopher

    2008-04-10

    The HIV-1 accessory protein Nef enhances virus infectivity by facilitating an early post-entry step of infection. Nef acts in the virus producer cell, leading to a beneficial modification to HIV-1 particles. Nef itself is incorporated into HIV-1 particles, where it is cleaved by the viral protease during virion maturation. To probe the role of virion-associated Nef in HIV-1 infection, we generated a fusion protein consisting of the host protein cyclophilin A (CypA) linked to the amino terminus of Nef. The resulting CypA-Nef protein enhanced the infectivity of Nef-defective HIV-1 particles and was specifically incorporated into the virions via association with Gag during particle assembly. Pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of CypA-Nef binding to Gag prevented incorporation of CypA-Nef into virions and inhibited infectivity enhancement. Our results indicate that infectivity enhancement by Nef requires its association with a component of the assembling HIV-1 particle.

  11. Nef Enhances HIV-1 Infectivity via Association with the Virus Assembly Complex

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Mingli; Aiken, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The HIV-1 accessory protein Nef enhances virus infectivity by facilitating an early post-entry step of infection. Nef acts in the virus producer cell, leading to a beneficial modification to HIV-1 particles. Nef itself is incorporated into HIV-1 particles, where it is cleaved by the viral protease during virion maturation. To probe the role of virion-associated Nef in HIV-1 infection, we generated a fusion protein consisting of the host protein cyclophilin A (CypA) linked to the amino terminus of Nef. The resulting CypA-Nef protein enhanced the infectivity of Nef-defective HIV-1 particles and was specifically incorporated into the virions via association with Gag during particle assembly. Pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of CypA-Nef binding to Gag prevented incorporation of CypA-Nef into virions and inhibited infectivity enhancement. Our results indicate that infectivity enhancement by Nef requires its association with a component of the assembling HIV-1 particle. PMID:18191978

  12. Analysis of V2 antibody responses induced in vaccinees in the ALVAC/AIDSVAX HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trial.

    PubMed

    Zolla-Pazner, Susan; deCamp, Allan C; Cardozo, Timothy; Karasavvas, Nicos; Gottardo, Raphael; Williams, Constance; Morris, Daryl E; Tomaras, Georgia; Rao, Mangala; Billings, Erik; Berman, Phillip; Shen, Xiaoying; Andrews, Charla; O'Connell, Robert J; Ngauy, Viseth; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; de Souza, Mark; Korber, Bette; Koup, Richard; Bailer, Robert T; Mascola, John R; Pinter, Abraham; Montefiori, David; Haynes, Barton F; Robb, Merlin L; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Michael, Nelson L; Gilbert, Peter B; Kim, Jerome H

    2013-01-01

    The RV144 clinical trial of a prime/boost immunizing regimen using recombinant canary pox (ALVAC-HIV) and two gp120 proteins (AIDSVAX B and E) was previously shown to have a 31.2% efficacy rate. Plasma specimens from vaccine and placebo recipients were used in an extensive set of assays to identify correlates of HIV-1 infection risk. Of six primary variables that were studied, only one displayed a significant inverse correlation with risk of infection: the antibody (Ab) response to a fusion protein containing the V1 and V2 regions of gp120 (gp70-V1V2). This finding prompted a thorough examination of the results generated with the complete panel of 13 assays measuring various V2 Abs in the stored plasma used in the initial pilot studies and those used in the subsequent case-control study. The studies revealed that the ALVAC-HIV/AIDSVAX vaccine induced V2-specific Abs that cross-react with multiple HIV-1 subgroups and recognize both conformational and linear epitopes. The conformational epitope was present on gp70-V1V2, while the predominant linear V2 epitope mapped to residues 165-178, immediately N-terminal to the putative α4β7 binding motif in the mid-loop region of V2. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to compare the risk of infection with data from 12 V2 assays, and in 11 of these, the ORs were ≤1, reaching statistical significance for two of the variables: Ab responses to gp70-V1V2 and to overlapping V2 linear peptides. It remains to be determined whether anti-V2 Ab responses were directly responsible for the reduced infection rate in RV144 and whether anti-V2 Abs will prove to be important with other candidate HIV vaccines that show efficacy, however, the results support continued dissection of Ab responses to the V2 region which may illuminate mechanisms of protection from HIV-1 infection and may facilitate the development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine. PMID:23349725

  13. HIV-1 Infection-Induced Suppression of the Let-7i/IL-2 Axis Contributes to CD4+ T Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yijun; Yin, Yue; Zhang, Shaoying; Luo, Haihua; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying HIV-1-mediated CD4+ T cell depletion are highly complicated. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a key cytokine that maintains the survival and proliferation of activated CD4+ T cells. IL-2 levels are disturbed during HIV-1 infection, but the underlying mechanism(s) requires further investigation. We have reported that cellular microRNA (miRNA) let-7i upregulates IL-2 expression by targeting the promoter TATA-box region, which functions as a positive regulator. In this study, we found that HIV-1 infection decreases the expression of let-7i in CD4+ T cells by attenuating its promoter activity. The reduced let-7i miRNA expression led to a decline in IL-2 levels. A let-7i mimic increased IL-2 expression and subsequently enhanced the resistance of CD4+ T cells to HIV-1-induced apoptosis. By contrast, the blockage of let-7i with a specific inhibitor resulted in elevated CD4+ T cell apoptosis during HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, by knocking down the expression of IL-2, we found that the let-7i-mediated CD4+ T cell resistance to apoptosis during HIV-1 infection was dependent on IL-2 signaling rather than an alternative CD95-mediated cell-death pathway. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel pathway for HIV-1-induced dysregulation of IL-2 cytokines and depletion of CD4+ T-lymphocytes. PMID:27145859

  14. HIV-1 Gag Blocks Selenite-Induced Stress Granule Assembly by Altering the mRNA Cap-Binding Complex

    PubMed Central

    Cinti, Alessandro; Le Sage, Valerie; Ghanem, Marwan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Stress granules (SGs) are dynamic accumulations of stalled preinitiation complexes and translational machinery that assemble under stressful conditions. Sodium selenite (Se) induces the assembly of noncanonical type II SGs that differ in morphology, composition, and mechanism of assembly from canonical SGs. Se inhibits translation initiation by altering the cap-binding activity of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein 1 (4EBP1). In this work, we show that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag is able to block the assembly of type II noncanonical SGs to facilitate continued Gag protein synthesis. We demonstrate that expression of Gag reduces the amount of hypophosphorylated 4EBP1 associated with the 5′ cap potentially through an interaction with its target, eIF4E. These results suggest that the assembly of SGs is an important host antiviral defense that HIV-1 has evolved for inhibition through several distinct mechanisms. PMID:27025252

  15. Application of Site-Specific Spin Labeling for NMR Detecting Inhibitor-Induced Conformational Change of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Seetaha, Supaporn; Yagi-Utsumi, Maho; Yamaguchi, Takumi; Ishii, Kentaro; Hannongbua, Supa; Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Kato, Koichi

    2016-02-17

    Paramagnetism-assisted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques can provide long-range structural information complemented with local information derived from chemical-shift perturbation and nuclear Overhauser effect data. Here, we address the application of paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) to detect inhibitor-induced conformational change of a drug target protein using human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) as a model protein. Using a site-specific spin-labeled HIV-1 RT mutant with selective (13) C labeling, conformation-dependent PREs were successfully observed reflecting the stabilization of an open conformation of this enzyme caused by inhibitor binding. This study demonstrates that the paramagnetism-assisted NMR approach offers an alternative strategy in protein-based drug screening to identify allosteric inhibitors of a target protein. PMID:26804978

  16. Insight into HIV of IFN-Induced Myxovirus Resistance 2 (MX2) Expressed by Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Tzu-Chieh; Lee, Wen-Yuan; Chen, Kuen-Bao; Chan, Yueh-Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Recently, an important topic of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) had been published in 2013. In this report, the expression of the IFN-induced myxovirus resistance 2 (MX2) had been defined the function to kill the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The screening from the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) database by simulating molecular docking and molecular dynamics could select candidate compounds, which may express MX2 against HIV. Saussureamine C, Crotalaburnine, and Precatorine are selected based on the highest docking score and other TCM compounds. The data from molecular dynamics are helpful in the analysis and detection of protein-ligand interactions. According to the docking poses, hydrophobic interactions, and hydrogen bond with structure variations, this research could assess the interaction between protein and ligand interaction. In addition to the detection of TCM compound efficacy, we suggest that Saussureamine C is better than the others in protein-ligand interaction and the structural variation to express MX2. PMID:25045710

  17. Autophagy Restricts HIV-1 Infection by Selectively Degrading Tat in CD4+ T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sagnier, Sophie; Daussy, Coralie F.; Borel, Sophie; Robert-Hebmann, Véronique; Faure, Mathias; Blanchet, Fabien P.; Beaumelle, Bruno; Biard-Piechaczyk, Martine

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autophagy is a ubiquitous mechanism involved in the lysosomal-mediated degradation of cellular components when they are engulfed in vacuoles called autophagosomes. Autophagy is also recognized as an important regulator of the innate and adaptive immune responses against numerous pathogens, which have, therefore, developed strategies to block or use the autophagy machinery to their own benefit. Upon human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, viral envelope (Env) glycoproteins induce autophagy-dependent apoptosis of uninfected bystander CD4+ T lymphocytes, a mechanism likely contributing to the loss of CD4+ T cells. In contrast, in productively infected CD4+ T cells, HIV-1 is able to block Env-induced autophagy in order to avoid its antiviral effect. To date, nothing is known about how autophagy restricts HIV-1 infection in CD4+ T lymphocytes. Here, we report that autophagy selectively degrades the HIV-1 transactivator Tat, a protein essential for viral transcription and virion production. We demonstrated that this selective autophagy-mediated degradation of Tat relies on its ubiquitin-independent interaction with the p62/SQSTM1 adaptor. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the anti-HIV effect of autophagy is specifically due to the degradation of the viral transactivator Tat but that this process is rapidly counteracted by the virus to favor its replication and spread. IMPORTANCE Autophagy is recognized as one of the most ancient and conserved mechanisms of cellular defense against invading pathogens. Cross talk between HIV-1 and autophagy has been demonstrated depending on the virally challenged cell type, and HIV-1 has evolved strategies to block this process to replicate efficiently. However, the mechanisms by which autophagy restricts HIV-1 infection remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that the HIV-1 transactivator Tat, a protein essential for viral replication, is specifically degraded by autophagy in CD4+ T lymphocytes

  18. Gene expression profiling reveals Nef induced deregulation of lipid metabolism in HIV-1 infected T cells.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Surya; Trivedi, Jay; Mitra, Debashis

    2016-03-25

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) encodes a 27 kDa Negative Factor or Nef protein, which is increasingly proving to be a misnomer. Nef seems to be crucial for AIDS progression as individuals infected with nef-deleted strain of HIV were reported to become Long Term Non Progressors (LTNP). These findings necessitate tracing of Nef's footprint on landscape of cellular transcriptome favoring HIV-1 pathogenesis. We have tried to explore effect of Nef on cellular gene expression profile in conjunction with rest of HIV-1 proteins. Our results show that 237 genes are differentially regulated due to the presence of Nef during infection, which belong to several broad categories like "signaling", "apoptosis", "transcription" and "lipid metabolism" in gene ontology analysis. Furthermore, our results show that Nef causes disruption of lipid content in HIV-1 infected T cells. Molecular inhibitors of lipid metabolism like Atorvastatin and Ranolazine were found to have profound effect on wild type virus as compared to nef-deleted HIV-1. Thus our results suggest that interference in lipid metabolism is a potential mechanism through which Nef contributes in enhancing HIV-1 pathogenesis. PMID:26915805

  19. Maturation-Induced Cloaking of Neutralization Epitopes on HIV-1 Particles

    PubMed Central

    Joyner, Amanda S.; Willis, Jordan R.; Crowe, James E.; Aiken, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    To become infectious, HIV-1 particles undergo a maturation process involving proteolytic cleavage of the Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins. Immature particles contain a highly stable spherical Gag lattice and are impaired for fusion with target cells. The fusion impairment is relieved by truncation of the gp41 cytoplasmic tail (CT), indicating that an interaction between the immature viral core and gp41 within the particle represses HIV-1 fusion by an unknown mechanism. We hypothesized that the conformation of Env on the viral surface is regulated allosterically by interactions with the HIV-1 core during particle maturation. To test this, we quantified the binding of a panel of monoclonal antibodies to mature and immature HIV-1 particles by immunofluorescence imaging. Surprisingly, immature particles exhibited markedly enhanced binding of several gp41-specific antibodies, including two that recognize the membrane proximal external region (MPER) and neutralize diverse HIV-1 strains. Several of the differences in epitope exposure on mature and immature particles were abolished by truncation of the gp41 CT, thus linking the immature HIV-1 fusion defect with altered Env conformation. Our results suggest that perturbation of fusion-dependent Env conformational changes contributes to the impaired fusion of immature particles. Masking of neutralization-sensitive epitopes during particle maturation may contribute to HIV-1 immune evasion and has practical implications for vaccine strategies targeting the gp41 MPER. PMID:21931551

  20. Virus factories of cauliflower mosaic virus are virion reservoirs that engage actively in vector transmission.

    PubMed

    Bak, Aurélie; Gargani, Daniel; Macia, Jean-Luc; Malouvet, Enrick; Vernerey, Marie-Stéphanie; Blanc, Stéphane; Drucker, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) forms two types of inclusion bodies within infected plant cells: numerous virus factories, which are the sites for viral replication and virion assembly, and a single transmission body (TB), which is specialized for virus transmission by aphid vectors. The TB reacts within seconds to aphid feeding on the host plant by total disruption and redistribution of its principal component, the viral transmission helper protein P2, onto microtubules throughout the cell. At the same time, virions also associate with microtubules. This redistribution of P2 and virions facilitates transmission and is reversible; the TB reforms within minutes after vector departure. Although some virions are present in the TB before disruption, their subsequent massive accumulation on the microtubule network suggests that they also are released from virus factories. Using drug treatments, mutant viruses, and exogenous supply of viral components to infected protoplasts, we show that virions can rapidly exit virus factories and, once in the cytoplasm, accumulate together with the helper protein P2 on the microtubule network. Moreover, we show that during reversion of this phenomenon, virions from the microtubule network can either be incorporated into the reverted TB or return to the virus factories. Our results suggest that CaMV factories are dynamic structures that participate in vector transmission by controlled release and uptake of virions during TB reaction. PMID:24006440

  1. The proteome of the infectious bronchitis virus Beau-R virion.

    PubMed

    Dent, Stuart D; Xia, Dong; Wastling, Jonathan M; Neuman, Benjamin W; Britton, Paul; Maier, Helena J

    2015-12-01

    Infectious bronchitis is a highly contagious respiratory disease of poultry caused by the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). It was thought that coronavirus virions were composed of three major viral structural proteins until investigations of other coronaviruses showed that the virions also include viral non-structural and genus-specific accessory proteins as well as host-cell proteins. To study the proteome of IBV virions, virus was grown in embryonated chicken eggs, purified by sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation and analysed by mass spectrometry. Analysis of three preparations of purified IBV yielded the three expected structural proteins plus 35 additional virion-associated host proteins. The virion-associated host proteins had a diverse range of functional attributions, being involved in cytoskeleton formation, RNA binding and protein folding pathways. Some of these proteins were unique to this study, while others were found to be orthologous to proteins identified in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus virions and also virions from a number of other RNA and DNA viruses. PMID:27257648

  2. The vaccinia virus E6 protein influences virion protein localization during virus assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Condit, Richard C. Moussatche, Nissin

    2015-08-15

    Vaccinia virus mutants in which expression of the virion core protein gene E6R is repressed are defective in virion morphogenesis. E6 deficient infections fail to properly package viroplasm into viral membranes, resulting in an accumulation of empty immature virions and large aggregates of viroplasm. We have used immunogold electron microscopy and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy to assess the intracellular localization of several virion structural proteins and enzymes during E6R mutant infections. We find that during E6R mutant infections virion membrane proteins and virion transcription enzymes maintain a normal localization within viral factories while several major core and lateral body proteins accumulate in aggregated virosomes. The results support a model in which vaccinia virions are assembled from at least three substructures, the membrane, the viroplasm and a “pre-nucleocapsid”, and that the E6 protein is essential for maintaining proper localization of the seven-protein complex and the viroplasm during assembly. - Highlights: • Mutation of E6 disrupts association of viral membranes with viral core proteins • Mutation of E6 does not perturb viral membrane biosynthesis • Mutation of E6 does not perturb localization of viral transcription enzymes • Mutation of E6 causes mis-localization and aggregation of viral core proteins • Vaccinia assembly uses three subassemblies: membranes, viroplasm, prenucleocapsid.

  3. Brugia malayi Antigen (BmA) Inhibits HIV-1 Trans-Infection but Neither BmA nor ES-62 Alter HIV-1 Infectivity of DC Induced CD4+ Th-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mouser, Emily E. I. M.; Pollakis, Georgios; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Harnett, William

    2016-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of HIV-1 disease is the association of heightened CD4+ T-cell activation with HIV-1 replication. Parasitic helminths including filarial nematodes have evolved numerous and complex mechanisms to skew, dampen and evade human immune responses suggesting that HIV-1 infection may be modulated in co-infected individuals. Here we studied the effects of two filarial nematode products, adult worm antigen from Brugia malayi (BmA) and excretory-secretory product 62 (ES-62) from Acanthocheilonema viteae on HIV-1 infection in vitro. Neither BmA nor ES-62 influenced HIV-1 replication in CD4+ enriched T-cells, with either a CCR5- or CXCR4-using virus. BmA, but not ES-62, had the capacity to bind the C-type lectin dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) thereby inhibiting HIV-1 trans-infection of CD4+ enriched T-cells. As for their effect on DCs, neither BmA nor ES-62 could enhance or inhibit DC maturation as determined by CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR expression, or the production of IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-α. As expected, due to the unaltered DC phenotype, no differences were found in CD4+ T helper (Th) cell phenotypes induced by DCs treated with either BmA or ES-62. Moreover, the HIV-1 susceptibility of the Th-cell populations induced by BmA or ES-62 exposed DCs was unaffected for both CCR5- and CXCR4-using HIV-1 viruses. In conclusion, although BmA has the potential capacity to interfere with HIV-1 transmission or initial viral dissemination through preventing the virus from interacting with DCs, no differences in the Th-cell polarizing capacity of DCs exposed to BmA or ES-62 were observed. Neither antigenic source demonstrated beneficial or detrimental effects on the HIV-1 susceptibility of CD4+ Th-cells induced by exposed DCs. PMID:26808476

  4. GP3 is a structural component of the PRRSV type II (US) virion

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, M. de; Ansari, I.H.; Das, P.B.; Ku, B.J.; Martinez-Lobo, F.J.; Pattnaik, A.K.; Osorio, F.A.

    2009-07-20

    Glycoprotein 3 (GP3) is a highly glycosylated PRRSV envelope protein which has been reported as being present in the virions of PRRSV type I, while missing in the type II PRRSV (US) virions. We herein present evidence that GP3 is indeed incorporated in the virus particles of a North American strain of PRRSV (FL12), at a density that is consistent with the minor structural role assigned to GP3 in members of the Arterivirus genus. Two 15aa peptides corresponding to two different immunodominant linear epitopes of GP3 derived from the North American strain of PRRSV (FL12) were used as antigen to generate a rabbit monospecific antiserum to this protein. The specificity of this anti-GP3 antiserum was confirmed by radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP) assay using BHK-21 cells transfected with GP3 expressing plasmid, MARC-145 cells infected with FL12 PRRSV, as well as by confocal microscopy on PRRSV-infected MARC-145 cells. To test if GP3 is a structural component of the virion, {sup 35}S-labelled PRRSV virions were pelleted through a 30% sucrose cushion, followed by a second round of purification on a sucrose gradient (20-60%). Virions were detected in specific gradient fractions by radioactive counts and further confirmed by viral infectivity assay in MARC 145 cells. The GP3 was detected in gradient fractions containing purified virions by RIP using anti-GP3 antiserum. Predictably, the GP3 was less abundant in purified virions than other major structural envelope proteins such as GP5 and M. Further evidence of the presence of GP3 at the level of PRRSV FL12 envelope was obtained by immunogold staining of purified virions from the supernatant of infected cells with anti-GP3 antiserum. Taken together, these results indicate that GP3 is a minor structural component of the PRRSV type II (FL12 strain) virion, as had been previously described for PRRSV type I.

  5. Brain pathology induced by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A histological, immunocytochemical, and electron microscopical study of 100 autopsy cases.

    PubMed

    Budka, H; Costanzi, G; Cristina, S; Lechi, A; Parravicini, C; Trabattoni, R; Vago, L

    1987-01-01

    Neuropathological examination of brain tissue of 100 patients with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), including 98 with clinically manifest acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), revealed distinct multifocal-disseminated and diffuse brain tissue lesions, which can be regarded as HIV-induced brain lesions: multifocal giant cell encephalitis (MGCE; 4) and progressive diffuse leukoencephalopathy (PDL; 25). These lesions were found in 38 brains, and in 17 in absence of infectious, necrotizing or inflammatory changes of other types. In 13 brains, a combination of MGCE with PDL was seen, suggesting a spectrum of HIV-induced brain lesions. MGCE is characterized by perivascular accumulations predominantly of rod cells, monohistiocytes and macrophages, all of which are strongly labeled with a monoclonal antibody to macrophages. Most conspicuous are multinucleated giant cells which are also labeled by anti-macrophage antibody, and which can be regarded as evidence of the local presence of HIV, as confirmed by electron microscopical detection of HIV particles in four MGCE brains, and by immunocytochemical detection of HIV proteins in two MGCE brains. PDL is characterized by a triad: diffuse myelin loss, astroglial proliferation, and infiltration by mono- and multinucleated macrophages. HIV-induced lesions can be morphologically differentiated from histopathological brain lesions known in immunosuppression, including what is called here nodular encephalitis ["subacute encephalitis" of the literature, in most cases attributable to cytomegalovirus (CMV) or toxoplasmosis], by their characteristic histopathology including the hallmark presence of multinucleated giant cells, by direct immunocytochemical and electron microscopical demonstration of HIV in the lesions, and by the absence of opportunistic agents (bacteria, fungi, Toxoplasma, CMV, HSV or papovaviruses). Diffuse poliodystrophy (diffuse proliferation of astroglia with swollen nuclei, occasionally

  6. HIV-1-infected and immune-activated macrophages induce astrocytic differentiation of human cortical neural progenitor cells via the STAT3 pathway.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hui; Sun, Lijun; Jia, Beibei; Lan, Xiqian; Zhu, Bing; Wu, Yumei; Zheng, Jialin

    2011-01-01

    Diminished adult neurogenesis is considered a potential mechanism in the pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). In HAD, HIV-1-infected and immune-activated brain mononuclear phagocytes (MP; perivascular macrophages and microglia) drive central nervous system (CNS) inflammation and may alter normal neurogenesis. We previously demonstrated HIV-1-infected and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activated monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) inhibit human neural progenitor cell (NPC) neurogenesis, while enhancing astrogliogenesis through the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), in vitro and in vivo. Here we further test the hypothesis that HIV-1-infected/activated MDM promote NPC astrogliogenesis via activation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a critical factor for astrogliogenesis. Our results show that LPS-activated MDM-conditioned medium (LPS-MCM) and HIV-infected/LPS-activated MDM-conditioned medium (LPS+HIV-MCM) induced Janus kinase 1 (Jak1) and STAT3 activation. Induction of the Jak-STAT3 activation correlated with increased glia fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression, demonstrating an induction of astrogliogenesis. Moreover, STAT3-targeting siRNA (siSTAT3) decreased MCM-induced STAT3 activation and NPC astrogliogenesis. Furthermore, inflammatory cytokines (including IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α) produced by LPS-activated and/or HIV-1-infected MDM may contribute to MCM-induced STAT3 activation and astrocytic differentiation. These observations were confirmed in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with HIV-1 encephalitis (HIVE). In HIVE mice, siRNA control (without target sequence, sicon) pre-transfected NPCs injected with HIV-1-infected MDM showed more astrocytic differentiation and less neuronal differentiation of NPCs as compared to NPC injection alone. siSTAT3 abrogated HIV-1-infected MDM-induced astrogliogenesis of injected NPCs. Collectively, these

  7. HIV-1 activates proinflammatory and interferon-inducible genes in human brain microvascular endothelial cells: putative mechanisms of blood-brain barrier dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Anathbandhu; Duan, Fenghai; Morsey, Brenda; Persidsky, Yuri; Kanmogne, Georgette D

    2008-04-01

    The mechanisms underlying blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction seen in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection are poorly understood; however, they are believed to be caused by interactions of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) with virus-infected macrophages. Using a transwell system and Affymetrix arrays, we investigated HIV-1-induced genomic changes in HBMEC after coculture with HIV-1-infected or -uninfected monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Differentially expressed genes were determined by linear modeling and then were grouped by hierarchical clustering. Compared to HBMEC cocultured with noninfected MDM, 184 probe sets corresponding to 84 genes were differentially expressed in HBMEC cocultured with HIV-infected MDM. Genes activated in HIV-1 MDM-exposed HBMEC included proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced proteins, interferon (IFN)-inducible genes, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, transcription factors of the nuclear factor-kappaB family, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1. Analysis of molecular networks and canonical pathways associated with differentially expressed genes suggest that HIV-1 causes BBB impairment by mechanisms involving inflammation, cytokine, and IFN signaling in HBMEC. PMID:17940540

  8. Uukuniemi Phlebovirus Assembly and Secretion Leave a Functional Imprint on the Virion Glycome

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, David J.; Bitto, David; Halldorsson, Steinar; Bonomelli, Camille; Edgeworth, Matthew; Scrivens, James H.; Huiskonen, Juha T.

    2014-01-01

    Uukuniemi virus (UUKV) is a model system for investigating the genus Phlebovirus of the Bunyaviridae. We report the UUKV glycome, revealing differential processing of the Gn and Gc virion glycoproteins. Both glycoproteins display poly-N-acetyllactosamines, consistent with virion assembly in the medial Golgi apparatus, whereas oligomannose-type glycans required for DC-SIGN-dependent cellular attachment are predominant on Gc. Local virion structure and the route of viral egress from the cell leave a functional imprint on the phleboviral glycome. PMID:24942574

  9. HMBA Enhances Prostratin-Induced Activation of Latent HIV-1 via Suppressing the Expression of Negative Feedback Regulator A20/TNFAIP3 in NF-κB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Duchu; Wang, Huiping; Aweya, Jude Juventus; Chen, Yanheng; Chen, Meihua; Wu, Xiaomeng; Chen, Xiaonan; Lu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, much emphasis has been put on the transcriptional activation of HIV-1, which is proposed as a promised strategy for eradicating latent HIV-1 provirus. Two drugs, prostratin and hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA), have shown potent effects as inducers for releasing HIV-1 latency when used alone or in combination, although their cellular target(s) are currently not well understood, especially under drug combination. Here, we have shown that HMBA and prostratin synergistically release HIV-1 latency via different mechanisms. While prostratin strongly stimulates HMBA-induced HIV-1 transcription via improved P-TEFb activation, HMBA is capable of boosting NF-κB-dependent transcription initiation by suppressing prostratin-induced expression of the deubiquitinase A20, a negative feedback regulator in the NF-κB signaling pathway. In addition, HMBA was able to increase prostratin-induced phosphorylation and degradation of NF-κB inhibitor IκBα, thereby enhancing and prolonging prostratin-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB, a prerequisite for stimulation of transcription initiation. Thus, by blocking the negative feedback circuit, HMBA functions as a signaling enhancer of the NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:27529070

  10. The Thai Phase III Trial (RV144) Vaccine Regimen Induces T Cell Responses that Preferentially Target Epitopes within the V2 Region of HIV-1 Envelope

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Mark S.; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Chuenarom, Weerawan; Schuetz, Alexandra; Chantakulkij, Somsak; Nuntapinit, Bessara; Valencia-Micolta, Anais; Thelian, Doris; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Paris, Robert M.; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Michael, Nelson L.; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Mathieson, Bonnie; Marovich, Mary; Currier, Jeffrey R.; Kim, Jerome H.

    2012-01-01

    The Thai HIV phase III prime-boost trial (RV144) using ALVAC-HIV® (vCP1521) and AIDSVAX B/E® was, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate acquisition efficacy. Vaccine-induced, cell-mediated immune responses were assessed. T cell epitope mapping studies using IFN-γ ELISPOT were performed on PBMC from HIV-1 uninfected vaccine (N=61) and placebo (N=10) recipients using HIV-1 Env peptides. Positive responses were measured in 25 (41%) vaccinees and were predominantly CD4+ T cell mediated. Responses were targeted within the HIV Env region, with 15/25 (60%) of vaccinees recognizing peptides derived from the V2 region of HIV-1 Env, which includes the α4β7 integrin binding site. Intracellular cytokine staining confirmed that Env responses predominated (19/30; 63% of vaccine recipients) and were mediated by polyfunctional effector memory CD4+ T cells, with the majority of responders producing both IL-2 and IFN-γ (12/19; 63%). HIV-Env Ab titers were higher in subjects with IL-2 compared to those without IL-2 secreting HIV-Env specific effector memory T cells. Proliferation assays revealed that HIV Ag-specific T cells were CD4+ with the majority (80%) expressing CD107a. HIV-specific T cell lines obtained from vaccine recipients confirmed V2 specificity, polyfunctionality and functional cytolytic capacity. While the RV144 T cell responses were modest in frequency compared to humoral immune responses, the CD4+ T cell response was directed to HIV-1 Env and more particularly the V2 region. PMID:22529301

  11. High prevalence of unwanted pregnancies and induced abortions among HIV-infected women from Western India: need to emphasize dual method use?

    PubMed

    Darak, Shrinivas; Hutter, Inge; Kulkarni, Vinay; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Janssen, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence, reasons, and predictors of unwanted pregnancies and induced abortions among ever married HIV-infected women attending a care facility in Maharashtra, Western India, and discusses its programmatic and policy implications. Retrospectively collected data of pregnancies conceived after the diagnosis of HIV were analyzed using descriptive and logistic regression techniques. Among the 622 women interviewed, 113 women had 158 pregnancies with known outcomes after HIV diagnosis. Among these pregnancies, 80 (51%) were unwanted and 79 (50%) were voluntarily terminated. Fear of transmitting HIV to the child was a frequently mentioned reason for an unwanted pregnancy (71.8%) and induced abortion (59.5%). Women from urban areas [OR 2.43 (95% CI 1.23-4.79)] and with two or more live births before HIV diagnosis [OR 3.33 (95% CI 1.36-8.20)] were significantly more likely to report an unwanted pregnancy. Women with two or more live births before HIV diagnosis [OR 3.16 (95% CI 1.20-8.35)], who did not know that HIV transmission to the baby can be prevented [OR 3.29 (95% CI 1.48-7.34)] and with an unwanted pregnancy [OR 4.82 (95% CI 2.33-10.00)], were significantly more likely to terminate the pregnancy. Despite increased coverage of antiretroviral treatment, effective provision of reproductive healthcare services to HIV-infected women remains challenging. A high prevalence of unwanted pregnancies and induced abortions and a low level of knowledge about prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) underscore the need for preconception counseling and provision of comprehensive family planning services to HIV-infected women. Enrolling all HIV-infected pregnant women, irrespective of their decision to continue with their pregnancy, in the PMTCT program and discussing with HIV-infected women and their partners at HIV diagnosis a full array of contraceptive methods and not just consistent use of condoms might be helpful in reducing unwanted

  12. Virion Structure of Israeli Acute Bee Paralysis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Mullapudi, Edukondalu; Přidal, Antonín; Pálková, Lenka; de Miranda, Joachim R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The pollination services provided by the western honeybee (Apis mellifera) are critical for agricultural production and the diversity of wild flowering plants. However, honeybees suffer from environmental pollution, habitat loss, and pathogens, including viruses that can cause fatal diseases. Israeli acute bee paralysis virus (IAPV), from the family Dicistroviridae, has been shown to cause colony collapse disorder in the United States. Here, we present the IAPV virion structure determined to a resolution of 4.0 Å and the structure of a pentamer of capsid protein protomers at a resolution of 2.7 Å. IAPV has major capsid proteins VP1 and VP3 with noncanonical jellyroll β-barrel folds composed of only seven instead of eight β-strands, as is the rule for proteins of other viruses with the same fold. The maturation of dicistroviruses is connected to the cleavage of precursor capsid protein VP0 into subunits VP3 and VP4. We show that a putative catalytic site formed by the residues Asp-Asp-Phe of VP1 is optimally positioned to perform the cleavage. Furthermore, unlike many picornaviruses, IAPV does not contain a hydrophobic pocket in capsid protein VP1 that could be targeted by capsid-binding antiviral compounds. IMPORTANCE Honeybee pollination is required for agricultural production and to sustain the biodiversity of wild flora. However, honeybee populations in Europe and North America are under pressure from pathogens, including viruses that cause colony losses. Viruses from the family Dicistroviridae can cause honeybee infections that are lethal, not only to individual honeybees, but to whole colonies. Here, we present the virion structure of an Aparavirus, Israeli acute bee paralysis virus (IAPV), a member of a complex of closely related viruses that are distributed worldwide. IAPV exhibits unique structural features not observed in other picorna-like viruses. Capsid protein VP1 of IAPV does not contain a hydrophobic pocket, implying that capsid

  13. Effects of Political Conflict Induced Treatment Interruptions on HIV Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Marita; Lurie, Mark N.; Kimaiyo, Sylvester; Kantor, Rami

    2013-01-01

    34 million people worldwide were living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) by the end of 2010. Despite significant advances in antiretroviral therapy (ART), drug resistance remains a major deterrent to successful, enduring treatment. Unplanned interruptions in ART have negative effects on HIV treatment outcomes including increased morbidity and mortality, as well as development of drug resistance. Treatment interruptions due to political conflicts, not infrequent in resource-limited settings, result in disruptions in health care, infrastructure, or treatment facilities and patient displacement. Such circumstances are ideal bases for ART resistance development, however there is limited awareness of and data available on the association between political conflicts and the development of HIV drug resistance. In this review we identify and discuss this association and review how varying ART half-lives, genetic barriers, different HIV subtypes, and archived resistance can lead to lack of medication effectiveness upon post-conflict resumption of care. Optimized ART stopping strategies as well as infrastructural concerns and stable HIV treatment systems to ensure continuity of care and rapid resumption of care must be addressed in order to mitigate risks of HIV drug resistance development during and after political conflicts. Increased awareness of such associations by clinicians as well as politicians and stakeholders is essential. PMID:23449225

  14. Immune Focusing and Enhanced Neutralization Induced by HIV-1 gp140 Chemical Cross-Linking

    PubMed Central

    Schiffner, T.; Kong, L.; Duncan, C. J. A.; Back, J. W.; Benschop, J. J.; Shen, X.; Huang, P. S.; Stewart-Jones, G. B.; DeStefano, J.; Seaman, M. S.; Tomaras, G. D.; Montefiori, D. C.; Schief, W. R.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental vaccine antigens based upon the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) have failed to induce neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against the majority of circulating viral strains as a result of antibody evasion mechanisms, including amino acid variability and conformational instability. A potential vaccine design strategy is to stabilize Env, thereby focusing antibody responses on constitutively exposed, conserved surfaces, such as the CD4 binding site (CD4bs). Here, we show that a largely trimeric form of soluble Env can be stably cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GLA) without global modification of antigenicity. Cross-linking largely conserved binding of all potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) tested, including CD4bs-specific VRC01 and HJ16, but reduced binding of several non- or weakly neutralizing antibodies and soluble CD4 (sCD4). Adjuvanted administration of cross-linked or unmodified gp140 to rabbits generated indistinguishable total gp140-specific serum IgG binding titers. However, sera from animals receiving cross-linked gp140 showed significantly increased CD4bs-specific antibody binding compared to animals receiving unmodified gp140. Moreover, peptide mapping of sera from animals receiving cross-linked gp140 revealed increased binding to gp120 C1 and V1V2 regions. Finally, neutralization titers were significantly elevated in sera from animals receiving cross-linked gp140 rather than unmodified gp140. We conclude that cross-linking favors antigen stability, imparts antigenic modifications that selectively refocus antibody specificity and improves induction of NAbs, and might be a useful strategy for future vaccine design. PMID:23843636

  15. Human pDCs preferentially sense enveloped hepatitis A virions.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zongdi; Li, You; McKnight, Kevin L; Hensley, Lucinda; Lanford, Robert E; Walker, Christopher M; Lemon, Stanley M

    2015-01-01

    Unlike other picornaviruses, hepatitis A virus (HAV) is cloaked in host membranes when released from cells, providing protection from neutralizing antibodies and facilitating spread in the liver. Acute HAV infection is typified by minimal type I IFN responses; therefore, we questioned whether plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), which produce IFN when activated, are capable of sensing enveloped virions (eHAV). Although concentrated nonenveloped virus failed to activate freshly isolated human pDCs, these cells produced substantial amounts of IFN-α via TLR7 signaling when cocultured with infected cells. pDCs required either close contact with infected cells or exposure to concentrated culture supernatants for IFN-α production. In isopycnic and rate-zonal gradients, pDC-activating material cosedimented with eHAV but not membrane-bound acetylcholinesterase, suggesting that eHAV, and not viral RNA exosomes, is responsible for IFN-α induction. pDC activation did not require virus replication and was associated with efficient eHAV uptake, which was facilitated by phosphatidylserine receptors on pDCs. In chimpanzees, pDCs were transiently recruited to the liver early in infection, during or shortly before maximal intrahepatic IFN-stimulated gene expression, but disappeared prior to inflammation onset. Our data reveal that, while membrane envelopment protects HAV against neutralizing antibody, it also facilitates an early but limited detection of HAV infection by pDCs. PMID:25415438

  16. Mapping the Small RNA Content of Simian Immunodeficiency Virions (SIV)

    PubMed Central

    Brameier, Markus; Ibing, Wiebke; Höfer, Katharina; Montag, Judith; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Motzkus, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that regulatory small non-coding RNAs are not only components of eukaryotic cells and vesicles, but also reside within a number of different viruses including retroviral particles. Using ultra-deep sequencing we have comprehensively analyzed the content of simian immunodeficiency virions (SIV), which were compared to mock-control preparations. Our analysis revealed that more than 428,000 sequence reads matched the SIV mac239 genome sequence. Among these we could identify 12 virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) that were highly abundant. Beside known retrovirus-enriched small RNAs, like 7SL-RNA, tRNALys3 and tRNALys isoacceptors, we also identified defined fragments derived from small ILF3/NF90-associated RNA snaR-A14, that were enriched more than 50 fold in SIV. We also found evidence that small nucleolar RNAs U2 and U12 were underrepresented in the SIV preparation, indicating that the relative number or the content of co-isolated exosomes was changed upon infection. Our comprehensive atlas of SIV-incorporated small RNAs provides a refined picture of the composition of retrovirions, which gives novel insights into viral packaging. PMID:24086438

  17. Mapping the small RNA content of simian immunodeficiency virions (SIV).

    PubMed

    Brameier, Markus; Ibing, Wiebke; Höfer, Katharina; Montag, Judith; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Motzkus, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that regulatory small non-coding RNAs are not only components of eukaryotic cells and vesicles, but also reside within a number of different viruses including retroviral particles. Using ultra-deep sequencing we have comprehensively analyzed the content of simian immunodeficiency virions (SIV), which were compared to mock-control preparations. Our analysis revealed that more than 428,000 sequence reads matched the SIV mac239 genome sequence. Among these we could identify 12 virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) that were highly abundant. Beside known retrovirus-enriched small RNAs, like 7SL-RNA, tRNA(Lys3) and tRNA(Lys) isoacceptors, we also identified defined fragments derived from small ILF3/NF90-associated RNA snaR-A14, that were enriched more than 50 fold in SIV. We also found evidence that small nucleolar RNAs U2 and U12 were underrepresented in the SIV preparation, indicating that the relative number or the content of co-isolated exosomes was changed upon infection. Our comprehensive atlas of SIV-incorporated small RNAs provides a refined picture of the composition of retrovirions, which gives novel insights into viral packaging. PMID:24086438

  18. Quantitative real-time single particle analysis of virions

    SciTech Connect

    Heider, Susanne; Metzner, Christoph

    2014-08-15

    Providing information about single virus particles has for a long time been mainly the domain of electron microscopy. More recently, technologies have been developed—or adapted from other fields, such as nanotechnology—to allow for the real-time quantification of physical virion particles, while supplying additional information such as particle diameter concomitantly. These technologies have progressed to the stage of commercialization increasing the speed of viral titer measurements from hours to minutes, thus providing a significant advantage for many aspects of virology research and biotechnology applications. Additional advantages lie in the broad spectrum of virus species that may be measured and the possibility to determine the ratio of infectious to total particles. A series of disadvantages remain associated with these technologies, such as a low specificity for viral particles. In this review we will discuss these technologies by comparing four systems for real-time single virus particle analysis and quantification. - Highlights: • We introduce four methods for virus particle-based quantification of viruses. • They allow for quantification of a wide range of samples in under an hour time. • The additional measurement of size and zeta potential is possible for some.

  19. Mechanisms of HIV-tat-Induced Phosphorylation of N-Methyl-d-Aspartate Receptor Subunit 2A in Human Primary Neurons

    PubMed Central

    King, Jessie E.; Eugenin, Eliseo A.; Hazleton, Joy E.; Morgello, Susan; Berman, Joan W.

    2010-01-01

    HIV infection of the central nervous system results in neurological dysfunction in a large number of individuals. NeuroAIDS is characterized by neuronal injury and loss, yet there is no evidence of HIV-infected neurons. Neuronal damage and dropout must therefore be due to indirect effects of HIV infection of other central nervous system cells through elaboration of inflammatory factors and neurotoxic viral proteins, including the viral transactivator, tat. We previously demonstrated that HIV-tat-induced apoptosis in human primary neurons is dependent on N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity. NMDAR activity is regulated by various mechanisms including NMDAR phosphorylation, which may lead to neuronal dysfunction and apoptosis in pathological conditions. We now demonstrate that tat treatment of human neurons results in tyrosine (Y) phosphorylation of the NMDAR subunit 2A (NR2A) in a src kinase–dependent manner. In vitro kinase assays and in vivo data indicated that NR2A Y1184, Y1325, and Y1425 are phosphorylated. Tat treatment of neuronal cultures enhanced phosphorylation of NR2A Y1325, indicating that this site is tat sensitive. Human brain tissue sections from HIV-infected individuals with encephalitis showed an increased phosphorylation of NR2A Y1325 in neurons as compared with uninfected and HIV-infected individuals without encephalitis. These findings suggest new avenues of treatment for HIV-associated cognitive impairment. PMID:20448061

  20. Vaccinia virus protein A3 is required for the production of normal immature virions and for the encapsidation of the nucleocapsid protein L4

    PubMed Central

    Jesus, Desyree Murta; Moussatche, Nissin; McFadden, Baron D.; Nielsen, Casey Paulasue; D’Costa, Susan M.; Condit, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    Maturation of the vaccinia virion is an intricate process that results in the organization of the viroplasm contained in immature virions into the lateral bodies, core wall and nucleocapsid observed in the mature particles. It is unclear how this organization takes place and studies with mutants are indispensable in understanding this process. By characterizing an inducible mutant in the A3L gene, we revealed that A3, an inner core wall protein, is important for formation of normal immature viruses and also for the correct localization of L4, a nucleocapsid protein. L4 did not accumulate in the viral factories in the absence of A3 and was not encapsidated in the particles that do not contain A3. These data strengthen our previously suggested hypothesis that A3 and L4 interact and that this interaction is critical for proper formation of the core wall and nucleocapsid. PMID:25765002

  1. Vaccinia virus protein A3 is required for the production of normal immature virions and for the encapsidation of the nucleocapsid protein L4.

    PubMed

    Jesus, Desyree Murta; Moussatche, Nissin; McFadden, Baron B D; Nielsen, Casey Paulasue; D'Costa, Susan M; Condit, Richard C

    2015-07-01

    Maturation of the vaccinia virion is an intricate process that results in the organization of the viroplasm contained in immature virions into the lateral bodies, core wall and nucleocapsid observed in the mature particles. It is unclear how this organization takes place and studies with mutants are indispensable in understanding this process. By characterizing an inducible mutant in the A3L gene, we revealed that A3, an inner core wall protein, is important for formation of normal immature viruses and also for the correct localization of L4, a nucleocapsid protein. L4 did not accumulate in the viral factories in the absence of A3 and was not encapsidated in the particles that do not contain A3. These data strengthen our previously suggested hypothesis that A3 and L4 interact and that this interaction is critical for proper formation of the core wall and nucleocapsid. PMID:25765002

  2. Methamphetamine and HIV-1-induced neurotoxicity: Role of trace amine associated receptor 1 cAMP signaling in astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cisneros, Irma E.

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is abused by about 5% of the United States population with approximately 10–15% of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) patients reporting its use. METH abuse accelerates the onset and severity of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and astrocyte-induced neurotoxicity. METH activates G-protein coupled receptors such as trace amine associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) increasing intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels in presynaptic cells of monoaminergic systems. In the present study, we investigated the effects of METH and HIV-1 on primary human astrocyte TAAR1 expression, function and glutamate clearance. Our results demonstrate combined conditions increased TAAR1 mRNA levels 7-fold and increased intracellular cAMP levels. METH and beta-phenylethylamine (β-PEA), known TAAR1 agonists, increased intracellular cAMP levels in astrocytes. Further, TAAR1 knockdown significantly reduced intracellular cAMP levels in response to METH/β-PEA, indicating signaling through astrocyte TAAR1. METH +/− HIV-1 decreased excitatory amino acid transporter-2 (EAAT-2) mRNA and significantly decreased glutamate clearance. RNA interference for TAAR1 prevented METH-mediated decreases in EAAT-2. TAAR1 knockdown significantly increased glutamate clearance, which was further heightened significantly by METH. Moreover, TAAR1 overexpression significantly decreased EAAT-2 levels and glutamate clearance that were further reduced by METH. Taken together, our data show that METH treatment activated TAAR1 leading to intracellular cAMP in human astrocytes and modulated glutamate clearance abilities. Furthermore, molecular alterations in astrocyte TAAR1 levels correspond to changes in astrocyte EAAT-2 levels and function. To our knowledge this is the first report implicating astrocyte TAAR1 as a novel receptor for METH during combined injury in the context of HAND. PMID:24950453

  3. A candidate gene approach for virally-induced cancer with application to HIV-related Kaposi’s sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Aissani, Brahim; Wiener, Howard W.; Zhang, Kui; Kaslow, Richard A.; Ogwaro, Kisani M.; Shrestha, Sadeep; Jacobson, Lisa P.

    2014-01-01

    Like other members of the γ-herpesvirus family, human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8), the etiologic agent of classic and HIV-related Kaposi’s sarcoma (HIV-KS) acquired and evolved several human genes with key immune modulatory and cellular growth control functions. The encoded viral homologs substitute for their human counterparts but escape cellular regulation, leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation. We postulated that DNA variants in the human homologs of viral genes that potentially alter the expression or the binding of the encoded factors controlling the antiviral response may facilitate viral interference. To test whether cellular homologs are candidate susceptibility genes, we evaluated the association of DNA variants in 92 immune-related genes including 7 cellular homologs with the risk for HIV-KS in a matched case and control study nested in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Low- and high-risk gene-by-gene interactions were estimated by multifactor dimensionality reduction and used as predictors in conditional logistic models. Among the most significant gene interactions at risk (OR=2.84–3.92; Bonferroni-adjusted p= 9.9×10−3−2.6×10−4), three comprised human homologs of two latently expressed viral genes, cyclin D1 (CCND1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), in conjunction with angiogenic genes (VEGF, EDN-1 and EDNRB). At lower significance thresholds (adjusted p < 0.05), human homologs related to apoptosis (CFLAR) and chemotaxis (CCL2) emerged as candidates. This “proof of concept” study identified human homologs involved in the regulation of type I interferon-induced signaling, cell cycle and apoptosis potentially as important determinants of HIV-KS PMID:23818101

  4. Vitamin D3 inhibits TNFα-induced latent HIV reactivation in J-LAT cells.

    PubMed

    Nunnari, G; Fagone, P; Lazzara, F; Longo, A; Cambria, D; Di Stefano, G; Palumbo, M; Malaguarnera, L; Di Rosa, Michelino

    2016-07-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) is known to suppress NF-kB activity by interfering with its pathways. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of 1,25(OH)2D3 in reducing the reactivation of the HIV virus J-LAT cells, an established model of latently infected cells, which were treated with TNFalpha (100 ng/ml) for 2 h with or without 24 h 1,25(OH)2D3 (100 nM) pretreatment. Reactivation of HIV RNA in J-LAT was evaluated in terms of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression. The same experimental setting was repeated on T cells from HIV-infected patients. Treatment with TNFalpha was associated with a 16 % increase in GFP+ cells and a five-fold increase in unspliced HIV RNA expression (p < 0.04). Pretreatment of J-LAT cells with 1,25(OH)2D3 for 24 h followed by TNFalpha (100 ng/ml) for 2 h reduced the percentage of GFP+ cells by 8 %; moreover, a 2.4-fold decrease in unspliced HIV RNA expression was observed (p < 0.002). In T cells from patients, treatment with TNFalpha significantly increased unspliced HIV RNA expression (sixfold increase, p < 0.02), whereas prestimulation with 1,25(OH)2D3 reduced its expression (2.5-fold decrease, p < 0.02) compared to controls.1,25(OH)2D3 is able to reduce the ability of TNFalpha to upregulate the transcription of HIV RNA from latently infected cells. These data provide further understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms regulating viral reactivation from latent reservoirs, along with new insight in viral internalization. PMID:27295094

  5. 3D visualization of HIV transfer at the virological synapse between dendritic cells and T cells

    PubMed Central

    Felts, Richard L.; Narayan, Kedar; Estes, Jacob D.; Shi, Dan; Trubey, Charles M.; Fu, Jing; Hartnell, Lisa M.; Ruthel, Gordon T.; Schneider, Douglas K.; Nagashima, Kunio; Bess, Julian W.; Bavari, Sina; Lowekamp, Bradley C.; Bliss, Donald; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Subramaniam, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    The efficiency of HIV infection is greatly enhanced when the virus is delivered at conjugates between CD4+ T cells and virus-bearing antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages or dendritic cells via specialized structures known as virological synapses. Using ion abrasion SEM, electron tomography, and superresolution light microscopy, we have analyzed the spatial architecture of cell-cell contacts and distribution of HIV virions at virological synapses formed between mature dendritic cells and T cells. We demonstrate the striking envelopment of T cells by sheet-like membrane extensions derived from mature dendritic cells, resulting in a shielded region for formation of virological synapses. Within the synapse, filopodial extensions emanating from CD4+ T cells make contact with HIV virions sequestered deep within a 3D network of surface-accessible compartments in the dendritic cell. Viruses are detected at the membrane surfaces of both dendritic cells and T cells, but virions are not released passively at the synapse; instead, virus transfer requires the engagement of T-cell CD4 receptors. The relative seclusion of T cells from the extracellular milieu, the burial of the site of HIV transfer, and the receptor-dependent initiation of virion transfer by T cells highlight unique aspects of cell-cell HIV transmission. PMID:20624966

  6. Conformational changes induced by a single amino acid substitution in the trans-membrane domain of Vpu: Implications for HIV-1 susceptibility to channel blocking drugs

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Ho; Opella, Stanley J.

    2007-01-01

    The channel-forming trans-membrane domain of Vpu (Vpu TM) from HIV-1 is known to enhance virion release from the infected cells and is a potential target for ion-channel blockers. The substitution of alanine at position 18 by a histidine (A18H) has been shown to render HIV-1 infections susceptible to rimantadine, a channel blocker of M2 protein from the influenza virus. In order to describe the influence of the mutation on the structure and rimantadine susceptibility of Vpu, we determined the structure of A18H Vpu TM, and compared it to those of wild-type Vpu TM and M2 TM. Both isotropic and orientationally dependent NMR frequencies of the backbone amide resonance of His18 were perturbed by rimantadine, and those of Ile15 and Trp22 were also affected, suggesting that His18 is the key residue for rimantadine binding and that residues located on the same face of the TM helix are also involved. A18H Vpu TM has an ideal, straight α-helix spanning residues 6–27 with an average tilt angle of 41° in C14 phospholipid bicelles, indicating that the tilt angle is increased by 11° compared to that of wild-type Vpu TM. The longer helix formed by the A18H mutation has a larger tilt angle to compensate for the hydrophobic mismatch with the length of the phospholipids in the bilayer. These results demonstrate that the local change of the primary structure plays an important role in secondary and tertiary structures of Vpu TM in lipid bilayers and affects its ability to interact with channel blockers. PMID:17766368

  7. EVALUATION OF THE MATURATION OF INDIVIDUAL DENGUE VIRIONS WITH FLOW VIROMETRY

    PubMed Central

    Zicari, Sonia; Arakelyan, Anush; Fitzgerald, Wendy; Zaitseva, Elena; Chernomordik, Leonid V.; Margolis, Leonid; Grivel, Jean-Charles

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput techniques are needed to analyze individual virions to understand how viral heterogeneity translates into pathogenesis since in bulk analysis the individual characteristics of virions are lost. Individual Dengue virions (DENV) undergo a maturation that involves a proteolytic cleavage of prM precursor into virion-associated M protein. Here, using a new nanoparticle-based technology, “flow virometry”, we compared the maturation of individual DENV produced by BHK-21 and LoVo cells. The latter lacks the furin-protease that mediates prM cleavage. We found that prM is present on about 50% of DENV particles produced in BHK-21 cells and about 85% of DENV virions produced in LoVo, indicating an increase in the fraction of not fully matured virions. Flow virometry allows us to quantify the number of fully mature particles in DENV preparations and proves to be a useful method for studying heterogeneity of the surface proteins of various viruses. PMID:26590794

  8. Formation of virions is strictly required for turnip yellows virus long-distance movement in plants.

    PubMed

    Hipper, Clémence; Monsion, Baptiste; Bortolamiol-Bécet, Diane; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique; Brault, Véronique

    2014-02-01

    Viral genomic RNA of the Turnip yellows virus (TuYV; genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae) is protected in virions formed by the major capsid protein (CP) and the minor component, the readthrough (RT*) protein. Long-distance transport, used commonly by viruses to systemically infect host plants, occurs in phloem sieve elements and two viral forms of transport have been described: virions and ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. With regard to poleroviruses, virions have always been presumed to be the long-distance transport form, but the potential role of RNP complexes has not been investigated. Here, we examined the requirement of virions for polerovirus systemic movement by analysing CP-targeted mutants that were unable to form viral particles. We confirmed that TuYV mutants that cannot encapsidate into virions are not able to reach systemic leaves. To completely discard the possibility that the introduced mutations in CP simply blocked the formation or the movement of RNP complexes, we tested in trans complementation of TuYV CP mutants by providing WT CP expressed in transgenic plants. WT CP was able to facilitate systemic movement of TuYV CP mutants and this observation was always correlated with the formation of virions. This demonstrated clearly that virus particles are essential for polerovirus systemic movement. PMID:24214396

  9. HIV-1 gp120 induces cytokine expression, leukocyte adhesion, and transmigration across the blood-brain barrier: modulatory effects of STAT1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Akhter, Sidra; Chaudhuri, Anathbandhu; Kanmogne, Georgette D

    2009-03-01

    How neuroinflammatory activities affect signaling pathways leading to blood-brain barrier (BBB) injury during HIV/AIDS are currently unknown. Our previous work demonstrated that HIV-1 exposure activates pro-inflammatory genes in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) and showed that these genes are linked to the janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) pathway. Here, we report that HIV-1 gp120 protein activated STAT1 and induced interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 secretion in HBMEC. IL-6, IL-8, and gp120 increased monocyte adhesion and migration across in vitro BBB models. The STAT1 inhibitor, fludarabine, prevented gp120-induced IL-6 and IL-8 secretion. Inhibitors of STAT1, mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) (PD98059), and phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase (PI3K) (LY294002), blocked gp120-induced STAT1 activation and significantly diminished IL-8-, IL-6-, and gp120-induced monocyte adhesion and migration across in vitro BBB models. These data support the notion that STAT1 plays an important role in gp120-induced inflammation and BBB dysfunction associated with viral infection. Results also suggest crosstalk between STAT1, MEK, and PI3K pathways in gp120-induced BBB dysfunction. Inhibition of STAT1 activation could provide a unique therapeutic strategy to decrease neuroinflammation and BBB dysfunction in HIV/AIDS. PMID:19103208

  10. Envelope glycans of immunodeficiency virions are almost entirely oligomannose antigens

    PubMed Central

    Doores, Katie J.; Bonomelli, Camille; Harvey, David J.; Vasiljevic, Snezana; Dwek, Raymond A.; Burton, Dennis R.; Crispin, Max; Scanlan, Christopher N.

    2010-01-01

    The envelope spike of HIV is one of the most highly N-glycosylated structures found in nature. However, despite extensive research revealing essential functional roles in infection and immune evasion, the chemical structures of the glycans on the native viral envelope glycoprotein gp120—as opposed to recombinantly generated gp120—have not been described. Here, we report on the identity of the N-linked glycans from primary isolates of HIV-1 (clades A, B, and C) and from the simian immunodeficiency virus. MS analysis reveals a remarkably simple and highly conserved virus-specific glycan profile almost entirely devoid of medial Golgi-mediated processing. In stark contrast to recombinant gp120, which shows extensive exposure to cellular glycosylation enzymes (>70% complex type glycans), the native envelope shows barely detectable processing beyond the biosynthetic intermediate Man5GlcNAc2 (<2% complex type glycans). This oligomannose (Man5–9GlcNAc2) profile is conserved across primary isolates and geographically divergent clades but is not reflected in the current generation of gp120 antigens used for vaccine trials. In the context of vaccine design, we also note that Manα1→2Man-terminating glycans (Man6–9GlcNAc2) of the type recognized by the broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibody 2G12 are 3-fold more abundant on the native envelope than on the recombinant monomer and are also found on isolates not neutralized by 2G12. The Manα1→2Man residues of gp120 therefore provide a vaccine target that is physically larger and antigenically more conserved than the 2G12 epitope itself. This study revises and extends our understanding of the glycan shield of HIV with implications for AIDS vaccine design. PMID:20643940

  11. Slit2N/Robo1 Inhibit HIV-gp120-Induced Migration and Podosome Formation in Immature Dendritic Cells by Sequestering LSP1 and WASp

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Anil; Kuzontkoski, Paula M.; Shrivastava, Ashutosh; Zhu, Weiquan; Li, Dean Y.; Groopman, Jerome E.

    2012-01-01

    Cell-mediated transmission and dissemination of sexually-acquired human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) in the host involves the migration of immature dendritic cells (iDCs). iDCs migrate in response to the HIV-1 envelope protein, gp120, and inhibiting such migration may limit the mucosal transmission of HIV-1. In this study, we elucidated the mechanism of HIV-1-gp120-induced transendothelial migration of iDCs. We found that gp120 enhanced the binding of Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp) and the Actin-Related Protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex with β-actin, an interaction essential for the proper formation of podosomes, specialized adhesion structures required for the migration of iDCs through different tissues. We further identified Leukocyte-Specific Protein 1 (LSP1) as a novel component of the WASp-Arp2/3-β-actin complex. Pretreating iDCs with an active fragment of the secretory glycoprotein Slit2 (Slit2N) inhibited HIV-1-gp120-mediated migration and podosome formation, by inducing the cognate receptor Roundabout 1 (Robo1) to bind to and sequester WASp and LSP1 from β-actin. Slit2N treatment also inhibited Src signaling and the activation of several downstream molecules, including Rac1, Pyk2, paxillin, and CDC42, a major regulator of podosome formation. Taken together, our results support a novel mechanism by which Slit2/Robo1 may inhibit the HIV-1-gp120-induced migration of iDCs, thereby restricting dissemination of HIV-1 from mucosal surfaces in the host. PMID:23119100

  12. Follicular Dendritic Cells Retain Infectious HIV in Cycling Endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Heesters, Balthasar A.; Lindqvist, Madelene; Vagefi, Parsia A.; Scully, Eileen P.; Schildberg, Frank A.; Altfeld, Marcus; Walker, Bruce D.; Kaufmann, Daniel E.; Carroll, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART), it does not cure Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and discontinuation results in viral rebound. Follicular dendritic cells (FDC) are in direct contact with CD4+ T cells and they retain intact antigen for prolonged periods. We found that human FDC isolated from patients on ART retain infectious HIV within a non-degradative cycling compartment and transmit infectious virus to uninfected CD4 T cells in vitro. Importantly, treatment of the HIV+ FDC with a soluble complement receptor 2 purges the FDC of HIV virions and prevents viral transmission in vitro. Our results provide an explanation for how FDC can retain infectious HIV for extended periods and suggest a therapeutic strategy to achieve cure in HIV-infected humans. PMID:26623655

  13. Impact of HIV-1 Membrane Cholesterol on Cell-Independent Lytic Inactivation and Cellular Infectivity.

    PubMed

    Kalyana Sundaram, Ramalingam Venkat; Li, Huiyuan; Bailey, Lauren; Rashad, Adel A; Aneja, Rachna; Weiss, Karl; Huynh, James; Bastian, Arangaserry Rosemary; Papazoglou, Elisabeth; Abrams, Cameron; Wrenn, Steven; Chaiken, Irwin

    2016-01-26

    Peptide triazole thiols (PTTs) have been found previously to bind to HIV-1 Env spike gp120 and cause irreversible virus inactivation by shedding gp120 and lytically releasing luminal capsid protein p24. Since the virions remain visually intact, lysis appears to occur via limited membrane destabilization. To better understand the PTT-triggered membrane transformation involved, we investigated the role of envelope cholesterol on p24 release by measuring the effect of cholesterol depletion using methyl beta-cyclodextrin (MβCD). An unexpected bell-shaped response of PTT-induced lysis to [MβCD] was observed, involving lysis enhancement at low [MβCD] vs loss of function at high [MβCD]. The impact of cholesterol depletion on PTT-induced lysis was reversed by adding exogenous cholesterol and other sterols that support membrane rafts, while sterols that do not support rafts induced only limited reversal. Cholesterol depletion appears to cause a reduced energy barrier to lysis as judged by decreased temperature dependence with MβCD. Enhancement/replenishment responses to [MβCD] also were observed for HIV-1 infectivity, consistent with a similar energy barrier effect in the membrane transformation of virus cell fusion. Overall, the results argue that cholesterol in the HIV-1 envelope is important for balancing virus stability and membrane transformation, and that partial depletion, while increasing infectivity, also makes the virus more fragile. The results also reinforce the argument that the lytic inactivation and infectivity processes are mechanistically related and that membrane transformations occurring during lysis can provide an experimental window to investigate membrane and protein factors important for HIV-1 cell entry. PMID:26713837

  14. Novel Adenovirus type 5 vaccine platform induces cellular immunity against HIV-1 Gag, Pol, Nef despite the presence of Ad5 immunity.

    PubMed

    Gabitzsch, Elizabeth S; Xu, Younong; Yoshida, Lois H; Balint, Joseph; Amalfitano, Andrea; Jones, Frank R

    2009-10-30

    Recombinant Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors have been used as vaccine platforms in numerous animal and human clinical studies. The immune response induced by Ad5 vaccines can be mitigated due to pre-existing Ad5 immunity. We previously reported the use of a novel Ad5 platform to induce cellular immune responses (CMI) against HIV-1 Gag in Ad5 hyper immune mice. Here, the effectiveness of the Ad5 [E1-, E2b-] vaccine platform was evaluated using a triad mixture of HIV-1 Gag, Pol, and Nef as antigenic transgenes. Broad CMI was induced following vaccination with the HIV-1 expressing vectors in Ad5 naïve and Ad5 immunized mice. A mixture of the three vaccines induced CMI against each transgene product even in the presence of hyper Ad5 immunity. These studies revealed that CMI responses to immunization with Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-gag, Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-pol or Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-nef vectors were transgene specific and did not induce CMI responses against irrelevant antigens such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), herpes simplex virus glycoprotein B (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) or influenza virus antigens. We are evaluating this recombinant triad viral vector as an HIV-1 vaccine in a non-human primate model and the data indicate that the vaccine is worthy of clinical evaluation. PMID:19559110

  15. SERINC3 and SERINC5 restrict HIV-1 infectivity and are counteracted by Nef.

    PubMed

    Usami, Yoshiko; Wu, Yuanfei; Göttlinger, Heinrich G

    2015-10-01

    HIV-1 Nef and the unrelated mouse leukaemia virus glycosylated Gag (glycoGag) strongly enhance the infectivity of HIV-1 virions produced in certain cell types in a clathrin-dependent manner. Here we show that Nef and glycoGag prevent the incorporation of the multipass transmembrane proteins serine incorporator 3 (SERINC3) and SERINC5 into HIV-1 virions to an extent that correlates with infectivity enhancement. Silencing of both SERINC3 and SERINC5 precisely phenocopied the effects of Nef and glycoGag on HIV-1 infectivity. The infectivity of nef-deficient virions increased more than 100-fold when produced in double-knockout human CD4(+) T cells that lack both SERINC3 and SERINC5, and re-expression experiments confirmed that the absence of SERINC3 and SERINC5 accounted for the infectivity enhancement. Furthermore, SERINC3 and SERINC5 together restricted HIV-1 replication, and this restriction was evaded by Nef. SERINC3 and SERINC5 are highly expressed in primary human HIV-1 target cells, and inhibiting their downregulation by Nef is a potential strategy to combat HIV/AIDS. PMID:26416733

  16. SERINC3 and SERINC5 restrict HIV-1 infectivity and are counteracted by Nef

    PubMed Central

    Usami, Yoshiko; Wu, Yuanfei; Göttlinger, Heinrich G.

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 Nef and the unrelated murine leukemia virus glycoGag strongly enhance the infectivity of HIV-1 virions produced in certain cell types in a clathrin-dependent manner. Here we show that Nef and glycoGag prevent the incorporation of the multipass transmembrane proteins SERINC3 and SERINC5 into HIV-1 virions to an extent that correlates with infectivity enhancement. Silencing of SERINC3 together with SERINC5 precisely phenocopied the effects of Nef and glycoGag on HIV-1 infectivities. The infectivity of nef-deficient virions increased more than 100-fold when produced in double-knockout human CD4+ T cells that lack both SERINC3 and SERINC5, and re-expression experiments confirmed that the absence of SERINC3 and SERINC5 accounted for the infectivity enhancement. Furthermore, SERINC3 and SERINC5 together restricted HIV-1 replication, and this restriction was evaded by Nef. SERINC3 and SERINC5 are highly expressed in primary human HIV-1 target cells, and inhibiting their downregulation by Nef is a potential strategy to combat HIV/AIDS. PMID:26416733

  17. The vaccinia virus E8R gene product is required for formation of transcriptionally active virions.

    PubMed

    Kato, Sayuri E M; Condit, Richard C; Moussatché, Nissin

    2007-10-25

    Two vaccinia virus temperature-sensitive mutants were mapped to the E8R gene and subjected to phenotypic characterization. Dts23 contains a missense mutation in the coding region of E8R (L81F), and in Cts19 the initiating methionine codon is changed from ATG to ATA (M1I). The two ts mutants display normal patterns of gene expression and DNA replication during infection. The E8 protein is synthesized exclusively late during infection and packaged into virion cores Western blot analysis revealed that E8 synthesis is reduced in Dts23 infected cells at permissive (31 degrees C) and non-permissive temperature (39.7 degrees C) and absent in Cts19 infection under both conditions. Dts23 virions produced at 39.7 degrees C were indistinguishable in appearance from wt virions. Cts19 fails to produce identifiable viral structures when incubated at 39.7 degrees C. Purified Dts23 virions produced at 39.7 degrees C contain reduced amounts of E8 and have a high particle to infectivity ratio; purified Cts19 virions grown at 31 degrees C also show reduced infectivity and do not contain detectable E8. Dts23 grown at 39.7 degrees C could enter cells but failed to synthesize early mRNA or produce CPE. Soluble extracts from mutant virions were active in a promoter dependent in vitro transcription assay, however intact mutant cores were defective in transcription. We suggest that E8 plays a subtle role in virion core structure that impacts directly or indirectly on core transcription. PMID:17619043

  18. Enzymatic treatment of duck hepatitis B virus: Topology of the surface proteins for virions and noninfectious subviral particles

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, Claudia; Matschl, Urte; Bruns, Michael . E-mail: mbruns@hpi.uni-hamburg.de

    2007-03-01

    The large surface antigen L of duck hepatitis B virus exhibits a mixed topology with the preS domains of the protein alternatively exposed to the particles' interior or exterior. After separating virions from subviral particles (SVPs), we compared their L topologies and showed that both particle types exhibit the same amount of L with the following differences: 1-preS of intact virions was enzymatically digested with chymotrypsin, whereas in SVPs only half of preS was accessible, 2-phosphorylation of L at S118 was completely removed by phosphatase treatment only in virions, 3-iodine-125 labeling disclosed a higher ratio of exposed preS to S domains in virions compared to SVPs. These data point towards different surface architectures of virions and SVPs. Because the preS domain acts in binding to a cellular receptor of hepatocytes, our findings implicate the exclusion of SVPs as competitors for the receptor binding and entry of virions.

  19. Identification of a Novel HIV-1 Inhibitor Targeting Vif-dependent Degradation of Human APOBEC3G Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Pery, Erez; Sheehy, Ann; Nebane, N. Miranda; Brazier, Andrew Jay; Misra, Vikas; Rajendran, Kottampatty S.; Buhrlage, Sara J.; Mankowski, Marie K.; Rasmussen, Lynn; White, E. Lucile; Ptak, Roger G.; Gabuzda, Dana

    2015-01-01

    APOBEC3G (A3G) is a cellular cytidine deaminase that restricts HIV-1 replication by inducing G-to-A hypermutation in viral DNA and by deamination-independent mechanisms. HIV-1 Vif binds to A3G, resulting in its degradation via the 26 S proteasome. Therefore, this interaction represents a potential therapeutic target. To identify compounds that inhibit interaction between A3G and HIV-1 Vif in a high throughput format, we developed a homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay. A 307,520 compound library from the NIH Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository was screened. Secondary screens to evaluate dose-response performance and off-target effects, cell-based assays to identify compounds that attenuate Vif-dependent degradation of A3G, and assays testing antiviral activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and T cells were employed. One compound, N.41, showed potent antiviral activity in A3G(+) but not in A3G(−) T cells and had an IC50 as low as 8.4 μm and a TC50 of >100 μm when tested against HIV-1Ba-L replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. N.41 inhibited the Vif-A3G interaction and increased cellular A3G levels and incorporation of A3G into virions, thereby attenuating virus infectivity in a Vif-dependent manner. N.41 activity was also species- and Vif-dependent. Preliminary structure-activity relationship studies suggest that a hydroxyl moiety located at a phenylamino group is critical for N.41 anti-HIV activity and identified N.41 analogs with better potency (IC50 as low as 4.2 μm). These findings identify a new lead compound that attenuates HIV replication by liberating A3G from Vif regulation and increasing its innate antiviral activity. PMID:25724652

  20. Expression of arginase I and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the peripheral blood and lymph nodes of HIV-positive patients

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, NAICHUN; DENG, JIANNING; WU, FENGYAO; LU, XIANGCHAN; HUANG, LEI; ZHAO, MIN

    2016-01-01

    Arginase I (Arg I) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are important in regulating immune functions through their metabolites. Previous studies have revealed that the expression of Arg I is increased and the expression of iNOS is reduced in the serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. As one of the most important immune organs and HIV replication sites, whether similar changes are present in the lymph nodes following HIV infection remains to be elucidated. To investigate this, the present study collected lymph node and blood specimens from 52 HIV-infected patients to measure the expression levels of Arg I and iNOS by immunohistochemistry and fluoresence-based flow cytometry. Compared with control subjects without HIV infection, the patients with HIV had significantly higher expression levels of Arg I in the lymph nodes and higher frequencies of Arg I+ CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells in the blood and lymph nodes, and these results were contrary the those of iNOS in the corresponding compartments. The expression levels of Arg I in the lymph nodes and blood were negatively associated with peripheral CD4+ T cell count and positively associated with viral load. However, the expression levels of iNOS in the lymph nodes and blood were positively associated with peripheral CD4+ T cell count and negatively associated with viral load. These results showed that alterations in the expression levels of Arg I and iNOS in the peripheral T cells and peripheral nodes of HIV infected patients are associated with disease progression in these patients. These results indicate a potential to therapeutic strategy for delaying disease progression through regulating and manipulating the expression levels of Arg I and iNOS in patients infected with HIV. PMID:26647762

  1. HIV-1 Infection and First Line ART Induced Differential Responses in Mitochondria from Blood Lymphocytes and Monocytes: The ANRS EP45 “Aging” Study

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Sophie; Cremer, Jonathan; Roll, Patrice; Faucher, Olivia; Ménard, Amélie; Reynes, Jacques; Dellamonica, Pierre; Naqvi, Alissa; Micallef, Joëlle; Jouve, Elisabeth; Tamalet, Catherine; Solas, Caroline; Pissier, Christel; Arnoux, Isabelle; Nicolino-Brunet, Corine; Espinosa, Léon; Lévy, Nicolas; Kaspi, Elise; Robaglia-Schlupp, Andrée; Poizot-Martin, Isabelle; Cau, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Background The ANRS EP45 “Aging” study investigates the cellular mechanisms involved in the accelerated aging of HIV-1 infected and treated patients. The data reported focus on mitochondria, organelles known to be involved in cell senescence. Methods 49 HIV-1 infected patients untreated with antiretroviral therapy, together with 49 seronegative age- and sex-matched control subjects and 81 HIV-1 infected and treated patients, were recruited by 3 AIDS centres (Marseille, Montpellier, Nice; France; http://clinicaltrials.gov/, NCT01038999). In more than 88% of treated patients, the viral load was <40 copies/ml and the CD4+ cell count was >500/mm3. ROS (reactive oxygen species) production and ΔΨm (inner membrane potential) were measured by flow cytometry in blood lymphocytes and monocytes (functional parameters). Three mitochondrial network quantitative morphological parameters were computed using confocal microscopy and image analysis. Three PBMC mitochondrial proteins (porin and subunits 2 and 4 of cytochrome C oxidase encoded by mtDNA or nuclear DNA, respectively) were analysed by western blotting. Results Quantitative changes in PBMC mitochondrial proteins were not induced by either HIV-1 infection or ART. Discriminant analysis integrating functional (ROS production and ΔΨm) or morphological (network volume density, fragmentation and branching) parameters revealed HIV-1 infection and ART differential effects according to cell type. First line ART tended to rescue lymphocyte mitochondrial parameters altered by viral infection, but induced slight changes in monocytes. No statistical difference was found between the effects of three ART regimens on mitochondrial parameters. Correlations between functional parameters and viral load confirmed the damaging effects of HIV-1 in lymphocyte mitochondria. Conclusions In patients considered to be clinically stable, mitochondria exhibited functional and morphological modifications in PBMCs resulting from either direct or

  2. The Thai Phase III HIV Type 1 Vaccine Trial (RV144) Regimen Induces Antibodies That Target Conserved Regions Within the V2 Loop of gp120

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Erik; Rao, Mangala; Williams, Constance; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Bailer, Robert T.; Koup, Richard A.; Madnote, Sirinan; Arworn, Duangnapa; Shen, Xiaoying; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Currier, Jeffrey R.; Jiang, Mike; Magaret, Craig; Andrews, Charla; Gottardo, Raphael; Gilbert, Peter; Cardozo, Timothy J.; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Paris, Robert; Greene, Kelli; Gao, Hongmei; Gurunathan, Sanjay; Tartaglia, Jim; Sinangil, Faruk; Korber, Bette T.; Montefiori, David C.; Mascola, John R.; Robb, Merlin L.; Haynes, Barton F.; Ngauy, Viseth; Michael, Nelson L.; Kim, Jerome H.; de Souza, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Thai Phase III clinical trial (RV144) showed modest efficacy in preventing HIV-1 acquisition. Plasma collected from HIV-1-uninfected trial participants completing all injections with ALVAC-HIV (vCP1521) prime and AIDSVAX B/E boost were tested for antibody responses against HIV-1 gp120 envelope (Env). Peptide microarray analysis from six HIV-1 subtypes and group M consensus showed that vaccination induced antibody responses to the second variable (V2) loop of gp120 of multiple subtypes. We further evaluated V2 responses by ELISA and surface plasmon resonance using cyclic (Cyc) and linear V2 loop peptides. Thirty-one of 32 vaccine recipients tested (97%) had antibody responses against Cyc V2 at 2 weeks postimmunization with a reciprocal geometric mean titer (GMT) of 1100 (range: 200–3200). The frequency of detecting plasma V2 antibodies declined to 19% at 28 weeks post-last injection (GMT: 110, range: 100–200). Antibody responses targeted the mid-region of the V2 loop that contains conserved epitopes and has the amino acid sequence KQKVHALFYKLDIVPI (HXB2 Numbering sequence 169–184). Valine at position 172 was critical for antibody binding. The frequency of V3 responses at 2 weeks postimmunization was modest (18/32, 56%) with a GMT of 185 (range: 100–800). In contrast, naturally infected HIV-1 individuals had a lower frequency of antibody responses to V2 (10/20, 50%; p=0.003) and a higher frequency of responses to V3 (19/20, 95%), with GMTs of 400 (range: 100–3200) and 3570 (range: 200–12,800), respectively. RV144 vaccination induced antibodies that targeted a region of the V2 loop that contains conserved epitopes. Early HIV-1 transmission events involve V2 loop interactions, raising the possibility that anti-V2 antibodies in RV144 may have contributed to viral inhibition. PMID:23035746

  3. HIV is inactivated after transepithelial migration via adult oral epithelial cells but not fetal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Tugizov, Sharof M.; Herrera, Rossana; Veluppillai, Piri; Greenspan, Deborah; Soros, Vanessa; Greene, Warner C.; Levy, Jay A.; Palefsky, Joel M.

    2010-01-01

    Oral transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in adult populations is rare. However, HIV spread across fetal/neonatal oropharyngeal epithelia could be important in mother-to-child transmission. Analysis of HIV transmission across polarized adult and fetal oral epithelial cells revealed that HIV transmigrates through both adult and fetal cells. However, only virions that passed through the fetal cells – and not those that passed through the adult cells – remained infectious. Analysis of expression of anti-HIV innate proteins beta-defensins 2 and 3, and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor in adult, fetal, and infant oral epithelia showed that their expression is predominantly in the adult oral epithelium. Retention of HIV infectivity after transmigration correlated inversely with the expression of these innate proteins. Inactivation of innate proteins in adult oral keratinocytes restored HIV infectivity. These data suggest that high-level innate protein expression may contribute to the resistance of the adult oral epithelium to HIV transmission. PMID:21056450

  4. HSV vector-mediated GAD67 suppresses neuropathic pain induced by perineural HIV gp120 in rats through inhibition of ROS and Wnt5a

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Hirotsugu; Kanao, Megumi; Liu, Shue; Yi, Hyun; Iida, Takafumi; Levitt, Roy C; Candiotti, Keith A; Lubarsky, David A; Hao, Shuanglin

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related neuropathic pain is a debilitating chronic condition that is severe and unrelenting. Despite the extensive research, the exact neuropathological mechanisms remain unknown, which hinders our ability to develop effective treatments. Loss of GABAergic tone may play an important role in the neuropathic pain state. Glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) is one of isoforms that catalyze GABA synthesis. Here, we used recombinant herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) vectors that encode gad1 gene to evaluate the therapeutic potential of GAD67 in peripheral HIV gp120-induced neuropathic pain in rats. We found that 1) subcutaneous inoculation of the HSV vectors expressing GAD67 attenuated mechanical allodynia in the model of HIV gp120-induced neuropathic pain, 2) the anti-allodynic effect of GAD67 was reduced by GABA-A and-B receptors antagonists, 3) HSV vectors expressing GAD67 reversed the lowered GABA-IR expression, and 4) the HSV vectors expressing GAD67 suppressed the upregulated mitochondrial superoxide and Wnt5a in the spinal dorsal horn. Taken together, our studies support the concept that recovering GABAergic tone by the HSV vectors may reverse HIV-associated neuropathic pain through suppressing mitochondrial superoxide and Wnt5a. Our studies provide validation of HSV-mediated GAD67 gene therapy in the treatment of HIV-related neuropathic pain. PMID:26752351

  5. Vaccine-induced plasma IgA specific for the C1 region of the HIV-1 envelope blocks binding and effector function of IgG

    PubMed Central

    Tomaras, Georgia D.; Ferrari, Guido; Shen, Xiaoying; Alam, S. Munir; Liao, Hua-Xin; Pollara, Justin; Bonsignori, Mattia; Moody, M. Anthony; Fong, Youyi; Chen, Xi; Poling, Brigid; Nicholson, Cindo O.; Zhang, Ruijun; Lu, Xiaozhi; Parks, Robert; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Gilbert, Peter B.; Kim, Jerome H.; Michael, Nelson L.; Montefiori, David C.; Haynes, Barton F.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of correlates of risk of infection in the RV144 HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trial demonstrated that plasma IgG against the HIV-1 envelope (Env) variable region 1 and 2 inversely correlated with risk, whereas HIV-1 Env-specific plasma IgA responses directly correlated with risk. In the secondary analysis, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) was another inverse correlate of risk, but only in the presence of low plasma IgA Env-specific antibodies. Thus, we investigated the hypothesis that IgA could attenuate the protective effect of IgG responses through competition for the same Env binding sites. We report that Env-specific plasma IgA/IgG ratios are higher in infected than in uninfected vaccine recipients in RV144. Moreover, Env-specific IgA antibodies from RV144 vaccinees blocked the binding of ADCC-mediating mAb to HIV-1 Env glycoprotein 120 (gp120). An Env-specific monomeric IgA mAb isolated from an RV144 vaccinee also inhibited the ability of natural killer cells to kill HIV-1–infected CD4+ T cells coated with RV144-induced IgG antibodies. We show that monomeric Env-specific IgA, as part of postvaccination polyclonal antibody response, may modulate vaccine-induced immunity by diminishing ADCC effector function. PMID:23661056

  6. The intracellular dynamics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication with reproduced virion "re-cycling".

    PubMed

    Nakabayashi, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a causative agent of hepatitis. Clinical outcome of hepatitis type B depends on the viral titer observed in the peripheral blood of the patient. In the chronic hepatitis patient, production of HBV virion remains low level. On the other hand, the viral load prominently increases in fulminant hepatitis patient as compared with that in the chronic hepatitis patient. We previously proposed a mathematical model describing the intracellular dynamics of HBV replication. Our model clarified that there are two distinguishable replication patterns of HBV named "arrested" and "explosive" replication. In the arrested replication, the amount of virion newly reproduced from an infected cell remains low level, while the amount of virion extremely increases in the explosive replication. Viral load is drastically changed by slight alteration of expression ratio of 3.5kb RNA to 2.4kb mRNA of HBV. Though our model provided the switching mechanism determining the replication pattern of HBV, HBV dynamics is determined by not only the expression pattern of viral genes. In this study, "recycling" of HBV virion in the replication cycle is investigated as a new factor affecting the intracellular dynamics of HBV replication. A part of newly produced virion of HBV is reused as a core particle that is a resource of HBV replication. This recycling of HBV virion lowers the threshold for the explosive replication when waiting time for the next cycle of the replication is large. It is seemingly contradicting that prominent production of HBV is caused by large recycling rate and small release rate of HBV virion from infected cell to extracellular space. But the recycling of HBV virion can contribute to the positive feedback cycle of HBV replication for the explosive replication to accumulate the core particle as a resource of HBV replication in an infected cell. Accumulation of core particle in the infected cell can be risk factor for the exacerbation of hepatitis rather

  7. Mixed genotype transmission bodies and virions contribute to the maintenance of diversity in an insect virus

    PubMed Central

    Clavijo, Gabriel; Williams, Trevor; Muñoz, Delia; Caballero, Primitivo; López-Ferber, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    An insect nucleopolyhedrovirus naturally survives as a mixture of at least nine genotypes. Infection by multiple genotypes results in the production of virus occlusion bodies (OBs) with greater pathogenicity than those of any genotype alone. We tested the hypothesis that each OB contains a genotypically diverse population of virions. Few insects died following inoculation with an experimental two-genotype mixture at a dose of one OB per insect, but a high proportion of multiple infections were observed (50%), which differed significantly from the frequencies predicted by a non-associated transmission model in which genotypes are segregated into distinct OBs. By contrast, insects that consumed multiple OBs experienced higher mortality and infection frequencies did not differ significantly from those of the non-associated model. Inoculation with genotypically complex wild-type OBs indicated that genotypes tend to be transmitted in association, rather than as independent entities, irrespective of dose. To examine the hypothesis that virions may themselves be genotypically heterogeneous, cell culture plaques derived from individual virions were analysed to reveal that one-third of virions was of mixed genotype, irrespective of the genotypic composition of the OBs. We conclude that co-occlusion of genotypically distinct virions in each OB is an adaptive mechanism that favours the maintenance of virus diversity during insect-to-insect transmission. PMID:19939845

  8. Proteomics of HCV virions reveals an essential role for the nucleoporin Nup98 in virus morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lussignol, Marion; Kopp, Martina; Molloy, Kelly; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Fleck, Roland A; Dorner, Marcus; Bell, Kierstin L; Chait, Brian T; Rice, Charles M; Catanese, Maria Teresa

    2016-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a unique enveloped virus that assembles as a hybrid lipoviral particle by tightly interacting with host lipoproteins. As a result, HCV virions display a characteristic low buoyant density and a deceiving coat, with host-derived apolipoproteins masking viral epitopes. We previously described methods to produce high-titer preparations of HCV particles with tagged envelope glycoproteins that enabled ultrastructural analysis of affinity-purified virions. Here, we performed proteomics studies of HCV isolated from culture media of infected hepatoma cells to define viral and host-encoded proteins associated with mature virions. Using two different affinity purification protocols, we detected four viral and 46 human cellular proteins specifically copurifying with extracellular HCV virions. We determined the C terminus of the mature capsid protein and reproducibly detected low levels of the viral nonstructural protein, NS3. Functional characterization of virion-associated host factors by RNAi identified cellular proteins with either proviral or antiviral roles. In particular, we discovered a novel interaction between HCV capsid protein and the nucleoporin Nup98 at cytosolic lipid droplets that is important for HCV propagation. These results provide the first comprehensive view to our knowledge of the protein composition of HCV and new insights into the complex virus-host interactions underlying HCV infection. PMID:26884193

  9. RAB1A promotes Vaccinia virus replication by facilitating the production of intracellular enveloped virions

    SciTech Connect

    Pechenick Jowers, Tali; Featherstone, Rebecca J.; Reynolds, Danielle K.; Brown, Helen K.; James, John; Prescott, Alan; Haga, Ismar R.; Beard, Philippa M.

    2015-01-15

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus with a complex cytoplasmic replication cycle that exploits numerous cellular proteins. This work characterises the role of a proviral cellular protein, the small GTPase RAB1A, in VACV replication. Using siRNA, we identified RAB1A as required for the production of extracellular enveloped virions (EEVs), but not intracellular mature virions (IMVs). Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy further refined the role of RAB1A as facilitating the wrapping of IMVs to become intracellular enveloped virions (IEVs). This is consistent with the known function of RAB1A in maintenance of ER to Golgi transport. VACV can therefore be added to the growing list of viruses which require RAB1A for optimal replication, highlighting this protein as a broadly proviral host factor. - Highlights: • Characterisation of the role of the small GTPase RAB1A in VACV replication. • RAB1A is not required for production of the primary virion form (IMV). • RAB1A is required for production of processed virion forms (IEVs, CEVs and EEVs). • Consistent with known role of RAB1A in ER to Golgi transport.

  10. Proteomics in the investigation of HIV-1 interactions with host proteins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Productive HIV-1 infection depends on host machinery, including a broad array of cellular proteins. Proteomics has played a significant role in the discovery of HIV-1 host proteins. In this review, after a brief survey of the HIV-1 host proteins that were discovered by proteomic analyses, we focus on analyzing the interactions between the virion and host proteins, as well as the technologies and strategies used in those proteomic studies. With the help of proteomics, the identification and characterization of HIV-1 host proteins can be translated into novel antiretroviral therapeutics. PMID:25523935

  11. Structure/Function Studies Involving the V3 Region of the HIV-1 Envelope Delineate Multiple Factors That Affect Neutralization Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Sandra Sharpe; Boyd, David; Kong, Xiang-Peng; Seaman, Michael; Nussenzweig, Michel; Klein, Florian; Overbaugh, Julie; Totrov, Max

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antibodies (Abs) specific for the V3 loop of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope neutralize most tier 1 and many tier 2 viruses and are present in essentially all HIV-infected individuals as well as immunized humans and animals. Vaccine-induced V3 Abs are associated with reduced HIV infection rates in humans and affect the nature of transmitted viruses in infected vaccinees, despite the fact that V3 is often occluded in the envelope trimer. Here, we link structural and experimental data showing how conformational alterations of the envelope trimer render viruses exceptionally sensitive to V3 Abs. The experiments interrogated the neutralization sensitivity of pseudoviruses with single amino acid mutations in various regions of gp120 that were predicted to alter packing of the V3 loop in the Env trimer. The results indicate that the V3 loop is metastable in the envelope trimer on the virion surface, flickering between states in which V3 is either occluded or available for binding to chemokine receptors (leading to infection) and to V3 Abs (leading to virus neutralization). The spring-loaded V3 in the envelope trimer is easily released by disruption of the stability of the V3 pocket in the unliganded trimer or disruption of favorable V3/pocket interactions. Formation of the V3 pocket requires appropriate positioning of the V1V2 domain, which is, in turn, dependent on the conformation of the bridging sheet and on the stability of the V1V2 B-C strand-connecting loop. IMPORTANCE The levels of antibodies to the third variable region (V3) of the HIV envelope protein correlate with reduced HIV infection rates. Previous studies showed that V3 is often occluded, as it sits in a pocket of the envelope trimer on the surface of virions; however, the trimer is flexible, allowing occluded portions of the envelope (like V3) to flicker into an exposed position that binds antibodies. Here we provide a systematic interrogation of mechanisms by which single amino acid changes in various

  12. A sensitive HIV-1 envelope induced fusion assay identifies fusion enhancement of thrombin

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, De-Chun; Zhong, Guo-Cai; Su, Ju-Xiang; Liu, Yan-Hong; Li, Yan; Wang, Jia-Ye; Hattori, Toshio; Ling, Hong; Zhang, Feng-Min

    2010-01-22

    To evaluate the interaction between HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) and target cell receptors, various cell-cell-fusion assays have been developed. In the present study, we established a novel fusion system. In this system, the expression of the sensitive reporter gene, firefly luciferase (FL) gene, in the target cells was used to evaluate cell fusion event. Simultaneously, constitutively expressed Renilla luciferase (RL) gene was used to monitor effector cell number and viability. FL gave a wider dynamic range than other known reporters and the introduction of RL made the assay accurate and reproducible. This system is especially beneficial for investigation of potential entry-influencing agents, for its power of ruling out the false inhibition or enhancement caused by the artificial cell-number variation. As a case study, we applied this fusion system to observe the effect of a serine protease, thrombin, on HIV Env-mediated cell-cell fusion and have found the fusion enhancement activity of thrombin over two R5-tropic HIV strains.

  13. HLA class II genes modulate vaccine-induced antibody responses to affect HIV-1 acquisition.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Heather A; Tomaras, Georgia D; Geraghty, Daniel E; Apps, Richard; Fong, Youyi; Ehrenberg, Philip K; Rolland, Morgane; Kijak, Gustavo H; Krebs, Shelly J; Nelson, Wyatt; DeCamp, Allan; Shen, Xiaoying; Yates, Nicole L; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Ferrari, Guido; McElrath, M Juliana; Montefiori, David C; Bailer, Robert T; Koup, Richard A; O'Connell, Robert J; Robb, Merlin L; Michael, Nelson L; Gilbert, Peter B; Kim, Jerome H; Thomas, Rasmi

    2015-07-15

    In the RV144 vaccine trial, two antibody responses were found to correlate with HIV-1 acquisition. Because human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II-restricted CD4(+) T cells are involved in antibody production, we tested whether HLA class II genotypes affected HIV-1-specific antibody levels and HIV-1 acquisition in 760 individuals. Indeed, antibody responses correlated with acquisition only in the presence of single host HLA alleles. Envelope (Env)-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies were associated with increased risk of acquisition specifically in individuals with DQB1*06. IgG antibody responses to Env amino acid positions 120 to 204 were higher and were associated with decreased risk of acquisition and increased vaccine efficacy only in the presence of DPB1*13. Screening IgG responses to overlapping peptides spanning Env 120-204 and viral sequence analysis of infected individuals defined differences in vaccine response that were associated with the presence of DPB1*13 and could be responsible for the protection observed. Overall, the underlying genetic findings indicate that HLA class II modulated the quantity, quality, and efficacy of antibody responses in the RV144 trial. PMID:26180102

  14. HLA class II genes modulate vaccine-induced antibody responses to affect HIV-1 acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, Heather A.; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Geraghty, Daniel E.; Apps, Richard; Fong, Youyi; Ehrenberg, Philip K.; Rolland, Morgane; Kijak, Gustavo H.; Krebs, Shelly J.; Nelson, Wyatt; DeCamp, Allan; Shen, Xiaoying; Yates, Nicole L.; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Ferrari, Guido; Juliana McElrath, M.; Montefiori, David C.; Bailer, Robert T.; Koup, Richard A.; O’Connell, Robert J.; Robb, Merlin L.; Michael, Nelson L.; Gilbert, Peter B.; Kim, Jerome H.; Thomas, Rasmi

    2016-01-01

    In the RV144 vaccine trial, two antibody responses were found to correlate with HIV-1 acquisition. Because human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II–restricted CD4+ T cells are involved in antibody production, we tested whether HLA class II genotypes affected HIV-1–specific antibody levels and HIV-1 acquisition in 760 individuals. Indeed, antibody responses correlated with acquisition only in the presence of single host HLA alleles. Envelope (Env)–specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies were associated with increased risk of acquisition specifically in individuals with DQB1*06. IgG antibody responses to Env amino acid positions 120 to 204 were higher and were associated with decreased risk of acquisition and increased vaccine efficacy only in the presence of DPB1*13. Screening IgG responses to overlapping peptides spanning Env 120–204 and viral sequence analysis of infected individuals defined differences in vaccine response that were associated with the presence of DPB1*13 and could be responsible for the protection observed. Overall, the underlying genetic findings indicate that HLA class II modulated the quantity, quality, and efficacy of antibody responses in the RV144 trial. PMID:26180102

  15. Mucosal Immunization of Lactating Female Rhesus Monkeys with a Transmitted/Founder HIV-1 Envelope Induces Strong Env-Specific IgA Antibody Responses in Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Fouda, Genevieve G. A.; Amos, Joshua D.; Wilks, Andrew B.; Pollara, Justin; Ray, Caroline A.; Chand, Anjali; Kunz, Erika L.; Liebl, Brooke E.; Whitaker, Kaylan; Carville, Angela; Smith, Shannon; Colvin, Lisa; Pickup, David J.; Staats, Herman F.; Overman, Glenn; Eutsey-Lloyd, Krissey; Parks, Robert; Chen, Haiyan; LaBranche, Celia; Barnett, Susan; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Ferrari, Guido; Montefiori, David C.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Letvin, Norman L.; Haynes, Barton F.

    2013-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that vaccination of lactating rhesus monkeys with a DNA prime/vector boost strategy induces strong T-cell responses but limited envelope (Env)-specific humoral responses in breast milk. To improve vaccine-elicited antibody responses in milk, hormone-induced lactating rhesus monkeys were vaccinated with a transmitted/founder (T/F) HIV Env immunogen in a prime-boost strategy modeled after the moderately protective RV144 HIV vaccine. Lactating rhesus monkeys were intramuscularly primed with either recombinant DNA (n = 4) or modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) poxvirus vector (n = 4) expressing the T/F HIV Env C.1086 and then boosted twice intramuscularly with C.1086 gp120 and the adjuvant MF59. The vaccines induced Env-binding IgG and IgA as well as neutralizing and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses in plasma and milk of most vaccinated animals. Importantly, plasma neutralization titers against clade C HIV variants MW965 (P = 0.03) and CAP45 (P = 0.04) were significantly higher in MVA-primed than in DNA-primed animals. The superior systemic prime-boost regimen was then compared to a mucosal-boost regimen, in which animals were boosted twice intranasally with C.1086 gp120 and the TLR 7/8 agonist R848 following the same systemic prime. While the systemic and mucosal vaccine regimens elicited comparable levels of Env-binding IgG antibodies, mucosal immunization induced significantly stronger Env-binding IgA responses in milk (P = 0.03). However, the mucosal regimen was not as potent at inducing functional IgG responses. This study shows that systemic MVA prime followed by either intranasal or systemic protein boosts can elicit strong humoral responses in breast milk and may be a useful strategy to interrupt postnatal HIV-1 transmission. PMID:23596289

  16. Detection and Tracking of Dual-Labeled HIV Particles Using Wide-Field Live Cell Imaging to Follow Viral Core Integrity.

    PubMed

    Mamede, João I; Hope, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Live cell imaging is a valuable technique that allows the characterization of the dynamic processes of the HIV-1 life cycle. Here, we present a method of production and imaging of dual-labeled HIV viral particles that allows the visualization of two events. Varying release of the intravirion fluid phase marker reveals virion fusion and the loss of the integrity of HIV viral cores with the use of live wide-field fluorescent microscopy. PMID:26714704

  17. Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Contribute to APOL1-induced Podocyte Injury in HIV milieu

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Xiqian; Wen, Hongxiu; Saleem, Moin A.; Mikulak, Joanna; Malhotra, Ashwani; Skorecki, Karl; Singhal, Pravin C

    2015-01-01

    Clinical reports have demonstrated that higher rates of non-diabetic glomerulosclerosis in African Americans can be attributed to two coding sequence variants (G1 and G2) in the APOL1 gene; however, the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Kidney biopsy data suggest enhanced expression of APOL1/APOL1 variants (Vs) in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of renal vasculature. Since APOL1 is a secretory protein of relatively low molecular weight (41 kDa), SMCs may be a contributory endocrine/paracrine source of APOL1 wild type (WT)/APOL1Vs in the glomerular capillary perfusate percolating podocytes. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that an HIV milieu stimulated secretion of APOL1 and its risk variants by arterial SMCs contributes to podocyte injury. Human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HSMCs)-treated with conditioned media (CM) of HIV-infected peripheral mononuclear cells (PBMC/HIV-CM), CM of HIV-infected U939 cells, or recombinant IFN-γ displayed enhanced expression of APOL1. Podocytes co-cultured in trans-wells with HSMCs-over expressing APOL1WT showed induction of injury; however, podocytes co-cultured with HSMC-over expressing either APOL1G1 or APOL1G2 showed several fold greater injury when compared to HSMC- over expressing APOL1WT. Conditioned media collected from HSMC-over-expressing APOL1G1/APOL1G2 (HSMC/APOL1G1-CM or HSMC/APOL1G2-CM) also displayed higher percentages of injured podocytes in the form of swollen cells, leaky lysosomes, loss of viability, and enhanced sensitivity to adverse host factors when compared to HSMC/APOL1WT-CM. Notably, HSMC/APOL1WT-CM promoted podocyte injury only at a significantly higher concentrations compared to HSMC/APOL1G1/G2-CM. We conclude that HSMCs could serve as an endocrine/paracrine source of APOL1Vs, which mediate accelerated podocyte injury in HIV milieu. PMID:25796344

  18. Single-Cell and Single-Cycle Analysis of HIV-1 Replication.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Mowgli; Zhang, Fengwen; Bieniasz, Paul D

    2015-06-01

    The dynamics of the late stages of the HIV-1 life cycle are poorly documented. Viral replication dynamics are typically measured in populations of infected cells, but asynchrony that is introduced during the early steps of HIV-1 replication complicates the measurement of the progression of subsequent steps and can mask replication dynamics and their variation in individual infected cells. We established microscopy-based methods to dynamically measure HIV-1-encoded reporter gene and antiviral gene expression in individual infected cells. We coupled these measurements with conventional analyses to quantify delays in the HIV-1 replication cycle imposed by the biphasic nature of HIV-1 gene expression and by the assembly-inhibiting property of the matrix domain of Gag. We further related the dynamics of restriction factor (APOBEC3G) removal to the dynamics of HIV-1 replication in individual cells. These studies provide a timeline for key events in the HIV-1 replication cycle, and reveal that the interval between the onset of early and late HIV-1 gene expression is only ~3 h, but matrix causes a ~6-12 h delay in the generation of extracellular virions. Interestingly, matrix delays particle assembly to a time at which APOBEC3G has largely been removed from the cell. Thus, a need to prepare infected cells to be efficient producers of infectious HIV-1 may provide an impetus for programmed delays in HIV-1 virion genesis. Our findings also emphasize the significant heterogeneity in the length of the HIV-1 replication cycle in homogenous cell populations and suggest that a typical infected cell generates new virions for only a few hours at the end of a 48 h lifespan. Therefore, small changes in the lifespan of infected cells might have a large effect on viral yield in a single cycle and the overall clinical course in infected individuals. PMID:26086614

  19. Comparative Immunogenicity of Evolved V1V2-Deleted HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Trimers

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Tommy; van Montfort, Thijs; Eggink, Dirk; Montefiori, David; Olson, William C.; Moore, John P.; Binley, James M.; Berkhout, Ben; Sanders, Rogier W.

    2013-01-01

    Despite almost 30 years of research, no effective vaccine has yet been developed against HIV-1. Probably such a vaccine would need to induce both an effective T cell and antibody response. Any vaccine component focused on inducing humoral immunity requires the HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoprotein complex as it is the only viral protein exposed on the virion surface. HIV-1 has evolved several mechanisms to evade broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies. One such a mechanism involves variable loop domains, which are highly flexible structures that shield the underlying conserved epitopes. We hypothesized that removal of such loops would increase the exposure and immunogenicity of these conserved regions. Env variable loop deletion however often leads to protein misfolding and aggregation because hydrophobic patches becoming solvent accessible. We have therefore previously used virus evolution to acquire functional Env proteins lacking the V1V2 loop. We then expressed them in soluble (uncleaved) gp140 forms. Three mutants were found to perform optimally in terms of protein expression, stability, trimerization and folding. In this study, we characterized the immune responses to these antigens in rabbits. The V1V2 deletion mutant ΔV1V2.9.VK induced a prominent response directed to epitopes that are not fully available on the other Env proteins tested but that effectively bound and neutralized the ΔV1V2 Env virus. This Env variant also induced more efficient neutralization of the tier 1 virus SF162. The immune refocusing effect was lost after booster immunization with a full-length gp140 protein with intact V1V2 loops. Collectively, this result suggests that deletion of variable domains could alter the specificity of the humoral immune response, but did not result in broad neutralization of neutralization-resistant virus isolates. PMID:23840716

  20. Structure and Assembly of TP901-1 Virion Unveiled by Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Douillard, François P.; Mahony, Jennifer; Cambillau, Christian; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriophages of the Siphoviridae family represent the most abundant viral morphology in the biosphere, yet many molecular aspects of their virion structure, assembly and associated functions remain to be unveiled. In this study, we present a comprehensive mutational and molecular analysis of the temperate Lactococcus lactis-infecting phage TP901-1. Fourteen mutations located within the structural module of TP901-1 were created; twelve mutations were designed to prevent full length translation of putative proteins by non-sense mutations, while two additional mutations caused aberrant protein production. Electron microscopy and Western blot analysis of mutant virion preparations, as well as in vitro assembly of phage mutant combinations, revealed the essential nature of many of the corresponding gene products and provided information on their biological function(s). Based on the information obtained, we propose a functional and assembly model of the TP901-1 Siphoviridae virion. PMID:26147978

  1. Putative site for the acquisition of human herpesvirus 6 virion tegument.

    PubMed Central

    Roffman, E; Albert, J P; Goff, J P; Frenkel, N

    1990-01-01

    The virion of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) contains a very distinct tegument layer, occupying the space between the nucleocapsid and the virion envelope. Ultrastructural analyses of thymocytes infected with HHV-6 revealed the presence of intranuclear spherical compartments, approximately 1.5 microns in diameter, in which tegumentation seems to take place. These compartments, termed tegusomes, were bounded by two membranes and contained ribosomes, consistent with their derivation by cytoplasmic invagination into the nucleus. Capsids located within the nucleus outside the tegusomes were all naked, while those located in the cytoplasm were uniformly tegumented. In contrast, capsids present inside the tegusomes contains teguments of variable thicknesses. In addition, nucleocapsids were documented in the process of budding into the tegusomes. We thus suggest that the tegusomes represent a cellular site in which HHV-6 virions acquire their tegument. Images PMID:2173796

  2. Biochemical evidence of a role for matrix trimerization in HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein incorporation.

    PubMed

    Tedbury, Philip R; Novikova, Mariia; Ablan, Sherimay D; Freed, Eric O

    2016-01-12

    The matrix (MA) domain of HIV Gag has important functions in directing the trafficking of Gag to sites of assembly and mediating the incorporation of the envelope glycoprotein (Env) into assembling particles. HIV-1 MA has been shown to form trimers in vitro; however, neither the presence nor the role of MA trimers has been documented in HIV-1 virions. We developed a cross-linking strategy to reveal MA trimers in virions of replication-competent HIV-1. By mutagenesis of trimer interface residues, we demonstrated a correlation between loss of MA trimerization and loss of Env incorporation. Additionally, we found that truncating the long cytoplasmic tail of Env restores incorporation of Env into MA trimer-defective particles, thus rescuing infectivity. We therefore propose a model whereby MA trimerization is required to form a lattice capable of accommodating the long cytoplasmic tail of HIV-1 Env; in the absence of MA trimerization, Env is sterically excluded from the assembling particle. These findings establish MA trimerization as an obligatory step in the assembly of infectious HIV-1 virions. As such, the MA trimer interface may represent a novel drug target for the development of antiretrovirals. PMID:26711999

  3. Transcriptional analysis of the virion-sense genes of the geminivirus beet curly top virus.

    PubMed

    Frischmuth, S; Frischmuth, T; Latham, J R; Stanley, J

    1993-11-01

    The genome of the geminivirus beet curly top virus (BCTV) consists of a single circular DNA containing overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) located on both the virion-sense and complementary-sense DNA strands. To investigate the expression of these ORFs, RNA extracted from infected Nicotiana benthamiana and Beta vulgaris has been examined for the presence of viral transcripts. An abundant 1.1-kb virion-sense polyadenylated RNA and four complementary-sense polyadenylated RNAs of 1.7, 1.5, 1.3, and 0.7 kb have been identified by northern blot hybridization, confirming the bidirectional transcription strategy implied by the arrangement of ORFs. We previously demonstrated that two overlapping virion-sense ORFs are involved in coat protein synthesis (ORF V1) and viral single-stranded DNA accumulation (ORF V2). Mutants of a third virion-sense ORF (ORF V3), located upstream and overlapping ORFs V1 and V2, retain the ability to replicate efficiently in N. benthamiana leaf discs but produce an asymptomatic infection in N. benthamiana and B. vulgaris at low frequency, associated with reduced levels of viral DNA compared to wild-type infection. Our data support the recent suggestion that ORF V3 participates in virus movement. The 1.1 kb virion-sense RNA comprises a population of overlapping transcripts with 5' termini suitably positioned for the expression of ORFs V1, V2, and V3. The overlapping arrangement of the transcripts and juxtaposition of putative regulatory elements could provide a means for the temporal control of virion-sense gene expression. PMID:7692668

  4. Interferon-induced transmembrane protein-3 rs12252-C is associated with rapid progression of acute HIV-1 infection in Chinese MSM cohort

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yonghong; Makvandi-Nejad, Shokouh; Qin, Ling; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Tong; Wang, Lili; Repapi, Emmanouela; Taylor, Stephen; McMichael, Andrew; Li, Ning; Dong, Tao; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Background: The interferon-inducible transmembrane protein-3 (IFITM3) is a protein that restricts multiple pathogenic viruses such as influenza virus. The single-nucleotide polymorphism rs12252-C, which is rare in Caucasian populations, but much more common in the Han Chinese population, has been found in much higher homozygous frequency in patients with severe acute influenza. Until now, there has been no study on the effect of this genetic variant on the clinical control of other viral infections. Objectives: To investigate the impact of IFITM3-rs12252 genotypes on primary HIV-1 infection progression in an acute HIV-1-infected cohort in Beijing (PRIMO), China. Design and methods: We identified IFITM3-rs12252 genotypes of 178 acute HIV-1-infected patients and 196 HIV-negative candidates from the PRIMO cohort. HIV-1 viral load and CD4+ T-cell counts were monitored at multiple time points during the first year of infection, and the association between IFITM3-rs12252 genotype and disease progression was evaluated. Results: The current study shows that the IFITM3-rs12252 genetic variant affects the progression of HIV-1 infection, but not the acquisition. A significantly higher frequency of the CC/CT genotypes was found in rapid progressors compared to nonprogressors. Patients with CC/CT genotypes showed an elevated peak viremia level and significantly lower CD4+ T-cell count at multiple time points during the first year of primary infection, and a significantly higher risk of rapid decline of the CD4+ T-cell count to below 350 cells/μl. Conclusion: A novel association between IFITM3 gene polymorphism and rapid disease progression is reported in an acute HIV-1-infected MSM cohort in China. PMID:25784441

  5. HIV-1 RNA dimerization initiation site is structurally similar to the ribosomal A site and binds aminoglycoside antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Ennifar, Eric; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Marquet, Roland; Ehresmann, Bernard; Ehresmann, Chantal; Dumas, Philippe; Walter, Philippe

    2003-01-24

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genomic RNA is packaged into virions as a dimer. The first step of dimerization is the formation of a kissing-loop complex at the so-called dimerization initiation site (DIS). We found an unexpected and fortuitous resemblance between the HIV-1 DIS kissing-loop complex and the eubacterial 16 S ribosomal aminoacyl-tRNA site (A site), which is the target of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Similarities exist not only at the primary and secondary structure level but also at the tertiary structure level, as revealed by comparison of the respective DIS and A site crystal structures. Gel shift, inhibition of lead-induced cleavage, and footprinting experiments showed that paromomycin and neomycin specifically bind to the kissing-loop complex formed by the DIS, with an affinity and a geometry similar to that observed for the A site. Modeling of the aminoglycoside-DIS complex allowed us to identify antibiotic modifications likely to increase the affinity and/or the specificity for the DIS. This could be a starting point for designing antiviral drugs against HIV-1 RNA dimerization. PMID:12435744

  6. Fusion proteins of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 with CD4-induced antibodies showed enhanced binding to CD4 and CD4 binding site antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Weizao; Feng, Yang; Wang, Yanping; Zhu, Zhongyu; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some recombinant HIV-1 gp120s do not preserve their conformations on gp140s. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We hypothesize that CD4i antibodies could induce conformational changes in gp120. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD4i antibodies enhance binding of CD4 and CD4bs antibodies to gp120. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD4i antibody-gp120 fusion proteins could have potential as vaccine immunogens. -- Abstract: Development of successful AIDS vaccine immunogens continues to be a major challenge. One of the mechanisms by which HIV-1 evades antibody-mediated neutralizing responses is the remarkable conformational flexibility of its envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120. Some recombinant gp120s do not preserve their conformations on gp140s and functional viral spikes, and exhibit decreased recognition by CD4 and neutralizing antibodies. CD4 binding induces conformational changes in gp120 leading to exposure of the coreceptor-binding site (CoRbs). In this study, we test our hypothesis that CD4-induced (CD4i) antibodies, which target the CoRbs, could also induce conformational changes in gp120 leading to better exposed conserved neutralizing antibody epitopes including the CD4-binding site (CD4bs). We found that a mixture of CD4i antibodies with gp120 only weakly enhanced CD4 binding. However, such interactions in single-chain fusion proteins resulted in gp120 conformations which bound to CD4 and CD4bs antibodies better than the original or mutagenically stabilized gp120s. Moreover, the two molecules in the fusion proteins synergized with each other in neutralizing HIV-1. Therefore, fusion proteins of gp120 with CD4i antibodies could have potential as components of HIV-1 vaccines and inhibitors of HIV-1 entry, and could be used as reagents to explore the conformational flexibility of gp120 and mechanisms of entry and immune evasion.

  7. A nucleolar localizing Rev binding element inhibits HIV replication

    PubMed Central

    Michienzi, Alessandro; De Angelis, Fernanda G; Bozzoni, Irene; Rossi, John J

    2006-01-01

    The Rev protein of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) facilitates the nuclear export of intron containing viral mRNAs allowing formation of infectious virions. Rev traffics through the nucleolus and shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Rev multimerization and interaction with the export protein CRM1 takes place in the nucleolus. To test the importance of Rev nucleolar trafficking in the HIV-1 replication cycle, we created a nucleolar localizing Rev Response Element (RRE) decoy and tested this for its anti-HIV activity. The RRE decoy provided marked inhibition of HIV-1 replication in both the CEM T-cell line and in primary CD34+ derived monocytes. These results demonstrate that titration of Rev in the nucleolus impairs HIV-1 replication and supports a functional role for Rev trafficking in this sub-cellular compartment. PMID:16712721

  8. The Cytoplasmic Domain of the HIV-1 Glycoprotein gp41 Induces NF-κB Activation Through TGF-β-Activated Kinase 1

    PubMed Central

    Postler, Thomas S.; Desrosiers, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV) primarily infect lymphocytes, which must be activated for efficient viral replication. We show that the cytoplasmic domain of the transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 (gp41CD) of both HIV-1 and SIV induces activation of NF-κB, a cellular factor important for proviral genome transcription and lymphocyte activation. This NF-κB activating property localized to a region 12–25 (SIV) or 59–70 (HIV-1) residues from the gp41 membrane-spanning domain. An siRNA-based screen of 42 key NF-κB regulators revealed that gp41CD-mediated activation occurs through the canonical NF-κB pathway via TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1). TAK1 activity was required for gp41CD-mediated NF-κB activation, and HIV-1-derived gp41CD physically interacted with TAK1 through the same region required for NF-κB activation. Importantly, an NF-κB activation-deficient HIV-1 mutant exhibited increased dependence on cellular activation for replication. These findings demonstrate an evolutionarily conserved role for gp41CD in activating NF-κB to promote infection. PMID:22341466

  9. [Naringin againsts learning and memory dysfunction of rats induced by intraventricular perfusion with HIV-1 glycoprotein 120 (gp120)].

    PubMed

    Qin, Shanshan; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Chenglong; Xu, Changshui

    2016-07-01

    Objective To explore the protective effect of naringin on cognitive disorders induced by HIV-1-enveloped glycoprotein 120 (gp120) mediated by the P2X7 receptor in rats. Methods The Morris water maze (MWM) test was used to evaluate the effect of naringin on cognitive dysfunction induced by gp120 intraventricular perfusion in the rat models of dementia. The expression levels of P2X7 receptor mRNA and protein in hippocampus tissues were detected by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. Results The MWM test showed that compared with the gp120 model group, the naringin treatment group showed significantly faster escape latencies and reduced searching target errors. RT-PCR and Western blotting showed that the expressions of P2X7 receptor mRNA and protein were reduced in the hippocampus of rats in the naringin treatment group compared with the gp120 model group. Conclusion Naringin may againsts learning and memory dysfunction induced by gp120, which may counter the up-regulated expression of the P2X7 receptor in the hippocampus of rats. PMID:27363267

  10. Complement-Mediated Virus Infectivity Neutralisation by HLA Antibodies Is Associated with Sterilising Immunity to SIV Challenge in the Macaque Model for HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Mark; Hassall, Mark; Cranage, Martin; Stott, James; Almond, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Sterilising immunity is a desired outcome for vaccination against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and has been observed in the macaque model using inactivated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). This protection was attributed to antibodies specific for cell proteins including human leucocyte antigens (HLA) class I and II incorporated into virions during vaccine and challenge virus preparation. We show here, using HLA bead arrays, that vaccinated macaques protected from virus challenge had higher serum antibody reactivity compared with non-protected animals. Moreover, reactivity was shown to be directed against HLA framework determinants. Previous studies failed to correlate serum antibody mediated virus neutralisation with protection and were confounded by cytotoxic effects. Using a virus entry assay based on TZM-bl cells we now report that, in the presence of complement, serum antibody titres that neutralise virus infectivity were higher in protected animals. We propose that complement-augmented virus neutralisation is a key factor in inducing sterilising immunity and may be difficult to achieve with HIV/SIV Env-based vaccines. Understanding how to overcome the apparent block of inactivated SIV vaccines to elicit anti-envelope protein antibodies that effectively engage the complement system could enable novel anti-HIV antibody vaccines that induce potent, virolytic serological response to be developed. PMID:24551145

  11. Synthetic peptides from a conserved region of gp120 induce broadly reactive anti-HIV responses.

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, W J; Williams, W M; Whalley, A S; Ryskamp, T; Newman, R; Kang, C Y; Chamat, S; Köhler, H; Kieber-Emmons, T

    1992-01-01

    In our efforts to identify products that might be used for active immunotherapy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, we have studied synthetic peptides derived from the CD4 attachment site of gp120. Two peptides have emerged with particularly interesting properties. The first (B138) is linear and spans the envelope residues 421-438; the second (1005/45) encompasses amino acids 418-445 and is cyclized by way of a disulphide bond joining its terminal cysteines. Both species have been shown to inhibit syncytial formation in a conventional bioassay, B138 being the most efficient. Both peptides elicit high titres of anti-peptide antibodies in immunized mice, rabbits and goats, with titres exceeding 1:10(5) in many cases. A substantial portion of this response is directed against gp120 as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Analysis by flow cytometry has demonstrated that the antisera are broadly reactive with multiple diverse strains of HIV. The anti-gp120 activity of the anti-peptide antiserum was further confirmed by radioimmuno-precipitation (RIP) assays. Furthermore, RIP analysis and inhibition experiments in a GD4-gp120 binding assay have revealed that anti-peptide sera contain antibodies directed against the CD4 attachment site on gp120 and interfere with this receptor-ligand interaction. Images Figure 4 PMID:1592430

  12. Drug-induced lipotoxicity: lipodystrophy associated with HIV-1 infection and antiretroviral treatment.

    PubMed

    Villarroya, Francesc; Domingo, Pere; Giralt, Marta

    2010-03-01

    A subset of HIV-1-infected patients undergoing antiretroviral treatment develops a lipodystrophy syndrome. It is characterized by loss of peripheral subcutaneous adipose tissue (face, limbs, buttocks), visceral fat accumulation, and, in some cases, lipomatosis, especially in the dorsocervical area. In addition, these patients show metabolic alterations reminiscent of the metabolic syndrome, particularly dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. These alterations lead to enhanced cardiovascular risk in patients and favor the development of diabetes. Although a complex combination of HIV-1 infection and drug treatment-related events triggers the syndrome, lipotoxicity appears to contribute to the development of the syndrome. Active lipolysis in subcutaneous fat, combined with impaired fat storage capacity in the subcutaneous depot, drive ectopic deposition of lipids, either in the visceral depot or in nonadipose sites. Both hepatic steatosis and increased lipid content in skeletal muscle take place and surely contribute to systemic metabolic alterations, especially insulin resistance. Pancreatic function may also be affected by the exposure to high levels of fatty acids; together with direct effects of antiretroviral drugs, this may contribute to impaired insulin release and a prodiabetic state in the patients. Addressing lipotoxicity as a pathogenic actor in the lipodystrophy syndrome should be considered in strategies for treating and/or preventing the morphological alterations and systemic metabolic disturbances associated with lipodystrophy. PMID:19800025

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus and host cell lipids. Interesting pathways in research for a new HIV therapy.

    PubMed

    Raulin, Jeanine

    2002-01-01

    It has been reported in the literature that biological membranes arising from HIV-induced cell fusion, as well as syncytium formation between infected and non-infected cells and those involved in transduction, viral DNA nuclear import and virion budding from the host cell, are all made of proteins, a phospholipid (P) bilayer and cholesterol (C). However, the P/C molar ratio is higher in the retroviral envelope than in the plasma membrane where they originate, and higher than in the nuclear envelope. Mechanisms are described which elucidate this puzzling fact, as well as cholesterol-dependent leakage and pore formation during cell fusion. Fatty acylation of viral and host cell proteins is required to direct them to membranes. Detergent-insoluble microdomains enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids, termed either DIGs (detergent-insoluble glycolipid-enriched complexes), DRMs (detergent resistant membranes), TIFFs (Triton-insoluble floating fractions) or GEMs (glycolipid-enriched membranes), function as platforms for attachment of proteins in the process of signal transduction. HIV-SUgp120 (HIV-surface glycoprotein), T-cell receptor (TCR)-CD4+ and co-receptors promote aggregation of these lipid "rafts" which concentrate the Src family tyrosine kinases SFKs (PTK, Lyn, Fyn, Lck), GPI (glycosyl phosphatidylinositol)-anchored proteins, and phosphatidylinositol kinases PI(3)K and PI(4)K, inducing cell signalling. HIV-SUgp120 transduces the activation signal and provokes the formation of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolites, i.e. the prostaglandin PGE2 suppressor of immune function and inhibitor of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) proliferation, while PGB2 activates SFKs and increases mRNA expression, as well as NFkappaB (nuclear transcription factor) translocation to nucleus. HIV nuclear import, DNA integration, chromatin template capacity may be mediated by the lipid environment. The lipid-enriched microdomains from which HIV-1 buds, may explain the high level of

  14. Probing HIV-1 membrane liquid order by Laurdan staining reveals producer cell-dependent differences.

    PubMed

    Lorizate, Maier; Brügger, Britta; Akiyama, Hisashi; Glass, Bärbel; Müller, Barbara; Anderluh, Gregor; Wieland, Felix T; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg

    2009-08-14

    Viruses acquire their envelope by budding from a host cell membrane, but viral lipid composition may differ from that of the budding membrane. We have previously reported that the HIV-1 membrane is highly enriched in cholesterol, sphingolipids, and other raft lipids, suggesting that the virus may bud from pre-existing or virus-induced lipid rafts. Here, we employed the environmentally sensitive fluorescent dye Laurdan to study the membrane lateral structure of HIV-1 derived from different cell lines. Differences in viral membrane order detected by Laurdan staining were shown by mass spectrometry to be due to differences in lipid composition. Isogenic viruses from two different cell lines were both strongly enriched in raft lipids and displayed a liquid-ordered membrane, but these effects were significantly more pronounced for HIV-1 from the T-cell line MT-4 compared with virus from 293T cells. Host-dependent differences in the lipidomes predominantly affected the ratio of sphingomyelins (including dihydrosphingomyelin) to phosphatidylcholine, whereas cholesterol contents were similar. Accordingly, treatment of infectious HIV-1 with the sphingomyelin-binding toxins Equinatoxin-II or lysenin showed differential inhibition of infectivity. Liposomes consisting of lipids that had been extracted from viral particles exhibited slightly less liquid order than the respective viral membranes, which is likely to be due to absence of membrane proteins and to loss of lipid asymmetry. Synthetic liposomes consisting of a quaternary lipid mixture emulating the viral lipids showed a liquid order similar to liposomes derived from virion lipids. Thus, Laurdan staining represents a rapid and quantitative method to probe viral membrane liquid order and may prove useful in the search for lipid active drugs. PMID:19553682

  15. Probing HIV-1 Membrane Liquid Order by Laurdan Staining Reveals Producer Cell-dependent Differences*

    PubMed Central

    Lorizate, Maier; Brügger, Britta; Akiyama, Hisashi; Glass, Bärbel; Müller, Barbara; Anderluh, Gregor; Wieland, Felix T.; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg

    2009-01-01

    Viruses acquire their envelope by budding from a host cell membrane, but viral lipid composition may differ from that of the budding membrane. We have previously reported that the HIV-1 membrane is highly enriched in cholesterol, sphingolipids, and other raft lipids, suggesting that the virus may bud from pre-existing or virus-induced lipid rafts. Here, we employed the environmentally sensitive fluorescent dye Laurdan to study the membrane lateral structure of HIV-1 derived from different cell lines. Differences in viral membrane order detected by Laurdan staining were shown by mass spectrometry to be due to differences in lipid composition. Isogenic viruses from two different cell lines were both strongly enriched in raft lipids and displayed a liquid-ordered membrane, but these effects were significantly more pronounced for HIV-1 from the T-cell line MT-4 compared with virus from 293T cells. Host-dependent differences in the lipidomes predominantly affected the ratio of sphingomyelins (including dihydrosphingomyelin) to phosphatidylcholine, whereas cholesterol contents were similar. Accordingly, treatment of infectious HIV-1 with the sphingomyelin-binding toxins Equinatoxin-II or lysenin showed differential inhibition of infectivity. Liposomes consisting of lipids that had been extracted from viral particles exhibited slightly less liquid order than the respective viral membranes, which is likely to be due to absence of membrane proteins and to loss of lipid asymmetry. Synthetic liposomes consisting of a quaternary lipid mixture emulating the viral lipids showed a liquid order similar to liposomes derived from virion lipids. Thus, Laurdan staining represents a rapid and quantitative method to probe viral membrane liquid order and may prove useful in the search for lipid active drugs. PMID:19553682

  16. RNA and DNA binding properties of HIV-1 Vif protein: a fluorescence study.

    PubMed

    Bernacchi, Serena; Henriet, Simon; Dumas, Philippe; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Marquet, Roland

    2007-09-01

    The HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) is a small basic protein essential for viral fitness and pathogenicity. Some "non-permissive" cell lines cannot sustain replication of Vif(-) HIV-1 virions. In these cells, Vif counteracts the natural antiretroviral activity of the DNA-editing enzymes APOBEC3G/3F. Moreover, Vif is packaged into viral particles through a strong interaction with genomic RNA in viral nucleoprotein complexes. To gain insights into determinants of this binding process, we performed the first characterization of Vif/nucleic acid interactions using Vif intrinsic fluorescence. We determined the affinity of Vif for RNA fragments corresponding to various regions of the HIV-1 genome. Our results demonstrated preferential and moderately cooperative binding for RNAs corresponding to the 5'-untranslated region of HIV-1 (5'-untranslated region) and gag (cooperativity parameter omega approximately 65-80, and K(d) = 45-55 nM). In addition, fluorescence spectroscopy allowed us to point out the TAR apical loop and a short region in gag as primary strong affinity binding sites (K(d) = 9.5-14 nM). Interestingly, beside its RNA binding properties, the Vif protein can also bind the corresponding DNA oligonucleotides and their complementary counterparts with an affinity similar to the one observed for the RNA sequences, while other DNA sequences displayed reduced affinity. Taken together, our results suggest that Vif binding to RNA and DNA offers several non-exclusive ways to counteract APOBEC3G/3F factors, in addition to the well documented Vif-induced degradation by the proteasome and to the Vif-mediated repression of translation of these antiviral factors. PMID:17609216

  17. Predicting first traversal times for virions and nanoparticles in mucus with slowed diffusion.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Austen M; Henry, Bruce I; Murray, John M; Klasse, Per Johan; Angstmann, Christopher N

    2015-07-01

    Particle-tracking experiments focusing on virions or nanoparticles in mucus have measured mean-square displacements and reported diffusion coefficients that are orders of magnitude smaller than the diffusion coefficients of such particles in water. Accurate description of this subdiffusion is important to properly estimate the likelihood of virions traversing the mucus boundary layer and infecting cells in the epithelium. However, there are several candidate models for diffusion that can fit experimental measurements of mean-square displacements. We show that these models yield very different estimates for the time taken for subdiffusive virions to traverse through a mucus layer. We explain why fits of subdiffusive mean-square displacements to standard diffusion models may be misleading. Relevant to human immunodeficiency virus infection, using computational methods for fractional subdiffusion, we show that subdiffusion in normal acidic mucus provides a more effective barrier against infection than previously thought. By contrast, the neutralization of the mucus by alkaline semen, after sexual intercourse, allows virions to cross the mucus layer and reach the epithelium in a short timeframe. The computed barrier protection from fractional subdiffusion is some orders of magnitude greater than that derived by fitting standard models of diffusion to subdiffusive data. PMID:26153713

  18. Proteins associated with Culex nigripalpus Nucleopolyhedrovirus (CuniNPV) occluded virions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Occlusion derived virions (ODVs) of the nucleopolyhedrovirus of Culex nigripalpus (CuniNPV) were purified by sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation and the proteins were separated on SDS-PAGE and isolated. Proteins were identified using Edman sequencing, matrix assisted laser desorption/ioniza...

  19. Predicting First Traversal Times for Virions and Nanoparticles in Mucus with Slowed Diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Austen M.; Henry, Bruce I.; Murray, John M.; Klasse, Per Johan; Angstmann, Christopher N.

    2015-01-01

    Particle-tracking experiments focusing on virions or nanoparticles in mucus have measured mean-square displacements and reported diffusion coefficients that are orders of magnitude smaller than the diffusion coefficients of such particles in water. Accurate description of this subdiffusion is important to properly estimate the likelihood of virions traversing the mucus boundary layer and infecting cells in the epithelium. However, there are several candidate models for diffusion that can fit experimental measurements of mean-square displacements. We show that these models yield very different estimates for the time taken for subdiffusive virions to traverse through a mucus layer. We explain why fits of subdiffusive mean-square displacements to standard diffusion models may be misleading. Relevant to human immunodeficiency virus infection, using computational methods for fractional subdiffusion, we show that subdiffusion in normal acidic mucus provides a more effective barrier against infection than previously thought. By contrast, the neutralization of the mucus by alkaline semen, after sexual intercourse, allows virions to cross the mucus layer and reach the epithelium in a short timeframe. The computed barrier protection from fractional subdiffusion is some orders of magnitude greater than that derived by fitting standard models of diffusion to subdiffusive data. PMID:26153713

  20. Structural characterization of virion proteins and genomic RNA of human parainfluenza virus 3.

    PubMed Central

    Storey, D G; Dimock, K; Kang, C Y

    1984-01-01

    The virion proteins and genomic RNA of human parainfluenza virus 3 have been characterized. The virion contains seven major and two minor proteins. Three proteins of 195 X 10(3) molecular weight (195K), 87K, and 67K are associated with the nucleocapsid of the virion and have been designated L, P, and NP, respectively. Three proteins can be labeled with [14C]glucosamine and have molecular weights of 69K, 60K, and 46K. We have designated these proteins as HN, F0, and F1, respectively. HN protein has interchain disulfide bonds, but does not participate in disulfide bonding to form homomultimeric forms. F1 appears to be derived from a complex, F1,2, that has an electrophoretic mobility similar to that of F0 under nonreducing conditions. A protein of 35K is associated with the envelope components of the virion and aggregates under low-salt conditions; this protein has been designated M. The genome of human parainfluenza virus 3 is a linear RNA molecule with a molecular weight of approximately 4.6 X 10(6). Images PMID:6092708

  1. Characterization of the Determinants of NS2-3-Independent Virion Morphogenesis of Pestiviruses

    PubMed Central

    Klemens, O.; Dubrau, D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A peculiarity of the Flaviviridae is the critical function of nonstructural (NS) proteins for virus particle formation. For pestiviruses, like bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), uncleaved NS2-3 represents an essential factor for virion morphogenesis, while NS3 is an essential component of the viral replicase. Accordingly, in natural pestivirus isolates, processing at the NS2-3 cleavage site is not complete, to allow for virion morphogenesis. Virion morphogenesis of the related hepatitis C virus (HCV) shows a major deviation from that of pestiviruses: while RNA replication also requires free NS3, virion formation does not depend on uncleaved NS2-NS3. Recently, we described a BVDV-1 chimera based on strain NCP7 encompassing the NS2-4B*-coding region of strain Osloss (E. Lattwein, O. Klemens, S. Schwindt, P. Becher, and N. Tautz, J Virol 86:427–437, 2012, doi:10.1128/JVI.06133-11). This chimera allowed for the production of infectious virus particles in the absence of uncleaved NS2-3. The Osloss sequence deviates in the NS2-4B* part from NCP7 in 48 amino acids and also has a ubiquitin insertion between NS2 and NS3. The present study demonstrates that in the NCP7 backbone, only two amino acid exchanges in NS2 (E1576V) and NS3 (V1721A) are sufficient and necessary to allow for efficient NS2-3-independent virion morphogenesis. The adaptation of a bicistronic virus encompassing an internal ribosomal entry site element between the NS2 and NS3 coding sequences to efficient virion morphogenesis led to the identification of additional amino acids in E2, NS2, and NS5B that are critically involved in this process. The surprisingly small requirements for approximating the packaging schemes of pestiviruses and HCV with respect to the NS2-3 region is in favor of a common mechanism in an ancestral virus. IMPORTANCE For positive-strand RNA viruses, the processing products of the viral polyprotein serve in RNA replication as well as virion morphogenesis. For bovine viral

  2. Clustering and Mobility of HIV-1 Env at Viral Assembly Sites Predict Its Propensity To Induce Cell-Cell Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Nathan H.; Chan, Jany; Lambelé, Marie

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 Env mediates virus attachment to and fusion with target cell membranes, and yet, while Env is still situated at the plasma membrane of the producer cell and before its incorporation into newly formed particles, Env already interacts with the viral receptor CD4 on target cells, thus enabling the formation of transient cell contacts that facilitate the transmission of viral particles. During this first encounter with the receptor, Env must not induce membrane fusion, as this would prevent the producer cell and the target cell from separating upon virus transmission, but how Env's fusion activity is controlled remains unclear. To gain a better understanding of the Env regulation that precedes viral transmission, we examined the nanoscale organization of Env at the surface of producer cells. Utilizing superresolution microscopy (stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy [STORM]) and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), we quantitatively assessed the clustering and dynamics of Env upon its arrival at the plasma membrane. We found that Gag assembly induced the aggregation of small Env clusters into larger domains and that these domains were completely immobile. Truncation of the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of Env abrogated Gag's ability to induce Env clustering and restored Env mobility at assembly sites, both of which correlated with increased Env-induced fusion of infected and uninfected cells. Hence, while Env trapping by Gag secures Env incorporation into viral particles, Env clustering and its sequestration at assembly sites likely also leads to the repression of its fusion function, and thus, by preventing the formation of syncytia, Gag helps to secure efficient transfer of viral particles to target cells. PMID:23637402

  3. Naringin Reverses Hepatocyte Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress Associated with HIV-1 Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors-Induced Metabolic Complications

    PubMed Central

    Adebiyi, Oluwafeyisetan O.; Adebiyi, Olubunmi A.; Owira, Peter M. O.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) have not only improved therapeutic outcomes in the treatment of HIV infection but have also led to an increase in associated metabolic complications of NRTIs. Naringin’s effects in mitigating NRTI-induced complications were investigated in this study. Wistar rats, randomly allotted into seven groups (n = 7) were orally treated daily for 56 days with 100 mg/kg zidovudine (AZT) (groups I, II III), 50 mg/kg stavudine (d4T) (groups IV, V, VI) and 3 mL/kg of distilled water (group VII). Additionally, rats in groups II and V were similarly treated with 50 mg/kg naringin, while groups III and VI were treated with 45 mg/kg vitamin E. AZT or d4T treatment significantly reduced body weight and plasma high density lipoprotein concentrations but increased liver weights, plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol compared to controls, respectively. Furthermore, AZT or d4T treatment significantly increased oxidative stress, adiposity index and expression of Bax protein, but reduced Bcl-2 protein expression compared to controls, respectively. However, either naringin or vitamin E significantly mitigated AZT- or d4T-induced weight loss, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis compared to AZT- or d4T-only treated rats. Our results suggest that naringin reverses metabolic complications associated with NRTIs by ameliorating oxidative stress and apoptosis. This implies that naringin supplements could mitigate lipodystrophy and dyslipidemia associated with NRTI therapy. PMID:26690471

  4. Cross-clade neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 induced in rabbits by focusing the immune response on a neutralizing epitope

    SciTech Connect

    Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Cohen, Sandra; Pinter, Abraham; Krachmarov, Chavdar; Wrin, Terri; Wang Shixia; Lu Shan

    2009-09-15

    Studies were performed to induce cross-clade neutralizing antibodies (Abs) by testing various combinations of prime and boost constructs that focus the immune response on structurally-conserved epitopes in the V3 loop of HIV-1 gp120. Rabbits were immunized with gp120 DNA containing a V3 loop characterized by the GPGR motif at its tip, and/or with gp120 DNA with a V3 loop carrying the GPGQ motif. Priming was followed by boosts with V3-fusion proteins (V3-FPs) carrying the V3 sequence from a subtype B virus (GPGR motif), and/or with V3 sequences from subtypes A and C (GPGQ motif). The broadest and most consistent neutralizing responses were generated when using a clade C gp120 DNA prime and with the V3{sub B}-FP boost. Immune sera displayed neutralizing activity in three assays against pseudoviruses and primary isolates from subtypes A, AG, B, C, and D. Polyclonal Abs in the immune rabbit sera neutralized viruses that were not neutralized by pools of human anti-V3 monoclonal Abs. Greater than 80% of the neutralizing Abs were specific for V3, showing that the immune response could be focused on a neutralizing epitope and that vaccine-induced anti-V3 Abs have cross-clade neutralizing activity.

  5. Naringin Reverses Hepatocyte Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress Associated with HIV-1 Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors-Induced Metabolic Complications.

    PubMed

    Adebiyi, Oluwafeyisetan O; Adebiyi, Olubunmi A; Owira, Peter M O

    2015-12-01

    Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) have not only improved therapeutic outcomes in the treatment of HIV infection but have also led to an increase in associated metabolic complications of NRTIs. Naringin's effects in mitigating NRTI-induced complications were investigated in this study. Wistar rats, randomly allotted into seven groups (n = 7) were orally treated daily for 56 days with 100 mg/kg zidovudine (AZT) (groups I, II III), 50 mg/kg stavudine (d4T) (groups IV, V, VI) and 3 mL/kg of distilled water (group VII). Additionally, rats in groups II and V were similarly treated with 50 mg/kg naringin, while groups III and VI were treated with 45 mg/kg vitamin E. AZT or d4T treatment significantly reduced body weight and plasma high density lipoprotein concentrations but increased liver weights, plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol compared to controls, respectively. Furthermore, AZT or d4T treatment significantly increased oxidative stress, adiposity index and expression of Bax protein, but reduced Bcl-2 protein expression compared to controls, respectively. However, either naringin or vitamin E significantly mitigated AZT- or d4T-induced weight loss, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis compared to AZT- or d4T-only treated rats. Our results suggest that naringin reverses metabolic complications associated with NRTIs by ameliorating oxidative stress and apoptosis. This implies that naringin supplements could mitigate lipodystrophy and dyslipidemia associated with NRTI therapy. PMID:26690471

  6. HIV Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Home > HIV/AIDS > What is HIV/AIDS? HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) HIV symptoms Photo courtesy of AIDS.gov More information ... and brain Return to top More information on HIV symptoms Explore other publications and websites Basic Information ...

  7. Characterization of a ubiquitinated protein which is externally located in African swine fever virions.

    PubMed Central

    Hingamp, P M; Leyland, M L; Webb, J; Twigger, S; Mayer, R J; Dixon, L K

    1995-01-01

    An antiserum was raised against the African swine fever virus (ASFV)-encoded ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UBCv1) and used to demonstrate by Western blotting (immunoblotting) and immunofluorescence that the enzyme is present in purified extracellular virions, is expressed both early and late after infection of cells with ASFV, and is cytoplasmically located. Antiubiquitin serum was used to identify novel ubiquitin conjugates present during ASFV infections. This antiserum stained virus factories late after infection, suggesting that virion proteins may be ubiquitinated. This possibility was confirmed by Western blotting, which identified three major antiubiquitin-immunoreactive proteins with molecular masses of 5, 18, and 58 kDa in purified extracellular virions. The 18-kDa protein was solubilized from virions at relatively low concentrations of the detergent n-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, indicating that it is externally located and is possibly in the virus capsid. The 18-kDa protein was purified, and N-terminal amino acid sequencing confirmed that the protein was ubiquitinated and was ASFV encoded. The ASFV gene encoding this protein (PIG1) was sequenced, and the encoded protein expressed in an Escherichia coli expression vector. Recombinant PIG1 was ubiquitinated in the presence of E. coli expressed UBCv1 in vitro. These results suggest that PIG1 may be a substrate for UBCv1. The predicted molecular masses of the PIG1 protein and recombinant ubiquitinated protein were larger than the 18-kDa molecular mass of the ubiquitinated protein present in virions. Therefore, during viral replication, a precursor protein may undergo limited proteolysis to generate the ubiquitinated 18-kDa protein. PMID:7853518

  8. New intermediate subviral particles in the in vitro uncoating of reovirus virions by chymotrypsin.

    PubMed

    Borsa, J; Copps, T P; Sargent, M D; Long, D G; Chapman, J D

    1973-04-01

    Reovirus virions, grown in suspension cultures of L cells and extensively purified by density gradient and velocity gradient centrifugation after their release from cell debris by fluorocarbon extraction, are characterized by a mean particle diameter of 73 nm and a density in CsCl of 1.36 to 1.37 g/cm(3). Treatment of intact virions by chymotrypsin (CHT) digestion in vitro converts them to subviral particles (SVP) having characteristics which are determined by the species of monovalent cation present during the digestion. In the presence of Cs(+) ions, CHT converts the virions to SVP of mean diameter 51 nm and density 1.43 to 1.44 g/cm(3). In the presence of K(+) ions, the conversion is to SVP of diameter 51 nm and density 1.39 to 1.40 g/cm(3). The SVP made in the presence of either Cs(+) or K(+) possess an extremely active RNA polymerase and nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolase (NTPase) activity in vitro and are resistant to further digestion by CHT. Treatment of intact virions with CHT in the presence of Na(+) or Li(+) ions results in their conversion to SVP of mean diameter 64 nm and density 1.37 to 1.38 g/cm(3). Such SVP are not active in in vitro RNA synthesis or NTP hydrolysis and are resistant to further digestion by CHT even during prolonged exposure to high concentrations of enzyme. Addition of Cs(+) or K(+) ions to the digestion mixture allows conversion of the 64-nm diameter SVP to 51-nm diameter SVP in which the RNA polymerase and NTPase are active in vitro. Analysis of the proteins present in intact virions and in the different SVP reveals clear differences which indicate that the conversions are accomplished by removal or cleavage of particular species of polypeptides. PMID:4349495

  9. MULTIPLE WAYS OF TARGETING APOBEC3/VIF INTERACTIONS FOR ANTI-HIV-1 DRUG DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jessica L.; Bu, Wei; Burdick, Ryan C.; Pathak, Vinay K.

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections and the resulting acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic remain a global challenge in the absence of a protective vaccine and because of rapid selection of drug-resistant viral variants in response to all currently available antiviral therapies. Development of new and highly active antiviral agents would greatly facilitate effective clinical management of HIV-1 infections and delay the onset of AIDS. Recent advances in our understanding of intracellular immunity conferred by host cytidine deaminases APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F), and the mechanism by which the virally encoded Virion Infectivity Factor (Vif) protein induces their proteasomal degradation, provide fresh opportunities for the development of novel antiviral treatments. Interestingly, the interactions between Vif-A3G and Vif-A3F that overcome this host defense mechanism are structurally distinct, and provide two potential targets for antiviral drug development. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of APOBEC3/Vif interactions and recent efforts to target these interactions for antiviral drug development. PMID:19837465

  10. HIV-1 incorporates and proteolytically processes human NDR1 and NDR2 serine-threonine kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Devroe, Eric; Silver, Pamela A.; Engelman, Alan . E-mail: alan_engelman@dfci.harvard.edu

    2005-01-05

    Mammalian genomes encode two related serine-threonine kinases, nuclear Dbf2 related (NDR)1 and NDR2, which are homologous to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Dbf2 kinase. Recently, a yeast genetic screen implicated the Dbf2 kinase in Ty1 retrotransposition. Since several virion-incorporated kinases regulate the infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we speculated that the human NDR1 and NDR2 kinases might play a role in the HIV-1 life cycle. Here we show that the NDR1 and NDR2 kinases were incorporated into HIV-1 particles. Furthermore, NDR1 and NDR2 were cleaved by the HIV-1 protease (PR), both within virions and within producer cells. Truncation at the PR cleavage site altered NDR2 subcellular localization and inhibited NDR1 and NDR2 enzymatic activity. These studies identify two new virion-associated host cell enzymes and suggest a novel mechanism by which HIV-1 alters the intracellular environment of human cells.

  11. HIV-Tat Induces the Nrf2/ARE Pathway through NMDA Receptor-Elicited Spermine Oxidase Activation in Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mastrantonio, Roberta; Cervelli, Manuela; Pietropaoli, Stefano; Mariottini, Paolo; Colasanti, Marco; Persichini, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we reported that HIV-Tat elicits spermine oxidase (SMO) activity upregulation through NMDA receptor (NMDAR) stimulation in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, thus increasing ROS generation, which in turn leads to GSH depletion, oxidative stress, and reduced cell viability. In several cell types, ROS can trigger an antioxidant cell response through the transcriptional induction of oxidative stress-responsive genes regulated by the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Here, we demonstrate that Tat induces both antioxidant gene expression and Nrf2 activation in SH-SY5Y cells, mediated by SMO activity. Furthermore, NMDAR is involved in Tat-induced Nrf2 activation. These findings suggest that the NMDAR/SMO/Nrf2 pathway is an important target for protection against HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. PMID:26895301

  12. Oral Immunization with a Recombinant Lactococcus lactis-Expressing HIV-1 Antigen on Group A Streptococcus Pilus Induces Strong Mucosal Immunity in the Gut.

    PubMed

    Chamcha, Venkateswarlu; Jones, Andrew; Quigley, Bernard R; Scott, June R; Amara, Rama Rao

    2015-11-15

    The induction of a potent humoral and cellular immune response in mucosal tissue is important for the development of an effective HIV vaccine. Most of the current HIV vaccines under development use the i.m. route for immunization, which is relatively poor in generating potent and long-lived mucosal immune responses. In this article, we explore the ability of an oral vaccination with a probiotic organism, Lactococcus lactis, to elicit HIV-specific immune responses in the mucosal and systemic compartments of BALB/c mice. We expressed the HIV-1 Gag-p24 on the tip of the T3 pilus of Streptococcus pyogenes as a fusion to the Cpa protein (LL-Gag). After four monthly LL-Gag oral immunizations, we observed strong Gag-specific IgG and IgA responses in serum, feces, and vaginal secretions. However, the Gag-specific CD8 T cell responses in the blood were at or below our detection limit. After an i.m. modified vaccinia Ankara/Gag boost, we observed robust Gag-specific CD8 T cell responses both in systemic and in mucosal tissues, including intraepithelial and lamina propria lymphocytes of the small intestine, Peyer's patches, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Consistent with strong immunogenicity, the LL-Gag induced activation of CD11c(+) CD11b(+) dendritic cells in the Peyer's patches after oral immunization. Our results demonstrate that oral immunization with L. lactis expressing an Ag on the tip of the group A Streptococcus pilus serves as an excellent vaccine platform to induce strong mucosal humoral and cellular immunity against HIV. PMID:26482408

  13. HIV Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat HIV infection (called antiretroviral therapy, or ART) the right way, every day and his or ... way, every day, the medicine to treat HIV (ART) reduces the amount of HIV (called “viral ...

  14. Topical application of superoxide dismutase mediated by HIV-TAT peptide attenuates UVB-induced damages in human skin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaochao; Liu, Shutao; Rao, Pingfan; Bradshaw, Jeremy; Weller, Richard

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether topical application of superoxide dismutase with cell penetrating peptide (HIV-TAT) could protect against skin damage induced by UVB irradiation in humans. The permeability through stratum corneum of large proteins linked to TAT peptide was firstly confirmed by confocal microscopy and tape stripping. Ten healthy volunteers with either Fitzpatrick skin type II or III were recruited in this clinical study. TAT-SOD (300units/cm(2)) and vehicle cream were applied on two symmetric areas of both inner upper arms 1h prior to UVB irradiation. After one hour of pretreatment, subjects received 10 incremental doses of UVB on pretreated areas. 24h later, erythema, blood flow and apoptotic cells were measured. Pretreatment with TAT-SOD 1h prior to UVB radiation promoted a mean minimal erythema dose (MED) increase of 36.6±18.4% (p=0.013<0.05. n=10) compared to vehicle control. The median blood flow values of all subjects following 2 and 3-MED of UVB were 107.8±51.0units and 239.5±88.0units respectively, which account for 26% and 25% decrease with respect to vehicle groups. These data suggest that TAT-SOD significantly suppresses UVB induced erythema formation and blood flow rise. Furthermore, pretreatment with TAT-SOD 1h prior to 2-MED of UVB irradiation reduced the apoptotic sunburn cell formation by 47.6±8.6% (p<0.0001) in all subjects. Evaluating results generated from all measurements, we conclude that topical application of TAT-SOD significantly attenuates UVB-induced skin damage in man. These biological effects of TAT-SOD are probably mediated via its free radical scavenging properties, clearly differentiating it from other physical sunscreen agents. PMID:27460952

  15. Short chain fatty acids potently induce latent HIV-1 in T-cells by activating P-TEFb and multiple histone modifications.

    PubMed

    Das, Biswajit; Dobrowolski, Curtis; Shahir, Abdel-Malek; Feng, Zhimin; Yu, Xiaolan; Sha, Jinfeng; Bissada, Nabil F; Weinberg, Aaron; Karn, Jonathan; Ye, Fengchun

    2015-01-01

    HIV patients with severe periodontitis have high levels of residual virus in their saliva and plasma despite effective therapy (HAART). Multiple short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from periodontal pathogens reactivate HIV-1 in both Jurkat and primary T-cell models of latency. SCFAs not only activate positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), which is an essential cellular cofactor for Tat, but can also reverse chromatin blocks by inducing histone modifications. SCFAs simultaneously increase histone acetylation by inhibiting class-1/2 histone deacetylases (HDACs) and decrease repressive histone tri-methylation at the proviral LTR by downregulating expression of the class-3 HDAC sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), and the histone methyltransferases enhancer of Zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) and suppressor of variegation 3-9 homolog 1 (SUV39H1). Our findings provide a mechanistic link between periodontal disease and enhanced HIV-1 replication, and suggest that treatment of periodontal disease, or blocking the activities of SCFAs, will have a therapeutic benefit for HIV patients. PMID:25463605

  16. Short Chain Fatty Acids Potently Induce Latent HIV-1 in T-cells by Activating P-TEFb and Multiple Histone Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Das, Biswajit; Dobrowolski, Curtis; Shahir, Abdel-Malek; Feng, Zhimin; Yu, Xiaolan; Sha, Jinfeng; Bissada, Nabil F.; Weinberg, Aaron; Karn, Jonathan; Ye, Fengchun

    2014-01-01

    HIV patients with severe periodontitis have high levels of residual virus in their saliva and plasma despite effective therapy (HAART). Multiple short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from periodontal pathogens reactivate HIV-1 in both Jurkat and primary T-cell models of latency. SCFAs not only activate positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), which is an essential cellular cofactor for Tat, but can also reverse chromatin blocks by inducing histone modifications. SCFAs simultaneously increase histone acetylation by inhibiting class-1/2 histone deacetylases (HDACs) and decrease repressive histone tri-methylation at the proviral LTR by downregulating expression of the class-3 HDAC sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), and the histone methyltransferases enhancer of Zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) and suppressor of variegation 3–9 homolog 1 (SUV39H1). Our findings provide a mechanistic link between periodontal disease and enhanced HIV-1 replication, and suggest that treatment of periodontal disease, or blocking the activities of SCFAs, will have a therapeutic benefit for HIV patients. PMID:25463605

  17. Disulfide Sensitivity in the Env Protein Underlies Lytic Inactivation of HIV-1 by Peptide Triazole Thiols.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Lauren D; Kalyana Sundaram, Ramalingam Venkat; Li, Huiyuan; Duffy, Caitlin; Aneja, Rachna; Rosemary Bastian, Arangassery; Holmes, Andrew P; Kamanna, Kantharaju; Rashad, Adel A; Chaiken, Irwin

    2015-12-18

    We investigated the mode of action underlying lytic inactivation of HIV-1 virions by peptide triazole thiol (PTT), in particular the relationship between gp120 disulfides and the C-terminal cysteine-SH required for virolysis. Obligate PTT dimer obtained by PTT SH cross-linking and PTTs with serially truncated linkers between pharmacophore isoleucine-ferrocenyltriazole-proline-tryptophan and cysteine-SH were synthesized. PTT variants showed loss of lytic activity but not binding and infection inhibition upon SH blockade. A disproportionate loss of lysis activity vs binding and infection inhibition was observed upon linker truncation. Molecular docking of PTT onto gp120 argued that, with sufficient linker length, the peptide SH could approach and disrupt several alternative gp120 disulfides. Inhibition of lysis by gp120 mAb 2G12, which binds at the base of the V3 loop, as well as disulfide mutational effects, argued that PTT-induced disruption of the gp120 disulfide cluster at the base of the V3 loop is an important step in lytic inactivation of HIV-1. Further, PTT-induced lysis was enhanced after treating virus with reducing agents dithiothreitol and tris (2-carboxyethyl)phosphine. Overall, the results are consistent with the view that the binding of PTT positions the peptide SH group to interfere with conserved disulfides clustered proximal to the CD4 binding site in gp120, leading to disulfide exchange in gp120 and possibly gp41, rearrangement of the Env spike, and ultimately disruption of the viral membrane. The dependence of lysis activity on thiol-disulfide interaction may be related to intrinsic disulfide exchange susceptibility in gp120 that has been reported previously to play a role in HIV-1 cell infection. PMID:26458166

  18. TopoisomeraseIIβ in HIV-1 transactivation.

    PubMed

    Chekuri, Anil; Bhaskar, C; Bollimpelli, V Satish; Kondapi, Anand K

    2016-03-01

    TopoisomeraseIIβ, an isoform of type II topoisomerase, was found to be functional in various viral infections. Its plausible role in HIV life cycle was also suggested earlier, but not clearly established. In the present study, we have investigated the role of TopoIIβ in HIV-1 infection by its gain and loss of function. Overexpression of TopoIIβ lead to an increase in viral replication, resulting in enhanced virion production. HIV-1 replication was impaired when TopoIIβ was down regulated by siRNA and inhibited by ICRF-193 and merbarone. The role of TopoIIβ in HIV-1 transcription was shown through its interaction with Tat and recruitement to long terminal repeat (LTR) region by co-immunoprecipitation and ChIP assays. Involvement of TopoIIβ in transactivation of HIV-1 LTR was confirmed by luciferase assay in reporter cell line, TZM bl and also by transfection of reporter exogenously. It was also observed that LTR transactivation commensurated with the expression of TopoIIβ in the presence of Tat. In addition, a decreased viral gene expression on treatment with merbarone exemplifies the importance of catalytic activity of TopoIIβ in viral replication. These observations indicate that TopoIIβ is involved in the cascade of coactivator complexes that are recruited to LTR for regulation of HIV-1 transcription. PMID:26876283

  19. Productive Replication and Evolution of HIV-1 in Ferret Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fadel, Hind J.; Saenz, Dyana T.; Guevara, Rebekah; von Messling, Veronika; Peretz, Mary

    2012-01-01

    A rodent or other small animal model for HIV-1 has not been forthcoming, with the principal obstacles being species-specific restriction mechanisms and deficits in HIV-1 dependency factors. Some Carnivorans may harbor comparatively fewer impediments. For example, in contrast to mice, the domestic cat genome encodes essential nonreceptor HIV-1 dependency factors. All Feliformia species and at least one Caniformia species also lack a major lentiviral restriction mechanism (TRIM5α/TRIMCyp proteins). Here we investigated cells from two species in another carnivore family, the Mustelidae, for permissiveness to the HIV-1 life cycle. Mustela putorius furo (domesticated ferret) primary cells and cell lines did not restrict HIV-1, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), or N-tropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) postentry and supported late HIV-1 life cycle steps comparably to human cells. The ferret TRIM5α gene exon 8, which encodes the B30.2 domain, was found to be pseudogenized. Strikingly, ferret (but not mink) cells engineered to express human HIV-1 entry receptors supported productive spreading replication, amplification, and serial passage of wild-type HIV-1. Nevertheless, produced virions had relatively reduced infectivity and the virus accrued G→A hypermutations, consistent with APOBEC3 protein pressure. Ferret cell-passaged HIV-1 also evolved amino acid changes in the capsid cyclophilin A binding loop. We conclude that the genome of this carnivore can provide essential nonreceptor HIV-1 dependency factors and that ferret APOBEC3 proteins with activity against HIV-1 are likely. Even so, unlike in cat cells, HIV-1 can replicate in ferret cells without vif substitution. The virus evolves in this novel nonprimate cell adaptive landscape. We suggest that further characterization of HIV-1 adaptation in ferret cells and delineation of Mustelidae restriction factor repertoires are warranted, with a view to the potential for an HIV-1

  20. Virion Structure of Iflavirus Slow Bee Paralysis Virus at 2.6-Angstrom Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Kalynych, Sergei; Přidal, Antonín; Pálková, Lenka; Levdansky, Yevgen; de Miranda, Joachim R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The western honeybee (Apis mellifera) is the most important commercial insect pollinator. However, bees are under pressure from habitat loss, environmental stress, and pathogens, including viruses that can cause lethal epidemics. Slow bee paralysis virus (SBPV) belongs to the Iflaviridae family of nonenveloped single-stranded RNA viruses. Here we present the structure of the SBPV virion determined from two crystal forms to resolutions of 3.4 Å and 2.6 Å. The overall structure of the virion resembles that of picornaviruses, with the three major capsid proteins VP1 to 3 organized into a pseudo-T3 icosahedral capsid. However, the SBPV capsid protein VP3 contains a C-terminal globular domain that has not been observed in other viruses from the order Picornavirales. The protruding (P) domains form “crowns” on the virion surface around each 5-fold axis in one of the crystal forms. However, the P domains are shifted 36 Å toward the 3-fold axis in the other crystal form. Furthermore, the P domain contains the Ser-His-Asp triad within a surface patch of eight conserved residues that constitutes a putative catalytic or receptor-binding site. The movements of the domain might be required for efficient substrate cleavage or receptor binding during virus cell entry. In addition, capsid protein VP2 contains an RGD sequence that is exposed on the virion surface, indicating that integrins might be cellular receptors of SBPV. IMPORTANCE Pollination by honeybees is needed to sustain agricultural productivity as well as the biodiversity of wild flora. However, honeybee populations in Europe and North America have been declining since the 1950s. Honeybee viruses from the Iflaviridae family are among the major causes of honeybee colony mortality. We determined the virion structure of an Iflavirus, slow bee paralysis virus (SBPV). SBPV exhibits unique structural features not observed in other picorna-like viruses. The SBPV capsid protein VP3 has a large C

  1. Interferon-induced HERC5 is evolving under positive selection and inhibits HIV-1 particle production by a novel mechanism targeting Rev/RRE-dependent RNA nuclear export

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Type I interferon (IFN) inhibits virus replication by activating multiple antiviral mechanisms and pathways. It has long been recognized that type I IFNs can potently block HIV-1 replication in vitro; as such, HIV-1 has been used as a system to identify and characterize IFN-induced antiviral proteins responsible for this block. IFN-induced HERC5 contains an amino-terminal Regulator of Chromosome Condensation 1 (RCC1)-like domain and a carboxyl-terminal Homologous to the E6-AP Carboxyl Terminus (HECT) domain. HERC5 is the main cellular E3 ligase that conjugates the IFN-induced protein ISG15 to proteins. This E3 ligase activity was previously shown to inhibit the replication of evolutionarily diverse viruses, including HIV-1. The contribution of the RCC1-like domain to the antiviral activity of HERC5 was previously unknown. Results In this study, we showed that HERC5 inhibits HIV-1 particle production by a second distinct mechanism that targets the nuclear export of Rev/RRE-dependent RNA. Unexpectedly, the E3 ligase activity of HERC5 was not required for this inhibition. Instead, this activity required the amino-terminal RCC1-like domain of HERC5. Inhibition correlated with a reduction in intracellular RanGTP protein levels and/or the ability of RanGTP to interact with RanBP1. Inhibition also correlated with altered subcellular localization of HIV-1 Rev. In addition, we demonstrated that positive evolutionary selection is operating on HERC5. We identified a region in the RCC1-like domain that exhibits an exceptionally high probability of having evolved under positive selection and showed that this region is required for HERC5-mediated inhibition of nuclear export. Conclusions We have identified a second distinct mechanism by which HERC5 inhibits HIV-1 replication and demonstrate that HERC5 is evolving under strong positive selection. Together, our findings contribute to a growing body of evidence suggesting that HERC5 is a novel host restriction factor

  2. Drug-induced haemolysis, renal failure, thrombocytopenia and lactic acidosis in patients with HIV and cryptococcal meningitis: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Camara-Lemarroy, Carlos R; Flores-Cantu, Hazael; Calderon-Hernandez, Hector J; Diaz-Torres, Marco A; Villareal-Velazquez, Hector J

    2015-12-01

    Patients with HIV are at risk of both primary and secondary haematological disorders. We report two cases of patients with HIV and cryptococcal meningitis who developed severe haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia, renal failure and lactic acidosis while on treatment with amphotericin B and co-trimoxazole. PMID:25614519

  3. Defining the level of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease activity required for HIV-1 particle maturation and infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Rosé, J R; Babé, L M; Craik, C S

    1995-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease is the enzyme required for processing of the Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins to yield mature, infectious virions. Although the complete absence of proteolytic activity prevents maturation, the level of activity sufficient for maturation and subsequent infectivity has not been determined. Amino acid substitutions that reduce catalytic activity without affecting substrate recognition have been engineered into the active site of the HIV-1 protease. The catalytic efficiency (kcat) of the HIV-1 protease is decreased 4-fold when threonine 26 is replaced by serine (T26S) and approximately 50-fold when alanine 28 is replaced by serine (A28S). Genes containing these mutations were cloned into a proviral vector for analysis of their effects on virion maturation and infectivity. The results show that virions containing the T26S protease variant, in which only 25% of the protease is active, are very similar to wild-type virions, although slight reductions in infectivity are observed. Virions containing the A28S protease variant are not infectious, even though a limited amount of polyprotein processing does occur. There appears to be a linear correlation between the level of protease activity and particle infectivity. Our observations suggest that a threshold of protease activity exists between a 4-fold and 50-fold reduction, below which processing is insufficient to yield infectious particles. Our data also suggest that a reduction of protease activity by 50-fold or greater is sufficient to prevent the formation of infectious particles. PMID:7535864

  4. Determinants of HIV-induced brain changes in three different periods of the early clinical course: A data mining analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Bokai; Kong, Xiangnan; Kettering, Casey; Yu, Philip; Ragin, Ann

    2015-01-01

    To inform an understanding of brain status in HIV infection, quantitative imaging measurements were derived at structural, microstructural and macromolecular levels in three different periods of early infection and then analyzed simultaneously at each stage using data mining. Support vector machine recursive feature elimination was then used for simultaneous analysis of subject characteristics, clinical and behavioral variables, and immunologic measures in plasma and CSF to rank features associated with the most discriminating brain alterations in each period. The results indicate alterations beginning in initial infection and in all periods studied. The severity of immunosuppression in the initial virus host interaction was the most highly ranked determinant of earliest brain alterations. These results shed light on the initial brain changes induced by a neurotropic virus and their subsequent evolution. The pattern of ongoing alterations occurring during and beyond the period in which virus is suppressed in the systemic circulation supports the brain as a viral reservoir that may preclude eradication in the host. Data mining capabilities that can address high dimensionality and simultaneous analysis of disparate information sources have considerable utility for identifying mechanisms underlying onset of neurological injury and for informing new therapeutic targets. PMID:26413474

  5. Human cervicovaginal mucus contains an activity that hinders HIV-1 movement.

    PubMed

    Shukair, S A; Allen, S A; Cianci, G C; Stieh, D J; Anderson, M R; Baig, S M; Gioia, C J; Spongberg, E J; Kauffman, S M; McRaven, M D; Lakougna, H Y; Hammond, C; Kiser, P F; Hope, T J

    2013-03-01

    Cervical and vaginal epithelia are primary barriers against HIV type I (HIV-1) entry during male-to-female transmission. Cervical mucus (CM) is produced by the endocervix and forms a layer locally as well as in the vaginal compartment in the form of cervicovaginal mucus (CVM). To study the potential barrier function of each mucus type during HIV-1 transmission, we quantified HIV-1 mobility in CM and CVM ex vivo using fluorescent microscopy. Virions and 200-nm PEGylated beads were digitally tracked and mean-squared displacement was calculated. The mobility of beads increased significantly in CVM compared with CM, consistent with the known decreased mucin concentration of CVM. Unexpectedly, HIV-1 diffusion was significantly hindered in the same CVM samples in which bead diffusion was unhindered. Inhibition of virus transport was envelope-independent. Our results reveal a previously unknown activity in CVM that is capable of impeding HIV-1 mobility to enhance mucosal barrier function. PMID:22990624

  6. An immunogen containing four tandem 10E8 epitope repeats with exposed key residues induces antibodies that neutralize HIV-1 and activates an ADCC reporter gene.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhiwu; Zhu, Yun; Wang, Qian; Ye, Ling; Dai, Yanyan; Su, Shan; Yu, Fei; Ying, Tianlei; Yang, Chinglai; Jiang, Shibo; Lu, Lu

    2016-01-01

    After three decades of intensive research efforts, an effective vaccine against HIV-1 remains to be developed. Several broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1, such as 10E8, recognize the membrane proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 gp41 protein. Thus, the MPER is considered to be a very important target for vaccine design. However, the MPER segment has very weak immunogenicity and tends to insert its epitope residues into the cell membrane, thereby avoiding antibody binding. To address this complication in vaccine development, we herein designed a peptide, designated 10E8-4P, containing four copies of the 10E8 epitope as an immunogen. As predicted by structural simulation, 10E8-4P exhibits a well-arranged tandem helical conformation, with the key residues in the 10E8 epitope oriented at different angles, thus suggesting that some of these key residues may be exposed outside of the lipid membrane. Compared with a peptide containing a single 10E8 epitope (10E8-1P), 10E8-4P not only exhibited better antigenicity but also elicited neutralizing antibody response against HIV-1 pseudoviruses, whereas 10E8-1P could not induce detectable neutralizing antibody response. Importantly, antibodies elicited by 10E8-4P also possessed a strong ability to activate an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) reporter gene, thus suggesting that they may have ADCC activity. Therefore, this strategy shows promise for further optimization and application in future HIV-1 vaccine design. PMID:27329850

  7. An immunogen containing four tandem 10E8 epitope repeats with exposed key residues induces antibodies that neutralize HIV-1 and activates an ADCC reporter gene

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhiwu; Zhu, Yun; Wang, Qian; Ye, Ling; Dai, Yanyan; Su, Shan; Yu, Fei; Ying, Tianlei; Yang, Chinglai; Jiang, Shibo; Lu, Lu

    2016-01-01

    After three decades of intensive research efforts, an effective vaccine against HIV-1 remains to be developed. Several broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1, such as 10E8, recognize the membrane proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 gp41 protein. Thus, the MPER is considered to be a very important target for vaccine design. However, the MPER segment has very weak immunogenicity and tends to insert its epitope residues into the cell membrane, thereby avoiding antibody binding. To address this complication in vaccine development, we herein designed a peptide, designated 10E8-4P, containing four copies of the 10E8 epitope as an immunogen. As predicted by structural simulation, 10E8-4P exhibits a well-arranged tandem helical conformation, with the key residues in the 10E8 epitope oriented at different angles, thus suggesting that some of these key residues may be exposed outside of the lipid membrane. Compared with a peptide containing a single 10E8 epitope (10E8-1P), 10E8-4P not only exhibited better antigenicity but also elicited neutralizing antibody response against HIV-1 pseudoviruses, whereas 10E8-1P could not induce detectable neutralizing antibody response. Importantly, antibodies elicited by 10E8-4P also possessed a strong ability to activate an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) reporter gene, thus suggesting that they may have ADCC activity. Therefore, this strategy shows promise for further optimization and application in future HIV-1 vaccine design. PMID:27329850

  8. An Inducible Cell-Cell Fusion System with Integrated Ability to Measure the Efficiency and Specificity of HIV-1 Entry Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Herschhorn, Alon; Finzi, Andres; Jones, David M.; Courter, Joel R.; Sugawara, Akihiro; Smith, Amos B.; Sodroski, Joseph G.

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs) mediate virus entry by fusing the viral and target cell membranes, a multi-step process that represents an attractive target for inhibition. Entry inhibitors with broad-range activity against diverse isolates of HIV-1 may be extremely useful as lead compounds for the development of therapies or prophylactic microbicides. To facilitate the identification of such inhibitors, we have constructed a cell-cell fusion system capable of simultaneously monitoring inhibition efficiency and specificity. In this system, effector cells stably express a tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTA) that enables tightly inducible expression of both HIV-1 Env and the Renilla luciferase (R-Luc) reporter protein. Target cells express the HIV-1 receptors, CD4 and CCR5, and carry the firefly luciferase (F-Luc) reporter gene under the control of a tTA-responsive promoter. Thus, Env-mediated fusion of these two cell types allows the tTA to diffuse to the target cell and activate the expression of the F-Luc protein. The efficiency with which an inhibitor blocks cell-cell fusion is measured by a decrease in the F-Luc activity, while the specificity of the inhibitor is evaluated by its effect on the R-Luc activity. The system exhibited a high dynamic range and high Z'-factor values. The assay was validated with a reference panel of inhibitors that target different steps in HIV-1 entry, yielding inhibitory concentrations comparable to published virus inhibition data. Our system is suitable for large-scale screening of chemical libraries and can also be used for detailed characterization of inhibitory and cytotoxic properties of known entry inhibitors. PMID:22069466

  9. Vaccinia Virus Mutations in the L4R Gene Encoding a Virion Structural Protein Produce Abnormal Mature Particles Lacking a Nucleocapsid

    PubMed Central

    Moussatche, Nissin; Condit, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Electron micrographs from the 1960s revealed the presence of an S-shaped tubular structure in the center of the vaccinia virion core. Recently, we showed that packaging of virus transcription enzymes is necessary for the formation of the tubular structure, suggesting that the structure is equivalent to a nucleocapsid. Based on this study and on what is known about nucleocapsids of other viruses, we hypothesized that in addition to transcription enzymes, the tubular structure also contains the viral DNA and a structural protein as a scaffold. The vaccinia virion structural protein L4 stands out as the best candidate for the role of a nucleocapsid structural protein because it is abundant, it is localized in the center of the virion core, and it binds DNA. In order to gain more insight into the structure and relevance of the nucleocapsid, we analyzed thermosensitive and inducible mutants in the L4R gene. Using a cryo-fixation method for electron microscopy (high-pressure freezing followed by freeze-substitution) to preserve labile structures like the nucleocapsid, we were able to demonstrate that in the absence of functional L4, mature particles with defective internal structures are produced under nonpermissive conditions. These particles do not contain a nucleocapsid. In addition, the core wall of these virions is abnormal. This suggests that the nucleocapsid interacts with the core wall and that the nucleocapsid structure might be more complex than originally assumed. IMPORTANCE The vaccinia virus nucleocapsid has been neglected since the 1960s due to a lack of electron microscopy techniques to preserve this labile structure. With the advent of cryo-fixation techniques, like high-pressure freezing/freeze-substitution, we are now able to consistently preserve and visualize the nucleocapsid. Because vaccinia virus early transcription is coupled to the viral core structure, detailing the structure of the nucleocapsid is indispensable for determining the

  10. In vitro Uncoating of HIV-1 Cores

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vaibhav B.; Aiken, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The genome of the retroviruses is encased in a capsid surrounded by a lipid envelope. For lentiviruses, such as HIV-1, the conical capsid shell is composed of CA protein arranged as a lattice of hexagon. The capsid is closed by 7 pentamers at the broad end and 5 at the narrow end of the cone1, 2. Encased in this capsid shell is the viral ribonucleoprotein complex, and together they comprise the core. Following fusion of the viral membrane with the target cell membrane, the HIV-1 is released into the cytoplasm. The capsid then disassembles releasing free CA in the soluble form3 in a process referred to as uncoating. The intracellular location and timing of HIV-1 uncoating are poorly understood. Single amino-acid substitutions in CA that alter the stability of the capsid also impair the ability of HIV-1 to infect cells4. This indicates that the stability of the capsid is critical for HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 uncoating has been difficult to study due to lack of availability of sensitive and reliable assays for this process. Here we describe a quantitative method for studying uncoating in vitro using cores isolated from infectious HIV-1 particles. The approach involves isolation of cores by sedimentation of concentrated virions through a layer of detergent and into a linear sucrose gradient, in the cold. To quantify uncoating, the isolated cores are incubated at 37°C for various timed intervals and subsequently pelleted by ultracentrifugation. The extent of uncoating is analyzed by quantifying the fraction of CA in the supernatant. This approach has been employed to analyze effects of viral mutations on HIV-1 capsid stability4, 5, 6. It should also be useful for studying the role of cellular factors in HIV-1 uncoating. PMID:22105356

  11. In vitro uncoating of HIV-1 cores.

    PubMed

    Shah, Vaibhav B; Aiken, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The genome of the retroviruses is encased in a capsid surrounded by a lipid envelope. For lentiviruses, such as HIV-1, the conical capsid shell is composed of CA protein arranged as a lattice of hexagon. The capsid is closed by 7 pentamers at the broad end and 5 at the narrow end of the cone(1, 2). Encased in this capsid shell is the viral ribonucleoprotein complex, and together they comprise the core. Following fusion of the viral membrane with the target cell membrane, the HIV-1 is released into the cytoplasm. The capsid then disassembles releasing free CA in the soluble form(3) in a process referred to as uncoating. The intracellular location and timing of HIV-1 uncoating are poorly understood. Single amino-acid substitutions in CA that alter the stability of the capsid also impair the ability of HIV-1 to infect cells(4). This indicates that the stability of the capsid is critical for HIV-1 infection. HIV-1 uncoating has been difficult to study due to lack of availability of sensitive and reliable assays for this process. Here we describe a quantitative method for studying uncoating in vitro using cores isolated from infectious HIV-1 particles. The approach involves isolation of cores by sedimentation of concentrated virions through a layer of detergent and into a linear sucrose gradient, in the cold. To quantify uncoating, the isolated cores are incubated at 37°C for various timed intervals and subsequently pelleted by ultracentrifugation. The extent of uncoating is analyzed by quantifying the fraction of CA in the supernatant. This approach has been employed to analyze effects of viral mutations on HIV-1 capsid stability(4, 5, 6). It should also be useful for studying the role of cellular factors in HIV-1 uncoating. PMID:22105356

  12. NFV, an HIV-1 protease inhibitor, induces growth arrest, reduced Akt signalling, apoptosis and docetaxel sensitisation in NSCLC cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Ikezoe, T; Nishioka, C; Bandobashi, K; Takeuchi, T; Adachi, Y; Kobayashi, M; Takeuchi, S; Koeffler, H P; Taguchi, H

    2006-12-18

    HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI), nelfinavir (NFV) induced growth arrest and apoptosis of NCI-H460 and -H520, A549, EBC-1 and ABC-1 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in association with upregulation of p21waf1, p27kip1 and p53, and downregulation of Bcl-2 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 proteins. We found that NFV blocked Akt signalling in these cells as measured by Akt kinase assay with glycogen synthase kinase-3alpha/beta (GSK-3alpha/beta) as a substrate. To explore the role of Akt signalling in NFV-mediated growth inhibition of NSCLC cells, we blocked this signal pathway by transfection of Akt small interfering RNA (siRNA) in these cells; transient transfection of Akt siRNA in NCI-H460 cells decreased the level of Bcl-2 protein and slowed their proliferation compared to the nonspecific siRNA-transfected cells. Conversely, forced-expression of Akt partially reversed NFV-mediated growth inhibition of these cells, suggesting that Akt may be a molecular target of NFV in NSCLC cells. Also, we found that inhibition of Akt signalling by NFV enhanced the ability of docetaxel to inhibit the growth of NCI-H460 and -H520 cells, as measured by MTT assay. Importantly, NFV slowed the proliferation and induced apoptosis of NCI-H460 cells present as tumour xenografts in nude mice without adverse systemic effects. Taken together, this family of compounds might be useful for the treatment of individuals with NSCLC. PMID:17133272

  13. HIV-1 Nef and KSHV oncogene K1 synergistically promote angiogenesis by inducing cellular miR-718 to regulate the PTEN/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Min; Yao, Shuihong; Hu, Minmin; Li, Wan; Hao, Tingting; Zhou, Feng; Zhu, Xiaofei; Lu, Hongmei; Qin, Di; Yan, Qin; Zhu, Jianzhong; Gao, Shou-Jiang; Lu, Chun

    2014-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is an AIDS-defining cancer with aberrant neovascularization caused by KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Although the interaction between HIV-1 and KSHV plays a pivotal role in promoting the aggressive manifestations of KS, the pathogenesis underlying AIDS-KS remains largely unknown. Here we examined HIV-1 Nef protein promotion of KSHV oncoprotein K1-induced angiogenesis. We showed that both internalized and ectopic expression of Nef in endothelial cells synergized with K1 to facilitate vascular tube formation and cell proliferation, and enhance angiogenesis in a chicken CAM model. In vivo experiments further indicated that Nef accelerated K1-induced angiogenesis and tumorigenesis in athymic nu/nu mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that Nef and K1 synergistically activated PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling by downregulating PTEN. Furthermore, Nef and K1 induced cellular miR-718, which inhibited PTEN expression by directly targeting a seed sequence in the 3′ UTR of its mRNA. Inhibition of miR-718 expression increased PTEN synthesis and suppressed the synergistic effect of Nef- and K1-induced angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. These results indicate that, by targeting PTEN, miR-718 mediates Nef- and K1-induced angiogenesis via activation of AKT/mTOR signaling. Our results demonstrate an essential role of miR-718/AKT/mTOR axis in AIDS-KS and thus may represent an attractive therapeutic target. PMID:25104021

  14. Experimental evidence for proteins constituting virion components and particle morphogenesis of bacteriophage ZF40.

    PubMed

    Korol, Natalia; Van den Bossche, An; Romaniuk, Liudmyla; Noben, Jean-Paul; Lavigne, Rob; Tovkach, Fedor

    2016-03-01

    Bacteriophage ZF40 is the only currently available, temperate Myoviridae phage infecting the potato pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. Despite its unusual tail morphology, its major tail sheath and tube proteins remained uncharacterized after the initial genome annotation. Using ESI tandem mass-spectrometry, 24 structural proteins of the ZF40 virion were identified, with a sequence coverage ranging between 15.8% and 87.8%. The putative function of 16 proteins could be elucidated based on secondary structure analysis and conservative domain searches. The experimental annotation of 35% of the encoded gene products within the structural region of the genome represents a complete view of the virion structure, which can serve as the basis for future structural analysis as a model phage. PMID:26887841

  15. Virus mutation frequencies can be greatly underestimated by monoclonal antibody neutralization of virions.

    PubMed Central

    Holland, J J; de la Torre, J C; Steinhauer, D A; Clarke, D; Duarte, E; Domingo, E

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody-resistant mutants have been widely used to estimate virus mutation frequencies. We demonstrate that standard virion neutralization inevitably underestimates monoclonal antibody-resistant mutant genome frequencies of vesicular stomatitis virus, due to phenotypic masking-mixing when wild-type (wt) virions are present in thousandsfold greater numbers. We show that incorporation of antibody into the plaque overlay medium (after virus penetration at 37 degrees C) can provide accurate estimates of genome frequencies of neutral monoclonal antibody-resistant mutant viruses in wt clones. By using this method, we have observed two adjacent G----A base transition frequencies in the I3 epitope to be of the order of 10(-4) in a wt glycine codon. This appears to be slightly lower than the frequencies observed at other sites for total (viable and nonviable) virus genomes when using a direct sequence approach. Images PMID:2479770

  16. Bacteriophage T4 Virion Baseplate Thymidylate Synthetase and Dihydrofolate Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Kozloff, L. M.; Lute, M.; Crosby, L. K.

    1977-01-01

    Additional evidence is presented that both the phage T4D-induced thymidylate synthetase (gp td) and the T4D-induced dihydrofolate reductase (gp frd) are baseplate structural components. With regard to phage td it has been found that: (i) low levels of thymidylate synthetase activity were present in highly purified preparations of T4D ghost particles produced after infection with td+, whereas particles produced after infection with td− had no measurable enzymatic activity; (ii) a mutation of the T4D td gene from tdts to td+ simultaneously produced a heat-stable thymidylate synthetase enzyme and heat-stable phage particles (it should be noted that the phage baseplate structure determines heat lability); (iii) a recombinant of two T4D mutants constructed containing both tdts and frdts genes produced particles whose physical properties indicate that these two molecules physically interact in the baseplate. With regard to phage frd it has been found that two spontaneous revertants each of two different T4D frdts mutants to frd+ not only produced altered dihydrofolate reductases but also formed phage particles with heat sensitivities different from their parents. Properties of T4D particles produced after infection with parental T4D mutants presumed to have a deletion of the td gene and/or the frd gene indicate that these particles still retain some characteristics associated with the presence of both the td and the frd molecules. Furthermore, the particles produced by the deletion mutants have been found to be physically different from the parent particles. PMID:894793

  17. Permeabilization and fusion of uncharged lipid vesicles induced by the HIV-1 fusion peptide adopting an extended conformation: dose and sequence effects.

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, F B; Goñi, F M; Muga, A; Nieva, J L

    1997-01-01

    The peptide HIV(arg), corresponding to a sequence of 23 amino acid residues at the N-terminus of HIV-1 gp41 (LAV1a strain), has the capacity to destabilize negatively charged large unilamellar vesicles. As revealed by infrared spectroscopy, the peptide associated with those vesicles showed conformational polymorphism: in the absence of cations the main structure was a pore-forming alpha-helix, whereas in the presence of Ca2+ the conformation switched to a fusogenic, predominantly extended beta-type structure. Here we show that an extended structure can also be involved in electrically neutral vesicle destabilization induced by the HIV-1 fusion peptide when it binds the vesicle from the aqueous phase. In the absence of cations, neutral liposomes composed of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and cholesterol (molar ratio 1:1:1) selected for an extended structure that became fusogenic in a dose-dependent fashion. At subfusogenic doses this structure caused the release of trapped 8-aminonaphtalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid sodium salt/p-xylenebis(pyridinium)bromide from liposomes, indicating the existence of a peptide-mediated membrane destabilizing process before and independent of the development of fusion. When compared to HIV(arg), the fusion activity of HIV(ala) (bearing the R22 --> A substitution) was reduced by 70%. Fusogenicity was completely abolished when a second substitution (V2 --> E) was included to generate HIV(ala-E2), a sequence representing the N-terminus of an inactive gp41. However, the three sequences associated with vesicles to the same extent, and the three adopted a similar extended structure in the membrane. Whereas 1-(4-trimethylaminophenyl)-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene emission anisotropy was unaffected by the three peptides, DPH emission anisotropy in membranes was increased only by the fusogenic sequences. Taken together, our observations strongly argue that it is not an alpha-helical but an extended structure adopted by the HIV-1

  18. Antigenicity and immunogenicity of HIV-1 consensus subtype B envelope glycoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kothe, Denise L.; Decker, Julie M.; Li Yingying; Weng Zhiping; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Zammit, Kenneth P.; Salazar, Maria G.; Chen, Yalu; Salazar-Gonzalez, Jesus F.; Moldoveanu, Zina; Mestecky, Jiri; Gao Feng; Haynes, Barton F.; Shaw, George M. ||; Muldoon, Mark; Korber, Bette T.M. |; Hahn, Beatrice H. |. E-mail: bhahn@uab.edu

    2007-03-30

    'Centralized' (ancestral and consensus) HIV-1 envelope immunogens induce broadly cross-reactive T cell responses in laboratory animals; however, their potential to elicit cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies has not been fully explored. Here, we report the construction of a panel of consensus subtype B (ConB) envelopes and compare their biologic, antigenic, and immunogenic properties to those of two wild-type Env controls from individuals with early and acute HIV-1 infection. Glycoprotein expressed from full-length (gp160), uncleaved (gp160-UNC), truncated (gp145), and N-linked glycosylation site deleted (gp160-201N/S) versions of the ConB env gene were packaged into virions and, except for the fusion defective gp160-UNC, mediated infection via the CCR5 co-receptor. Pseudovirions containing ConB Envs were sensitive to neutralization by patient plasma and monoclonal antibodies, indicating the preservation of neutralizing epitopes found in contemporary subtype B viruses. When used as DNA vaccines in guinea pigs, ConB and wild-type env immunogens induced appreciable binding, but overall only low level neutralizing antibodies. However, all four ConB immunogens were significantly more potent than one wild-type vaccine at eliciting neutralizing antibodies against a panel of tier 1 and tier 2 viruses, and ConB gp145 and gp160 were significantly more potent than both wild-type vaccines at inducing neutralizing antibodies against tier 1 viruses. Thus, consensus subtype B env immunogens appear to be at least as good as, and in some instances better than, wild-type B env immunogens at inducing a neutralizing antibody response, and are amenable to further improvement by specific gene modifications.

  19. Ultraviolet-irradiated vaccinia virus recombinants, exposing HIV-envelope on their outer membrane, induce antibodies against this antigen in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Loewinger, M; Katz, E

    2002-01-01

    The construction and isolation of recombinants of vaccinia virus (IHD-J strain), bearing on their outer membrane a chimeric protein consisting of the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of vaccinia B5R protein and the external domain of HIV envelope, has been previously described by us. The present study aimed to investigate the potential use of such recombinants as a vaccine, following inactivation of their infectivity by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The minimal dose of UV irradiation, required for the complete inactivation of the infectivity of these recombinants, was determined. Injections of rabbits with the irradiated noninfectious recombinant viruses successfully induced specific antibodies against the HIV envelope antigen, in addition to those against the poxvirus. PMID:12479396

  20. HIV-1 assembly in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms involved in the assembly of newly synthesized Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) particles are poorly understood. Most of the work on HIV-1 assembly has been performed in T cells in which viral particle budding and assembly take place at the plasma membrane. In contrast, few studies have been performed on macrophages, the other major target of HIV-1. Infected macrophages represent a viral reservoir and probably play a key role in HIV-1 physiopathology. Indeed macrophages retain infectious particles for long periods of time, keeping them protected from anti-viral immune response or drug treatments. Here, we present an overview of what is known about HIV-1 assembly in macrophages as compared to T lymphocytes or cell lines. Early electron microscopy studies suggested that viral assembly takes place at the limiting membrane of an intracellular compartment in macrophages and not at the plasma membrane as in T cells. This was first considered as a late endosomal compartment in which viral budding seems to be similar to the process of vesicle release into multi-vesicular bodies. This view was notably supported by a large body of evidence involving the ESCRT (Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport) machinery in HIV-1 budding, the observation of viral budding profiles in such compartments by immuno-electron microscopy, and the presence of late endosomal markers associated with macrophage-derived virions. However, this model needs to be revisited as recent data indicate that the viral compartment has a neutral pH and can be connected to the plasma membrane via very thin micro-channels. To date, the exact nature and biogenesis of the HIV assembly compartment in macrophages remains elusive. Many cellular proteins potentially involved in the late phases of HIV-1 cycle have been identified; and, recently, the list has grown rapidly with the publication of four independent genome-wide screens. However, their respective roles in infected cells

  1. HIV-1 Tat protein enhances the intracellular growth of Leishmania amazonensis via the ds-RNA induced protein PKR

    PubMed Central

    Vivarini, Áislan de Carvalho; Santos Pereira, Renata de Meirelles; Barreto-de-Souza, Victor; Temerozo, Jairo Ramos; Soares, Deivid C.; Saraiva, Elvira M.; Saliba, Alessandra Mattos; Bou-Habib, Dumith Chequer; Lopes, Ulisses Gazos

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 co-infection with human parasitic diseases is a growing public health problem worldwide. Leishmania parasites infect and replicate inside macrophages, thereby subverting host signaling pathways, including the response mediated by PKR. The HIV-1 Tat protein interacts with PKR and plays a pivotal role in HIV-1 replication. This study shows that Tat increases both the expression and activation of PKR in Leishmania-infected macrophages. Importantly, the positive effect of Tat addition on parasite growth was dependent on PKR signaling, as demonstrated in PKR-deficient macrophages or macrophages treated with the PKR inhibitor. The effect of HIV-1 Tat on parasite growth was prevented when the supernatant of HIV-1-infected macrophages was treated with neutralizing anti-HIV-1 Tat prior to Leishmania infection. The addition of HIV-1 Tat to Leishmania-infected macrophages led to inhibition of iNOS expression, modulation of NF-kB activation and enhancement of IL-10 expression. Accordingly, the expression of a Tat construct containing mutations in the basic region (49–57aa), which is responsible for the interaction with PKR, favored neither parasite growth nor IL-10 expression in infected macrophages. In summary, we show that Tat enhances Leishmania growth through PKR signaling. PMID:26608746

  2. VP3 is crucial for the stability of Nora virus virions.

    PubMed

    Sadanandan, Sajna Anand; Ekström, Jens-Ola; Jonna, Venkateswara Rao; Hofer, Anders; Hultmark, Dan

    2016-09-01

    Nora virus is an enteric virus that causes persistent, non-pathological infection in Drosophila melanogaster. It replicates in the fly gut and is transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Nora virus has a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome, which is translated in four open reading frames. Reading frame three encodes the VP3 protein, the structure and function of which we have investigated in this work. We have shown that VP3 is a trimer that has an α-helical secondary structure, with a functionally important coiled-coil domain. In order to identify the role of VP3 in the Nora virus life cycle, we constructed VP3-mutants using the cDNA clone of the virus. Our results show that VP3 does not have a role in the actual assembly of the virus particles, but virions that lack VP3 or harbor VP3 with a disrupted coiled coil domain are incapable of transmission via the fecal-oral route. Removing the region downstream of the putative coiled coil appears to have an effect on the fitness of the virus but does not hamper its replication or transmission. We also found that the VP3 protein and particularly the coiled coil domain are crucial for the stability of Nora virus virions when exposed to heat or proteases. Hence, we propose that VP3 is imperative to Nora virus virions as it confers stability to the viral capsid. PMID:27329665

  3. Proteomic Analysis of Mamestra Brassicae Nucleopolyhedrovirus Progeny Virions from Two Different Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Dianhai; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Mamestra brassicae nucleopolyhedrovirus (MabrNPV) has a wide host range replication in more than one insect species. In this study, a sequenced MabrNPV strain, MabrNPV-CTa, was used to perform proteomic analysis of both BVs and ODVs derived from two infected hosts: Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera exigua. A total of 82 and 39 viral proteins were identified in ODVs and BVs, respectively. And totally, 23 and 76 host proteins were identified as virion-associated with ODVs and BVs, respectively. The host proteins incorporated into the virus particles were mainly involved in cytoskeleton, signaling, vesicle trafficking, chaperone and metabolic systems. Some host proteins, such as actin, cyclophilin A and heat shock protein 70 would be important for viral replication. Several host proteins involved in immune response were also identified in BV, and a C-type lectin protein was firstly found to be associated with BV and its family members have been demonstrated to be involved in entry process of other viruses. This study facilitated the annotation of baculovirus genome, and would help us to understand baculovirus virion structure. Furthermore, the identification of host proteins associated with virions produced in vivo would facilitate investigations on the involvement of intriguing host proteins in virus replication. PMID:27058368

  4. Plant cell-directed control of virion sense gene expression in wheat dwarf virus.

    PubMed

    Gooding, P S; Batty, N P; Goldsbrough, A P; Mullineaux, P M

    1999-04-01

    We have used particle bombardment (biolistics) to deliver replication-competent wheat dwarf virus (WDV)-based constructs, carrying reporter gene sequences fused to the virion sense promoter (Pv) or the CaMV 35S promoter, to suspension culture cells and immature zygotic embryos of wheat. While the replication of WDV double-stranded DNA forms (replicons) was equivalent between wheat suspension culture cells and embryos, GUS reporter gene activity was 20-40 times higher in the embryo cultures. Maximum expression of WDV replicons occurred in the embryonic axis tissue of wheat embryos but their expression in suspension cells was compromised, compared with transiently maintained input plasmid DNA containing the same sequences. From these studies, we propose that WDV replicons are subject to a host cell-controlled competency for virion sense transcription. The term competency is used to distinguish between the phenomenon described here and control of gene expression by specific transcription factors. Control of competency is independent of Pv, the replacement 35S promoter and of the complementary sense control of virion sense expression involving specific sequences in Pv. We propose that factors controlling the competency for replicon expression may be present in cells which, as well as maintaining high rates of DNA synthesis, are totipotent. Cell type control of active chromatin, methylation of specific sequences in WDV minichromosomes and/or interaction of virus-encoded proteins with specific host factors are considered as possible mechanisms. PMID:10076003

  5. Backbone Model of an Aquareovirus Virion by Cryo-Electron Microscopy and Bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lingpeng; Zhu, Jiang; Hui, Wong Hoi; Zhang, Xiaokang; Honig, Barry; Fang, Qin; Zhou, Z. Hong

    2010-01-01

    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is a member of the aquareovirus genus in the Reoviridae family and has a capsid with two shells—a transcription-competent core surrounded by a coat. We report a near-atomic-resolution reconstruction of the GCRV virion by cryo-electron microscopy and single-particle reconstruction. A backbone model of the GCRV virion, including seven conformers of the five capsid proteins making up the 1500 molecules in both the core and the coat, was derived using cryo-electron microscopy density-map-constrained homology modeling and refinement. Our structure clearly showed that the amino-terminal segment of core protein VP3B forms an ~120-Å-long α-helix-rich extension bridging across the icosahedral 2-fold-symmetry-related molecular interface. The presence of this unique structure across this interface and the lack of an external cementing molecule at this location in GCRV suggest a stabilizing role of this extended amino-terminal density. Moreover, part of this amino-terminal extension becomes invisible in the reconstruction of transcription-competent core particles, suggesting its involvement in endogenous viral RNA transcription. Our structure of the VP1 turret represents its open state, and comparison with its related structures at the closed state suggests hinge-like domain movements associated with the mRNA-capping machinery. Overall, this first backbone model of an aquareovirus virion provides a wealth of structural information for understanding the structural basis of GCRV assembly and transcription. PMID:20036256

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Mamestra Brassicae Nucleopolyhedrovirus Progeny Virions from Two Different Hosts.

    PubMed

    Hou, Dianhai; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Lei-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Mamestra brassicae nucleopolyhedrovirus (MabrNPV) has a wide host range replication in more than one insect species. In this study, a sequenced MabrNPV strain, MabrNPV-CTa, was used to perform proteomic analysis of both BVs and ODVs derived from two infected hosts: Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera exigua. A total of 82 and 39 viral proteins were identified in ODVs and BVs, respectively. And totally, 23 and 76 host proteins were identified as virion-associated with ODVs and BVs, respectively. The host proteins incorporated into the virus particles were mainly involved in cytoskeleton, signaling, vesicle trafficking, chaperone and metabolic systems. Some host proteins, such as actin, cyclophilin A and heat shock protein 70 would be important for viral replication. Several host proteins involved in immune response were also identified in BV, and a C-type lectin protein was firstly found to be associated with BV and its family members have been demonstrated to be involved in entry process of other viruses. This study facilitated the annotation of baculovirus genome, and would help us to understand baculovirus virion structure. Furthermore, the identification of host proteins associated with virions produced in vivo would facilitate investigations on the involvement of intriguing host proteins in virus replication. PMID:27058368

  7. Exocytosis of Alphaherpesvirus Virions, Light Particles, and Glycoproteins Uses Constitutive Secretory Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Hogue, Ian B.; Scherer, Julian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many molecular and cell biological details of the alphaherpesvirus assembly and egress pathway remain unclear. Recently we developed a live-cell fluorescence microscopy assay of pseudorabies virus (PRV) exocytosis, based on total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy and a virus-encoded pH-sensitive fluorescent probe. Here, we use this assay to distinguish three classes of viral exocytosis in a nonpolarized cell type: (i) trafficking of viral glycoproteins to the plasma membrane, (ii) exocytosis of viral light particles, and (iii) exocytosis of virions. We find that viral glycoproteins traffic to the cell surface in association with constitutive secretory Rab GTPases and exhibit free diffusion into the plasma membrane after exocytosis. Similarly, both virions and light particles use these same constitutive secretory mechanisms for egress from infected cells. Furthermore, we show that viral light particles are distinct from cellular exosomes. Together, these observations shed light on viral glycoprotein trafficking steps that precede virus particle assembly and reinforce the idea that virions and light particles share a biogenesis and trafficking pathway. PMID:27273828

  8. A simple method for measuring porcine circovirus 2 whole virion particles and standardizing vaccine formulation.

    PubMed

    Zanotti, Cinzia; Amadori, Massimo

    2015-03-01

    Porcine Circovirus 2 (PCV2) is involved in porcine circovirus-associated disease, that causes great economic losses to the livestock industry worldwide. Vaccination against PCV2 proved to be very effective in reducing disease occurrence and it is currently performed on a large scale. Starting from a previous model concerning Foot-and Mouth Disease Virus antigens, we developed a rapid and simple method to quantify PCV2 whole virion particles in inactivated vaccines. This procedure, based on sucrose gradient analysis and fluorometric evaluation of viral genomic content, allows for a better standardization of the antigen payload in vaccine batches. It also provides a valid indication of virion integrity. Most important, such a method can be applied to whole virion vaccines regardless of the production procedures, thus enabling meaningful comparisons on a common basis. In a future batch consistency approach to PCV2 vaccine manufacture, our procedure represents a valuable tool to improve in-process controls and to guarantee conformity of the final product with passmarks for approval. This might have important repercussions in terms of reduced usage of animals for vaccine batch release, in the framework of the current 3Rs policy. PMID:25687800

  9. Virion Glycoprotein-Mediated Immune Evasion by Human Cytomegalovirus: a Sticky Virus Makes a Slick Getaway.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Thomas J; Tortorella, Domenico

    2016-09-01

    The prototypic herpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (CMV) exhibits the extraordinary ability to establish latency and maintain a chronic infection throughout the life of its human host. This is even more remarkable considering the robust adaptive immune response elicited by infection and reactivation from latency. In addition to the ability of CMV to exist in a quiescent latent state, its persistence is enabled by a large repertoire of viral proteins that subvert immune defense mechanisms, such as NK cell activation and major histocompatibility complex antigen presentation, within the cell. However, dissemination outside the cell presents a unique existential challenge to the CMV virion, which is studded with antigenic glycoprotein complexes targeted by a potent neutralizing antibody response. The CMV virion envelope proteins, which are critical mediators of cell attachment and entry, possess various characteristics that can mitigate the humoral immune response and prevent viral clearance. Here we review the CMV glycoprotein complexes crucial for cell attachment and entry and propose inherent properties of these proteins involved in evading the CMV humoral immune response. These include viral glycoprotein polymorphism, epitope competition, Fc receptor-mediated endocytosis, glycan shielding, and cell-to-cell spread. The consequences of CMV virion glycoprotein-mediated immune evasion have a major impact on persistence of the virus in the population, and a comprehensive understanding of these evasion strategies will assist in designing effective CMV biologics and vaccines to limit CMV-associated disease. PMID:27307580

  10. HIV-induced immunodeficiency and mortality from AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining malignancies

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate deaths from AIDS-defining malignancies (ADM) and non-AIDS-defining malignancies (nADM) in the D:A:D Study and to investigate the relationship between these deaths and immunodeficiency. Design Observational cohort study. Methods Patients (23 437) were followed prospectively for 104 921 person-years. We used Poisson regression models to identify factors independently associated with deaths from ADM and nADM. Analyses of factors associated with mortality due to nADM were repeated after excluding nADM known to be associated with a specific risk factor. Results Three hundred five patients died due to a malignancy, 298 prior to the cutoff for this analysis (ADM: n=110; nADM: n=188). The mortality rate due to ADM decreased from 20.1/1000 person-years of follow-up [95% confidence interval (CI) 14.4, 25.9] when the most recent CD4 cell count was <50 cells/μl to 0.1 (0.03, 0.3)/1000 person-years of follow-up when the CD4 cell count was more than 500 cells/μl; the mortality rate from nADM decreased from 6.0 (95% CI 3.3, 10.1) to 0.6 (0.4, 0.8) per 1000 person-years of follow-up between these two CD4 cell count strata. In multivariable regression analyses, a two-fold higher latest CD4 cell count was associated with a halving of the risk of ADM mortality. Other predictors of an increased risk of ADM mortality were homosexual risk group, older age, a previous (non-malignancy) AIDS diagnosis and earlier calendar years. Predictors of an increased risk of nADM mortality included lower CD4 cell count, older age, current/ex-smoking status, longer cumulative exposure to combination antiretroviral therapy, active hepatitis B infection and earlier calendar year. Conclusion The severity of immunosuppression is predictive of death from both ADM and nADM in HIV-infected populations. PMID:18832878

  11. HIV-1 Vpr Induces the Degradation of ZIP and sZIP, Adaptors of the NuRD Chromatin Remodeling Complex, by Hijacking DCAF1/VprBP

    PubMed Central

    Maudet, Claire; Sourisce, Adèle; Dragin, Loïc; Lahouassa, Hichem; Rain, Jean-Christophe; Bouaziz, Serge; Ramirez, Bertha Cécilia; Margottin-Goguet, Florence

    2013-01-01

    The Vpr protein from type 1 and type 2 Human Immunodeficiency Viruses (HIV-1 and HIV-2) is thought to inactivate several host proteins through the hijacking of the DCAF1 adaptor of the Cul4A ubiquitin ligase. Here, we identified two transcriptional regulators, ZIP and sZIP, as Vpr-binding proteins degraded in the presence of Vpr. ZIP and sZIP have been shown to act through the recruitment of the NuRD chromatin remodeling complex. Strikingly, chromatin is the only cellular fraction where Vpr is present together with Cul4A ubiquitin ligase subunits. Components of the NuRD complex and exogenous ZIP and sZIP were also associated with this fraction. Several lines of evidence indicate that Vpr induces ZIP and sZIP degradation by hijacking DCAF1: (i) Vpr induced a drastic decrease of exogenously expressed ZIP and sZIP in a dose-dependent manner, (ii) this decrease relied on the proteasome activity, (iii) ZIP or sZIP degradation was impaired in the presence of a DCAF1-binding deficient Vpr mutant or when DCAF1 expression was silenced. Vpr-mediated ZIP and sZIP degradation did not correlate with the growth-related Vpr activities, namely G2 arrest and G2 arrest-independent cytotoxicity. Nonetheless, infection with HIV-1 viruses expressing Vpr led to the degradation of the two proteins. Altogether our results highlight the existence of two host transcription factors inactivated by Vpr. The role of Vpr-mediated ZIP and sZIP degradation in the HIV-1 replication cycle remains to be deciphered. PMID:24116224

  12. HIV-1 Tat Protein Induces Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines by Human Dendritic Cells and Monocytes/Macrophages through Engagement of TLR4-MD2-CD14 Complex and Activation of NF-κB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Leghmari, Kaoutar; Serrero, Manutea; Delobel, Pierre; Izopet, Jacques; BenMohamed, Lbachir; Bahraoui, Elmostafa

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported that the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) Tat protein induced the expression of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) on dendritic cells (DCs) through a TLR4 pathway. However, the underlying mechanisms by which HIV-1 Tat protein induces the abnormal hyper-activation of the immune system seen in HIV-1 infected patients remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we report that HIV-1 Tat protein induced the production of significant amounts of the pro-inflammatory IL-6 and IL-8 cytokines by DCs and monocytes from both healthy and HIV-1 infected patients. Such production was abrogated in the presence of anti-TLR4 blocking antibodies or soluble recombinant TLR4-MD2 as a decoy receptor, suggesting TLR4 was recruited by Tat protein. Tat-induced