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Sample records for hog cholera

  1. 9 CFR 311.3 - Hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... kidneys and the lymph nodes which resemble lesions of hog cholera, they shall be regarded as those of hog... kidneys and lymph nodes of carcasses of hogs which appeared normal on ante-mortem inspection, further..., characteristic lesions of hog cholera are found in some organ or tissue in addition to those in the kidneys or...

  2. 9 CFR 311.3 - Hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... kidneys and the lymph nodes which resemble lesions of hog cholera, they shall be regarded as those of hog... kidneys and lymph nodes of carcasses of hogs which appeared normal on ante-mortem inspection, further..., characteristic lesions of hog cholera are found in some organ or tissue in addition to those in the kidneys or...

  3. 9 CFR 311.3 - Hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... kidneys and the lymph nodes which resemble lesions of hog cholera, they shall be regarded as those of hog... kidneys and lymph nodes of carcasses of hogs which appeared normal on ante-mortem inspection, further..., characteristic lesions of hog cholera are found in some organ or tissue in addition to those in the kidneys or...

  4. 9 CFR 311.3 - Hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... kidneys and the lymph nodes which resemble lesions of hog cholera, they shall be regarded as those of hog... kidneys and lymph nodes of carcasses of hogs which appeared normal on ante-mortem inspection, further..., characteristic lesions of hog cholera are found in some organ or tissue in addition to those in the kidneys or...

  5. 9 CFR 311.3 - Hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... kidneys and the lymph nodes which resemble lesions of hog cholera, they shall be regarded as those of hog... kidneys and lymph nodes of carcasses of hogs which appeared normal on ante-mortem inspection, further..., characteristic lesions of hog cholera are found in some organ or tissue in addition to those in the kidneys or...

  6. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  7. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  8. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  9. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  10. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  11. Detection of hog cholera virus and differentiation from other pestiviruses by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Wirz, B; Tratschin, J D; Müller, H K; Mitchell, D B

    1993-05-01

    Reverse transcription coupled with the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used for the detection and differentiation of pestiviruses. For this purpose, one primer pair was selected from a highly conserved region of the genome of pestiviruses. Using these primers (PEST 1-PEST 2), DNA fragments of between 72 and 74 bp could be amplified from all pestivirus isolates tested. In order to differentiate hog cholera virus (HCV) from bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and border disease virus (BDV), we selected a primer pair from a conserved region in the genome of HCV strains that differed from that sequenced in the genome of BVDV strains. By using these primers (HCV 1-HCV 2), a DNA fragment of 478 bp could be specifically amplified from HCV isolates. By these means, viral RNA was detected in extracts of lymph node, spleen, tonsil, and lung. Such extracts were used directly for RT-PCR without prior RNA isolation. We also performed multiplex PCR by using both the PEST 1-PEST 2 and HCV 1-HCV 2 primer pairs in a single reaction. This allowed the differentiation of HCV from BVDV and BDV in one step. To assess the sensitivity of the method, RT-PCR was compared with virus propagation in tissue culture and subsequent detection by immunofluorescence staining. The results show that RT-PCR is useful for the rapid detection and differentiation of pestiviruses. PMID:8388887

  12. Estimation of the dynamics and rate of transmission of classical swine fever (hog cholera) in wild pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Hone, J.; Pech, R.; Yip, P.

    1992-01-01

    Infectious diseases establish in a population of wildlife hosts when the number of secondary infections is greater than or equal to one. To estimate whether establishment will occur requires extensive experience or a mathematical model of disease dynamics and estimates of the parameters of the disease model. The latter approach is explored here. Methods for estimating key model parameters, the transmission coefficient (beta) and the basic reproductive rate (RDRS), are described using classical swine fever (hog cholera) in wild pigs as an example. The tentative results indicate that an acute infection of classical swine fever will establish in a small population of wild pigs. Data required for estimation of disease transmission rates are reviewed and sources of bias and alternative methods discussed. A comprehensive evaluation of the biases and efficiencies of the methods is needed. PMID:1582476

  13. The Effects of in utero Viral Infection on Embryonic, Fetal, and Neonatal Survival: A Comparison of SMEDI (Porcine Picorna) Viruses with Hog Cholera Vaccinal Virus

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, H. W.; Wang, J. T.; Clark, C. D.; Hokanson, J. F.; Morimoto, T.; Bubash, G. R.

    1969-01-01

    SMEDI and hog cholera viruses were shown to have marked effects upon the survival of the embryo (from conception to 30 days of gestation), the fetus (from 30 days of gestation until birth), and the neonatal pig (from birth until five days after birth). Embryonic infection was characterized by death and absorption of the embryo and in some instances the return to estrus after an irregular estrous cycle. Embryonic infection also may have been responsible for the development of some abnormal pigs. Fetal infection caused death with mummification of one or more fetuses and occasionally all fetuses in the uterus. Infection established in early gestation produced effects on the fetus which apparently persisted until after birth and varied from a persistent viremia (as in hog cholera infection) to an undefined lack of resistance in the newborn (as in SMEDI virus infection). Hog cholera vaccinal virus was the more virulent of the two virus types and reacted somewhat like rubella virus, in that infection apparently could be established in the fetus even in middle trimester of pregnancy, and possibly later. SMEDI viruses, in contrast, were less virulent and were most pathogenic when the dam was infected during the first 30 days of pregnancy. Immunity against either virus could be established in the nonpregnant gilt and was most effective in preventing intrauterine infections with that virus. However, with as many as 10 enteroviruses (five are known to cause intrauterine infection) it was believed that maintaining a closed breeding herd and introducing new stock into contact with the breeding herd at least 30 days before breeding time might be a safer means of control. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:4243029

  14. Cholera

    MedlinePlus

    ... cholerae. This same bacterium is also present in raw seafood, particularly shellfish. The best way to avoid ... contaminated with feces containing V. cholerae By eating raw shellfish contaminated with V. cholerae Who's At Risk ...

  15. Cholera

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jason B.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T.; Calderwood, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Cholera is an acute, secretory diarrhea caused by infection with Vibrio cholerae of the O1 and O139 serogroups. Cholera is endemic in over 50 countries and also causes large epidemics. Since 1817, seven cholera pandemics have spread from Asia to much of the world. The 7th pandemic began in 1961 and affects 3–5 million people each year, killing 120,000. Although mild cholera may be indistinguishable from other diarrheal illnesses, the presentation of severe cholera is distinct, with dramatic diarrheal purging. Management of patients with cholera involves aggressive fluid replacement; effective therapy can decrease mortality from over 50% to less than 0.2%. Antibiotics decrease volume and duration of diarrhea by 50% and are recommended for patients with moderate to severe dehydration. Prevention of cholera depends on access to safe water and sanitation. Two oral cholera vaccines are available and the most effective use of these in integrated prevention programs is being actively evaluated. PMID:22748592

  16. Cholera.

    PubMed Central

    Kaper, J B; Morris, J G; Levine, M M

    1995-01-01

    Despite more than a century of study, cholera still presents challenges and surprises to us. Throughout most of the 20th century, cholera was caused by Vibrio cholerae of the O1 serogroup and the disease was largely confined to Asia and Africa. However, the last decade of the 20th century has witnessed two major developments in the history of this disease. In 1991, a massive outbreak of cholera started in South America, the one continent previously untouched by cholera in this century. In 1992, an apparently new pandemic caused by a previously unknown serogroup of V. cholerae (O139) began in India and Bangladesh. The O139 epidemic has been occurring in populations assumed to be largely immune to V. cholerae O1 and has rapidly spread to many countries including the United States. In this review, we discuss all aspects of cholera, including the clinical microbiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical features of the disease. Special attention will be paid to the extraordinary advances that have been made in recent years in unravelling the molecular pathogenesis of this infection and in the development of new generations of vaccines to prevent it. PMID:7704895

  17. Cholera

    MedlinePlus

    ... developed packets of salts that are mixed with clean water to help restore fluids. These are cheaper and ... cholera occur, efforts should be made to establish clean water, food, and sanitation. Vaccination is not very effective ...

  18. Cholera

    MedlinePlus

    ... universal access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation, which is key in preventing both epidemic and endemic cholera. Actions targeting environmental conditions include: the development of piped water systems ...

  19. Application of peroxidase labelled antibody assays for detection of porcine IgG antibodies to hog cholera and bovine viral diarrhea viruses.

    PubMed

    Afshar, A; Dulac, G C; Bouffard, A

    1989-03-01

    Rapid, sensitive peroxidase labelled antibody (PLA) assays using microtiter systems, were developed for detection of hog cholera virus (HCV) and cross-reacting bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antibodies in pig sera. HCV-infected pig kidney cell line (PK 15) prepared in microtiter plates were fixed and used in PLA assays. After inoculation with test serum, bound antibodies (HCV/BVDV) were reacted with either horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugated anti-porcine immunoglobulin (H & L) or biotinylated protein A (BPA) and subsequent HRP labelled avidin (A). Positive reactions were easily visualized under an inverted light microscope as foci of brown colored cells after enzyme degradation of hydrogen peroxidase in the presence of amino-ethylcarbazole (AEC). The PLA assays were superior to the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test in detecting anti-HCV antibodies in porcine sera collected early after inoculation of pigs with a lapinized HCV vaccine. The performances of the PLA, IFA and FA neutralization (FAN) tests in measuring the immune response in the vaccinated pigs were comparable. Cross-reacting anti-BVDV antibody, as measured by a microtiter serum neutralization (MTSN) test, was not demonstrable in vaccinated pigs until they were challenged with a virulent HCV, 13 weeks later. The PLA assays relative to the IFA test detected more reactive samples among porcine field sera collected from HC-free pigs in Canada. Of 795 samples, 24 (3.01%) were reactive in the PLA employing HRP anti-porcine IgG, and 21 (2.6%) in the PLA, using BPA-HRP-A. When 324 of these sera were screened by the IFA test (using HC antigen), only one sample (0.30%) was found reactive.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2541152

  20. Cholera

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually found in water or food contaminated by feces (poop). Cholera is rare in the US. You may get it if you travel to parts of the world with inadequate water treatment and poor sanitation, and lack of sewage treatment. Outbreaks can also happen after disasters. The ...

  1. Cholera studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1957-01-01

    Discussing the symptomatology of cholera, the author deals first with the incubation period, the clinical types, choleraic diarrhoea, and cholerine; he then considers in detail the various stages of cholera gravis and the relapses and complications that may be met. This is followed by sections on diagnosis and differential diagnosis, and on prognosis and the various factors influencing it. The author's highly detailed review of the treatment of cholera which concludes this study is divided into three parts, dealing with attempts at specific therapy, with infusion treatment, and with adjuvant treatment. PMID:13426761

  2. From pigsties to hog heaven?

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, D A

    2001-01-01

    In the continuing transformation of U.S. agriculture, North Carolina finds itself on the front edge of change. Between 1989 and 1998, the number of hogs in the state's pork industry quintupled---and so has the amount of hog waste that must be disposed of. Now the state has engaged private and public resources in a rapid search for better ways for handling hog waste. A technology review panel has approved the first round of proposals for a number of novel technologies to be developed through funds from a government-industry agreement. A second batch of proposals is expected to be approved by late summer. PMID:11485887

  3. 2. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL SYSTEM FOR CANTILEVERED HOG RUN; BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL SYSTEM FOR CANTILEVERED HOG RUN; BUILDING 168 (1960 HOG KILL) IS BENEATH HOG RUN - Rath Packing Company, Cantilevered Hog Run, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  4. Cholera studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1957-01-01

    The first section of this study deals with areas where cholera is endemic and with the conditions normally favouring endemicity. Turning next to epidemics, the author discusses their origin and types, climatic influences on them, their periodicity and the possibility of forecasting them, the role played in them by different serological races of V. cholerae, and the causes of their decline. In a section on the factors governing the local spread of cholera, he considers contact and water-borne infection; the role of contaminated food and drink, of fomites, of flies, and of carriers; and the incidence according to sex, age, race, and occupation. The last part deals with factors governing the spread of cholera over longer distances, and includes discussion of the effect of movements of individuals and groups and of assemblies of the population on pilgrimages or at religious festivals. PMID:13472431

  5. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  6. Cholera studies*

    PubMed Central

    Swaroop, S.; Pollitzer, R.

    1955-01-01

    In this study, figures relating to cholera deaths occurring in individual countries, from 1900 to 1952, are recorded as well as the incidence of the disease from 1923 up to the present time. The mode of spread of cholera from its endemic home in India to outside countries is described in relation to favourable seasons, main routes followed by the infection, and the role played by large religious gatherings. The incidence of the disease in the various seaports infected within recent years is discussed. PMID:14364186

  7. Cholera studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1957-01-01

    After a general consideration of the loss of fluids and salts in evacuations from the gastro-intestinal tract, the author discusses in detail both the physical and the chemical changes in the blood of cholera patients. The author then deals exhaustively with the problems of circulatory and renal failure. PMID:13413649

  8. Cholera studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1956-01-01

    The first portion of this study describes in detail the different aspects of stool examinations, including the collection, preservation, and pooling of specimens, macroscopic and bacterioscopic examination, enrichment methods, and cultivation on a variety of solid media. The author also deals with the examination of vomits and of water. The performance and value of different identification tests (agglutination, haemolysis, and bacteriophage) and confirmatory tests are then considered. An annex is included on bacteriological procedures in the laboratory diagnosis of cholera. PMID:13356145

  9. Environmental injustice and the Mississippi hog industry.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sacoby M; Howell, Frank; Wing, Steve; Sobsey, Mark

    2002-04-01

    The recent growth and restructuring of the swine industry in the state of Mississippi has raised various environmental and socioeconomic concerns. We spatially examined the location and attributes of 67 industrial hog operations to determine if African American and low-income communities have a high prevalence of industrial hog operations located near their neighborhoods at the census block group level. We used spatial data and cross-classification analysis to compare the prevalence of industrial hog operations in neighborhoods that are primarily African American and low income with the prevalence in neighborhoods that are African American and affluent. We also used logistic regression to evaluate the relationship between the environmental justice variables and the location of the industrial hog operations. The block group characterization showed a high prevalence of hog operations in the four highest quintiles compared with the lowest quintile for percentage African American and percentage poverty. At increasing levels of percentage African Americans and percentage of persons in poverty, there are 2.4-3.6 times more operations compared with the referent group; additionally, scale adjustment to only the hog counties reduces this to 1.8-3.1 more operations compared with the referent group. The inequitable distribution of hog-confined agricultural feeding operations in these communities may have adverse environmental impacts associated with industrial hog production, such as increased health risks and quality of life degradation, as have occurred in other areas having similar facilities. PMID:11929728

  10. Environmental injustice and the Mississippi hog industry.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sacoby M; Howell, Frank; Wing, Steve; Sobsey, Mark

    2002-01-01

    The recent growth and restructuring of the swine industry in the state of Mississippi has raised various environmental and socioeconomic concerns. We spatially examined the location and attributes of 67 industrial hog operations to determine if African American and low-income communities have a high prevalence of industrial hog operations located near their neighborhoods at the census block group level. We used spatial data and cross-classification analysis to compare the prevalence of industrial hog operations in neighborhoods that are primarily African American and low income with the prevalence in neighborhoods that are African American and affluent. We also used logistic regression to evaluate the relationship between the environmental justice variables and the location of the industrial hog operations. The block group characterization showed a high prevalence of hog operations in the four highest quintiles compared with the lowest quintile for percentage African American and percentage poverty. At increasing levels of percentage African Americans and percentage of persons in poverty, there are 2.4-3.6 times more operations compared with the referent group; additionally, scale adjustment to only the hog counties reduces this to 1.8-3.1 more operations compared with the referent group. The inequitable distribution of hog-confined agricultural feeding operations in these communities may have adverse environmental impacts associated with industrial hog production, such as increased health risks and quality of life degradation, as have occurred in other areas having similar facilities. PMID:11929728

  11. Cholera studies*

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1957-01-01

    In discussing prevention, the author deals first with the provision of permanently safe water, supplied from waterworks or wells, and with other improvements in environmental sanitation. Control of food and drinks, public health propaganda and education, and vaccination are also considered under this heading. The greater part of this study is devoted to suppressive measures, affecting the individual, the environment, and persons in the mass. Discussion of the isolation, detection and management of cholera patients, the management of contacts, and the management and treatment of carriers is followed by sections on, inter alia, disinfection, temporary improvements in water supplies, fly control, and personal prophylaxis. In dealing with mass prophylaxis, the author pays particular attention to vaccination. In the concluding sections he goes into the control of pilgrimages and local and international quarantine measures. PMID:13479774

  12. Environmental injustice in North Carolina's hog industry.

    PubMed

    Wing, S; Cole, D; Grant, G

    2000-03-01

    Rapid growth and the concentration of hog production in North Carolina have raised concerns of a disproportionate impact of pollution and offensive odors on poor and nonwhite communities. We analyzed the location and characteristics of 2,514 intensive hog operations in relation to racial, economic, and water source characteristics of census block groups, neighborhoods with an average of approximately 500 households each. We used Poisson regression to evaluate the extent to which relationships between environmental justice variables and the number of hog operations persisted after consideration of population density. There are 18.9 times as many hog operations in the highest quintile of poverty as compared to the lowest; however, adjustment for population density reduces the excess to 7.2. Hog operations are approximately 5 times as common in the highest three quintiles of the percentage nonwhite population as compared to the lowest, adjusted for population density. The excess of hog operations is greatest in areas with both high poverty and high percentage nonwhites. Operations run by corporate integrators are more concentrated in poor and nonwhite areas than are operations run by independent growers. Most hog operations, which use waste pits that can contaminate groundwater, are located in areas with high dependence on well water for drinking. Disproportionate impacts of intensive hog production on people of color and on the poor may impede improvements in economic and environmental conditions that are needed to address public health in areas which have high disease rates and low access to medical care as compared to other areas of the state. PMID:10706528

  13. Environmental injustice in North Carolina's hog industry.

    PubMed Central

    Wing, S; Cole, D; Grant, G

    2000-01-01

    Rapid growth and the concentration of hog production in North Carolina have raised concerns of a disproportionate impact of pollution and offensive odors on poor and nonwhite communities. We analyzed the location and characteristics of 2,514 intensive hog operations in relation to racial, economic, and water source characteristics of census block groups, neighborhoods with an average of approximately 500 households each. We used Poisson regression to evaluate the extent to which relationships between environmental justice variables and the number of hog operations persisted after consideration of population density. There are 18.9 times as many hog operations in the highest quintile of poverty as compared to the lowest; however, adjustment for population density reduces the excess to 7.2. Hog operations are approximately 5 times as common in the highest three quintiles of the percentage nonwhite population as compared to the lowest, adjusted for population density. The excess of hog operations is greatest in areas with both high poverty and high percentage nonwhites. Operations run by corporate integrators are more concentrated in poor and nonwhite areas than are operations run by independent growers. Most hog operations, which use waste pits that can contaminate groundwater, are located in areas with high dependence on well water for drinking. Disproportionate impacts of intensive hog production on people of color and on the poor may impede improvements in economic and environmental conditions that are needed to address public health in areas which have high disease rates and low access to medical care as compared to other areas of the state. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10706528

  14. Cholera studies*†

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.; Burrows, W.

    1955-01-01

    Relevant information regarding the numerous problems encountered in cholera immunity is dealt with in great detail in this study. Toxin production, bacterial virulence, serological reactions, and the antigenic structure of V. cholerae are discussed. Natural, passive, and active cholera immunity receives special attention, the authors describing the various means of vaccination as well as the evaluation of the immunity induced. PMID:13240451

  15. 8. Detail of underside of viaduct, hog shed to left. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail of underside of viaduct, hog shed to left. View to west. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, "O" Street Viaduct, "O" Street Spanning Hog Pens; South Omaha Terminal Railway Company Tracks & Union Pacific Railroad Tracks, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  16. Vibrio cholerae Biofilms and Cholera Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Anisia J; Benitez, Jorge A

    2016-02-01

    Vibrio cholerae can switch between motile and biofilm lifestyles. The last decades have been marked by a remarkable increase in our knowledge of the structure, regulation, and function of biofilms formed under laboratory conditions. Evidence has grown suggesting that V. cholerae can form biofilm-like aggregates during infection that could play a critical role in pathogenesis and disease transmission. However, the structure and regulation of biofilms formed during infection, as well as their role in intestinal colonization and virulence, remains poorly understood. Here, we review (i) the evidence for biofilm formation during infection, (ii) the coordinate regulation of biofilm and virulence gene expression, and (iii) the host signals that favor V. cholerae transitions between alternative lifestyles during intestinal colonization, and (iv) we discuss a model for the role of V. cholerae biofilms in pathogenicity. PMID:26845681

  17. Vibrio cholerae Biofilms and Cholera Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Anisia J.; Benitez, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae can switch between motile and biofilm lifestyles. The last decades have been marked by a remarkable increase in our knowledge of the structure, regulation, and function of biofilms formed under laboratory conditions. Evidence has grown suggesting that V. cholerae can form biofilm-like aggregates during infection that could play a critical role in pathogenesis and disease transmission. However, the structure and regulation of biofilms formed during infection, as well as their role in intestinal colonization and virulence, remains poorly understood. Here, we review (i) the evidence for biofilm formation during infection, (ii) the coordinate regulation of biofilm and virulence gene expression, and (iii) the host signals that favor V. cholerae transitions between alternative lifestyles during intestinal colonization, and (iv) we discuss a model for the role of V. cholerae biofilms in pathogenicity. PMID:26845681

  18. 9 CFR 319.144 - Whole hog sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whole hog sausage. 319.144 Section 319... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh Sausage § 319.144 Whole hog sausage. “Whole Hog Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh and/or frozen meat from swine...

  19. Cholera studies*†

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1955-01-01

    In this study, the author describes in detail experimental cholera infection of mammals (infection by the oral route, intragastric inoculation, and intestinal, gall-bladder, and parenteral infection). The pathogenicity for lower animals is examined, and certain observations on insects are included. The second part of the study is devoted to the pathology of human cholera (morbid anatomy distribution of the causative organisms in the dead bodies of cholera victims, and pathogenesis). PMID:13284569

  20. Modeling cholera outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Longini, Ira M.; Morris, J. Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical modeling can be a valuable tool for studying infectious disease outbreak dynamics and simulating the effects of possible interventions. Here, we describe approaches to modeling cholera outbreaks and how models have been applied to explore intervention strategies, particularly in Haiti. Mathematical models can play an important role in formulating and evaluating complex cholera outbreak response options. Major challenges to cholera modeling are insufficient data for calibrating models and the need to tailor models for different outbreak scenarios. PMID:23412687

  1. Hog fuel drying using vapour recompression

    SciTech Connect

    Azarniouch, M.K.; Sayegh, N.N.

    1983-12-01

    Hog fuel is a broad term used by the forest products industry to describe all types of wood residues that are used as fuel. These can be bark, wood chip rejects, sawdust, shavings, etc. The moisture content of these residuals depends mainly on their source and on the conditions of storage and could range from 50 to 70% (wet basis). The introduction of the significant amounts of water contained in the hog fuel impairs the efficiency of operating a hog-fuel boiler by: (i) reducing the net heating value of the fuel, (ii) increasing the particulate emissions caused by incomplete combustion, (iii) requiring higher air flows to maintain combustion, (iv) decreasing the rate of combustion, and (v) reducing the heat flux as a result of lower flame temperatures. Several drying systems are commercially available for the drying of hog fuel and most of them use the waste heat in the flue gas as the source of heat for the drying operation. Commercial flue gas dryers are rotary, cascade or flash type. However, all of these suffer from the same inherent disadvantages.

  2. Cholera studies*†

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1955-01-01

    The morphological characteristics, biochemical properties, and cultural characteristics of V. cholerae are described in great detail in this study. The author also discusses the resistance of the organism to temperature, humidity, sunlight, and various chemicals, as well as the viability of V. cholerae outside the body (in faeces, contaminated material, food, beverages, water, etc.). PMID:14379012

  3. Hog farm in California uses anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, D.

    1995-12-31

    This article describes a system of covered lagoons which help address the waste management problems of hog farmers as well as producing methane used to power generators. Four advantages of anaerobic digestion are described along with the system: energy production from methane; fertilizer for fields; economic development in rural areas; and improved water quality through reduction of nonpoint source pollution. Address for full report is given.

  4. Cholera outbreaks in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mengel, Martin A; Delrieu, Isabelle; Heyerdahl, Leonard; Gessner, Bradford D

    2014-01-01

    During the current seventh cholera pandemic, Africa bore the major brunt of global disease burden. More than 40 years after its resurgence in Africa in 1970, cholera remains a grave public health problem, characterized by large disease burden, frequent outbreaks, persistent endemicity, and high CFRs, particularly in the region of the central African Great Lakes which might act as reservoirs for cholera. There, cases occur year round with a rise in incidence during the rainy season. Elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, cholera occurs mostly in outbreaks of varying size with a constant threat of widespread epidemics. Between 1970 and 2011, African countries reported 3,221,050 suspected cholera cases to the World Health Organization, representing 46 % of all cases reported globally. Excluding the Haitian epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 86 % of reported cases and 99 % of deaths worldwide in 2011. The number of cholera cases is possibly much higher than what is reported to the WHO due to the variation in modalities, completeness, and case definition of national cholera data. One source on country specific incidence rates for Africa, adjusting for underreporting, estimates 1,341,080 cases and 160,930 deaths (52.6 % of 2,548,227 estimated cases and 79.6 % of 209,216 estimated deaths worldwide). Another estimates 1,411,453 cases and 53,632 deaths per year, respectively (50 % of 2,836,669 estimated cases and 58.6 % of 91,490 estimated deaths worldwide). Within Africa, half of all cases between 1970 and 2011 were notified from only seven countries: Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia, Tanzania, and South Africa. In contrast to a global trend of decreasing case fatality ratios (CFRs), CFRs have remained stable in Africa at approximately 2 %. Early propagation of cholera outbreaks depends largely on the extent of individual bacterial shedding, host and organism characteristics, the likelihood of people coming into contact with

  5. Cholera in the Americas.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The cholera epidemic 1st hit South America in January 1991 in the coastal town of Chancay, Peru. In 2 weeks, it spread over 2000 km of the Pacific coast. By the end of the 1st month, it had already reached the mountains and tropical forests. By August 1991, cholera cases were reported in order of appearances in Ecuador, Colombia, Chile, Brazil, the US, Mexico, Guatemala, Bolivia, and El Salvador. Health authorities still do not know how it was introduced into South America. The case fatality rate has remained at a low of 1%, probably due to the prompt actions of health authorities in informing the public of the epidemic and what preventive cautions should be taken. This epidemic is part of the 7th pandemic which originated in Celebes, Indonesia in 1961. Cholera can spread relatively unchecked in Latin America because sewage in urban areas is not treated even though they do have sewage collection systems. The untreated wastewater enters rivers and the ocean. Consumption of raw seafood is not unusual and has been responsible for cholera infection in some cases. In fact, many countries placed import restrictions on marine products from Peru following the outbreak at a loss of $US10-$US40 million. Municipal sewage treatment facilities, especially stabilization ponds, would prevent the spread of cholera and other pathogens. In rural areas, pit latrines located away from wells can effectively dispose of human wastes. Most water supplies in Latin America are not disinfected. Disinfection drinking water with adequate levels of chlorine would effectively destroy V. cholera. If this is not possible, boiling the water for 2-3 minutes would destroy the pathogen. Any cases of cholera must be reported to PAHO. PAHO has responded to the outbreak by forming a Cholera Task Force and arranged transport of oral rehydration salts, intravenous fluids, antibiotics, and other essential medical supplies. PMID:1742573

  6. NAD metabolism in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed Central

    Foster, J W; Brestel, C

    1982-01-01

    Extracts of Vibrio cholerae were assayed for various enzymatic activities associated with pyridine nucleotide cycle metabolism. The activities measured include NAD glycohydrolase, nicotinamide deamidase, nicotinamide mononucleotide deamidase, and nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase. The results obtained demonstrate the existence in V. cholerae of the five-membered pyridine nucleotide cycle and the potential for a four-membered pyridine nucleotide cycle. The data presented also suggest that most of the NAD glycohydrolase in V. cholerae extracts is not directly related to cholera toxin. PMID:6119307

  7. 2. Viaduct deck, Omaha livestock market offices to left, hog ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Viaduct deck, Omaha livestock market offices to left, hog sheds to right. View to east. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, "O" Street Viaduct, "O" Street Spanning Hog Pens; South Omaha Terminal Railway Company Tracks & Union Pacific Railroad Tracks, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  8. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  9. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  10. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  11. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  12. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  13. People on the Farm: Corn and Hog Farming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet provides information on corn and hog farming on a small farm through a profile of a farm family. According to the profile, John and Mary Miller and their three children are a comfortable family operating a corn and hog farm in Iowa. John, the principal farmer, uses a variety of skills in management, veterinary science, soil science,…

  14. The global burden of cholera

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Anna Lena; You, Young Ae; Kim, Young Eun; Sah, Binod; Maskery, Brian; Clemens, John

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the global burden of cholera using population-based incidence data and reports. Methods Countries with a recent history of cholera were classified as endemic or non-endemic, depending on whether they had reported cholera cases in at least three of the five most recent years. The percentages of the population in each country that lacked access to improved sanitation were used to compute the populations at risk for cholera, and incidence rates from published studies were applied to groups of countries to estimate the annual number of cholera cases in endemic countries. The estimates of cholera cases in non-endemic countries were based on the average numbers of cases reported from 2000 to 2008. Literature-based estimates of cholera case-fatality rates (CFRs) were used to compute the variance-weighted average cholera CFRs for estimating the number of cholera deaths. Findings About 1.4 billion people are at risk for cholera in endemic countries. An estimated 2.8 million cholera cases occur annually in such countries (uncertainty range: 1.4–4.3) and an estimated 87 000 cholera cases occur in non-endemic countries. The incidence is estimated to be greatest in children less than 5 years of age. Every year about 91 000 people (uncertainty range: 28 000 to 142 000) die of cholera in endemic countries and 2500 people die of the disease in non-endemic countries. Conclusion The global burden of cholera, as determined through a systematic review with clearly stated assumptions, is high. The findings of this study provide a contemporary basis for planning public health interventions to control cholera. PMID:22461716

  15. Dry hog fuel to improve effiency, cut emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, B.

    1980-02-01

    Various dryers in wood-fired powerplants are described and it is stated that when moisture levels of hog fuel rise above 55%, boilers cannot produce enough heat to sustain combustion. Methods to avoid this problem are suggested and include the burning of a low-moisture fuel in conjunction with the hog fuel and the installation of a dryer to remove some moisture from the fuel before it enter the furnace. It is generally agreed that flue-gas dryers should be considered in the design of hog-fuel-fired steam sytems whenever fuel moisture exceeds about 50%.

  16. Cholera studies*†

    PubMed Central

    Pollitzer, R.

    1954-01-01

    In this, the first of a series of cholera studies, the history of the disease from its earliest recorded appearance up to 1923 is outlined, and its geographical distribution described. The origins and main routes of spread of the six great pandemics are indicated; possible causes of the variations in mortality which accompanied them are discussed. PMID:13160764

  17. A long-term carrier of cholera: Cholera Dolores

    PubMed Central

    Azurin, J. C.; Kobari, Kazumine; Barua, D.; Alvero, M.; Gomez, C. Z.; Dizon, J. J.; Nakano, Ei-Ichi; Suplido, R.; Ledesma, L.

    1967-01-01

    The first known long-term carrier of cholera, found in the Philippines, is described. The carrier, Dolores M., who had suffered from El Tor cholera in August 1962, continued intermittently to excrete vibrios of the same characteristics as the original isolates until the date of reporting (1966). Duodenal intubation proved that the vibrios are lodged in her biliary tract. Her serum antibody titre continued to remain high in the absence of vaccination against cholera. PMID:5300877

  18. 22. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. CHIPPER OR 'HOG' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. CHIPPER OR 'HOG' FOR REDUCING SCRAPS TO WOOD CHIPS. HOUSING PARTIALLY REMOVED. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  19. INTERIOR OF HOG BARN SHOWING MILKING STANCHIONS AND DIAGONAL SHEATHING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF HOG BARN SHOWING MILKING STANCHIONS AND DIAGONAL SHEATHING, LOOKING EAST. (In the 1940s the hog barn was converted to a calf barn to service the growing dairy. After a fire on the property took the Engle’s main barn in 1954, the building was converted into a milking parlor.) - Engle Farm, Barn, 89 South Ebey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  20. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG DRESSING AREA ON LEVEL 4; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG DRESSING AREA ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING WEST; WORKERS STOOD ON RAISED PLATFORMS TO EVISCERATE AND WASH CARCASSES; EXPANDED STEEL GRATING PROVIDED NON-SLIP WORKING SURFACE; STAINLESS-STEEL BAFFLES BETWEEN PLATFORMS HELPED TO CONTAIN STEAM AND WATER SPRAY; METAL TROUGHS BELOW PLATFORMS AND CONCRETE GUTTERS IN FLOOR HELPED CHANNEL WASTE WATER TO DRAINS - Rath Packing Company, Hog Dressing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  1. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG KILLING ROOM ON LEVEL 4; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG KILLING ROOM ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING NORTHWEST; A PORTION OF THE SCALDING TANK IS VISIBLE AT EXTREME RIGHT, CENTER; CONCRETE PYLONS AT LOWER RIGHT SUPPORTED BY SCRAPING MACHINE; FINAL SCRAPING WAS DONE BY WORKERS STANDING ON ELEVATED PLATFORMS AT LEFT; BATHTUB-SHAPED CART NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO WAS USED TO TRANSPORT OFFAL TO RENDERING AREAS - Rath Packing Company, Hog Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  2. PCA-HOG symmetrical feature based diseased cell detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Min-jie

    2016-04-01

    A histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) feature is applied to the field of diseased cell detection, which can detect diseased cells in high resolution tissue images rapidly, accurately and efficiently. Firstly, motivated by symmetrical cellular forms, a new HOG symmetrical feature based on the traditional HOG feature is proposed to meet the condition of cell detection. Secondly, considering the high feature dimension of traditional HOG feature leads to plenty of memory resources and long runtime in practical applications, a classical dimension reduction method called principal component analysis (PCA) is used to reduce the dimension of high-dimensional HOG descriptor. Because of that, computational speed is increased greatly, and the accuracy of detection can be controlled in a proper range at the same time. Thirdly, support vector machine (SVM) classifier is trained with PCA-HOG symmetrical features proposed above. At last, practical tissue images is detected and analyzed by SVM classifier. In order to verify the effectiveness of this new algorithm, it is practically applied to conduct diseased cell detection which takes 200 pieces of H&E (hematoxylin & eosin) high resolution staining histopathological images collected from 20 breast cancer patients as a sample. The experiment shows that the average processing rate can be 25 frames per second and the detection accuracy can be 92.1%.

  3. The unique characteristics of HOG pathway MAPKs in the extremely halotolerant Hortaea werneckii.

    PubMed

    Kejžar, Anja; Cibic, Matej; Grøtli, Morten; Plemenitaš, Ana; Lenassi, Metka

    2015-04-01

    HwHog1A/B, Hortaea werneckii homologues of the MAP kinase Hog1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are vital for the extreme halotolerance of H. werneckii. In mesophilic S. cerevisiae, Hog1 is phosphorylated already at low osmolyte concentrations, and regulates expression of a similar set of genes independent of osmolyte type. To understand how HwHog1 kinases activity is regulated in H. werneckii, we studied HwHog1A/B activation in vivo, by following phosphorylation of HwHog1A/B in H. werneckii exposed to various osmolytes, and in vitro, by measuring kinase activities of recombinant HwHog1A, HwHog1B and Hog1ΔC. To this end, highly pure and soluble recombinant Hog1 homologues were isolated from insect cells. Our results demonstrate that HwHog1A/B are, in general, transiently phosphorylated in cells shocked with ≥3 M osmolyte, yet constitutive phosphorylation is observed at extreme NaCl and KCl concentrations. Importantly, phosphorylation profiles differ depending on the osmolyte type. Additionally, phosphorylated recombinant HwHog1A/B show lower specific kinase activities compared to Hog1ΔC. In summary, HOG pathway MAPKs in the extremely halotolerant H. werneckii show unique characteristics compared to S. cerevisiae homologues. The reported findings contribute to defining the key determinants of H. werneckii osmotolerance, which is important for its potential transfer to economically relevant microorganisms and crops. PMID:25825474

  4. Antibiotic therapy of cholera*

    PubMed Central

    Lindenbaum, John; Greenough, William B.; Islam, M. R.

    1967-01-01

    Recent clinical trials having established the value of tetracycline as an adjunct to fluid and electrolyte replacement in cholera treatment, a controlled trial of antibiotic therapy was conducted in Dacca on 318 adults hospitalized for cholera. The effects of 4 antibiotics orally administered in varying dosage schedules were studied. Cholera therapy with tetracycline or chloramphenicol caused a highly significant reduction in the duration of diarrhoea and of positive culture, in stool volume, and in intravenous fluid requirement as compared with the results in controls who received intravenous fluid therapy only. Streptomycin was also effective, but to a lesser degree; paromomycin was of little value. The severity of dehydration on admission was significantly related to subsequent duration of diarrhoea regardless of whether antibiotics were given. Increasing age was associated with more prolonged purging in patients receiving antibiotics. Increasing the dose of tetracycline to 2 to 3 times that usually administered, or prolonging treatment from 2 to 4 days, did not enhance the therapeutic results. The effect of tetracycline was apparent within a few hours of administration. Bacteriological relapses were seen after discontinuation of therapy in all treatment groups, but were not due to the development of resistant bacteria. PMID:4865453

  5. Vulnerability to coastal cholera ecology.

    PubMed

    Collins, Andrew E

    2003-10-01

    The battle to completely control cholera continues. Multiple strains, high levels of morbidity in some regions of the world, and a complex of influences on its distribution in people and the environment are accompanied by only rough resolution prediction of outbreaks. Uncertainty as to the most effective array of interventions for one of the most researched infectious diseases thwarts further progress in providing cost-effective solutions. Progress on the research front consistently points towards the importance of disease ecology, coastal environments, and the sea. However, evaluation of the link between cholera in people and environment can only be effective with analysis of human vulnerability to variable coastal cholera ecologies. As there are some clear links between the organism, cholera incidence and the sea, it is appropriate that cholera research should examine the nature of coastal population vulnerability to the disease. The paper reviews the cholera risks of human-environment interactions in coastal areas as one component of the evaluation of cholera management. This points to effective intervention through integrative knowledge of changing human and environmental ecologies, requiring improved detection, but also an acceptance of complex causality. The challenge is to identify indicators and interventions for case specific ecologies in variable locales of human vulnerability and disease hazard. Further work will therefore aim to explore improved surveillance and intervention across the socio-behavioural and ecological spectrum. Furthermore, the story of cholera continues to inform us about how we should more effectively view emergent and resurgent infectious disease hazards more generally. PMID:12927470

  6. Environmental Monitoring of Endemic Cholera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElNemr, W.; Jutla, A. S.; Constantin de Magny, G.; Hasan, N. A.; Islam, M.; Sack, R.; Huq, A.; Hashem, F.; Colwell, R.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat. Since Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease, is autochthonous to riverine, estuarine, and coastal waters, it is unlikely the bacteria can be eradicated from its natural habitat. Prediction of disease, in conjunction with preventive vaccination can reduce the prevalence rate of a disease. Understanding the influence of environmental parameters on growth and proliferation of bacteria is an essential first step in developing prediction methods for outbreaks. Large scale geophysical variables, such as SST and coastal chlorophyll, are often associated with conditions favoring growth of V. cholerae. However, local environmental factors, meaning biological activity in ponds from where the bulk of populations in endemic regions derive water for daily usage, are either neglected or oversimplified. Using data collected from several sites in two geographically distinct locations in South Asia, we have identified critical local environmental factors associated with cholera outbreak. Of 18 environmental variables monitored for water sources in Mathbaria (a coastal site near the Bay of Bengal) and Bakergonj (an inland site) of Bangladesh, water depth and chlorophyll were found to be important factors associated with initiation of cholera outbreaks. Cholera in coastal regions appears to be related to intrusion. However, monsoonal flooding creates conditions for cholera epidemics in inland regions. This may be one of the first attempts to relate in-situ environmental observations with cholera. We anticipate that it will be useful for further development of prediction models in the resource constrained regions.

  7. Environmental Factors Influencing Epidemic Cholera

    PubMed Central

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Whitcombe, Elizabeth; Hasan, Nur; Haley, Bradd; Akanda, Ali; Huq, Anwar; Alam, Munir; Sack, R. Bradley; Colwell, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Cholera outbreak following the earthquake of 2010 in Haiti has reaffirmed that the disease is a major public health threat. Vibrio cholerae is autochthonous to aquatic environment, hence, it cannot be eradicated but hydroclimatology-based prediction and prevention is an achievable goal. Using data from the 1800s, we describe uniqueness in seasonality and mechanism of occurrence of cholera in the epidemic regions of Asia and Latin America. Epidemic regions are located near regional rivers and are characterized by sporadic outbreaks, which are likely to be initiated during episodes of prevailing warm air temperature with low river flows, creating favorable environmental conditions for growth of cholera bacteria. Heavy rainfall, through inundation or breakdown of sanitary infrastructure, accelerates interaction between contaminated water and human activities, resulting in an epidemic. This causal mechanism is markedly different from endemic cholera where tidal intrusion of seawater carrying bacteria from estuary to inland regions, results in outbreaks. PMID:23897993

  8. Epidemic cholera spreads like wildfire

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Manojit; Zinck, Richard D.; Bouma, Menno J.; Pascual, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Cholera is on the rise globally, especially epidemic cholera which is characterized by intermittent and unpredictable outbreaks that punctuate periods of regional disease fade-out. These epidemic dynamics remain however poorly understood. Here we examine records for epidemic cholera over both contemporary and historical timelines, from Africa (1990–2006) and former British India (1882–1939). We find that the frequency distribution of outbreak size is fat-tailed, scaling approximately as a power-law. This pattern which shows strong parallels with wildfires is incompatible with existing cholera models developed for endemic regions, as it implies a fundamental role for stochastic transmission and local depletion of susceptible hosts. Application of a recently developed forest-fire model indicates that epidemic cholera dynamics are located above a critical phase transition and propagate in similar ways to aggressive wildfires. These findings have implications for the effectiveness of control measures and the mechanisms that ultimately limit the size of outbreaks. PMID:24424273

  9. Serosurvey of leptospirosis in feral hogs (Sus scrofa) in Florida.

    PubMed

    Chatfield, Jenifer; Milleson, Michael; Stoddard, Robyn; Bui, Duy M; Galloway, Renee

    2013-06-01

    Leptospira is a global pathogen of emerging public health importance in both developing and industrialized nations and can infect almost all mammalian species, including humans. As suburbanization and the popularity of outdoor recreational activities increases, so do human-wildlife and companion animal-wildlife interfaces. Florida offers a tropical climate favorable for outdoor activities and a semirural landscape that sustains an abundant feral hog population. Because no survey ofleptospirosis in feral hogs (Sus scrofa) in Florida has been published to our knowledge, we sought to establish preliminary seroprevalence ofleptospirosis exposure in feral hogs in Florida. Blood samples were collected opportunistically from 158 male and 166 female feral hogs taken at managed hunts and by permitted trappers in the northern, central, and southern regions of Florida. Samples were then analyzed using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for antibody titers to 20 Leptospira serovars representing 17 serogroups. A titer of > 1:100 was considered positive; 33% (107/324 total samples) were positive to at least one serovar, and 46% of those were positive to multiple serovars. Antibodies to L. interrogans serovar Bratislava strain Jez Bratislava (serogroup Australis) was the most common, with 18% (58/324) testing positive for antibodies. These initial data indicate that there is a significant possibility of feral hogs having a larger role in the complex etiology of leptospirosis in Florida than historically estimated and that further investigation is warranted. PMID:23805559

  10. Human Impairment from Living near Confined Animal (Hog) Feeding Operations

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, Kaye H.

    2012-01-01

    Problem. To determine whether neighbors around manure lagoons and massive hog confinement buildings who complained of offensive odors and symptoms had impaired brain and lung functions. Method. We compared near hog manure neighbors of lagoons to people living beyond 3 kilometers in Ohio and to unexposed people controls in a nearby state for neurophysiological, cognitive, recall and memory functions, and pulmonary performance. Results. The 25 exposed subjects averaged 4.3 neurobehavioral abnormalities, significantly different from 2.5 for local controls and 2.3 for Tennessee controls. Exposed subjects mean forced vital capacity and expiratory volume in 1 sec were reduced significantly compared to local and regional controls. Conclusions. Near neighbors of hog enclosures and manure lagoon gases had impaired neurobehavioral functions and pulmonary functions and these effects extended to nearby people thought to be controls. Hydrogen sulfide must be abated because people living near lagoons cannot avoid rotten egg gas. PMID:22496706

  11. Energy integrated farm system: Del Valle Hog Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The Del Valle Hog Farm, a Texas hog farm with grain crops, is designed to conserve energy through methane generation, alcohol production, and efficient use of electrical energy. The integrated energy concepts to be demonstrated are: methane generation from swine manure to produce electricity and heat for alcohol fermentation and distillation and to produce hot water for heating the digester reactors and the hog feeding pens; and alcohol production from milo and distillation of 170 proof alcohol by use of methane and generated electricity. Specific energy technologies to be implemented are: anaerobic digester; gas compressors to store methane for peak demands; engine generator powered by methane; waste-heat exchanger on engine generator to produce hot water; continuous-process alcohol facility to produce 24 gal/day; and crop management.

  12. Environmental Inequity: An Analysis of Large-Scale Hog Operations in 17 States, 1982-1997

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stretesky, Paul B.; Johnston, Janis E.; Arney, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    This study extends ideas of environmental equity to large-scale hog operations. We investigate counties in 17 hog producing states to determine whether large-scale hog operations are more likely to be sited and expanded in areas that have a disproportionate number of Black, Hispanic, and/or economically disadvantaged residents. The data for this…

  13. Cholera and the Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Describes an approach to teaching the scientific method where an outbreak of cholera within the school is simulated. Students act like epidemiologists in an attempt to track down the source of the contamination. (PR)

  14. 7. CONVEYOR DISCHARGE IN HOG HAIR PROCESSING AREA, NORTHWEST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. CONVEYOR DISCHARGE IN HOG HAIR PROCESSING AREA, NORTHWEST CORNER OF LEVEL 2; HAIR WAS TRANSPORTED BY CONVEYOR FROM BUILDING 40, THEN WASHED, DRIED AND BALED IN BUILDING 148 - Rath Packing Company, Grease Interceptor Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  15. ADVANCED HETEROGENEOUS REBURN FUEL FROM COAL AND HOG MANURE

    SciTech Connect

    Melanie D. Jensen; Ronald C. Timpe; Jason D. Laumb

    2003-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate whether the nitrogen content inherent in hog manure and alkali used as a catalyst during processing could be combined with coal to produce a reburn fuel that would result in advanced reburning NO{sub x} control without the addition of either alkali or ammonia/urea. Fresh hog manure was processed in a cold-charge, 1-gal, batch autoclave system at 275 C under a reducing atmosphere in the presence of an alkali catalyst. Instead of the expected organic liquid, the resulting product was a waxy solid material. The waxy nature of the material made size reduction and feeding difficult as the material agglomerated and tended to melt, plugging the feeder. The material was eventually broken up and sized manually and a water-cooled feeder was designed and fabricated. Two reburn tests were performed in a pilot-scale combustor. The first test evaluated a reburn fuel mixture comprising lignite and air-dried, raw hog manure. The second test evaluated a reburn fuel mixture made of lignite and the processed hog manure. Neither reburn fuel reduced NO{sub x} levels in the combustor flue gas. Increased slagging and ash deposition were observed during both reburn tests. The material-handling and ash-fouling issues encountered during this study indicate that the use of waste-based reburn fuels could pose practical difficulties in implementation on a larger scale.

  16. Novel reporter gene expression systems for monitoring activation of the Aspergillus nidulans HOG pathway.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Kentaro; Yoshimi, Akira; Furukawa, Takako; Hoshi, Yukiko; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Sato, Natsuko; Fujioka, Tomonori; Mizutani, Osamu; Mizuno, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Abe, Keietsu

    2007-07-01

    The Aspergillus nidulans high-osmolarity glycerol response (AnHOG) pathway is involved in osmoadaptation. We found that fludioxonil, a fungicide, causes improper activation of HogA mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in A. nidulans. Here we present novel reporter systems for monitoring activation of the AnHOG pathway. The promoter region of gfdB (glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), whose expression depends on the presence of HogA, was fused to a beta-glucuronidase uidA gene (GUS) to construct the reporter, which was introduced into A. nidulans wild type and hogADelta. Increased GUS activity was detected in the wild type only when it was treated with high osmolarity or fludioxonil, while reporter activity was scarcely stimulated in the hogADelta mutant. These results indicate that the reporter activity is controlled via HogA activation. Furthermore, we present possible applications of the reporter systems in screening new antifungal compounds. PMID:17617716

  17. Ptc1, a type 2C Ser/Thr phosphatase, inactivates the HOG pathway by dephosphorylating the mitogen-activated protein kinase Hog1.

    PubMed

    Warmka, J; Hanneman, J; Lee, J; Amin, D; Ota, I

    2001-01-01

    The HOG (high-osmolarity glycerol) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway regulates the osmotic stress response in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three type 2C Ser/Thr phosphatases (PTCs), Ptc1, Ptc2, and Ptc3, have been isolated as negative regulators of this pathway. Previously, multicopy expression of PTC1 and PTC3 was shown to suppress lethality of the sln1Delta strain due to hyperactivation of the HOG pathway. In this work, we show that PTC2 also suppresses sln1Delta lethality. Furthermore, the phosphatase activity of these PTCs was needed for suppression, as mutation of a conserved Asp residue, likely to coordinate a metal ion, inactivated PTCs. Further analysis of Ptc1 function in vivo showed that it inactivates the MAPK, Hog1, but not the MEK, Pbs2. In the wild type, Hog1 kinase activity increased transiently, approximately 12-fold in response to osmotic stress, while overexpression of PTC1 limited activation to approximately 3-fold. In contrast, overexpression of PTC1 did not inhibit phosphorylation of Hog1 Tyr in the phosphorylation lip, suggesting that Ptc1 does not act on Pbs2. Deletion of PTC1 also strongly affected Hog1, leading to high basal Hog1 activity and sustained Hog1 activity in response to osmotic stress, the latter being consistent with a role for Ptc1 in adaptation. In vitro, Ptc1 but not the metal binding site mutant, Ptc1D58N, inactivated Hog1 by dephosphorylating the phosphothreonine but not the phosphotyrosine residue in the phosphorylation lip. Consistent with its role as a negative regulator of Hog1, which accumulates in the nucleus upon activation, Ptc1 was found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Thus, one function of Ptc1 is to inactivate Hog1. PMID:11113180

  18. Cholera Vaccination in Urban Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Rouzier, Vanessa; Severe, Karine; Juste, Marc Antoine Jean; Peck, Mireille; Perodin, Christian; Severe, Patrice; Deschamps, Marie Marcelle; Verdier, Rose Irene; Prince, Sabine; Francois, Jeannot; Cadet, Jean Ronald; Guillaume, Florence D.; Wright, Peter F.; Pape, Jean W.

    2013-01-01

    Successful and sustained efforts have been made to curtail the major cholera epidemic that occurred in Haiti in 2010 with the promotion of hygiene and sanitation measures, training of health personnel and establishment of treatment centers nationwide. Oral cholera vaccine (OCV) was introduced by the Haitian Ministry of Health as a pilot project in urban and rural areas. This paper reports the successful OCV pilot project led by GHESKIO Centers in the urban slums of Port-au-Prince where 52,357 persons received dose 1 and 90.8% received dose 2; estimated coverage of the at-risk community was 75%. This pilot study demonstrated the effort, community mobilization, and organizational capacity necessary to achieve these results in a challenging setting. The OCV intervention paved the way for the recent launching of a national cholera vaccination program integrated in a long-term ambitious and comprehensive plan to address Haiti's critical need in water security and sanitation. PMID:24106194

  19. Epidemiology of Cholera in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Anna Lena; Macasaet, Lino Y.; Ylade, Michelle; Tayag, Enrique A.; Ali, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite being a cholera-endemic country, data on cholera in the Philippines remain sparse. Knowing the areas where cholera is known to occur and the factors that lead to its occurrence will assist in planning preventive measures and disaster mitigation. Methods Using sentinel surveillance data, PubMed and ProMED searches covering information from 2008–2013 and event-based surveillance reports from 2010–2013, we assessed the epidemiology of cholera in the Philippines. Using spatial log regression, we assessed the role of water, sanitation and population density on the incidence of cholera. Results and Discussion We identified 12 articles from ProMED and none from PubMed that reported on cholera in the Philippines from 2008 to 2013. Data from ProMed and surveillance revealed 42,071 suspected and confirmed cholera cases reported from 2008 to 2013, among which only 5,006 were confirmed. 38 (47%) of 81 provinces and metropolitan regions reported at least one confirmed case of cholera and 32 (40%) reported at least one suspected case. The overall case fatality ratio in sentinel sites was 0.62%, but was 2% in outbreaks. All age groups were affected. Using both confirmed and suspected cholera cases, the average annual incidence in 2010–2013 was 9.1 per 100,000 population. Poor access to improved sanitation was consistently associated with higher cholera incidence. Paradoxically, access to improved water sources was associated with higher cholera incidence using both suspected and confirmed cholera data sources. This finding may have been due to the breakdown in the infrastructure and non-chlorination of water supplies, emphasizing the need to maintain public water systems. Conclusion Our findings confirm that cholera affects a large proportion of the provinces in the country. Identifying areas most at risk for cholera will support the development and implementation of policies to minimize the morbidity and mortality due to this disease. PMID:25569505

  20. Feral Hogs Management at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge: Analysis of Current Management Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, Arie; Hinkle, C. Ross; Epstein, Marc

    2002-01-01

    This ST1 Technical Memorandum (TM) summarizes a two-month project on feral hog management in Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR). For this project, feral hogs were marked and recaptured, with the help of local trappers, to estimate population size and habitat preferences. Habitat covers included vegetation cover and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data for MINWR. In addition, an analysis was done of hunting records compiled by the Refuge and hog-car accidents compiled by KSC Security.

  1. Osmostress-Induced Cell Volume Loss Delays Yeast Hog1 Signaling by Limiting Diffusion Processes and by Hog1-Specific Effects

    PubMed Central

    Babazadeh, Roja; Adiels, Caroline Beck; Smedh, Maria; Petelenz-Kurdziel, Elzbieta; Goksör, Mattias; Hohmann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Signal transmission progresses via a series of transient protein-protein interactions and protein movements, which require diffusion within a cell packed with different molecules. Yeast Hog1, the effector protein kinase of the High Osmolarity Glycerol pathway, translocates transiently from the cytosol to the nucleus during adaptation to high external osmolarity. We followed the dynamics of osmostress-induced cell volume loss and Hog1 nuclear accumulation upon exposure of cells to different NaCl concentrations. While Hog1 nuclear accumulation peaked within five minutes following mild osmotic shock it was delayed up to six-fold under severe stress. The timing of Hog1 nuclear accumulation correlated with the degree of cell volume loss and the cells capacity to recover. Also the nuclear translocation of Msn2, the transcription factor of the general stress response pathway, is delayed upon severe osmotic stress suggesting a general phenomenon. We show by direct measurements that the general diffusion rate of Hog1 in the cytoplasm as well as its rate of nuclear transport are dramatically reduced following severe volume reduction. However, neither Hog1 phosphorylation nor Msn2 nuclear translocation were as much delayed as Hog1 nuclear translocation. Our data provide direct evidence that signaling slows down during cell volume compression, probably as a consequence of molecular crowding. Hence one purpose of osmotic adaptation is to restore optimal diffusion rates for biochemical and cell biological processes. In addition, there may be mechanisms slowing down especially Hog1 nuclear translocation under severe stress in order to prioritize Hog1 cytosolic targets. PMID:24278344

  2. Antimicrobial drugs for treating cholera

    PubMed Central

    Leibovici-Weissman, Ya'ara; Neuberger, Ami; Bitterman, Roni; Sinclair, David; Salam, Mohammed Abdus; Paul, Mical

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholera is an acute watery diarrhoea caused by infection with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which if severe can cause rapid dehydration and death. Effective management requires early diagnosis and rehydration using oral rehydration salts or intravenous fluids. In this review, we evaluate the additional benefits of treating cholera with antimicrobial drugs. Objectives To quantify the benefit of antimicrobial treatment for patients with cholera, and determine whether there are differences between classes of antimicrobials or dosing schedules. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Disease Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); PubMed; EMBASE; African Index Medicus; LILACS; Science Citation Index; metaRegister of Controlled Trials; WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform; conference proceedings; and reference lists to March 2014. Selection criteria Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled clinical trials in adults and children with cholera that compared: 1) any antimicrobial treatment with placebo or no treatment; 2) different antimicrobials head-to-head; or 3) different dosing schedules or different durations of treatment with the same antimicrobial. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers independently applied inclusion and exclusion criteria, and extracted data from included trials. Diarrhoea duration and stool volume were defined as primary outcomes. We calculated mean difference (MD) or ratio of means (ROM) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI), and pooled data using a random-effects meta-analysis. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Main results Thirty-nine trials were included in this review with 4623 participants. Antimicrobials versus placebo or no treatment Overall, antimicrobial therapy shortened the mean duration of diarrhoea by about a day and a half compared to placebo or no treatment (MD -36.77 hours, 95% CI -43

  3. Actions of cholera toxin and the prevention and treatment of cholera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmgren, Jan

    1981-07-01

    The drastic intestinal secretion of fluid and electrolytes that is characteristic of cholera is the result of reasonably well understood cellular and biochemical actions of the toxin secreted by Vibrio cholerae. Based on this understanding it is possible to devise new techniques for the treatment and prophylaxis of cholera to complement those based on fluid replacement therapy and sanitation.

  4. Cholera: pathophysiology and emerging therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Muanprasat, Chatchai; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj

    2013-05-01

    Cholera is a diarrheal disease that remains an important global health problem with several hundreds of thousands of reported cases each year. This disease is caused by intestinal infection with Vibrio cholerae, which is a highly motile gram-negative bacterium with a single-sheathed flagellum. In the course of cholera pathogenesis, V. cholerae expresses a transcriptional activator ToxT, which subsequently transactivates expressions of two crucial virulence factors: toxin-coregulated pilus and cholera toxin (CT). These factors are responsible for intestinal colonization of V. cholerae and induction of fluid secretion, respectively. In intestinal epithelial cells, CT binds to GM1 ganglioside receptors on the apical membrane and undergoes retrograde vesicular trafficking to endoplasmic reticulum, where it exploits endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein degradation systems to release a catalytic A1 subunit of CT (CT A1) into cytoplasm. CT A1, in turn, catalyzes ADP ribosylation of α subunits of stimulatory G proteins, leading to a persistent activation of adenylate cyclase and an elevation of intracellular cAMP. Increased intracellular cAMP in human intestinal epithelial cells accounts for pathogenesis of profuse diarrhea and severe fluid loss in cholera. This review provides an overview of the pathophysiology of cholera diarrhea and discusses emerging drug targets for cholera, which include V. cholerae virulence factors, V. cholerae motility, CT binding to GM1 receptor, CT internalization and intoxication, as well as cAMP metabolism and transport proteins involved in cAMP-activated Cl(-) secretion. Future directions and perspectives of research on drug discovery and development for cholera are discussed. PMID:23651092

  5. 9 CFR 311.22 - Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema. 311.22 Section 311.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.22 Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema. Carcasses of hogs affected with urticaria (nettle rash), tinea tonsurans,...

  6. 9 CFR 310.11 - Cleaning of hog carcasses before incising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning of hog carcasses before incising. 310.11 Section 310.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.11 Cleaning of hog...

  7. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF FINISHING HOGS CONSUMING 'DUN' OR 'WHITE' FIELD PEAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty commercial cross barrows and gilts (initial BW = 74.5 ± 16.4 kg) were used in a completely randomized design experiment to examine the effects of two varieties of field peas on growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing hogs. Hogs were weighed, randomly assigned to pens (10 pi...

  8. Identification of a novel HOG1 homologue from an industrial glycerol producer Candida glycerinogenes.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hao; Lu, Xinyao; Wang, Chengyin; Zong, Hong; Fang, Huiying; Sun, Jin; Zhuge, Jian; Zhuge, Bin

    2014-12-01

    Candida glycerinogenes, a glycerol production industrial strain with hyperosmo-adaptation can grow well in 15 % (w/v) NaCl or 55 % (w/v) glucose. To understand the osmo-adaptation mechanism in C. glycerinogenes, the mitogen-activated protein kinase HOG1 gene (CgHOG1), which plays an essential role in the yeast hyperosmotic response, was isolated by degenerate PCR and SEFA-Formed Adaptor PCR. The CgHOG1 gene was then transformed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae hog1Δ null mutant, which restored the recombination S. cerevisiae to the wild-type phenotype with osmo-adaptation. To further clarify the function of CgHOG1, the phosphorylation of CgHOG1 and transcription of the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GPD1) of the CgHOG1-harbouring S. cerevisiae mutant was detected, and found to be similar to that of wild-type S. cerevisiae. In addition, the recombination S. cerevisiae with CgHOG1 gene significantly accumulated intracellular glycerol when stressed with NaCl. PMID:25119307

  9. Gastrointestinal helminths of wild hogs and their potential livestock and public health significance in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Okoro, C K; Wilson, B S; Lorenzo-Morales, J; Robinson, R D

    2016-03-01

    An investigation into the potential for transmission of gastrointestinal helminths from wild hogs to livestock and humans was prompted by concerns of recreational wild-hog hunting in the Caribbean region and the recent practice, by livestock farmers in Jamaica, of co-rearing wild and domesticated swine. Thirty-one wild hogs from the Hellshire Hills, a dry limestone forest in southern Jamaica, were necropsied during the period June 2004 to August 2006. Thirteen of the captured animals were male and 18 female. Four species of adult helminths were recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of the wild hogs: Hyostrongylus rubidus (77%), Globocephalus urosubulatus (48%), Oesophagostomum dentatum (42%) and Macroacanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (77%). Two (6.2%), ten (32.2%) and 18 (58.0%) hogs harboured one, two and three species of helminths, respectively. Mean infection intensities varied from 8.1 for M. hirudinaceus, to 115.5 for O. dentatum. There was no association between any of the recovered helminths and sex of the host; however, a multivariate analysis indicated a positive association between the prevalence of G. urosubulatus and host age (odds ratio (OR) = 6.517). Domesticated hogs co-reared with wild hogs are potentially at risk of infection with all four helminths, while wild-hog hunters and pig farmers may be exposed to M. hirudinaceus. PMID:26821705

  10. Production costs and animal welfare for four stylized hog production systems.

    PubMed

    Seibert, Lacey; Norwood, F Bailey

    2011-01-01

    Nonhuman animal welfare is arguably the most contentious issue facing the hog industry. Animal advocacy groups influence the regulation of hog farms and induce some consumers to demand more humane pork products. Hog producers are understandably reluctant to improve animal well being unless the premium they extract exceeds the corresponding increase in cost. To better understand the relationship between animal welfare and production costs under different farm systems, this study investigates 4 stylized hog production systems. The results show that increasing animal welfare for all hogs in the United States will increase retail pork prices by a maximum of 2% for a small welfare increase and 5% for a large welfare increase. The cost of banning gestation crates measured by this study is lower than the consumer willingness-to-pay from other studies. PMID:21191844

  11. Bacteriocin Typing of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarty, A. N.; Adhya, Sati; Basu, Jayantisri; Dastidar, Sujata G.

    1970-01-01

    Bacteriocins of Vibrio cholerae have been demonstrated against enterobacterial and vibrio indicator organisms by conventional techniques. Abundant bacteriocin production took place on casein hydrolysate-yeast extract, tryptic soy, digest broth, proteose-peptone, and neopeptone agars. Essential factors were a citrate-phosphate buffer concentration of 0.5 to 0.7%, at pH 7.5 to 7.6, and cold shock. Thermal treatment of indicator organisms at 45 C for 12 min increased the percentage of typable strains. The bacteriocins of V. cholerae appeared to be powerful diffusible bactericidal agents. By using 8 indicator strains, 11 bacteriocin types have been recognized among 425 strains, of which 87% are typable at present. Images PMID:16557731

  12. Vibrio cholerae-induced inflammation in the neonatal mouse cholera model.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Anne L; Patimalla, Bharathi; Camilli, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent of the acute diarrheal disease of cholera. Innate immune responses to V. cholerae are not a major cause of cholera pathology, which is characterized by severe, watery diarrhea induced by the action of cholera toxin. Innate responses may, however, contribute to resolution of infection and must be required to initiate adaptive responses after natural infection and oral vaccination. Here we investigated whether a well-established infant mouse model of cholera can be used to observe an innate immune response. We also used a vaccination model in which immunized dams protect their pups from infection through breast milk antibodies to investigate innate immune responses after V. cholerae infection for pups suckled by an immune dam. At the peak of infection, we observed neutrophil recruitment accompanied by induction of KC, macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), NOS-2, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-17a. Pups suckled by an immunized dam did not mount this response. Accessory toxins RtxA and HlyA played no discernible role in neutrophil recruitment in a wild-type background. The innate response to V. cholerae deleted for cholera toxin-encoding phage (CTX) and part of rtxA was significantly reduced, suggesting a role for CTX-carried genes or for RtxA in the absence of cholera toxin (CTX). Two extracellular V. cholerae DNases were not required for neutrophil recruitment, but DNase-deficient V. cholerae caused more clouds of DNA in the intestinal lumen, which appeared to be neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), suggesting that V. cholerae DNases combat NETs. Thus, the infant mouse model has hitherto unrecognized utility for interrogating innate responses to V. cholerae infection. PMID:24686062

  13. Can chatter between microbes prevent cholera?

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jessica A; Oliveira, Rita Almeida; Xavier, Karina B

    2014-12-01

    Tackling the global rise in antibiotic resistance requires new therapies against infectious microbes. A recent microbiome study identified commensal gut bacteria that reduce colonisation by the cholera pathogen, Vibrio cholerae. This antagonistic interaction might be mediated by quorum sensing, suggesting that these natural microbe-microbe interactions can help prevent infectious disease. PMID:25468792

  14. Genomic diversity of 2010 Haitian cholera outbreak strains.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Nur A; Choi, Seon Young; Eppinger, Mark; Clark, Philip W; Chen, Arlene; Alam, Munirul; Haley, Bradd J; Taviani, Elisa; Hine, Erin; Su, Qi; Tallon, Luke J; Prosper, Joseph B; Furth, Keziah; Hoq, M M; Li, Huai; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M; Cravioto, Alejandro; Huq, Anwar; Ravel, Jacques; Cebula, Thomas A; Colwell, Rita R

    2012-07-17

    The millions of deaths from cholera during the past 200 y, coupled with the morbidity and mortality of cholera in Haiti since October 2010, are grim reminders that Vibrio cholerae, the etiologic agent of cholera, remains a scourge. We report the isolation of both V. cholerae O1 and non-O1/O139 early in the Haiti cholera epidemic from samples collected from victims in 18 towns across eight Arrondissements of Haiti. The results showed two distinct populations of V. cholerae coexisted in Haiti early in the epidemic. As non-O1/O139 V. cholerae was the sole pathogen isolated from 21% of the clinical specimens, its role in this epidemic, either alone or in concert with V. cholerae O1, cannot be dismissed. A genomic approach was used to examine similarities and differences among the Haitian V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae non-O1/O139 strains. A total of 47 V. cholerae O1 and 29 V. cholerae non-O1/O139 isolates from patients and the environment were sequenced. Comparative genome analyses of the 76 genomes and eight reference strains of V. cholerae isolated in concurrent epidemics outside Haiti and 27 V. cholerae genomes available in the public database demonstrated substantial diversity of V. cholerae and ongoing flux within its genome. PMID:22711841

  15. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 in Water and Seafood, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Nicole; Kahler, Amy M.; Jones, Jessica L.; Bopp, Cheryl A.; Marano, Nina; Tarr, Cheryl L.; Garrett, Nancy M.; Boncy, Jacques; Henry, Ariel; Gómez, Gerardo A.; Wellman, Michael; Curtis, Maurice; Freeman, Molly M.; Turnsek, Maryann; Benner, Ronald A.; Dahourou, Georges; Espey, David; DePaola, Angelo; Tappero, Jordan W.; Handzel, Tom; Tauxe, Robert V.

    2011-01-01

    During the 2010 cholera outbreak in Haiti, water and seafood samples were collected to detect Vibrio cholerae. The outbreak strain of toxigenic V. cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa was isolated from freshwater and seafood samples. The cholera toxin gene was detected in harbor water samples. PMID:22099121

  16. Induction of melanin biosynthesis in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, V E; al-Harthi, L

    1992-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae synthesized the pigment melanin in response to specific physiological conditions that were stressful to the bacterium. Pigmentation was induced when V. cholerae was subjected to hyperosmotic stress in conjunction with elevated growth temperatures (above 30 degrees C). The salt concentration tolerated by V. cholerae was lowered by additional abiotic factors such as acidic starting pH of the growth medium and limitation of organic nutrients. Although the amount of toxin detected in the culture supernatant decreased significantly in response to stressful culture conditions, no correlation between the physiological conditions that induced melanogenesis and expression of OmpU or cholera toxin was detected. Since conditions that induce melanin production in V. cholerae occur in both the aquatic environment and the human host, it is possible that melanogenesis has a specific function with respect to the survival of the bacterium in these habitats. PMID:1444398

  17. Nepalese origin of cholera epidemic in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Frerichs, R R; Keim, P S; Barrais, R; Piarroux, R

    2012-06-01

    Cholera appeared in Haiti in October 2010 for the first time in recorded history. The causative agent was quickly identified by the Haitian National Public Health Laboratory and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa, biotype El Tor. Since then, >500 000 government-acknowledged cholera cases and >7000 deaths have occurred, the largest cholera epidemic in the world, with the real death toll probably much higher. Questions of origin have been widely debated with some attributing the onset of the epidemic to climatic factors and others to human transmission. None of the evidence on origin supports climatic factors. Instead, recent epidemiological and molecular-genetic evidence point to the United Nations peacekeeping troops from Nepal as the source of cholera to Haiti, following their troop rotation in early October 2010. Such findings have important policy implications for shaping future international relief efforts. PMID:22510219

  18. Comparison of airborne bacterial communities from a hog farm and spray field.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Ann M; Song, Bongkeun; Sung, Jung-Suk

    2015-05-01

    Airborne bacteria from hog farms may have detrimental impacts on human health, particularly in terms of antibiotic resistance and pathogen zoonosis. Despite human health risks, very little is known about the composition and diversity of airborne bacteria from hog farms and hog-related spray fields. We used pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes to compare airborne bacterial communities in a North Carolina hog farm and lagoon spray field. In addition, we isolated and identified antibiotic-resistant bacteria from both air samples. Based on 16S rRNA gene pyrosequence analysis, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla in airborne bacterial communities from both hog farm and spray field sites. Within the Firmicutes genera, Clostridium spp. were more abundant in the hog farm, whereas Staphylococcus spp. were higher in the spray field. The presence of opportunitic pathogens, including several Staphylococcus species and Propionibacterium acnes, was detected in both bioaerosol communities based on phylogenetic analysis. The isolation and identification of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from air samples also showed similar results with dominance of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria in both hog farm and spray field air. Thus, the existence of opportunistic pathogens and antibiotic resistant bacteria in airborne communities evidences potential health risks to farmers and other residents from swine bioaerosol exposure. PMID:25406533

  19. Prevention of losses for hog farmers in China: insurance, on-farm biosecurity practices, and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue-hua; Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Chen, Kevin Z

    2013-10-01

    Using agricultural household survey data and claim records from insurers in China, this paper analyzes hog producers' choice of the ways to prevent possible losses and identifies the relationships among biosecurity practices, vaccination, and hog insurance. By combining one probit and two structural equations, we adopt three-stage estimations by a mixed-process model to obtain results. The findings indicate that biosecurity practices provide the basic infrastructure for operating pig farms and complement both the usage of quality vaccines and the uptake of hog insurance. In addition, there is a strong substitution relationship between the quality of vaccine and the demand for hog insurance. Hog farmers that implement better biosecurity practices are more likely to seek high-quality vaccines or buy into hog insurance schemes, but not both. For those households with hog insurance, better biosecurity status, better management practices, and higher-quality vaccines significantly help to reduce loss ratios. However, we also find a moral hazard effect in that higher premium expenditures by the insured households might induce larger loss ratios. PMID:23870329

  20. Anaerobic digestion of hog wastes: Principles and practice

    SciTech Connect

    Oleszkiewicz, J.A.; Bujoczek, G.

    1996-12-31

    The principles and overview of research, development and implementation of anaerobic digestion for hog wastes are discussed. Based on economic evaluations, an anaerobic technology is cost-effective, especially for a larger herd and becomes more competitive with aerobic treatment. Nevertheless, the rate of treatment is more sensitive and dependent on the particular fraction of manure being processed. Considering the different factors affecting anaerobic digestion, a complete mixed reactor with solids recycle (having high solids retention time and low hydraulic retention time) was found to be the more reliable system with regards to methane generation and manure stabilization. By solids recycle one can obtain significant saving in the reactor volume required, while still achieving the expected degree of treatment. It was also found that even though treatment using advanced anaerobic systems when compared with simple anaerobic systems is more expensive, the rate of return on investment and efficiency of the process are higher.

  1. Zinc: Role in the management of diarrhea and cholera

    PubMed Central

    Qadir, M Imran; Arshad, Arfa; Ahmad, Bashir

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea and cholera are major health problems. Vibrio cholera, the causative agent of cholera, infects the small intestine, resulting in vomiting, massive watery diarrhea and dehydration. Reduced water and electrolyte absorption is also due to zinc deficiency. Zinc has an important role in recovery from the disease. The combination of zinc with cholera vaccine and oral rehydration solutions has a positive impact on cholera and diarrhea. It has led to a decrease in the mortality and morbidity associated with diarrhea. PMID:24303485

  2. Antimicrobials & cholera: are we stranded?

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Amit; Ramamurthy, T

    2011-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance poses a major threat in the treatment of infectious diseases. Though significant progress in the management of diarrhoeal diseases has been achieved by improved hygiene, development of new antimicrobials and vaccines, the burden remains the same, especially in children below 5 yr of age. In the case of cholera, though oral rehydration treatment is the mainstay, antimicrobial therapy is mandatory at times to reduce the volume of stool and shorten the duration of the disease. Though for many pathogens, antimicrobial resistance emerged soon after the introduction of antibiotics, Vibrio cholerae remained sensitive to most of the antibiotics for quite a long period. However, the scenario changed over the years and today, V. cholerae strains isolated world over are resistant to multiple antibiotics. A myriad number of mechanisms underlie this phenomenon. These include production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, enhanced multi-drug efflux pump activity, plasmid-mediated quinolone and fluoroquinolone resistance, and chromosomal mutations. Horizontal transfer of resistance determinants with mobile genetic elements like integrons and the integrating conjugative elements (ICEs), SXTs help in the dissemination of drug resistance. Though all strains isolated are not resistant to all antibiotics and we are not as yet "stranded", expanding spectrum of drug resistance is a definite cause for concern. Pipelines of discovery of new antibiotics are drying up as major pharmaceutical companies are losing interest in investing money in this endeavour, mainly due to the short shelf-life of the antibiotics and also due to the fast emergence of drug resistance. To address this issue, attempts are now being made to discover drugs which are pathogen specific and target their "virulence mechanisms". It is expected that development of resistance against such antibiotics would take much longer. This review briefly focuses on all these issues. PMID:21415499

  3. [Cholera in a district of Peru].

    PubMed

    Pérez Rodríguez, A E; Monté Boada, R; de la Vega Díaz, J E; Molina, R; García Gómez, V; Arca González, J M

    1996-01-01

    Taking to consideration the low report of cholera patients and with the main knowing the reality about the introduction of Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae) in Peru, a sample of 101 cases with acute diarrheal disease (ADD) was taken at the Distrito Villa El Salvador. They were selected by a systematic randomized sampling defined for each health care unit in the District, according to the daily average occurrence of ADD cases attended a week before the beginning of the study. All of them took part in a epidemiological survey. A sample was taken by rectal swab in order to isolate V. cholerae. 53 positive cases were found (52.2% and a confidence interval from 42.29 to 62.5%) with significant differences (p < 0.01) between the frequency in adults (67.3%) and children (34.8%). V. cholerae was isolated only in 13 (61.9%) of the 21 cases who had contact with cholera patients, for a relative risk of 1.24 (0.83 < RR < 1.85). A high positivity was also found, 21 cases (72.4%) among those who had raw food. A significant difference (p < 0.01) was observed in connection with those who had cooked food. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis it was only found a significant relationship with age and with the ingestion of raw food as regards the occurrence of cholera. PMID:9805053

  4. Cholera Epidemiology in Nigeria: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Adagbada, Ajoke Olutola; Adesida, Solayide Abosede; Nwaokorie, Francisca Obiageri; Niemogha, Mary-Theresa; Coker, Akitoye Olusegun

    2012-01-01

    Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium, Vibrio cholera. Choleragenic V. cholera O1 and O139 are the only causative agents of the disease. The two most distinguishing epidemiologic features of the disease are its tendency to appear in explosive outbreaks and its predisposition to causing pandemics that may progressively affect many countries and spread into continents. Despite efforts to control cholera, the disease continues to occur as a major public health problem in many developing countries. Numerous studies over more than a century have made advances in the understanding of the disease and ways of treating patients, but the mechanism of emergence of new epidemic strains, and the ecosystem supporting regular epidemics, remain challenging to epidemiologists. In Nigeria, since the first appearance of epidemic cholera in 1972, intermittent outbreaks have been occurring. The later part of 2010 was marked with severe outbreak which started from the northern part of Nigeria, spreading to the other parts and involving approximately 3,000 cases and 781 deaths. Sporadic cases have also been reported. Although epidemiologic surveillance constitutes an important component of the public health response, publicly available surveillance data from Nigeria have been relatively limited to date. Based on existing relevant scientific literature on features of cholera, this paper presents a synopsis of cholera epidemiology emphasising the situation in Nigeria. PMID:22937199

  5. The deadliest wake-up call. Cholera.

    PubMed

    Dajer, T

    1992-01-01

    It is clear that cholera has caused an uproar in Latin America, but the meaning of the epidemic is not so certain. In January 1991, cases of cholera began to spring up along the coast north of Lima. A year later, 1/2 million people in the continent had fallen ill from the disease and over 4000 had died from it. There is not effective antibiotic of vaccine against it. Sanitation is the only "cure" for cholera, a disease which can dehydrate and kill an otherwise strong and healthy person in 6 hours. There are 4 ways of looking at the significance of the epidemic: 1) Who cares? 4000 deaths -- less and 1% of all cholera cases -- is a minuscule figure. Last year in Africa, over 11,000 cholera deaths went unnoticed by the press. 2) The Lost 80s. Economically disastrous for Latin America, the 1980s saw billions of dollars being siphoned out of the continent by multinational banks, money that should have gone into public works and water systems. 3) Just Nature Doing Her Thing. The outbreak of cholera in Latin America is simply the most recent stop of a worldwide cholera epidemic which began in Indonesia in 1961. And 4) Kids Don't Count. In 1991, some 200,000 mostly poor Latin American children died of common diarrheal diseases. Only when bad water began affecting adults was rehydration therapy emphasized. None of these 4 explanations, however, fully explains the commotions surrounding the cholera outbreak. Cholera is one of those diseases that can brand a country as backwards. At bottom, the epidemic represents an embarrassment to the ruling classes of the Latin America. PMID:12159273

  6. A De in the life of cholera.

    PubMed

    Hall, Robert H

    2011-02-01

    The 50-year commemoration of S.N. De's seminal 1959 publication in Nature provides an opportunity to reflect on scientific discovery, recognition, and public health. De's paper marked the first major conceptual advance in cholera research since 1884, when Robert Koch definitively identified Der Kommabazillus as the aetiological agent of cholera. Unfortunately, Koch reported that systemic toxinosis and multi-organ failure led to severe dehydrating diarrhoea, thereby mistaking cause for effect. As a consequence, while work on other microbial pathogens advanced into the development of vaccines and therapeutics, cholera research languished as scientists injected animals parenterally in decades of futile effort to develop an animal model of diarrhoea. This fundamental misconception in cholera pathogenesis was swept away when S.N. De used ligated loops of rabbit ileum to demonstrate lumenal fluid accumulation in the presence of Vibrio cholerae culture filtrates. After some delay, De's observation of a diarrhoeagenic exotoxin became the founding principle of modern cholera research, vaccination, and treatment; and a burst of discovery saw V. cholerae transformed into the enteric pathogen best understood at the molecular level. The scientific basis for orally administering vaccines to induce mucosal immunity was established, and the success of oral rehydration, what has been described as one of the 20 th century's most important medical advances, was explained. Nobel laureate Joshua Lederberg wrote of De's iconoclastic creativity, experimental skill, and observational mastery, and many other leaders in the field concurred. De was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine more than once. But despite the passage of half a century from De's work, cholera remains a frustrating problem: we are clearly missing something. In reviewing the scientific and programmatic impact of S.N. De on cholera, it is clear that a defining victory against the disease is achievable

  7. Developments in steam generator design for combustion of hog fuel and coal

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, P.J.; Lutes, I.G.

    1982-05-01

    The cofiring of coal and hog fuel in industrial steam generators is a feasible alternative that provides greater fuel flexibility to the operator. Equipment specifically designed to be suitable for both fuels is readily available.

  8. Multi-features association-based local HOG description for image matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bingbing; Zhou, Shilin; Lei, Lin; Ji, Kefeng

    2015-12-01

    Image matching has always been a very important research areas in computer vision. The performance will directly affect the matching results. Among local descriptors, the Scale Invariant Feature Transform(SIFT) is a milestone in image matching, while HOG as an excellent descriptor is widely used in 2D object detection, but it seldom used as a descriptor for matching. In this article, we suppose to pool these algorithms and we use a simple modification of the Rotation- Invariant HOG(RI-HOG) to describe the feature domain detected by SIFT. The RI-HOG is Fourier analyzed in the polar/spherical coordinates. Later in our experiment, we test the performance of our method on a datasets. We are surprised to find that the method outperforms other descriptors in image matching in accuracy.

  9. Mesenteric Panniculitis Associated With Vibrio cholerae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Roginsky, Grigory; Mazulis, Andrew; Ecanow, Jacob S.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first case of acute Vibrio cholerae infection with computed tomography (CT) changes consistent with mesenteric panniculitis (MP). A 78-year-old Indian man returned from overseas travel with progressively severe nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and watery diarrhea. His stool tested positive twice for Vibrio cholerae. CT revealed prominent lymph nodes and a hazy mesentery consistent with MP. Antibiotic treatment resulted in complete resolution of MP on follow-up CT 8 months later. In the setting of Vibrio cholerae infection, the CT finding of MP appears to be the result of a immunologically mediated reactive inflammatory disorder of the mesentery. PMID:26504876

  10. A case of cholera in Kingston, Ont.

    PubMed Central

    Bourdages, R.; Beck, I. T.

    1976-01-01

    A case of cholera occurred in Kingston, Ont. in 1974 in a traveller from South Africa. Treatment, based on an understanding of the pathophysiology of cholera diarrhea and the mechanism of action of the Vibrio cholerae enterotoxin on gastrointestinal fluid loss, consisted of correcting the severe loss of fluid and electrolytes and the metabolic acidosis, as soon as the patient could tolerate taking fluids orally, further fluid replacement consisted increasingly of oral administration of glucose and saline. Tetracycline therapy was given only to shorten the duration of the acute illness. PMID:953912

  11. Study of the Ubiquitous Hog Farm System Using Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring and Facilities Control

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jeonghwan; Yoe, Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Many hog farmers are now suffering from high pig mortality rates due to various wasting diseases and increased breeding costs, etc. It is therefore necessary for hog farms to implement systematic and scientific pig production technology to increase productivity and produce high quality pork in order to solve these problems. In this study, we describe such a technology by suggesting a ubiquitous hog farm system which applies WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) technology to the pig industry. We suggest that a WSN and CCTV (Closed-circuit television) should be installed on hog farms to collect environmental and image information which shall then help producers not only in monitoring the hog farm via the Web from outside the farm, but also facilitate the control of hog farm facilities in remote locations. In addition, facilities can be automatically controlled based on breeding environment parameters which are already set up and a SMS notice service to notify of deviations shall provide users with convenience. Hog farmers may increase production and improve pork quality through this ubiquitous hog farm system and prepare a database with information collected from environmental factors and the hog farm control devices, which is expected to provide information needed to design and implement suitable control strategies for hog farm operation. PMID:22163497

  12. Study of the ubiquitous hog farm system using wireless sensor networks for environmental monitoring and facilities control.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jeonghwan; Yoe, Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Many hog farmers are now suffering from high pig mortality rates due to various wasting diseases and increased breeding costs, etc. It is therefore necessary for hog farms to implement systematic and scientific pig production technology to increase productivity and produce high quality pork in order to solve these problems. In this study, we describe such a technology by suggesting a ubiquitous hog farm system which applies WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) technology to the pig industry. We suggest that a WSN and CCTV (Closed-circuit television) should be installed on hog farms to collect environmental and image information which shall then help producers not only in monitoring the hog farm via the Web from outside the farm, but also facilitate the control of hog farm facilities in remote locations. In addition, facilities can be automatically controlled based on breeding environment parameters which are already set up and a SMS notice service to notify of deviations shall provide users with convenience. Hog farmers may increase production and improve pork quality through this ubiquitous hog farm system and prepare a database with information collected from environmental factors and the hog farm control devices, which is expected to provide information needed to design and implement suitable control strategies for hog farm operation. PMID:22163497

  13. The Hog1 SAPK controls the Rtg1/Rtg3 transcriptional complex activity by multiple regulatory mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Roig, Clàudia; Noriega, Núria; Duch, Alba; Posas, Francesc; de Nadal, Eulàlia

    2012-01-01

    Cells modulate expression of nuclear genes in response to alterations in mitochondrial function, a response termed retrograde (RTG) regulation. In budding yeast, the RTG pathway relies on Rtg1 and Rtg3 basic helix-loop-helix leucine Zipper transcription factors. Exposure of yeast to external hyperosmolarity activates the Hog1 stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK), which is a key player in the regulation of gene expression upon stress. Several transcription factors, including Sko1, Hot1, the redundant Msn2 and Msn4, and Smp1, have been shown to be directly controlled by the Hog1 SAPK. The mechanisms by which Hog1 regulates their activity differ from one to another. In this paper, we show that Rtg1 and Rtg3 transcription factors are new targets of the Hog1 SAPK. In response to osmostress, RTG-dependent genes are induced in a Hog1-dependent manner, and Hog1 is required for Rtg1/3 complex nuclear accumulation. In addition, Hog1 activity regulates Rtg1/3 binding to chromatin and transcriptional activity. Therefore Hog1 modulates Rtg1/3 complex activity by multiple mechanisms in response to stress. Overall our data suggest that Hog1, through activation of the RTG pathway, contributes to ensure mitochondrial function as part of the Hog1-mediated osmoadaptive response. PMID:22956768

  14. Hog1 Targets Whi5 and Msa1 Transcription Factors To Downregulate Cyclin Expression upon Stress

    PubMed Central

    González-Novo, Alberto; Jiménez, Javier; Clotet, Josep; Nadal-Ribelles, Mariona; Cavero, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Yeast cells have developed complex mechanisms to cope with extracellular insults. An increase in external osmolarity leads to activation of the stress-activated protein kinase Hog1, which is the main regulator of adaptive responses, such as gene expression and cell cycle progression, that are essential for cellular survival. Upon osmostress, the G1-to-S transition is regulated by Hog1 through stabilization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1 and the downregulation of G1 cyclin expression by an unclear mechanism. Here, we show that Hog1 interacts with and phosphorylates components of the core cell cycle transcriptional machinery such as Whi5 and the coregulator Msa1. Phosphorylation of these two transcriptional regulators by Hog1 is essential for inhibition of G1 cyclin expression, for control of cell morphogenesis, and for maximal cell survival upon stress. The control of both Whi5 and Msa1 by Hog1 also revealed the necessity for proper coordination of budding and DNA replication. Thus, Hog1 regulates G1 cyclin transcription upon osmostress to ensure coherent passage through Start. PMID:25733686

  15. A Hybrid Vehicle Detection Method Based on Viola-Jones and HOG + SVM from UAV Images.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongzheng; Yu, Guizhen; Wang, Yunpeng; Wu, Xinkai; Ma, Yalong

    2016-01-01

    A new hybrid vehicle detection scheme which integrates the Viola-Jones (V-J) and linear SVM classifier with HOG feature (HOG + SVM) methods is proposed for vehicle detection from low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images. As both V-J and HOG + SVM are sensitive to on-road vehicles' in-plane rotation, the proposed scheme first adopts a roadway orientation adjustment method, which rotates each UAV image to align the roads with the horizontal direction so the original V-J or HOG + SVM method can be directly applied to achieve fast detection and high accuracy. To address the issue of descending detection speed for V-J and HOG + SVM, the proposed scheme further develops an adaptive switching strategy which sophistically integrates V-J and HOG + SVM methods based on their different descending trends of detection speed to improve detection efficiency. A comprehensive evaluation shows that the switching strategy, combined with the road orientation adjustment method, can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the vehicle detection from UAV images. The results also show that the proposed vehicle detection method is competitive compared with other existing vehicle detection methods. Furthermore, since the proposed vehicle detection method can be performed on videos captured from moving UAV platforms without the need of image registration or additional road database, it has great potentials of field applications. Future research will be focusing on expanding the current method for detecting other transportation modes such as buses, trucks, motors, bicycles, and pedestrians. PMID:27548179

  16. Influence of human behavior on cholera dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xueying; Gao, Daozhou; Wang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    This paper is devoted to studying the impact of human behavior on cholera infection. We start with a cholera ordinary differential equation (ODE) model that incorporates human behavior via modeling disease prevalence dependent contact rates for direct and indirect transmissions and infectious host shedding. Local and global dynamics of the model are analyzed with respect to the basic reproduction number. We then extend the ODE model to a reaction-convection-diffusion partial differential equation (PDE) model that accounts for the movement of both human hosts and bacteria. Particularly, we investigate the cholera spreading speed by analyzing the traveling wave solutions of the PDE model, and disease threshold dynamics by numerically evaluating the basic reproduction number of the PDE model. Our results show that human behavior can reduce (a) the endemic and epidemic levels, (b) cholera spreading speeds and (c) the risk of infection (characterized by the basic reproduction number). PMID:26119824

  17. EFFECT OF AGGREGATION ON VIBRIO CHOLERA INACTIVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extensive research has shown that microorganisms exhibit increased resistance due to clumping, aggregation, particle association or modification of antecedent growth conditions. uring the course of investigating a major waterborne V. Cholerae outbreak in Peru, U.S. EPA investigat...

  18. Are wetlands the reservoir for avian cholera?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Wetlands have long been suspected to be an important reservoir for Pasteurella multocida and therefore the likely source of avian cholera outbreaks. During the fall of 1995a??98 we collected sediment and water samples from 44 wetlands where avian cholera epizootics occurred the previous winter or spring. We attempted to isolate P. multocida in sediment and surface water samples from 10 locations distributed throughout each wetland. We were not able to isolate P. multocida from any of the 440 water and 440 sediment samples collected from these wetlands. In contrast, during other investigations of avian cholera we isolated P. multocida from 20 of 44 wetlands, including 7% of the water and 4.5% of the sediment samples collected during or shortly following epizootic events. Our results indicate that wetlands are an unlikely reservoir for the bacteria that causes avian cholera.

  19. Pursuing Justice in Haiti's Cholera Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Weinmeyer, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the nation of Haiti was leveled by a shattering earthquake that killed thousands and devastated its already fragile infrastructure. During relief efforts to aid Haiti's suffering population, the United Nations sent troops to Haiti to assist the rebuilding of country's most basic services. But those troops unknowingly carried with them the bacteria that cause cholera, and through the UN's negligent actions, it triggered a horrifying cholera epidemic that continues to harm the Haitian people. Those injured by the cholera epidemic have sought relief in the US federal court system to obtain justice for those killed or sickened by the cholera outbreak. The UN has declared legal immunity for causing the epidemic, yet the litigation on this matter is ongoing. PMID:27437822

  20. Intestinal Colonization Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Pruss, Kali; Taylor, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    To cause the diarrheal disease cholera, Vibrio cholerae must effectively colonize the small intestine. In order to do so, the bacterium needs to successfully travel through the stomach and withstand the presence of agents such as bile and antimicrobial peptides in the intestinal lumen and mucus. The bacterial cells penetrate the viscous mucus layer covering the epithelium and attach and proliferate on its surface. In this review, we discuss recent developments and known aspects of the early stages of V. cholerae intestinal colonization and highlight areas that remain to be fully understood. We propose mechanisms and postulate a model that covers some of the steps that are required in order for the bacterium to efficiently colonize the human host. A deeper understanding of the colonization dynamics of V. cholerae and other intestinal pathogens will provide us with a variety of novel targets and strategies to avoid the diseases caused by these organisms. PMID:25996593

  1. Genome Sequences of Clinical Vibrio cholerae Isolates from an Oyster-Borne Cholera Outbreak in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Bradd J.; Choi, Seon Young; Hasan, Nur A.; Abdullah, Abdul Shakur H.; Cebula, Thomas A.; Huq, Anwar

    2013-01-01

    Between November 2010 and April 2011, 11 cases of cholera were identified and associated with the consumption of raw oysters harvested from Apalachicola Bay, Florida. The etiological agent was the ctxAB-positive Vibrio cholerae serogroup O75. The genome sequences of the isolates provide useful information and are deposited in the public genome databases. PMID:24265497

  2. Genome Sequences of Clinical Vibrio cholerae Isolates from an Oyster-Borne Cholera Outbreak in Florida.

    PubMed

    Haley, Bradd J; Choi, Seon Young; Hasan, Nur A; Abdullah, Abdul Shakur H; Cebula, Thomas A; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R

    2013-01-01

    Between November 2010 and April 2011, 11 cases of cholera were identified and associated with the consumption of raw oysters harvested from Apalachicola Bay, Florida. The etiological agent was the ctxAB-positive Vibrio cholerae serogroup O75. The genome sequences of the isolates provide useful information and are deposited in the public genome databases. PMID:24265497

  3. Assessing hog lagoon waste contamination in the Cape Fear Watershed using Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Ann M; Song, Bongkeun; Mallin, Michael A

    2015-09-01

    Hog lagoons can be major sources of waste and nutrient contamination to watersheds adjacent to pig farms. Fecal source tracking methods targeting Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes in pig fecal matter may underestimate or fail to detect hog lagoon contamination in riverine environments. In order to detect hog lagoon wastewater contamination in the Cape Fear Watershed, where a large number of hog farms are present, we conducted pyrosequencing analyses of Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes in hog lagoon waste and identified new hog lagoon-specific marker sequences. Additional pyrosequencing analyses of Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes were conducted with surface water samples collected at 4 sites during 5 months in the Cape Fear Watershed. Using an operational taxonomic unit (OTU) identity cutoff value of 97 %, these newly identified hog lagoon markers were found in 3 of the river samples, while only 1 sample contained the pig fecal marker. In the sample containing the pig fecal marker, there was a relatively high percentage (14.1 %) of the hog lagoon markers and a low pig fecal marker relative abundance of 0.4 % in the Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene sequences. This suggests that hog lagoon contamination must be somewhat significant in order for pig fecal markers to be detected, and low levels of hog lagoon contamination cannot be detected targeting only pig-specific fecal markers. Thus, new hog lagoon markers have a better detection capacity for lagoon waste contamination, and in conjunction with a pig fecal marker, provide a more comprehensive and accurate detection of hog lagoon waste contamination in susceptible watersheds. PMID:26189016

  4. Cholera

    MedlinePlus

    ... While You Travel Dengue Fever Malaria Typhoid Fever Ebola First Aid: Diarrhea Stool Test: Bacteria Culture Do ... Food Poisoning Why Is Hand Washing So Important? Ebola Why Do I Need to Wash My Hands? ...

  5. Cholera

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  6. Cholera

    MedlinePlus

    ... with suspected enteric infection. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... with diarrhea and malabsorption. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  7. Cholera risk factors, Papua New Guinea, 2010

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cholera is newly emergent in Papua New Guinea but may soon become endemic. Identifying the risk factors for cholera provides evidence for targeted prevention and control measures. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case–control study to identify cholera risk factors. Using stool culture as the standard, we evaluated a cholera point of care test in the field. Results 176 participants were recruited: 54 cases and 122 controls. Independent risk factors for cholera were: being over 20 years of age (aOR 2.5; 95%CI 1.1, 5.4), defecating in the open air (or river) (aOR 4.5; 95% CI 1.4, 14.4) and knowing someone who travelled to a cholera affected area (aOR 4.1; 95%CI 1.6, 10.7); while the availability of soap for handwashing at home was protective (aOR 0.41; 95%CI 0.19, 0.87). Those reporting access to a piped water distribution system in the home were twice as likely to report the availability of soap for handwashing. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test were 72% (95% CI 47–90) and 71% (95%CI 44–90%). Conclusions Improving population access to the piped water distribution system and sanitation will likely reduce transmission by enabling enhanced hygiene and limiting the contamination of water sources. The One step V. cholerae O1/O139 Antigen Test is of limited utility for clinical decision making in a hospital setting with access to traditional laboratory methods. Settlement dwellers and mobile populations of all age groups should be targeted for interventions in Papua New Guinea. PMID:23126504

  8. Avian cholera in Nebraska's Rainwater Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.; Hurt, J.J.; Trout, A.K.; Cary, J.

    1984-01-01

    The first report of avian cholera in North America occurred in northwestern Texas in winter 1944 (Quortrup et al. 1946). In 1975, mortality from avian cholera occurred for the first time in waterfowl in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska when an estimated 25,000 birds died (Zinkl et al. 1977). Avian cholera has continued to cause mortality in wild birds in specific areas of the Basin each spring since. Losses of waterfowl from avian cholera continue to be much greater in some of the wetlands in the western part of the Basin than in the east. Several wetlands in the west have consistently higher mortality and are most often the wetlands where initial mortality is noticed each spring (Figure 1). The establishment of this disease in Nebraska is of considerable concern because of the importance of the Rainwater Basin as a spring staging area for waterfowl migrating to their breeding grounds. The wetlands in this area are on a major migration route used by an estimated 5 to 9 million ducks and several hundred thousand geese. A large portion of the western mid-continental greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) population stage in the Basin each spring. Occasionally, whooping cranes (Grus americana) use these wetlands during migration, and lesser sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) staging on the nearby Platte River sometimes use wetlands where avian cholera occurs (Anonymous 1981). Our objectives were to determine whether certain water quality variables in the Rainwater Basin differed between areas of high and low avian cholera incidence. These results would then be used for laboratory studies involving the survivability of Pasteurella multocida, the causative bacterium of avian cholera. Those studies will be reported elsewhere.

  9. Cholera dynamics and El Niño-Southern Oscillation.

    PubMed

    Pascual, M; Rodó, X; Ellner, S P; Colwell, R; Bouma, M J

    2000-09-01

    Analysis of a monthly 18-year cholera time series from Bangladesh shows that the temporal variability of cholera exhibits an interannual component at the dominant frequency of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Results from nonlinear time series analysis support a role for both ENSO and previous disease levels in the dynamics of cholera. Cholera patterns are linked to the previously described changes in the atmospheric circulation of south Asia and, consistent with these changes, to regional temperature anomalies. PMID:10976073

  10. Pheromone-induced morphogenesis improves osmoadaptation capacity by activating the HOG MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Baltanás, Rodrigo; Bush, Alan; Couto, Alicia; Durrieu, Lucía; Hohmann, Stefan; Colman-Lerner, Alejandro

    2013-04-23

    Environmental and internal conditions expose cells to a multiplicity of stimuli whose consequences are difficult to predict. We investigate the response to mating pheromone of yeast cells adapted to high osmolarity. Events downstream of pheromone binding involve two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades: the pheromone response (PR) and the cell wall integrity (CWI) response. Although the PR MAPK pathway shares components with a third MAPK pathway, the high osmolarity (HOG) response, each one is normally only activated by its cognate stimulus, a phenomenon called insulation. We found that in cells adapted to high osmolarity, PR activated the HOG pathway in a pheromone- and osmolarity-dependent manner. Activation of HOG by the PR was not due to loss of insulation, but rather a response to a reduction in internal osmolarity, which resulted from an increase in glycerol release caused by the PR. By analyzing single-cell time courses, we found that stimulation of HOG occurred in discrete bursts that coincided with the "shmooing" morphogenetic process. Activation required the polarisome, the CWI MAPK Slt2, and the aquaglyceroporin Fps1. HOG activation resulted in high glycerol turnover, which improved adaptability to rapid changes in osmolarity. Our work shows how a differentiation signal can recruit a second, unrelated sensory pathway to fine-tune yeast response in a complex environment. PMID:23612707

  11. Examination of atmospheric ammonia levels near hog CAFOs, homes, and schools in Eastern North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Sacoby M.; Serre, Marc L.

    Hog concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) release ammonia (NH 3) in Eastern North Carolina (NC) to the atmosphere which is potentially hazardous for nearby human populations at community locations particularly homes and schools. We present NH 3 weekly average concentrations that were collected using passive diffusion tubes from October 2003 to May 2004 (20 sites) and from July 2004 to October 2004 (23 sites) near community locations in close proximity to hog CAFOs. The data for each phase of sampling was stratified by distance from the nearest hog CAFO. The mean Phase I levels were 16, 8, 7 and 5 ppb for distances <0.5, 0.5-1, 1-2, and 2 km or more, respectively. The mean levels for Phase II were 29, 16, and 11 ppb for distances <0.5, 0.5-1, and 1 km or more, respectively. The results of the distance stratification are the best results of this study and provide the strongest evidence that distance to one or more CAFOs is the key variable in controlling weekly NH 3 atmospheric concentration at the community level in Eastern NC. Statistical analyses confirmed that source terms such as distance to a hog CAFO and live weight per operation, as well as temperature, wind speed and wind direction were important predictors of atmospheric NH 3 at community locations. The results indicate potential zones of exposure for human populations who live or go to school near hog CAFOs.

  12. Pheromone-Induced Morphogenesis Improves Osmoadaptation Capacity by Activating the HOG MAPK Pathway**

    PubMed Central

    Baltanás, Rodrigo; Bush, Alan; Couto, Alicia; Durrieu, Lucía; Hohmann, Stefan; Colman-Lerner, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Environmental and internal conditions expose cells to a multiplicity of stimuli whose consequences are difficult to predict. Here, we investigate the response to mating pheromone of yeast cells adapted to high osmolarity. Events downstream of pheromone binding involve two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades: the pheromone response (PR) and the cell-wall integrity response (CWI). Although these MAPK pathways share components with each and a third MAPK pathway, the high osmolarity response (HOG), they are normally only activated by distinct stimuli, a phenomenon called insulation. We found that in cells adapted to high osmolarity, PR activated the HOG pathway in a pheromone- and osmolarity- dependent manner. Activation of HOG by the PR was not due to loss of insulation, but rather a response to a reduction in internal osmolarity, which resulted from an increase in glycerol release caused by the PR. By analyzing single-cell time courses, we found that stimulation of HOG occurred in discrete bursts that coincided with the “shmooing” morphogenetic process. Activation required the polarisome, the cell wall integrity MAPK Slt2, and the aquaglyceroporin Fps1. HOG activation resulted in high glycerol turnover that improved adaptability to rapid changes in osmolarity. Our work shows how a differentiation signal can recruit a second, unrelated sensory pathway to enable responses to yeast to multiple stimuli. PMID:23612707

  13. Phylogenetic Diversity of Vibrio cholerae Associated with Endemic Cholera in Mexico from 1991 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seon Young; Rashed, Shah M.; Hasan, Nur A.; Alam, Munirul; Islam, Tarequl; Sadique, Abdus; Johura, Fatema-Tuz; Eppinger, Mark; Huq, Anwar; Cravioto, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT An outbreak of cholera occurred in 1991 in Mexico, where it had not been reported for more than a century and is now endemic. Vibrio cholerae O1 prototype El Tor and classical strains coexist with altered El Tor strains (1991 to 1997). Nontoxigenic (CTX−) V. cholerae El Tor dominated toxigenic (CTX+) strains (2001 to 2003), but V. cholerae CTX+ variant El Tor was isolated during 2004 to 2008, outcompeting CTX− V. cholerae. Genomes of six Mexican V. cholerae O1 strains isolated during 1991 to 2008 were sequenced and compared with both contemporary and archived strains of V. cholerae. Three were CTX+ El Tor, two were CTX− El Tor, and the remaining strain was a CTX+ classical isolate. Whole-genome sequence analysis showed the six isolates belonged to five distinct phylogenetic clades. One CTX− isolate is ancestral to the 6th and 7th pandemic CTX+ V. cholerae isolates. The other CTX− isolate joined with CTX− non-O1/O139 isolates from Haiti and seroconverted O1 isolates from Brazil and Amazonia. One CTX+ isolate was phylogenetically placed with the sixth pandemic classical clade and the V. cholerae O395 classical reference strain. Two CTX+ El Tor isolates possessing intact Vibrio seventh pandemic island II (VSP-II) are related to hybrid El Tor isolates from Mozambique and Bangladesh. The third CTX+ El Tor isolate contained West African-South American (WASA) recombination in VSP-II and showed relatedness to isolates from Peru and Brazil. Except for one isolate, all Mexican isolates lack SXT/R391 integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) and sensitivity to selected antibiotics, with one isolate resistant to streptomycin. No isolates were related to contemporary isolates from Asia, Africa, or Haiti, indicating phylogenetic diversity. PMID:26980836

  14. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices regarding Diarrhea and Cholera following an Oral Cholera Vaccination Campaign in the Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Eleanor; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Ogaoga, Divi; Gaiofa, Jenny; Jilini, Gregory; Halpin, Alison; Dietz, Vance; Date, Kashmira; Mintz, Eric; Hyde, Terri; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Yen, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background In response to a 2011 cholera outbreak in Papua New Guinea, the Government of the Solomon Islands initiated a cholera prevention program which included cholera disease prevention and treatment messaging, community meetings, and a pre-emptive cholera vaccination campaign targeting 11,000 children aged 1–15 years in selected communities in Choiseul and Western Provinces. Methodology and Principal Findings We conducted a post-vaccination campaign, household-level survey about knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding diarrhea and cholera in areas targeted and not targeted for cholera vaccination. Respondents in vaccinated areas were more likely to have received cholera education in the previous 6 months (33% v. 9%; p = 0.04), to know signs and symptoms (64% vs. 22%; p = 0.02) and treatment (96% vs. 50%; p = 0.02) of cholera, and to be aware of cholera vaccine (48% vs. 14%; p = 0.02). There were no differences in water, sanitation, and hygiene practices. Conclusions This pre-emptive OCV campaign in a cholera-naïve community provided a unique opportunity to assess household-level knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding diarrhea, cholera, and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). Our findings suggest that education provided during the vaccination campaign may have reinforced earlier mass messaging about cholera and diarrheal disease in vaccinated communities. PMID:27548678

  15. 7 CFR 1230.113 - Collection and remittance of assessments for the sale of feeder pigs and market hogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collection and remittance of assessments for the sale of feeder pigs and market hogs. 1230.113 Section 1230.113 Agriculture Regulations of the Department... pigs and market hogs. Pursuant to the provisions of § 1230.71, purchasers of feeder pigs or market...

  16. HwHog1 kinase activity is crucial for survival of Hortaea werneckii in extremely hyperosmolar environments.

    PubMed

    Kejžar, Anja; Grötli, Morten; Tamás, Markus J; Plemenitaš, Ana; Lenassi, Metka

    2015-01-01

    Although suggested, the involvement of the HOG pathway in adaptation processes in extremely halotolerant fungus Hortaea werneckii has never been specifically demonstrated. Here, we show that the H. werneckii HOG pathway is very robust, and that it includes two functionally redundant MAPK homologues, HwHog1A and HwHog1B, that show osmolyte-type-dependent phosphorylation. Inhibition of HwHog1 kinase activity with the ATP analogue BPTIP restricts H. werneckii colony growth at 3.0M NaCl, KCl and sorbitol, most likely due to restricted cell division. On the other hand, HwHog1-regulated transcription of a selected group of genes (HwSTL1, HwGUT2, HwOPI3, HwGDH1, HwUGP1, HwGPD1) is an osmolyte-specific process that is important for induction of gene transcription with high NaCl, for regulation of specific genes with high sorbitol, and has no role in KCl stressed cells. Survival of H. werneckii at moderate NaCl and KCl concentrations is not dependent on HwHog1 activity or the calcineurin pathway, and thus alternative mechanisms must exist. The HOG pathway described here is vital for the extreme osmotolerance of H. werneckii, and its regulation shows important differences from the homologue pathways characterised in other mesophilic and halotolerant fungi. PMID:25483129

  17. Reactions of human and hog intrinsic factors with type I antibody to intrinsic factor

    PubMed Central

    Gullberg, R.

    1970-01-01

    A simple and rapid small-scale gel filtration method was applied in studies of type I antibody to intrinsic factor using radioactive vitamin B12 of high specific activity and purified human and hog intrinsic factor preparations, taking into account the unsaturated B12-binding capacity of the individual pernicious anaemia sera. This procedure allows the use of small amounts of reagents. Evidence was obtained for a close antigenic similarity of determinants of human and hog intrinsic factor. The use of purified intrinsic-factor preparations is important. PMID:4097742

  18. Monoclonal antibodies against Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, B; Rosén, A; Holme, T

    1982-01-01

    A cell line producing monoclonal antibodies directed against the core region of Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide has been established. These antibodies were inhibited by lipopolysaccharide preparations of both O-group 1 vibrios and some non-O-group 1 vibrios as detected in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-inhibition experiments. Coagglutination experiments with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies adsorbed to protein A-carrying staphylococci were performed. All V. cholerae strains tested, regardless of serotype, were agglutinated when mixed with staphylococci coated with the monoclonal antibodies, whereas staphylococci coated with group-specific (O1) polyclonal antibodies only agglutinated with O-group 1 vibrios. Images PMID:6183214

  19. Spreading of Cholera through Surface Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertuzzo, E.; Casagrandi, R.; Gatto, M.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

    2009-12-01

    Cholera epidemics are still a major public health concern to date in many areas of the world. In order to understand and forecast cholera outbreaks, one of the most important factors is the role played by the environmental matrix in which the disease spreads. We study how river networks, acting as environmental corridors for pathogens, affect the spreading of cholera epidemics. The environmental matrix in which the disease spreads is constituted by different human communities and their hydrologic interconnections. Each community is characterized by its spatial position, population size, water resources availability and hygiene conditions. By implementing a spatially explicit cholera model we seek the effects on epidemic dynamics of: i) the topology and metrics of the pathogens pathways that connect different communities; ii) the spatial distribution of the population size; and iii) the spatial distributions and quality of surface water resources and public health conditions, and how they vary with population size. The model has been applied to study the space-time evolution of a well documented cholera epidemic occurred in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The epidemic lasted for two years and involved about 140,000 confirmed cholera cases. The model does well in reproducing the distribution of the cholera cases during the two outbreaks as well as their spatial spreading. We further extend the model by deriving the speed of propagation of traveling fronts in the case of uniformly distributed systems for different topologies: one and two dimensional lattices and river networks. The derivation of the spreading celerity proves instrumental in establishing the overall conditions for the relevance of spatially explicit models. The conditions are sought by comparison between spreading and disease timescales. Consider a cholera epidemic that starts from a point and spreads throughout a finite size system, it is possible to identify two different timescales: i

  20. Does Water Hyacinth on East African Lakes Promote Cholera Outbreaks?

    PubMed Central

    Feikin, Daniel R.; Tabu, Collins W.; Gichuki, John

    2010-01-01

    Cholera outbreaks continue to occur regularly in Africa. Cholera has been associated with proximity to lakes in East Africa, and Vibrio cholerae has been found experimentally to concentrate on the floating aquatic plant, water hyacinth, which is periodically widespread in East African lakes since the late 1980s. From 1994 to 2008, Nyanza Province, which is the Kenyan province bordering Lake Victoria, accounted for a larger proportion of cholera cases than expected by its population size (38.7% of cholera cases versus 15.3% of national population). Yearly water-hyacinth coverage on the Kenyan section of Lake Victoria was positively associated with the number of cholera cases reported in Nyanza Province (r = 0.83; P = 0.0010). Water hyacinth on freshwater lakes might play a role in initiating cholera outbreaks and causing sporadic disease in East Africa. PMID:20682884

  1. Biochemistry of Vibrio cholerae virulence: purification of cholera enterotoxin by preparative disc electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, A C; Richardson, S H; Sheridan, B

    1976-01-01

    Procedures for cholera enterotoxin purification previously developed in this labarotory were not applicable to large-scale purification, and these methods resulted in low yields of pure toxin. An efficient scheme has been developed whereby pure cholera enterotoxin can be obtained from 6 to 8 liters of culture supernatant fluid. This method consists of concentration by membrane ultrafiltration followed by gel filtration and cation-exchange chromatography. Pure cholera enterotoxin of high biological potency was obtained after a final step of preparative acrylamide gel electrophoresis. The degree of purity of the toxin-antigen as well as its biological activity were determined at various setps of purification. This alternate technique for purification is offered because of the widespread interest in cholera enterotoxin as a specific stimulator of adenyl cyclase. Images PMID:987751

  2. Population-Level Effect of Cholera Vaccine on Displaced Populations, South Sudan, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Rumunu, John; Abubakar, Abdinasir; West, Haley; Ciglenecki, Iza; Helderman, Trina; Wamala, Joseph Francis; Vázquez, Olimpia de la Rosa; Perea, William; Sack, David A.; Legros, Dominique; Martin, Stephen; Lessler, Justin; Luquero, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Following mass population displacements in South Sudan, preventive cholera vaccination campaigns were conducted in displaced persons camps before a 2014 cholera outbreak. We compare cholera transmission in vaccinated and unvaccinated areas and show vaccination likely halted transmission within vaccinated areas, illustrating the potential for oral cholera vaccine to stop cholera transmission in vulnerable populations. PMID:27192187

  3. Population-Level Effect of Cholera Vaccine on Displaced Populations, South Sudan, 2014.

    PubMed

    Azman, Andrew S; Rumunu, John; Abubakar, Abdinasir; West, Haley; Ciglenecki, Iza; Helderman, Trina; Wamala, Joseph Francis; Vázquez, Olimpia de la Rosa; Perea, William; Sack, David A; Legros, Dominique; Martin, Stephen; Lessler, Justin; Luquero, Francisco J

    2016-06-01

    Following mass population displacements in South Sudan, preventive cholera vaccination campaigns were conducted in displaced persons camps before a 2014 cholera outbreak. We compare cholera transmission in vaccinated and unvaccinated areas and show vaccination likely halted transmission within vaccinated areas, illustrating the potential for oral cholera vaccine to stop cholera transmission in vulnerable populations. PMID:27192187

  4. Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O139: Isolation from Cholera Patients and Asymptomatic Household Family Members in Bangladesh between 2013 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Fahima; Mather, Alison E.; Begum, Yasmin Ara; Asaduzzaman, Muhammad; Baby, Nabilah; Sharmin, Salma; Biswas, Rajib; Ikhtear Uddin, Muhammad; LaRocque, Regina C.; Harris, Jason B.; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Ryan, Edward T.; Clemens, John D.; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Qadri, Firdausi

    2015-01-01

    Background Cholera is endemic in Bangladesh, with outbreaks reported annually. Currently, the majority of epidemic cholera reported globally is El Tor biotype Vibrio cholerae isolates of the serogroup O1. However, in Bangladesh, outbreaks attributed to V. cholerae serogroup O139 isolates, which fall within the same phylogenetic lineage as the O1 serogroup isolates, were seen between 1992 and 1993 and in 2002 to 2005. Since then, V. cholerae serogroup O139 has only been sporadically isolated in Bangladesh and is now rarely isolated elsewhere. Methods Here, we present case histories of four cholera patients infected with V. cholerae serogroup O139 in 2013 and 2014 in Bangladesh. We comprehensively typed these isolates using conventional approaches, as well as by whole genome sequencing. Phenotypic typing and PCR confirmed all four isolates belonging to the O139 serogroup. Findings Whole genome sequencing revealed that three of the isolates were phylogenetically closely related to previously sequenced El Tor biotype, pandemic 7, toxigenic V. cholerae O139 isolates originating from Bangladesh and elsewhere. The fourth isolate was a non-toxigenic V. cholerae that, by conventional approaches, typed as O139 serogroup but was genetically divergent from previously sequenced pandemic 7 V. cholerae lineages belonging to the O139 or O1 serogroups. Conclusion These results suggest that previously observed lineages of V. cholerae O139 persist in Bangladesh and can cause clinical disease and that a novel disease-causing non-toxigenic O139 isolate also occurs. PMID:26562418

  5. Cost-effectiveness of oral cholera vaccine in a stable refugee population at risk for epidemic cholera and in a population with endemic cholera.

    PubMed

    Murray, J; McFarland, D A; Waldman, R J

    1998-01-01

    Recent large epidemics of cholera with high incidence and associated mortality among refugees have raised the question of whether oral cholera vaccines should be considered as an additional preventive measure in high-risk populations. The potential impact of oral cholera vaccines on populations prone to seasonal endemic cholera has also been questioned. This article reviews the potential cost-effectiveness of B-subunit, killed whole-cell (BS-WC) oral cholera vaccine in a stable refugee population and in a population with endemic cholera. In the population at risk for endemic cholera, mass vaccination with BS-WC vaccine is the least cost-effective intervention compared with the provision of safe drinking-water and sanitation or with treatment of the disease. In a refugee population at risk for epidemic disease, the cost-effectiveness of vaccination is similar to that of providing safe drinking-water and sanitation alone, though less cost-effective than treatment alone or treatment combined with the provision of water and sanitation. The implications of these data for public health decision-makers and programme managers are discussed. There is a need for better information on the feasibility and costs of administering oral cholera vaccine in refugee populations and populations with endemic cholera. PMID:9803585

  6. Cholera Toxin Production Induced upon Anaerobic Respiration is Suppressed by Glucose Fermentation in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Taek; Lee, Kang-Mu; Bari, Wasimul; Kim, Hwa Young; Kim, Hye Jin; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2016-03-01

    The causative agent of pandemic cholera, Vibrio cholerae, infects the anaerobic environment of the human intestine. Production of cholera toxin (CT), a major virulence factor of V. cholerae, is highly induced during anaerobic respiration with trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) as an alternative electron acceptor. However, the molecular mechanism of TMAO-stimulated CT production is not fully understood. Herein, we reveal that CT production during anaerobic TMAO respiration is affected by glucose fermentation. When the seventh pandemic V. cholerae O1 strain N16961 was grown with TMAO and additional glucose, CT production was markedly reduced. Furthermore, an N16961 Δcrp mutant, devoid of cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP), was defective in CT production during growth by anaerobic TMAO respiration, further suggesting a role of glucose metabolism in regulating TMAO-mediated CT production. TMAO reductase activity was noticeably decreased when grown together with glucose or by mutation of the crp gene. A CRP binding region was identified in the promoter region of the torD gene, which encodes a structural subunit of the TMAO reductase. Gel shift assays further confirmed the binding of purified CRP to the torD promoter sequence. Together, our results suggest that the bacterial ability to respire using TMAO is controlled by CRP, whose activity is dependent on glucose availability. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for the regulation of major virulence factor production by V. cholerae under anaerobic growth conditions. PMID:26718467

  7. Antibody-secreting cell responses after Vibrio cholerae O1 infection and oral cholera vaccination in adults in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Atiqur; Rashu, Rasheduzzaman; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Islam, Kamrul; LaRocque, Regina C; Ryan, Edward T; Wrammert, Jens; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi; Harris, Jason B

    2013-10-01

    Infection with Vibrio cholerae and oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) induce transient circulating plasmablast responses that peak within approximately 7 days after infection or vaccination. We previously demonstrated that plasmablast responses strongly correlate with subsequent levels of V. cholerae-specific duodenal antibodies up to 6 months after V. cholerae infection. Hence, plasmablast responses provide an early window into the immunologic memory at the mucosal surface. In this study, we characterized plasmablast responses following V. cholerae infection using a flow cytometrically defined population and compared V. cholerae-specific responses in adult patients with V. cholerae O1 infection and vaccinees who received the OCV Dukoral (Crucell Vaccines Canada). Among flow cytometrically sorted populations of gut-homing plasmablasts, almost 50% of the cells recognized either cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB) or V. cholerae O1 lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Using a traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISPOT), we found that infection with V. cholerae O1 and OCVs induce similar responses to the protein antigen CtxB, but responses to LPS were diminished after OCV compared to those after natural V. cholerae infection. A second dose of OCV on day 14 failed to boost circulating V. cholerae-specific plasmablast responses in Bangladeshi adults. Our results differ from those in studies from areas where cholera is not endemic, in which a second vaccination on day 14 significantly boosts plasmablast responses. Given these results, it is likely that the optimal boosting strategies for OCVs differ significantly between areas where V. cholerae infection is endemic and those where it is not. PMID:23945156

  8. [A boy with cholera from India].

    PubMed

    van Furth, A M; Croughs, R D; Terpstra, L; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M J E; van Well, G T H

    2006-01-28

    A 7-year-old Indian boy travelling from India to the United Kingdom was brought to the Emergency Clinic of Airport Medical Services at Schiphol airport in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. He had had watery diarrhoea in the aircraft and had lost consciousness. In view of the strong indications for cholera and the rice water-like diarrhoea, he was admitted to the paediatric ward of the VU Medical Centre where intravenous rehydration was carried out. He recovered within three days. A large number of comma-shaped, motile, Gram-negative rods were found in the faeces. After two days, the faeces culture revealed Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, serotype Inaba. On the day of the flight, the patient had drunk a litre of water from a bottle that later turned out to have been from the New Delhi water supply. Cholera is rare as an import disease in the Netherlands. Due to the severe dehydration, the infection can run a serious course and even be fatal. The infection is not transmitted from person to person. Therefore, no special measures are needed when a patient with cholera is admitted to hospital. PMID:16471238

  9. Surface-attachment sequence in Vibrio Cholerae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utada, Andrew; Gibiansky, Maxsim; Wong, Gerard

    2013-03-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that causes the human disease cholera. It is found natively in brackish costal waters in temperate climates, where it attaches to the surfaces of a variety of different aquatic life. V. cholerae has a single polar flagellum making it highly motile, as well as a number of different pili types, enabling it to attach to both biotic and abiotic surfaces. Using in-house built tracking software we track all surface-attaching bacteria from high-speed movies to examine the early-time attachment profile of v. cholerae onto a smooth glass surface. Similar to previous work, we observe right-handed circular swimming trajectories near surfaces; however, in addition we see a host of distinct motility mechanisms that enable rapid exploration of the surface before forming a more permanent attachment. Using isogenic mutants we show that the motility mechanisms observed are due to a complex combination of hydrodynamics and pili-surface interactions. Lauga, E., DiLuzio, W. R., Whitesides, G. M., Stone, H. A. Biophys. J. 90, 400 (2006).

  10. EFFECT OF AGGREGATION ON VIBRIO CHOLERAE INACTIVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Extensive research has shown that microorganisms exhibit increased resistance due to clumping, aggregation, particle association, or modification of antecedent growth conditions. During the course of investigating a major water-borne Vibrio cholerae outbreak in Peru, U.S. EPA inv...

  11. Human gait recognition by pyramid of HOG feature on silhouette images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Yin, Yafeng; Park, Jeanrok; Man, Hong

    2013-03-01

    As a uncommon biometric modality, human gait recognition has a great advantage of identify people at a distance without high resolution images. It has attracted much attention in recent years, especially in the fields of computer vision and remote sensing. In this paper, we propose a human gait recognition framework that consists of a reliable background subtraction method followed by the pyramid of Histogram of Gradient (pHOG) feature extraction on the silhouette image, and a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based classifier. Through background subtraction, the silhouette of human gait in each frame is extracted and normalized from the raw video sequence. After removing the shadow and noise in each region of interest (ROI), pHOG feature is computed on the silhouettes images. Then the pHOG features of each gait class will be used to train a corresponding HMM. In the test stage, pHOG feature will be extracted from each test sequence and used to calculate the posterior probability toward each trained HMM model. Experimental results on the CASIA Gait Dataset B1 demonstrate that with our proposed method can achieve very competitive recognition rate.

  12. Health effects from breathing air near CAFOs for feeder cattle or hogs.

    PubMed

    Von Essen, Susanna G; Auvermann, Brent W

    2005-01-01

    There is concern that livestock operations for fattening cattle and raising hogs known as concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) release substances into the air that have negative effects on the health of persons living nearby. These substances include dust containing endotoxin and other microbial products as well as ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and a variety of volatile organic compounds. Odors from these farms are considered offensive by some neighbors. A variety of medical complaints are reported to be more common in those people who live near CAFOs for raising hogs than in people without this exposure. Respiratory health effects, including symptoms of pulmonary disease and lung function test result abnormalities, have been described in workers employed in CAFOs where hogs are raised. Health effects after inhalation exposure of neighbors to substances released into the ambient air from these farms is less well characterized. It must be noted that CAFO workers may differ from neighbors in terms of their exposures and general health status. The presence of dust and other substances from cattle feedlots also causes some neighbors to voice concerns about the impact on their health but this exposure has been studied less extensively than exposure to substances released from CAFOs where hogs are raised. Further research needs to be done to look for measurable health effects attributable to living near all CAFOs in order to better understand the impact of these farms. PMID:16702123

  13. PREVALENCE OF YERSINIA ENTEROCOLITICA IN MARKET WEIGHT HOGS IN THE UNITED STATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigs are the major animal reservoir for Y. enterocolitica strains, which are potentially pathogenic for humans. The goals of this study were (1) to estimate the individual animal and on-farm prevalences of Y. enterocolitica in hogs based on tonsil samples collected during National Animal Health Mon...

  14. SEASONAL EMISSIONS OF AMMONIA AND METHANE FROM A HOG WASTE LAGOON WITH BIOACTIVE COVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the use of plane-integrated (PI) open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (OP-FTIR) to measure the flux of ammonia and methane from a hog waste lagoon before and after the installation of a bioactive cover. A computed tomography algorithm using a smoo...

  15. Helminths of sympatric striped, hog-nosed, and spotted skunks in west-central Texas.

    PubMed

    Neiswenter, Sean A; Pence, Danny B; Dowler, Robert C

    2006-07-01

    Twenty-eight hog-nosed skunks (Conepatus leuconotus), 23 striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and nine spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis) from an area of sympatry in west-central Texas were examined for helminth parasites. Shared helminth species among all three host species were one nematode (Physaloptera maxillaris), two acanthocephalans (Pachysentis canicola, Macracanthorhynchus ingens), and one cestode (Mathevotaenia mephitis). Two nematodes (Gongylonema sp. and Filaria taxidaea) occurred in both the striped and hog-nosed skunks. One nematode (Filaroides milksi) and one acanthocephalan (Oncicola canis) were collected only from C. leuconotus. The most common helminth infections for striped and hog-nosed skunks were P. maxillaris and P. canicola. Helminth species richness was highest in hog-nosed skunks, but striped skunks had the highest prevalences and intensities of all the common helminth species. The helminth fauna of spotted skunks was markedly depauperate in terms of species richness and helminth abundance compared to the other two host species. Differences in helminth communities across these three sympatric skunks may be related to differences in their relative abundance, behavior, food habits, and geographic range. PMID:17092881

  16. Regulation of Candida albicans Interaction with Macrophages through the Activation of HOG Pathway by Genistein.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shuna; Hassan, Rabeay Y A; Heintz-Buschart, Anna; Bilitewski, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The severity of infections caused by Candida albicans, the most common opportunistic human fungal pathogen, needs rapid and effective antifungal treatments. One of the effective ways is to control the virulence factors of the pathogen. Therefore, the current study examined the effects of genistein, a natural isoflavone present in soybeans, on C. albicans. The genistein-treated C. albicans cells were then exposed to macrophages. Although no inhibition effect on the growth rates of C. albicans was noted an enhancement of the immune response to macrophages has been observed, indicated by phagocytosis and release of cytokines TNF-α and IL-10. The effect of genistein on the enhanced phagocytosis can be mimicked by the fungicides fludioxonil or iprodione, which inhibit the histidine kinase Cos1p and lead to activation of HOG pathway. The western blot results showed a clear phosphorylation of Hog1p in the wild type strain of C. albicans after incubation with genistein. In addition, effects of genistein on the phosphorylation of Hog1p in the histidine kinase mutants Δcos1 and Δsln1 were also observed. Our results thus indicate a new bio-activity of genistein on C. albicans by activation of the HOG pathway of the human pathogen C. albicans. PMID:26828477

  17. 9 CFR 311.22 - Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema. 311.22 Section 311.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  18. 9 CFR 311.22 - Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema. 311.22 Section 311.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  19. CHARACTERIZATION AND IN-PLANT REDUCTION OF WASTEWATER FROM HOG SLAUGHTERING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastes generated were characterized and quantified in typical hog slaughtering operations both before and after modifications were made to reduce wastewater volume and strength and to increase by-product recovery. The research was carried out in the Oscar Mayer plants at Madison,...

  20. Swedish isolates of Vibrio cholerae enhance their survival when interacted intracellularly with Acanthamoeba castellanii

    PubMed Central

    Shanan, Salah; Bayoumi, Magdi; Saeed, Amir; Sandström, Gunnar; Abd, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that occurs naturally in aquatic environment. Only V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 produce cholera toxin and cause cholera, other serogroups can cause gastroenteritis, open wounds infection, and septicaemia. V. cholerae O1 and V. cholerae O139 grow and survive inside Acanthamoeba castellanii. The aim of this study is to investigate the interactions of the Swedish clinical isolates V. cholerae O3, V. cholerae O4, V. cholerae O5, V. cholerae O11, and V. cholerae O160 with A. castellanii. The interaction between A. castellanii and V. cholerae strains was studied by means of amoeba cell counts, viable counts of the bacteria in the absence or presence of amoebae, and of the intracellularly growing bacteria, visualised by electron microscopy. These results show that all V. cholerae can grow and survive outside and inside the amoebae, disclosing that V. cholerae O3, V. cholerae O4, V. cholerae O5, V. cholerae O11, and V. cholerae O160 all can be considered as facultative intracellular bacteria. PMID:27118300

  1. Tracking Cholera in Coastal Regions using Satellite Observations

    PubMed Central

    Jutla, Antarpreet S; Akanda, Ali S; Islam, Shafiqul

    2010-01-01

    Cholera remains a significant health threat across the globe. The pattern and magnitude of the seven global pandemics suggest that cholera outbreaks primarily originate in coastal regions and then spread inland through secondary means. Cholera bacteria show strong association with plankton abundance in coastal ecosystems. This review study investigates relationship(s) between cholera incidence and coastal processes and explores utility of using remote sensing data to track coastal plankton blooms, using chlorophyll as a surrogate variable for plankton abundance, and subsequent cholera outbreaks. Most studies over the last several decades have primarily focused on the microbiological and epidemiological understanding of cholera outbreaks. Accurate identification and mechanistic understanding of large scale climatic, geophysical and oceanic processes governing cholera-chlorophyll relationship is important for developing cholera prediction models. Development of a holistic understanding of these processes requires long and reliable chlorophyll dataset(s), which are beginning to be available through satellites. We have presented a schematic pathway and a modeling framework that relate cholera with various hydroclimatic and oceanic variables for understanding disease dynamics using latest advances in remote sensing. Satellite data, with its unprecedented spatial and temporal coverage, have potentials to monitor coastal processes and track cholera outbreaks in endemic regions. PMID:21072249

  2. Cholera: Environmental Reservoirs and Impact on Disease Transmission

    PubMed Central

    ALMAGRO-MORENO, SALVADOR; TAYLOR, RONALD K.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is widely known to be the etiological agent of the life-threatening diarrheal disease cholera. Cholera remains a major scourge in many developing countries, infecting hundreds of thousands every year. Remarkably, V. cholerae is a natural inhabitant of brackish riverine, estuarine, and coastal waters, and only a subset of strains are known to be pathogenic to humans. Recent studies have begun to uncover a very complex network of relationships between V. cholerae and other sea dwellers, and the mechanisms associated with the occurrence of seasonal epidemics in regions where cholera is endemic are beginning to be elucidated. Many of the factors required for the organism’s survival and persistence in its natural environment have been revealed, as well as the ubiquitous presence of horizontal gene transfer in the emergence of pathogenic strains of V. cholerae. In this article, we will focus on the environmental stage of pathogenic V. cholerae and the interactions of the microorganism with other inhabitants of aquatic environments. We will discuss the impact that its environmental reservoirs have on disease transmission and the distinction between reservoirs of V. cholerae and the vectors that establish cholera as a zoonosis. PMID:25674360

  3. Genome assortment, not serogroup, defines Vibrio cholerae pandemic strains

    SciTech Connect

    Brettin, Thomas S; Bruce, David C; Challacombe, Jean F; Detter, John C; Han, Cliff S; Munik, A C; Chertkov, Olga; Meincke, Linda; Saunders, Elizabeth; Choi, Seon Y; Haley, Bradd J; Taviani, Elisa; Jeon, Yoon - Seong; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Jae - Hak; Walters, Ronald A; Hug, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a bacterium autochthonous to the aquatic environment, and a serious public health threat. V. cholerae serogroup O1 is responsible for the previous two cholera pandemics, in which classical and El Tor biotypes were dominant in the 6th and the current 7th pandemics, respectively. Cholera researchers continually face newly emerging and re-emerging pathogenic clones carrying combinations of new serogroups as well as of phenotypic and genotypic properties. These genotype and phenotype changes have hampered control of the disease. Here we compare the complete genome sequences of 23 strains of V. cholerae isolated from a variety of sources and geographical locations over the past 98 years in an effort to elucidate the evolutionary mechanisms governing genetic diversity and genesis of new pathogenic clones. The genome-based phylogeny revealed 12 distinct V. cholerae phyletic lineages, of which one, designated the V. cholerae core genome (CG), comprises both O1 classical and EI Tor biotypes. All 7th pandemic clones share nearly identical gene content, i.e., the same genome backbone. The transition from 6th to 7th pandemic strains is defined here as a 'shift' between pathogenic clones belonging to the same O1 serogroup, but from significantly different phyletic lineages within the CG clade. In contrast, transition among clones during the present 7th pandemic period can be characterized as a 'drift' between clones, differentiated mainly by varying composition of laterally transferred genomic islands, resulting in emergence of variants, exemplified by V.cholerae serogroup O139 and V.cholerae O1 El Tor hybrid clones that produce cholera toxin of classical biotype. Based on the comprehensive comparative genomics presented in this study it is concluded that V. cholerae undergoes extensive genetic recombination via lateral gene transfer, and, therefore, genome assortment, not serogroup, should be used to define pathogenic V

  4. Delayed Turnover of Unphosphorylated Ssk1 during Carbon Stress Activates the Yeast Hog1 Map Kinase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo, Milene Carmes; Mayinger, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway coordinates the adaptation to osmotic stress and was recently reported to respond to acute changes in glucose levels. Similarly as in osmotic stress, glucose starvation leads to a transient accumulation of Hog1 in the nucleus. However, the kinetics and the mechanism of Hog1 activation are different for these stress conditions. During osmotic shock the activation of Hog1 can be transduced by either the Sho1 or the Sln1/Ypd1/Ssk1 branch. During glucose starvation the phosphorylation of Hog1 is slower and is completely dependent on Ssk1, but independent of Sho1. To characterize the mechanism of activation of Hog1 during carbon stress, we examined the turnover of Ssk1 protein levels upon glucose starvation in the presence of cycloheximide and monitored protein levels by western blotting. Our data demonstrate that unphosphorylated Ssk1 was quickly degraded during exponential growth and after osmotic stress but remained remarkably stable during glucose limitation. We conclude that glucose starvation induces a delay in the turnover of unphosphorylated Ssk1, which is sufficient to activate the Hog1 MAPK pathway. Although unphosphorylated Ssk1 is known to be degraded by the proteasome, its stabilization is apparently not due to changes in cellular localization or decrease in ubiquitination levels during glucose limitation. PMID:26340004

  5. Outer Membrane Vesicles Mediate Transport of Biologically Active Vibrio cholerae Cytolysin (VCC) from V. cholerae Strains

    PubMed Central

    Elluri, Sridhar; Enow, Constance; Vdovikova, Svitlana; Rompikuntal, Pramod K.; Dongre, Mitesh; Carlsson, Sven; Pal, Amit; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Wai, Sun Nyunt

    2014-01-01

    Background Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released from Gram-negative bacteria can serve as vehicles for the translocation of virulence factors. Vibrio cholerae produce OMVs but their putative role in translocation of effectors involved in pathogenesis has not been well elucidated. The V. cholerae cytolysin (VCC), is a pore-forming toxin that lyses target eukaryotic cells by forming transmembrane oligomeric β-barrel channels. It is considered a potent toxin that contributes to V. cholerae pathogenesis. The mechanisms involved in the secretion and delivery of the VCC have not been extensively studied. Methodology/Principal Findings OMVs from V. cholerae strains were isolated and purified using a differential centrifugation procedure and Optiprep centrifugation. The ultrastructure and the contents of OMVs were examined under the electron microscope and by immunoblot analyses respectively. We demonstrated that VCC from V. cholerae strain V:5/04 was secreted in association with OMVs and the release of VCC via OMVs is a common feature among V. cholerae strains. The biological activity of OMV-associated VCC was investigated using contact hemolytic assay and epithelial cell cytotoxicity test. It showed toxic activity on both red blood cells and epithelial cells. Our results indicate that the OMVs architecture might play a role in stability of VCC and thereby can enhance its biological activities in comparison with the free secreted VCC. Furthermore, we tested the role of OMV-associated VCC in host cell autophagy signalling using confocal microscopy and immunoblot analysis. We observed that OMV-associated VCC triggered an autophagy response in the target cell and our findings demonstrated for the first time that autophagy may operate as a cellular defence mechanism against an OMV-associated bacterial virulence factor. Conclusion/Significance Biological assays of OMVs from the V. cholerae strain V:5/04 demonstrated that OMV-associated VCC is indeed biologically active and

  6. Involvement of the mitogen activated protein kinase Hog1p in the response of Candida albicans to iron availability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron is an essential nutrient for almost all organisms, and generating iron limiting conditions for pathogens is one of the host defense strategies against microbial infections. Excess of iron can be toxic; therefore, iron uptake is tightly controlled. The high affinity iron uptake system of the opportunistic pathogenic yeast Candida albicans has been shown to be essential for virulence. Several transcription factors and regulators of iron uptake genes were identified, but the knowledge of signaling pathways is still limited. Gene expression profiling of the Δhog1 deletion mutant indicated an involvement of the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase Hog1p. However, the function of Hog1p in the response of C. albicans to iron availability was not studied in detail. Thus, we analyzed phenotypic and molecular responses of C. albicans to different iron concentrations particularly with respect to the activity of the Hog1p MAP kinase module. Results We observed flocculation of yeast cells, when the iron ion concentration was equal to or higher than 5 μM. This phenotype was dependent on the MAP kinase Hog1p and the corresponding MAP kinase kinase Pbs2p. Moreover, high extracellular iron ion concentrations led to hyper-phosphorylation of Hog1p. We determined lower amounts of multicopper ferroxidase (MCFO) proteins and lower ferric reductase activity, when the iron ion concentration in the medium was increased. This effect was also observed for the Δhog1 mutant. However, the amounts of MCFO proteins and the cell surface ferric reductase activity were increased in the Δhog1 in comparison to wild type cells. This effect was independent of iron availability in growth media. Conclusions In C. albicans, the MAP kinase Hog1p is part of the network regulating the response of the organism to iron availability. Hog1p was transiently phosphorylated under high iron concentrations and was essential for a flocculent phenotype. Furthermore, deletion of HOG1 led to

  7. Chemoproteomic profiling of host and pathogen enzymes active in cholera

    PubMed Central

    Hatzios, Stavroula K.; Hubbard, Troy; Sasabe, Jumpei; Munera, Diana; Clark, Lars; Bachovchin, Daniel A.; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T.; Davis, Brigid M.; Weerapana, Eranthie; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2016-01-01

    Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is a chemoproteomic tool for detecting active enzymes in complex biological systems. We used ABPP to identify secreted bacterial and host serine hydrolases that are active in animals infected with the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Four V. cholerae proteases were consistently active in infected rabbits, and one, VC0157 (renamed IvaP), was also active in human cholera stool. Inactivation of IvaP influenced the activity of other secreted V. cholerae and rabbit enzymes in vivo, while genetic disruption of all four proteases increased the abundance and binding of an intestinal lectin—intelectin—to V. cholerae in infected rabbits. Intelectin also bound to other enteric bacterial pathogens, suggesting it may constitute a previously unrecognized mechanism of bacterial surveillance in the intestine that is inhibited by pathogen-secreted proteases. Our work demonstrates the power of activity-based proteomics to reveal host-pathogen enzymatic dialogue in an animal model of infection. PMID:26900865

  8. Fish as Reservoirs and Vectors of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Senderovich, Yigal; Izhaki, Ido; Halpern, Malka

    2010-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the etiologic agent of cholera, is autochthonous to various aquatic environments, but despite intensive efforts its ecology remains an enigma. Recently, it was suggested that copepods and chironomids, both considered as natural reservoirs of V. cholerae, are dispersed by migratory waterbirds, thus possibly distributing the bacteria between water bodies within and between continents. Although fish have been implicated in the scientific literature with cholera cases, as far as we know, no study actually surveyed the presence of the bacteria in the fish. Here we show for the first time that fish of various species and habitats contain V. cholerae in their digestive tract. Fish (n = 110) were randomly sampled from freshwater and marine habitats in Israel. Ten different fish species sampled from freshwater habitats (lake, rivers and fish ponds), and one marine species, were found to carry V. cholerae. The fish intestine of Sarotherodon galilaeus harboured ca. 5×103 V. cholerae cfu per 1 gr intestine content—high rates compared with known V. cholerae cfu numbers in the bacteria's natural reservoirs. Our results, combined with evidence from the literature, suggest that fish are reservoirs of V. cholerae. As fish carrying the bacteria swim from one location to another (some fish species move from rivers to lakes or sea and vice versa), they serve as vectors on a small scale. Nevertheless, fish are consumed by waterbirds, which disseminate the bacteria on a global scale. Moreover, V. cholerae isolates had the ability to degrade chitin, indicating a commensal relationship between V. cholerae and fish. Better understanding of V. cholerae ecology can help reduce the times that human beings come into contact with this pathogen and thus minimize the health risk this poses. PMID:20066040

  9. Updated Global Burden of Cholera in Endemic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad; Nelson, Allyson R.; Lopez, Anna Lena; Sack, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The global burden of cholera is largely unknown because the majority of cases are not reported. The low reporting can be attributed to limited capacity of epidemiological surveillance and laboratories, as well as social, political, and economic disincentives for reporting. We previously estimated 2.8 million cases and 91,000 deaths annually due to cholera in 51 endemic countries. A major limitation in our previous estimate was that the endemic and non-endemic countries were defined based on the countries’ reported cholera cases. We overcame the limitation with the use of a spatial modelling technique in defining endemic countries, and accordingly updated the estimates of the global burden of cholera. Methods/Principal Findings Countries were classified as cholera endemic, cholera non-endemic, or cholera-free based on whether a spatial regression model predicted an incidence rate over a certain threshold in at least three of five years (2008-2012). The at-risk populations were calculated for each country based on the percent of the country without sustainable access to improved sanitation facilities. Incidence rates from population-based published studies were used to calculate the estimated annual number of cases in endemic countries. The number of annual cholera deaths was calculated using inverse variance-weighted average case-fatality rate (CFRs) from literature-based CFR estimates. We found that approximately 1.3 billion people are at risk for cholera in endemic countries. An estimated 2.86 million cholera cases (uncertainty range: 1.3m-4.0m) occur annually in endemic countries. Among these cases, there are an estimated 95,000 deaths (uncertainty range: 21,000-143,000). Conclusion/Significance The global burden of cholera remains high. Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for the majority of this burden. Our findings can inform programmatic decision-making for cholera control. PMID:26043000

  10. Role of Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase in the function of cholera toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Galen, J E; Ketley, J M; Fasano, A; Richardson, S H; Wasserman, S S; Kaper, J B

    1992-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae neuraminidase (NANase) is hypothesized to act synergistically with cholera toxin (CT) and increase the severity of a secretory response by increasing the binding and penetration of CT to enterocytes. To test this hypothesis, the NANase gene (nanH) from V. cholerae Ogawa 395 was first cloned and sequenced. Isogenic wild-type and NANase- V. cholerae 395 strains were then constructed by using suicide vector-mediated mutagenesis. The influence of NANase on CT binding and penetration was examined in vitro by using culture filtrates from these isogenic strains. Fluorescence due to binding of fluorescein-conjugated CT to C57BL/6 and C3H mouse fibroblasts exposed to NANase+ filtrates increased five- and eightfold, respectively, relative to that with NANase- filtrates. In addition, NANase+ filtrates increased the short-circuit current measured in Ussing chambers 65% relative to that with NANase- filtrates, although this difference decreased as production of CT increased. The role of NANase in V. cholerae pathogenesis was examined in vivo by intragastric inoculation of the isogenic strains into CD1 suckling mice. No difference in fluid accumulation ratios was seen at doses of 10(4) to 10(8) CFU, but NANase+ strains produced 18% higher fluid accumulation ratios at 10(9) CFU than NANase- strains when inoculated into nonfasted suckling mice. It is concluded that NANase plays a subtle but significant role in the binding and uptake of CT by susceptible cells under defined conditions. Images PMID:1730470

  11. Progress towards development of a cholera subunit vaccine.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ronald K; Kirn, Thomas J; Bose, Niranjan; Stonehouse, Emily; Tripathi, Shital A; Kovác, Pavol; Wade, William F

    2004-07-01

    Cholera, an enteric disease that can reach pandemic proportions, remains a world-wide problem that is positioned to increase in incidence as changes in global climate or armed conflict spawn the conditions that enhance transmission to humans and, thus, precipitate epidemic cholera. An effective subunit cholera vaccine that can provide protective immunity with one parenteral immunization would be a major advantage over the existing oral vaccines that can require two doses for optimal protection. The existing vaccines are clearly effective in some settings, but are less so in others, especially with respect to specific groups such as young (2-5 years) children. In our efforts to develop a cholera subunit vaccine, we focused on two Vibrio cholerae antigens, LPS (lipopolysaccharide) and TCP (toxin co-regulated pilus), that are known to induce protective antibodies in animal models and, in the case of anti-LPS antibodies, to be associated with clinical protection of V. cholerae exposed or vaccinated individuals. This review discusses the current cholera vaccines and compares the advantages of a cholera subunit vaccine to that of the whole cell vaccines. We discuss the possible subunit antigens and prospective targeted use of a subunit cholera vaccine. PMID:17191897

  12. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... may lead to shock, renal failure, cardiovascular collapse, and death. (b) Classification. Class II.... Cholera is an acute infectious disease characterized by severe diarrhea with extreme fluid and...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... may lead to shock, renal failure, cardiovascular collapse, and death. (b) Classification. Class II.... Cholera is an acute infectious disease characterized by severe diarrhea with extreme fluid and...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... may lead to shock, renal failure, cardiovascular collapse, and death. (b) Classification. Class II.... Cholera is an acute infectious disease characterized by severe diarrhea with extreme fluid and...

  15. Modern Cholera in the Americas: An Opportunistic Societal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Patrick T.

    2013-01-01

    In the Americas, the only two cholera epidemics of the past century have occurred in the past 25 years. Lessons from the 1991 Peruvian cholera epidemic can help to focus and refine the response to the current Haitian epidemic. After three years of acute epidemic response, we have an opportunity to refocus on the chronic conditions that make societies vulnerable to cholera. More importantly, even as international attention wanes in the aftermath of the earthquake and acute epidemic, we are faced with a need for continued and coordinated investment in improving Haiti’s structural defenses against cholera, in particular access to improved water and sanitation. PMID:24028256

  16. Recombination shapes the structure of an environmental Vibrio cholerae population.

    PubMed

    Keymer, Daniel P; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae consists of pathogenic strains that cause sporadic gastrointestinal illness or epidemic cholera disease and nonpathogenic strains that grow and persist in coastal aquatic ecosystems. Previous studies of disease-causing strains have shown V. cholerae to be a primarily clonal bacterial species, but isolates analyzed have been strongly biased toward pathogenic genotypes, while representing only a small sample of the vast diversity in environmental strains. In this study, we characterized homologous recombination and structure among 152 environmental V. cholerae isolates and 13 other putative Vibrio isolates from coastal waters and sediments in central California, as well as four clinical V. cholerae isolates, using multilocus sequence analysis of seven housekeeping genes. Recombinant regions were identified by at least three detection methods in 72% of our V. cholerae isolates. Despite frequent recombination, significant linkage disequilibrium was still detected among the V. cholerae sequence types. Incongruent but nonrandom associations were observed for maximum likelihood topologies from the individual loci. Overall, our estimated recombination rate in V. cholerae of 6.5 times the mutation rate is similar to those of other sexual bacteria and appears frequently enough to restrict selection from purging much of the neutral intraspecies diversity. These data suggest that frequent recombination among V. cholerae may hinder the identification of ecotypes in this bacterioplankton population. PMID:21075874

  17. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... may lead to shock, renal failure, cardiovascular collapse, and death. (b) Classification. Class II.... Cholera is an acute infectious disease characterized by severe diarrhea with extreme fluid and...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3930 - Vibrio cholerae serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Cholera is an acute infectious disease characterized by severe diarrhea with extreme fluid and electrolyte... may lead to shock, renal failure, cardiovascular collapse, and death. (b) Classification. Class...

  19. Boron contents and isotopic compositions of hog manure, selected fertilizers, and water in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Komor, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    Boron-isotope (δ11B) values may be useful as surrogate tracers of contaminants and indicators of water mixing in agricultural settings. This paper characterizes the B contents and isotopic compositions of hog manure and selected fertilizers, and presents δ11B data for ground and surface water from two agricultural areas. Boron concentrations in dry hog manure averaged 61 mg/kg and in commercial fertilizers ranged from below detection limits in some brands of ammonium nitrate and urea to 382 mg/kg in magnesium sulfate. Values of δ11B of untreated hog manure ranged from 7.2 to 11.2o/oo and of N fertilizers were −2.0 to 0.7o/oo. In 22 groundwater samples from a sand-plain aquifer in east-central Minnesota, B concentrations averaged 0.04 mg/L and δ11B values ranged from 2.3 to 41.5o/oo. Groundwater beneath a hog feedlot and a cultivated field where hog manure was applied had B-isotope compositions consistent with the water containing hog-manure leachate. In a 775-km2 watershed with silty-loam soils in southcentral Minnesota: 18 samples of subsurface drainage from corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) fields had average B concentrations of 0.06 mg/L and δ11B values of 5.3 to 15.1o/oo; 27 stream samples had average B concentrations of 0.05 mg/L and δ11B values of 1.0 to 19.0o/oo; and eight groundwater samples had average B concentrations of 0.09 mg/L and δ11B values of −0.3 to 23.0o/oo. Values of δ11B and B concentrations, when plotted against one another, define a curved mixing trend that suggests subsurface drainage and stream water contain mixtures of B from shallow and deep groundwater.

  20. Active surveillance for Vibrio cholerae O1 and vibriophages in sewage water as a potential tool to predict cholera outbreaks.

    PubMed Central

    Madico, G; Checkley, W; Gilman, R H; Bravo, N; Cabrera, L; Calderon, M; Ceballos, A

    1996-01-01

    The 1991 Peruvian cholera epidemic has thus far been responsible for 600,000 cholera cases in Peru. In an attempt to design a cholera surveillance program in the capital city of Lima, weekly sewage samples were collected between August 1993 and May 1996 and examined for the presence of Vibrio cholerae O1 bacteria and V. cholerae O1 bacteriophages (i.e., vibriophages). During the 144 weeks of surveillance, 6,323 cases of clinically defined cholera were recorded in Lima. We arbitrarily defined an outbreak as five or more reported cases of cholera in a week. The odds of having an outbreak were 7.6 times greater when V. cholerae O1 was present in sewage water during the four previous weeks compared with when it was not (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the odds of having an outbreak increased as the number of V. cholerae O1 isolations during the previous 4 weeks increased (P < 0.001). The odds of having an outbreak were 2.4 times greater when vibriophages were present in sewage water during the four previous weeks compared with when they were not, but this increase was not statistically significant (P = 0.15). The odds of having an outbreak increased as the number of vibriophage isolations during the previous 4 weeks increased (P < 0.05). The signaling of a potential cholera outbreak 1 month in advance may be a valuable tool for implementation of preventive measures. In Peru, active surveillance for V. cholerae O1 and possibly vibriophages in sewage water appears to be a feasible and effective means of predicting and outbreak of cholera. PMID:8940432

  1. Comparative microscopy study of Vibrio cholerae flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konnov, Nikolai P.; Baiburin, Vil B.; Zadnova, Svetlana P.; Volkov, Uryi P.

    1999-06-01

    A fine structure of bacteria flagella is an important problem of molecular cell biology. Bacteria flagella are the self-assembled structures that allow to use the flagellum protein in a number of biotechnological applications. However, at present, there is a little information about high resolution scanning probe microscopy study of flagellum structure, in particular, about investigation of Vibrio cholerae flagella. In our lab have been carried out the high resolution comparative investigation of V. cholerae flagella by means of various microscopes: tunneling (STM), scanning force (SFM) and electron transmission. As a scanning probe microscope is used designed in our lab versatile SPM with replaceable measuring heads. Bacteria were grown, fixed and treated according to the conventional techniques. For STM investigations samples were covered with Pt/Ir thin films by rotated vacuum evaporation, in SFM investigations were used uncovered samples. Electron microscopy of the negatively stained bacteria was used as a test procedure.

  2. Genomic and phenotypic characterization of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 isolates from a US Gulf Coast cholera outbreak.

    PubMed

    Haley, Bradd J; Choi, Seon Young; Grim, Christopher J; Onifade, Tiffiani J; Cinar, Hediye N; Tall, Ben D; Taviani, Elisa; Hasan, Nur A; Abdullah, Abdulshakur H; Carter, Laurenda; Sahu, Surasri N; Kothary, Mahendra H; Chen, Arlene; Baker, Ron; Hutchinson, Richard; Blackmore, Carina; Cebula, Thomas A; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R

    2014-01-01

    Between November 2010, and May 2011, eleven cases of cholera, unrelated to a concurrent outbreak on the island of Hispaniola, were recorded, and the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae serogroup O75, was traced to oysters harvested from Apalachicola Bay, Florida. From the 11 diagnosed cases, eight isolates of V. cholerae were isolated and their genomes were sequenced. Genomic analysis demonstrated the presence of a suite of mobile elements previously shown to be involved in the disease process of cholera (ctxAB, VPI-1 and -2, and a VSP-II like variant) and a phylogenomic analysis showed the isolates to be sister taxa to toxigenic V. cholerae V51 serogroup O141, a clinical strain isolated 23 years earlier. Toxigenic V. cholerae O75 has been repeatedly isolated from clinical cases in the southeastern United States and toxigenic V. cholerae O141 isolates have been isolated globally from clinical cases over several decades. Comparative genomics, phenotypic analyses, and a Caenorhabditis elegans model of infection for the isolates were conducted. This analysis coupled with isolation data of V. cholerae O75 and O141 suggests these strains may represent an underappreciated clade of cholera-causing strains responsible for significant disease burden globally. PMID:24699521

  3. Genomic and Phenotypic Characterization of Vibrio cholerae Non-O1 Isolates from a US Gulf Coast Cholera Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Grim, Christopher J.; Onifade, Tiffiani J.; Cinar, Hediye N.; Tall, Ben D.; Taviani, Elisa; Hasan, Nur A.; Abdullah, AbdulShakur H.; Carter, Laurenda; Sahu, Surasri N.; Kothary, Mahendra H.; Chen, Arlene; Baker, Ron; Hutchinson, Richard; Blackmore, Carina; Cebula, Thomas A.; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R.

    2014-01-01

    Between November 2010, and May 2011, eleven cases of cholera, unrelated to a concurrent outbreak on the island of Hispaniola, were recorded, and the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae serogroup O75, was traced to oysters harvested from Apalachicola Bay, Florida. From the 11 diagnosed cases, eight isolates of V. cholerae were isolated and their genomes were sequenced. Genomic analysis demonstrated the presence of a suite of mobile elements previously shown to be involved in the disease process of cholera (ctxAB, VPI-1 and -2, and a VSP-II like variant) and a phylogenomic analysis showed the isolates to be sister taxa to toxigenic V. cholerae V51 serogroup O141, a clinical strain isolated 23 years earlier. Toxigenic V. cholerae O75 has been repeatedly isolated from clinical cases in the southeastern United States and toxigenic V. cholerae O141 isolates have been isolated globally from clinical cases over several decades. Comparative genomics, phenotypic analyses, and a Caenorhabditis elegans model of infection for the isolates were conducted. This analysis coupled with isolation data of V. cholerae O75 and O141 suggests these strains may represent an underappreciated clade of cholera-causing strains responsible for significant disease burden globally. PMID:24699521

  4. Cholera outbreaks (2012) in three districts of Nepal reveal clonal transmission of multi-drug resistant Vibrio cholerae O1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although endemic cholera causes significant morbidity and mortality each year in Nepal, lack of information about the causal bacterium often hinders cholera intervention and prevention. In 2012, diarrheal outbreaks affected three districts of Nepal with confirmed cases of mortality. This study was designed to understand the drug response patterns, source, and transmission of Vibrio cholerae associated with 2012 cholera outbreaks in Nepal. Methods V. cholerae (n = 28) isolated from 2012 diarrhea outbreaks {n = 22; Kathmandu (n = 12), Doti (n = 9), Bajhang (n = 1)}, and surface water (n = 6; Kathmandu) were tested for antimicrobial response. Virulence properties and DNA fingerprinting of the strains were determined by multi-locus genetic screening employing polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results All V. cholerae strains isolated from patients and surface water were confirmed to be toxigenic, belonging to serogroup O1, Ogawa serotype, biotype El Tor, and possessed classical biotype cholera toxin (CTX). Double-mismatch amplification mutation assay (DMAMA)-PCR revealed the V. cholerae strains to possess the B-7 allele of ctx subunit B. DNA sequencing of tcpA revealed a point mutation at amino acid position 64 (N → S) while the ctxAB promoter revealed four copies of the tandem heptamer repeat sequence 5'-TTTTGAT-3'. V. cholerae possessed all the ORFs of the Vibrio seventh pandemic island (VSP)-I but lacked the ORFs 498–511 of VSP-II. All strains were multidrug resistant with resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), nalidixic acid (NA), and streptomycin (S); all carried the SXT genetic element. DNA sequencing and deduced amino acid sequence of gyrA and parC of the NAR strains (n = 4) revealed point mutations at amino acid positions 83 (S → I), and 85 (S → L), respectively. Similar PFGE (NotI) pattern revealed the Nepalese V. cholerae to be clonal

  5. Spatially explicit modelling of cholera epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, F.; Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Knox, A. C.; Gatto, M.; Rinaldo, A.

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiological models can provide crucial understanding about the dynamics of infectious diseases. Possible applications range from real-time forecasting and allocation of health care resources to testing alternative intervention mechanisms such as vaccines, antibiotics or the improvement of sanitary conditions. We apply a spatially explicit model to the cholera epidemic that struck Haiti in October 2010 and is still ongoing. The dynamics of susceptibles as well as symptomatic and asymptomatic infectives are modelled at the scale of local human communities. Dissemination of Vibrio cholerae through hydrological transport and human mobility along the road network is explicitly taken into account, as well as the effect of rainfall as a driver of increasing disease incidence. The model is calibrated using a dataset of reported cholera cases. We further model the long term impact of several types of interventions on the disease dynamics by varying parameters appropriately. Key epidemiological mechanisms and parameters which affect the efficiency of treatments such as antibiotics are identified. Our results lead to conclusions about the influence of different intervention strategies on the overall epidemiological dynamics.

  6. Single-Dose Doxycycline for Cholera

    PubMed Central

    Sack, David A.; Islam, Sirajul; Rabbani, Hassan; Islam, Asma

    1978-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of single-dose doxycycline in the treatment of cholera, we carried out a randomized prospective trial in 65 patients. Treatment consisted of either a single dose of 200 mg of doxycycline (or 4 mg/kg in patients less than 15 years old) or multiple doses of doxycycline, 500 mg over 4 days (or 10 mg/kg in patients less than 15 years old). There were no differences between the groups in the volumes of intravenous fluid required, volumes of diarrheal stool, or durations of diarrhea. The mean duration of positive stool cultures for Vibrio cholerae was similar for the two groups, although in both groups several patients continued to excrete Vibrios in the stool for more than 3 days. Blood levels of antibiotic demonstrated that the doxycycline was absorbed in spite of the rapid transit time associated with severe diarrhea. These results suggest that although tetracycline remains the drug of choice for cholera, doxycycline is a reasonable alternative, and that a single dose of 200 mg (4 mg/kg in children) is effective clinically. PMID:708024

  7. The Vaccine Candidate Vibrio cholerae 638 Is Protective against Cholera in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    García, Luis; Jidy, Manuel Díaz; García, Hilda; Rodríguez, Boris L.; Fernández, Roberto; Año, Gemma; Cedré, Bárbara; Valmaseda, Tania; Suzarte, Edith; Ramírez, Margarita; Pino, Yadira; Campos, Javier; Menéndez, Jorge; Valera, Rodrigo; González, Daniel; González, Irma; Pérez, Oliver; Serrano, Teresita; Lastre, Miriam; Miralles, Fernando; del Campo, Judith; Maestre, Jorge Luis; Pérez, José Luis; Talavera, Arturo; Pérez, Antonio; Marrero, Karen; Ledón, Talena; Fando, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae 638 is a living candidate cholera vaccine strain attenuated by deletion of the CTXΦ prophage from C7258 (O1, El Tor Ogawa) and by insertion of the Clostridium thermocellum endoglucanase A gene into the hemagglutinin/protease coding sequence. This vaccine candidate was previously found to be well tolerated and immunogenic in volunteers. This article reports a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted to test short-term protection conferred by 638 against subsequent V. cholerae infection and disease in volunteers in Cuba. A total of 45 subjects were enrolled and assigned to receive vaccine or placebo. The vaccine contained 109 CFU of freshly harvested 638 buffered with 1.3% NaHCO3, while the placebo was buffer alone. After vaccine but not after placebo intake, 96% of volunteers had at least a fourfold increase in vibriocidal antibody titers, and 50% showed a doubling of at least the lipopolysaccharide-specific immunoglobulin A titers in serum. At 1 month after vaccination, five volunteers from the vaccine group and five from the placebo group underwent an exploratory challenge study with 109 CFU of ΔCTXΦ attenuated mutant strain V. cholerae 81. Only two volunteers from the vaccine group shed strain 81 in their feces, but none of them experienced diarrhea; in the placebo group, all volunteers excreted the challenge strain, and three had reactogenic diarrhea. An additional 12 vaccinees and 9 placebo recipients underwent challenge with 7 × 105 CFU of virulent strain V. cholerae 3008 freshly harvested from a brain heart infusion agar plate and buffered with 1.3% NaHCO3. Three volunteers (25%) from the vaccine group and all from the placebo group shed the challenge agent in their feces. None of the 12 vaccinees but 7 volunteers from the placebo group had diarrhea, and 2 of the latter exhibited severe cholera (>5,000 g of diarrheal stool). These results indicate that at 1 month after ingestion of a single oral dose (109 CFU) of strain

  8. Synthetic multivalent ligands for cholera & cholera-like toxins: Protected cyclic neoglycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vajinder; Yadav, Narender; Kartha, K P Ravindranathan

    2016-08-01

    Synthesis of a set of novel glycopeptide analogues as potential cholera/cholera-like toxin inhibitors in their protected form is described. They include di-, tri-, tetra- and pentavalent scaffolds. The synthetic steps were achieved using a combination of solvent-free mechanochemical as well as the conventional solution-phase reactions. During the conventional DIC-HOBt-mediated peptide coupling followed for the preparation of certain glycopeptide analogues an interesting in situ Fmoc deprotection was observed which has been demonstrated to hold potential for synthesiszing glycopeptides/neoglycopeptides with extended polyamide chains. PMID:27309341

  9. Hydrologic conditions related to the Hog Canyon Riparian Restoration Project, dinosaur national monument. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, L.; Wagner, J.

    1992-10-01

    In September, 1990, an interdisciplinary team of hydrologists, botanists, soil scientists, and park resource managers met to develop a plan for evaluating riparian conditions and management opportunities for Hog Canyon. At this meeting a set of study objectives was developed to help focus information needs. This report focuses on analysis of hydrologic data collected during the first year of the study. Specifically, the authors discuss seasonal surface and ground water hydrologic conditions, stream channel and ground water relationships, soil moisture conditions, and other aspects of Hog Canyon hydrology relevant to the management objectives. A set of preliminary management/restoration alternatives are also presented as a starting point for continued discussions by the evaluation team.

  10. Field immobilization of Molina's hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus chinga) using ketamine and xylazine.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Diego F; Vidal, Estela Luengos; Casanave, Emma B; Lucherini, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    We injected 27 adult Molina's hog-nosed skunks (Conepatus chinga) intramuscularly by hand with ketamine hydrochloride (KH) and xylazine hydrochloride (XH) in the Pampas grassland of Argentina. Skunks were immobilized with a mean (±SD) dosage of 24.9±6.5 mg/kg KH and 1.9±0.6 mg/kg XH. The mean effective dosages of KH (27.6 mg/kg) and XH (1.7 mg/kg) were higher and lower, respectively, than those reported in skunks previously. Mean induction and recovery time were 5.3±1.9 min and 47.7±18.5 min, respectively. Hypothermia was the only problem detected in field immobilization and occurred in winter but did not appear to be associated with to drug doses. We conclude that KH/XH is a safe immobilizing drug combination for Molina's hog-nosed skunk. PMID:22247386

  11. Modeling studies of ammonia dispersion and dry deposition at some hog farms in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, Kanwardeep S; Arya, S Pal; Aneja, Viney P

    2008-09-01

    A modeling study was conducted on dispersion and dry deposition of ammonia taking one hog farm as a unit. The ammonia emissions used in this study were measured under our OPEN (Odor, Pathogens, and Emissions of Nitrogen) project over a waste lagoon and from hog barns. Meteorological data were also collected at the farm site. The actual layout of barns and lagoons on the farms was used to simulate dry deposition downwind of the farm. Dry deposition velocity, dispersion, and dry deposition of ammonia were studied over different seasons and under different stability conditions using the short-range dispersion/air quality model, AERMOD. Dry deposition velocities were highest under near-neutral conditions and lowest under stable conditions. The highest deposition at short range occurred under nighttime stable conditions and the lowest occurred during daytime unstable conditions. Significant differences in deposition over crop and grass surfaces were observed under stable conditions. PMID:18817112

  12. Tertiary amines related to brompheniramine: preferred conformations for N-oxygenation by the hog liver flavin-containing monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Cashman, J R; Celestial, J R; Leach, A; Newdoll, J; Park, S B

    1993-08-01

    The metabolism of racemic, (D)- and (L)-brompheniramine, a widely used antihistamine, was studied with microsomes and with highly purified flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) from hog liver. In addition, a number of other similar tertiary amines were evaluated as substrates for FMO activity from hog liver and the kinetic constants obtained were compared with brompheniramine. Although some N-demethylation was observed, the major metabolite of brompheniramine and the other tertiary amines examined in hog liver microsomes was the metabolite containing an aliphatic nitrogen N-oxide. Brompheniramine was extensively N-oxygenated by the highly purified FMO from hog liver. N-Oxygenation of brompheniramine in both microsomes and with highly purified FMO from hog liver was enantioselective. The Km for N-oxygenation of (D)-brompheniramine was markedly lower than the Km for (L)-brompheniramine. (E)- and (Z)-zimeldine are less conformationally flexible model compounds of brompheniramine, and these compounds were also examined and were found to be stereoselectively N-oxygenated by the highly purified FMO from hog liver. The similarities and differences in Km and Vmax values were evaluated in terms of possible conformations of the substrates determined by SYBYL molecular mechanics calculations. Distance map data indicated that FMO preferentially accommodated selected conformations of tertiary amines. Thus, (D)-brompheniramine and (Z)-zimeldine presumably have the aliphatic tertiary amine nitrogen atom and aromatic ring center at a defined distance and geometry and were more efficiently N-oxygenated than their respective isomers. PMID:8415393

  13. Nbp2 targets the Ptc1-type 2C Ser/Thr phosphatase to the HOG MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Mapes, James; Ota, Irene M

    2004-01-28

    The yeast high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway signals via the Pbs2 MEK and the Hog1 MAPK, whose activity requires phosphorylation of Thr and Tyr in the activation loop. The Ptc1-type 2C Ser/Thr phosphatase (PP2C) inactivates Hog1 by dephosphorylating phospho-Thr, while the Ptp2 and Ptp3 protein tyrosine phosphatases dephosphorylate phospho-Tyr. In this work, we show that the SH3 domain-containing protein Nbp2 negatively regulates Hog1 by recruiting Ptc1 to the Pbs2-Hog1 complex. Consistent with this role, NBP2 acted as a negative regulator similar to PTC1 in phenotypic assays. Biochemical analysis showed that Nbp2, like Ptc1, was required to inactivate Hog1 during adaptation. As predicted for an adapter, deletion of NBP2 disrupted Ptc1-Pbs2 complex formation. Furthermore, Nbp2 contained separate binding sites for Ptc1 and Pbs2: the novel N-terminal domain bound Ptc1, while the SH3 domain bound Pbs2. In addition, the Pbs2 scaffold bound the Nbp2 SH3 via a Pro-rich motif distinct from that which binds the SH3 domain of the positive regulator Sho1. Thus, Nbp2 recruits Ptc1 to Pbs2, a scaffold for both negative and positive regulators. PMID:14685261

  14. Removal of humic acid from composted hog waste by the white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junying; Song, Yunmeng; Ruan, Roger; Liu, Yuhuan

    2015-01-01

    The potential hazards of humic acid (HA) associated with hog waste effluent, coupled with increasing awareness of environmental problems, have prompted many countries to control disposal of effluents into water bodies and to maximize removal of HA. Here we employed the white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, to degrade the HA in composted hog waste effluent, evaluated by the response surface method. Preliminary experiments demonstrate that pH, temperature and quantity of inoculum are significant variables determining success of the fungus. In total, 13 experiments were conducted with three variables designated as A (pH), B (temperature) and C (inoculum amount). The optimal conditions for reduction of HA by P. chrysosporium are pH 6, 31.5°C and an inoculum quantity of 5.86 g. Predicted and experimental results exhibit strong agreement, indicating efficiency in the model obtained by response surface method. Therefore, P. chrysosporium is an effective micro-organism for removal of HA from composted hog waste effluent. PMID:26114276

  15. Infrared image segmentation using HOG feature and kernel extreme learning machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ying; Wang, Luping; Zhang, Luping

    2015-10-01

    Image segmentation is an important application in computer vision. Nowadays, image segmentation of infrared image has not gain as much attention as image segmentation of visible light image. But this application is very useful. For example, searching and tracking targets with infrared search and track system (IRST) has been widely used these days due to its special passive mode. So it can be used as a kind of supplementary equipment for radar. Infrared image segmentation can help computers identify backgrounds of the image, and help it automatically adjust the related parameters for the next work, such as targets recognition or targets detection. Our work proposed a new image segmentation method for infrared image using histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) feature and kernel extreme learning machine (kernel ELM). HOG are feature descriptors which can be used in computer vision and image processing for the purpose of object detection. In this paper, we extract HOG feature of infrared image, and use this feature as the basis for classification. After having feature, we use kernel extreme learning machine to do the segmentation. Kernel extreme learning machine has shown many excellent characteristics in classification. By testing our algorithm proposed in our paper, we demonstrated that our algorithm is effective and feasible.

  16. Phenotypic and Genetic Heterogeneity in Vibrio cholerae O139 Isolated from Cholera Cases in Delhi, India during 2001–2006

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Raikamal; Sharma, Naresh C.; Halder, Kalpataru; Bhadra, Rupak K.; Chowdhury, Goutam; Pazhani, Gururaja P.; Shinoda, Sumio; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K.; Nair, G. Balakrish; Ramamurthy, Thadavarayan

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of epidemic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 has declined in cholera endemic countries. However, sporadic cholera caused by V. cholerae O139 with notable genetic changes is still reported from many regions. In the present study, 42 V. cholerae O139 strains isolated from 2001 to 2006 in Delhi, India, were retrospectively analyzed to understand their phenotype and molecular characteristics. The majority of isolates were resistant to ampicillin, furazolidone and nalidixic acid. Though the integrative conjugative element was detected in all the O139 isolates, the 2004–2006 isolates remained susceptible to co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin. Cholera toxin genotype 1 was present in the majority of the O139 isolates while few had type 3 or a novel type 4. In the cholera toxin encoding gene (ctx) restriction fragment length polymorphism, the majority of the isolates harbored three copies of CTX element, of which one was truncated. In this study, the ctx was detected for the first time in the small chromosome of V. cholerae O139 and one isolate harbored 5 copies of CTX element, of which 3 were truncated. The ribotype BII pattern was found in most of the O139 isolates. Three V. cholerae O139 isolated in 2001 had a new ribotype BVIII. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed clonal variation in 2001 isolates compared to the 2004–2006 isolates. Molecular changes in V. cholerae O139 have to be closely monitored as this information may help in understanding the changing genetic features of this pathogen in relation to the epidemiology of cholera. PMID:27555841

  17. Phenotypic and Genetic Heterogeneity in Vibrio cholerae O139 Isolated from Cholera Cases in Delhi, India during 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Raikamal; Sharma, Naresh C; Halder, Kalpataru; Bhadra, Rupak K; Chowdhury, Goutam; Pazhani, Gururaja P; Shinoda, Sumio; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Nair, G Balakrish; Ramamurthy, Thadavarayan

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of epidemic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O139 has declined in cholera endemic countries. However, sporadic cholera caused by V. cholerae O139 with notable genetic changes is still reported from many regions. In the present study, 42 V. cholerae O139 strains isolated from 2001 to 2006 in Delhi, India, were retrospectively analyzed to understand their phenotype and molecular characteristics. The majority of isolates were resistant to ampicillin, furazolidone and nalidixic acid. Though the integrative conjugative element was detected in all the O139 isolates, the 2004-2006 isolates remained susceptible to co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin. Cholera toxin genotype 1 was present in the majority of the O139 isolates while few had type 3 or a novel type 4. In the cholera toxin encoding gene (ctx) restriction fragment length polymorphism, the majority of the isolates harbored three copies of CTX element, of which one was truncated. In this study, the ctx was detected for the first time in the small chromosome of V. cholerae O139 and one isolate harbored 5 copies of CTX element, of which 3 were truncated. The ribotype BII pattern was found in most of the O139 isolates. Three V. cholerae O139 isolated in 2001 had a new ribotype BVIII. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed clonal variation in 2001 isolates compared to the 2004-2006 isolates. Molecular changes in V. cholerae O139 have to be closely monitored as this information may help in understanding the changing genetic features of this pathogen in relation to the epidemiology of cholera. PMID:27555841

  18. Avian cholera and organochlorine residues in an American oystercatcher

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Locke, L.N.; Cromartie, E.

    1978-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida, the causative bacterium of avian cholera, was isolated from cultures of the liver and heart blood of a female, adult American oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) found dead on the Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina, in May 1973. This is apparently the first record of avian cholera in the oystercatcher. Low levels of DDE were identified in tissues of the oystercatcher.

  19. Risk Factors Early in the 2010 Cholera Epidemic, Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Emily; Loharikar, Anagha; Routh, Janell; Gaines, Joanna; Fouché, Marie-Délivrance Bernadette; Jean-Louis, Reginald; Ayers, Tracy; Johnson, Dawn; Tappero, Jordan W.; Roels, Thierry H.; Archer, W. Roodly; Dahourou, Georges A.; Mintz, Eric; Quick, Robert; Mahon, Barbara E.

    2011-01-01

    During the early weeks of the cholera outbreak that began in Haiti in October 2010, we conducted a case–control study to identify risk factors. Drinking treated water was strongly protective against illness. Our results highlight the effectiveness of safe water in cholera control. PMID:22099118

  20. PREVENTION OF WATERBORNE CHOLERA IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the outbreak of cholera in Peru in January 1991, the disease has spread to other Latin-American countries and on several occasions has been imported into the United States. n order to assess the risk of transmission of cholera by water in the United States, an ad hoc commit...

  1. Spatial and demographic patterns of Cholera in Ashanti region - Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Osei, Frank B; Duker, Alfred A

    2008-01-01

    Background Cholera has claimed many lives throughout history and it continues to be a global threat, especially in countries in Africa. The disease is listed as one of three internationally quarantinable diseases by the World Health organization, along with plague and yellow fever. Between 1999 and 2005, Africa alone accounted for about 90% of over 1 million reported cholera cases worldwide. In Ghana, there have been over 27000 reported cases since 1999. In one of the affected regions in Ghana, Ashanti region, massive outbreaks and high incidences of cholera have predominated in urban and overcrowded communities. Results A GIS based spatial analysis and statistical analysis, carried out to determine clustering of cholera, showed that high cholera rates are clustered around Kumasi Metropolis (the central part of the region), with Moran's Index = 0.271 and P < 0.001. Furthermore, A Mantel-Haenszel Chi square for trend analysis reflected a direct spatial relationship between cholera and urbanization (χ2 = 2995.5, P < 0.0001), overcrowding (χ2 = 1757.2, P < 0.0001), and an inverse relationship between cholera and order of neighborhood with Kumasi Metropolis (χ2 = 831.38, P < 0.0001). Conclusion The results suggest that high urbanization, high overcrowding, and neighborhood with Kumasi Metropolis are the most important predictors of cholera in Ashanti region. PMID:18700026

  2. Understanding the Hydrology of Cholera in South Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A. S.; Islam, S.

    2007-12-01

    Cholera is an acute waterborne illness caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The disease remains a major public health issue in several regions of the developing world, mainly in coastal areas around the tropics. Cholera incidences have been historically linked to climate variables and more recently with El Nino-Southern Oscillation. The occurrence of cholera shows bi-annual seasonal peaks and strong inter-annual variability in the Ganges basin region of South Asia. However, the role of hydrologic variables in the seasonal patterns of cholera epidemics is less understood. Preliminary results suggest that a unique combination of increasing water temperature and higher salinity in the coastal zone during the low flow season provide the situation amenable to the first outbreak of cholera in the spring season. Other major factors contributing to the subsequent spread of the disease are sea surface height, monsoon precipitation, and coastal phytoplankton concentration. We will further examine the lag periods between the dominant environmental variables and cholera incidences to understand the seasonal dynamics of cholera in South Asia.

  3. Risk Factors for Sustained Cholera Transmission, Juba County, South Sudan, 2014.

    PubMed

    Ujjiga, Thomas T A; Wamala, Joseph F; Mogga, Juma J H; Othwonh, Thabo O; Mutonga, David; Kone-Coulibaly, Asta; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Mpairwe, Allan M; Abdinasir, Abubaker; Abdi, Mohamed A; Yoti, Zabulon; Olushayo, Olu; Nyimol, Pinyi; Lul, Riek; Lako, Richard L; Rumunu, John

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for the 2014 cholera outbreak in Juba County, South Sudan. Illness was associated with traveling or eating away from home; treating drinking water and receiving oral cholera vaccination were protective. Oral cholera vaccination should be used to complement cholera prevention efforts. PMID:26402715

  4. The conserved dual phosphorylation sites of the Candida albicans Hog1 protein are crucial for white-opaque switching, mating, and pheromone-stimulated cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Han; Liang, Shen-Huan; Deng, Fu-Sheng; Lin, Ching-Hsuan

    2016-08-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human pathogen capable of causing life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. C. albicans has a unique morphological transition between white and opaque phases. These two cells differ in virulence, mating capability, biofilm formation, and host-cell interaction. Previous studies revealed that deletion of the SSK2, PBS2, or HOG1 gene resulted in 100% opaque cell formation and suppressed the mating response. Thr-174 and Tyr-176 of the Hog1 protein are important phosphoacceptors and can be activated in response to stimuli. In this study, we first demonstrated the importance of two conserved phosphorylation sites in white-opaque switching, mating, and pheromone-stimulated cell adhesion. Six Hog1 point-mutated strains were generated, including nonphosphorylated strains (Hog1(T174A), Hog1(Y176F), and Hog1(T174A,Y176F)) and negatively charged phosphorylated strains (Hog1(T174D), Hog1(Y176D), and Hog1(T174D,Y176D)). Point mutation on Thr-174, Tyr-176 or in combination with the Hog1 protein in C. albicans MTL homozygous strains stimulated opaque cell formation at a frequency of 100%. Furthermore, mating projections of point-mutated strains were significantly shorter and their mating efficiencies and pheromone-stimulated cell adhesive numbers were lower than those of the wild-type. By investigating the effects of Hog1 phosphorylation in ssk1Δ and sln1Δ, we also demonstrate that the phosphorylation intensity of Hog1p is directly involved in the white-opaque switching. Taken together, the results of our study demonstrate that dual phosphorylation sites of C. albicans are crucial for white-opaque transition, sexual mating, and pheromone-induced cell adhesion. PMID:27118797

  5. Spread of Cholera with Newer Clones of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor, Serotype Inaba, in India

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, B.; Ghosh, R.; Sharma, N. C.; Pazhani, G. P.; Taneja, N.; Raychowdhuri, A.; Sarkar, B. L.; Mondal, S. K.; Mukhopadhyay, A. K.; Nandy, R. K.; Bhattacharya, M. K.; Bhattacharya, S. K.; Ramamurthy, T.

    2006-01-01

    During 2004 and 2005, cholera was recorded in 15 states of India, with 7 outbreaks. The newly emerged Vibrio cholerae O1 Inaba had a different antibiogram and ribotype, different pulsotypes, and different mutations in the wbeT gene. Due to the absence of serogroup O139, the Inaba serotype may have acquired the potential to affect the population at large. PMID:16954282

  6. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis of Vibrio cholerae isolates from 2012 to 2013 cholera outbreaks in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, R; Sadeghy, J; Shokri Moghadam, M; Bakhshi, B

    2016-08-01

    Cholera remains to be an international threat, with high rates of illness and death. In 2012 and 2013, two cholera outbreak happened in Iran, affecting lots of people. Vibrio cholerae O1 was confirmed as the etiological agent. Source identification and controlling the spread of the cholera disease are two critical approaches in cholera outbreaks. In this study, thirty V. cholerae O1 isolates were selected and has been evaluated for antimicrobial resistant as well as molecular typing by multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) method. Twenty-nine (97%) isolates were sero-grouped as El Tor (one isolate was classical) and 100% were related to Inaba serotype. All of the isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin and gentamicin. On the other hand, 60% of the isolates were MDR (resistant to 3 or more classes). There were three resistance patterns. The most prevalent pattern was resistance to streptomycin, erythromycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (ST-SXT-E-T) which was seen in 50% of isolates. Using MLVA method 14 MLVA types were identified. MLVA type 2 (5-7-7-16-15) accounted for 43% of isolates. Isolates with the same genotype often did not have the same antibiogram. Overall, the data indicate that the Iranian V. cholerae were MDR and clonaly related. Furthermore, the results of this study shows that MLVA can be used as useful method for V. cholerae genotyping in epidemiological investigations. PMID:27247094

  7. Genome Sequence and Comparative Genomics Analysis of a Vibrio cholerae O1 Strain Isolated from a Cholera Patient in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Osama, Abdulrazak; Gan, Han Ming; Teh, Cindy Shuan Ju; Yap, Kien-Pong

    2012-01-01

    The genome sequence analysis of a clinical Vibrio cholerae VC35 strain from an outbreak case in Malaysia indicates multiple genes involved in host adaptation and a novel Na+-driven multidrug efflux pump-coding gene in the genome of Vibrio cholerae with the highest similarity to VMA_001754 of Vibrio mimicus VMA223. PMID:23209200

  8. Zebrafish as a Natural Host Model for Vibrio cholerae Colonization and Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Runft, Donna L.; Mitchell, Kristie C.; Abuaita, Basel H.; Allen, Jonathan P.; Bajer, Sarah; Ginsburg, Kevin; Neely, Melody N.

    2014-01-01

    The human diarrheal disease cholera is caused by the aquatic bacterium Vibrio cholerae. V. cholerae in the environment is associated with several varieties of aquatic life, including insect egg masses, shellfish, and vertebrate fish. Here we describe a novel animal model for V. cholerae, the zebrafish. Pandemic V. cholerae strains specifically colonize the zebrafish intestinal tract after exposure in water with no manipulation of the animal required. Colonization occurs in close contact with the intestinal epithelium and mimics colonization observed in mammals. Zebrafish that are colonized by V. cholerae transmit the bacteria to naive fish, which then become colonized. Striking differences in colonization between V. cholerae classical and El Tor biotypes were apparent. The zebrafish natural habitat in Asia heavily overlaps areas where cholera is endemic, suggesting that zebrafish and V. cholerae evolved in close contact with each other. Thus, the zebrafish provides a natural host model for the study of V. cholerae colonization, transmission, and environmental survival. PMID:24375135

  9. Reconstruction of the High-Osmolarity Glycerol (HOG) Signaling Pathway from the Halophilic Fungus Wallemia ichthyophaga in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Konte, Tilen; Terpitz, Ulrich; Plemenitaš, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The basidiomycetous fungus Wallemia ichthyophaga grows between 1.7 and 5.1 M NaCl and is the most halophilic eukaryote described to date. Like other fungi, W. ichthyophaga detects changes in environmental salinity mainly by the evolutionarily conserved high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) signaling pathway. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the HOG pathway has been extensively studied in connection to osmotic regulation, with a valuable knock-out strain collection established. In the present study, we reconstructed the architecture of the HOG pathway of W. ichthyophaga in suitable S. cerevisiae knock-out strains, through heterologous expression of the W. ichthyophaga HOG pathway proteins. Compared to S. cerevisiae, where the Pbs2 (ScPbs2) kinase of the HOG pathway is activated via the SHO1 and SLN1 branches, the interactions between the W. ichthyophaga Pbs2 (WiPbs2) kinase and the W. ichthyophaga SHO1 branch orthologs are not conserved: as well as evidence of poor interactions between the WiSho1 Src-homology 3 (SH3) domain and the WiPbs2 proline-rich motif, the absence of a considerable part of the osmosensing apparatus in the genome of W. ichthyophaga suggests that the SHO1 branch components are not involved in HOG signaling in this halophilic fungus. In contrast, the conserved activation of WiPbs2 by the S. cerevisiae ScSsk2/ScSsk22 kinase and the sensitivity of W. ichthyophaga cells to fludioxonil, emphasize the significance of two-component (SLN1-like) signaling via Group III histidine kinase. Combined with protein modeling data, our study reveals conserved and non-conserved protein interactions in the HOG signaling pathway of W. ichthyophaga and therefore significantly improves the knowledge of hyperosmotic signal processing in this halophilic fungus. PMID:27379041

  10. Hydroclimatological And Anthropogenic Drivers For Cholera Spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righetto, Lorenzo; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Mari, Lorenzo; Casagrandi, Renato; Gatto, Marino; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The nature of waterborne diseases, among which cholera has a prominent importance, calls for a better understanding of the link between epidemic spreading, water and climate. To this end, we have developed a framework which involves a network-based description of a river system, connected with local communities which act as nodes of the network. This has allowed us to produce consistent simulations of real case studies. More recent investigations comprise the evaluation of the spreading velocity of an epidemic wave by means of a reaction-diffusion modeling approach. In particular, we have found that both transport processes and epidemiological quantities, such as the basic reproduction number, have a crucial effect in controlling the spreading of the epidemics. We first developed a description of bacterial movement along the network driven by advection and diffusion; afterward, we have included the movement of human populations. This latter model allowed us to establish the conditions that can trigger epidemic waves that start from the coastal region, where bacteria are autochthonous, and travel inland. In particular, our findings suggest that even relatively low values of human diffusion can have the epidemic propagate upstream. The interaction between climate, hydrology and epidemic events is still much debated, since no clear correlation between climatologic and epidemiological phenomena has emerged so far. However, a spatial assessment of hydrological and epidemiological mechanisms could be crucial to understand the evolution of cholera outbreaks. In particular, a hotly debated topic is the understanding of the mechanisms that can generate patterns of cholera incidence that exhibit an intra-annual double peak, as frequently observed in endemic region such as Bangladesh. One of the possible explanations proposed in the literature is that spring droughts cause bacteria concentration in water to rise dramatically, triggering the first peak. On the other hand

  11. Cholera toxin - a foe & a friend.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Joaquin; Holmgren, Jan

    2011-02-01

    After De΄s pivotal demonstration in 1959 of a diarrhoeogenic exo-enterotoxin in cell-free culture filtrates from Vibrio cholerae (of classical biotype), much insight has been gained about cholera toxin (CT), which is arguably now the best known of all microbial toxins. The subunit structure and function of CT, its receptor (the GM1 ganglioside), and its effects on the cyclic AMP system and on intestinal secretion were defined in the 1970s, and the essential aspects of the genetic organization in the 1980s. Recent findings have generated additional perspectives. The 3D-crystal structure of CT has been established, the CT-encoding operon has been shown to be carried by a non-lytic bacteriophage, and in depth knowledge has been gained on how the bacterium controls CT gene expression in response to cell density and various environmental signals. The mode of entry into target cells and the intracellular transport of CT are becoming clearer. CT has become the prototype enterotoxin and a widely used tool for elucidating important aspects of cell biology and physiology, e.g., cell membrane receptors, the cyclic AMP system, G proteins, as well as normal and pathological ion transport mechanisms. In immunology, CT has emerged as a potent, widely used experimental adjuvant, and the strong oral-mucosal immunogenicity of the non-toxic B-subunit (CTB) has led to the use of CTB as a protective antigen together with killed vibrios in a widely licensed oral cholera vaccine. CTB has also been shown to promote immunological tolerance against certain types of mucosally co-administered antigens, preferably tissue antigens linked to the CTB molecule; this has stimulated research and development to use CTB in this context for treatment of autoimmune and allergic diseases. In summary, in the 50 years after De΄s discovery of CT, this molecule has emerged from being the cholera patient΄s "foe" to also becoming a highly useful scientist΄s "friend". PMID:21415489

  12. Cholera in Indonesia: epidemiologic studies of transmission in Aceh Province.

    PubMed

    Glass, R I; Alim, A R; Eusof, A; Snyder, J D; Jusuf, B; Anwar, S; Bakri, Z; Helmi, C; Winardi, B

    1984-09-01

    To determine the modes of transmission of cholera in the regency of Pidie, Indonesia, and to consider strategies for its control, we set up a laboratory to identify Vibrio cholerae 01 from patients with severe diarrhea in all government clinics in the regency and questioned culture-positive cases and neighborhood controls about possible exposures to V. cholerae 01. Between 12 July and 15 August 1982, 63 of 138 suspected cholera cases were confirmed by the laboratory; 53 of these patients were seen and followed up. We were unable to identify a single, indisputable mode of transmission for cholera which was amenable to immediate control. Nonetheless, a number of factors, including exposure to water from the Tiro-Sigli River and consumption of ice, were associated with disease. Other findings bring into question the value of current practices of chlorinating dugwells and disinfecting homes with Lysol during a cholera outbreak. The case-control approach to investigating the mode of transmission of cholera has distinct limitations when applied in endemic setting where there may not be a single predominant vehicle of transmission, or where the vehicle such as river water is used by all and is only periodically contaminated. PMID:6486303

  13. Molecular tools in understanding the evolution of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Rahaman, Md. Habibur; Islam, Tarequl; Colwell, Rita R.; Alam, Munirul

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of cholera, has been a scourge for centuries. Cholera remains a serious health threat for developing countries and has been responsible for millions of deaths globally over the past 200 years. Identification of V. cholerae has been accomplished using a variety of methods, ranging from phenotypic strategies to DNA based molecular typing and currently whole genomic approaches. This array of methods has been adopted in epidemiological investigations, either singly or in the aggregate, and more recently for evolutionary analyses of V. cholerae. Because the new technologies have been developed at an ever increasing pace, this review of the range of fingerprinting strategies, their relative advantages and limitations, and cholera case studies was undertaken. The task was challenging, considering the vast amount of the information available. To assist the study, key references representative of several areas of research are provided with the intent to provide readers with a comprehensive view of recent advances in the molecular epidemiology of V. cholerae. Suggestions for ways to obviate many of the current limitations of typing techniques are also provided. In summary, a comparative report has been prepared that includes the range from traditional typing to whole genomic strategies. PMID:26500613

  14. [Cholera epidemics on Reunion Island during the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Gaüzère, B-A; Aubry, P

    2012-01-01

    The first cholera outbreak on Bourbon Island (now Reunion Island) was recorded in January 1820. The disease was imported from Mauritius Island aboard the steamer Pivert. The epidemic began on Mauritius in November 1819 after the English frigate, La Topaze, called from Calcutta, India. Dr. François Vinson demonstrated the transmissibility of cholera during this epidemic. Drastic sanitary measures spared Reunion from the two epidemics on Mauritius Island, in 1854 and 1856. The second outbreak of cholera on Reunion Island was recorded on March 6, 1859. The disease was introduced from East Africa by the steamer Mascareignes, which carried indentured servants. The captain (d'Agnel) et the supercargo (Menon) of the steamer claimed to the doctor who boarded the ship before landing that no passengers or crew had had cholera, in flagrant contradiction to the autopsy report issued by Navy surgeon Alfred Vaillant, who had concluded that cholera was present when the vessel left the African coast. This report was withheld from the boarding physician. Cholera spread quickly on the island and affected the poorest people, especially freed slaves, most severely. Dr. Petit, the chief Navy Physician and Director of the Health Department, obtained a confession by Menon about the fraudulent statements. On January 24, 1860, a trial for public health endangerment began on Reunion Island; it ended on February 1 with a not-guilty verdict, based largely on the testimony of several island doctors that cholera was not contagious. PMID:22992340

  15. Metabolic Respiration Induces AMPK- and Ire1p-Dependent Activation of the p38-Type HOG MAPK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Hema; Cullen, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionarily conserved mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways regulate the response to stress as well as cell differentiation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, growth in non-preferred carbon sources (like galactose) induces differentiation to the filamentous cell type through an extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK)-type MAPK pathway. The filamentous growth MAPK pathway shares components with a p38-type High Osmolarity Glycerol response (HOG) pathway, which regulates the response to changes in osmolarity. To determine the extent of functional overlap between the MAPK pathways, comparative RNA sequencing was performed, which uncovered an unexpected role for the HOG pathway in regulating the response to growth in galactose. The HOG pathway was induced during growth in galactose, which required the nutrient regulatory AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) Snf1p, an intact respiratory chain, and a functional tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The unfolded protein response (UPR) kinase Ire1p was also required for HOG pathway activation in this context. Thus, the filamentous growth and HOG pathways are both active during growth in galactose. The two pathways redundantly promoted growth in galactose, but paradoxically, they also inhibited each other's activities. Such cross-modulation was critical to optimize the differentiation response. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans showed a similar regulatory circuit. Thus, an evolutionarily conserved regulatory axis links metabolic respiration and AMPK to Ire1p, which regulates a differentiation response involving the modulated activity of ERK and p38 MAPK pathways. PMID:25356552

  16. Mucosal immunologic responses in cholera patients in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Taher; Harris, Jason B; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Shirin, Tahmina; Uddin, Muhammad Ikhtear; Khan, Ashraful Islam; Chowdhury, Fahima; LaRocque, Regina C; Alam, Nur Haque; Ryan, Edward T; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi

    2011-03-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 causes dehydrating diarrhea with a high mortality rate if untreated. The infection also elicits long-term protective immunity. Since V. cholerae is noninvasive, mucosal immunity is likely important for protection. In this study, we compared humoral immune responses in the duodenal mucosa and blood of cholera patients at different time points after the onset of disease and compared them with those of healthy controls (HCs). Immune responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the recombinant cholera toxin B subunit (rCTB) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay. Significant increases in V. cholerae LPS-specific IgA and IgG antibody levels were seen in duodenal extracts on day 30, but the levels decreased to baseline by day 180; plasma V. cholerae LPS-specific IgA levels remained elevated longer. Levels of mucosal CTB antibodies also peaked on day 30, but the increase reached statistical significance only for IgG. A significant correlation was found between the CTB antibody-secreting cell (ASC) response in the circulatory system on day 7 and subsequent CTB-specific IgA levels in duodenal extracts on day 30 and the numbers of CTB-specific IgA ASCs in duodenal tissues on day 180. The proportion (0.07%) of mucosal V. cholerae LPS IgA ASCs peaked on day 30 and remained elevated through day 180 compared to that of HCs (P = 0.03). These results suggest that protective immunity against V. cholerae is not likely mediated by the constitutive secretion of antibodies at the mucosal surface; our results are consistent with those of other studies that suggest instead that anamnestic immune responses of mucosal lymphocytes may play a major role in protection against cholera. PMID:21248157

  17. Predictive modeling of cholera using GRACE and TRMM satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutla, A.; Akanda, A. S. S.; Colwell, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    Cholera outbreaks can be classified in three forms- epidemic (sudden or seasonal outbreaks), endemic (recurrence and persistence of the disease for several consecutive years) and mixed-mode endemic (combination of certain epidemic and endemic conditions) with significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity. Endemic cholera is related to floods and droughts in regions where water and sanitation infrastructure are inadequate or insufficient. With more than a decade of terrestrial water storage (TWS) data obtained from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), understanding dynamics of river discharge is now feasible. We explored lead-lag relationships between TWS in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin and endemic cholera in Bangladesh. Since bimodal seasonal peaks in cholera in Bangladesh occur during the spring and autumn season, two separate models, between TWS and disease time series (2002 to 2010) were developed. TWS, hence water availability, showed an asymmetrical, strong association with spring (τ=-0.53; p<0.001) and autumn (τ=0.45; p<0.001) cholera prevalence up to five to six months in advance. One unit (cm of water) decrease in water availability in the basin increased odds of above normal cholera by 24% [confidence interval (CI) 20-31%; p<0.05] in the spring season, while an increase in regional water by one unit, through floods, increased odds of above average cholera in the autumn by 29% [CI:22-33%; p<0.05]. Epidemic cholera is related with warm temperatures and heavy rainfall. Using TRMM data for several locations in Asia and Africa, probability of cholera increases 18% [CI:15-23%; p<0.05] after heavy precipitation resulted in a societal conditions where access to safe water and sanitation was disrupted. Results from mechanistic modeling framework using systems approach that include satellite based hydroclimatic information with tradition disease transmission models will also be presented.

  18. Survival of Vibrio cholerae O1 on fomites.

    PubMed

    Farhana, Israt; Hossain, Zenat Zebin; Tulsiani, Suhella Mohan; Jensen, Peter Kjær Mackie; Begum, Anowara

    2016-09-01

    It is well established that the contamination sources of cholera causing bacteria, Vibrio cholerae, are water and food, but little is known about the transmission role of the fomites (surfaces that can carry pathogens) commonly used in households. In the absence of appropriate nutrients or growth conditions on fomites, bacteria have been known to assume a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state after a given period of time. To investigate whether and when V. cholerae O1 assumes such a state, this study investigated the survival and viable quantification on a range of fomites such as paper, wood, glass, plastic, cloth and several types of metals under laboratory conditions. The fomites were inoculated with an outbreak strain of V. cholerae and its culturability was examined by drop plate count method at 30 min intervals for up to 6 h. For molecular detection, the viable/dead stain ethidium monoazide (EMA) which inhibits amplification of DNA from dead cells was used in combination with real-time polymerase chain reaction (EMA-qPCR) for direct quantitative analyses of viable V. cholerae at 2, 4, 6, 24 h and 7 day time intervals. Results showed that V. cholerae on glass and aluminum surfaces lost culturability within one hour after inoculation but remained culturable on cloth and wood for up to four hours. VBNC V. cholerae on dry fomite surfaces was detected and quantified by EMA-qPCR even 7 days after inoculation. In conclusion, the prolonged survival of V. cholerae on various household fomites may play vital role in cholera transmission and needs to be further investigated. PMID:27430513

  19. Cholera outbreak in Senegal in 2005: was climate a factor?

    PubMed

    de Magny, Guillaume Constantin; Thiaw, Wassila; Kumar, Vadlamani; Manga, Noël M; Diop, Bernard M; Gueye, Lamine; Kamara, Mamina; Roche, Benjamin; Murtugudde, Raghu; Colwell, Rita R

    2012-01-01

    Cholera is an acute diarrheal illness caused by Vibrio cholerae and occurs as widespread epidemics in Africa. In 2005, there were 31,719 cholera cases, with 458 deaths in the Republic of Senegal. We retrospectively investigated the climate origin of the devastating floods in mid-August 2005, in the Dakar Region of Senegal and the subsequent outbreak of cholera along with the pattern of cholera outbreaks in three other regions of that country. We compared rainfall patterns between 2002 and 2005 and the relationship between the sea surface temperature (SST) gradient in the tropical Atlantic Ocean and precipitation over Senegal for 2005. Results showed a specific pattern of rainfall throughout the Dakar region during August, 2005, and the associated rainfall anomaly coincided with an exacerbation of the cholera epidemic. Comparison of rainfall and epidemiological patterns revealed that the temporal dynamics of precipitation, which was abrupt and heavy, was presumably the determining factor. Analysis of the SST gradient showed that the Atlantic Ocean SST variability in 2005 differed from that of 2002 to 2004, a result of a prominent Atlantic meridional mode. The influence of this intense precipitation on cholera transmission over a densely populated and crowded region was detectable for both Dakar and Thiès, Senegal. Thus, high resolution rainfall forecasts at subseasonal time scales should provide a way forward for an early warning system in Africa for cholera and, thereby, trigger epidemic preparedness. Clearly, attention must be paid to both natural and human induced environmental factors to devise appropriate action to prevent cholera and other waterborne disease epidemics in the region. PMID:22952995

  20. Cholera Outbreak in Senegal in 2005: Was Climate a Factor?

    PubMed Central

    Constantin de Magny, Guillaume; Thiaw, Wassila; Kumar, Vadlamani; Manga, Noël M.; Diop, Bernard M.; Gueye, Lamine; Kamara, Mamina; Roche, Benjamin; Murtugudde, Raghu; Colwell, Rita R.

    2012-01-01

    Cholera is an acute diarrheal illness caused by Vibrio cholerae and occurs as widespread epidemics in Africa. In 2005, there were 31,719 cholera cases, with 458 deaths in the Republic of Senegal. We retrospectively investigated the climate origin of the devastating floods in mid-August 2005, in the Dakar Region of Senegal and the subsequent outbreak of cholera along with the pattern of cholera outbreaks in three other regions of that country. We compared rainfall patterns between 2002 and 2005 and the relationship between the sea surface temperature (SST) gradient in the tropical Atlantic Ocean and precipitation over Senegal for 2005. Results showed a specific pattern of rainfall throughout the Dakar region during August, 2005, and the associated rainfall anomaly coincided with an exacerbation of the cholera epidemic. Comparison of rainfall and epidemiological patterns revealed that the temporal dynamics of precipitation, which was abrupt and heavy, was presumably the determining factor. Analysis of the SST gradient showed that the Atlantic Ocean SST variability in 2005 differed from that of 2002 to 2004, a result of a prominent Atlantic meridional mode. The influence of this intense precipitation on cholera transmission over a densely populated and crowded region was detectable for both Dakar and Thiès, Senegal. Thus, high resolution rainfall forecasts at subseasonal time scales should provide a way forward for an early warning system in Africa for cholera and, thereby, trigger epidemic preparedness. Clearly, attention must be paid to both natural and human induced environmental factors to devise appropriate action to prevent cholera and other waterborne disease epidemics in the region. PMID:22952995

  1. Dissecting the role of histidine kinase and HOG1 mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling in stress tolerance and pathogenicity of Parastagonospora nodorum on wheat.

    PubMed

    John, Evan; Lopez-Ruiz, Francisco; Rybak, Kasia; Mousley, Carl J; Oliver, Richard P; Tan, Kar-Chun

    2016-06-01

    The HOG1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is activated through two-component histidine kinase (HK) signalling. This pathway was first characterized in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a regulator of osmotolerance. The fungus Parastagonospora nodorum is the causal agent of septoria nodorum blotch of wheat. This pathogen uses host-specific effectors in tandem with general pathogenicity mechanisms to carry out its infection process. Genes showing strong sequence homology to S. cerevisiae HOG1 signalling pathway genes have been identified in the genome of P. nodorum. In this study, we examined the role of the pathway in the virulence of P. nodorum on wheat by disrupting putative pathway component genes: HOG1 (SNOG_13296) MAPK and NIK1 (SNOG_11631) hybrid HK. Mutants deleted in NIK1 and HOG1 were insensitive to dicarboximide and phenylpyrrole fungicides, but not a fungicide that targets ergosterol biosynthesis. Furthermore, both Δnik1 and Δhog1 mutants showed increased sensitivity to hyperosmotic stress. However, HOG1, but not NIK1, is required for tolerance to elevated temperatures. HOG1 deletion conferred increased tolerance to 6-methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone, a cereal phytoalexin. This suggests that the HOG1 signalling pathway is not exclusively associated with NIK1. Both Δnik1 and Δhog1 mutants retained the ability to infect and cause necrotic lesions on wheat. However, we observed that the Δhog1 mutation resulted in reduced production of pycnidia, asexual fruiting bodies that facilitate spore dispersal during late infection. Our study demonstrated the overlapping and distinct roles of a HOG1 MAPK and two-component HK signalling in P. nodorum growth and pathogenicity. PMID:26978567

  2. The HOG MAP kinase pathway is required for the induction of methylglyoxal-responsive genes and determines methylglyoxal resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Jaime; Rodríguez-Vargas, Sonia; Prieto, Jose A

    2005-04-01

    A sudden overaccumulation of methylglyoxal (MG) induces, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the expression of MG-protective genes, including GPD1, GLO1 and GRE3. The response is partially dependent on the transcriptional factors Msn2p/Msn4p, but unrelated with the general stress response mechanism. Here, we show that the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG)-pathway controls the genetic response to MG and determines the yeast growth capacity upon MG exposure. Strains lacking the MAPK Hog1p, the upstream component Ssk1p or the HOG-dependent nuclear factor Msn1p, showed a reduction in the mRNA accumulation of MG-responsive genes after MG addition. Moreover, hyperactivation of Hog1p by deletion of protein phosphatase PTP2 enhanced the response, while blocking the pathway by deletion of the MAPKK PBS2 had a negative effect. In addition, the activity of Hog1p affected the basal level of GPD1 mRNA under non-inducing conditions. These effects had a great influence on MG resistance, as hog1Delta and other HOG-pathway mutants with impaired MG-specific expression displayed MG sensitivity, whereas those with enhanced expression exhibited MG resistance as compared with the wild-type. However, MG does not trigger the overphosphorylation of Hog1p or its nuclear import in the parental strain. Moreover, dual phosphorylation of Hog1p appears to be dispensable in the triggering of the transcriptional response, although a phosphorylable form of Hog1p is fundamental for the transcriptional activity. Overall, our results suggest that the basal activity of the HOG-pathway serves to amplify the expression of MG-responsive genes under non-inducing and inducing conditions, ensuring cell protection against this toxic glycolytic by-product. PMID:15773992

  3. Cholera toxin interactions with lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Tosteson, M T; Tosteson, D C; Rubnitz, J

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the experiments described in this paper was to assess the binding of cholera toxin to bilayers containing its receptor, the monosialoganglioside, GMl. The assay was based on the fact that GMl confers on the bilayer a negative surface charge. The magnitude of this surface charge was estimated by measuring the electrical conductance (G) of the bilayers exposed to nonactin-K+ under conditions where G is directly proportional to the potassium concentration in the aqueous solutions immediatey adjacent to the membrane surface. When bilayers were formed from mixtures of GMl and glycerolmonooleate (GMO), it was found that the molar ratio of the lipids in the bilayer was the same as that in the membrane forming solution. It was further found that cholera toxin or the binding subunit of the toxin (choleragenoid) bind to GMO bilayers containing GMl (but not to GMO bilayers containing phosphatidyl serine or disialoganglioside GDla). The value of the apparent dissociation constant for the binding of choleragen to its receptor was found to be 10(-11) M, comparable to values found in intact cells. PMID:6933823

  4. Antibiotic therapy of cholera in children*

    PubMed Central

    Lindenbaum, John; Greenough, William B.; Islam, M. R.

    1967-01-01

    In a controlled trial of the effects of oral antibiotics in treating cholera in children in Dacca, East Pakistan, tetracycline was the most effective of 4 antibiotics tested in reducing stool volume, intravenous fluid requirement, and the duration of diarrhoea and positive stool culture. Increasing the duration of tetracycline therapy from 2 to 4 days, or increasing the total dose administered, resulted in shorter duration of positive culture, but did not affect stool volume or duration of diarrhoea. Only 1% of the children receiving tetracycline had diarrhoea for more than 4 days. Tetracycline was significantly more effective than intravenous fluid therapy alone, regardless of severity of disease. Chloramphenicol, while also effective, was inferior to tetracycline. Streptomycin and paromomycin exerted little or no effect on the course of illness or duration of positive culture. Therapeutic failures with these drugs were not due to the development of bacterial resistance. From these findings, tetracycline appears to be the drug of choice against Vibrio cholerae infection in children. Oral therapy for 48 hours is effective clinically, but is associated with 20% bacteriological relapses when the drug is discontinued; it is not known whether extending the therapy for a week or more would eliminate such relapses. PMID:5301733

  5. Lack of mutagenicity of extracts and filtrates from ''hog-fuel'' fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Scribner, J.D.; Fisk, S.R.

    1982-11-01

    There has been concern that mutagenic material might be present in the fly ash released from burning bark and wood-chips (''hog-fuel'') in the boilers of various mills of a large forest products corporation. Using five different strains of histidine-requiring auxotrophs of Salmonella typhimurium, we have found that none of the samples from six different plants, in various parts of the United States, contains serum-extractable mutagens, and that only one of these contains mutagens extractable with hot benzene. Another sample, taken from a different boiler run at the same plant which produced the mutagenic sample, was without mutagenic activity. (JMT)

  6. Volatile components in defensive spray of the hog-nosed skunk,Conepatus mesoleucus.

    PubMed

    Wood, W F; Fisher, C O; Graham, G A

    1993-04-01

    GC-MS analysis of the anal sac secretion from the hog-nosed skunk,Conepatus mesoleucus, showed two major volatile components, (E)-2-butene-1-thiol and (E)-S-2-butenyl thioacetate. Minor volatile components identified from this secretion were phenylmethanethiol, 2-methylquinoline, 2-quinolinemethanethiol, and bis[(E)-2-butenyl] disulfide. 3-Methyl-1-butanethiol, a major component in the defensive spray of the striped skunk,Mephitis mephitis, and the spotted skunk,Spilogale putorius, was absent from this secretion. PMID:24249022

  7. Construction and Evaluation of V. cholerae O139 Mutant, VCUSM21P, as a Safe Live Attenuated Cholera Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Murugaiah, Chandrika; Nik Mohd Noor, Nik Zuraina; Mustafa, Shyamoli; Manickam, Ravichandran; Pattabhiraman, Lalitha

    2014-01-01

    Cholera is a major infectious disease, affecting millions of lives annually. In endemic areas, implementation of vaccination strategy against cholera is vital. As the use of safer live vaccine that can induce protective immunity against Vibrio cholerae O139 infection is a promising approach for immunization, we have designed VCUSM21P, an oral cholera vaccine candidate, which has ctxA that encodes A subunit of ctx and mutated rtxA/C, ace and zot mutations. VCUSM21P was found not to disassemble the actin of HEp2 cells. It colonized the mice intestine approximately 1 log lower than that of the Wild Type (WT) strain obtained from Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. In the ileal loop assay, unlike WT challenge, 1×106 and 1×108 colony forming unit (CFU) of VCUSM21P was not reactogenic in non-immunized rabbits. Whereas, the reactogenicity caused by the WT in rabbits immunized with 1×1010 CFU of VCUSM21P was found to be reduced as evidenced by absence of fluid in loops administered with 1×102–1×107 CFU of WT. Oral immunization using 1×1010 CFU of VCUSM21P induced both IgA and IgG against Cholera Toxin (CT) and O139 lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The serum vibriocidal antibody titer had a peak rise of 2560 fold on week 4. Following Removable Intestinal Tie Adult Rabbit Diarrhoea (RITARD) experiment, the non-immunized rabbits were found not to be protected against lethal challenge with 1×109 CFU WT, but 100% of immunized rabbits survived the challenge. In the past eleven years, V. cholerae O139 induced cholera has not been observed. However, attenuated VCUSM21P vaccine could be used for vaccination program against potentially fatal endemic or emerging cholera caused by V. cholerae O139. PMID:24505241

  8. The Mannose-Sensitive Hemagglutinin of Vibrio cholerae Promotes Adherence to Zooplankton

    PubMed Central

    Chiavelli, Deborah A.; Marsh, Jane W.; Taylor, Ronald K.

    2001-01-01

    The bacterium Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of cholera, is often found attached to plankton, a property that is thought to contribute to its environmental persistence in aquatic habitats. The V. cholerae O1 El Tor biotype and V. cholerae O139 strains produce a surface pilus termed the mannose-sensitive hemagglutinin (MSHA), whereas V. cholerae O1 classical biotype strains do not. Although V. cholerae O1 classical does not elaborate MSHA, the gene is present and expressed at a level comparable to that of the other strains. Since V. cholerae O1 El Tor and V. cholerae O139 have displaced V. cholerae O1 classical as the major epidemic strains over the last fifteen years, we investigated the potential role of MSHA in mediating adherence to plankton. We found that mutation of mshA in V. cholerae O1 El Tor significantly diminished, but did not eliminate, adherence to exoskeletons of the planktonic crustacean Daphnia pulex. The effect of the mutation was more pronounced for V. cholerae O139, essentially eliminating adherence. Adherence of the V. cholerae O1 classical mshA mutant was unaffected. The results suggest that MSHA is a factor contributing to the ability of V. cholerae to adhere to plankton. The results also showed that both biotypes of V. cholerae O1 utilize factors in addition to MSHA for zooplankton adherence. The expression of MSHA and these additional, yet to be defined, adherence factors differ in a serogroup- and biotype-specific manner. PMID:11425745

  9. Endemic and epidemic dynamics of cholera: the role of the aquatic reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Codeço, Cláudia Torres

    2001-01-01

    Background In the last decades, attention to cholera epidemiology increased, as cholera epidemics became a worldwide health problem. Detailed investigation of V. cholerae interactions with its host and with other organisms in the environment suggests that cholera dynamics is much more complex than previously thought. Here, I formulate a mathematical model of cholera epidemiology that incorporates an environmental reservoir of V. cholerae. The objective is to explore the role of the aquatic reservoir on the persistence of endemic cholera as well as to define minimum conditions for the development of epidemic and endemic cholera. Results The reproduction rate of cholera in a community is defined by the product of social and environmental factors. The importance of the aquatic reservoir depends on the sanitary conditions of the community. Seasonal variations of contact rates force a cyclical pattern of cholera outbreaks, as observed in some cholera-endemic communities. Conclusions Further development on cholera modeling requires a better understanding of V. cholerae ecology and epidemiology. We need estimates of the prevalence of V. cholerae infection in endemic populations as well as a better description of the relationship between dose and virulence. PMID:11208258

  10. The mitogen-activated protein kinase gene, VdHog1, regulates osmotic stress response, microsclerotia formation and virulence in Verticillium dahliae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yonglin; Tian, Longyan; Xiong, Dianguang; Klosterman, Steven J; Xiao, Shuxiao; Tian, Chengming

    2016-03-01

    The fungus Verticillium dahliae has gained worldwide notoriety as a destructive plant pathogen, causing vascular wilt diseases on diverse plant species. V. dahliae produces melanized resting bodies, known as microsclerotia, which can survive for 15years in the soil, and are thus critically important in its disease cycle. However, the molecular mechanisms that underpin microsclerotia formation, survival, and germination remain poorly understood. In this study, we observed that deletion of VdHog1 (ΔVdHog1), encoding a homolog of a high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) response mitogen-activated protein kinase, displayed decreased numbers of melanized microsclerotia in culture, heightened sensitivity to hyperosmotic stress, and increased resistance to the fungicide fludioxonil. Through RNA-Seq analysis, we identified 221 genes differentially expressed in the ΔVdHog1 strain. Interestingly, the expression levels of genes involved in melanin biosynthesis, as well as the hydrophobin gene VDH1, involved in the early stage of microsclerotia formation, were significantly decreased in the ΔVdHog1 strains relative to the wild-type expression levels. The ΔVdHog1 strains exhibited decreased virulence relative to the wild type strain on smoke tree seedlings. These results indicate that VdHog1 regulates hyperosmotic stress responses in V. dahliae, and establishes the Hog1-mediated pathway as a target to further probe the up- and downstream processes that regulate asexual development in this fungus. PMID:26812120

  11. Assessment of Swine Worker Exposures to Dust and Endotoxin during Hog Load-Out and Power Washing

    PubMed Central

    O’shaughnessy, Patrick; Peters, Thomas; Donham, Kelley; Taylor, Craig; Altmaier, Ralph; Kelly, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Field measurements of personal and area dust and endotoxin concentrations were obtained while agricultural workers performed two work tasks that have been previously unreported: hog load-out and swine building power washing. Hog load-out involves moving hogs from their pens in finishing buildings into a truck for transport to a meat processor. High pressure power washing is conducted for sanitation purposes after a building has been emptied of hogs to remove surface and floor debris. This debri consists of feed, feces, and hog dander as dust or an encrusted form. The hog load-out process necessarily increases pig activity which is known to increase airborne dust concentrations. An unintended consequence of power washing is that the material covering surfaces is forcibly ejected into the atmosphere, creating the potential for a highly concentrated aerosol exposure to workers. The load-out process resulted in a median personal inhalable mass concentration of 7.14 mg m− 3 and median endotoxin concentration of 12 150 endotoxin units (EU) m− 3. When converted to an 8-h time-weighted average for a ‘total’ sampler, one of the 19 samples exceeded a regulatory limit of 15 mg m− 3. An impinger was used to sample power washing endotoxin concentrations, which resulted in a median personal concentration of 40 350 EU m− 3. These concentrations were among the highest found in the literature for any occupation. With the lack of engineering controls present to reduce airborne contaminant concentrations in swine buildings, either respirator use or a reduction in exposure time is recommended while performing these tasks. PMID:22425653

  12. Genomic Science in Understanding Cholera Outbreaks and Evolution of Vibrio cholerae as a Human Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Mekalanos, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Modern genomic and bioinformatic approaches have been applied to interrogate the V. cholerae genome, the role of genomic elements in cholera disease, and the origin, relatedness, and dissemination of epidemic strains. A universal attribute of choleragenic strains includes a repertoire of pathogenicity islands and virulence genes, namely the CTX–ϕ prophage and Toxin Co-regulated Pilus (TCP) in addition to other virulent genetic elements including those referred to as Seventh Pandemic Islands. During the last decade, the advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has provided highly resolved and often complete genomic sequences of epidemic isolates in addition to both clinical and environmental strains isolated from geographically unconnected regions. Genomic comparisons of these strains, as was completed during and following the Haitian outbreak in 2010, reveals that most epidemic strains appear closely related, regardless of region of origin. Non-O1 clinical or environmental strains may also possess some virulence islands, but phylogenic analysis of the core genome suggests they are more diverse and distantly related than those isolated during epidemics. Like Haiti, genomic studies that examine both the Vibrio core- and pan-genome in addition to Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) conclude that a number of epidemics are caused by strains that closely resemble those in Asia, and often appear to originate there and then spread globally. The accumulation of SNPs in the epidemic strains over time can then be applied to better understand the evolution of the V. cholerae genome as an etiological agent. PMID:24590676

  13. Cholera in Haiti: Reproductive numbers and vaccination coverage estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukandavire, Zindoga; Smith, David L.; Morris, J. Glenn, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Cholera reappeared in Haiti in October, 2010 after decades of absence. Cases were first detected in Artibonite region and in the ensuing months the disease spread to every department in the country. The rate of increase in the number of cases at the start of epidemics provides valuable information about the basic reproductive number (). Quantitative analysis of such data gives useful information for planning and evaluating disease control interventions, including vaccination. Using a mathematical model, we fitted data on the cumulative number of reported hospitalized cholera cases in Haiti. varied by department, ranging from 1.06 to 2.63. At a national level, 46% vaccination coverage would result in an () <1, which would suppress transmission. In the current debate on the use of cholera vaccines in endemic and non-endemic regions, our results suggest that moderate cholera vaccine coverage would be an important element of disease control in Haiti.

  14. Environmental reservoirs and mechanisms of persistence of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Carla; Erken, Martina; Noorian, Parisa; Sun, Shuyang; McDougald, Diane

    2013-01-01

    It is now well accepted that Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the water-borne disease cholera, is acquired from environmental sources where it persists between outbreaks of the disease. Recent advances in molecular technology have demonstrated that this bacterium can be detected in areas where it has not previously been isolated, indicating a much broader, global distribution of this bacterium outside of endemic regions. The environmental persistence of V. cholerae in the aquatic environment can be attributed to multiple intra- and interspecific strategies such as responsive gene regulation and biofilm formation on biotic and abiotic surfaces, as well as interactions with a multitude of other organisms. This review will discuss some of the mechanisms that enable the persistence of this bacterium in the environment. In particular, we will discuss how V. cholerae can survive stressors such as starvation, temperature, and salinity fluctuations as well as how the organism persists under constant predation by heterotrophic protists. PMID:24379807

  15. Cholera Outbreak in Grande Comore: 1998-1999.

    PubMed

    Troeger, Christopher; Gaudart, Jean; Truillet, Romain; Sallah, Kankoe; Chao, Dennis L; Piarroux, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    In 1998, a cholera epidemic in east Africa reached the Comoros Islands, an archipelago in the Mozambique Channel that had not reported a cholera case for more than 20 years. In just a little over 1 year (between January 1998 and March 1999), Grande Comore, the largest island in the Union of the Comoros, reported 7,851 cases of cholera, about 3% of the population. Using case reports and field observations during the medical response, we describe the epidemiology of the 1998-1999 cholera epidemic in Grande Comore. Outbreaks of infectious diseases on islands provide a unique opportunity to study transmission dynamics in a nearly closed population, and they may serve as stepping-stones for human pathogens to cross unpopulated expanses of ocean. PMID:26572869

  16. Chemical ions affect survival of avian cholera organisms in pondwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, J.I.; Yandell, B.S.; Porter, W.P.

    1992-01-01

    Avian cholera (Pasteurella multocida) is a major disease of wild waterfowl, but its epizootiology remains little understood. Consequently, we examined whether chemical ions affected survival of avian cholera organisms in water collected from the Nebraska Rainwater Basin where avian cholera is enzootic. We tested the response of P. multocida to ammonium (NH4), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), nitrate (NO3), and ortho-phosphate (PO4) ions individually and in combination using a fractional factorial design divided into 4 blocks. High concentrations of Ca and Mg, singly or in combination, increased survival of P. multocida organisms (P < 0.001). We developed a survival index to predict whether or not specific ponds could be "problem" or "nonproblem" avian cholera sites based on concentrations of these ions in the water.

  17. Inorganic polyphosphate in Vibrio cholerae: genetic, biochemical, and physiologic features.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, N; Tzeng, C M; Fraley, C D; Kornberg, A

    2000-12-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1, biotype El Tor, accumulates inorganic polyphosphate (poly P) principally as large clusters of granules. Poly P kinase (PPK), the enzyme that synthesizes poly P from ATP, is encoded by the ppk gene, which has been cloned from V. cholerae, overexpressed, and knocked out by insertion-deletion mutagenesis. The predicted amino acid sequence of PPK is 701 residues (81.6 kDa), with 64% identity to that of Escherichia coli, which it resembles biochemically. As in E. coli, ppk is part of an operon with ppx, the gene that encodes exopolyphosphatase (PPX). However, unlike in E. coli, PPX activity was not detected in cell extracts of wild-type V. cholerae. The ppk null mutant of V. cholerae has diminished adaptation to high concentrations of calcium in the medium as well as motility and abiotic surface attachment. PMID:11073913

  18. Global dynamics of cholera models with differential infectivity.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Zhisheng; van den Driessche, P

    2011-12-01

    A general compartmental model for cholera is formulated that incorporates two pathways of transmission, namely direct and indirect via contaminated water. Non-linear incidence, multiple stages of infection and multiple states of the pathogen are included, thus the model includes and extends cholera models in the literature. The model is analyzed by determining a basic reproduction number R0 and proving, by using Lyapunov functions and a graph-theoretic result based on Kirchhoff's Matrix Tree Theorem, that it determines a sharp threshold. If R0≤1, then cholera dies out; whereas if R0>1, then the disease tends to a unique endemic equilibrium. When input and death are neglected, the model is used to determine a final size equation or inequality, and simulations illustrate how assumptions on cholera transmission affect the final size of an epidemic. PMID:22001141

  19. Cholera Outbreak in Grande Comore: 1998–1999

    PubMed Central

    Troeger, Christopher; Gaudart, Jean; Truillet, Romain; Sallah, Kankoe; Chao, Dennis L.; Piarroux, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    In 1998, a cholera epidemic in east Africa reached the Comoros Islands, an archipelago in the Mozambique Channel that had not reported a cholera case for more than 20 years. In just a little over 1 year (between January 1998 and March 1999), Grande Comore, the largest island in the Union of the Comoros, reported 7,851 cases of cholera, about 3% of the population. Using case reports and field observations during the medical response, we describe the epidemiology of the 1998–1999 cholera epidemic in Grande Comore. Outbreaks of infectious diseases on islands provide a unique opportunity to study transmission dynamics in a nearly closed population, and they may serve as stepping-stones for human pathogens to cross unpopulated expanses of ocean. PMID:26572869

  20. Cholera in Haiti and Other Caribbean Regions, 19th Century

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Medical journals and other sources do not show evidence that cholera occurred in Haiti before 2010, despite the devastating effect of this disease in the Caribbean region in the 19th century. Cholera occurred in Cuba in 1833–1834; in Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, St. Thomas, St. Lucia, St. Kitts, Nevis, Trinidad, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, Granada, Anguilla, St. John, Tortola, the Turks and Caicos, the Grenadines (Carriacou and Petite Martinique), and possibly Antigua in 1850–1856; and in Guadeloupe, Cuba, St. Thomas, the Dominican Republic, Dominica, Martinique, and Marie Galante in 1865–1872. Conditions associated with slavery and colonial military control were absent in independent Haiti. Clustered populations, regular influx of new persons, and close quarters of barracks living contributed to spread of cholera in other Caribbean locations. We provide historical accounts of the presence and spread of cholera epidemics in Caribbean islands. PMID:22099117

  1. Cholera Toxin B: One Subunit with Many Pharmaceutical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Baldauf, Keegan J.; Royal, Joshua M.; Hamorsky, Krystal Teasley; Matoba, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Cholera, a waterborne acute diarrheal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae, remains prevalent in underdeveloped countries and is a serious health threat to those living in unsanitary conditions. The major virulence factor is cholera toxin (CT), which consists of two subunits: the A subunit (CTA) and the B subunit (CTB). CTB is a 55 kD homopentameric, non-toxic protein binding to the GM1 ganglioside on mammalian cells with high affinity. Currently, recombinantly produced CTB is used as a component of an internationally licensed oral cholera vaccine, as the protein induces potent humoral immunity that can neutralize CT in the gut. Additionally, recent studies have revealed that CTB administration leads to the induction of anti-inflammatory mechanisms in vivo. This review will cover the potential of CTB as an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent. We will also summarize various recombinant expression systems available for recombinant CTB bioproduction. PMID:25802972

  2. Finisher hog production in the Southeastern United States: Ancillary measurements derived from the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robarge, W. P.; Lee, S.; Walker, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of emissions of gases and fine particulate matter from swine animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the southeastern US have typically been confined to relatively short periods (days to several weeks) and have generally focused on waste lagoons. Access to swine animal housing units and other ancillary information has been limited. The National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) provided a unique opportunity to characterize emissions from swine housing units for an extended period of time (~ 2 years), and allowed access to ancillary measurements regarding nutrient flows (feed amounts and composition), manure dynamics, animal inventories, water usage and farm management. Presented here is a summary of the observations made for a NAEMS finisher site (NC3B) selected as being representative of swine production in the southeastern US. Finisher hogs are raised in rotations (~ 140 days) with a target market weight of 123 kg/hog. Among the population during a rotation (700-800 hogs/barn) the actual growth rate varies with a series of “grade-outs” of market-weight hogs starting ~ 110 days from initial load-in. Derivation of the standing live-weight in the barns during a rotation therefore requires use of a growth model and summation over several different “populations” of hogs within a single barn. Up to 5 different feed formulations are fed during a rotation with %N content ranging from (3.4 to 2.2% N; total feed consumed 181,000 kg/barn). Across 4 complete rotations, N consumed was ~50 g N per hog/day. Of this amount, we estimate ~ 60% is excreted as fecal matter and urine. The TAN (NH3 + NH4+) content of the shallow pits is consistently higher (1880 ±390 mg TAN/L) than that found in the anaerobic lagoon (800 ±70 mg TAN/L), except immediately after recharge following pit-pull (pH of the two liquids was similar). The presence of a recalcitrant layer of sludge in the shallow pits (liquid height = 20 cm; sludge depth = 5-10 cm; TAN = 2500 mg N/L; total

  3. Effect of Season, Transport Length, Deck Location, and Lairage Length on Pork Quality and Blood Cortisol Concentrations of Market Hogs

    PubMed Central

    Newman, David; Young, Jennifer; Carr, Chad; Ryan, Matt; Berg, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Transport of hogs is a routine practice in the swine industry. Loading pigs onto the trailer, transporting them to the plant, and having them wait in an unfamiliar pen at the plant prior to slaughter are all stressful to the pigs. Seasonal changes in temperatures can also affect the amount of stress a hog is subjected to during transport to market. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of transportation and lairage conditions on stress, evaluated by measuring serum cortisol concentrations, and the effect on pork quality. Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of seasonal environment, transport conditions, and time in lairage on pork quality and serum cortisol concentrations. Market hogs were slaughtered during winter (n = 535), spring (n = 645), summer (n = 644), and fall (n = 488). Within season, hogs were randomly assigned to treatments in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with 2 deck locations (top vs. bottom) and 2 transport and lairage durations (3 h vs. 6 h). Blood samples were collected at exsanguination for analysis of cortisol concentration. Loins were collected at 24 h postmortem for pork quality assessment. Season and deck did not have a main effect on cortisol concentrations or pork quality. Hogs transported 6 h had increased cortisol concentrations (103.0 vs. 95.5 ng/mL; P < 0.001) and decreased L* (52.49 vs. 52.69; P = 0.09), b* (6.28 vs. 6.36; P = 0.03), and hue angle (20.70 vs. 20.95; P = 0.03) compared to hogs transported 3 h. Hogs subjected to 6 h of lairage had increased 24-h pH (5.69 vs. 5.66; P = 0.005), a* (16.64 vs. 16.48; P < 0.0001), b* (6.42 vs. 6.22; P < 0.0001), saturation (17.85 vs. 17.64; P < 0.0001), and hue angle (21.01 vs. 20.65; P = 0.002) and decreased L* (52.49 vs. 52.69; P = 0.07) when compared to hogs subjected to 3 h of lairage. PMID:26479004

  4. Hydroclimatic Extremes and Cholera Dynamics in the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A. S.; Islam, S.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera, an acute water-borne diarrheal illness, has reemerged as a significant health threat across much of the developing world. Despite major advances in the ecological and the microbiological understanding of the causative agent, V. cholerae, the role of the underlying climatic and environmental processes in propagating transmission is not adequately understood. Recent findings suggest a more prominent role of hydroclimatic extremes - droughts and floods - on the unique dual cholera peaks in the Bengal Delta region of South Asia, the native homeland of cholera. Increasing water scarcity and abundance, and coastal sea-level rise, influenced by changing climate patterns and large-scale climatic phenomena, is likely to adversely impact cholera transmission in South Asia. We focus on understanding how associated changes in macro-scale conditions in this region will impact micro-scale processes related to cholera in coming decades. We use the PRECIS Regional Climate Model over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin region to simulate detailed high resolution projections of climate patterns for the 21st century. Precipitation outputs are analyzed for the 1980-2040 period to identify the trends and changes in hydroclimatic extremes and potential impacts on cholera dynamics over the next three decades (2010-2040), in relation to the cholera surveillance operations over the past three decades (1980-2010). We find that an increased number of extreme precipitation events with prolonged dry periods in the Ganges basin region will likely adversely affect dry season cholera outbreaks. Increased monsoon precipitation volumes in the Brahmaputra basin catchments are likely to cause record floods and subsequently trigger large epidemics in downstream areas. Our results provide new insight by identifying the changes in the two distinctly different, pre and post monsoon, cholera transmission mechanisms related to large-scale climatic controls that prevail in the region. A

  5. Inhibition of virulence potential of Vibrio cholerae by natural compounds

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Shinji; Asakura, Masahiro; Neogi, Sucharit Basu; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Iwaoka, Emiko; Aoki, Shunji

    2011-01-01

    The rise in multi-drug resistant Vibrio cholerae strains is a big problem in treatment of patients suffering from severe cholera. Only a few studies have evaluated the potential of natural compounds against V. cholerae. Extracts from plants like ‘neem’, ‘guazuma’, ‘daio’, apple, hop, green tea and elephant garlic have been shown to inhibit bacterial growth or the secreted cholera toxin (CT). However, inhibiting bacterial growth like common antimicrobial agents may also impose selective pressure facilitating development of resistant strains. A natural compound that can inhibit virulence in V. cholerae is an alternative choice for remedy. Recently, some common spices were examined to check their inhibitory capacity against virulence expression of V. cholerae. Among them methanol extracts of red chili, sweet fennel and white pepper could substantially inhibit CT production. Fractionation of red chili methanol extracts indicated a hydrophobic nature of the inhibitory compound(s), and the n-hexane and 90 per cent methanol fractions could inhibit >90 per cent of CT production. Purification and further fractionation revealed that capsaicin is one of the major components among these red chili fractions. Indeed, capsaicin inhibited the production of CT in various V. cholerae strains regardless of serogroups and biotypes. The quantitative reverse transcription real-time PCR assay revealed that capsaicin dramatically reduced the expression of major virulence-related genes such as ctxA, tcpA and toxT but enhanced the expression of hns gene that transcribes a global prokaryotic gene regulator (H-NS). This indicates that the repression of CT production by capsaicin or red chili might be due to the repression of virulence genes transcription by H-NS. Regular intake of spices like red chili might be a good approach to fight against devastating cholera. PMID:21415500

  6. Community health facility preparedness for a cholera surge in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Mobula, Linda Meta; Jacquet, Gabrielle A; Weinhauer, Kristin; Alcidas, Gladys; Thomas, Hans-Muller; Burnham, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    With increasing population displacement and worsening water insecurity after the 2010 earthquake, Haiti experienced a large cholera outbreak. Our goal was to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of seven community health facilities' ability to respond to a surge in cholera cases. Since 2010, Catholic Relief Services (CRS) with a number of public and private donors has been working with seven health facilities in an effort to reduce morbidity and mortality from cholera infection. In November 2012, CRS through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s support, asked the Johns Hopkins Center for Refugee and Disaster Response to conduct a cholera surge simulation tabletop exercise at these health facilities to improve each facility's response in the event of a cholera surge. Using simulation development guidelines from the Pan American Health Organization and others, a simulation scenario script was produced that included situations of differing severity, supply chain, as well as a surge of patients. A total of 119 hospital staff from seven sites participated in the simulation exercise including community health workers, clinicians, managers, pharmacists, cleaners, and security guards. Clinics that had challenges during the simulated clinical care of patients were those that did not appropriately treat all cholera patients according to protocol, particularly those that were vulnerable, those that would need additional staff to properly treat patients during a surge of cholera, and those that required a better inventory of supplies. Simulation-based activities have the potential to identify healthcare delivery system vulnerabilities that are amenable to intervention prior to a cholera surge. PMID:24481887

  7. Transcript changes in Vibrio cholerae in response to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiuping; Liang, Weili; Du, Pengcheng; Yan, Meiying; Kan, Biao

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, which is a serious human intestinal pathogen, often resides and thrives in estuaries but requires major self-regulation to overcome intestinal hyperosmotic stress or high salt stress in water and food. In the present study, we selected multiple O1 and O139 group V. cholerae strains that were isolated from different regions and during different years to study their salt tolerance. Based on the mechanisms that other bacteria use to respond to high salt stress, we selected salt stress-response related genes to study the mechanisms which V. cholerae responds to high salt stress. V. cholerae strains showed salt-resistance characteristics that varied in salt concentrations from 4% to 6%. However, group O1 and group O139 showed no significant difference in the degree of salt tolerance. The primary responses of bacteria to salt stress, including Na(+) exclusion, K(+) uptake and glutamate biosynthesis, were observed in V. cholerae strains. In addition, some sigma factors were up-regulated in V. cholerae strains, suggesting that V. cholerae may recruit common sigma factors to achieve an active salt stress response. However, some changes in gene transcript levels in response to salt stress in V. cholerae were strain-specific. In particular, hierarchical clustering of differentially expressed genes indicated that transcript levels of these genes were correlated with the degree of salt tolerance. Therefore, elevated transcript levels of some genes, including sigma factors and genes involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis, may be due to the salt tolerance of strains. In addition, high salt-tolerant strains may recruit common as well as additional sigma factors to activate the salt stress response. PMID:25589902

  8. The Role of Cyanobacteria Blooms in Cholera Epidemic in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagir Ahmed, Md.; Raknuzzaman, Md.; Akther, Hafeza; Ahmed, Sumaiya

    A study was conducted on association of Vibrio cholerae with plankton specially emphasis on cyanobacteria in relation to some physico-chemical parameters in the River Buriganga, Dhaka, from January to December 2002. Monthly abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton varied from 457 to 14166 and from 169 to 1055 individual L-1, respectively. Monthly average of faecal coliform in water, zooplankton and phytoplankton samples were 3.99x109, 4.54x103 and 4.28x102 (CFU L-1), respectively. During epidemics, toxigenic V. cholerae 01 and 0139 were isolated from the patients as well as from the surface water. V. cholerae 01 and 0139 were also isolated from plankton samples. More over, it was observed that ctx (cholera toxic) positive in water and phytoplankton samples of the river. A bloom of Oscillatoria sp. (1.6x104 individual L-1) occurred in the upper reaches of the River Buriganga in May 2002. Methanol-water extract of bloom sample was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection and Mass Spectrum (MS) detected microcystin-RR. Cyanobacteria are abundant in the aquatic environment of Bangladesh and it was established that V. cholerae maintain a symbiotic relationship with these algae particularly mucilaginous cyanobacteria. During epidemics, patients symptoms included diarrhea, vomiting and hemorrhagic enteritis and in severe cases hemorrhagic diarrhea. So, question has arisen that which is responsible, microcystins or cholera for death of cholera/diarrhea patients in Bangladesh. Future research should be directed to isolate microcystins and cholera toxins from the epidemic areas to clarify the fact.

  9. Mammalian folylpoly-. gamma. -glutamate synthetase. 1. Purification and general properties of the hog liver enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Cichowicz, D.J.; Shane, B.

    1987-01-27

    Folylpolyglutamate synthetase was purified 30,000-150,000-fold from hog liver. Purification required the use of protease inhibitors, and the protein was purified to homogeneity in two forms. Both forms of the enzyme were monomers of M/sub r/ 62,000 and had similar specific activities. The specific activity of the homogeneous protein was over 2000-fold higher than reported for partially purified folylpolyglutamate synthetases from other mammalian sources. Enzyme activity was absolutely dependent on the presence of a reducing agent and a monovalent cation, of which K/sup +/ was most effective. The purified enzyme catalyzed a MgATP-dependent addition of glutamate to tetrahydrofolate with the concomitant stoichiometric formation of MgADP and phosphate. Under conditions that resembled the expected substrate and enzyme concentrations in hog liver, tetrahydrofolate was metabolized to long glutamate chain length derivatives with the hexaglutamate, the major in vivo folate derivative, predominating. Enzyme activity was maximal at about pH 9.5. The high-pH optimum was primarily due to an increase in the K/sub m/ value for the L-glutamate substrate at lower pH values, and the reaction proceeded effectively at physiological pH provided high levels of glutamate were supplied.

  10. Biophysical properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their relationship with HOG pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Schaber, Jörg; Adrover, Miquel Angel; Eriksson, Emma; Pelet, Serge; Petelenz-Kurdziel, Elzbieta; Klein, Dagmara; Posas, Francesc; Goksör, Mattias; Peter, Mathias; Hohmann, Stefan; Klipp, Edda

    2010-10-01

    Parameterized models of biophysical and mechanical cell properties are important for predictive mathematical modeling of cellular processes. The concepts of turgor, cell wall elasticity, osmotically active volume, and intracellular osmolarity have been investigated for decades, but a consistent rigorous parameterization of these concepts is lacking. Here, we subjected several data sets of minimum volume measurements in yeast obtained after hyper-osmotic shock to a thermodynamic modeling framework. We estimated parameters for several relevant biophysical cell properties and tested alternative hypotheses about these concepts using a model discrimination approach. In accordance with previous reports, we estimated an average initial turgor of 0.6 ± 0.2 MPa and found that turgor becomes negligible at a relative volume of 93.3 ± 6.3% corresponding to an osmotic shock of 0.4 ± 0.2 Osm/l. At high stress levels (4 Osm/l), plasmolysis may occur. We found that the volumetric elastic modulus, a measure of cell wall elasticity, is 14.3 ± 10.4 MPa. Our model discrimination analysis suggests that other thermodynamic quantities affecting the intracellular water potential, for example the matrix potential, can be neglected under physiological conditions. The parameterized turgor models showed that activation of the osmosensing high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) signaling pathway correlates with turgor loss in a 1:1 relationship. This finding suggests that mechanical properties of the membrane trigger HOG pathway activation, which can be represented and quantitatively modeled by turgor. PMID:20563574