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Sample records for holcus lanatus yorkshire

  1. Phytochelatins are involved in differential arsenate tolerance in Holcus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Hartley-Whitaker, J; Ainsworth, G; Vooijs, R; Ten Bookum, W; Schat, H; Meharg, A A

    2001-05-01

    Arsenate tolerance is conferred by suppression of the high-affinity phosphate/arsenate uptake system, which greatly reduces arsenate influx in a number of higher plant species. Despite this suppressed uptake, arsenate-tolerant plants can still accumulate high levels of As over their lifetime, suggesting that constitutive detoxification mechanisms may be required. Phytochelatins are thiol-rich peptides, whose production is induced by a range of metals and metalloids including arsenate. This study provides evidence for the role of phytochelatins in the detoxification of arsenate in arsenate-tolerant Holcus lanatus. Elevated levels of phytochelatin were measured in plants with a range of tolerance to arsenate at equivalent levels of arsenate stress, measured as inhibition of root growth. The results suggest that arsenate tolerance in H. lanatus requires both adaptive suppression of the high-affinity phosphate uptake system and constitutive phytochelatin production. PMID:11351093

  2. Phytochelatins Are Involved in Differential Arsenate Tolerance in Holcus lanatus1

    PubMed Central

    Hartley-Whitaker, Jeanette; Ainsworth, Gillian; Vooijs, Riet; Bookum, Wilma Ten; Schat, Henk; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2001-01-01

    Arsenate tolerance is conferred by suppression of the high-affinity phosphate/arsenate uptake system, which greatly reduces arsenate influx in a number of higher plant species. Despite this suppressed uptake, arsenate-tolerant plants can still accumulate high levels of As over their lifetime, suggesting that constitutive detoxification mechanisms may be required. Phytochelatins are thiol-rich peptides, whose production is induced by a range of metals and metalloids including arsenate. This study provides evidence for the role of phytochelatins in the detoxification of arsenate in arsenate-tolerant Holcus lanatus. Elevated levels of phytochelatin were measured in plants with a range of tolerance to arsenate at equivalent levels of arsenate stress, measured as inhibition of root growth. The results suggest that arsenate tolerance in H. lanatus requires both adaptive suppression of the high-affinity phosphate uptake system and constitutive phytochelatin production. PMID:11351093

  3. The nature of arsenic-phytochelatin complexes in Holcus lanatus and Pteris cretica.

    PubMed

    Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg; Meharg, Andrew A

    2004-03-01

    We have developed a method to extract and separate phytochelatins (PCs)-metal(loid) complexes using parallel metal(loid)-specific (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) and organic-specific (electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry) detection systems-and use it here to ascertain the nature of arsenic (As)-PC complexes in plant extracts. This study is the first unequivocal report, to our knowledge, of PC complex coordination chemistry in plant extracts for any metal or metalloid ion. The As-tolerant grass Holcus lanatus and the As hyperaccumulator Pteris cretica were used as model plants. In an in vitro experiment using a mixture of reduced glutathione (GS), PC(2), and PC(3), As preferred the formation of the arsenite [As((III))]-PC(3) complex over GS-As((III))-PC(2), As((III))-(GS)(3), As((III))-PC(2), or As((III))-(PC(2))(2) (GS: glutathione bound to arsenic via sulphur of cysteine). In H. lanatus, the As((III))-PC(3) complex was the dominant complex, although reduced glutathione, PC(2), and PC(3) were found in the extract. P. cretica only synthesizes PC(2) and forms dominantly the GS-As((III))-PC(2) complex. This is the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the existence of mixed glutathione-PC-metal(loid) complexes in plant tissues or in vitro. In both plant species, As is dominantly in non-bound inorganic forms, with 13% being present in PC complexes for H. lanatus and 1% in P. cretica. PMID:15001701

  4. The Nature of Arsenic-Phytochelatin Complexes in Holcus lanatus and Pteris cretica1

    PubMed Central

    Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a method to extract and separate phytochelatins (PCs)—metal(loid) complexes using parallel metal(loid)-specific (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) and organic-specific (electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry) detection systems—and use it here to ascertain the nature of arsenic (As)-PC complexes in plant extracts. This study is the first unequivocal report, to our knowledge, of PC complex coordination chemistry in plant extracts for any metal or metalloid ion. The As-tolerant grass Holcus lanatus and the As hyperaccumulator Pteris cretica were used as model plants. In an in vitro experiment using a mixture of reduced glutathione (GS), PC2, and PC3, As preferred the formation of the arsenite [As(III)]-PC3 complex over GS-As(III)-PC2, As(III)-(GS)3, As(III)-PC2, or As(III)-(PC2)2 (GS: glutathione bound to arsenic via sulphur of cysteine). In H. lanatus, the As(III)-PC3 complex was the dominant complex, although reduced glutathione, PC2, and PC3 were found in the extract. P. cretica only synthesizes PC2 and forms dominantly the GS-As(III)-PC2 complex. This is the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the existence of mixed glutathione-PC-metal(loid) complexes in plant tissues or in vitro. In both plant species, As is dominantly in non-bound inorganic forms, with 13% being present in PC complexes for H. lanatus and 1% in P. cretica. PMID:15001701

  5. Effects of extreme weather events and legume presence on mycorrhization of Plantago lanceolata and Holcus lanatus in the field.

    PubMed

    Walter, J; Kreyling, J; Singh, B K; Jentsch, A

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about direct and indirect effects of extreme weather events on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) under field conditions. In a field experiment, we investigated the response of mycorrhization to drought and heavy rain in grassland communities. We quantified AMF biomass in soil, mycorrhization of roots of the grass Holcus lanatus and the forb Plantago lanceolata, as well as plant performance. Plants were grown in four-species communities with or without a legume. We hypothesised that drought increases and heavy rain decreases mycorrhization, and that higher mycorrhization will be linked to improved stress resistance and higher biomass production. Soil AMF biomass increased under both weather extremes. Heavy rain generally benefitted plants and increased arbuscules in P. lanceolata. Drought neither reduced plant performance nor root mycorrhization. Arbuscules increased in H. lanatus several weeks after drought, and in P. lanceolata several weeks after heavy rain spells. These long-lasting effects of weather events on mycorrhization highlight the indirect influence of climate on AMF via their host plant. Legume presence increased plant community biomass, but had only minor effects on mycorrhization. Arbuscule colonisation was negatively correlated with senescence during the dry summer. Mycorrhization and biomass production in P. lanceolata were positively related. However, increased mycorrhization was related to less biomass in the grass. AMF mycelium in soil might generally increase under extreme events, root colonisation, however, is host species specific. This might amplify community shifts in grassland under climate change by further increasing stress resistance of species that already benefit from changed precipitation. PMID:26284575

  6. Influence of soil properties and phosphate addition on arsenic uptake from polluted soils by velvetgrass (Holcus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Lewińska, K; Karczewska, A

    2013-01-01

    Four kinds of soil material were used in a pot experiment with velvetgrass (Holcus lanatus). Two unpolluted soils: sand (S) and loam (L) were spiked with sodium arsenite (As II) and arsenate (As V), to obtain total arsenic (As) concentrations of 500 mg As kg(-1). Two other soils (ZS I, ZS III), containing 3320 and 5350 mg As kg(-1), were collected from Zloty Stok where gold and arsenic ores were mined and processed for several centuries. The effects of phosphate addition on plants growth and As uptake were investigated. Phosphate was applied to soils in the form of NH4H2PO4 at the rate 0.2 g P/kg. Average concentrations of arsenic in the shoots of velvetgrass grown in spiked soils S and L without P amendment were in the range 18-210 mg As kg(-1) d.wt., whereas those in plants grown on ZS I and ZS II soils were considerably lower, and varied in the range 11-52 mg As kg(-1) d.wt. The addition of phosphate caused a significant increase in plant biomass and therefore the total amounts of As taken up by plants, however, the differences in As concentrations in the shoots of velvetgrass amended and non-amended with phosphate were not statistically significant. PMID:23487988

  7. Short-term response of Holcus lanatus L. (Common Velvetgrass) to chemical and manual control at Yosemite National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Laura J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Hutten, Martin

    2015-01-01

    One of the highest priority invasive species at both Yosemite and Sequoia and Kings Canyon national parks is Holcus lanatus L. (common velvetgrass), a perennial bunchgrass that invades mid-elevation montane meadows. Despite velvetgrass being a high priority species, there is little information available on control techniques. The goal of this project was to evaluate the short-term response of a single application of common chemical and manual velvetgrass control techniques. The study was conducted at three montane sites in Yosemite National Park. Glyphosate spot-spray treatments were applied at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% concentrations, and compared with hand pulling to evaluate effects on cover of common velvetgrass, cover of other plant species, and community species richness. Posttreatment year 1 cover of common velvetgrass was 12.1% ± 1.6 in control plots, 6.3% ± 1.5 averaged over the four chemical treatments (all chemical treatments performed similarly), and 13.6% ± 1.7 for handpulled plots. This represents an approximately 50% reduction in common velvetgrass cover in chemically- treated plots recoded posttreatment year 1 and no statistically significant reduction in hand pulled plots compared with controls. However, there was no treatment effect in posttreatment year 2, and all herbicide application rates performed similarly. In addition, there were no significant treatment effects on nontarget species or species richness. These results suggest that for this level of infestation and habitat type, (1) one year of hand pulling is not an effective control method and (2) glyphosate provides some level of control in the short-term without impact to nontarget plant species, but the effect is temporary as a single year of glyphosate treatment is ineffective over a two-year period.

  8. The Distribution of Arsenate and Arsenite in Shoots and Roots of Holcus lanatus is Influenced by Arsenic Tolerance and Arsenate and Phosphate Supply

    PubMed Central

    Quaghebeur, Mieke; Rengel, Zdenko

    2003-01-01

    The recent discovery that phytochelatins are important for arsenic (As) detoxification in terrestrial plants results in the necessity to understand As speciation and metabolism in plant material. A hydroponic study was therefore conducted to examine the effects of different levels of phosphate and arsenate [As(V)] on As speciation and distribution in tolerant and non-tolerant clones of Holcus lanatus. Speciation of As in tissue (using high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) revealed that the predominant species present were the inorganic As species (As(V) and arsenite [As(III)]), although small levels (<1%) of organic As species (dimethylarsinic acid and monomethylarsonic acid) were detected in shoot material. In roots, the proportion of total As present as As(III) generally increased with increasing levels of As(V) in the nutrient solution, whereas in shoots, the proportion of total As present as As(III) generally decreased with increasing levels of As(V). H. lanatus plants growing in the high-phosphorus (P) (100 μm) solution contained a higher proportion of As(V) (with regard to total As) in both roots and shoots than plants supplied with low P (10 μm); in addition, tolerant clones generally contained a higher proportion of As(V) with regard to total As than non-tolerant clones. The study further revealed that As(V) can be reduced to As(III) in both roots and shoots. Although the reduction capacity was limited, the reduction was closely regulated by As influx for all treatments. The results therefore provide a new understanding about As metabolism in H. lanatus. PMID:12857839

  9. The Genome of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus, is an economically important cucurbit crop. Here, we report a high quality draft genome sequence for watermelon C. lanatus developed with the next-generation sequencing technology. The assembled genome sequences cover 83% of the estimated 425 Mb watermel...

  10. Quinolizidine alkaloids from Lupinus lanatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, Alexandre T.; Oliveira, Carolina Q.; Ilha, Vinicius; Pedroso, Marcelo; Burrow, Robert A.; Dalcol, Ionara I.; Morel, Ademir F.

    2011-10-01

    In this study, one new quinolizidine alkaloid, lanatine A ( 1), together with three other known alkaloids, 13-α- trans-cinnamoyloxylupanine ( 2), 13-α-hydroxylupanine ( 3), and (-)-multiflorine ( 4) were isolated from the aerial parts of Lupinus lanatus (Fabaceae). The structures of alkaloids 1- 4 were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis. The stereochemistry of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. Bayesian statistical analysis of the Bijvoet differences suggests the absolute stereochemistry of 1. In addition, the antimicrobial potential of alkaloids 1- 4 is also reported.

  11. Resistance for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important global pest with and an extensive host range. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) is among the crops damaged by this pest. Host plant resistance is the foundation for the management of crops pests in general. ...

  12. Developing Entrepreneurship in West Yorkshire: West Yorkshire Universities' Partnership and Business Start-Up@Leeds Met

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Martyn; Collins, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    West Yorkshire universities together with Yorkshire Forward, the Regional Development Agency (RDA) for Yorkshire and Humberside, are collaborating on a graduate entrepreneurship programme. This paper outlines the national and regional context for the role of entrepreneurial education in producing new business and a climate in which creativity and…

  13. Oil and fatty acid content in seed of Citrullus lanatus Schrad.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intact seed of 475 genebank accessions of Citrullus (C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. lanatus var. citroides) were analyzed for percent oil content using TD-NMR. Extracts from whole seed of 96 accessions of Citrullus lanatus (30 var. citroides, 33 var. lanatus and 33 egusi), Citrullus colocynthis (n =...

  14. North Yorkshire Schools' Responses to Pupil Bereavement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, John; McLennan, Derek

    2015-01-01

    This was a research project carried out in North Yorkshire schools by the loss and bereavement research group of the Educational Psychology Service. The background was an interest in how schools responded to bereaved pupils, whether they had a structured response, trained staff and training needs, from where they sought support and the level of…

  15. Oil and fatty acid contents in seed of Citrullus lanatus Schrad.

    PubMed

    Jarret, Robert L; Levy, Irvin J

    2012-05-23

    Intact seed of 475 genebank accessions of Citrullus ( C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. lanatus var. citroides) were analyzed for percent oil content using TD-NMR. Extracts from whole seed of 96 accessions of C. lanatus (30 var. citroides, 33 var. lanatus, and 33 egusi), C. colocynthis (n = 3), C. ecirrhosus (n = 1), C. rehmii (n = 1), and Benincasa fistulosa (n = 3) were also analyzed for their fatty acids content. Among the materials analyzed, seed oil content varied from 14.8 to 43.5%. Mean seed oil content in egusi types of C. lanatus was significantly higher (mean = 35.6%) than that of either var. lanatus (mean = 23.2%) or var. citroides (mean = 22.6%). Egusi types of C. lanatus had a significantly lower hull/kernel ratio when compared to other C. lanatus var. lanatus or C. lanatus var. citroides. The principal fatty acid in all C. lanatus materials examined was linoleic acid (43.6-73%). High levels of linoleic acid were also present in the materials of C. colocynthis (71%), C. ecirrhosus (62.7%), C. rehmii (75.8%), and B. fistulosa (73.2%), which were included for comparative purposes. Most all samples contained traces (<0.5%) of arachidonic acid. The data presented provide novel information on the range in oil content and variability in the concentrations of individual fatty acids present in a diverse array of C. lanatus, and its related species, germplasm. PMID:22540530

  16. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides)

    PubMed Central

    Thies, Judy A.; Ariss, Jennifer J.; Kousik, Chandrasekar S.; Hassell, Richard L.; Levi, Amnon

    2016-01-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN. PMID:27168648

  17. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides).

    PubMed

    Thies, Judy A; Ariss, Jennifer J; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Hassell, Richard L; Levi, Amnon

    2016-03-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN. PMID:27168648

  18. Simple Sequence Repeats in Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simple sequence repeat length polymorphisms were utilized to examine genetic relatedness among accessions of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai). A size-fractionated TaqI genomic library was screened for the occurrence of dimer and trimer simple sequence repeats (SSRs). A total o...

  19. Firearm deaths in Yorkshire and Humberside.

    PubMed

    Chapman, J; Milroy, C M

    1992-12-01

    Firearm fatalities occurring in Yorkshire and Humberside between 1975-1991 were examined; 130 cases were found, 64 were homicides, 55 suicides and 11 were accidental or unclassifiable. All but two of the suicides were men. Shotguns were the most frequent weapon used in both suicides and homicides. Of the 55 suicides, 17 were by men who had murdered before committing suicide. In 15 of these cases the assailants knew their victims. The other two cases involved murder of police officers. These cases were mostly with shotguns. In both homicide and suicide, rifled weapons and handguns were infrequently used. Most suicides and homicides occurred at home. Alcohol was again shown to be a significant factor in suicides. Overall firearms account for less than 10% of homicides in England and Wales and less than 5% of suicides in men and is most unusual in women. PMID:1473809

  20. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the US and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (C. lanatus var. citroides) have been shown...

  1. Resistance of Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) Rootstocks to Southern Root-Knot Nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedless watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) ‘Tri-X 313’ scions were grafted on ten different cucurbit rootstocks and evaluated in a field infested with southern root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita, in Charleston, SC in 2009. The rootstocks evaluated included five wild watermelo...

  2. Citrullus lanatus 'sentinel' (watermelon) extract reduces atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Poduri, Aruna; Rateri, Debra L; Saha, Shubin K; Saha, Sibu; Daugherty, Alan

    2013-05-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus or C. lanatus) has many potentially bioactive compounds including citrulline, which may influence atherosclerosis. In this study, we determined the effects of C. lanatus, provided as an extract of the cultivar 'sentinel,' on hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in mice. Male low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice at 8 weeks old were given either C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract (2% vol/vol; n=10) or a mixture of matching carbohydrates (2% vol/vol; n=8) as the control in drinking water while being fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 12 weeks ad libitum. Mice consuming C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract had significantly increased plasma citrulline concentrations. Systolic blood pressure was comparable between the two groups. Consumption of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract led to lower body weight and fat mass without influencing lean mass. There were no differences in food and water intake and in urine output between the two groups. C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract administration decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations that were attributed to reductions of intermediate-/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interferon-gamma were decreased and those of interleukin-10 were increased in mice consuming C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract. Intake of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract resulted in reductions of atherosclerosis in both aortic arch and thoracic regions. In conclusion, consumption of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract led to reduced body weight gain, decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations, improved homeostasis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and attenuated development of atherosclerosis without affecting systolic blood pressure in hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:22902326

  3. Cucurbitane-type triterpenes from Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) seeds.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Okada, Rina; Harada, Yu; Ikushima, Kenji; Yamakawa, Takahiro; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2013-10-01

    Two new cucurbitane-type triterpenes, 24-hydroperoxycucurbita-5,25-dien-3beta-ol (1) and 25-hydroperoxycucurbita-5,23-dien-3beta-ol (2), were isolated from a MeOH extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities with IC50 values of 33.4-52.4 microM against HL-60 (human leukemia), P388 (murine leukemia), and L1210 (murine leukemia) cells. Compound 1 showed melanogenesis inhibitory activity (melanin content 80.0 %) with low cytotoxicity (cell viability 97.6%) at a low concentration (10 microM). PMID:24354176

  4. Intraluminal tracheal stent fracture in a Yorkshire terrier.

    PubMed

    Woo, Heung-Myong; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Lee, Seung-Gon; Nam, Hyun-Sook; Kwak, Ho-Hyun; Lee, Joon-Seok; Park, In-Chul; Hyun, Changbaig

    2007-10-01

    An 8-year-old Yorkshire terrier was presented with tracheal collapse. Two intraluminal nitinol stents were implanted. The implanted stents were found to be fractured 4 weeks after implantation. The fractured stents were removed. To restore the collapsed trachea, ring prostheses were applied. However, the dog was euthanized because of a bad outcome following surgery. PMID:17987968

  5. An Evaluation of West Yorkshire Sports Counselling Project: Workshop Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Geoff

    The West Yorkshire (England) Sports Counselling Association (WYSC) is a voluntary organization that, in partnership with the Probation Service, provides sports counseling to persons on probation or youth justice supervision. Sports leaders provide sports counseling on a one-on-one basis during a 12-week program of activities designed for the…

  6. New Technology and Women's Employment. Case Studies from West Yorkshire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huws, Ursula

    A study examined the impact of new technology upon women's employment in West Yorkshire in Great Britain. During the study, 2,000 copies of a questionnaire were distributed to past and present users of the Leeds Trade Union and Community Resource and Information Centre (TUCRIC) as well as to participants at a conference entitled Women and New…

  7. Accessions of Citrullus lanatus var. Citroides are Valuable Rootstocks for Grafted Watermelon in Fields Infested with Root-Knot Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) RKVL rootstock lines developed at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, USDA, ARS in Charleston, South Carolina, were compared to wild tinda and commercial cucurbit rootstock cultivars for grafting of seedless watermelon ‘Tri-X 313’ (C. lanatus var. lanatu...

  8. Origin and emergence of the sweet dessert watermelon, Citrullus lanatus

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Watermelons, Citrullus species (Cucurbitaceae), are native to Africa and have been cultivated since ancient times. The fruit flesh of wild watermelons is watery, but typically hard-textured, pale-coloured and bland or bitter. The familiar sweet dessert watermelons, C. lanatus, featuring non-bitter, tender, well-coloured flesh, have a narrow genetic base, suggesting that they originated from a series of selection events in a single ancestral population. The objective of the present investigation was to determine where dessert watermelons originated and the time frame during which sweet dessert watermelons emerged. Key Findings Archaeological remains of watermelons, mostly seeds, that date from 5000 years ago have been found in northeastern Africa. An image of a large, striped, oblong fruit on a tray has been found in an Egyptian tomb that dates to at least 4000 years ago. The Greek word pepon, Latin pepo and Hebrew avattiah of the first centuries ce were used for the same large, thick-rinded, wet fruit which, evidently, was the watermelon. Hebrew literature from the end of the second century ce and Latin literature from the beginning of the sixth century ce present watermelons together with three sweet fruits: figs, table grapes and pomegranates. Wild and primitive watermelons have been observed repeatedly in Sudan and neighbouring countries of northeastern Africa. Conclusions The diverse evidence, combined, indicates that northeastern Africa is the centre of origin of the dessert watermelon, that watermelons were domesticated for water and food there over 4000 years ago, and that sweet dessert watermelons emerged in Mediterranean lands by approximately 2000 years ago. Next-generation ancient-DNA sequencing and state-of-the-art genomic analysis offer opportunities to rigorously assess the relationships among ancient and living wild and primitive watermelons from northeastern Africa, modern sweet dessert watermelons and other Citrullus taxa. PMID

  9. Turkmenistan Melon (Cucumis melo), and Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Germplasm Expedition 2008.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkmenistan has a rich tradition of melon (Cucumis melo L.) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) production, but like in many countries land races and old varieties are in danger of genetic erosion. In July-August 2008, a collaborative Turkmenistan–United States germplasm exp...

  10. Hodgkin's disease: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, S. M.; Cartwright, R. A.; Darwin, C. M.; Richards, I. D.; Roberts, B.; O'Brien, C.; Bird, C. C.

    1987-01-01

    This is the first report of a case-control epidemiological study on lymphomas and leukaemias occurring in Yorkshire during 1979-84. This paper deals with the results of the Hodgkin's disease analysis comprising 248 cases and 489 controls. The results indicate support for previous work with respect to small family size and past history of infectious mononucleosis. Positive observations made in a previous pilot study are also confirmed and extended with respect to associations with certain chronic skin lesions, dental anaesthesia and familial factors. Negative associations are described with respect to X-ray exposures and cigarette smoking. It is proposed that these results fit into a general hypothesis that these conditions are the result of interaction between infectious agents and altered immunity in those persons genetically predisposed. PMID:3814482

  11. Potential utilization of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste as a novel source of pectin.

    PubMed

    Korish, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides is an ancestor type of watermelon. It was investigated as a new source of pectin. It was cultivated in Egypt for seeds only, while the remaining fruits are discarded as waste. Effect of different extraction conditions such as pH, solid: liquid ratio, temperature and extraction time on pectin yield of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste was investigated in the present study. The highest yield (19.75 % w/w) was achieved at pH 2, solid: liquid ratio1:15 and 85 °C, for 60 min. Methylation degree and galacturonic acid content of extracted pectin were 55.25 %, w/w and 76.84 %, w/w. The main neutral sugars were galactose followed by arabinose and rhamnose. In addition, glucose, xylose and mannose existed as constituents in the pectin hydrolysate. The results indicated that Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoide waste is a potential new source of pectin. PMID:25829625

  12. Radon in Ingleborough / Clapham Cave, North Yorkshire, UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, Gavin

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric radon concentration was measured at Ingleborough Cave, North Yorkshire during the summer of 2004, and the autumn / winter of 2004/5. Significantly, Ingleborough Cave forms part of a larger system which includes the world famous Gaping Gill pothole. This plunges 105 m (334 ft), contains the tallest unbroken waterfall in England and one of the largest known underground chambers in the UK. Measurements were taken to assess the effects of seasonal and spatial variation, elevation and ventilation on radon concentration in Ingleborough. In this study personal dose exposures for three groups of cave user were identified, and the performance of a variety of radon detection systems evaluated. Summer radon concentrations inside the cave peaked at around 7,000 Bq m-3, although average concentrations were less than 5,000 Bq m-3. During the winter measurement period, average concentrations were around 100 Bq m-3, and a winter / summer ration therefore of 47,4. The average annual radon concentration exceeded the legislative limitations for the workplace of 400 Bq m-3 due in part to a failed fan in the ventilation system. When the fan was running we noted an 80% reduction in radon concentrations although reliability of the fan was problematic due to extensive but relatively rare flooding of the cave system. The radon dose experienced by cave workers and guides in this study exceeded the Ionisation Radiation Regulations limit of 5 mSv/annum, and highlighted that for health and safety reasons the ventilation system should be fully operational during the high radon concentration summer months. Keywords: Radon, Cave, Ingleborough, Detection methods

  13. Purification and partial characterization of low molecular weight vicilin-like glycoprotein from the seeds of Citrullus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sushila; Tomar, Anil Kumar; Jithesh, O; Khan, Meraj Alam; Yadav, R N; Srinivasan, A; Singh, Tej P; Yadav, Savita

    2011-12-01

    The watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seeds are highly nutritive and contain large amount of proteins and many beneficial minerals such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, iron, phosphorous, zinc etc. In various parts of the world, C. lanatus seed extracts are used to cure cancer, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and blood pressure. C. lanatus seed extracts are also used as home remedy for edema and urinary tract problems. In this study, we isolated protein fraction of C. lanatus seeds using various protein separation methods. We successfully purified a low molecular weight vicilin-like glycoprotein using chromatographic methods followed by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/MS identification. This is the first report of purification of a vicilin like polypeptide from C. lanatus seeds. In next step, we extracted mRNA from immature seeds and reverse transcribed it using suitable forward and reverse primers for purified glycoprotein. The PCR product was analysed on 1% agarose gel and was subsequently sequenced by Dideoxy DNA sequencing method. An amino acid translation of the gene is in agreement with amino acid sequences of the identified peptides. PMID:21989589

  14. Comparative carcass and tissue nutrient composition of transgenic Yorkshire pigs expressing phytase in the saliva and conventional Yorkshire pigs.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, C W; Meidinger, R G; Ajakaiye, A; Murray, D; Fan, M Z; Mandell, I B; Phillips, J P

    2014-10-01

    A transgenic line of Yorkshire (YK) pigs named the Cassie (CA) line was produced with a low copy number phytase transgene inserted in the genome. The transgenic line efficiently digests P, Ca, and other major minerals of plant dietary origin. The objectives of this study were to 1) compare carcass and tissue nutrient composition and meat quality traits for third generation hemizygous CA line market BW finisher pigs (n = 24) with age-matched conventional YK finisher pigs (n = 24) and 2) examine effects of outbreeding with high-index conventional YK boars on modifying carcass leanness from the third to sixth generations in CA line finisher boars (n = 73) and gilts (n = 103). Cassie boars (n = 12) and CA gilts (n = 12) were fed diets without supplemental P and comparable numbers of age-matched YK boars and gilts fed diets containing supplement P were raised throughout the finisher phase. The pigs were slaughtered and then fabricated into commercial pork primals before meat composition and quality evaluation. Proximate and major micronutrient composition was determined on tissues including fat, kidney, lean, liver, and skin. The main difference observed was greater (P = 0.033) crude fat content in CA boar carcasses and increased (P < 0.04) leaf lard in both CA boars and gilts but no differences were observed (P = 0.895 and P = 0.223, respectively) in carcass backfat thickness as compared with YK pigs. There were no substantive differences in tissue composition, except for CA boar kidneys. Numerous changes in the mineral, fatty acid, and indispensable AA composition for CA boar kidneys were not apparent in CA gilts. These changes may point to adaptive physiological changes in the boar kidney necessary for homeostatic regulation of mineral retention related to phytase action rather than to insertion of the transgene. However, from a meat composition perspective, transgenic expression of phytase in the CA line of YK pigs had little overall effect on meat composition

  15. Pharmacognostical stucies on the seeds of mulam citrullus lanatus (thunb.) mats & nakai (cucurbitacae).

    PubMed

    Shantha, T R; Kumar, K G; Pasupathy, S; Vijayalakshmi, B; Bikshapathi, T

    2001-07-01

    In the Siddha system of Medicine cotyledons of the seeds of C. Lanatus are known as Mulam/Pullum/Pitcha (Tamil) and used as Pulukolli (Vermifuge), Karpa moolikai (General tonic) and as Aanmeiperukki (Aphrodisiac). In the Ayurvedic system of Medicine seeds are said to have properties like Sheeta (cooling), Mootrala (Diuretic) and Vrshya (Aphrodisiac). The present paper deals with macro and microscopical studies, maceration, histochemical tests, solubility, physical contents, extractive values, tests for inorganic and organic constituents, U.V. and thin layer chromatographic studies. PMID:22557025

  16. Transcriptome Analysis Revealed the Embryo-Induced Gene Expression Patterns in the Endometrium from Meishan and Yorkshire Pigs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiangnan; Liu, Ruize; Su, Lijie; Xiao, Qian; Yu, Mei

    2015-01-01

    The expression patterns in Meishan- and Yorkshire-derived endometrium during early (gestational day 15) and mid-gestation (gestational days 26 and 50) were investigated, respectively. Totally, 689 and 1649 annotated genes were identified to be differentially expressed in Meishan and Yorkshire endometrium during the three gestational stages, respectively. Hierarchical clustering analysis identified that, of the annotated differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 73 DEGs were unique to Meishan endometrium, 536 DEGs were unique to Yorkshire endometrium, and 228 DEGs were common in Meishan and Yorkshire endometriums. Subsequently, DEGs in each of the three types of expression patterns were grouped into four distinct categories according to the similarities in their temporal expression patterns. The expression patterns identified from the microarray analysis were validated by quantitative RT-PCR. The functional enrichment analysis revealed that the common DEGs were enriched in pathways of steroid metabolic process and regulation of retinoic acid receptor signaling. These unique DEGs in Meishan endometrium were involved in cell cycle and adherens junction. The DEGs unique to Yorkshire endometrium were associated with regulation of Rho protein signal transduction, maternal placenta development and cell proliferation. This study revealed the different gene expression patterns or pathways related to the endometrium remodeling in Meishan and Yorkshire pigs, respectively. These unique DEGs in either Meishan or Yorkshire endometriums may contribute to the divergence of the endometrium environment in the two pig breeds. PMID:26393584

  17. Novel Pseudomonas syringae strains associated with leaf spot diseases on watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and squash (Cucurbita pepo) in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006 and 2011, bacteria, fluorescent on KMB, were isolated from leaf spots of greenhouse-grown watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and field-grown squash (Cucurbita pepo) in coastal California. Biochemical characterization of the isolates indicated that they belonged to Pseudomonas syringae. Multilocu...

  18. MicroRNA in sperm from Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire boars

    PubMed Central

    Kasimanickam, Vanmathy; Kastelic, John

    2016-01-01

    Sperm contain microRNAs (miRNAs), which may have roles in epigenetic control. Regarding phylogenetic relationships among various swine breeds, Yorkshire and Landrace, are considered phenotypically and genetically very similar, but distinctly different from Duroc. The objective of the present study was to compare abundance of boar sperm miRNAs in these three breeds. Overall, 252 prioritized miRNAs were investigated using real-time PCR; relative expression of miRNAs in sperm was similar in Yorkshire and Landrace boars, but significantly different compared to Duroc. Seventeen miRNAs (hsa-miR-196a-5p, hsa-miR-514a-3p, hsa-miR-938, hsa-miR-372-3p, hsa-miR-558, hsa-miR-579-3p, hsa-miR-595, hsa-miR-648, hsa-miR-524-3p, hsa-miR-512-3p, hsa-miR-429, hsa-miR-639, hsa-miR-551a, hsa-miR-624-5p, hsa-miR-585-3p, hsa-miR-508-3p and hsa-miR-626) were down-regulated (P < 0.05; fold regulation ≤−2) in Yorkshire and Landrace sperm, compared to Duroc sperm. Furthermore, three miRNAs (hsa-miR-9-5p, hsa-miR-150-5p, and hsa-miR-99a-5p) were significantly up-regulated in Yorkshire and Landrace sperm compared to Duroc sperm, However, 240 miRNAs were not significantly different (within + 2 fold) between Yorkshire and Landrace sperm. We concluded that miRNAs in sperm were not significantly different between Yorkshire and Landrace boars, but there were significant differences between those two breeds and Duroc boars. Furthermore, integrated target genes for selected down-regulated miRNAs (identified via an in-silico method) appeared to participate in spermatogenesis and sperm functions. PMID:27597569

  19. MicroRNA in sperm from Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire boars.

    PubMed

    Kasimanickam, Vanmathy; Kastelic, John

    2016-01-01

    Sperm contain microRNAs (miRNAs), which may have roles in epigenetic control. Regarding phylogenetic relationships among various swine breeds, Yorkshire and Landrace, are considered phenotypically and genetically very similar, but distinctly different from Duroc. The objective of the present study was to compare abundance of boar sperm miRNAs in these three breeds. Overall, 252 prioritized miRNAs were investigated using real-time PCR; relative expression of miRNAs in sperm was similar in Yorkshire and Landrace boars, but significantly different compared to Duroc. Seventeen miRNAs (hsa-miR-196a-5p, hsa-miR-514a-3p, hsa-miR-938, hsa-miR-372-3p, hsa-miR-558, hsa-miR-579-3p, hsa-miR-595, hsa-miR-648, hsa-miR-524-3p, hsa-miR-512-3p, hsa-miR-429, hsa-miR-639, hsa-miR-551a, hsa-miR-624-5p, hsa-miR-585-3p, hsa-miR-508-3p and hsa-miR-626) were down-regulated (P < 0.05; fold regulation ≤-2) in Yorkshire and Landrace sperm, compared to Duroc sperm. Furthermore, three miRNAs (hsa-miR-9-5p, hsa-miR-150-5p, and hsa-miR-99a-5p) were significantly up-regulated in Yorkshire and Landrace sperm compared to Duroc sperm, However, 240 miRNAs were not significantly different (within + 2 fold) between Yorkshire and Landrace sperm. We concluded that miRNAs in sperm were not significantly different between Yorkshire and Landrace boars, but there were significant differences between those two breeds and Duroc boars. Furthermore, integrated target genes for selected down-regulated miRNAs (identified via an in-silico method) appeared to participate in spermatogenesis and sperm functions. PMID:27597569

  20. Paroxysmal dyskinesia suspected as canine epileptoid cramping syndrome in a young Yorkshire terrier dog.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung-Jin; Seo, Dong-Kyu; Song, Kun-Ho; Seo, Kyoung-Won

    2014-08-01

    A 9-month-old intact female Yorkshire terrier dog was presented with episodic partial seizure-like cramping of the limbs. The patient's episodes began six months previously; the interval between episodes became shorter, and the duration of the episodes increased. Various tests including neurologic examination, blood examination, abdominal radiography, ultrasonographic examination, angiographic computed tomography (CT) and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detected no remarkable changes. After these tests were conducted, the patient's condition was suspected to be canine epileptoid cramping syndrome (CECS), which could be a form of paroxysmal dyskinesia (PD), and as a trial therapy, Science Diet k/d (Hill's Pet Nutrition, Topeka, KS, U.S.A.) was prescribed. The clinical signs were dramatically reduced after diet therapy, and we diagnosed the patient with CECS. This is the first case report of CECS in a Yorkshire terrier dog. PMID:24805907

  1. Differential gene expression of epigenetic modifying enzymes between Tibet pig and Yorkshire in high and low altitudes.

    PubMed

    Ban, D M; Zhang, B; Wang, Z X; Zhang, H; Wu, C X

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic modifying enzymes play important roles in the adaptation to hypoxia, although no studies have examined their expression levels in Tibet pigs. The lung is an important functional organ in hypoxia adaptation. In this study, we examined the mRNA expression level of 5 enzymes in the lung of Tibet pigs using real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the epigenetic performance of hypoxia adaptation. We selected four groups of pig as the study object, which were Tibet pig in highland (TH), Yorkshire in highland (YH), Tibet pig in lowland (TL), Yorkshire in lowland (YL). Expression of Dnmt1 in Tibet pig was higher than that in Yorkshire (P < 0.01), although there was no significant difference between different altitudes within each breed. Expression of Dnmt3a was higher in Tibet pig than that in Yorkshire (P < 0.01), and higher in pigs from highland than that in lowland areas (P < 0.05). Expression of Hdac1 was higher in group TH than in Yorkshire (P < 0.01). Expression of Kdm3a was higher in group TH than in the rest of the groups (P < 0.01). Expression of Uhrf1 was higher in Tibet pig than in Yorkshire (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the expression levels of the 5 epigenetic modifying genes were higher in group TH than in group YH. Under conditions of oxygen deficiency, breed was the most important factor affecting DNA methylation and gene expression. PMID:25966093

  2. The sources of innovation in the woollen and worsted industry of eighteenth-century Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Smail, J

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the economic developments that induced producers to seek our innovations during a transformative period in the Yorkshire woollen industry. The analysis examines both the increase in the scale of the typical operation and the tremendous effect that fashion had on the industry. Particular attention is given to the ways in which the workings of real markets and product innovation focused entrepreneurial energy on the production process, and what that tells us about the origins of the Industrial Revolution. PMID:19459261

  3. Gastroprotective activity of reconstituted red fruit pulp concentrate of Citrullus lanatus in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Swapnil; Dave, Vivek; Paliwal, Sarvesh; Dwivedi, Jaya; Jain, Sonika

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate the gastroprotective potential of the aqueous fruit pulp concentrate of Citrullus lanatus citroides (CLC) on pyloric ligation and indomethacin-induced ulcer in Wistar albino rats. Materials and methods: In indomethacin-induced ulcer model, CLC was administered in the doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg body weight orally, tds for 5 days. The antiulcer activity was determined via observing reduction in ulcer index whereas in the pyloric ligation model, the gastroprotective effect of CLC was assessed from the alteration in volume of gastric juice, pH, free and total acidity, protein concentration in gastric juice. Further lipid peroxide (LPO), and activities of enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) was also determined along with the levels of hexose, hexosamine, sialic acid, fucose in gastric mucosa. Results: In both models, treatment with CLC caused a significant reduction in lesion index when compared to vehicle treated group, providing evidence for antiulcer capacity. In pyloric ligation model, pretreatment with CLC resulted in significant increase in pH, enzymic antioxidants, that is, SOD, CAT, with a significant decrease in volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity, protein concentration, acid output, and LPO levels respectively. The presence of the flavonoids and polyphenols may be responsible for the gastroprotective effect of CLC. Conclusions: The aqueous fruit pulp concentrate of CLC showed significant gastroprotective potential against pyloric ligation and indomethacin-induced ulceration in rats. PMID:25861146

  4. Expression in Arabidopsis of a nucellus-specific promoter from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Krishna K; Roche, Dominique; Carman, John G

    2010-11-01

    Though many tissue-specific promoters have been identified, few have been associated specifically with the angiospermous megasporangium (nucellus). In the present study the 2000-bp regulatory region upstream to the watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai, gene WM403 (GenBank accession no. AF008925), which shows nucellus-specific expression, was cloned from watermelon gDNA and fused to the β-glucuronidase reporter gene (GUS). The resulting plasmid, WM403 Prom::GUS(+), which also contained NPTII, was transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Co1-0. Seedlings were selected on kanamycin-containing medium, and transformants were confirmed by PCR. GUS assays of T(3) transformants revealed weak promoter activation in epidermal layers of the placenta and locule septum during premeiotic ovule development but strong activation in the nucellus, embryo sac and early embryo, from early embryo sac formation to early globular embryo formation. Expression in seeds was absent thereafter. These results indicate that the WM403 promoter may be useful in driving nucellus-specific gene expression in plants including candidate genes for important nucellus-specific traits such as apospory or adventitious embryony. PMID:21802614

  5. Africans in Yorkshire? - the deepest-rooting clade of the Y phylogeny within an English genealogy

    PubMed Central

    King, Turi E.; Parkin, Emma J.; Swinfield, Geoff; Cruciani, Fulvio; Scozzari, Rosaria; Rosa, Alexandra; Lim, Si-Keun; Xue, Yali; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Jobling, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    The presence of Africans in Britain has been recorded since Roman times, but has left no apparent genetic trace among modern inhabitants. Y chromosomes belonging to the deepest-rooting clade of the Y phylogeny, haplogroup A, are regarded as African-specific, and no examples have been reported from Britain or elsewhere in western Europe. We describe the presence of a haplogroup A1 chromosome in an indigenous British male; comparison with African examples suggests a western African origin. Seven out of eighteen men carrying the same rare east-Yorkshire surname as the original male also carry haplogroup A1 chromosomes, and documentary research resolves them into two genealogies with most-recent-common-ancestors living in Yorkshire in the late eighteenth century. Analysis using 77 Y-STRs (short tandem repeats) is consistent with coalescence a few generations earlier. Our findings represent the first genetic evidence of Africans among ‘indigenous’ British, and emphasise the complexity of human migration history, as well as the pitfalls of assigning geographical origin from Y-chromosomal haplotypes. PMID:17245408

  6. Disorder of sexual development in a Yorkshire terrier (78, XY; SRY-positive).

    PubMed

    Dianovský, Ján; Holečková, Beáta; Hajurka, Jaroslav; Šiviková, Katarina; Cigánková, Viera

    2013-05-01

    A 9-month-old Yorkshire terrier was admitted to the clinic because of abnormal sexual behaviour and clitoral hypertrophy. External examination confirmed standard development of caudal genital organs: vagina, vulva and cervix uteri. Serum profile of gonadotropin hormones 17 β-estradiol (<10.0 pg.ml(-1)) and testosterone (9.1 ng.ml(-1)) revealed the presence of testicular tissue. A midline laparotomy was performed to detect the cranial parts of the genital system. Gonads resembling testicles, structures indicating epididymis and rudimentary deferent ducts were resected, along with adherent part of the uterus. Cytogenetic analysis showed a male chromosomal complement 78, XY in all metaphases of the studied Yorkshire terrier dog. The chromosomal constitution was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with whole-chromosome painting probes specific for chromosomes X and Y, as well as by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the 271-bp Y-linked fragment of SRY (the sex-determining region on the Y chromosome) gene. Sequencing of the dog's SRY gene coding region did not reveal any mutation. To search for potential mutation in the SOX9 gene (Sry-box containing gene 9), which is considered to be one of the key genes involved in the sex determination process, the PCR fragments of exons 1, 2 and 3 originating from the canine patient were sequenced in order to compare with both male and female healthy control dogs. In the analysed regions of the SOX9 gene, no mutation was found. PMID:23378246

  7. Peroxisomal membrane manganese superoxide dismutase: characterization of the isozyme from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Schrad.) cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Serrano, María; Romero-Puertas, María C; Pastori, Gabriela M; Corpas, Francisco J; Sandalio, Luisa M; del Río, Luis A; Palma, José M

    2007-01-01

    In this work the manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) bound to peroxisomal membranes of watermelon cotyledons (Citrullus lanatus Schrad.) was purified to homogeneity and some of its molecular properties were determined. The stepwise purification procedure consisted of ammonium sulphate fractionation, batch anion-exchange chromatography, and anion-exchange and gel-filtration column chromatography using a fast protein liquid chromatography system. Peroxisomal membrane Mn-SOD (perMn-SOD; EC 1.15.1.1) was purified 5600-fold with a yield of 2.6 mug of enzyme g(-1) of cotyledons, and had a specific activity of 480 U mg(-1) of protein. The native molecular mass determined for perMn-SOD was 108 000 Da, and it was composed of four equal subunits of 27 kDa, which indicates that perMn-SOD is a homotetramer. Ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra of the enzyme showed a shoulder at 275 nm and two absorption maxima at 448 nm and 555 nm, respectively. By isoelectric focusing, a pI of 5.75 was determined for perMn-SOD. In immunoblot assays, purified perMn-SOD was recognized by a polyclonal antibody against Mn-SOD from pea leaves, and the peroxisomal enzyme rapidly dissociated in the presence of dithiothreitol and SDS. The potential binding of the Mn-SOD isozyme to the peroxisomal membrane was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy analysis. The properties of perMn-SOD and the mitMn-SOD are compared and the possible function in peroxisomal membranes of the peripheral protein Mn-SOD is discussed. PMID:17545229

  8. Endometrial gene expression profiling in pregnant Meishan and Yorkshire pigs on day 12 of gestation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Litter size in pigs is a major factor affecting the profitability in the pig industry. The peri-implantation window in pigs is characterized by the coordinated interactions between the maternal uterine endometrium and the rapidly elongating conceptuses and represents a period of time during which a large percentage of the developing conceptuses are lost. However, the gene expression and regulatory networks in the endometrium contributing to the establishment of the maternal: placental interface remain poorly understood. Results We characterized the endometrial gene expression profile during the peri-implantation stage of development by comparing two breeds that demonstrate very different reproductive efficiencies. We employed the porcine Affymetrix GeneChip® to assay the transcriptomic profiles of genes expressed in the uterine endometrium obtained from Meishan and Yorkshire gilts (n = 4 for each breed) on day 12 of gestation (M12 and Y12, respectively). Total of 17,076 probesets were identified as "present" in at least two arrays. A mixed model-based statistical analysis predicted a total of 2,656 (q < 0.1) transcripts as differentially expressed between Meishan and Yorkshire pigs. Eighteen differentially expressed transcripts of interest were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Gene ontology (GO) annotation revealed that the known functions of the differentially expressed genes were involved in a series of important biological processes relevant to early pregnancy establishment in the pig. Conclusions The results identified endometrial gene expression profiles of two breeds differing in litter size and identified candidate genes that are related to known physiological pathways related to reproductive prolificacy. These findings provide a deeper understanding of molecular pathways differing between two breeds at the critical peri-implantation stage of pregnancy, which can be utilized to better understand the events contributing to

  9. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) Juice Modulates Oxidative Damage Induced by Low Dose X-Ray in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Mohd Khairul Amran; Mohamed, Muhamad Idham; Abdul Razak, Hairil Rashmizal; Saad, Wan Mazlina Md.

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon is a natural product that contains high level of antioxidants and may prevent oxidative damage in tissues due to free radical generation following an exposure to ionizing radiation. The present study aimed to investigate the radioprotective effects of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice against oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure in mice. Twelve adult male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups consisting of radiation (Rx) and supplementation (Tx) groups. Rx received filtered tap water, while Tx was supplemented with 50% (v/v) watermelon juice for 28 days ad libitum prior to total body irradiation by 100 μGy X-ray on day 29. Brain, lung, and liver tissues were assessed for the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites, glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibition activities. Results showed significant reduction of MDA levels and AP sites formation of Tx compared to Rx (P < 0.05). Mice supplemented with 50% watermelon juice restore the intracellular antioxidant activities by significantly increased SOD inhibition activities and GSH levels compared to Rx. These findings may postulate that supplementation of 50% watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice could modulate oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure. PMID:24877107

  10. Fixed-bed column studies on biosorption of crystal violet from aqueous solution by Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathi, Kandaswamy Suyamboo; Ramesh, SriKrishna Perumal Thanga

    2013-12-01

    In this study, fixed-bed column experiments were performed to investigate the biosorption potential of two agricultural wastes, Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus to remove Crystal violet (CV) from aqueous solution. The experiments were conducted to study the effects of important parameters such as bed depth (10-30 cm), flow rate (10-20 mL min-1) and initial dye concentration (10-25 mg L-1). Different models like Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) model, Thomas model and Yoon-Nelson model were applied to the experimental sorption data. In the biosorption of Crystal violet by both the sorbents, the BDST model fitted well with the experimental data in the initial region of the breakthrough curve. Also, Yoon-Nelson model was found to show good agreement with the experimental kinetic results as compared to the Thomas model. The sorbents were found to be very potential, as it showed good sorption capacities of 46.68 and 54.24 mg g-1 for CV biosorption by Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus. Recovery of dye was made by eluting 1 N CH3COOH through the exhausted column in downward direction.

  11. Comparison of liver microRNA transcriptomes of Tibetan and Yorkshire pigs by deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanyue; Li, Xiaocheng; Sun, Wen-Kui; Cheng, Chi; Chen, Yi-Hui; Zeng, Kai; Chen, Xiaohui; Gu, Yiren; Gao, Rong; Liu, Rui; Lv, Xuebin

    2016-02-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the modulation of various metabolic processes in the liver, yet little is known about the liver microRNAome (miRNAome) of the Tibetan pig. Here we used the Yorkshire pig as a control to analyze the Tibetan pig-specific liver miRNAome, and for preliminary investigation of differentially expressed miRNAs participating in metabolism. A comprehensive analysis of Tibetan and Yorkshire pig liver miRNAomes by small RNA sequencing identified 362 unique miRNAs. Among these, 304 were co-expressed in both libraries, and 10 and 48 miRNAs were specifically expressed. Differential expression analysis of miRNAs, miRNA target prediction and KEGG analysis revealed that differentially expressed miRNAs were associated mainly with the metabolism of glucose, lipid and protein. Six differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-34a, miR-326, miR-1, miR-335, miR-185 and miR-378) participating in the metabolism of glucose and lipid were identified. Additionally, qPCR results revealed that a lower expression of miR-34a in Tibetan pig liver may promote gluconeogenesis by increasing the expression of Sirtuin type 1 (Sirt1); a lower expression of miR-1 in Tibetan pig liver may promote the synthesis and accumulation of lipid by increasing the expression of Liver X receptor α (LXRα); and a lower expression of miR-185 in Tibetan pig liver may promote the uptake of cholesterol from blood and secretion of bile by increasing the expression of the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Our results provide new information and understanding of porcine miRNA profiles, which may help explain the regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs in the metabolic functions of Tibetan pig liver, and provide new biomarkers to assist in the development of Tibetan pig breeding characteristics. PMID:26656174

  12. Control of Pyrophosphated-Fructose-6-Phosphate 1-Phosphotransferase Activity in the Cotyledons of Citrullus lanatus1

    PubMed Central

    Botha, Anna-Maria; Botha, Frederik C.

    1990-01-01

    After initiation of radicle elongation, the pyrophosphate:d-fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase (PFP) activity sharply increases in the cotyledons of Citrullus lanatus. Removal of the radicle early during incubation prevents the increase in PFP activity in the cotyledons evident in the control. Removal of the radicle at any stage after germination results in a decrease in PFP activity in the cotyledons. Application of kinetin (0.5 micromolar) or 2-chlorophosphonic acid (0.1 micromolar) to isolated cotyledons replaces the effect of the radicle. Gibberellic acid (0.09 micromolar GA3) also partially mimics the presence of the radicle. Anaerobic conditions, as well as cycloheximide application (0.18 micromolar) to intact embryos or to kinetin and ethrel treated isolated cotyledons prevent the increase in PFP activity evident in the control. PMID:16667523

  13. The use of tobacco and betel quid ('pan') among Bangladeshi women in West Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Summers, R M; Williams, S A; Curzon, M E

    1994-03-01

    The high prevalence of oral cancer in South Asia has been linked to tobacco use particularly in conjunction with chewing betel quid or 'pan'. However, it is not known whether and to what extent these habits are practised by Asian people in the United Kingdom. Home based interviews using semi-structured questionnaires were undertaken among 296 first generation Bangladeshi women resident in inner-city Leeds and Bradford, West Yorkshire. 'Pan' was reportedly chewed by 282 (95 per cent) of the women, of whom 174 (62 per cent) added tobacco in leaf form, and 75 (27 per cent) as a component of zarda. Those who consumed more 'pans' daily were significantly older, less literate, had a lower educational attainment, and were more likely to believe that chewing betel quid was beneficial. Cigarette smoking was practised by 9 per cent, this group being older and having lived in the UK longer. Burnt tobacco leaves were used as an oral hygiene aid by 20 per cent. Over half (58 per cent) of the sample had never visited a dentist, the majority deeming it unnecessary. The use of tobacco and 'pan' imply an increased risk for oral cancer and precancer. Since 'pan' chewing is a traditional custom, health promotion within these communities would require a sensitive approach. Health personnel likely to be consulted by Asian groups who chew 'pan' should be aware of the danger to oral health posed by this practice. PMID:8193977

  14. Seizures Associated With Hypocalcemia in a Yorkshire Terrier With Protein-Losing Enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Jim; Quimby, Jessica; Bayliss, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    A 7 yr old, male, castrated, Yorkshire terrier was presented on emergency for an acute onset of seizure activity. The owner also reported that the dog had previously exhibited other symptoms, including intermittent vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia for several yr. The initial workup revealed a marked decrease in ionized calcium and total protein. Further diagnostics revealed decreases in magnesium, 25 hydroxyvitamin D, albumin, and globulins, and an increased parathyroid hormone level. Intestinal biopsies revealed inflammatory bowel disease and lymphangiectasia. The dog received intravenous calcium gluconate for treatment of hypocalcemia followed by oral calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Seizure activity ceased once calcium levels approached the normal range. Medical and dietary therapy for lymphangiectasia and inflammatory bowel disease consisted of prednisone, rutin, and a low-fat diet. Decreased serum total ionized calcium levels have been reported previously in dogs with protein-losing enteropathies. Typically, the hypocalcemia is not associated with clinical signs. Severe clinical signs of hypocalcemia are rarely reported in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy, but seizures, facial twitching, and tremors can occur. When presented with a dog with a history of seizure activity, panhypoproteinemia, and hypocalcemia, protein-losing enteropathy should be included on the list of differential diagnoses. PMID:26535456

  15. Bayesian analysis of response to selection: a case study using litter size in Danish Yorkshire pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, D; Vernersen, A; Andersen, S

    2000-01-01

    Implementation of a Bayesian analysis of a selection experiment is illustrated using litter size [total number of piglets born (TNB)] in Danish Yorkshire pigs. Other traits studied include average litter weight at birth (WTAB) and proportion of piglets born dead (PRBD). Response to selection for TNB was analyzed with a number of models, which differed in their level of hierarchy, in their prior distributions, and in the parametric form of the likelihoods. A model assessment study favored a particular form of an additive genetic model. With this model, the Monte Carlo estimate of the 95% probability interval of response to selection was (0.23; 0.60), with a posterior mean of 0.43 piglets. WTAB showed a correlated response of -7.2 g, with a 95% probability interval equal to (-33.1; 18.9). The posterior mean of the genetic correlation between TNB and WTAB was -0.23 with a 95% probability interval equal to (-0.46; -0.01). PRBD was studied informally; it increases with larger litters, when litter size is >7 piglets born. A number of methodological issues related to the Bayesian model assessment study are discussed, as well as the genetic consequences of inferring response to selection using additive genetic models. PMID:10978292

  16. The Duration of Farrowing in Relation to the Reproductive Performance of Yorkshire Sows 1

    PubMed Central

    Friend, D. W.; Cunningham, H. M.; Nicholson, J. W. G.

    1962-01-01

    Records for 212 attended farrowings by 38 Yorkshire sows were examined. Eighty per cent of the farrowings were less than six hours, 18 per cent between six and 12 hours and two per cent between 12 and 17 hours duration. There appeared to be no marked relationship between the duration of farrowing and the size of litter. In spite of a higher stillbirth rate in males, there were more male (52.3 per cent) than female piglets born alive. As the time taken to farrow increased from within 1-3 hours to more than eight hours, the percentage of stillborn piglets and the percentage of litters with stillbirths increased to 10.5 from 2.4 and to 61.1 from 18.2 per cent respectively. Twenty-nine per cent of the litters were farrowed on the 114th day of gestation. As the gestation period lengthened to 117 days or more, from 113 days or less, there were corresponding increases in the duration of farrowing and the incidence of stillbirths, and a decrease in litter size. A need to investigate the use of hormones to control parturition in sows was suggested. PMID:17649374

  17. Iron Age breastfeeding practices in Britain: isotopic evidence from Wetwang Slack, East Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Jay, Mandy; Fuller, B T; Richards, Michael P; Knüsel, Christopher J; King, Sarah S

    2008-07-01

    We present here the results of carbon and nitrogen isotopic analysis of bone collagen undertaken on all skeletal remains of infants and young children below the age of 6 years (n = 34) from the internationally important British cemetery site at Wetwang Slack in East Yorkshire (middle Iron Age, ca. 4th to 2nd centuries BC). The aim of the study is to investigate infant diet, with particular reference to breastfeeding and weaning practices, and to compare the data with previously published studies of archaeological populations, particularly in the context of the variation in data patterns to be seen between sites. The skeletal remains from Wetwang Slack form the only prehistoric collection in the UK, prior to the Romano-British period, with sufficient individuals in this age group to make such an isotopic study viable alongside associated adults and older children. The data are compared in detail with published data from two other sites, one from 19th century Canada and the other from Medieval Britain. The results suggest an unusual situation at Wetwang Slack, with neither the nitrogen nor the carbon isotope ratios conforming to expectations when compared with the putative mothers. We discuss how these data compare with the expectation for breastfed infants and we interpret the divergence in this case to be due to restricted breastfeeding and the early introduction of supplementary foods. PMID:18324632

  18. Proteomic Analysis of Fetal Ovary Reveals That Ovarian Developmental Potential Is Greater in Meishan Pigs than in Yorkshire Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Che, Long; Wang, Dingyue; Yang, Zhenguo; Zhang, Pan; Lin, Yan; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Li, Jian; Chen, Daiwen; Wu, De

    2015-01-01

    Time-dependent expression of functional proteins in fetal ovaries is important to understand the developmental process of the ovary. This study was carried out to enhance our understanding of the developmental process of porcine fetal ovaries and to better address the differences in fetal ovary development of local and foreign pigs. The objective of the present study is to test the expression of key proteins that regulate the growth and development of fetal ovaries in Meishan and Yorkshire porcine breeds by using proteomics technology. Six Meishan and 6 Yorkshire pregnant gilts were used in this experiment. Fetal ovaries were obtained from Yorkshire and Meishan gilts on days 55 and 90 of the gestation period. Using 2D-DIGE (two dimensional-difference in gel electrophoresis) analysis, the results showed that there are about 1551 and 1400 proteins in gilt fetal ovaries on days 55 and 90, respectively of the gestation. Using MALDI TOF-TOF MS analysis, 27 differentially expressed proteins were identified in the fetal ovaries of the 2 breeds on day 55 of gestation, and a total of 18 proteins were identified on day 90 of gestation. These differentially expressed proteins were involved in the regulation of biological processes (cell death, stress response, cytoskeletal proteins) and molecular functions (enzyme regulator activity). We also found that alpha-1-antitrypsin, actin, vimentin, and PP2A proteins promote the formation of primordial follicles in the ovaries of Yorkshire pigs on day 55 of gestation while low expression heat shock proteins and high expression alpha-fetoproteins (AFP) may promote Meishan fetal ovarian follicular development on day 90 of gestation. These findings provide a deeper understanding of how reduced expression of heat shock proteins and increased expression of AFP can significantly reduce the risk of reproductive disease in obese Meishan sows. Our study also shows how these proteins can increase the ovulation rate and may be responsible for

  19. Leadership skills teaching in Yorkshire & the Humber - a survey: uncovering, sharing, developing, embedding.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Iolanthe; Gill, Andy

    2015-09-01

    Medical leadership is a hot topic, but it is not known yet how to teach this most effectively. A working party of educators in Yorkshire and the Humber (Y&H) studied the leadership domains, as set out in the Medical Leadership Competency Framework and from this distilled a set of 'trainable' leadership skills, which were felt to be important to teach during general practitioner (GP) training. A questionnaire was sent out to a large GP educational community (educators and trainees) within Y&H to establish the following: (i) whether the distilled skills were thought to have face validity when applied to the concept of leadership, (ii) what was the relative importance of these skills in relation to each other and (iii) the degree to which these skills were already being taught in practice placements and at General Practice Specialty Training Programme (GPSTP) teaching sessions.Educators reported more teaching and training occurring than trainees reported receiving, and the relative importance of the skills sets were different between educators and trainees. It was evident that leadership skills are currently being taught, but that making training explicitly 'leadership', and raising the importance of leadership skills in GP, may address some of these imbalances. Educators requested guidance on how to teach these skills effectively and commented that many existing opportunities for leadership teaching and training are not well recognised or used. Routinely and regularly offering the chance for trainees at all levels to be exposed to leadership skills by role modelling, making use of everyday opportunities in practice to teach and encouraging trainee involvement in projects and opportunities to practice new skills can facilitate the acquisition and celebration of mastery of generic leadership skills. PMID:26808794

  20. Vocabulary learning in a Yorkshire terrier: slow mapping of spoken words.

    PubMed

    Griebel, Ulrike; Oller, D Kimbrough

    2012-01-01

    Rapid vocabulary learning in children has been attributed to "fast mapping", with new words often claimed to be learned through a single presentation. As reported in 2004 in Science a border collie (Rico) not only learned to identify more than 200 words, but fast mapped the new words, remembering meanings after just one presentation. Our research tests the fast mapping interpretation of the Science paper based on Rico's results, while extending the demonstration of large vocabulary recognition to a lap dog. We tested a Yorkshire terrier (Bailey) with the same procedures as Rico, illustrating that Bailey accurately retrieved randomly selected toys from a set of 117 on voice command of the owner. Second we tested her retrieval based on two additional voices, one male, one female, with different accents that had never been involved in her training, again showing she was capable of recognition by voice command. Third, we did both exclusion-based training of new items (toys she had never seen before with names she had never heard before) embedded in a set of known items, with subsequent retention tests designed as in the Rico experiment. After Bailey succeeded on exclusion and retention tests, a crucial evaluation of true mapping tested items previously successfully retrieved in exclusion and retention, but now pitted against each other in a two-choice task. Bailey failed on the true mapping task repeatedly, illustrating that the claim of fast mapping in Rico had not been proven, because no true mapping task had ever been conducted with him. It appears that the task called retention in the Rico study only demonstrated success in retrieval by a process of extended exclusion. PMID:22363421

  1. Vocabulary Learning in a Yorkshire Terrier: Slow Mapping of Spoken Words

    PubMed Central

    Griebel, Ulrike; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2012-01-01

    Rapid vocabulary learning in children has been attributed to “fast mapping”, with new words often claimed to be learned through a single presentation. As reported in 2004 in Science a border collie (Rico) not only learned to identify more than 200 words, but fast mapped the new words, remembering meanings after just one presentation. Our research tests the fast mapping interpretation of the Science paper based on Rico's results, while extending the demonstration of large vocabulary recognition to a lap dog. We tested a Yorkshire terrier (Bailey) with the same procedures as Rico, illustrating that Bailey accurately retrieved randomly selected toys from a set of 117 on voice command of the owner. Second we tested her retrieval based on two additional voices, one male, one female, with different accents that had never been involved in her training, again showing she was capable of recognition by voice command. Third, we did both exclusion-based training of new items (toys she had never seen before with names she had never heard before) embedded in a set of known items, with subsequent retention tests designed as in the Rico experiment. After Bailey succeeded on exclusion and retention tests, a crucial evaluation of true mapping tested items previously successfully retrieved in exclusion and retention, but now pitted against each other in a two-choice task. Bailey failed on the true mapping task repeatedly, illustrating that the claim of fast mapping in Rico had not been proven, because no true mapping task had ever been conducted with him. It appears that the task called retention in the Rico study only demonstrated success in retrieval by a process of extended exclusion. PMID:22363421

  2. Corrosion casting of the subglottis following endotracheal tube intubation injury: a pilot study in Yorkshire piglets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Subglottic stenosis can result from endotracheal tube injury. The mechanism by which this occurs, however, is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of angiogenesis, hypoxia and ischemia in subglottic mucosal injury following endotracheal intubation. Methods Six Yorkshire piglets were randomized to either a control group (N=3, ventilated through laryngeal mask airway for corrosion casting) or accelerated subglottic injury group through intubation and induced hypoxia as per a previously described model (N=3). The vasculature of all animals was injected with liquid methyl methacrylate. After polymerization, the surrounding tissue was corroded with potassium hydroxide. The subglottic region was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy looking for angiogenic and hypoxic or degenerative features and groups were compared using Mann–Whitney tests and Friedman’s 2-way ANOVA. Results Animals in the accelerated subglottic injury group had less overall angiogenic features (P=.002) and more overall hypoxic/degenerative features (P=.000) compared with controls. Amongst angiogenic features, there was decreased budding (P=.000) and a trend toward decreased sprouting (P=.037) in the accelerated subglottic injury group with an increase in intussusception (P=.004), possibly representing early attempts at rapid revascularization. Amongst hypoxic/degenerative features, extravasation was the only feature that was significantly higher in the accelerated subglottic injury group (P=.000). Conclusions Subglottic injury due to intubation and hypoxia may lead to decreased angiogenesis and increased blood vessel damage resulting in extravasation of fluid and a decreased propensity toward wound healing in this animal model. PMID:24401165

  3. Organic geochemistry of the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event in Hawsker Bottoms, Yorkshire, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, K. L.; Sepúlveda, J.; Trabucho-Alexandre, J.; Gröcke, D. R.; Summons, R. E.

    2014-03-01

    A comprehensive organic geochemical investigation of the Hawsker Bottoms outcrop section in Yorkshire, England has provided new insights about environmental conditions leading into and during the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (T-OAE; ∼183 Ma). Rock-Eval and molecular analyses demonstrate that the section is uniformly within the early oil window. Hydrogen index (HI), organic petrography, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) distributions, and tricyclic terpane ratios mark a shift to a lower relative abundance of terrigenous organic matter supplied to the sampling locality during the onset of the T-OAE and across a lithological transition. Unlike other ancient intervals of anoxia and extinction, biomarker indices of planktonic community structure do not display major changes or anomalous values. Depositional environment and redox indicators support a shift towards more reducing conditions in the sediment porewaters and the development of a seasonally stratified water column during the T-OAE. In addition to carotenoid biomarkers for green sulfur bacteria (GSB), we report the first occurrence of okenane, a marker of purple sulfur bacteria (PSB), in marine samples younger than ∼1.64 Ga. Based on modern observations, a planktonic source of okenane's precursor, okenone, would require extremely shallow photic zone euxinia (PZE) and a highly restricted depositional environment. However, due to coastal vertical mixing, the lack of planktonic okenone production in modern marine sulfidic environments, and building evidence of okenone production in mat-dwelling Chromatiaceae, we propose a sedimentary source of okenone as an alternative. Lastly, we report the first parallel compound-specific δC13 record in marine- and terrestrial-derived biomarkers across the T-OAE. The δC13 records of short-chain n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and long-chain n-alkanes all encode negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs), and together, they support an injection of isotopically light

  4. Assessing peripheral blood cell profile of Yorkshire pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Mpetile, Z; Young, J M; Gabler, N K; Dekkers, J C M; Tuggle, C K

    2015-03-01

    The cost of feed is a serious issue in the pork industry, contributing about 65 to 75% of the total production cost. To prevent economic losses and decreased productivity of the herd, it is important to select for animals that eat less for the same lean gain, or more efficient animals. Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between observed feed intake and expected feed intake based on estimated maintenance and production requirements. Selection for decreased RFI, or more efficient animals, is a potential solution to higher feed costs in pig production. However, animals that are highly selected for decreased RFI may have reduced energy input to the immune system and fail to withstand diseases and stressors after infection that negatively impact profitability. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in circulating blood cell profiles at a young age between 2 lines of Yorkshire pigs that were divergently selected for RFI as well as the heritability of these traits, to investigate effects of selection for RFI on immune system parameters, and to identify potential biomarkers for feed efficiency. Previous work has shown that the 2 lines had diverged for IGF-1 in serum in young pigs and, therefore, this stage was investigated for other potential physiological differences. Blood samples were drawn for a complete blood count (CBC) analysis from 517 gilts and barrows, ages 35 to 42 d, across the 2 lines. In general, the low-RFI line had lower numbers of specific types of white blood cells but higher hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell volume compared to the high-RFI line. No significant correlations were found between CBC traits and RFI across and within the lines (0.05 < < 0.1). Of the 15 CBC traits that were measured, 3 were highly heritable (0.56 < < 0.62), 9 were moderately heritable (0.12 < < 0.47), and 3 were lowly heritable ( < 0.12), suggesting a substantial genetic component for CBC traits and that selection for CBC traits could be

  5. Incidence of oral cancer among South Asians and those of other ethnic groups by sex in West Yorkshire and England, 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    Csikar, Julia; Aravani, Ariadni; Godson, Jenny; Day, Matthew; Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    In 2008 there were 11682 cases of oral cancer in the United Kingdom; this is 16.41/100000 population, and 3.7% of all cancers. Ethnic coding of these data is poor, and so databases were combined to report rates for the incidence of oral cancer in South Asians compared with those among other ethnic groups in West Yorkshire, 2001-2006. A total of 2157 patients with oral cancer were identified in West Yorkshire, 138 of whom were South Asian (6.4%). We analysed them by ethnicity, sex, area in which they lived, and site of cancer. Oral cancer was significantly more common among South Asian women than those from other ethnic groups in England and West Yorkshire, and in England alone it was significantly more common in men of other ethnic groups than those from South Asia. Patients from South Asia were at higher risk of being diagnosed with oral cancer than those of other ethnic groups within West Yorkshire, when data were adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex. In England and in West Yorkshire there was a significantly higher rate of oral cancer among Southern Asian women than among those of other ethnic groups, and men in other ethnic groups had a higher incidence than those from South Asia (England only). The excess of oral cancers gives further weight to the association between smokeless tobacco, smoking, alcohol, and dietary intake by ethnic group. This information is particularly pertinent in areas such as West Yorkshire where there are large groups of Asian people. PMID:22495403

  6. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012–2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality. PMID:27258145

  7. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruiping; Mo, Yanling; Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012-2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality. PMID:27258145

  8. Global Expressions Landscape of NAC Transcription Factor Family and Their Responses to Abiotic Stresses in Citrullus lanatus

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xiaolong; Lan, Shanrong; Guy, Kateta Malangisha; Yang, Jinghua; Zhang, Mingfang; Hu, Zhongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is one xerophyte that has relative higher tolerance to drought and salt stresses as well as more sensitivity to cold stress, compared with most model plants. These characteristics facilitate it a potential model crop for researches on salt, drought or cold tolerance. In this study, a genome-wide comprehensive analysis of the ClNAC transcription factor (TF) family was carried out for the first time, to investigate their transcriptional profiles and potential functions in response to these abiotic stresses. The expression profiling analysis reveals that several NAC TFs are highly responsive to abiotic stresses and development, for instance, subfamily IV NACs may play roles in maintaining water status under drought or salt conditions, as well as water and metabolites conduction and translocation toward fruit. In contrast, rapid and negative responses of most of the ClNACs to low-temperature adversity may be related to the sensitivity to cold stress. Crosstalks among these abiotic stresses and hormone (abscisic acid and jasmonic acid) pathways were also discussed based on the expression of ClNAC genes. Our results will provide useful insights for the functional mining of NAC family in watermelon, as well as into the mechanisms underlying abiotic tolerance in other cash crops. PMID:27491393

  9. RSM based optimized enzyme-assisted extraction of antioxidant phenolics from underutilized watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.) rind.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Muhammad; Sultana, Bushra; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Asghar, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    Enzyme assisted solvent extraction (EASE) of phenolic compounds from watermelon (C. lanatus) rind (WMR) was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with Rotatable Central Composite Design (RCCD). Four variables each at five levels i.e. enzyme concentration (EC) 0.5-6.5 %, pH 6-9, temperature (T) 25-75 °C and treatment time (t) 30-90 min, were augmented to get optimal yield of polyphenols with maximum retained antioxidant potential. The polyphenol extracts obtained under optimum conditions were evaluated for their in-vitro antioxidant activities and characterized for individual phenolic profile by RP-HPLC-DAD. The results obtained indicated that optimized EASE enhanced the liberation of antioxidant phenolics up to 3 folds on fresh weight basis (FW) as compared to conventional solvent extraction (CSE), with substantial level of total phenolics (173.70 mg GAE/g FW), TEAC 279.96 mg TE/g FW and DPPH radical scavenging ability (IC50) 112.27 mg/mL. Chlorogenic acid (115.60-1611.04), Vanillic acid (26.13-2317.01) and Sinapic acid (113.01-241.12 μg/g) were major phenolic acid found in EASEx of WMR. Overall, it was concluded that EASE might be efficient and green technique to revalorize under-utilized WMR into potent antioxidant phenolic for their further application in food and nutraceutical industries. PMID:26243925

  10. Global Expressions Landscape of NAC Transcription Factor Family and Their Responses to Abiotic Stresses in Citrullus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaolong; Lan, Shanrong; Guy, Kateta Malangisha; Yang, Jinghua; Zhang, Mingfang; Hu, Zhongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is one xerophyte that has relative higher tolerance to drought and salt stresses as well as more sensitivity to cold stress, compared with most model plants. These characteristics facilitate it a potential model crop for researches on salt, drought or cold tolerance. In this study, a genome-wide comprehensive analysis of the ClNAC transcription factor (TF) family was carried out for the first time, to investigate their transcriptional profiles and potential functions in response to these abiotic stresses. The expression profiling analysis reveals that several NAC TFs are highly responsive to abiotic stresses and development, for instance, subfamily IV NACs may play roles in maintaining water status under drought or salt conditions, as well as water and metabolites conduction and translocation toward fruit. In contrast, rapid and negative responses of most of the ClNACs to low-temperature adversity may be related to the sensitivity to cold stress. Crosstalks among these abiotic stresses and hormone (abscisic acid and jasmonic acid) pathways were also discussed based on the expression of ClNAC genes. Our results will provide useful insights for the functional mining of NAC family in watermelon, as well as into the mechanisms underlying abiotic tolerance in other cash crops. PMID:27491393

  11. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals for specific pathogen free 6-week-old Hampshire-Yorkshire crossbred pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals depend on many factors, including age. A review of the literature highlights the lack of reference intervals for 6-wk-old specific pathogen free (SPF) Hampshire-Yorkshire crossbred pigs. For translational research, 6-wk-old pigs represent an important animal model for both human juvenile colitis and diabetes mellitus type 2 given the similarities between the porcine and human gastrointestinal maturation process. The aim of this study was to determine reference intervals for hematological and biochemical parameters in healthy 6-wk-old crossbred pigs. Blood samples were collected from 66 clinically healthy Hampshire-Yorkshire pigs. The pigs were 6 wks old, represented both sexes, and were housed in a SPF facility. Automated hematological and biochemical analysis were performed using an ADVIA 120 Hematology System and a Cobas 6000 C501 Clinical Chemistry Analyzer. Results Reference intervals were calculated using both parametric and nonparametric methods. The mean, median, minimum, and maximum values were calculated. Conclusion As pigs are used more frequently as medical models of human disease, having reference intervals for commonly measured hematological and biochemical parameters in 6-wk-old pigs will be useful. The reference intervals calculated in this study will aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of both naturally occurring and experimentally induced disease. In comparison to published reference intervals for older non SPF pigs, notable differences in leukocyte populations, and in levels of sodium, potassium, glucose, protein, and alkaline phosphatase were observed. PMID:24410946

  12. Simulated surgery in the summative assessment of general practice training: results of a trial in the Trent and Yorkshire regions.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, J; Evans, A; Foulkes, J; French, A

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: General practice registrars are now required to undertake a summative assessment of their consulting skills. Simulated surgeries have been developed as an alternative to the existing method of assessing video-recorded consultations. AIM: To evaluate the simulated surgery assessment method, developed in the General Practice Postgraduate Education Department in Leicester, for use in assessing general practice consultation skills. METHOD: General practice registrars in Leicester performed two eight-patient simulated surgeries separated by four weeks. Assessment outcomes were compared to demonstrate the consistency of the method. Pilot surgeries in Yorkshire were videotaped, and then rated by video-raters trained for summative assessment. RESULTS: The method consistently identified those registrars who were competent and those who were not yet competent in consulting skills. It proved acceptable to candidate doctors and has fewer resource requirements for both examiners and candidates than other consulting skills assessment methods. CONCLUSION: The method developed in Leicester and successfully transferred to Yorkshire is feasible on a large scale, and offers an acceptable alternative to other consulting skills assessment methods. In this study it consistently identified competent from incompetent candidate doctors. PMID:9692278

  13. Teaching Modern Foreign Languages in Single-Sex Classes in a Co-Educational Context--Review of a Project in a North Yorkshire Comprehensive School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Gary

    2005-01-01

    A co-educational comprehensive school in North Yorkshire, concerned at the gap between boys' and girls' performance in French and German at GCSE, opted to teach Year 8 languages classes as single-sex groups. 2003-04 was to be a pilot year, at the end of which pupils' performance, motivation and attitude, as well as the experiences and views of…

  14. A Comparative Study of the Child Bereavement and Loss Responses and Needs of Schools in Hull, Yorkshire and Derry/Londonderry, Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Anne; Holland, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings from a study of schools' responses to child bereavement in Hull, Yorkshire and Derry/Londonderry, Northern Ireland. In order to gain an insight and compare how schools in both geographical areas respond to and manage bereavement, the questionnaire "Loss in schools" was selected as an appropriate tool. It has been…

  15. An Investigation into the Provision of Built Environment Education to Schools in London, the South East and Yorkshire and the Humber

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Sally; Murfield, Jenny; Wilkin, Anne

    2007-01-01

    The report was commissioned by the Department for Culture Media and Sport (DCMS) to provide information on organizations providing education focusing on the built environment in three regions (London, the South East and Yorkshire and the Humber). The findings from this study will be used to inform "Engaging Places," a project from DCMS, in…

  16. Light Affects the Chloroplast Ultrastructure and Post-Storage Photosynthetic Performance of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Plug Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Qingqing; Jiang, Wu; Ding, Ming; Lin, Ye; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] plug seedlings were stored at 15°C in the light at a photosynthetic photon flux density of 15 µmol·m−2·s−1 or in darkness for 6 days, to evaluate their chloroplast ultrastructure, and associated photosynthetic characteristics. Storage in the dark caused swelling, disordered granal arrangement, and starch grain disappearance in the chloroplasts. In contrast, the chloroplasts stored in the light were relatively normal. As a result, the light-stored seedlings had a significantly higher chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, and Pn than did dark-stored seedlings. Regardless of whether the seedlings were stored in light or darkness, the Gs and Ls of the seedlings significantly decreased, while the Ci obviously increased when the Pn decreased after 6 days of storage. This result suggests that the decreased Pn is not solely a stomatal effect, as the effects on the chloroplasts contributed to this photosynthetic inhibition. Six days after transplanting, seedlings that were stored in the light or darkness for 2 or 4 days showed complete recovery of chloroplast ultrastructure, chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, Gs and Pn. When the storage period increased to 6 days, the dark-stored seedlings had a significantly lower Fv/Fm and Pn than the light-stored and control seedlings 6 days after transplanting, which was mainly ascribed to incomplete recovery of chloroplast ultrastructure. Furthermore, the light-stored seedlings exhibited a significantly higher shoot dry weight during storage and a higher percentage dry weight increase after transplanting than the dark-stored seedlings. These effects were enhanced by prolonged storage (4 to 6 days). This study demonstrated that dim light during storage is beneficial for maintaining chloroplast ultrastructure as well as photosynthetic efficiency in watermelon seedlings, thus contributing to the rapid recovery of post-storage photosynthetic performance, which ensures the transplant quality

  17. The expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAL1 gene increases salt tolerance in transgenic watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsun. & Nakai.].

    PubMed

    Ellul, P; Ríos, G; Atarés, A; Roig, L A; Serrano, R; Moreno, V

    2003-08-01

    An optimised Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer protocol was developed in order to obtain watermelon transgenic plants [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsun. & Nakai.]. Transformation efficiencies ranged from 2.8% to 5.3%, depending on the cultivar. The method was applied to obtain genetically engineered watermelon plants expressing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAL1 gene related to salt tolerance. In order to enhance its constitutive expression in plants, the HAL1 gene was cloned in a pBiN19 plasmid under control of the 35S promoter with a double enhancer sequence from the cauliflower mosaic virus and the RNA4 leader sequence of the alfalfa mosaic virus. This vector was introduced into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 for further inoculation of watermelon half-cotyledon explants. The introduction of both the neomycin phosphotransferase II and HAL1 genes was assessed in primary transformants (TG1) by polymerase chain reaction analysis and Southern hybridisation. The expression of the HAL1 gene was determined by Northern analysis, and the diploid level of transgenic plants was confirmed by flow cytometry. The presence of the selectable marker gene in the expected Mendelian ratios was demonstrated in TG2 progenies. The TG2 kanamycin-resistant plantlets elongated better and produced new roots and leaves in culture media supplemented with NaCl compared with the control. Salt tolerance was confirmed in a semi-hydroponic system (EC=6 dS m(-1)) on the basis of the higher growth performance of homozygous TG3 lines with respect to their respective azygous control lines without the transgene. The halotolerance observed confirmed the inheritance of the trait and supports the potential usefulness of the HAL1 gene of S. cerevisiae as a molecular tool for genetic engineering of salt-stress protection in other crop species. PMID:12783167

  18. Light affects the chloroplast ultrastructure and post-storage photosynthetic performance of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) plug seedlings.

    PubMed

    Duan, Qingqing; Jiang, Wu; Ding, Ming; Lin, Ye; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] plug seedlings were stored at 15°C in the light at a photosynthetic photon flux density of 15 µmol·m(-2)·s(-1) or in darkness for 6 days, to evaluate their chloroplast ultrastructure, and associated photosynthetic characteristics. Storage in the dark caused swelling, disordered granal arrangement, and starch grain disappearance in the chloroplasts. In contrast, the chloroplasts stored in the light were relatively normal. As a result, the light-stored seedlings had a significantly higher chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, and Pn than did dark-stored seedlings. Regardless of whether the seedlings were stored in light or darkness, the Gs and Ls of the seedlings significantly decreased, while the Ci obviously increased when the Pn decreased after 6 days of storage. This result suggests that the decreased Pn is not solely a stomatal effect, as the effects on the chloroplasts contributed to this photosynthetic inhibition. Six days after transplanting, seedlings that were stored in the light or darkness for 2 or 4 days showed complete recovery of chloroplast ultrastructure, chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, Gs and Pn. When the storage period increased to 6 days, the dark-stored seedlings had a significantly lower Fv/Fm and Pn than the light-stored and control seedlings 6 days after transplanting, which was mainly ascribed to incomplete recovery of chloroplast ultrastructure. Furthermore, the light-stored seedlings exhibited a significantly higher shoot dry weight during storage and a higher percentage dry weight increase after transplanting than the dark-stored seedlings. These effects were enhanced by prolonged storage (4 to 6 days). This study demonstrated that dim light during storage is beneficial for maintaining chloroplast ultrastructure as well as photosynthetic efficiency in watermelon seedlings, thus contributing to the rapid recovery of post-storage photosynthetic performance, which ensures the transplant quality

  19. Spatial justice and the translation of European strategic planning ideas in the urban sub-region of south Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Dabinett, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses urban planning practices in South Yorkshire to reveal how EU strategic spatial ideas and values are reproduced. Specifically, the paper examines how the notion of spatial justice was interpreted as the organising concepts within the European Spatial Development Perspective became situated within a territory severely affected by deindustrialisation in the 1980s, but subsequently a major beneficiary of EU Structural Fund programmes. The analysis reveals how policy-making at this scale used a construct of polycentric urban development that reasserted a model of economic growth based on the indigenous assets held in city centres at the expense of more redistributive measures targeted at the former coal-mining communities in the sub-region. PMID:20857562

  20. A 10-Year Retrospective Review of a Nonrandomized Cohort of 458 Patients Undergoing Radical Radiotherapy or Cystectomy in Yorkshire, UK

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, Nicholas P.; Sundaram, Subramnian K.; Weston, Philip; Fairley, Lesley; Harrison, Simon C.W.; Forman, David; Chahal, Rohit

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: We have previously reported on the mortality, morbidity, and 5-year survival of 458 patients who underwent radical radiotherapy or surgery for invasive bladder cancer in Yorkshire from 1993 to 1996. We aim to present the 10-year outcomes of these patients and to reassess factors predicting survival. Methods and Materials: The Northern and Yorkshire Cancer Registry identified 458 patients whose cases were subjected to Kaplan-Meier all-cause survival analyses, and a retrospective casenote analysis was undertaken on 398 (87%) for univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling. Additional proportional hazards regression modeling was used to assess the statistical significance of variables on overall survival. Results: The ratio of radiotherapy to cystectomy was 3:1. There was no significant difference in overall 10-year survival between those who underwent radiotherapy (22%) and radical cystectomy (24%). Univariate analyses suggested that female sex, performance status, hydronephrosis and clinical T stage, were associated with an inferior outcome at 10 years. Patient age, tumor grade, treatment delay, and caseload factors were not significant. Multivariate analysis models were created for 0-2 and 2-10 years after treatment. There were no significant differences in treatment for 0-2 years; however, after 2 years follow-up there was some evidence of increased survival for patients receiving surgery compared with radiotherapy (hazard ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44-1.01, p = 0.06). Conclusions: a 10-year minimum follow-up has rarely been reported after radical treatment for invasive bladder cancer. At 10 years, there was no statistical difference in all-cause survival between surgery and radiotherapy treatment modalities.

  1. The effect of a rosette-crown fly, Botanophila turcica, on growth,biomass allocation and reproduction of the thistle Carthamus lanatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Andrew W.; Vitou, Janine

    2000-12-01

    Plant growth and reproductive output of the winter annual invasive thistle, Carthamus lanatus was characterised in relation to plant size in three native populations in southern France. The effects of the rosette-crown feeding fly Botanophila turcica on these plant characteristics were assessed by comparing unattacked with naturally attacked plants at each site and by a field experiment. Indirect effects of B. turcica on plant seed production were also compared with direct seed loss caused by a guild of capitulum-feeding insects that incidentally attacked the marked plants at these sites. C. lanatus showed no size or weight requirement for flowering, but larger flowering plants produced less total receptacle surface and less seed production (female reproductive potential) in proportion to plant weight than smaller flowering plants. B. turcica did not select hosts on the basis of size or density. B. turcica reduced plant relative growth rate (RGR) in all situations, but attacked plants compensated fully at two of three sites as attack failed to halt rosette growth. Attacked plants suffered 12 % mortality, and 71 % lower seed production than unattacked plants at the site with the lowest RGR. This corresponded to 9 % lower seed production for the whole thistle population compared to 8.6-19.5 % direct seed loss to capitulum insects across all sites.

  2. Spatial Variation in Fine Sediment Transfer and the Impact on Biodiversity: The River Esk, North Yorkshire UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, L. J.; Warburton, J.

    2006-12-01

    Land use change, including the resulting changes in fine sediment supply, is seen as the most significant threat to global biodiversity (Sala et al. 2000). Silt is important for three reasons; firstly, it can act as a pollutant itself in silting up gravel spawning beds of fishes such as salmonids (Walling et al. 2003). Secondly it can have detrimental effects on conservation species such as freshwater pearl mussels through direct and indirect effects (pearl mussels rely on juvenile salmonids for lifecycle completion). Thirdly, sediment associated transport of nutrients and pollutants can result in long-term pollution problems detrimental to most species (Walling et al. 2001). However, some key conservation species such as lampreys require abundant silt for the larval lifecycle stage, as well as gravel for adult spawners. Hence, a plentiful silt supply and transport in river systems is not necessarily detrimental to some key biodiversity elements, but may be more damaging for others. This debate is compounded by a lack of data on silt in river systems. This paper; i) introduces Time Integrated Mass Flux Samples (TIMS) as a cheap, effective and efficient method of collecting data on spatial variations in fine sediment transfer; ii) presents data for variations in loads and specific yields of fine sediment in the River Esk (North Yorkshire, UK) and; iii) links these patterns of silt transfer to potential impacts of biodiversity and salmonids.

  3. Mine water geochemistry and metal flux in a major historic Pb-Zn-F orefield, the Yorkshire Pennines, UK.

    PubMed

    Jones, A; Rogerson, M; Greenway, G; Potter, H A B; Mayes, W M

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies have shown up to 6 % of rivers in England and Wales to be impacted by discharges from abandoned metal mines. Despite the large extent of impacts, there are still many areas where mine water impact assessments are limited by data availability. This study provides an overview of water quality, trace element composition and flux arising from one such area; the Yorkshire Pennine Orefield in the UK. Mine drainage waters across the orefield are characterised by Ca-HCO3-SO4-type waters, with moderate mineralization (specific electrical conductance: 160-525 μS cm(-1)) and enrichment of dissolved Zn (≤2003 μg L(-1)), Ba (≤971 μg L(-1)), Pb (≤183 μg L(-1)) and Cd (≤12 μg L(-1)). The major ion composition of the waters reflects the Carboniferous gritstone and limestone-dominated country rock, the latter of which is heavily karstified in parts of the orefield, while sulphate and trace element enrichment is a product of the oxidation of galena, sphalerite and barite mineralization. Contaminant flux measurements at discharge sites highlight the disproportionate importance of large drainage levels across the region, which generally discharge into first-order headwater streams. Synoptic metal loading surveys undertaken in the Hebden Beck sub-catchment of the river Wharfe highlight the importance of major drainage levels to instream baseflow contamination, with diffuse sources from identifiable expanses of waste rock becoming increasingly prominent as river flows increase. PMID:23386384

  4. An Effective and Reproducible Model of Ventricular Fibrillation in Crossbred Yorkshire Swine (Sus scrofa) for Use in Physiologic Research

    PubMed Central

    Burgert, James M; Johnson, Arthur D; Garcia-Blanco, Jose C; Craig, W John; O'Sullivan, Joseph C

    2015-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical induction (TCEI) has been used to induce ventricular fibrillation (VF) in laboratory swine for physiologic and resuscitation research. Many studies do not describe the method of TCEI in detail, thus making replication by future investigators difficult. Here we describe a detailed method of electrically inducing VF that was used successfully in a prospective, experimental resuscitation study. Specifically, an electrical current was passed through the heart to induce VF in crossbred Yorkshire swine (n = 30); the current was generated by using two 22-gauge spinal needles, with one placed above and one below the heart, and three 9V batteries connected in series. VF developed in 28 of the 30 pigs (93%) within 10 s of beginning the procedure. In the remaining 2 swine, VF was induced successfully after medial redirection of the superior parasternal needle. The TCEI method is simple, reproducible, and cost-effective. TCEI may be especially valuable to researchers with limited access to funding, sophisticated equipment, or colleagues experienced in interventional cardiology techniques. The TCEI method might be most appropriate for pharmacologic studies requiring VF, VF resulting from the R-on-T phenomenon (as in prolonged QT syndrome), and VF arising from other ectopic or reentrant causes. However, the TCEI method does not accurately model the most common cause of VF, acute coronary occlusive disease. Researchers must consider the limitations of TCEI that may affect internal and external validity of collected data, when designing experiments using this model of VF. PMID:26473349

  5. Letters of condolence: assessing attitudes and variability in practice amongst oncologists and palliative care doctors in Yorkshire

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Jessica S; Makinde, Oluwatobi; Vasudev, Naveen S

    2016-01-01

    Background Following a patient’s death, some doctors routinely write a letter of condolence to the bereaved family. Practice appears to vary widely but this is poorly documented, particularly in the UK setting. We wished to explore the attitudes of oncologists and palliative care consultants towards writing letters of condolence to patient’s families. Methods A sample of oncology and palliative care consultants from across Yorkshire were invited via email to complete an anonymous online survey. The survey aimed to identify current practice regarding condolence letter writing and respondents attitudes towards this. Results A total of 47 (72%) recipients completed the survey, comprised of clinical oncologists (45%), medical oncologists (42%), and palliative care consultants (13%). The majority (87%) reported sending condolence letters, but amongst this group, only 49% indicated they do this ‘often’ or ‘always’. When asked whether they would use a standard template letter, should it be made available, 77% of participants responded negatively. Many later commented that a template with room for flexibility would be better received. The majority (72%) were also not in favour of the introduction of policies to try to unify practices. Conclusions Practices and attitudes towards condolence letter writing are variable. The participants in this study felt strongly about when and how they wished to express condolences. A single unifying policy seems unlikely to be appropriate or feasible. PMID:27347006

  6. Identification of genes in longissimus dorsi muscle differentially expressed between Wannanhua and Yorkshire pigs using RNA-sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, X-J; Zhou, J; Liu, L-Q; Qian, K; Wang, C-L

    2016-06-01

    Western commercial pig breeds have been intensively selected, resulting in a sizeable, rapid and efficient accretion of muscle but a reduction in meat quality. When compared with Western commercial pig breeds, Chinese indigenous pig breeds exhibited slower growth rates and reduced lean meat content but superior perceived meat quality. To study the factors that determine meat quality, we examined piglets of one Western commercial breed (Yorkshire) and one Chinese indigenous breed (Wannanhua) and sequenced the longissimus dorsi muscle using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). We analyzed their transcriptomes, focusing on identifying candidate genes that may influence porcine muscle growth, meat quality and adipose deposition. Gene Ontology functional enrichment and pathway enrichment analyses identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) primarily associated with glycolytic metabolism, biological processes of muscle development and signaling pathways related to fatty acid metabolism, growth and carcass traits. This finding suggests that the DEGs may play important roles in determining meat quality traits. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed the differential expression of 12 selected DEG. This study identified a number of novel candidate genes for porcine meat quality and carcass traits that merit further investigation to elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for muscle growth and fat deposition. PMID:27038141

  7. Intake characteristics of grass species from semi-natural pastures in the United Kingdom

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four grass species (Lolium perenne L., Holcus lanatus L. cv Glen, Agrostis stolonifera L. cv Kromi, and Poa trivialis L.) commonly found in mesotropic lowland semi-natural grassland communities in the UK were sown in boxes (85 x 44 x 14 cm) to create micro-swards. Once established, the micro-sward...

  8. Difference in expression patterns of placental cholesterol transporters, ABCA1 and SR-BI, in Meishan and Yorkshire pigs with different placental efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Linjun; Xu, Xiangdong; Huang, Ji; Lei, Minggang; Xu, Dequan; Zhao, Shuhong; Yu, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol is a key cell membrane component and precursor of steroid hormones. The maternal cholesterol is an important exogenous cholesterol source for the developing embryos and its transportation is mediated by ABCA1 and SR-BI. Here we reported that during the peri-implantation period in pigs, ABCA1 was expressed by uterine luminal epithelium (LE) and interestingly, its expression was more abundantly in LE on mesometrial side of uterus. However, SR-BI was expressed primarily by LE, glandular epithelial cells (GE) and trophoblast cells (Tr). During the placentation period, the expression levels of ABCA1 and SR-BI proteins at epithelial bilayer and placental areolae were significantly higher in Chinese Meishan pigs compared to Yorkshire pigs. Consisitently, mRNA levels of HMGCR, the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol synthesis, were significantly higher in Meishan placentas than in Yorkshire placentas. Our findings revealed the routes of transplacental cholesterol transport mediated by ABCA1 and SR-BI in pigs and indicated that ABCA1 related pathway may participate in anchoring the conceptus to the mesometrial side of uterus. Additionally, an ABCA1 dependent compensatory mechanism related to the placental efficiency in response to the smaller placenta size in Meishan pigs was suggested. PMID:26852751

  9. Difference in expression patterns of placental cholesterol transporters, ABCA1 and SR-BI, in Meishan and Yorkshire pigs with different placental efficiency.

    PubMed

    Hong, Linjun; Xu, Xiangdong; Huang, Ji; Lei, Minggang; Xu, Dequan; Zhao, Shuhong; Yu, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol is a key cell membrane component and precursor of steroid hormones. The maternal cholesterol is an important exogenous cholesterol source for the developing embryos and its transportation is mediated by ABCA1 and SR-BI. Here we reported that during the peri-implantation period in pigs, ABCA1 was expressed by uterine luminal epithelium (LE) and interestingly, its expression was more abundantly in LE on mesometrial side of uterus. However, SR-BI was expressed primarily by LE, glandular epithelial cells (GE) and trophoblast cells (Tr). During the placentation period, the expression levels of ABCA1 and SR-BI proteins at epithelial bilayer and placental areolae were significantly higher in Chinese Meishan pigs compared to Yorkshire pigs. Consisitently, mRNA levels of HMGCR, the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol synthesis, were significantly higher in Meishan placentas than in Yorkshire placentas. Our findings revealed the routes of transplacental cholesterol transport mediated by ABCA1 and SR-BI in pigs and indicated that ABCA1 related pathway may participate in anchoring the conceptus to the mesometrial side of uterus. Additionally, an ABCA1 dependent compensatory mechanism related to the placental efficiency in response to the smaller placenta size in Meishan pigs was suggested. PMID:26852751

  10. Invasive streptococcal infections in the era before the acquired immune deficiency syndrome: a 10 years' compilation of patients with streptococcal bacteraemia in North Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Barnham, M

    1989-05-01

    Significant streptococcal (non-pneumococcal, non-enterococcal) bacteraemia was detected in 100 patients in two Health Districts of North Yorkshire in the decade 1978-1988. Patients with these infections accounted for 11% of the total 902 patients in the districts in whom bacteraemia was diagnosed during the period. Infection was most often seen with beta-haemolytic streptococci (52 patients) comprising Lancefield group A (Streptococcus pyogenes) (20 patients), group B (13), group C (5), group G (9), haemolytic Streptococcus milleri and non-groupable streptococci (5). The wide variety of serious infections included cellulitis, abscess, septicaemia, pneumonia, septic arthritis, necrotising fasciitis, acute endocarditis and mycotic aneurysm. Of these 52 patients, 21 (40%) died. alpha-Haemolytic streptococcal bacteraemia was diagnosed in 38 patients of whom 24 (63%) suffered from endocarditis and three (8%) died. Three of ten patients with non-haemolytic or anaerobic streptococcal bacteraemia died also. Six of the 100 patients with streptococcal bacteraemia had concomitant acute virus infections. Of the total 56 patients with infective endocarditis diagnosed in the districts during the period, streptococci were responsible in 30 (54%) of them. The predisposing factors, clinical features and outcome of the infections are described and discussed. PMID:2663996

  11. Comparison of sandstone reservoir geometry in a valley-fill depositional sequence and a deltaic progradational sequence, Middle Jurassic, Yorkshire, England

    SciTech Connect

    Eschard, R.; Ravenne, C.; Houel, P.

    1989-03-01

    The geostatistic simulations elaborated by the reservoir geology group of the IFP and the Geostatistic Center of the Ecole des Mines (HERESI GROUP) are based on the interpretation of representative outcrops of littoral to deltaic deposits. The methodology includes some detailed studies of large outcrops in terms of reservoir geology, a computation of the geological and petrophysical parameters, the conditional simulation of reservoir geometry, and their internal heterogeneities by geostatistic methods. Two sites, Cloughton and Ravenscar, have been selected along the Yorkshire coast in the Middle Jurassic siliciclastic series. The Ravenscar Group series (a stratigraphic and sedimentologic equivalent of the Brent Formation in the North Sea) is well exposed in wide, extended cliffs. The two-dimensional geometry of the reservoirs is reconstructed from photomosaics and surveying. Their three-dimensional architecture is controlled by core drills located just behind the studied cliffs. The wells are full-cored wire-line log (gamma ray and dipmeter) recorded, and porosity and permeability measurements are made every 20 cm in reservoir levels.

  12. A Whole Genome Association Study to Detect Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms for Blood Components (Immunity) in a Cross between Korean Native Pig and Yorkshire

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y.-M.; Alam, M.; Choi, B. H.; Kim, K.-S.; Kim, J.-J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect significant SNPs for blood components that were related to immunity using high single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density panels in a Korean native pig (KNP)×Yorkshire (YK) cross population. A reciprocal design of KNP×YK produced 249 F2 individuals that were genotyped for a total of 46,865 available SNPs in the Illumina porcine 60K beadchip. To perform whole genome association analysis (WGA), phenotypes were regressed on each SNP under a simple linear regression model after adjustment for sex and slaughter age. To set up a significance threshold, 0.1% point-wise p value from F distribution was used for each SNP test. Among the significant SNPs for a trait, the best set of SNP markers were determined using a stepwise regression procedure with the rates of inclusion and exclusion of each SNP out of the model at 0.001 level. A total of 54 SNPs were detected; 10, 6, 4, 4, 5, 4, 5, 10, and 6 SNPs for neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil, atypical lymph, immunoglobulin, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-I, respectively. Each set of significant SNPs per trait explained 24 to 42% of phenotypic variance. Several pleiotropic SNPs were detected on SSCs 4, 13, 14 and 15. PMID:25049532

  13. A critical re-evaluation of controls on spatial and seasonal variations in nitrate concentrations in river waters throughout the River Derwent catchment in North Yorkshire, UK.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shaheen; Adnan, Muhammad; McClean, Colin J; Cresser, Malcolm S

    2016-05-01

    Since mean nitrate concentration along single river channels increases significantly with percent arable land use upstream of sampling points and autumn/early winter flushes in nitrate concentration are widespread, it is generally concluded that farmers contribute most of the nitrate. For the River Derwent in North Yorkshire, the correlation between nitrate concentration and percent arable land use is much poorer when tributary data are included in the equation, because of greater variations in dilution by water draining upland areas and in other N input sources. For the whole river system therefore, percent upland moorland/rough grazing land cover is an appreciably better predictor than percent arable land use for nitrate concentration. Upland land use encompasses the higher precipitation and runoff in such areas, and the subsequent greater dilution downstream of both arable land runoff and effluent from treatment works, as well as an inverse correlation to percent arable land use. This is strongly supported by the observation that, for the Derwent, Meteorological Office rainfall data alone proved even better than percent moorland rough grazing for predicting nitrate concentration. The dilution effect is therefore substantial but highly seasonal; lower runoff and dilution in summer offset the lower leaching losses from arable land, and higher dilution and runoff in winter offset greater nitrate leaching losses from arable soils. Because of this, coupled to improved efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer use, seasonality trends in nitrate concentrations that were pronounced a decade ago now have all but disappeared in the catchment. PMID:27102774

  14. RNA-seq analysis reveals new candidate genes for drip loss in a Pietrain × Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire population.

    PubMed

    Li, Bojiang; Liu, Kaiqing; Weng, Qiannan; Li, Pinghua; Wei, Wei; Li, Qifa; Chen, Jie; Huang, Ruihua; Wu, Wangjun; Liu, Honglin

    2016-04-01

    Drip loss, one of the most important meat quality traits, is characterized by low heritability. To date, the genetic factors affecting the drip loss trait have not been clearly elucidated. The objective of this study was to identify critical candidate genes affecting drip loss. First, we generated a Pietrain × Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire commercial pig population and obtained phenotypic values for the drip loss trait. Furthermore, we constructed two RNA libraries from pooled samples of longissimus dorsi muscles with the highest (H group) and lowest (L group) drip loss and identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between these extreme phenotypes using RNA-seq technology. In total, 25 883 genes were detected in the H and L group libraries, and none was specifically expressed in only one library. Comparative analysis of gene expression levels found that 150 genes were differentially expressed, of which 127 were upregulated and 23 were downregulated in the H group relative to the L group. In addition, 68 drip loss quantitative trait loci (QTL) overlapping with 63 DEGs were identified, and these QTL were distributed mainly on chromosomes 1, 2, 5 and 6. Interestingly, the triadin (TRDN) gene, which is involved in muscle contraction and fat deposition, and the myostatin (MSTN) gene, which has a role in muscle growth, were localized to more than two drip loss QTL, suggesting that both are critical candidate genes responsible for drip loss. PMID:26873330

  15. Effect of replacing soybean protein by taro leaf (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) protein on growth performance of exotic (Landrace × Yorkshire) and native (Moo Lath) Lao pigs.

    PubMed

    Kaensombath, Lampheuy; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    The impact of replacing soybean crude protein (CP) with CP from ensiled taro leaves (ET) on growth performance, carcass traits, and organ weights in Landrace × Yorkshire (LY) and Moo Lath (ML) Lao pigs was studied. Twenty-four castrated male pigs, 12 of each breed, were allocated to the treatments according to a completely randomized 3 × 2 factorial (three levels of ET × two breeds) arrangement with four pigs per treatment. The pigs were kept in individual pens and were fed at 4 % dry matter of body weight for 105 days. The control diet (ET0) was formulated with soybean meal as the main CP source, and in the other two diets, soybean CP was replaced to 25 % (ET25) and 50 % (ET50), respectively, with CP from ensiled taro leaves. Calculated metabolizable energy intake decreased with increasing replacement of soybean CP in the diet, while dry matter intake (DMI), CP intake (CPI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were unaffected. Carcass weight, back fat thickness, and dressing percentage were unaffected by soybean CP replacement, while organ weights (except for spleen) increased (P < 0.001) when soybean CP was replaced by CP from ensiled taro leaves in the diet. LY pigs had higher (P < 0.001) DMI, CPI, and ADG and better (P < 0.001) FCR than ML pigs. LY pigs had higher carcass weight (P < 0.001), lower back fat thickness (P < 0.001), and higher organ weights (P < 0.05-0.001) than the ML pigs. In conclusion, taro leaf silage can replace up to 50 % of soybean CP in the diet of growing Lao LY and ML pigs without negative effects on performance and carcass traits. PMID:22610600

  16. Functional Genomics Unique to Week 20 Post Wounding in the Deep Cone/Fat Dome of the Duroc/Yorkshire Porcine Model of Fibroproliferative Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Engrav, Loren H.; Tuggle, Christopher K.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Zhu, Kathy Q.; Numhom, Surawej; Couture, Oliver P.; Beyer, Richard P.; Hocking, Anne M.; Carrougher, Gretchen J.; Ramos, Maria Luiza C.; Klein, Matthew B.; Gibran, Nicole S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypertrophic scar was first described over 100 years ago; PubMed has more than 1,000 references on the topic. Nevertheless prevention and treatment remains poor, because 1) there has been no validated animal model; 2) human scar tissue, which is impossible to obtain in a controlled manner, has been the only source for study; 3) tissues typically have been homogenized, mixing cell populations; and 4) gene-by-gene studies are incomplete. Methodology/Principal Findings We have assembled a system that overcomes these barriers and permits the study of genome-wide gene expression in microanatomical locations, in shallow and deep partial-thickness wounds, and pigmented and non-pigmented skin, using the Duroc(pigmented fibroproliferative)/Yorkshire(non-pigmented non-fibroproliferative) porcine model. We used this system to obtain the differential transcriptome at 1, 2, 3, 12 and 20 weeks post wounding. It is not clear when fibroproliferation begins, but it is fully developed in humans and the Duroc breed at 20 weeks. Therefore we obtained the derivative functional genomics unique to 20 weeks post wounding. We also obtained long-term, forty-six week follow-up with the model. Conclusions/Significance 1) The scars are still thick at forty-six weeks post wounding further validating the model. 2) The differential transcriptome provides new insights into the fibroproliferative process as several genes thought fundamental to fibroproliferation are absent and others differentially expressed are newly implicated. 3) The findings in the derivative functional genomics support old concepts, which further validates the model, and suggests new avenues for reductionist exploration. In the future, these findings will be searched for directed networks likely involved in cutaneous fibroproliferation. These clues may lead to a better understanding of the systems biology of cutaneous fibroproliferation, and ultimately prevention and treatment of hypertrophic scarring. PMID:21533106

  17. Depositional and diagenetic processes involved in the development of mudstone successions: a multi proxy study of the Lower Jurassic Cleveland Basin (The North Yorkshire coast, England).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadeer, S.; Macquaker, J. H. S.; Hughes, C. R.

    2009-04-01

    Mud and mudstones are the most abundant (>60%) sediment and sedimentary rock type preserved at and close to the surface of the Earth. They have formed commonly throughout the Phanerozoic and are found in many environments including present-day soils, lake basins, continental shelves, and ocean basins. Mudstones deposited in ancient shelf seas are particularly important as they are very common and significant components of many petroleum systems as sources and seals. In spite of their importance the variability that they exhibit is usually not incorporated into basin-scale facies models as they are assumed to contain little information that is useful in predicting the distribution of reservoir facies. The fundamental mechanisms (physical, chemical and biological) that control the origin of fine-grained sediments in ancient shelf seas is less studied in comparison with other sediments types (e.g. limestones and sandstones). The Middle Jurassic aged succession from the Staithes Sandstone through to the Mulgrave Shale Member (Jet Rock), which is largely continuous and very well-exposed in two locations in the Cleveland Basin, North Yorkshire Coast, England is an ideal natural laboratory to investigate how marginal marine processes evolve into deep marine processes. In the literature, the fundamental controls on lithofacies variability in mudstone-dominated successions preserved in distal shelf environments have been mainly interpreted in terms of varying bottom water oxygen concentrations, primary production and suspension settling. In proximal muddy environments researchers have broadly interpreted lithofacies variability in terms of storm events, tidal currents, etc. These are very different mechanisms. Moreover, these rocks are rarely studied as a whole system; the basinal mudstones are rarely connected up-dip to muddy sandstones and mudstones deposited in the offshore transition and offshore zones. In order to determine the processes responsible for the formation

  18. Effect of Fibre Level and Fibre Source on Gut Morphology and Micro-environment in Local (Mong Cai) and Exotic (Landrace×Yorkshire) Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ngoc, T. T. B.; Hong, T. T. T.; Len, N. T.; Lindberg, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of genotype, fibre level and fibre source on gut morphology, environment and microflora was studied using 18 Mong Cai (MC) and 18 Landrace×Yorkshire (LY) pigs, aged around 60 d. The diets were based on maize, rice bran, soybean meal, fish meal and soybean oil, and cassava residue (CR) or brewer’s grain (BG) as fibrous ingredient sources in the high-fibre diets (HF). A low-fibre diet (LF), containing around 200 g NDF/kg dry matter (DM), was formulated without CR and BG as feed ingredients. The HF diets (HF-CR and HF-BG) were formulated to contain around 270 g NDF/kg DM. The experiment was arranged according to a 2×3 factorial completely randomized design with six replications, and lasted 30 d. Crypt density in ileum was lowest (p<0.05) and villus height in jejunum and ileum were the greatest (p<0.05) in pigs fed diet HF-BG. Villus width in ileum was greatest in pigs fed diets HF-CR and HF-BG (p<0.05). Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts in stomach were greatest (p<0.05) and E. coli counts in ileum and colon were lowest (p<0.05) in pigs fed diet HF-CR. The concentration of total organic acids in ileum, caecum and colon were greatest (p<0.05), and pH in ileum and colon were lowest (p<0.05) in pigs fed diet HF-CR. Crypt density in ileum was lowest, and villus height in ileum and villus width in jejunum and ileum was greatest in LY pigs (p<0.05). LAB counts in stomach and ileum were greatest, and E. coli counts in ileum were lowest in MC pigs (p<0.05). The concentration of total organic acids in ileum, caecum and colon were greatest (p<0.05) and pH lowest (p<0.05) in MC pigs. PMID:25049538

  19. Genomewide association analysis of sow lactation performance traits in lines of Yorkshire pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake during grow-finish phase.

    PubMed

    Thekkoot, D M; Young, J M; Rothschild, M F; Dekkers, J C M

    2016-06-01

    Lactation is an economically and biologically important phase in the life cycle of sows. Short generation intervals in nucleus herds and low heritability of traits associated with lactation along with challenges associated with collecting accurate lactation performance phenotypes emphasize the importance of using genomic tools to examine the underlying genetics of these traits. We report the first genomewide association study (GWAS) on traits associated with lactation and efficiency in 2 lines of Yorkshire pigs that were divergently selected for residual feed intake during grow-finish phase. A total of 862 farrowing records from 2 parities were analyzed using a Bayesian whole genome variable selection model (Bayes B) to locate 1-Mb regions that were most strongly associated with each trait. The GWAS was conducted separately for parity 1 and 2 records. Marker-based heritabilities ranged from 0.03 to 0.39 for parity 1 traits and from 0.06 to 0.40 for parity 2 traits. For all traits studied, around 90% of genetic variance came from a large number of genomic regions with small effects, whereas genomic regions with large effects were found to be different for the same trait measured in parity 1 and 2. The highest percentage of genetic variance explained by a 1-Mb window for each trait ranged from 0.4% for feed intake during lactation to 4.2% for back fat measured at farrowing in parity 1 sows and from 0.2% for lactation feed intake to 5.4% for protein mass loss during lactation in parity 2 sows. A total of thirteen 1-Mb nonoverlapping windows were found to explain more than 1.5% of genetic variance for either a single trait or across multiple traits. These 1-Mb windows were on chromosomes 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 11, 14, 15, 17, and 18. The major positional candidate genes within 1 Mb upstream and downstream of these windows were , (SSC2), (SSC6) (SSC7), (SSC8), (SSC11), (SSC14), (SSC17). Further validation studies on larger populations are required to validate these findings and

  20. Association of porcine heparanase and hyaluronidase 1 and 2 with reproductive and production traits in a landrace-duroc-yorkshire population.

    PubMed

    Rempel, Lea A; Freking, Brad A; Miles, Jeremy R; Nonneman, Dan J; Rohrer, Gary A; Schneider, James F; Vallet, Jeffrey L

    2011-01-01

    The ovary and placenta are dynamic structures requiring constant modification both structurally and through cell-cell communication capabilities. The extracellular matrix and basement membranes are primarily composed of a milieu of glycosaminoglycans, including heparan sulfate and hyaluronan. Heparanase (HPSE) and hyaluronidases (HYAL) are responsible for degrading heparan sulfate and hyaluronan, respectively. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of SNPs distinct to HPSE, HYAL1, and HYAL2 with measurements of reproduction and production traits in swine. Single trait associations were performed on a Landrace-Duroc-Yorkshire population using SNPs discovered and identified in HPSE, HYAL1, and HYAL2. Analyses were conducted on an extended pedigree and SNPs were found to be associated with reproductive and production traits. Prior to multiple-testing corrections, SNPs within HPSE were weakly associated (P < 0.03) having additive effects with age at puberty (-2.5 ± 1.08 days), ovulation rate (0.5 ± 0.24 corpora lutea), and number of piglets born alive (0.9 ± 0.44 piglets). A HYAL1 and two HYAL2 SNP were nominally associated (P ≤ 0.0063) with number of piglets born alive after multiple-testing corrections (effects between 1.02 and 1.44 piglets), while one of the same HYAL2 markers maintained a modest association (P = 0.0043) having a dominant effect with number of piglets weaned (1.2 ± 0.41 piglets) after multiple-testing correction. Functionally, HPSE and HYAL1 and 2 have been shown to participate in events related to ovarian and placental activity. SNPs from these studies could potentially assist with understanding genetic components underlying sow lifetime productivity as measured by piglet survivability based on number born alive and number weaned, thereby contributing to a greater number of pigs/sow/year. PMID:22303316

  1. Association of Porcine Heparanase and Hyaluronidase 1 and 2 with Reproductive and Production Traits in a Landrace–Duroc–Yorkshire Population

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, Lea A.; Freking, Brad A.; Miles, Jeremy R.; Nonneman, Dan J.; Rohrer, Gary A.; Schneider, James F.; Vallet, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    The ovary and placenta are dynamic structures requiring constant modification both structurally and through cell–cell communication capabilities. The extracellular matrix and basement membranes are primarily composed of a milieu of glycosaminoglycans, including heparan sulfate and hyaluronan. Heparanase (HPSE) and hyaluronidases (HYAL) are responsible for degrading heparan sulfate and hyaluronan, respectively. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of SNPs distinct to HPSE, HYAL1, and HYAL2 with measurements of reproduction and production traits in swine. Single trait associations were performed on a Landrace–Duroc–Yorkshire population using SNPs discovered and identified in HPSE, HYAL1, and HYAL2. Analyses were conducted on an extended pedigree and SNPs were found to be associated with reproductive and production traits. Prior to multiple-testing corrections, SNPs within HPSE were weakly associated (P < 0.03) having additive effects with age at puberty (−2.5 ± 1.08 days), ovulation rate (0.5 ± 0.24 corpora lutea), and number of piglets born alive (0.9 ± 0.44 piglets). A HYAL1 and two HYAL2 SNP were nominally associated (P ≤ 0.0063) with number of piglets born alive after multiple-testing corrections (effects between 1.02 and 1.44 piglets), while one of the same HYAL2 markers maintained a modest association (P = 0.0043) having a dominant effect with number of piglets weaned (1.2 ± 0.41 piglets) after multiple-testing correction. Functionally, HPSE and HYAL1 and 2 have been shown to participate in events related to ovarian and placental activity. SNPs from these studies could potentially assist with understanding genetic components underlying sow lifetime productivity as measured by piglet survivability based on number born alive and number weaned, thereby contributing to a greater number of pigs/sow/year. PMID:22303316

  2. Estimation of Genetic Parameters and Trends for Length of Productive Life and Lifetime Production Traits in a Commercial Landrace and Yorkshire Swine Population in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Noppibool, Udomsak; Elzo, Mauricio A.; Koonawootrittriron, Skorn; Suwanasopee, Thanathip

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters and trends for length of productive life (LPL), lifetime number of piglets born alive (LBA), lifetime number of piglets weaned (LPW), lifetime litter birth weight (LBW), and lifetime litter weaning weight (LWW) in a commercial swine farm in Northern Thailand. Data were gathered during a 24-year period from July 1989 to August 2013. A total of 3,109 phenotypic records from 2,271 Landrace (L) and 838 Yorkshire sows (Y) were analyzed. Variance and covariance components, heritabilities and correlations were estimated using an Average Information Restricted Maximum Likelihood (AIREML) procedure. The 5-trait animal model contained the fixed effects of first farrowing year-season, breed group, and age at first farrowing. Random effects were sow and residual. Estimates of heritabilities were medium for all five traits (0.17±0.04 for LPL and LBA to 0.20±0.04 for LPW). Genetic correlations among these traits were high, positive, and favorable (p<0.05), ranging from 0.93±0.02 (LPL-LWW) to 0.99±0.02 (LPL-LPW). Sow genetic trends were non-significant for LPL and all lifetime production traits. Sire genetic trends were negative and significant for LPL (−2.54±0.65 d/yr; p = 0.0007), LBA (−0.12±0.04 piglets/yr; p = 0.0073), LPW (−0.14±0.04 piglets/yr; p = 0.0037), LBW (−0.13±0.06 kg/yr; p = 0.0487), and LWW (−0.69±0.31 kg/yr; p = 0.0365). Dam genetic trends were positive, small and significant for all traits (1.04±0.42 d/yr for LPL, p = 0.0217; 0.16±0.03 piglets/yr for LBA, p<0.0001; 0.12±0.03 piglets/yr for LPW, p = 0.0002; 0.29±0.04 kg/yr for LBW, p<0.0001 and 1.23±0.19 kg/yr for LWW, p<0.0001). Thus, the selection program in this commercial herd managed to improve both LPL and lifetime productive traits in sires and dams. It was ineffective to improve LPL and lifetime productive traits in sows. PMID:26954115

  3. Age, body weight and backfat thickness at first observed oestrus in crossbred Landrace x Yorkshire gilts, seasonal variations and their influence on subsequence reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Tummaruk, P; Tantasuparuk, W; Techakumphu, M; Kunavongkrit, A

    2007-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate puberty attainment in crossbred Landrace x Yorkshire (LY) gilts reared under tropical conditions and their subsequent reproductive performance. This study was carried out in a 2400-sow herd over a 1-year period. A total of 696 crossbred LY replacement gilts were included. Faecal samples from 214 gilts were collected to determine the faecal progesterone profiles around the time of first oestrus. Solid-phase 125I-radioimmunoassay was used to determine the progesterone concentrations in the faecal extract. The gilts entered the herd at an average age of 177.5 +/- 12.6 days, 95.7 +/- 10.2 kg body weight (BW) and a backfat thickness (BF) of 12.0 +/- 2.9 mm. On average, the gilts expressed first standing oestrus at 195 days of age, 106 kg of BW and a BF of 13.0 mm. The interval from entry to the gilt pool to the first observed oestrus (EOI) was 24.4 +/- 18.0 days (range 0-88 days). The hormonal profile indicated that the gilts that actually ovulated during the first observed oestrus was 34% (group A), the gilts that had ovulated before the first observed oestrus was 21% (group B) and the gilts that did not ovulate during the first observed oestrus was 45% (group C). During summer the proportion of group A gilts was significantly lower than during the winter and the rainy seasons (P < 0.05). The BW of gilts at entry significantly correlated with the BF at entry (r = 0.31, P < 0.001), the age at entry (r = 0.47, P < 0.001), the BW at first oestrus (r = 0.65, P < 0.001) and the BF at first oestrus (r = 0.33, P < 0.001). An increase of BW at entry of 1 kg resulted in a decrease of EOI of 0.28 days. The age, BW and BF of gilts at the first observed oestrus significantly influenced the total number of piglets born per litter (TB) and the number of piglets born alive per litter (BA) in the first three parities. Gilts expressing their first oestrus between 181 and 200 days had a significantly larger TB than gilts that

  4. Interplay of geomorphic and hydrogeologic features at reach- and channel unit-scales on riverbed hydrology and hydrochemistry: a conceptual model in the Lower Coal Measures, South Yorkshire, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, T. G.; Thornton, S. F.; Wainwright, J.

    2010-09-01

    A conceptual model of groundwater and surface-water interactions in areas of minor aquifers has been developed. It assesses the interplay of reach-scale subsurface flow paths (RSSF), controlled by the lateral extent of the alluvial valley, and channel unit-scale hyporheic flow paths (CUSHF), controlled by riffle and run/pool sequences, and their impacts on the spatial variability of riverbed flow and solute exchange. A network of riverbed mini-piezometers and multi-level samplers in different reach- and channel-unit scale settings of the River Don (South Yorkshire, UK) is monitored to: (1) estimate vertical hydraulic gradients (VHGs) and specific discharge; (2) discriminate subsurface flow paths from conservative natural tracers; and (3) deduce biogeochemical processes. In a constrained context (downstream end of the alluvial valley), RSSF discharge favours a homogeneous riverbed hydrochemistry with limited biogeochemical processes and shallow CUSHF. In an unconstrained (open alluvial valley) or asymmetric (bedrock outcropping on one bank) context, low VHGs favour deep CUSHF and a vertical stratification of RSSF. Reducing conditions intensify with depth, and superimpose with mixing in riffles. This good approximation of flow and solute behaviour in minor aquifers provides a practical framework to understand nutrient and contaminant fate and develop cost-effective monitoring programmes across the groundwater/surface-water interface.

  5. (13) CO2 /(12) CO2 exchange fluxes in a clamp-on leaf cuvette: disentangling artefacts and flux components.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao Ying; Schäufele, Rudi; Feneis, Wolfgang; Schnyder, Hans

    2015-11-01

    Leaks and isotopic disequilibria represent potential errors and artefacts during combined measurements of gas exchange and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ). This paper presents new protocols to quantify, minimize, and correct such phenomena. We performed experiments with gradients of CO2 concentration (up to ±250 μmol mol(-1) ) and δ(13) CCO2 (34‰), between a clamp-on leaf cuvette (LI-6400) and surrounding air, to assess (1) leak coefficients for CO2 , (12) CO2 , and (13) CO2 with the empty cuvette and with intact leaves of Holcus lanatus (C3 ) or Sorghum bicolor (C4 ) in the cuvette; and (2) isotopic disequilibria between net photosynthesis and dark respiration in light. Leak coefficients were virtually identical for (12) CO2 and (13) CO2 , but ∼8 times higher with leaves in the cuvette. Leaks generated errors on Δ up to 6‰ for H. lanatus and 2‰ for S. bicolor in full light; isotopic disequilibria produced similar variation of Δ. Leak errors in Δ in darkness were much larger due to small biological : leak flux ratios. Leak artefacts were fully corrected with leak coefficients determined on the same leaves as Δ measurements. Analysis of isotopic disequilibria enabled partitioning of net photosynthesis and dark respiration, and indicated inhibitions of dark respiration in full light (H. lanatus: 14%, S. bicolor: 58%). PMID:25944155

  6. Identity of Schizaphis species (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the United Kingdom: are they a threat to crops?

    PubMed

    Kati, Amalia; Shufran, Kevin A; Taylor, Mark S; Barjadze, Shalva; Eastop, Victor F; Blackman, Roger L; Harrington, Richard

    2013-08-01

    The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), is a major pest of cereals in some parts of the world and is of particular concern because it can be resistant to some insecticides and overcome the resistance of crops. In the UK, it has never been found on crops, but two rather little-known and closely-related species (Schizaphis holci and Schizaphis agrostis) are associated with the wild grasses, Holcus lanatus and Agrostis stolonifera. Since 1987, winged (alate) aphids morphologically resembling the greenbug have been found in increasing numbers in 12.2 m high suction-trap samples of the Rothamsted Insect Survey (RIS); hence, studies were undertaken to establish their identity. Clones (=asexual lineages) established from populations collected from H. lanatus in southern England showed strong preference for Holcus over Agrostis and Hordeum in laboratory tests and produced sexual morphs when transferred to short-day conditions, the males being apterous, as expected for S. holci. Multivariate morphometric comparisons of alatae caught in UK RIS suction traps in 2007 and 2011 with named specimens from museum collections, including S. graminum from many countries, indicated that the suction-trapped alatae were mostly S. agrostis and S. holci. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) mtDNA obtained from 62 UK specimens from suction-traps had 95.4-100% sequence identity with US specimens of S. graminum. Two of the UK specimens had identical COI sequence to the US sorghum-adapted form of S. graminum, and these specimens also had 100% identity with a 640 bp fragment of nDNA CytC, indicating that this form of S. graminum may already be present in the UK. Present and future economic implications of these results are discussed. PMID:23458881

  7. Partial leaf chemical profiles of a desert watermelon species (Citrullus colocynthis) and heirloom watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whiteflies [Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)] and aphids [Aphis gossypii Glover and Myzus persicae (Sulzer)] are serious threats to watermelon by direct feeding and by transmitting viruses of important virus diseases. The desert watermelon Citrullus colocynthis (L.) has been shown to exhibit resistance t...

  8. Book Review: Caves and Karst of the Yorkshire Dales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westaway, Rob

    2015-10-01

    The British Cave Research Association (BCRA) is the research division of the British Caving Association (BCA), itself the principal society in Britain for those interested in caving, with activities including provision of training and safety certification for cavers and managing access to caves. Although some UK cave-related research is carried out by academics, this tends to be restricted to archaeological investigations of caves that have served as human habitations, and to be focused more on the occupants than the caves themselves. In contrast, most cave exploration is undertaken as a leisure activity, under the auspices of clubs affiliated to the BCA/BCRA, this being indeed virtually the only field of Earth science where amateur investigators can continue to make significant discoveries. Many cave explorers are also affiliated with academic researchers, such as managers of dating laboratories; the synergy between these two groups is highly productive, having resulted for instance in the discovery and exploration in recent years of the vast Ogof Draenen cave system in South Wales, which probably dates back to the Early Pleistocene (e.g., Farrant et al., 2014).

  9. Grafting – a tool for managing root-knot nematodes in watermelon?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm, bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, hybrid squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima), and commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus) were evaluated as rootstocks for cultivated watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus) in a field infested ...

  10. Plants increase arsenic in solution but decrease the non-specifically bound fraction in the rhizosphere of an alkaline, naturally rich soil.

    PubMed

    Obeidy, Carole; Bravin, Matthieu N; Bouchardon, Jean-Luc; Conord, Cyrille; Moutte, Jacques; Guy, Bernard; Faure, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    We aimed at determining the major physical-chemical processes that drive arsenic (As) dynamic in the rhizosphere of four species (Holcus lanatus, Dittrichia viscosa, Lotus corniculatus, Plantago lanceolata) tested for phytostabilization. Experiments were performed with an alkaline soil naturally rich in As. Composition of the soil solution of planted and unplanted pots was monitored every 15 days for 90 days, with a focus on the evolution of As concentrations in solution and in the non-specifically bound (i.e. easily exchangeable) fraction. The four species similarly increased As concentration in solution, but decreased As concentration in the non-specifically bound fraction. The major part (60%) of As desorbed from the non-specifically bound fraction in planted pots was likely redistributed on the less available fractions of As on the solid phase. A second part (35%) of desorbed As was taken up by plants. The minor part (5%) of desorbed As supplied As increase in solution. To conclude, plants induced a substantial redistribution of As on the less available fractions in the rhizosphere, as expected in phytostabilization strategies. Plants however concomitantly increased As concentration in the rhizosphere solution which may contribute to As transfer through plant uptake and leaching. PMID:26707185

  11. Host specialization of the mycoparasite Eudarluca caricis and its evolutionary relationship to Ampelomyces.

    PubMed

    Nischwitz, Claudia; Newcombe, George; Anderson, Cort L

    2005-04-01

    Eudarluca caricis is assumed to be a nonspecific mycoparasite of rust fungi. The evidence for its mycoparasitism has rested on constant association with uredinia. In this study, stable isotopes provided additional evidence of mycoparasitism, as E. caricis was enriched with 15N relative to its associated rust fungus, as were parasites and mycoparasites generally with respect to their hosts. Host specificity was directly tested in inoculations in the greenhouse. Isolates of E. caricis from Puccinia on two Eurasian grasses (i.e. Holcus lanatus and Phalaris arundinacaea) did not infect Melampsora on Populus that, in contrast, was successfully infected by a poplar isolate of E. caricis. An isolate from M. medusae on P. deltoides infected a significantly greater percentage of uredinia of M. medusae on P. deltoides than uredinia of M. occidentalis on P. trichocarpa. The host specificity of the three isolates was reflected in their divergence in a phylogenetic analysis based on ITS sequences. Interestingly, the analysis revealed that mycoparasites of rust and powdery mildew fungi have evolved from a common ancestor. PMID:15912929

  12. Warming differentially influences the effects of drought on stoichiometry and metabolomics in shoots and roots.

    PubMed

    Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Sardans, Jordi; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Jentsch, Anke; Kreyling, Juergen; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Parella, Teodor; Peñuelas, Josep

    2015-08-01

    Plants in natural environments are increasingly being subjected to a combination of abiotic stresses, such as drought and warming, in many regions. The effects of each stress and the combination of stresses on the functioning of shoots and roots have been studied extensively, but little is known about the simultaneous metabolome responses of the different organs of the plant to different stresses acting at once. We studied the shift in metabolism and elemental composition of shoots and roots of two perennial grasses, Holcus lanatus and Alopecurus pratensis, in response to simultaneous drought and warming. These species responded differently to individual and simultaneous stresses. These responses were even opposite in roots and shoots. In plants exposed to simultaneous drought and warming, terpenes, catechin and indole acetic acid accumulated in shoots, whereas amino acids, quinic acid, nitrogenous bases, the osmoprotectants choline and glycine betaine, and elements involved in growth (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) accumulated in roots. Under drought, warming further increased the allocation of primary metabolic activity to roots and changed the composition of secondary metabolites in shoots. These results highlight the plasticity of plant metabolomes and stoichiometry, and the different complementary responses of shoots and roots to complex environmental conditions. PMID:25772030

  13. Involvement of ethylene in sex expression and female flower development in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Manzano, Susana; Martínez, Cecilia; García, Juan Manuel; Megías, Zoraida; Jamilena, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Although it is known that ethylene has a masculinizing effect on watermelon, the specific role of this hormone in sex expression and flower development has not been analyzed in depth. By using different approaches the present work demonstrates that ethylene regulates differentially two sex-related developmental processes: sexual expression, i.e. the earliness and the number of female flowers per plant, and the development of individual floral buds. Ethylene production in the shoot apex as well as in male, female and bisexual flowers demonstrated that the female flower requires much more ethylene than the male one to develop, and that bisexual flowers result from a decrease in ethylene production in the female floral bud. The occurrence of bisexual flowers was found to be associated with elevated temperatures in the greenhouse, concomitantly with a reduction of ethylene production in the shoot apex. External treatments with ethephon and AVG, and the use of Cucurbita rootstocks with different ethylene production and sensitivity, confirmed that, as occurs in other cucurbit species, ethylene is required to arrest the development of stamens in the female flower. Nevertheless, in watermelon ethylene inhibits the transition from male to female flowering and reduces the number of pistillate flowers per plant, which runs contrary to findings in other cucurbit species. The use of Cucurbita rootstocks with elevated ethylene production delayed the production of female flowers but reduced the number of bisexual flowers, which is associated with a reduced fruit set and altered fruit shape. PMID:25463265

  14. The Ethylene Biosynthesis Gene CitACS4 Regulates Monoecy/Andromonoecy in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)

    PubMed Central

    Manzano, Susana; Aguado, Encarnación; Martínez, Cecilia; Megías, Zoraida; García, Alicia; Jamilena, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Monoecious and andromonoecious cultivars of watermelon are characterised by the production of male and female flower or male and hermaphrodite flowers, respectively. The segregation analysis in the offspring of crosses between monoecious and andromonoecious lines has demonstrated that this trait is controlled by a single gene pair, being the monoecious allele M semi-dominant to the andromonoecious allele A. The two studied F1 hybrids (MA) had a predominantly monoecious phenotype since both produced not only female flowers, but also bisexual flowers with incomplete stamens, and hermaphrodite flowers with pollen. Given that in other cucurbit species andromonoecy is conferred by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7, CsACS2 and CpACS27A we have cloned and characterised CitACS4, the watermelon gene showing the highest similarity with the formers. CitACS4 encoded for a type ACS type III enzyme that is predominantly expressed in pistillate flowers of watermelon. In the andromonoecious line we have detected a missense mutation in a very conserved residue of CitACS4 (C364W) that cosegregates with the andromonoecious phenotype in two independent F2 populations, concomitantly with a reduction in ethylene production in the floral buds that will develop as hermaphrodite flowers. The gene does not however co-segregates with other sex expression traits regulated by ethylene in this species, including pistillate flowering transition and the number of pistillate flowers per plant. These data indicate that CitAC4 is likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of the ethylene required for stamen arrest during the development of female flowers. The C364W mutation would reduce the production of ethylene in pistillate floral buds, promoting the conversion of female into hermaphrodite flowers, and therefore of monoecy into andromonoecy. PMID:27149159

  15. Reaction of Ten Cultivars of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) to a Puerto Rican population of Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Montalvo, A. E.; Esnard, J.

    1994-01-01

    Ten cultivars of watermelon were evaluated for their response to a Puerto Rican population of Meloidogyne incognita under greenhouse conditions in a 2-year study (1989 and 1990). Ten-day-old seedlings were planted in steam-sterilized soil in 15-cm-d plastic pots. The nematode inoculum consisted of 10,000 eggs and (or) second-stage juveniles (J2)/plant. The cultivars were Sugar Baby, Charleston Gray, Seedless, Prince Charles, Charleston 76, Jubilee, Florida Giant, Royal Charleston, Royal Sweet, and Royal Jubilee, with tomato cv. Rutgers included as a susceptible check. A completely randomized design with 10 replications was used. Fifty-five days after soil infestation, root-gall indices, numbers of nematode eggs per root system, and J2 per 250 cm³ of soil were recorded. All cultivars were susceptible. Sugar Baby had the lowest root-gall index, egg and J2 numbers, and a reproductive factor (Rf) of 2.89. Rf differed (P ≤ 0.05) among cultivars and ranged up to 7.36. Sugar Baby, Seedless, and Florida Giant showed the lowest susceptibility to M. incognita, whereas Charleston 76 and Charleston Gray were the most susceptible. PMID:19279940

  16. Reaction of Ten Cultivars of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) to a Puerto Rican population of Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Montalvo, A E; Esnard, J

    1994-12-01

    Ten cultivars of watermelon were evaluated for their response to a Puerto Rican population of Meloidogyne incognita under greenhouse conditions in a 2-year study (1989 and 1990). Ten-day-old seedlings were planted in steam-sterilized soil in 15-cm-d plastic pots. The nematode inoculum consisted of 10,000 eggs and (or) second-stage juveniles (J2)/plant. The cultivars were Sugar Baby, Charleston Gray, Seedless, Prince Charles, Charleston 76, Jubilee, Florida Giant, Royal Charleston, Royal Sweet, and Royal Jubilee, with tomato cv. Rutgers included as a susceptible check. A completely randomized design with 10 replications was used. Fifty-five days after soil infestation, root-gall indices, numbers of nematode eggs per root system, and J2 per 250 cm(3) of soil were recorded. All cultivars were susceptible. Sugar Baby had the lowest root-gall index, egg and J2 numbers, and a reproductive factor (Rf) of 2.89. Rf differed (P

  17. Molecular cloning, sequence characterization and expression pattern of Rab18 gene from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)

    PubMed Central

    Xinli, Xiao; Lei, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The complete mRNA sequence of watermelon Rab18 gene was amplified through the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The full-length mRNA was 1010 bp containing a 645 bp open reading frame, which encodes a protein of 214 amino acids. Sequence analysis revealed that watermelon Rab18 protein shares high homology with the Rab18 of cucumber (99%), muskmelon (98%), Morus notabilis (90%), tomato (89%), wine grape (89%) and potato (88%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that watermelon Rab18 gene has a closer genetic relationship with Rab18 gene of cucumber and muskmelon. Tissue expression profile analysis indicated that watermelon Rab18 gene was highly expressed in root, stem and leaf, moderately expressed in flower and weakly expressed in fruit. PMID:26019638

  18. Genome-wide characterization of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene family in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Shang, Qing-Mao

    2013-07-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), the first enzyme in the phenylpropanoid pathway, plays a critical role in plant growth, development, and adaptation. PAL enzymes are encoded by a gene family in plants. Here, we report a genome-wide search for PAL genes in watermelon. A total of 12 PAL genes, designated ClPAL1-12, are identified . Nine are arranged in tandem in two duplication blocks located on chromosomes 4 and 7, and the other three ClPAL genes are distributed as single copies on chromosomes 2, 3, and 8. Both the cDNA and protein sequences of ClPALs share an overall high identity with each other. A phylogenetic analysis places 11 of the ClPALs into a separate cucurbit subclade, whereas ClPAL2, which belongs to neither monocots nor dicots, may serve as an ancestral PAL in plants. In the cucurbit subclade, seven ClPALs form homologous pairs with their counterparts from cucumber. Expression profiling reveals that 11 of the ClPAL genes are expressed and show preferential expression in the stems and male and female flowers. Six of the 12 ClPALs are moderately or strongly expressed in the fruits, particularly in the pulp, suggesting the potential roles of PAL in the development of fruit color and flavor. A promoter motif analysis of the ClPAL genes implies redundant but distinctive cis-regulatory structures for stress responsiveness. Finally, duplication events during the evolution and expansion of the ClPAL gene family are discussed, and the relationships between the ClPAL genes and their cucumber orthologs are estimated. PMID:23546528

  19. Resistant Citrullus lanatus var. citroides Rootstocks for Managing Root-knot Nematodes in Grafted Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita, is an important re-emerging pest of watermelon. Several factors have contributed to re-emergence of RKN including: 1) ban of methyl bromide for soil fumigation; 2) reduced land area for crop rotation; and 3) continuous cropping of cucurbits u...

  20. The Ethylene Biosynthesis Gene CitACS4 Regulates Monoecy/Andromonoecy in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Manzano, Susana; Aguado, Encarnación; Martínez, Cecilia; Megías, Zoraida; García, Alicia; Jamilena, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Monoecious and andromonoecious cultivars of watermelon are characterised by the production of male and female flower or male and hermaphrodite flowers, respectively. The segregation analysis in the offspring of crosses between monoecious and andromonoecious lines has demonstrated that this trait is controlled by a single gene pair, being the monoecious allele M semi-dominant to the andromonoecious allele A. The two studied F1 hybrids (MA) had a predominantly monoecious phenotype since both produced not only female flowers, but also bisexual flowers with incomplete stamens, and hermaphrodite flowers with pollen. Given that in other cucurbit species andromonoecy is conferred by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7, CsACS2 and CpACS27A we have cloned and characterised CitACS4, the watermelon gene showing the highest similarity with the formers. CitACS4 encoded for a type ACS type III enzyme that is predominantly expressed in pistillate flowers of watermelon. In the andromonoecious line we have detected a missense mutation in a very conserved residue of CitACS4 (C364W) that cosegregates with the andromonoecious phenotype in two independent F2 populations, concomitantly with a reduction in ethylene production in the floral buds that will develop as hermaphrodite flowers. The gene does not however co-segregates with other sex expression traits regulated by ethylene in this species, including pistillate flowering transition and the number of pistillate flowers per plant. These data indicate that CitAC4 is likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of the ethylene required for stamen arrest during the development of female flowers. The C364W mutation would reduce the production of ethylene in pistillate floral buds, promoting the conversion of female into hermaphrodite flowers, and therefore of monoecy into andromonoecy. PMID:27149159

  1. Antiviral activity of Thuja orientalis extracts against watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) on Citrullus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Elbeshehy, Esam K F; Metwali, Ehab M R; Almaghrabi, Omar A

    2015-03-01

    Watermelon mosaic potyvirus (WMV) is considered as an important virus infecting watermelon and causing adverse effects on crop productivity. To overcome this problem one of the main objectives of plant breeders is to make these strains less effective in the ability to infect plants by treatment with plant extracts. Due to the advantages of plant tissue culture, in vitro, in the process of the selection of different cultivars under biotic stress, this study was conducted to achieve this aim by evaluating the effect of three concentrations of Thuja extract on the multiplication of WMV in watermelon by measuring callus fresh weight and soluble proteins (mg g(-1) fresh weight) of healthy and infected hypocotyl explants. Also, WMV was isolated from naturally infected watermelon and characterized as potyvirus by serological and molecular analyses. The isolated virus gave a positive reaction with WMV antiserum compared with other antibodies of CMV, ZYMV and SqMV using DAS-ELISA. RT-PCR, with the specific primer for WMV-cp. gene, yielded 825 base pair DNA fragments. The results that belong to soluble protein analysis indicated that infected hypocotyl explants treated with 6 g L(-1) recorded the highest rate in the number of soluble protein bands compared with the rest of treatments. As a conclusion of these results, we can recommend to apply the Thuja extract at 6 g L(-1) as a optimum dosage to decrease the infection caused by watermelon mosaic potyvirus. PMID:25737655

  2. National Paired Reading Conference Proceedings (2nd, Dewsbury, West Yorkshire, England, November 2, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    The eight papers constituting the Proceedings of the second National Paired Reading Conference are published in an annual bulletin of the Paired Reading Project, together with five feature articles, as follows: (1) "Paired Reading--History & Future" (R. Morgan); (2) "Crosland Moor Junior High School Paired Reading Projects with Asian Families" (S.…

  3. National Paired Reading Conference Proceedings (1st, Dewsbury, West Yorkshire, England, November 3, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The first National Paired Reading Conference decided to establish a Paired Reading Information Network and to publish a journal. This bulletin is a direct result of this decision. It contains eight conference papers (constituting the conference proceedings), six feature articles, and four short reports (all with an emphasis on the method of…

  4. Genome-wide associations for age at puberty in a Duroc-Landrace-Yorkshire swine population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gilts that achieve puberty earlier tend to be more fertile throughout their breeding lifetime, have a shorter weaning to estrus interval, and have increased retention in the breeding herd with increases in parity. Age at puberty can be changed through selection, but collecting phenotypes can be labo...

  5. National Paired Reading Conference Proceedings (3rd, Dewsbury, West Yorkshire, England, November 8, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    The 15 papers constituting the Proceedings of the third National Paired Reading Conference are published in an annual bulletin of the Paired Reading Project, together with seven feature articles, as follows: (1) "Peer Tutored Paired Reading in a College of Further Education" (S. Booth and J. Winter); (2) "A Comparative Review of Five Paired…

  6. Fracture-fault network characterization of pavement imagery of the Whitby Mudstone, Yorkshire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boersma, Quinten; Hardebol, Nico; Houben, Maartje; Barnhoorn, Auke; Drury, Martyn

    2015-04-01

    Natural fractures play an important role in the hydrocarbon production from tight reservoirs. The need for fracture network pathways by fraccing matters particularly for shale gas prospects, due to their micro- to nano-darcies matrix permeabilities. The study of natural fractures from outcrops helps to better understand network connectivity and possibility of reactivating pre-existing planes of weakness, induced by hydraulic stimulation. Microseismicity also show that natural fractures are reactivated during fraccing in tight gas reservoirs and influence the success of the stimulation. An accurate understanding of natural fracture networks can help in predicting the development of fracture networks. In this research we analyze an outcrop analogue, the Whitby Mustone Formation (WMF), in terms of its horizontal fracture network. The WMF is the time equivalent of the Posidonia Shale Formation (PSF), which on itself is the main shale gas prospect in the Dutch subsurface. The fracture network of the WMF is characterized by a system of steep dipping joints with two dominant directions with N-S and E-W strike. The network was digitized from bird-view imagery of the pavement with a spatial extent of ~100 m at sub-cm resolution. The imagery is interpreted in terms of orientation and length distributions, intensity and fractal dimensions. Samples from the field were analyzed for rock strength and sample mineralogy. The results indicate that the fracture networks greatly differ per bed. Observed differences are for example; the geometry of the fracture network, its cumulative length distribution law, the fracture intensity, the fracture length vs its orientation and the fractal dimension. All these parameters greatly influence fracture network connectivity, the probability that longer fractures exist within the pavement and whether the network is more prone to clustering or scattering. Apart from the differences, the networks display a fairly similar orthogonal arrangement with dominant large (> 5-10 m) N-S striking fractures and smaller E-W striking cross-joints (< 2-3 m). A nested network arrangement is indicated by some smaller-scale N-S fractures abutting against the E-W striking ones. Furthermore, abutment relations provide some constraints on relative time. Timing indications with respect to burial-exhumation are difficult to establish. Some joints are cemented and measurable from the high-resolution imagery. The vein measurements helped establishing a first order relation between the fracture aperture with respect to their length and confirm that longer fractures have a wider aperture. The above stated parameters and results all prove to be very valuable information which can help predict the geometries of the different fracture networks present within the PSF. It is important to understand the possible mechanisms which can cause these differences in fracture network characteristics. Bulk lithological variations between beds are minor, mainly consisting of clay minerals. Furthermore, some quartz and pyrite is present in all samples and TOC is present in variable amounts. However, the occurrence of concretions up to 0.5m in size correlates with notable differences in distinct network arrangement. Therefore it appears that the presence of these concretions greatly alters the overall strength of the rock, hence the fracture network geometry.

  7. Heritage Quay: What Will You Discover? Transforming the Archives of the University of Huddersfield, Yorkshire, UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickham, M. Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The University of Huddersfield presents a key case study of the transformation of its Archives Service, using the newly-developed Staff/Space/Collections dependency model for archives and the lessons of the UK's Customer Service Excellence (CSE) scheme in order to examine and illustrate service development. Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF) and…

  8. Labour and Hospitals in Urban Yorkshire: Middlesbrough, Leeds and Sheffield, 1919–1938

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Barry

    2010-01-01

    In the debates over the politics of National Health Service foundation, there has been little investigation of the attitudes of the inter-war labour movement to a state-run hospital system. In particular, there has been limited assessment of views outside parliament in provincial Labour parties and trade unions. Drawing on a case study of Middlesbrough, Leeds and Sheffield, this article examines the politics of hospital provision prior to the National Health Service (NHS). It focuses on the involvement of the labour movement in hospital provision within localities and on the extent to which the dominant form of labour politics—labourist or socialist—shaped hospital policy. It suggests that, in the heavy industrial towns of Middlesbrough and Sheffield, close involvement with voluntary hospitals through workers contributory schemes dampened the enthusiasm for a state system. However, such a policy was heavily promoted by socialists in more economically diverse Leeds.

  9. QTL associations for weaning-to-estrus interval in a Landrace-Duroc-Yorkshire swine population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weaning-to-estrus interval (WEI) contributes to number of non-productive days of females within a breeding herd. Several reports have indicated females returning to estrus within seven days of weaning are more likely to settle on service thereby contributing to the overall economic potential of the...

  10. Major Quantitative Trait Loci and Putative Candidate Genes for Powdery Mildew Resistance and Fruit-Related Traits Revealed by an Intraspecific Genetic Map for Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang-Hwan; Hwang, Ji-Hyun; Han, Dong-Yeup; Park, Minkyu; Kim, Seungill; Choi, Doil; Kim, Yongjae; Lee, Gung Pyo; Kim, Sun-Tae; Park, Young-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    An intraspecific genetic map for watermelon was constructed using an F2 population derived from ‘Arka Manik’ × ‘TS34’ and transcript sequence variants and quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to powdery mildew (PMR), seed size (SS), and fruit shape (FS) were analyzed. The map consists of 14 linkage groups (LGs) defined by 174 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS), 2 derived-cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers, 20 sequence-characterized amplified regions, and 8 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers spanning 1,404.3 cM, with a mean marker interval of 6.9 cM and an average of 14.6 markers per LG. Genetic inheritance and QTL analyses indicated that each of the PMR, SS, and FS traits is controlled by an incompletely dominant effect of major QTLs designated as pmr2.1, ss2.1, and fsi3.1, respectively. The pmr2.1, detected on chromosome 2 (Chr02), explained 80.0% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 30.76). This QTL was flanked by two CAPS markers, wsb2-24 (4.00 cM) and wsb2-39 (13.97 cM). The ss2.1, located close to pmr2.1 and CAPS marker wsb2-13 (1.00 cM) on Chr02, explained 92.3% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 68.78). The fsi3.1, detected on Chr03, explained 79.7% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 31.37) and was flanked by two CAPS, wsb3-24 (1.91 cM) and wsb3-9 (7.00 cM). Candidate gene-based CAPS markers were developed from the disease resistance and fruit shape gene homologs located on Chr.02 and Chr03 and were mapped on the intraspecific map. Colocalization of these markers with the major QTLs indicated that watermelon orthologs of a nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat class gene containing an RPW8 domain and a member of SUN containing the IQ67 domain are candidate genes for pmr2.1 and fsi3.1, respectively. The results presented herein provide useful information for marker-assisted breeding and gene cloning for PMR and fruit-related traits. PMID:26700647

  11. Major Quantitative Trait Loci and Putative Candidate Genes for Powdery Mildew Resistance and Fruit-Related Traits Revealed by an Intraspecific Genetic Map for Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus).

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Hwan; Hwang, Ji-Hyun; Han, Dong-Yeup; Park, Minkyu; Kim, Seungill; Choi, Doil; Kim, Yongjae; Lee, Gung Pyo; Kim, Sun-Tae; Park, Young-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    An intraspecific genetic map for watermelon was constructed using an F2 population derived from 'Arka Manik' × 'TS34' and transcript sequence variants and quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to powdery mildew (PMR), seed size (SS), and fruit shape (FS) were analyzed. The map consists of 14 linkage groups (LGs) defined by 174 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS), 2 derived-cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers, 20 sequence-characterized amplified regions, and 8 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers spanning 1,404.3 cM, with a mean marker interval of 6.9 cM and an average of 14.6 markers per LG. Genetic inheritance and QTL analyses indicated that each of the PMR, SS, and FS traits is controlled by an incompletely dominant effect of major QTLs designated as pmr2.1, ss2.1, and fsi3.1, respectively. The pmr2.1, detected on chromosome 2 (Chr02), explained 80.0% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 30.76). This QTL was flanked by two CAPS markers, wsb2-24 (4.00 cM) and wsb2-39 (13.97 cM). The ss2.1, located close to pmr2.1 and CAPS marker wsb2-13 (1.00 cM) on Chr02, explained 92.3% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 68.78). The fsi3.1, detected on Chr03, explained 79.7% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 31.37) and was flanked by two CAPS, wsb3-24 (1.91 cM) and wsb3-9 (7.00 cM). Candidate gene-based CAPS markers were developed from the disease resistance and fruit shape gene homologs located on Chr.02 and Chr03 and were mapped on the intraspecific map. Colocalization of these markers with the major QTLs indicated that watermelon orthologs of a nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat class gene containing an RPW8 domain and a member of SUN containing the IQ67 domain are candidate genes for pmr2.1 and fsi3.1, respectively. The results presented herein provide useful information for marker-assisted breeding and gene cloning for PMR and fruit-related traits. PMID:26700647

  12. The acceptability of meadow plants to the slug Deroceras reticulatum and implications for grassland restoration

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Sarah E.; Close, Andrew J.; Port, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite the selective pressure slugs may exert on seedling recruitment there is a lack of information in this context within grassland restoration studies. Selective grazing is influenced by interspecific differences in acceptability. As part of a larger study of how slug–seedling interactions may influence upland hay meadow restoration, an assessment of relative acceptability is made for seedlings of meadow plants to the slug, Deroceras reticulatum. Methods Slug feeding damage to seedling monocultures of 23 meadow species and Brassica napus was assessed in microcosms over 14 d. The severity and rate of damage incurred by each plant species was analysed with a generalized additive mixed model. Plant species were then ranked for their relative acceptability. Key Results Interspecific variation in relative acceptability suggested seedlings of meadow species form a hierarchy of acceptability to D. reticulatum. The four most acceptable species were Achillea millefolium and the grasses Holcus lanatus, Poa trivialis and Festuca rubra. Trifolium pratense was acceptable to D. reticulatum and was the second highest ranking forb species. The most unacceptable species were mainly forbs associated with the target grassland, and included Geranium sylvaticum, Rumex acetosa, Leontodon hispidus and the grass Anthoxanthum odoratum. A strong positive correlation was found for mean cumulative feeding damage and cumulative seedling mortality at day 14. Conclusions Highly unacceptable species to D. reticulatum are unlikely to be selectively grazed by slugs during the seedling recruitment phase, and were predominantly target restoration species. Seedlings of highly acceptable species may be less likely to survive slug herbivory and contribute to seedling recruitment at restoration sites. Selective slug herbivory, influenced by acceptability, may influence community-level processes if seedling recruitment and establishment of key functional species, such as T

  13. Novel green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrullus lanatus rind and investigation of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Biological synthesis of nanoparticles using nontoxic, eco-friendly approaches is gaining importance owing to their fascinating biocompatibility and environmentally benign nature. This study describes the green synthesis approach for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (ANPs) using aqueous extract of the rind of watermelon as a fruit waste and evaluate its biopotential in terms of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential. The synthesized ANPs were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The surface plasmon resonance spectra of ANPs were obtained at 560 nm. Scanning electron microscopy image revealed that particles had a spherical shape and have a size distribution of 20-140 nm, followed by the elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the crystallite nature of the ANPs and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the involvement of bioactive compounds from watermelon rind in the synthesis, capping, and stabilization of ANPs. ANPs exhibited potential antibacterial activity against five different foodborne pathogenic bacteria with diameter of inhibition zones ranged between 9.23 and 11.58 mm. They also displayed strong synergistic antibacterial activity together with kanamycin (11.93-21.08 mm inhibition zones) and rifampicin (10.32-24.84 mm inhibition zones). ANPs displayed strong antioxidant activity in terms of DPPH radical scavenging (24.69%), nitric oxide scavenging (25.62%), ABTS scavenging (29.42%), and reducing power. Significantly high proteasome inhibitory potential of the ANPs (28.16%) could be highly useful for cancer treatment and targeted cancer drug delivery. Overall, results highlight a potential low-cost green method of synthesizing ANPs from food waste materials. Significant biopotentials of synthesized ANPs could make it a potential candidate for its application in the biomedical, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food sectors. PMID:26664116

  14. Understanding the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway through observation of four color variants of developing watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nanai)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway regulatory mechanisms leading to lycopene accumulation are well defined in the model fruit, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). The regulatory mechanisms leading to accumulation of other carotenoids and flesh colors, however, are poorly understood. The variety ...

  15. Novel green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrullus lanatus rind and investigation of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Biological synthesis of nanoparticles using nontoxic, eco-friendly approaches is gaining importance owing to their fascinating biocompatibility and environmentally benign nature. This study describes the green synthesis approach for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (ANPs) using aqueous extract of the rind of watermelon as a fruit waste and evaluate its biopotential in terms of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential. The synthesized ANPs were characterized using UV–vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The surface plasmon resonance spectra of ANPs were obtained at 560 nm. Scanning electron microscopy image revealed that particles had a spherical shape and have a size distribution of 20–140 nm, followed by the elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the crystallite nature of the ANPs and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the involvement of bioactive compounds from watermelon rind in the synthesis, capping, and stabilization of ANPs. ANPs exhibited potential antibacterial activity against five different foodborne pathogenic bacteria with diameter of inhibition zones ranged between 9.23 and 11.58 mm. They also displayed strong synergistic antibacterial activity together with kanamycin (11.93–21.08 mm inhibition zones) and rifampicin (10.32–24.84 mm inhibition zones). ANPs displayed strong antioxidant activity in terms of DPPH radical scavenging (24.69%), nitric oxide scavenging (25.62%), ABTS scavenging (29.42%), and reducing power. Significantly high proteasome inhibitory potential of the ANPs (28.16%) could be highly useful for cancer treatment and targeted cancer drug delivery. Overall, results highlight a potential low-cost green method of synthesizing ANPs from food waste materials. Significant biopotentials of synthesized ANPs could make it a potential candidate for its application in the biomedical, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food sectors. PMID:26664116

  16. Relationships of birth weight traits with age at first estrus and number of ovulations in Landrace-Duroc-Yorkshire gilts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection for increased litter size has resulted in greater within-litter variation in piglet birth weight and a reduction in litter average birth weight; believed to be associated with intrauterine growth restriction as a result of limitations in uterine capacity. This leads to increased preweaning...

  17. Expression of obesity gene and obesity gene long form receptor in endometrium of Yorkshire sows during embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongfang; Fu, Jinlian; Wang, Aiguo

    2014-03-01

    There is accumulating evidence that leptin may be directly involved in mammalian reproduction, however, the potential role of obesity gene/obesity gene long form receptor (ob/ob-Rb) system in porcine implantation is poorly understood. To further confirm this role, mRNA and protein expression of ob/ob-Rb in implantation site and inter-implantation sites of porcine uterus on pregnancy day 13, 18 and 24 were compared in this study. Ob mRNA level went up with the advance of pregnancy and was higher in implantation site than inter-implantation site (P < 0.05). But ob-Rb mRNA, which was negative-regulated by leptin, went down with the advance of pregnancy and lessened in implantation site compared with inter-implantation site (P < 0.05). During the three implantation phase, leptin protein peaked at day 18 pregnancy (P < 0.05) and leptin protein at implantation site were always higher than inter-implantation site (P < 0.05). The higher ob-Rb protein in implantation site compared with inter-implantation site (P < 0.05) only appeared at day 18 pregnancy. Localization of ob/ob-Rb protein in porcine uterus was assayed using immunohistochemistry and found that ob/ob-Rb protein mainly located in luminal epithelium and glandular epithelium in pregnant pigs, but distinct immune-staining of leptin also detected in stroma in non-pregnancy porcine uterus except for luminal epithelium and glandular epithelium. In conclusion, the peak of leptin and the peak of ob-Rb protein in implantation site specifically appeared on day 18 pregnancy of pig. Another funning discovery is ob-Rb mRNA in porcine endometrium was mainly negative-regulated by leptin. The space-time difference of gene and protein expression for ob/ob-Rb confirmed ob/ob-Rb system role as delicate regulator of porcine implantation process. PMID:24407604

  18. Epidemiology of childhood brain tumours in Yorkshire, UK, 1974-95: geographical distribution and changing patterns of occurrence.

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, P. A.; Parslow, R. C.; Lane, S. A.; Bailey, C. C.; Lewis, I.; Picton, S.; Cartwright, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    From a high-quality population-based register of children with cancer, 455 cases diagnosed with central nervous system (CNS) tumours were analysed to examine patterns of occurrence and geographical distribution. There was a significant increase of 1.8% (95% CI 0.5-3.1, P < 0.01) in average annual incidence for all CNS tumours, mainly accounted for by a 3.1% rise (95% CI 0.1-6.1, P < 0.05) in primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNETs) over the 22-year period 1974-95. These increases were not explained by an increase in the proportion of histologically verified tumours. In the most recent time period (1986-95), astrocytomas occurred more commonly than previously in 0 to 4-year olds. Geographical differences in incidence were evident at a large scale, between counties, for all tumours and astrocytomas, with lower rates in the most urbanized areas. At the level of census district and electoral wards, no association between incidence of CNS tumours and socioeconomic group, person-based population density or ethnicity was observed using Poisson regression modelling. Based on small-scale census geography, the patterns of distribution of CNS tumours do not suggest strong associations with geographical determinants of risk. This study finds a rising incidence of all CNS tumours and particularly primitive neuroectodermal tumours and shows that astrocytomas appear to be occurring at a younger age, most probably because of improved diagnosis with non-invasive technology. PMID:9764594

  19. Caries experience, tooth loss and oral health-related behaviours among Bangladeshi women resident in West Yorkshire, UK.

    PubMed

    Williams, S A; Summers, R M; Ahmed, I A; Prendergast, M J

    1996-09-01

    Several studies have reported high levels of caries experience among young Muslim Asian children, but there has been little corresponding information on adult dental health or related health behaviours. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire together with clinical oral findings among first generation Bangladeshi women aged over 25 years. The majority chewed betel quid with tobacco, were of rural origin, used traditional oral hygiene practices and had never visited a dentist. Of the 247 examined, only one was edentulous. A very low level of caries experience was recorded, a mean DFT score of 1.87 at 25-34 years of age, with an average of 1.05 missing teeth. Coronal caries experience was found to be independent of oral hygiene methods, including the use of fluoride toothpaste, or the frequency of betel quid chewing. It was concluded that Bangladeshi adult women have considerably lower levels of caries experience and tooth loss than United Kingdom adults as represented in recent national surveys. PMID:8897738

  20. Palliation of symptoms in non-small cell lung cancer: a study by the Yorkshire Regional Cancer Organisation Thoracic Group.

    PubMed Central

    Muers, M F; Round, C E

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Although most treatment for non-small cell lung cancer is palliative, data on the adequacy of symptom control are scanty and there has been little discussion about the appropriate indices. METHODS--Two hundred and eighty nine unselected patients presenting sequentially to six specialists were studied; 242 cases were confirmed histologically and all were managed as non-small cell lung cancer. At presentation and two monthly for one year or until death each of 12 symptoms was graded by a physician at a clinic interview on a four point scale as absent, mild, moderate, or severe. For each symptom a palliative index (median duration of control/median duration of survival) was calculated, where control was defined as an improvement in symptoms of any severity by one grade or more. RESULTS--Sixty four (22%) patients had surgery, 15 (5%) radical and 107 (37%) palliative radiotherapy, and 103 (36%) best supportive care. Analysis showed that most symptoms inexorably worsened with time. The palliation index for haemoptysis was 86%, chest pain 73%, cough 34%, and breathlessness 30%; for systemic symptoms it was 54% for anorexia and 47% for malaise. Palliation was poor in many patients after surgery. Breathlessness was a particular problem in the group having best supportive care. CONCLUSIONS--The frequency of most symptoms in non-small cell lung cancer increases inexorably with time until malaise and anorexia are almost universal. Haemoptysis and chest pain are better palliated than cough and breathlessness. Present treatments fail to give adequate palliation for many patients, and the emphasis in future therapeutic studies should be on the relief of the more severe symptoms. PMID:7685550

  1. 12 Comprehensive Detection of Allergens in Grass Pollen Extracts by Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Steffen; Mitulski, Liane; Cromwell, Oliver; Reese, Gerald; Nandy, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Background More than 40% of type 1-allergic individuals suffer from hypersensitivity to grass pollen. Patients are treated traditionally with specific immunotherapy using pollen extracts derived from one or several different Pooideae species. While for several species the most important allergens (group 1 and group 5) have been identified, other allergens have either not been identified or sequence data are still missing. We have used mass spectrometry (MS) together with genetic and immunological methods to identify allergens in various grass pollen extracts. Methods Pollen extracts of 6 different grass species (Phleum pratense, Holcus lanatus, Lolium perenne, Dactylus glomerata, Festuca pratensis, Poa pratensis) and a mixture thereof were analyzed. For identification of allergens by MS, extracts were subjected to enzymatic digestion. Resulting peptides were separated by liquid chromatography and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. Protein identification was performed by searching both the NCBIPlant release and an individually designed database. The presence of individual allergens was confirmed with allergen-specific monoclonal antibodies. Unknown sequences were determined following cDNA synthesis from pollen RNA and allergen sequence amplification by PCR. Results Fes p 1 and Fes p 5 were identified by the PCR approach. MS analysis of pollen extracts from the 6 individual species resulted in detection of all known allergens including the newly identified Fes p 1 and Fes p 5. Based on the homology of allergens from different grass species, previously unknown sequences of representatives of groups 2, 3, 4, 7, 11, 12 and 13 were detected by MS in investigated extracts with high sequence coverage. Group 6 allergens could not be identified in some of the analyzed extracts. These findings are supported by immunological analyses and thus demonstrate the specificity of the applied method. Members of all allergen groups were identified in an extract mix prepared from

  2. Turf wars: experimental tests for alternative stable states in a two-phase coastal ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Brownstein, Gretchen; Lee, William G; Pritchard, Daniel W; Wilson, J Bastow

    2014-02-01

    Alternative stable states have long been thought to exist in natural communities, but direct evidence for their presence and for the environmental switches that cause them has been scarce. Using a combination of greenhouse and field experiments, we investigated the environmental drivers associated with two distinctive herbaceous communities in coastal ecosystems in New Zealand. In a mosaic unrelated to micro-topography, a community dominated largely by native turf species (notably Leptinella dioica, Samolus repens, and Selliera radicans) alternates with vegetation comprising exotic (i.e., nonnative) pasture species (notably Agrostis stolonifera, Holcus lanatus, Lolium perenne, and Trifolium repens). The species of these two communities differ in functional characters related to leaf longevity and growth rate, and occupy soils of differing nitrogen levels. Both spatial and environmental factors influenced the species composition locally. Reciprocal transplants of soil, with and without associated vegetation, showed that a native turf community developed when sward or soil from either community was bounded by turf, and a pasture community developed when sward or soil from either community was surrounded by pasture. In artificial mixed communities in the greenhouse, turf was able to invade the pasture community where the vegetation was clipped to simulate grazing, and also where Trifolium was removed and/or salt spray was applied. The pasture community invaded the turf where Trifolium was present or nitrogen was added. These results were supported by trends in experimentally manipulated field plots, where the amount of turf cover increased when nitrogen was kept low and when salt spray was applied, whereas pasture cover increased in the absence of salt spray. Thus, persistence of the native turf community is dependent on grazing, both directly and via its effect on keeping nitrogen levels low by excluding the exotic, nitrogen-fixing Trifolium, and by exposing the

  3. Influence of Citrullus lanatus var. citroides rootstocks and their F1 hybrids on yield and response to root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, in grafted watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southern root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) are an important re-emerging pest of watermelon in the U.S. and worldwide. The re-emergence of root-knot nematodes (RKN) in watermelon and other cucurbits is largely due to the intensive cultivation of vegetable crops on limited agricultural land...

  4. Gulypyrones A and B and Phomentrioloxins B and C Produced by Diaporthe gulyae, a Potential Mycoherbicide for Saffron Thistle (Carthamus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Andolfi, Anna; Boari, Angela; Evidente, Marco; Cimmino, Alessio; Vurro, Maurizio; Ash, Gavin; Evidente, Antonio

    2015-04-24

    A virulent strain of Diaporthe gulyae, isolated from stem cankers of sunflower and known to be pathogenic to saffron thistle, has been shown to produce both known and previously undescribed metabolites when grown in either static liquid culture or a bioreactor. Together with phomentrioloxin, a phytotoxic geranylcyclohexenetriol recently isolated from a strain of Phomopsis sp., two new phytotoxic trisubstituted α-pyrones, named gulypyrones A and B (1 and 2), and two new 1,O- and 2,O-dehydro derivatives of phomentrioloxin, named phomentrioloxins B and C (3 and 4), were isolated from the liquid culture filtrates of D. gulyae. These four metabolites were characterized as 6-[(2S)2-hydroxy-1-methylpropyl]-4-methoxy-5-methylpyran-2-one (1), 6-[(1E)-3-hydroxy-1-methylpropenyl]-4-methoxy-3-methylpyran-2-one (2), 4,6-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-2-(7-methyl-3-methyleneoct-6-en-1-ynyl)cyclohex-2-enone (3), and 2,5-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-(7-methyl-3-methyleneoct-6-en-1-ynyl)cyclohex-3-enone (4) using spectroscopic and chemical methods. The absolute configuration of the hydroxylated secondary carbon of the 2-hydroxy-1-methylpropyl side chain at C-6 of gulypyrone A was determined as S by applying a modified Mosher's method. Other well-known metabolites were also isolated including 3-nitropropionic, succinic, and p-hydroxy- and p-methylbenzoic acids, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and nectriapyrone. When assayed using a 5 mM concentration on punctured leaf disks of weedy and crop plants, apart from 3-nitropropionic acid (the main metabolite responsible for the strong phytotoxicity of the culture filtrate), phomentrioloxin B caused small, but clear, necrotic spots on a number of plant species, whereas gulypyrone A caused leaf necrosis on Helianthus annuus plantlets. All other compounds were weakly active or inactive. PMID:25700035

  5. Antioxidative and antidiabetic activities of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) juice on oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Oseni, O. A.; Odesanmi, O. E.; Oladele, F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The nutritional and medicinal importance of watermelon has been emphasized and its diseases preventive and curative power must be evaluated. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the antioxidative and antidiabetic potentials of watermelon. Materials and Methods: The in vivo assay was carried out on 15 male albino rats which were divided into groups of three stages. In stage I, all animals received normal feeds and water for 1-week after, which five animals were selected and sacrificed for biochemical analyses which form the nondiabetic control, group. The remaining animals were fasted for 24 h before injected intra-peritoneally with a freshly prepared solution of alloxan at a dosage of 35 mg/kg body weight. Five out of the 10 rats were sacrificed as diabetic group while last five animals were fed with water melon juice for a week after, which they were sacrificed to form the treated group animals. In all the groups, body weights, fasting blood sugar, total protein level in the blood, and other biochemical parameters such as reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration; catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) % inhibition activities were determined. Results: The results of the biochemical analyses showed a significant increase in the concentration of blood glucose level after treatment with alloxan, which indicates that diabetic was induced. Hence, watermelon juice caused increased in weight, hypoglycemia; and increases in GSH, GPx, catalase, and SOD % inhibition activities with reduced MDA concentration after treatments. Conclusion: The watermelon juice resulted in the restoration of impaired conditions of the rats. PMID:26759513

  6. Effect of heat treatment around the fruit set region on growth and yield of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai].

    PubMed

    Noh, Jaejong; Kim, Jeong Man; Sheikh, Sameena; Lee, So Geun; Lim, Jeong Hyeon; Seong, Moon Ho; Jung, Gi Tai

    2013-10-01

    The present experiment was aimed to study the effect of imposing modulated temperature treatments 14 °C and 18 °C, around the fruiting region of watermelon plants, and to estimate the economic feasibility of the temperature treatments based on energy consumption for heating. Watermelon cultivar 'Sambok-gul' was selected and sown on perlite beds in a plastic house under controlled conditions at Watermelon Farm, Jeongeup-Jeonbuk, longitude 35° 31' 47.51N, 126° 48'48.84E, altitude 37 m during the early spring season (2010-2011). The findings revealed that the temperature treatment at 18 °C caused significant increase in weight (2.0 kg plant(-1)), fruit weight (8.3 kg plant(-1)), soluble solid content (11.5 %), and fruit set rate (96.5 %) at harvest stage. Higher contents of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions were observed in the 1st upper leaf of the fruit set node (79.3 mg L(-1)) and the 1st lower leaf of the fruit set node (12.0 mg L(-1)), respectively at 14 °C. The power consumption and extra costs of the temperature treatment 18 °C were suggested as affordable and in range of a farmer's budget (41.14 USD/22 days). Hence, it was concluded that modulating temperature treatments could be utilized successfully to optimize the temperature range for enhancing the fruit yield and quality in the winter watermelon crops. PMID:24431519

  7. Utilizing Citrullus lanatus var. citroides germplasm for developing tetraploid lines useful as rootstocks and in breeding programs of seedless watermelon lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, soil-borne diseases and pests have intensified in watermelon, particularly after the phasing out of the soil fumigant methyl bromide, and there is a continuous need to develop solutions for reducing the disease and pest pressure in this important cucurbit crop. Grafting of watermel...

  8. Identification and validation of a core set of microsatellite markers for genetic diversity analysis in watermelon, Citrullus lanatus Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Watermelon has a narrow genetic base, which makes it difficult in detection and utilization of the genetic variations, cultivar identification and increasing genetic diversity that are some important tasks for watermelon breeders. Molecular marker...

  9. Resistance of Polish lines and hybrids of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum et Nakai] to Fusarium oxysporum at the seedling stage.

    PubMed

    Swiader, Magdalena; Prończuk, Maria; Niemirowicz-Szczyt, Katarzyna

    2002-01-01

    Watermelon is a species cultivated in the hot climate or in the greenhouse. Since recently it has also started to be grown in the open in the Polish climate. This species is frequently at risk of Fusarium oxysporum infection. Between 1996 and 1997 ten inbred lines and nine hybrids of Polish origin were tested for resistance to this pathogen. The test was conducted with the use of four isolates of F. oxysporum: three from Polish infected plants (formae speciales not determined), while the fourth from U.K. (F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum). In the three series of tests the control plants were Pannonia F(1) and Sugar Baby. No inbred line or hybrid was found to be highly resistant to the pathogen. However, it was possible to identify four lines and five hybrids showing a higher level of resistance as compared with the control. The level of hybrid resistance was determined by comparison with the parental genotypes. PMID:12080172

  10. Scanning genomic areas under selection sweep and association mapping as tools to identify horticultural important genes in watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) contains 88% water, sugars, and several important health-related compounds, including lycopene, citrulline, arginine, and glutathione. The current genetic diversity study uses microsatellites with known map positions to identify genomic regions that under...

  11. Resistance of Citrullus Colocynthis to Whiteflies and Spidermites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The B-biotype sweetpotato whitefly (SPWF), Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), and the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) are serious pests of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus) (Cucurbitaceae). United ...

  12. Grafting for Management of Southern Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Incognita, in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, one squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima) hybrid, four wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm lines, and one commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus var. citroides) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for cultivated watermelo...

  13. Utility of Grafting for Managing Southern Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Incognita, in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, one squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima) hybrid, four wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm lines, and one commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus var. citroides) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for cultivated watermelo...

  14. Wild Forms of Watermelon and Genomic Resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this chapter, we reviewed the characteristics, phylogenetic information of all the species in Citrullus genera, including Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai., C. lanatus var. citrides (Bailey; Mansf.), C. ecirrhosus Cogn., C. rehmii De Winter., C. colocynthis (L.) Schrad, an...

  15. Molecular Phylogeny of Citrullus Species as Inferred from AFLPs and SSRs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-one accessions of Citrullus spp. belonging to C. lanatus var. lanatus, C. lanatus var. citroids and Citrullus colocynthis were subjected to phylogenetic analysis using combined data sets of AFLPs and SSRs. Tree topologies inferred by Neighbor Joining analysis have resolved the phylogenic rel...

  16. Response of Watermelon Germplasm to Southern Root-Knot Nematode in Field Tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the US. While there is no known resistance to southern root-knot nematode in watermelon cultivars to date, wild watermelon relatives (C. lanatus var...

  17. Endometrial gene expression profiling in pregnant Meishan and Yorkshire breeds at peri-implantation to characterize the prolific nature of pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The prolificacy trait of pigs (larger litter size) is a major factor affecting the profitability in the pig industry. Previous studies revealed that the function of the maternal uterine endometrium, which has been shown to be closely related to early embryo mortality, has considerable in...

  18. Prepubertal Scoring of Scale Activity in Gilts and Its Potential Relationship to Subsequent Fertility and Reproductive Performance in Landrace-Duroc-Yorkshire Cross Females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A majority of animals culled due to reproductive failure are skewed towards younger parities (1 or less), decreasing the economic potential of the herd, thereby leading to an overall reduction in the herd’s sow lifetime productivity. The ability to identify young females with superior reproductive p...

  19. Effects of ad libitum and restricted feeding on early production performance and body composition of Yorkshire pigs selected for reduced residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Boddicker, N; Gabler, N K; Spurlock, M E; Nettleton, D; Dekkers, J C M

    2011-08-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between observed and expected feed intake based on growth and backfat, has been used to investigate genetic variation in feed efficiency in cattle, poultry and pigs. However, little is known about the biological basis of differences in RFI in pigs. To this end, the objective of this study was to evaluate the fifth generation of a line of pigs selected for reduced RFI against a randomly selected Control line for performance, carcass and chemical carcass composition and overall efficiency. Here, emphasis was on the early grower phase. A total of 100 barrows, 50 from each line, were paired by age and weight (22.6 ± 3.9 kg) and randomly assigned to one of four feeding treatments in 11 replicates: ad libitum (Ad), 75% of Ad (Ad75), 55% of Ad (Ad55) and weight stasis (WS), which involved weekly adjustments in intake to keep body weight (BW) constant for each pig. Pigs were individually penned (group housing was used for selection) and were on treatment for 6 weeks. Initial BW did not significantly differ between the lines (P > 0.17). Under Ad feeding, the low RFI pigs consumed 8% less feed compared with Control line pigs (P < 0.06), had less carcass fat (P < 0.05), but with no significant difference in growth rate (P > 0.85). Under restricted feeding, low RFI pigs under the Ad75 treatment had a greater rate of gain while consuming the same amount of feed as Control pigs. Despite the greater gain, no significant line differences in carcass composition or carcass traits were observed. For the WS treatment, low RFI pigs had similar BW (P > 0.37) with no significant difference in feed consumption (P > 0.32). Overall, selection for reduced RFI has decreased feed intake, with limited differences in growth rate but reduced carcass fat, as seen under Ad feeding. Collectively, results indicate that the effects of selection for low RFI are evident during the early grower stage, which allows for greater savings to the producer. PMID:22440279

  20. The laser microprobe mass analyser for determining partitioning of minor and trace elements among intimately associated macerals: an example from the Swallow Wood coal bed, Yorkshire, UK

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, P.C.; Morelli, J.J.; Hercules, D.M.; Lineman, D.; Thompson-Rizer, C. L.; Dulong, F.T.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the elemental composition of intimately associated coal macerals in the English Swallow Wood coal bed was conducted using a laser microprobe mass analyser, and indicated a similar trace and minor elemental chemistry in the vitrinite and cutinite and a different elemental signature in the fusinite. Three to six sites were analysed within each maceral during the study by laser micro mass spectrometry (LAMMS). Al, Ba, Ca, Cl, Cr, Dy, F, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mg, Na, S, Si, Sr, Ti, V, and Y were detected by LAMMS in all three macerals but not necessarily at each site analysed. The signal intensities of major isotopic peaks were normalized to the signal intensity of the m z 85 peak (C7H) to determine the relative minor- and trace-element concentrations among the three dominant macerals. The vitrinite and the cutinite were depleted in Ba, Ca, Dy, Li, Mg, Sr, and Y relative to their concentrations observed in the fusinite. The cutinite was distinguished over vitrinite by less Ti, V, Cr and Ca, and K Ca $ ??1 (relative signal intensities). The fusinite, relative to the cutinite and vitrinite, was relatively depleted in Cr, Sc, Ti, and V. The fusinite, as compared with both the cutinite and vitrinite, was relatively enriched in Ba, Ca, Dy, Li, Mg, Sr, and Y, and also showed the most intense m z 64, 65, 66 signals (possibly S2+, HS2+, H2S2+, respectively). The LAMMS data indicate a common source for most elements and selective loss from the maceral precursors in the peat or entrapment of certain elements as mineral matter, most likely during the peat stage or during early diagenesis. The relatively high amounts of Ba, Ca, Dy, Li, Mg, Sr, and Y in the fusinite are consistent with micron and submicron mineral-matter inclusions such as carbonates and Ca-Al phosphates (probably crandallite group minerals). Mineralogical data on the whole coal, the LAMMS chemistry of the vitrinite and cutinite, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDAX) of the elements in the macerals are consistent with the presence of micron and submicron inclusions of clays such as kaolinite, illite, and Ca-rich or Ca-bearing minerals (e.g. calcite, Ca-Al phosphates, and illite) which are different in kind and proportions in the three macerals. The variance as measured by the F-statistic for all three macerals indicates generally a nonuniform distribution of minor and trace elements in all three macerals, thus supporting a mineral-matter (inorganic) origin of the elements analysed. Exceptions are Al, K, Fe, Ga, and Sr in the vitrinite and cutinite, which is consistent with organic complexing or a uniform distribution of micron or submicron mineral matter such as illite and phosphate(s). ?? 1990.

  1. SNP Detection in the Porcine PPARGC1A Promoter Region and 3'UTR, and an Association Analysis in a Landrace-Duroc-Yorkshire Population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the most important economic selection criteria in pigs today is meat quality, contrasting with the more traditional focus on just lean growth. Meat quality however is determined by many factors with a complex mutual relationship. In this regard, PPARGC1A is a very interesting candidate gene b...

  2. DIFFERENTIAL ENDOMETRIAL TRANSCRIPT EXPRESSION BETWEEN YORKSHIRE AND THE PROLIFIC MEISHAN BREED OF PIGS DURING THE CRITICAL STAGE OF CONCEPTUS ELONGATION AND EARLY ATTACHMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Chinese Meishan pig breed is known for larger average litters, as compared to commercial breeds. This difference is due to increased embryo survival controlled primarily by the dam and particularly at the implantation stage that initiates at day 11-12 of gestation (d11-12). To identify the genes...

  3. Association of porcine heparanase and hyaluronidase 1 and 2 with reproductive and production traits in a Landrace-Duroc-Yorkshire population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The ovary and placenta are dynamic structures requiring constant modification both structurally and through cell-cell communication capabilities. The extracellular matrix and basement membranes are primarily composed of a mileu of glycosaminoglycans, including heparan sulfate and hyalu...

  4. Effect of n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Microsomal P450 Steroidogenic Enzyme Activities and In Vitro Cortisol Production in Adrenal Tissue From Yorkshire Boars.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xuemei; Wang, Xudong; Mick, Gail J; Kabarowski, Janusz H; Wilson, Landon Shay; Barnes, Stephen; Walcott, Gregory P; Luo, Xiaoping; McCormick, Kenneth

    2016-04-01

    Dysregulation of adrenal glucocorticoid production is increasingly recognized to play a supportive role in the metabolic syndrome although the mechanism is ill defined. The adrenal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, CYP17 and CYP21, are essential for glucocorticoid synthesis. The omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may ameliorate metabolic syndrome, but it is unknown whether they have direct actions on adrenal CYP steroidogenic enzymes. The aim of this study was to determine whether PUFA modify adrenal glucocorticoid synthesis using isolated porcine microsomes. The enzyme activities of CYP17, CYP21, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH), and CYP2E1 were measured in intact microsomes treated with fatty acids of disparate saturated bonds. Cortisol production was measured in a cell-free in vitro model. Microsomal lipid composition after arachidonic acid (AA) exposure was determined by sequential window acquisition of all theoretical spectra-mass spectrometry. Results showed that adrenal microsomal CYP21 activity was decreased by docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid, α-linolenic acid, AA, and linoleic acid, and CYP17 activity was inhibited by DPA, DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid, and AA. Inhibition was associated with the number of the PUFA double bonds. Similarly, cortisol production in vitro was decreased by DPA, DHA, and AA. Endoplasmic enzymes with intraluminal activity were unaffected by PUFA. In microsomes exposed to AA, the level of AA or oxidative metabolites of AA in the membrane was not altered. In conclusion, these observations suggest that omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA, especially those with 2 or more double bonds (DPA, DHA, and AA), impede adrenal glucocorticoid production. PMID:26889941

  5. How much does fluvial dissolved organic carbon export from blanket bogs vary at the regional scale? An example from the Pennine region of Yorkshire, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, Richard; Blundell, Antony; Holden, Joseph

    2014-05-01

    Often only one or a very small number of stream sampling points are used to infer wider regional export of fluvial carbon from peatlands. However, we suggest that the amount of fluvial carbon being exported varies enormously within regions even when blanket peat is the dominant land cover type. Here we present results from an extensive and comprehensive monitoring project covering blanket peat dominated catchments across the Pennine region of the UK using data from 2006 onwards. Up to the start of January 2014 the dataset contained dissolved organic carbon (DOC) data for approximately 11500 stream water samples (both routine spot samples and storm event samples). The majority of these DOC measurements also have associated UV-Vis absorbance data allowing an insight into the composition of the DOC present, specifically the dominance of humic versus fulvic acids and the degree of aromaticity (SUVA254). Additional data to support interpretation of the regional variability of DOC includes particulate organic carbon, discharge, pH, conductivity and turbidity, water table depth, soil water chemistry and meteorological data. We provide an unparalleled insight into the spatial and temporal variability of DOC in a region of blanket bogs showing how catchment attributes influence fluvial DOC, how there are hotspots of DOC production and how high flow events regulating DOC export and its composition.

  6. Ecohydrology of an Embanked Lowland UK River Meadow and the Effects of Embankment Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clilverd, H.; Thompson, J.; Sayer, C.; Heppell, K.; Axmacher, J.

    2012-12-01

    Pristine riparian and floodplain ecosystems are in a state of dynamic balance due to the regular floods that continuously reshape river channels and their banks, and transport water, sediment and nutrients onto the floodplain. However, the natural flow regime of many rivers has been altered by channelization and artificial embankments designed to protect agricultural and urban developments from flooding. This has had a lasting impact on the hydrological characteristics of floodplain ecosystems and the biological communities that inhabit them. Floodplain restoration, through embankment removal and the reconfiguration of river channels, is now being increasingly employed to re-establish river-floodplain connections and assist the recovery of lost or declining species. In order to manage a river restoration site for plant biodiversity, it is necessary to understand the physical and nutritional status of the root environment. We conducted fine scale (10 × 10 m) botanical and chemical sampling on a 3 ha embanked grassland meadow in Norfolk (Eastern England) and assessed the spatial pattern of plant communities in relation to soil physicochemical conditions. Continuous measurements of groundwater depth and river stage were collectively used to determine changes in the hydrological regime following embankment-removal. Prior to the restoration the meadow plant community was dominated by Holcus lanatus, Ranunculus repens and Agrostis stolonifera. Species richness was fairly low (mean: 8 spp. per m2), and indices of alpha-diversity suggest low heterogeneity of the plant assemblages (mean values for Shannon's Diversity and 1/Simpson's Diversity = 1.4 and 3.4, respectively). Top soils were moderately fertile, with mean respective Olsen P and plant available potassium concentrations of 9.1 mg P kg-1and 1.6 mg K+g-1. Plant available ammonium and nitrate concentrations were on average 31.7 mg NH4+-N kg-1 and 2.8 mg NO3--N kg-1, respectively. River water was enriched in nitrate

  7. Screening for new accumulator plants in Andes Range mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria

    2016-04-01

    Toxic metal pollution of waters and soils is a major environmental problem, and most conventional remediation approaches do not provide acceptable solutions. The use of plants or plant products to restore or stabilize contaminated sites, collectively known as phytoremediation, takes advantage of the natural abilities of plants to take up, accumulate, store, or degrade organic and inorganic substances. Although not a new concept, phytoremediation is currently being re-examined as an environmentally friendly, cost-effective means of reducing metal contaminated soil. Plants growing on naturally metal-enriched soils are of particular interest in this regard, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations and have an excellent adaptation to this multi-stress environment. Processes include using plants that tolerate and accumulate metals at high levels (phytoextraction) and using plants that can grow under conditions that are toxic to other plants while preventing, for example, soil erosion (phytostabilization). Soil and plant samples were taken at polymetallic mines in Peru, Ecuador and Chile. It is suggested that Plantago orbignyana Steinheil is a Pb hyperaccumulator. Moreover, unusually elevated concentrations of Pb (over 1000 mg kg‑1) and Translocation Factor (TF) greater than one were also detected in shoots of 6 different plants species (Ageratina sp., Achirodine alata, Cortaderia apalothica, Epilobium denticulatum, Taraxacum officinalis and Trifolium repens) of a Caroline mine in Perú. Among the grass species (Poaceae), the highest shoot As concentration were found in Paspalum sp. (>1000 μg g-1) and Eriochola ramose (460 μg g-1) from the Cu mine in Peru and in Holcus lanatus and Pennisetum clandestinum (>200 μg g-1) from the silver mine in Ecuador. The shoot accumulation of Zn was highest in Baccharis amdatensis (>1900 μg g-1) and in Rumex crispus (1300 μg g-1) from the Ag mine in Ecuador (Bech et al., 2002). Paspalum racemosum also

  8. High-Throughput MicroRNA and mRNA Sequencing Reveals That MicroRNAs May Be Involved in Melatonin-Mediated Cold Tolerance in Citrullus lanatus L.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Dong, Yuchuan; Chang, Jingjing; He, Jie; Chen, Hejie; Liu, Qiyan; Wei, Chunhua; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation of cold-responsive genes is crucial for exogenous melatonin-mediated cold tolerance in plants. Nonetheless, how melatonin regulates cold-responsive genes is largely unknown. In this study, we found that exogenous melatonin improved cold tolerance in watermelon by regulating expression of microRNAs (miRNAs). We identified a set of miRNAs that were regulated by melatonin under unstressed or cold conditions. Importantly, mRNA-seq analysis revealed that melatonin-induced downregulation of some miRNAs, such as miR159-5p, miR858, miR8029-3p, and novel-m0048-3p correlated with the upregulation of target genes involved in signal transduction (CDPK, BHLH, WRKY, MYB, and DREB) and protection/detoxification (LEA and MDAR) under cold stress. These results suggest that miRNAs may be involved in melatonin-mediated cold tolerance in watermelon by negatively regulating the expression of target mRNAs. PMID:27574526

  9. Development of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers and a CAPS-based genetic linkage map in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Matsum. and Nakai) constructed using whole-genome re-sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shi; Gao, Peng; Zhu, Qianglong; Luan, Feishi; Davis, Angela R.; Wang, Xiaolu

    2016-01-01

    Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers are useful tools for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This study detected and converted SNP sites into CAPS markers based on high-throughput re-sequencing data in watermelon, for linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Two inbred lines, Cream of Saskatchewan (COS) and LSW-177 had been re-sequenced and analyzed by Perl self-compiled script for CAPS marker development. 88.7% and 78.5% of the assembled sequences of the two parental materials could map to the reference watermelon genome, respectively. Comparative assembled genome data analysis provided 225,693 and 19,268 SNPs and indels between the two materials. 532 pairs of CAPS markers were designed with 16 restriction enzymes, among which 271 pairs of primers gave distinct bands of the expected length and polymorphic bands, via PCR and enzyme digestion, with a polymorphic rate of 50.94%. Using the new CAPS markers, an initial CAPS-based genetic linkage map was constructed with the F2 population, spanning 1836.51 cM with 11 linkage groups and 301 markers. 12 QTLs were detected related to fruit flesh color, length, width, shape index, and brix content. These newly CAPS markers will be a valuable resource for breeding programs and genetic studies of watermelon. PMID:27162496

  10. Phyto-mediated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the rind extract of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) under photo-catalyzed condition and investigation of its antibacterial, anticandidal and antioxidant efficacy.

    PubMed

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Das, Gitishree; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    The biological synthesis of nanoparticles has gained tremendous interest, and plants and plant extracts are preferred over other biological sources for this process because of their rich content of bioactive metabolites. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were produced utilizing the aqueous extract of watermelon rind (WRA), an agricultural waste material under photo exposed condition at room temperature, and tested for their antibacterial, anticandidal and antioxidant activities. The synthesized AgNPs showed surface plasmon resonance at 425nm with an average size of 109.97nm. The morphology and elemental composition was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) confirmed that the bioactive compounds from the WRA extract were involved in the synthesis and capping of AgNPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the crystallite nature of the AgNPs. The AgNPs exhibited strong broad spectrum antibacterial activity against five different foodborne bacteria with zones of inhibition 9.12-14.54mm in diameter. When AgNPs were mixed with kanamycin and rifampicin the mixture exhibited strong antibacterial synergistic activity. The AgNPs also exerted strong synergistic anticandidal activity when they were combined with amphotericin b. The AgNPs had high antioxidant activity and reducing power. Overall, the results confirmed the bio-potentials of the synthesized AgNPs using WRA, which could have applications in the biomedical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food preservation and packaging industries. PMID:27261701

  11. Development of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers and a CAPS-based genetic linkage map in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Matsum. and Nakai) constructed using whole-genome re-sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi; Gao, Peng; Zhu, Qianglong; Luan, Feishi; Davis, Angela R; Wang, Xiaolu

    2016-03-01

    Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers are useful tools for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This study detected and converted SNP sites into CAPS markers based on high-throughput re-sequencing data in watermelon, for linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Two inbred lines, Cream of Saskatchewan (COS) and LSW-177 had been re-sequenced and analyzed by Perl self-compiled script for CAPS marker development. 88.7% and 78.5% of the assembled sequences of the two parental materials could map to the reference watermelon genome, respectively. Comparative assembled genome data analysis provided 225,693 and 19,268 SNPs and indels between the two materials. 532 pairs of CAPS markers were designed with 16 restriction enzymes, among which 271 pairs of primers gave distinct bands of the expected length and polymorphic bands, via PCR and enzyme digestion, with a polymorphic rate of 50.94%. Using the new CAPS markers, an initial CAPS-based genetic linkage map was constructed with the F2 population, spanning 1836.51 cM with 11 linkage groups and 301 markers. 12 QTLs were detected related to fruit flesh color, length, width, shape index, and brix content. These newly CAPS markers will be a valuable resource for breeding programs and genetic studies of watermelon. PMID:27162496

  12. Technological Analysis of the World’s Earliest Shamanic Costume: A Multi-Scalar, Experimental Study of a Red Deer Headdress from the Early Holocene Site of Star Carr, North Yorkshire, UK

    PubMed Central

    Little, Aimée; Elliott, Benjamin; Conneller, Chantal; Pomstra, Diederik; Evans, Adrian A.; Fitton, Laura C.; Holland, Andrew; Davis, Robert; Kershaw, Rachel; O’Connor, Sonia; O’Connor, Terry; Sparrow, Thomas; Wilson, Andrew S.; Jordan, Peter; Collins, Matthew J.; Colonese, André Carlo; Craig, Oliver E.; Knight, Rebecca; Lucquin, Alexandre J. A.; Taylor, Barry; Milner, Nicky

    2016-01-01

    Shamanic belief systems represent the first form of religious practice visible within the global archaeological record. Here we report on the earliest known evidence of shamanic costume: modified red deer crania headdresses from the Early Holocene site of Star Carr (c. 11 kya). More than 90% of the examples from prehistoric Europe come from this one site, establishing it as a place of outstanding shamanistic/cosmological significance. Our work, involving a programme of experimental replication, analysis of macroscopic traces, organic residue analysis and 3D image acquisition, metrology and visualisation, represents the first attempt to understand the manufacturing processes used to create these artefacts. The results produced were unexpected—rather than being carefully crafted objects, elements of their production can only be described as expedient. PMID:27073850

  13. "It Is Only the Instructed and Trained Overlooker and Artisan That Can Successfully Compete against Foreign Skills": Nineteenth-Century Adult Technical and Vocational Education Offered by the Yorkshire Union of Mechanics' Institutes and the Foundation of Further Education Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martyn

    2012-01-01

    Further education colleges in England and Wales have offered government-recognised courses and qualifications which receive public funding and have included technical and vocational courses since their foundation in the early twentieth century. Yet developments in such curricula and qualifications are not new and they can be traced back to the…

  14. An allele-specific SNP mutation in the eIF4E gene is associated with the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistance in watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is one of the most economically important potyviruses infecting cucurbit crops worldwide. Using a candidate gene approach, we cloned and sequenced an eIF4E gene in the ZYMV-resistant PI 595203 (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) and the ZYMV-susceptible watermelon c...

  15. Notes on Citrullius spp. and Acanthosicyos naudinianus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scanning electron and light microscopy were utilized to examine pollen of the currently recognized species (and forms) within the genus Citrullus (Cucurbitaceae). Materials examined included: C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai including the citron (C. amarus Schrad.) and egusi (C. lanatus subsp. mu...

  16. Inhibition of bacterial, fungal and plant growth by testa extracts of Citrullus genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai) seed exudates inhibit germination and seedling growth of several plant species and growth of pathogenic fungi and bacteria. This study was conducted to determine if extractable components in testae contribute to the inhibition. T...

  17. Gene sequences present in Citrullus sp. having been lost during domestication of watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wide genetic diversity exists among Citrullus species, while watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) share a narrow genetic base as a result of many years of domestication and selection for desirable fruit qualities. The recent international watermelon genome sequencing project reve...

  18. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A microarray and Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruit, a...

  19. Identification of unique volatile compounds associated with repelling whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in desert watermelon (Citrullus colocynthis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) share a narrow genetic base and are susceptible to many insect pests and diseases. The insects include whiteflies which cause serious economic damages to this important cucurbit crop. However, several United States Plant Introduction a...

  20. 392291-VDR, a watermelon germplasm line with resistance to Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)-caused watermelon vine decline (WVD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    392291-VDR (vine decline resistant) is a watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) germplasm line having resistance to watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV). The line is derived from the U.S. Plant Introduction (PI) 392291, after succ...

  1. Genetic Diversity among Watermelon Citrullus spp. Accessions Based on HFO-TAG Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need to enhance watermelon cultivars for disease and pest resistance. U.S. Plant Introductions (PIs) of Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai subsp. lanatus var. citroides (Bailey) Mansf. ex Greb. collected in southern Africa are a valuable source for enhancing disease and pest resi...

  2. USVL-220, A Novel Watermelon Breeding Line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel watermelon breeding line was developed at the USDA, ARS, U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, Charleston, South Carolina. This breeding line contains the nuclear genome of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) and the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomic background of the desert spe...

  3. A Glance at Microsatellite Motifs from 454 Sequencing Reads of Watermelon Genomic DNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A single 454 (Life Sciences Sequencing Technology) run of Charleston Gray watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) genomic DNA was performed and sequence data were assembled. A large scale identification of simple sequence repeat (SSR) was performed and SSR sequence data were used for the develo...

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF RESISTANCE TO MELOIDOGYNE ARENARIA RACE 1 IN U.S. WATERMELON PLANT INTRODUCTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica) reduce yields of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in the southern U.S. and world-wide. Root-knot nematodes are controlled in watermelon by pre-plant soil fumigation with methyl bromide or treatment with other nemat...

  5. Isolation, Sequence Analysis, and Linkage Mapping of NBS-LRR Disease Resistance Gene Analogs in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) is susceptible to a wide range of pathogens. Sixty-six watermelon resistance gene homologs were cloned from ‘Calhoun Gray’, PI 296341, and PI 595203 using degenerate primers to select for the nucleotide binding site (NBS) from the NBS-LRR resist...

  6. Cytomolecular characterization of rRNA gene sequences among Citrullus species and subspecies using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In previous studies, many DNA markers showed strong preferential (non-Mendelian) segregation in F2 and BC1 genetic populations derived from crosses between wild type watermelon [C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai subsp. lanatus var. citroides (Bailey) Mansf. ex Greb.] (CLC) and watermelon cultivar...

  7. Is Grafting Useful for Managing Root-Knot Nematodes in Watermelon?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five Citrullus lanatus var. citroides germplasm lines, four Lagenaria siceraria cultivars, one Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima hybrid, and one commercial wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus spp.) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for watermelon in a field infested with the southern root-knot nemat...

  8. Combining Reflective Mulch and Host Plant Resistance for Sweetpotato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Management in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the use of reflective mulch and host plant resistance for the management of the B-biotype sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Thunberg) Matsum & Nakai]. Whitefly abundance data were collected under both g...

  9. Use of latent class analysis to estimate the sensitivities and specificities of diagnostic tests for Squash vein yellowing virus in cucurbits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) causes watermelon vine decline in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus). Current methods for identification of SqVYV-infected plants are based on the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), tissue blot nucleic acid hybridization assays (NAHA), and visual symptom...

  10. Grafting for Management of Root-Knot Nematodes in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm lines, four bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, one squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima) hybrid, and one commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus spp.) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for watermelon in a field infested...

  11. ACC Synthase Genes are Polymorphic in Watermelon (Citrullus spp.) and Differentially Expressed in Flowers and in Response to Auxin and Gibberellin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The flowering pattern of watermelon species (Citrullus) is either monoecious or andromonoecious. In watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.), ethylene promotes male flower development while inhibitors of ethylene promote pistillate (pistil-bearing) flower formation. This is opposite to the feminizing effec...

  12. SPICED: Evaluation of a Drug Education Project in Kirklees Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosswaite, C.; Tooby, J.; Cyster, R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the process, implementation, and short-term outcomes of a drug education programme (SPICED) introduced in Kirklees schools, West Yorkshire. Design: A retrospective evaluation using mixed methods. Setting: Ten primary schools in West Yorkshire. Methods: Interviews with professionals, survey of parents, focus groups with…

  13. Identification of depression in women during pregnancy and the early postnatal period using the Whooley questions and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: protocol for the Born and Bred in Yorkshire: PeriNatal Depression Diagnostic Accuracy (BaBY PaNDA) study

    PubMed Central

    Littlewood, Elizabeth; Ali, Shehzad; Ansell, Pat; Dyson, Lisa; Gascoyne, Samantha; Hewitt, Catherine; Keding, Ada; Mann, Rachel; McMillan, Dean; Morgan, Deborah; Swan, Kelly; Waterhouse, Bev; Gilbody, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Perinatal depression is well recognised as a mental health condition but <50% of cases are identified by healthcare professionals in routine clinical practice. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is often used to detect symptoms of postnatal depression in maternity and child services. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends 2 ‘ultra-brief’ case-finding questions (the Whooley questions) to aid identification of depression during the perinatal period, but this recommendation was made in the absence of any validation studies in a perinatal population. Limited research exists on the acceptability of these depression case-finding instruments and the cost-effectiveness of routine screening for perinatal depression. Methods and analysis The diagnostic accuracy of the Whooley questions and the EPDS will be determined against a reference standard (the Client Interview Schedule—Revised) during pregnancy (around 20 weeks) and the early postnatal period (around 3–4 months post partum) in a sample of 379 women. Further outcome measures will assess a range of psychological comorbidities, health-related quality of life and resource utilisation. Women will be followed up 12 months postnatally. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the Whooley questions and the EPDS will be calculated against the reference standard at 20 weeks pregnancy and 3–4 months post partum. Acceptability of the depression case-finding instruments to women and healthcare professionals will involve in-depth qualitative interviews. An existing decision analytic model will be adapted to determine the cost-effectiveness of routine screening for perinatal depression. Ethics and dissemination This study is considered low risk for participants. Robust protocols will deal with cases where risk of depression, self-harm or suicide is identified. The protocol received favourable ethical opinion from the North East—York Research Ethics Committee (reference: 11/NE/0022). The study findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at relevant conferences. PMID:27297012

  14. Effect of Cultural Practices and Fungicides on Phytophthora Fruit Rot of Watermelon in the Carolinas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora fruit rot, caused by Phytophthora capsici, is an important and emerging disease of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in the Southeastern U.S. To develop strategies to manage Phytophthora fruit rot, we evaluated the effects of two cultural practices (raised bare ground and plastic mulched ...

  15. USVL-370, A zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistant watermelon breeding line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the development of a novel watermelon line ‘USVL-370’ [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] containing resistance to the zucchini yellow mosaic virus-Florida strain (ZYMV-FL). This breeding line is homozygous for the recessive eukaryotic elongation factor eIF4E allele associated wit...

  16. Potential Sources of Resistance in Watermelon Plant Introductions (PI) to Watermelon Vine Decline in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) also known as mature watermelon vine decline has been a major limiting factor in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production in southwest and west central Florida for the past several years. Symptoms of WVD typically occur at harvest time or one to two weeks prior to har...

  17. Identifying resistance to powdery mildew race 2W in the USDA-ARS watermelon germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii has become a common disease of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] in the United States. The disease can be controlled with fungicides. However, it is more economical and environmentally safe to use genetic resistance against this di...

  18. Watermelon quality traits as affected by ploidy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growers offering high quality watermelons [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb.), Matsum & Nakai] that are also high in phytonutrients will have stronger market opportunities. In order to offer highly nutritious fruit, the industry must understand the nature of phytonutrient accumulation as it is affected by ...

  19. A survey of bee species found pollinating watermelons in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a combination of flower traps and visual observations, we surveyed three watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] fields in the Lower Rio Grande Valley to determine what bees inhabit this crop in this region. No managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) hives were in any of the fie...

  20. Evaluation of Commercial Watermelon Rootstocks for Tolerance to Phytophthora Blight and Watermelon Vine Decline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora blight and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici, and watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), are two important and emerging diseases of watermelons (Citrullus lanatus). Recently, the practice of grafting seedless watermelons (triploids) onto roo...

  1. Host resistance to phytophthora fruit rot in U.S. watermelon plant introductions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora capsici, distributed worldwide, is an aggressive pathogen with a broad host range, infecting solanaceous, leguminaceous, and cucurbitaceous crops. Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) caused by P. capsici was first reported in the U.S. in 1940. Since then, the dise...

  2. Development of Phytophthora fruit rot resistant watermelon germplasm lines: USVL489-PFR, USVL782-PFR, USVL203-PFR and USVL020-PFR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora capsici, distributed worldwide, is an aggressive pathogen with a broad host range, infecting solanaceous, leguminaceous, and cucurbitaceous crops. Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) caused by Phytophthora capsici was first reported in the U.S. in 1940. Since then...

  3. Effects of Silver Plastic Mulch and Chemical Treatments on Development of Whitefly-Transmitted Viral Watermelon Vine Decline in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) in Florida is caused by the whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) transmitted virus called Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV, family: Potyviridae). WVD has been a major limiting factor in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production in south west and west central Florida for the pas...

  4. Effect of SqVYV-resistant pollenizers on development and spread of watermelon vine decline in seedless watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) has been a major limiting factor in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production in south Florida for the past several years. The disease causes sudden decline of the vines and affects the internal fru...

  5. RIPENING CHANGES IN MINI WATERMELON FRUIT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, seedless and seeded mini watermelons (Citrullus lanatus) of ripe, underripe, and overripe stages were evaluated for quality characteristics and changes in carotenoids and pectins. Similar to seeded, large watermelon, minimelon weight, pH, and soluble solids content increased in frui...

  6. CHANGES IN CAROTENOID CONTENT DURING PROCESSING OF WATERMELON FOR JUICE CONCENTRATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelons (Citrullus lanatus) are used primarily as a fresh product in the U.S. There is interest in developing value added products for additional markets and for use of cosmetically damaged fruit. In this study, watermelons were processed into juice concentrates, using a series of heat and tre...

  7. Outbreak of powdery mildew on watermelon fruit caused by podosphera xanthii in southwest Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew caused by the obligate parasite Podosphera xanthii occurs commonly on foliage, petioles and stems of most cucurbit vegetable crops grown in the U.S. (1). However, in the field, fruit infection on cucurbits including watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), is rarely, if ever, observed. Consequ...

  8. L-citrulline levels in watermelon cultigens tested in two environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Melon producers face increasing production costs and international market competition. Maximizing marketability of high quality watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai], that also contain high levels of the amino acid phytonutrient L-citrulline, can provide new market niches for th...

  9. Long-term survival and seed transmission of Acidovorax avenae ssp. citrulli in melon and watermelon seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed transmission of Acidovorax avenae ssp. citrulli (Aac) is a key factor in the dissemination of bacterial fruit blotch of cucurbits. In this study, we report seed transmission of Aac from 34-year-old watermelon seed (Citrullus lanatus) and from 40-year-old melon seed (Cucumis melo). The seed lo...

  10. Management of Whitefly-Transmitted Viral Watermelon Vine Decline in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV, family: Potyviridae) has been a major limiting factor in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production in southwest and west-central Florida for the past several years. Symptoms of WVD typically manifes...

  11. Cucurbits [Cucumber, melon, pumpkin and squash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The focus of this chapter is on the edible members of the Cucurbitaceae family. The three important food-grade cucurbit genera Citrullus, Cucumis, and Cucurbita include the species Citrullus lanatus watermelons), Cucumis melo (cantaloupes and other sweet melons), Cucumis sativa (cucumbers and pick...

  12. Observations on anatomical aspects of the fruit, leaf and stem tissues of four Citrullus spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Morphological characteristics of the fruit, stem and leaf tissues of four species of Citrullus (L.) Schrad. were examined using standard histological methods. Plant materials included the cultivated watermelon (C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) and three of its related species; C. colocynthis (...

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-26 - Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Cantaloupe and watermelon from Ecuador. Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (fruit) (Citrullus lanatus... for the South American cucurbit fly (Anastrepha grandis) has been conducted for at least the previous... and all other applicable requirements of this subpart: (1) The fruit may be imported in...

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-26 - Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Cantaloupe and watermelon from Ecuador. Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (fruit) (Citrullus lanatus... for the South American cucurbit fly (Anastrepha grandis) has been conducted for at least the previous... and all other applicable requirements of this subpart: (1) The fruit may be imported in...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-26 - Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Cantaloupe and watermelon from Ecuador. Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (fruit) (Citrullus lanatus... for the South American cucurbit fly (Anastrepha grandis) has been conducted for at least the previous... and all other applicable requirements of this subpart: (1) The fruit may be imported in...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-26 - Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Cantaloupe and watermelon from Ecuador. Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (fruit) (Citrullus lanatus... for the South American cucurbit fly (Anastrepha grandis) has been conducted for at least the previous... and all other applicable requirements of this subpart: (1) The fruit may be imported in...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-26 - Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Cantaloupe and watermelon from Ecuador. Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (fruit) (Citrullus lanatus... for the South American cucurbit fly (Anastrepha grandis) has been conducted for at least the previous... and all other applicable requirements of this subpart: (1) The fruit may be imported in...

  18. Year two: Effects of grafting on watermelon yield and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the second year of research on the effects of grafting watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) onto rootstocks of squash and gourd. The study was conducted at Lane, Okla., in both 2004 and 2005. This report deals with the results from 2005. Treatments consisted of watermelon cultivars SF 800, SS 5...

  19. Evaluation of watermelon and related species for resistance to race 1W powdery mildew resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Race 1 and race 2 powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) has been reported on watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) in the United States for six years. In this study, the entire available U.S. Plant Introduction collection of Citrullus sp. was evaluated for resistance to P. xanthii r...

  20. Identification and translocation of metabolites from powdery mildew resistant rootstocks to susceptible watermelon scions using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), an important commercial crop, and nutritious fruit, is high in antioxidants, vitamins, and lycopene. Powdery mildew (PM) is a serious disease caused by Podosphaera xanthii, which significantly reduces watermelon production in the U.S. and other parts of the world. C...

  1. Use of external indicators to predict maturity of mini-watermelon fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Personal-size watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.)], cultivars Valdoria and Vanessa were evaluated at 20, 30, 40 or 50 days after anthesis to determine a means of determining maturity at harvest. Fruit circumference, weight, ground-spot color, and number of senescent tendrils were measured for ea...

  2. RESISTANCE OF WATERMELON (CITRULLUS SPP.) GERMPLASM TO THE PEANUT ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE (MELOIDOGYNE ARENARIA RACE 1)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica) are serious pests of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in the southern U.S. and world-wide. Currently, root-knot nematodes (RKN) are controlled in watermelon by pre-plant soil fumigation with methyl bromide or other nematicides....

  3. Root-knot nematode resistant rootstocks for grafted watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rootstock lines of wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) with resistance to root-knot nematodes (RKN) were developed by our team at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory. Rootstock lines RKVL 301, RKVL 316, and RKVL 318 (RKVL = Root Knot Vegetable Laboratory) were compared to wild tinda (Praec...

  4. Evaluation of several seed treatments for eradication of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli from watermelon seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), is a serious seedborne pathogen. To determine the effectiveness of several seed treatments for eradication of Aac from seed, healthy triploid watermelon seedlots were spiked with n...

  5. The influence of rootstock selection on fruit quality attributes of watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grafting watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) to control Fusarium wilt has been practiced in Europe, the Middle East, and the Far East for decades. Until recently, grafting watermelon has not been practiced in the United States due to labor costs and land availability. There is some disagreement in the ...

  6. First report of Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum Race 2 in Georgia watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is the number one specialty crop grown in Georgia, a state that ranks fourth nationally in watermelon production. In the last five years, Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), has been the greatest yield-limiting dise...

  7. POST weed control using halosulfuron in direct-seeded watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is needed in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production to avoid losses in crop yield and marketability that result from weed interference. Not only does weed control provide direct benefits to crop yields, but uncontrolled weeds hamper the management of insect and disease pests and redu...

  8. Evaluation of Fungicides for Control of Phytophthora Blight of Watermelon in North Carolina and South Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora blight, caused by Phytophthora capsici, is an important disease of cucurbits in the eastern U.S. Fungicides, crop rotation, and water management are recommended to control the disease. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) poses a particularly difficult challenge to disease control because o...

  9. Progress in the Development of Crimson Sweet-type Watermelon Breeding Lines with Resistance to Acidovorax Avenae Subsp. Citrulli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial fruit blotch (Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli [Schaad et al.] Willems et al.) continues to occur almost every year and has the potential to cause a disaster for the watermelon industry. In this study, Crimson Sweet watermelon was crossed with PI482279 and PI494817, two Citrullus lanatus...

  10. Evaluation of Commercial Watermelon Rootstocks for Tolerance to Phytophthora Blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora blight and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is becoming an important and emerging disease of watermelons (Citrullus lanatus). The disease mainly occurs in low lying areas of the fields where water logged conditions may be present. In recent years, the practice of grafting seed...

  11. Fusarium wilt in seedless watermelons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai], caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (E.F. Sm.) Snyd. & Hans., was first reported in the United States in 1894. Historically, Fusarium wilt has been the greatest yield-limiting disease of watermelon worldwide. The stat...

  12. Determining Tolerance in Commercial Watermelon Rootstocks to Crown Rot caused by Phytophthora Capsici using Real-Time PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora crown and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is becoming an important and emerging disease of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in southeastern United States. Various rootstocks have been used for grafting watermelon in Asia and Europe to manage soil-borne diseases such as Fusarium ...

  13. Melon Quality: What Consumers Like

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet melons (Cucumis melo L. plus Citrullus lanatus L.) are the most popular fresh fruit, based on per capita consumption, in the U.S.A. Cucumis melo (muskmelons or rockmelons) are the only fruits in the U.S.A. to have a 2.3 fold increase in consumer demand over the past 35 years. Preference attr...

  14. Tolerance of select watermelon plant introductions (PI) to watermelon vine decline in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD), also known as mature watermelon vine decline, has been a major limiting factor to watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production in southwest and west central Florida for the past several years. Symptoms of WVD typically occur at harvest time or one to two weeks prior to h...

  15. The FonSIX6 gene acts as an avirulence effector in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum - watermelon pathosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are three generally accepted Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon) physiological races (0, 1, and 2) that infect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Among them, race 1 is the most prevalent on watermelon throughout the world, while race 2 is highly aggressive to all commercial watermelon cultivar...

  16. Resistance in watermelon rootstocks to crown rot caused by Phytophthora capsici

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora crown and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is becoming an important and emerging disease of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in south eastern United States. In recent years, the practice of grafting seedless watermelons (triploids) onto rootstocks belonging to other Cucurbitaceae...

  17. The Use of Latent Class Analysis to Estimate the Sensitivities and Specificities of Diagnostic Tests for Squash vein yellowing virus in Cucurbit Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is the causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline, one of the most serious diseases in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) production in the southeastern United States. Current diagnostic methods for identification of SqVYV-infected plants or tissues are based on...

  18. Race 3, a new and highly virulent race of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum causing Fusarium wilt in watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three races (0, 1, and 2) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum have been previously described in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) based on their ability to cause disease on differential watermelon genotypes. Four isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum collected from wilted watermelon plants or infeste...

  19. Rapid method for total carotenoid detection in canary yellow-fleshed watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lycopene is the predominant carotenoid in red watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) and pro-lycopene is the predominant carotenoid in most orange watermelon. However, yellow watermelons contain many different carotenoids, all in low to trace amounts. Since carotenoids have anti...

  20. Variation in carotenoids among mini watermelons produced in four locations in the Eastern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighteen miniwatermelon (Citrullus lanatus) cultivars or lines (cultigens), all representing mini size (less than 4 kg), were grown in South and North Florida, South Carolina, and North Carolina. The watermelon was produced at each location using plasticulture (black plastic mulch and drip irrigati...

  1. Effect of reflective mulch and insecticidal treatments on development of watermelon vine decline caused by squash vein yellowing virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) has been a major limiting factor in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production in southwest and west-central Florida for the past several years. Symptoms of WVD typically manifest as sudden decline of vines one...

  2. Recombinant yeast as a functional tool for understanding bitterness and cucurbitacin biosynthesis in watermelon (Citrullus spp.).

    PubMed

    Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Shalev, Lior; Baranes, Nadine; Meir, Ayala; Itkin, Maxim; Cohen, Shahar; Zimbler, Kobi; Portnoy, Vitaly; Ebizuka, Yutaka; Shibuya, Masaaki; Burger, Yosef; Katzir, Nurit; Schaffer, Arthur A; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Ya'akov

    2015-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are a group of bitter-tasting oxygenated tetracyclic triterpenes that are produced in the family Cucurbitaceae and other plant families. The natural roles of cucurbitacins in plants are probably related to defence against pathogens and pests. Cucurbitadienol, a triterpene synthesized from oxidosqualene, is the first committed precursor to cucurbitacins produced by a specialized oxidosqualene cyclase termed cucurbitadienol synthase. We explored cucurbitacin accumulation in watermelon in relation to bitterness. Our findings show that cucurbitacins are accumulated in bitter-tasting watermelon, Citrullus lanatus var. citroides, as well as in their wild ancestor, C. colocynthis, but not in non-bitter commercial cultivars of sweet watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus). Molecular analysis of genes expressed in the roots of several watermelon accessions led to the isolation of three sequences (CcCDS1, CcCDS2 and ClCDS1), all displaying high similarity to the pumpkin CpCPQ, encoding a protein previously shown to possess cucurbitadienol synthase activity. We utilized the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY4743, heterozygous for lanosterol synthase, to probe for possible encoded cucurbitadienol synthase activity of the expressed watermelon sequences. Functional expression of the two sequences isolated from C. colocynthis (CcCDS1 and CcCDS2) in yeast revealed that only CcCDS2 possessed cucurbitadienol synthase activity, while CcCDS1 did not display cucurbitadienol synthase activity in recombinant yeast. ClCDS1 isolated from C. lanatus var. lanatus is almost identical to CcCDS1. Our results imply that CcCDS2 plays a role in imparting bitterness to watermelon. Yeast has been an excellent diagnostic tool to determine the first committed step of cucurbitacin biosynthesis in watermelon. PMID:25308777

  3. Inheritance of egusi seed type in watermelon.

    PubMed

    Gusmini, G; Wehner, T C; Jarret, R L

    2004-01-01

    An unusual seed mutant in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) has seeds with a fleshy pericarp, commonly called egusi seeds. The origin of the phenotype is unknown, but it is widely cultivated in Nigeria for the high protein and carbohydrate content of the edible seeds. Egusi seeds have a thick, fleshy pericarp that appears during the second to third week of fruit development. We studied the inheritance of this phenotype in crosses of normal seeded Charleston Gray and Calhoun Gray with two plant introduction accessions, PI 490383w and PI 560006, having the egusi seed type. We found that the egusi seed type is controlled by a single recessive gene, and the symbol eg was assigned. PMID:15220396

  4. Mapping noise pollution from road traffic for regional environmental planning

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, D.J.; France, J.

    1982-03-01

    Attempts were made to assess and map noise pollution from traffic for 1 km grid squares throughout South Yorkshire. The method adopted involved estimating traffic noise at source for all major road sections and modeling the attenuation of noise with distance by use of a variety of relationships developed by road traffic engineers. Results of the analysis were plotted by computer. This paper outlines the methods used in the analysis, presents the data and discusses the results. It is concluded that the method provides a realistic picture of noise pollution in South Yorkshire, and might be used more widely as an instrument of regional survey.

  5. A High Resolution Genetic Map Anchoring Scaffolds of the Sequenced Watermelon Genome

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Qinghe; Jiang, Jiao; Guo, Shaogui; Zhang, Haiying; Hou, Wenju; Zou, Xiaohua; Sun, Honghe; Gong, Guoyi; Levi, Amnon; Xu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    As part of our ongoing efforts to sequence and map the watermelon (Citrullus spp.) genome, we have constructed a high density genetic linkage map. The map positioned 234 watermelon genome sequence scaffolds (an average size of 1.41 Mb) that cover about 330 Mb and account for 93.5% of the 353 Mb of the assembled genomic sequences of the elite Chinese watermelon line 97103 (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus). The genetic map was constructed using an F8 population of 103 recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The RILs are derived from a cross between the line 97103 and the United States Plant Introduction (PI) 296341-FR (C. lanatus var. citroides) that contains resistance to fusarium wilt (races 0, 1, and 2). The genetic map consists of eleven linkage groups that include 698 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 219 insertion-deletion (InDel) and 36 structure variation (SV) markers and spans ∼800 cM with a mean marker interval of 0.8 cM. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 11 BACs that produced chromosome-specifc signals, we have depicted watermelon chromosomes that correspond to the eleven linkage groups constructed in this study. The high resolution genetic map developed here should be a useful platform for the assembly of the watermelon genome, for the development of sequence-based markers used in breeding programs, and for the identification of genes associated with important agricultural traits. PMID:22247776

  6. Toll Bar on Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Dave

    2008-01-01

    In the summer of 2007 the United Kingdom experienced some of the heaviest rainfall since records began. Toll Bar in South Yorkshire featured prominently in media coverage as the village and the homes surrounding it began to flood. Many people lost everything: their homes, their furniture, their possessions. In an effort to come to terms with what…

  7. Harrison, John (1693-1776)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Clockmaker, born in Foulby, West Yorkshire, England. In 1713 the British Government offered a valuable prize for the invention of a method to determine longitude accurately. Harrison developed a series of clocks through wooden models, and in 1726 invented the bimetallic pendulum that compensated for thermal expansion due to the variations of climate expected on long sea voyages, as well as seve...

  8. Forest School in an Inner City? Making the Impossible Possible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Forest School approach to Early Years education, originally developed in Scandinavia, is influencing learning outside the classroom in England. An inner city primary school in Yorkshire investigated the nature and purpose of Forest Schools in Denmark, through a study visit, prior to developing their own Forest School in the midst of an urban…

  9. Careers Using Languages: How to Set up a Conference for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Since 2011, York St John University (YSJU) has run an annual one-day "Careers using Languages" conference for schools in Yorkshire and Humberside. It has the aim of demonstrating to school students the opportunities in life that speaking a foreign language opens up as well as showing how they will be able to offer an added bonus to their…

  10. Education, Training and Rural Living: Young People in Ryedale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Roger

    2005-01-01

    Purpose ? To evaluate the impact of rural renaissance projects aimed at overcoming issues of accessibility and out-migration of the younger, more economically active population and to consider what young people feel about education, training and rural living in Ryedale, North Yorkshire. Design/methodology/approach ? Twenty Single Regeneration…