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Sample records for holcus lanatus yorkshire

  1. Phytochelatins are involved in differential arsenate tolerance in Holcus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Hartley-Whitaker, J; Ainsworth, G; Vooijs, R; Ten Bookum, W; Schat, H; Meharg, A A

    2001-05-01

    Arsenate tolerance is conferred by suppression of the high-affinity phosphate/arsenate uptake system, which greatly reduces arsenate influx in a number of higher plant species. Despite this suppressed uptake, arsenate-tolerant plants can still accumulate high levels of As over their lifetime, suggesting that constitutive detoxification mechanisms may be required. Phytochelatins are thiol-rich peptides, whose production is induced by a range of metals and metalloids including arsenate. This study provides evidence for the role of phytochelatins in the detoxification of arsenate in arsenate-tolerant Holcus lanatus. Elevated levels of phytochelatin were measured in plants with a range of tolerance to arsenate at equivalent levels of arsenate stress, measured as inhibition of root growth. The results suggest that arsenate tolerance in H. lanatus requires both adaptive suppression of the high-affinity phosphate uptake system and constitutive phytochelatin production. PMID:11351093

  2. Phytochelatins Are Involved in Differential Arsenate Tolerance in Holcus lanatus1

    PubMed Central

    Hartley-Whitaker, Jeanette; Ainsworth, Gillian; Vooijs, Riet; Bookum, Wilma Ten; Schat, Henk; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2001-01-01

    Arsenate tolerance is conferred by suppression of the high-affinity phosphate/arsenate uptake system, which greatly reduces arsenate influx in a number of higher plant species. Despite this suppressed uptake, arsenate-tolerant plants can still accumulate high levels of As over their lifetime, suggesting that constitutive detoxification mechanisms may be required. Phytochelatins are thiol-rich peptides, whose production is induced by a range of metals and metalloids including arsenate. This study provides evidence for the role of phytochelatins in the detoxification of arsenate in arsenate-tolerant Holcus lanatus. Elevated levels of phytochelatin were measured in plants with a range of tolerance to arsenate at equivalent levels of arsenate stress, measured as inhibition of root growth. The results suggest that arsenate tolerance in H. lanatus requires both adaptive suppression of the high-affinity phosphate uptake system and constitutive phytochelatin production. PMID:11351093

  3. The nature of arsenic-phytochelatin complexes in Holcus lanatus and Pteris cretica.

    PubMed

    Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg; Meharg, Andrew A

    2004-03-01

    We have developed a method to extract and separate phytochelatins (PCs)-metal(loid) complexes using parallel metal(loid)-specific (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) and organic-specific (electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry) detection systems-and use it here to ascertain the nature of arsenic (As)-PC complexes in plant extracts. This study is the first unequivocal report, to our knowledge, of PC complex coordination chemistry in plant extracts for any metal or metalloid ion. The As-tolerant grass Holcus lanatus and the As hyperaccumulator Pteris cretica were used as model plants. In an in vitro experiment using a mixture of reduced glutathione (GS), PC(2), and PC(3), As preferred the formation of the arsenite [As((III))]-PC(3) complex over GS-As((III))-PC(2), As((III))-(GS)(3), As((III))-PC(2), or As((III))-(PC(2))(2) (GS: glutathione bound to arsenic via sulphur of cysteine). In H. lanatus, the As((III))-PC(3) complex was the dominant complex, although reduced glutathione, PC(2), and PC(3) were found in the extract. P. cretica only synthesizes PC(2) and forms dominantly the GS-As((III))-PC(2) complex. This is the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the existence of mixed glutathione-PC-metal(loid) complexes in plant tissues or in vitro. In both plant species, As is dominantly in non-bound inorganic forms, with 13% being present in PC complexes for H. lanatus and 1% in P. cretica. PMID:15001701

  4. The Nature of Arsenic-Phytochelatin Complexes in Holcus lanatus and Pteris cretica1

    PubMed Central

    Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a method to extract and separate phytochelatins (PCs)—metal(loid) complexes using parallel metal(loid)-specific (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) and organic-specific (electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry) detection systems—and use it here to ascertain the nature of arsenic (As)-PC complexes in plant extracts. This study is the first unequivocal report, to our knowledge, of PC complex coordination chemistry in plant extracts for any metal or metalloid ion. The As-tolerant grass Holcus lanatus and the As hyperaccumulator Pteris cretica were used as model plants. In an in vitro experiment using a mixture of reduced glutathione (GS), PC2, and PC3, As preferred the formation of the arsenite [As(III)]-PC3 complex over GS-As(III)-PC2, As(III)-(GS)3, As(III)-PC2, or As(III)-(PC2)2 (GS: glutathione bound to arsenic via sulphur of cysteine). In H. lanatus, the As(III)-PC3 complex was the dominant complex, although reduced glutathione, PC2, and PC3 were found in the extract. P. cretica only synthesizes PC2 and forms dominantly the GS-As(III)-PC2 complex. This is the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the existence of mixed glutathione-PC-metal(loid) complexes in plant tissues or in vitro. In both plant species, As is dominantly in non-bound inorganic forms, with 13% being present in PC complexes for H. lanatus and 1% in P. cretica. PMID:15001701

  5. Effects of extreme weather events and legume presence on mycorrhization of Plantago lanceolata and Holcus lanatus in the field.

    PubMed

    Walter, J; Kreyling, J; Singh, B K; Jentsch, A

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about direct and indirect effects of extreme weather events on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) under field conditions. In a field experiment, we investigated the response of mycorrhization to drought and heavy rain in grassland communities. We quantified AMF biomass in soil, mycorrhization of roots of the grass Holcus lanatus and the forb Plantago lanceolata, as well as plant performance. Plants were grown in four-species communities with or without a legume. We hypothesised that drought increases and heavy rain decreases mycorrhization, and that higher mycorrhization will be linked to improved stress resistance and higher biomass production. Soil AMF biomass increased under both weather extremes. Heavy rain generally benefitted plants and increased arbuscules in P. lanceolata. Drought neither reduced plant performance nor root mycorrhization. Arbuscules increased in H. lanatus several weeks after drought, and in P. lanceolata several weeks after heavy rain spells. These long-lasting effects of weather events on mycorrhization highlight the indirect influence of climate on AMF via their host plant. Legume presence increased plant community biomass, but had only minor effects on mycorrhization. Arbuscule colonisation was negatively correlated with senescence during the dry summer. Mycorrhization and biomass production in P. lanceolata were positively related. However, increased mycorrhization was related to less biomass in the grass. AMF mycelium in soil might generally increase under extreme events, root colonisation, however, is host species specific. This might amplify community shifts in grassland under climate change by further increasing stress resistance of species that already benefit from changed precipitation. PMID:26284575

  6. Influence of soil properties and phosphate addition on arsenic uptake from polluted soils by velvetgrass (Holcus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Lewińska, K; Karczewska, A

    2013-01-01

    Four kinds of soil material were used in a pot experiment with velvetgrass (Holcus lanatus). Two unpolluted soils: sand (S) and loam (L) were spiked with sodium arsenite (As II) and arsenate (As V), to obtain total arsenic (As) concentrations of 500 mg As kg(-1). Two other soils (ZS I, ZS III), containing 3320 and 5350 mg As kg(-1), were collected from Zloty Stok where gold and arsenic ores were mined and processed for several centuries. The effects of phosphate addition on plants growth and As uptake were investigated. Phosphate was applied to soils in the form of NH4H2PO4 at the rate 0.2 g P/kg. Average concentrations of arsenic in the shoots of velvetgrass grown in spiked soils S and L without P amendment were in the range 18-210 mg As kg(-1) d.wt., whereas those in plants grown on ZS I and ZS II soils were considerably lower, and varied in the range 11-52 mg As kg(-1) d.wt. The addition of phosphate caused a significant increase in plant biomass and therefore the total amounts of As taken up by plants, however, the differences in As concentrations in the shoots of velvetgrass amended and non-amended with phosphate were not statistically significant. PMID:23487988

  7. Short-term response of Holcus lanatus L. (Common Velvetgrass) to chemical and manual control at Yosemite National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Laura J.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Hutten, Martin

    2015-01-01

    One of the highest priority invasive species at both Yosemite and Sequoia and Kings Canyon national parks is Holcus lanatus L. (common velvetgrass), a perennial bunchgrass that invades mid-elevation montane meadows. Despite velvetgrass being a high priority species, there is little information available on control techniques. The goal of this project was to evaluate the short-term response of a single application of common chemical and manual velvetgrass control techniques. The study was conducted at three montane sites in Yosemite National Park. Glyphosate spot-spray treatments were applied at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% concentrations, and compared with hand pulling to evaluate effects on cover of common velvetgrass, cover of other plant species, and community species richness. Posttreatment year 1 cover of common velvetgrass was 12.1% ± 1.6 in control plots, 6.3% ± 1.5 averaged over the four chemical treatments (all chemical treatments performed similarly), and 13.6% ± 1.7 for handpulled plots. This represents an approximately 50% reduction in common velvetgrass cover in chemically- treated plots recoded posttreatment year 1 and no statistically significant reduction in hand pulled plots compared with controls. However, there was no treatment effect in posttreatment year 2, and all herbicide application rates performed similarly. In addition, there were no significant treatment effects on nontarget species or species richness. These results suggest that for this level of infestation and habitat type, (1) one year of hand pulling is not an effective control method and (2) glyphosate provides some level of control in the short-term without impact to nontarget plant species, but the effect is temporary as a single year of glyphosate treatment is ineffective over a two-year period.

  8. The Distribution of Arsenate and Arsenite in Shoots and Roots of Holcus lanatus is Influenced by Arsenic Tolerance and Arsenate and Phosphate Supply

    PubMed Central

    Quaghebeur, Mieke; Rengel, Zdenko

    2003-01-01

    The recent discovery that phytochelatins are important for arsenic (As) detoxification in terrestrial plants results in the necessity to understand As speciation and metabolism in plant material. A hydroponic study was therefore conducted to examine the effects of different levels of phosphate and arsenate [As(V)] on As speciation and distribution in tolerant and non-tolerant clones of Holcus lanatus. Speciation of As in tissue (using high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) revealed that the predominant species present were the inorganic As species (As(V) and arsenite [As(III)]), although small levels (<1%) of organic As species (dimethylarsinic acid and monomethylarsonic acid) were detected in shoot material. In roots, the proportion of total As present as As(III) generally increased with increasing levels of As(V) in the nutrient solution, whereas in shoots, the proportion of total As present as As(III) generally decreased with increasing levels of As(V). H. lanatus plants growing in the high-phosphorus (P) (100 μm) solution contained a higher proportion of As(V) (with regard to total As) in both roots and shoots than plants supplied with low P (10 μm); in addition, tolerant clones generally contained a higher proportion of As(V) with regard to total As than non-tolerant clones. The study further revealed that As(V) can be reduced to As(III) in both roots and shoots. Although the reduction capacity was limited, the reduction was closely regulated by As influx for all treatments. The results therefore provide a new understanding about As metabolism in H. lanatus. PMID:12857839

  9. The Genome of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus, is an economically important cucurbit crop. Here, we report a high quality draft genome sequence for watermelon C. lanatus developed with the next-generation sequencing technology. The assembled genome sequences cover 83% of the estimated 425 Mb watermel...

  10. Quinolizidine alkaloids from Lupinus lanatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, Alexandre T.; Oliveira, Carolina Q.; Ilha, Vinicius; Pedroso, Marcelo; Burrow, Robert A.; Dalcol, Ionara I.; Morel, Ademir F.

    2011-10-01

    In this study, one new quinolizidine alkaloid, lanatine A ( 1), together with three other known alkaloids, 13-α- trans-cinnamoyloxylupanine ( 2), 13-α-hydroxylupanine ( 3), and (-)-multiflorine ( 4) were isolated from the aerial parts of Lupinus lanatus (Fabaceae). The structures of alkaloids 1- 4 were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis. The stereochemistry of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. Bayesian statistical analysis of the Bijvoet differences suggests the absolute stereochemistry of 1. In addition, the antimicrobial potential of alkaloids 1- 4 is also reported.

  11. Resistance for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important global pest with and an extensive host range. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) is among the crops damaged by this pest. Host plant resistance is the foundation for the management of crops pests in general. ...

  12. Developing Entrepreneurship in West Yorkshire: West Yorkshire Universities' Partnership and Business Start-Up@Leeds Met

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Martyn; Collins, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    West Yorkshire universities together with Yorkshire Forward, the Regional Development Agency (RDA) for Yorkshire and Humberside, are collaborating on a graduate entrepreneurship programme. This paper outlines the national and regional context for the role of entrepreneurial education in producing new business and a climate in which creativity and…

  13. Oil and fatty acid content in seed of Citrullus lanatus Schrad.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intact seed of 475 genebank accessions of Citrullus (C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. lanatus var. citroides) were analyzed for percent oil content using TD-NMR. Extracts from whole seed of 96 accessions of Citrullus lanatus (30 var. citroides, 33 var. lanatus and 33 egusi), Citrullus colocynthis (n =...

  14. North Yorkshire Schools' Responses to Pupil Bereavement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, John; McLennan, Derek

    2015-01-01

    This was a research project carried out in North Yorkshire schools by the loss and bereavement research group of the Educational Psychology Service. The background was an interest in how schools responded to bereaved pupils, whether they had a structured response, trained staff and training needs, from where they sought support and the level of…

  15. Oil and fatty acid contents in seed of Citrullus lanatus Schrad.

    PubMed

    Jarret, Robert L; Levy, Irvin J

    2012-05-23

    Intact seed of 475 genebank accessions of Citrullus ( C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. lanatus var. citroides) were analyzed for percent oil content using TD-NMR. Extracts from whole seed of 96 accessions of C. lanatus (30 var. citroides, 33 var. lanatus, and 33 egusi), C. colocynthis (n = 3), C. ecirrhosus (n = 1), C. rehmii (n = 1), and Benincasa fistulosa (n = 3) were also analyzed for their fatty acids content. Among the materials analyzed, seed oil content varied from 14.8 to 43.5%. Mean seed oil content in egusi types of C. lanatus was significantly higher (mean = 35.6%) than that of either var. lanatus (mean = 23.2%) or var. citroides (mean = 22.6%). Egusi types of C. lanatus had a significantly lower hull/kernel ratio when compared to other C. lanatus var. lanatus or C. lanatus var. citroides. The principal fatty acid in all C. lanatus materials examined was linoleic acid (43.6-73%). High levels of linoleic acid were also present in the materials of C. colocynthis (71%), C. ecirrhosus (62.7%), C. rehmii (75.8%), and B. fistulosa (73.2%), which were included for comparative purposes. Most all samples contained traces (<0.5%) of arachidonic acid. The data presented provide novel information on the range in oil content and variability in the concentrations of individual fatty acids present in a diverse array of C. lanatus, and its related species, germplasm. PMID:22540530

  16. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides)

    PubMed Central

    Thies, Judy A.; Ariss, Jennifer J.; Kousik, Chandrasekar S.; Hassell, Richard L.; Levi, Amnon

    2016-01-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN. PMID:27168648

  17. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides).

    PubMed

    Thies, Judy A; Ariss, Jennifer J; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Hassell, Richard L; Levi, Amnon

    2016-03-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN. PMID:27168648

  18. Simple Sequence Repeats in Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simple sequence repeat length polymorphisms were utilized to examine genetic relatedness among accessions of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai). A size-fractionated TaqI genomic library was screened for the occurrence of dimer and trimer simple sequence repeats (SSRs). A total o...

  19. Firearm deaths in Yorkshire and Humberside.

    PubMed

    Chapman, J; Milroy, C M

    1992-12-01

    Firearm fatalities occurring in Yorkshire and Humberside between 1975-1991 were examined; 130 cases were found, 64 were homicides, 55 suicides and 11 were accidental or unclassifiable. All but two of the suicides were men. Shotguns were the most frequent weapon used in both suicides and homicides. Of the 55 suicides, 17 were by men who had murdered before committing suicide. In 15 of these cases the assailants knew their victims. The other two cases involved murder of police officers. These cases were mostly with shotguns. In both homicide and suicide, rifled weapons and handguns were infrequently used. Most suicides and homicides occurred at home. Alcohol was again shown to be a significant factor in suicides. Overall firearms account for less than 10% of homicides in England and Wales and less than 5% of suicides in men and is most unusual in women. PMID:1473809

  20. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the US and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (C. lanatus var. citroides) have been shown...

  1. Resistance of Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) Rootstocks to Southern Root-Knot Nematode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedless watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) ‘Tri-X 313’ scions were grafted on ten different cucurbit rootstocks and evaluated in a field infested with southern root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita, in Charleston, SC in 2009. The rootstocks evaluated included five wild watermelo...

  2. Citrullus lanatus 'sentinel' (watermelon) extract reduces atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Poduri, Aruna; Rateri, Debra L; Saha, Shubin K; Saha, Sibu; Daugherty, Alan

    2013-05-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus or C. lanatus) has many potentially bioactive compounds including citrulline, which may influence atherosclerosis. In this study, we determined the effects of C. lanatus, provided as an extract of the cultivar 'sentinel,' on hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in mice. Male low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice at 8 weeks old were given either C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract (2% vol/vol; n=10) or a mixture of matching carbohydrates (2% vol/vol; n=8) as the control in drinking water while being fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 12 weeks ad libitum. Mice consuming C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract had significantly increased plasma citrulline concentrations. Systolic blood pressure was comparable between the two groups. Consumption of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract led to lower body weight and fat mass without influencing lean mass. There were no differences in food and water intake and in urine output between the two groups. C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract administration decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations that were attributed to reductions of intermediate-/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interferon-gamma were decreased and those of interleukin-10 were increased in mice consuming C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract. Intake of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract resulted in reductions of atherosclerosis in both aortic arch and thoracic regions. In conclusion, consumption of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract led to reduced body weight gain, decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations, improved homeostasis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and attenuated development of atherosclerosis without affecting systolic blood pressure in hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:22902326

  3. Cucurbitane-type triterpenes from Citrullus lanatus (watermelon) seeds.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Okada, Rina; Harada, Yu; Ikushima, Kenji; Yamakawa, Takahiro; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2013-10-01

    Two new cucurbitane-type triterpenes, 24-hydroperoxycucurbita-5,25-dien-3beta-ol (1) and 25-hydroperoxycucurbita-5,23-dien-3beta-ol (2), were isolated from a MeOH extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities with IC50 values of 33.4-52.4 microM against HL-60 (human leukemia), P388 (murine leukemia), and L1210 (murine leukemia) cells. Compound 1 showed melanogenesis inhibitory activity (melanin content 80.0 %) with low cytotoxicity (cell viability 97.6%) at a low concentration (10 microM). PMID:24354176

  4. New Technology and Women's Employment. Case Studies from West Yorkshire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huws, Ursula

    A study examined the impact of new technology upon women's employment in West Yorkshire in Great Britain. During the study, 2,000 copies of a questionnaire were distributed to past and present users of the Leeds Trade Union and Community Resource and Information Centre (TUCRIC) as well as to participants at a conference entitled Women and New…

  5. Intraluminal tracheal stent fracture in a Yorkshire terrier.

    PubMed

    Woo, Heung-Myong; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Lee, Seung-Gon; Nam, Hyun-Sook; Kwak, Ho-Hyun; Lee, Joon-Seok; Park, In-Chul; Hyun, Changbaig

    2007-10-01

    An 8-year-old Yorkshire terrier was presented with tracheal collapse. Two intraluminal nitinol stents were implanted. The implanted stents were found to be fractured 4 weeks after implantation. The fractured stents were removed. To restore the collapsed trachea, ring prostheses were applied. However, the dog was euthanized because of a bad outcome following surgery. PMID:17987968

  6. An Evaluation of West Yorkshire Sports Counselling Project: Workshop Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Geoff

    The West Yorkshire (England) Sports Counselling Association (WYSC) is a voluntary organization that, in partnership with the Probation Service, provides sports counseling to persons on probation or youth justice supervision. Sports leaders provide sports counseling on a one-on-one basis during a 12-week program of activities designed for the…

  7. Accessions of Citrullus lanatus var. Citroides are Valuable Rootstocks for Grafted Watermelon in Fields Infested with Root-Knot Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) RKVL rootstock lines developed at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, USDA, ARS in Charleston, South Carolina, were compared to wild tinda and commercial cucurbit rootstock cultivars for grafting of seedless watermelon ‘Tri-X 313’ (C. lanatus var. lanatu...

  8. Origin and emergence of the sweet dessert watermelon, Citrullus lanatus

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Watermelons, Citrullus species (Cucurbitaceae), are native to Africa and have been cultivated since ancient times. The fruit flesh of wild watermelons is watery, but typically hard-textured, pale-coloured and bland or bitter. The familiar sweet dessert watermelons, C. lanatus, featuring non-bitter, tender, well-coloured flesh, have a narrow genetic base, suggesting that they originated from a series of selection events in a single ancestral population. The objective of the present investigation was to determine where dessert watermelons originated and the time frame during which sweet dessert watermelons emerged. Key Findings Archaeological remains of watermelons, mostly seeds, that date from 5000 years ago have been found in northeastern Africa. An image of a large, striped, oblong fruit on a tray has been found in an Egyptian tomb that dates to at least 4000 years ago. The Greek word pepon, Latin pepo and Hebrew avattiah of the first centuries ce were used for the same large, thick-rinded, wet fruit which, evidently, was the watermelon. Hebrew literature from the end of the second century ce and Latin literature from the beginning of the sixth century ce present watermelons together with three sweet fruits: figs, table grapes and pomegranates. Wild and primitive watermelons have been observed repeatedly in Sudan and neighbouring countries of northeastern Africa. Conclusions The diverse evidence, combined, indicates that northeastern Africa is the centre of origin of the dessert watermelon, that watermelons were domesticated for water and food there over 4000 years ago, and that sweet dessert watermelons emerged in Mediterranean lands by approximately 2000 years ago. Next-generation ancient-DNA sequencing and state-of-the-art genomic analysis offer opportunities to rigorously assess the relationships among ancient and living wild and primitive watermelons from northeastern Africa, modern sweet dessert watermelons and other Citrullus taxa. PMID

  9. Turkmenistan Melon (Cucumis melo), and Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Germplasm Expedition 2008.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turkmenistan has a rich tradition of melon (Cucumis melo L.) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) production, but like in many countries land races and old varieties are in danger of genetic erosion. In July-August 2008, a collaborative Turkmenistan–United States germplasm exp...

  10. Hodgkin's disease: case control epidemiological study in Yorkshire.

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, S. M.; Cartwright, R. A.; Darwin, C. M.; Richards, I. D.; Roberts, B.; O'Brien, C.; Bird, C. C.

    1987-01-01

    This is the first report of a case-control epidemiological study on lymphomas and leukaemias occurring in Yorkshire during 1979-84. This paper deals with the results of the Hodgkin's disease analysis comprising 248 cases and 489 controls. The results indicate support for previous work with respect to small family size and past history of infectious mononucleosis. Positive observations made in a previous pilot study are also confirmed and extended with respect to associations with certain chronic skin lesions, dental anaesthesia and familial factors. Negative associations are described with respect to X-ray exposures and cigarette smoking. It is proposed that these results fit into a general hypothesis that these conditions are the result of interaction between infectious agents and altered immunity in those persons genetically predisposed. PMID:3814482

  11. Potential utilization of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste as a novel source of pectin.

    PubMed

    Korish, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides is an ancestor type of watermelon. It was investigated as a new source of pectin. It was cultivated in Egypt for seeds only, while the remaining fruits are discarded as waste. Effect of different extraction conditions such as pH, solid: liquid ratio, temperature and extraction time on pectin yield of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste was investigated in the present study. The highest yield (19.75 % w/w) was achieved at pH 2, solid: liquid ratio1:15 and 85 °C, for 60 min. Methylation degree and galacturonic acid content of extracted pectin were 55.25 %, w/w and 76.84 %, w/w. The main neutral sugars were galactose followed by arabinose and rhamnose. In addition, glucose, xylose and mannose existed as constituents in the pectin hydrolysate. The results indicated that Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoide waste is a potential new source of pectin. PMID:25829625

  12. Radon in Ingleborough / Clapham Cave, North Yorkshire, UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmore, Gavin

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric radon concentration was measured at Ingleborough Cave, North Yorkshire during the summer of 2004, and the autumn / winter of 2004/5. Significantly, Ingleborough Cave forms part of a larger system which includes the world famous Gaping Gill pothole. This plunges 105 m (334 ft), contains the tallest unbroken waterfall in England and one of the largest known underground chambers in the UK. Measurements were taken to assess the effects of seasonal and spatial variation, elevation and ventilation on radon concentration in Ingleborough. In this study personal dose exposures for three groups of cave user were identified, and the performance of a variety of radon detection systems evaluated. Summer radon concentrations inside the cave peaked at around 7,000 Bq m-3, although average concentrations were less than 5,000 Bq m-3. During the winter measurement period, average concentrations were around 100 Bq m-3, and a winter / summer ration therefore of 47,4. The average annual radon concentration exceeded the legislative limitations for the workplace of 400 Bq m-3 due in part to a failed fan in the ventilation system. When the fan was running we noted an 80% reduction in radon concentrations although reliability of the fan was problematic due to extensive but relatively rare flooding of the cave system. The radon dose experienced by cave workers and guides in this study exceeded the Ionisation Radiation Regulations limit of 5 mSv/annum, and highlighted that for health and safety reasons the ventilation system should be fully operational during the high radon concentration summer months. Keywords: Radon, Cave, Ingleborough, Detection methods

  13. Purification and partial characterization of low molecular weight vicilin-like glycoprotein from the seeds of Citrullus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sushila; Tomar, Anil Kumar; Jithesh, O; Khan, Meraj Alam; Yadav, R N; Srinivasan, A; Singh, Tej P; Yadav, Savita

    2011-12-01

    The watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seeds are highly nutritive and contain large amount of proteins and many beneficial minerals such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, iron, phosphorous, zinc etc. In various parts of the world, C. lanatus seed extracts are used to cure cancer, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and blood pressure. C. lanatus seed extracts are also used as home remedy for edema and urinary tract problems. In this study, we isolated protein fraction of C. lanatus seeds using various protein separation methods. We successfully purified a low molecular weight vicilin-like glycoprotein using chromatographic methods followed by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/MS identification. This is the first report of purification of a vicilin like polypeptide from C. lanatus seeds. In next step, we extracted mRNA from immature seeds and reverse transcribed it using suitable forward and reverse primers for purified glycoprotein. The PCR product was analysed on 1% agarose gel and was subsequently sequenced by Dideoxy DNA sequencing method. An amino acid translation of the gene is in agreement with amino acid sequences of the identified peptides. PMID:21989589

  14. Comparative carcass and tissue nutrient composition of transgenic Yorkshire pigs expressing phytase in the saliva and conventional Yorkshire pigs.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, C W; Meidinger, R G; Ajakaiye, A; Murray, D; Fan, M Z; Mandell, I B; Phillips, J P

    2014-10-01

    A transgenic line of Yorkshire (YK) pigs named the Cassie (CA) line was produced with a low copy number phytase transgene inserted in the genome. The transgenic line efficiently digests P, Ca, and other major minerals of plant dietary origin. The objectives of this study were to 1) compare carcass and tissue nutrient composition and meat quality traits for third generation hemizygous CA line market BW finisher pigs (n = 24) with age-matched conventional YK finisher pigs (n = 24) and 2) examine effects of outbreeding with high-index conventional YK boars on modifying carcass leanness from the third to sixth generations in CA line finisher boars (n = 73) and gilts (n = 103). Cassie boars (n = 12) and CA gilts (n = 12) were fed diets without supplemental P and comparable numbers of age-matched YK boars and gilts fed diets containing supplement P were raised throughout the finisher phase. The pigs were slaughtered and then fabricated into commercial pork primals before meat composition and quality evaluation. Proximate and major micronutrient composition was determined on tissues including fat, kidney, lean, liver, and skin. The main difference observed was greater (P = 0.033) crude fat content in CA boar carcasses and increased (P < 0.04) leaf lard in both CA boars and gilts but no differences were observed (P = 0.895 and P = 0.223, respectively) in carcass backfat thickness as compared with YK pigs. There were no substantive differences in tissue composition, except for CA boar kidneys. Numerous changes in the mineral, fatty acid, and indispensable AA composition for CA boar kidneys were not apparent in CA gilts. These changes may point to adaptive physiological changes in the boar kidney necessary for homeostatic regulation of mineral retention related to phytase action rather than to insertion of the transgene. However, from a meat composition perspective, transgenic expression of phytase in the CA line of YK pigs had little overall effect on meat composition

  15. Pharmacognostical stucies on the seeds of mulam citrullus lanatus (thunb.) mats & nakai (cucurbitacae).

    PubMed

    Shantha, T R; Kumar, K G; Pasupathy, S; Vijayalakshmi, B; Bikshapathi, T

    2001-07-01

    In the Siddha system of Medicine cotyledons of the seeds of C. Lanatus are known as Mulam/Pullum/Pitcha (Tamil) and used as Pulukolli (Vermifuge), Karpa moolikai (General tonic) and as Aanmeiperukki (Aphrodisiac). In the Ayurvedic system of Medicine seeds are said to have properties like Sheeta (cooling), Mootrala (Diuretic) and Vrshya (Aphrodisiac). The present paper deals with macro and microscopical studies, maceration, histochemical tests, solubility, physical contents, extractive values, tests for inorganic and organic constituents, U.V. and thin layer chromatographic studies. PMID:22557025

  16. Transcriptome Analysis Revealed the Embryo-Induced Gene Expression Patterns in the Endometrium from Meishan and Yorkshire Pigs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiangnan; Liu, Ruize; Su, Lijie; Xiao, Qian; Yu, Mei

    2015-01-01

    The expression patterns in Meishan- and Yorkshire-derived endometrium during early (gestational day 15) and mid-gestation (gestational days 26 and 50) were investigated, respectively. Totally, 689 and 1649 annotated genes were identified to be differentially expressed in Meishan and Yorkshire endometrium during the three gestational stages, respectively. Hierarchical clustering analysis identified that, of the annotated differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 73 DEGs were unique to Meishan endometrium, 536 DEGs were unique to Yorkshire endometrium, and 228 DEGs were common in Meishan and Yorkshire endometriums. Subsequently, DEGs in each of the three types of expression patterns were grouped into four distinct categories according to the similarities in their temporal expression patterns. The expression patterns identified from the microarray analysis were validated by quantitative RT-PCR. The functional enrichment analysis revealed that the common DEGs were enriched in pathways of steroid metabolic process and regulation of retinoic acid receptor signaling. These unique DEGs in Meishan endometrium were involved in cell cycle and adherens junction. The DEGs unique to Yorkshire endometrium were associated with regulation of Rho protein signal transduction, maternal placenta development and cell proliferation. This study revealed the different gene expression patterns or pathways related to the endometrium remodeling in Meishan and Yorkshire pigs, respectively. These unique DEGs in either Meishan or Yorkshire endometriums may contribute to the divergence of the endometrium environment in the two pig breeds. PMID:26393584

  17. Novel Pseudomonas syringae strains associated with leaf spot diseases on watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and squash (Cucurbita pepo) in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006 and 2011, bacteria, fluorescent on KMB, were isolated from leaf spots of greenhouse-grown watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and field-grown squash (Cucurbita pepo) in coastal California. Biochemical characterization of the isolates indicated that they belonged to Pseudomonas syringae. Multilocu...

  18. MicroRNA in sperm from Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire boars

    PubMed Central

    Kasimanickam, Vanmathy; Kastelic, John

    2016-01-01

    Sperm contain microRNAs (miRNAs), which may have roles in epigenetic control. Regarding phylogenetic relationships among various swine breeds, Yorkshire and Landrace, are considered phenotypically and genetically very similar, but distinctly different from Duroc. The objective of the present study was to compare abundance of boar sperm miRNAs in these three breeds. Overall, 252 prioritized miRNAs were investigated using real-time PCR; relative expression of miRNAs in sperm was similar in Yorkshire and Landrace boars, but significantly different compared to Duroc. Seventeen miRNAs (hsa-miR-196a-5p, hsa-miR-514a-3p, hsa-miR-938, hsa-miR-372-3p, hsa-miR-558, hsa-miR-579-3p, hsa-miR-595, hsa-miR-648, hsa-miR-524-3p, hsa-miR-512-3p, hsa-miR-429, hsa-miR-639, hsa-miR-551a, hsa-miR-624-5p, hsa-miR-585-3p, hsa-miR-508-3p and hsa-miR-626) were down-regulated (P < 0.05; fold regulation ≤−2) in Yorkshire and Landrace sperm, compared to Duroc sperm. Furthermore, three miRNAs (hsa-miR-9-5p, hsa-miR-150-5p, and hsa-miR-99a-5p) were significantly up-regulated in Yorkshire and Landrace sperm compared to Duroc sperm, However, 240 miRNAs were not significantly different (within + 2 fold) between Yorkshire and Landrace sperm. We concluded that miRNAs in sperm were not significantly different between Yorkshire and Landrace boars, but there were significant differences between those two breeds and Duroc boars. Furthermore, integrated target genes for selected down-regulated miRNAs (identified via an in-silico method) appeared to participate in spermatogenesis and sperm functions. PMID:27597569

  19. MicroRNA in sperm from Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire boars.

    PubMed

    Kasimanickam, Vanmathy; Kastelic, John

    2016-01-01

    Sperm contain microRNAs (miRNAs), which may have roles in epigenetic control. Regarding phylogenetic relationships among various swine breeds, Yorkshire and Landrace, are considered phenotypically and genetically very similar, but distinctly different from Duroc. The objective of the present study was to compare abundance of boar sperm miRNAs in these three breeds. Overall, 252 prioritized miRNAs were investigated using real-time PCR; relative expression of miRNAs in sperm was similar in Yorkshire and Landrace boars, but significantly different compared to Duroc. Seventeen miRNAs (hsa-miR-196a-5p, hsa-miR-514a-3p, hsa-miR-938, hsa-miR-372-3p, hsa-miR-558, hsa-miR-579-3p, hsa-miR-595, hsa-miR-648, hsa-miR-524-3p, hsa-miR-512-3p, hsa-miR-429, hsa-miR-639, hsa-miR-551a, hsa-miR-624-5p, hsa-miR-585-3p, hsa-miR-508-3p and hsa-miR-626) were down-regulated (P < 0.05; fold regulation ≤-2) in Yorkshire and Landrace sperm, compared to Duroc sperm. Furthermore, three miRNAs (hsa-miR-9-5p, hsa-miR-150-5p, and hsa-miR-99a-5p) were significantly up-regulated in Yorkshire and Landrace sperm compared to Duroc sperm, However, 240 miRNAs were not significantly different (within + 2 fold) between Yorkshire and Landrace sperm. We concluded that miRNAs in sperm were not significantly different between Yorkshire and Landrace boars, but there were significant differences between those two breeds and Duroc boars. Furthermore, integrated target genes for selected down-regulated miRNAs (identified via an in-silico method) appeared to participate in spermatogenesis and sperm functions. PMID:27597569

  20. Paroxysmal dyskinesia suspected as canine epileptoid cramping syndrome in a young Yorkshire terrier dog.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung-Jin; Seo, Dong-Kyu; Song, Kun-Ho; Seo, Kyoung-Won

    2014-08-01

    A 9-month-old intact female Yorkshire terrier dog was presented with episodic partial seizure-like cramping of the limbs. The patient's episodes began six months previously; the interval between episodes became shorter, and the duration of the episodes increased. Various tests including neurologic examination, blood examination, abdominal radiography, ultrasonographic examination, angiographic computed tomography (CT) and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detected no remarkable changes. After these tests were conducted, the patient's condition was suspected to be canine epileptoid cramping syndrome (CECS), which could be a form of paroxysmal dyskinesia (PD), and as a trial therapy, Science Diet k/d (Hill's Pet Nutrition, Topeka, KS, U.S.A.) was prescribed. The clinical signs were dramatically reduced after diet therapy, and we diagnosed the patient with CECS. This is the first case report of CECS in a Yorkshire terrier dog. PMID:24805907

  1. Differential gene expression of epigenetic modifying enzymes between Tibet pig and Yorkshire in high and low altitudes.

    PubMed

    Ban, D M; Zhang, B; Wang, Z X; Zhang, H; Wu, C X

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic modifying enzymes play important roles in the adaptation to hypoxia, although no studies have examined their expression levels in Tibet pigs. The lung is an important functional organ in hypoxia adaptation. In this study, we examined the mRNA expression level of 5 enzymes in the lung of Tibet pigs using real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the epigenetic performance of hypoxia adaptation. We selected four groups of pig as the study object, which were Tibet pig in highland (TH), Yorkshire in highland (YH), Tibet pig in lowland (TL), Yorkshire in lowland (YL). Expression of Dnmt1 in Tibet pig was higher than that in Yorkshire (P < 0.01), although there was no significant difference between different altitudes within each breed. Expression of Dnmt3a was higher in Tibet pig than that in Yorkshire (P < 0.01), and higher in pigs from highland than that in lowland areas (P < 0.05). Expression of Hdac1 was higher in group TH than in Yorkshire (P < 0.01). Expression of Kdm3a was higher in group TH than in the rest of the groups (P < 0.01). Expression of Uhrf1 was higher in Tibet pig than in Yorkshire (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the expression levels of the 5 epigenetic modifying genes were higher in group TH than in group YH. Under conditions of oxygen deficiency, breed was the most important factor affecting DNA methylation and gene expression. PMID:25966093

  2. The sources of innovation in the woollen and worsted industry of eighteenth-century Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Smail, J

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the economic developments that induced producers to seek our innovations during a transformative period in the Yorkshire woollen industry. The analysis examines both the increase in the scale of the typical operation and the tremendous effect that fashion had on the industry. Particular attention is given to the ways in which the workings of real markets and product innovation focused entrepreneurial energy on the production process, and what that tells us about the origins of the Industrial Revolution. PMID:19459261

  3. Expression in Arabidopsis of a nucellus-specific promoter from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Krishna K; Roche, Dominique; Carman, John G

    2010-11-01

    Though many tissue-specific promoters have been identified, few have been associated specifically with the angiospermous megasporangium (nucellus). In the present study the 2000-bp regulatory region upstream to the watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai, gene WM403 (GenBank accession no. AF008925), which shows nucellus-specific expression, was cloned from watermelon gDNA and fused to the β-glucuronidase reporter gene (GUS). The resulting plasmid, WM403 Prom::GUS(+), which also contained NPTII, was transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Co1-0. Seedlings were selected on kanamycin-containing medium, and transformants were confirmed by PCR. GUS assays of T(3) transformants revealed weak promoter activation in epidermal layers of the placenta and locule septum during premeiotic ovule development but strong activation in the nucellus, embryo sac and early embryo, from early embryo sac formation to early globular embryo formation. Expression in seeds was absent thereafter. These results indicate that the WM403 promoter may be useful in driving nucellus-specific gene expression in plants including candidate genes for important nucellus-specific traits such as apospory or adventitious embryony. PMID:21802614

  4. Gastroprotective activity of reconstituted red fruit pulp concentrate of Citrullus lanatus in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Swapnil; Dave, Vivek; Paliwal, Sarvesh; Dwivedi, Jaya; Jain, Sonika

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate the gastroprotective potential of the aqueous fruit pulp concentrate of Citrullus lanatus citroides (CLC) on pyloric ligation and indomethacin-induced ulcer in Wistar albino rats. Materials and methods: In indomethacin-induced ulcer model, CLC was administered in the doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg body weight orally, tds for 5 days. The antiulcer activity was determined via observing reduction in ulcer index whereas in the pyloric ligation model, the gastroprotective effect of CLC was assessed from the alteration in volume of gastric juice, pH, free and total acidity, protein concentration in gastric juice. Further lipid peroxide (LPO), and activities of enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) was also determined along with the levels of hexose, hexosamine, sialic acid, fucose in gastric mucosa. Results: In both models, treatment with CLC caused a significant reduction in lesion index when compared to vehicle treated group, providing evidence for antiulcer capacity. In pyloric ligation model, pretreatment with CLC resulted in significant increase in pH, enzymic antioxidants, that is, SOD, CAT, with a significant decrease in volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity, protein concentration, acid output, and LPO levels respectively. The presence of the flavonoids and polyphenols may be responsible for the gastroprotective effect of CLC. Conclusions: The aqueous fruit pulp concentrate of CLC showed significant gastroprotective potential against pyloric ligation and indomethacin-induced ulceration in rats. PMID:25861146

  5. Africans in Yorkshire? - the deepest-rooting clade of the Y phylogeny within an English genealogy

    PubMed Central

    King, Turi E.; Parkin, Emma J.; Swinfield, Geoff; Cruciani, Fulvio; Scozzari, Rosaria; Rosa, Alexandra; Lim, Si-Keun; Xue, Yali; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Jobling, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    The presence of Africans in Britain has been recorded since Roman times, but has left no apparent genetic trace among modern inhabitants. Y chromosomes belonging to the deepest-rooting clade of the Y phylogeny, haplogroup A, are regarded as African-specific, and no examples have been reported from Britain or elsewhere in western Europe. We describe the presence of a haplogroup A1 chromosome in an indigenous British male; comparison with African examples suggests a western African origin. Seven out of eighteen men carrying the same rare east-Yorkshire surname as the original male also carry haplogroup A1 chromosomes, and documentary research resolves them into two genealogies with most-recent-common-ancestors living in Yorkshire in the late eighteenth century. Analysis using 77 Y-STRs (short tandem repeats) is consistent with coalescence a few generations earlier. Our findings represent the first genetic evidence of Africans among ‘indigenous’ British, and emphasise the complexity of human migration history, as well as the pitfalls of assigning geographical origin from Y-chromosomal haplotypes. PMID:17245408

  6. Disorder of sexual development in a Yorkshire terrier (78, XY; SRY-positive).

    PubMed

    Dianovský, Ján; Holečková, Beáta; Hajurka, Jaroslav; Šiviková, Katarina; Cigánková, Viera

    2013-05-01

    A 9-month-old Yorkshire terrier was admitted to the clinic because of abnormal sexual behaviour and clitoral hypertrophy. External examination confirmed standard development of caudal genital organs: vagina, vulva and cervix uteri. Serum profile of gonadotropin hormones 17 β-estradiol (<10.0 pg.ml(-1)) and testosterone (9.1 ng.ml(-1)) revealed the presence of testicular tissue. A midline laparotomy was performed to detect the cranial parts of the genital system. Gonads resembling testicles, structures indicating epididymis and rudimentary deferent ducts were resected, along with adherent part of the uterus. Cytogenetic analysis showed a male chromosomal complement 78, XY in all metaphases of the studied Yorkshire terrier dog. The chromosomal constitution was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with whole-chromosome painting probes specific for chromosomes X and Y, as well as by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the 271-bp Y-linked fragment of SRY (the sex-determining region on the Y chromosome) gene. Sequencing of the dog's SRY gene coding region did not reveal any mutation. To search for potential mutation in the SOX9 gene (Sry-box containing gene 9), which is considered to be one of the key genes involved in the sex determination process, the PCR fragments of exons 1, 2 and 3 originating from the canine patient were sequenced in order to compare with both male and female healthy control dogs. In the analysed regions of the SOX9 gene, no mutation was found. PMID:23378246

  7. Peroxisomal membrane manganese superoxide dismutase: characterization of the isozyme from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Schrad.) cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Serrano, María; Romero-Puertas, María C; Pastori, Gabriela M; Corpas, Francisco J; Sandalio, Luisa M; del Río, Luis A; Palma, José M

    2007-01-01

    In this work the manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) bound to peroxisomal membranes of watermelon cotyledons (Citrullus lanatus Schrad.) was purified to homogeneity and some of its molecular properties were determined. The stepwise purification procedure consisted of ammonium sulphate fractionation, batch anion-exchange chromatography, and anion-exchange and gel-filtration column chromatography using a fast protein liquid chromatography system. Peroxisomal membrane Mn-SOD (perMn-SOD; EC 1.15.1.1) was purified 5600-fold with a yield of 2.6 mug of enzyme g(-1) of cotyledons, and had a specific activity of 480 U mg(-1) of protein. The native molecular mass determined for perMn-SOD was 108 000 Da, and it was composed of four equal subunits of 27 kDa, which indicates that perMn-SOD is a homotetramer. Ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra of the enzyme showed a shoulder at 275 nm and two absorption maxima at 448 nm and 555 nm, respectively. By isoelectric focusing, a pI of 5.75 was determined for perMn-SOD. In immunoblot assays, purified perMn-SOD was recognized by a polyclonal antibody against Mn-SOD from pea leaves, and the peroxisomal enzyme rapidly dissociated in the presence of dithiothreitol and SDS. The potential binding of the Mn-SOD isozyme to the peroxisomal membrane was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy analysis. The properties of perMn-SOD and the mitMn-SOD are compared and the possible function in peroxisomal membranes of the peripheral protein Mn-SOD is discussed. PMID:17545229

  8. Endometrial gene expression profiling in pregnant Meishan and Yorkshire pigs on day 12 of gestation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Litter size in pigs is a major factor affecting the profitability in the pig industry. The peri-implantation window in pigs is characterized by the coordinated interactions between the maternal uterine endometrium and the rapidly elongating conceptuses and represents a period of time during which a large percentage of the developing conceptuses are lost. However, the gene expression and regulatory networks in the endometrium contributing to the establishment of the maternal: placental interface remain poorly understood. Results We characterized the endometrial gene expression profile during the peri-implantation stage of development by comparing two breeds that demonstrate very different reproductive efficiencies. We employed the porcine Affymetrix GeneChip® to assay the transcriptomic profiles of genes expressed in the uterine endometrium obtained from Meishan and Yorkshire gilts (n = 4 for each breed) on day 12 of gestation (M12 and Y12, respectively). Total of 17,076 probesets were identified as "present" in at least two arrays. A mixed model-based statistical analysis predicted a total of 2,656 (q < 0.1) transcripts as differentially expressed between Meishan and Yorkshire pigs. Eighteen differentially expressed transcripts of interest were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Gene ontology (GO) annotation revealed that the known functions of the differentially expressed genes were involved in a series of important biological processes relevant to early pregnancy establishment in the pig. Conclusions The results identified endometrial gene expression profiles of two breeds differing in litter size and identified candidate genes that are related to known physiological pathways related to reproductive prolificacy. These findings provide a deeper understanding of molecular pathways differing between two breeds at the critical peri-implantation stage of pregnancy, which can be utilized to better understand the events contributing to

  9. Fixed-bed column studies on biosorption of crystal violet from aqueous solution by Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharathi, Kandaswamy Suyamboo; Ramesh, SriKrishna Perumal Thanga

    2013-12-01

    In this study, fixed-bed column experiments were performed to investigate the biosorption potential of two agricultural wastes, Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus to remove Crystal violet (CV) from aqueous solution. The experiments were conducted to study the effects of important parameters such as bed depth (10-30 cm), flow rate (10-20 mL min-1) and initial dye concentration (10-25 mg L-1). Different models like Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) model, Thomas model and Yoon-Nelson model were applied to the experimental sorption data. In the biosorption of Crystal violet by both the sorbents, the BDST model fitted well with the experimental data in the initial region of the breakthrough curve. Also, Yoon-Nelson model was found to show good agreement with the experimental kinetic results as compared to the Thomas model. The sorbents were found to be very potential, as it showed good sorption capacities of 46.68 and 54.24 mg g-1 for CV biosorption by Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus. Recovery of dye was made by eluting 1 N CH3COOH through the exhausted column in downward direction.

  10. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) Juice Modulates Oxidative Damage Induced by Low Dose X-Ray in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Mohd Khairul Amran; Mohamed, Muhamad Idham; Abdul Razak, Hairil Rashmizal; Saad, Wan Mazlina Md.

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon is a natural product that contains high level of antioxidants and may prevent oxidative damage in tissues due to free radical generation following an exposure to ionizing radiation. The present study aimed to investigate the radioprotective effects of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice against oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure in mice. Twelve adult male ICR mice were randomly divided into two groups consisting of radiation (Rx) and supplementation (Tx) groups. Rx received filtered tap water, while Tx was supplemented with 50% (v/v) watermelon juice for 28 days ad libitum prior to total body irradiation by 100 μGy X-ray on day 29. Brain, lung, and liver tissues were assessed for the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites, glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibition activities. Results showed significant reduction of MDA levels and AP sites formation of Tx compared to Rx (P < 0.05). Mice supplemented with 50% watermelon juice restore the intracellular antioxidant activities by significantly increased SOD inhibition activities and GSH levels compared to Rx. These findings may postulate that supplementation of 50% watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) juice could modulate oxidative damage induced by low dose X-ray exposure. PMID:24877107

  11. Comparison of liver microRNA transcriptomes of Tibetan and Yorkshire pigs by deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanyue; Li, Xiaocheng; Sun, Wen-Kui; Cheng, Chi; Chen, Yi-Hui; Zeng, Kai; Chen, Xiaohui; Gu, Yiren; Gao, Rong; Liu, Rui; Lv, Xuebin

    2016-02-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the modulation of various metabolic processes in the liver, yet little is known about the liver microRNAome (miRNAome) of the Tibetan pig. Here we used the Yorkshire pig as a control to analyze the Tibetan pig-specific liver miRNAome, and for preliminary investigation of differentially expressed miRNAs participating in metabolism. A comprehensive analysis of Tibetan and Yorkshire pig liver miRNAomes by small RNA sequencing identified 362 unique miRNAs. Among these, 304 were co-expressed in both libraries, and 10 and 48 miRNAs were specifically expressed. Differential expression analysis of miRNAs, miRNA target prediction and KEGG analysis revealed that differentially expressed miRNAs were associated mainly with the metabolism of glucose, lipid and protein. Six differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-34a, miR-326, miR-1, miR-335, miR-185 and miR-378) participating in the metabolism of glucose and lipid were identified. Additionally, qPCR results revealed that a lower expression of miR-34a in Tibetan pig liver may promote gluconeogenesis by increasing the expression of Sirtuin type 1 (Sirt1); a lower expression of miR-1 in Tibetan pig liver may promote the synthesis and accumulation of lipid by increasing the expression of Liver X receptor α (LXRα); and a lower expression of miR-185 in Tibetan pig liver may promote the uptake of cholesterol from blood and secretion of bile by increasing the expression of the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Our results provide new information and understanding of porcine miRNA profiles, which may help explain the regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs in the metabolic functions of Tibetan pig liver, and provide new biomarkers to assist in the development of Tibetan pig breeding characteristics. PMID:26656174

  12. Control of Pyrophosphated-Fructose-6-Phosphate 1-Phosphotransferase Activity in the Cotyledons of Citrullus lanatus1

    PubMed Central

    Botha, Anna-Maria; Botha, Frederik C.

    1990-01-01

    After initiation of radicle elongation, the pyrophosphate:d-fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase (PFP) activity sharply increases in the cotyledons of Citrullus lanatus. Removal of the radicle early during incubation prevents the increase in PFP activity in the cotyledons evident in the control. Removal of the radicle at any stage after germination results in a decrease in PFP activity in the cotyledons. Application of kinetin (0.5 micromolar) or 2-chlorophosphonic acid (0.1 micromolar) to isolated cotyledons replaces the effect of the radicle. Gibberellic acid (0.09 micromolar GA3) also partially mimics the presence of the radicle. Anaerobic conditions, as well as cycloheximide application (0.18 micromolar) to intact embryos or to kinetin and ethrel treated isolated cotyledons prevent the increase in PFP activity evident in the control. PMID:16667523

  13. Seizures Associated With Hypocalcemia in a Yorkshire Terrier With Protein-Losing Enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Jim; Quimby, Jessica; Bayliss, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    A 7 yr old, male, castrated, Yorkshire terrier was presented on emergency for an acute onset of seizure activity. The owner also reported that the dog had previously exhibited other symptoms, including intermittent vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia for several yr. The initial workup revealed a marked decrease in ionized calcium and total protein. Further diagnostics revealed decreases in magnesium, 25 hydroxyvitamin D, albumin, and globulins, and an increased parathyroid hormone level. Intestinal biopsies revealed inflammatory bowel disease and lymphangiectasia. The dog received intravenous calcium gluconate for treatment of hypocalcemia followed by oral calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Seizure activity ceased once calcium levels approached the normal range. Medical and dietary therapy for lymphangiectasia and inflammatory bowel disease consisted of prednisone, rutin, and a low-fat diet. Decreased serum total ionized calcium levels have been reported previously in dogs with protein-losing enteropathies. Typically, the hypocalcemia is not associated with clinical signs. Severe clinical signs of hypocalcemia are rarely reported in dogs with protein-losing enteropathy, but seizures, facial twitching, and tremors can occur. When presented with a dog with a history of seizure activity, panhypoproteinemia, and hypocalcemia, protein-losing enteropathy should be included on the list of differential diagnoses. PMID:26535456

  14. Bayesian analysis of response to selection: a case study using litter size in Danish Yorkshire pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, D; Vernersen, A; Andersen, S

    2000-01-01

    Implementation of a Bayesian analysis of a selection experiment is illustrated using litter size [total number of piglets born (TNB)] in Danish Yorkshire pigs. Other traits studied include average litter weight at birth (WTAB) and proportion of piglets born dead (PRBD). Response to selection for TNB was analyzed with a number of models, which differed in their level of hierarchy, in their prior distributions, and in the parametric form of the likelihoods. A model assessment study favored a particular form of an additive genetic model. With this model, the Monte Carlo estimate of the 95% probability interval of response to selection was (0.23; 0.60), with a posterior mean of 0.43 piglets. WTAB showed a correlated response of -7.2 g, with a 95% probability interval equal to (-33.1; 18.9). The posterior mean of the genetic correlation between TNB and WTAB was -0.23 with a 95% probability interval equal to (-0.46; -0.01). PRBD was studied informally; it increases with larger litters, when litter size is >7 piglets born. A number of methodological issues related to the Bayesian model assessment study are discussed, as well as the genetic consequences of inferring response to selection using additive genetic models. PMID:10978292

  15. The Duration of Farrowing in Relation to the Reproductive Performance of Yorkshire Sows 1

    PubMed Central

    Friend, D. W.; Cunningham, H. M.; Nicholson, J. W. G.

    1962-01-01

    Records for 212 attended farrowings by 38 Yorkshire sows were examined. Eighty per cent of the farrowings were less than six hours, 18 per cent between six and 12 hours and two per cent between 12 and 17 hours duration. There appeared to be no marked relationship between the duration of farrowing and the size of litter. In spite of a higher stillbirth rate in males, there were more male (52.3 per cent) than female piglets born alive. As the time taken to farrow increased from within 1-3 hours to more than eight hours, the percentage of stillborn piglets and the percentage of litters with stillbirths increased to 10.5 from 2.4 and to 61.1 from 18.2 per cent respectively. Twenty-nine per cent of the litters were farrowed on the 114th day of gestation. As the gestation period lengthened to 117 days or more, from 113 days or less, there were corresponding increases in the duration of farrowing and the incidence of stillbirths, and a decrease in litter size. A need to investigate the use of hormones to control parturition in sows was suggested. PMID:17649374

  16. The use of tobacco and betel quid ('pan') among Bangladeshi women in West Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Summers, R M; Williams, S A; Curzon, M E

    1994-03-01

    The high prevalence of oral cancer in South Asia has been linked to tobacco use particularly in conjunction with chewing betel quid or 'pan'. However, it is not known whether and to what extent these habits are practised by Asian people in the United Kingdom. Home based interviews using semi-structured questionnaires were undertaken among 296 first generation Bangladeshi women resident in inner-city Leeds and Bradford, West Yorkshire. 'Pan' was reportedly chewed by 282 (95 per cent) of the women, of whom 174 (62 per cent) added tobacco in leaf form, and 75 (27 per cent) as a component of zarda. Those who consumed more 'pans' daily were significantly older, less literate, had a lower educational attainment, and were more likely to believe that chewing betel quid was beneficial. Cigarette smoking was practised by 9 per cent, this group being older and having lived in the UK longer. Burnt tobacco leaves were used as an oral hygiene aid by 20 per cent. Over half (58 per cent) of the sample had never visited a dentist, the majority deeming it unnecessary. The use of tobacco and 'pan' imply an increased risk for oral cancer and precancer. Since 'pan' chewing is a traditional custom, health promotion within these communities would require a sensitive approach. Health personnel likely to be consulted by Asian groups who chew 'pan' should be aware of the danger to oral health posed by this practice. PMID:8193977

  17. Iron Age breastfeeding practices in Britain: isotopic evidence from Wetwang Slack, East Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Jay, Mandy; Fuller, B T; Richards, Michael P; Knüsel, Christopher J; King, Sarah S

    2008-07-01

    We present here the results of carbon and nitrogen isotopic analysis of bone collagen undertaken on all skeletal remains of infants and young children below the age of 6 years (n = 34) from the internationally important British cemetery site at Wetwang Slack in East Yorkshire (middle Iron Age, ca. 4th to 2nd centuries BC). The aim of the study is to investigate infant diet, with particular reference to breastfeeding and weaning practices, and to compare the data with previously published studies of archaeological populations, particularly in the context of the variation in data patterns to be seen between sites. The skeletal remains from Wetwang Slack form the only prehistoric collection in the UK, prior to the Romano-British period, with sufficient individuals in this age group to make such an isotopic study viable alongside associated adults and older children. The data are compared in detail with published data from two other sites, one from 19th century Canada and the other from Medieval Britain. The results suggest an unusual situation at Wetwang Slack, with neither the nitrogen nor the carbon isotope ratios conforming to expectations when compared with the putative mothers. We discuss how these data compare with the expectation for breastfed infants and we interpret the divergence in this case to be due to restricted breastfeeding and the early introduction of supplementary foods. PMID:18324632

  18. Proteomic Analysis of Fetal Ovary Reveals That Ovarian Developmental Potential Is Greater in Meishan Pigs than in Yorkshire Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Che, Long; Wang, Dingyue; Yang, Zhenguo; Zhang, Pan; Lin, Yan; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Li, Jian; Chen, Daiwen; Wu, De

    2015-01-01

    Time-dependent expression of functional proteins in fetal ovaries is important to understand the developmental process of the ovary. This study was carried out to enhance our understanding of the developmental process of porcine fetal ovaries and to better address the differences in fetal ovary development of local and foreign pigs. The objective of the present study is to test the expression of key proteins that regulate the growth and development of fetal ovaries in Meishan and Yorkshire porcine breeds by using proteomics technology. Six Meishan and 6 Yorkshire pregnant gilts were used in this experiment. Fetal ovaries were obtained from Yorkshire and Meishan gilts on days 55 and 90 of the gestation period. Using 2D-DIGE (two dimensional-difference in gel electrophoresis) analysis, the results showed that there are about 1551 and 1400 proteins in gilt fetal ovaries on days 55 and 90, respectively of the gestation. Using MALDI TOF-TOF MS analysis, 27 differentially expressed proteins were identified in the fetal ovaries of the 2 breeds on day 55 of gestation, and a total of 18 proteins were identified on day 90 of gestation. These differentially expressed proteins were involved in the regulation of biological processes (cell death, stress response, cytoskeletal proteins) and molecular functions (enzyme regulator activity). We also found that alpha-1-antitrypsin, actin, vimentin, and PP2A proteins promote the formation of primordial follicles in the ovaries of Yorkshire pigs on day 55 of gestation while low expression heat shock proteins and high expression alpha-fetoproteins (AFP) may promote Meishan fetal ovarian follicular development on day 90 of gestation. These findings provide a deeper understanding of how reduced expression of heat shock proteins and increased expression of AFP can significantly reduce the risk of reproductive disease in obese Meishan sows. Our study also shows how these proteins can increase the ovulation rate and may be responsible for

  19. Vocabulary learning in a Yorkshire terrier: slow mapping of spoken words.

    PubMed

    Griebel, Ulrike; Oller, D Kimbrough

    2012-01-01

    Rapid vocabulary learning in children has been attributed to "fast mapping", with new words often claimed to be learned through a single presentation. As reported in 2004 in Science a border collie (Rico) not only learned to identify more than 200 words, but fast mapped the new words, remembering meanings after just one presentation. Our research tests the fast mapping interpretation of the Science paper based on Rico's results, while extending the demonstration of large vocabulary recognition to a lap dog. We tested a Yorkshire terrier (Bailey) with the same procedures as Rico, illustrating that Bailey accurately retrieved randomly selected toys from a set of 117 on voice command of the owner. Second we tested her retrieval based on two additional voices, one male, one female, with different accents that had never been involved in her training, again showing she was capable of recognition by voice command. Third, we did both exclusion-based training of new items (toys she had never seen before with names she had never heard before) embedded in a set of known items, with subsequent retention tests designed as in the Rico experiment. After Bailey succeeded on exclusion and retention tests, a crucial evaluation of true mapping tested items previously successfully retrieved in exclusion and retention, but now pitted against each other in a two-choice task. Bailey failed on the true mapping task repeatedly, illustrating that the claim of fast mapping in Rico had not been proven, because no true mapping task had ever been conducted with him. It appears that the task called retention in the Rico study only demonstrated success in retrieval by a process of extended exclusion. PMID:22363421

  20. Vocabulary Learning in a Yorkshire Terrier: Slow Mapping of Spoken Words

    PubMed Central

    Griebel, Ulrike; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2012-01-01

    Rapid vocabulary learning in children has been attributed to “fast mapping”, with new words often claimed to be learned through a single presentation. As reported in 2004 in Science a border collie (Rico) not only learned to identify more than 200 words, but fast mapped the new words, remembering meanings after just one presentation. Our research tests the fast mapping interpretation of the Science paper based on Rico's results, while extending the demonstration of large vocabulary recognition to a lap dog. We tested a Yorkshire terrier (Bailey) with the same procedures as Rico, illustrating that Bailey accurately retrieved randomly selected toys from a set of 117 on voice command of the owner. Second we tested her retrieval based on two additional voices, one male, one female, with different accents that had never been involved in her training, again showing she was capable of recognition by voice command. Third, we did both exclusion-based training of new items (toys she had never seen before with names she had never heard before) embedded in a set of known items, with subsequent retention tests designed as in the Rico experiment. After Bailey succeeded on exclusion and retention tests, a crucial evaluation of true mapping tested items previously successfully retrieved in exclusion and retention, but now pitted against each other in a two-choice task. Bailey failed on the true mapping task repeatedly, illustrating that the claim of fast mapping in Rico had not been proven, because no true mapping task had ever been conducted with him. It appears that the task called retention in the Rico study only demonstrated success in retrieval by a process of extended exclusion. PMID:22363421

  1. Leadership skills teaching in Yorkshire & the Humber - a survey: uncovering, sharing, developing, embedding.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Iolanthe; Gill, Andy

    2015-09-01

    Medical leadership is a hot topic, but it is not known yet how to teach this most effectively. A working party of educators in Yorkshire and the Humber (Y&H) studied the leadership domains, as set out in the Medical Leadership Competency Framework and from this distilled a set of 'trainable' leadership skills, which were felt to be important to teach during general practitioner (GP) training. A questionnaire was sent out to a large GP educational community (educators and trainees) within Y&H to establish the following: (i) whether the distilled skills were thought to have face validity when applied to the concept of leadership, (ii) what was the relative importance of these skills in relation to each other and (iii) the degree to which these skills were already being taught in practice placements and at General Practice Specialty Training Programme (GPSTP) teaching sessions.Educators reported more teaching and training occurring than trainees reported receiving, and the relative importance of the skills sets were different between educators and trainees. It was evident that leadership skills are currently being taught, but that making training explicitly 'leadership', and raising the importance of leadership skills in GP, may address some of these imbalances. Educators requested guidance on how to teach these skills effectively and commented that many existing opportunities for leadership teaching and training are not well recognised or used. Routinely and regularly offering the chance for trainees at all levels to be exposed to leadership skills by role modelling, making use of everyday opportunities in practice to teach and encouraging trainee involvement in projects and opportunities to practice new skills can facilitate the acquisition and celebration of mastery of generic leadership skills. PMID:26808794

  2. Corrosion casting of the subglottis following endotracheal tube intubation injury: a pilot study in Yorkshire piglets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Subglottic stenosis can result from endotracheal tube injury. The mechanism by which this occurs, however, is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of angiogenesis, hypoxia and ischemia in subglottic mucosal injury following endotracheal intubation. Methods Six Yorkshire piglets were randomized to either a control group (N=3, ventilated through laryngeal mask airway for corrosion casting) or accelerated subglottic injury group through intubation and induced hypoxia as per a previously described model (N=3). The vasculature of all animals was injected with liquid methyl methacrylate. After polymerization, the surrounding tissue was corroded with potassium hydroxide. The subglottic region was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy looking for angiogenic and hypoxic or degenerative features and groups were compared using Mann–Whitney tests and Friedman’s 2-way ANOVA. Results Animals in the accelerated subglottic injury group had less overall angiogenic features (P=.002) and more overall hypoxic/degenerative features (P=.000) compared with controls. Amongst angiogenic features, there was decreased budding (P=.000) and a trend toward decreased sprouting (P=.037) in the accelerated subglottic injury group with an increase in intussusception (P=.004), possibly representing early attempts at rapid revascularization. Amongst hypoxic/degenerative features, extravasation was the only feature that was significantly higher in the accelerated subglottic injury group (P=.000). Conclusions Subglottic injury due to intubation and hypoxia may lead to decreased angiogenesis and increased blood vessel damage resulting in extravasation of fluid and a decreased propensity toward wound healing in this animal model. PMID:24401165

  3. Organic geochemistry of the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event in Hawsker Bottoms, Yorkshire, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, K. L.; Sepúlveda, J.; Trabucho-Alexandre, J.; Gröcke, D. R.; Summons, R. E.

    2014-03-01

    A comprehensive organic geochemical investigation of the Hawsker Bottoms outcrop section in Yorkshire, England has provided new insights about environmental conditions leading into and during the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (T-OAE; ∼183 Ma). Rock-Eval and molecular analyses demonstrate that the section is uniformly within the early oil window. Hydrogen index (HI), organic petrography, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) distributions, and tricyclic terpane ratios mark a shift to a lower relative abundance of terrigenous organic matter supplied to the sampling locality during the onset of the T-OAE and across a lithological transition. Unlike other ancient intervals of anoxia and extinction, biomarker indices of planktonic community structure do not display major changes or anomalous values. Depositional environment and redox indicators support a shift towards more reducing conditions in the sediment porewaters and the development of a seasonally stratified water column during the T-OAE. In addition to carotenoid biomarkers for green sulfur bacteria (GSB), we report the first occurrence of okenane, a marker of purple sulfur bacteria (PSB), in marine samples younger than ∼1.64 Ga. Based on modern observations, a planktonic source of okenane's precursor, okenone, would require extremely shallow photic zone euxinia (PZE) and a highly restricted depositional environment. However, due to coastal vertical mixing, the lack of planktonic okenone production in modern marine sulfidic environments, and building evidence of okenone production in mat-dwelling Chromatiaceae, we propose a sedimentary source of okenone as an alternative. Lastly, we report the first parallel compound-specific δC13 record in marine- and terrestrial-derived biomarkers across the T-OAE. The δC13 records of short-chain n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and long-chain n-alkanes all encode negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs), and together, they support an injection of isotopically light

  4. Assessing peripheral blood cell profile of Yorkshire pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Mpetile, Z; Young, J M; Gabler, N K; Dekkers, J C M; Tuggle, C K

    2015-03-01

    The cost of feed is a serious issue in the pork industry, contributing about 65 to 75% of the total production cost. To prevent economic losses and decreased productivity of the herd, it is important to select for animals that eat less for the same lean gain, or more efficient animals. Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between observed feed intake and expected feed intake based on estimated maintenance and production requirements. Selection for decreased RFI, or more efficient animals, is a potential solution to higher feed costs in pig production. However, animals that are highly selected for decreased RFI may have reduced energy input to the immune system and fail to withstand diseases and stressors after infection that negatively impact profitability. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in circulating blood cell profiles at a young age between 2 lines of Yorkshire pigs that were divergently selected for RFI as well as the heritability of these traits, to investigate effects of selection for RFI on immune system parameters, and to identify potential biomarkers for feed efficiency. Previous work has shown that the 2 lines had diverged for IGF-1 in serum in young pigs and, therefore, this stage was investigated for other potential physiological differences. Blood samples were drawn for a complete blood count (CBC) analysis from 517 gilts and barrows, ages 35 to 42 d, across the 2 lines. In general, the low-RFI line had lower numbers of specific types of white blood cells but higher hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell volume compared to the high-RFI line. No significant correlations were found between CBC traits and RFI across and within the lines (0.05 < < 0.1). Of the 15 CBC traits that were measured, 3 were highly heritable (0.56 < < 0.62), 9 were moderately heritable (0.12 < < 0.47), and 3 were lowly heritable ( < 0.12), suggesting a substantial genetic component for CBC traits and that selection for CBC traits could be

  5. Incidence of oral cancer among South Asians and those of other ethnic groups by sex in West Yorkshire and England, 2001-2006.

    PubMed

    Csikar, Julia; Aravani, Ariadni; Godson, Jenny; Day, Matthew; Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    In 2008 there were 11682 cases of oral cancer in the United Kingdom; this is 16.41/100000 population, and 3.7% of all cancers. Ethnic coding of these data is poor, and so databases were combined to report rates for the incidence of oral cancer in South Asians compared with those among other ethnic groups in West Yorkshire, 2001-2006. A total of 2157 patients with oral cancer were identified in West Yorkshire, 138 of whom were South Asian (6.4%). We analysed them by ethnicity, sex, area in which they lived, and site of cancer. Oral cancer was significantly more common among South Asian women than those from other ethnic groups in England and West Yorkshire, and in England alone it was significantly more common in men of other ethnic groups than those from South Asia. Patients from South Asia were at higher risk of being diagnosed with oral cancer than those of other ethnic groups within West Yorkshire, when data were adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex. In England and in West Yorkshire there was a significantly higher rate of oral cancer among Southern Asian women than among those of other ethnic groups, and men in other ethnic groups had a higher incidence than those from South Asia (England only). The excess of oral cancers gives further weight to the association between smokeless tobacco, smoking, alcohol, and dietary intake by ethnic group. This information is particularly pertinent in areas such as West Yorkshire where there are large groups of Asian people. PMID:22495403

  6. Global Expressions Landscape of NAC Transcription Factor Family and Their Responses to Abiotic Stresses in Citrullus lanatus

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xiaolong; Lan, Shanrong; Guy, Kateta Malangisha; Yang, Jinghua; Zhang, Mingfang; Hu, Zhongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is one xerophyte that has relative higher tolerance to drought and salt stresses as well as more sensitivity to cold stress, compared with most model plants. These characteristics facilitate it a potential model crop for researches on salt, drought or cold tolerance. In this study, a genome-wide comprehensive analysis of the ClNAC transcription factor (TF) family was carried out for the first time, to investigate their transcriptional profiles and potential functions in response to these abiotic stresses. The expression profiling analysis reveals that several NAC TFs are highly responsive to abiotic stresses and development, for instance, subfamily IV NACs may play roles in maintaining water status under drought or salt conditions, as well as water and metabolites conduction and translocation toward fruit. In contrast, rapid and negative responses of most of the ClNACs to low-temperature adversity may be related to the sensitivity to cold stress. Crosstalks among these abiotic stresses and hormone (abscisic acid and jasmonic acid) pathways were also discussed based on the expression of ClNAC genes. Our results will provide useful insights for the functional mining of NAC family in watermelon, as well as into the mechanisms underlying abiotic tolerance in other cash crops. PMID:27491393

  7. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012–2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality. PMID:27258145

  8. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruiping; Mo, Yanling; Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012-2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality. PMID:27258145

  9. RSM based optimized enzyme-assisted extraction of antioxidant phenolics from underutilized watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.) rind.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Muhammad; Sultana, Bushra; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Asghar, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    Enzyme assisted solvent extraction (EASE) of phenolic compounds from watermelon (C. lanatus) rind (WMR) was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with Rotatable Central Composite Design (RCCD). Four variables each at five levels i.e. enzyme concentration (EC) 0.5-6.5 %, pH 6-9, temperature (T) 25-75 °C and treatment time (t) 30-90 min, were augmented to get optimal yield of polyphenols with maximum retained antioxidant potential. The polyphenol extracts obtained under optimum conditions were evaluated for their in-vitro antioxidant activities and characterized for individual phenolic profile by RP-HPLC-DAD. The results obtained indicated that optimized EASE enhanced the liberation of antioxidant phenolics up to 3 folds on fresh weight basis (FW) as compared to conventional solvent extraction (CSE), with substantial level of total phenolics (173.70 mg GAE/g FW), TEAC 279.96 mg TE/g FW and DPPH radical scavenging ability (IC50) 112.27 mg/mL. Chlorogenic acid (115.60-1611.04), Vanillic acid (26.13-2317.01) and Sinapic acid (113.01-241.12 μg/g) were major phenolic acid found in EASEx of WMR. Overall, it was concluded that EASE might be efficient and green technique to revalorize under-utilized WMR into potent antioxidant phenolic for their further application in food and nutraceutical industries. PMID:26243925

  10. Global Expressions Landscape of NAC Transcription Factor Family and Their Responses to Abiotic Stresses in Citrullus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaolong; Lan, Shanrong; Guy, Kateta Malangisha; Yang, Jinghua; Zhang, Mingfang; Hu, Zhongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is one xerophyte that has relative higher tolerance to drought and salt stresses as well as more sensitivity to cold stress, compared with most model plants. These characteristics facilitate it a potential model crop for researches on salt, drought or cold tolerance. In this study, a genome-wide comprehensive analysis of the ClNAC transcription factor (TF) family was carried out for the first time, to investigate their transcriptional profiles and potential functions in response to these abiotic stresses. The expression profiling analysis reveals that several NAC TFs are highly responsive to abiotic stresses and development, for instance, subfamily IV NACs may play roles in maintaining water status under drought or salt conditions, as well as water and metabolites conduction and translocation toward fruit. In contrast, rapid and negative responses of most of the ClNACs to low-temperature adversity may be related to the sensitivity to cold stress. Crosstalks among these abiotic stresses and hormone (abscisic acid and jasmonic acid) pathways were also discussed based on the expression of ClNAC genes. Our results will provide useful insights for the functional mining of NAC family in watermelon, as well as into the mechanisms underlying abiotic tolerance in other cash crops. PMID:27491393

  11. Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals for specific pathogen free 6-week-old Hampshire-Yorkshire crossbred pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals depend on many factors, including age. A review of the literature highlights the lack of reference intervals for 6-wk-old specific pathogen free (SPF) Hampshire-Yorkshire crossbred pigs. For translational research, 6-wk-old pigs represent an important animal model for both human juvenile colitis and diabetes mellitus type 2 given the similarities between the porcine and human gastrointestinal maturation process. The aim of this study was to determine reference intervals for hematological and biochemical parameters in healthy 6-wk-old crossbred pigs. Blood samples were collected from 66 clinically healthy Hampshire-Yorkshire pigs. The pigs were 6 wks old, represented both sexes, and were housed in a SPF facility. Automated hematological and biochemical analysis were performed using an ADVIA 120 Hematology System and a Cobas 6000 C501 Clinical Chemistry Analyzer. Results Reference intervals were calculated using both parametric and nonparametric methods. The mean, median, minimum, and maximum values were calculated. Conclusion As pigs are used more frequently as medical models of human disease, having reference intervals for commonly measured hematological and biochemical parameters in 6-wk-old pigs will be useful. The reference intervals calculated in this study will aid in the diagnosis and monitoring of both naturally occurring and experimentally induced disease. In comparison to published reference intervals for older non SPF pigs, notable differences in leukocyte populations, and in levels of sodium, potassium, glucose, protein, and alkaline phosphatase were observed. PMID:24410946

  12. Simulated surgery in the summative assessment of general practice training: results of a trial in the Trent and Yorkshire regions.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, J; Evans, A; Foulkes, J; French, A

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: General practice registrars are now required to undertake a summative assessment of their consulting skills. Simulated surgeries have been developed as an alternative to the existing method of assessing video-recorded consultations. AIM: To evaluate the simulated surgery assessment method, developed in the General Practice Postgraduate Education Department in Leicester, for use in assessing general practice consultation skills. METHOD: General practice registrars in Leicester performed two eight-patient simulated surgeries separated by four weeks. Assessment outcomes were compared to demonstrate the consistency of the method. Pilot surgeries in Yorkshire were videotaped, and then rated by video-raters trained for summative assessment. RESULTS: The method consistently identified those registrars who were competent and those who were not yet competent in consulting skills. It proved acceptable to candidate doctors and has fewer resource requirements for both examiners and candidates than other consulting skills assessment methods. CONCLUSION: The method developed in Leicester and successfully transferred to Yorkshire is feasible on a large scale, and offers an acceptable alternative to other consulting skills assessment methods. In this study it consistently identified competent from incompetent candidate doctors. PMID:9692278

  13. Teaching Modern Foreign Languages in Single-Sex Classes in a Co-Educational Context--Review of a Project in a North Yorkshire Comprehensive School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Gary

    2005-01-01

    A co-educational comprehensive school in North Yorkshire, concerned at the gap between boys' and girls' performance in French and German at GCSE, opted to teach Year 8 languages classes as single-sex groups. 2003-04 was to be a pilot year, at the end of which pupils' performance, motivation and attitude, as well as the experiences and views of…

  14. A Comparative Study of the Child Bereavement and Loss Responses and Needs of Schools in Hull, Yorkshire and Derry/Londonderry, Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Anne; Holland, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings from a study of schools' responses to child bereavement in Hull, Yorkshire and Derry/Londonderry, Northern Ireland. In order to gain an insight and compare how schools in both geographical areas respond to and manage bereavement, the questionnaire "Loss in schools" was selected as an appropriate tool. It has been…

  15. An Investigation into the Provision of Built Environment Education to Schools in London, the South East and Yorkshire and the Humber

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Sally; Murfield, Jenny; Wilkin, Anne

    2007-01-01

    The report was commissioned by the Department for Culture Media and Sport (DCMS) to provide information on organizations providing education focusing on the built environment in three regions (London, the South East and Yorkshire and the Humber). The findings from this study will be used to inform "Engaging Places," a project from DCMS, in…

  16. Light Affects the Chloroplast Ultrastructure and Post-Storage Photosynthetic Performance of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Plug Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Qingqing; Jiang, Wu; Ding, Ming; Lin, Ye; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] plug seedlings were stored at 15°C in the light at a photosynthetic photon flux density of 15 µmol·m−2·s−1 or in darkness for 6 days, to evaluate their chloroplast ultrastructure, and associated photosynthetic characteristics. Storage in the dark caused swelling, disordered granal arrangement, and starch grain disappearance in the chloroplasts. In contrast, the chloroplasts stored in the light were relatively normal. As a result, the light-stored seedlings had a significantly higher chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, and Pn than did dark-stored seedlings. Regardless of whether the seedlings were stored in light or darkness, the Gs and Ls of the seedlings significantly decreased, while the Ci obviously increased when the Pn decreased after 6 days of storage. This result suggests that the decreased Pn is not solely a stomatal effect, as the effects on the chloroplasts contributed to this photosynthetic inhibition. Six days after transplanting, seedlings that were stored in the light or darkness for 2 or 4 days showed complete recovery of chloroplast ultrastructure, chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, Gs and Pn. When the storage period increased to 6 days, the dark-stored seedlings had a significantly lower Fv/Fm and Pn than the light-stored and control seedlings 6 days after transplanting, which was mainly ascribed to incomplete recovery of chloroplast ultrastructure. Furthermore, the light-stored seedlings exhibited a significantly higher shoot dry weight during storage and a higher percentage dry weight increase after transplanting than the dark-stored seedlings. These effects were enhanced by prolonged storage (4 to 6 days). This study demonstrated that dim light during storage is beneficial for maintaining chloroplast ultrastructure as well as photosynthetic efficiency in watermelon seedlings, thus contributing to the rapid recovery of post-storage photosynthetic performance, which ensures the transplant quality

  17. Light affects the chloroplast ultrastructure and post-storage photosynthetic performance of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) plug seedlings.

    PubMed

    Duan, Qingqing; Jiang, Wu; Ding, Ming; Lin, Ye; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] plug seedlings were stored at 15°C in the light at a photosynthetic photon flux density of 15 µmol·m(-2)·s(-1) or in darkness for 6 days, to evaluate their chloroplast ultrastructure, and associated photosynthetic characteristics. Storage in the dark caused swelling, disordered granal arrangement, and starch grain disappearance in the chloroplasts. In contrast, the chloroplasts stored in the light were relatively normal. As a result, the light-stored seedlings had a significantly higher chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, and Pn than did dark-stored seedlings. Regardless of whether the seedlings were stored in light or darkness, the Gs and Ls of the seedlings significantly decreased, while the Ci obviously increased when the Pn decreased after 6 days of storage. This result suggests that the decreased Pn is not solely a stomatal effect, as the effects on the chloroplasts contributed to this photosynthetic inhibition. Six days after transplanting, seedlings that were stored in the light or darkness for 2 or 4 days showed complete recovery of chloroplast ultrastructure, chlorophyll content, Fv/Fm, Gs and Pn. When the storage period increased to 6 days, the dark-stored seedlings had a significantly lower Fv/Fm and Pn than the light-stored and control seedlings 6 days after transplanting, which was mainly ascribed to incomplete recovery of chloroplast ultrastructure. Furthermore, the light-stored seedlings exhibited a significantly higher shoot dry weight during storage and a higher percentage dry weight increase after transplanting than the dark-stored seedlings. These effects were enhanced by prolonged storage (4 to 6 days). This study demonstrated that dim light during storage is beneficial for maintaining chloroplast ultrastructure as well as photosynthetic efficiency in watermelon seedlings, thus contributing to the rapid recovery of post-storage photosynthetic performance, which ensures the transplant quality

  18. The expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAL1 gene increases salt tolerance in transgenic watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsun. & Nakai.].

    PubMed

    Ellul, P; Ríos, G; Atarés, A; Roig, L A; Serrano, R; Moreno, V

    2003-08-01

    An optimised Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer protocol was developed in order to obtain watermelon transgenic plants [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsun. & Nakai.]. Transformation efficiencies ranged from 2.8% to 5.3%, depending on the cultivar. The method was applied to obtain genetically engineered watermelon plants expressing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAL1 gene related to salt tolerance. In order to enhance its constitutive expression in plants, the HAL1 gene was cloned in a pBiN19 plasmid under control of the 35S promoter with a double enhancer sequence from the cauliflower mosaic virus and the RNA4 leader sequence of the alfalfa mosaic virus. This vector was introduced into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 for further inoculation of watermelon half-cotyledon explants. The introduction of both the neomycin phosphotransferase II and HAL1 genes was assessed in primary transformants (TG1) by polymerase chain reaction analysis and Southern hybridisation. The expression of the HAL1 gene was determined by Northern analysis, and the diploid level of transgenic plants was confirmed by flow cytometry. The presence of the selectable marker gene in the expected Mendelian ratios was demonstrated in TG2 progenies. The TG2 kanamycin-resistant plantlets elongated better and produced new roots and leaves in culture media supplemented with NaCl compared with the control. Salt tolerance was confirmed in a semi-hydroponic system (EC=6 dS m(-1)) on the basis of the higher growth performance of homozygous TG3 lines with respect to their respective azygous control lines without the transgene. The halotolerance observed confirmed the inheritance of the trait and supports the potential usefulness of the HAL1 gene of S. cerevisiae as a molecular tool for genetic engineering of salt-stress protection in other crop species. PMID:12783167

  19. Spatial justice and the translation of European strategic planning ideas in the urban sub-region of south Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Dabinett, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses urban planning practices in South Yorkshire to reveal how EU strategic spatial ideas and values are reproduced. Specifically, the paper examines how the notion of spatial justice was interpreted as the organising concepts within the European Spatial Development Perspective became situated within a territory severely affected by deindustrialisation in the 1980s, but subsequently a major beneficiary of EU Structural Fund programmes. The analysis reveals how policy-making at this scale used a construct of polycentric urban development that reasserted a model of economic growth based on the indigenous assets held in city centres at the expense of more redistributive measures targeted at the former coal-mining communities in the sub-region. PMID:20857562

  20. A 10-Year Retrospective Review of a Nonrandomized Cohort of 458 Patients Undergoing Radical Radiotherapy or Cystectomy in Yorkshire, UK

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, Nicholas P.; Sundaram, Subramnian K.; Weston, Philip; Fairley, Lesley; Harrison, Simon C.W.; Forman, David; Chahal, Rohit

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: We have previously reported on the mortality, morbidity, and 5-year survival of 458 patients who underwent radical radiotherapy or surgery for invasive bladder cancer in Yorkshire from 1993 to 1996. We aim to present the 10-year outcomes of these patients and to reassess factors predicting survival. Methods and Materials: The Northern and Yorkshire Cancer Registry identified 458 patients whose cases were subjected to Kaplan-Meier all-cause survival analyses, and a retrospective casenote analysis was undertaken on 398 (87%) for univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling. Additional proportional hazards regression modeling was used to assess the statistical significance of variables on overall survival. Results: The ratio of radiotherapy to cystectomy was 3:1. There was no significant difference in overall 10-year survival between those who underwent radiotherapy (22%) and radical cystectomy (24%). Univariate analyses suggested that female sex, performance status, hydronephrosis and clinical T stage, were associated with an inferior outcome at 10 years. Patient age, tumor grade, treatment delay, and caseload factors were not significant. Multivariate analysis models were created for 0-2 and 2-10 years after treatment. There were no significant differences in treatment for 0-2 years; however, after 2 years follow-up there was some evidence of increased survival for patients receiving surgery compared with radiotherapy (hazard ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.44-1.01, p = 0.06). Conclusions: a 10-year minimum follow-up has rarely been reported after radical treatment for invasive bladder cancer. At 10 years, there was no statistical difference in all-cause survival between surgery and radiotherapy treatment modalities.

  1. The effect of a rosette-crown fly, Botanophila turcica, on growth,biomass allocation and reproduction of the thistle Carthamus lanatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Andrew W.; Vitou, Janine

    2000-12-01

    Plant growth and reproductive output of the winter annual invasive thistle, Carthamus lanatus was characterised in relation to plant size in three native populations in southern France. The effects of the rosette-crown feeding fly Botanophila turcica on these plant characteristics were assessed by comparing unattacked with naturally attacked plants at each site and by a field experiment. Indirect effects of B. turcica on plant seed production were also compared with direct seed loss caused by a guild of capitulum-feeding insects that incidentally attacked the marked plants at these sites. C. lanatus showed no size or weight requirement for flowering, but larger flowering plants produced less total receptacle surface and less seed production (female reproductive potential) in proportion to plant weight than smaller flowering plants. B. turcica did not select hosts on the basis of size or density. B. turcica reduced plant relative growth rate (RGR) in all situations, but attacked plants compensated fully at two of three sites as attack failed to halt rosette growth. Attacked plants suffered 12 % mortality, and 71 % lower seed production than unattacked plants at the site with the lowest RGR. This corresponded to 9 % lower seed production for the whole thistle population compared to 8.6-19.5 % direct seed loss to capitulum insects across all sites.

  2. An Effective and Reproducible Model of Ventricular Fibrillation in Crossbred Yorkshire Swine (Sus scrofa) for Use in Physiologic Research

    PubMed Central

    Burgert, James M; Johnson, Arthur D; Garcia-Blanco, Jose C; Craig, W John; O'Sullivan, Joseph C

    2015-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical induction (TCEI) has been used to induce ventricular fibrillation (VF) in laboratory swine for physiologic and resuscitation research. Many studies do not describe the method of TCEI in detail, thus making replication by future investigators difficult. Here we describe a detailed method of electrically inducing VF that was used successfully in a prospective, experimental resuscitation study. Specifically, an electrical current was passed through the heart to induce VF in crossbred Yorkshire swine (n = 30); the current was generated by using two 22-gauge spinal needles, with one placed above and one below the heart, and three 9V batteries connected in series. VF developed in 28 of the 30 pigs (93%) within 10 s of beginning the procedure. In the remaining 2 swine, VF was induced successfully after medial redirection of the superior parasternal needle. The TCEI method is simple, reproducible, and cost-effective. TCEI may be especially valuable to researchers with limited access to funding, sophisticated equipment, or colleagues experienced in interventional cardiology techniques. The TCEI method might be most appropriate for pharmacologic studies requiring VF, VF resulting from the R-on-T phenomenon (as in prolonged QT syndrome), and VF arising from other ectopic or reentrant causes. However, the TCEI method does not accurately model the most common cause of VF, acute coronary occlusive disease. Researchers must consider the limitations of TCEI that may affect internal and external validity of collected data, when designing experiments using this model of VF. PMID:26473349

  3. Mine water geochemistry and metal flux in a major historic Pb-Zn-F orefield, the Yorkshire Pennines, UK.

    PubMed

    Jones, A; Rogerson, M; Greenway, G; Potter, H A B; Mayes, W M

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies have shown up to 6 % of rivers in England and Wales to be impacted by discharges from abandoned metal mines. Despite the large extent of impacts, there are still many areas where mine water impact assessments are limited by data availability. This study provides an overview of water quality, trace element composition and flux arising from one such area; the Yorkshire Pennine Orefield in the UK. Mine drainage waters across the orefield are characterised by Ca-HCO3-SO4-type waters, with moderate mineralization (specific electrical conductance: 160-525 μS cm(-1)) and enrichment of dissolved Zn (≤2003 μg L(-1)), Ba (≤971 μg L(-1)), Pb (≤183 μg L(-1)) and Cd (≤12 μg L(-1)). The major ion composition of the waters reflects the Carboniferous gritstone and limestone-dominated country rock, the latter of which is heavily karstified in parts of the orefield, while sulphate and trace element enrichment is a product of the oxidation of galena, sphalerite and barite mineralization. Contaminant flux measurements at discharge sites highlight the disproportionate importance of large drainage levels across the region, which generally discharge into first-order headwater streams. Synoptic metal loading surveys undertaken in the Hebden Beck sub-catchment of the river Wharfe highlight the importance of major drainage levels to instream baseflow contamination, with diffuse sources from identifiable expanses of waste rock becoming increasingly prominent as river flows increase. PMID:23386384

  4. Spatial Variation in Fine Sediment Transfer and the Impact on Biodiversity: The River Esk, North Yorkshire UK.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, L. J.; Warburton, J.

    2006-12-01

    Land use change, including the resulting changes in fine sediment supply, is seen as the most significant threat to global biodiversity (Sala et al. 2000). Silt is important for three reasons; firstly, it can act as a pollutant itself in silting up gravel spawning beds of fishes such as salmonids (Walling et al. 2003). Secondly it can have detrimental effects on conservation species such as freshwater pearl mussels through direct and indirect effects (pearl mussels rely on juvenile salmonids for lifecycle completion). Thirdly, sediment associated transport of nutrients and pollutants can result in long-term pollution problems detrimental to most species (Walling et al. 2001). However, some key conservation species such as lampreys require abundant silt for the larval lifecycle stage, as well as gravel for adult spawners. Hence, a plentiful silt supply and transport in river systems is not necessarily detrimental to some key biodiversity elements, but may be more damaging for others. This debate is compounded by a lack of data on silt in river systems. This paper; i) introduces Time Integrated Mass Flux Samples (TIMS) as a cheap, effective and efficient method of collecting data on spatial variations in fine sediment transfer; ii) presents data for variations in loads and specific yields of fine sediment in the River Esk (North Yorkshire, UK) and; iii) links these patterns of silt transfer to potential impacts of biodiversity and salmonids.

  5. Letters of condolence: assessing attitudes and variability in practice amongst oncologists and palliative care doctors in Yorkshire

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Jessica S; Makinde, Oluwatobi; Vasudev, Naveen S

    2016-01-01

    Background Following a patient’s death, some doctors routinely write a letter of condolence to the bereaved family. Practice appears to vary widely but this is poorly documented, particularly in the UK setting. We wished to explore the attitudes of oncologists and palliative care consultants towards writing letters of condolence to patient’s families. Methods A sample of oncology and palliative care consultants from across Yorkshire were invited via email to complete an anonymous online survey. The survey aimed to identify current practice regarding condolence letter writing and respondents attitudes towards this. Results A total of 47 (72%) recipients completed the survey, comprised of clinical oncologists (45%), medical oncologists (42%), and palliative care consultants (13%). The majority (87%) reported sending condolence letters, but amongst this group, only 49% indicated they do this ‘often’ or ‘always’. When asked whether they would use a standard template letter, should it be made available, 77% of participants responded negatively. Many later commented that a template with room for flexibility would be better received. The majority (72%) were also not in favour of the introduction of policies to try to unify practices. Conclusions Practices and attitudes towards condolence letter writing are variable. The participants in this study felt strongly about when and how they wished to express condolences. A single unifying policy seems unlikely to be appropriate or feasible. PMID:27347006

  6. Identification of genes in longissimus dorsi muscle differentially expressed between Wannanhua and Yorkshire pigs using RNA-sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, X-J; Zhou, J; Liu, L-Q; Qian, K; Wang, C-L

    2016-06-01

    Western commercial pig breeds have been intensively selected, resulting in a sizeable, rapid and efficient accretion of muscle but a reduction in meat quality. When compared with Western commercial pig breeds, Chinese indigenous pig breeds exhibited slower growth rates and reduced lean meat content but superior perceived meat quality. To study the factors that determine meat quality, we examined piglets of one Western commercial breed (Yorkshire) and one Chinese indigenous breed (Wannanhua) and sequenced the longissimus dorsi muscle using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). We analyzed their transcriptomes, focusing on identifying candidate genes that may influence porcine muscle growth, meat quality and adipose deposition. Gene Ontology functional enrichment and pathway enrichment analyses identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) primarily associated with glycolytic metabolism, biological processes of muscle development and signaling pathways related to fatty acid metabolism, growth and carcass traits. This finding suggests that the DEGs may play important roles in determining meat quality traits. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed the differential expression of 12 selected DEG. This study identified a number of novel candidate genes for porcine meat quality and carcass traits that merit further investigation to elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for muscle growth and fat deposition. PMID:27038141

  7. Intake characteristics of grass species from semi-natural pastures in the United Kingdom

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four grass species (Lolium perenne L., Holcus lanatus L. cv Glen, Agrostis stolonifera L. cv Kromi, and Poa trivialis L.) commonly found in mesotropic lowland semi-natural grassland communities in the UK were sown in boxes (85 x 44 x 14 cm) to create micro-swards. Once established, the micro-sward...

  8. Difference in expression patterns of placental cholesterol transporters, ABCA1 and SR-BI, in Meishan and Yorkshire pigs with different placental efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Linjun; Xu, Xiangdong; Huang, Ji; Lei, Minggang; Xu, Dequan; Zhao, Shuhong; Yu, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol is a key cell membrane component and precursor of steroid hormones. The maternal cholesterol is an important exogenous cholesterol source for the developing embryos and its transportation is mediated by ABCA1 and SR-BI. Here we reported that during the peri-implantation period in pigs, ABCA1 was expressed by uterine luminal epithelium (LE) and interestingly, its expression was more abundantly in LE on mesometrial side of uterus. However, SR-BI was expressed primarily by LE, glandular epithelial cells (GE) and trophoblast cells (Tr). During the placentation period, the expression levels of ABCA1 and SR-BI proteins at epithelial bilayer and placental areolae were significantly higher in Chinese Meishan pigs compared to Yorkshire pigs. Consisitently, mRNA levels of HMGCR, the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol synthesis, were significantly higher in Meishan placentas than in Yorkshire placentas. Our findings revealed the routes of transplacental cholesterol transport mediated by ABCA1 and SR-BI in pigs and indicated that ABCA1 related pathway may participate in anchoring the conceptus to the mesometrial side of uterus. Additionally, an ABCA1 dependent compensatory mechanism related to the placental efficiency in response to the smaller placenta size in Meishan pigs was suggested. PMID:26852751

  9. Difference in expression patterns of placental cholesterol transporters, ABCA1 and SR-BI, in Meishan and Yorkshire pigs with different placental efficiency.

    PubMed

    Hong, Linjun; Xu, Xiangdong; Huang, Ji; Lei, Minggang; Xu, Dequan; Zhao, Shuhong; Yu, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol is a key cell membrane component and precursor of steroid hormones. The maternal cholesterol is an important exogenous cholesterol source for the developing embryos and its transportation is mediated by ABCA1 and SR-BI. Here we reported that during the peri-implantation period in pigs, ABCA1 was expressed by uterine luminal epithelium (LE) and interestingly, its expression was more abundantly in LE on mesometrial side of uterus. However, SR-BI was expressed primarily by LE, glandular epithelial cells (GE) and trophoblast cells (Tr). During the placentation period, the expression levels of ABCA1 and SR-BI proteins at epithelial bilayer and placental areolae were significantly higher in Chinese Meishan pigs compared to Yorkshire pigs. Consisitently, mRNA levels of HMGCR, the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol synthesis, were significantly higher in Meishan placentas than in Yorkshire placentas. Our findings revealed the routes of transplacental cholesterol transport mediated by ABCA1 and SR-BI in pigs and indicated that ABCA1 related pathway may participate in anchoring the conceptus to the mesometrial side of uterus. Additionally, an ABCA1 dependent compensatory mechanism related to the placental efficiency in response to the smaller placenta size in Meishan pigs was suggested. PMID:26852751

  10. Comparison of sandstone reservoir geometry in a valley-fill depositional sequence and a deltaic progradational sequence, Middle Jurassic, Yorkshire, England

    SciTech Connect

    Eschard, R.; Ravenne, C.; Houel, P.

    1989-03-01

    The geostatistic simulations elaborated by the reservoir geology group of the IFP and the Geostatistic Center of the Ecole des Mines (HERESI GROUP) are based on the interpretation of representative outcrops of littoral to deltaic deposits. The methodology includes some detailed studies of large outcrops in terms of reservoir geology, a computation of the geological and petrophysical parameters, the conditional simulation of reservoir geometry, and their internal heterogeneities by geostatistic methods. Two sites, Cloughton and Ravenscar, have been selected along the Yorkshire coast in the Middle Jurassic siliciclastic series. The Ravenscar Group series (a stratigraphic and sedimentologic equivalent of the Brent Formation in the North Sea) is well exposed in wide, extended cliffs. The two-dimensional geometry of the reservoirs is reconstructed from photomosaics and surveying. Their three-dimensional architecture is controlled by core drills located just behind the studied cliffs. The wells are full-cored wire-line log (gamma ray and dipmeter) recorded, and porosity and permeability measurements are made every 20 cm in reservoir levels.

  11. A critical re-evaluation of controls on spatial and seasonal variations in nitrate concentrations in river waters throughout the River Derwent catchment in North Yorkshire, UK.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shaheen; Adnan, Muhammad; McClean, Colin J; Cresser, Malcolm S

    2016-05-01

    Since mean nitrate concentration along single river channels increases significantly with percent arable land use upstream of sampling points and autumn/early winter flushes in nitrate concentration are widespread, it is generally concluded that farmers contribute most of the nitrate. For the River Derwent in North Yorkshire, the correlation between nitrate concentration and percent arable land use is much poorer when tributary data are included in the equation, because of greater variations in dilution by water draining upland areas and in other N input sources. For the whole river system therefore, percent upland moorland/rough grazing land cover is an appreciably better predictor than percent arable land use for nitrate concentration. Upland land use encompasses the higher precipitation and runoff in such areas, and the subsequent greater dilution downstream of both arable land runoff and effluent from treatment works, as well as an inverse correlation to percent arable land use. This is strongly supported by the observation that, for the Derwent, Meteorological Office rainfall data alone proved even better than percent moorland rough grazing for predicting nitrate concentration. The dilution effect is therefore substantial but highly seasonal; lower runoff and dilution in summer offset the lower leaching losses from arable land, and higher dilution and runoff in winter offset greater nitrate leaching losses from arable soils. Because of this, coupled to improved efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer use, seasonality trends in nitrate concentrations that were pronounced a decade ago now have all but disappeared in the catchment. PMID:27102774

  12. RNA-seq analysis reveals new candidate genes for drip loss in a Pietrain × Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire population.

    PubMed

    Li, Bojiang; Liu, Kaiqing; Weng, Qiannan; Li, Pinghua; Wei, Wei; Li, Qifa; Chen, Jie; Huang, Ruihua; Wu, Wangjun; Liu, Honglin

    2016-04-01

    Drip loss, one of the most important meat quality traits, is characterized by low heritability. To date, the genetic factors affecting the drip loss trait have not been clearly elucidated. The objective of this study was to identify critical candidate genes affecting drip loss. First, we generated a Pietrain × Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire commercial pig population and obtained phenotypic values for the drip loss trait. Furthermore, we constructed two RNA libraries from pooled samples of longissimus dorsi muscles with the highest (H group) and lowest (L group) drip loss and identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between these extreme phenotypes using RNA-seq technology. In total, 25 883 genes were detected in the H and L group libraries, and none was specifically expressed in only one library. Comparative analysis of gene expression levels found that 150 genes were differentially expressed, of which 127 were upregulated and 23 were downregulated in the H group relative to the L group. In addition, 68 drip loss quantitative trait loci (QTL) overlapping with 63 DEGs were identified, and these QTL were distributed mainly on chromosomes 1, 2, 5 and 6. Interestingly, the triadin (TRDN) gene, which is involved in muscle contraction and fat deposition, and the myostatin (MSTN) gene, which has a role in muscle growth, were localized to more than two drip loss QTL, suggesting that both are critical candidate genes responsible for drip loss. PMID:26873330

  13. A Whole Genome Association Study to Detect Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms for Blood Components (Immunity) in a Cross between Korean Native Pig and Yorkshire

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Y.-M.; Alam, M.; Choi, B. H.; Kim, K.-S.; Kim, J.-J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect significant SNPs for blood components that were related to immunity using high single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density panels in a Korean native pig (KNP)×Yorkshire (YK) cross population. A reciprocal design of KNP×YK produced 249 F2 individuals that were genotyped for a total of 46,865 available SNPs in the Illumina porcine 60K beadchip. To perform whole genome association analysis (WGA), phenotypes were regressed on each SNP under a simple linear regression model after adjustment for sex and slaughter age. To set up a significance threshold, 0.1% point-wise p value from F distribution was used for each SNP test. Among the significant SNPs for a trait, the best set of SNP markers were determined using a stepwise regression procedure with the rates of inclusion and exclusion of each SNP out of the model at 0.001 level. A total of 54 SNPs were detected; 10, 6, 4, 4, 5, 4, 5, 10, and 6 SNPs for neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil, atypical lymph, immunoglobulin, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-I, respectively. Each set of significant SNPs per trait explained 24 to 42% of phenotypic variance. Several pleiotropic SNPs were detected on SSCs 4, 13, 14 and 15. PMID:25049532

  14. Invasive streptococcal infections in the era before the acquired immune deficiency syndrome: a 10 years' compilation of patients with streptococcal bacteraemia in North Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Barnham, M

    1989-05-01

    Significant streptococcal (non-pneumococcal, non-enterococcal) bacteraemia was detected in 100 patients in two Health Districts of North Yorkshire in the decade 1978-1988. Patients with these infections accounted for 11% of the total 902 patients in the districts in whom bacteraemia was diagnosed during the period. Infection was most often seen with beta-haemolytic streptococci (52 patients) comprising Lancefield group A (Streptococcus pyogenes) (20 patients), group B (13), group C (5), group G (9), haemolytic Streptococcus milleri and non-groupable streptococci (5). The wide variety of serious infections included cellulitis, abscess, septicaemia, pneumonia, septic arthritis, necrotising fasciitis, acute endocarditis and mycotic aneurysm. Of these 52 patients, 21 (40%) died. alpha-Haemolytic streptococcal bacteraemia was diagnosed in 38 patients of whom 24 (63%) suffered from endocarditis and three (8%) died. Three of ten patients with non-haemolytic or anaerobic streptococcal bacteraemia died also. Six of the 100 patients with streptococcal bacteraemia had concomitant acute virus infections. Of the total 56 patients with infective endocarditis diagnosed in the districts during the period, streptococci were responsible in 30 (54%) of them. The predisposing factors, clinical features and outcome of the infections are described and discussed. PMID:2663996

  15. Functional Genomics Unique to Week 20 Post Wounding in the Deep Cone/Fat Dome of the Duroc/Yorkshire Porcine Model of Fibroproliferative Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Engrav, Loren H.; Tuggle, Christopher K.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Zhu, Kathy Q.; Numhom, Surawej; Couture, Oliver P.; Beyer, Richard P.; Hocking, Anne M.; Carrougher, Gretchen J.; Ramos, Maria Luiza C.; Klein, Matthew B.; Gibran, Nicole S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypertrophic scar was first described over 100 years ago; PubMed has more than 1,000 references on the topic. Nevertheless prevention and treatment remains poor, because 1) there has been no validated animal model; 2) human scar tissue, which is impossible to obtain in a controlled manner, has been the only source for study; 3) tissues typically have been homogenized, mixing cell populations; and 4) gene-by-gene studies are incomplete. Methodology/Principal Findings We have assembled a system that overcomes these barriers and permits the study of genome-wide gene expression in microanatomical locations, in shallow and deep partial-thickness wounds, and pigmented and non-pigmented skin, using the Duroc(pigmented fibroproliferative)/Yorkshire(non-pigmented non-fibroproliferative) porcine model. We used this system to obtain the differential transcriptome at 1, 2, 3, 12 and 20 weeks post wounding. It is not clear when fibroproliferation begins, but it is fully developed in humans and the Duroc breed at 20 weeks. Therefore we obtained the derivative functional genomics unique to 20 weeks post wounding. We also obtained long-term, forty-six week follow-up with the model. Conclusions/Significance 1) The scars are still thick at forty-six weeks post wounding further validating the model. 2) The differential transcriptome provides new insights into the fibroproliferative process as several genes thought fundamental to fibroproliferation are absent and others differentially expressed are newly implicated. 3) The findings in the derivative functional genomics support old concepts, which further validates the model, and suggests new avenues for reductionist exploration. In the future, these findings will be searched for directed networks likely involved in cutaneous fibroproliferation. These clues may lead to a better understanding of the systems biology of cutaneous fibroproliferation, and ultimately prevention and treatment of hypertrophic scarring. PMID:21533106

  16. Effect of replacing soybean protein by taro leaf (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) protein on growth performance of exotic (Landrace × Yorkshire) and native (Moo Lath) Lao pigs.

    PubMed

    Kaensombath, Lampheuy; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    The impact of replacing soybean crude protein (CP) with CP from ensiled taro leaves (ET) on growth performance, carcass traits, and organ weights in Landrace × Yorkshire (LY) and Moo Lath (ML) Lao pigs was studied. Twenty-four castrated male pigs, 12 of each breed, were allocated to the treatments according to a completely randomized 3 × 2 factorial (three levels of ET × two breeds) arrangement with four pigs per treatment. The pigs were kept in individual pens and were fed at 4 % dry matter of body weight for 105 days. The control diet (ET0) was formulated with soybean meal as the main CP source, and in the other two diets, soybean CP was replaced to 25 % (ET25) and 50 % (ET50), respectively, with CP from ensiled taro leaves. Calculated metabolizable energy intake decreased with increasing replacement of soybean CP in the diet, while dry matter intake (DMI), CP intake (CPI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were unaffected. Carcass weight, back fat thickness, and dressing percentage were unaffected by soybean CP replacement, while organ weights (except for spleen) increased (P < 0.001) when soybean CP was replaced by CP from ensiled taro leaves in the diet. LY pigs had higher (P < 0.001) DMI, CPI, and ADG and better (P < 0.001) FCR than ML pigs. LY pigs had higher carcass weight (P < 0.001), lower back fat thickness (P < 0.001), and higher organ weights (P < 0.05-0.001) than the ML pigs. In conclusion, taro leaf silage can replace up to 50 % of soybean CP in the diet of growing Lao LY and ML pigs without negative effects on performance and carcass traits. PMID:22610600

  17. Genomewide association analysis of sow lactation performance traits in lines of Yorkshire pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake during grow-finish phase.

    PubMed

    Thekkoot, D M; Young, J M; Rothschild, M F; Dekkers, J C M

    2016-06-01

    Lactation is an economically and biologically important phase in the life cycle of sows. Short generation intervals in nucleus herds and low heritability of traits associated with lactation along with challenges associated with collecting accurate lactation performance phenotypes emphasize the importance of using genomic tools to examine the underlying genetics of these traits. We report the first genomewide association study (GWAS) on traits associated with lactation and efficiency in 2 lines of Yorkshire pigs that were divergently selected for residual feed intake during grow-finish phase. A total of 862 farrowing records from 2 parities were analyzed using a Bayesian whole genome variable selection model (Bayes B) to locate 1-Mb regions that were most strongly associated with each trait. The GWAS was conducted separately for parity 1 and 2 records. Marker-based heritabilities ranged from 0.03 to 0.39 for parity 1 traits and from 0.06 to 0.40 for parity 2 traits. For all traits studied, around 90% of genetic variance came from a large number of genomic regions with small effects, whereas genomic regions with large effects were found to be different for the same trait measured in parity 1 and 2. The highest percentage of genetic variance explained by a 1-Mb window for each trait ranged from 0.4% for feed intake during lactation to 4.2% for back fat measured at farrowing in parity 1 sows and from 0.2% for lactation feed intake to 5.4% for protein mass loss during lactation in parity 2 sows. A total of thirteen 1-Mb nonoverlapping windows were found to explain more than 1.5% of genetic variance for either a single trait or across multiple traits. These 1-Mb windows were on chromosomes 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 11, 14, 15, 17, and 18. The major positional candidate genes within 1 Mb upstream and downstream of these windows were , (SSC2), (SSC6) (SSC7), (SSC8), (SSC11), (SSC14), (SSC17). Further validation studies on larger populations are required to validate these findings and

  18. Association of porcine heparanase and hyaluronidase 1 and 2 with reproductive and production traits in a landrace-duroc-yorkshire population.

    PubMed

    Rempel, Lea A; Freking, Brad A; Miles, Jeremy R; Nonneman, Dan J; Rohrer, Gary A; Schneider, James F; Vallet, Jeffrey L

    2011-01-01

    The ovary and placenta are dynamic structures requiring constant modification both structurally and through cell-cell communication capabilities. The extracellular matrix and basement membranes are primarily composed of a milieu of glycosaminoglycans, including heparan sulfate and hyaluronan. Heparanase (HPSE) and hyaluronidases (HYAL) are responsible for degrading heparan sulfate and hyaluronan, respectively. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of SNPs distinct to HPSE, HYAL1, and HYAL2 with measurements of reproduction and production traits in swine. Single trait associations were performed on a Landrace-Duroc-Yorkshire population using SNPs discovered and identified in HPSE, HYAL1, and HYAL2. Analyses were conducted on an extended pedigree and SNPs were found to be associated with reproductive and production traits. Prior to multiple-testing corrections, SNPs within HPSE were weakly associated (P < 0.03) having additive effects with age at puberty (-2.5 ± 1.08 days), ovulation rate (0.5 ± 0.24 corpora lutea), and number of piglets born alive (0.9 ± 0.44 piglets). A HYAL1 and two HYAL2 SNP were nominally associated (P ≤ 0.0063) with number of piglets born alive after multiple-testing corrections (effects between 1.02 and 1.44 piglets), while one of the same HYAL2 markers maintained a modest association (P = 0.0043) having a dominant effect with number of piglets weaned (1.2 ± 0.41 piglets) after multiple-testing correction. Functionally, HPSE and HYAL1 and 2 have been shown to participate in events related to ovarian and placental activity. SNPs from these studies could potentially assist with understanding genetic components underlying sow lifetime productivity as measured by piglet survivability based on number born alive and number weaned, thereby contributing to a greater number of pigs/sow/year. PMID:22303316

  19. Association of Porcine Heparanase and Hyaluronidase 1 and 2 with Reproductive and Production Traits in a Landrace–Duroc–Yorkshire Population

    PubMed Central

    Rempel, Lea A.; Freking, Brad A.; Miles, Jeremy R.; Nonneman, Dan J.; Rohrer, Gary A.; Schneider, James F.; Vallet, Jeffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    The ovary and placenta are dynamic structures requiring constant modification both structurally and through cell–cell communication capabilities. The extracellular matrix and basement membranes are primarily composed of a milieu of glycosaminoglycans, including heparan sulfate and hyaluronan. Heparanase (HPSE) and hyaluronidases (HYAL) are responsible for degrading heparan sulfate and hyaluronan, respectively. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of SNPs distinct to HPSE, HYAL1, and HYAL2 with measurements of reproduction and production traits in swine. Single trait associations were performed on a Landrace–Duroc–Yorkshire population using SNPs discovered and identified in HPSE, HYAL1, and HYAL2. Analyses were conducted on an extended pedigree and SNPs were found to be associated with reproductive and production traits. Prior to multiple-testing corrections, SNPs within HPSE were weakly associated (P < 0.03) having additive effects with age at puberty (−2.5 ± 1.08 days), ovulation rate (0.5 ± 0.24 corpora lutea), and number of piglets born alive (0.9 ± 0.44 piglets). A HYAL1 and two HYAL2 SNP were nominally associated (P ≤ 0.0063) with number of piglets born alive after multiple-testing corrections (effects between 1.02 and 1.44 piglets), while one of the same HYAL2 markers maintained a modest association (P = 0.0043) having a dominant effect with number of piglets weaned (1.2 ± 0.41 piglets) after multiple-testing correction. Functionally, HPSE and HYAL1 and 2 have been shown to participate in events related to ovarian and placental activity. SNPs from these studies could potentially assist with understanding genetic components underlying sow lifetime productivity as measured by piglet survivability based on number born alive and number weaned, thereby contributing to a greater number of pigs/sow/year. PMID:22303316

  20. Effect of Fibre Level and Fibre Source on Gut Morphology and Micro-environment in Local (Mong Cai) and Exotic (Landrace×Yorkshire) Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ngoc, T. T. B.; Hong, T. T. T.; Len, N. T.; Lindberg, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of genotype, fibre level and fibre source on gut morphology, environment and microflora was studied using 18 Mong Cai (MC) and 18 Landrace×Yorkshire (LY) pigs, aged around 60 d. The diets were based on maize, rice bran, soybean meal, fish meal and soybean oil, and cassava residue (CR) or brewer’s grain (BG) as fibrous ingredient sources in the high-fibre diets (HF). A low-fibre diet (LF), containing around 200 g NDF/kg dry matter (DM), was formulated without CR and BG as feed ingredients. The HF diets (HF-CR and HF-BG) were formulated to contain around 270 g NDF/kg DM. The experiment was arranged according to a 2×3 factorial completely randomized design with six replications, and lasted 30 d. Crypt density in ileum was lowest (p<0.05) and villus height in jejunum and ileum were the greatest (p<0.05) in pigs fed diet HF-BG. Villus width in ileum was greatest in pigs fed diets HF-CR and HF-BG (p<0.05). Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts in stomach were greatest (p<0.05) and E. coli counts in ileum and colon were lowest (p<0.05) in pigs fed diet HF-CR. The concentration of total organic acids in ileum, caecum and colon were greatest (p<0.05), and pH in ileum and colon were lowest (p<0.05) in pigs fed diet HF-CR. Crypt density in ileum was lowest, and villus height in ileum and villus width in jejunum and ileum was greatest in LY pigs (p<0.05). LAB counts in stomach and ileum were greatest, and E. coli counts in ileum were lowest in MC pigs (p<0.05). The concentration of total organic acids in ileum, caecum and colon were greatest (p<0.05) and pH lowest (p<0.05) in MC pigs. PMID:25049538

  1. Depositional and diagenetic processes involved in the development of mudstone successions: a multi proxy study of the Lower Jurassic Cleveland Basin (The North Yorkshire coast, England).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadeer, S.; Macquaker, J. H. S.; Hughes, C. R.

    2009-04-01

    Mud and mudstones are the most abundant (>60%) sediment and sedimentary rock type preserved at and close to the surface of the Earth. They have formed commonly throughout the Phanerozoic and are found in many environments including present-day soils, lake basins, continental shelves, and ocean basins. Mudstones deposited in ancient shelf seas are particularly important as they are very common and significant components of many petroleum systems as sources and seals. In spite of their importance the variability that they exhibit is usually not incorporated into basin-scale facies models as they are assumed to contain little information that is useful in predicting the distribution of reservoir facies. The fundamental mechanisms (physical, chemical and biological) that control the origin of fine-grained sediments in ancient shelf seas is less studied in comparison with other sediments types (e.g. limestones and sandstones). The Middle Jurassic aged succession from the Staithes Sandstone through to the Mulgrave Shale Member (Jet Rock), which is largely continuous and very well-exposed in two locations in the Cleveland Basin, North Yorkshire Coast, England is an ideal natural laboratory to investigate how marginal marine processes evolve into deep marine processes. In the literature, the fundamental controls on lithofacies variability in mudstone-dominated successions preserved in distal shelf environments have been mainly interpreted in terms of varying bottom water oxygen concentrations, primary production and suspension settling. In proximal muddy environments researchers have broadly interpreted lithofacies variability in terms of storm events, tidal currents, etc. These are very different mechanisms. Moreover, these rocks are rarely studied as a whole system; the basinal mudstones are rarely connected up-dip to muddy sandstones and mudstones deposited in the offshore transition and offshore zones. In order to determine the processes responsible for the formation

  2. Estimation of Genetic Parameters and Trends for Length of Productive Life and Lifetime Production Traits in a Commercial Landrace and Yorkshire Swine Population in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Noppibool, Udomsak; Elzo, Mauricio A.; Koonawootrittriron, Skorn; Suwanasopee, Thanathip

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate genetic parameters and trends for length of productive life (LPL), lifetime number of piglets born alive (LBA), lifetime number of piglets weaned (LPW), lifetime litter birth weight (LBW), and lifetime litter weaning weight (LWW) in a commercial swine farm in Northern Thailand. Data were gathered during a 24-year period from July 1989 to August 2013. A total of 3,109 phenotypic records from 2,271 Landrace (L) and 838 Yorkshire sows (Y) were analyzed. Variance and covariance components, heritabilities and correlations were estimated using an Average Information Restricted Maximum Likelihood (AIREML) procedure. The 5-trait animal model contained the fixed effects of first farrowing year-season, breed group, and age at first farrowing. Random effects were sow and residual. Estimates of heritabilities were medium for all five traits (0.17±0.04 for LPL and LBA to 0.20±0.04 for LPW). Genetic correlations among these traits were high, positive, and favorable (p<0.05), ranging from 0.93±0.02 (LPL-LWW) to 0.99±0.02 (LPL-LPW). Sow genetic trends were non-significant for LPL and all lifetime production traits. Sire genetic trends were negative and significant for LPL (−2.54±0.65 d/yr; p = 0.0007), LBA (−0.12±0.04 piglets/yr; p = 0.0073), LPW (−0.14±0.04 piglets/yr; p = 0.0037), LBW (−0.13±0.06 kg/yr; p = 0.0487), and LWW (−0.69±0.31 kg/yr; p = 0.0365). Dam genetic trends were positive, small and significant for all traits (1.04±0.42 d/yr for LPL, p = 0.0217; 0.16±0.03 piglets/yr for LBA, p<0.0001; 0.12±0.03 piglets/yr for LPW, p = 0.0002; 0.29±0.04 kg/yr for LBW, p<0.0001 and 1.23±0.19 kg/yr for LWW, p<0.0001). Thus, the selection program in this commercial herd managed to improve both LPL and lifetime productive traits in sires and dams. It was ineffective to improve LPL and lifetime productive traits in sows. PMID:26954115

  3. Age, body weight and backfat thickness at first observed oestrus in crossbred Landrace x Yorkshire gilts, seasonal variations and their influence on subsequence reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Tummaruk, P; Tantasuparuk, W; Techakumphu, M; Kunavongkrit, A

    2007-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate puberty attainment in crossbred Landrace x Yorkshire (LY) gilts reared under tropical conditions and their subsequent reproductive performance. This study was carried out in a 2400-sow herd over a 1-year period. A total of 696 crossbred LY replacement gilts were included. Faecal samples from 214 gilts were collected to determine the faecal progesterone profiles around the time of first oestrus. Solid-phase 125I-radioimmunoassay was used to determine the progesterone concentrations in the faecal extract. The gilts entered the herd at an average age of 177.5 +/- 12.6 days, 95.7 +/- 10.2 kg body weight (BW) and a backfat thickness (BF) of 12.0 +/- 2.9 mm. On average, the gilts expressed first standing oestrus at 195 days of age, 106 kg of BW and a BF of 13.0 mm. The interval from entry to the gilt pool to the first observed oestrus (EOI) was 24.4 +/- 18.0 days (range 0-88 days). The hormonal profile indicated that the gilts that actually ovulated during the first observed oestrus was 34% (group A), the gilts that had ovulated before the first observed oestrus was 21% (group B) and the gilts that did not ovulate during the first observed oestrus was 45% (group C). During summer the proportion of group A gilts was significantly lower than during the winter and the rainy seasons (P < 0.05). The BW of gilts at entry significantly correlated with the BF at entry (r = 0.31, P < 0.001), the age at entry (r = 0.47, P < 0.001), the BW at first oestrus (r = 0.65, P < 0.001) and the BF at first oestrus (r = 0.33, P < 0.001). An increase of BW at entry of 1 kg resulted in a decrease of EOI of 0.28 days. The age, BW and BF of gilts at the first observed oestrus significantly influenced the total number of piglets born per litter (TB) and the number of piglets born alive per litter (BA) in the first three parities. Gilts expressing their first oestrus between 181 and 200 days had a significantly larger TB than gilts that

  4. Interplay of geomorphic and hydrogeologic features at reach- and channel unit-scales on riverbed hydrology and hydrochemistry: a conceptual model in the Lower Coal Measures, South Yorkshire, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, T. G.; Thornton, S. F.; Wainwright, J.

    2010-09-01

    A conceptual model of groundwater and surface-water interactions in areas of minor aquifers has been developed. It assesses the interplay of reach-scale subsurface flow paths (RSSF), controlled by the lateral extent of the alluvial valley, and channel unit-scale hyporheic flow paths (CUSHF), controlled by riffle and run/pool sequences, and their impacts on the spatial variability of riverbed flow and solute exchange. A network of riverbed mini-piezometers and multi-level samplers in different reach- and channel-unit scale settings of the River Don (South Yorkshire, UK) is monitored to: (1) estimate vertical hydraulic gradients (VHGs) and specific discharge; (2) discriminate subsurface flow paths from conservative natural tracers; and (3) deduce biogeochemical processes. In a constrained context (downstream end of the alluvial valley), RSSF discharge favours a homogeneous riverbed hydrochemistry with limited biogeochemical processes and shallow CUSHF. In an unconstrained (open alluvial valley) or asymmetric (bedrock outcropping on one bank) context, low VHGs favour deep CUSHF and a vertical stratification of RSSF. Reducing conditions intensify with depth, and superimpose with mixing in riffles. This good approximation of flow and solute behaviour in minor aquifers provides a practical framework to understand nutrient and contaminant fate and develop cost-effective monitoring programmes across the groundwater/surface-water interface.

  5. (13) CO2 /(12) CO2 exchange fluxes in a clamp-on leaf cuvette: disentangling artefacts and flux components.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao Ying; Schäufele, Rudi; Feneis, Wolfgang; Schnyder, Hans

    2015-11-01

    Leaks and isotopic disequilibria represent potential errors and artefacts during combined measurements of gas exchange and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ). This paper presents new protocols to quantify, minimize, and correct such phenomena. We performed experiments with gradients of CO2 concentration (up to ±250 μmol mol(-1) ) and δ(13) CCO2 (34‰), between a clamp-on leaf cuvette (LI-6400) and surrounding air, to assess (1) leak coefficients for CO2 , (12) CO2 , and (13) CO2 with the empty cuvette and with intact leaves of Holcus lanatus (C3 ) or Sorghum bicolor (C4 ) in the cuvette; and (2) isotopic disequilibria between net photosynthesis and dark respiration in light. Leak coefficients were virtually identical for (12) CO2 and (13) CO2 , but ∼8 times higher with leaves in the cuvette. Leaks generated errors on Δ up to 6‰ for H. lanatus and 2‰ for S. bicolor in full light; isotopic disequilibria produced similar variation of Δ. Leak errors in Δ in darkness were much larger due to small biological : leak flux ratios. Leak artefacts were fully corrected with leak coefficients determined on the same leaves as Δ measurements. Analysis of isotopic disequilibria enabled partitioning of net photosynthesis and dark respiration, and indicated inhibitions of dark respiration in full light (H. lanatus: 14%, S. bicolor: 58%). PMID:25944155

  6. Identity of Schizaphis species (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the United Kingdom: are they a threat to crops?

    PubMed

    Kati, Amalia; Shufran, Kevin A; Taylor, Mark S; Barjadze, Shalva; Eastop, Victor F; Blackman, Roger L; Harrington, Richard

    2013-08-01

    The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), is a major pest of cereals in some parts of the world and is of particular concern because it can be resistant to some insecticides and overcome the resistance of crops. In the UK, it has never been found on crops, but two rather little-known and closely-related species (Schizaphis holci and Schizaphis agrostis) are associated with the wild grasses, Holcus lanatus and Agrostis stolonifera. Since 1987, winged (alate) aphids morphologically resembling the greenbug have been found in increasing numbers in 12.2 m high suction-trap samples of the Rothamsted Insect Survey (RIS); hence, studies were undertaken to establish their identity. Clones (=asexual lineages) established from populations collected from H. lanatus in southern England showed strong preference for Holcus over Agrostis and Hordeum in laboratory tests and produced sexual morphs when transferred to short-day conditions, the males being apterous, as expected for S. holci. Multivariate morphometric comparisons of alatae caught in UK RIS suction traps in 2007 and 2011 with named specimens from museum collections, including S. graminum from many countries, indicated that the suction-trapped alatae were mostly S. agrostis and S. holci. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) mtDNA obtained from 62 UK specimens from suction-traps had 95.4-100% sequence identity with US specimens of S. graminum. Two of the UK specimens had identical COI sequence to the US sorghum-adapted form of S. graminum, and these specimens also had 100% identity with a 640 bp fragment of nDNA CytC, indicating that this form of S. graminum may already be present in the UK. Present and future economic implications of these results are discussed. PMID:23458881

  7. Partial leaf chemical profiles of a desert watermelon species (Citrullus colocynthis) and heirloom watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whiteflies [Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius)] and aphids [Aphis gossypii Glover and Myzus persicae (Sulzer)] are serious threats to watermelon by direct feeding and by transmitting viruses of important virus diseases. The desert watermelon Citrullus colocynthis (L.) has been shown to exhibit resistance t...

  8. Book Review: Caves and Karst of the Yorkshire Dales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westaway, Rob

    2015-10-01

    The British Cave Research Association (BCRA) is the research division of the British Caving Association (BCA), itself the principal society in Britain for those interested in caving, with activities including provision of training and safety certification for cavers and managing access to caves. Although some UK cave-related research is carried out by academics, this tends to be restricted to archaeological investigations of caves that have served as human habitations, and to be focused more on the occupants than the caves themselves. In contrast, most cave exploration is undertaken as a leisure activity, under the auspices of clubs affiliated to the BCA/BCRA, this being indeed virtually the only field of Earth science where amateur investigators can continue to make significant discoveries. Many cave explorers are also affiliated with academic researchers, such as managers of dating laboratories; the synergy between these two groups is highly productive, having resulted for instance in the discovery and exploration in recent years of the vast Ogof Draenen cave system in South Wales, which probably dates back to the Early Pleistocene (e.g., Farrant et al., 2014).

  9. Grafting – a tool for managing root-knot nematodes in watermelon?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm, bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, hybrid squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima), and commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus) were evaluated as rootstocks for cultivated watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus) in a field infested ...

  10. Host specialization of the mycoparasite Eudarluca caricis and its evolutionary relationship to Ampelomyces.

    PubMed

    Nischwitz, Claudia; Newcombe, George; Anderson, Cort L

    2005-04-01

    Eudarluca caricis is assumed to be a nonspecific mycoparasite of rust fungi. The evidence for its mycoparasitism has rested on constant association with uredinia. In this study, stable isotopes provided additional evidence of mycoparasitism, as E. caricis was enriched with 15N relative to its associated rust fungus, as were parasites and mycoparasites generally with respect to their hosts. Host specificity was directly tested in inoculations in the greenhouse. Isolates of E. caricis from Puccinia on two Eurasian grasses (i.e. Holcus lanatus and Phalaris arundinacaea) did not infect Melampsora on Populus that, in contrast, was successfully infected by a poplar isolate of E. caricis. An isolate from M. medusae on P. deltoides infected a significantly greater percentage of uredinia of M. medusae on P. deltoides than uredinia of M. occidentalis on P. trichocarpa. The host specificity of the three isolates was reflected in their divergence in a phylogenetic analysis based on ITS sequences. Interestingly, the analysis revealed that mycoparasites of rust and powdery mildew fungi have evolved from a common ancestor. PMID:15912929

  11. Warming differentially influences the effects of drought on stoichiometry and metabolomics in shoots and roots.

    PubMed

    Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Sardans, Jordi; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam; Oravec, Michal; Urban, Otmar; Jentsch, Anke; Kreyling, Juergen; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Parella, Teodor; Peñuelas, Josep

    2015-08-01

    Plants in natural environments are increasingly being subjected to a combination of abiotic stresses, such as drought and warming, in many regions. The effects of each stress and the combination of stresses on the functioning of shoots and roots have been studied extensively, but little is known about the simultaneous metabolome responses of the different organs of the plant to different stresses acting at once. We studied the shift in metabolism and elemental composition of shoots and roots of two perennial grasses, Holcus lanatus and Alopecurus pratensis, in response to simultaneous drought and warming. These species responded differently to individual and simultaneous stresses. These responses were even opposite in roots and shoots. In plants exposed to simultaneous drought and warming, terpenes, catechin and indole acetic acid accumulated in shoots, whereas amino acids, quinic acid, nitrogenous bases, the osmoprotectants choline and glycine betaine, and elements involved in growth (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) accumulated in roots. Under drought, warming further increased the allocation of primary metabolic activity to roots and changed the composition of secondary metabolites in shoots. These results highlight the plasticity of plant metabolomes and stoichiometry, and the different complementary responses of shoots and roots to complex environmental conditions. PMID:25772030

  12. Plants increase arsenic in solution but decrease the non-specifically bound fraction in the rhizosphere of an alkaline, naturally rich soil.

    PubMed

    Obeidy, Carole; Bravin, Matthieu N; Bouchardon, Jean-Luc; Conord, Cyrille; Moutte, Jacques; Guy, Bernard; Faure, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    We aimed at determining the major physical-chemical processes that drive arsenic (As) dynamic in the rhizosphere of four species (Holcus lanatus, Dittrichia viscosa, Lotus corniculatus, Plantago lanceolata) tested for phytostabilization. Experiments were performed with an alkaline soil naturally rich in As. Composition of the soil solution of planted and unplanted pots was monitored every 15 days for 90 days, with a focus on the evolution of As concentrations in solution and in the non-specifically bound (i.e. easily exchangeable) fraction. The four species similarly increased As concentration in solution, but decreased As concentration in the non-specifically bound fraction. The major part (60%) of As desorbed from the non-specifically bound fraction in planted pots was likely redistributed on the less available fractions of As on the solid phase. A second part (35%) of desorbed As was taken up by plants. The minor part (5%) of desorbed As supplied As increase in solution. To conclude, plants induced a substantial redistribution of As on the less available fractions in the rhizosphere, as expected in phytostabilization strategies. Plants however concomitantly increased As concentration in the rhizosphere solution which may contribute to As transfer through plant uptake and leaching. PMID:26707185

  13. Involvement of ethylene in sex expression and female flower development in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Manzano, Susana; Martínez, Cecilia; García, Juan Manuel; Megías, Zoraida; Jamilena, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Although it is known that ethylene has a masculinizing effect on watermelon, the specific role of this hormone in sex expression and flower development has not been analyzed in depth. By using different approaches the present work demonstrates that ethylene regulates differentially two sex-related developmental processes: sexual expression, i.e. the earliness and the number of female flowers per plant, and the development of individual floral buds. Ethylene production in the shoot apex as well as in male, female and bisexual flowers demonstrated that the female flower requires much more ethylene than the male one to develop, and that bisexual flowers result from a decrease in ethylene production in the female floral bud. The occurrence of bisexual flowers was found to be associated with elevated temperatures in the greenhouse, concomitantly with a reduction of ethylene production in the shoot apex. External treatments with ethephon and AVG, and the use of Cucurbita rootstocks with different ethylene production and sensitivity, confirmed that, as occurs in other cucurbit species, ethylene is required to arrest the development of stamens in the female flower. Nevertheless, in watermelon ethylene inhibits the transition from male to female flowering and reduces the number of pistillate flowers per plant, which runs contrary to findings in other cucurbit species. The use of Cucurbita rootstocks with elevated ethylene production delayed the production of female flowers but reduced the number of bisexual flowers, which is associated with a reduced fruit set and altered fruit shape. PMID:25463265

  14. The Ethylene Biosynthesis Gene CitACS4 Regulates Monoecy/Andromonoecy in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)

    PubMed Central

    Manzano, Susana; Aguado, Encarnación; Martínez, Cecilia; Megías, Zoraida; García, Alicia; Jamilena, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Monoecious and andromonoecious cultivars of watermelon are characterised by the production of male and female flower or male and hermaphrodite flowers, respectively. The segregation analysis in the offspring of crosses between monoecious and andromonoecious lines has demonstrated that this trait is controlled by a single gene pair, being the monoecious allele M semi-dominant to the andromonoecious allele A. The two studied F1 hybrids (MA) had a predominantly monoecious phenotype since both produced not only female flowers, but also bisexual flowers with incomplete stamens, and hermaphrodite flowers with pollen. Given that in other cucurbit species andromonoecy is conferred by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7, CsACS2 and CpACS27A we have cloned and characterised CitACS4, the watermelon gene showing the highest similarity with the formers. CitACS4 encoded for a type ACS type III enzyme that is predominantly expressed in pistillate flowers of watermelon. In the andromonoecious line we have detected a missense mutation in a very conserved residue of CitACS4 (C364W) that cosegregates with the andromonoecious phenotype in two independent F2 populations, concomitantly with a reduction in ethylene production in the floral buds that will develop as hermaphrodite flowers. The gene does not however co-segregates with other sex expression traits regulated by ethylene in this species, including pistillate flowering transition and the number of pistillate flowers per plant. These data indicate that CitAC4 is likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of the ethylene required for stamen arrest during the development of female flowers. The C364W mutation would reduce the production of ethylene in pistillate floral buds, promoting the conversion of female into hermaphrodite flowers, and therefore of monoecy into andromonoecy. PMID:27149159

  15. Reaction of Ten Cultivars of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) to a Puerto Rican population of Meloidogyne incognita

    PubMed Central

    Montalvo, A. E.; Esnard, J.

    1994-01-01

    Ten cultivars of watermelon were evaluated for their response to a Puerto Rican population of Meloidogyne incognita under greenhouse conditions in a 2-year study (1989 and 1990). Ten-day-old seedlings were planted in steam-sterilized soil in 15-cm-d plastic pots. The nematode inoculum consisted of 10,000 eggs and (or) second-stage juveniles (J2)/plant. The cultivars were Sugar Baby, Charleston Gray, Seedless, Prince Charles, Charleston 76, Jubilee, Florida Giant, Royal Charleston, Royal Sweet, and Royal Jubilee, with tomato cv. Rutgers included as a susceptible check. A completely randomized design with 10 replications was used. Fifty-five days after soil infestation, root-gall indices, numbers of nematode eggs per root system, and J2 per 250 cm³ of soil were recorded. All cultivars were susceptible. Sugar Baby had the lowest root-gall index, egg and J2 numbers, and a reproductive factor (Rf) of 2.89. Rf differed (P ≤ 0.05) among cultivars and ranged up to 7.36. Sugar Baby, Seedless, and Florida Giant showed the lowest susceptibility to M. incognita, whereas Charleston 76 and Charleston Gray were the most susceptible. PMID:19279940

  16. Reaction of Ten Cultivars of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) to a Puerto Rican population of Meloidogyne incognita.

    PubMed

    Montalvo, A E; Esnard, J

    1994-12-01

    Ten cultivars of watermelon were evaluated for their response to a Puerto Rican population of Meloidogyne incognita under greenhouse conditions in a 2-year study (1989 and 1990). Ten-day-old seedlings were planted in steam-sterilized soil in 15-cm-d plastic pots. The nematode inoculum consisted of 10,000 eggs and (or) second-stage juveniles (J2)/plant. The cultivars were Sugar Baby, Charleston Gray, Seedless, Prince Charles, Charleston 76, Jubilee, Florida Giant, Royal Charleston, Royal Sweet, and Royal Jubilee, with tomato cv. Rutgers included as a susceptible check. A completely randomized design with 10 replications was used. Fifty-five days after soil infestation, root-gall indices, numbers of nematode eggs per root system, and J2 per 250 cm(3) of soil were recorded. All cultivars were susceptible. Sugar Baby had the lowest root-gall index, egg and J2 numbers, and a reproductive factor (Rf) of 2.89. Rf differed (P

  17. Molecular cloning, sequence characterization and expression pattern of Rab18 gene from watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)

    PubMed Central

    Xinli, Xiao; Lei, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The complete mRNA sequence of watermelon Rab18 gene was amplified through the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The full-length mRNA was 1010 bp containing a 645 bp open reading frame, which encodes a protein of 214 amino acids. Sequence analysis revealed that watermelon Rab18 protein shares high homology with the Rab18 of cucumber (99%), muskmelon (98%), Morus notabilis (90%), tomato (89%), wine grape (89%) and potato (88%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that watermelon Rab18 gene has a closer genetic relationship with Rab18 gene of cucumber and muskmelon. Tissue expression profile analysis indicated that watermelon Rab18 gene was highly expressed in root, stem and leaf, moderately expressed in flower and weakly expressed in fruit. PMID:26019638

  18. The Ethylene Biosynthesis Gene CitACS4 Regulates Monoecy/Andromonoecy in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Manzano, Susana; Aguado, Encarnación; Martínez, Cecilia; Megías, Zoraida; García, Alicia; Jamilena, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Monoecious and andromonoecious cultivars of watermelon are characterised by the production of male and female flower or male and hermaphrodite flowers, respectively. The segregation analysis in the offspring of crosses between monoecious and andromonoecious lines has demonstrated that this trait is controlled by a single gene pair, being the monoecious allele M semi-dominant to the andromonoecious allele A. The two studied F1 hybrids (MA) had a predominantly monoecious phenotype since both produced not only female flowers, but also bisexual flowers with incomplete stamens, and hermaphrodite flowers with pollen. Given that in other cucurbit species andromonoecy is conferred by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7, CsACS2 and CpACS27A we have cloned and characterised CitACS4, the watermelon gene showing the highest similarity with the formers. CitACS4 encoded for a type ACS type III enzyme that is predominantly expressed in pistillate flowers of watermelon. In the andromonoecious line we have detected a missense mutation in a very conserved residue of CitACS4 (C364W) that cosegregates with the andromonoecious phenotype in two independent F2 populations, concomitantly with a reduction in ethylene production in the floral buds that will develop as hermaphrodite flowers. The gene does not however co-segregates with other sex expression traits regulated by ethylene in this species, including pistillate flowering transition and the number of pistillate flowers per plant. These data indicate that CitAC4 is likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of the ethylene required for stamen arrest during the development of female flowers. The C364W mutation would reduce the production of ethylene in pistillate floral buds, promoting the conversion of female into hermaphrodite flowers, and therefore of monoecy into andromonoecy. PMID:27149159

  19. Antiviral activity of Thuja orientalis extracts against watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) on Citrullus lanatus.

    PubMed

    Elbeshehy, Esam K F; Metwali, Ehab M R; Almaghrabi, Omar A

    2015-03-01

    Watermelon mosaic potyvirus (WMV) is considered as an important virus infecting watermelon and causing adverse effects on crop productivity. To overcome this problem one of the main objectives of plant breeders is to make these strains less effective in the ability to infect plants by treatment with plant extracts. Due to the advantages of plant tissue culture, in vitro, in the process of the selection of different cultivars under biotic stress, this study was conducted to achieve this aim by evaluating the effect of three concentrations of Thuja extract on the multiplication of WMV in watermelon by measuring callus fresh weight and soluble proteins (mg g(-1) fresh weight) of healthy and infected hypocotyl explants. Also, WMV was isolated from naturally infected watermelon and characterized as potyvirus by serological and molecular analyses. The isolated virus gave a positive reaction with WMV antiserum compared with other antibodies of CMV, ZYMV and SqMV using DAS-ELISA. RT-PCR, with the specific primer for WMV-cp. gene, yielded 825 base pair DNA fragments. The results that belong to soluble protein analysis indicated that infected hypocotyl explants treated with 6 g L(-1) recorded the highest rate in the number of soluble protein bands compared with the rest of treatments. As a conclusion of these results, we can recommend to apply the Thuja extract at 6 g L(-1) as a optimum dosage to decrease the infection caused by watermelon mosaic potyvirus. PMID:25737655

  20. Resistant Citrullus lanatus var. citroides Rootstocks for Managing Root-knot Nematodes in Grafted Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita, is an important re-emerging pest of watermelon. Several factors have contributed to re-emergence of RKN including: 1) ban of methyl bromide for soil fumigation; 2) reduced land area for crop rotation; and 3) continuous cropping of cucurbits u...

  1. Genome-wide characterization of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene family in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Shang, Qing-Mao

    2013-07-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), the first enzyme in the phenylpropanoid pathway, plays a critical role in plant growth, development, and adaptation. PAL enzymes are encoded by a gene family in plants. Here, we report a genome-wide search for PAL genes in watermelon. A total of 12 PAL genes, designated ClPAL1-12, are identified . Nine are arranged in tandem in two duplication blocks located on chromosomes 4 and 7, and the other three ClPAL genes are distributed as single copies on chromosomes 2, 3, and 8. Both the cDNA and protein sequences of ClPALs share an overall high identity with each other. A phylogenetic analysis places 11 of the ClPALs into a separate cucurbit subclade, whereas ClPAL2, which belongs to neither monocots nor dicots, may serve as an ancestral PAL in plants. In the cucurbit subclade, seven ClPALs form homologous pairs with their counterparts from cucumber. Expression profiling reveals that 11 of the ClPAL genes are expressed and show preferential expression in the stems and male and female flowers. Six of the 12 ClPALs are moderately or strongly expressed in the fruits, particularly in the pulp, suggesting the potential roles of PAL in the development of fruit color and flavor. A promoter motif analysis of the ClPAL genes implies redundant but distinctive cis-regulatory structures for stress responsiveness. Finally, duplication events during the evolution and expansion of the ClPAL gene family are discussed, and the relationships between the ClPAL genes and their cucumber orthologs are estimated. PMID:23546528

  2. Genome-wide associations for age at puberty in a Duroc-Landrace-Yorkshire swine population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gilts that achieve puberty earlier tend to be more fertile throughout their breeding lifetime, have a shorter weaning to estrus interval, and have increased retention in the breeding herd with increases in parity. Age at puberty can be changed through selection, but collecting phenotypes can be labo...

  3. National Paired Reading Conference Proceedings (3rd, Dewsbury, West Yorkshire, England, November 8, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    The 15 papers constituting the Proceedings of the third National Paired Reading Conference are published in an annual bulletin of the Paired Reading Project, together with seven feature articles, as follows: (1) "Peer Tutored Paired Reading in a College of Further Education" (S. Booth and J. Winter); (2) "A Comparative Review of Five Paired…

  4. National Paired Reading Conference Proceedings (2nd, Dewsbury, West Yorkshire, England, November 2, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    The eight papers constituting the Proceedings of the second National Paired Reading Conference are published in an annual bulletin of the Paired Reading Project, together with five feature articles, as follows: (1) "Paired Reading--History & Future" (R. Morgan); (2) "Crosland Moor Junior High School Paired Reading Projects with Asian Families" (S.…

  5. National Paired Reading Conference Proceedings (1st, Dewsbury, West Yorkshire, England, November 3, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topping, Keith, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The first National Paired Reading Conference decided to establish a Paired Reading Information Network and to publish a journal. This bulletin is a direct result of this decision. It contains eight conference papers (constituting the conference proceedings), six feature articles, and four short reports (all with an emphasis on the method of…

  6. Heritage Quay: What Will You Discover? Transforming the Archives of the University of Huddersfield, Yorkshire, UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickham, M. Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The University of Huddersfield presents a key case study of the transformation of its Archives Service, using the newly-developed Staff/Space/Collections dependency model for archives and the lessons of the UK's Customer Service Excellence (CSE) scheme in order to examine and illustrate service development. Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF) and…

  7. Labour and Hospitals in Urban Yorkshire: Middlesbrough, Leeds and Sheffield, 1919–1938

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Barry

    2010-01-01

    In the debates over the politics of National Health Service foundation, there has been little investigation of the attitudes of the inter-war labour movement to a state-run hospital system. In particular, there has been limited assessment of views outside parliament in provincial Labour parties and trade unions. Drawing on a case study of Middlesbrough, Leeds and Sheffield, this article examines the politics of hospital provision prior to the National Health Service (NHS). It focuses on the involvement of the labour movement in hospital provision within localities and on the extent to which the dominant form of labour politics—labourist or socialist—shaped hospital policy. It suggests that, in the heavy industrial towns of Middlesbrough and Sheffield, close involvement with voluntary hospitals through workers contributory schemes dampened the enthusiasm for a state system. However, such a policy was heavily promoted by socialists in more economically diverse Leeds.

  8. Fracture-fault network characterization of pavement imagery of the Whitby Mudstone, Yorkshire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boersma, Quinten; Hardebol, Nico; Houben, Maartje; Barnhoorn, Auke; Drury, Martyn

    2015-04-01

    Natural fractures play an important role in the hydrocarbon production from tight reservoirs. The need for fracture network pathways by fraccing matters particularly for shale gas prospects, due to their micro- to nano-darcies matrix permeabilities. The study of natural fractures from outcrops helps to better understand network connectivity and possibility of reactivating pre-existing planes of weakness, induced by hydraulic stimulation. Microseismicity also show that natural fractures are reactivated during fraccing in tight gas reservoirs and influence the success of the stimulation. An accurate understanding of natural fracture networks can help in predicting the development of fracture networks. In this research we analyze an outcrop analogue, the Whitby Mustone Formation (WMF), in terms of its horizontal fracture network. The WMF is the time equivalent of the Posidonia Shale Formation (PSF), which on itself is the main shale gas prospect in the Dutch subsurface. The fracture network of the WMF is characterized by a system of steep dipping joints with two dominant directions with N-S and E-W strike. The network was digitized from bird-view imagery of the pavement with a spatial extent of ~100 m at sub-cm resolution. The imagery is interpreted in terms of orientation and length distributions, intensity and fractal dimensions. Samples from the field were analyzed for rock strength and sample mineralogy. The results indicate that the fracture networks greatly differ per bed. Observed differences are for example; the geometry of the fracture network, its cumulative length distribution law, the fracture intensity, the fracture length vs its orientation and the fractal dimension. All these parameters greatly influence fracture network connectivity, the probability that longer fractures exist within the pavement and whether the network is more prone to clustering or scattering. Apart from the differences, the networks display a fairly similar orthogonal arrangement with dominant large (> 5-10 m) N-S striking fractures and smaller E-W striking cross-joints (< 2-3 m). A nested network arrangement is indicated by some smaller-scale N-S fractures abutting against the E-W striking ones. Furthermore, abutment relations provide some constraints on relative time. Timing indications with respect to burial-exhumation are difficult to establish. Some joints are cemented and measurable from the high-resolution imagery. The vein measurements helped establishing a first order relation between the fracture aperture with respect to their length and confirm that longer fractures have a wider aperture. The above stated parameters and results all prove to be very valuable information which can help predict the geometries of the different fracture networks present within the PSF. It is important to understand the possible mechanisms which can cause these differences in fracture network characteristics. Bulk lithological variations between beds are minor, mainly consisting of clay minerals. Furthermore, some quartz and pyrite is present in all samples and TOC is present in variable amounts. However, the occurrence of concretions up to 0.5m in size correlates with notable differences in distinct network arrangement. Therefore it appears that the presence of these concretions greatly alters the overall strength of the rock, hence the fracture network geometry.

  9. QTL associations for weaning-to-estrus interval in a Landrace-Duroc-Yorkshire swine population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weaning-to-estrus interval (WEI) contributes to number of non-productive days of females within a breeding herd. Several reports have indicated females returning to estrus within seven days of weaning are more likely to settle on service thereby contributing to the overall economic potential of the...

  10. Major Quantitative Trait Loci and Putative Candidate Genes for Powdery Mildew Resistance and Fruit-Related Traits Revealed by an Intraspecific Genetic Map for Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus).

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Hwan; Hwang, Ji-Hyun; Han, Dong-Yeup; Park, Minkyu; Kim, Seungill; Choi, Doil; Kim, Yongjae; Lee, Gung Pyo; Kim, Sun-Tae; Park, Young-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    An intraspecific genetic map for watermelon was constructed using an F2 population derived from 'Arka Manik' × 'TS34' and transcript sequence variants and quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to powdery mildew (PMR), seed size (SS), and fruit shape (FS) were analyzed. The map consists of 14 linkage groups (LGs) defined by 174 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS), 2 derived-cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers, 20 sequence-characterized amplified regions, and 8 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers spanning 1,404.3 cM, with a mean marker interval of 6.9 cM and an average of 14.6 markers per LG. Genetic inheritance and QTL analyses indicated that each of the PMR, SS, and FS traits is controlled by an incompletely dominant effect of major QTLs designated as pmr2.1, ss2.1, and fsi3.1, respectively. The pmr2.1, detected on chromosome 2 (Chr02), explained 80.0% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 30.76). This QTL was flanked by two CAPS markers, wsb2-24 (4.00 cM) and wsb2-39 (13.97 cM). The ss2.1, located close to pmr2.1 and CAPS marker wsb2-13 (1.00 cM) on Chr02, explained 92.3% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 68.78). The fsi3.1, detected on Chr03, explained 79.7% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 31.37) and was flanked by two CAPS, wsb3-24 (1.91 cM) and wsb3-9 (7.00 cM). Candidate gene-based CAPS markers were developed from the disease resistance and fruit shape gene homologs located on Chr.02 and Chr03 and were mapped on the intraspecific map. Colocalization of these markers with the major QTLs indicated that watermelon orthologs of a nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat class gene containing an RPW8 domain and a member of SUN containing the IQ67 domain are candidate genes for pmr2.1 and fsi3.1, respectively. The results presented herein provide useful information for marker-assisted breeding and gene cloning for PMR and fruit-related traits. PMID:26700647

  11. Major Quantitative Trait Loci and Putative Candidate Genes for Powdery Mildew Resistance and Fruit-Related Traits Revealed by an Intraspecific Genetic Map for Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang-Hwan; Hwang, Ji-Hyun; Han, Dong-Yeup; Park, Minkyu; Kim, Seungill; Choi, Doil; Kim, Yongjae; Lee, Gung Pyo; Kim, Sun-Tae; Park, Young-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    An intraspecific genetic map for watermelon was constructed using an F2 population derived from ‘Arka Manik’ × ‘TS34’ and transcript sequence variants and quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to powdery mildew (PMR), seed size (SS), and fruit shape (FS) were analyzed. The map consists of 14 linkage groups (LGs) defined by 174 cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS), 2 derived-cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers, 20 sequence-characterized amplified regions, and 8 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers spanning 1,404.3 cM, with a mean marker interval of 6.9 cM and an average of 14.6 markers per LG. Genetic inheritance and QTL analyses indicated that each of the PMR, SS, and FS traits is controlled by an incompletely dominant effect of major QTLs designated as pmr2.1, ss2.1, and fsi3.1, respectively. The pmr2.1, detected on chromosome 2 (Chr02), explained 80.0% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 30.76). This QTL was flanked by two CAPS markers, wsb2-24 (4.00 cM) and wsb2-39 (13.97 cM). The ss2.1, located close to pmr2.1 and CAPS marker wsb2-13 (1.00 cM) on Chr02, explained 92.3% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 68.78). The fsi3.1, detected on Chr03, explained 79.7% of the phenotypic variation (LOD = 31.37) and was flanked by two CAPS, wsb3-24 (1.91 cM) and wsb3-9 (7.00 cM). Candidate gene-based CAPS markers were developed from the disease resistance and fruit shape gene homologs located on Chr.02 and Chr03 and were mapped on the intraspecific map. Colocalization of these markers with the major QTLs indicated that watermelon orthologs of a nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat class gene containing an RPW8 domain and a member of SUN containing the IQ67 domain are candidate genes for pmr2.1 and fsi3.1, respectively. The results presented herein provide useful information for marker-assisted breeding and gene cloning for PMR and fruit-related traits. PMID:26700647

  12. The acceptability of meadow plants to the slug Deroceras reticulatum and implications for grassland restoration

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Sarah E.; Close, Andrew J.; Port, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite the selective pressure slugs may exert on seedling recruitment there is a lack of information in this context within grassland restoration studies. Selective grazing is influenced by interspecific differences in acceptability. As part of a larger study of how slug–seedling interactions may influence upland hay meadow restoration, an assessment of relative acceptability is made for seedlings of meadow plants to the slug, Deroceras reticulatum. Methods Slug feeding damage to seedling monocultures of 23 meadow species and Brassica napus was assessed in microcosms over 14 d. The severity and rate of damage incurred by each plant species was analysed with a generalized additive mixed model. Plant species were then ranked for their relative acceptability. Key Results Interspecific variation in relative acceptability suggested seedlings of meadow species form a hierarchy of acceptability to D. reticulatum. The four most acceptable species were Achillea millefolium and the grasses Holcus lanatus, Poa trivialis and Festuca rubra. Trifolium pratense was acceptable to D. reticulatum and was the second highest ranking forb species. The most unacceptable species were mainly forbs associated with the target grassland, and included Geranium sylvaticum, Rumex acetosa, Leontodon hispidus and the grass Anthoxanthum odoratum. A strong positive correlation was found for mean cumulative feeding damage and cumulative seedling mortality at day 14. Conclusions Highly unacceptable species to D. reticulatum are unlikely to be selectively grazed by slugs during the seedling recruitment phase, and were predominantly target restoration species. Seedlings of highly acceptable species may be less likely to survive slug herbivory and contribute to seedling recruitment at restoration sites. Selective slug herbivory, influenced by acceptability, may influence community-level processes if seedling recruitment and establishment of key functional species, such as T

  13. Novel green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrullus lanatus rind and investigation of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Biological synthesis of nanoparticles using nontoxic, eco-friendly approaches is gaining importance owing to their fascinating biocompatibility and environmentally benign nature. This study describes the green synthesis approach for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (ANPs) using aqueous extract of the rind of watermelon as a fruit waste and evaluate its biopotential in terms of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential. The synthesized ANPs were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The surface plasmon resonance spectra of ANPs were obtained at 560 nm. Scanning electron microscopy image revealed that particles had a spherical shape and have a size distribution of 20-140 nm, followed by the elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the crystallite nature of the ANPs and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the involvement of bioactive compounds from watermelon rind in the synthesis, capping, and stabilization of ANPs. ANPs exhibited potential antibacterial activity against five different foodborne pathogenic bacteria with diameter of inhibition zones ranged between 9.23 and 11.58 mm. They also displayed strong synergistic antibacterial activity together with kanamycin (11.93-21.08 mm inhibition zones) and rifampicin (10.32-24.84 mm inhibition zones). ANPs displayed strong antioxidant activity in terms of DPPH radical scavenging (24.69%), nitric oxide scavenging (25.62%), ABTS scavenging (29.42%), and reducing power. Significantly high proteasome inhibitory potential of the ANPs (28.16%) could be highly useful for cancer treatment and targeted cancer drug delivery. Overall, results highlight a potential low-cost green method of synthesizing ANPs from food waste materials. Significant biopotentials of synthesized ANPs could make it a potential candidate for its application in the biomedical, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food sectors. PMID:26664116

  14. Understanding the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway through observation of four color variants of developing watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nanai)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway regulatory mechanisms leading to lycopene accumulation are well defined in the model fruit, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). The regulatory mechanisms leading to accumulation of other carotenoids and flesh colors, however, are poorly understood. The variety ...

  15. Novel green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Citrullus lanatus rind and investigation of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Biological synthesis of nanoparticles using nontoxic, eco-friendly approaches is gaining importance owing to their fascinating biocompatibility and environmentally benign nature. This study describes the green synthesis approach for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (ANPs) using aqueous extract of the rind of watermelon as a fruit waste and evaluate its biopotential in terms of proteasome inhibitory activity, antibacterial, and antioxidant potential. The synthesized ANPs were characterized using UV–vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The surface plasmon resonance spectra of ANPs were obtained at 560 nm. Scanning electron microscopy image revealed that particles had a spherical shape and have a size distribution of 20–140 nm, followed by the elemental analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the crystallite nature of the ANPs and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the involvement of bioactive compounds from watermelon rind in the synthesis, capping, and stabilization of ANPs. ANPs exhibited potential antibacterial activity against five different foodborne pathogenic bacteria with diameter of inhibition zones ranged between 9.23 and 11.58 mm. They also displayed strong synergistic antibacterial activity together with kanamycin (11.93–21.08 mm inhibition zones) and rifampicin (10.32–24.84 mm inhibition zones). ANPs displayed strong antioxidant activity in terms of DPPH radical scavenging (24.69%), nitric oxide scavenging (25.62%), ABTS scavenging (29.42%), and reducing power. Significantly high proteasome inhibitory potential of the ANPs (28.16%) could be highly useful for cancer treatment and targeted cancer drug delivery. Overall, results highlight a potential low-cost green method of synthesizing ANPs from food waste materials. Significant biopotentials of synthesized ANPs could make it a potential candidate for its application in the biomedical, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food sectors. PMID:26664116

  16. Relationships of birth weight traits with age at first estrus and number of ovulations in Landrace-Duroc-Yorkshire gilts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection for increased litter size has resulted in greater within-litter variation in piglet birth weight and a reduction in litter average birth weight; believed to be associated with intrauterine growth restriction as a result of limitations in uterine capacity. This leads to increased preweaning...

  17. Expression of obesity gene and obesity gene long form receptor in endometrium of Yorkshire sows during embryo implantation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongfang; Fu, Jinlian; Wang, Aiguo

    2014-03-01

    There is accumulating evidence that leptin may be directly involved in mammalian reproduction, however, the potential role of obesity gene/obesity gene long form receptor (ob/ob-Rb) system in porcine implantation is poorly understood. To further confirm this role, mRNA and protein expression of ob/ob-Rb in implantation site and inter-implantation sites of porcine uterus on pregnancy day 13, 18 and 24 were compared in this study. Ob mRNA level went up with the advance of pregnancy and was higher in implantation site than inter-implantation site (P < 0.05). But ob-Rb mRNA, which was negative-regulated by leptin, went down with the advance of pregnancy and lessened in implantation site compared with inter-implantation site (P < 0.05). During the three implantation phase, leptin protein peaked at day 18 pregnancy (P < 0.05) and leptin protein at implantation site were always higher than inter-implantation site (P < 0.05). The higher ob-Rb protein in implantation site compared with inter-implantation site (P < 0.05) only appeared at day 18 pregnancy. Localization of ob/ob-Rb protein in porcine uterus was assayed using immunohistochemistry and found that ob/ob-Rb protein mainly located in luminal epithelium and glandular epithelium in pregnant pigs, but distinct immune-staining of leptin also detected in stroma in non-pregnancy porcine uterus except for luminal epithelium and glandular epithelium. In conclusion, the peak of leptin and the peak of ob-Rb protein in implantation site specifically appeared on day 18 pregnancy of pig. Another funning discovery is ob-Rb mRNA in porcine endometrium was mainly negative-regulated by leptin. The space-time difference of gene and protein expression for ob/ob-Rb confirmed ob/ob-Rb system role as delicate regulator of porcine implantation process. PMID:24407604

  18. Caries experience, tooth loss and oral health-related behaviours among Bangladeshi women resident in West Yorkshire, UK.

    PubMed

    Williams, S A; Summers, R M; Ahmed, I A; Prendergast, M J

    1996-09-01

    Several studies have reported high levels of caries experience among young Muslim Asian children, but there has been little corresponding information on adult dental health or related health behaviours. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire together with clinical oral findings among first generation Bangladeshi women aged over 25 years. The majority chewed betel quid with tobacco, were of rural origin, used traditional oral hygiene practices and had never visited a dentist. Of the 247 examined, only one was edentulous. A very low level of caries experience was recorded, a mean DFT score of 1.87 at 25-34 years of age, with an average of 1.05 missing teeth. Coronal caries experience was found to be independent of oral hygiene methods, including the use of fluoride toothpaste, or the frequency of betel quid chewing. It was concluded that Bangladeshi adult women have considerably lower levels of caries experience and tooth loss than United Kingdom adults as represented in recent national surveys. PMID:8897738

  19. Epidemiology of childhood brain tumours in Yorkshire, UK, 1974-95: geographical distribution and changing patterns of occurrence.

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, P. A.; Parslow, R. C.; Lane, S. A.; Bailey, C. C.; Lewis, I.; Picton, S.; Cartwright, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    From a high-quality population-based register of children with cancer, 455 cases diagnosed with central nervous system (CNS) tumours were analysed to examine patterns of occurrence and geographical distribution. There was a significant increase of 1.8% (95% CI 0.5-3.1, P < 0.01) in average annual incidence for all CNS tumours, mainly accounted for by a 3.1% rise (95% CI 0.1-6.1, P < 0.05) in primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNETs) over the 22-year period 1974-95. These increases were not explained by an increase in the proportion of histologically verified tumours. In the most recent time period (1986-95), astrocytomas occurred more commonly than previously in 0 to 4-year olds. Geographical differences in incidence were evident at a large scale, between counties, for all tumours and astrocytomas, with lower rates in the most urbanized areas. At the level of census district and electoral wards, no association between incidence of CNS tumours and socioeconomic group, person-based population density or ethnicity was observed using Poisson regression modelling. Based on small-scale census geography, the patterns of distribution of CNS tumours do not suggest strong associations with geographical determinants of risk. This study finds a rising incidence of all CNS tumours and particularly primitive neuroectodermal tumours and shows that astrocytomas appear to be occurring at a younger age, most probably because of improved diagnosis with non-invasive technology. PMID:9764594

  20. Palliation of symptoms in non-small cell lung cancer: a study by the Yorkshire Regional Cancer Organisation Thoracic Group.

    PubMed Central

    Muers, M F; Round, C E

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Although most treatment for non-small cell lung cancer is palliative, data on the adequacy of symptom control are scanty and there has been little discussion about the appropriate indices. METHODS--Two hundred and eighty nine unselected patients presenting sequentially to six specialists were studied; 242 cases were confirmed histologically and all were managed as non-small cell lung cancer. At presentation and two monthly for one year or until death each of 12 symptoms was graded by a physician at a clinic interview on a four point scale as absent, mild, moderate, or severe. For each symptom a palliative index (median duration of control/median duration of survival) was calculated, where control was defined as an improvement in symptoms of any severity by one grade or more. RESULTS--Sixty four (22%) patients had surgery, 15 (5%) radical and 107 (37%) palliative radiotherapy, and 103 (36%) best supportive care. Analysis showed that most symptoms inexorably worsened with time. The palliation index for haemoptysis was 86%, chest pain 73%, cough 34%, and breathlessness 30%; for systemic symptoms it was 54% for anorexia and 47% for malaise. Palliation was poor in many patients after surgery. Breathlessness was a particular problem in the group having best supportive care. CONCLUSIONS--The frequency of most symptoms in non-small cell lung cancer increases inexorably with time until malaise and anorexia are almost universal. Haemoptysis and chest pain are better palliated than cough and breathlessness. Present treatments fail to give adequate palliation for many patients, and the emphasis in future therapeutic studies should be on the relief of the more severe symptoms. PMID:7685550

  1. Turf wars: experimental tests for alternative stable states in a two-phase coastal ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Brownstein, Gretchen; Lee, William G; Pritchard, Daniel W; Wilson, J Bastow

    2014-02-01

    Alternative stable states have long been thought to exist in natural communities, but direct evidence for their presence and for the environmental switches that cause them has been scarce. Using a combination of greenhouse and field experiments, we investigated the environmental drivers associated with two distinctive herbaceous communities in coastal ecosystems in New Zealand. In a mosaic unrelated to micro-topography, a community dominated largely by native turf species (notably Leptinella dioica, Samolus repens, and Selliera radicans) alternates with vegetation comprising exotic (i.e., nonnative) pasture species (notably Agrostis stolonifera, Holcus lanatus, Lolium perenne, and Trifolium repens). The species of these two communities differ in functional characters related to leaf longevity and growth rate, and occupy soils of differing nitrogen levels. Both spatial and environmental factors influenced the species composition locally. Reciprocal transplants of soil, with and without associated vegetation, showed that a native turf community developed when sward or soil from either community was bounded by turf, and a pasture community developed when sward or soil from either community was surrounded by pasture. In artificial mixed communities in the greenhouse, turf was able to invade the pasture community where the vegetation was clipped to simulate grazing, and also where Trifolium was removed and/or salt spray was applied. The pasture community invaded the turf where Trifolium was present or nitrogen was added. These results were supported by trends in experimentally manipulated field plots, where the amount of turf cover increased when nitrogen was kept low and when salt spray was applied, whereas pasture cover increased in the absence of salt spray. Thus, persistence of the native turf community is dependent on grazing, both directly and via its effect on keeping nitrogen levels low by excluding the exotic, nitrogen-fixing Trifolium, and by exposing the

  2. 12 Comprehensive Detection of Allergens in Grass Pollen Extracts by Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Steffen; Mitulski, Liane; Cromwell, Oliver; Reese, Gerald; Nandy, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Background More than 40% of type 1-allergic individuals suffer from hypersensitivity to grass pollen. Patients are treated traditionally with specific immunotherapy using pollen extracts derived from one or several different Pooideae species. While for several species the most important allergens (group 1 and group 5) have been identified, other allergens have either not been identified or sequence data are still missing. We have used mass spectrometry (MS) together with genetic and immunological methods to identify allergens in various grass pollen extracts. Methods Pollen extracts of 6 different grass species (Phleum pratense, Holcus lanatus, Lolium perenne, Dactylus glomerata, Festuca pratensis, Poa pratensis) and a mixture thereof were analyzed. For identification of allergens by MS, extracts were subjected to enzymatic digestion. Resulting peptides were separated by liquid chromatography and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. Protein identification was performed by searching both the NCBIPlant release and an individually designed database. The presence of individual allergens was confirmed with allergen-specific monoclonal antibodies. Unknown sequences were determined following cDNA synthesis from pollen RNA and allergen sequence amplification by PCR. Results Fes p 1 and Fes p 5 were identified by the PCR approach. MS analysis of pollen extracts from the 6 individual species resulted in detection of all known allergens including the newly identified Fes p 1 and Fes p 5. Based on the homology of allergens from different grass species, previously unknown sequences of representatives of groups 2, 3, 4, 7, 11, 12 and 13 were detected by MS in investigated extracts with high sequence coverage. Group 6 allergens could not be identified in some of the analyzed extracts. These findings are supported by immunological analyses and thus demonstrate the specificity of the applied method. Members of all allergen groups were identified in an extract mix prepared from

  3. Antioxidative and antidiabetic activities of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) juice on oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Oseni, O. A.; Odesanmi, O. E.; Oladele, F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The nutritional and medicinal importance of watermelon has been emphasized and its diseases preventive and curative power must be evaluated. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the antioxidative and antidiabetic potentials of watermelon. Materials and Methods: The in vivo assay was carried out on 15 male albino rats which were divided into groups of three stages. In stage I, all animals received normal feeds and water for 1-week after, which five animals were selected and sacrificed for biochemical analyses which form the nondiabetic control, group. The remaining animals were fasted for 24 h before injected intra-peritoneally with a freshly prepared solution of alloxan at a dosage of 35 mg/kg body weight. Five out of the 10 rats were sacrificed as diabetic group while last five animals were fed with water melon juice for a week after, which they were sacrificed to form the treated group animals. In all the groups, body weights, fasting blood sugar, total protein level in the blood, and other biochemical parameters such as reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration; catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) % inhibition activities were determined. Results: The results of the biochemical analyses showed a significant increase in the concentration of blood glucose level after treatment with alloxan, which indicates that diabetic was induced. Hence, watermelon juice caused increased in weight, hypoglycemia; and increases in GSH, GPx, catalase, and SOD % inhibition activities with reduced MDA concentration after treatments. Conclusion: The watermelon juice resulted in the restoration of impaired conditions of the rats. PMID:26759513

  4. Influence of Citrullus lanatus var. citroides rootstocks and their F1 hybrids on yield and response to root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, in grafted watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southern root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) are an important re-emerging pest of watermelon in the U.S. and worldwide. The re-emergence of root-knot nematodes (RKN) in watermelon and other cucurbits is largely due to the intensive cultivation of vegetable crops on limited agricultural land...

  5. Gulypyrones A and B and Phomentrioloxins B and C Produced by Diaporthe gulyae, a Potential Mycoherbicide for Saffron Thistle (Carthamus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Andolfi, Anna; Boari, Angela; Evidente, Marco; Cimmino, Alessio; Vurro, Maurizio; Ash, Gavin; Evidente, Antonio

    2015-04-24

    A virulent strain of Diaporthe gulyae, isolated from stem cankers of sunflower and known to be pathogenic to saffron thistle, has been shown to produce both known and previously undescribed metabolites when grown in either static liquid culture or a bioreactor. Together with phomentrioloxin, a phytotoxic geranylcyclohexenetriol recently isolated from a strain of Phomopsis sp., two new phytotoxic trisubstituted α-pyrones, named gulypyrones A and B (1 and 2), and two new 1,O- and 2,O-dehydro derivatives of phomentrioloxin, named phomentrioloxins B and C (3 and 4), were isolated from the liquid culture filtrates of D. gulyae. These four metabolites were characterized as 6-[(2S)2-hydroxy-1-methylpropyl]-4-methoxy-5-methylpyran-2-one (1), 6-[(1E)-3-hydroxy-1-methylpropenyl]-4-methoxy-3-methylpyran-2-one (2), 4,6-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-2-(7-methyl-3-methyleneoct-6-en-1-ynyl)cyclohex-2-enone (3), and 2,5-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-(7-methyl-3-methyleneoct-6-en-1-ynyl)cyclohex-3-enone (4) using spectroscopic and chemical methods. The absolute configuration of the hydroxylated secondary carbon of the 2-hydroxy-1-methylpropyl side chain at C-6 of gulypyrone A was determined as S by applying a modified Mosher's method. Other well-known metabolites were also isolated including 3-nitropropionic, succinic, and p-hydroxy- and p-methylbenzoic acids, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and nectriapyrone. When assayed using a 5 mM concentration on punctured leaf disks of weedy and crop plants, apart from 3-nitropropionic acid (the main metabolite responsible for the strong phytotoxicity of the culture filtrate), phomentrioloxin B caused small, but clear, necrotic spots on a number of plant species, whereas gulypyrone A caused leaf necrosis on Helianthus annuus plantlets. All other compounds were weakly active or inactive. PMID:25700035

  6. Resistance of Polish lines and hybrids of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum et Nakai] to Fusarium oxysporum at the seedling stage.

    PubMed

    Swiader, Magdalena; Prończuk, Maria; Niemirowicz-Szczyt, Katarzyna

    2002-01-01

    Watermelon is a species cultivated in the hot climate or in the greenhouse. Since recently it has also started to be grown in the open in the Polish climate. This species is frequently at risk of Fusarium oxysporum infection. Between 1996 and 1997 ten inbred lines and nine hybrids of Polish origin were tested for resistance to this pathogen. The test was conducted with the use of four isolates of F. oxysporum: three from Polish infected plants (formae speciales not determined), while the fourth from U.K. (F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum). In the three series of tests the control plants were Pannonia F(1) and Sugar Baby. No inbred line or hybrid was found to be highly resistant to the pathogen. However, it was possible to identify four lines and five hybrids showing a higher level of resistance as compared with the control. The level of hybrid resistance was determined by comparison with the parental genotypes. PMID:12080172

  7. Effect of heat treatment around the fruit set region on growth and yield of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai].

    PubMed

    Noh, Jaejong; Kim, Jeong Man; Sheikh, Sameena; Lee, So Geun; Lim, Jeong Hyeon; Seong, Moon Ho; Jung, Gi Tai

    2013-10-01

    The present experiment was aimed to study the effect of imposing modulated temperature treatments 14 °C and 18 °C, around the fruiting region of watermelon plants, and to estimate the economic feasibility of the temperature treatments based on energy consumption for heating. Watermelon cultivar 'Sambok-gul' was selected and sown on perlite beds in a plastic house under controlled conditions at Watermelon Farm, Jeongeup-Jeonbuk, longitude 35° 31' 47.51N, 126° 48'48.84E, altitude 37 m during the early spring season (2010-2011). The findings revealed that the temperature treatment at 18 °C caused significant increase in weight (2.0 kg plant(-1)), fruit weight (8.3 kg plant(-1)), soluble solid content (11.5 %), and fruit set rate (96.5 %) at harvest stage. Higher contents of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions were observed in the 1st upper leaf of the fruit set node (79.3 mg L(-1)) and the 1st lower leaf of the fruit set node (12.0 mg L(-1)), respectively at 14 °C. The power consumption and extra costs of the temperature treatment 18 °C were suggested as affordable and in range of a farmer's budget (41.14 USD/22 days). Hence, it was concluded that modulating temperature treatments could be utilized successfully to optimize the temperature range for enhancing the fruit yield and quality in the winter watermelon crops. PMID:24431519

  8. Utilizing Citrullus lanatus var. citroides germplasm for developing tetraploid lines useful as rootstocks and in breeding programs of seedless watermelon lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, soil-borne diseases and pests have intensified in watermelon, particularly after the phasing out of the soil fumigant methyl bromide, and there is a continuous need to develop solutions for reducing the disease and pest pressure in this important cucurbit crop. Grafting of watermel...

  9. Identification and validation of a core set of microsatellite markers for genetic diversity analysis in watermelon, Citrullus lanatus Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Watermelon has a narrow genetic base, which makes it difficult in detection and utilization of the genetic variations, cultivar identification and increasing genetic diversity that are some important tasks for watermelon breeders. Molecular marker...

  10. Scanning genomic areas under selection sweep and association mapping as tools to identify horticultural important genes in watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) contains 88% water, sugars, and several important health-related compounds, including lycopene, citrulline, arginine, and glutathione. The current genetic diversity study uses microsatellites with known map positions to identify genomic regions that under...

  11. Resistance of Citrullus Colocynthis to Whiteflies and Spidermites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The B-biotype sweetpotato whitefly (SPWF), Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), and the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) are serious pests of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus) (Cucurbitaceae). United ...

  12. Grafting for Management of Southern Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Incognita, in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, one squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima) hybrid, four wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm lines, and one commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus var. citroides) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for cultivated watermelo...

  13. Utility of Grafting for Managing Southern Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne Incognita, in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, one squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima) hybrid, four wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm lines, and one commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus var. citroides) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for cultivated watermelo...

  14. Response of Watermelon Germplasm to Southern Root-Knot Nematode in Field Tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the US. While there is no known resistance to southern root-knot nematode in watermelon cultivars to date, wild watermelon relatives (C. lanatus var...

  15. Wild Forms of Watermelon and Genomic Resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this chapter, we reviewed the characteristics, phylogenetic information of all the species in Citrullus genera, including Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai., C. lanatus var. citrides (Bailey; Mansf.), C. ecirrhosus Cogn., C. rehmii De Winter., C. colocynthis (L.) Schrad, an...

  16. Molecular Phylogeny of Citrullus Species as Inferred from AFLPs and SSRs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-one accessions of Citrullus spp. belonging to C. lanatus var. lanatus, C. lanatus var. citroids and Citrullus colocynthis were subjected to phylogenetic analysis using combined data sets of AFLPs and SSRs. Tree topologies inferred by Neighbor Joining analysis have resolved the phylogenic rel...

  17. Effects of ad libitum and restricted feeding on early production performance and body composition of Yorkshire pigs selected for reduced residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Boddicker, N; Gabler, N K; Spurlock, M E; Nettleton, D; Dekkers, J C M

    2011-08-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between observed and expected feed intake based on growth and backfat, has been used to investigate genetic variation in feed efficiency in cattle, poultry and pigs. However, little is known about the biological basis of differences in RFI in pigs. To this end, the objective of this study was to evaluate the fifth generation of a line of pigs selected for reduced RFI against a randomly selected Control line for performance, carcass and chemical carcass composition and overall efficiency. Here, emphasis was on the early grower phase. A total of 100 barrows, 50 from each line, were paired by age and weight (22.6 ± 3.9 kg) and randomly assigned to one of four feeding treatments in 11 replicates: ad libitum (Ad), 75% of Ad (Ad75), 55% of Ad (Ad55) and weight stasis (WS), which involved weekly adjustments in intake to keep body weight (BW) constant for each pig. Pigs were individually penned (group housing was used for selection) and were on treatment for 6 weeks. Initial BW did not significantly differ between the lines (P > 0.17). Under Ad feeding, the low RFI pigs consumed 8% less feed compared with Control line pigs (P < 0.06), had less carcass fat (P < 0.05), but with no significant difference in growth rate (P > 0.85). Under restricted feeding, low RFI pigs under the Ad75 treatment had a greater rate of gain while consuming the same amount of feed as Control pigs. Despite the greater gain, no significant line differences in carcass composition or carcass traits were observed. For the WS treatment, low RFI pigs had similar BW (P > 0.37) with no significant difference in feed consumption (P > 0.32). Overall, selection for reduced RFI has decreased feed intake, with limited differences in growth rate but reduced carcass fat, as seen under Ad feeding. Collectively, results indicate that the effects of selection for low RFI are evident during the early grower stage, which allows for greater savings to the producer. PMID:22440279

  18. The laser microprobe mass analyser for determining partitioning of minor and trace elements among intimately associated macerals: an example from the Swallow Wood coal bed, Yorkshire, UK

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, P.C.; Morelli, J.J.; Hercules, D.M.; Lineman, D.; Thompson-Rizer, C. L.; Dulong, F.T.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the elemental composition of intimately associated coal macerals in the English Swallow Wood coal bed was conducted using a laser microprobe mass analyser, and indicated a similar trace and minor elemental chemistry in the vitrinite and cutinite and a different elemental signature in the fusinite. Three to six sites were analysed within each maceral during the study by laser micro mass spectrometry (LAMMS). Al, Ba, Ca, Cl, Cr, Dy, F, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mg, Na, S, Si, Sr, Ti, V, and Y were detected by LAMMS in all three macerals but not necessarily at each site analysed. The signal intensities of major isotopic peaks were normalized to the signal intensity of the m z 85 peak (C7H) to determine the relative minor- and trace-element concentrations among the three dominant macerals. The vitrinite and the cutinite were depleted in Ba, Ca, Dy, Li, Mg, Sr, and Y relative to their concentrations observed in the fusinite. The cutinite was distinguished over vitrinite by less Ti, V, Cr and Ca, and K Ca $ ??1 (relative signal intensities). The fusinite, relative to the cutinite and vitrinite, was relatively depleted in Cr, Sc, Ti, and V. The fusinite, as compared with both the cutinite and vitrinite, was relatively enriched in Ba, Ca, Dy, Li, Mg, Sr, and Y, and also showed the most intense m z 64, 65, 66 signals (possibly S2+, HS2+, H2S2+, respectively). The LAMMS data indicate a common source for most elements and selective loss from the maceral precursors in the peat or entrapment of certain elements as mineral matter, most likely during the peat stage or during early diagenesis. The relatively high amounts of Ba, Ca, Dy, Li, Mg, Sr, and Y in the fusinite are consistent with micron and submicron mineral-matter inclusions such as carbonates and Ca-Al phosphates (probably crandallite group minerals). Mineralogical data on the whole coal, the LAMMS chemistry of the vitrinite and cutinite, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDAX) of the elements in the macerals are consistent with the presence of micron and submicron inclusions of clays such as kaolinite, illite, and Ca-rich or Ca-bearing minerals (e.g. calcite, Ca-Al phosphates, and illite) which are different in kind and proportions in the three macerals. The variance as measured by the F-statistic for all three macerals indicates generally a nonuniform distribution of minor and trace elements in all three macerals, thus supporting a mineral-matter (inorganic) origin of the elements analysed. Exceptions are Al, K, Fe, Ga, and Sr in the vitrinite and cutinite, which is consistent with organic complexing or a uniform distribution of micron or submicron mineral matter such as illite and phosphate(s). ?? 1990.

  19. SNP Detection in the Porcine PPARGC1A Promoter Region and 3'UTR, and an Association Analysis in a Landrace-Duroc-Yorkshire Population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the most important economic selection criteria in pigs today is meat quality, contrasting with the more traditional focus on just lean growth. Meat quality however is determined by many factors with a complex mutual relationship. In this regard, PPARGC1A is a very interesting candidate gene b...

  20. DIFFERENTIAL ENDOMETRIAL TRANSCRIPT EXPRESSION BETWEEN YORKSHIRE AND THE PROLIFIC MEISHAN BREED OF PIGS DURING THE CRITICAL STAGE OF CONCEPTUS ELONGATION AND EARLY ATTACHMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Chinese Meishan pig breed is known for larger average litters, as compared to commercial breeds. This difference is due to increased embryo survival controlled primarily by the dam and particularly at the implantation stage that initiates at day 11-12 of gestation (d11-12). To identify the genes...

  1. Endometrial gene expression profiling in pregnant Meishan and Yorkshire breeds at peri-implantation to characterize the prolific nature of pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The prolificacy trait of pigs (larger litter size) is a major factor affecting the profitability in the pig industry. Previous studies revealed that the function of the maternal uterine endometrium, which has been shown to be closely related to early embryo mortality, has considerable in...

  2. Prepubertal Scoring of Scale Activity in Gilts and Its Potential Relationship to Subsequent Fertility and Reproductive Performance in Landrace-Duroc-Yorkshire Cross Females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A majority of animals culled due to reproductive failure are skewed towards younger parities (1 or less), decreasing the economic potential of the herd, thereby leading to an overall reduction in the herd’s sow lifetime productivity. The ability to identify young females with superior reproductive p...

  3. Effect of n-3 and n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Microsomal P450 Steroidogenic Enzyme Activities and In Vitro Cortisol Production in Adrenal Tissue From Yorkshire Boars.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xuemei; Wang, Xudong; Mick, Gail J; Kabarowski, Janusz H; Wilson, Landon Shay; Barnes, Stephen; Walcott, Gregory P; Luo, Xiaoping; McCormick, Kenneth

    2016-04-01

    Dysregulation of adrenal glucocorticoid production is increasingly recognized to play a supportive role in the metabolic syndrome although the mechanism is ill defined. The adrenal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, CYP17 and CYP21, are essential for glucocorticoid synthesis. The omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may ameliorate metabolic syndrome, but it is unknown whether they have direct actions on adrenal CYP steroidogenic enzymes. The aim of this study was to determine whether PUFA modify adrenal glucocorticoid synthesis using isolated porcine microsomes. The enzyme activities of CYP17, CYP21, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH), and CYP2E1 were measured in intact microsomes treated with fatty acids of disparate saturated bonds. Cortisol production was measured in a cell-free in vitro model. Microsomal lipid composition after arachidonic acid (AA) exposure was determined by sequential window acquisition of all theoretical spectra-mass spectrometry. Results showed that adrenal microsomal CYP21 activity was decreased by docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid, α-linolenic acid, AA, and linoleic acid, and CYP17 activity was inhibited by DPA, DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid, and AA. Inhibition was associated with the number of the PUFA double bonds. Similarly, cortisol production in vitro was decreased by DPA, DHA, and AA. Endoplasmic enzymes with intraluminal activity were unaffected by PUFA. In microsomes exposed to AA, the level of AA or oxidative metabolites of AA in the membrane was not altered. In conclusion, these observations suggest that omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA, especially those with 2 or more double bonds (DPA, DHA, and AA), impede adrenal glucocorticoid production. PMID:26889941

  4. How much does fluvial dissolved organic carbon export from blanket bogs vary at the regional scale? An example from the Pennine region of Yorkshire, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, Richard; Blundell, Antony; Holden, Joseph

    2014-05-01

    Often only one or a very small number of stream sampling points are used to infer wider regional export of fluvial carbon from peatlands. However, we suggest that the amount of fluvial carbon being exported varies enormously within regions even when blanket peat is the dominant land cover type. Here we present results from an extensive and comprehensive monitoring project covering blanket peat dominated catchments across the Pennine region of the UK using data from 2006 onwards. Up to the start of January 2014 the dataset contained dissolved organic carbon (DOC) data for approximately 11500 stream water samples (both routine spot samples and storm event samples). The majority of these DOC measurements also have associated UV-Vis absorbance data allowing an insight into the composition of the DOC present, specifically the dominance of humic versus fulvic acids and the degree of aromaticity (SUVA254). Additional data to support interpretation of the regional variability of DOC includes particulate organic carbon, discharge, pH, conductivity and turbidity, water table depth, soil water chemistry and meteorological data. We provide an unparalleled insight into the spatial and temporal variability of DOC in a region of blanket bogs showing how catchment attributes influence fluvial DOC, how there are hotspots of DOC production and how high flow events regulating DOC export and its composition.

  5. Association of porcine heparanase and hyaluronidase 1 and 2 with reproductive and production traits in a Landrace-Duroc-Yorkshire population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The ovary and placenta are dynamic structures requiring constant modification both structurally and through cell-cell communication capabilities. The extracellular matrix and basement membranes are primarily composed of a mileu of glycosaminoglycans, including heparan sulfate and hyalu...

  6. Ecohydrology of an Embanked Lowland UK River Meadow and the Effects of Embankment Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clilverd, H.; Thompson, J.; Sayer, C.; Heppell, K.; Axmacher, J.

    2012-12-01

    Pristine riparian and floodplain ecosystems are in a state of dynamic balance due to the regular floods that continuously reshape river channels and their banks, and transport water, sediment and nutrients onto the floodplain. However, the natural flow regime of many rivers has been altered by channelization and artificial embankments designed to protect agricultural and urban developments from flooding. This has had a lasting impact on the hydrological characteristics of floodplain ecosystems and the biological communities that inhabit them. Floodplain restoration, through embankment removal and the reconfiguration of river channels, is now being increasingly employed to re-establish river-floodplain connections and assist the recovery of lost or declining species. In order to manage a river restoration site for plant biodiversity, it is necessary to understand the physical and nutritional status of the root environment. We conducted fine scale (10 × 10 m) botanical and chemical sampling on a 3 ha embanked grassland meadow in Norfolk (Eastern England) and assessed the spatial pattern of plant communities in relation to soil physicochemical conditions. Continuous measurements of groundwater depth and river stage were collectively used to determine changes in the hydrological regime following embankment-removal. Prior to the restoration the meadow plant community was dominated by Holcus lanatus, Ranunculus repens and Agrostis stolonifera. Species richness was fairly low (mean: 8 spp. per m2), and indices of alpha-diversity suggest low heterogeneity of the plant assemblages (mean values for Shannon's Diversity and 1/Simpson's Diversity = 1.4 and 3.4, respectively). Top soils were moderately fertile, with mean respective Olsen P and plant available potassium concentrations of 9.1 mg P kg-1and 1.6 mg K+g-1. Plant available ammonium and nitrate concentrations were on average 31.7 mg NH4+-N kg-1 and 2.8 mg NO3--N kg-1, respectively. River water was enriched in nitrate

  7. Screening for new accumulator plants in Andes Range mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria

    2016-04-01

    Toxic metal pollution of waters and soils is a major environmental problem, and most conventional remediation approaches do not provide acceptable solutions. The use of plants or plant products to restore or stabilize contaminated sites, collectively known as phytoremediation, takes advantage of the natural abilities of plants to take up, accumulate, store, or degrade organic and inorganic substances. Although not a new concept, phytoremediation is currently being re-examined as an environmentally friendly, cost-effective means of reducing metal contaminated soil. Plants growing on naturally metal-enriched soils are of particular interest in this regard, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations and have an excellent adaptation to this multi-stress environment. Processes include using plants that tolerate and accumulate metals at high levels (phytoextraction) and using plants that can grow under conditions that are toxic to other plants while preventing, for example, soil erosion (phytostabilization). Soil and plant samples were taken at polymetallic mines in Peru, Ecuador and Chile. It is suggested that Plantago orbignyana Steinheil is a Pb hyperaccumulator. Moreover, unusually elevated concentrations of Pb (over 1000 mg kg‑1) and Translocation Factor (TF) greater than one were also detected in shoots of 6 different plants species (Ageratina sp., Achirodine alata, Cortaderia apalothica, Epilobium denticulatum, Taraxacum officinalis and Trifolium repens) of a Caroline mine in Perú. Among the grass species (Poaceae), the highest shoot As concentration were found in Paspalum sp. (>1000 μg g-1) and Eriochola ramose (460 μg g-1) from the Cu mine in Peru and in Holcus lanatus and Pennisetum clandestinum (>200 μg g-1) from the silver mine in Ecuador. The shoot accumulation of Zn was highest in Baccharis amdatensis (>1900 μg g-1) and in Rumex crispus (1300 μg g-1) from the Ag mine in Ecuador (Bech et al., 2002). Paspalum racemosum also

  8. High-Throughput MicroRNA and mRNA Sequencing Reveals That MicroRNAs May Be Involved in Melatonin-Mediated Cold Tolerance in Citrullus lanatus L.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Dong, Yuchuan; Chang, Jingjing; He, Jie; Chen, Hejie; Liu, Qiyan; Wei, Chunhua; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation of cold-responsive genes is crucial for exogenous melatonin-mediated cold tolerance in plants. Nonetheless, how melatonin regulates cold-responsive genes is largely unknown. In this study, we found that exogenous melatonin improved cold tolerance in watermelon by regulating expression of microRNAs (miRNAs). We identified a set of miRNAs that were regulated by melatonin under unstressed or cold conditions. Importantly, mRNA-seq analysis revealed that melatonin-induced downregulation of some miRNAs, such as miR159-5p, miR858, miR8029-3p, and novel-m0048-3p correlated with the upregulation of target genes involved in signal transduction (CDPK, BHLH, WRKY, MYB, and DREB) and protection/detoxification (LEA and MDAR) under cold stress. These results suggest that miRNAs may be involved in melatonin-mediated cold tolerance in watermelon by negatively regulating the expression of target mRNAs. PMID:27574526

  9. Development of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers and a CAPS-based genetic linkage map in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Matsum. and Nakai) constructed using whole-genome re-sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shi; Gao, Peng; Zhu, Qianglong; Luan, Feishi; Davis, Angela R.; Wang, Xiaolu

    2016-01-01

    Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers are useful tools for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This study detected and converted SNP sites into CAPS markers based on high-throughput re-sequencing data in watermelon, for linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Two inbred lines, Cream of Saskatchewan (COS) and LSW-177 had been re-sequenced and analyzed by Perl self-compiled script for CAPS marker development. 88.7% and 78.5% of the assembled sequences of the two parental materials could map to the reference watermelon genome, respectively. Comparative assembled genome data analysis provided 225,693 and 19,268 SNPs and indels between the two materials. 532 pairs of CAPS markers were designed with 16 restriction enzymes, among which 271 pairs of primers gave distinct bands of the expected length and polymorphic bands, via PCR and enzyme digestion, with a polymorphic rate of 50.94%. Using the new CAPS markers, an initial CAPS-based genetic linkage map was constructed with the F2 population, spanning 1836.51 cM with 11 linkage groups and 301 markers. 12 QTLs were detected related to fruit flesh color, length, width, shape index, and brix content. These newly CAPS markers will be a valuable resource for breeding programs and genetic studies of watermelon. PMID:27162496

  10. Phyto-mediated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the rind extract of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) under photo-catalyzed condition and investigation of its antibacterial, anticandidal and antioxidant efficacy.

    PubMed

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Das, Gitishree; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    The biological synthesis of nanoparticles has gained tremendous interest, and plants and plant extracts are preferred over other biological sources for this process because of their rich content of bioactive metabolites. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were produced utilizing the aqueous extract of watermelon rind (WRA), an agricultural waste material under photo exposed condition at room temperature, and tested for their antibacterial, anticandidal and antioxidant activities. The synthesized AgNPs showed surface plasmon resonance at 425nm with an average size of 109.97nm. The morphology and elemental composition was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) confirmed that the bioactive compounds from the WRA extract were involved in the synthesis and capping of AgNPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the crystallite nature of the AgNPs. The AgNPs exhibited strong broad spectrum antibacterial activity against five different foodborne bacteria with zones of inhibition 9.12-14.54mm in diameter. When AgNPs were mixed with kanamycin and rifampicin the mixture exhibited strong antibacterial synergistic activity. The AgNPs also exerted strong synergistic anticandidal activity when they were combined with amphotericin b. The AgNPs had high antioxidant activity and reducing power. Overall, the results confirmed the bio-potentials of the synthesized AgNPs using WRA, which could have applications in the biomedical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food preservation and packaging industries. PMID:27261701

  11. Development of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers and a CAPS-based genetic linkage map in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Matsum. and Nakai) constructed using whole-genome re-sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi; Gao, Peng; Zhu, Qianglong; Luan, Feishi; Davis, Angela R; Wang, Xiaolu

    2016-03-01

    Cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers are useful tools for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This study detected and converted SNP sites into CAPS markers based on high-throughput re-sequencing data in watermelon, for linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Two inbred lines, Cream of Saskatchewan (COS) and LSW-177 had been re-sequenced and analyzed by Perl self-compiled script for CAPS marker development. 88.7% and 78.5% of the assembled sequences of the two parental materials could map to the reference watermelon genome, respectively. Comparative assembled genome data analysis provided 225,693 and 19,268 SNPs and indels between the two materials. 532 pairs of CAPS markers were designed with 16 restriction enzymes, among which 271 pairs of primers gave distinct bands of the expected length and polymorphic bands, via PCR and enzyme digestion, with a polymorphic rate of 50.94%. Using the new CAPS markers, an initial CAPS-based genetic linkage map was constructed with the F2 population, spanning 1836.51 cM with 11 linkage groups and 301 markers. 12 QTLs were detected related to fruit flesh color, length, width, shape index, and brix content. These newly CAPS markers will be a valuable resource for breeding programs and genetic studies of watermelon. PMID:27162496

  12. Technological Analysis of the World’s Earliest Shamanic Costume: A Multi-Scalar, Experimental Study of a Red Deer Headdress from the Early Holocene Site of Star Carr, North Yorkshire, UK

    PubMed Central

    Little, Aimée; Elliott, Benjamin; Conneller, Chantal; Pomstra, Diederik; Evans, Adrian A.; Fitton, Laura C.; Holland, Andrew; Davis, Robert; Kershaw, Rachel; O’Connor, Sonia; O’Connor, Terry; Sparrow, Thomas; Wilson, Andrew S.; Jordan, Peter; Collins, Matthew J.; Colonese, André Carlo; Craig, Oliver E.; Knight, Rebecca; Lucquin, Alexandre J. A.; Taylor, Barry; Milner, Nicky

    2016-01-01

    Shamanic belief systems represent the first form of religious practice visible within the global archaeological record. Here we report on the earliest known evidence of shamanic costume: modified red deer crania headdresses from the Early Holocene site of Star Carr (c. 11 kya). More than 90% of the examples from prehistoric Europe come from this one site, establishing it as a place of outstanding shamanistic/cosmological significance. Our work, involving a programme of experimental replication, analysis of macroscopic traces, organic residue analysis and 3D image acquisition, metrology and visualisation, represents the first attempt to understand the manufacturing processes used to create these artefacts. The results produced were unexpected—rather than being carefully crafted objects, elements of their production can only be described as expedient. PMID:27073850

  13. "It Is Only the Instructed and Trained Overlooker and Artisan That Can Successfully Compete against Foreign Skills": Nineteenth-Century Adult Technical and Vocational Education Offered by the Yorkshire Union of Mechanics' Institutes and the Foundation of Further Education Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martyn

    2012-01-01

    Further education colleges in England and Wales have offered government-recognised courses and qualifications which receive public funding and have included technical and vocational courses since their foundation in the early twentieth century. Yet developments in such curricula and qualifications are not new and they can be traced back to the…

  14. USVL-220, A Novel Watermelon Breeding Line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel watermelon breeding line was developed at the USDA, ARS, U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, Charleston, South Carolina. This breeding line contains the nuclear genome of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) and the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomic background of the desert spe...

  15. A Glance at Microsatellite Motifs from 454 Sequencing Reads of Watermelon Genomic DNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A single 454 (Life Sciences Sequencing Technology) run of Charleston Gray watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) genomic DNA was performed and sequence data were assembled. A large scale identification of simple sequence repeat (SSR) was performed and SSR sequence data were used for the develo...

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF RESISTANCE TO MELOIDOGYNE ARENARIA RACE 1 IN U.S. WATERMELON PLANT INTRODUCTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica) reduce yields of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in the southern U.S. and world-wide. Root-knot nematodes are controlled in watermelon by pre-plant soil fumigation with methyl bromide or treatment with other nemat...

  17. Isolation, Sequence Analysis, and Linkage Mapping of NBS-LRR Disease Resistance Gene Analogs in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) is susceptible to a wide range of pathogens. Sixty-six watermelon resistance gene homologs were cloned from ‘Calhoun Gray’, PI 296341, and PI 595203 using degenerate primers to select for the nucleotide binding site (NBS) from the NBS-LRR resist...

  18. Notes on Citrullius spp. and Acanthosicyos naudinianus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scanning electron and light microscopy were utilized to examine pollen of the currently recognized species (and forms) within the genus Citrullus (Cucurbitaceae). Materials examined included: C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai including the citron (C. amarus Schrad.) and egusi (C. lanatus subsp. mu...

  19. Inhibition of bacterial, fungal and plant growth by testa extracts of Citrullus genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai) seed exudates inhibit germination and seedling growth of several plant species and growth of pathogenic fungi and bacteria. This study was conducted to determine if extractable components in testae contribute to the inhibition. T...

  20. Gene sequences present in Citrullus sp. having been lost during domestication of watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wide genetic diversity exists among Citrullus species, while watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) share a narrow genetic base as a result of many years of domestication and selection for desirable fruit qualities. The recent international watermelon genome sequencing project reve...

  1. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A microarray and Real-Time PCR-based study was conducted in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] in order to elucidate the flow of events associated with fruit development and ripening in this species. RNA from three different maturation stages of watermelon fruit, a...

  2. Identification of unique volatile compounds associated with repelling whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in desert watermelon (Citrullus colocynthis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial watermelon cultivars (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) share a narrow genetic base and are susceptible to many insect pests and diseases. The insects include whiteflies which cause serious economic damages to this important cucurbit crop. However, several United States Plant Introduction a...

  3. 392291-VDR, a watermelon germplasm line with resistance to Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV)-caused watermelon vine decline (WVD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    392291-VDR (vine decline resistant) is a watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) germplasm line having resistance to watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV). The line is derived from the U.S. Plant Introduction (PI) 392291, after succ...

  4. Genetic Diversity among Watermelon Citrullus spp. Accessions Based on HFO-TAG Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need to enhance watermelon cultivars for disease and pest resistance. U.S. Plant Introductions (PIs) of Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai subsp. lanatus var. citroides (Bailey) Mansf. ex Greb. collected in southern Africa are a valuable source for enhancing disease and pest resi...

  5. Combining Reflective Mulch and Host Plant Resistance for Sweetpotato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Management in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the use of reflective mulch and host plant resistance for the management of the B-biotype sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Thunberg) Matsum & Nakai]. Whitefly abundance data were collected under both g...

  6. Use of latent class analysis to estimate the sensitivities and specificities of diagnostic tests for Squash vein yellowing virus in cucurbits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) causes watermelon vine decline in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus). Current methods for identification of SqVYV-infected plants are based on the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), tissue blot nucleic acid hybridization assays (NAHA), and visual symptom...

  7. Cytomolecular characterization of rRNA gene sequences among Citrullus species and subspecies using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In previous studies, many DNA markers showed strong preferential (non-Mendelian) segregation in F2 and BC1 genetic populations derived from crosses between wild type watermelon [C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. et Nakai subsp. lanatus var. citroides (Bailey) Mansf. ex Greb.] (CLC) and watermelon cultivar...

  8. An allele-specific SNP mutation in the eIF4E gene is associated with the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistance in watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is one of the most economically important potyviruses infecting cucurbit crops worldwide. Using a candidate gene approach, we cloned and sequenced an eIF4E gene in the ZYMV-resistant PI 595203 (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) and the ZYMV-susceptible watermelon c...

  9. Is Grafting Useful for Managing Root-Knot Nematodes in Watermelon?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five Citrullus lanatus var. citroides germplasm lines, four Lagenaria siceraria cultivars, one Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima hybrid, and one commercial wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus spp.) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for watermelon in a field infested with the southern root-knot nemat...

  10. Grafting for Management of Root-Knot Nematodes in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) germplasm lines, four bottlegourd (Lagenaria siceraria) cultivars, one squash (Cucurbita moschata x C. maxima) hybrid, and one commercial wild watermelon (C. lanatus spp.) cultivar were evaluated as rootstocks for watermelon in a field infested...

  11. ACC Synthase Genes are Polymorphic in Watermelon (Citrullus spp.) and Differentially Expressed in Flowers and in Response to Auxin and Gibberellin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The flowering pattern of watermelon species (Citrullus) is either monoecious or andromonoecious. In watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.), ethylene promotes male flower development while inhibitors of ethylene promote pistillate (pistil-bearing) flower formation. This is opposite to the feminizing effec...

  12. SPICED: Evaluation of a Drug Education Project in Kirklees Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosswaite, C.; Tooby, J.; Cyster, R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the process, implementation, and short-term outcomes of a drug education programme (SPICED) introduced in Kirklees schools, West Yorkshire. Design: A retrospective evaluation using mixed methods. Setting: Ten primary schools in West Yorkshire. Methods: Interviews with professionals, survey of parents, focus groups with…

  13. Identification of depression in women during pregnancy and the early postnatal period using the Whooley questions and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: protocol for the Born and Bred in Yorkshire: PeriNatal Depression Diagnostic Accuracy (BaBY PaNDA) study

    PubMed Central

    Littlewood, Elizabeth; Ali, Shehzad; Ansell, Pat; Dyson, Lisa; Gascoyne, Samantha; Hewitt, Catherine; Keding, Ada; Mann, Rachel; McMillan, Dean; Morgan, Deborah; Swan, Kelly; Waterhouse, Bev; Gilbody, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Perinatal depression is well recognised as a mental health condition but <50% of cases are identified by healthcare professionals in routine clinical practice. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is often used to detect symptoms of postnatal depression in maternity and child services. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends 2 ‘ultra-brief’ case-finding questions (the Whooley questions) to aid identification of depression during the perinatal period, but this recommendation was made in the absence of any validation studies in a perinatal population. Limited research exists on the acceptability of these depression case-finding instruments and the cost-effectiveness of routine screening for perinatal depression. Methods and analysis The diagnostic accuracy of the Whooley questions and the EPDS will be determined against a reference standard (the Client Interview Schedule—Revised) during pregnancy (around 20 weeks) and the early postnatal period (around 3–4 months post partum) in a sample of 379 women. Further outcome measures will assess a range of psychological comorbidities, health-related quality of life and resource utilisation. Women will be followed up 12 months postnatally. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the Whooley questions and the EPDS will be calculated against the reference standard at 20 weeks pregnancy and 3–4 months post partum. Acceptability of the depression case-finding instruments to women and healthcare professionals will involve in-depth qualitative interviews. An existing decision analytic model will be adapted to determine the cost-effectiveness of routine screening for perinatal depression. Ethics and dissemination This study is considered low risk for participants. Robust protocols will deal with cases where risk of depression, self-harm or suicide is identified. The protocol received favourable ethical opinion from the North East—York Research Ethics Committee (reference: 11/NE/0022). The study findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at relevant conferences. PMID:27297012

  14. Cucurbits [Cucumber, melon, pumpkin and squash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The focus of this chapter is on the edible members of the Cucurbitaceae family. The three important food-grade cucurbit genera Citrullus, Cucumis, and Cucurbita include the species Citrullus lanatus watermelons), Cucumis melo (cantaloupes and other sweet melons), Cucumis sativa (cucumbers and pick...

  15. Observations on anatomical aspects of the fruit, leaf and stem tissues of four Citrullus spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Morphological characteristics of the fruit, stem and leaf tissues of four species of Citrullus (L.) Schrad. were examined using standard histological methods. Plant materials included the cultivated watermelon (C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) and three of its related species; C. colocynthis (...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-26 - Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Cantaloupe and watermelon from Ecuador. Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (fruit) (Citrullus lanatus... for the South American cucurbit fly (Anastrepha grandis) has been conducted for at least the previous... and all other applicable requirements of this subpart: (1) The fruit may be imported in...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-26 - Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Cantaloupe and watermelon from Ecuador. Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (fruit) (Citrullus lanatus... for the South American cucurbit fly (Anastrepha grandis) has been conducted for at least the previous... and all other applicable requirements of this subpart: (1) The fruit may be imported in...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-26 - Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Cantaloupe and watermelon from Ecuador. Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (fruit) (Citrullus lanatus... for the South American cucurbit fly (Anastrepha grandis) has been conducted for at least the previous... and all other applicable requirements of this subpart: (1) The fruit may be imported in...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-26 - Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Cantaloupe and watermelon from Ecuador. Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (fruit) (Citrullus lanatus... for the South American cucurbit fly (Anastrepha grandis) has been conducted for at least the previous... and all other applicable requirements of this subpart: (1) The fruit may be imported in...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-26 - Melon and watermelon from certain countries in South America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Cantaloupe and watermelon from Ecuador. Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (fruit) (Citrullus lanatus... for the South American cucurbit fly (Anastrepha grandis) has been conducted for at least the previous... and all other applicable requirements of this subpart: (1) The fruit may be imported in...

  1. Year two: Effects of grafting on watermelon yield and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the second year of research on the effects of grafting watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) onto rootstocks of squash and gourd. The study was conducted at Lane, Okla., in both 2004 and 2005. This report deals with the results from 2005. Treatments consisted of watermelon cultivars SF 800, SS 5...

  2. Evaluation of watermelon and related species for resistance to race 1W powdery mildew resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Race 1 and race 2 powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) has been reported on watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) in the United States for six years. In this study, the entire available U.S. Plant Introduction collection of Citrullus sp. was evaluated for resistance to P. xanthii r...

  3. Identification and translocation of metabolites from powdery mildew resistant rootstocks to susceptible watermelon scions using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), an important commercial crop, and nutritious fruit, is high in antioxidants, vitamins, and lycopene. Powdery mildew (PM) is a serious disease caused by Podosphaera xanthii, which significantly reduces watermelon production in the U.S. and other parts of the world. C...

  4. Use of external indicators to predict maturity of mini-watermelon fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Personal-size watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.)], cultivars Valdoria and Vanessa were evaluated at 20, 30, 40 or 50 days after anthesis to determine a means of determining maturity at harvest. Fruit circumference, weight, ground-spot color, and number of senescent tendrils were measured for ea...

  5. RESISTANCE OF WATERMELON (CITRULLUS SPP.) GERMPLASM TO THE PEANUT ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE (MELOIDOGYNE ARENARIA RACE 1)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica) are serious pests of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in the southern U.S. and world-wide. Currently, root-knot nematodes (RKN) are controlled in watermelon by pre-plant soil fumigation with methyl bromide or other nematicides....

  6. Root-knot nematode resistant rootstocks for grafted watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rootstock lines of wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) with resistance to root-knot nematodes (RKN) were developed by our team at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory. Rootstock lines RKVL 301, RKVL 316, and RKVL 318 (RKVL = Root Knot Vegetable Laboratory) were compared to wild tinda (Praec...

  7. Evaluation of several seed treatments for eradication of Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli from watermelon seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), is a serious seedborne pathogen. To determine the effectiveness of several seed treatments for eradication of Aac from seed, healthy triploid watermelon seedlots were spiked with n...

  8. The influence of rootstock selection on fruit quality attributes of watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grafting watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) to control Fusarium wilt has been practiced in Europe, the Middle East, and the Far East for decades. Until recently, grafting watermelon has not been practiced in the United States due to labor costs and land availability. There is some disagreement in the ...

  9. First report of Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum Race 2 in Georgia watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is the number one specialty crop grown in Georgia, a state that ranks fourth nationally in watermelon production. In the last five years, Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), has been the greatest yield-limiting dise...

  10. POST weed control using halosulfuron in direct-seeded watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is needed in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production to avoid losses in crop yield and marketability that result from weed interference. Not only does weed control provide direct benefits to crop yields, but uncontrolled weeds hamper the management of insect and disease pests and redu...

  11. Evaluation of Fungicides for Control of Phytophthora Blight of Watermelon in North Carolina and South Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora blight, caused by Phytophthora capsici, is an important disease of cucurbits in the eastern U.S. Fungicides, crop rotation, and water management are recommended to control the disease. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) poses a particularly difficult challenge to disease control because o...

  12. Potential Sources of Resistance in Watermelon Plant Introductions (PI) to Watermelon Vine Decline in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) also known as mature watermelon vine decline has been a major limiting factor in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production in southwest and west central Florida for the past several years. Symptoms of WVD typically occur at harvest time or one to two weeks prior to har...

  13. Identifying resistance to powdery mildew race 2W in the USDA-ARS watermelon germplasm collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii has become a common disease of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] in the United States. The disease can be controlled with fungicides. However, it is more economical and environmentally safe to use genetic resistance against this di...

  14. Watermelon quality traits as affected by ploidy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growers offering high quality watermelons [Citrullus lanatus (Thumb.), Matsum & Nakai] that are also high in phytonutrients will have stronger market opportunities. In order to offer highly nutritious fruit, the industry must understand the nature of phytonutrient accumulation as it is affected by ...

  15. A survey of bee species found pollinating watermelons in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using a combination of flower traps and visual observations, we surveyed three watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] fields in the Lower Rio Grande Valley to determine what bees inhabit this crop in this region. No managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) hives were in any of the fie...

  16. Evaluation of Commercial Watermelon Rootstocks for Tolerance to Phytophthora Blight and Watermelon Vine Decline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora blight and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici, and watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), are two important and emerging diseases of watermelons (Citrullus lanatus). Recently, the practice of grafting seedless watermelons (triploids) onto roo...

  17. Host resistance to phytophthora fruit rot in U.S. watermelon plant introductions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora capsici, distributed worldwide, is an aggressive pathogen with a broad host range, infecting solanaceous, leguminaceous, and cucurbitaceous crops. Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) caused by P. capsici was first reported in the U.S. in 1940. Since then, the dise...

  18. Development of Phytophthora fruit rot resistant watermelon germplasm lines: USVL489-PFR, USVL782-PFR, USVL203-PFR and USVL020-PFR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora capsici, distributed worldwide, is an aggressive pathogen with a broad host range, infecting solanaceous, leguminaceous, and cucurbitaceous crops. Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) caused by Phytophthora capsici was first reported in the U.S. in 1940. Since then...

  19. Effects of Silver Plastic Mulch and Chemical Treatments on Development of Whitefly-Transmitted Viral Watermelon Vine Decline in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) in Florida is caused by the whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) transmitted virus called Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV, family: Potyviridae). WVD has been a major limiting factor in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production in south west and west central Florida for the pas...

  20. Effect of SqVYV-resistant pollenizers on development and spread of watermelon vine decline in seedless watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) has been a major limiting factor in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production in south Florida for the past several years. The disease causes sudden decline of the vines and affects the internal fru...

  1. RIPENING CHANGES IN MINI WATERMELON FRUIT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, seedless and seeded mini watermelons (Citrullus lanatus) of ripe, underripe, and overripe stages were evaluated for quality characteristics and changes in carotenoids and pectins. Similar to seeded, large watermelon, minimelon weight, pH, and soluble solids content increased in frui...

  2. CHANGES IN CAROTENOID CONTENT DURING PROCESSING OF WATERMELON FOR JUICE CONCENTRATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelons (Citrullus lanatus) are used primarily as a fresh product in the U.S. There is interest in developing value added products for additional markets and for use of cosmetically damaged fruit. In this study, watermelons were processed into juice concentrates, using a series of heat and tre...

  3. Outbreak of powdery mildew on watermelon fruit caused by podosphera xanthii in southwest Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew caused by the obligate parasite Podosphera xanthii occurs commonly on foliage, petioles and stems of most cucurbit vegetable crops grown in the U.S. (1). However, in the field, fruit infection on cucurbits including watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), is rarely, if ever, observed. Consequ...

  4. L-citrulline levels in watermelon cultigens tested in two environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Melon producers face increasing production costs and international market competition. Maximizing marketability of high quality watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai], that also contain high levels of the amino acid phytonutrient L-citrulline, can provide new market niches for th...

  5. Long-term survival and seed transmission of Acidovorax avenae ssp. citrulli in melon and watermelon seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed transmission of Acidovorax avenae ssp. citrulli (Aac) is a key factor in the dissemination of bacterial fruit blotch of cucurbits. In this study, we report seed transmission of Aac from 34-year-old watermelon seed (Citrullus lanatus) and from 40-year-old melon seed (Cucumis melo). The seed lo...

  6. Resistance in watermelon rootstocks to crown rot caused by Phytophthora capsici

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora crown and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is becoming an important and emerging disease of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in south eastern United States. In recent years, the practice of grafting seedless watermelons (triploids) onto rootstocks belonging to other Cucurbitaceae...

  7. The FonSIX6 gene acts as an avirulence effector in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum - watermelon pathosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are three generally accepted Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon) physiological races (0, 1, and 2) that infect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Among them, race 1 is the most prevalent on watermelon throughout the world, while race 2 is highly aggressive to all commercial watermelon cultivar...

  8. The Use of Latent Class Analysis to Estimate the Sensitivities and Specificities of Diagnostic Tests for Squash vein yellowing virus in Cucurbit Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is the causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline, one of the most serious diseases in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) production in the southeastern United States. Current diagnostic methods for identification of SqVYV-infected plants or tissues are based on...

  9. Race 3, a new and highly virulent race of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum causing Fusarium wilt in watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three races (0, 1, and 2) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum have been previously described in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) based on their ability to cause disease on differential watermelon genotypes. Four isolates of F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum collected from wilted watermelon plants or infeste...

  10. Determining Tolerance in Commercial Watermelon Rootstocks to Crown Rot caused by Phytophthora Capsici using Real-Time PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora crown and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is becoming an important and emerging disease of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in southeastern United States. Various rootstocks have been used for grafting watermelon in Asia and Europe to manage soil-borne diseases such as Fusarium ...

  11. Effect of Cultural Practices and Fungicides on Phytophthora Fruit Rot of Watermelon in the Carolinas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora fruit rot, caused by Phytophthora capsici, is an important and emerging disease of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in the Southeastern U.S. To develop strategies to manage Phytophthora fruit rot, we evaluated the effects of two cultural practices (raised bare ground and plastic mulched ...

  12. Melon Quality: What Consumers Like

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet melons (Cucumis melo L. plus Citrullus lanatus L.) are the most popular fresh fruit, based on per capita consumption, in the U.S.A. Cucumis melo (muskmelons or rockmelons) are the only fruits in the U.S.A. to have a 2.3 fold increase in consumer demand over the past 35 years. Preference attr...

  13. Tolerance of select watermelon plant introductions (PI) to watermelon vine decline in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD), also known as mature watermelon vine decline, has been a major limiting factor to watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production in southwest and west central Florida for the past several years. Symptoms of WVD typically occur at harvest time or one to two weeks prior to h...

  14. Progress in the Development of Crimson Sweet-type Watermelon Breeding Lines with Resistance to Acidovorax Avenae Subsp. Citrulli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial fruit blotch (Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli [Schaad et al.] Willems et al.) continues to occur almost every year and has the potential to cause a disaster for the watermelon industry. In this study, Crimson Sweet watermelon was crossed with PI482279 and PI494817, two Citrullus lanatus...

  15. Evaluation of Commercial Watermelon Rootstocks for Tolerance to Phytophthora Blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora blight and fruit rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is becoming an important and emerging disease of watermelons (Citrullus lanatus). The disease mainly occurs in low lying areas of the fields where water logged conditions may be present. In recent years, the practice of grafting seed...

  16. Fusarium wilt in seedless watermelons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai], caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (E.F. Sm.) Snyd. & Hans., was first reported in the United States in 1894. Historically, Fusarium wilt has been the greatest yield-limiting disease of watermelon worldwide. The stat...

  17. USVL-370, A zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistant watermelon breeding line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the development of a novel watermelon line ‘USVL-370’ [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] containing resistance to the zucchini yellow mosaic virus-Florida strain (ZYMV-FL). This breeding line is homozygous for the recessive eukaryotic elongation factor eIF4E allele associated wit...

  18. Management of Whitefly-Transmitted Viral Watermelon Vine Decline in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV, family: Potyviridae) has been a major limiting factor in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production in southwest and west-central Florida for the past several years. Symptoms of WVD typically manifes...

  19. Rapid method for total carotenoid detection in canary yellow-fleshed watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lycopene is the predominant carotenoid in red watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai) and pro-lycopene is the predominant carotenoid in most orange watermelon. However, yellow watermelons contain many different carotenoids, all in low to trace amounts. Since carotenoids have anti...

  20. Variation in carotenoids among mini watermelons produced in four locations in the Eastern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighteen miniwatermelon (Citrullus lanatus) cultivars or lines (cultigens), all representing mini size (less than 4 kg), were grown in South and North Florida, South Carolina, and North Carolina. The watermelon was produced at each location using plasticulture (black plastic mulch and drip irrigati...

  1. Effect of reflective mulch and insecticidal treatments on development of watermelon vine decline caused by squash vein yellowing virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vine decline (WVD) caused by the whitefly transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) has been a major limiting factor in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production in southwest and west-central Florida for the past several years. Symptoms of WVD typically manifest as sudden decline of vines one...

  2. Recombinant yeast as a functional tool for understanding bitterness and cucurbitacin biosynthesis in watermelon (Citrullus spp.).

    PubMed

    Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Shalev, Lior; Baranes, Nadine; Meir, Ayala; Itkin, Maxim; Cohen, Shahar; Zimbler, Kobi; Portnoy, Vitaly; Ebizuka, Yutaka; Shibuya, Masaaki; Burger, Yosef; Katzir, Nurit; Schaffer, Arthur A; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Tadmor, Ya'akov

    2015-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are a group of bitter-tasting oxygenated tetracyclic triterpenes that are produced in the family Cucurbitaceae and other plant families. The natural roles of cucurbitacins in plants are probably related to defence against pathogens and pests. Cucurbitadienol, a triterpene synthesized from oxidosqualene, is the first committed precursor to cucurbitacins produced by a specialized oxidosqualene cyclase termed cucurbitadienol synthase. We explored cucurbitacin accumulation in watermelon in relation to bitterness. Our findings show that cucurbitacins are accumulated in bitter-tasting watermelon, Citrullus lanatus var. citroides, as well as in their wild ancestor, C. colocynthis, but not in non-bitter commercial cultivars of sweet watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus). Molecular analysis of genes expressed in the roots of several watermelon accessions led to the isolation of three sequences (CcCDS1, CcCDS2 and ClCDS1), all displaying high similarity to the pumpkin CpCPQ, encoding a protein previously shown to possess cucurbitadienol synthase activity. We utilized the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY4743, heterozygous for lanosterol synthase, to probe for possible encoded cucurbitadienol synthase activity of the expressed watermelon sequences. Functional expression of the two sequences isolated from C. colocynthis (CcCDS1 and CcCDS2) in yeast revealed that only CcCDS2 possessed cucurbitadienol synthase activity, while CcCDS1 did not display cucurbitadienol synthase activity in recombinant yeast. ClCDS1 isolated from C. lanatus var. lanatus is almost identical to CcCDS1. Our results imply that CcCDS2 plays a role in imparting bitterness to watermelon. Yeast has been an excellent diagnostic tool to determine the first committed step of cucurbitacin biosynthesis in watermelon. PMID:25308777

  3. Inheritance of egusi seed type in watermelon.

    PubMed

    Gusmini, G; Wehner, T C; Jarret, R L

    2004-01-01

    An unusual seed mutant in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) has seeds with a fleshy pericarp, commonly called egusi seeds. The origin of the phenotype is unknown, but it is widely cultivated in Nigeria for the high protein and carbohydrate content of the edible seeds. Egusi seeds have a thick, fleshy pericarp that appears during the second to third week of fruit development. We studied the inheritance of this phenotype in crosses of normal seeded Charleston Gray and Calhoun Gray with two plant introduction accessions, PI 490383w and PI 560006, having the egusi seed type. We found that the egusi seed type is controlled by a single recessive gene, and the symbol eg was assigned. PMID:15220396

  4. Mapping noise pollution from road traffic for regional environmental planning

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, D.J.; France, J.

    1982-03-01

    Attempts were made to assess and map noise pollution from traffic for 1 km grid squares throughout South Yorkshire. The method adopted involved estimating traffic noise at source for all major road sections and modeling the attenuation of noise with distance by use of a variety of relationships developed by road traffic engineers. Results of the analysis were plotted by computer. This paper outlines the methods used in the analysis, presents the data and discusses the results. It is concluded that the method provides a realistic picture of noise pollution in South Yorkshire, and might be used more widely as an instrument of regional survey.

  5. A High Resolution Genetic Map Anchoring Scaffolds of the Sequenced Watermelon Genome

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Qinghe; Jiang, Jiao; Guo, Shaogui; Zhang, Haiying; Hou, Wenju; Zou, Xiaohua; Sun, Honghe; Gong, Guoyi; Levi, Amnon; Xu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    As part of our ongoing efforts to sequence and map the watermelon (Citrullus spp.) genome, we have constructed a high density genetic linkage map. The map positioned 234 watermelon genome sequence scaffolds (an average size of 1.41 Mb) that cover about 330 Mb and account for 93.5% of the 353 Mb of the assembled genomic sequences of the elite Chinese watermelon line 97103 (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus). The genetic map was constructed using an F8 population of 103 recombinant inbred lines (RILs). The RILs are derived from a cross between the line 97103 and the United States Plant Introduction (PI) 296341-FR (C. lanatus var. citroides) that contains resistance to fusarium wilt (races 0, 1, and 2). The genetic map consists of eleven linkage groups that include 698 simple sequence repeat (SSR), 219 insertion-deletion (InDel) and 36 structure variation (SV) markers and spans ∼800 cM with a mean marker interval of 0.8 cM. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 11 BACs that produced chromosome-specifc signals, we have depicted watermelon chromosomes that correspond to the eleven linkage groups constructed in this study. The high resolution genetic map developed here should be a useful platform for the assembly of the watermelon genome, for the development of sequence-based markers used in breeding programs, and for the identification of genes associated with important agricultural traits. PMID:22247776

  6. Commercial Activities in Primary Schools: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raine, Gary

    2007-01-01

    The commercialisation of schools is a controversial issue, but very little is known about the actual situation in UK schools. The aim of this study was to investigate, with particular reference to health education and health promotion, commercial activities and their regulation in primary schools in the Yorkshire and Humber region of the UK. A…

  7. Life on Our Shore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Graham; Grassam, Matthew; Scott, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    St. Martin's Church of England Primary School in Scarborough, North Yorkshire, enjoys a unique location, being approximately 10 minutes walk from a rocky shore and a similar distance from the University of Hull (Scarborough Campus) and its Centre for Environmental and Marine Sciences. A grant provided by the Royal Society (under their Education…

  8. The adult Göttingen minipig as a model for chronic heart failure after myocardial infarction: focus on cardiovascular imaging and regenerative therapies.

    PubMed

    Schuleri, Karl H; Boyle, Andrew J; Centola, Marco; Amado, Luciano C; Evers, Robert; Zimmet, Jeffrey M; Evers, Kristine S; Ostbye, Katherine M; Scorpio, Diana G; Hare, Joshua M; Lardo, Albert C

    2008-12-01

    Porcine models have become increasingly popular in cardiovascular research. The standard farm pig rapidly increases in body weight and size, potentially confounding serial measurements of cardiac function and morphology. We developed an adult porcine model that does not show physiologic increases in heart mass during the study period and is suitable for long-term study. We compared adult minipigs with the commonly used adolescent Yorkshire swine. Myocardial infarction was induced in adult Göttingen minipigs and adolescent Yorkshire swine by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery followed by reperfusion. At 8 wk after infarction, the left ventricular ejection fraction was 34.1 +/- 2.3% in minipigs and 30.7 +/- 2.0% in Yorkshire swine. The left ventricular end-diastolic mass in Yorkshire pigs assessed by magnetic resonance imaging increased 17 +/- 5 g, from 42.6 +/- 4.3 g at week 1 after infarction to 52.8 +/- 6.6 g at week 8, whereas it remained unchanged in minipigs. Cardiac anatomy and physiology in adult minipigs were evaluated invasively by angiography and noninvasively by Multidetector Computed Tomography and by Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 1.5 T and 3 T prior to myocardial infarction and during folow-up. This porcine heart failure model is reproducible, mimics the pathophysiology in patients who have experienced myocardial infarction, and is suitable for imaging studies. New heart failure therapies and devices can be tested preclinically in this adult animal model of chronic heart failure. PMID:19149414

  9. Creative Minds at "Eureka!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barraclough, Helen; Bracey, Becky

    2005-01-01

    "Eureka!" is an interactive museum for children situated in Halifax, West Yorkshire, which opened in 1992. It has over 400 hands-on exhibits in four gallery spaces: (1) "SoundSpace"; (2) "Living and working together"; (3) "Our global garden"; and (4) "Me and my body". It aims to inspire children about themselves and the world around them through…

  10. Professionalism: Doing a Good Job!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feather, Denis

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the concept of professionalism via perceptions (real or imagined) of lecturers delivering higher education business programmes (HEBPs) in further education colleges in England. The study comprised 26 in-depth interviews conducted in the Yorkshire and Humber region in the UK. The study builds on Perkin's views of a…

  11. Approaches to Teaching Plant Nutrition. Children's Learning in Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeds Univ. (England). Centre for Studies in Science and Mathematics Education.

    During the period 1984-1986, over 30 teachers from the Yorkshire (England) region have worked in collaboration with the Children's Learning in Science Project (CLIS) developing and testing teaching schemes in the areas of energy, particle theory, and plant nutrition. The project is based upon the constructivist approach to teaching. This document…

  12. Ode to Moore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbert, Nancy Corrigan

    2011-01-01

    Best known for his monumental abstract sculptures of reclining figures, Henry Moore's forms are generally pierced or have a hollow space within them. Some say that these "organic undulating forms" are reminiscent of the landscape of his home in Yorkshire, England. Moore was a giant in the world of sculpture and his large cast bronzes and marble…

  13. Developing Young Investigators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Liz; Woodbridge, Jenny; Pearson, Sue

    2003-01-01

    The Early Excellence centre was established in 1999 to undertake early years curriculum development in the North West, Yorkshire and Humberside regions. As part of development work, small research projects are commissioned in early years settings. This article describes how the authors worked with Wingate Community Nursery School. The work was…

  14. The association between polymorphism of PKM2 gene and glycolytic potential and pork meat quality.

    PubMed

    Sieczkowska, H; Koćwin-Podsiadła, M; Zybert, A; Krzecio, E; Antosik, K; Kamiński, S; Wójcik, E

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of PKM2 gene with glycolytic potential and meat quality traits in three groups of fatteners - Landrace, Landrace x Yorkshire and (Landrace x Yorkshire) x Duroc. The present study was conducted on 243 fatteners, free of RYR1(T) gene, which 95 were of Landrace breed and the rest were the following crosses: 66 - Landrace x Yorkshire and 82 (Landrace x Yorkshire) x Duroc. It has been stated, that PKM2 gene (independently from the breed) was significantly associated with GP, lactate content, R(1) indicator, pH and drip loss. The presence of TT genotype may lead to increase of GP and lactate content and results in low pH(24) and pH(144) and bigger drip loss measured 96 and 144 h after the slaughter. Except for the landrace fatteners, the association of the PKM2 gene with the glycogen content has not been statistically confirmed. Statistically confirmed interaction shows, that the association of PKM2 gene with glycolytic potential and glycogen content concerns mainly the Landrace pigs. Moreover, a high (almost 89%) conformability of the genotype of PKM2 gene with the RN(-) phenotype, can serve as an additional argument in favour of the thesis. PMID:20374772

  15. Forest School in an Inner City? Making the Impossible Possible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Forest School approach to Early Years education, originally developed in Scandinavia, is influencing learning outside the classroom in England. An inner city primary school in Yorkshire investigated the nature and purpose of Forest Schools in Denmark, through a study visit, prior to developing their own Forest School in the midst of an urban…

  16. Careers Using Languages: How to Set up a Conference for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Since 2011, York St John University (YSJU) has run an annual one-day "Careers using Languages" conference for schools in Yorkshire and Humberside. It has the aim of demonstrating to school students the opportunities in life that speaking a foreign language opens up as well as showing how they will be able to offer an added bonus to their…

  17. Education, Training and Rural Living: Young People in Ryedale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Roger

    2005-01-01

    Purpose ? To evaluate the impact of rural renaissance projects aimed at overcoming issues of accessibility and out-migration of the younger, more economically active population and to consider what young people feel about education, training and rural living in Ryedale, North Yorkshire. Design/methodology/approach ? Twenty Single Regeneration…

  18. Sudden cardiac death associated with occult hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a dog under anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract A 6-year-old, 3.0 kg, neutered female, Yorkshire terrier was referred for orthopedic surgery. Cardiac arrest followed unsuccessful treatment of bradycardia and systemic arterial hypotension under general anesthesia. Postmortem examination revealed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. A possible relationship between treatment of bradycardia, systemic arterial hypotension, and sudden cardiac death is described. PMID:16422064

  19. Reading Research on Core Values, Christian Ethos and School Transformation at England's Most Improved Academy: A Reply to Bragg, Allington, Simmons and Jones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the author's reply to the comments of Bragg, Allington, Simmons and Jones to his article "Transaction and transformation at Trinity" (Pike, 2010) wherein he reported a case study of Trinity Academy, which serves a former mining community and social priority area near Doncaster in South Yorkshire. In 2008, just before the…

  20. Spontaneous Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Some of the best learning experiences can arise incidentally and unexpectedly from an event or good idea. This happened at the author's school, Laycock Primary in West Yorkshire, in April and May 2010. Children and staff returned from the Easter holidays to discover that a pair of blue tits had built their nest in a bird box on a wall in the…

  1. NK cells are intrinsically functional in pigs with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) caused by spontaneous mutations in the Artemis gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have identified Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) in a line of Yorkshire pigs at Iowa State University. These SCID pigs lack B-cells and T-cells, but possess Natural Killer (NK) cells. This SCID phenotype is caused by recessive mutations in the Artemis gene. Interestingly, two human tumor c...

  2. Graduating into Start-up: Exploring the Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabi, Ghulam; Holden, Rick; Walmsley, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of the exploratory research discussed in this paper was to generate insights into the complexity of the career-making processes involved in the transition from being a student to starting up a business. Using story-telling interviews, data were collected from fifteen graduates based in the Yorkshire region of the UK. Qualitative…

  3. Evaluating the Prince's Trust's Young People's Business Start-Up Programme, 1994?1999: Reflections and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutsoukos, Stratis; Shutt, John; Sutherland, John

    2005-01-01

    The authors were the principals in the evaluation of the Prince's Trust's Young People's Business Start-up Programme, 1994?1999, as it operated nationally in the UK and in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England. In this paper they report the methodologies used in the evaluation and the key findings. They then use their reflections on both…

  4. Application of carvedilol in a dog with pseudoephedrine toxicosis-induced tachycardia

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Hee; Park, Hee-Myung

    2012-01-01

    A 15-year-old Yorkshire terrier dog was presented after ingesting 1 capsule of an over-the-counter cold medication containing pseudoephedrine (120 mg/capsule) and cetirizine (5 mg/capsule). Treatment was initiated with acepromazine and carvedilol. The dog responded well to treatment. This is the first known case report using carvedilol to control pseudoephedrine toxicosis. PMID:23277647

  5. Power increase at first ProCure21 project.

    PubMed

    2007-06-01

    Throughout the UK, hospitals are embarking on new-build programmes to meet the needs of growing communities. However, site acreage and accommodation are often already under pressure, as Dale Power Solutions found when it was commissioned to increase standby power availability at the Friarage Hospital in Northallerton, North Yorkshire. PMID:17724955

  6. "Strong in Their Minds": Young People's Poems across an Ocean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searle, Chris

    2009-01-01

    This article stresses the quality of universality within young people's poetry. The writer uses the poetry mainly written by children of Pakistani origin living in Pitsmoor and Fir Vale in north-east Sheffield, Yorkshire, England, as a stimulus for the creative writing of children of the Mohawk nation in the reservation school of Tyendinaga…

  7. Adult Education for Industrial Workers; The Contribution of Sheffield University Extramural Department.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Michael Barratt

    Focusing on efforts to devise recruitment and teaching methods relevant to British industrial workers, an account is given of the day release time courses provided by the Sheffield University Extramural Department in association with trade unions and management among miners, steelworkers, and technologists in South Derbyshire, South Yorkshire, and…

  8. Exploring the "Dragon's Graveyard"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    Most schools visit Magna Science Adventure Centre on the back of careful planning and preparation. Magna is a fairly unique environment. "Steelos", the local name for the former Templeborough steelworks in Rotherham, West Yorkshire, was a vast plant. It became home to Magna in 2001. The building is over half a kilometre long and 45 metres high.…

  9. Sacred Cows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollerton, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Over the past three years this author has spent a good deal of time in primary classrooms, working with teachers on problem solving approaches to the teaching and learning of mathematics. He has also worked part-time on an initial teacher training course and an NCETM/Yorkshire Forward funded project entitled "Inspiring Mathematics Champions". Thus…

  10. Quality Comparison of Pork Loin and Belly from Three-way Crossbred Pigs during Postmortem Storage

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Dong-Gyun; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the meat quality characteristics of pork loin and belly from 3 different three-way crossbred pigs: Yorkshire × Landrace × Duroc (YLD), Yorkshire × Chester White × Yorkshire (YCY), and Yorkshire × Berkshire × Duroc (YBD). Each of the twenty crossed pigs were randomly selected with their live weights at the range of 110-120 kg. After being slaughtered and cooled at 0℃ for 24 h in a chilling room, the parts of loin and belly on the left side of the cooled carcasses were cut and prepared for analysis. The intramuscular fat contents of the loins from YLD were higher than those of the other crossbreds (p<0.05), and the YCY bellies had the highest moisture contents (p<0.05). Water holding capacity (WHC) of the loins from YCY were higher than the other crossbreds (p<0.05). Shear force values of the YBD loins were higher than the others (p<0.05). The TBARS values of YCY loins were significantly lower than the others at 0 d, but the difference disappeared after 14 d of storage. Sensory scores of YLD were ranked higher than the YCY or YBD in both the loins and bellies (p<0.05). The relatively high sensory values of YLD crossbred pork could be explained by the better WHC, the low shear forces, and the higher fat contents. The results indicated that the meat qualities could be altered by three-way crossbreeding. PMID:26760937

  11. Genetic analysis of behavior traits in swine production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimates of genetic parameters related to pig behavior under stressful situations are required before selection programs can be designed to produce more docile pigs. Pig behavior was evaluated in a pedigreed Landrace-Duroc-Yorkshire composite population. Piglets were evaluated for their response to...

  12. Connectedness: Developing a Shared Construction of Affect and Cognition in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherratt, Dave; Donald, Gill

    2004-01-01

    Dave Sherratt and Gill Donald teach children with autism at Mowbray School, North Yorkshire. Dave Sherratt also teaches at the University of Birmingham and is honorary research fellow at the University College of York St John. Gill Donald is also a specialist speech and language therapist for Hambleton and Richmondshire Primary Care Trust. In this…

  13. Toll Bar on Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Dave

    2008-01-01

    In the summer of 2007 the United Kingdom experienced some of the heaviest rainfall since records began. Toll Bar in South Yorkshire featured prominently in media coverage as the village and the homes surrounding it began to flood. Many people lost everything: their homes, their furniture, their possessions. In an effort to come to terms with what…

  14. Harrison, John (1693-1776)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Clockmaker, born in Foulby, West Yorkshire, England. In 1713 the British Government offered a valuable prize for the invention of a method to determine longitude accurately. Harrison developed a series of clocks through wooden models, and in 1726 invented the bimetallic pendulum that compensated for thermal expansion due to the variations of climate expected on long sea voyages, as well as seve...

  15. Briggs, Henry (1561-1630)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mathematician, born in Worley Wood, Yorkshire, England. Professor at Cambridge, London (Gresham College) and Oxford. By pointing out how much more useful logarithms would be if (unlike JOHN NAPIER's original invention) they were to base 10, he was responsible for improving astronomers' ability to calculate. Published mathematical tables (logarithms, sines, tangents, secants) as an aid to such ca...

  16. Brain Biology and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, John

    2010-01-01

    Feedback from teachers during in-service courses shows that they are fascinated by neuroscience, as they feel that it has the potential to improve their teaching practice. There were two main outcomes from a small-scale action research project with primary and secondary science advanced skills teachers (AST) in North Yorkshire. The first is that…

  17. Graduate Entrepreneurs: Intentions, Barriers and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kelly; Beasley, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the factors that influenced seven graduates in the creative and digital industries to start their own businesses in Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK--an area with lack of employing establishments and locally registered businesses. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews…

  18. Cancer of the mouth in an isolated community--the results of treatment.

    PubMed

    Williams, R G

    1984-02-01

    A survey is presented of all known cases of cancer of the mouth in a population of nearly half a million in a relatively isolated part of Yorkshire, with the results of treatment of squamous carcinoma, adeno-carcinoma, lympho-sarcoma, malignant tumours of odontogenic origin and sarcomas. PMID:6546393

  19. Shake It All About! Using Earthquake Science to Enhance Geology and Physics Teaching in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Phillip; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    A three-year project aimed at embedding seismology into schools in northern England to support the teaching of the earth science strands in the National Curriculum for England and Wales is described. Seismometers were deployed in a range of high schools across the Yorkshire and Humberside region. Deployment was supported by a programme of staff…

  20. Improving genetic evaluation of litter size and piglet mortality for both genotyped and nongenotyped individuals using a single-step method.

    PubMed

    Guo, X; Christensen, O F; Ostersen, T; Wang, Y; Lund, M S; Su, G

    2015-02-01

    A single-step method allows genetic evaluation using information of phenotypes, pedigree, and markers from genotyped and nongenotyped individuals simultaneously. This paper compared genomic predictions obtained from a single-step BLUP (SSBLUP) method, a genomic BLUP (GBLUP) method, a selection index blending (SELIND) method, and a traditional pedigree-based method (BLUP) for total number of piglets born (TNB), litter size at d 5 after birth (LS5), and mortality rate before d 5 (Mort; including stillbirth) in Danish Landrace and Yorkshire pigs. Data sets of 778,095 litters from 309,362 Landrace sows and 472,001 litters from 190,760 Yorkshire sows were used for the analysis. There were 332,795 Landrace and 207,255 Yorkshire animals in the pedigree data, among which 3,445 Landrace pigs (1,366 boars and 2,079 sows) and 3,372 Yorkshire pigs (1,241 boars and 2,131 sows) were genotyped with the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. The results showed that the 3 methods with marker information (SSBLUP, GBLUP, and SELIND) produced more accurate predictions for genotyped animals than the pedigree-based method. For genotyped animals, the average of reliabilities for all traits in both breeds using traditional BLUP was 0.091, which increased to 0.171 w+hen using GBLUP and to 0.179 when using SELIND and further increased to 0.209 when using SSBLUP. Furthermore, the average reliability of EBV for nongenotyped animals was increased from 0.091 for traditional BLUP to 0.105 for the SSBLUP. The results indicate that the SSBLUP is a good approach to practical genomic prediction of litter size and piglet mortality in Danish Landrace and Yorkshire populations. PMID:25549983

  1. Chemical inhibitors of viviparous germination in the fruit of watermelon.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Nabeta, Kensuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2010-09-01

    It is well known that the seeds of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai] have a high potential to germinate when the fruit has ripened. When removed from the mature fruit, the seeds can germinate under appropriate conditions. However, it is unclear why they cannot germinate in the flesh of the fruit. Here, we show that cis-ABA and its β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (ABA-β-GE) accumulate in the flesh of the fruit at levels high enough to inhibit seed germination. This result indicates the existence of chemical factors that inhibit viviparous seed germination of watermelon. PMID:20630986

  2. Descriptive spatial analysis of scrapie-affected flocks in Great Britain between January 1993 and December 2002.

    PubMed

    Tongue, S C; Pfeiffer, D U; Wilesmith, J W

    2006-08-01

    The spatial distribution of sheep flocks in Great Britain with confirmed clinical scrapie between January 1993 and December 2002 inclusive was investigated by using kernel density estimation and a cluster scan test statistic. Six statistically significant clusters were identified: three were lower risk, and were centred on the north-western coast of Scotland, the north-western coast of Wales and the South Yorkshire/Pennine region; three were of higher risk, and were centred in the central south, North Yorkshire and north Cumbria. General knowledge and the results of previous epidemiological studies were used to generate biologically plausible hypotheses that might explain these findings. They included aspects of flock management and disease transmission, and factors associated with the identification of cases, including their detection, recognition and, in particular, reporting levels, as well as diagnosis and animal movements. PMID:16891423

  3. Respiratory symptoms in wool textile workers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Love, R.G.; Smith, T.; Jones, C.O.; Gurr, D.; Soutar, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    This epidemiological study was intended to investigate exposures to inspirable wool dust in selected wool textile mills, the patterns of respiratory symptoms reported by workers in the industry, and the relationships of symptoms to exposure to dust. Fifteen mills in West Yorkshire representing all stages of the woollen and worsted process, and production of carpet yarns, were included in the study, their size ranging from four to nearly four hundred employees.

  4. Chaplaincy placements will highlight role of patient spirituality.

    PubMed

    2014-11-27

    UNIVERSITY OF Hull nursing students are undertaking placements with chaplains to find out more about the importance of patient spirituality. Lead chaplain for Northern Lincolnshire and Goole NHS Foundation Trust, the Rev Charles Thody, is working with chaplains at Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust to provide placements and run lectures and tutorials. 'Spiritual care is a huge element of palliative and end of life care,' he said. PMID:25428299

  5. Cook, James (1728-79)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Sailor, born in Marton-in-Cleveland, Yorkshire, England. As a captain in the Royal Navy, conducted three voyages of exploration in the Pacific Ocean, the first inspired by EDMOND HALLEY's suggestion that the distance from the Sun to the Earth could be calculated by timing the transit of Venus across the face of the Sun. A better measurement would enable more accurate ephemeredes to be computed an...

  6. Mapping, expression and regulation of the TRα gene in porcine adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Cai, Z-W; Sheng, Y-F; Zhang, L-F; Wang, Y; Jiang, X-L; Lv, Z-Z; Xu, N-Y

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TR) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. There are at least two TR isoforms, TRα and TRβ. The TRα isoform plays a critical role in mediating the action of thyroid hormone in adipose tissue. We mapped the porcine TRα gene to chromosome 12 p11-p13, by using the ImpRH panel. We examined tissue-localization of TRα and determined expression patterns of TRα in porcine adipose tissue with quantitative real-time PCR. TRα was expressed in all tissues, including heart, liver, spleen, stomach, pancreas, brain, small intestine, skeletal muscle, and subcutaneous adipose tissue. In the adipose tissue, the expression of TRα decreased postnatally. Compared to Yorkshire pigs, Jinhua pigs had significantly lower expression levels of TRα gene in the subcutaneous fat tissue. The expression levels of β2-AR, HSL and ATGL were also significantly lower in Jinhua pigs than in Yorkshire pigs. However, no significant differences in PPARγ and SREBP-1C expression levels were found between Jinhua and Yorkshire pigs. Incubation of porcine adipose tissue explants with high doses of isoproterenol (100 and 1000 nM) significantly increased the expression levels of TRα. We conclude that there is considerable evidence that TRα plays an important role in fat deposition in porcine adipose tissue. PMID:21751158

  7. Establishment of the prediction table of parturition day with ultrasonography in small pet dogs.

    PubMed

    Son, C H; Jeong, K A; Kim, J H; Park, I C; Kim, S H; Lee, C S

    2001-07-01

    To establish a prediction table of parturition day the real-time B-mode ultrasonographic examinations were performed in the 8 pregnant Malteses and 10 Yorkshire terriers (total pups, 25 and 38 pups, respectively) from 18 days of gestation until the parturition. Ovulation was designated the first day of gestation (day 0). Extra fetal and fetal structures were measured from all conceptues. The parameters that exhibited the best correlation to parturition were used to compile a prediction table of parturition day. To testify the precision of the prediction table of parturition day, the 15 pregnant Malteses (48 pups) and 13 pregnant Yorkshire terriers (42 pups) with unknown mating time were examined using ultrasonography. Inner chorionic cavity diameter on days 18 to 37 and fetal head diameter on day 38 to parturition that showed the best correlation to gestational age were the most pertinent to the estimation of gestational age and the prediction of parturition day. The two parameters were used to compile a prediction table of parturition with averaged regression equations. In verificational examinations, with the exception of I Yorkshire terrier (3.6%) having 1 fetus, 18 of 28 bitches (64.3%) delivered exactly on the date predicted and 9 of 28 bitches (32.1%) delivered within I day of the date predicted. Therefore, the prediction table of parturition day seems to be a useful tool of the prediction of parturition day in practice. PMID:11503898

  8. High-Resolution Genetic Map for Understanding the Effect of Genome-Wide Recombination Rate on Nucleotide Diversity in Watermelon

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Umesh K.; Nimmakayala, Padma; Levi, Amnon; Abburi, Venkata Lakshmi; Saminathan, Thangasamy; Tomason, Yan. R.; Vajja, Gopinath; Reddy, Rishi; Abburi, Lavanya; Wehner, Todd C.; Ronin, Yefim; Karol, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    We used genotyping by sequencing to identify a set of 10,480 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for constructing a high-resolution genetic map of 1096 cM for watermelon. We assessed the genome-wide variation in recombination rate (GWRR) across the map and found an association between GWRR and genome-wide nucleotide diversity. Collinearity between the map and the genome-wide reference sequence for watermelon was studied to identify inconsistency and chromosome rearrangements. We assessed genome-wide nucleotide diversity, linkage disequilibrium (LD), and selective sweep for wild, semi-wild, and domesticated accessions of Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus to track signals of domestication. Principal component analysis combined with chromosome-wide phylogenetic study based on 1563 SNPs obtained after LD pruning with minor allele frequency of 0.05 resolved the differences between semi-wild and wild accessions as well as relationships among worldwide sweet watermelon. Population structure analysis revealed predominant ancestries for wild, semi-wild, and domesticated watermelons as well as admixture of various ancestries that were important for domestication. Sliding window analysis of Tajima’s D across various chromosomes was used to resolve selective sweep. LD decay was estimated for various chromosomes. We identified a strong selective sweep on chromosome 3 consisting of important genes that might have had a role in sweet watermelon domestication. PMID:25227227

  9. [Relationships of Aulacophora beetles feeding behavior with cucurbitacin types in host crops].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Kong, Chuihua; Liang, Wenju; Zhang, Maoxin; Hu, Fei

    2005-07-01

    Aulacophora fermoralis chinensis and Aulacophora cattigarensis are the two related Aulacophora beetles, but their host selectivity and feeding behavior are significantly different. A. fernzoralis chinensis usually feeds upon Cucumis sativus and Cucurbita moschata, but never upon Luffa acutangula, Momordica charantia and Citrullas lanatus. Its feeding behavior on hosts is to snip a circular trench on their leaves, and then, to feed the leaf tissues isolated by the trench. On the contrary, A. cattigarensis only feeds L. acutangula, and its trenching behavior rarely occurs. This study showed that the host selectivity and feeding behavior of the two beetles were significantly correlated with the types of cucurbitacin biosynthesized by host melon crops. C. sativus and C. moschata might be induced to produce cucurbitacin I by A. fermoralis chinensis feeding, and this compound was responsible for feeding deterrent on A. fermoralis chinensis. Therefore, the feeding behavior of A. fermoralis chinensis was to block the translocation of cucurbitacin I to feeding sites. M. charantia and C. lanatus contained deterrent cucurbitacin D, and thus, both beetles never fed upon them, while L. acutangula contained stimulants cucurbitacin B and E, and made A. cattigarensis directly feed upon it without trenching. The results suggested that the taste responses of insects on specific allelochemicals from plants may play an important role in host selectivity and feeding behavior. PMID:16252877

  10. Statistical genetics in traditionally cultivated crops.

    PubMed

    Artoisenet, Pierre; Minsart, Laure-Anne

    2014-11-01

    Traditional farming systems have attracted a lot of attention over the past decades as they have been recognized to supply an important component in the maintenance of the genetic diversity worldwide. A broad spectrum of traditionally managed crops has been studied to investigate how reproductive properties in combination with husbandry characteristics shape the genetic structure of the crops over time. However, traditional farms typically involve populations of small size whose genetic evolution is overwhelmed with statistic fluctuations inherent to the stochastic nature of the crossings. Hence there is generally no one-to-one mapping between crop properties and measured genotype data, and claims regarding crop properties on the basis of the observed genetic structure must be stated within a confidence level to be estimated by means of a dedicated statistical analysis. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive framework to carry out such statistical analyses. We illustrate the capabilities of our approach by applying it to crops of C. lanatus var. lanatus oleaginous type cultivated in Côte d׳Ivoire. While some properties such as the effective field size considerably evade the constraints from experimental data, others such as the mating system turn out to be characterized with a higher statistical significance. We discuss the importance of our approach for studies on traditionally cultivated crops in general. PMID:24992232

  11. Ethmolaimus riparius sp. n. and Paramononchus major sp. n. (Nematoda) from Lake Baikal, Russia.

    PubMed

    Gagarin, Vladimir G; Naumova, Tatyana V

    2016-01-01

    Two new nematode species found in Lake Baikal (Russia) are described and illustrated. Ethmolaimus riparius sp. n. is morphologically close to E. pilosus Shoshin, 1998 and E. lanatus Shoshin, 1998. The new species differs from E. pilosus by the longer and thinner body (L = 1228-1501 µm, a = 26-34 vs L = 720-1070 µm, a = 19-23), larger stoma (26-32 µm long vs 19-24 µm long), longer spicules and gubernaculum (45-50 µm long and 21-25 µm long vs accordingly 32-37 µm long and 8 µm long). E. riparius sp. n. differs from E. lanatus by the longer body (L = 1228-1501 µm vs L = 680-1180), shorter cephalic setae (its length is equal 1.1-1.4 labial region diameter vs 1.6-2.1 labial region diameter) and longer spicules and gubernaculum (45-50 µm long and 21-25 µm long vs accordingly 25-30 µm long and 7-8 µm long). Paramononchus major sp. n is close to P. orientalis Gagarin & Naumova, 2012, but differs from it by the longer body (L = 5926-7820 µm vs L = 3081-3778 µm), longer spicules (410-475 µm long vs 208-238 µm long) and larger number of precloacal supplements (52-61 vs 21-24). Keys for the identification of valid species of the genera Ethmolaimus and Paramononchus are given. PMID:27394603

  12. Qualitative inheritance of rind pattern and flesh color in watermelon.

    PubMed

    Gusmini, Gabriele; Wehner, Todd C

    2006-01-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] is a diverse species, with fruits of different sizes, shapes, rind patterns, and flesh colors. This study measured the inheritance of novel rind phenotypes and verified the genetics of white, red, salmon yellow, and canary yellow flesh colors. For each of the 11 crosses, six generations (P(a)S1, P(b)S1, F1, F2, BC1P(a), and BC1P(b)) were produced to form 11 families. Three new genes were identified and designated as follows: Scr for the scarlet red flesh color of Dixielee and Red-N-Sweet, Yb for the yellow belly (ground spot) of Black Diamond Yellow Belly, and ins for the intermittent stripes of Navajo Sweet. The inheritance of the C gene for the canary yellow flesh color was verified as single dominant, and a new inbred type line was developed possessing that gene. Aberrations in the segregation of red, white, and salmon yellow flesh colors were recorded, raising questions on the inheritance of these traits. Finally, the spotted phenotype from Moon and Stars was combined with light green and gray rind patterns for the development of novel cultivars with distinctive rind patterns. PMID:16489140

  13. A comparative study on the effect of conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwave and ultrasound treatments on the antioxidant activity of five fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Sangeeta; Mahnot, Nikhil Kumar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2016-06-01

    A comparative study on the effect of conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwave and ultrasound treatments on the phytochemical and antioxidant activities of juices from carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.), black jamun (Syzygium cumuni L.Skeels.), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var lanatus), pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr) and litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) was carried out. Depending on the type of fruit sample and treatment, increase or decrease in phytochemical values was observed. Overall, sonication had a positive effect on the total flavonoid content in all the juice samples followed by microwave treatment with exceptions in some cases. High-performance liquid chromatography study showed the presence of different phenolic acids depending on the sample type. The phenolic acids in some processed carambola juice samples showed decrease or complete destruction, while in some cases, an increase or appearance of newer phenolic acid originally not detected in the fresh juice was observed as seen in conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwaved at 600 W and sonicated juices. Both microwaved and sonicated samples were found to have positive effect on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity with exceptions in some cases. Therefore, microwave and sonication treatment could be used in place of thermal pasteurisation depending on the sample requirements. PMID:26190045

  14. Discovery of second gene for solid dark green versus light green rind pattern in watermelon.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Wehner, Todd C

    2011-01-01

    The watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus) has high variability for fruit size, shape, rind pattern, and flesh color. This study was designed to measure the qualitative inheritance of rind phenotypes (solid dark green vs. light green). For each of the 2 families, "Mountain Hoosier" × "Minilee" and "Early Arizona" × "Minilee," 6 generations (P(a)S(1), P(b)S(1), F(1), F(2), BC(1)P(a), BC(1)P(b)) were developed. Each family was tested in summer 2008 in 3 environments in North Carolina. Phenotypic data were analyzed with the χ(2) method to test the segregation of Mendelian genes. Deviations from the expected segregation ratios based on hypothesized single dominant gene for solid dark green versus light green rind pattern were recorded, raising questions on the inheritance of this trait. Inheritance of solid dark green rind versus light (gray) rind showed duplicate dominant epistasis. Duplicate dominant epistasis gives rise to a 15:1 ratio (solid dark green:light rind pattern) in F(2) generation. When both the loci are homozygous recessive, we observe light rind pattern. The g-1 and g-2 genes were identified to control light green rind when in homozygous recessive form. PMID:21566001

  15. Analysis of the Citrullus colocynthis Transcriptome during Water Deficit Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhuoyu; Hu, Hongtao; Goertzen, Leslie R.; McElroy, J. Scott; Dane, Fenny

    2014-01-01

    Citrullus colocynthis is a very drought tolerant species, closely related to watermelon (C. lanatus var. lanatus), an economically important cucurbit crop. Drought is a threat to plant growth and development, and the discovery of drought inducible genes with various functions is of great importance. We used high throughput mRNA Illumina sequencing technology and bioinformatic strategies to analyze the C. colocynthis leaf transcriptome under drought treatment. Leaf samples at four different time points (0, 24, 36, or 48 hours of withholding water) were used for RNA extraction and Illumina sequencing. qRT-PCR of several drought responsive genes was performed to confirm the accuracy of RNA sequencing. Leaf transcriptome analysis provided the first glimpse of the drought responsive transcriptome of this unique cucurbit species. A total of 5038 full-length cDNAs were detected, with 2545 genes showing significant changes during drought stress. Principle component analysis indicated that drought was the major contributing factor regulating transcriptome changes. Up regulation of many transcription factors, stress signaling factors, detoxification genes, and genes involved in phytohormone signaling and citrulline metabolism occurred under the water deficit conditions. The C. colocynthis transcriptome data highlight the activation of a large set of drought related genes in this species, thus providing a valuable resource for future functional analysis of candidate genes in defense of drought stress. PMID:25118696

  16. Evaluation of Watermelon Germplasm for Resistance to Phytophthora Blight Caused by Phytophthora capsici

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Jeong; Shim, Chang-Ki; Kim, Yong-Ki; Jee, Hyeong-Jin; Hong, Sung-Jun; Park, Jong-Ho; Han, Eun-Jung

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the Phytophthora rot resistance of 514 accessions of watermelon germplasm, Citrullus lanatus var lanatus. About 46% of the 514 accessions tested were collections from Uzbekistan, Turkey, China, U.S.A., and Ukraine. Phytophthora capsici was inoculated to 45-day-old watermelon seedlings by drenching with 5 ml of sporangial suspension (106 sporangia/ml). At 7 days after inoculation, 21 accessions showed no disease symptoms while 291 accessions of susceptible watermelon germplasm showed more than 60.1% disease severity. A total of 510 accessions of watermelon germplasm showed significant disease symptoms and were rated as susceptible to highly susceptible 35 days after inoculation. The highly susceptible watermelon germplasm exhibited white fungal hyphae on the lesion or damping off with water-soaked and browning symptoms. One accession (IT032840) showed moderate resistance and two accessions (IT185446 and IT187904) were resistant to P. capsici. Results suggest that these two resistant germplasm can be used as a rootstock and as a source of resistance in breeding resistant watermelon varieties against Phytophthora. PMID:25288932

  17. Genetic Transformation of Watermelon with Pumpkin DNA by Low Energy Ion Beam-Mediated Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao-bo; Gao, Xiu-wu; Guo, Jin-hua; Huang, Qun-ce; Yu, Zeng-liang

    2002-12-01

    The No.601 watermelon (citrullus lanatus) seeds were treated with 25 keV N+ implantation at the dosage of 7.8 × 1016 ions/cm2. After treatment, watermelon seeds were incubated with 380 μg/μl pumpkin (Cucubita, maxima Duch) DNA solution at 35 °C for 5 hours. By two-generations of selection and resistance screening at seedling stage, one transformed material was selected out, whose rind color is similar to that of the donor pumpkin and whose size of seeds is between that of the donor and the receptor. Using AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) technique, two polymorphic DNA fragments were amplified. This primarily testified that the donor DNA fragments/gene were introduced into the receptor cell and integrated into the genomic DNA of the receptor.

  18. Variations of chromosomal structures in Caluromys philander (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from the Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Souza, Erica Martinha Silva de; Faresin e Silva, Carlos Eduardo; Eler, Eduardo Schmidt; Silva, Maria Nazareth F da; Feldberg, Eliana

    2013-03-01

    Caluromys is considered to be one of the most ancient genera of extant marsupials and is positioned among the basal taxa of the family Didelphidae. At least two species occur in Brazil, C. philander and C. lanatus, both of which have 2n = 14 chromosomes. For the first time, we present evidence of an intrapopulation polymorphism of the sexual chromosome pair in C. philander females from the Central Amazon region. Detailed cytogenetic results of animals from three localities on the Amazon region were analyzed using classical cytogenetics (NOR, C-Band and G-Band) and molecular techniques (18S rDNA and telomere probes). Similar to other conspecific individuals, the diploid number of these animals is 2n = 14, and their fundamental number is 24, with NOR present on the 6th autosomal pair. The X chromosome presented variation detectable by G banding, suggesting a pericentric inversion. PMID:23494254

  19. Phomentrioloxin, a fungal phytotoxin with potential herbicidal activity, and its derivatives: a structure-activity relationship study.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna; Zonno, Maria Chiara; Boari, Angela; Troise, Ciro; Motta, Andrea; Vurro, Maurizio; Ash, Gavin; Evidente, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    Phomentrioloxin is a phytotoxic geranylcyclohexenetriol produced in liquid culture by Phomopsis sp. (teleomorph: Diaporthe gulyae), a potential mycoherbicide proposed for the control of the annual weed Carthamus lanatus. In this study, seven derivatives obtained by chemical modifications of the toxin were assayed for phytotoxic, antimicrobial, and zootoxic activities, and the structure-activity relationships were examined. Each compound was tested on nonhost weedy and agrarian plants, fungi, Gram+ and Gram- bacteria, and on brine shrimp larvae. The results provide insights into an investigation of the structural requirements for activity. The hydroxy groups at C-2 and C-4 appeared to be important features for the phytotoxicity, as well as an unchanged cyclohexentriol ring. A role seemed also to be played by the unsaturations of the geranyl side chain. These findings could be useful for understanding the mechanisms of action of new natural products, for identifying the active sites, and possibly in devising new herbicides of natural origin. PMID:24083323

  20. Ribosomal DNA phylogenies of Cyathus: is the current infrageneric classification appropriate?

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rui-Lin; Jeewon, Rajesh; Desjardin, Dennis E; Soytong, Kasem; Hyde, Kevin D

    2007-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Cyathus (bird's nest fungi) were investigated with neighbor joining, maximum likelihood, weighted maximum parsimony and MrBayes analyses of ITS and LSU ribosomal DNA sequences datasets. Twenty-two taxa of Cyathus were used in the analyses based primarily on type and authentic specimens. The current infrageneric classification system of Brodie recognizes seven infrageneric groups based on morphological characters, including peridium plications and variations in peridium hair anatomy, peridiole structure and fruit-body color. These groups are not supported by molecular data. Instead the ITS and LSU datasets support recognition of three infrageneric groups herein named the ollum, pallidum and striatum groups. Morphological characters useful in distinguishing these groups include basidiospore size, fruit-body coloration and peridium anatomy. Cyathus africanus var. latisporus is considered a synonym of Cyathus jiayuguanensis, and a new combination Cyathus lanatus (Brodie) R.L. Zhao is proposed based on morphological and molecular data. PMID:17883030

  1. A Comprehensive MicroRNA Expression Profile Related to Hypoxia Adaptation in the Tibetan Pig

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Peng; Wang, Zhixiu; Ma, Jun; Wang, Liyuan; Zhang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Tibetan pigs live between 2500 and 4300 m above sea level on the Tibetan Plateau, and are better adapted to hypoxia than lowland pigs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes; however, their regulatory role in hypoxia adaptation remains unclear. In this study, miRNA-seq was used to identify differentially expressed miRNAs (DE miRNAs) in the cardiac muscle of Tibetan and Yorkshire pigs, which were both raised in high elevation environments. We obtained 108 M clean reads and 372 unique miRNAs, which included 210 known porcine miRNAs, 136 conserved in other mammals, and 26 novel pre-miRNAs. In addition, 20 DE miRNAs, including 10 up-regulated and 10 down-regulated miRNAs, were also found after comparison between Tibetan and Yorkshire pigs. We predicted miRNA targets based on differential expression and abundance in the two populations. Furthermore, the results of a Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis suggested that DE miRNAs in Tibetan and Yorkshire pigs are involved in hypoxia-related signaling pathways such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase, which is the mechanistic target of rapamycin, and the vascular endothelial growth factor, as well as cancer-related signaling pathways. Five DE miRNAs were randomly selected to validate the results of miRNA-seq using real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the results corresponded to those from the miRNA-seq, confirming that deep-sequencing methods are feasible and efficient. In our study, we identified various previously unknown hypoxia-related miRNAs in pigs, and the data obtained suggest that hypoxia-related miRNA expression patterns are significantly altered in the Tibetan pig compared to other species. Therefore, DE miRNAs may play an important role in organisms that have adapted to hypoxic environments. PMID:26571238

  2. A Comprehensive MicroRNA Expression Profile Related to Hypoxia Adaptation in the Tibetan Pig.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Qiangba, Yangzong; Shang, Peng; Wang, Zhixiu; Ma, Jun; Wang, Liyuan; Zhang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Tibetan pigs live between 2500 and 4300 m above sea level on the Tibetan Plateau, and are better adapted to hypoxia than lowland pigs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes; however, their regulatory role in hypoxia adaptation remains unclear. In this study, miRNA-seq was used to identify differentially expressed miRNAs (DE miRNAs) in the cardiac muscle of Tibetan and Yorkshire pigs, which were both raised in high elevation environments. We obtained 108 M clean reads and 372 unique miRNAs, which included 210 known porcine miRNAs, 136 conserved in other mammals, and 26 novel pre-miRNAs. In addition, 20 DE miRNAs, including 10 up-regulated and 10 down-regulated miRNAs, were also found after comparison between Tibetan and Yorkshire pigs. We predicted miRNA targets based on differential expression and abundance in the two populations. Furthermore, the results of a Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis suggested that DE miRNAs in Tibetan and Yorkshire pigs are involved in hypoxia-related signaling pathways such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase, which is the mechanistic target of rapamycin, and the vascular endothelial growth factor, as well as cancer-related signaling pathways. Five DE miRNAs were randomly selected to validate the results of miRNA-seq using real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the results corresponded to those from the miRNA-seq, confirming that deep-sequencing methods are feasible and efficient. In our study, we identified various previously unknown hypoxia-related miRNAs in pigs, and the data obtained suggest that hypoxia-related miRNA expression patterns are significantly altered in the Tibetan pig compared to other species. Therefore, DE miRNAs may play an important role in organisms that have adapted to hypoxic environments. PMID:26571238

  3. Imprinting analysis of porcine MAGEL2 gene in two fetal stages and association analysis with carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ling; Qiao, Mu; Wang, Chao; Zheng, Rong; Xiong, Yuan-Zhu; Deng, Chang-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Imprinted genes play an essential role in the regulation of fetal growth, development and function of the placenta, however only a limited number of imprinted genes have been studied in swine. In this study, we cloned and characterized porcine MAGEL2 (melanoma antigen-like gene 2), and also identified its imprinting status during porcine fetal development. The complete open reading frame (ORF) encoding 1,193 amino acids was isolated and two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (g.2592A>C and g.3277T>C) in the coding region were identified. The reciprocal Yorkshire×Meishan F1 hybrid model and the RT-PCR/RFLP method were used to detect the imprinting status of porcine MAGEL2 gene at two developmental stages of day 30 and 65 of gestation. Imprinting analysis showed that porcine MAGEL2 was paternally expressed in day 65 fetal tissues, including heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, small intestine, skeletal muscle, brain and placenta. Interestingly, we observed an imprinting variance of MAGEL2 gene in 30 dpc fetuses produced by the cross of Yorkshire boar×Meishan sow, in which seven heterozygous fetuses were monoallelically expressed from the paternal allele but two were biallelically expressed from both the paternal and maternal alleles. Association analysis in a Yorkshire×Meishan F2 resource population showed that the mutation of g.2592A>C was significantly associated with dressed carcass percentage (P<0.05) and buttock fat thickness (P<0.05). Our results suggest that MAGEL2, as a novel imprinted gene in pig, might be a candidate gene affecting carcass traits and could provide important information for the functional study of imprinted genes during porcine development. PMID:21633897

  4. Water Discolouration Risk Mapping: a Regionally Mapped Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkby, M.; Arrell, K.; McDonald, A.; Tillotson, M.; Foulger, M.; Walker, A.

    2006-12-01

    Discolouration in catchment waters is caused by the release through oxidation, warming and biological decomposition of the soil. Catchments that yield highly discoloured waters not only increase treatment and sludge disposal costs but also risk compliance failures and increase the potential for Trihalomethane (THM) production; an unwanted byproduct of water chlorination. Therefore it is important for water companies to quantify and map water discolouration risk within their catchments to guide surveillance and intervention strategies. Yorkshire Water Services derives significant water resources from upland catchments. These catchments continue to produce increasing quantities of discolouration which are problematic and costly to treat. The company is taking several initiatives to manage colour. Traditional water colour studies tend to be restricted in scale and are unable to make conclusions about water colour production within a region. Sensitivities of water colour production to feedbacks and interactions between multiple factors also remains largely unquantified. This research addressed these limitations and mapped water discolouration risk for the Yorkshire Water area. Many factors are believed to influence colour production within a catchment. These are divided into two groups: dynamic factors for example, drought frequency, duration and severity or changes in the levels of acid precipitation; and static factors that are catchment specific, such as land management techniques, slope, soil type and erosion. A map of discolouration risk was created by sourcing and combining data for each of these variables. Data were categorised as either factors or constraints on water colour production and combined in a series of weighted overlays within a GIS, reflecting recent research on the processes leading to water colour production. Resulting risk maps identified a large variability in risk throughout study catchments. Analyses were also undertaken to examine the

  5. UK mining invests, suppliers profit

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-15

    In the midst of a major economic crisis in the United Kingdom, equipment suppliers have been reporting a number of considerable purchases by British coal mining companies. In December 2008, Liebherr-Great Britain delivered the first two of four Rq350 Litronic hydraulic excavators for use at the Broken Cross opencast coal site in Lanarkshire, Scotland. Ten Terex TR100 rigid haulers were delivered to the site in late 2008. Hatfield Colliery at Stainforth, South Yorkshire, has been reopened by PowerFuel. The main equipment for two longwall faces was supplied by Joy Mining Machinery UK Ltd. 2 photos.

  6. Legislating gender inequalities: the nature and patterns of domestic violence experienced by South Asian women with insecure immigration status in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Anitha, Sundari

    2011-10-01

    Research on domestic violence documents the particular vulnerability of immigrant women due to reasons including social isolation, language barriers, lack of awareness about services, and racism on the part of services. Based on qualitative interviews with 30 South Asian women with insecure immigration status residing in Yorkshire and Northwest England, this article explores how inequalities created by culture, gender, class, and race intersect with state immigration and welfare policies in the United Kingdom, thereby exacerbating structures of patriarchy within minority communities. It is within these contexts that South Asian women with insecure immigration status experience intensified forms and specific patterns of abuse. PMID:22071095

  7. Footprints and followers.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Mona Guckian

    2015-03-01

    When I was seven years old Daisy Ayris was busy setting up NATN. We all know that very little is ever gained in isolation and our founder had the support of many willing nurses at this time. Amongst those committed nurses taking up the gauntlet was a lady also from Yorkshire called Isobel Curry. It is indeed thanks to Daisy, Isobel and many others that the Association has grown, developed and blossomed into the inclusive Association for Perioperative Practice (AfPP), now in its 51st year of existence. PMID:26016273

  8. Ultrasound, CT and FDG PET-CT of a Duodenal Granuloma in a Dog

    PubMed Central

    JEON, Sunghoon; KWON, Seong Young; CENA, Rohani; LEE, Ju-hwan; CHO, Kyoung-Oh; MIN, Jung-Joon; CHOI, Jihye

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 12-year-old spayed female Yorkshire Terrier with intermittent vomiting was diagnosed with regional granulomatous enteritis through histopathological examination. On ultrasonography and computed tomography, a focal thickened duodenal wall showed a mass-like appearance with indistinct wall layers. Marked uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose was observed from the mass on positron emission tomography-computed tomography. Regional granulomatous enteritis is a rare form of inflammatory bowel disease and may have imaging features similar to intestinal tumors. This is the first study describing the diagnostic imaging features of ultrasonography, computed tomography and positron emission tomography-computed tomography for regional granulomatous enteritis in a dog. PMID:24748419

  9. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-03-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Comment on `Magnetic and electric field strengths of high voltage power lines and household appliances' José Luis Giordano Dept. de Ciencia y Tecnología de Materiales y Fluidos, CPSI, Universidad de Zaragoza, Spain Twins paradox S R Carson Norton College, Malton, North Yorkshire, UK On alternative ways of finding the ratio of specific heats of gases Tomas Ficker Physics Department, Technical University of Brno, Czech Republic

  10. Letters to the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    All the Letters to the Editor in this issue are in the same PostScript or PDF file. Contents Narrow-band interference filters for lecture demonstrations A P Ovcharenko, B M Valiyov and V D Yegorenkov Kharkov State University, Ukraine Static electricity and the gas lift chair P Cooke Department of Physics, University of South Australia, Levels Campus, Pooraka, South Australia Relativistic mass Simon Carson Norton College, Langton Road, Norton, Malton, North Yorkshire YO17 9PT, UK Magazine or journal? Philip Britton Head of Physics, Leeds Grammar School, UK

  11. Background migration: the Irish (and other strangers) in mid-Victorian Hertfordshire.

    PubMed

    Solar, Peter M; Smith, Malcolm T

    2009-01-01

    Relatively few Irish had settled in Hertfordshire by the time of the 1851 census. Those that did were older, more skilled, less residentially segregated, and more likely to be married to a local person than were the Irish-born in London and other large cities in Britain. The Irish-born in Hertfordshire were also less skilled and less intermarried than were county residents born in Scotland, Wales and Yorkshire. All of these migrant groups were very rare in rural areas of the county and very few of the migrants were involved in agriculture, despite the passage of large numbers of Irish harvesters through the county each year. PMID:19824350

  12. Quadrigeminal arachnoid cysts in a kitten and a dog.

    PubMed

    Reed, Scott; Cho, Doo Youn; Paulsen, Dan

    2009-09-01

    Two quadrigeminal arachnoid cysts with different pathogenesis are described in 2 different species. A 10-week-old male Persian kitten with a progressively decreasing level of consciousness died spontaneously. At necropsy, mild internal hydrocephalus, caudal cerebellar coning, and cerebellar herniation through the foramen magnum were associated with a congenital quadrigeminal arachnoid cyst compressing the rostral cerebellum and shifting the entire cerebellum caudally. In contrast, a possibly acquired quadrigeminal cyst was observed in a 2-year-old male neutered Yorkshire Terrier in association with necrotizing encephalitis. Quadrigeminal arachnoid cysts have been rarely reported in dogs and humans. PMID:19737770

  13. Ultrasonic determination of thermodynamic threshold parameters for irreversible cutaneous burns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, J. H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    In vivo ultrasonic measurements of the depth of conductive cutaneous burns experimentally induced in anesthetized Yorkshire pigs are reported as a function of burn time for the case in which the skin surface temperature is maintained at 100 C. The data are used in the solution of the one-dimensional heat diffusion equation with time-dependent boundary conditions to obtain the threshold temperature and the energy of transformation per unit mass associated with the transition of the tissue from the state of viability to the state of necrosis. The simplicity of the mathematical model and the expediency of the ultrasonic measurements in studies of thermal injury are emphasized.

  14. A consumer trial to assess the acceptability of an irradiated chilled ready meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, M. H.; Stewart, E. M.; McAteer, N. J.

    1995-02-01

    One hundred and seven consumers assessed the sensory quality of a chilled irradiated (2 kGy) and non-irradiated ready meal, consisting of beef and gravy, Yorkshire pudding, carrot, broccoli and roast potato 4 days after treatment. The irradiated meal was moderately to very acceptable and was not significantly different to the non-irradiated meal. The beef and gravy component of the meal was most liked by consumers. Appearance and aroma appeared to be more important than flavour or texture in the overall assessment of the meals.

  15. Sir Almroth Wright: pioneer immunologist.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Harold

    2011-03-01

    This year marks the 150th anniversary of the birth of Almroth Edward Wright, whose pioneer work in immunology saved countless lives, especially in the First World War, but whose name and work are all but forgotten today. Wright was born in 1861 in Middleton Tyas, Yorkshire, where his father, an Irish protestant and considerable Hebrew scholar, was the minister. Almroth's Swedish mother, the daughter of NW Almroth, governor of the mint in Stockholm, was responsible for his unusual first name. She had the rare distinction of having served as a nurse with Florence Nightingale in the hospital at Scutari in the Crimean War. PMID:21475098

  16. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery as treatment for oral maxillary squamous cell carcinoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Mestrinho, L A; Bernardo, E; Niza, M M R E; Lloret, A; Buracco, P

    2012-07-01

    A gingival maxillary squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed in a 12-year-old male Yorkshire Terrier. After a complete diagnostic work-up, including a computed tomography scan, the tumour was staged as T3bN1aM0 and considered non-resectable at presentation. The combination of neoadjuvant megavoltage radiotherapy and neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy with carboplatin and doxorubicin decreased the size of the tumour, allowing for surgery. The dog was free from local disease for 421 days after which it was euthanased at the owners' request. PMID:22731946

  17. Postembryonic stages of Nucellicola holmanae Lamb et al., 1996 (copepoda, poecilostomatoida), an endoparasite of the dog whelk Nucella lapillus (gastropoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, E. J.; Boxshall, G. A.; Mill, P. J.; Grahame, J.

    1998-06-01

    The external morphology of the first three larval stages of Nucellicola holmanae is described. These stages were cultured from eggs found with the adults in the viscera of dog whelks collected from Robin Hood's Bay, North Yorkshire. The nauplius develops within the whelk. It moults to a metanauplius which is released as a free-swimming stage. The metanauplius moults to a free copepodid stage which exhibits a combination of characters typical of the first, second and third copepodid stages of other poecilostomatoid copepods. The infective copepodid stage which locates and penetrates the host is visible through the integument of this free-swimming copepodid.

  18. Ultrasound, CT and FDG PET-CT of a duodenal granuloma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sunghoon; Kwon, Seong Young; Cena, Rohani; Lee, Ju-hwan; Cho, Kyoung-oh; Min, Jung-Joon; Choi, Jihye

    2014-07-01

    A 12-year-old spayed female Yorkshire Terrier with intermittent vomiting was diagnosed with regional granulomatous enteritis through histopathological examination. On ultrasonography and computed tomography, a focal thickened duodenal wall showed a mass-like appearance with indistinct wall layers. Marked uptake of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose was observed from the mass on positron emission tomography-computed tomography. Regional granulomatous enteritis is a rare form of inflammatory bowel disease and may have imaging features similar to intestinal tumors. This is the first study describing the diagnostic imaging features of ultrasonography, computed tomography and positron emission tomography-computed tomography for regional granulomatous enteritis in a dog. PMID:24748419

  19. Spatial pattern affects diversity-productivity relationships in experimental meadow communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamošová, Tereza; Doležal, Jiří; Lanta, Vojtěch; Lepš, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Plant species create aggregations of conspecifics as a consequence of limited seed dispersal, clonal growth and heterogeneous environment. Such intraspecific aggregation increases the importance of intraspecific competition relative to interspecific competition which may slow down competitive exclusion and promote species coexistence. To examine how spatial aggregation impacts the functioning of experimental assemblages of varying species richness, eight perennial grassland species of different growth form were grown in random and aggregated patterns in monocultures, two-, four-, and eight-species mixtures. In mixtures with an aggregated pattern, monospecific clumps were interspecifically segregated. Mixed model ANOVA was used to test (i) how the total productivity and productivity of individual species is affected by the number of species in a mixture, and (ii) how these relationships are affected by spatial pattern of sown plants. The main patterns of productivity response to species richness conform to other studies: non-transgressive overyielding is omnipresent (the productivity of mixtures is higher than the average of its constituent species so that the net diversity, selection and complementarity effects are positive), whereas transgressive overyielding is found only in a minority of cases (average of log(overyielding) being close to zero or negative). The theoretical prediction that plants in a random pattern should produce more than in an aggregated pattern (the distances to neighbours are smaller and consequently the competition among neighbours stronger) was confirmed in monocultures of all the eight species. The situation is more complicated in mixtures, probably as a consequence of complicated interplay between interspecific and intraspecific competition. The most productive species ( Achillea, Holcus, Plantago) were competitively superior and increased their relative productivity with mixture richness. The intraspecific competition of these species is

  20. Injury thresholds for topical-cream-coated skin of hairless guinea pigs (cavia porcellus) in the near-infrared region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pocock, Ginger M.; Zohner, Justin J.; Stolarski, David J.; Buchanan, Kelvin C.; Jindra, Nichole M.; Figueroa, Manuel A.; Chavey, Lucas J.; Imholte, Michelle L.; Thomas, Robert J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2006-02-01

    The reflectance and absorption of the skin plays a vital role in determining how much radiation will be absorbed by human tissue. Any substance covering the skin would change the way radiation is reflected and absorbed and thus the extent of thermal injury. Hairless guinea pigs (cavia porcellus) in vivo were used to evaluate how the minimum visible lesion threshold for single-pulse laser exposure is changed with a topical agent applied to the skin. The ED 50 for visible lesions due to an Er: glass laser at 1540-nm with a pulse width of 50-ns was determined, and the results were compared with model predictions using a skin thermal model. The ED50 is compared with the damage threshold of skin coated with a highly absorbing topical cream at 1540 nm to determine its effect on damage pathology and threshold. The ED 50 for the guinea pig was then compared to similar studies using Yucatan minipigs and Yorkshire pigs at 1540-nm and nanosecond pulse duration. 1,2 The damage threshold at 24-hours of a Yorkshire pig for a 2.5-3.5-mm diameter beam for 100 ns was 3.2 Jcm -2; very similar to our ED 50 of 3.00 Jcm -2 for the hairless guinea pigs.

  1. Barcoded pyrosequencing-based metagenomic analysis of the faecal microbiome of three purebred pig lines after cohabitation.

    PubMed

    Pajarillo, Edward Alain B; Chae, Jong Pyo; Kim, Hyeun Bum; Kim, In Ho; Kang, Dae-Kyung

    2015-07-01

    The microbial communities in the pig gut perform a variety of beneficial functions. Along with host genetics and diet, farm management practices are an important aspect of agricultural animal production that could influence gut microbial diversity. In this study, we used barcoded pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes to characterise the faecal microbiome of three common commercial purebred pig lines (Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire) before and after cohabitation. The diversity of faecal microbiota was characterised by employing phylogenetic, distance-based and multivariate-clustering approaches. Bacterial diversity tended to become more uniform after mixing of the litters. Age-related shifts were also observed at various taxonomic levels, with an increase in the proportion of the phylum Firmicutes and a decrease in Bacteroidetes over time, regardless of the purebred group. Cohabitation had a detectable effect on the microbial shift among purebred pigs. We identified the bacterial genus Parasutterella as having utility in discriminating pigs according to time. Similarly, Dialister and Bacteroides can be used to differentiate the purebred lines used. The microbial communities of the three purebred pigs became more similar after cohabitation, but retained a certain degree of breed specificity, with the microbiota of Landrace and Yorkshire remaining distinct from that of their distant relative, Duroc. PMID:25652653

  2. Joint Analysis of Binomial and Continuous Traits with a Recursive Model: A Case Study Using Mortality and Litter Size of Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Varona, Luis; Sorensen, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a model for the joint analysis of a binomial and a Gaussian trait using a recursive parametrization that leads to a computationally efficient implementation. The model is illustrated in an analysis of mortality and litter size in two breeds of Danish pigs, Landrace and Yorkshire. Available evidence suggests that mortality of piglets increased partly as a result of successful selection for total number of piglets born. In recent years there has been a need to decrease the incidence of mortality in pig-breeding programs. We report estimates of genetic variation at the level of the logit of the probability of mortality and quantify how it is affected by the size of the litter. Several models for mortality are considered and the best fits are obtained by postulating linear and cubic relationships between the logit of the probability of mortality and litter size, for Landrace and Yorkshire, respectively. An interpretation of how the presence of genetic variation affects the probability of mortality in the population is provided and we discuss and quantify the prospects of selecting for reduced mortality, without affecting litter size. PMID:24414548

  3. Quality Characteristics of Dry-cured Ham Made from Two Different Three-way Crossbred Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Hong, Doo-Il; Chung, Ku-Young

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the physicochemical traits of dry-cured hams made from two different three-way crossbred pigs: Yorkshire×Landrace×Duroc (YLD) and Yorkshire×Berkshire×Duroc (YBD). Animals were slaughtered at a live weight of 110 to 120 kg and cooled at 0°C for 24 h in a chilling room, the ham portion of the carcasses were cut and processed by dry-curing for physico-chemical analyses. While the moisture and crude protein contents of dry-cured ham were higher in YLD than in YBD, crude fat and ash content were higher in YBD (p<0.05). The salt contents of ham from YBD were higher than those from YLD (p<0.05). YBD ham samples showed a higher L* and b* values than those from YLD, while YBD ham showed lower a* value (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) values of YLD hams were lower than those of YBD samples (p<0.05). Hardness, gumminess, chewiness, and shear force values of YBD ham were higher than those of YLD sample (p<0.05). Saltiness was significantly higher in YBD ham than in YLD samples (p<0.05). YLD ham displayed a superior quality than YBD. Considering the meat quality parameters of two-way crossbred ham, YLD hams could be more suitable for the production of dry-cured products. PMID:26333670

  4. Transcriptomic Analysis of Ovaries from Pigs with High And Low Litter Size

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yifang; Ding, Yueyun; Ye, Pengfei; Yin, Zongjun

    2015-01-01

    Litter size is one of the most important economic traits for pig production as it is directly related to the production efficiency. Litter size is affected by interactions between multiple genes and the environment. While recent studies have identified some genes associated with prolificacy in pigs, transcriptomic studies of specific genes affecting litter size in porcine ovaries are rare. In order to identify candidate genes associated with litter size in swine, we assessed gene expression differences between the ovaries of Yorkshire pigs with extremely high and low litter sizes using the RNA-Seq method. A total of 1 243 differentially expressed genes were identified: 897 genes were upregulated and 346 genes were downregulated in high litter size ovary samples compared with low litter size ovary samples. A large number of these genes related to steroid hormone regulation in animal ovaries, including 59 Gene Ontology terms and 27 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways involved in steroid biosynthesis and ovarian steroidogenesis. From these differentially expressed genes, we identified a total of 11 genes using a bioinformatics screen that may be associated with high litter size in Yorkshire pigs. These results provide a list of new candidate genes for porcine litter size and prolificacy to be further investigated. PMID:26426260

  5. Sensitivity and dependence of mesoscale downscaled prediction results on different parameterizations of convection and cloud microphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remesan, R.; Bellerby, T.

    2012-04-01

    These days as operational real-time flood forecasting and warning systems rely more on high resolution mesoscale models employed with coupling system of hydrological models. So it is inevitable to assess prediction sensitivity or disparity in collection with selection of different cumulus and microphysical parameterization schemes, to assess the possible uncertainties associated with mesoscale downscaling. This study investigates the role of physical parameterization in mesoscale model simulations on simulation of unprecedented heavy rainfall over Yorkshire-Humberside in United Kingdom during 1-14th March, 1999. The study has used a popular mesoscale numerical weather prediction model named Advanced Research Weather Research Forecast model (version 3.3) which was developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in the USA. This study has performed a comprehensive evaluation of four cumulus parameterization schemes (CPSs) [Kian-Fritsch (KF), Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ) and Grell-Devenyi ensemble (GD)] and five microphysical schemes Lin et al scheme, older Thompson scheme, new Thompson scheme, WRF Single Moment - 6 class scheme, and WRF Single Moment - 5 class scheme] to identify how their inclusion influences the mesoscale model's meteorological parameter estimation capabilities and related uncertainties in prediction. The case study was carried out at the Upper River Derwent catchment in Northern Yorkshire, England using both the ERA-40 reanalysis data and the land based observation data.

  6. An Outbreak of Human Listeriosis in England between 2010 and 2012 Associated with the Consumption of Pork Pies.

    PubMed

    Awofisayo-Okuyelu, A; Arunachalam, N; Dallman, T; Grant, K A; Aird, H; McLauchlin, J; Painset, A; Amar, C

    2016-05-01

    An outbreak of listeriosis in England affecting 14 people between 2010 and 2012 and linked to the consumption of pork pies was investigated. All 14 individuals were older than 55 years, 12 were men, and 10 reported the presence of an underlying condition. All were resident in or had visited either of two English regions and were infected with the same strain of Listeria monocytogenes. In interviews with 12 patients, 9 reported eating pork pies, and individuals that consumed pork pies were significantly more likely to be infected with an outbreak strain than were individuals with sporadic cases of listeriosis infections in England from 2010 to 2012. Pork pies were purchased from seven retailers in South Yorkshire or the East Midlands, and the outbreak strain was recovered from pork pies supplied by only the producer in South Yorkshire. The outbreak strain was also recovered from samples of finished product and from environmental samples collected from the manufacturer. The likely source of contamination was environmental sites within the manufacturing environment, and the contamination was associated with the process of adding gelatin to the pies after cooking. Inadequate temperature control and poor hygienic practices at one of the retailers were also identified as possible contributory factors allowing growth of the pathogen. Following improvements in manufacturing practices and implementation of additional control measures at the retailers' premises, L. monocytogenes was not recovered from subsequent food and environmental samples, and the outbreak strain was not detected in further individuals with listeriosis in England. PMID:27296419

  7. Joint analysis of binomial and continuous traits with a recursive model: a case study using mortality and litter size of pigs.

    PubMed

    Varona, Luis; Sorensen, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    This work presents a model for the joint analysis of a binomial and a Gaussian trait using a recursive parametrization that leads to a computationally efficient implementation. The model is illustrated in an analysis of mortality and litter size in two breeds of Danish pigs, Landrace and Yorkshire. Available evidence suggests that mortality of piglets increased partly as a result of successful selection for total number of piglets born. In recent years there has been a need to decrease the incidence of mortality in pig-breeding programs. We report estimates of genetic variation at the level of the logit of the probability of mortality and quantify how it is affected by the size of the litter. Several models for mortality are considered and the best fits are obtained by postulating linear and cubic relationships between the logit of the probability of mortality and litter size, for Landrace and Yorkshire, respectively. An interpretation of how the presence of genetic variation affects the probability of mortality in the population is provided and we discuss and quantify the prospects of selecting for reduced mortality, without affecting litter size. PMID:24414548

  8. Distinct atmospheric patterns and associations with acute heat-induced mortality in five regions of England.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Ilias; Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2015-10-01

    The main objective of this paper was to identify possible acute heat-induced summer mortality in five regions of England namely the Yorkshire and the Humber, West Midlands, North East, North West and South East regions and reveal associations with specific air flows. For this purpose, backward air mass trajectories corresponding to daily episodes of increased temperatures were produced and divided to clusters, in order to define atmospheric pathways associated with warm air mass intrusions. A statistically significant at 95 % confidence interval increase in daily total mortality (DTMORT) was observed during the selected episodes at all five regions and thus, heat-induced mortality was indicated. The calculated raise was more intense in the West Midlands, North West and South East regions, whereas the results in the North East and Yorkshire and the Humber regions were less evident. Large fractions of thermal episodes, elevated average temperature values and higher average DTMORT levels were primarily associated with the short-medium range South West (SW) and/or East-South East (E-SE) trajectory clusters, suggesting relations among heat-induced mortality and specific atmospheric circulations. Short-medium length of SW and E-SE airflows, calculated by an application of Haversine formula along the centroid trajectory of each cluster, implies the arrival of slow moving air masses. Atmospheric stagnation could enhance human thermal stress due to low wind speed. PMID:25605407

  9. An NMR-based metabolomics study of pork from different crossbreeds and relation to sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Straadt, Ida K; Aaslyng, Margit D; Bertram, Hanne Christine

    2014-02-01

    Meat extracts from five different pig crossbreeds including Duroc/Landrace/Yorkshire (DLY), Iberian/Duroc (ID), Iberian/Duroc/Landrace (ILY), Mangalitza/Duroc (MD), and Mangalitza/Landrace/Yorkshire (MLY) were analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics. The results were compared with technological traits and sensory analyses in order to elucidate the potential of NMR-based metabolomics to highlight meat metabolites of importance for technological and sensory attributes of meat. Amino acids including alanine, carnosine, isoleucine, methionine, phenylalanine, and valine, as well as lactate, inosine monophosphate (IMP), inosine, glycerol and choline-containing compounds were found to be significantly affected by crossbreed. The breed-specific differences in the metabolome were ascribed to differences in ante mortem metabolism, differences in the membrane properties and glycolytic potential of muscle fibres and differences in lipolysis and proteolysis. A high content of carnosine in the meat was associated with a low value of many sensory attributes related to meat flavor/taste, while IMP and inosine were in general not correlated with sensory attributes related to meat flavor/taste. PMID:24200563

  10. Distinct atmospheric patterns and associations with acute heat-induced mortality in five regions of England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrou, Ilias; Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2015-10-01

    The main objective of this paper was to identify possible acute heat-induced summer mortality in five regions of England namely the Yorkshire and the Humber, West Midlands, North East, North West and South East regions and reveal associations with specific air flows. For this purpose, backward air mass trajectories corresponding to daily episodes of increased temperatures were produced and divided to clusters, in order to define atmospheric pathways associated with warm air mass intrusions. A statistically significant at 95 % confidence interval increase in daily total mortality (DTMORT) was observed during the selected episodes at all five regions and thus, heat-induced mortality was indicated. The calculated raise was more intense in the West Midlands, North West and South East regions, whereas the results in the North East and Yorkshire and the Humber regions were less evident. Large fractions of thermal episodes, elevated average temperature values and higher average DTMORT levels were primarily associated with the short-medium range South West (SW) and/or East-South East (E-SE) trajectory clusters, suggesting relations among heat-induced mortality and specific atmospheric circulations. Short-medium length of SW and E-SE airflows, calculated by an application of Haversine formula along the centroid trajectory of each cluster, implies the arrival of slow moving air masses. Atmospheric stagnation could enhance human thermal stress due to low wind speed.

  11. Plasma concentrations of acyl-ghrelin are associated with average daily gain and feeding behavior in grow-finish pigs.

    PubMed

    Lents, C A; Brown-Brandl, T M; Rohrer, G A; Oliver, W T; Freking, B A

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of sex, sire line, and litter size on concentrations of acyl-ghrelin and total ghrelin in plasma of grow-finish pigs and to understand the relationship of plasma concentrations of ghrelin with feeding behavior, average daily gain (ADG), and back fat in grow-finish swine. Yorkshire-Landrace crossbred dams were inseminated with semen from Yorkshire, Landrace, or Duroc sires. Within 24 h of birth, pigs were cross-fostered into litter sizes of normal (N; >12 pigs/litter) or small (S; ≤ 9 pigs/litter). At 8 wk of age, pigs (n = 240) were blocked by sire breed, sex, and litter size and assigned to pens (n = 6) containing commercial feeders modified with a system to monitor feeding behavior. Total time eating, number of daily meals, and duration of meals were recorded for each individual pig. Body weight was recorded every 4 wk. Back fat and loin eye area were recorded at the conclusion of the 12-wk feeding study. A blood sample was collected at week 7 of the study to quantify concentrations of acyl- and total ghrelin in plasma. Pigs from small litters weighed more (P < 0.05) and tended (P = 0.07) to be fatter than pigs from normal litters. Postnatal litter size did not affect ADG, feeding behavior, or concentrations of ghrelin in plasma during the grow-finish phase. Barrows spent more time eating (P < 0.001) than gilts, but the number of meals and concentrations of ghrelin did not differ with sex of the pig. Pigs from Duroc and Yorkshire sires had lesser (P < 0.0001) concentrations of acyl-ghrelin than pigs from Landrace sires, but plasma concentrations of total ghrelin were not affected by sire breed. Concentrations of acyl-ghrelin were positively correlated with the number of meals and negatively correlated with meal length and ADG (P < 0.05). A larger number of short-duration meals may indicate that pigs with greater concentrations of acyl-ghrelin consumed less total feed, which likely explains why they were

  12. Characterization of transcriptome dynamics during watermelon fruit development: sequencing, assembly, annotation and gene expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cultivated watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus] is an important agriculture crop world-wide. The fruit of watermelon undergoes distinct stages of development with dramatic changes in its size, color, sweetness, texture and aroma. In order to better understand the genetic and molecular basis of these changes and significantly expand the watermelon transcript catalog, we have selected four critical stages of watermelon fruit development and used Roche/454 next-generation sequencing technology to generate a large expressed sequence tag (EST) dataset and a comprehensive transcriptome profile for watermelon fruit flesh tissues. Results We performed half Roche/454 GS-FLX run for each of the four watermelon fruit developmental stages (immature white, white-pink flesh, red flesh and over-ripe) and obtained 577,023 high quality ESTs with an average length of 302.8 bp. De novo assembly of these ESTs together with 11,786 watermelon ESTs collected from GenBank produced 75,068 unigenes with a total length of approximately 31.8 Mb. Overall 54.9% of the unigenes showed significant similarities to known sequences in GenBank non-redundant (nr) protein database and around two-thirds of them matched proteins of cucumber, the most closely-related species with a sequenced genome. The unigenes were further assigned with gene ontology (GO) terms and mapped to biochemical pathways. More than 5,000 SSRs were identified from the EST collection. Furthermore we carried out digital gene expression analysis of these ESTs and identified 3,023 genes that were differentially expressed during watermelon fruit development and ripening, which provided novel insights into watermelon fruit biology and a comprehensive resource of candidate genes for future functional analysis. We then generated profiles of several interesting metabolites that are important to fruit quality including pigmentation and sweetness. Integrative analysis of metabolite and digital gene

  13. Characterization of the small RNA component of leaves and fruits from four different cucurbit species

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding small RNAs involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression critical for plant growth and development, stress responses and other diverse biological processes in plants. The Cucurbitaceae or cucurbit family represents some of economically important species, particularly those with edible and medicinal fruits. Genomic tools for the molecular analysis of members of this family are just emerging. Partial draft genome sequence became available recently for cucumber and watermelon facilitating investigation of the small RNA component of the transcriptomes in cucurbits. Results We generated four small RNA libraries from bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria), Cucurbita moschata, Cucurbita pepo, and, watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in order to identify conserved and novel lineage specific miRNAs in these cucurbits. Deep sequencing of small RNA libraries from these species resulted in 1,597,263, 532,948, 601,388, and 493,384 unique sRNA reads from bottle gourd, moschata, pepo and watermelon, respectively. Sequence analysis of these four libraries resulted in identification of 21 miRNA families that are highly conserved and 8 miRNA families that are moderately conserved in diverse dicots. We also identified 4 putative novel miRNAs in these plant species. Furthermore, the tasiRNAs were identified and their biogenesis was determined in these cucurbits. Small RNA blot analysis or q-PCR analyses of leaf and fruit tissues of these cucurbits showed differential expression of several conserved miRNAs. Interestingly, the abundance of several miRNAs in leaves and fruits of closely related C. moschata and C. pepo was also distinctly different. Target genes for the most conserved miRNAs are also predicted. Conclusion High-throughput sequencing of small RNA libraries from four cucurbit species has provided a glimpse of small RNA component in their transcriptomes. The analysis also showed considerable

  14. Anti-hyperglycaemic globulins from selected Cucurbitaceae seeds used as antidiabetic medicinal plants in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The recent epidemic of diabetes mellitus (DM) in Africa, coupled with rampant poverty, is an indication of the urgent need to develop new efficacious, cheaper and more available drugs to face this growing public health challenge. A number of plants products among which the protein-rich Cucurbitaceae seeds are commonly used in traditional medicine with increasing acclaimed efficacy against DM. The aim of this study was to analyse and evaluate the hypoglycaemic activity of storage proteins of five species of Cucurbitaceae, which include Telfairia occidentalis, Citrullus lanatus, Lagenaria siceraria, Cucumeropsis mannii and Cucurbita moschata. Methods The different families of storage proteins were extracted following differential solubility, and their contents were estimated using the Bradford method. The analysis of these proteins was done by electrophoresis in non-denaturing and denaturing conditions. The evaluation of hypoglycaemic properties of various globulins extracted was performed on male Wistar rats by the oral glucose tolerance test. Results The results showed that among the proteins extracted, globulins constitute the most abundant class of storage proteins in all five species selected. Citrullus lanatus and Cucurbita moschata presented the highest levels of globulin (275.34 and 295.11 mg/g dry matter, respectively). The results of electrophoresis showed that all species possess acidic and neutrals albumins and globulins, with molecular weight of protein subunits ranging from 6.36-44.11 kDa for albumins, 6.5-173.86 kDa for globulins and 6.5-49.66 kDa for glutelins. The 6.36 kDa of albumin subunit protein and the 6.5 kDa of globulin subunit protein were present in all the species. The oral glucose tolerance test showed that the globulins of the seeds of all species except Cucumeropsis mannii caused significant drop in blood sugar (88 – 137.80%, compared to the controls, p<0.05). Conclusions These findings showed that the selected Cucurbitaceae

  15. Practical public health in a primary care setting. Discrete projects confer discrete benefits but a long-term relationship is needed.

    PubMed

    Ayres, P J; Pollock, C T; Wilson, A; Fox, P; Tabner, T; Hanney, I

    1996-01-01

    Investigates a mechanism for delivering public health advice in a primary care setting--three West Yorkshire general practices--by seconding a public health physician (PHP) to each practice for six months, each practice receiving one day per week. Describes how the topics to be addressed--developing a practice plan for managing information; improving services available for Asian patients; and exploring "value for money" in fundholding--were chosen. Details the procedures and lists the main outcomes. Concludes that placing a public health physician in practices may not be the optimal approach for transferring public health knowledge, but topics important to the practice lend themselves to such an intervention, with potential long-term benefit for public health and primary care. PMID:10162939

  16. Protective effect of hyaluronic acid on cryopreserved boar sperm.

    PubMed

    Qian, Li; Yu, Sijiu; Zhou, Yan

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of supplementing freezing and thawing media with hyaluronic acid (HA) on the quality parameters of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. Boar semen samples were collected from seven mature Yorkshire boars once a week using the gloved hand technique; these samples were frozen-thawed in the extender with added HA. Boar sperm was cryopreserved in the extender with HA added at concentrations of 0 (used as control), 4, 6, 8, 8 and 12mg/L, and their effects on the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm were evaluated. HA addition to the extender significantly improved sperm motility, sperm membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity, acrosomal integrity, superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, but decreased sperm malondialdehyde level (p<0.05). Therefore, HA could be a promising cryoprotectant for boar sperm. PMID:26944660

  17. 'Continuous muscle fibre activity' in six dogs with episodic myokymia, stiffness and collapse.

    PubMed

    Van Ham, L; Bhatti, S; Polis, I; Fatzer, R; Braund, K; Thoonen, H

    2004-12-11

    Continuous muscle fibre activity was observed in a crossbred dog, a Yorkshire terrier, a border collie and three Jack Russell terriers. The clinical signs consisted of episodes of generalised myokymia which developed into muscle stiffness and delayed muscle relaxation and generally led to the dogs collapsing into lateral recumbency. These episodes were preceded by intense facial rubbing in three of the dogs, and were associated with severe hyperthermia in five of them. All three Jack Russell terriers showed continuous ataxia. The dogs had above normal activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase, but their cerebrospinal fluid was normal. Myokymic discharges were observed by electromyography in two of the dogs. Two of them were treated with membrane-stabilising agents, with variable results. PMID:15638001

  18. A New Sauropod Dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Phillip L.

    2015-01-01

    A new record of a sauropodomorph dinosaur is here described from the Middle Jurassic (Aalenian) Saltwick Formation of Whitby (Yorkshire), UK. A single caudal vertebra represents an early sauropodomorph and signifies the earliest recognised eusauropod dinosaur from the United Kingdom. The absence of pleurocoels and a narrow, dorsoventrally deep, but craniocaudally short centrum, suggests a primitive sauropodomorph. Distinct spinopostzygopophyseal laminae rise from the lateral margins of the postzygapophyses and pass caudally along what remains of the neural spine, a character unique to a subgroup of sauropods that includes Barapasaurus, Omeisaurus and other neosauropods and eusauropods. The lack of phylogenetically robust characters in sauropod caudal vertebrae usually makes it difficult to establish affinities, but the absence of mild procoely excludes this specimen from both Diplodocoidea and Lithostrotia. The vertebra cannot be further distinguished from those of a wide range of basal sauropods, cetiosaurids and basal macronarians. However, this plesiomorphic vertebra still signifies the earliest stratigraphic occurrence for a British sauropod dinosaur. PMID:26030865

  19. Huddersfield University Campus Grid: QGG of OSCAR Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Violeta, Dr; Kureshi, Ibad

    2010-11-01

    In the last decade Grid Computing Technology, an innovative extension of distributed computing, is becoming an enabler for computing resource sharing among the participants in "Virtual Organisations" (VO) [1]. Although there exist enormous research efforts on grid-based collaboration technologies, most of them are concentrated on large research and business institutions. In this paper we are considering the adoption of Grid Computing Technology in a VO of small to medium Further Education (FE) and Higher-Education (HE) institutions. We will concentrate on the resource sharing among the campuses of The University of Huddersfield in Yorkshire and colleges in Lancashire, UK, enabled by the Grid. Within this context, it is important to focus on standards that support resource and information sharing, toolkits and middleware solutions that would promote Grid adoption among the FE/HE institutions in the Virtual HE organisation.

  20. Clinical Features of Spinal Cord Hemangioblastoma in a Dog

    PubMed Central

    Michaels, Jennifer; Thomas, William; Ferguson, Sylvia; Hecht, Silke

    2015-01-01

    A 2-year-old male, intact Yorkshire terrier presented with a 1-month history of progressive paraparesis. Neurological examination revealed paraplegia with absent deep pain perception, decreased right pelvic limb withdrawal reflex, and lumbar pain consistent with an L4–S2 neurolocalization. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a single, well-demarcated, intramedullary mass centered over the L3–4 disk space. A hemilaminectomy was performed, and the mass was removed en bloc. Histopathological evaluation was consistent with a hemangioblastoma. Follow-up MRI 9 months after surgery showed no evidence of tumor recurrence, and the dog was ambulatory paraparetic at that time. This case is consistent with a previous histopathological report of spinal cord hemangioblastoma in a dog and provides additional clinical information regarding diagnosis, treatment, and outcome associated with this tumor type. PMID:26664967

  1. Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis refractory to ivermectin treatment in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Terada, Yuri; Murayama, Nobuo; Ikemura, Hiroshi; Morita, Tatsushi; Nagata, Masahiko

    2010-12-01

    A 10-year-old castrated male Shih Tzu presented with severe generalized pruritus. Skin scrapings revealed the presence of Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis. A Yorkshire terrier in the same household simultaneously developed pruritus due to scabies. Both dogs were treated with 300 μg/kg ivermectin, at first orally and then subcutaneously at 14 day intervals. However, live mites were still found on day 35, and the skin condition deteriorated in both dogs. These findings suggested that the S. scabiei in these dogs was clinically refractory to ivermectin. The pruritus in both dogs rapidly and completely disappeared following topical fipronil administration. This appears to be the first report of canine scabies refractory to ivermectin treatment. PMID:20880016

  2. Compiling a placement audit tool: a case study of one college's use of the QualCube model in developing an audit tool for student placement areas.

    PubMed

    Fritz, K

    1997-10-01

    Nursing students, as users of college services, can rightly expect satisfaction and even continuous improvement in their clinical experience, which is one of the cornerstones of nurse education. The North Yorkshire College of Health Studies has developed and used a multidisciplinary placement audit tool based on QualCube, a framework for standard setting, auditing and improving quality developed by Nicklin and Lankshear (in Nicklin & Kenworthy 1995 p 18). In order to facilitate a thorough audit of placement areas, a working group devised the tool based on the relevant areas of intersection of the three planes of the cube and then set written standards and specified performance criteria. This article describes the application of the QualCube framework, the design and description of the tool and feedback on its usage. The exciting and useful difference in the tool is its final page, the action plan, which is designed to realistically encourage continuous improvement in each placement area. PMID:9370633

  3. Genomic signals of migration and continuity in Britain before the Anglo-Saxons

    PubMed Central

    Martiniano, Rui; Caffell, Anwen; Holst, Malin; Hunter-Mann, Kurt; Montgomery, Janet; Müldner, Gundula; McLaughlin, Russell L.; Teasdale, Matthew D.; van Rheenen, Wouter; Veldink, Jan H.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Hardiman, Orla; Carroll, Maureen; Roskams, Steve; Oxley, John; Morgan, Colleen; Thomas, Mark G.; Barnes, Ian; McDonnell, Christine; Collins, Matthew J.; Bradley, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    The purported migrations that have formed the peoples of Britain have been the focus of generations of scholarly controversy. However, this has not benefited from direct analyses of ancient genomes. Here we report nine ancient genomes (∼1 ×) of individuals from northern Britain: seven from a Roman era York cemetery, bookended by earlier Iron-Age and later Anglo-Saxon burials. Six of the Roman genomes show affinity with modern British Celtic populations, particularly Welsh, but significantly diverge from populations from Yorkshire and other eastern English samples. They also show similarity with the earlier Iron-Age genome, suggesting population continuity, but differ from the later Anglo-Saxon genome. This pattern concords with profound impact of migrations in the Anglo-Saxon period. Strikingly, one Roman skeleton shows a clear signal of exogenous origin, with affinities pointing towards the Middle East, confirming the cosmopolitan character of the Empire, even at its northernmost fringes. PMID:26783717

  4. Moral architecture: the influence of the York Retreat on asylum design.

    PubMed

    Edginton, B

    1997-06-01

    Institutional and architectural history places the asylum alongside the prison and other institutional types whose architectural characteristics emphasized confinement and control. This history obfuscates important differences in how ideas about treatment were represented in the particular design of these institutions; in other words, how the structure of a place became part of its discourse. What becomes obvious in nineteenth-century, asylum architecture is the influence of a small Yorkshire private asylum built by a Quaker, William Tuke, in 1796. The York Retreat, in form, solidified the ideas of 'moral treatment' in design and in turn assumed an exalted character in the design of late nineteenth-century asylums. Every researcher working in the field of the history of insanity acknowledges the importance of this event and its impact on the discourse of insanity for the century to follow. Few however talk about how its unique design was incorporated as part of this discourse. PMID:10671006

  5. Growth and skeletal development of the pig.

    PubMed

    Reiland, S

    1978-01-01

    Growth and skeletal development of the domestic pig (Swedish landrace and Yorkshire) are reported and the weight curve of males from birth to maturity included. Other parameters were tooth development and growth of certain bones. It was concluded that daily weight gain increases rapidly to an age of about 5 months. Sexual maturity is reached by both the male and female pig at about 5--6 months of age. At this time there is an inflection point on the weight curve. The period from 5--6 months to about 18 months of age is called adolescence. After 18 months of age the weight curve is flattened. The data from the domestic pigs were compared with the corresponding data of the wild European hog. It was found that the wild hog has a much slower weight gain. PMID:233594

  6. Public perceptions of postoperative pain and its relief.

    PubMed

    Scott, N B; Hodson, M

    1997-05-01

    In order to evaluate the general public's knowledge of postoperative pain and its management, a simple questionnaire was devised and sent out to five general practices in Scotland and Yorkshire. Questionnaires were completed voluntarily by 529 people attending their general practitioner for reasons not related to surgery. Five hundred and fifteen completed questionnaires were analysed. Two hundred and thirty-nine (46.4%) responders had undergone previous major surgery whereas 267 (51.8%) had not. Attitudes to pain varied greatly and confirm the findings of other surveys that amongst the general public there is little or no understanding of the nature of postoperative pain or of the methods available to treat it. Despite the published literature, the public have a high degree of confidence in the ability of doctors and nurses to treat such pain. Widespread public and professional education is required before further improvements can be made to such a universal and basic clinical problem. PMID:9165962

  7. Studies on gastrointestinal parasites of pigs in Shimoga region of Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Krishna Murthy, C M; Ananda, K J; Adeppa, J; Satheesha, M G

    2016-09-01

    The study was conducted to ascertain the actual status of gastro-intestinal parasites in pigs maintained under different rearing systems in Shimoga region, Karnataka state. A total of 150 Pigs fecal samples were examined, which includes 50 from organized piggery farm, Veterinary College Shimoga, 50 from private piggery farm of Shimoga and 50 from free range desi pigs of Shimoga city. The fecal samples were processed and examined by direct and sedimentation method. Out of 50 fecal samples examined from organized piggery farm, 19 were found positive for different parasitic eggs, Out of 50 fecal samples screened form private farm, 28 harbored different parasites, whereas from 50 free range desi pigs fecal samples examined, all showed one and other parasitic eggs/ova. The percent prevalence of parasitic infection is more in free range desi pigs compared to Yorkshire breeds maintained under stall fed condition. PMID:27605803

  8. Suspect, detect and protect: lessons from a lipohypertrophy workshop for children's nurses.

    PubMed

    Venn-Wycherley, Alison

    2015-11-01

    This article describes a recent training workshop to educate children's nurses on injection technique best practice for diabetes, in particular, lipohypertrophy. The workshop was organised by the Forum for Injection Technique UK, the University of York, Leeds Children's Diabetes Team and Becton Dickinson Signature Solutions, and attended by delegates from Leeds Children's Hospital and the Children and Young Peoples Diabetes Network for Yorkshire and the Humber. The article discusses the causes of lipohypertrophy and the effect it can have on patient's glycaemic levels. There is an emphasis on the importance of regularly inspecting children and young people with diabetes for lipohypertrophy - a common complication of diabetes injection - and promotes the motto 'suspect, detect and protect'. The article also provides practical information for children's nurses on how to examine for lipohypertrophic lesions and guidance on how they can be prevented by adhering to correct injection technique. PMID:26558983

  9. Evaluation of polyethylene oxide compacts as gastroretentive delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Mahalingam, Ravichandran; Jasti, Bhaskara; Birudaraj, Raj; Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Killion, Robert; Alfredson, Tom; Anne, Pratap; Li, Xiaoling

    2009-01-01

    Compacts containing selected bioadhesive polymers, fillers, and binders were investigated for their potential as a bioadhesive gastroretentive delivery system to deliver water soluble and water insoluble compounds in the stomach. Compacts with 90:10, 75:25, and 60:40 of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) were evaluated for swelling, dissolution, bioadhesion, and in vitro gastric retention. Compacts containing higher PEO showed higher swelling (111.13%) and bioadhesion (0.62 +/- 0.03 N/cm(2)), and retained their integrity and adherence onto gastric mucosa for about 9 h under in vitro conditions. In vivo gastroretentive property of compacts were evaluated in Yorkshire cross swine. Compacts containing 58% PVP, 40% PEO and 2% of water soluble or water insoluble marker compounds showed gastroadhesive and retentive properties in vivo. It is concluded that PEO in combination with PVP yields a non disintegrating type bioadhesive dosage form which is suitable for gastroretentive applications. PMID:19148757

  10. Development of in vitro isolated perfused porcine skin flaps for study of percutaneous absorption of xenobiotics. Annual report, 30 September 1985-29 September 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Riviere, J.E.; Carver, M.P.; Monteiro-Riviere, N.A.; Bowman, K.F.

    1986-11-01

    Interspecies comparisons of cutaneous anatomy and physiology suggest that the weanling pig is a suitable surrogate for human skin; however, very few investigations of percutaneous absorption phenomena have been conducted in pigs. This study examined the radiolabel excretion patterns after intravenous (IV) and topical administration of six /sup 14/C-labeled compounds in weanling Yorkshire sows. These data were required as a baseline to compare xenobiotic absorption in the isolated perfused procine skin flap (IPPSF) fully described in the first Annual Report (Riviere, J. E., Bowman, K. F., and Monteiro-Riviere, N. A., Development of In Vitro Isolated Perfused Porcine Skin Flaps for Study of Percutaneous Absorption of Xenobiotics, USAMRDC, DAMD17-84-C-4103, November 1, 1986).

  11. Spontaneous Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Right-Sided Heart Failure as a Differential Diagnosis for Hepatosis Dietetica in a Production Pig

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Dalis E; Eaton, Kathryn A; Hoenerhoff, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    An experimentally naïve 37.7-kg Yorkshire-crossbred gilt died unexpectedly 2 d after arrival. Necropsy revealed severe dilated cardiomyopathy characterized grossly by markedly dilated ventricles and thinned ventricular walls and interventricular septum. Histologically there was multifocal myofiber attenuation and patchy loss of myofiber cross striations. The liver contained submassive to massive, diffuse hepatic centrilobular hemorrhage and degeneration. These lesions supported a diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy with right heart failure and secondary hepatic degeneration due to marked acute passive congestion. To our knowledge, this case is the first report of spontaneous dilated cardiomyopathy in swine and represents a potential diagnostic challenge regarding the differentiation of the cardiac-associated liver lesion from hepatosis dietetica. The diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy and right-sided heart failure was supported by the character of the hepatic lesion, absence of typical gross or histologic lesions of mulberry heart disease, and normal selenium levels. PMID:26310462

  12. Flooding and schools: experiences in Hull in 2007.

    PubMed

    Convery, Ian; Carroll, Bob; Balogh, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Hull, a city in the East Riding of Yorkshire, United Kingdom, suffered severe flooding in June 2007, affecting some 8,600 households and most schools. Despite the potential for damage in such disasters, no studies of the effects of floods on teachers and schools in the UK appear to have been published previously. This study analysed the impacts of the floods on teachers in Hull in two stages: first through correspondence with Hull City Council and a mailed questionnaire to 91 head teachers of primary, secondary, and special schools; and second, through in-depth interviews with head teachers from six flooded schools, representing different degrees of flood experience, and a questionnaire completed by eight teachers from the same schools. The findings reveal the importance and the complexity of the role of the school in the wider community in a time of crisis. The study highlights issues concerning preparedness for floods, support for schools, and flood protection for schools. PMID:25231793

  13. The feasibility of using 'bring your own device' (BYOD) technology for electronic data capture in multicentre medical audit and research.

    PubMed

    Faulds, M C; Bauchmuller, K; Miller, D; Rosser, J H; Shuker, K; Wrench, I; Wilson, P; Mills, G H

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale audit and research projects demand robust, efficient systems for accurate data collection, handling and analysis. We utilised a multiplatform 'bring your own device' (BYOD) electronic data collection app to capture observational audit data on theatre efficiency across seven hospital Trusts in South Yorkshire in June-August 2013. None of the participating hospitals had a dedicated information governance policy for bring your own device. Data were collected by 17 investigators for 392 individual theatre lists, capturing 14,148 individual data points, 12, 852 (91%) of which were transmitted to a central database on the day of collection without any loss of data. BYOD technology enabled accurate collection of a large volume of secure data across multiple NHS organisations over a short period of time. Bring your own device technology provides a method for collecting real-time audit, research and quality improvement data within healthcare systems without compromising patient data protection. PMID:26526934

  14. Evaluating acute physiological responses of porcine epidermis exposed to a pulsed 3.8-μm laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winston, Golda C.; Johnson, Thomas E.; Randolph, Donald Q.; Neal, Thomas A.

    2004-07-01

    Five male Yorkshire pigs were exposed on their flank to 4 microsecond pulses of laser light from a Deuterium Fluoride 3.8 micron Laser at varying energies. A preliminary ED50 threshold for various skin reactions was determined for this laser exposure combination. The animal"s skin was assessed for injury immediately, 1 hour, 24 hours and 72 hours post exposure. In general, energies below 3.2 J/cm2 leave no lasting skin reaction. As energy increased above the threshold, erythema or skin reddening was easily visualized. High-energy pulses appear to produce a "rug burn" erythema without evidence of punctate hemorrage (bleeding) or coagulation. Laser exposure sites on the pigs were also biopsied to obtain histopathological results. These findings suggest that the principal effect of this type of in-vivo laser exposure is removal of the epithelium, while not damaging the papillary dermis or structures beneath the Basement Membrane Zone (BMZ).

  15. Visceral Blood Flow Modulation: Potential Therapy for Morbid Obesity

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Tyler J.; Murphy, Timothy P.; Jay, Bryan S.; Hampson, Christopher O.; Zafar, Abdul M.

    2013-06-15

    We present this preliminary investigation into the safety and feasibility of endovascular therapy for morbid obesity in a swine model. A flow-limiting, balloon-expandable covered stent was placed in the superior mesenteric artery of three Yorkshire swine after femoral arterial cutdown. The pigs were monitored for between 15 and 51 days after the procedure and then killed, with weights obtained at 2-week increments. In the two pigs in which the stent was flow limiting, a reduced rate of weight gain (0.42 and 0.53 kg/day) was observed relative to the third pig (0.69 kg/day), associated with temporary food aversion and signs of mesenteric ischemia in one pig.

  16. British Society for Immunology: vaccines and mucosal immunity.

    PubMed

    Jackson, M E

    2001-03-01

    The Annual Congress of the British Society for Immunology was well attended with over 1000 British scientists converging on the small Yorkshire town of Harrogate. Wide-ranging and varied, the topics covered included the biochemistry of signaling as well as sessions examining dietary influences upon mucosal immunity. The plenary session on the morning of Wednesday 6 December focused on immunology at the cell surface, where many speakers discussed the role of lipid rafts in immune cell signaling. A session of particular interest followed the plenary session, hosted by the Vaccine Immunology Group. Discussion centered around a number of novel vaccines currently under development, with the emphasis on finding alternatives to the use of hypodermic needles. A number of interesting posters affiliated to this session reflected the high quality of the research presented at the meeting in general. PMID:16025384

  17. The amino acid sequence of cytochrome c-555 from the methane-oxidizing bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus.

    PubMed Central

    Ambler, R P; Dalton, H; Meyer, T E; Bartsch, R G; Kamen, M D

    1986-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of the cytochrome c-555 from the obligate methanotroph Methylococcus capsulatus strain Bath (N.C.I.B. 11132) was determined. It is a single polypeptide chain of 96 residues, binding a haem group through the cysteine residues at positions 19 and 22, and the only methionine residue is a position 59. The sequence does not closely resemble that of any other cytochrome c that has yet been characterized. Detailed evidence for the amino acid sequence of the protein has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50131 (12 pages) at the British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies are available on prepayment. PMID:3006666

  18. Ectopic Intrathoracic Hepatic Tissue and Accessory Lung Lobe Aplasia in a Dog.

    PubMed

    Lande, Rachel; Dvorak, Laura; Gardiner, David W; Bahr, Anne

    2015-01-01

    A 6 yr old male Yorkshire terrier was presented for an ~6 yr history of progressive cough and dyspnea. Thoracic radiographs revealed a 6 cm diameter mass within the right caudal thorax. Thoracic ultrasound identified an intrathoracic mass ultrasonographically consistent with liver tissue and a chronic diaphragmatic hernia was suspected. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, but no evidence of a diaphragmatic hernia was identified. Thoracic exploration identified abnormal lung parenchyma. The accessory lung lobe was removed using a stapling devise near its base. The consolidated mass had the gross appearance of liver and was histologically identified as ectopic hepatic tissue. Ectopic hepatic tissue, unlike ectopic splenic and pancreatic tissue, is rare and generally has a subdiaphragmatic distribution. This solitary case report demonstrates that ectopic intrathoracic hepatic tissue should be considered a differential diagnosis for a caudal mediastinal mass. PMID:26355587

  19. Influence of rainfall estimation error and spatial variability on sewer flow prediction at a small urban scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellart, A. N. A.; Shepherd, W. J.; Saul, A. J.

    2012-09-01

    Legislative drivers for water quality and urban flood risk are driving a growing need to accurately determine the performance of urban drainage systems in near real time. Rainfall data are clearly a key input to urban drainage system models. Historically rain gauge data have been used, however radar rainfall data are now widely available and benefits from significantly higher spatial coverage than rain gauges in most UK urban catchments. This paper describes a detailed study based on a small (11 km2) urban catchment in West Yorkshire, England. Radar and rain gauge data have been compared and used as the input to hydrodynamic sewer flow simulations, and the results of these simulations have been compared with measured flows in the sewer system. The results showed that for this size of catchment, there can be significant differences in simulated peak flows and combined sewer overflow spill volumes due to inherent uncertainties between the two rainfall estimates.

  20. Splenic angiomyxoma with intravascular tumor embolus in a dog: a case report

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Eun-Mi; KIM, Ah-Young; LEE, Eun-Joo; PARK, Jin-Kyu; KIM, Tae-Hwan; PARK, Se-Il; JEONG, Kyu-Shik

    2016-01-01

    A 13-year-old castrated male Yorkshire terrier dog had a soft splenic mass, which measured 11 cm in the greatest diameter. Microscopically, the parenchyma of the spleen was completely replaced by myxoid substances. Numerous spindle and stellate cells were loosely arranged in the myxoid stroma, and variable vessels of variable sizes were observed in a loose matrix with poorly defined margins. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that tumor cells were positive for desmin and alpha-SMA, but negative for S-100. Interestingly, intravascular tumor embolus with positive α-SMA expression was observed. This case is meaningful, because angiomyxoma, a rare tumor of dogs, occurs in the spleen. Even in human cases, splenic angiomyxoma was not reported. PMID:26972144

  1. Influence of Ileo-Caecal Cannulation and Oxytetracycline on Ileo-Caecal and Rectal Coliform Populations in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Högberg, A; Lindberg, JE; Wallgren, P

    2001-01-01

    The effect of surgery (insertion of an ileo-caecal cannula) and a subsequent parenteral treatment with oxytetracycline on the ileo-caecal and rectal coliform populations in 7 Swedish Yorkshire castrates were studied. Samples were collected during surgery as well as 3, 7, 14 and 20 days post surgery. The diversity of the enteric coliform flora was initially high both in the ileo-caecal ostium and in rectum. No alteration in the diversity of the enteric coliform flora was observed following surgery and treatment with oxytetracycline. As the insertion of ileo-caecal cannulas did not affect the intestinal coliform flora this study gives support to the use of this technique to mirror processes in the small intestine of pigs. Further, the diversity of the enteric coliform flora was unaffected by the parenteral treatment with oxytetracycline. PMID:11957371

  2. Effects of variation in porcine MYOD1 gene on muscle fiber characteristics, lean meat production, and meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Lee, E A; Kim, J M; Lim, K S; Ryu, Y C; Jeon, W M; Hong, K C

    2012-09-01

    Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the porcine MYOD1 gene were used for association analysis and haplotype construction to evaluate the effects of their substitution. Four hundred and three pigs of Yorkshire and Berkshire breeds were used. The mRNA expression levels of MYOD1 were examined. The g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs were significantly associated with several muscle fiber characteristics, the loin eye area, and lightness. Particularly, animals having hetero-genotypes of both sites showed good performance both in lean meat production and meat quality traits. The results of haplotype substitution were similar to the associations of individual SNPs. Moreover, the 2 SNPs had significant effects on mRNA expression. Therefore, the g.489C>T and g.1264C>A SNPs in MYOD1 may be meaningful DNA markers that can be used for improving important porcine economic traits. PMID:22554470

  3. Molecular characteristics of a novel strain of canine minute virus associated with hepatitis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Won; Jung, Ji-Youl; Lee, Jae-Il; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Oem, Jae-Ku

    2016-08-01

    A 5-year-old female Yorkshire terrier dog died a few days following hernia and ovariohysterectomy surgeries. Necropsy performed on the dog revealed that the surgeries were not the cause of death; however, degenerative viral hepatitis, showing intranuclear inclusion bodies in hepatic cells, was observed in histopathologic examination. Several diagnostic methods were used to screen for the cause of disease, and minute virus of canines (MVC) was detected in all parenchymal organs, including the liver. Other pathogens that may cause degenerative viral hepatitis were not found. Infection with MVC was confirmed by in situ hybridization, which revealed the presence of MVC nucleic acid in the liver tissue of the dog. Through sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the nearly complete genome sequence, the strain was found to be distinct from other previously reported MVC strains. These results indicate that this novel MVC strain might be related to degenerative viral hepatitis in dogs. PMID:27251050

  4. Porcine dermal lesions produced by 1540-nm laser radiation pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roach, William P.; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2001-07-01

    Completion of recent studies within our group indicates a breed-based difference in dermal response to 1540 nm 0.8 millisecond laser pulses. Laser exposure to Yucatan Mini- Pigs (highly pigmented skin) and Yorkshire pigs (lightly pigmented skin) demonstrate statistical differences between the ED50's of the two breeds. Laser delivery is accomplished using an Er:Glass system producing 1540 nm of light at millisecond exposure times and in the range of 5 to 95 J/cm2. Dermal lesion development was evaluated for acute, 1 hour, and 24-hour post exposure presentation. Our data contradicts the theory that water absorption is the sole mechanism of dermal tissue damage observed from 1540 nm laser exposures, as skin chromophores appear to play a role in lesion development.

  5. Formation of a vesicovaginal fistula in a pig model

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Jennifer; Rickardsson, Emilie; Andersen, Margrethe; Lund, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish an animal model of a vesicovaginal fistula that can later be used in the development of new treatment modalities. Materials and methods Six female pigs of Landrace/Yorkshire breed were used. Vesicotomy was performed through open surgery. An standardized incision between the bladder and the vagina was made, and the mucosa between them was sutured together with absorbable sutures. A durometer ureteral stent was introduced into the fistula, secured with sutures to the bladder wall, allowing for the formation of a persistent fistula tract. Six weeks postoperatively cystoscopy was performed to examine the fistula in vivo. Thereafter, the pigs were euthanized with intravenous pentobarbital. Results Two out of four (50%) pigs developed persistent fistulas. No per- or postoperative complications occurred. Conclusion This study indicates that this pig model of vesicovaginal fistula can be an effective and cheap way to create a fistula between the bladder and vagina. PMID:26317081

  6. Genomic signals of migration and continuity in Britain before the Anglo-Saxons.

    PubMed

    Martiniano, Rui; Caffell, Anwen; Holst, Malin; Hunter-Mann, Kurt; Montgomery, Janet; Müldner, Gundula; McLaughlin, Russell L; Teasdale, Matthew D; van Rheenen, Wouter; Veldink, Jan H; van den Berg, Leonard H; Hardiman, Orla; Carroll, Maureen; Roskams, Steve; Oxley, John; Morgan, Colleen; Thomas, Mark G; Barnes, Ian; McDonnell, Christine; Collins, Matthew J; Bradley, Daniel G

    2016-01-01

    The purported migrations that have formed the peoples of Britain have been the focus of generations of scholarly controversy. However, this has not benefited from direct analyses of ancient genomes. Here we report nine ancient genomes (∼ 1 ×) of individuals from northern Britain: seven from a Roman era York cemetery, bookended by earlier Iron-Age and later Anglo-Saxon burials. Six of the Roman genomes show affinity with modern British Celtic populations, particularly Welsh, but significantly diverge from populations from Yorkshire and other eastern English samples. They also show similarity with the earlier Iron-Age genome, suggesting population continuity, but differ from the later Anglo-Saxon genome. This pattern concords with profound impact of migrations in the Anglo-Saxon period. Strikingly, one Roman skeleton shows a clear signal of exogenous origin, with affinities pointing towards the Middle East, confirming the cosmopolitan character of the Empire, even at its northernmost fringes. PMID:26783717

  7. Long Noncoding RNA and mRNA Expression Profiles in the Thyroid Gland of Two Phenotypically Extreme Pig Breeds Using Ribo-Zero RNA Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yifei; Mao, Haiguang; Huang, Minjie; Chen, Lixing; Chen, Jiucheng; Cai, Zhaowei; Wang, Ying; Xu, Ningying

    2016-01-01

    The thyroid gland is an important endocrine organ modulating development, growth, and metabolism, mainly by controlling the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones (THs). However, little is known about the pig thyroid transcriptome. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate gene expression and play critical roles in many cellular processes. Yorkshire pigs have a higher growth rate but lower fat deposition than that of Jinhua pigs, and thus, these species are ideal models for studying growth and lipid metabolism. This study revealed higher levels of THs in the serum of Yorkshire pigs than in the serum of Jinhua pigs. By using Ribo-zero RNA sequencing-which can capture both polyA and non-polyA transcripts-the thyroid transcriptome of both breeds were analyzed and 22,435 known mRNAs were found to be expressed in the pig thyroid. In addition, 1189 novel mRNAs and 1018 candidate lncRNA transcripts were detected. Multiple TH-synthesis-related genes were identified among the 455 differentially-expressed known mRNAs, 37 novel mRNAs, and 52 lncRNA transcripts. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that differentially-expressed genes were enriched in the microtubule-based process, which contributes to THs secretion. Moreover, integrating analysis predicted 13 potential lncRNA-mRNA gene pairs. These data expanded the repertoire of porcine lncRNAs and mRNAs and contribute to understanding the possible molecular mechanisms involved in animal growth and lipid metabolism. PMID:27409639

  8. Clinical Outcomes of Surgically Managed Spontaneous Tumors in 114 Client-owned Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ji-Won; Yoon, Hun-Young

    2016-01-01

    Medical records of 139 tumors from 114 dogs that underwent surgery from May 2010 through March 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Among 114 dogs, females (64.9%) were significantly more common than males (35.1%) (p<0.05). Dogs aged 6 to 10 years were more presented than non-tumor patients, however, there was no significant difference. The mean age (±SD) was 10.3±3.0 years. Although we found no significant difference of breed predisposition, the most common breed was Maltese (19.3%), followed by Shih-Tzu (14.0%), and Yorkshire terrier (13.2%). Proportional morbidity ratios (PMRs) of mammary gland, oral cavity, and skin tumors were high in Poodles, Yorkshire terriers, and Golden retrievers, respectively. Mammary gland (36.0%) was the most common site, followed by skin and soft tissues (12.2%), oral cavity (10.8%), and digestive organs (8.6%), but there was no significant difference. The objectives of surgery were curative surgery (86.2%), biopsy (4.9%), and palliative surgery (6.5%). In this study, 123 of 139 tumors had histopathological diagnoses. Adenocarcinoma was the most common type (n=24), followed by adenoma (n=17), soft tissue sarcoma (n=13), benign mixed tumor (n=5), and others (n=64). Recurrence or suspected metastasis was identified in 26 dogs. Median survival times of malignant mammary gland tumors, skin and subcutaneous tumors, and splenic tumors were 1,563.0±1,201.7, 469, and 128 days, respectively. PMID:27162528

  9. Long Noncoding RNA and mRNA Expression Profiles in the Thyroid Gland of Two Phenotypically Extreme Pig Breeds Using Ribo-Zero RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yifei; Mao, Haiguang; Huang, Minjie; Chen, Lixing; Chen, Jiucheng; Cai, Zhaowei; Wang, Ying; Xu, Ningying

    2016-01-01

    The thyroid gland is an important endocrine organ modulating development, growth, and metabolism, mainly by controlling the synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones (THs). However, little is known about the pig thyroid transcriptome. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate gene expression and play critical roles in many cellular processes. Yorkshire pigs have a higher growth rate but lower fat deposition than that of Jinhua pigs, and thus, these species are ideal models for studying growth and lipid metabolism. This study revealed higher levels of THs in the serum of Yorkshire pigs than in the serum of Jinhua pigs. By using Ribo-zero RNA sequencing—which can capture both polyA and non-polyA transcripts—the thyroid transcriptome of both breeds were analyzed and 22,435 known mRNAs were found to be expressed in the pig thyroid. In addition, 1189 novel mRNAs and 1018 candidate lncRNA transcripts were detected. Multiple TH-synthesis-related genes were identified among the 455 differentially-expressed known mRNAs, 37 novel mRNAs, and 52 lncRNA transcripts. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that differentially-expressed genes were enriched in the microtubule-based process, which contributes to THs secretion. Moreover, integrating analysis predicted 13 potential lncRNA-mRNA gene pairs. These data expanded the repertoire of porcine lncRNAs and mRNAs and contribute to understanding the possible molecular mechanisms involved in animal growth and lipid metabolism. PMID:27409639

  10. Effect of telehealth on hospital utilisation and mortality in routine clinical practice: a matched control cohort study in an early adopter site

    PubMed Central

    Steventon, Adam; Ariti, Cono; Fisher, Elizabeth; Bardsley, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effects of a home-based telehealth intervention on the use of secondary healthcare and mortality. Design Observational study of a mainstream telehealth service, using person-level administrative data. Time to event analysis (Cox regression) was performed comparing telehealth patients with controls who were matched using a machine-learning algorithm. Setting A predominantly rural region of England (North Yorkshire). Participants 716 telehealth patients were recruited from community, general practice and specialist acute care, between June 2010 and March 2013. Patients had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure or diabetes, and a history of associated inpatient admission. Patients were matched 1:1 to control patients, also selected from North Yorkshire, with respect to demographics, diagnoses of health conditions, previous hospital use and predictive risk score. Interventions Telehealth involved the remote exchange of medical data between patients and healthcare professionals as part of the ongoing management of the patient's health condition. Monitoring centre staff alerted healthcare professionals if the telemonitored data exceeded preset thresholds. Control patients received usual care, without telehealth. Primary and secondary outcome measures Time to the first emergency (unplanned) hospital admission or death. Secondary metrics included time to death and time to first admission, outpatient attendance and emergency department visit. Results Matched controls and telehealth patients were similar at baseline. Following enrolment, telehealth patients were more likely than matched controls to experience emergency admission or death (adjusted HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.56, p<0.001). They were also more likely to have outpatient attendances (adjusted HR=1.25, 1.11 to 1.40, p<0.001), but mortality rates were similar between groups. Sensitivity analyses showed that we were unlikely to have missed reductions in the

  11. Comparative analysis of mucosal immunity to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in Jiangquhai porcine lean strain and DLY piglets.

    PubMed

    Hua, L Z; Wu, Y Z; Bai, F F; William, K K; Feng, Z X; Liu, M J; Yao, J T; Zhang, X; Shao, G Q

    2014-01-01

    The Jiangquhai porcine lean strain (JQHPL) is a new pork meat-type strain that has been developed in recent years from the parent lines Duroc, Fengjing, and Jiangquhai pigs (DurocxFengjing pigxJiangquhai pig). Enzootic pneumonia (EP) in pigs induced by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) is a chronic respiratory disease of pigs, generating high economic losses in the swine industry. Here, we investigated the degree of resistance to M. hyopneumoniae for the Jiangquhai porcine lean strain and the Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshire (DLY) pigs, which are Western commercial pigs that have been introduced in China. A total of 209 DLY piglets and 221 JQHPL piglets from 19 Landrace x Yorkshire and 22 JQHPL M. hyopneumoniae positive gestating sows with different expected dates of confinement were selected and raised in the same M. hyopneumoniae positive farrowing barn. When the oldest suckling piglets were 37 days old, nasal swabs were collected from all the piglets (ranging from 4 to 37 days old) to detect the M. hyopneumoniae pathogen using n-PCR and M. hyopneumoniae specific SIgA using ELISA. Positive M. hyopneumoniae infection rates in both the strains increased with age; however, positive rates for JQHPL were lower compared to DLY at 14 to 35 days old. The level of the specific SIgA rose rapidly in JQHPL respiratory tracts, particularly in piglets 21 to 35 days in age compared to DLY piglets of the same age; however, the level of the specific SIgA in DLY also marginally increased. In conclusion, JQHPL pigs exhibits higher resistance to M. hyopneumoniae compared to DLY. It is possible that this characteristic is caused by the faster and stronger mucosal immunity phenotype of the JQHPL strain. PMID:25061745

  12. Ice stream behaviour in the western sector of the North Sea during the end of the last glacial cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, David; Evans, David; Clark, Chris; Bateman, Mark; Livingstone, Stephen; Medialdea, Alicia; Cofaigh, Colm O.; Grimoldi, Elena; Callard, Louise; Dove, Dayton; Stewart, Heather; Davies, Bethan; Chiverell, Richard

    2016-04-01

    During the last glacial cycle the East coast of the UK was overrun by the British-Irish Ice Sheet (BIIS) flowing eastwards and southwards. In recent years it has become evident that several ice streams including the Tweed, Tyne, and Stainmore Gap ice streams, as well as the late stage North Sea Lobe (NSL), all played a role in shaping the glacial landscape during this period, but understanding the flow phasing of these ice streams during advance and collapse has proved challenging. Here we present new data from the seafloor collected during recent work undertaken by the Britice Chrono and Glanam project teams during cruise JC123 in the North Sea. Sub-bottom seafloor data together with new swath data clearly show that the final phases of the collapse of the NSL were controlled by ice sourced from the Firth of Forth ice stream which deglaciated in a NNW trajectory. Other ice streams being fed from the west (e.g. Stainmore, Tyne, Tweed) were not influential in final phase ice retreat from the southern North Sea. The Forth ice imprint is characterised by several grounding zone/till wedges marking dynamic, oscillatory retreat of the ice as it retreated along an offshore corridor between North Yorkshire and Northumberland. Repeated packages of tills, ice marginal and glaciomarine sediments, which drape glacially scoured bedrock terrain and drumlins along this corridor, point to marine inundation accompanying ice retreat. New TCN ages suggest decoupling of the Tyne Gap ice stream and NSL between 17.8 and 16.5 ka and this coincides with rapid, regional collapse of the NSL between 17.2 and 16.0 ka along the Yorkshire and Durham coasts (new OSL ages; Britice Chrono). Hence, both the central and northern sectors of the BIIS were being strongly influenced by marine margin instability during the latter phases of the last glacial cycle.

  13. WRF model sensitivity to choice of parameterization: a study of the `York Flood 1999'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remesan, Renji; Bellerby, Tim; Holman, Ian; Frostick, Lynne

    2015-10-01

    Numerical weather modelling has gained considerable attention in the field of hydrology especially in un-gauged catchments and in conjunction with distributed models. As a consequence, the accuracy with which these models represent precipitation, sub-grid-scale processes and exceptional events has become of considerable concern to the hydrological community. This paper presents sensitivity analyses for the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model with respect to the choice of physical parameterization schemes (both cumulus parameterisation (CPSs) and microphysics parameterization schemes (MPSs)) used to represent the `1999 York Flood' event, which occurred over North Yorkshire, UK, 1st-14th March 1999. The study assessed four CPSs (Kain-Fritsch (KF2), Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ), Grell-Devenyi ensemble (GD) and the old Kain-Fritsch (KF1)) and four MPSs (Kessler, Lin et al., WRF single-moment 3-class (WSM3) and WRF single-moment 5-class (WSM5)] with respect to their influence on modelled rainfall. The study suggests that the BMJ scheme may be a better cumulus parameterization choice for the study region, giving a consistently better performance than other three CPSs, though there are suggestions of underestimation. The WSM3 was identified as the best MPSs and a combined WSM3/BMJ model setup produced realistic estimates of precipitation quantities for this exceptional flood event. This study analysed spatial variability in WRF performance through categorical indices, including POD, FBI, FAR and CSI during York Flood 1999 under various model settings. Moreover, the WRF model was good at predicting high-intensity rare events over the Yorkshire region, suggesting it has potential for operational use.

  14. Nurse capacity, fertility, and litter size in crossbred sows and genetic correlation to purebred sow information.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, B; Christensen, O F; Velander, I

    2016-05-01

    In pigs litter size has increased during the last decades and number of weaned piglets is an important issue. The aim of this study was to develop a new trait of nurse capacity (NC) of crossbred sows viewed as crossbred performances in the two purebred parent lines, and estimate the genetic correlation to fertility and litter size five days after birth. An experiment recording phenotypes of crossbred sows was conducted in three large production herds with 11,247 first litter Danish Landrace x Yorkshire sows. All terminal sires used were Duroc AI boars. The experiment was running from 2010 to 2013. At farrowing, the total number born (TNB) was recorded. Five days after farrowing the litter size of the biological mother (LS5) was recorded. During the first three days after farrowing the number of piglets at each nurse sow was equalized to 14 piglets and after three weeks the NC was recorded and defined as the number of piglets nursed. Additional records on TNB and LS5 from related sows in nucleus and multiplier herds were added to obtain a data set with both purebred and crossbred information. A reduced animal model including both purebred and crossbred records was used and parameters were estimated. The results show that NC recorded on crossbred first litter sows had heritabilities of 0.05 and 0.07 for crossbred performance in the purebred populations of Landrace and Yorkshire, respectively. Estimated genetic correlations between TNB in purebreds and crossbreds show that nearly 50% of genetic gain in the purebred populations was transferred to crossbreds. Unfavorable genetic correlations between TNB in purebreds and NC in crossbreds were observed. For LS5 the genetic (co)variances show that 61% of the genetic gain in the two purebred lines was transferred to the commercial pig production of crossbred first litter sows, but no statistically significant genetic correlation to NC was obtained. PMID:27285680

  15. Terrenolide S, a new antileishmanial butenolide from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Elkhayat, Ehab S; Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Mohamed, Gamal A; Ross, Samir A

    2016-04-01

    Terrenolide S, a new butenolide derivative (6), together with six known compounds: (22E,24R)-stigmasta-5,7,22-trien-3-β-ol (1), stigmast-4-ene-3-one (2), stigmasta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (3), terretonin A (4), terretonin (5) and butyrolactone VI (7) have been isolated from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus terreus isolated from the roots of Carthamus lanatus (Asteraceae). Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses (1D, 2D NMR and HRESIMS), as well as optical rotation measurement and comparison with literature data. Compound 1 displayed a potent activity towards methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Cryptococcus neoformans with IC50 values of 2.29 and 10.68 µM, respectively. Moreover, 1, 2 and 6 exhibited antileishmanial activity towards Leishmania donovani with IC50 values of 11.24, 15.32 and 27.27 µM, respectively and IC90 values of 14.68, 40.56 and 167.03 µM, respectively. PMID:26299734

  16. Langkocyclines: novel angucycline antibiotics from Streptomyces sp. Acta 3034(*).

    PubMed

    Kalyon, Bahar; Tan, Geok-Yuan A; Pinto, John M; Foo, Cheau-Yee; Wiese, Jutta; Imhoff, Johannes F; Süssmuth, Roderich D; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Fiedler, Hans-Peter

    2013-10-01

    Langkocyclines A1-A3 and B1 and B2, five new angucycline antibiotics produced by Streptomyces sp. Acta 3034, were detected in the course of our HPLC-diode array screening. The producing strain was isolated from the rhizospheric soil of a Clitorea sp. collected from Burau Bay, Langkawi, Malaysia, and was characterized by morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic features in addition to 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence information. Strain Acta 3034 is closely related to Streptomyces psammoticus NBRC 13971(T) and Streptomyces lanatus NBRC 12787(T). Langkocyclines consist of an angular tetracyclic benz[a]anthracene skeleton and hydrolyzable O-glycosidic sugar moieties. The yellow-colored A-type langkocyclines differ in their aglycon from the blue-lilac-colored B-type langkocyclines. The A-type langkocycline aglycon is identical to that of aquayamycin and urdamycin A. The chemical structures of the langkocyclines were elucidated by HR-MS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments. They are biologically active against Gram-positive bacteria and exhibit a moderate antiproliferative activity against various human tumor cell lines. PMID:23820614

  17. Effects of simulated oilfield produced water on early seedling growth after treatment in a pilot-scale constructed wetland system.

    PubMed

    Pardue, Michael J; Castle, James W; Rodgers, John H; Huddleston, George M

    2015-01-01

    Seed germination and early seedling growth bioassays were used to evaluate phytotoxicity of simulated oilfield produced water (OPW) before and after treatment in a subsurface-flow, pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS). Responses to untreated and treated OPW were compared among seven plant species, including three monocotyledons: corn (Zea mays), millet (Panicum miliaceum), and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor); and four dicotyledons: lettuce (Lactuca sativa), okra (Abelmoschus esculents), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), and soybean (Glycine max). Phytotoxicity was greater in untreated OPW than in treated OPW. Exposures to untreated and treated OPW enhanced growth in some plant species (sorghum, millet, okra, and corn) relative to a negative control and reduced growth in other plant species (lettuce, soybean, and watermelon). Early seedling growth parameters indicated that dicotyledons were more sensitive to test waters compared to monocotyledons, suggesting that morphological differences between plant species affected phytotoxicity. Results indicated the following sensitivity scale for plant species: lettuce>soybean>watermelon>corn>okra≈millet>sorghum. Phytotoxicity of the treated OPW to lettuce and soybean, although concentrations of COCs were less than irrigation guideline concentrations, suggests that chemical characterization and comparison to guideline concentrations alone may not be sufficient to evaluate water for use in growing crops. PMID:25409245

  18. Accumulation of weathered pp'-DDE in xylem sap of grafted watermelon.

    PubMed

    Isleyen, Mehmet; Sevim, Pinar

    2012-04-01

    Movement of weathered p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDE) from contaminated soil to the rhizosphere pore water to the xylem sap of grafted watermelon was studied under green house conditions. p,p'-DDE concentrations in pore water and xylem sap was compared in intact plants, homografted, and compatible heterografts of Cucurbita pepo spp. pepo and Citrullus lanatus plants. An average p,p'-DDE concentrations in pore water of contaminated soil ranged from 0.36 microg/L to 0.55 microg/L and there were no statistically significant among the cultivars. Conversely, the xylem sap p,p'-DDE concentration of heterografted watermelon having a zucchini rootstock and watermelon scion was 71 microg/L and it was greater than intact watermelon plants (0.49 microg/L) but less than that of intact plants of zucchini (141 microg/L). Homografting showed no effect on xylem sap p,p'-DDE concentrations of the identical cultivars. The bio-concentration factors (BCFs) which is an average p,p'-DDE concentration in xylem sap over average p,p'-DDE in pore water were 344, 325, 197, 1.28, and 0.89 for intact plant of zucchini, homografted zucchini, heterografted watermelon, homografted watermelon, and intact plant of watermelon, respectively. Xylem sap p,p'-DDE concentrations of the heterografted watermelon plants were clearly influenced by plant phylogeny and enhanced by the zucchini rootstock compared to intact watermelon plants. PMID:22567720

  19. Evaluation of Appropriate Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization during Watermelon Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Qiusheng; Yuan, Jingxian; Gao, Lingyun; Zhao, Liqiang; Cheng, Fei; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression analysis in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit has drawn considerable attention with the availability of genome sequences to understand the regulatory mechanism of fruit development and to improve its quality. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a routine technique for gene expression analysis. However, appropriate reference genes for transcript normalization in watermelon fruits have not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of 12 genes for their potential use as reference genes in watermelon fruits. Expression variations of these genes were measured in 48 samples obtained from 12 successive developmental stages of parthenocarpic and fertilized fruits of two watermelon genotypes by using qRT-PCR analysis. Considering the effects of genotype, fruit setting method, and developmental stage, geNorm determined clathrin adaptor complex subunit (ClCAC), β-actin (ClACT), and alpha tubulin 5 (ClTUA5) as the multiple reference genes in watermelon fruit. Furthermore, ClCAC alone or together with SAND family protein (ClSAND) was ranked as the single or two best reference genes by NormFinder. By using the top-ranked reference genes to normalize the transcript abundance of phytoene synthase (ClPSY1), a good correlation between lycopene accumulation and ClPSY1 expression pattern was observed in ripening watermelon fruit. These validated reference genes will facilitate the accurate measurement of gene expression in the studies on watermelon fruit biology. PMID:26110539

  20. Microplot Evaluation of Rootstocks for Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Grafted Tomato, Muskmelon, and Watermelon

    PubMed Central

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Rosskopf, Erin N.

    2011-01-01

    Microplot experiments were conducted over two years (four growing seasons) to evaluate Meloidogyne incognita resistance in rootstocks used for grafted tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), muskmelon (Cucumis melo), and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Three tomato rootstocks; ‘TX301’, ‘Multifort’, and ‘Aloha’, were tested in addition to the nongrafted scion, ‘Florida-47’. Two muskmelon rootstocks; Cucumis metuliferus and ‘Tetsukabuto’ (Cucurbita maxima × Cucurbita moschata) were evaluated with the nongrafted scion ‘Athena’. Two watermelon rootstocks included ‘Emphasis’, a lagenaria-type, and an interspecific squash hybrid ‘StrongTosa’, which were grafted to the scion ‘TriX Palomar’ and planted only in the second year. Microplots were infested with M. incognita eggs in September each year. Tomatoes were planted in September followed by melons in March. In both years of the study, M. incognita juveniles (J2) in soil were similar among all tomato rootstocks, but numbers in roots were higher in the nongrafted Florida 47 than in all grafted rootstocks. In muskmelon only C. metuliferus rootstock reduced galling in nematode infested soil. Tetsukabuto did not reduce numbers of M. incognita J2 in either soil or roots either year. There were no differences in nematode numbers, galling, or plant growth parameters among the watermelon rootstocks tested. The use of resistant rootstocks has great potential for improving nematode control in the absence of soil fumigants. PMID:23431109

  1. Conversion of the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum magna to a nonpathogenic, endophytic mutualist by gene disruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Redman, R.S.; Ranson, J.C.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Hygromycin-resistant transformants of the cucurbit pathogen Colletotrichum magna (teleomorph: Glomerella magna) were generated by restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) transformation. A rapid pathogenicity assay involving watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seedlings was developed and 14,400 REMI transformants were screened and assessed for their ability to cause disease, colonize plant tissues, and confer disease resistance against wild-type C. magna. A total of 176 nonpathogenic REMI mutants capable of colonizing cucurbit plants were isolated and assigned to three groups based on their ability to confer disease resistance: phenotype A, 80 to 100% disease protection; phenotype B, 10 to 65% disease protection; and phenotype C, 0 to 4% disease protection. Molecular and genetic analyses of one REMI mutant (R1) indicated that the nonpathogenic phenotype A resulted from a single-site integration. R1 showed a 1:1 segregation of hygromycin resistance and nonpathogenicity and all hygromycin-resistant progeny were nonpathogenic. The integrated vector and 5.5 kb of flanking fungal genomic DNA were isolated from R1 and designated pGMR1. To verify that pGMR1 contained pathogenicity gene sequences, a wild-type isolate of C. magna was transformed with pGMR1 to induce gene disruptions by homologous integration. Approximately 47% of the pGMR1 transformants expressed phenotype A, indicating homologous integration and gene disruption.

  2. Biochemical analysis of plant protection afforded by a nonpathogenic endophytic mutant of Colletotrichum magna

    SciTech Connect

    Redman, R.S.; Rodriguez, R.J. Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA . Dept. of Botany); Clifton, D.R.; Morrel, J.; Brown, G. ); Freeman, S. . Dept. of Plant Pathology)

    1999-02-01

    A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) plant-defense response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and-susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1-colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection.

  3. The Cucurbit Images (1515–1518) of the Villa Farnesina, Rome

    PubMed Central

    JANICK, JULES; PARIS, HARRY S.

    2006-01-01

    • Background The gorgeous frescoes organized by the master Renaissance painter Raphael Sanzio (1483–1520) and illustrating the heavenly adventures of Cupid and Psyche were painted between 1515 and 1518 to decorate the Roman villa (now known as the Villa Farnesina) of the wealthy Sienese banker Agostino Chigi (1466–1520). Surrounding these paintings are festoons of fruits, vegetables and flowers painted by Giovanni Martini da Udine (1487–1564), which include over 170 species of plants. A deconstruction and collation of the cucurbit images in the festoons makes it possible to evaluate the genetic diversity of cucurbits in Renaissance Italy 500 years ago. • Findings The festoons contain six species of Old World cucurbits, Citrullus lanatus (watermelon), Cucumis melo (melon), Cucumis sativus (cucumber), Ecballium elaterium (squirting cucumber), Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd) and Momordica balsamina (balsam apple), and two or three species of New World cucurbits, Cucurbita maxima, C. pepo and, perhaps, C. moschata (pumpkin, squash, gourd). The images of C. maxima are the first illustrations of this species in Europe. PMID:16314340

  4. Identification of the subgenomic promoter of the coat protein gene of cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus and development of a heterologous expression vector.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Sun-Ju; Jang, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Gung Pyo

    2016-06-01

    Heterologous gene expression using plant virus vectors enables research on host-virus interactions and the production of useful proteins, but the host range of plant viruses limits the practical applications of such vectors. Here, we aimed to develop a viral vector based on cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus (CFMMV), a member of the genus Tobamovirus, whose members infect cucurbits. The subgenomic promoter (SGP) in the coat protein (CP) gene, which was used to drive heterologous expression, was mapped by analyzing deletion mutants from a CaMV 35S promoter-driven infectious CFMMV clone. The region from nucleotides (nt) -55 to +160 relative to the start codon of the open reading frame (ORF) of CP was found to be a fully active promoter, and the region from nt -55 to +100 was identified as the active core promoter. Based on these SGPs, we constructed a cloning site in the CFMMV vector and successfully expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in Nicotiana benthamiana and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Co-inoculation with the P19 suppressor increased EGFP expression and viral replication by blocking degradation of the viral genome. Our CFMMV vector will be useful as an expression vector in cucurbits. PMID:26976138

  5. The components of rice and watermelon root exudates and their effects on pathogenic fungus and watermelon defense.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lixuan; Huo, Hongwei; Zhang, Fang; Hao, Wenya; Xiao, Liang; Dong, Caixia; Xu, Guohua

    2016-06-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) is susceptible to wilt disease caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp niveum (FON). Intercropping management of watermelon/aerobic rice (Oryza sativa) alleviates watermelon wilt disease, because some unidentified component(s) in rice root exudates suppress FON sporulation and spore germination. Here, we show that the phenolic acid p-coumaric acid is present in rice root exudates only, and it inhibits FON spore germination and sporulation. We found that exogenously applied p-coumaric acid up-regulated the expression of ClPR3 in roots, as well as increased chitinase activity in leaves. Furthermore, exogenously applied p-coumaric acid increased β-1,3-glucanase activity in watermelon roots. By contrast, we found that ferulic acid was secreted by watermelon roots, but not by rice roots, and that it stimulated spore germination and sporulation of FON. Exogenous application of ferulic acid down-regulated ClPR3 expression and inhibited chitinase activity in watermelon leaves. Salicylic acid was detected in both watermelon and rice root exudates, which stimulated FON spore germination at low concentrations and suppressed spore germination at high concentrations. Exogenously applied salicylic acid did not alter ClPR3 expression, but did increase chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities in watermelon leaves. Together, our results show that the root exudates of phenolic acids were different between rice and watermelon, which lead to their special ecological roles on pathogenic fungus and watermelon defense. PMID:27217091

  6. Linking pollination effectiveness and interspecific displacement success in bees.

    PubMed

    Ali, M; Saeed, S; Sajjad, A; Akbar, A

    2015-04-01

    Pollen deposition, a surrogate for bee efficiency, becomes increasingly important during their interspecific interactions. We conducted field experiments on highly cross-pollinated melon (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in order to understand how bee species with different pollination efficiencies displace each other from floral resources. We observed significant displacement of less abundant but more efficient bees by the more abundant but less efficient bees in both crops, which may lead to deficient pollination. We did not find significant relationship of the bee displacement success and body size or abundance. Apis florea (Fabricius) and Nomia sp.2 (Latreille) had significantly more winner events in melon, while the former also had significantly more winner events in watermelon. A. florea was the only bee species that foraged mostly within the 1-m(2) virtual area after their displacement, which may indicate its behavior of geitinogamous pollination. The two bee species, Ceratina sexmaculata (Smith) and Lasioglossum sp. (Curtis), were more sensitive to displacement as their proportion of leaving the 1-m(2) virtual area was higher. PMID:26013126

  7. Surfactant-free green synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles capped with 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylcarbamodithioate: stable recyclable magnetic nanoparticles for the rapid and efficient removal of Hg(II) ions from water.

    PubMed

    Venkateswarlu, Sada; Yoon, Minyoung

    2015-11-14

    Mercury is considered one of the most notorious global pollutants due to its high toxicity and widespread use in industry. Although many materials have been developed for the removal of mercury for water purification, most of these materials are difficult to reuse, which may lead to an increase in the mercury handling expense. Therefore, new sustainable materials that can be easily recycled and are highly efficient for the removal of mercury are required. Herein, we report the surfactant-free green synthesis of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using a watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) rind extract. The Fe3O4 MNPs were further functionalized with 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylcarbamodithioate (DHPCT) and applied to the removal of Hg(ii). Evaluation of the mercury removal efficiency and the amount adsorbed by DHPCT@Fe3O4 MNPs demonstrated a high Hg(ii) removal efficiency (98%) with a maximum Hg(ii) adsorption capacity of 52.1 mg g(-1). Systematic studies of the adsorption mechanism and selectivity suggest that the soft ligand (DHPCT) can preferentially coordinate with the soft metal ion (Hg(ii)) resulting in selective mercury removal. The developed DHPCT@Fe3O4 MNPs were readily recycled several times using an external magnet by exploiting their ferromagnetic character, without a significant decline in the Hg(ii) removal efficiency. This study provides a new insight into the preparation of a highly efficient adsorbent for Hg(ii) removal by an eco-friendly method. PMID:26436867

  8. The FonSIX6 gene acts as an avirulence effector in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum - watermelon pathosystem.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaowei; Zhao, Xiaoqiang; Ling, Kai-Shu; Levi, Amnon; Sun, Yuyan; Fan, Min

    2016-01-01

    When infecting a host plant, the fungus Fusarium oxysporum secretes several effector proteins into the xylem tissue to promote virulence. However, in a host plant with an innate immune system involving analogous resistance proteins, the fungus effector proteins may trigger resistance, rather than promoting virulence. Identity of the effector genes of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon) races that affect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) are currently unknown. In this study, the SIX6 (secreted in xylem protein 6) gene was identified in Fon races 0 and 1 but not in the more virulent Fon race 2. Disrupting the FonSIX6 gene in Fon race 1 did not affect the sporulation or growth rate of the fungus but significantly enhanced Fon virulence in watermelon, suggesting that the mutant ΔFon1SIX6 protein allowed evasion of R protein-mediated host resistance. Complementation of the wild-type race 2 (which lacks FonSIX6) with FonSIX6 reduced its virulence. These results provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that FonSIX6 is an avirulence gene. The identification of FonSix6 as an avirulence factor may be a first step in understanding the mechanisms of Fon virulence and resistance in watermelon and further elucidating the role of Six6 in Fusarium-plant interactions. PMID:27320044

  9. Exposure Effects on the Productivity of Commercial Bombus impatiens (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Quads During Bloom in Watermelon Fields.

    PubMed

    Marchese, J I; Johnson, G J; Delaney, D A

    2015-08-01

    In light of population declines of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), research has refocused attention on alternative pollinators and their potential to fulfill pollination services within economically important agricultural crops. Bumble bees are one such alternative, and within the past 20 yr, these pollinators have been reared and sold as commercial pollinators. Investigation into their use has been limited and more research is needed to improve pollinator effectiveness in field settings. Quad pollination units of the commercially reared native bumble bee species, the common eastern bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson), were monitored and evaluated for productivity during peak watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg) Matsumura & Nakai] bloom in southern Delaware. Differing colony exposures including various shade structure designs and natural shade were compared to assess the quality of the shade in regards to bumble bee activity during watermelon bloom. Quads receiving different nest treatments were evaluated on the basis of foraging activity and colony weight gain. Results indicated that colonies within quads provided with artificial or natural shade had significantly more foraging activity, weighed more, and produced more cells than colonies in quads placed in the field with no shade. Colonies within quads provided with artificial and natural shade peaked later in terms of foraging and weight gain, suggesting that growers could extend harvest to take advantage of later markets and possible movement into fields that were planted later. PMID:26470323

  10. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto." PMID:26470226

  11. Inheritance of Resistance to Powdery Mildew Race 1W in Watermelon.

    PubMed

    Ben-Naim, Yariv; Cohen, Yigal

    2015-11-01

    Powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii is a major disease of watermelon in Israel. In this study, 291 accessions of Citrullus spp. were evaluated for resistance against P. xanthii race 1W. Only eight accessions exhibited high level of resistance. Inheritance of resistance against P. xanthii race 1W was studied by crossing three resistant accession of Citrullus lanatus var. citroides BIU 119, PI 189225, or PI 482312 with the susceptible cultivar 'Malali' or 'Sugar Baby'. Parents, F1, F2, and back cross progenies were evaluated for resistance in growth chambers at the cotyledon stage and the 4-leaf stage and in the field, at the 15-leaf stage. Resistance at the cotyledon stage was controlled by a single, partially dominant gene, whereas at the 4-leaf stage or the 15-leaf stage resistance was controlled by three complimentary, partially dominant genes. Crosses made among these resistant accessions revealed that BIU 119 and PI 189225 carry the same genes for resistance, whereas PI 482312 shares two out of three genes with both BIU 119 and PI 189225. A breeding line with high resistance level and good fruit qualities was developed from BIU 119 × HA5500. PMID:26267543

  12. Evaluation of Appropriate Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization during Watermelon Fruit Development.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qiusheng; Yuan, Jingxian; Gao, Lingyun; Zhao, Liqiang; Cheng, Fei; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression analysis in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit has drawn considerable attention with the availability of genome sequences to understand the regulatory mechanism of fruit development and to improve its quality. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a routine technique for gene expression analysis. However, appropriate reference genes for transcript normalization in watermelon fruits have not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of 12 genes for their potential use as reference genes in watermelon fruits. Expression variations of these genes were measured in 48 samples obtained from 12 successive developmental stages of parthenocarpic and fertilized fruits of two watermelon genotypes by using qRT-PCR analysis. Considering the effects of genotype, fruit setting method, and developmental stage, geNorm determined clathrin adaptor complex subunit (ClCAC), β-actin (ClACT), and alpha tubulin 5 (ClTUA5) as the multiple reference genes in watermelon fruit. Furthermore, ClCAC alone or together with SAND family protein (ClSAND) was ranked as the single or two best reference genes by NormFinder. By using the top-ranked reference genes to normalize the transcript abundance of phytoene synthase (ClPSY1), a good correlation between lycopene accumulation and ClPSY1 expression pattern was observed in ripening watermelon fruit. These validated reference genes will facilitate the accurate measurement of gene expression in the studies on watermelon fruit biology. PMID:26110539

  13. A Casparian strip domain-like gene, CASPL, negatively alters growth and cold tolerance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinghua; Ding, Changqing; Xu, Baochen; Chen, Cuiting; Narsai, Reena; Whelan, Jim; Hu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Mingfang

    2015-01-01

    A cold-induced transcript encoding a Casparian strip membrane domain (CASP)-like protein (ClCASPL) was identified in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Fluorescence microscopy analysis showed that ClCASPL-GFP is localized in the plasma membrane. The orthologous gene in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtCASPL4C1) was also found to play an important role in cold tolerance. Expression analysis using a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter reveals that AtCASPL4C1 is widely expressed in a variety of organs and is cold inducible. Analysis of AtCASPL4C1 T-DNA knock-out plants showed altered growth dynamics, faster growth, increased biomass (dry weight) and earlier flowering compared to wild type (Col-0) and ClCASPL overexpressing plants. AtCASPL4C1 knock-out plants showed elevated tolerance to cold stress, while overexpressing CICASPL resulted in increased sensitivity to cold stress in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, AtCASPL4C1 knock-out plants did not display significant alterations in the Casparian strip formation in roots. Thus, the combination of these results suggests a role for CICASPL and AtCASPL4C1 beyond Casparian strip formation in roots, possibly indicating a more fundamental role in vascular tissue. PMID:26399665

  14. The FonSIX6 gene acts as an avirulence effector in the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum - watermelon pathosystem

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Xiaowei; Zhao, Xiaoqiang; Ling, Kai-Shu; Levi, Amnon; Sun, Yuyan; Fan, Min

    2016-01-01

    When infecting a host plant, the fungus Fusarium oxysporum secretes several effector proteins into the xylem tissue to promote virulence. However, in a host plant with an innate immune system involving analogous resistance proteins, the fungus effector proteins may trigger resistance, rather than promoting virulence. Identity of the effector genes of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon) races that affect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) are currently unknown. In this study, the SIX6 (secreted in xylem protein 6) gene was identified in Fon races 0 and 1 but not in the more virulent Fon race 2. Disrupting the FonSIX6 gene in Fon race 1 did not affect the sporulation or growth rate of the fungus but significantly enhanced Fon virulence in watermelon, suggesting that the mutant ΔFon1SIX6 protein allowed evasion of R protein-mediated host resistance. Complementation of the wild-type race 2 (which lacks FonSIX6) with FonSIX6 reduced its virulence. These results provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that FonSIX6 is an avirulence gene. The identification of FonSix6 as an avirulence factor may be a first step in understanding the mechanisms of Fon virulence and resistance in watermelon and further elucidating the role of Six6 in Fusarium-plant interactions. PMID:27320044

  15. Genome-wide identification and comparative analysis of grafting-responsive mRNA in watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd and squash rootstocks by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Yang, Jinghua; Fu, Xinxing; Zhang, Li; Tang, Kai; Guy, Kateta Malangisha; Hu, Zhongyuan; Guo, Shaogui; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Mingfang

    2016-04-01

    Grafting is an important agricultural technique widely used to improve plant growth, yield, and adaptation to either biotic or abiotic stresses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying grafting-induced physiological processes remain unclear. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) is an important horticultural crop worldwide. Grafting technique is commonly used in watermelon production for improving its tolerance to stresses, especially to the soil-borne fusarium wilt disease. In the present study, we used high-throughput sequencing to perform a genome-wide transcript analysis of scions from watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd and squash rootstocks. Our transcriptome and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling data provided insights into the molecular aspects of gene regulation in grafted watermelon. Compared with self-grafted watermelon, there were 787 and 3485 genes differentially expressed in watermelon grafted onto bottle gourd and squash rootstocks, respectively. These genes were associated with primary and secondary metabolism, hormone signaling, transcription factors, transporters, and response to stimuli. Grafting led to changes in expression of these genes, suggesting that they may play important roles in mediating the physiological processes of grafted seedlings. The potential roles of the grafting-responsive mRNAs in diverse biological and metabolic processes were discussed. Obviously, the data obtained in this study provide an excellent resource for unraveling the mechanisms of candidate genes function in diverse biological processes and in environmental adaptation in a graft system. PMID:26500104

  16. Analysis of gamma-irradiated melon, pumpkin, and sunflower seeds by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sin, Della W M; Wong, Yiu Chung; Yao, Wai Yin

    2006-09-20

    Seeds of melon (Citrullus lanatus var. sp.), pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata), and sunflower (Heliantus annus) were gamma-irradiated at 1, 3, 5, and 10 kGy and analyzed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) according to EN1787:2000 and EN1785:2003, respectively. Distinguishable triplet signals due to the presence of induced cellulose radicals were found at 2.0010-2.0047 g in the EPR spectra. The gamma-irradiated radiolytic markers of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB) and 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone (2-TCB) were identified in all irradiated seed samples. Both the free radicals and the alkylcyclobutanones were found to increase with irradiation dose. In general, linear relationships between the amount of radicals and irradiation dosage could be established. Studies at an ambient temperature (20-25 degrees C) in a humidity-controlled environment showed a complete disappearance of the cellulosic peaks for irradiated samples upon 60 days of storage. Such instability behavior was considered to render the usefulness of using EPR alone in the determination of irradiated seed samples. On the other hand, 2-DCB and 2-TCB were also found to decompose rapidly (>85% loss after 120 days of storage), but the radiolytic markers remained quantifiable after 120 days of postirradiation storage. These results suggest that GC-MS is a versatile and complimentary technique for the confirmation of irradiation treatment to seeds. PMID:16968077

  17. Determination of free amino acids in African gourd seed milks by capillary electrophoresis with light-emitting diode induced fluorescence and laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Enzonga, Josiane; Ong-Meang, Varravaddheay; Couderc, François; Boutonnet, Audrey; Poinsot, Véréna; Tsieri, Michel Mvoula; Silou, Thomas; Bouajila, Jalloul

    2013-09-01

    A CE technique coupled to LIF detection (488 nm) or LED-induced fluorescence detection (470 nm) has been evaluated to acquire a cheap way to analyze amino acids (AAs) whilst maintaining the best sensitivity. To quantitate AAs in milk of Cucurbitaceae of Sub-Saharan Africa, they were labeled with FITC. We used an optimized separation buffer composed of 30 mM boric acid buffer adjusted to pH 9.3 with NaOH (1 M) containing 12 mM SDS and 5% ethylene glycol v/v; prior to the injections, the derivatized samples are diluted 100 times. The LOQs in the sample are Arg: 1.1 μM, Ala: 3.5 μM, and Glu 8.9 μM. Cucumeropsis mannii (CM) Naudin and Citrullus lanatus (CL) are vegetable sources rich in proteins and AAs of high quality. Our analyses have led to the identification of 11 AAs in CL and CM milks. Phe, Trp, and Ala are predominant in the two types of lyophilized milks, while Asp and Val demonstrate very low contents. Six essential AAs (Phe, Thr, Val, Trp, Ile, and Leu) are present in both types of extracts, but lysine was not detected, indicating that this AA is missing in gourd milk. These results should be useful in efforts to complement or replace very expensive cow milk or the less-appreciated soya milk with milk from available local agroressources. PMID:23857426

  18. Biochemical Analysis of Plant Protection Afforded by a Nonpathogenic Endophytic Mutant of Colletotrichum magna1

    PubMed Central

    Redman, Regina S.; Freeman, Stanley; Clifton, David R.; Morrel, Jed; Brown, Gayle; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

    1999-01-01

    A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) “plant-defense” response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and -susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1-colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection. PMID:9952476

  19. A Casparian strip domain-like gene, CASPL, negatively alters growth and cold tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jinghua; Ding, Changqing; Xu, Baochen; Chen, Cuiting; Narsai, Reena; Whelan, Jim; Hu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Mingfang

    2015-01-01

    A cold-induced transcript encoding a Casparian strip membrane domain (CASP)-like protein (ClCASPL) was identified in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Fluorescence microscopy analysis showed that ClCASPL-GFP is localized in the plasma membrane. The orthologous gene in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtCASPL4C1) was also found to play an important role in cold tolerance. Expression analysis using a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter reveals that AtCASPL4C1 is widely expressed in a variety of organs and is cold inducible. Analysis of AtCASPL4C1 T-DNA knock-out plants showed altered growth dynamics, faster growth, increased biomass (dry weight) and earlier flowering compared to wild type (Col-0) and ClCASPL overexpressing plants. AtCASPL4C1 knock-out plants showed elevated tolerance to cold stress, while overexpressing CICASPL resulted in increased sensitivity to cold stress in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, AtCASPL4C1 knock-out plants did not display significant alterations in the Casparian strip formation in roots. Thus, the combination of these results suggests a role for CICASPL and AtCASPL4C1 beyond Casparian strip formation in roots, possibly indicating a more fundamental role in vascular tissue. PMID:26399665

  20. Microplot Evaluation of Rootstocks for Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Grafted Tomato, Muskmelon, and Watermelon.

    PubMed

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Rosskopf, Erin N

    2011-09-01

    Microplot experiments were conducted over two years (four growing seasons) to evaluate Meloidogyne incognita resistance in rootstocks used for grafted tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), muskmelon (Cucumis melo), and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Three tomato rootstocks; 'TX301', 'Multifort', and 'Aloha', were tested in addition to the nongrafted scion, 'Florida-47'. Two muskmelon rootstocks; Cucumis metuliferus and 'Tetsukabuto' (Cucurbita maxima × Cucurbita moschata) were evaluated with the nongrafted scion 'Athena'. Two watermelon rootstocks included 'Emphasis', a lagenaria-type, and an interspecific squash hybrid 'StrongTosa', which were grafted to the scion 'TriX Palomar' and planted only in the second year. Microplots were infested with M. incognita eggs in September each year. Tomatoes were planted in September followed by melons in March. In both years of the study, M. incognita juveniles (J2) in soil were similar among all tomato rootstocks, but numbers in roots were higher in the nongrafted Florida 47 than in all grafted rootstocks. In muskmelon only C. metuliferus rootstock reduced galling in nematode infested soil. Tetsukabuto did not reduce numbers of M. incognita J2 in either soil or roots either year. There were no differences in nematode numbers, galling, or plant growth parameters among the watermelon rootstocks tested. The use of resistant rootstocks has great potential for improving nematode control in the absence of soil fumigants. PMID:23431109

  1. Programmed proteome response for drought avoidance/tolerance in the root of a C(3) xerophyte (wild watermelon) under water deficits.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Kazuya; Masuda, Akiko; Kuwano, Masayoshi; Yokota, Akiho; Akashi, Kinya

    2008-02-01

    Water availability is a critical determinant for the growth and ecological distribution of terrestrial plants. Although some xerophytes are unique regarding their highly developed root architecture and the successful adaptation to arid environments, virtually nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying this adaptation. Here, we report physiological and molecular responses of wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus sp.), which exhibits extraordinarily high drought resistance. At the early stage of drought stress, root development of wild watermelon was significantly enhanced compared with that of the irrigated plants, indicating the activation of a drought avoidance mechanism for absorbing water from deep soil layers. Consistent with this observation, comparative proteome analysis revealed that many proteins induced in the early stage of drought stress are involved in root morphogenesis and carbon/nitrogen metabolism, which may contribute to the drought avoidance via the enhancement of root growth. On the other hand, lignin synthesis-related proteins and molecular chaperones, which may function in the enhancement of physical desiccation tolerance and maintenance of protein integrity, respectively, were induced mostly at the later stage of drought stress. Our findings suggest that this xerophyte switches survival strategies from drought avoidance to drought tolerance during the progression of drought stress, by regulating its root proteome in a temporally programmed manner. This study provides new insights into the complex molecular networks within plant roots involved in the adaptation to adverse environments. PMID:18178965

  2. Lipoxygenase and Hydroperoxide Lyase in Germinating Watermelon Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Vick, Brady A.; Zimmerman, Don C.

    1976-01-01

    Lipoxygenase (EC 1.13.1.13) was found in seedlings of Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai (watermelon). The enzyme has pH optima of 4.4 and 5.5 and is inhibited by 0.2 mM nordihydroguaiaretic acid. It is present in two functional units with estimated molecular weights of 120,000 and 240,000, respectively. A new enzyme, tentatively termed hydroperoxide lyase, has been partially purified from watermelon seedlings. The enzyme, located principally in the region of the hypocotyl-root junction, catalyzes the conversion of 13-l-hydroperoxy-cis-9-trans-11-octadecadienoic acid to 12-oxo-trans-10-dodecenoic acid and hexanal. The hydroperoxide lyase enzyme from watermelon has a molecular weight in excess of 250,000, a pH optimum in the range of 6 to 6.5, and is inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoic acid. Its presence has also been demonstrated in other cucurbits. The maximum activity of both enzymes occurs on the 6th day of germination. The identification of the products of the hydroperoxide lyase reaction suggests that lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase may be involved in the conversion of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids to traumatic acid (trans-2-dodecenedioic acid). PMID:16659569

  3. In vitro physicochemical, phytochemical and functional properties of fiber rich fractions derived from by-products of six fruits.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Sangeeta; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2016-03-01

    A comparative study was done on the health promoting and functional properties of the fibers obtained as by-products from six fruits viz., pomace of carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) and pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr), peels of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), Burmese grape (Baccurea sapida Muell. Arg) and Khasi mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and blossom of seeded banana (Musa balbisiana, ABB). Highest yield of fiber was obtained from Burmese grape peel (BGPL, 79.94 ± 0.41 g/100 g) and seeded banana blossom (BB 77.18 ± 0.20 g/100 g). The total dietary fiber content (TDF) was highest in fiber fraction derived from pineapple pomace (PNPM, 79.76 ± 0.42 g/100 g) and BGPL (67.27 ± 0.39 g/100 g). All the samples contained insoluble dietary fiber as the major fiber fraction. The fiber samples showed good water holding, oil holding and swelling capacities. The fiber samples exhibited antioxidant activity. All the samples showed good results for glucose adsorption, amylase activity inhibition, glucose diffusion rate and glucose diffusion reduction rate index. PMID:27570274

  4. Watermelon origin solved with molecular phylogenetics including Linnaean material: another example of museomics.

    PubMed

    Chomicki, Guillaume; Renner, Susanne S

    2015-01-01

    Type specimens are permanently preserved biological specimens that fix the usage of species names. This method became widespread from 1935 onwards and is now obligatory. We used DNA sequencing of types and more recent collections of wild and cultivated melons to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the genus Citrullus and the correct names for its species. We discovered that the type specimen of the name Citrullus lanatus, prepared by a Linnaean collector in South Africa in 1773, is not the species now thought of as watermelon. Instead, it is a representative of another species that is sister to C. ecirrhosus, a tendril-less South African endemic. The closest relative of the watermelon instead is a West African species. Our nuclear and plastid data furthermore reveal that there are seven species of Citrullus, not four as assumed. Our study implies that sweet watermelon originates from West, not southern Africa as previously believed, and that the South African citron melon has been independently domesticated. These findings affect and explain numerous studies on the origin of these two crops that led to contradictory results because of the erroneous merging of several distinct species. PMID:25358433

  5. Occurrence and distribution of ten viruses infecting cucurbit plants in Guilan province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Gholamalizadeh, R; Vahdat, A; Keshavarz, T; Elahinia, A; Bananej, K

    2008-01-01

    During the 2006 and 2007 growing seasons, a systematic survey was conducted in open-field of melon (Cucumis melo L.), cucumber (C. sativus L.), squash (Cucurbita sp.), and watermelon (Citrulus lanatus L.) crops in 16 major cucurbit-growing areas of Guilan province in Iran. Symptomatic leaf samples were collected and screened by double-antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA) or RT-PCR to detect Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Squash mosaic virus (SqMV), Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W), Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV), Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV), Zucchini yellow fleck virus (ZYFV), and Ourmia melon virus (OuMV). The majority of tested samples (73.7%) were infected by at least one of the viruses considered. OuMV, ZYMV, WMV, and WmCSV were the most prevalent viruses and were detected in tested cucurbit plants. The incidence of multiple infections with 2 or more viruses was also relatively high, 63.3, 48.6, 42.7, and 26.7% of the infected samples of melon, cucumber, squash, and watermelon, respectively. The high incidence of OuMV and WmCSV suggested that these viruses might turn out to be an important threat for the melon and cucumber crops in the province. PMID:18564898

  6. Association between photosynthesis and contrasting features of minor veins in leaves of summer annuals loading phloem via symplastic versus apoplastic routes.

    PubMed

    Muller, Onno; Cohu, Christopher M; Stewart, Jared J; Protheroe, Johanna A; Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Adams, William W

    2014-09-01

    Foliar vascular anatomy and photosynthesis were evaluated for a number of summer annual species that either load sugars into the phloem via a symplastic route (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Straight Eight; Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Italian Zucchini Romanesco; Citrullus lanatus L. cv. Faerie Hybrid; Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Autumn Gold) or an apoplastic route (Nicotiana tabacum L.; Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Brandywine; Gossypium hirsutum L.; Helianthus annuus L. cv. Soraya), as well as winter annual apoplastic loaders (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Giant Nobel; Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynhold Col-0, Swedish and Italian ecotypes). For all summer annuals, minor vein cross-sectional xylem area and tracheid number as well as the ratio of phloem loading cells to phloem sieve elements, each when normalized for foliar vein density (VD), was correlated with photosynthesis. These links presumably reflect (1) the xylem's role in providing water to meet foliar transpirational demand supporting photosynthesis and (2) the importance of the driving force of phloem loading as well as the cross-sectional area for phloem sap flux to match foliar photosynthate production. While photosynthesis correlated with the product of VD and cross-sectional phloem cell area among symplastic loaders, photosynthesis correlated with the product of VD and phloem cell number per vein among summer annual apoplastic loaders. Phloem cell size has thus apparently been a target of selection among symplastic loaders (where loading depends on enzyme concentration within loading cells) versus phloem cell number among apoplastic loaders (where loading depends on membrane transporter numbers). PMID:24450755

  7. Biochemical analysis of plant protection afforded by a nonpathogenic endophytic mutant of Colletotrichum magna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Redman, R.S.; Freeman, S.; Clifton, D.R.; Morrel, J.; Brown, G.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) 'plant-defense' response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and -susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1 colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection.

  8. The Cucurbits of Mediterranean Antiquity: Identification of Taxa from Ancient Images and Descriptions

    PubMed Central

    Janick, Jules; Paris, Harry S.; Parrish, David C.

    2007-01-01

    Background A critical analysis was made of cucurbit descriptions in Dioscorides' De Materia Medica, Columella's De Re Rustica and Pliny's Historia Naturalis, works on medicine, agriculture and natural science of the 1st century ce, as well as the Mishna and Tosefta, compilations of rabbinic law derived from the same time period together with cucurbit images dating from antiquity including paintings, mosaics and sculpture. The goal was to identify taxonomically the Mediterranean cucurbits at the time of the Roman Empire. Findings By ancient times, long-fruited forms of Cucumis melo (melon) and Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd) were selected, cultivated and used as vegetables around the Mediterranean and, in addition, bottle-shaped fruits of L. siceraria were employed as vessels. Citrullus lanatus (watermelons) and round-fruited forms of Cucumis melo (melons) were also consumed, but less commonly. A number of cucurbit species, including Bryonia alba, B. dioica, Citrullus colocynthis and Ecballium elaterium, were employed for medicinal purposes. No unequivocal evidence was found to suggest the presence of Cucumis sativus (cucumber) in the Mediterranean area during this era. The cucumis of Columella and Pliny was not cucumber, as commonly translated, but Cucumis melo subsp. melo Flexuosus Group (snake melon or vegetable melon). PMID:17932073

  9. Cucurbitacin L 2-O-β-Glucoside Demonstrates Apoptogenesis in Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells (HT-29): Involvement of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species Regulation.

    PubMed

    Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Hassan, Loiy Elsir Ahmed; Abdul Majid, Amin M S; Yagi, Sakina M Ahmed; Mohan, Syam; Elhassan Taha, Manal Mohamed; Ahmad, Syahida; Chuen, Cheah Shiau; Narrima, Putri; Rais, Mohd Mustafa; Syam, Suvitha; Moharam, Bushra Abdulkarim; Hadi, A Hamid A

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species can contribute to diverse signalling pathways of inflammatory and tumour cells. Cucurbitacins are a group of highly oxygenated triterpenes. Many plants used in folk medicine to treat cancer have been found to contain cucurbitacins displaying potentially important anti-inflammatory actions. The current study was designed to investigate the anti-ROS and -RNS effects of cucurbitacin L 2-O-β-glucoside (CLG) and the role of these signaling factors in the apoptogenic effects of CLG on human colon cancer cells (HT-29). This natural cucurbitacin was isolated purely from Citrullus lanatus var. citroides (Cucurbitaceae). The results revealed that CLG was cytotoxic to HT-29. CLG increased significantly (P < 0.05) RNA and protein levels of caspase-3 in HT-29 cells when verified using a colorimetric assay and realtime qPCR, respectively. The results showed that lipopolysaccharide/interferon-gamma (LPS/INF-γ) increased nitrous oxide (NO) production inR AW264.7macrophages, whereas N(G)-nitro-L-argininemethyl ester (L-NAME) and CLG curtailed it. This compound did not reveal any cytotoxicity on RAW264.7 macrophages and human normal liver cells (WRL-68) when tested using the MTT assay. Findings of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) assays demonstrate the antioxidant properties of CLG. The apoptogenic property of CLG on HT-29 cells is thus related to inhibition of reactive nitrogen and oxygen reactive species and the triggering of caspase-3-regulated apoptosis. PMID:22685485

  10. Cucurbitacin L 2-O-β-Glucoside Demonstrates Apoptogenesis in Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells (HT-29): Involvement of Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Hassan, Loiy Elsir Ahmed; Abdul Majid, Amin M. S.; Yagi, Sakina M. Ahmed; Mohan, Syam; Elhassan Taha, Manal Mohamed; Ahmad, Syahida; Chuen, Cheah Shiau; Narrima, Putri; Rais, Mohd Mustafa; Syam, Suvitha; Moharam, Bushra Abdulkarim; Hadi, A. Hamid A.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species can contribute to diverse signalling pathways of inflammatory and tumour cells. Cucurbitacins are a group of highly oxygenated triterpenes. Many plants used in folk medicine to treat cancer have been found to contain cucurbitacins displaying potentially important anti-inflammatory actions. The current study was designed to investigate the anti-ROS and -RNS effects of cucurbitacin L 2-O-β-glucoside (CLG) and the role of these signaling factors in the apoptogenic effects of CLG on human colon cancer cells (HT-29). This natural cucurbitacin was isolated purely from Citrullus lanatus var. citroides (Cucurbitaceae). The results revealed that CLG was cytotoxic to HT-29. CLG increased significantly (P < 0.05) RNA and protein levels of caspase-3 in HT-29 cells when verified using a colorimetric assay and realtime qPCR, respectively. The results showed that lipopolysaccharide/interferon-gamma (LPS/INF-γ) increased nitrous oxide (NO) production inR AW264.7macrophages, whereas N(G)-nitro-L-argininemethyl ester (L-NAME) and CLG curtailed it. This compound did not reveal any cytotoxicity on RAW264.7 macrophages and human normal liver cells (WRL-68) when tested using the MTT assay. Findings of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) assays demonstrate the antioxidant properties of CLG. The apoptogenic property of CLG on HT-29 cells is thus related to inhibition of reactive nitrogen and oxygen reactive species and the triggering of caspase-3-regulated apoptosis. PMID:22685485

  11. Predicting Damage of Meloidogyne incognita on Watermelon.

    PubMed

    Xing, Lijuan; Westphal, Andreas

    2012-06-01

    Quantitative growth response of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) sensitive to Meloidogyne incognita is poorly understood. Determination of soil population densities of second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita with Baermann funnel extraction often is inaccurate at low soil temperatures. In greenhouse experiments, three sandy soils were inoculated with dilution series of population densities of eggs or J2 of M. incognita and planted in small containers to watermelon 'Royal Sweet' or subjected to Baermann funnel extraction. After five weeks of incubation in the greenhouse bioassay plants in egg-inoculated soils, gall numbers on watermelon roots related more closely to inoculated population densities than J2 counts after Baermann funnel extraction. In April 2004, perpendicularly-inserted tubes (45-cm diameter, 55-cm deep) served as microplots where two methyl bromide-fumigated sandy soils were inoculated with egg suspensions of M. incognita at 0, 100, 1,000 or 10,000 eggs/100 cm(3) of soil in 15-cm depth. At transplanting of 4-week old watermelon seedlings, soils were sampled for the bioassay or for extraction of J2 by Baermann funnel. In the Seinhorst function of harvested biomass in relation to nematode numbers, decline of biomass with increasing population densities of M. incognita was accurately modeled by the inoculated eggs (R(2) = 0.93) and by the counts of galls on the bioassay roots (R(2) = 0.98); but poorly by J2 counts (R(2) = 0.68). Threshold levels of watermelon top dry weight to M. incognita were 122 eggs/100 cm(3) soil, 1.6 galls on bioassay roots, or 3.6 J2/100 cm(3) of soil. Using the bioassay in early spring for predicting risk of nematode damage appeared useful in integrated pest management systems of watermelon. PMID:23482631

  12. Spatial pattern and sequential sampling of squash bug (Heteroptera: Coreidae) adults in watermelon.

    PubMed

    Dogramaci, Mahmut; Shrefler, James W; Giles, Kristopher; Edelson, J V

    2006-04-01

    Spatial distribution patterns of adult squash bugs were determined in watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Thunberg) Matsumura and Nakai, during 2001 and 2002. Results of analysis using Taylor's power law regression model indicated that squash bugs were aggregated in watermelon. Taylor's power law provided a good fit with r2 = 0.94. A fixed precision sequential sampling plan was developed for estimating adult squash bug density at fixed precision levels in watermelon. The plan was tested using a resampling simulation method on nine and 13 independent data sets ranging in density from 0.15 to 2.52 adult squash bugs per plant. Average estimated means obtained in 100 repeated simulation runs were within the 95% CI of the true means for all the data. Average estimated levels of precision were similar to the desired level of precision, particularly when the sampling plan was tested on data having an average mean density of 1.19 adult squash bugs per plant. Also, a sequential sampling for classifying adult squash bug density as below or above economic threshold was developed to assist in the decision-making process. The classification sampling plan is advantageous in that it requires smaller sample sizes to estimate the population status when the population density differs greatly from the action threshold. However, the plan may require excessively large sample sizes when the density is close to the threshold. Therefore, an integrated sequential sampling plan was developed using a combination of a fixed precision and classification sequential sampling plans. The integration of sampling plans can help reduce sampling requirements. PMID:16686160

  13. Cucurbits depicted in Byzantine mosaics from Israel, 350–600 ce

    PubMed Central

    Avital, Anat; Paris, Harry S.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Thousands of floor mosaics were produced in lands across the Roman and Byzantine empires. Some mosaics contain depictions of agricultural produce, potentially providing useful information concerning the contemporary presence and popularity of crop plants in a particular geographical region. Hundreds of floor mosaics produced in Israel during the Byzantine period have survived. The objective of the present work was to search these mosaics for Cucurbitaceae in order to obtain a more complete picture of cucurbit crop history in the eastern Mediterranean region. Results and Conclusions Twenty-three mosaics dating from 350–600 ce were found that had images positively identifiable as cucurbits. The morphological diversity of the cucurbit fruits in the mosaics of Israel is greater than that appearing in mosaics from any other Roman or Byzantine provincial area. The depicted fruits vary in shape from oblate to extremely long, and some are furrowed, others are striped and others lack definite markings. The cucurbit taxa depicted in the mosaics are Cucumis melo (melon), Citrullus lanatus (watermelon), Luffa aegyptiaca (sponge gourd) and Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd). Cucumis melo is the most frequently found taxon in the mosaics and is represented by round dessert melons and long snake melons. Fruits of at least two cultivars of snake melons and of watermelons are represented. To our knowledge, images of sponge gourds have not been found in Roman and Byzantine mosaics elsewhere. Indeed, the mosaics of Israel contain what are probably the oldest depictions of Luffa aegyptiaca in Mediterranean lands. Sponge gourds are depicted often, in 11 of the mosaics at eight localities, and the images include both mature fruits, which are useful for cleaning and washing, and immature fruits, which are edible. Only one mosaic has images positively identifiable as of bottle gourds, and these were round–pyriform and probably used as vessels. PMID:24948671

  14. A Major Latex-Like Protein Is a Key Factor in Crop Contamination by Persistent Organic Pollutants1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Inui, Hideyuki; Sawada, Mami; Goto, Junya; Yamazaki, Kiyoshi; Kodama, Noriko; Tsuruta, Hiroki; Eun, Heesoo

    2013-01-01

    This is the first report, to our knowledge, to reveal important factors by which members of the Cucurbitaceae family, such as cucumber (Cucumis sativus), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), melon (Cucumis melo), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo), squash (C. pepo), and zucchini (C. pepo), are selectively polluted with highly toxic hydrophobic contaminants, including organochlorine insecticides and dioxins. Xylem sap of C. pepo ssp. pepo, which is a high accumulator of hydrophobic compounds, solubilized the hydrophobic compound pyrene into the aqueous phase via some protein(s). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of xylem sap of two C. pepo subspecies revealed that the amount of 17-kD proteins in C. pepo ssp. pepo was larger than that in C. pepo ssp. ovifera, a low accumulator, suggesting that these proteins may be related to the translocation of hydrophobic compounds. The protein bands at 17 kD contained major latex-like proteins (MLPs), and the corresponding genes MLP-PG1, MLP-GR1, and MLP-GR3 were cloned from the C. pepo cultivars Patty Green and Gold Rush. Expression of the MLP-GR3 gene in C. pepo cultivars was positively correlated with the band intensity of 17-kD proteins and bioconcentration factors toward dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Recombinant MLP-GR3 bound polychlorinated biphenyls immobilized on magnetic beads, whereas recombinant MLP-PG1 and MLP-GR1 did not. These results indicate that the high expression of MLP-GR3 in C. pepo ssp. pepo plants and the existence of MLP-GR3 in their xylem sap are related to the efficient translocation of hydrophobic contaminants. These findings should be useful for decreasing the contamination of fruit of the Cucurbitaceae family as well as the phytoremediation of hydrophobic contaminants. PMID:23404917

  15. Medieval emergence of sweet melons, Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.; Amar, Zohar; Lev, Efraim

    2012-01-01

    Background Sweet melons, Cucumis melo, are a widely grown and highly prized crop. While melons were familiar in antiquity, they were grown mostly for use of the young fruits, which are similar in appearance and taste to cucumbers, C. sativus. The time and place of emergence of sweet melons is obscure, but they are generally thought to have reached Europe from the east near the end of the 15th century. The objective of the present work was to determine where and when truly sweet melons were first developed. Methods Given their large size and sweetness, melons are often confounded with watermelons, Citrullus lanatus, so a list was prepared of the characteristics distinguishing between them. An extensive search of literature from the Roman and medieval periods was conducted and the findings were considered in their context against this list and particularly in regard to the use of the word ‘melon’ and of adjectives for sweetness and colour. Findings Medieval lexicographies and an illustrated Arabic translation of Dioscorides' herbal suggest that sweet melons were present in Central Asia in the mid-9th century. A travelogue description indicates the presence of sweet melons in Khorasan and Persia by the mid-10th century. Agricultural literature from Andalusia documents the growing of sweet melons, evidently casabas (Inodorous Group), there by the second half of the 11th century, which probably arrived from Central Asia as a consequence of Islamic conquest, trade and agricultural development. Climate and geopolitical boundaries were the likely causes of the delay in the spread of sweet melons into the rest of Europe. PMID:22648880

  16. The Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae illustrated in medieval manuscripts known as the Tacuinum Sanitatis

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Beginning in the last two decades of the 14th century, richly illuminated versions of the Tacuinum Sanitatis, the Latin translation of an 11th-century Arabic manuscript known as Taqwim al-Sihha bi al-Ashab al-Sitta, were produced in northern Italy. These illustrated manuscripts provide a window on late medieval life in that region by containing some 200 full-page illustrations, many of which vividly depict the harvest of vegetables, fruits, flowers, grains, aromatics and medicinal plants. Our objective was to search for and identify the images of taxa of Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae. Methods We have located all reported illustrated Tacuinum Sanitatis and similar or related manuscripts, searched through printed or electronic reproductions of them, categorized six of them that display full-page illustrations as archetypic, and established the identity of the Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae appearing in these six manuscripts. Key Results and Conclusions Of the Cucurbitaceae, Cucumis sativus (short-fruited cucumbers), Cucumis melo (including round as well as elongate melons), Citrullus lanatus (both sweet watermelons and citrons), and Lagenaria siceraria (including bottle-shaped as well as long gourds), are illustrated. Of the Solanaceae, Solanum melongena (egg-shaped purple aubergines) and Mandragora sp. (mandrake) are illustrated. These depictions include some of the earliest known images of cucumber, casaba melon (Cucumis melo Inodorous Group) and aubergine, each of which closely resembles an extant cultivar-group or market type. Overall, the botanically most accurate images are in the version of the Tacuinum located in the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna, cod. ser. n. 2644. Similarities and differences in botanical accuracy among the images of Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae in the six archetypal Tacuinum manuscripts suggest to us that another illustrated Tacuinum, now lost, may have antedated and served as a model or inspiration for the

  17. Bottle gourd rootstock-grafting promotes photosynthesis by regulating the stomata and non-stomata performances in leaves of watermelon seedlings under NaCl stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanjuan; Yu, Li; Wang, Liping; Guo, Shirong

    2015-08-15

    Previously, we found that the amelioration of photosynthetic capacity by bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.) rootstock in watermelon seedlings (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Mansf.) with salt treatment might be closely related to the enzymes in Calvin cycle such as ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) (Yang et al., 2012). We confirmed this and showed more details in this study that improved photosynthesis of watermelon plants by bottle gourd rootstock was associated with the decreased stomata resistance and the increased photochemical activity and photosynthetic metabolism with or without 100mM NaCl stress for 3 days. The analysis of gas exchange parameters showed that self-grafted plants suffered serious non-stomatal limitation to photosynthesis under salt stress while rootstock-grafted plants were mainly affected by stomata limitation in stress conditions. Further, results showed that NaCl stress markedly reduced the chlorophyll content, damaged the structure of photosynthetic apparatus, and inhibited photochemical activity and CO2 assimilation in self-grafted plants. In contrast, rootstock-grafting increased the chlorophyll content, especially chlorophyll b, and minimized the harmful effects on photosystem II (PSII) reaction center and the thylakoids structure induced by NaCl stress. Furthermore, rootstock-grafting enhanced the content and activity of Rubisco and thus elevated carbon fixation in the leaves of watermelon scions under salt stress. The gene expressions of enzymes related to ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration were also up-regulated by rootstock and this probably guaranteed the sufficient supply of RuBP for the operation of Calvin cycle in watermelon scions under salt stress. Thus, bottle gourd rootstock promoted photosynthesis by the activation of stomatal and non-stomatal abilities, especially the regulation of a variety of photosynthetic enzymes, including Rubisco in grafted watermelon plants under NaCl stress

  18. Transmission of Squash vein yellowing virus to and From Cucurbit Weeds and Effects on Sweetpotato Whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Behavior.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, D; McAuslane, H J; Adkins, S T; Smith, H A; Dufault, N; Webb, S E

    2016-08-01

    Since 2003, growers of Florida watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] have periodically suffered large losses from a disease caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), which is transmitted by the whitefly Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), formerly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B. Common cucurbit weeds like balsam apple (Momordica charantia L.) and smellmelon [Cucumis melo var. dudaim (L.) Naud.] are natural hosts of SqVYV, and creeping cucumber (Melothria pendula L.) is an experimental host. Study objectives were to compare these weeds and 'Mickylee' watermelon as sources of inoculum for SqVYV via MEAM1 transmission, to determine weed susceptibility to SqVYV, and to evaluate whitefly settling and oviposition behaviors on infected vs. mock-inoculated (inoculated with buffer only) creeping cucumber leaves. We found that the lowest percentage of watermelon recipient plants was infected when balsam apple was used as a source of inoculum. Watermelon was more susceptible to infection than balsam apple or smellmelon. However, all weed species were equally susceptible to SqVYV when inoculated by whitefly. For the first 5 h after release, whiteflies had no preference to settle on infected vs. mock-inoculated creeping cucumber leaves. After 24 h, whiteflies preferred to settle on mock-inoculated leaves, and more eggs were laid on mock-inoculated creeping cucumber leaves than on SqVYV-infected leaves. The transmission experiments (source of inoculum and susceptibility) show these weed species as potential inoculum sources of the virus. The changing settling preference of whiteflies from infected to mock-inoculated plants could lead to rapid spread of virus in the agroecosystem. PMID:27400705

  19. Predicting Damage of Meloidogyne incognita on Watermelon

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Lijuan; Westphal, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative growth response of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) sensitive to Meloidogyne incognita is poorly understood. Determination of soil population densities of second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita with Baermann funnel extraction often is inaccurate at low soil temperatures. In greenhouse experiments, three sandy soils were inoculated with dilution series of population densities of eggs or J2 of M. incognita and planted in small containers to watermelon ‘Royal Sweet’ or subjected to Baermann funnel extraction. After five weeks of incubation in the greenhouse bioassay plants in egg-inoculated soils, gall numbers on watermelon roots related more closely to inoculated population densities than J2 counts after Baermann funnel extraction. In April 2004, perpendicularly-inserted tubes (45-cm diameter, 55-cm deep) served as microplots where two methyl bromide-fumigated sandy soils were inoculated with egg suspensions of M. incognita at 0, 100, 1,000 or 10,000 eggs/100 cm3 of soil in 15-cm depth. At transplanting of 4-week old watermelon seedlings, soils were sampled for the bioassay or for extraction of J2 by Baermann funnel. In the Seinhorst function of harvested biomass in relation to nematode numbers, decline of biomass with increasing population densities of M. incognita was accurately modeled by the inoculated eggs (R2 = 0.93) and by the counts of galls on the bioassay roots (R2 = 0.98); but poorly by J2 counts (R2 = 0.68). Threshold levels of watermelon top dry weight to M. incognita were 122 eggs/100 cm3 soil, 1.6 galls on bioassay roots, or 3.6 J2/100 cm3 of soil. Using the bioassay in early spring for predicting risk of nematode damage appeared useful in integrated pest management systems of watermelon. PMID:23482631

  20. Microsatellite markers linked to the locus of the watermelon fruit stripe pattern.

    PubMed

    Gama, R N C S; Santos, C A F; Dias, R C S; Alves, J C S F; Nogueira, T O

    2015-01-01

    Agronomic performance and external and internal appearance of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit are important traits that should be taken into consideration during the development of a new cultivar, as well as being the principal identification elements used by the consumer, which are based on the external appearance and quality of the fruit. Externally, the fruit can be characterized in terms of the shape, the color of the lower rind, and the presence of grooves and stripes, the stripes can be classified as clearly defined or diffuse. The objective of this study was to identify microsatellite markers linked to the stripe pattern of watermelon fruit to support watermelon improvement programs, with the selection of this characteristic in the plantlet stage. F1 and F2 populations, result of a cross between the cultivars BRS Opara (clearly defined stripes) and Pérola (diffuse stripes), were phenotyped for their fruit stripe pattern. The CTAB 2X protocol was used for DNA extraction and 116 microsatellite markers were examined in a group of F2 plants that had fruit with well-defined stripes and fruit with diffuse stripes. The microsatellite loci MCPI_05 and MCPI_16 exhibited a linkage to the stripe pattern at a distance of 1.5 and 1.8 cM, respectively, with LOD scores of 39.28 and 38.11, respectively, which were located on chromosome six of the watermelon genome. These markers can be used in marker-assisted selection in watermelon improvement programs, by various research institutions. PMID:25729959

  1. Developmental Biology of Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Three Cucurbitaceous Hosts at Different Temperature Regimes.

    PubMed

    Mkiga, A M; Mwatawala, M W

    2015-01-01

    Fruit flies are key pests of cucurbits in many parts of the world, including Tanzania. Developmental biology of Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett) has been determined across temperature regimes in some cucurbitaceous hosts, in limited geographies. This study was conducted to determine duration and survival rates of immature stages of Z. cucurbitae in three cucurbitaceous hosts, at different temperature regimes. It was hypothesized that temperature and cucurbitaceous hosts influence duration and survival of immature stages of Z. cucurbitae. We conducted experiments in the environmental chamber set at 75 ± 10% RH and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h, at temperatures of 20, 25, and 30°. Our results showed that duration and survival of immature stages of Z. cucurbitae differed significantly among the temperature regimes but not among the hosts. Egg incubation period as well as larval and pupal stages were significantly longer (P < 0.0001) at low temperature in all three hosts Likewise, survival rate of all immature stages were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) at higher than lower temperatures. The three hosts, cucumber (Cucumis sativus), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai), and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) did not significantly affect duration or survival rates of immature stages of Z. cucurbitae. The low developmental thresholds were estimated at 15.88, 13.44, and 12.62 for egg, larva and pupa, respectively. These results further confirm that Z. cucurbitae is well adapted to warm climate, which dominates many areas of Tanzania. PMID:26589874

  2. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Cultivated and Wild Watermelon during Fruit Development.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shaogui; Sun, Honghe; Zhang, Haiying; Liu, Jingan; Ren, Yi; Gong, Guoyi; Jiao, Chen; Zheng, Yi; Yang, Wencai; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is an important vegetable crop world-wide. Watermelon fruit quality is a complex trait determined by various factors such as sugar content, flesh color and flesh texture. Fruit quality and developmental process of cultivated and wild watermelon are highly different. To systematically understand the molecular basis of these differences, we compared transcriptome profiles of fruit tissues of cultivated watermelon 97103 and wild watermelon PI296341-FR. We identified 2,452, 826 and 322 differentially expressed genes in cultivated flesh, cultivated mesocarp and wild flesh, respectively, during fruit development. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these genes indicated that biological processes and metabolic pathways related to fruit quality such as sweetness and flavor were significantly changed only in the flesh of 97103 during fruit development, while those related to abiotic stress response were changed mainly in the flesh of PI296341-FR. Our comparative transcriptome profiling analysis identified critical genes potentially involved in controlling fruit quality traits including α-galactosidase, invertase, UDP-galactose/glucose pyrophosphorylase and sugar transporter genes involved in the determination of fruit sugar content, phytoene synthase, β-carotene hydroxylase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase genes involved in carotenoid metabolism, and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase, cellulose synthase, pectinesterase, pectinesterase inhibitor, polygalacturonase inhibitor and α-mannosidase genes involved in the regulation of flesh texture. In addition, we found that genes in the ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway including ACC oxidase, ethylene receptor and ethylene responsive factor showed highly ripening-associated expression patterns, indicating a possible role of ethylene in fruit development and ripening of watermelon, a non-climacteric fruit. Our analysis provides

  3. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Cultivated and Wild Watermelon during Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shaogui; Sun, Honghe; Zhang, Haiying; Liu, Jingan; Ren, Yi; Gong, Guoyi; Jiao, Chen; Zheng, Yi; Yang, Wencai; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is an important vegetable crop world-wide. Watermelon fruit quality is a complex trait determined by various factors such as sugar content, flesh color and flesh texture. Fruit quality and developmental process of cultivated and wild watermelon are highly different. To systematically understand the molecular basis of these differences, we compared transcriptome profiles of fruit tissues of cultivated watermelon 97103 and wild watermelon PI296341-FR. We identified 2,452, 826 and 322 differentially expressed genes in cultivated flesh, cultivated mesocarp and wild flesh, respectively, during fruit development. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these genes indicated that biological processes and metabolic pathways related to fruit quality such as sweetness and flavor were significantly changed only in the flesh of 97103 during fruit development, while those related to abiotic stress response were changed mainly in the flesh of PI296341-FR. Our comparative transcriptome profiling analysis identified critical genes potentially involved in controlling fruit quality traits including α-galactosidase, invertase, UDP-galactose/glucose pyrophosphorylase and sugar transporter genes involved in the determination of fruit sugar content, phytoene synthase, β-carotene hydroxylase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase genes involved in carotenoid metabolism, and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase, cellulose synthase, pectinesterase, pectinesterase inhibitor, polygalacturonase inhibitor and α-mannosidase genes involved in the regulation of flesh texture. In addition, we found that genes in the ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway including ACC oxidase, ethylene receptor and ethylene responsive factor showed highly ripening-associated expression patterns, indicating a possible role of ethylene in fruit development and ripening of watermelon, a non-climacteric fruit. Our analysis provides

  4. Medieval iconography of watermelons in Mediterranean Europe

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Cucurbitaceae), is an important fruit vegetable in the warmer regions of the world. Watermelons were illustrated in Mediterranean Antiquity, but not as frequently as some other cucurbits. Little is known concerning the watermelons of Mediterranean Europe during medieval times. With the objective of obtaining an improved understanding of watermelon history and diversity in this region, medieval drawings purportedly of watermelons were collected, examined and compared for originality, detail and accuracy. Findings The oldest manuscript found that contains an accurate, informative image of watermelon is the Tractatus de herbis, British Library ms. Egerton 747, which was produced in southern Italy, around the year 1300. A dozen more original illustrations were found, most of them from Italy, produced during the ensuing two centuries that can be positively identified as watermelon. In most herbal-type manuscripts, the foliage is depicted realistically, the plants shown as having long internodes, alternate leaves with pinnatifid leaf laminae, and the fruits are small, round and striped. The manuscript that contains the most detailed and accurate image of watermelon is the Carrara Herbal, British Library ms. Egerton 2020. In the agriculture-based manuscripts, the foliage, if depicted, is not accurate, but variation in the size, shape and coloration of the fruits is evident. Both red-flesh and white-flesh watermelons are illustrated, corresponding to the typical sweet dessert watermelons so common today and the insipid citron watermelons, respectively. The variation in watermelon fruit size, shape and coloration depicted in the illustrations indicates that at least six cultivars of watermelon are represented, three of which probably had red, sweet flesh and three of which appear to have been citrons. Evidently, citron watermelons were more common in Mediterranean Europe in the past than they are today. PMID:23904443

  5. Antifungal effect of eugenol and carvacrol against foodborne pathogens Aspergillus carbonarius and Penicillium roqueforti in improving safety of fresh-cut watermelon

    PubMed Central

    Šimović, Mirela; Delaš, Frane; Gradvol, Vedran; Kocevski, Dragana; Pavlović, Hrvoje

    2014-01-01

    Background: Essential oil components eugenol and carvacrol (ranging between 100 and 200 ppm for carvacrol and between 250 and 750 ppm for eugenol) were tested for antifungal activity against foodborne pathogenic fungal species Aspergillus carbonarius A1102 and Penicillium roqueforti PTFKK29 in in vitro and in situ conditions. Materials and Methods: In vitro antifungal activity of eugenol and carvacrol was evaluated by macrobroth method, while watermelon Citrullus lanatus L. Sorento slices were used for antifungal assays in situ. Results: Selected components, eugenol and carvacrol showed significant inhibitory effect against tested fungi (A. carbonarius A1102 and P. roqueforti PTFKK29) in yeast extract sucrose broth, as well as in in situ conditions. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of eugenol against A. carbonarius A1102 determined by macrobroth method was 2000 ppm, while against P. roqueforti PTFKK29 determined MIC was 1000 ppm. Carvacrol inhibited growth of A. carbonarius A1102 at minimal concentration of 500 ppm, while against P. roqueforti PTFKK29, MIC was 250 ppm. The assays in real food system watermelon slices for eugenol and carvacrol show that the inhibitory effect against both selected fungal species was concentration dependent. Furthermore, our results showed that antifungal effect of carvacrol as well as eugenol applied on watermelon slices in all concentrations was a result of effective synergy between an active antifungal compound and lower incubation temperature (15°C) in inhibition of A. carbonarius A1102. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the use of eugenol and carvacrol is promising natural alternative to the use of food chemical preservatives, in order to improve safety and quality of fresh-cut and ready-to-eat fruits. PMID:26401354

  6. Determination of the rate of photoreduction of O2 in the water-water cycle in watermelon leaves and enhancement of the rate by limitation of photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Miyake, C; Yokota, A

    2000-03-01

    A study was performed to determine how the electron fluxes for the photosynthetic carbon reduction (PCR) and the photorespiratory carbon oxidation (PCO) cycles affect the photoreduction of O2 at PSI, which is the limiting step in the water-water cycle. Simultaneous measurements were made of CO2-gas exchange, transpiration and quantum yield of PSII [phi(PSII)] using leaves of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). The total electron flux in PSII[Je(PSII)], as estimated from phi(PSII), was always larger than the total electron flux required for the PCR and PCO cycles at various partial pressures of CO2 and O2 and 1,100 micromol photons m(-2)s(-1). This observation suggested the existence of an alternative electron flux (Ja). Ja was divided into O2-dependent [Ja(O2-depend)] and O2-independent [Ja(O2-independ)] components. The magnitude of half Ja(O2-depend), 7.5 to 9.5 micromol e- m(-2)s(-1), and its apparent Km for O2, about 8.0 kPa, could be accounted for by the photoreduction of O2 at PSI either mediated by ferredoxin or catalyzed by monodehydroascorbate reductase. The results indicated that Ja(O2-depend) was driven by the water-water cycle. A decrease in the intercellular partial pressure of CO2 from 23 to 5.0 Pa at 21 kPa O2 enhanced Ja(O2-depend) by a factor of 1.3. Saturation of the activities of both the PCR and PCO cycles by increasing the photon flux density induced Ja. These results indicate the electron flux in PSII that exceeds the flux required for the PCR and PCO cycles induces the photoreduction of O2 in the water-water cycle. PMID:10805597

  7. Developmental Biology of Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Three Cucurbitaceous Hosts at Different Temperature Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Mkiga, A. M.; Mwatawala, M. W

    2015-01-01

    Fruit flies are key pests of cucurbits in many parts of the world, including Tanzania. Developmental biology of Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett) has been determined across temperature regimes in some cucurbitaceous hosts, in limited geographies. This study was conducted to determine duration and survival rates of immature stages of Z. cucurbitae in three cucurbitaceous hosts, at different temperature regimes. It was hypothesized that temperature and cucurbitaceous hosts influence duration and survival of immature stages of Z. cucurbitae. We conducted experiments in the environmental chamber set at 75 ± 10% RH and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h, at temperatures of 20, 25, and 30°. Our results showed that duration and survival of immature stages of Z. cucurbitae differed significantly among the temperature regimes but not among the hosts. Egg incubation period as well as larval and pupal stages were significantly longer (P < 0.0001) at low temperature in all three hosts Likewise, survival rate of all immature stages were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) at higher than lower temperatures. The three hosts, cucumber (Cucumis sativus), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai), and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) did not significantly affect duration or survival rates of immature stages of Z. cucurbitae. The low developmental thresholds were estimated at 15.88, 13.44, and 12.62 for egg, larva and pupa, respectively. These results further confirm that Z. cucurbitae is well adapted to warm climate, which dominates many areas of Tanzania. PMID:26589874

  8. Measuring flood footprint of a regional economy - A case study for the UK flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, D.

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of the urban economy and society is central to understanding the broad impacts of flooding and to identify cost-effective adaptation and mitigation measures. Assessments of the flooding impacts on cities have traditionally focused on the initial impact on people and assets. These initial estimates (so-called ';direct damage') are useful both in understanding the immediate implications of damage, and in marshalling the pools of capital and supplies required for re-building after an event. Since different economies as well as societies are coupled, especially under the current economic crisis, any small-scale damage may be multiplied and cascaded throughout wider economic systems and social networks. The direct and indirect damage is currently not evaluated well and could be captured by quantification of what we call the flood footprint. Flooding in one location can impact the whole UK economy. Neglecting these knock-on costs (i.e. the true footprint of the flood) means we might be ignoring the economic benefits and beneficiaries of flood risk management interventions. In 2007, for example, floods cost the economy about £3.2 bn directly, but the wider effect might actually add another 50% to 250% to that. Flood footprint is a measure of the exclusive total socioeconomic impact that is directly and indirectly caused by a flood event to the flooding region and wider economic systems and social networks. We adopt the UK 2012 flooding. An input-output basic dynamic inequalities (BDI) model is used to assess the impact of the floodings on the level of a Yorkshire economy, accounting for interactions between industries through demand and supply of intermediate consumption goods with a circular flow. After the disaster the economy will be unbalanced. The recovery process finishes when the economy is completely balance, i.e., when labour production capacity equals demands and production and all the variables reach pre-disaster levels. The analysis is carried out

  9. A pharmacoeconomic approach to assessing the costs and benefits of air quality interventions that improve health: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Lomas, James; Schmitt, Laetitia; Jones, Sally; McGeorge, Maureen; Bates, Elizabeth; Holland, Mike; Cooper, Duncan; Crowther, Richard; Ashmore, Mike; Rojas-Rueda, David; Weatherly, Helen; Richardson, Gerry; Bojke, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Objective This paper explores the use of pharmacoeconomic methods of valuation to health impacts resulting from exposure to poor air quality. In using such methods, interventions that reduce exposure to poor air quality can be directly compared, in terms of value for money (or cost-effectiveness), with competing demands for finite resources, including other public health interventions. Design Using results estimated as part of a health impact assessment regarding a West Yorkshire Low Emission Zone strategy, this paper quantifies cost-saving and health-improving implications of transport policy through its impact on air quality. Data source Estimates of health-related quality of life and the National Health Service (NHS)/Personal Social Services (PSS) costs for identified health events were based on data from Leeds and Bradford using peer-reviewed publications or Office for National Statistics releases. Population Inhabitants of the area within the outer ring roads of Leeds and Bradford. Main outcomes measures NHS and PSS costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Results Averting an all-cause mortality death generates 8.4 QALYs. Each coronary event avoided saves £28 000 in NHS/PSS costs and generates 1.1 QALYs. For every fewer case of childhood asthma, there will be NHS/PSS cost saving of £3000 and a health benefit of 0.9 QALYs. A single term, low birthweight birth avoided saves £2000 in NHS/PSS costs. Preventing a preterm birth saves £24 000 in NHS/PSS costs and generates 1.3 QALYs. A scenario modelled in the West Yorkshire Low Emission Zone Feasibility Study, where pre-EURO 4 buses and HGVs are upgraded to EURO 6 by 2016 generates an annual benefit of £2.08 million and a one-off benefit of £3.3 million compared with a net present value cost of implementation of £6.3 million. Conclusions Interventions to improve air quality and health should be evaluated and where improvement of population health is the primary objective, cost-effectiveness analysis

  10. Determination and prediction of digestible and metabolizable energy from the chemical composition of chinese corn gluten feed fed to finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, T T; Liu, D W; Huang, C F; Liu, L; Piao, X S; Wang, F L

    2014-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) contents of corn gluten feed (CGF) for finishing pigs and to develop equations predicting the DE and ME content from the chemical composition of the CGF samples, as well as validate the accuracy of the prediction equations. In Exp. 1, ten CGF samples from seven provinces of China were collected and fed to 66 finishing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) with an initial body weight (BW) of 51.9±5.5 kg. The pigs were assigned to 11 diets comprising one basal diet and 10 CGF test diets with six pigs fed each diet. The basal diet contained corn (76%), dehulled soybean meal (21%) and premix (3%). The ten test diets were formulated by substituting 25% of the corn and dehulled soybean meal with CGF and contained corn (57%), dehulled soybean meal (15.75%), CGF (24.25%) and premix (3%). In Exp. 2, two additional CGF sources were collected as validation samples to test the accuracy of the prediction equations. In this experiment, 18 barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) with an initial BW of 61.1±4.0 kg were randomly allotted to be fed either the basal diet or two CGF containing diets which had a similar composition as used in Exp. 1. The DE and ME of CGF ranged from 10.37 to 12.85 MJ/kg of dry matter (DM) and 9.53 to 12.49 MJ/kg of DM, respectively. Through stepwise regression analysis, several prediction equations of DE and ME were generated. The best fit equations were: DE, MJ/kg of DM = 18.30-0.13 neutral detergent fiber-0.22 ether extract, with R(2) = 0.95, residual standard deviation (RSD) = 0.21 and p<0.01; and ME, MJ/kg of DM = 12.82+0.11 Starch-0.26 acid detergent fiber, with R(2) = 0.94, RSD = 0.20 and p<0.01. These results indicate that the DE and ME content of CGF varied substantially but the DE and ME for finishing pigs can be accurately predicted from equations based on nutritional analysis. PMID:25050026

  11. Characterization of advertisements for puppies sold online: determinants of cost and a comparison with parent club breeders.

    PubMed

    Voris, H C; Wittum, T E; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Lord, L K

    2011-07-01

    The Internet is an increasingly common way for consumers to purchase puppies. Yet very little information is available about the types of puppies sold via the Internet. In addition these sales are not subject to United States Depart of Agriculture (USDA) regulation. The objectives of the study were to describe puppies sold via the Internet, to assess the characteristics that contribute to the cost of a puppy, and to compare puppies sold via the Internet with puppies sold by American Kennel Club (AKC) Parent Club breeders. Over 14 weeks in 2008, Yorkshire Terrier, Shih Tzu, English Bulldog, Boxer, and Labrador Retriever puppies for sale on two large-scale online puppy sales sites were categorized based on their Internet advertisements. Data were collected in three categories: puppy characteristics, health characteristics, and policies (such as spay/neuter requirement, health guarantee, and return policy). After the survey was completed, 25 AKC Parent Club breeders and 25 other breeders who advertised via one of the puppy sales websites were randomly selected and interviewed over the phone. Small breed puppies were most frequently advertised with 35.2% (1228/3485) of advertisements for Yorkshire Terriers and 23.0% (802/3485) for Shih Tzus. Almost one quarter of Internet breeders 768/3474 (22.2%) advertised four or more different dog breeds. Champion bloodlines increased the cost of a puppy of all breeds. AKC Parent Club breeders 21/25 (84%) were more likely to mention breed-specific health screening tests when compared to Internet breeders 7/25 (28%). Consumers should apply the same standards for purchasing from a breeder found through a puppy sales site as they would for purchasing from a local breeder. Breeders who advertise at one of the large-scale puppy sales websites are less knowledgeable about breed-specific health issues compared to an AKC Parent Club breeder. Internet breeders are less likely to perform these screening tests on their breeding dogs and may

  12. Inverted teats (Mammillae invertitae) in gilts - effect on piglet survival and growth rate.

    PubMed

    Chalkias, H; Ekman, E; Lundeheim, N; Rydhmer, L; Jacobson, M

    2014-06-01

    In the modern pig industry, the increasing number of piglets born per litter augments the importance of the number of functional teats in the sow. The aim of this study was to evaluate the function and importance of inverted teats during nursing and to analyze structural and functional differences between the mammary glands of inverted teats versus normal teats. Nine farrowing gilts (8 purebred Swedish Yorkshire gilts and 1 cross between Swedish Yorkshire and Norwegian Landrace) and 94 piglets (59 piglets suckling normal teats, 32 piglets suckling protruded teats [i.e., previously inverted], 2 piglets suckling inverted teats, and 3 piglets suckling considerably smaller teats) were included in the study. Teat fidelity (keeping the same teat between the nursings) was registered, excluding the first 48 h postpartum. Piglet weight was recorded daily during the first week of life and thereafter once a week until weaning at 4 wk of age. Weight and growth rate were analyzed using repeated observation mixed-model analysis of variance. The 2 piglets that suckled the inverted teats were not able to emerge the teats and they were euthanized 4 and 8 d after birth, respectively, due to loss of BW. The average weight at weaning (28 d of age) was 8.1 kg (range 3.2-13.8 kg). In the normal teats (n = 53), the weight of the corresponding mammary gland tissue at necropsy was positively correlated to the piglet average daily weight gain during wk 2 (r = 0.33, P < 0.05), 3 (r = 0.55, P < 0.001), and 4 (r = 0.47, P < 0.001). In the protruded teats (n = 32), the weight of the corresponding mammary gland tissue was positively correlated to the piglet average daily weight gain during wk 2 (r = 0.63, P < 0.001) and 3 (r = 0.43, P < 0.05). Among the piglets nursing normal teats, 82% kept fidelity to its teat and the corresponding percent for the protruded teats was 26%. In 7 of the 9 sows, the weaning weight of the piglets suckling protruded teats was numerically lower compared to the

  13. Effects of dietary true digestible calcium to phosphorus ratio on growth performance and efficiency of calcium and phosphorus use in growing pigs fed corn and soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Fan, M Z; Archbold, T

    2012-12-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine effects of dietary true fecal digestible Ca to true digestible P ratio on growth performance and efficiency of Ca and P use in growing pigs fed corn (Triticum aestivum)-soybean (Glycine max) meal (SBM)-based diets. Experiment 1 was carried out to measure true fecal digestibility of Ca and P as well as the fecal endogenous outputs of these nutrients associated with a corn and SBM-based diet in 12 Yorkshire growing pigs with an average initial BW of 23.2 ± 0.6 kg by the substitution method. True fecal digestibility values (%; n = 6) of Ca (53.6 ± 12.7) and P (43.8 ± 16.7) as well as the fecal endogenous outputs (g/kg DMI; n = 12) of Ca (0.91 ± 0.20) and P (1.31 ± 0.15) associated with the diets were determined. Experiment 2 was conducted with 36 Yorkshire barrows of an average initial BW of 24.2 ± 0.6 kg and the pigs were fed 6 diets according to a completely randomized block design. The 6 diets were corn and SBM based with diet 1 containing 0.2% true digestible Ca and 0.3% true digestible P and were formulated to contain 6 total Ca to total P ratios based on analyzed dietary Ca and P contents (diet 1, 0.6:1; diet 2, 0.7:1; diet 3, 0.8:1; diet 4, 1.3:1; diet 5, 1.0:1; and diet 6, 1.3:1) by supplementing gradient levels of limestone with a constant dietary P content for meeting the recommended requirement. Changes in the dietary Ca to P ratio had no effects (P > 0.05) on ADG. No differences (P > 0.05) in ADFI were observed between the other diets except the lower ADFI (P < 0.05) in diet 3 compared with diet 2. However, G:F was higher (P < 0.05) in diet 2 compared with diets 5 and 6. Changes in the dietary Ca to P ratio had consistent effects on true fecal P digestibility and retention with much lower values (P < 0.05) observed in diet 5 in comparison with the other diets. In summary, true fecal digestible Ca to P ratios of 0.9:1 to 1.0:1 were associated with optimal responses in both G:F as well as true fecal P

  14. A simple method of blood pressure measurement in the pig using a neonatal cuff.

    PubMed

    Chow, P K; Ng, T H; Heng, D; Mack, P O

    1999-01-01

    The pig is a commonly used large animal model in experimental studies. Few non-invasive techniques exist however for the measurement of blood pressure in the porcine model. This study evaluates the novel use of the easily available neonatal blood pressure cuff for measuring blood pressure in the pig. Six Yorkshire pigs were used for the study. Blood pressure measurements obtained by the application of neonatal blood pressure cuff (Hewlett Packard) around the base of the tail were compared with results obtained from intra-arterial measurements in the normotensive range as well as in experimentally created hypertensive (intravenous dopamine) and hypotensive (hypovolaemic shock) ranges. Results of the two techniques are closely correlated (Pearson's coefficient = 0.95, 0.97, 0.90). Systematic bias was however detected at the extremes of hypertensive and hypotensive blood pressure. Analysis of the limits of agreement (method of Bland and Altman) showed that neonatal blood pressure cuff measurements fall within--2 to 2.5 mmHg of the readings obtained from the invasive technique (95% confidence interval). The neonatal blood pressure cuff technique is a good substitute for the standard invasive intra-arterial measurement of blood pressure in the pig model. PMID:10374020

  15. Pathological and immunological features of canine necrotising meningoencephalitis and granulomatous meningoencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Kazuyuki; Park, Eunsil; Tsuboi, Masaya; Chambers, James K; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    Necrotising meningoencephalitis (NME) and granulomatous meningoencephalitis (GME) are idiopathic inflammatory diseases of the canine central nervous system (CNS). Typical NME occurs predominantly in small breeds of dogs, such as Pug, Maltese and Yorkshire terriers. Although there is no specific breed predisposition to GME, toy and terrier breeds appear to be overrepresented. Recent molecular investigations have identified genetic risk factors for NME in Pug, Maltese and other toy breed dogs; however, details of the pathogenesis of this disease remain to be clarified. NME is characterised pathologically by necrotic lesions with mononuclear cell infiltration in the meninges and perivascular spaces. On the basis of the distribution pattern of major necrotic foci, NME can be divided into cortex dominant and white matter dominant types; the latter is designated necrotising leucoencephalitis (NLE). Lesions in GME are characterised by the accumulation of lymphocytes and macrophages with epithelioid morphology, forming granulomas around blood vessels. Some common genetic factors and/or some additional triggers, such as infection or vaccination, may play a role in the pathogenesis of NME, NLE and GME; however, the host immune responses may define the pathological phenotypes. Different cytokine and chemokine responses are seen in NME, NLE and GME, whilst autoantibodies against astrocytes are detected predominantly in NME. This review focuses on the pathological and immunological characteristics of these canine idiopathic inflammatory CNS disorders. PMID:27240919

  16. Effects of dietary leucine supplementation in low crude protein diets on performance, nitrogen balance, whole-body protein turnover, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shihai; Chu, Licui; Qiao, Shiyan; Mao, Xiangbing; Zeng, Xiangfang

    2016-07-01

    Eighteen Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire barrows, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 75.4 ± 2.0 kg, were randomly allotted to one of three diets with six replicates per treatment for 25 days. The diets comprised a normal protein diet (NP, 14.5% crude protein), a low crude protein diet supplemented with 0.27% alanine (LP + Ala, 10.0% crude protein), or a low crude protein diet supplemented with 0.40% leucine (LP + Leu, 10.0% crude protein). The whole-body protein synthesis rate, whole-body protein breakdown rate and protein deposition rate in pigs fed the LP + Leu diet were similar to the NP diet (P > 0.05), and both were significantly higher than pigs fed the LP + Ala diet (P < 0.05). The Longissimus muscle area (LMA) of pigs fed the LP + Leu diet was larger than those fed the LP + Ala diet (P = 0.05). In addition, drip loss and intramuscular fat of pigs fed the LP + Ala diet were higher than that of the others (P < 0.05). In conclusion, supplementation of leucine in low protein diet could stimulate protein deposition and improve the meat quality of finishing pigs more than an alanine-supplemented one. PMID:26597995

  17. The Ripley Scroll of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh.

    PubMed

    McCallum, R I

    1996-01-01

    Alchemical scrolls associated with George Ripley are unusual documents which illustrate the pursuit of the Philosophers Stone. Scrolls vary from about 5 feet in length by 5 inches wide to over 20 feet long and about 3 feet wide. There are 16 scrolls in libraries in the UK and 4 in the USA. Ripley whose name is attached to the scrolls was a Canon of Bridlington in Yorkshire and lived from about 1415 to 1495. He is renowned as an alchemist and author of alchemical works in rhyme, and his verses are used on the scrolls. Some of the scrolls were produced in the 16th century, in Lübeck, probably at the request of John Dee the Elizabethan polymath. A Ripley scroll is in the library of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh to which it was presented in 1707. The only published description of this scroll appeared in 1876, and it has not apparently been studied since. Interest in Ripley scrolls has grown in recent years and there have been a number of publications describing them since 1990. The Edinburgh scroll is described and is compared with the other scrolls which have been seen personally or for which detailed descriptions have been published. The origin, significance and use of Ripley Scrolls are discussed in an attempt to define their contemporary role. PMID:11618578

  18. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of uroliths in dogs: definitive determination of chemical type.

    PubMed

    Bovee, K C; McGuire, T

    1984-11-01

    Effective treatment and prevention of urolithiasis depends on accurate determination of the chemical nature of the uroliths. A widely used qualitative chemical procedure was compared with quantitative crystallographic analysis of 272 canine uroliths. Agreement between the 2 methods was 78%. Qualitative analysis failed to detect 62% of calcium-containing uroliths and 83% of carbonate apatite uroliths. Qualitative analysis gave false-positive results for urates in 55% of cystine uroliths. Mixed uroliths comprising 6% of the total could not be classified without quantitative analysis. Silicate, cystine, and urate uroliths generally were of pure composition. Crystallographic analysis indicated the following distribution of major types: struvite, 69%; calcium oxalate, 10%; urate, 7%; silicate, 3.5%; cystine, 3.2%; calcium phosphate, 1%; and mixed, 6%. Among dogs with struvite uroliths, 66% had positive results of bacterial culturing from the urinary bladder. Six breeds (Miniature Schnauzer, Welsh Corgi, Lhasa Apso, Yorkshire Terrier, Pekingese, and Pug) had a significantly higher risk for urolithiasis, compared with other breeds. The German Shepherd Dog had a significantly lowered risk, compared with other breeds. Two breeds had significant relationship to a specific type of urolith: Miniature Schnauzer for oxalate, and Dalmatian for urate (P less than 0.001). It was concluded that quantitative analysis, using crystallography, was superior for the detection of calcium oxalate, carbonate apatite, cystine, urate, and mixed uroliths. PMID:6511641

  19. Comparison between InfoWorks hydraulic results and a physical model of an urban drainage system.

    PubMed

    Rubinato, Matteo; Shucksmith, James; Saul, Adrian J; Shepherd, Will

    2013-01-01

    Urban drainage systems are frequently analysed using hydraulic modelling software packages such as InfoWorks CS or MIKE-Urban. The use of such modelling tools allows the evaluation of sewer capacity and the likelihood and impact of pluvial flood events. Models can also be used to plan major investments such as increasing storage capacity or the implementation of sustainable urban drainage systems. In spite of their widespread use, when applied to flooding the results of hydraulic models are rarely compared with field or laboratory (i.e. physical modelling) data. This is largely due to the time and expense required to collect reliable empirical data sets. This paper describes a laboratory facility which will enable an urban flood model to be verified and generic approaches to be built. Results are presented from the first phase of testing, which compares the sub-surface hydraulic performance of a physical scale model of a sewer network in Yorkshire, UK, with downscaled results from a calibrated 1D InfoWorks hydraulic model of the site. A variety of real rainfall events measured in the catchment over a period of 15 months (April 2008-June 2009) have been both hydraulically modelled and reproduced in the physical model. In most cases a comparison of flow hydrographs generated in both hydraulic and physical models shows good agreement in terms of velocities which pass through the system. PMID:23863430

  20. Electron Beam Sterilization Does Not Have a Detrimental Effect on the Ability of Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds to Support In Vivo Ligament Healing

    PubMed Central

    Proffen, Benedikt L.; Perrone, Gabriel S.; Fleming, Braden C.; Sieker, Jakob T.; Kramer, Joshua; Hawes, Michael L.; Badger, Gary J.; Murray, Martha M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Extra-cellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds have been used to enhance anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair in large animal models. To translate this technology to clinical care, identifying a method, which effectively sterilizes the material without significantly impairing in vivo function, is desirable. Methods 16 Yorkshire pigs underwent ACL transection and were randomly assigned to bridge-enhanced ACL repair – primary suture repair of the ACL with addition of autologous blood soaked ECM scaffold - with either 1) an aseptically processed ECM scaffold, or 2) an electron beam irradiated ECM scaffold. Primary outcome measures included sterility of the scaffold and biomechanical properties of the scaffold itself and the repaired ligament at eight weeks after surgery. Results Scaffolds treated with 15kGy electron beam irradiation had no bacterial or fungal growth noted, while aseptically processed scaffolds had bacterial growth in all tested samples. The mean biomechanical properties of the scaffold and healing ligament were lower in the electron beam group; however, differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Electron beam irradiation was able to effectively sterilize the scaffolds. In addition, this technique had only a minimal impact on the in vivo function of the scaffolds when used for ligament healing in the porcine model. PMID:25676876

  1. Ileal digestibility of nutrients and amino acids in low quality soybean meal sources treated with β-mannanase for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Upadhaya, S D; Park, J W; Lee, J H; Kim, I H

    2016-07-01

    Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of energy, dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N) and amino acids and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids in low quality soybean meals with different CP concentration (SBM 44% CP and SBM 48% CP) with or without 400 U β-mannanase/kg supplementation were evaluated in 20 cannulated barrows ((Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc) with an average BW of 25.08±3.42 kg. A N-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of amino acids. The supplementation of β-mannanase improved (P0.05) AID of N and energy. The type of SBM (SBM 44% CP v. SBM 48% CP) had no effect on AID of DM, N and energy. β-mannanase improved (P<0.05) AID of sum of essential amino acids, arginine, histidine, lysine, valine and glycine. The SID of lysine was higher (P<0.05) in enzyme supplemented than in non-supplemented diets. Larger AID and SID of threonine and proline (P<0.05) were observed in SBM 48% CP than in SBM 44% CP. In conclusion, the supplementation of enzyme improved AID of arginine, histidine, lysine, valine and glycine, but it did not cause marked difference in SID of these amino acids except for lysine. The low nutrient digestibility of the SBM sources used in the present experiment might have favoured the positive effect of β-mannanase supplementation. PMID:26857033

  2. Proliferative Hemorrhagic Enteropathy in Swine: An Outbreak and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Yates, W. D. G.; Clark, E. G.; Osborne, A. D.; Enweani, C. C.; Radostits, O. M.; Theede, A.

    1979-01-01

    An account is given of an acute outbreak of hemorrhagic enteric disease in 34 young adult boars of primarily Yorkshire breeding at a performance testing station in Western Canada. Two of the boars died. A diagnosis of proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy was made on the basis of clinical signs, gross necropsy and histopathological lesions. Campylobacter-like bacteria were seen in the apical cytoplasm of epithelial cells of the ileal mucosa by Warthin-Faulkner stain on histological sections, but were not isolated on culture. Treatment with several drugs simultaneously was associated with termination of the outbreak, but the therapeutic effect was not controlled by leaving some animals untreated. Reported sequelae, such as porcine intestinal adenomatosis, were not present at necropsy or slaughter of pigs surviving the outbreak, but all were killed no longer than two months after the first case was observed. This outbreak is discussed in the context of previously reported hemorrhagic enteric conditions of pigs. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:396978

  3. Gut microbiota can transfer fiber characteristics and lipid metabolic profiles of skeletal muscle from pigs to germ-free mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Honglin; Diao, Hui; Xiao, Yi; Li, Wenxia; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Ping; Mao, Xiangbing; Luo, Yuheng; Zeng, Benhua; Wei, Hong; Chen, Daiwen

    2016-01-01

    Obesity causes changes in microbiota composition, and an altered gut microbiota can transfer obesity-associated phenotypes from donors to recipients. Obese Rongchang pigs (RP) exhibited distinct fiber characteristics and lipid metabolic profiles in their muscle compared with lean Yorkshire pigs (YP). However, whether RP have a different gut microbiota than YP and whether there is a relationship between the microbiota and muscle properties are poorly understood. The present study was conducted to test whether the muscle properties can be transferred from pigs to germ-free (GF) mice. High-throughput pyrosequencing confirms the presence of distinct core microbiota between pig breeds, with alterations in taxonomic distribution and modulations in β diversity. RP displayed a significant higher Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and apparent genera differences compared with YP. Transplanting the porcine microbiota into GF mice replicated the phenotypes of the donors. RP and their GF mouse recipients exhibited a higher body fat mass, a higher slow-contracting fiber proportion, a decreased fiber size and fast IIb fiber percentage, and enhanced lipogenesis in the gastrocnemius muscle. Furthermore, the gut microbiota composition of colonized mice shared high similarity with their donor pigs. Taken together, the gut microbiota of obese pigs intrinsically influences skeletal muscle development and the lipid metabolic profiles. PMID:27545196

  4. An infant formula toxicity and toxicokinetic feeding study on carrageenan in preweaning piglets with special attention to the immune system and gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Weiner, M L; Ferguson, H E; Thorsrud, B A; Nelson, K G; Blakemore, W R; Zeigler, B; Cameron, M J; Brant, A; Cochrane, L; Pellerin, M; Mahadevan, B

    2015-03-01

    A toxicity/toxicokinetic swine-adapted infant formula feeding study was conducted in Domestic Yorkshire Crossbred Swine from lactation day 3 for 28 consecutive days during the preweaning period at carrageenan concentrations of 0, 300, 1000 and 2250 ppm under GLP guidelines. This study extends the observations in newborn baboons (McGill et al., 1977) to piglets and evaluates additional parameters: organ weights, clinical chemistry, special gastrointestinal tract stains (toluidine blue, Periodic Acid-Schiff), plasma levels of carrageenan; and evaluation of potential immune system effects. Using validated methods, immunophenotyping of blood cell types (lymphocytes, monocytes, B cells, helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, mature T cells), sandwich immunoassays for blood cytokine evaluations (IL-6, IL-8, IL1β, TNF-α), and immunohistochemical staining of the gut for IL-8 and TNF-α were conducted. No treatment-related adverse effects at any carrageenan concentration were found on any parameter. Glucosuria in a few animals was not considered treatment-related. The high dose in this study, equivalent to ~430 mg/kg/day, provides an adequate margin of exposure for human infants, as affirmed by JECFA and supports the safe use of carrageenan for infants ages 0-12 weeks and older and infants with special medical needs. PMID:25592784

  5. Design of the Grimethorpe Experimental Facility as of March 1981: a technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    The Experimental Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor, which has been built as an extension to the National Coal Board Power Station, which is adjacent to Grimethorpe Colliery, Yorkshire, England, is described in this report. The Governments of the United Kingdom, the United States of America and the Federal Republic of Germany, under the auspices of the International Energy Agency, have agreed to share equally between them the costs of building and operating the plant. Control of the project was vested in an Executive Committee consisting of one representative of each Government with all decisions requiring unanimity. The actual operation of the project was vested in an Operating Agent, NCB (IEA Services) Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of the National Coal Board. The Implementing Agreement envisages a seven year project to be executed in four stages: (1) Procurement of Design Study with accompanying tender documents. (2) Tendering for construction of the Plant; study of appraisal of tenders. (3) Construction and acceptance of the Plant. (4) Operation of the Plant. The project is now towards the end of Stage 3. Construction has been completed and commissioning is in progress to prepare the plant for the start of the operational phase in Autumn 1981. Because of the confidentiality of much of the design information, for the purposes of this report technical descriptions have been confined to that of a general appraisal.

  6. Investigating the Effects of Resveratrol on Chronically Ischemic Myocardium in a Swine Model of Metabolic Syndrome: A Proteomics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sabe, Ashraf A.; Sadek, Ahmed A.; Elmadhun, Nassrene Y.; Dalal, Rahul S.; Robich, Michael P.; Bianchi, Cesario

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Resveratrol has been shown to improve cardiac perfusion and ventricular function after chronic ischemic injury. Using proteomic analysis, we sought to objectively investigate potential mechanisms, by which resveratrol exerts its cardioprotective effects in the setting of metabolic syndrome and chronic myocardial ischemia. Yorkshire swine were divided into two groups based on diet: high cholesterol (n=7) or a high-cholesterol diet with supplemental resveratrol (n=6). Four weeks later, all animals underwent surgical placement of an ameroid constrictor to their left circumflex artery. Diets were continued for another 7 weeks, and then the ischemic myocardium was harvested for proteomics analysis. Proteomic analysis identified 669 common proteins between the two groups. Of these proteins, 76 were statistically different, of which 41 were characterized (P<.05). Pathway analysis demonstrated that in animals supplemented with resveratrol, there was a downregulation in several proteins involved with mitochondrial dysfunction, cell death, and unfavorable cardiac remodeling. Furthermore, there was an upregulation in proteins involved in free radical elimination. We conclude that resveratrol supplementation significantly alters several critical protein markers in the chronically ischemic myocardium. Further investigation of these proteins may help elucidate the mechanisms by which resveratrol exerts its cardioprotective effects. PMID:25089828

  7. Barriers to accessing generic health and social care services: a qualitative study of injecting drug users.

    PubMed

    Neale, Joanne; Tompkins, Charlotte; Sheard, Laura

    2008-03-01

    While research has clearly documented the difficulties injectors encounter in accessing specialist addiction services, there is less evidence of the problems they face when securing general health care and non-substance-misuse-specific support. This paper seeks to fill some of these knowledge gaps. Between January and May 2006, 75 current injectors were recruited and interviewed through three needle exchange programmes located in diverse geographical areas of West Yorkshire. Interview data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using Framework. Findings showed that injectors were often positive about the help they received from generic health and social care services. Nonetheless, they identified a range of barriers relating to inability to access desired assistance, the burden of appointments, travel to services, stigma and negative staff attitudes, personal ill-health, lack of material resources, and anxieties about accessing support. Although some types of barriers were more evident at some services than at others and/or affected particular subgroups of injector more than others, the impact of any barrier was contingent on a range of factors. These included the attitudes of individual professionals, the circumstances and needs of individual injectors, the local availability of suitable alternative services, and the frequency with which a service needed to be accessed. In order to better understand and potentially reduce service barriers, findings are linked to broader conceptual and theoretical debates relating to social exclusion and Foucault's analyses of power and knowledge. PMID:18290980

  8. Continuity of brown bear maternal lineages in northern England through the Last-glacial period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J.; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Barnett, Ross; Coxon, Peter; Bradley, Daniel G.; Lord, Tom C.; O'Connor, Terry

    2014-07-01

    Brown bears recolonised Europe rapidly after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), but there has been debate about whether bear populations were confined to separate glacial refugia in southern Europe, or if there was continuous gene flow among groups. To look in more detail at recolonisation routes into the British Isles after the LGM, 16 brown bear (Ursus arctos) samples from Lateglacial Yorkshire were analysed for mitochondrial DNA survival. The resulting data were compared with earlier work on Late Pleistocene and Holocene bears from Ireland (Edwards et al., 2011), as well as with both modern and ancient bears from across continental Europe. The results highlight the temporal and spatial continuity of brown bear maternal lineages through the Lateglacial period in northern England. While this region was not a refugial area in the LGM for the Irish Clade 2 brown bears, our data suggest that populations of brown bear in England did act as refugial sources for the later colonisation of Ireland, by Clade 1-i bears, during the Holocene. Our results contribute to a wider understanding of the phylogenetic relationships of brown bears through the Late Quaternary, and lend a valuable perspective on bear migration into peripheral Europe.

  9. Interstitial laser-induced thermotherapy of the lung: evaluation of the influence of ablation continuity on ablation size in a swine model

    PubMed Central

    Schoellnast, Helmut; Monette, Sebastien; Ezell, Paula C.; Keene, Andrew; Quehenberger, Franz; Erinjeri, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between size and the continuity of energy application in interstitial laser-induced thermotherapy. Percutaneous computed tomography-guided laser ablation (30 W, 600 nm diode) of the lung was performed in 7 Yorkshire pigs; a total of 42 ablation zones were created. Twenty ablations were performed using a continuous cycle of 2 min (protocol A) and 22 ablations were performed using 4 intermittent cycles with a duration of 1 min for each cycle interrupted by a 10-s stop between the cycles (protocol B). The lung was harvested immediately after euthanasia for gross pathology and histopathologic evaluation. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student t test and the Spearman correlation coefficient. Laser ablation resulted in complete necrosis of variable size of lung. The mean ablation zone dimensions (±SD) were 1.9 (±0.4) cm × 1.4 (±0.3) cm for protocol A and 2.2 (±0.5) cm × 1.4 (±0.4) cm for protocol B. The size of the necrosis is not significantly different when comparing a continuous 2-min ablation to a 4-cycle intermittent ablation for 1 min each cycle interrupted by a 10-s stop between the cycles (P = 0.98 and 0.53, respectively). PMID:23439016

  10. Governance and evaluation: the case of EU regional policy horizontal priorities.

    PubMed

    Gore, Tony; Wells, Peter

    2009-05-01

    This paper argues that the framing of many programme evaluations tends to eschew any rigorous exploration of the governance aspects of programme design and implementation. This is illustrated by an examination of the method-based approach endorsed by the European Commission for the evaluation of its regional policy programmes. In line with previous work, this found that such evaluations, particularly those using management-based approaches, underplay the role of social and political agency in programme framing and implementation, and therefore in explaining outcomes. Acknowledging such factors is especially important in evaluating cross-cutting themes such as equal opportunities, environmental sustainability and social inclusion. Known as horizontal priorities in European Union policies, such issues at their heart reflect unease with the traditional functional organisation of the modern state, which while providing organisational efficiency gains for planning, is not able to cater for complex and multiple social realities in a postmodern world. Using evidence from South Yorkshire, United Kingdom, and in particular the Mid Term Evaluation of the 2000-2006 European Union Structural Funds Programme, the paper argues that a robust evaluation of such horizontal priorities has to incorporate the full range of governance factors. This is because their framing, implementation and possible achievements are contingent on, and shaped by, the mobilisation of social and political actors. PMID:19081136

  11. Loneliness and belongingness in older lesbians: the role of social groups as "community".

    PubMed

    Wilkens, Jill

    2015-01-01

    This article explores loneliness and isolation in older lesbians, looking at the benefits offered by an over-55 fortnightly social group in Yorkshire. I argue that the women interviewed were more vulnerable to loneliness than their heterosexual counterparts as a direct consequence of many years of privacy and self-concealment and because they were more likely to be single, childless, and have fractured relationships with birth families; all significant losses viewed by the women as the "price you paid" for being a lesbian. Although the group did not completely alleviate loneliness, it provided a place of safety and offered a sanctuary where participants could be themselves and where friendships and other groups were formed. For many women, the group's exclusivity to older lesbians and bisexual women was deeply significant and influenced their decision to attend. I suggest that such groups have a vital role to play in promoting older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender well-being and offering protection against loneliness and isolation in older age. PMID:25575325

  12. Opportunities for cost-sharing in conservation: variation in volunteering effort across protected areas.

    PubMed

    Armsworth, Paul R; Cantú-Salazar, Lisette; Parnell, Mark; Booth, Josephine E; Stoneman, Rob; Davies, Zoe G

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to expand protected area networks are limited by the costs of managing protected sites. Volunteers who donate labor to help manage protected areas can help defray these costs. However, volunteers may be willing to donate more labor to some protected areas than others. Understanding variation in volunteering effort would enable conservation organizations to account for volunteer labor in their strategic planning. We examined variation in volunteering effort across 59 small protected areas managed by Yorkshire Wildlife Trust, a regional conservation nonprofit in the United Kingdom. Three surveys of volunteering effort reveal consistent patterns of variation across protected areas. Using the most detailed of these sources, a survey of site managers, we estimate that volunteers provided 3200 days of labor per year across the 59 sites with a total value exceeding that of paid staff time spent managing the sites. The median percentage by which volunteer labor supplements management costs on the sites was 36%. Volunteering effort and paid management costs are positively correlated, after controlling for the effect of site area. We examined how well a range of characteristics of the protected areas and surrounding communities explain variation in volunteering effort. Protected areas that are larger have been protected for longer and that are located near to denser conurbations experience greater volunteering effort. Together these factors explain 38% of the observed variation in volunteering effort across protected areas. PMID:23383176

  13. Effect of dietary supplementation of chitosan and galacto-mannan-oligosaccharide on serum parameters and the insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA expression in early-weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhi-Ru; Yin, Yu-Long; Nyachoti, Charles M; Huang, Rui-Lin; Li, Tie-Jun; Yang, Chengbo; Yang, Xiao-Jian; Gong, Joshua; Peng, Jiang; Qi, De-Sheng; Xing, Jian-Jun; Sun, Zhi-Hong; Fan, Ming Z

    2005-05-01

    The study was to determine effects of dietary supplementation of chitosan (COS) and galacto-mannan-oligosaccharides (GMOS) on some serum biochemical indices, serum growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels, and hepatic and long gissimus muscle IGF-I mRNA expression in early-weaned piglets. Twenty six Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshire piglets at the age of 15 days were used. The piglets had access to creep feed during the suckling. Six piglets were sacrificed for sampling at the beginning of the study. The other 20 piglets were individually housed in metabolic cages and randomly allotted to four corn and soybean meal-based diets including the control group, the antibiotic group with 110 mg lincomycin/kg diet, the COS group containing 0.025% COS, and the GMOS group with 0.20% GMOS, respectively, in a 2-week feeding experiment. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level was reduced whereas serum total protein concentration was increased (P<0.05) in responses to the COS and GMOS supplementation. Dietary supplementation of COS and GMOS also increased (P<0.05) the serum GH and IGF-I levels along with enhanced hepatic and the muscle IGF-I mRNA abundance. Dietary supplementation of oligosaccharides such as COS and GMOS may improve growth and feed conversion efficiency by increasing plasma GH and IGF-I levels, in the early-weaned piglets. PMID:15826777

  14. Real-Time Near-Infrared Fluorescence-Guided Identification of the Ureters using Methylene Blue

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Aya; Tanaka, Eiichi; Choi, Hak Soo; Kianzad, Vida; Gioux, Sylvain; Lomnes, Stephen J.; Frangioni, John V.

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine whether the invisible near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence properties of methylene blue (MB), a dye already FDA-approved for other indications, could be exploited for real-time, intraoperative identification of the ureters. Methods The optical properties of MB were quantified in vitro. Open surgery and laparoscopic NIR fluorescence imaging systems were employed. Yorkshire pigs were injected intravenously with: 0.1 mg/kg MB (n = 8), 10 mg furosemide followed by 0.1 mg/kg MB (n = 6), or 0.5 mg/kg MB (n = 6). The contrast-to-background ratio (CBR) of the kidney and ureters, and MB concentration in urine, were quantified. Results Peak MB absorbance, emission, and intensity in urine occurred at 668 nm, 688 nm, and 20 μM, respectively. After intravenous injection, doses as low as 0.1 mg/kg MB provided prolonged imaging of the ureters, and a dose of 0.5 mg/kg provided statistically significant improvement of CBR. Pre-injection of furosemide increased urine volume but did not improve CBR. Laparoscopic identification of the ureter using MB NIR fluorescence was demonstrated. Conclusions Ureteral imaging using MB NIR fluorescence provides sensitive, real-time, intraoperative identification of the ureters during open and laparoscopic surgeries. PMID:20117811

  15. A genome-wide association study of copy number variations with umbilical hernia in swine.

    PubMed

    Long, Yi; Su, Ying; Ai, Huashui; Zhang, Zhiyan; Yang, Bin; Ruan, Guorong; Xiao, Shijun; Liao, Xinjun; Ren, Jun; Huang, Lusheng; Ding, Nengshui

    2016-06-01

    Umbilical hernia (UH) is one of the most common congenital defects in pigs, leading to considerable economic loss and serious animal welfare problems. To test whether copy number variations (CNVs) contribute to pig UH, we performed a case-control genome-wide CNV association study on 905 pigs from the Duroc, Landrace and Yorkshire breeds using the Porcine SNP60 BeadChip and penncnv algorithm. We first constructed a genomic map comprising 6193 CNVs that pertain to 737 CNV regions. Then, we identified eight CNVs significantly associated with the risk for UH in the three pig breeds. Six of seven significantly associated CNVs were validated using quantitative real-time PCR. Notably, a rare CNV (CNV14:13030843-13059455) encompassing the NUGGC gene was strongly associated with UH (permutation-corrected P = 0.0015) in Duroc pigs. This CNV occurred exclusively in seven Duroc UH-affected individuals. SNPs surrounding the CNV did not show association signals, indicating that rare CNVs may play an important role in complex pig diseases such as UH. The NUGGC gene has been implicated in human omphalocele and inguinal hernia. Our finding supports that CNVs, including the NUGGC CNV, contribute to the pathogenesis of pig UH. PMID:27028052

  16. Analyses of Long Non-Coding RNA and mRNA profiling using RNA sequencing during the pre-implantation phases in pig endometrium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yueying; Xue, Songyi; Liu, Xiaoran; Liu, Huan; Hu, Tao; Qiu, Xiaotian; Zhang, Jinlong; Lei, Minggang

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of implantation in pig is accompanied by a coordinated interaction between the maternal uterine endometrium and conceptus development. We investigated the expression profiles of endometrial tissue on Days 9, 12 and 15 of pregnancy and on Day 12 of non-pregnancy in Yorkshire, and performed a comprehensive analysis of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in endometrial tissue samples by using RNA sequencing. As a result, 2805 novel lncRNAs, 2,376 (301 lncRNA and 2075 mRNA) differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 2149 novel transcripts were obtained by pairwise comparison. In agreement with previous reports, lncRNAs shared similar characteristics, such as shorter in length, lower in exon number, lower at expression level and less conserved than protein coding transcripts. Bioinformatics analysis showed that DEGs were involved in protein binding, cellular process, immune system process and enriched in focal adhesion, Jak-STAT, FoxO and MAPK signaling pathway. We also found that lncRNAs TCONS_01729386 and TCONS_01325501 may play a vital role in embryo pre-implantation. Furthermore, the expression of FGF7, NMB, COL5A3, S100A8 and PPP1R3D genes were significantly up-regulated at the time of maternal recognition of pregnancy (Day 12 of pregnancy). Our results first identified the characterization and expression profile of lncRNAs in pig endometrium during pre-implantation phases. PMID:26822553

  17. Effect of L- or DL-methionine Supplementation on Nitrogen Retention, Serum Amino Acid Concentrations and Blood Metabolites Profile in Starter Pigs.

    PubMed

    Tian, Q Y; Zeng, Z K; Zhang, Y X; Long, S F; Piao, X S

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation of either L-methionine (L-Met) or DL-methionine (DL-Met) to diets of starter pigs on nitrogen (N) balance, metabolism, and serum amino acid profile. Eighteen crossbred (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire) barrows weighing 15.45±0.88 kg were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 diets with 6 pigs per treatment. The diets included a basal diet (Met-deficient diet) containing 0.24% standardized ileal digestibility Met with all other essential nutrients meeting the pig's requirements. The other two diets were produced by supplementing the basal diet with 0.12% DL-Met or L-Met. The experiment lasted for 18 days, consisting of a 13-day adaptation period to the diets followed by a 5-day experimental period. Pigs were fed ad libitum and free access to water throughout the experiment. Results showed that the supplementation of either L-Met or DL-Met improved N retention, and serum methionine concentration, and decreased N excretion compared with basal diet (p<0.01). The N retention of pigs fed diets supplemented with the same inclusion levels of DL-Met or L-Met were not different (p>0.05). In conclusion, on equimolar basis DL-Met and L-Met are equally bioavailable as Met sources for starter pigs. PMID:26954214

  18. Transport of galactose, glucose and their molecular analogues by Escherichia coli K12.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, P J; Giddens, R A; Jones-Mortimer, M C

    1977-01-01

    1. Strains of Escherichia coli K12 were made that are unable to assimilate glucose by the phosphotransferase system, since they lack the glucose-specific components specified by the genes ptsG and ptsM. 2. Derivative organisms lacking the methyl galactoside or galactose-specific transport system were examined for their ability to transport galactose, d-fucose, methyl beta-D-galactoside, glucose, 2-deoxy-D-glucose and methyl alpha-D-glucoside. 3. Galactose, glucose and to a lesser extent fucose are substrates for both transport systems. 4. 2-Deoxyglucose is transported on the galactose-specific but not the methyl galactoside system. 5. The ability of sugars to elicit anaerobic proton transport is associated with the galactose-specific, but not with the methyl galactoside transport activity. Hence a chemiosmotic mechanism of energization is likely to apply to the former but not to the latter. Alternatively the methyl galactoside system may be switched off under certain conditions, which would indicate a novel regulatory mechanism. 6. Details of the procedure for the derivation of strains may be obtained from the authors, and have been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50074 (8 pages at the) British Library Lending Division, Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1977), 161,1. PMID:15558

  19. Exogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone does not elicit a salt appetite in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Jankevicius, M L; Widowski, T M

    2003-02-01

    In rodents, rabbits, and sheep, exogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) leads to a marked increase in sodium appetite. It has been suggested that if pigs show a similar response to stress, an appetite for salt could increase their attraction to blood and contribute to the development of tail biting. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of ACTH on salt appetite in growing pigs. Individually housed Yorkshire pigs (45 kg) were divided into three groups of four. Group 1 had free access to water, 0.5 M NaCl, and 0.5 M KCl solutions; Group 2 to water, 0.5, and 0.25 M NaCl solutions; Group 3 to water, 0.25, and 0.125 M NaCl solutions. Intramuscular injection of long-acting synthetic ACTH (50 IU twice daily for 5 days) did not elicit increases in intakes of any of the available salt solutions compared to pretreatment intakes. However, there was a 1.6-fold increase in both water and feed intake during ACTH treatment. ACTH treatment also stimulated significant increases in salivary cortisol concentrations. Although increases in salivary cortisol concentrations and in water and feed intake indicate that there were physiological responses to the treatment, exogenous ACTH given for 5 days did not elicit a sodium appetite in growing pigs. These findings do not support the notion that a stress-induced salt appetite serves as an underlying mechanism for tail biting. PMID:12576126

  20. Near-Infrared Imaging for the Assessment of Anastomotic Patency, Thrombosis, and Reperfusion in Microsurgery: A Pilot Study in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Christina R.; Nguyen, John T.; Ashitate, Yoshitomo; Silvestre, Jason; Venugopal, Vivek; Neacsu, Florin; Kettenring, Frank; Frangioni, John V.; Gioux, Sylvain; Lee, Bernard T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Advances in microsurgical techniques have increased the use of free tissue transfer. Methods of intraoperative flap perfusion assessment, however, still rely primarily on subjective evaluation of traditional clinical parameters. Anastomotic thrombosis, if not expeditiously identified and revised, can result in flap loss with significant associated morbidity. This study aims to evaluate the use of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging in the assessment of microsurgical anastomotic patency, thrombosis, and vascular revision. Materials and Methods A model of pedicle thrombosis was created using bilateral abdominal flaps isolated on deep superior epigastric vascular pedicles in four Yorkshire pigs. Following flap elevation, microvascular arterial and venous anastomoses were performed unilaterally, preserving an intact contralateral control flap. Thrombosis was induced at the arterial anastomosis site using ferric chloride, and both flaps imaged using NIR fluorescence angiography. The thrombosed vascular segments were subsequently excised and new anastomoses performed to restore flow. Follow-up imaging of both flaps was then obtained to confirm patency using fluorescence imaging technology. Results Pedicled abdominal flaps were created and successful anastomotic thrombosis was induced unilaterally in each pig. Fluorescence imaging technology identified large decreases in tissue perfusion of the thrombosed flap within 2 minutes. After successful revision anastomosis, NIR imaging demonstrated dramatic increase in flow to the reconstructed flap, but intensity did not return to pre-thrombosis levels. Conclusions Early identification of anastomotic thrombosis is important in successful free tissue transfer. Real-time, intraoperative evaluation of flap perfusion, anastomotic thrombosis, and successful revision can be performed using NIR fluorescence imaging. PMID:25571855

  1. Excorporeal Normothermic Machine Perfusion Resuscitates Pig DCD Livers with Extended Warm Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongzhi; Berendsen, Tim; Kim, Karen; Soto-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Bertheium, Francios; Yarmush, Martin L.; Hertl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background The shortage in donor livers has led to increased use of allografts derived from donation after cardiac death (DCD). The compromised viability in these livers leads to inferior post-transplantation allograft function and survival compared with donation after brain death (DBD) donor grafts. In this study, we reconditioned DCD livers using an optimized normothermic machine perfusion system. Methods Livers from 12 Yorkshire pigs (20–30 kg) were subjected to either 0 min (WI-0 group, n = 6) or 60 min (WI-60 group, n = 6) of warm ischemia and 2 h of cold storage in UW solution, followed by 4 h of oxygenated sanguineous normothermic machine perfusion. Liver viability and metabolic function were analyzed hourly. Results Warm ischemic livers showed elevated transaminase levels and reduced ATP concentration. After the start of machine perfusion, transaminase levels stabilized and there was recovery of tissue ATP, coinciding with an increase in bile production. These parameters reached comparable levels to the control group after 1 h of machine perfusion. Histology and gross morphology confirmed recovery of the ischemic allografts. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that metabolic and functional parameters of livers with extended warm ischemic time (60 min) can be significantly improved using normothermic machine perfusion. We hereby compound the existing body of evidence that machine perfusion is a viable solution for reconditioning marginal organs. PMID:22099594

  2. Biomechanical responses of a pig head under blast loading: a computational simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Skelton, Paul; Chou, Cliff C; Mao, Haojie; Yang, King H; King, Albert I

    2013-03-01

    A series of computational studies were performed to investigate the biomechanical responses of the pig head under a specific shock tube environment. A finite element model of the head of a 50-kg Yorkshire pig was developed with sufficient details, based on the Lagrangian formulation, and a shock tube model was developed using the multimaterial arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (MMALE) approach. These two models were integrated and a fluid/solid coupling algorithm was used to simulate the interaction of the shock wave with the pig's head. The finite element model-predicted incident and intracranial pressure traces were in reasonable agreement with those obtained experimentally. Using the verified numerical model of the shock tube and pig head, further investigations were carried out to study the spatial and temporal distributions of pressure, shear stress, and principal strain within the head. Pressure enhancement was found in the skull, which is believed to be caused by shock wave reflection at the interface of the materials with distinct wave impedances. Brain tissue has a shock attenuation effect and larger pressures were observed in the frontal and occipital regions, suggesting a greater possibility of coup and contrecoup contusion. Shear stresses in the brain and deflection in the skull remained at a low level. Higher principal strains were observed in the brain near the foramen magnum, suggesting that there is a greater chance of cellular or vascular injuries in the brainstem region. PMID:23345257

  3. Analyses of Long Non-Coding RNA and mRNA profiling using RNA sequencing during the pre-implantation phases in pig endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yueying; Xue, Songyi; Liu, Xiaoran; Liu, Huan; Hu, Tao; Qiu, Xiaotian; Zhang, Jinlong; Lei, Minggang

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of implantation in pig is accompanied by a coordinated interaction between the maternal uterine endometrium and conceptus development. We investigated the expression profiles of endometrial tissue on Days 9, 12 and 15 of pregnancy and on Day 12 of non-pregnancy in Yorkshire, and performed a comprehensive analysis of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in endometrial tissue samples by using RNA sequencing. As a result, 2805 novel lncRNAs, 2,376 (301 lncRNA and 2075 mRNA) differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 2149 novel transcripts were obtained by pairwise comparison. In agreement with previous reports, lncRNAs shared similar characteristics, such as shorter in length, lower in exon number, lower at expression level and less conserved than protein coding transcripts. Bioinformatics analysis showed that DEGs were involved in protein binding, cellular process, immune system process and enriched in focal adhesion, Jak-STAT, FoxO and MAPK signaling pathway. We also found that lncRNAs TCONS_01729386 and TCONS_01325501 may play a vital role in embryo pre-implantation. Furthermore, the expression of FGF7, NMB, COL5A3, S100A8 and PPP1R3D genes were significantly up-regulated at the time of maternal recognition of pregnancy (Day 12 of pregnancy). Our results first identified the characterization and expression profile of lncRNAs in pig endometrium during pre-implantation phases. PMID:26822553

  4. Comparison and correlation analysis of different Swine breeds meat quality.

    PubMed

    Li, Y X; Cabling, M M; Kang, H S; Kim, T S; Yeom, S C; Sohn, Y G; Kim, S H; Nam, K C; Seo, K S

    2013-07-01

    This study was performed to determine the influence of pig breed and gender on the ultimate pH and physicochemical properties of pork. The correlations between pH and pork quality traits directly related to carcass grade, and consumer's preference were also evaluated. The pH and meat grading scores for cold carcasses of 215 purebred pigs (Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire) from four different farms were obtained. Meat quality parameters of the pork loin were analyzed. Duroc and female animals were more affected compared to other breeds and male pigs. Duroc animals had the highest ultimate pH, carcass back fat thickness, marbling scores, yellowness, and fat content (p<0.05). Landrace pigs had the highest color lightness and cooking loss values (p<0.05). Among all trait parameters, marbling scores showed the highest significant differences when evaluating the impact of breed and gender on meat quality characteristics (p<0.001). Ultimate pH was positively correlated with carcass weight (0.20), back fat thickness (0.19), marbling score (0.17), and color score (0.16) while negatively correlated with cooking loss (-0.24) and shear force (-0.20). Therefore, pork samples with lower ultimate pH had lower cooking loss, higher lightness, and higher shear force values irrespective of breed. PMID:25049866

  5. Iatrogenic traumatic brain injury during tooth extraction.

    PubMed

    Troxel, Mark

    2015-01-01

    An 8 yr old spayed female Yorkshire terrier was referred for evaluation of progressive neurological signs after a routine dental prophylaxis with tooth extractions. The patient was circling to the left and blind in the right eye with right hemiparesis. Neurolocalization was to the left forebrain. MRI revealed a linear tract extending from the caudal oropharynx, through the left retrobulbar space and frontal lobe, into the left parietal lobe. A small skull fracture was identified in the frontal bone through which the linear tract passed. Those findings were consistent with iatrogenic trauma from slippage of a dental elevator during extraction of tooth 210. The dog was treated empirically with clindamycin. The patient regained most of its normal neurological function within the first 4 mo after the initial injury. Although still not normal, the dog has a good quality of life. Traumatic brain injury is a rarely reported complication of extraction. Care must be taken while performing dental cleaning and tooth extraction, especially of the maxillary premolar and molar teeth to avoid iatrogenic damage to surrounding structures. PMID:25695556

  6. Real-time endoscopic guidance using near-infrared fluorescent light for thoracic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, Vivek; Stockdale, Alan; Neacsu, Florin; Kettenring, Frank; Frangioni, John V.; Gangadharan, Sidharta P.; Gioux, Sylvain

    2013-03-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States, accounting for 28% of all cancer deaths. Standard of care for potentially curable lung cancer involves preoperative radiographic or invasive staging, followed by surgical resection. With recent adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation studies showing a survival advantage in nodepositive patients, it is crucial to accurately stage these patients surgically in order to identify those who may benefit. However, lymphadenectomy in lung cancer is currently performed without guidance, mainly due to the lack of tools permitting real-time, intraoperative identification of lymph nodes. In this study we report the design and validation of a novel, clinically compatible near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence thoracoscope for real-time intraoperative guidance during lymphadenectomy. A novel, NIR-compatible, clinical rigid endoscope has been designed and fabricated, and coupled to a custom source and a dual channel camera to provide simultaneous color and NIR fluorescence information to the surgeon. The device has been successfully used in conjunction with a safe, FDA-approved fluorescent tracer to detect and resect mediastinal lymph nodes during thoracic surgery on Yorkshire pigs. Taken together, this study lays the foundation for the clinical translation of endoscopic NIR fluorescence intraoperative guidance and has the potential to profoundly impact the management of lung cancer patients.

  7. Comparison and Correlation Analysis of Different Swine Breeds Meat Quality

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y. X.; Cabling, M. M.; Kang, H. S.; Kim, T. S.; Yeom, S. C.; Sohn, Y. G.; Kim, S. H; Nam, K. C.; Seo, K. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the influence of pig breed and gender on the ultimate pH and physicochemical properties of pork. The correlations between pH and pork quality traits directly related to carcass grade, and consumer’s preference were also evaluated. The pH and meat grading scores for cold carcasses of 215 purebred pigs (Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire) from four different farms were obtained. Meat quality parameters of the pork loin were analyzed. Duroc and female animals were more affected compared to other breeds and male pigs. Duroc animals had the highest ultimate pH, carcass back fat thickness, marbling scores, yellowness, and fat content (p<0.05). Landrace pigs had the highest color lightness and cooking loss values (p<0.05). Among all trait parameters, marbling scores showed the highest significant differences when evaluating the impact of breed and gender on meat quality characteristics (p<0.001). Ultimate pH was positively correlated with carcass weight (0.20), back fat thickness (0.19), marbling score (0.17), and color score (0.16) while negatively correlated with cooking loss (−0.24) and shear force (−0.20). Therefore, pork samples with lower ultimate pH had lower cooking loss, higher lightness, and higher shear force values irrespective of breed. PMID:25049866

  8. Combined effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and β-cyclodextrin on serum cholesterol in pigs.

    PubMed

    Alonso, L; Fontecha, J; Cuesta, P

    2016-01-14

    A total of twenty-four Yorkshire gilt pigs of 6-7 weeks of age were used in a 2×2 factorial experiment to determine the individual and combined effects of the inclusion of two dietary factors (cholesterol rich, 3% β-cyclodextrin (BCD) and Lactobacillus acidophilus cultures) on total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in blood serum. Pigs were assigned randomly to treatment groups (n 6). Total serum cholesterol concentrations decreased after 3 weeks in all the experimental treatment groups, including diets with BCD, L. acidophilus or both. Similar trends were observed for serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations among the experimental treatments. No statistically significant differences from the control group were observed in either total serum cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol concentrations (P<0·05) for each of the individual treatment groups: BCD or L. acidophilus. However, significant differences in total serum cholesterol concentrations were observed when comparing the combined treatment group (BCD and L. acidophilus) with the control group, which consisted of a basal diet and sterile milk. The combined treatment group exhibited 17·9% lower total serum cholesterol concentration after 3 weeks. Similar significant differences were observed when comparing the combined effect experimental group with the control group after 3 weeks. The combined treatment group exhibited 27·9% lower serum LDL-cholesterol concentrations. PMID:26467089

  9. Anthrax in transit; practical experience and intellectual exchange.

    PubMed

    Jones, Susan D; Teigen, Philip M

    2008-09-01

    Focusing on three Anglo-American outbreaks of industrial anthrax, this essay engages the question of how local circumstances influenced the transmission of scientific knowledge in the late nineteenth century. Walpole (Massachusetts), Glasgow, and Bradford (Yorkshire) served as important nodes of transnational investigation into anthrax. Knowledge about the morphology and behavior of Bacillus anthracis changed little while in transit between these nodes, even during complex debates about the nature of bacterial morphology, disease causation, and spontaneous generation. Working independently of their more famous counterparts (Robert Koch and Louis Pasteur), Anglo-American anthrax investigators used visual representations of anthrax bacilli to persuade their peers that a specific, identifiable cause produced all forms of anthrax-malignant pustule (cutaneous anthrax), intestinal anthrax, and woolsorter's disease (pneumonic anthrax). By the late 1870s, this point of view also supported what we would today call an ecological notion of the disease's origins in the interactions of people, animals, and microorganisms in the context of global commerce. PMID:18959192

  10. Assessment of some porcine strains as donors of islets of Langerhans.

    PubMed

    Sabat, M; Godlewska, E; Kinasiewicz, J; Urbanowicz, A; Orłowski, T

    2003-09-01

    Mass isolation of viable porcine islets is a difficult task because of their fragility, and because of donor variability with respect to strain, age, sex, feeding, and methods of slaughtering. Not all strains are equally suitable for islet separation. The aim of this study was to evaluate porcine pancreata as an alternative source of islets for clinical transplantation. Pancreata were digested from pig strains available in Poland: 248 market weight slaughterhouse pigs and 42 pigs, belonging to the Polish Large White (WBP, 14 sows and 3 males), Polish White Pendant-Ears (PBZ; 16 sows), Pietrain (8 sows), and Yorkshire (1 sow) races. Prepurification data of recoverable islets/g and islet equivalents/g were considered as representative for the number of recoverable islets. Acceptable results namely, islet and/or islet-equivalent (IE) number of at least 1000/g, were obtained from only 56 of 248 slaughterhouse pigs, namely 2073 +/- 137.4 SE (median 1767/g) islets with values of IE of 2994 +/- 303 SE (median 1874/g). Our data support Krickhahn et al suggesting that only pancreata with an average islet size exceeding 199 microm should be digested and that only from 1 of 3 to 5 porcine pancreata is an adequate amount of islets generated. PMID:14529936

  11. Relationships among calpastatin single nucleotide polymorphisms, calpastatin expression and tenderness in pork longissimus.

    PubMed

    Lindholm-Perry, A K; Rohrer, G A; Holl, J W; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M; Nonneman, D

    2009-10-01

    Genome scans in the pig have identified a region on chromosome 2 (SSC2) associated with tenderness. Calpastatin is a likely positional candidate gene in this region because of its inhibitory role in the calpain system that is involved in postmortem tenderization. Novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in calpastatin were identified and used to genotype a population (n = 1042) of Duroc-Landrace-Yorkshire swine for association with longissimus lumborum slice shear force (SSF) measured at days 7 and 14 postmortem. Three genetic markers residing in the calpastatin gene were significantly associated with SSF (P < 0.0005). Haplotypes constructed from markers in the calpastatin gene were significantly associated with SSF (F-ratio = 3.93; P-value = 0.002). The levels of normalized mRNA expression of calpastatin in the longissimus lumborum of 162 animals also were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and were associated with the genotype of the most significant marker for SSF (P < 0.02). This evidence suggests that the causative variation alters expression of calpastatin, thus affecting tenderness. In summary, these data provide evidence of several significant, publicly available SNP markers associated with SSF that may be useful to the swine industry for marker assisted selection of animals that have more tender meat. PMID:19422367

  12. Development of Off-pump Mitral Valve Replacement in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Matthew J.; Aoki, Chikashi; Satoshi, Takebayashi; Shimaoka, Toru; McGarvey, Jeremy R.; Gorman, Robert C.; Gorman, Joseph H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We describe our initial experience with on-bypass and off-bypass (off-pump) mitral valve replacement with the modified version of our novel catheter-based sutureless mitral valve (SMV2) technology, which was developed to atraumatically anchor and seal in the mitral position. Description The SMV is a self-expanding device consisting of a custom designed nitinol framework and a pericardial leaflet valve mechanism. For the current studies our original device was modified (SMV2) to reduce the delivery profile and to allow for controlled deployment whilst still maintaining the key principles necessary for atraumatic anchoring and sealing in the MV position. Evaluation Ten Yorkshire pigs underwent successful SMV2 device implantation via a left atriotomy (on-pump N=6; off-pump N=4). Echocardiography and angiography revealed excellent LV systolic function, no significant perivalvular leak, no MV stenosis, no left ventricular (LV) outflow tract obstruction and no aortic valve insufficiency. Necropsy demonstrated that the SMV2 devices were anchored securely. Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility and short-term success of off-pump mitral valve replacement using a novel, catheter-based device in a porcine model. PMID:25841820

  13. The amino acid sequence of chymopapain from Carica papaya.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, D C; Yaguchi, M; Lynn, K R

    1990-01-01

    Chymopapain is a polypeptide of 218 amino acid residues. It has considerable structural similarity with papain and papaya proteinase omega, including conservation of the catalytic site and of the disulphide bonding. Chymopapain is like papaya proteinase omega in carrying four extra residues between papain positions 168 and 169, but differs from both papaya proteinases in the composition of its S2 subsite, as well as in having a second thiol group, Cys-117. Some evidence for the amino acid sequence of chymopapain has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50153 (12 pages) at the British Library Document Supply Centre, Boston Spa., Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1990) 265, 5. The information comprises Supplement Tables 1-4, which contain, in order, amino acid compositions of peptides from tryptic, peptic, CNBr and mild acid cleavages, Supplement Fig. 1, showing re-fractionation of selected peaks from Fig. 2 of the main paper. Supplement Fig. 2, showing cation-exchange chromatography of the earliest-eluted peak of Fig. 3 of the main paper, Supplement Fig. 3, showing reverse-phase h.p.l.c. of the later-eluted peak from Fig. 3 of the main paper, and Supplement Fig. 4, showing the separation of peptides after mild acid hydrolysis of CNBr-cleavage fragment CB3. PMID:2106878

  14. The amino acid sequence of chymopapain from Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Watson, D C; Yaguchi, M; Lynn, K R

    1990-02-15

    Chymopapain is a polypeptide of 218 amino acid residues. It has considerable structural similarity with papain and papaya proteinase omega, including conservation of the catalytic site and of the disulphide bonding. Chymopapain is like papaya proteinase omega in carrying four extra residues between papain positions 168 and 169, but differs from both papaya proteinases in the composition of its S2 subsite, as well as in having a second thiol group, Cys-117. Some evidence for the amino acid sequence of chymopapain has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50153 (12 pages) at the British Library Document Supply Centre, Boston Spa., Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies may be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1990) 265, 5. The information comprises Supplement Tables 1-4, which contain, in order, amino acid compositions of peptides from tryptic, peptic, CNBr and mild acid cleavages, Supplement Fig. 1, showing re-fractionation of selected peaks from Fig. 2 of the main paper. Supplement Fig. 2, showing cation-exchange chromatography of the earliest-eluted peak of Fig. 3 of the main paper, Supplement Fig. 3, showing reverse-phase h.p.l.c. of the later-eluted peak from Fig. 3 of the main paper, and Supplement Fig. 4, showing the separation of peptides after mild acid hydrolysis of CNBr-cleavage fragment CB3. PMID:2106878

  15. Independent prescribing supporting the delivery of the public health vaccination programme.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    The parameters of non-medical prescribing have changed since its introduction in 1994. In July 2000 nurse independent prescribing was introduced, this opened up the opportunity for many practitioners to incorporate this into their practice. The national childhood immunisation programme is an area of practice that has not required the use of independent prescribers. Their skills can provide support to the effective and efficient delivery of the vaccination programme through enabling the work of a mixed skills team. Doncaster in South Yorkshire was one of the Public Health England pilot areas for the secondary school aged children in years seven and eight in 2014. This paper details the use of independent prescribing by a practitioner to sign patient specific directions for health care support workers to administer the nasal flu vaccine to children clearly identified in it. This process required the development and implementation of a clinical skills training package for health care support workers to administer the flu vaccination (FluenzTetra) nasal vaccine. Also governance arrangements needed to be in place to support this change in practice in the delivery of the childhood influenza immunisation programme. This enables nurses and health care support workers to practice safely and within acceptable and legal boundaries. PMID:25812241

  16. Commissioning phase report. Volume I. Pre-commissioning checks through hot start-up, September 1979-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The Experimental Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor has been built as an extension to the National Coal Board Power Station, which is adjacent to Grimethorpe Colliery, Yorkshire, England, and is described in this report. The Government of the United Kingdom, the United States of America and the Federal Republic of Germany, under the auspices of the International Energy Agency, have agreed to share equally between them the costs of building and operating the plant, hereafter referred to as the Grimethorpe Experimental Facility. The broad objectives of the project were set out as follows: (1) to build a pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion Experimental Facility and to study combustion, heat transfer, gas clean up, corrosion and energy recovery in such a system; (2) to carry out tests over a wide range of operating conditions and to make measurements in greater detail than would be either economic or possible in a unit integrated with a gas turbine where pressure ratio, gas flow rate and combustion gas temperature are fixed within relatively narrow limits; and (3) to provide data for analytical modelling of design data for larger commercial plant by empirical data extrapolation.

  17. Cytologic and immunohistochemical characterization of a lung carcinoid in a dog.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ul Soo; Alleman, A Rick; Choi, Ji-Hye; Kim, Hyun Wook; Youn, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Chang Woo

    2008-06-01

    An 11-year-old neutered male Yorkshire Terrier was presented to the Haemaru Referral Animal Hospital with a history of unresponsive tracheal collapse and an incidental finding of a lung nodule in the left caudal lung lobe on radiography. Thorough physical examination and imaging studies revealed no other masses. Cytologic examination of C-arm mobile fluoroscopy-guided fine-needle aspirates revealed numerous free nuclei and a low number of small round cells with moderate to abundant pale basophilic cytoplasm. Some cells contained indistinct basophilic granules in their cytoplasm, and extracellular pink material was noted. A caudal lung lobectomy was performed, and histologic evaluation of the mass revealed round to polygonal cells with abundant eosinophilic granular cytoplasm and round nuclei with mild anisokaryosis and 0-3 mitotic figures per high-power field. Cells were arranged in packets separated by fine fibrovascular stroma, suggestive of a pulmonary neuroendocrine neoplasm, specifically a carcinoma/carcinoid. The cells were immunoreactive for chromogranin A and neuron-specific enolase, and negative for cytokeratin, synaptophysin, calcitonin, thyroglobulin, parathyroid hormone, CD79a, light lambda, and vimentin. With these findings the tumor was diagnosed as a primary lung carcinoid. Eleven months after resection, there was no evidence of tumor regrowth or metastasis. The absence of necrosis, few mitotic figures, minimal pleomorphism, and benign behavior of this tumor resembled those of a typical carcinoid in humans. PMID:18533928

  18. Novel threadlike structures may be present on the large animal organ surface: evidence in Swine model.

    PubMed

    Bae, Kyoung-Hee; Park, Sang Hyun; Lee, Byung-Cheon; Nam, Min-Ho; Yoon, Ji Woong; Kwon, Hee-Min; Yoon, Seung Zhoo

    2013-01-01

    Background. The types of embryonic development probably provoke different paths of novel threadlike structure (NTS) development. The authors hypothesized that NTS may be easily observed on the surface of swine intestines by using trypan blue staining method and visualization under an optical microscope. Methods. General anesthesia was administered to 2 Yorkshire pigs. The abdominal walls of the pigs were carefully dissected along the medial alba. NTSs were identified on organ surfaces under a stereoscopic microscope after trypan blue staining. Isolated NTS specimens obtained from the large intestine were subjected to 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and observed using the polarized light microscopy to confirm whether the obtained structure fits the definition of NTS. Results. We found elastic, semitransparent threadlike structures (forming a network structure) that had a milky-white color in situ and in vivo in swine large intestines. The samples showed distinct extinction of polarized light at every 90 degrees, and nucleus was shown to be rod shaped by DAPI staining, indicating that they meet the criteria of NTS. Conclusion. We used a swine model to demonstrate that NTS may be present on large animal organ surfaces. Our results may permit similar studies by using human specimens. PMID:23762159

  19. Dying with style: infant death and its context in a rural industrial township 1650-1830.

    PubMed

    King, S

    1997-04-01

    The literature on the demographic impact of rural industrialization in England has lagged somewhat behind continental inspired historiography. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the sphere of infant mortality, where commentators have failed to balance the effects of rural industry on health and welfare--such as higher earnings and the existance of more dense kinship networks--with the negative effects--proximity of rural industrial areas to rapidly growing towns, poor public health and rapidly increasing population density. Using the results from a very detailed analysis of a proto-industrial township in the West Riding of Yorkshire between 1650 and 1830, this article contends that rural industrial areas had a distinctive experience of infant mortality. In line with much of the existing literature on England, rates of infant mortality in this township were modest. However, concentration on bald figures without wider contextualization, masks the fact that infant mortalitiy visited itself most intensely on a narrow range of families and a narrow range of spatial areas. Those most susceptible were in-migrants living on common land, and the wider linkage of family reconstitution data to poor law evidence suggests that the defining characteristic of concentrated infant mortality was recurrent parental illness, leading to inadequate child care and breast-feeding. PMID:11619191

  20. A study of clinical opinion and practice regarding circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Farshi, Z; Atkinson, K; Squire, R

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To establish clinical opinion regarding appropriate indications for circumcision and to examine actual clinical practice.
METHODS—A questionnaire was sent to all NHS hospital consultants in the Yorkshire region of the UK identified as having a role to play in the management of boys (under 16 years of age) requiring circumcision. Retrospective data on actual clinical practice during a three month study period were also collected via a simple proforma.
RESULTS—Of 153 questionnaires sent, 64 were returned. Responses revealed varying opinions regarding appropriate indications for circumcision within each consultant group, and between paediatricians and surgeons. Surgeons were generally more inclined to recommend circumcision for each of the indications listed in the questionnaire. Analysis of clinical practice revealed that almost two thirds of procedures were carried out for phimosis, and nearly half of these children were under the age of 5years.
CONCLUSION—There are differences in the clinical opinions of surgeons and paediatricians on what constitutes an appropriate indication for circumcision. Paediatricians' opinions are generally more in line with current evidence than those of surgeons, possibly resulting in many unnecessary circumcisions.

 PMID:11040144

  1. Effects of Chitosan on Intestinal Inflammation in Weaned Pigs Challenged by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Dingfu; Wang, Yongfei; Liu, Gang; He, Jianhua; Qiu, Wei; Hu, Xionggui; Feng, Zemeng; Ran, Maoliang; Nyachoti, Charles M.; Kim, Sung Woo; Tang, Zhiru; Yin, Yulong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementation with chitosan (COS) could reduce diarrhea and to explore how COS alleviates intestinal inflammation in weaned pigs. Thirty pigs (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire, initial BW of 5.65±0.27) weaned at age 21 d were challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli during a preliminary trial period, and then divided into three treatment groups. Pigs in individual pens were fed a corn-soybean meal diet, that contained either 0 (control), 50 mg/kg chlortetracycline, or 300 mg/kg COS for 21 days. The post-weaning diarrhea frequency, calprotectin levels and TLR4 protein expression were decreased (P<0.05) in both the COS and chlortetracycline groups compared with control. Simultaneously, supplemental COS and chlortetracycline had no effect on the mRNA expression of TNF-α in the jejunal mucosa, or on the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in serum. However, COS supplementation improved (P<0.05) the mRNA expression of IL-1β and IL-6 in the jejunal mucosa. The results indicate that supplementation with COS at 300 mg/kg was effective for alleviating intestinal inflammation and enhancing the cell-mediated immune response. As feed additives, chitosan and chlortetracycline may influence different mechanisms for alleviating inflammation in piglets. PMID:25090447

  2. In the shadow of the asylum: the Stanley Royd Salmonella outbreak of 1984.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Jennifer

    2016-03-01

    In August 1984, an outbreak of Salmonella at Stanley Royd Psychiatric Hospital in Yorkshire led to the deaths of 19 elderly residents. It was an incident that attracted a good deal of comment in both the local and national press, and one that had enduring relevance for ideas about psychiatric care, food handling and catering provisions, hospital management and the official inspection of medical institutions. This article examines the impact that the 1984 outbreak had on official and popular perceptions of these issues. As well as bringing to public attention the fact that large numbers of vulnerable elderly patients were long-term residents in psychiatric hospitals, the Salmonella outbreak highlighted the inadequacies of Victorian hospital buildings in modern healthcare. Throughout the press reports and official investigations examined here, the provenance of Stanley Royd was repeatedly emphasised; its Victorian fabric persistently interfered with cleaning regimes, cold storage facilities and the conveyance of food to patients. Within institutions like Stanley Royd, 'new' and 'old' risks came together-the microscopic bacterium and the crumbling nineteenth-century building-to create a strong critique of existing psychiatric care. The episode also highlighted broader problems within the NHS, such as systems of management and the status of psychogeriatrics as a specialism. PMID:26324457

  3. The epidemiology of canine and feline dermatophytoses in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cafarchia, C; Romito, D; Sasanelli, M; Lia, R; Capelli, G; Otranto, D

    2004-12-01

    A total of 424 animals (268 dogs and 156 cats) with skin lesions (alopecia and peripheral scaling) were examined from January 1999 to December 2002. Of the 424 samples examined, 99 (23.3%) yielded a positive culture and, in particular, 20.5% of the dog samples and 28.2% of the cat samples. Microsporum canis was the most common dermatophyte isolated from dogs and cats (77.7%), followed by geophilic dermatophyte species (M. gypseum, Trichophyton terrestre). Young dogs and cats, especially those younger than 1 year, showed a statistically significant higher prevalence of M. canis infection than older animals. No statistically significant association was found between infection and sex in cats, while male dogs were more affected by dermatophytes. Among breeds, Yorkshire terriers showed the highest positivity (50%) caused mainly by M. canis (46.6%), while no differences were noticed for cats. A significantly higher prevalence of positive samples was registered in summer and in autumn for cats. The presence of dermatophytes was not associated with itching. The diagnostic value of Wood's lamp fluorescence and microscopic examination proved to be scarce compared with fungal cultures as only 45.5% of the 77 samples that tested positive for M. canis at the cultural examination was positive under Wood's lamp florescence and 53.2% at microscopic examination. PMID:15601458

  4. Frederick Delius: controversies regarding his neurological disorder and its impact on his compositional output.

    PubMed

    Lederman, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Frederick Delius was born in Yorkshire, England, on June 29, 1862, the son of German immigrants. He showed early musical talent but his father, a wealthy wool merchant, insisted he pursue a business career. After several failures, including an assignment managing an orange grove near Jacksonville, Florida, his father agreed to support his musical studies in Leipzig, assuming he would then become self-sufficient. Delius spent most of his adult life in France, living with and ultimately marrying Jelka Rosen, a painter of independent means, composing prolifically, and being sexually promiscuous both before and after starting life with Jelka. He contracted syphilis in 1895 and manifestations of neurosyphilis appeared in 1910. Despite periods of relative good health over the ensuing 10 years, he became progressively disabled from 1920 on, ultimately quadriparetic and blind but with preserved cognition and musical inspiration. In his final years, he completed several compositions aided by a young British musician, Eric Fenby, who served as his amanuensis and caregiver, along with Jelka, to his death on June 10, 1934. PMID:25684292

  5. Angiotropic metastatic malignant melanoma in a canine mammary gland

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hai Jie; Lee, Eun-Mi; Kim, Ah-Young; Lee, Eun-Joo; Hong, IL-Hwa; Huh, Sung-Oh

    2011-01-01

    An eleven-year-old spayed female Yorkshire Terrier presented with a sublumbar mass and upon ultrasonographic examination, was revealed to have a mammary gland tumor. Black to reddish colored masses, located in the visceral peritoneum of the sublumbar region was observed on laparotomy with masectomy of the right side. In the laparotomy, we observed reddish masses multifocally located in the serosal membrane of the large intestine. Histopathologic examination of the intestinal and abdominal mass showed highly invasiveness into the muscle and metastasis of melanocytic tumor cells through the blood vessels. The mammary glands showed abnormal hyperplasia of melanocytes, destruction of the normal glands by tumor cells and infiltration of some lymphocytes in the pool of melanocytic cells. We have identified a malignant melanoma containing an angiotumoral complex in which tumor cells occupied a pericytic location along the microvessels with intravasation determined by immunohistochemistry for S100 protein and protein kinase C-α. Histologic findings in this dog lead to a diagnosis of an angiotropic metastatic malignant melanoma. PMID:22232646

  6. Dermal penetration of 14C-labeled diisopropyl methylphosphonate in swine.

    PubMed

    Snodgrass, H L; Metker, L M

    1992-08-01

    Diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) has been identified as a groundwater contaminant on or near sites of former chemical warfare production facilities. The material is a by-product of GB (or Sarin) manufacture and does not occur naturally in the environment. The present study measured the dermal absorption of 14C-labeled DIMP in swine to establish the basis for estimating health risk from this portal of entry. Yorkshire cross swine were treated by sc injection of labeled DIMP to measure the efficiency of bioelimination. Additional pigs each received a single percutaneous (pc) exposure of 400, 40, or 4 micrograms/cm2 of labeled DIMP. Absorption through 7 d was measured by the appearance of 14C label in the urine and feces. Tissue specimens, collected at necropsy, were assessed for residual radioactivity. The results showed that between 3 and 7% of cutaneous DIMP was absorbed through 7 d. Urinary elimination accounted for about 95% of the absorbed dose in the first 24 h. No significant tissue deposition was observed. Pigs treated by the sc route excreted nearly 100% of the injected material demonstrating an extremely efficient metabolic process. It was concluded that humans may be expected to absorb less than 10% of an unoccluded single dermal exposure to DIMP. Absorbed dose would likely be metabolized to isopropyl methylphosphonic acid and excreted primarily in the urine within 24 h. Significant evaporation of the material from the open skin surface would be expected to occur. PMID:1507268

  7. Evaluation of procollagen I deposition after intense pulsed light treatments at varying parameters in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Shilesh; Carranza, Dafnis; Kolodney, Michael; Macgregor, David; Chipps, Lisa; Soriano, Teresa

    2007-06-01

    Several lasers and light sources have been reported to induce dermal collagen remodeling without damaging the epidermis. The intense pulsed light (IPL) system, which emits polychromatic light of wavelengths between 560 and 1200 nm belongs to this group of increasingly popular non-ablative skin rejuvenation devices. Various IPL treatment parameters can be adjusted to achieve optimal dermal remodeling and clinical improvement. The aim of this study was to evaluate variations in IPL treatment parameters and the effect on procollagen I deposition. Marked areas of a live Yorkshire pig's flank skin were irradiated with a single or double pass of an IPL source using a fluence of 30 or 40 J/cm2 and a cut-off wavelength filter of 590 nm. Skin biopsies were performed on postoperative days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 42. A statistically significant increase in procollagen I in treated versus untreated sites was found on postoperative days 21 and 42, but not earlier. There was a uniformly significant increase in procollagen I on day 42 using the 590 nm filter at both 30 and 40 J/cm2 with either a single or double pass. The increase in procollagen was greater with a fluence of 40 J/cm2 compared with 30 J/cm2. PMID:17558756

  8. Determining brittle extension and shear strain using fault length and displacement systematics: Part II: Data evaluation and test of the theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twiss, Robert J.; Marrett, Randall

    2010-12-01

    We use the theoretical relations developed in Part I of this work to evaluate the self-consistency of fault-length and fault-displacement data gathered in domains of one and two dimensions from the Yucca Mountain area and from the coalfields in south Yorkshire, U.K. These data sets are not all self-consistent. For the Yucca Mt. area, the theory shows that, the volume over which the sampling of the faults must occur should have a horizontal width no smaller than 2.4 times the horizontal length of the largest fault, and a depth no smaller than 1.6 times the vertical extent of the largest vertical-equivalent-fault. It also shows that the volumetric extension must be ≥95% of the extension of a two-dimensional domain and ≥80% of the extension of a one-dimensional domain. The theory successfully accounts for the observed cumulative extensional strain derived from fault-displacement data from a one-dimensional sampling domain at Yucca Mt., Nevada, U.S.A. Faults up to about four orders of magnitude smaller than the largest fault make a significant contribution to the strain. The most robust calculation of cumulative fractional strain requires the parameters inferred from sampling displacement in a one-dimensional domain. This sampling procedure therefore provides the most reliable results.

  9. Condition Monitoring of the SSE Generation Fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twiddle, J.; Muthuraman, S.; Connolly, N.

    2012-05-01

    SSE (previously known as Scottish and Southern Energy) operates a diverse portfolio of generation plant, including coal, gas and renewable plant with a total generation capacity of 11,375MW (Sept 2011). In recent years a group of specialists dedicated to providing condition monitoring services has been established at the Equipment Performance Centre (EPC) based at Knottingley, West Yorkshire. We aim to illustrate the role of the EPC and the methods used for monitoring the generation fleet with the objective of maintaining asset integrity, reducing risk of plant failure and unplanned outages and describe the challenges which have been overcome in establishing the EPC. This paper describes methods including vibration and process data analysis, model-based techniques and on-site testing used for monitoring of generation plant, including gas turbines, steam turbines, generators and steam raising plant. These condition monitoring processes utilise available data, adding value to the business, by bringing services in-house and capturing knowledge of plant operation for the benefit of the whole fleet.

  10. Recombinant α1-Antitrypsin Pittsburgh Attenuates Experimental Gram-Negative Septicemia

    PubMed Central

    Colman, Robert W.; Flores, Daniel N.; De La Cadena, Raul A.; Scott, Cheryl F.; Cousens, Laurence; Barr, Philip J.; Hoffman, Ian B.; Kueppers, Friedrich; Fisher, Donald; Idell, Steven; Pisarello, Jorge

    1988-01-01

    Alpha1-antitrypsin-Pittsburgh (AT-P), a naturally occurring lethal mutation (358Met → Arg), has been genetically engineered (rAT-P). The protein has been shown to be a potent active site-directed inhibitor of thrombin and the contact enzymes Factor XIIf, Factor XIa, and kallikrein. Because activation of the contact system is known to occur in gram-negative septicemia, the authors have hypothesized that the administration of rAT-P might modulate the course of this syndrome. Yorkshire piglets anesthetized with pentobarbital and infused with viable Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2 X 108 CFU) were untreated (Group I) or treated with rAT-P (Group II) and studied in a 6-hour protocol. Coagulation studies revealed that rAT-P significantly inhibited the rapid decrease in the functional concentrations of Antithrombin III, Factor XI, and fibrinogen. In addition, rAT-P markedly reduced the serum levels of fibrinogen degradation products. Survival in Group II was significantly increased during 2-5 hours but not at 6 hours when the functional levels of rAT-P in plasma were the lowest. These results indicate that this recombinant inhibitor, even at low concentrations, affords protection in experimental gram-negative septicemia. PMID:3257651

  11. Biology of Cryptosporidium parvum in pigs: from weaning to market.

    PubMed

    Guselle, N J; Appelbee, A J; Olson, M E

    2003-04-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is commonly identified as infecting domestic livestock and humans. Prevalence of C. parvum in pigs has been reported, however, the duration and infection pattern of naturally acquired Cryptosporidium infections in pigs has not been reported. This study was undertaken to investigate the age of oocyst shedding and duration of natural Cryptosporidium parvum infections in pigs from weaning to market weight. Fecal samples were collected from weaned Yorkshire-Landrace piglets (n=33) twice per week until Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected. Upon oocyst detection, fecal samples were collected three times per week and pigs were monitored throughout the study for diarrhea and examined after concentration and immunofluroescent staining. Cryptosporidium isolates were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction to amplify the HSP70 gene which was subsequently sequence analyzed. All 33 pigs shed oocysts some time during the study. The mean age of initial oocyst detection was 45.2 days post-weaning with the mean duration of infection 28.7 days. Mean number of Cryptosporidium oocysts was low and declined to zero prior to study completion. Episodes of diarrhea were not associated with oocyst excretion. Genetic sequences were obtained for 10 of the pigs. All of the 10 isolates aligned as the Cryptosporidium parvum 'pig' genotype. This study demonstrates that the age and duration of oocyst shedding in pigs infected with C. parvum porcine genotype is different from other livestock species. PMID:12651214

  12. Determination of molecular weights of humic substances by analytical (UV scanning) ultracentrifugation

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, P.M.; Wilkinson, A.E.; Tipping, E.; Jones, M.N. Freshwater Biological Association, Ambleside, Cumbria )

    1990-01-01

    Samples of peat humic acid (PHA) and surface water humic (WBHA) and fulvic (WBFA) acids have been extracted from Whitray Beck in North Yorkshire, U.K. The molecular weights of the extracts have been investigated by sedimentation equilibrium using an analytical ultracentrifuge equipped with a UV scanning system. The system allows measurements to be made at low concentrations of humic substances, comparable to those existing in natural humic-rich water. A method is described for correcting UV scanning data for changes in the optical properties of the materials with changing molecular weight. Measurements have also been made on reference samples of Suwannee river humic (SRHA) and fulvic (SRFA) acids from the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS). The weight-average moleuclar weights of the extracted samples range from approximately 2,000 to 17,000 and follow a series PHA > WBHA > WBFA. Apparent specific volumes of these materials were in a range from 0.45 to 0.58 cm{sup 3} g{sup {minus}1} as measured by digital densimetry. Al the samples studied were analysed by gel filtration, but the molecular weights determined by this method based on a globular protein calibration are not in good accord with the absolute determinations by the sedimentation-equilibrium technique. The molecular weight of the SRHA determined by sedimentation equilibrium is in good agreement with that reported by BECKETT (1987) et al., based on flow field-flow fractionation.

  13. Determination of molecular weights of humic substances by analytical (UV scanning) ultracentrifugation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Patrick M.; Wilkinson, Alan E.; Tipping, Edward; Jones, Malcolm N.

    1990-01-01

    Samples of peat humic acid (PHA) and surface water humic (WBHA) and fulvic (WBFA) acids have been extracted from Whitray Beck in North Yorkshire, U.K. The molecular weights of the extracts have been investigated by sedimentation equilibrium using an analytical ultracentrifuge equipped with a UV scanning system. The system allows measurements to be made at low concentrations of humic substances, comparable to those existing in natural humic-rich water. A method is described for correcting UV scanning data for changes in the optical properties of the materials with changing molecular weight. Measurements have also been made on reference samples of Suwannee river humic (SRHA) and fulvic (SRFA) acids from the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS). The weight-average molecular weights of the extracted samples range from approximately 2000 to 17000 and follow a series PHA > WBHA > WBFA. Apparent specific volumes of these materials were in a range from 0.45 to 0.58 cm 3 g -1 as measured by digital densimetry. All the samples studied were analysed by gel filtration, but the molecular weights determined by this method based on a globular protein calibration are not in good accord with the absolute determinations by the sedimentation-equilibrium technique. The molecular weight of the SRHA determined by sedimentation equilibrium is in good agreement with that reported by BECKETT (1987) et al., based on flow field-flow fractionation.

  14. Developing a general practice library: a collaborative project between a GP and librarian.

    PubMed

    Pearson, D; Rossall, H

    2001-12-01

    The authors report on a self-completed questionnaire study from a North Yorkshire based general practice regarding the information needs of its clinicians. The work was carried out with a particular focus on the practice library, and the findings identified that a new approach to maintaining and developing the library was needed. The literature regarding the information needs of primary care clinicians and the role of practice libraries is considered, and compared to those of the clinicians at the practice. Discussion follows on how a collaborative project was set up between the practice and a librarian based at the local NHS Trust library in order to improve the existing practice library. Difficulties encountered and issues unique to the project are explored, including training implications presented by the implementation of electronic resources. Marketing activities implemented are discussed, how the library will operate in its new capacity, and how ongoing support and maintenance of the library will be carried out. It is concluded that although scepticism still exists regarding librarian involvement in practice libraries, collaboration between clinicians and librarians is an effective approach to the successful development and maintenance of a practice library, and recommendations are therefore made for similar collaborative work. PMID:11791859

  15. First-in-human pilot study of a spatial frequency domain oxygenation imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Gioux, Sylvain; Mazhar, Amaan; Lee, Bernard T.; Lin, Samuel J.; Tobias, Adam M.; Cuccia, David J.; Stockdale, Alan; Oketokoun, Rafiou; Ashitate, Yoshitomo; Kelly, Edward; Weinmann, Maxwell; Durr, Nicholas J.; Moffitt, Lorissa A.; Durkin, Anthony J.; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Frangioni, John V.

    2011-01-01

    Oxygenation measurements are widely used in patient care. However, most clinically available instruments currently consist of contact probes that only provide global monitoring of the patient (e.g., pulse oximetry probes) or local monitoring of small areas (e.g., spectroscopy-based probes). Visualization of oxygenation over large areas of tissue, without a priori knowledge of the location of defects, has the potential to improve patient management in many surgical and critical care applications. In this study, we present a clinically compatible multispectral spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) system optimized for surgical oxygenation imaging. This system was used to image tissue oxygenation over a large area (16×12 cm) and was validated during preclinical studies by comparing results obtained with an FDA-approved clinical oxygenation probe. Skin flap, bowel, and liver vascular occlusion experiments were performed on Yorkshire pigs and demonstrated that over the course of the experiment, relative changes in oxygen saturation measured using SFDI had an accuracy within 10% of those made using the FDA-approved device. Finally, the new SFDI system was translated to the clinic in a first-in-human pilot study that imaged skin flap oxygenation during reconstructive breast surgery. Overall, this study lays the foundation for clinical translation of endogenous contrast imaging using SFDI. PMID:21895327

  16. Background to Byssinosis in Ulster*

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, James A.

    1961-01-01

    The spinning and weaving of flax have been carried on as domestic arts all over Ireland for many centuries. In the late 18th century more efficient methods were introduced into the British Isles by refugee Huguenots. For historical, economic, and ecological reasons the manufacture of linen became concentrated in Ulster. There is no evidence of a respiratory hazard until mechanization of the processes took place. Ramazzini (1705) described a severe respiratory affection amongst scutchers and hacklers aggregated for work in enclosed spaces. In 1831 Thackrah and Jesse Leach (1863) described similar cases occurring in Leeds and Heywood, and in 1860 Greenhow noted the enormous increase in the mortality from respiratory disease following the introduction of linen manufacture to the Pateley Bridge area of Yorkshire. He recognized also the Monday exacerbation. In 1856 Malcolm in Belfast suggested, in a statistical study, that the incidence of respiratory disease was directly related to the dustiness of the occupation and in a series of papers from 1873 onwards Purdon (C.D.) and a number of other Ulster doctors described the syndrome. It is my view that, although the incidence of the disease has markedly decreased, cases still occur and that clinically these are indistinguishable from byssinosis in the cotton trade. Recent observations on byssinosis in Ulster, with some typical case histories, provide the evidence for this view.

  17. Enhancing Genome-Wide Copy Number Variation Identification by High Density Array CGH Using Diverse Resources of Pig Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiying; Jiang, Jicai; Wang, Haifei; Kang, Huimin; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jian-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Copy number variations (CNVs) are important forms of genomic variation, and have attracted extensive attentions in humans as well as domestic animals. In the study, using a custom-designed 2.1 M array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), genome-wide CNVs were identified among 12 individuals from diverse pig breeds, including one Asian wild population, six Chinese indigenous breeds and two modern commercial breeds (Yorkshire and Landrace), with one individual of the other modern commercial breed, Duroc, as the reference. A total of 1,344 CNV regions (CNVRs) were identified, covering 47.79 Mb (∼1.70%) of the pig genome. The length of these CNVRs ranged from 3.37 Kb to 1,319.0 Kb with a mean of 35.56 Kb and a median of 11.11 Kb. Compared with similar studies reported, most of the CNVRs (74.18%) were firstly identified in present study. In order to confirm these CNVRs, 21 CNVRs were randomly chosen to be validated by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) and a high rate (85.71%) of confirmation was obtained. Functional annotation of CNVRs suggested that the identified CNVRs have important function, and may play an important role in phenotypic and production traits difference among various breeds. Our results are essential complementary to the CNV map in the pig genome, which will provide abundant genetic markers to investigate association studies between various phenotypes and CNVs in pigs. PMID:24475311

  18. The use of GIS and multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) to identify agricultural land management practices which cause surface water pollution in drinking water supply catchments.

    PubMed

    Grayson, Richard; Kay, Paul; Foulger, Miles

    2008-01-01

    Diffuse pollution poses a threat to water quality and results in the need for treatment for potable water supplies which can prove costly. Within the Yorkshire region, UK, nitrates, pesticides and water colour present particular treatment problems. Catchment management techniques offer an alternative to 'end of pipe' solutions and allow resources to be targeted to the most polluting areas. This project has attempted to identify such areas using GIS based modelling approaches in catchments where water quality data were available. As no model exists to predict water colour a model was created using an MCE method which is capable of predicting colour concentrations at the catchment scale. CatchIS was used to predict pesticide and nitrate N concentrations and was found to be generally capable of reliably predicting nitrate N loads at the catchment scale. The pesticides results did not match the historic data possibly due to problems with the historic pesticide data and temporal and spatially variability in pesticide usage. The use of these models can be extended to predict water quality problems in catchments where water quality data are unavailable and highlight areas of concern. PMID:19029721

  19. Constraining Vadose Zone Flow Model Parameterisation Using Gamma Ray Borehole Logs And Zero-offset Cross-hole Radar Profiles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassiani, G.; Binley, A. M.; Winship, P.

    The identification of unsaturated flow parameters is traditionally based on core re- trieval and laboratory testing. This approach is notoriously affected by severe draw- backs, such as the likely disturbance to samples and a mismatch between the scale of interest (m) and the sample scale (cm). In this study, we endorse a different approach, which relies upon borehole geophysical (natural gamma) logs for structural/geological information and cross-hole geophysical (radar) data for the measurement of the hy- drological response to natural loads (effective rainfall). This approach is applied to the results of an extensive monitoring programme at the Eggborough experimental site in Yorkshire, UK. The gamma ray logs are utilised in a geostatistical framework to gen- erate, in a stochastic fashion, simplified lithology scenarios. Each lithology is charac- terised by a set of unsaturated flow parameters using the van Genuchten model. Each lithological scenario is used for 1D vertical unsaturated flow simulations of rainfall recharge at a few locations. Cross-hole zero-offset radar surveys at several locations are used to provide time-varying vertical profiles of water content. For each simu- lation, a goodness-of-fit index between predicted and measured moisture content is computed, and is used to rank the likelihood of that parameter set. Both lithology and flow parameters are generated via a nested Monte Carlo approach. As a result, the likely ranges of unsaturated hydraulic parameters are estimated.

  20. Review of fluidized bed combustion technology in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, R.P.; Daw, C.S.; Jones, J.E. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The United States (US) initiated work in fluidized bed combustion (FBC) in the mid-1960s, with primary emphasis on industrial applications. With passage of the Clean Air Act in 1970, the environmental benefits of the technology soon attracted interest. This provided the impetus for expanded effort focused on the reduced NO/sub x/ emissions resulting from lower combustion temperature and SO/sub 2/ capture by means of chemical reaction with limestone or dolomite in the fluidized bed. The oil embargo in 1973 further stimulated interest in FBC technology. Several manufacturers presently offer atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) units for industrial application in the United States. However, FBC for electric power generation remains in the development and demonstration phase. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) are operating a 20-MW AFBC utility pilot plant and are proceeding with plans for a 160-MW(e) demonstration plant with other participants. Research has been under way on pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) at Grimethorpe in South Yorkshire, England, and within the United States at the Curtiss-Wright Pilot Plant, and at other smaller test facilities. An emerging turbocharged PFBC concept will likely stimulate more near-term interest in PFBC technology for both industrial and utility applications. The major US programs and test facilities are described; remaining technical uncertainties are discussed, and the future outlook for the technology is assessed.