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Sample records for holmberg ix x-1

  1. X-RAY OUTFLOWS AND SUPER-EDDINGTON ACCRETION IN THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE HOLMBERG IX X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Miller, J. M.; Reis, R. C.; Fabian, A. C.; Roberts, T. P.; Middleton, M. J.

    2013-08-10

    Studies of X-ray continuum emission and flux variability have not conclusively revealed the nature of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) at the high-luminosity end of the distribution (those with L{sub X} {>=} 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1}). These are of particular interest because the luminosity requires either super-Eddington accretion onto a black hole of mass {approx}10 M{sub Sun} or more standard accretion onto an intermediate-mass black hole. Super-Eddington accretion models predict strong outflowing winds, making atomic absorption lines a key diagnostic of the nature of extreme ULXs. To search for such features, we have undertaken a long, 500 ks observing campaign on Holmberg IX X-1 with Suzaku. This is the most sensitive data set in the iron K bandpass for a bright, isolated ULX to date, yet we find no statistically significant atomic features in either emission or absorption; any undetected narrow features must have equivalent widths less than 15-20 eV at 99% confidence. These limits are far below the {approx}>150 eV lines expected if observed trends between mass inflow and outflow rates extend into the super-Eddington regime and in fact rule out the line strengths observed from disk winds in a variety of sub-Eddington black holes. We therefore cannot be viewing the central regions of Holmberg IX X-1 through any substantial column of material, ruling out models of spherical super-Eddington accretion. If Holmberg IX X-1 is a super-Eddington source, any associated outflow must have an anisotropic geometry. Finally, the lack of iron emission suggests that the stellar companion cannot be launching a strong wind and that Holmberg IX X-1 must primarily accrete via Roche-lobe overflow.

  2. The X-ray spectral evolution of the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luangtip, Wasutep; Roberts, Timothy P.; Done, Chris

    2016-08-01

    We present a new analysis of X-ray spectra of the archetypal ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) Holmberg IX X-1 obtained by the Swift, XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observatories. This ULX is a persistent source, with a typical luminosity of ~10^40 erg s^-1, that varied by a factor of 4 - 5 over eight years. We find that its spectra tend to evolve from relatively flat or two-component spectra in the medium energy band (1-6 keV), at lower luminosities, to a spectrum that is distinctly curved and disc-like at the highest luminosities, with the peak energy in the curved spectrum tending to decrease with increased luminosity. We argue that the spectral evolution of the ULX can be explained by super-Eddington accretion models, where in this case we view the ULX down the evacuated funnel along its rotation axis, bounded by its massive radiatively driven wind. The spectral changes then originate in enhanced geometric beaming as the accretion rate increases and wind funnel narrows, causing the scattered flux from the central regions of the supercritical flow to brighten faster than the isotropic thermal emission from the wind, and so the curved hard spectral component to dominate at the highest luminosities. The wind also Compton down-scatters photons at the edge of the funnel, resulting in the peak energy of the spectrum decreasing. We also confirm that Holmberg IX X-1 displays spectral degeneracy with luminosity, and suggest that the observed differences are naturally explained by precession of the black hole rotation axis for the suggested wind geometry.

  3. The X-ray spectral evolution of the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luangtip, Wasutep; Roberts, Timothy P.; Done, Chris

    2016-08-01

    We present a new analysis of X-ray spectra of the archetypal ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) Holmberg IX X-1 obtained by the Swift, XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observatories. This ULX is a persistent source, with a typical luminosity of ˜1040 erg s-1, that varied by a factor of 4-5 over eight years. We find that its spectra tend to evolve from relatively flat or two-component spectra in the medium energy band (1-6 keV), at lower luminosities, to a spectrum that is distinctly curved and disc-like at the highest luminosities, with the peak energy in the curved spectrum tending to decrease with increased luminosity. We argue that the spectral evolution of the ULX can be explained by super-Eddington accretion models, where in this case we view the ULX down the evacuated funnel along its rotation axis, bounded by its massive radiatively driven wind. The spectral changes then originate in enhanced geometric beaming as the accretion rate increases and wind funnel narrows, causing the scattered flux from the central regions of the supercritical flow to brighten faster than the isotropic thermal emission from the wind, and so the curved hard spectral component to dominate at the highest luminosities. The wind also Compton down-scatters photons at the edge of the funnel, resulting in the peak energy of the spectrum decreasing. We also confirm that Holmberg IX X-1 displays spectral degeneracy with luminosity, and suggest that the observed differences are naturally explained by precession of the black hole rotation axis for the suggested wind geometry.

  4. The X-ray spectral evolution of the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luangtip, Wasutep; Roberts, Timothy P.; Done, Chris

    2016-05-01

    We present a new analysis of X-ray spectra of the archetypal ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) Holmberg IX X-1 obtained by the Swift, XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observatories. This ULX is a persistent source, with a typical luminosity of ˜1040 erg s-1, that varied by a factor of 4 - 5 over eight years. We find that its spectra tend to evolve from relatively flat or two-component spectra in the medium energy band (1-6 keV), at lower luminosities, to a spectrum that is distinctly curved and disc-like at the highest luminosities, with the peak energy in the curved spectrum tending to decrease with increased luminosity. We argue that the spectral evolution of the ULX can be explained by super-Eddington accretion models, where in this case we view the ULX down the evacuated funnel along its rotation axis, bounded by its massive radiatively driven wind. The spectral changes then originate in enhanced geometric beaming as the accretion rate increases and wind funnel narrows, causing the scattered flux from the central regions of the supercritical flow to brighten faster than the isotropic thermal emission from the wind, and so the curved hard spectral component to dominate at the highest luminosities. The wind also Compton down-scatters photons at the edge of the funnel, resulting in the peak energy of the spectrum decreasing. We also confirm that Holmberg IX X-1 displays spectral degeneracy with luminosity, and suggest that the observed differences are naturally explained by precession of the black hole rotation axis for the suggested wind geometry.

  5. Broadband X-ray spectra of the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 observed with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Fuerst, F.; Madsen, K. K.; Rana, V.; Stern, D.; Miller, J. M.; Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Webb, N.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Fabian, A. C.; Parker, M. L.; Hailey, C. J.; Ptak, A.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-09-20

    We present results from the coordinated broadband X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 performed by NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku in late 2012. These observations provide the first high-quality spectra of Holmberg IX X-1 above 10 keV to date, extending the X-ray coverage of this remarkable source up to ∼30 keV. Broadband observations were undertaken at two epochs, between which Holmberg IX X-1 exhibited both flux and strong spectral variability, increasing in luminosity from L {sub X} = (1.90 ± 0.03) × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1} to L {sub X} = (3.35 ± 0.03) × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}. Neither epoch exhibits a spectrum consistent with emission from the standard low/hard accretion state seen in Galactic black hole binaries, which would have been expected if Holmberg IX X-1 harbors a truly massive black hole accreting at substantially sub-Eddington accretion rates. The NuSTAR data confirm that the curvature observed previously in the 3-10 keV bandpass does represent a true spectral cutoff. During each epoch, the spectrum appears to be dominated by two optically thick thermal components, likely associated with an accretion disk. The spectrum also shows some evidence for a nonthermal tail at the highest energies, which may further support this scenario. The available data allow for either of the two thermal components to dominate the spectral evolution, although both scenarios require highly nonstandard behavior for thermal accretion disk emission.

  6. OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE HOLMBERG IX X-1 AND ITS STELLAR ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Grise, F.; Kaaret, P.; Pakull, M. W.; Motch, C.

    2011-06-10

    Holmberg IX X-1 is an archetypal ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX). Here we study the properties of the optical counterpart and of its stellar environment using optical data from SUBARU/Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph, GEMINI/GMOS-N and Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys, as well as simultaneous Chandra X-ray data. The V {approx} 22.6 spectroscopically identified optical counterpart is part of a loose cluster with an age {approx}< 20 Myr. Consequently, the mass upper limit on individual stars in the association is about 20 M{sub sun}. The counterpart is more luminous than the other stars of the association, suggesting a non-negligible optical contribution from the accretion disk. An observed UV excess also points to non-stellar light similar to X-ray active low-mass X-ray binaries. A broad He II {lambda}4686 emission line identified in the optical spectrum of the ULX further suggests optical light from X-ray reprocessing in the accretion disk. Using stellar evolutionary tracks, we have constrained the mass of the counterpart to be {approx}> 10 M{sub sun}, even if the accretion disk contributes significantly to the optical luminosity. Comparison of the photometric properties of the counterpart with binary models show that the donor may be more massive, {approx}> 25 M{sub sun}, with the ULX system likely undergoing case AB mass transfer. Finally, the counterpart exhibits photometric variability of 0.14 mag between two HST observations separated by 50 days which could be due to ellipsoidal variations and/or disk reprocessing of variable X-ray emission.

  7. X-RAY SPECTRAL CUTOFF AND THE LACK OF HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM TWO ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES M81 X-6 AND HOLMBERG IX X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Dewangan, G. C.; Misra, R.; Jithesh, V.; Ravikumar, C. D.

    2013-07-10

    We present broadband X-ray spectral study of two ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), M81 X-6 and Holmberg IX X-1, based on Suzaku and XMM-Newton observations. We perform joint broadband spectral analysis of the brightest sources in the field, i.e., the two ULXs and the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in M81, and demonstrate that the X-ray spectra of the ULXs cut off at energies {approx}> 3 keV with negligible contribution at high energies in the Suzaku HXD/PIN band. The 90% upper limit on the 10-30 keV band luminosity of an underlying broadband power-law component is 3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1} for M81 X-6 and 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1} for Holmberg IX X-1. These limits are more than an order of magnitude lower than the bolometric (0.1-30 keV) luminosity of 6.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1} for M81 X-6 and 1.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} for Holmberg IX X-1. Our results confirm earlier indications of spectral cutoffs inferred from the XMM-Newton observations of bright ULXs and show that there is not an additional high-energy power-law component contributing significantly to the X-ray emission. The spectral form of the two ULXs are very different from those of Galactic black hole X-ray binaries (BHBs) or AGNs. This implies that the ULXs are neither simply scaled-up versions of stellar-mass BHBs nor scaled-down versions of AGNs.

  8. Star Formation Rate in Holmberg IX Dwarf Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andjelic, M. M.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we use previously determined Hα fluxes for dwarf galaxy Holmberg IX (Arbutina et al. 2009) to calculate star formation rate (SFR) in this galaxy. We discuss possible contaminations of Hα flux and, for the first time, we take into account optical emission from supernova remnants (SNRs) as a possible source of contamination of Hα flux. Derived SFR for Holmberg IX is 3.4×10-4M_{⊙} yr-1. Our value is lower then in previous studies, due to luminous shock-heated source M&H 9-10, possible hypernova remnant, which we excluded from the total Hα flux in our calculation of SFR.

  9. Speaking Personally--With Borje Holmberg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Distance Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Borje Holmberg is Swedish and has been active in distance education as a theorist and practitioner for more than fifty years. He is the former president of the Wilhelm-Buchner Hochschule, a distance teaching university in Germany. Here, Holmberg is interviewed by William C. Diehl, the Interviews Editor for "The American Journal of Distance…

  10. Speaking Personally--With Robert G. Holmberg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Distance Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Robert G. Holmberg, professor emeritus at Athabasca University (AU). He retired at the end of 2007 following a thirty-three-year academic career at AU in Edmonton and Athabasca, Alberta, Canada. During that time he oversaw the development and delivery of several of the university's first courses. He helped…

  11. On the Holmberg asymmetry of the satellites of disk galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, Gene G.; Valtonen, Mauri J.

    1987-01-01

    A tidal explanation for the observation by Holmberg that the satellites of edge-on disk galaxies tend to avoid the sector within + or - 30 deg of the major axes of the disk galaxies is considered. It is shown that satellites with small orbit-to-disk inclinations are likely to become compact and consequently be left out in Holmberg's survey due to the resemblance to stars. The explanation is supported by the observation of an excess of compact galaxies near the major-axis direction of edge-on disk galaxies. The disk tidal explanation also predicts that the asymmetry should be weaker with larger satellites. It is found that the Karachentsev (1972, 1980) binary galaxy sample, where the typical companion is comparable to the primary galaxy, shows no Holmberg effect. The case of M32 as a compact satellite of the Andromeda galaxy is discussed as a nearby observationally supported example of the above processes.

  12. THE NATURE OF THE UV/OPTICAL EMISSION OF THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE IN HOLMBERG II

    SciTech Connect

    Tao Lian; Feng Hua; Kaaret, Philip; Grise, Fabien

    2012-05-10

    We report on UV and X-ray spectroscopy and broadband optical observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source in Holmberg II. Fitting various stellar spectral models to the combined, non-simultaneous data set, we find that normal metallicity stellar spectra are ruled out by the data, while low-metallicity, Z = 0.1 Z{sub Sun }, late O-star spectra provide marginally acceptable fits, if we allow for the fact that X-ray ionization from the compact object may reduce or eliminate UV absorption/emission lines from the stellar wind. By contrast, an irradiated disk model fits both UV and optical data with {chi}{sup 2}/dof = 175.9/178, and matches the nebular extinction with a reddening of E(B - V) = 0.05{sup +0.05}{sub -0.04}. These results suggest that the UV/optical flux of Holmberg II X-1 may be dominated by X-ray irradiated disk emission.

  13. Title IX Resource Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (Title IX) prohibits discrimination based on sex in education programs and activities in federally funded schools at all levels. If any part of a school district or college receives any Federal funds for any purpose, all of the operations of the district or college are covered by Title IX. The essence…

  14. Dust evolution in the dwarf galaxy Holmberg II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, D. S.; Khramtsova, M. S.; Egorov, O. V.; Lozinskaya, T. A.

    2014-05-01

    A detailed photometric study of star-forming regions (SFRs) in the galaxy Holmberg II has been carried out using the archival observational data from the far infrared to the ultraviolet obtained with the GALEX, Spitzer, and Herschel telescopes. Spectroscopic observations with the 6-m BTA telescope (Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences) are used to estimate the ages and metallicities of SFRs. The ages of SFRs have been correlated for the first time with their emission parameters in a wide spectral range and with the physical parameters determined by fitting the observed spectra. It is shown that the fluxes at 8 and 24 µm characterizing the emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hot dust grains decrease with age, but their ratio increases. This implies that the relative contribution from PAHs to the total infrared flux increases with age. It is hypothesized that the detected increase in the ratio of the fluxes at 8 and 24 µm is related to the increase in the relative PAH fraction due to the destruction of larger grains.

  15. BLACK HOLE POWERED NEBULAE AND A CASE STUDY OF THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE IC 342 X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Cseh, David; Corbel, Stephane; Paragi, Zsolt; Tzioumis, Anastasios; Tudose, Valeriu; Feng Hua

    2012-04-10

    We present new radio, optical, and X-ray observations of three ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) that are associated with large-scale nebulae. We report the discovery of a radio nebula associated with the ULX IC 342 X-1 using the Very Large Array (VLA). Complementary VLA observations of the nebula around Holmberg II X-1, and high-frequency Australia Telescope Compact Array and Very Large Telescope spectroscopic observations of NGC 5408 X-1 are also presented. We study the morphology, ionization processes, and the energetics of the optical/radio nebulae of IC 342 X-1, Holmberg II X-1, and NGC 5408 X-1. The energetics of the optical nebula of IC 342 X-1 is discussed in the framework of standard bubble theory. The total energy content of the optical nebula is 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 52} erg. The minimum energy needed to supply the associated radio nebula is 9.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 50} erg. In addition, we detected an unresolved radio source at the location of IC 342 X-1 at the VLA scales. However, our Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations using the European VLBI Network likely rule out the presence of any compact radio source at milliarcsecond (mas) scales. Using a simultaneous Swift X-ray Telescope measurement, we estimate an upper limit on the mass of the black hole in IC 342 X-1 using the 'fundamental plane' of accreting black holes and obtain M{sub BH} {<=} (1.0 {+-} 0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun }. Arguing that the nebula of IC 342 X-1 is possibly inflated by a jet, we estimate accretion rates and efficiencies for the jet of IC 342 X-1 and compare with sources like S26, SS433, and IC 10 X-1.

  16. X-1 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1947-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-1 (#46-062) in flight. The shock wave pattern in the exhaust plume is visible. The X-1 series aircraft were air-launched from a modified Boeing B-29 or a B-50 Superfortress bombers. The X-1-1 was painted a bright orange by Bell Aircraft. It was thought that the aircraft would be more visable to those doing the tracking during a flight. When NACA received the airplanes they were painted white, which was an easier color to find in the skies over Muroc Air Field in California. This particular craft was nicknamed 'Glamorous Glennis' by Chuck Yeager in honor of his wife, and is now on permanent display in the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all

  17. X1 Exoskeleton

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Ironman-Like Exoskeleton Could Give Astronauts, Paraplegics Improved Mobility and Strength. While NASA's X1 robotic exoskeleton can't do what you see in the movies, the latest robotic, space...

  18. Title IX Lawsuits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tungate, David E.; Orie, Daniel P.

    1998-01-01

    Since Brown University lost its four-year court battle over athletic program equality issues, most colleges and secondary schools have learned to settle when sued under Title IX. Virginia Tech, University of Kansas, and Howard University are illustrative cases. Since nearly all high schools and colleges are vulnerable, it is wise to prepare for…

  19. Scorpius X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The brightest cosmic x-ray source in the constellation of Scorpius and the first cosmic x-ray source to be discovered. Detected for the first time in 1962 by instrumentation carried to an altitude of 225 km by an Aerobee rocket, Scorpius X-1 is, apart from occasional transient sources, the brightest cosmic source of x-radiation in the sky....

  20. Title IX: Boom or Bust?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Marilyn J.

    2003-01-01

    Athletics has been significantly impacted by Title IX through an increase the number of female athletes, the number of teams available, and indirectly, the development of women's professional leagues. However, women in leadership positions in athletics have declined significantly since Title IX was signed into law. A concern about the…

  1. Does Stellar Feedback Create HI Holes? An HST/VLA Study of Holmberg II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Skillman, E. D.; Cannon, J. M.; Dolphin, A. E.; Kennicutt, R. C., Jr.; Lee, J.; Walter, F.

    2010-01-01

    We use deep HST/ACS F555W and F814W photometry of resolved stars in the M81 Group dwarf irregular galaxy Holmberg II to study the hypothesis that the holes identified in the neutral ISM (HI) are created by stellar feedback. From the deep photometry, we construct color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and measure the star formation histories (SFHs) for stars contained in HI holes from two independent holes catalogs, as well as select control fields, i.e., similar sized regions that span a range of HI column densities. The recent SFHs confirm multiple episodes of star formation within most holes. Converting the recent SFHs into stellar feedback energies, we find that enough energy has been generated to have created all holes. However, the required energy is not always produced over a time scale that is less than the estimated kinematic age of the hole. A similar analysis of stars in the control fields finds that the stellar populations of the control fields and HI holes are statistically indistinguishable. However, because we are only sensitive to holes ˜ 100 pc in diameter, we cannot tell if there are smaller holes inside the control fields. The combination of the CMDs, recent SFHs, and locations of young stars shows that the stellar populations inside HI holes are not coherent, single-aged, stellar clusters, as previously suggested, but rather multi-age populations distributed across each hole. From a comparison of the modeled and observed integrated magnitudes, and the locations and energetics of stars inside of HI holes, we propose a potential new model: a viable mechanism for creating the observed HI holes in Holmberg II is stellar feedback from multiple generations of SF spread out over tens or hundreds of Myr, and thus, the concept of an age for an HI hole is intrinsically ambiguous.

  2. X-1A impact site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1955-01-01

    A photo taken on 8 August 1955, showing the remains of the Bell X-1A The Bell X-1A (Serial # 48-1384) was designed for aerodynamic stability and air load research. It was delivered to Edwards Air Force Base on 7 January 1953. The aircraft made its first glide flight on 14 February with Bell test pilot Jean 'Skip' Ziegler at the controls. Ziegler also flew the first powered flight in the X-1A on 21 February. Contractor flights in the aircraft continued through April, at which time the X-1A was temporarily grounded for modifications. Flight operations were resumed on 21 November 1953 with Maj. Charles 'Chuck' Yeager at the controls. During a flight on 12 December, Yeager took the X-1A to a record-breaking speed of Mach 2.44 at an altitude of 75,000 feet. He then encountered the unpleasant phenomemon of inertia coupling. The X-1A tumbled out of control, knocking Yeager unconscious briefly before entering an inverted spin. Fortunately Yeager regained his senses and control of the aircraft 60 miles from Edwards at an altitude of 25,000 feet. Shaken, but unharmed, he brought the rocket plane in for a safe landing on Rogers Dry Lake. Next, the X-1A was used for a series of high-altitude missions piloted by Maj. Arthur 'Kit' Murray. Fourteen flights proved necessary to meet the program requirements, with only four being successful. During the test series, Murray set several unofficial world altitude records. The highest (90,440 feet) was set on 26 August 1954. Following completion of the altitude program, the aircraft was turned over to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1A underwent more modifications and was returned to flight status in July 1955. The first NACA-sponsored flight, piloted by Joseph A. Walker, took place on 20 July. The second NACA mission was to be the 25th flight of the X-1A. The flight began normally on 8 August 1955, with the X-1A shackled to the underside of a JTB-29A (45-21800) piloted by Stanley Butchart and John 'Jack' Mc

  3. Reconsidering the Status of Title IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Ben

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the controversy over Title IX and women's participation in college athletics. Critics say the mandate shortchanges men's teams, while proponents say that women's sports programs remain underfunded in spite of Title IX. Describes some proposed modifications to Title IX and their potential effects. (SLD)

  4. Bioclimatic profile and potential distribution of the Mesopotamian harvestman Discocyrtus testudineus (Holmberg, 1876) (Opiliones, Gonyleptidae).

    PubMed

    Acosta, Luis E

    2014-01-01

    The geographic range of the Neotropical harvestman Discocyrtus testudineus (Holmberg, 1876) (Gonyleptidae) is addressed by determining the species' bioclimatic profile and modeling its potential distribution. Analysis was performed on a record set of 71 localities, including literature records and 34 new localities reported here. The bioclimatic profile was characterized through extreme, median and dispersion features of the values of 19 bioclimatic variables across the record set. Predictive models were built with the presence-only methods MAXENT and, secondarily, BIOCLIM. Discocyrtus testudineus is a typical Mesopotamian harvestman, spreading across a wide region along the middle and lower Paraná River in subtropical / temperate Argentina, and extending, more or less continuously, up to the central province of Córdoba. Apparently diverging records (Paso de los Libres, on the Uruguay River, and Quilmes, on the southern coast of Rio de la Plata) proved to be predictable, even if suppressed from the dataset. Comparisons of cumulative frequencies curves and dispersion features (box-plots) were made with Discocyrtus dilatatus Sørensen, 1884 and Gryne orensis (Sørensen, 1884), other Mesopotamian species for which bioclimatic data are available. The relative importance of the bioclimatic variables used for modeling was also estimated. PMID:24989746

  5. A wide-field study of Holmberg II and evidence for ram pressure stripping.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, E. J.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Barker, M. K.; Irwin, M. J.; Jablonka, P.; Arimoto, N.

    We present a deep, wide-field optical study of the M81 group dwarf galaxy Holmberg II (HoII) based on Subaru/Suprime-Cam imaging. Individual stars are resolved down to I˜25.2, i.e., about 1.5 mag below the tip of the red giant branch (RGB). We use resolved star counts in the outskirts of the galaxy to measure the radial surface brightness profile down to mu_V ˜ 32 mag arcsec-2, from which we determine a projected exponential scalelength of 0.70arcmin ±0.01arcmin (i.e., 0.69± 0.01 kpc). The low surface-brightness stellar component of HoII is regular and symmetric and has an extent much smaller than the vast H I cloud in which it is embedded. We compare the spatial distribution of the young and old stellar populations, and find that the old RGB stars are significantly more centrally concentrated than the young stellar populations, contrary to what is observed in most dwarf galaxies of the Local Universe. We discuss these properties in the context of the comet-like distribution of H I gas around HoII, and argue for the presence of a hot intragroup medium in the vicinity of HoII to explain the contrasting morphologies of the gas and stars.

  6. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2002-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2002-07-01 2002-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Regulations of the Offices of the Department.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  7. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1996-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 1996-10-01 1996-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX... Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ 1...

  8. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2000-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2000-10-01 2000-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF.... Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ 1 Preamble paragraph numbers...

  9. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2008-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2008-10-01 2008-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND... to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets . A Access...

  10. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2009-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  11. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2009-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets . A Access...

  12. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2007-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2007-10-01 2007-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND... to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets . A Access...

  13. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2002-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2002-10-01 2002-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble...

  14. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2007-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2007-07-01 2007-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  15. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2003-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2003-07-01 2003-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  16. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title IX... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2015-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2015-10-01 2015-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare Department of Health and... Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets [ ]....

  17. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2003-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2003-10-01 2003-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND..., Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in...

  18. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2008-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2008-07-01 2008-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  19. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title IX... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2006-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2006-10-01 2006-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND... Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets [ ]....

  20. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2005-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2005-10-01 2005-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in brackets . A Access...

  1. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1999-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 1999-10-01 1999-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF.... Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ 1 Preamble paragraph numbers...

  2. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1998-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 1998-10-01 1998-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble...

  3. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title IX... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2015-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2015-07-01 2015-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the...] Procedures. Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph...

  4. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2004-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2004-07-01 2004-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  5. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2001-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2001-10-01 2001-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND..., Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in...

  6. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2006-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2006-07-01 2006-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  7. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1997-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 1997-10-01 1997-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble...

  8. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2005-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2005-07-01 2005-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  9. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2004-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2004-10-01 2004-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND..., Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in...

  10. Title IX: A Brief History. 25 Years of Title IX. WEEA Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentin, Iram

    This brief history of Title IX points out that the role of women and girls in education and the work force began to change significantly with the passage of Title IX as part of the Education Amendments to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Title IX ensures legal protection against discrimination for students and employees. This article discusses the…

  11. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  12. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  13. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  14. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  15. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Geneva-Copenhagen Survey of Solar neighbourhood III (Holmberg+, 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmberg, J.; Nordstrom, B.; Andersen, J.

    2009-07-01

    Ages, chemical compositions, velocity vectors, and Galactic orbits for stars in the solar neighbourhood are fundamental test data for models of Galactic evolution. The Geneva-Copenhagen Survey of the Solar neighbourhood (Nordstrom et al. 2004A&A...418..989N; GCS), a magnitude-complete, kinematically unbiased sample of 16,682 nearby F and G dwarfs, is the largest available sample with complete data for stars with ages spanning that of the disk. We aim to improve the accuracy of the GCS data by implementing the recent revision of the Hipparcos parallaxes. The new parallaxes yield improved astrometric distances for 12,506 stars in the GCS. We also use the parallaxes to verify the distance calibration for uvbyHbeta photometry by Holmberg et al. (2007A&A...475..519H; GCS II, Cat. VI/117). We add new selection criteria to exclude evolved cool stars giving unreliable results and derive distances for 3,580 stars with large parallax errors or not observed by Hipparcos. We also check the GCS II scales of Teff and [Fe/H] and find no need for change. From the new distances we compute revised Mv, U, V, W, and Galactic orbital parameters for 13,520 GCS stars. We also recompute stellar ages with the new values of Mv from the Padova stellar evolution models used in GCS I-II, and compare them with ages from the Yale-Yonsei and Victoria-Regina models. Finally, we compare the observed age-velocity relation in W with three simulated disk heating scenarios to show the potential of the data. With these revisions, the basic data for the GCS stars should now be as reliable as is possible with existing techniques. Further improvement must await consolidation of the Teff scale from angular diameters and fluxes, and the Gaia trigonometric parallaxes. We discuss the conditions for improving computed stellar ages from new input data, and for distinguishing different disk heating scenarios from data sets of the size and precision of the GCS. (3 data files).

  17. Statistical Evidence and Compliance with Title IX

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheslock, John J.; Eckes, Suzanne E.

    2008-01-01

    The scope of Title IX clearly includes all aspects of education, but the legislation's application to college athletics receives the most attention. Athletics programs, unlike most academic activities, are sex segregated, so the proper interpretation of the intercollegiate athletics provisions of Title IX is less clear-cut. This article examines…

  18. Title IX and Sex Discrimination. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing…

  19. Holleman in X-1 Reaction Control Cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    The X-1B and X-1E were simulated several times between 1956 and 1958 on both the AFFTC and NACA/NASA analog computers. The X-1 simulations were used for pilot training, envelope expansion studies, roll and inertial coupling studies, and reaction control studies.

  20. X-1A in flight over lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1953-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1A (48-1384) returning from an Air Force test flight over Edwards Air Force Base, California in late 1953. A North American F-86A Sabre as chase plane will follow the X-1A to touchdown. The Rogers Dry Lake is the whitish area under the planes with the airfield at the edge of the dry lake. Bell test pilot Jean 'Skip' Ziegler made six flights between 14 February and 25 April 1953. Air Force test pilots Maj. Charles 'Chuck' Yeager and Maj. Arthur 'Kit' Murray made 18 test flights between 21 November 1953 and 26 August 1954. NACA test pilot Joseph Walker made one successful flight on 20 July 1955. During a second flight attempt, on 8 August 1955, an explosion damaged the aircraft shortly before launch. Walker, unhurt, climbed up into the JTB-29A mothership, and the X-1A was jettisoned over the Edwards AFB bombing range. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system

  1. X-1E with Pilot Joe Walker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    A photo of the X-1E with pilot Joe Walker suited up at the NASA High-Speed Flight Station, Edwards, California. The dice and 'Little Joe' are prominently displayed under the cockpit area. (Little Joe is a dice players slang term for two deuces.) Five years later when Walker reached 354,200 feet in the X-15, that aircraft carried similar artwork - 'Little Joe the II.' Walker is shown in the photo above wearing an early partial pressure suit. This protected the pilot if cockpit pressure was lost above 50,000 feet. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on Jan. 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946

  2. X-1E Engine Ground Test Run

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1956-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1E during a ground engine test run on the NACA High-Speed Flight Station ramp near the Rogers Dry Lake. The rocket technician is keeping the concrete cool by hosing it with water during the test. This also helps in washing away any chemicals that might spill. The test crew worked close to the aircraft during ground tests. There were four versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Supersonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on January 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946. On October 14, 1947, the X-1-1, piloted by Air Force Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager, became the first aircraft to exceed the speed of sound, reaching about

  3. Polymorphism of normal factor IX detected by mouse monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Wallmark, A; Ljung, R; Nilsson, I M; Holmberg, L; Hedner, U; Lindvall, M; Sjögren, H O

    1985-01-01

    Hemophilia B is an X-chromosomal recessive disease due to deficiency of coagulation factor IX. Three monoclonal antibodies against factor IX were prepared and used to develop immunoradiometric assays (IRMAs) of factor IX antigen (IX-Ag). IX-Ag was measured in 65 normal individuals with one IRMA based on polyclonal anti-IX antibodies and two IRMAs based on three monoclonal anti-IX antibodies. One of the monoclonal antibodies differed in specificity since it neutralized less than 50% of the clotting activity of factor IX (IX-C), whereas the other two monoclonal antibodies neutralized 80-95%. When the former antibody was used as the solid phase in IRMA, two groups of normal individuals were distinguished: group A with measurable IX-Ag, and group B without demonstrable IX-Ag. There were no differences between the groups either in IX-C or in IX-Ag measured with polyclonal antibodies. A subgroup comprising only women could be distinguished in group A, in whom intermediate IX-Ag concentrations were found. Family studies showed the group B variant of normal factor IX to be transmitted according to the pattern of X-linked recessive inheritance. The allelic frequency of group A was 0.66, and that of group B was 0.34. PMID:3873655

  4. X-1E with Pilot Joe Walker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    A photo of the X-1E with pilot Joe Walker suited up at the NASA High-Speed Flight Station, Edwards, California. The dice and 'Little Joe' are prominently displayed under the cockpit area. (Little Joe is a dice players slang term for two deuces.) Five years later when Walker reached 354,200 feet in the X-15, that aircraft carried similar artwork - 'Little Joe the II.' Walker is shown in the photo above wearing an early partial pressure suit. This protected the pilot if cockpit pressure was lost above 50,000 feet. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on Jan. 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946

  5. X-1E canopy mock-up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1953-01-01

    This photo appears to depict the design of the X-1E canopy. In 1955, the X-1-2 was modified. The modifications included a new thin wing and a low-pressure fuel system. The most visible change was a raised canopy that replaced the original flush windshield on the aircraft, which was called the X-1E. The modified aircraft made its first glide flight on December 12, 1955, and its first powered flight three days later. Over a three-year period, the X-1E made a total of 26 flights, reaching a speed of Mach 2.24. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) pilot Joseph Walker was the pilot for flights 1 through 21, while John McKay made flights 22 to 26. The final flight occurred on November 6, 1958. This was also the last flight by an X-1 aircraft. On April 29, 1960, the X-1E was mounted on a pole in front of the Flight Research Center (FRC) headquarters building. In 1976 the FRC became the Hugh L. Dryden Flight Research Center, and the X-1E remained in front of the headquarters building. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many

  6. Understanding the Cray X1 System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Samson

    2004-01-01

    This paper helps the reader understand the characteristics of the Cray X1 vector supercomputer system, and provides hints and information to enable the reader to port codes to the system. It provides a comparison between the basic performance of the X1 platform and other platforms that are available at NASA Ames Research Center. A set of codes, solving the Laplacian equation with different parallel paradigms, is used to understand some features of the X1 compiler. An example code from the NAS Parallel Benchmarks is used to demonstrate performance optimization on the X1 platform.

  7. El Titulo IX y La Discriminacion por Sexo (Title IX and Sex Discrimination).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing…

  8. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject...

  9. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject...

  10. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject...

  11. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare Department of Health and... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject...

  12. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject...

  13. X-1-2 on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1951-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-2 aircraft on the ramp at NACA High Speed Flight Research Station located on the South Base of Muroc Army Air Field in 1947. The X-1-2 flew until October 23, 1951, completing 74 glide and powered flights with nine different pilots. The aircraft has white paint and the NACA tail band. The black Xs are reference markings for tracking purposes. They were widely used on NACA aircraft in the early 1950s. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on Jan. 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946. On Oct. 14, 1947, the X-1-1, piloted by Air Force Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager

  14. Essential oils to control ichthyophthiriasis in pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg): special emphasis on treatment with Melaleuca alternifolia.

    PubMed

    Valladão, G M R; Gallani, S U; Ikefuti, C V; da Cruz, C; Levy-Pereira, N; Rodrigues, M V N; Pilarski, F

    2016-10-01

    In vitro effect of the Melaleuca alternifolia, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha piperita essential oils (EOs) against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and in vivo effect of M. alternifolia for treating ichthyophthiriasis in one of the most important South American fish, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg), were evaluated. The in vitro test consisted of three EOs, each at concentrations of 57 μL L(-1) , 114 μL L (-1) , 227 μL L(-1) and 455 μL L (-1) , which were assessed once an hour for 4 h in microtitre plates (96 wells). The in vitro results demonstrated that all tested EOs showed a cytotoxic effect against I. multifiliis compared to control groups (P < 0.05). The in vivo treatment for white spot disease was performed in a bath for 2 h day(-1) for 5 days using the M. alternifolia EO (50 μL L (-1) ). In this study, 53.33% of the fish severely infected by I. multifiliis survived after the treatment with M. alternifolia (50 μL L (-1) ) and the parasitological analysis has shown an efficacy of nearly 100% in the skin and gills, while all the fish in the control group died. Furthermore, the potential positive effect of M. alternifolia EO against two emergent opportunistic bacteria in South America Edwardsiella tarda and Citrobacter freundii was discussed. PMID:26776242

  15. Quantum supersymmetric Bianchi IX cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damour, Thibault; Spindel, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    We study the quantum dynamics of a supersymmetric squashed three-sphere by dimensionally reducing (to one timelike dimension) the action of D =4 simple supergravity for a S U (2 ) -homogeneous (Bianchi IX) cosmological model. The quantization of the homogeneous gravitino field leads to a 64-dimensional fermionic Hilbert space. After imposition of the diffeomorphism constraints, the wave function of the Universe becomes a 64-component spinor of spin(8,4) depending on the three squashing parameters, which satisfies Dirac-like, and Klein-Gordon-like, wave equations describing the propagation of a "quantum spinning particle" reflecting off spin-dependent potential walls. The algebra of the supersymmetry constraints and of the Hamiltonian one is found to close. One finds that the quantum Hamiltonian is built from operators that generate a 64-dimensional representation of the (infinite-dimensional) maximally compact subalgebra of the rank-3 hyperbolic Kac-Moody algebra A E3 . The (quartic-in-fermions) squared-mass term μ^ 2 entering the Klein-Gordon-like equation has several remarkable properties: (i) it commutes with all the other (Kac-Moody-related) building blocks of the Hamiltonian; (ii) it is a quadratic function of the fermion number NF; and (iii) it is negative in most of the Hilbert space. The latter property leads to a possible quantum avoidance of the singularity ("cosmological bounce"), and suggests imposing the boundary condition that the wave function of the Universe vanish when the volume of space tends to zero (a type of boundary condition which looks like a final-state condition when considering the big crunch inside a black hole). The space of solutions is a mixture of "discrete-spectrum states" (parametrized by a few constant parameters, and known in explicit form) and of continuous-spectrum states (parametrized by arbitrary functions entering some initial-value problem). The predominantly negative values of the squared-mass term lead to a "bottle

  16. AR1429 Releases X1 Class Flare

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory captured the X1 flare, shown here in the 171 Angstrom wavelength, a wavelength typically shown in the color gold. This movie runs from 10 PM ET March 4 to 3 AM March ...

  17. Highly Structured Wind in Vela X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Wilms, Joern; Kretschmar, Peter; Torrejon, Jose Miguel; Pottschmidt, Katja; Hanke, Manfred; Santangelo, Andrea; Ferrigno, Carlo; Staubert, Ruediger

    2008-01-01

    We present an in-depth analysis of the spectral and temporal behavior of a long almost uninterrupted INTEGRAL observation of Vela X-1 in Nov/Dec 2003. In addition to an already high activity level, Vela X-1 exhibited several very intense flares with a maximum intensity of more than 5 Crab in the 20 40 keV band. Furthermore Vela X-1 exhibited several off states where the source became undetectable with ISGRI. We interpret flares and off states as being due to the strongly structured wind of the optical companion: when Vela X-1 encounters a cavity in the wind with strongly reduced density, the flux will drop, thus potentially triggering the onset of the propeller effect which inhibits further accretion, thus giving rise to the off states. The required drop in density to trigger the propeller effect in Vela X-1 is of the same order as predicted by theoretical papers for the densities in the OB star winds. The same structured wind can give rise to the giant flares when Vela X-1 encounters a dense blob in the wind. Further temporal analysis revealed that a short lived QPO with a period of 6800 sec is present. The part of the light curve during which the QPO is present is very close to the off states and just following a high intensity state, thus showing that all these phenomena are related.

  18. Title IX: With New Opportunities, Girls' Interest Rises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toporek, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    On June 23, 1972, President Richard M. Nixon signed into law Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which prohibits gender discrimination in any federally financed education program or activity. Title IX is far-reaching, but the law is most often associated with school and college athletics. Title IX allows schools to prove their athletic…

  19. The Restoration of Title IX: Implications for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Bernice R.

    This booklet helps institutions understand the restoration of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 and changes resulting from the Civil Rights Restoration Act. Title IX prohibits sex discrimination in federally assisted education programs. A 1984 ruling held that Title IX covers only programs or activities funded with federal money. In…

  20. NACA Aircraft on Lakebed - D-558-2, X-1B, and X-1E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1955-01-01

    Early NACA research aircraft on the lakebed at the High Speed Research Station in 1955: Left to right: X-1E, D-558-2, X-1B There were four versions of the original Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Supersonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on January 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946. On October 14, 1947, the X-1-1, piloted by Air Force Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager, became the first aircraft to exceed the speed of sound, reaching about 700 miles per hour (Mach 1.06) and an altitude of 43,000 feet. The number 2 X-1 was modified and redesignated the X-1E. The modifications included adding a conventional canopy, an ejection seat, a low-pressure fuel system

  1. Ares I-X Vibroacoustic Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Curtis E.; Schuster, David M.; Kaufman, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) team recommendations and observations following participation with the Ares I-X Vibroacoustic (VA) Environments Panel in meetings at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in March and April 2008, respectively.

  2. Open to All: Title IX at 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Office of the Secretary.

    This document is a report to the secretary of education on the findings of the Secretary's Commission on Opportunities in Athletics. The Commission was charged with examining Title IX. Starting in June 2002, the 15-member commission collected information, analyzed issues, and obtained broad public input directed at improving the application of…

  3. Calculation of Electronic Transitions in S IX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanovich, P.; Karpuškienė, R.; Rudzikas, Z.

    Wavelengths and oscillator strengths of electric dipole transitions from the 2p33l configurations of S IX are calculated. Relativistic and correlation effects are accounted for in Hartree-Fock-Pauli approximation and in the basis of transformed radial orbitals. Fairly high accuracy of results is achieved.

  4. Title IX Enforcement Called 'Deeply Troubling'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipka, Sara; Wolverton, Brad

    2007-01-01

    The government agency responsible for enforcing gender equity in college sports is falling down on the job, according to a report released by the National Women's Law Center. Over the past five years, the U.S. Education Department's Office for Civil Rights -- the administrative guardian of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, the law that…

  5. Feminizing Science: The Alchemy of Title IX

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausman, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The author scrutinizes the National Academy of Sciences report "Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering" and its dangerous call to place the sciences under the sledgehammer of Title IX. Her findings: A one-sided, inaccurate, and internally contradictory report prepared by a committee lacking…

  6. Title IX Indian Education Toolkit. A Step-by-Step Guide to the Title IX Indian Education Formula Grant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beller, Floyd

    Title IX is a federal Indian Education Formula Grant Program approved in 1972 and reauthorized five times, most recently in 1994. Title IX formula grants assist groups in providing sound educational programs and opportunities for American Indian and Alaska Native students. A 1997-98 survey of Title IX grantees revealed their need for help in…

  7. NGC 300 X-1 and IC 10 X-1: a new breed of black hole binary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, R.; Clark, J. S.; Kolb, U. C.

    2008-09-01

    Context: IC 10 X-1 has recently been confirmed as a black hole (BH) + Wolf-Rayet (WR) X-ray binary, and NGC 300 X-1 is thought to be. The only other known BH+WR candidate is Cygnus X-3. IC 10 X-1 and NGC 300 X-1 have similar X-ray properties, with 0.3-10 keV luminosities ~1038 erg s-1, and their X-ray lightcurves exhibit orbital periods ~30 h. Aims: We investigate similarities between IC 10 X-1 and NGC 300 X-1, as well as differences between these systems and the known Galactic BH binary systems. Methods: We have examined all four XMM-Newton observations of NGC 300 X-1, as well as the single XMM-Newton observation of IC 10 X-1. For each observation, we extracted lightcurves and spectra from the pn, MOS1 and MOS2 cameras; power density spectra were constructed from the lightcurves, and the X-ray emission spectra were modeled. Results: Each source exhibits power density spectra that are well described by a power law with index, γ, ~1. Such variability is characteristic of turbulence in wind accretion or disc-accreting X-ray binaries (XBs) in the high state. In this state, Galactic XBs with known BH primaries have soft, thermal emission; however the emission spectra of NGC 300 X-1 and IC 10 X-1 in the XMM-Newton observations are predominantly non-thermal. Furthermore, the Observation 1 spectrum of NGC 300 X-1 is strikingly similar to that of IC 10 X-1. Conclusions: The remarkable similarity between the behaviour of NGC 300 X-1 in Observation 1 and that of IC 10 X-1 lends strong evidence for NGC 300 X-1 being a BH+WR binary. Our spectral modeling rules out Bondi-Hoyle accretion onto a neutron star (NS) for NGC 300 X-1, but not a disc-accreting NS+WR system, nor a NS low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) that is merely coincident with the WR. We favour disc accretion for both systems, but cannot exclude Bondi-Hoyle accretion onto a BH. The unusual spectra of NGC 300 X-1 and IC 10 X-1 may be due to these systems existing in a persistently high state, whereas all known BH LMXBs

  8. Cray X1 Evaluation Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, J.S.

    2004-02-09

    On August 15, 2002 the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the Center for Computational Sciences (CCS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to deploy a new scalable vector supercomputer architecture for solving important scientific problems in climate, fusion, biology, nanoscale materials and astrophysics. ''This program is one of the first steps in an initiative designed to provide U.S. scientists with the computational power that is essential to 21st century scientific leadership,'' said Dr. Raymond L. Orbach, director of the department's Office of Science The Cray X1 is an attempt to incorporate the best aspects of previous Cray vector systems and massively-parallel-processing (MPP) systems into one design. Like the Cray T90, the X1 has high memory bandwidth, which is key to realizing a high percentage of theoretical peak performance. Like the Cray T3E, the X1 has a high-bandwidth, low-latency, scalable interconnect, and scalable system software. And, like the Cray SV1, the X1 leverages commodity off-the-shelf (CMOS) technology and incorporates non-traditional vector concepts, like vector caches and multi-streaming processors. In FY03, CCS procured a 256-processor Cray X1 to evaluate the processors, memory subsystem, scalability of the architecture, software environment and to predict the expected sustained performance on key DOE applications codes. The results of the micro-benchmarks and kernel benchmarks show the architecture of the Cray X1 to be exceptionally fast for most operations. The best results are shown on large problems, where it is not possible to fit the entire problem into the cache of the processors. These large problems are exactly the types of problems that are important for the DOE and ultra-scale simulation.

  9. The First Detection of [O IV] from an Ultraluminous X-ray Source with Spitzer. II. Evidence for High Luminosity in Holmberg II ULX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; Weaver, K. A.; Kallman, T. R.

    2009-01-01

    This is the second of two papers examining Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) in Holmberg II. Here we perform detailed photoionization modeling of they infrared lines. Our analysis suggests that the luminosity and morphology of the [O IV] 25.89 micron emission line is consistent with photoionization by the soft X-ray and far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from the accretion disk of the binary system and inconsistent with narrow beaming. We show that the emission nebula is matter-bounded both in the line of sight direction and to the east, and probably radiation-bounded to the west. A bolometric luminosity in excess of 1040 erg per second would be needed to produce the measured [O IV] flux. We use modeling and previously published studies to conclude that shacks likely contribute very little, if at all, to the high excitation line fluxes observed in the Holmberg II ULX. Additionally, we find that the spectral type of the companion star has a surprisingly strong effect on they predicted strength of the [O IV] emission. This finding could explain the origin of [O IV] hi some starburst systems containing black hole binaries.

  10. The First Detection of [O IV] from an Ultraluminous X-ray Source with Spitzer: Evidence of High Unbeamed Luminosity in Holmberg II ULX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; Weaver, K. A.; Kallman, T. R.

    2008-01-01

    We present the first Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of the [O IV] 25.89 micron emission line detected from the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) in Holmberg II. This line is a well established signature of high excitation, usually associated with AGN. Its detection suggests that the ULX has a strong impact on the surrounding gas. A Spitzer high resolution spectral map shows that the [O IV] is coincident with the X-ray position of the Holmberg II ULX. We find that the luminosity and the morphology of the line emission is consistent with photoionization by the soft X-ray and far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from the accretion disk of the binary system and inconsistent with narrow beaming. We show that the emission nebula is radiation bounded both in the line of sight direction and to the west, and probably matter bounded to the east. Evidence for a massive black hole (BH) in this ULX is mounting. Detailed photoionization models favor an intermediate mass black hole of at least 85 Solar Mass as the ionization source for the [OIV] emission. We find that the spectral type of the companion star strongly affects the expected strength of the [O IV] emission. This finding could explain the origin of [O IV] in some starburst galaxies containing black hole binaries.

  11. The First Detection of [O IV] from an Ultraluminous X-ray Source with Spitzer. 2; Evidence for High Luminosity in Holmberg II ULX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; Weaver, K. A.; Kallman, T. R.

    2009-01-01

    This is the second of two papers examining Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) in Holmberg II. Here we perform detailed photoionization modeling of the infrared lines. Our analysis suggests that the luminosity and morphology of the [O IV] 25.89 micron emission line is consistent with photoionization by the soft X-ray and far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from the accretion disk of the binary system and inconsistent with narrow beaming. We show that the emission nebula is matter-bounded both in the line of sight direction and to the east, and probably radiation-bounded to the west. A bolometric luminosity in excess of 10(exp 40) erg/s would be needed to produce the measured [O IV] flux. We use modeling and previously published studies to conclude that shocks likely contribute very little, if at all, to the high-excitation line fluxes observed in the Holmberg II ULX. Additionally, we find that the spectral type of the companion star has a surprisingly strong effect on the predicted strength of the [O IV] emission. This finding could explain the origin of [O IV] in some starburst systems containing black hole binaries.

  12. The First Detection of (O IV) from an Ultraluminous X-Ray Source with Spitzer. 2. Evidence for High Luminosity in Holmberg II ULX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berghea, C T.; Dudik, R P.; Weaver, K A.; Kallman, T R.

    2010-01-01

    This is the second of two papers examining Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) in Holmberg II. Here, we perform detailed photoionization modeling of the infrared lines. Our analysis suggests that the luminosity and morphology of the [Oiv] 25.89 micronmeters emission line is consistent with photoionization by the soft X-ray and far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from the accretion disk of the binary system and inconsistent with narrow beaming. We show that the emission nebula is matter bounded both in the line-of-sight direction and to the east, and probably radiation-bounded to the west. A bolometric luminosity in excess of 10(exp 40) erg s(exp -1) would be needed to produce the measured [O iv] flux. We use modeling and previously published studies to conclude that shocks likely contribute very little, if at all,to the high-ionization line fluxes observed in the Holmberg II ULX. Additionally, we find that the spectral type of the companion star has a surprisingly strong effect on the predicted strength of the [O iv] emission. This finding could explain the origin of [O iv] in some starburst systems containing black hole binaries.

  13. NACA Aircraft on Lakebed - D-558-2, X-1B, and X-1E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1955-01-01

    Early NACA research aircraft on the lakebed at the High Speed Research Station in 1955: Left to right: X-1E, D-558-2, X-1B There were four versions of the original Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Supersonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on January 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946. On October 14, 1947, the X-1-1, piloted by Air Force Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager, became the first aircraft to exceed the speed of sound, reaching about 700 miles per hour (Mach 1.06) and an altitude of 43,000 feet. The number 2 X-1 was modified and redesignated the X-1E. The modifications included adding a conventional canopy, an ejection seat, a low-pressure fuel system

  14. Electron Impact Collision Strength in Si IX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noman, Hala; Gokce, Y.; Nahar, Sultana; Pradhan, Anil

    2016-05-01

    Results from work in progress under Iron Project on the electron impact excitation collision strengths and rate coefficients for transitions between the fine-structure levels of the 2s2 2p2 , 2 s 2p3 , 2p4 , 2s2 2 p 3 s , 2s2 2 p 3 p , and 2s2 2 p 3 d configurations in Si IX will be presented. The fine structure collision strength has been calculated at very fine energy mesh using relativistic effects in Breit-Pauli R-matrix method. Maxwellian averaged collision strengths have been tabulated for all possible transitions among all 46 enrgy levels. We made comparisions of our results with the previously reported results in the literature and found significant differences in low the temperature range (Te < 106 K) for few of the transitions. The correction to the previous reported values results due to more extensive expansion for Si IX target states.

  15. Identification of the endothelial cell binding site for factor IX.

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, W F; van den Born, J; Kühn, K; Kjellén, L; Hudson, B G; Stafford, D W

    1996-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the primary region of factor IX and IXa responsible for saturable specific binding to bovine aortic endothelial cells resides in residues 3-11 at the amino terminus of factor IX. We also demonstrated that mutations of lysine to alanine at residue 5, factor IX K5A, or valine to lysine at residue 10, factor IX V10K, resulted in a molecule unable to bind to endothelial cells. Moreover, a mutation with lysine to arginine at residue 5, factor IX K5R, resulted in a factor IX molecule with increased affinity for the endothelial cell binding site. In this paper we report that collagen IV is a strong candidate for the factor IX binding site on endothelial cells. Factor IX and factor IX K5R compete with 125I-labeled factor IX for binding to tetrameric collagen IV immobilized on microtiter plates, while factor X, factor VII, and factor IX K5A or V10K fail to compete. The Kd for wild-type factor IX binding to collagen IV in the presence of heparin was 6.8 +/- 2 nM, and the Kd for factor IX K5R was 1.1 +/- 0.2 nM, which agrees well with our previously published Kd values of 7.4 and 2.4 nM for binding of the same proteins to endothelial cells. Our working assumption is that we have identified the endothelial cell binding site and that it is collagen IV. Its physiological relevance remains to be determined. PMID:8855310

  16. Disorders of Cranial Nerves IX and X

    PubMed Central

    Erman, Audrey B.; Kejner, Alexandra E.; Hogikyan, Norman D.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2014-01-01

    The glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves mediate the complex interplay between the many functions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Defects may occur anywhere from the brainstem to the peripheral nerve and can result in significant impairment in speech, swallowing, and breathing. Multiple etiologies can produce symptoms. This review will broadly examine the normal functions, clinical examination, and various pathologies of cranial nerves IX and X. PMID:19214937

  17. Experimental Mg IX photorecombination rate coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schippers, S.; Schnell, M.; Brandau, C.; Kieslich, S.; Müller, A.; Wolf, A.

    2004-07-01

    The rate coefficient for radiative and dielectronic recombination of beryllium-like magnesium ions was measured with high resolution at the Heidelberg heavy-ion storage ring TSR. In the electron-ion collision energy range 0-207 eV resonances due to 2s -> 2p (Δ N = 0) and 2s -> 3l (Δ N=1) core excitations were detected. At low energies below 0.15 eV the recombination rate coefficient is dominated by strong 1s2 (2s 2p 3P) 7l resonances with the strongest one occuring at an energy of only 21 meV. These resonances decisively influence the Mg IX recombination rate coefficient in a low temperature plasma. The experimentally derived Mg IX dielectronic recombination rate coefficient (±15% systematical uncertainty) is compared with the recommendation by Mazzotta et al. (1998, A&AS, 133, 403) and the recent calculations by Gu (2003, ApJ, 590, 1131) and by Colgan et al. (2003, A&A, 412, 597). These results deviate from the experimental rate coefficient by 130%, 82% and 25%, respectively, at the temperature where the fractional abundance of Mg IX is expected to peak in a photoionized plasma. At this temperature a theoretical uncertainty in the 1s2 (2s 2p 3P) 7l resonance positions of only 100 meV would translate into an uncertainty of the plasma rate coefficient of almost a factor 3. This finding emphasizes that an accurate theoretical calculation of the Mg IX recombination rate coefficient from first principles is challenging.

  18. Ares I-X 30 Day Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ess, Bob; Smith, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation represents the 30 day report on the Ares I-X test flight. Included in the review is information on the following areas: (1) Ground Systems, (2) Guidance, Navigation and Control, (3) Roll Response, (4) Vehicle Response, (5) Control System Performance, (6) Structural Damping, (7) Thrust Oscillation, (8) Stage Separation, (9) Connector Assessment, (10) USS Splashdown, (11) Data Recorder and (12) FS Hardware Assessment.

  19. [Ultrasmall nanoparticles for radiotherapy: AGuIX].

    PubMed

    Lux, F; Detappe, A; Dufort, S; Sancey, L; Louis, C; Carme, S; Tillement, O

    2015-10-01

    Since twenty years, many nanoparticles based on high atomic number elements have been developed as radiosensitizers. The design of these nanoparticles is limited by the classical rules associated with the development of nanoparticles for oncology and by the specific ones associated to radiosensitizers, which aim to increase the effect of the dose in the tumor area and to spare the health tissues. For this application, systemic administration of nanodrugs is possible. This paper will discuss the development of AGuIX nanoparticles and will emphasize on this example the critical points for the development of a nanodrug for this application. AGuIX nanoparticles display hydrodynamic diameters of a few nanometers and are composed of polysiloxane and gadolinium chelates. This particle has been used in many preclinical studies and is evaluated for a further phase I clinical trial. Finally, in addition to its high radiosensitizing potential, AGuIX display MRI functionality and can be used as theranostic nanodrug for personalized medicine. PMID:26343033

  20. THE TRIGONOMETRIC PARALLAX OF CYGNUS X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Mark J.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Narayan, Ramesh; Gou Lijun; Remillard, Ronald A.; Orosz, Jerome A.

    2011-12-01

    We report a direct and accurate measurement of the distance to the X-ray binary Cygnus X-1, which contains the first black hole to be discovered. The distance of 1.86{sup +0.12}{sub -0.11} kpc was obtained from a trigonometric parallax measurement using the Very Long Baseline Array. The position measurements are also sensitive to the 5.6 day binary orbit and we determine the orbit to be clockwise on the sky. We also measured the proper motion of Cygnus X-1 which, when coupled to the distance and Doppler shift, gives the three-dimensional space motion of the system. When corrected for differential Galactic rotation, the non-circular (peculiar) motion of the binary is only about 21 km s{sup -1}, indicating that the binary did not experience a large 'kick' at formation.

  1. Space X1 First Entry Sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2012-01-01

    One mini-grab sample container (m-GSC) was returned aboard Space X1 because of the importance of quickly knowing first-entry conditions in this new commercial module. This sample was analyzed alongside samples of the portable clean room (PCR) used in the Space X complex at KSC. The recoveries of C-13-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene from the GSCs averaged 130, 129, and 132 %, respectively.

  2. ORNL Cray X1 evaluation status report

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, P.K.; Alexander, R.A.; Apra, E.; Balay, S.; Bland, A.S; Colgan, J.; D'Azevedo, E.F.; Dongarra, J.J.; Dunigan Jr., T.H.; Fahey, M.R.; Fahey, R.A.; Geist, A.; Gordon, M.; Harrison, R.J.; Kaushik, D.; Krishnakumar, M.; Luszczek, P.; Mezzacappa, A.; Nichols, J.A.; Nieplocha, J.; Oliker, L.; Packwood, T.; Pindzola, M.S.; Schulthess, T.C.; Vetter, J.S.; White III, J.B.; Windus, T.L.; Worley, P.H.; Zacharia, T.

    2004-05-01

    On August 15, 2002 the Department of Energy (DOE) selected the Center for Computational Sciences (CCS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to deploy a new scalable vector supercomputer architecture for solving important scientific problems in climate, fusion, biology, nanoscale materials and astrophysics. ''This program is one of the first steps in an initiative designed to provide U.S. scientists with the computational power that is essential to 21st century scientific leadership,'' said Dr. Raymond L. Orbach, director of the department's Office of Science. In FY03, CCS procured a 256-processor Cray X1 to evaluate the processors, memory subsystem, scalability of the architecture, software environment and to predict the expected sustained performance on key DOE applications codes. The results of the micro-benchmarks and kernel bench marks show the architecture of the Cray X1 to be exceptionally fast for most operations. The best results are shown on large problems, where it is not possible to fit the entire problem into the cache of the processors. These large problems are exactly the types of problems that are important for the DOE and ultra-scale simulation. Application performance is found to be markedly improved by this architecture: - Large-scale simulations of high-temperature superconductors run 25 times faster than on an IBM Power4 cluster using the same number of processors. - Best performance of the parallel ocean program (POP v1.4.3) is 50 percent higher than on Japan s Earth Simulator and 5 times higher than on an IBM Power4 cluster. - A fusion application, global GYRO transport, was found to be 16 times faster on the X1 than on an IBM Power3. The increased performance allowed simulations to fully resolve questions raised by a prior study. - The transport kernel in the AGILE-BOLTZTRAN astrophysics code runs 15 times faster than on an IBM Power4 cluster using the same number of processors. - Molecular dynamics simulations related to the phenomenon of

  3. X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome systems in the Neotropical Gymnotiformes electric fish of the genus Brachyhypopomus.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Adauto Lima; Pieczarka, Julio Cesar; Nagamachi, Cleusa Yoshiko

    2015-05-01

    Several types of sex chromosome systems have been recorded among Gymnotiformes, including male and female heterogamety, simple and multiple sex chromosomes, and different mechanisms of origin and evolution. The X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y systems identified in three species of this order are considered homoplasic for the group. In the genus Brachyhypopomus, only B. gauderio presented this type of system. Herein we describe the karyotypes of Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus and B. n. sp. FLAV, which have an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system that evolved via fusion between an autosome and the Y chromosome. The morphology of the chromosomes and the meiotic pairing suggest that the sex chromosomes of B. gauderio and B. pinnicaudatus have a common origin, whereas in B . n. sp. FLAV the sex chromosome system evolved independently. However, we cannot discard the possibility of common origin followed by distinct processes of differentiation. The identification of two new karyotypes with an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system in Gymnotiformes makes it the most common among the karyotyped species of the group. Comparisons of these karyotypes and the evolutionary history of the taxa indicate independent origins for their sex chromosomes systems. The recurrent emergence of the X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y system may represent sex chromosomes turnover events in Gymnotiformes. PMID:26273225

  4. Cleavage and activation of human factor IX by serine proteases

    SciTech Connect

    Enfield, D.L.; Thompson, A.R.

    1984-10-01

    Human factor IX circulates as a single-chain glycoprotein. Upon activation in vitro, it is cleaved into disulfide-linked light and heavy chains and an activation peptide. After reduction of activated /sup 125/I-factor IX, the heavy and light chains are readily identified by gel electrophoresis. A direct, immunoradiometric assay for factor IXa was developed to assess activation of factor IX for proteases that cleaved it. The assay utilized radiolabeled antithrombin III with heparin to identify the active site and antibodies to distinguish factor IX. After cleavage of factor IX by factor XIa, factor VIIa-tissue thromboplastin complex, or the factor X-activating enzyme from Russell's viper venom, antithrombin III bound readily to factor IXa. Cleavage of /sup 125/I-factor IX by trypsin, chymotrypsin, and granulocyte elastase in the presence of calcium yielded major polypeptide fragments of the sizes of the factor XIa-generated light and heavy chains. When the immunoradiometric assay was used to assess trypsin-cleaved factor IX, the product bound antithrombin III, but not maximally. After digesting with insolubilized trypsin, clotting activity confirmed activation. In evaluating activation of factor IX, physical evidence of activation cleavages does not necessarily correlate with generation of an active site.

  5. A Model Community College Grievance Procedure for Title IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Roberta L.

    Through a review of the literature, analysis of eleven Title IX grievance plans, and interviews with four compliance officers, twelve criteria essential to an effective grievance procedure for use by students were identified and incorporated into a model Title IX grievance procedure for Moraine Valley Community College (Illinois). The twelve…

  6. Rape on College Campuses: Reform through Title IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Terry Nicole

    1991-01-01

    This article first, analyzes the growing problem of campus rape; second, evaluates some college rape reduction programs; third, uses case law to demonstrate that rape should be considered sex discrimination under Title IX; and, fourth, suggests an amendment to Title IX, defining rape as sex discrimination. Appropriate implementation measures by…

  7. Tilting the Playing Field: Schools, Sports, Sex and Title IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavora, Jessica

    This book suggests that Title IX of the Education Amendments is not creating more female athletes but instead eliminating some of the most prestigious men's sports programs in the name of gender equity. It shows how Title IX has affected every aspect of education, from kindergarten through graduate school, making profound changes in areas as…

  8. School Environment and Academic Achievement of Standard IX Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Vimala, A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study School Environment and Academic Achievement of standard IX students was probed to find the relationship between School Environment and Academic Achievement of standard IX students. Data for the study were collected using self-made School Environment Scale (SES). The investigator used stratified random sampling technique for…

  9. ARES I-X USS Fracture Analysis Loads Spectra Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Curtis; Mackey, Alden

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the development of a set of bounding load spectra for the ARES I-X launch vehicle. These load spectra are used in the determination of the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) of the welds in the ARES I-X upper stage simulator (USS).

  10. A License for Bias: Sex Discrimination, Schools, and Title IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Susan Ed.

    This report discusses non-sports-related Title IX complaints filed with the Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights (OCR) from 1993-1997. Its purpose is to dispel the popular belief that Title IX is a sports-equity law and to determine the effectiveness of the legislation. The document examines the kinds of complaints filed, the status…

  11. 77 FR 64401 - Order of Succession for HUD Region IX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Order of Succession for HUD Region IX AGENCY: Office of Field Policy and Management, HUD. ACTION: Notice of Order of Succession. SUMMARY: In this notice, the Assistant Deputy Secretary... Succession for the San Francisco Regional Office and its Field Offices (Region IX). This Order of...

  12. "North Haven" and "Dougherty": Narrowing the Scope of Title IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Rosemary C.

    1981-01-01

    Compares the recent opinions of the Second and Fifth Circuit Courts concerning the legislative intent of Title IX with earlier opinions of the First, Sixth, and Eighth Circuits, which declared the Title IX employment regulations invalid. A middle approach to interpretation of the law is proposed. (Author/MLF)

  13. Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwabacher, Mark A.; Martin, Rodney Alexander; Waterman, Robert D.; Oostdyk, Rebecca Lynn; Ossenfort, John P.; Matthews, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    The automation of pre-launch diagnostics for launch vehicles offers three potential benefits: improving safety, reducing cost, and reducing launch delays. The Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype demonstrated anomaly detection, fault detection, fault isolation, and diagnostics for the Ares I-X first-stage Thrust Vector Control and for the associated ground hydraulics while the vehicle was in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and while it was on the launch pad. The prototype combines three existing tools. The first tool, TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System), is a model-based tool from Qualtech Systems Inc. for fault isolation and diagnostics. The second tool, SHINE (Spacecraft Health Inference Engine), is a rule-based expert system that was developed at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. We developed SHINE rules for fault detection and mode identification, and used the outputs of SHINE as inputs to TEAMS. The third tool, IMS (Inductive Monitoring System), is an anomaly detection tool that was developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The three tools were integrated and deployed to KSC, where they were interfaced with live data. This paper describes how the prototype performed during the period of time before the launch, including accuracy and computer resource usage. The paper concludes with some of the lessons that we learned from the experience of developing and deploying the prototype.

  14. Enhancing protoporphyrin IX-induced PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curnow, Alison; Pye, Andrew; Campbell, Sandra

    2009-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using porphyrin precursors is commonly used in dermatology. Evidence indicates that good clinical outcomes (associated with excellent cosmesis) can be achieved in superficial precancers and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), however, efficacy appears less favorable for thicker nodular BCC (nBCC) unless multiple PDT treatment cycles are performed. Enhancement is therefore required if nBCC lesions are to be treated effectively with a single PDT treatment. The most common technique currently being routinely employed clinically is the use of aminolevulinic acid (ALA) esters (usually methyl (MAL) or hexyl (HAL)). Standard dermatological PDT employing these porphyrin precursors already manipulates the normal heme biosynthesis pathway resulting in a temporary accumulation of the natural photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Further manipulation using iron chelating agents is possible however. In normal and malignant human cells in vitro, the novel iron chelating agent CP94 produced greater PPIX fluorescence when administered with ALA or MAL than either congener produced alone. CP94 was also significantly more effective than the clinically established iron chelating agent desferrioxamine (DFO). Topical application of ALA+CP94 to clinical nBCC lesions was a simple and safe treatment modification which produced a significant increase in clinical clearance when CP94 was included in the cream.

  15. Cranial Nerves IX, X, XI, and XII

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    This article concludes the series on cranial nerves, with review of the final four (IX–XII). To summarize briefly, the most important and common syndrome caused by a disorder of the glossopharyngeal nerve (craniel nerve IX) is glossopharyngeal neuralgia. Also, swallowing function occasionally is compromised in a rare but disabling form of tardive dyskinesia called tardive dystonia, because the upper motor portion of the glossopharyngel nerve projects to the basal ganglia and can be affected by lesions in the basal ganglia. Vagus nerve funtion (craniel nerve X) can be compromised in schizophrenia, bulimia, obesity, and major depression. A cervical lesion to the nerve roots of the spinal accessory nerve (craniel nerve XI) can cause a cervical dystonia, which sometimes is misdiagnosed as a dyskinesia related to neuroleptic use. Finally, unilateral hypoglossal (craniel nerve XII) nerve palsy is one of the most common mononeuropathies caused by brain metastases. Supranuclear lesions of cranial nerve XII are involved in pseudobulbar palsy and ALS, and lower motor neuron lesions of cranial nerve XII can also be present in bulbar palsy and in ALS patients who also have lower motor neuron involvement. This article reviews these and other syndromes related to cranial nerves IX through XII that might be seen by psychiatry. PMID:20532157

  16. Ares I-X Ascent Base Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobley, B. L.; Bender, R. L.; Canabal, F.; Smith, Sheldon D.

    2011-01-01

    Plume induced base heating environments were measured during the flight of the NASA Constellation Ares I-X developmental launch vehicle, successfully flown on October 28, 2009. The Ares IX first stage is a four segment Space Shuttle derived booster with base consisting of a flared aft skirt, deceleration and tumble motors, and a thermal curtain surrounding the first stage 7.2 area ratio nozzle. Developmental Flight Instrumentation (DFI) consisted of radiometers, calorimeters, pressure transducers and gas temperature probes installed on the aft skirt and nozzle to measure the base environments. In addition, thermocouples were also installed between the layers of the flexible thermal curtain to provide insight into the curtain response to the base environments and to assist in understanding curtain failure during reentry. Plume radiation environment predictions were generated by the Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) code and the convective base heating predictions utilized heritage MSFC empirical methods. These predictions were compared to the DFI data and results from the flight videography. Radiation predictions agreed with the flight measured data early in flight but gauge failures prevented high altitude comparisons. The convective environment comparisons demonstrated the need to improve the prediction methodology; particularly for low altitude, local plume recirculation. The convective comparisons showed relatively good agreement at altitudes greater than 50,000 feet.

  17. Electron Impact Exciation of Fe IX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayal, Swaraj; Zatsarinny, Oleg

    2015-05-01

    Transition probabilities and electron impact excitation collision strengths and rates for astrophysically important extreme ultraviolet lines of Fe IX are calculated. The 322 fine-structure levels of the 3s2 3p6 , 3s2 3p5 3 d , 3 s 3p6 3 d , 3s2 3p5 4 s , and 3s2 3p4 3d2 configurations are included in our calculations. The collision strengths have been calculated using the B-spline Breit-Pauli R-matrix method for all fine-structure transitions among the 322 levels. The mass, Darwin, and spin-orbit relativistic effects are included in the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian in the scattering calculation. The one-body and two-body relativistic operators are included in the multi-configuration Hartree-Fock calculations of transition probabilities. Several sets of non-orthogonal spectroscopic and correlation radial orbitals are used to obtain accurate description of Fe IX levels and to represent the scattering functions. The calculated excitation energies are in very good agreement with experiment and represents an improvement over the previous calculations. The present collision strengths show reasonable agreement with the previously available R-matrix and distorted-wave calculations. This research is supported by NASA grant from the Solar and Heliophysics Program.

  18. Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwabacher, Mark; Martin, Rodney; Waterman, Robert; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Ossenfort, John; Matthews, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    Automating prelaunch diagnostics for launch vehicles offers three potential benefits. First, it potentially improves safety by detecting faults that might otherwise have been missed so that they can be corrected before launch. Second, it potentially reduces launch delays by more quickly diagnosing the cause of anomalies that occur during prelaunch processing. Reducing launch delays will be critical to the success of NASA's planned future missions that require in-orbit rendezvous. Third, it potentially reduces costs by reducing both launch delays and the number of people needed to monitor the prelaunch process. NASA is currently developing the Ares I launch vehicle to bring the Orion capsule and its crew of four astronauts to low-earth orbit on their way to the moon. Ares I-X will be the first unmanned test flight of Ares I. It is scheduled to launch on October 27, 2009. The Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype is a prototype ground diagnostic system that will provide anomaly detection, fault detection, fault isolation, and diagnostics for the Ares I-X first-stage thrust vector control (TVC) and for the associated ground hydraulics while it is in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and on the launch pad. It will serve as a prototype for a future operational ground diagnostic system for Ares I. The prototype combines three existing diagnostic tools. The first tool, TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System), is a model-based tool that is commercially produced by Qualtech Systems, Inc. It uses a qualitative model of failure propagation to perform fault isolation and diagnostics. We adapted an existing TEAMS model of the TVC to use for diagnostics and developed a TEAMS model of the ground hydraulics. The second tool, Spacecraft Health Inference Engine (SHINE), is a rule-based expert system developed at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. We developed SHINE rules for fault detection and mode identification. The prototype

  19. Labeled factor IX kinetics in patients with hemophilia-B

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.J.; Thompson, A.R.

    1981-09-01

    Labeled factor IX was infused five time into four patients with hemophilia-B. Ten-minute plasma recovery average 35% (SD +/- 2) and the mean T 1/2 beta-phase elimination was 23 hr (+/- 5). No alteration in the postinfusion 125I-factor-IX could be detected by radioautography of plasma samples run on polyacrylamide gels or on crossed-immunoelectrophoresis. Label was excreted into the urine as free 125I-iodide. Kinetics were similar when the labeled preparation was infused alone or with a commercial concentrate containing unlabeled factor IX. Infusion of factor IX in man is best described by a two-compartment open pharmacokinetic model where factor IX is distributed in a space larger than the plasma volume.

  20. THE ORBITAL PERIOD OF SCORPIUS X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Hynes, Robert I.; Britt, Christopher T.

    2012-08-10

    The orbital period of Sco X-1 was first identified by Gottlieb et al. While this has been confirmed on multiple occasions, this work, based on nearly a century of photographic data, has remained the reference in defining the system ephemeris ever since. It was, however, called into question when Vanderlinde et al. claimed to find the one-year alias of the historical period in RXTE/All-Sky Monitor data and suggested that this was the true period rather than that of Gottlieb et al. We examine data from the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) spanning 2001-2009. We confirm that the period of Gottlieb et al. is in fact the correct one, at least in the optical, with the one-year alias strongly rejected by these data. We also provide a modern time of minimum light based on the ASAS data.

  1. Leon X-1, the First Chandra Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Aldcroft, Tom; Cameron, Robert A.; Gandhi, Poshak; Foellmi, Cedric; Elsner, Ronald F.; Patel, Sandeep K.; ODell, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    Here we present an analysis of the first photons detected with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and an identification of the brightest source in the field which we named Leon X-1 to honor the momentous contributions of the Chandra Telescope Scientist, Leon Van Speybroeck. The observation took place immediately following the opening of the last door protecting the X-ray telescope. We discuss the unusual operational conditions as the first extra-terrestrial X-ray photons reflected from the telescope onto the ACIS camera. One bright source was a p parent to the team at the control center and the small collection of photons that appeared on the monitor were sufficient to indicate that the telescope had survived the launch and was approximately in focus, even prior to any checks and subsequent adjustments.

  2. Quantitative determination of Zn protoporphyrin IX, heme and protoporphyrin IX in Parma ham by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Wakamatsu, Jun-Ichi; Odagiri, Hiroko; Nishimura, Takanori; Hattori, Akihito

    2009-05-01

    We measured the contents of Zn protoporphyrin IX (ZPP), heme and protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) in Parma ham by simultaneous analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Extraction with ethyl acetate-acetic acid (4:1) was suitable for the quantitative analysis of ZPP. The contents of heme, ZPP and PPIX in Parma ham were 15.0-29.9, 27.7-47.0 and 0.4-1.1μg/g, respectively, and total content of porphyrin was 43.7-76.6μg/g. The amount of ZPP in Parma ham was larger than that of heme, and ZPP accounted for 60-70% of all porphyrins. PMID:20416611

  3. Nitric oxide inhibits the formation of zinc protoporphyrin IX and protoporphyrin IX.

    PubMed

    Wakamatsu, Jun-ichi; Hayashi, Nobutaka; Nishimura, Takanori; Hattori, Akihito

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which curing agents, especially nitrite, inhibit the formation of zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZPP) in dry-cured hams such as Parma ham. The oxidation-reduction potential of model solutions was increased by the addition of nitrite, but it was not clear whether the formation of ZPP is inhibited by the oxidizing property of nitrite. The effect of nitric oxide (NO) produced from nitrite on the formation of ZPP was examined. The amount of ZPP formed was decreased by the addition of NO donors. The amount of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), which is the precursor of ZPP, was also decreased by the addition of NO donors. It is concluded that NO produced from nitrite inhibited the formation of PPIX and ZPP was therefore not formed in cured meat products with the addition of nitrite or nitrate. PMID:20374763

  4. Ares I-X USS Material Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawicke, David S.; Smith, Stephen W.; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2008-01-01

    An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). Material characterization tests were conducted to quantify the material behavior for use in the CIFS analyses. Fatigue crack growth rate, Charpy impact, and fracture tests were conducted on the parent and welded A516 Grade 70 steel. The crack growth rate tests confirmed that the material behaved in agreement with literature data and that a salt water environment would not significantly degrade the fatigue resistance. The Charpy impact tests confirmed that the fracture resistance of the material did not have a significant reduction for the expected operational temperatures of the vehicle.

  5. ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence in epileptogenic tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleen, Jonathan K.; Valdes, Pablo A.; Harris, Brent T.; Holmes, Gregory L.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Roberts, David W.

    2011-03-01

    Astrogliotic tissue displays markedly increased levels of ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence, making it useful for fluorescence-guided resection in glioma surgery. In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and corresponding animal models, there are areas of astrogliosis that often co-localize with the epileptic focus, which can be resected to eliminate seizures in the majority of treated patients. If this epileptogenic tissue can exhibit PpIX fluorescence that is sufficiently localized, it could potentially help identify margins in epilepsy surgery. We tested the hypothesis that ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence could visually accentuate epileptogenic tissue, using an established animal model of chronic TLE. An acute dose of pilocarpine was used to induce chronic seizure activity in a rat. This rat and a normal control were given ALA, euthanized, and brains examined post-mortem for PpIX fluorescence and neuropathology. Preliminary evidence indicates increased PpIX fluorescence in areas associated with chronic epileptic changes and seizure generation in TLE, including the hippocampus and parahippocampal areas. In addition, strong PpIX fluorescence was clearly observed in layer II of the piriform cortex, a region known for epileptic reorganization and involvement in the generation of seizures in animal studies. We are further investigating whether ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence can consistently identify epileptogenic zones, which could warrant the extension of this technique to clinical studies for use as an adjuvant guidance technology in the resection of epileptic tissue.

  6. Ares I-X Flight Test Philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S. R.; Tuma, M. L.; Heitzman, K.

    2007-01-01

    In response to the Vision for Space Exploration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has defined a new space exploration architecture to return humans to the Moon and prepare for human exploration of Mars. One of the first new developments will be the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), which will carry the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), into Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to support International Space Station (ISS) missions and, later, support lunar missions. As part of Ares I development, NASA will perform a series of Ares I flight tests. The tests will provide data that will inform the engineering and design process and verify the flight hardware and software. The data gained from the flight tests will be used to certify the new Ares/Orion vehicle for human space flight. The primary objectives of this first flight test (Ares I-X) are the following: Demonstrate control of a dynamically similar integrated Ares CLV/Orion CEV using Ares CLV ascent control algorithms; Perform an in-flight separation/staging event between an Ares I-similar First Stage and a representative Upper Stage; Demonstrate assembly and recovery of a new Ares CLV-like First Stage element at Kennedy Space Center (KSC); Demonstrate First Stage separation sequencing, and quantify First Stage atmospheric entry dynamics and parachute performance; and Characterize the magnitude of the integrated vehicle roll torque throughout the First Stage (powered) flight. This paper will provide an overview of the Ares I-X flight test process and details of the individual flight tests.

  7. Characterization of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) as an endogenous marker of chronic hypoxia in live human tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vordermark, Dirk . E-mail: vordermark_d@klinik.uni-wuerzburg.de; Kaffer, Anja; Riedl, Susanne; Katzer, Astrid; Flentje, Michael

    2005-03-15

    Purpose: Published clinical studies provide conflicting data regarding the prognostic significance of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) overexpression as an endogenous marker of tumor hypoxia and its comparability with other methods of hypoxia detection. We performed a systematic analysis of CA IX protein levels under various in vitro conditions of tumor hypoxia in HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma and FaDu human pharyngeal carcinoma cells. Because sorting of live CA IX positive cells from tumors provides a tool to study the radiosensitivity of chronically hypoxic cells, we modified and tested a CA IX flow cytometry protocol on mixed hypoxic/aerobic suspensions of HT 1080 and FaDu cells. Methods and materials: HT 1080 and FaDu cells were treated with up to 24 h of in vitro hypoxia and up to 96 h of reoxygenation. To test the effect of nonhypoxic stimuli, glucose and serum availability, pH and cell density were modified. CA IX protein was quantified in Western blots of whole-cell lysates. Mixed suspensions with known percentages of hypoxic cells were prepared for CA IX flow cytometry. The same mixtures were assayed for clonogenic survival after 10 Gy. Results: Hypoxia-induced CA IX protein expression was seen after >6 h at {<=}5% O{sub 2}, and protein was stable over 96 h of reoxygenation in both cell lines. Glucose deprivation abolished the hypoxic CA IX response, and high cell density caused CA IX induction under aerobic conditions. Measured percentages of CA IX-positive cells in mixtures closely reflected known percentages of hypoxic cells in HT 1080 and were associated with radioresistance of mixtures after 10 Gy. Conclusion: CA IX is a stable marker of current or previous chronic hypoxia but influenced by nonhypoxic stimuli. Except the time course of accumulation, all properties of this marker resembled our previous findings for hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}. A modified flow cytometry protocol provided good separability of CA IX-negative and -positive cells in vitro

  8. Title IX and Intercollegiate Athletics in the Federal Appellate Courts: Myth vs. Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieronek, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the enforcement of the nondiscrimination provisions of Title IX in higher education, and shows how the courts have wrestled with the application of Title IX to college athletic programs over the past decade. Provides a history of Title IX enforcement and describes current approaches to evaluating Title IX compliance. (SLD)

  9. IBM PC/IX operating system evaluation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Granier, Martin; Hall, Philip P.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation plan for the IBM PC/IX Operating System designed for IBM PC/XT computers is discussed. The evaluation plan covers the areas of performance measurement and evaluation, software facilities available, man-machine interface considerations, networking, and the suitability of PC/IX as a development environment within the University of Southwestern Louisiana NASA PC Research and Development project. In order to compare and evaluate the PC/IX system, comparisons with other available UNIX-based systems are also included.

  10. X-1E on Display Stand at Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A photo showing the Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1E mounted at a jaunty angle in front of the main building (4800) at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The X-1E began life as the X-1-2, a first generation aircraft. The X-1E flew twenty-six times with two pilots. It was retired on November 6, 1958. There were four versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Supersonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on January 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946. On October 14, 1947, the X-1-1, piloted by Air Force Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager, became the first aircraft to exceed the speed of sound, reaching about 700 miles per hour (Mach 1.06) and

  11. 26. Photocopy of August 1918 photograph. Glass Negative Box IX, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopy of August 1918 photograph. Glass Negative Box IX, Tower Grove, Missouri Botanical Garden. ITALIAN GARDEN, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Missouri Botanical Garden, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  12. 29. Photocopy of 1921 photograph. Glass Negative Box IX, Tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photocopy of 1921 photograph. Glass Negative Box IX, Tower Grove, Missouri Botanical Garden. ITALIAN GARDEN AND NEW PALM HOUSE (DEMOLISHED), LOOKING NORTHEAST - Missouri Botanical Garden, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  13. Anisotropic Bianchi types VIII and IX locally rotationally symmetric cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Assad, M.J.D.; Soares, I.D.

    1983-10-15

    We present a class of exact cosmological solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations, which are anisotropic and spatially homogeneous of Bianchi types VIII and IX, and class IIIb in the Stewart-Ellis classification of locally rotationally symmetric models. If we take the electromagnetic field equal to zero, a class of Bianchi types VIII/IX spatially homogeneous anisotropic cosmological solutions with perfect fluid is obtained.

  14. The effects of CA IX catalysis products within tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Santi, Alice; Caselli, Anna; Paoli, Paolo; Corti, Denise; Camici, Guido; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Taddei, Maria Letizia; Serni, Sergio; Chiarugi, Paola; Cirri, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Solid tumors are composed of both cancer cells and various types of accessory cells, mainly fibroblasts, that collectively compose the so called tumor-microenvironment. Cancer-associated fibroblasts have been described to actively participate in cancer progression by establishing a cytokine-mediated as well as metabolic crosstalk with cancer cells. In the present paper we show that activated human fibroblasts are able to boost tumor cells proliferation and that this effect is greatly dependent on stromal carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) activity. In fact fibroblasts show a strong upregulation of CA IX expression upon activation by cancer cells, while CA IX products, protons and bicarbonate, exert differential effects on cancer cells proliferation. While acidification of extracellular pH, a typical condition of rapidly growing solid tumors, is detrimental for tumor cells proliferation, bicarbonate, through its organication, supplies cancer cells with intermediates useful to sustain their high proliferation rate. Here we propose a new kind of fibroblasts/tumor cells crosstalk within tumor microenvironment, mediated by stromal CA IX products, aimed to favor cancer cells growth, opening new perspectives on CA IX role in tumor microenvironment. PMID:24168032

  15. Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase IX as a novel anticancer mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Supuran, Claudiu T

    2012-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) catalyze the interconversion bewteen carbon dioxide and bicarbonate with generation of protons. The carbonic anhydrase isozyme IX (CA IX) is highly overexpresed in hypoxic tumors and shows very restricted expression in normal tissues. CA IX is a dimeric protein possessing very high catalytic activity for the hydration of carbon dioxide to protons and bicarbonate. Its quaternary structure is unique among members of this family of enzymes, allowing for structure-based drug design campaigns of selective inhibitors. Inhibition of CA IX with sulfonamide and/or coumarin inhibitors was recently shown to lead to a potent retardation for the growth of both primary tumors and metastases. Some fluorescent sulfonamides were shown to accumulate only in hypoxic tumor cells overexpressing CA IX, and might be used as diagnostic tools for imaging of hypoxic cancers. Sulfonamide inhibitors were also more effective in inhibiting the growth of the primary tumors when associated with irrdiation. CA IX is thus both a diagnostic and therapeutic validated target for the management of hypoxic tumors normally non-responsive to classical chemio- and radiotherapy. PMID:22787577

  16. Functions of AAV-CMV-F.IX And AAV-EF1alpha-F.IX in gene therapy for hemophilia B.

    PubMed

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2007-02-01

    There has been substantial progress in using gene therapy to treat animals with hemophilia. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) gene transfer of coagulation factor IX to skeletal muscle and liver of murine and canine models of hemophilia has resulted in sustained systemic expression and, in several studies, in complete cure of the bleeding disorder. Two AAV vectors widely used at present are AAV-CMV-F.IX and AAV-EF1alpha-F.IX. This work compares the predicted molecular functions of AAV-CMV-F.IX and AAV-EF1alpha -F.IX by sequence docking and gene ontology. It is shown that both AAV-CMV-F.IX and AAV-EF1alpha -F.IX induce coagulation factor IXa activity; however, AAV-CMV-F.IX administration also yields coagulation factor XIa activity and AAV-EF1alpha -F.IX treatment results in coagulation factor Xa activity. Therefore, AAV-CMV-F.IX might be useful for factor XI deficiency. AAV-CMV-F.IX has several additional molecular functions and processes compared with AAV-CMV-F.IX. PMID:17266422

  17. Discovering novel carbonic anhydrase type IX (CA IX) inhibitors from seven million compounds using virtual screening and in vitro analysis.

    PubMed

    Salmas, Ramin Ekhteiari; Senturk, Murat; Yurtsever, Mine; Durdagi, Serdar

    2016-06-01

    Carbonic anhydrase type IX (CA IX) enzyme is mostly over expressed in different cancer cell lines and tumor tissues. Potent CA IX inhibitors can be effective for adjusting the pH imbalance in tumor cells. In the present work, we represented the successful application of high throughput virtual screening (HTVS) of large dataset from ZINC database included of ∼7 million compounds to discover novel inhibitors of CA IX. HTVS and molecular docking were performed using consequence Glide/standard precision (SP), extra precision (XP) and induced fit docking (IFD) molecular docking protocols. For each compound, docking code calculates a set of low-energy poses and then exhaustively scans the binding pocket of the target with small compounds. Novel CA IX inhibitor candidates were suggested based on molecular modeling studies and a few of them were tested using in vitro analysis. These compounds were determined as good inhibitors against human CA IX target with Ki in the range of 0.85-1.58 μM. In order to predict the pharmaceutical properties of the selected compounds, ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) analysis was also carried out. PMID:25950196

  18. Oxygen Availability for Porphyrin Biosynthesis Enzymes Determines the Production of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) during Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Shimpei; Matsumoto, Kentaro; Nakajima, Motowo; Tanaka, Tohru; Ogura, Shun-Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a precursor of porphyrin, is specifically converted to the fluorescent substance protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in tumors to be used as a prodrug for photodynamic therapy and diagnosis. Hypoxia, a common feature of solid tumors, decreases the efficacy of ALA-based photodynamic therapy and diagnosis. This decrease results from the excretion of porphyrin precursor coproporphyrinogen III (CPgenIII), an intermediate in the biosynthesis of PpIX. However, the mechanism of CPgenIII excretion during hypoxia remains unclear. In this study, we revealed the importance of mitochondrial respiration for the production of PpIX during hypoxia. Porphyrin concentrations were estimated in human gastric cancer cell lines by HPLC. Expression levels of porphyrin biosynthesis genes were measured by qRT-PCR and immunoblotting. Blockage of porphyrin biosynthesis was an oxygen-dependent phenomenon resulting from decreased PpIX production in mitochondria under hypoxic conditions. PpIX production was increased by the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration complexes, which indicates that the enzymes of porphyrin biosynthesis compete with respiration complexes for molecular oxygen. Our results indicate that targeting the respiration complexes is a rationale for enhancing the effect of ALA-mediated treatment and diagnosis. PMID:26717566

  19. Oxygen Availability for Porphyrin Biosynthesis Enzymes Determines the Production of Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) during Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Otsuka, Shimpei; Matsumoto, Kentaro; Nakajima, Motowo; Tanaka, Tohru; Ogura, Shun-ichiro

    2015-01-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a precursor of porphyrin, is specifically converted to the fluorescent substance protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in tumors to be used as a prodrug for photodynamic therapy and diagnosis. Hypoxia, a common feature of solid tumors, decreases the efficacy of ALA-based photodynamic therapy and diagnosis. This decrease results from the excretion of porphyrin precursor coproporphyrinogen III (CPgenIII), an intermediate in the biosynthesis of PpIX. However, the mechanism of CPgenIII excretion during hypoxia remains unclear. In this study, we revealed the importance of mitochondrial respiration for the production of PpIX during hypoxia. Porphyrin concentrations were estimated in human gastric cancer cell lines by HPLC. Expression levels of porphyrin biosynthesis genes were measured by qRT-PCR and immunoblotting. Blockage of porphyrin biosynthesis was an oxygen-dependent phenomenon resulting from decreased PpIX production in mitochondria under hypoxic conditions. PpIX production was increased by the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration complexes, which indicates that the enzymes of porphyrin biosynthesis compete with respiration complexes for molecular oxygen. Our results indicate that targeting the respiration complexes is a rationale for enhancing the effect of ALA-mediated treatment and diagnosis. PMID:26717566

  20. X-1-2 with Pilots Robert Champine Herb Hoover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-2 and two of the NACA pilots that flew the aircraft. The one on the left is Robert Champine with the other being Herbert Hoover. The X-1-2 was also equipped with the 10-percent wing and 8 percent tail, powered with an XLR-11 rocket engine and aircraft made its first powered flight on December 9, 1946 with Chalmers 'Slick' Goodlin at the controls. As with the X-1-1 the X-1-2 continued to investigate transonic/supersonic flight regime. NACA pilot Herbert Hoover became the first civilian to fly Mach 1, March 10, 1948. X-1-2 flew until October 23, 1951, completing 74 glide and powered flights with nine different pilots, when it was retired to be rebuilt as the X-1E.

  1. Zn protoporphyrin IX is formed not from heme but from protoporphyrin IX.

    PubMed

    Wakamatsu, Jun-Ichi; Okui, Jun; Hayashi, Nobutaka; Nishimura, Takanori; Hattori, Akihito

    2007-12-01

    We examined the effects of exogenous myoglobin, a bivalent chelator, and nitrite on Zn protoporphyrin IX (ZPP) formation by using model systems. ZPP was formed in a model solution without addition of exogenous myoglobin. After incubation, the amount of ZPP in a model solution was increased but that of heme was not decreased compared with the amounts before incubation. Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) instead of ZPP also accumulated in a model solution with addition of EDTA, but the amount of heme was not reduced. These results suggested that ZPP was not formed by the Fe-Zn substitution in heme but was formed by the insertion of Zn into PPIX, which was formed independently. The fact that the effects of various factors in model systems with/without addition of a bivalent chelator were similar suggested that ZPP formation was strongly affected by PPIX formation. Inhibition of PPIX formation by nitrite might be the reason for the low levels of ZPP in cured meats. PMID:22061944

  2. X-1-2 on Ramp with Boeing B-29

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-2 sitting on the ramp at NACA High- Speed Flight Research Station with the Boeing B-29 launch ship behind. The B-29 was fondly referred to as 'Fertile Myrtle.' The painting near the nose depicts a stork carrying a bundle which is symbolic of the Mothership launching her babe (X-1-2). The pilot access door is open to the cockpit of the X-1-2 aircraft.

  3. Triangulated loop quantum cosmology: Bianchi IX universe and inhomogeneous perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Battisti, Marco Valerio; Marciano, Antonino; Rovelli, Carlo

    2010-03-15

    We develop the triangulated version of loop quantum cosmology, recently introduced in the literature. We focus on the dipole cosmology, where space is a three-sphere and the triangulation is formed by two tetrahedra. We show that the discrete fiducial connection has a simple and appealing geometrical interpretation and we correct the ansatz on the relation between the model variables and the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker scale factor. The modified ansatz leads to the convergence of the Hamiltonian constraint to the continuum one. We then ask which degrees of freedom are captured by this model. We show that the model is rich enough to describe the (anisotropic) Bianchi IX universe, and give the explicit relation between the Bianchi IX variables and the variables of the model. We discuss the possibility of using this path in order to define the quantization of the Bianchi IX universe. The model contains more degrees of freedom than Bianchi IX, and therefore captures some inhomogeneous degrees of freedom as well. Inhomogeneous degrees of freedom can be expanded in representations of the SU(2) Bianchi IX isometry group, and the dipole model captures the lowest integer representation of these, connected to hyperspherical harmonic of angular momentum j=1.

  4. Ares I-X Flight Test - The Future Begins Here

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.

    2008-01-01

    In less than two years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will launch the Ares I-X mission. This will be the first flight of the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which, together with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, will eventually send humans to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. As the countdown to this first Ares mission continues, personnel from across the Ares I-X Mission Management Office (MMO) are finalizing designs and fabricating vehicle hardware for an April 2009 launch. This paper will discuss the hardware and programmatic progress of the Ares I-X mission. Like the Apollo program, the Ares launch vehicles will rely upon extensive ground, flight, and orbital testing before sending the Orion crew exploration vehicle into space with humans on board. The first flight of Ares I, designated Ares I-X, will be a suborbital development flight test. Ares I-X gives NASA its first opportunity to gather critical data about the flight dynamics of the integrated launch vehicle stack; understand how to control its roll during flight; better characterize the severe stage separation environments that the upper stage engine will experience during future operational flights; and demonstrate the first stage recovery system. NASA also will begin modifying the launch infrastructure and fine-tuning ground and mission operations, as the agency makes the transition from the Space Shuttle to the Ares/Orion system.

  5. Apoptosis of THP-1 macrophages induced by protoporphyrin IX-mediated sonodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shuyuan; Sun, Xin; Cheng, Jiali; Xu, Haobo; Dan, Juhua; Shen, Jing; Zhou, Qi; Zhang, Yun; Meng, Lingli; Cao, Wenwu; Tian, Ye

    2013-01-01

    Background Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) was developed as a localized ultrasound-activated cytotoxic therapy for cancer. The ability of SDT to destroy target tissues selectively is especially appealing for atherosclerotic plaque, in which selective accumulation of the sonosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), had been demonstrated. Here we investigate the effects of PpIX-mediated SDT on macrophages, which are the main culprit in progression of atherosclerosis. Methods and results Cultured THP-1 derived macrophages were incubated with PpIX. Fluorescence microscopy showed that the intracellular PpIX concentration increased with the concentration of PpIX in the incubation medium. MTT assay demonstrated that SDT with PpIX significantly decreased cell viability, and this effect increased with duration of ultrasound exposure and PpIX concentration. PpIX-mediated SDT induced both apoptosis and necrosis, and the maximum apoptosis to necrosis ratio was obtained after SDT with 20 μg/mL PpIX and five minutes of sonication. Production of intracellular singlet oxygen and secondary disruption of the cytoskeleton were also observed after SDT with PpIX. Conclusion PpIX-mediated SDT had apoptotic effects on THP-1 macrophages via generation of intracellular singlet oxygen and disruption of the cytoskeleton. PpIX-mediated SDT may be a potential treatment to attenuate progression of atherosclerotic plaque. PMID:23818780

  6. Long term X-ray variability of Circinus X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Saz Parkinson, Pablo

    2003-03-19

    We present an analysis of long term X-ray monitoring observations of Circinus X-1 (Cir X-1) made with four different instruments: Vela 5B, Ariel V ASM, Ginga ASM, and RXTE ASM, over the course of more than 30 years. We use Lomb-Scargle periodograms to search for the {approx}16.5 day orbital period of Cir X-1 in each of these data sets and from this derive a new orbital ephemeris based solely on X-ray measurements, which we compare to the previous ephemerides obtained from radio observations. We also use the Phase Dispersion Minimization (PDM) technique, as well as FFT analysis, to verify the periods obtained from periodograms. We obtain dynamic periodograms (both Lomb-Scargle and PDM) of Cir X-1 during the RXTE era, showing the period evolution of Cir X-1, and also displaying some unexplained discrete jumps in the location of the peak power.

  7. Ares I-X: First Flight of a New Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephen R.; Askins, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2005, NASA s Constellation Program has been designing, building, and testing the next generation of launch and space vehicles to carry humans beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). The Ares Projects at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) are developing the Ares I crew launch vehicle and Ares V cargo launch vehicle. On October 28, 2009, the first development flight test of the Ares I crew launch vehicle, Ares I-X, lifted off from a launch pad at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on successful suborbital flight. Basing exploration launch vehicle designs on Ares I-X information puts NASA one step closer to full-up "test as you fly," a best practice in vehicle design. Although the final Constellation Program architecture is under review, the Ares I-X data and experience in vehicle design and operations can be applied to any launch vehicle. This paper presents the mission background as well as results and lessons learned from the flight.

  8. 75 FR 18245 - Public Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing Region IX Regulatory Fairness Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Public Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing Region IX Regulatory Fairness Board.... Small Business Administration (SBA) Region IX Regulatory Fairness Board and the SBA Office of...

  9. Ares I-X: First Flight of a New Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.; Askins, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I-X suborbital development flight test demonstrated NASA s ability to design, develop, launch and control a new human-rated launch vehicle (Figure 14). This hands-on missions experience will provide the agency with necessary skills and insights regardless of the future direction of space exploration. The Ares I-X team, having executed a successful launch, will now focus on analyzing the flight data and extracting lessons learned that will be used to support the development of future vehicles.

  10. X-1-2 on ramp with Boeing B-29

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-2 Sitting on the ramp at NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station with the Boeing B-29 launch ship behind. The painting near the nose of the B-29 depicts a stork carrying a bundle which is symbolic of the Mothership launching her babe (X-1-2). The pilot access door is open to the cockpit of the X-1-2 aircraft. On the X-1-2's fin is the old NACA shield, which was later replaced with a yellow band and the letters 'NACA' plus wings that were both black. There were four versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on Jan. 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946. On Oct. 14, 1947, the X-1

  11. X-1E on Lakebed with Collapsed Nose Gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1956-01-01

    This photo was taken June 18, 1956 on Rogers Dry Lakebed after Flight 7 of the Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1E with NACA High-Speed Flight Station test pilot Joseph `Joe' Walker at the controls. The first generation X-1s were well known for nose gear failures and the X-1E was no exception. The hard pitch down on landing usually resulted in a collapsed nose gear. The damage rarely was serious but required several days of down-time for repair. The X-1E was the only one to have a true tail skid to protect the empennage from over-rotation during landing. There were four versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Supersonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on January 25

  12. The First Detection of [O IV] from an Ultraluminous X-ray Source with Spitzer. I. Observational Results for Holmberg II ULX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; Weaver, K. A.; Kallman, T. R.

    2009-01-01

    We presen the first Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of the [O IV] 25.89 um emission line detected from the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) in Holmberg II. This line is a well established signature of high excitation usually associated with AGN. Its detection suggests that the ULX has a strong impact on the surrounding gas. A Spitzer high resolution spectral map shows that the [O IV] is coincident with the X-ray position of the ULX. The ratios of the [O IV] to lower ionization lines are similar to those observed in AGN, suggesting that a strong UV and X-ray source is responsible for the, photoionization. The best XMM-Newton data is used to model the X-ray band which is then extrapolated into the UV. We perform infrared and ultraviolet photometry, and use its previously published optical and radio data to construct the full SED for the ULX and its companion. The preferred model to describe the SED includes an accretion disk which dominates the soft X-rays but contributes little at UV and optical wavelengths. The optical counterpart is consistent with a B supergiant as previously suggested in other studies. The bolometric luminosity of the ULX suggests the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole with mass >85 M for sub-Eddington accretion or, alternatively, a stellar-mass black hole that is accreting at super-Eddington rates. In a follow-up second paper we perform detailed photoionization modeling of the infrared lines in order to constrain the bolometric luminosity of the ULX.

  13. 45 CFR 83.5 - Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of... Purposes; Definitions; Coverage § 83.5 Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. The obligations imposed by this part are independent of obligations imposed by or pursuant to title IX of...

  14. 45 CFR 83.5 - Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of... Purposes; Definitions; Coverage § 83.5 Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. The obligations imposed by this part are independent of obligations imposed by or pursuant to title IX of...

  15. 45 CFR 83.5 - Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of... Purposes; Definitions; Coverage § 83.5 Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. The obligations imposed by this part are independent of obligations imposed by or pursuant to title IX of...

  16. X-1-2 on ramp during ground engine test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1947-01-01

    Ground engine test run on the Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-2 airplane at NACA Muroc Flight Test Unit service area. Notice the front on the lower part of the aircraft aft of the nose section. The frost forms from the mixture of the propellants (including liquid oxygen) in the internal tanks. This photograph was taken in 1947. The aircraft shown is still painted in its original saffron (orange) paint finish. This was later changed to white, which was more visible against the dark blue sky than saffron turned out to be. There were four versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on Jan. 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December

  17. VLBI observations of a radio flare of Circinus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, R. A.; Morabito, D. D.; Wehrle, A. E.; Jauncey, D. L.; Batty, M. J.; Haynes, R. F.; Wright, A. E.; Nicolson, G. D.

    1983-01-01

    VLBI 2.3 GHz observations of a strong radio flare of the binary star system Circinus X-1 indicate a radio source flaring component angular size of 0.0015-0.015 arcsec. This is equivalent to a linear size of 15-150 AU at the 10 kpc distance of Circinus X-1, although interstellar medium scattering may have enlarged the apparent angular source size. Since the radio source quiescent component, observed prior to the flare, had an angular size greater than 0.2 arcsec (equivalent to more than 2000 AU at 10 kpc), the quiescent radio emission comes from a region much larger than that proposed in recent models for Circinus X-1. The quiescent component appears to be variable on a time scale of years, and is probably fueled by the Circinus X-1 binary system.

  18. Leadership in Honor Societies: The Effect of Title IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earwood-Smith, Glenda

    1985-01-01

    Single-sex honor societies changed membership requirements to admit members of both sexes in response to Title IX of the 1972 Education amendments. A 1982 study examining the effect of this transition on the sex make-up of members, officers, and faculty advisers revealed that women students were competing equally with men students for leadership…

  19. Title IX and Educational Equity: What Difference Does It Make?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombisky, Kim

    Title IX, the 1972 United States federal law forbidding sex discrimination in education, has a rarely-talked-about but surprisingly tenuous history which illustrates how discourses of equality come to mean political powerlessness for diverse girls and women in school. Unfortunately, "sexual" debates such as women's sports and sexual harassment…

  20. Title IX and Sexual Harassment of Student Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolohan, John T.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews what constitutes sexual harassment in sports by examining Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 and the effect it has had on charges of sexual harrassment in educational institutions. Athletic administrators are provided with strategies and recommendations to help schools and athletic departments develop sexual…

  1. Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle Modal Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Templeton, Justin D.; Reaves, Mercedes C.; Horta, Lucas G.; Gaspar, James L.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Parks, Russel A.; Lazor, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    The first test flight of NASA's Ares I crew launch vehicle, called Ares I-X, was launched on October 28, 2009. Ares I-X used a 4-segment reusable solid rocket booster from the Space Shuttle heritage with mass simulators for the 5th segment, upper stage, crew module and launch abort system. Flight test data will provide important information on ascent loads, vehicle control, separation, and first stage reentry dynamics. As part of hardware verification, a series of modal tests were designed to verify the dynamic finite element model (FEM) used in loads assessments and flight control evaluations. Based on flight control system studies, the critical modes were the first three free-free bending mode pairs. Since a test of the free-free vehicle was not practical within project constraints, modal tests for several configurations during vehicle stacking were defined to calibrate the FEM. Test configurations included two partial stacks and the full Ares I-X flight test vehicle on the Mobile Launcher Platform. This report describes the test requirements, constraints, pre-test analysis, test execution and results for the Ares I-X flight test vehicle modal test on the Mobile Launcher Platform. Initial comparisons between pre-test predictions and test data are also presented.

  2. Methods of producing protoporphyrin IX and bacterial mutants therefor

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, Jizhong; Qiu, Dongru; He, Zhili; Xie, Ming

    2016-03-01

    The presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed in certain embodiments to a method of producing protoporphyrin IX by (1) cultivating a strain of Shewanella bacteria in a culture medium under conditions suitable for growth thereof, and (2) recovering the protoporphyrin IX from the culture medium. The strain of Shewanella bacteria comprises at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX. In certain embodiments of the method, the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or of shew_1140. In other embodiments, the presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed to mutant strains of Shewanella bacteria having at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX during cultivation of the bacteria. In certain embodiments the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or shew_1140.

  3. Gender Equity in Intercollegiate Athletics: Determinants of Title IX Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Deborah J.; Cheslock, John Jesse; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2006-01-01

    Using new data on intercollegiate athletes, this article shows that recent improvement in Title IX compliance among NCAA Division I institutions was previously overestimated, and provides the first estimates of compliance in Divisions II and III. In addition, regression analyses investigate how institutional characteristics relate to the extent of…

  4. A Guide for Title IX Self-Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boesdorfer, Kent; And Others

    This document is a set of guidelines on how to conduct the self-evaluation required by Title IX, the amendment prohibiting discrimination on the basis of sex. Its purpose is to help school districts comply with the necessity to evaluate policies and practices by providing a data base for decision-making. The paper is divided into these sections:…

  5. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment for Region IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report represents a detailed summation of existing workforce levels, training programs, career potential, and staffing level projections through 1981 for EPA Region IX. This region serves the states of Arizona, California, Hawaii, and Nevada. The specific pollution programs considered include air, noise, pesticides, potable water, radiation…

  6. Ares I-X Malfunction Turn Range Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaty, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    Ares I-X was the designation given to the flight test version of the Ares I rocket which was developed by NASA (also known as the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) component of the Constellation Program). The Ares I-X flight test vehicle achieved a successful flight test on October 28, 2009, from Pad LC-39B at Kennedy Space Center, Florida (KSC). As part of the flight plan approval for the test vehicle, a range safety malfunction turn analysis was performed to support the risk assessment and vehicle destruct criteria development processes. Several vehicle failure scenarios were identified which could have caused the vehicle trajectory to deviate from its normal flight path. The effects of these failures were evaluated with an Ares I-X 6 degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) digital simulation, using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories Version II (POST2) simulation tool. The Ares I-X simulation analysis provided output files containing vehicle trajectory state information. These were used by other risk assessment and vehicle debris trajectory simulation tools to determine the risk to personnel and facilities in the vicinity of the launch area at KSC, and to develop the vehicle destruct criteria used by the flight test range safety officer in the event of a flight test anomaly of the vehicle. The simulation analysis approach used for this study is described, including descriptions of the failure modes which were considered and the underlying assumptions and ground rules of the study.

  7. Ares I-X Launch Vehicle Modal Test Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Templeton, Justin D.; Reaves, Mercedes C.; Horta, Lucas G.; Gaspar, James L.; Parks, Russell A.; Lazor, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    The first test flight of NASA's Ares I crew launch vehicle, called Ares I-X, is scheduled for launch in 2009. Ares IX will use a 4-segment reusable solid rocket booster from the Space Shuttle heritage with mass simulators for the 5th segment, upper stage, crew module and launch abort system. Flight test data will provide important information on ascent loads, vehicle control, separation, and first stage reentry dynamics. As part of hardware verification, a series of modal tests were designed to verify the dynamic finite element model (FEM) used in loads assessments and flight control evaluations. Based on flight control system studies, the critical modes were the first three free-free bending mode pairs. Since a test of the free-free vehicle is not practical within project constraints, modal tests for several configurations in the nominal integration flow were defined to calibrate the FEM. A traceability study by Aerospace Corporation was used to identify the critical modes for the tested configurations. Test configurations included two partial stacks and the full Ares I-X launch vehicle on the Mobile Launcher Platform. This paper provides an overview for companion papers in the Ares I-X Modal Test Session. The requirements flow down, pre-test analysis, constraints and overall test planning are described.

  8. Ares I-X Flight Data Evaluation: Executive Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Waits, David A.; Lewis, Donny L.; Richards, James S.; Coates, R. H., Jr.; Cruit, Wendy D.; Bolte, Elizabeth J.; Bangham, Michal E.; Askins, Bruce R.; Trausch, Ann N.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program (CxP) successfully launched the Ares I-X flight test vehicle on October 28, 2009. The Ares I-X flight was a developmental flight test to demonstrate that this very large, long, and slender vehicle could be controlled successfully. The flight offered a unique opportunity for early engineering data to influence the design and development of the Ares I crew launch vehicle. As the primary customer for flight data from the Ares I-X mission, the Ares Projects Office (APO) established a set of 33 flight evaluation tasks to correlate flight results with prospective design assumptions and models. The flight evaluation tasks used Ares I-X data to partially validate tools and methodologies in technical disciplines that will ultimately influence the design and development of Ares I and future launch vehicles. Included within these tasks were direct comparisons of flight data with preflight predictions and post-flight assessments utilizing models and processes being applied to design and develop Ares I. The benefits of early development flight testing were made evident by results from these flight evaluation tasks. This overview provides summary information from assessment of the Ares I-X flight test data and represents a small subset of the detailed technical results. The Ares Projects Office published a 1,600-plus-page detailed technical report that documents the full set of results. This detailed report is subject to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) and is available in the Ares Projects Office archives files.

  9. Transforming the treatment for hemophilia B patients: update on the clinical development of recombinant fusion protein linking recombinant coagulation factor IX with recombinant albumin (rIX-FP).

    PubMed

    Santagostino, Elena

    2016-05-01

    Recombinant fusion protein linking recombinant coagulation factor IX with recombinant albumin (rIX-FP; Idelvion®(†)) is an innovative new treatment designed to extend the half-life of factor IX (FIX) and ease the burden of care for hemophilia B patients. The rIX-FP clinical development program - PROLONG-9FP - is in its advanced phases, with pivotal studies in previously treated adults, adolescents, and pediatrics now completed. Across all age groups studied, rIX-FP has demonstrated a markedly improved pharmacokinetic profile compared with plasma-derived and recombinant FIX treatments, with a 30-40% higher incremental recovery, an approximately 5-fold longer half-life, a lower clearance, and a greater area under the curve. rIX-FP has been very well tolerated with an excellent safety profile. In the pivotal studies, there have been no reports of FIX inhibitors or antidrug antibodies, and few treatment-related adverse events have been observed. Prophylactic regimens of rIX-FP administered once weekly to once every 14 days have been highly effective. When used for surgical prophylaxis, a single infusion of rIX-FP has been sufficient to maintain hemostasis, even during major orthopedic surgery. An ongoing study is now enrolling previously untreated patients and evaluating the possibility of extending the dosing interval to every 21 days. There is little doubt that rIX-FP will transform the treatment of hemophilia B. PMID:27288064

  10. Long-term studies with the Ariel 5 ASM. I - Hercules X-1, Vela X-1, and Centaurus X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Kaluzienski, L. J.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. A.

    1979-01-01

    Twelve hundred days of 3-6 keV X-ray data from Her X-1, Vela X-1, and Cen X-3 accumulated with the Ariel 5 All-Sky Monitor are interrogated. The binary periodicities of all three can be clearly observed, as can the 35 day variation of Her X-1, for which we can refine the period to 34.875 plus or minus 0.030 days. No such longer-term periodicity less than 200 days is observed from Vela X-1. The 26.6 days low-state recurrence period for Cen X-3 is not observed, but a 43.0 day candidate periodicity is found which may be consistent with the precession of an accretion disk in that system. The present results are illustrative of the long-term studies which can be performed on approximately 50 sources over a temporal base which will ultimately extend to at least 1800 days.

  11. Structural Insights into Carbonic Anhydrase IX Isoform Specificity of Carbohydrate-Based Sulfamates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is an extracellular transmembrane homodimeric zinc metalloenzyme that has been validated as a prognostic marker and therapeutic target for several types of aggressive cancers. CA IX shares a close homology with other CA isoforms, making the design of CA IX isoform selective inhibitors challenging. In this paper, we describe the development of a new class of CA IX inhibitors that comprise a sulfamate as the zinc binding group, a variable linker, and a carbohydrate “tail” moiety. Seven compounds inhibited CA IX with low nM Ki values of 1–2 nM and also exhibited permeability profiles to preferentially target the binding of extracellular CA IX over cytosolic CAs. The crystal structures of two of these compounds in complex with a CA IX-mimic (a variant of CA II, with active site residues that mimic CA IX) and one compound in complex with CA II have been determined to 1.7 Å resolution or better and demonstrate a selective mechanism of binding between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic pockets of CA IX versus CA II. These compounds present promising candidates for anti-CA IX drugs and the treatment for several aggressive cancer types. PMID:25254302

  12. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B) IX Appendix IX to Part 268 Protection of.... 268, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 268—Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B) IX Appendix IX to Part 268 Protection of.... 268, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 268—Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and...

  14. X-1A in flight with flight data superimposed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1953-01-01

    This photo of the X-1A includes graphs of the flight data from Maj. Charles E. Yeager's Mach 2.44 flight on December 12, 1953. (This was only a few days short of the 50th anniversary of the Wright brothers' first powered flight.) After reaching Mach 2.44, then the highest speed ever reached by a piloted aircraft, the X-1A tumbled completely out of control. The motions were so violent that Yeager cracked the plastic canopy with his helmet. He finally recovered from a inverted spin and landed on Rogers Dry Lakebed. Among the data shown are Mach number and altitude (the two top graphs). The speed and altitude changes due to the tumble are visible as jagged lines. The third graph from the bottom shows the G-forces on the airplane. During the tumble, these twice reached 8 Gs or 8 times the normal pull of gravity at sea level. (At these G forces, a 200-pound human would, in effect, weigh 1,600 pounds if a scale were placed under him in the direction of the force vector.) Producing these graphs was a slow, difficult process. The raw data from on-board instrumentation recorded on oscillograph film. Human computers then reduced the data and recorded it on data sheets, correcting for such factors as temperature and instrument errors. They used adding machines or slide rules for their calculations, pocket calculators being 20 years in the future. Three second generation Bell Aircraft Corporations X-1s were built, though four were requested. They were the X-1A (48-1384); X-1B (48-1385); X-1C (canceled and never built); X-1D (48-1386). These aircraft were similar to the X-1s, except they were five feet longer, had conventional canopies, and were powered by Reaction Motors, Inc. XLR11-RM-5 rocket engines. The RM-5, like the previous engines, had no throttle and was controlled by igniting one or more of the four thrust chambers at will. The original program outline called for the X-1A and X-1B to be used for dynamic stability and air loads investigations. The X-1D was to be used

  15. X-1E launch from B-50 mothership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1950-01-01

    Beginning in 1946, two XS-1 experimental research aircraft (later redesignated X-1s) conducted pioneering tests at Muroc Army Air Field (now Edwards Air Force Base) in California to obtain flight data on conditions in the transonic speed range. These early tests culminated on October 14, 1947, in the first piloted flight faster than Mach 1.0, the speed of sound. During November, 1947, the Air Force authorized studies that led to a contract (W-33-038-ac-20062) with Bell Aircraft to build four (later three) improved X-1 aircraft (the X-1C being cancelled). Designated X-1A (#48-1384), X-1B (#48-1385), and X-1D (#48-1386), the airplanes were ready by late 1950. The aircraft were about five feet longer and 2,500 lbs. heavier than the original X-craft planes. They used the 8-percent wing like the earlier X-craft. The D-model had a low-pressure turbo-pump and the B model was fitted with a prototype hydrogen peroxide reaction control system for later aircraft to use in exoatmospheric research flights. Access was through a lift-off canopy. The planes were finished in their bare metal color and white. The X-1D was ready first, but on what was intended to be its second flight (August 22, 1951) it was jettisoned and crashed at Muroc after an aerial explosion while still mated to its mother (B-50A [#46-006A]) ship. The long-delayed X-1 #3 airplane with the turbine pump was finally completed for the NACA in 1951. It made its first glide flight on July 20, 1951, with NACA pilot Joseph Cannon. Its second and final captive flight was on November 9, 1951. It was destroyed on the ground by an explosion and fire along with its B-50A mother ship while attempting to jettison fuel. The X-1A arrived at Muroc in January, 1953 and had its first powered flight on February 21, 1953. On December 8, 1953 with Yeager as pilot, the aircraft investigated high-speed stability and control issues. The X-1A was turned over to the NACA, but was lost to aerial explosion on August 8, 1955, shortly before

  16. In-vivo fluorescence dosimetry of aminolevulinate-based protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) accumulation in human nonmelanoma skin cancers and precancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Christine B.; Lohser, Sara; Chang, Sung; Bailin, Philip A.; Maytin, Edward V.

    2009-06-01

    PDT is clinically useful for precancers (actinic keratoses; AK) of the skin, but the optimal duration for 5-ALA application is still controversial. For basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), cure rates remain inferior to surgical excision. Lack of knowledge about regional levels of PpIX levels within target tissues clearly contribute to these suboptimal results. To investigate PpIX levels achievable in human skin neoplasias in-vivo, a clinical study to monitor PpIX accumulation in vivo was performed. PpIX-fluorescence in patients undergoing ALA-PDT for facial AK was monitored via real-time in-vivo fluorescence dosimetry, with measurements q20 min following application of 5-ALA (Levulan Kerastick). PpIX accumulation followed linear kinetics in nearly all cases. The slopes varied widely, and did not correlate with clinical outcome in all patients. Some patients with a low accumulation of PpIX fluorescence had a good response to therapy, whereas others with high PpIX accumulation required repeat treatment (although not necessarily of the same lesion). PpIX accumulation rates did correlate to a certain degree with the overall amount of erythema. We conclude that unknown factors besides PpIX levels must be critical for the response to treatment. To assess the relationship between PpIX levels in various skin cancers, patients undergoing routine Mohs surgery for BCC or SCC were measured by in-vivo dosimetry at 2 h after 5-ALA application. Overall, a progressive increase in PpIX signal during malignant progression was observed, in the following rank order: Normal skin < AK < SCC ~ BCC.

  17. The Development of the Ares I-X Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ess, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Constellation Program (CxP) has identified a series of tests to provide insight into the design and development of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). Ares I-X was created as the first suborbital development flight test to help meet CxP objectives. The Ares I-X flight vehicle is an early operational model of Ares, with specific emphasis on Ares I and ground operation characteristics necessary to meet Ares I-X flight test objectives. Ares I-X will encompass the design and construction of an entire system that includes the Flight Test Vehicle (FTV) and associated operations. The FTV will be a test model based on the Ares I design. Select design features will be incorporated in the FTV design to emulate the operation of the CLV in order to meet the flight test objectives. The operations infrastructure and processes will be customized for Ares I-X, while still providing data to inform the developers of the launch processing system for Ares/Orion. The FTV is comprised of multiple elements and components that will be developed at different locations. The components will be delivered to the launch/assembly site, Kennedy Space Center (KSC), for assembly of the elements and components into an integrated, flight-ready, launch vehicle. The FTV will fly a prescribed trajectory in order to obtain the necessary data to meet the objectives. Ares I-X will not be commanded or controlled from the ground during flight, but the FTV will be equipped with telemetry systems, a data recording capability and a flight termination system (FTS). The in-flight part of the test includes a trajectory to simulate maximum dynamic pressure during flight and perform a stage separation representative of the CLV. The in-flight test also includes separation of the Upper Stage Simulator (USS) from the First Stage and recovery of the First Stage. The data retrieved from the flight test will be analyzed

  18. RXTE Observation of Cygnus X-1: Spectra and Timing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilms, J.; Dove, J.; Nowak, M.; Vaughan, B. A.

    1997-01-01

    We present preliminary results from the analysis of an R.XTE observation of Cyg X-1 in the hard state. We show that the observed X-ray spectrum can be explained with a model for an accretion disk corona (ADC), in which a hot sphere is situated inside of a cold accretion disk (similar to an advection dominated model). ADC Models with a slab-geometry do not successfully fit the data. In addition to the spectral results we present the observed temporal properties of Cyg X-1, i.e. the coherence-function and the time-lags, and discuss the constraints the. temporal properties imply for the accretion geometry in Cyg X-1.

  19. XMM-Newton observations of CYGNUS X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor); Miller, Jon

    2005-01-01

    Observations of Cygnus X-1 were first attempted under this program in the spring of 2004, but were complicated by instrumental flaring problems. Successful observations were completed in the fall of 2004, and processed data were delivered to the PI in the winter and spring of 2005. Thus, focused work on this data was only possible starting in 2005. A preliminary reduction and analysis of data from the EPIC CCD cameras and the Reflection Grating Spectrometer has been made. The EPIC spectra reveal the best example of a broadened, relativistic iron emission line yet found in Cygnus X-1. The Oxygen K-shell region has been shown to be a very complex wavelength range in numerous spectra of accreting sources, but the RGS spectra reveal this region in great detail and will be important in understanding the wind from the 0-type donor star that is focused onto the black hole in Cygnus X-1.

  20. Coordinated Xmm-Newton Spectroscopy of Circinus X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirey, Robert

    During absorption dips in the unusual LMXB Circinus X-1, a bright spectral component is obscured, revealing a faint scattered component. Using RXTE, we found a similar Fe Kalpha flux inside and outside dips, suggesting that Fe fluorescence occurs in the scattering medium. Our extensive RXTE study also revealed that intensity flares in Cir X-1 are associated with branches of a Z-source track. We discovered an unusual line- or edge-like feature near 10 keV on the normal and flaring branches. We propose observations with RXTE during our approved XMM- Newton AO-1 observations of Cir X-1 in order to perform simultaneous broad-band and high-resolution spectroscopy during dips and flares.

  1. A NEW CALCULATION OF Ne IX LINE DIAGNOSTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Randall K.; Chen Guoxin; Kirby, Kate; Brickhouse, Nancy S.

    2009-07-20

    We describe the effect that new atomic calculations, including fully relativistic R-matrix calculations of collisional excitation rates and level-specific dielectronic and radiative recombination rates, have on line ratios from the astrophysically significant ion Ne IX. The new excitation rates systematically change some predicted Ne IX line ratios by 25% at temperatures at or below the temperature of maximum emissivity (4 x 10{sup 6} K), while the new recombination rates lead to systematic changes at higher temperatures. The new line ratios are shown to agree with observations of Capella and {sigma}{sup 2} CrB significantly better than older line ratios, showing that 25%-30% accuracy in atomic rates is inadequate for high-resolution X-ray observations from existing spectrometers.

  2. Hantavirus Prevalence in the IX Region of Chile

    PubMed Central

    Vial, Pablo C.; Castillo, Constanza H.; Godoy, Paula M.; Hjelle, Brian; Ferrés, Marcela G.

    2003-01-01

    An epidemiologic and seroprevalence survey was conducted (n=830) to assess proportion of persons exposed to hantavirus in IX Region Chile, which accounts for 25% of reported cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. This region has three geographic areas with different disease incidences and a high proportion of aboriginals. Serum samples were tested for immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against Sin Nombre virus N antigen by strip immunoblot assay against Sin Nombre, Puumala, Río Mamoré, and Seoul N antigens. Samples from six patients were positive for IgG antibodies reactive with Andes virus; all patients lived in the Andes Mountains. Foresting was also associated with seropositivity; but not sex, age, race, rodent exposure, or farming activities. Exposure to hantavirus varies in different communities of IX Region. Absence of history of pneumonia or hospital admission in persons with specific IgG antibodies suggests that infection is clinically inapparent. PMID:12890323

  3. Ares I-X Thermal Model Correlation and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I-X vehicle launched and flew successfully on October 28, 2009. This paper will describe the correlation of the vehicle thermal model to both ground testing and flight data. A main purpose of the vehicle model and ground testing was to ensure that the avionics within the vehicle were held within their thermal limits prior to launch and during flight. The correlation of the avionics box temperatures will be shown. Also, the lessons learned in the thermal discipline during the modeling, test, correlation to test, and flight of the Ares I-X flight test vehicle will be described. Lessons learned will cover thermal modeling, as well as management of the thermal discipline, thermal team, and thermal-related actions in design, testing, and flight.

  4. Ares I-X Best Estimated Trajectory Analysis and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Beck, Roger E.; Starr, Brett R.; Derry, Stephen D.; Brandon, Jay; Olds, Aaron D.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I-X trajectory reconstruction produced best estimated trajectories of the flight test vehicle ascent through stage separation, and of the first and upper stage entries after separation. The trajectory reconstruction process combines on-board, ground-based, and atmospheric measurements to produce the trajectory estimates. The Ares I-X vehicle had a number of on-board and ground based sensors that were available, including inertial measurement units, radar, air-data, and weather balloons. However, due to problems with calibrations and/or data, not all of the sensor data were used. The trajectory estimate was generated using an Iterative Extended Kalman Filter algorithm, which is an industry standard processing algorithm for filtering and estimation applications. This paper describes the methodology and results of the trajectory reconstruction process, including flight data preprocessing and input uncertainties, trajectory estimation algorithms, output transformations, and comparisons with preflight predictions.

  5. Effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid on kinetics of protoporphyrin IX production in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Wołuń-Cholewa, M; Warchoł, W

    2004-01-01

    5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is utilized in a photodynamic therapy as a compound capable of augmenting intracellular pool of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), which exhibits properties of a photosensitizer. The studies were aimed at monitoring accumulation of endogenous protoporphyrin IX in CHO cells under effect of various concentrations of ALA in culture medium and following removal of the compound from the culture medium. Cell content of PpIX was determined following incubation of the cells for 72 h in a culture medium containing different concentration of ALA. Moreover, the cells were preincubated for 2 h in ALA at various concentrations and separated from the compound by medium change and their PpIX content was monitored following incubation. PpIX content was defined by a fluorescent technique under the confocal microscope. In the course of continuous incubation of cells with ALA, biphasic alterations were noted in cellular PpIX concentration. Removal of ALA from the incubation medium resulted at first in a decrease in PpIX content in cells, which was followed by an evidently augmented accumulation of the compound in the cells. The results suggested that in the case of CHO cells, exogenous ALA was not an exclusive source of PpIX synthesis and that alterations in enzyme activities were responsible for production of PpIX. PMID:15253138

  6. Monoclonal antibodies to coagulation factor IX define a high-frequency polymorphism by immunoassays.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, K J

    1985-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have been used to demonstrate a polymorphism of human plasma coagulation factor IX antigen in double antibody solid-phase immunoradiometric assays. This polymorphism is detected in an assay where a monoclonal antibody (A-1) adsorbed to microtiter wells is used to bind factor IX from diluted plasma samples. Plasma samples with the factor IX polymorphism have less than 0.2 U/ml of apparent antigen when tested with the A-1 antibody, while assays with other monoclonal antibodies and assays with goat antisera to factor IX show normal amounts of factor IX antigen. Factor IX coagulant activity was normal in samples from donors with the polymorphism. The thin-layer polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing pattern of factor IX purified from a donor with the factor IX polymorphism (IXp) was identical to that obtained with factor IX prepared from a donor who did not have the polymorphism (IXn). Purified radiolabeled factor IX prepared from a donor with the polymorphism showed a Ka for the A-1 antibody that was threefold less than that measured for IXn. The gene frequency of IXp in male blood donors is 0.25. This polymorphism may be useful as a marker for the X chromosome in genetic studies on plasma samples. Further studies are necessary to determine the explanation for decreased reaction of IXp with the A-1 monoclonal antibody. Images Fig. 1 PMID:9556657

  7. Efficient Expression and Crystallization System of Cancer-Associated Carbonic Anhydrase Isoform IX.

    PubMed

    Leitans, Janis; Kazaks, Andris; Balode, Agnese; Ivanova, Jekaterina; Zalubovskis, Raivis; Supuran, Claudiu T; Tars, Kaspars

    2015-11-25

    Human carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is overexpressed in a number of solid tumors and is considered to be a marker for cellular hypoxia that it is not produced in most normal tissues. CA IX contributes to the acidification of the extracellular matrix, which, in turn, favors tumor growth and metastasis. Therefore, CA IX is considered to be a promising anti-cancer drug target. However, the ability to specifically target CA IX is challenging due to the fact that the human genome encodes 15 different carbonic anhydrase isoforms that have a high degree of homology. Furthermore, structure-based drug design of CA IX inhibitors so far has been largely unsuccessful due to technical difficulties regarding the expression and crystallization of the enzyme. Currently, only one baculovirus-produced CA IX structure in complex with a nonspecific CA inhibitor, acetazolamide, is available in Protein Data Bank. We have developed an efficient system for the production of the catalytic domain of CA IX in methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The produced protein can be easily crystallized in the presence of inhibitors, as we have demonstrated for several 2-thiophene-sulfonamide compounds. We have also observed significant differences in the binding mode of chemically identical compounds to CA IX and CA II, which can be further exploited in the design of CA IX-specific inhibitors. PMID:26522624

  8. Phosphorylation of carbonic anhydrase IX controls its ability to mediate extracellular acidification in hypoxic tumors.

    PubMed

    Ditte, Peter; Dequiedt, Franck; Svastova, Eliska; Hulikova, Alzbeta; Ohradanova-Repic, Anna; Zatovicova, Miriam; Csaderova, Lucia; Kopacek, Juraj; Supuran, Claudiu T; Pastorekova, Silvia; Pastorek, Jaromir

    2011-12-15

    In the hypoxic regions of a tumor, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is an important transmembrane component of the pH regulatory machinery that participates in bicarbonate transport. Because tumor pH has implications for growth, invasion, and therapy, determining the basis for the contributions of CA IX to the hypoxic tumor microenvironment could lead to new fundamental and practical insights. Here, we report that Thr443 phosphorylation at the intracellular domain of CA IX by protein kinase A (PKA) is critical for its activation in hypoxic cells, with the fullest activity of CA IX also requiring dephosphorylation of Ser448. PKA is activated by cAMP, which is elevated by hypoxia, and we found that attenuating PKA in cells disrupted CA IX-mediated extracellular acidification. Moreover, following hypoxia induction, CA IX colocalized with the sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter and other PKA substrates in the leading edge membranes of migrating tumor cells, in support of the concept that bicarbonate metabolism is spatially regulated at cell surface sites with high local ion transport and pH control. Using chimeric CA IX proteins containing heterologous catalytic domains derived from related CA enzymes, we showed that CA IX activity was modulated chiefly by the intracellular domain where Thr443 is located. Our findings indicate that CA IX is a pivotal mediator of the hypoxia-cAMP-PKA axis, which regulates pH in the hypoxic tumor microenvironment. PMID:22037869

  9. Phytoestrogen Suppresses Efflux of the Diagnostic Marker Protoporphyrin IX in Lung Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Hirofumi; Nagakawa, Keisuke; Kobuchi, Hirotsugu; Ogino, Tetsuya; Kondo, Yoichi; Inoue, Keiji; Shuin, Taro; Utsumi, Toshihiko; Utsumi, Kozo; Sasaki, Junzo; Ohuchi, Hideyo

    2016-04-01

    One promising method to visualize cancer cells is based on the detection of the fluorescent photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) synthesized from 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), but this method cannot be used in cancers that exhibit poor PpIX accumulation. PpIX appears to be pumped out of cancer cells by the ABC transporter G2 (ABCG2), which is associated with multidrug resistance. Genistein is a phytoestrogen that appears to competitively inhibit ABCG2 activity. Therefore, we investigated whether genistein can promote PpIX accumulation in human lung carcinoma cells. Here we report that treatment of A549 lung carcinoma cells with genistein or a specific ABCG2 inhibitor promoted ALA-mediated accumulation of PpIX by approximately 2-fold. ABCG2 depletion and overexpression studies further revealed that genistein promoted PpIX accumulation via functional repression of ABCG2. After an extended period of genistein treatment, a significant increase in PpIX accumulation was observed in A549 cells (3.7-fold) and in other cell lines. Systemic preconditioning with genistein in a mouse xenograft model of lung carcinoma resulted in a 1.8-fold increase in accumulated PpIX. Long-term genistein treatment stimulated the expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in PpIX synthesis, such as porphobilinogen deaminase, uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase, and protoporphyrinogen oxidase. Accordingly, the rate of PpIX synthesis was also accelerated by genistein pretreatment. Thus, our results suggest that genistein treatment effectively enhances ALA-induced PpIX accumulation by preventing the ABCG2-mediated efflux of PpIX from lung cancer cells and may represent a promising strategy to improve ALA-based diagnostic approaches in a broader set of malignancies. Cancer Res; 76(7); 1837-46. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26837765

  10. Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi type IX models

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson-Ewing, Edward

    2010-08-15

    The loop quantum cosmology 'improved dynamics' of the Bianchi type IX model are studied. The action of the Hamiltonian constraint operator is obtained via techniques developed for the Bianchi type I and type II models, no new input is required. It is shown that the big bang and big crunch singularities are resolved by quantum gravity effects. We also present effective equations which provide quantum geometry corrections to the classical equations of motion.

  11. Technical Progress on the Ares I-X Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, S.R.; Robinson, K.F.; Flynn, K.C.

    2008-01-01

    Ares I-X will be NASA's first test flight for a new human-rated launch vehicle since 1981, and the team is well on its way toward completing the vehicle's design and hardware fabrication for an April 2009 launch. This uncrewed suborbital development test flight gives NASA its first opportunities to: gather critical data about the flight dynamics of the integrated launch vehicle; understand how to control its roll during flight; better characterize the stage separation environments during future flight; and demonstrate the first stage recovery system. The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle (FTV) incorporates a mix of flight and mockup hardware. It is powered by a four-segment solid rocket booster, and will be modified to include a fifth, spacer segment; the upper stage, Orion crew exploration vehicle, and launch abort system are simulator hardware to make the FTV aerodynamically similar to the same size, shape, and weight of Ares I. The Ares IX first stage includes an existing Shuttle solid rocket motor and thrust vector control system controlled by an Ascent Thrust Vector Controller (ATVC) designed and built by Honeywell International. The avionics system will be tested in a dedicated System Integration Laboratory located at Lockheed Martin Space Systems (LMSS) in Denver, Colorado. The Upper Stage Simulator (USS) is made up of cylindrical segments that will be stacked and integrated at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for launch. Glenn Research Center is already building these segments, along with their internal access structures. The active Roll Control System (RoCS) includes two thruster units harvested from Peacekeeper missiles. Duty cycle testing for RoCS was conducted, and fuel tanking and detanking tests will occur at KSC in early 2008. This important flight will provide valuable experience for the ground operations team in integrating, stacking, and launching Ares I. Data from Ares I-X will ensure the safety and reliability of America's newest launch vehicle.

  12. Ares I-X: On the Threshold of Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.; Askins, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Ares I-X, the first flight of the Ares I crew launch vehicle, is less than a year from launch. Ares I-X will test the flight characteristics of Ares I from liftoff to first stage separation and recovery. The flight also will demonstrate the computer hardware and software (avionics) needed to control the vehicle; deploy the parachutes that allow the first stage booster to land in the ocean safely; measure and control how much the rocket rolls during flight; test and measure the effects of first stage separation; and develop and try out new ground handling and rocket stacking procedures in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) and first stage recovery procedures at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida. All Ares I-X major elements have completed their critical design reviews, and are nearing final fabrication. The first stage--four-segment solid rocket booster from the Space Shuttle inventory--incorporates new simulated forward structures to match the Ares I five-segment booster. The upper stage, Orion crew module, and launch abort system will comprise simulator hardware that incorporates developmental flight instrumentation for essential data collection during the mission. The upper stage simulator consists of smaller cylindrical segments, which were transported to KSC in fall 2008. The crew module and launch abort system simulator were shipped in December 2008. The first stage hardware, active roll control system (RoCS), and avionics components will be delivered to KSC in 2009. This paper will provide detailed statuses of the Ares I-X hardware elements as NASA's Constellation Program prepares for this first flight of a new exploration era in the summer of 2009.

  13. New polymorphic variants of human blood clotting factor IX

    SciTech Connect

    Surin, V.L.; Luk`yanenko, A.V.; Tagiev, A.F.; Smirnova, O.V.; Plutalov, O.V.; Berlin, Yu.A.

    1995-04-01

    The polymorphism of Alu-repeats, which are located in the introns of the human factor IX gene (copies 1-3), was studied. To identify polymorphic variants, direct sequencing of PCR products that contained appropriate repeats was used. In each case, 20 unrelated X chromosomes were studied. A polymorphic Dra I site was found near the 3{prime}-end of Alu copy 3 within the region of the polyA tract. A PCR-based testing system with internal control of restriction hydrolysis was suggested. Testing 81 unrelated X chromosomes revealed that the frequency of the polymorphic Dra I site is 0.23. Taq I polymorphism, which was revealed in Alu copy 4 of factor IX gene in our previous work, was found to be closely linked to Dra I polymorphism. Studies in linkage between different types of polymorphisms of the factor IX gene revealed the presence of a rare polymorphism in intron a that was located within the same minisatellite region as the known polymorphic insertion 50 bp/Dde I. However, the size of the insertion in our case was 26 bp. Only one polymorphic variant was found among over 150 unrelated X chromosomes derived from humans from Moscow and its vicinity. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Atomic data and spectral line intensities for S IX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Landi, E.

    2003-09-01

    Electron impact collision strengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths, and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for the O-like ion S IX. The configurations used are 2s 22p 4, 2s2p 5, 2p 6, 2s 22p 33s, 2s 22p 33p, and 2s 22p 33d giving rise to 86 fine-structure levels in intermediate coupling. Collision strengths are calculated at five incident energies, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 Ry. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution at several electron temperatures in the 5.6 ⩽log Te (K)⩽6.2 range, where S IX is formed. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative transition rates, statistical equilibrium equations for level populations are solved at electron densities covering the range of 10 8-10 14 cm -3. Relative spectral line intensities are calculated. Proton excitation rates among the lowest three levels have been included in the statistical equilibrium equations. The predicted S IX line intensities are compared with SUMER (SOHO) observations of the quiet Sun.

  15. Bladder tissue diagnostics utilizing Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepp, Herbert G.; Baumgartner, Reinhold; Beyer, Wolfgang; Knuechel, Ruth; Rick, Kai; Steinbach, Pia; Kriegmair, M.

    1995-01-01

    Instillation of a solution of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) into the urinary bladder leads to a tumorselective accumulation of fluorescing Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) within hours. Upon fluorescence excitation using a Kr+- laser, cystoscopy provides high contrast images even of early stage tumors, that are invisible or hardly detectable by routine white light cystoscopy. Fluorescence can simply be judged by naked eyes or recorded with a target integrating camera in real color. Histological and fluorescence data of 91 patients were evaluated statistically, showing a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 68% for the detection of dysplastic lesions or malignant tumors. The detectability of a sufficient fluorescence contrast of suspicious versus normal tissue is not affected significantly by either short incubation times of less than 1 hour or prolonged retention times without 5-ALA in the instillation liquid of up to about 6 hours. The fluorescence intensity detected from the tissue surface is not only dependent on PpIX concentration. The additional influence of optical parameters of tissue and fluorochrome distribution on the fluorescence signal was determined using Monte Carlo computer simulations. Results show that 5-ALA induced fluorochrome detection is superior to the detection of fluorochromes that do not exclusively stain the epithelium. Using the ratio of fluorescence intensity to backscattered excitation light corrects for geometrical and absorption effects but would introduce a dependence on the scattering coefficient.

  16. Spectral action for Bianchi type-IX cosmological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Wentao; Fathizadeh, Farzad; Marcolli, Matilde

    2015-10-01

    A rationality result previously proved for Robertson-Walker metrics is extended to a homogeneous anisotropic cosmological model, namely the Bianchi type-IX minisuperspace. It is shown that the Seeley-de Witt coefficients appearing in the expansion of the spectral action for the Bianchi type-IX geometry are expressed in terms of polynomials with rational coefficients in the cosmic evolution factors w 1( t) , w 2( t) , w 3( t) , and their higher derivates with respect to time. We begin with the computation of the Dirac operator of this geometry and calculate the coefficients a 0 ,a 2 ,a 4 of the spectral action by using heat kernel methods and parametric pseudodifferential calculus. An efficient method is devised for computing the Seeley-de Witt coefficients of a geometry by making use of Wodzicki's noncommutative residue, and it is confirmed that the method checks out for the cosmological model studied in this article. The advantages of the new method are discussed, which combined with symmetries of the Bianchi type-IX metric, yield an elegant proof of the rationality result.

  17. The X-Ray Spectral Changes of Scorpius X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, C. F.; Geldzahler, B. J.; Fomalont, E. B.

    2003-07-01

    Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of Sco X-1 during 1997-1999 have been analyzed for spectral characteristics. All the X-ray branches of Sco X-1 were observed during these epochs. On the basis of our observations, we present a simple model for the behavior of Sco X-1 as a function of accretion rate and angle of the observer's line of sight that explains quantitatively the results of VLBA and RXTE observations. Our model presents a unified view of bright low-mass X-ray binaries as an accretion-driven system in which, at the Eddington accretion rate, material overflows the magnetosphere of the neutron star and quenches the jets of Sco X-1. We present supporting evidence of absorption as a function of X-ray branch. The model explains the two distinct color diagrams of observed Z source horizontal branches as variations in the observed line of sight to the accretion disk. The model also applies to the recently discovered Z traces in atoll sources.

  18. Response of the middle atmosphere to Sco X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, R. A.; Barcus, J. R.; Mitchell, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    On the night of Mar. 9, 1983 (UT) at Punta Lobos Launch Site, Peru (12.5 deg S, 76.8 deg W, magnetic dip -0.7 deg), a sequence of sounding rockets was flown to study the electrical structure of the equatorial middle atmosphere and to evaluate perturbations on this environment induced by the X-ray star Sco X-1. The rocket series was anchored by two Nike Orion payloads (31.032 and 31.033) which were launched at 0327 and 0857 UT, near Sco X-1 star-rise and after it had attained an elevation angle of 70 deg E. An enhanced flux of X-rays was observed on the second Nike Orion flight (31.033). This increase is directly attributed to Sco X-1, both from the spectral properties of the measured X-ray distribution and by spatial information acquired from a spinning X-ray detector during the upleg portion of the 31.033 flight. Simultaneously, a growth in ion conductivity and density was seen to occur in the lower mesosphere between 60 and 80 km on the second flight, specifically in the region of maximum energy deposition by the Sco X-1 X-rays. The results imply the presence of a significant number of ionized heavy constituents within the lower mesosphere, with masses possibly in the submacroscopoic range.

  19. Sunspot 1520 Releases Strong (X1.4) Solar Flare

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie shows the sun July 10-12, ending with the X1.4 class flare on July 12, 2012. It was captured by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory in the 131 Angstrom wavelength - a wavelength that is...

  20. Preconceptual design requirements for the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Rochau, G.E.; Hands, J.A.; Raglin, P.S.; Ramirez, J.J.; Goldstein, S.A.; Cereghino, S.J.; MacLeod, G.

    1998-09-01

    The X-1 Advanced Radiation Source represents the next step in providing the US Department of Energy`s Stockpile Stewardship Program with the high-energy, large volume, laboratory x-ray source for the Radiation Effects Science and Simulation, Inertial Confinement Fusion, and Weapon Physics Programs. Advances in fast pulsed power technology and in z-pinch hohlraums on Sandia National Laboratories` Z Accelerator provide sufficient basis for pursuing the development of X-1. The X-1 plan follows a strategy based on scaling the 2 MJ x-ray output on Z via a 3-fold increase in z-pinch load current. The large volume (>5 cm{sup 3}), high temperature (>150 eV), temporally long (>10 ns) hohlraums are unique outside of underground nuclear weapon testing. Analytical scaling arguments and hydrodynamic simulations indicate that these hohlraums at temperatures of 230--300 eV will ignite thermonuclear fuel and drive the reaction to a yield of 200 to 1,000 MJ in the laboratory. X-1 will provide the high-fidelity experimental capability to certify the survivability and performance of non-nuclear weapon components in hostile radiation environments. Non-ignition sources will provide cold x-ray environments (<15 keV), and high yield fusion burn sources will provide high fidelity warm x-ray environments (15 keV--80 keV).

  1. SMC X-1 variability observed from HEAO 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, D. E.; Rothschild, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Studies are reported of the slow variability of SMC X-1 and its spectrum. An analysis of red-noise random variability is based on a method discussed by Deeter and Boynton (1982). The 0.7 s X-ray pulsar SMC X-1 is in a 3.89 day eclipsing binary system with a B0 I supergiant companion. Observations of the pulsar were conducted with the aid of the UCSD/MIT instrument on HEAO 1 from 1977 August through 1979 January. A light curve was constructed for the period 1977 September to 1978 December. The apparent tendency of SMC X-1 to be in one of two states, high or low, suggests the acquisition of average spectra separately for each state. The total (steady plus pulsed) emission from SMC X-1 displays a continuum spectrum with a dominant exponential form which implies a temperature of 17 keV for thin thermal bremsstrahlung emission or 5 keV if the other limit of a Wien spectrum is assumed.

  2. Recurrent X-ray outbursts from Aquila X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaluzienski, L. J.; Holt, S. S.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1976-01-01

    Aquila X-1 observations by the All Sky Monitor on Ariel 5 are presented. Data is compared with that obtained by rocket survey, and by the Uhuru, OSO 7, and OAO 3 satellites. The variability of brightness is discussed as a connection between dwarf novae and long term transient X ray sources.

  3. Herschel Observations of Circinus X-1 during Outburst and Quiescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Thomas E.; Gelino, Dawn M.; Buxton, Michelle; Fost, Tyler

    2014-07-01

    We have used the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer and Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver instruments on the Herschel Space Observatory to observe Cir X-1 both in and out of outburst. We detected Cir X-1 during outburst at 70 μm. Unfortunately, a cold background source dominates Cir X-1 at longer wavelengths. We have assembled optical and infrared (IR) data for Cir X-1 to model its spectral energy distribution (SED) in both quiescence and outburst and find that in both states it is consistent with a heavily reddened, 10,000 K blackbody. We believe this behavior is completely consistent with previous suggestions that these outbursts are due to accretion disk events, not unlike those of dwarf novae. To explore the behavior of other low-mass X-ray binaries with reported synchrotron jets, we have extracted and/or compiled optical and near- and mid-IR data sets for five such systems to construct their SEDs. The Z-source GX 349+2 and the black hole system GRS 1915+105 have strong and variable mid-IR excesses that suggest synchrotron emission. The other Z-sources have rather weak (or no) IR excesses that can be explained as reddened blackbody spectra with the addition of either synchrotron or bremsstrahlung components. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  4. Herschel observations of Circinus X-1 during outburst and quiescence

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas E.; Gelino, Dawn M.; Buxton, Michelle; Fost, Tyler E-mail: dawn@ipac.caltech.edu E-mail: tyler.fost@gmail.com

    2014-07-01

    We have used the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer and Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver instruments on the Herschel Space Observatory to observe Cir X-1 both in and out of outburst. We detected Cir X-1 during outburst at 70 μm. Unfortunately, a cold background source dominates Cir X-1 at longer wavelengths. We have assembled optical and infrared (IR) data for Cir X-1 to model its spectral energy distribution (SED) in both quiescence and outburst and find that in both states it is consistent with a heavily reddened, 10,000 K blackbody. We believe this behavior is completely consistent with previous suggestions that these outbursts are due to accretion disk events, not unlike those of dwarf novae. To explore the behavior of other low-mass X-ray binaries with reported synchrotron jets, we have extracted and/or compiled optical and near- and mid-IR data sets for five such systems to construct their SEDs. The Z-source GX 349+2 and the black hole system GRS 1915+105 have strong and variable mid-IR excesses that suggest synchrotron emission. The other Z-sources have rather weak (or no) IR excesses that can be explained as reddened blackbody spectra with the addition of either synchrotron or bremsstrahlung components.

  5. 46 CFR 57.02-2 - Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. 57.02-2 Section... AND BRAZING General Requirements § 57.02-2 Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. (a) The... in this part. Table 57.02-1(a)—Limitations and Modifications to the Adoption of section IX of...

  6. Aperiodic and Quasi-Periodic Variability in Scorpius X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Neil Ivan

    Low mass X-ray binary star systems (LMXBs) are among the brightest and most well-studied objects in the X-ray sky-indeed, the first extrasolar X-ray source discovered, Sco X-1, is an LMXB. But despite the wealth of available data, LMXBs remain enigmatic, in large part due to the fact that they show little or no coherent periodicity. LMXBs show aperiodic and quasi-periodic variability, for which the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Much information remains locked in archival data. Here we address this issue by re-analyzing archival EXOSAT data of Sco X-1 using modern time-series techniques, including multi-tapering, wavelet transforms and scalegrams, and nonlinear dynamical modelling, which are not yet commonly used in the analysis of astronomical data, with the goal of characterizing Sco X-1's variability and developing a formalism to take us from timing data to mathematical models to astrophysical models. The power spectra of Sco X-1 show several components: (i) very low frequency noise (VLFN), a colored noise component seen below ~0.25 Hz, (ii) high frequency noise (HFN), a colored noise component seen above ~30-40 Hz, and (iii) quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs), localized excesses of Fourier power. The VLFN contains ~1.3% [1/over2]-peak-to-peak pulsed power on the average, can be described by a power law with an index of ~1.4, and is correlated with the 'flickeriness' of the source. QPOs contain ~4.6% [1/over2]-peak-to-peak pulsed power, have centroid frequencies of 6.7 Hz or 15 Hz, and are associated with extended 'quiescent' states and with brief gaps in 'flaring' states. HFN is difficult to characterize (though others have had success describing it as a damped power law), and is not strongly associated with any other source feature. It contains ~2.1% [1/over2]-peak-to-peak pulsed power. Several models have been proposed to explain the VLFN, QPOs, and HFN in Sco X-1, but none are completely satisfactory. Most models seek to explain only QPOs. Here

  7. The endothelial cell binding determinant of human factor IX resides in the. gamma. -carboxyglutamic acid domain

    SciTech Connect

    Toomey, J.R.; Roberts, H.R.; Stafford, D.W. ); Smith, K.J. United Blood Services, Albuquerque, NM )

    1992-02-18

    The blood coagulation factor IX(a) binds specifically to a site on endothelial cells with a K{sub d} of 2.0-3.0 nM. A number of previous studies have attempted to define the region(s) of factor IX(a) that mediate this interaction. These studies suggested that there are two regions of factor IX(a), the {gamma}-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain and the epidermal growth factor like (EGF-like) domains, that mediate high-affinity binding to endothelial cells. Recently, however, the participation of the EGF1 domain has been excluded from the interaction. This indicated that if there was an EGF component of factor IX contributing to the binding affinity, then it must be in the second EGF-like domain. In order to further evaluate this relationship, the authors performed competitive binding experiments between {sup 125}I plasma factor IX and a set of six chimeric proteins composed of portions of factor VII and factor IX. The data suggest that the high-affinity interaction between factor IX and the endothelial cell binding site is mediated by the factor IX Gla domain and that the factor IX EGF domains are not involved in binding specificity.

  8. DeltaPhage--a novel helper phage for high-valence pIX phagemid display.

    PubMed

    Nilssen, Nicolay R; Frigstad, Terje; Pollmann, Sylvie; Roos, Norbert; Bogen, Bjarne; Sandlie, Inger; Løset, Geir Å

    2012-09-01

    Phage display has been instrumental in discovery of novel binding peptides and folded domains for the past two decades. We recently reported a novel pIX phagemid display system that is characterized by a strong preference for phagemid packaging combined with low display levels, two key features that support highly efficient affinity selection. However, high diversity in selected repertoires are intimately coupled to high display levels during initial selection rounds. To incorporate this additional feature into the pIX display system, we have developed a novel helper phage termed DeltaPhage that allows for high-valence display on pIX. This was obtained by inserting two amber mutations close to the pIX start codon, but after the pVII translational stop, conditionally inactivating the helper phage encoded pIX. Until now, the general notion has been that display on pIX is dependent on wild-type complementation, making high-valence display unachievable. However, we found that DeltaPhage does facilitate high-valence pIX display when used with a non-suppressor host. Here, we report a side-by-side comparison with pIII display, and we find that this novel helper phage complements existing pIX phagemid display systems to allow both low and high-valence display, making pIX display a complete and efficient alternative to existing pIII phagemid display systems. PMID:22539265

  9. Evaluation of PpIX formation in Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia I (CIN) using widefield fluorescence images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Inada, Natalia M.; Fortunato, Thereza C.; Lombardi, Welington; da Silva, Eduardo V.; Vollet Filho, José D.; Kurachi, Cristina; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2016-03-01

    Optical techniques has been described as auxiliary technology for screening of neoplasia because shows the potential for tissues differentiation in real-time and it is a noninvasive detection and safe. However, only endogenous fluorophores presents the lesion may be insufficient and needed of the administration of the fluorophores synthesized, such as, precursor molecule of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) induced by 5- aminolevulinic acid and your derivatives. Topical application of methylaminolevulinate (MAL), induces formation of the endogenous photosensitizer, PpIX in tissues where carcinogenesis has begun. The PpIX tend to accumulate in premalignant and malignant tissues and the illumination with light with appropriate wavelength beginning to excitation of PpIX fluorescence, which helps to localize PpIX-rich areas and identify potentially malignant tissues. The aim of the study is to evaluate the production of PpIX in the cervix with CIN I through of the fluorescence images captured after 1 hour of cream application. It was possible to visualize PpIX fluorescence in cervix and it was possible to observe the selectivity in fluorescence in squamous-columnar junction, which a pre-cancerous condition (CIN) and usually is localized. Through the image processing it was possible to quantify the increase of red fluorescence. For the CIN I the increase of red fluorescence was approximately of 4 times indicating a good PpIX formation.

  10. Cell cycle dependence of protophorphyrin IX generation in 9L rat gliosarcoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shiming; Da, Xing; Chen, Qun

    2006-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cancer therapy that utilizes optical energy to activate a photosensitizer drug in a target tissue. Always, the curative effect is dependent on the light fluence, the concentration of the photosensitizer and the concentration of the oxygen. To date, Protophorphyrin IX (PpIX) as the only one endogenous photosensitizer is widely used in PDT of brain tumors. Since PpIX is synthesized in intracellular structure, and is likely dependent on the phase of the cell cycle. The cell cycle dependence of PpIX production is thus investigated in the current work in 9L gliosarcoma cells.

  11. Saccharin: a Lead Compound for Structure-Based Drug Design of Carbonic Anhydrase IX Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, Brian P.; Hendon, Alex M.; Driscoll, Jenna M.; Rankin, Gregory M.; Poulsen, Sally-Ann; Supuran, Claudiu T.; McKenna, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a key modulator of aggressive tumor behavior and a prognostic marker and target for several cancers. Saccharin (SAC) based compounds may provide an avenue to overcome CA isoform specificity, as they display both nanomolar affinity and preferential binding, for CA IX compared to CA II (>50-fold for SAC and >1000-fold when SAC is conjugated to a carbohydrate moiety). The X-ray crystal structures of SAC and a SAC-carbohydrate conjugate bound to a CA IX-mimic are presented and compared to CA II. The structures provide substantial new insight into the mechanism of SAC selective CA isoform inhibition. PMID:25614109

  12. The Structure of Carbonic Anhydrase IX Is Adapted for Low-pH Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Brian P; Bhatt, Avni; Socorro, Lilien; Driscoll, Jenna M; Okoh, Cynthia; Lomelino, Carrie L; Mboge, Mam Y; Kurian, Justin J; Tu, Chingkuang; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Frost, Susan C; McKenna, Robert

    2016-08-23

    Human carbonic anhydrase IX (hCA IX) expression in many cancers is associated with hypoxic tumors and poor patient outcome. Inhibitors of hCA IX have been used as anticancer agents with some entering Phase I clinical trials. hCA IX is transmembrane protein whose catalytic domain faces the extracellular tumor milieu, which is typically associated with an acidic microenvironment. Here, we show that the catalytic domain of hCA IX (hCA IX-c) exhibits the necessary biochemical and biophysical properties that allow for low pH stability and activity. Furthermore, the unfolding process of hCA IX-c appears to be reversible, and its catalytic efficiency is thought to be correlated directly with its stability between pH 3.0 and 8.0 but not above pH 8.0. To rationalize this, we determined the X-ray crystal structure of hCA IX-c to 1.6 Å resolution. Insights from this study suggest an understanding of hCA IX-c stability and activity in low-pH tumor microenvironments and may be applicable to determining pH-related effects on enzymes. PMID:27439028

  13. Comparison in different species of biliary bilirubin-IX alpha conjugates with the activities of hepatic and renal bilirubin-IX alpha-uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferases.

    PubMed Central

    Fevery, J; Van de Vijver, M; Michiels, R; Heirwegh, K P

    1977-01-01

    The bilrubin-IXalpha conjugates in bile and the activities of bilirubin-IX alpha--UDP-glycosyltransferases in liver and kidney were determined for ten species of mammals and for the chicken. 1. In the mammalian species, bilirubin-IX alpha glucuronide was the predominant bile pigment. Excretion of neutral glycosides was unimportant, except in the cat, the mouse, the rabbit and the dog, where glucose and xylose represented 12--41% of total conjugating groups bound to bilirubin-IX alpha. In chicken bile, glucoside and glucuronide conjugates were of equal importance. They probably represent only a small fraction of the total bile pigment. 2. The transferase activities in liver showed pronounced species variation. This was also apparent with regard to activation by digitonin, pH optimum and relative activities of transferases acting on either UDP-glucuronic acid or neutral UDP-sugars. 3. Man, the dog, the cat and the rat excrete bilirubin-IX alpha largely as diconjugated derivatives. In general, diconjugated bilirubin-IX alpha could also be synthesized in vitro with liver homogenate, bilirubin-IX alpha and UDP-sugar. In contrast, for the other species examined, bilirubin pigments consisted predominantly of monoconjugated bilirubin-IX alpha. Synthesis in vitro with UDP-glucuronic acid, UDP-glucose or UDP-xylose as the sugar donor led exclusively to the formation of monoconjugated bilirubin-IX alpha. 4. The transferase activities in the kidney were restricted to the cortex and were important only for the rat and the dog. No activity at all could be detected for several species, including man. 5. Comparison of the transferase activities in liver with reported values of the maximal rate of excretion in bile suggests a close linkage between conjugation and biliary secretion of bilirubin-IX alpha. PMID:407905

  14. The Transmembrane Domains of β and IX Subunits Mediate the Localization of the Platelet Glycoprotein Ib-IX Complex to the Glycosphingolipid-enriched Membrane Domain.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guofeng; Shang, Dan; Zhang, Zuping; Shaw, Tanner S; Ran, Yali; López, José A; Peng, Yuandong

    2015-09-01

    We have previously reported that the structural elements of the GP Ib-IX complex required for its localization to glycosphingolipid-enriched membranes (GEMs) reside in the Ibβ and IX subunits. To identify them, we generated a series of cell lines expressing mutant GP Ibβ and GP IX where 1) the cytoplasmic tails (CTs) of either or both GP Ibβ and IX are truncated, and 2) the transmembrane domains (TMDs) of GP Ibβ and GP IX were swapped with the TMD of a non-GEMs associating molecule, human transferrin receptor. Sucrose density fractionation analysis showed that the removal of either or both of the CTs from GP Ibβ and GP IX does not alter GP Ibα-GEMs association when compared with the wild type. In contrast, swapping of the TMDs of either GP Ibβ or GP IX with that of transferrin receptor results in a significant loss (∼ 50%) of GP Ibα from the low density GEMs fractions, with the largest effect seen in the dual TMD-replaced cells (> 80% loss) when compared with the wild type cells (100% of GP Ibα present in the GEMs fractions). Under high shear flow, the TMD-swapped cells adhere poorly to a von Willebrand factor-immobilized surface to a much lesser extent than the previously reported disulfide linkage dysfunctional GP Ibα-expressing cells. Thus, our data demonstrate that the bundle of GP Ibβ and GP IX TMDs instead of their individual CTs is the structural element that mediates the β/IX complex localization to the membrane GEMs, which through the α/β disulfide linkage brings GP Ibα into the GEMs. PMID:26203189

  15. High-Resolution Parallax Measurements of Scorpius X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, C. F.; Fomalont, E. B.; Geldzahler, B. J.

    1999-02-01

    The results of eight VLBA observations at 5 GHz, spanning 3 yr, have yielded a measured trigonometric parallax for Sco X-1 of 0.00036"+/-0.00004" hence, its distance is 2.8+/-0.3 kpc. This is the most precise parallax measured to date. Although our measured distance is 40% farther away than previous estimates based on X-ray luminosity, our Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer observations, with a measured luminosity of 2.3×1038 ergs s-1, and determined distance continue to support the hypothesis that Z-source low-mass X-ray binary systems, like Sco X-1, radiate at the Eddington luminosity at a particular point in their X-ray color-color diagram.

  16. Catching Up on State Transitions in Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boeck, Moritz; Hanke, Manfred; Wilms, Joern; Pirner, Stefan; Grinberg, Victoria; Markoff, Sera; Pottschmidt, Katja; Nowak, Michael A.; Pooley, Guy

    2008-01-01

    In 2005 February we observed Cygnus X-1 over a period of 10 days quasi-continuously with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer and the Ryle telescope. We present the results of the spectral and timing analysis on a timescale of 90 min and show that the behavior of Cyg X-1 is similar to that found during our years long monitoring campaign. As a highlight we present evidence for a full transition from the hard to the soft state that happened during less than three hours. The observation provided a more complete picture of a state transition than before, especially concerning the evolution of the time lags, due to unique transition coverage and analysis with high time resolution.

  17. High Resolution Spectroscopy of the LMXB SCO X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canizares, Claude

    2002-09-01

    Sco X-1 is by far the brightest persistent extrasolar X-ray source in the sky. Early observations showed a bright X-ray continuum and strong K (Fe XXV) line emission. The source has been well established as an LMXB Z-source spending most of its time on the so-called flaring branch. Low energy line emission has been detected in the EINSTEIN OGS, which most likely arises from a photoionized ADC. Through its variable radio emission it was established as a Galactic-jet radio source with strong similarities to luminous radio galaxies and quasars and we expect to observe P Cygni lines from a strong disk wind as observed in Cir X-1. We developed a specific observation strategy that allows to safely observe the source with the Chandra HETGS.

  18. The X-ray halo of Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bode, M. F.; Norwell, G. A.; Priedhorsky, W. C.; Evans, A.

    1985-01-01

    Four Einstein HRI images of Cygnus X-1 were examined for the presence of a halo due to scattering of X-rays by interstellar grains. The analysis technique exploits the intrinsic aperiodic variability of the source to map the point response function of the optics. A residual, nonvariable component to the surface brightness distribution (comprising approximately more than 12 percent of the source flux) is interpreted as a scattered halo. The halo flux does not reflect the short term time variability of the central source as it is smoothed by differential time delays of order days. The Cygnus X-1 halo is consistent with those of other sources derived in previous studies using different techniques. Comparison is made with a scattering model, and the sensitivity of the halo flux to maximal grain size is demonstrated.

  19. Long-Term Observations of Her X-1 with BATSE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. B.; Scott, D. M.; Finger, M. H.

    1991-01-01

    Pulsed emission from Her X-1 has been observed by BATSE during each Main High state throughout the CGRO (Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory) mission . This long observation set by a single instrument provides new information on long-term behavior of the Her X-1 system. The luminosity varies by more than a factor of 3 between different 35d cycles. Frequency and flux histories do not show a simple relationship between the source intensity and spin behavior, but do show that only spindown occurs when the source is in its lowest intensity state. Orbital analyses will be presented, including tests for consistency of the observed orbital epoch with the long-term ephemeris reported by (Deeter 1991). The intensity profile and onset times of cycles observed by both BATSE and the RXTE ASM (All Sky Monitor) will be compared. Behavior of the cycle start times versus source Main High peak intensity will be presented.

  20. EVN detection of Aql X-1 in outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudose, V.; Paragi, Z.; Miller-Jones, J.; Garrett, M.; Fender, R.; Rushton, A.; Spencer, R.

    2009-11-01

    The X-ray binary Aql X-1 has been in outburst in the last few weeks (ATEL #2288, #2296, #2299, #2302, #2303). We observed the system on 2009 November 19 between 14:30-19:00 UT at 5 GHz with the European VLBI Network (EVN) using the e-VLBI technique. The participating radio telescopes were Effelsberg (1 Gbps), Medicina (896 Mbps), Onsala 25m (1 Gbps), Torun (1 Gbps), Westerbork (1 Gbps), Yebes (896 Mbps), and Cambridge (128 Mbps).

  1. Cygnus X-1: Dips and Low Frequency Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilms, Joern

    2000-01-01

    The primary science result to come out of this work is the discovery that the time lags between hard and soft variability in Cyg X-1 show dramatic spikes during the transitions between hard and soft states (and possibly during "failed transitions" to the soft state), but are remarkably similar between the main soft and hard states. This work is being continued and elaborated upon with ongoing RXTE monitoring campaigns.

  2. RXTE Observations of LMC X-1 and LMC X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilms, J.; Nowak, M. A.; Dove, J. B.; Pottschmidt, K.; Heindl, W. A.; Begelman, M. C.; Staubert, R.

    1998-01-01

    Of all known persistent stellar-mass black hole candidates, only LMC X-1 and LMC X-3 consistently show spectra that are dominated by a soft, thermal component. We present results from long (170 ksec) Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of LMC X-1 and LMC X-3 made in 1996 December. The spectra can be described by a multicolor disk blackbody plus an additional high-energy power-law. Even though the spectra are very soft (Gamma approximately 2.5), RXTE detected a significant signal from LMC X-3 up to energies of 50 keV, the hardest energy at which the object was ever detected. Focusing on LMC X-3, we present results from the first year of an ongoing monitoring campaign with RXTE which started in 1997 January. We show that the appearance of the object changes considerably over its approximately 200d long cycle. This variability can either be explained by periodic changes in the mass transfer rate or by a precessing accretion disk analogous to Her X-1.

  3. RXTE Observations of LMC X-1 and LMC X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilms, J.; Nowak, M. A.; Dove, J. B.; Pottschmidt, K.; Heindl, W. A.; Begelman, M. C.; Staubert, R.

    1999-01-01

    Of all known persistent stellar-mass black hole candidates, only LMC X-1 and LMC X-3 consistently show spectra that are dominated by a soft, thermal component. We present results from long (170 ksec) Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of LMC X-1 and LMC X-3 made in 1996 December. The spectra can be described by a multicolor disk blackbody plus an additional high-energy power-law. Even though the spectra are very soft (Gamma approximately 2.5), RXTE detected a significant signal from LMC X-3 up to energies of 50 keV, the hardest energy at which the object was ever detected. Focusing on LMC X-3 , we present results from the first year of an ongoing monitoring campaign with RXTE which started in 1997 January. We show that the appearance of the object changes considerably over its approximately 200 d long cycle. This variability can either be explained by periodic changes in the mass transfer rate or by a precessing accretion disk analogous to Her X-1.

  4. The Distance and Milliarcsecond Radio Structure of Scorpius X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, C. F.; Fomalont, E. B.; Geldzahler, B. J.

    1997-07-01

    From three VLBA observations at 5 GHz, taken over 13 months, we have measured the trigonometric parallax of Sco X-1 as 0.00023" +/- 0.00028" hence, its distance is greater than 1300 pc. This supports the hypothesis that Sco X-1 radiates at or near the Eddington limit at the transition point between the normal and flaring branches of the X-ray color-color diagram. These results suggest that Sco X-1 and other Z-type quasi-periodic oscillators have a well defined luminosity and can be used as X-ray standard candles. All three VLBA observations contain a radio core of flux density 0.5 mJy and size greater than 4 mas. However, the third VLBA observation revealed two additional radio components (separated by 12 mas and on opposite sides of the radio core) not present in the two previous observations. The evolution of these two components will remain unknown until multiepoch radio imaging and coordinated radio and X-ray total flux density measurements can be made.

  5. Discovery of orbital decay in SMC X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, A.; Rappaport, S.; Boynton, P.; Deeter, J.; Nagase, F.

    1992-01-01

    The results are reported of three observations of the binary X ray pulsar SMC X-1 with the Ginga satellite. Timing analyses of the 0.71 s X ray pulsations yield Doppler delay curves which, in turn, provide the most accurate determination of the SMC X-1 orbital parameters available to date. The orbital phase of the 3.9 day orbit is determined in May 1987, Aug. 1988, and Aug. 1988 with accuracies of 11, 1, and 3.5 s, respectively. These phases are combined with two previous determinations of the orbital phase to yield the rate of change in the orbital period: P sub orb/P sub orb = (-3.34 + or - 0.023) x 10(exp -6)/yr. An interpretation of this measurement and the known decay rate for the orbit of Cen X-3 is made in the context of tidal evolution. Finally, a discussion is presented of the relation among the stellar evolution, orbital decay, and neutron star spinup time scales for the SMC X-1 system.

  6. Constellation's First Flight Test: Ares I-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.; Askins, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    On October 28, 2009, NASA launched Ares I-X, the first flight test of the Constellation Program that will send human beings to the Moon and beyond. This successful test is the culmination of a three-and-a-half-year, multi-center effort to design, build, and fly the first demonstration vehicle of the Ares I crew launch vehicle, the successor vehicle to the Space Shuttle. The suborbital mission was designed to evaluate the atmospheric flight characteristics of a vehicle dynamically similar to Ares I; perform a first stage separation and evaluate its effects; characterize and control roll torque; stack, fly, and recover a solid-motor first stage testing the Ares I parachutes; characterize ground, flight, and reentry environments; and develop and execute new ground hardware and procedures. Built from existing flight and new simulator hardware, Ares I-X integrated a Shuttle-heritage four-segment solid rocket booster for first stage propulsion, a spacer segment to simulate a five-segment booster, Peacekeeper axial engines for roll control, and Atlas V avionics, as well as simulators for the upper stage, crew module, and launch abort system. The mission leveraged existing logistical and ground support equipment while also developing new ones to accommodate the first in-line rocket for flying astronauts since the Saturn IB last flew from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in 1975. This paper will describe the development and integration of the various vehicle and ground elements, from conception to stacking in KSC s Vehicle Assembly Building; hardware performance prior to, during, and after the launch; and preliminary lessons and data gathered from the flight. While the Constellation Program is currently under review, Ares I-X has and will continue to provide vital lessons for NASA personnel in taking a vehicle concept from design to flight.

  7. Carbonic anhydrase IX is a clinically significant tissue and serum biomarker associated with renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    TAKACOVA, MARTINA; BARTOSOVA, MARIA; SKVARKOVA, LUCIA; ZATOVICOVA, MIRIAM; VIDLICKOVA, IVANA; CSADEROVA, LUCIA; BARATHOVA, MONIKA; BREZA, JAN; BUJDAK, PETER; PASTOREK, JAROMIR; BREZA, JAN; PASTOREKOVA, SILVIA

    2013-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is regarded as one of the most prominent markers of tumor hypoxia with potential to serve as a diagnostic biomarker, prognostic indicator as well as tumor therapeutic target. The aim of the present study was to perform an in-depth analysis of CA IX expression in blood and tissue samples and to evaluate the significance of CA IX status for different renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). The expression of CA IX was determined in blood and tissue samples from 74 kidney cancer patients using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The CA IX status was correlated with RCC type and tumor stage. IHC and WB provided evidence for a significantly higher expression of CA IX in clear cell RCC (CCRCC) specimens compared to other RCCs. RT-PCR assay revealed that 32.42% of all RCC patients possess CA9-positive cells in peripheral blood and three-quarters of CA9-positive patients were diagnosed with CCRCC. When the patients were subdivided according to tumor stage, decreased positivity was observed with higher tumor stage (50% in T1 vs. 17% in T3). Serum CA IX levels determined by ELISA were significantly higher in CCRCC patients than in non-CCRCC. A significant association between s-CA IX and CCRCC tumor stage was also determined (T1-87.51 vs. T3-341.98 pg/ml, p=0.046). We demonstrated that the CA IX expression profiles in blood and tissue samples from 74 kidney cancer patients are closely correlated with their histological subtypes. This is the first study reporting CA IX expression in blood and tissue samples from kidney cancer patients determined by four different methods. PMID:23255918

  8. Oscillator strengths for Ar VII, Ca IX and Fe XV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tayal, S. S.

    1986-01-01

    The excitation energies and oscillator strengths are calculated for electric-dipole-allowed and intercombination transitions between 3s2 1S, 3s3p(1,3)P0, 3p2 3P, 1D, 1S and 3s3d(1,3)D states in Ar VII, Ca IX, and Fe XV ions of the magnesium sequence. These states are represented by the fairly large configuration-interaction expansions. The calculations have been carried out in both LS and intermediate coupling schemes. The relativistic corrections have been included through the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. The results are compared with previous theoretical calculations and with measurements.

  9. Ares I-X Test Flight Reference Trajectory Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, Brett R.; Gumbert, Clyde R.; Tartabini, Paul V.

    2011-01-01

    Ares I-X was the first test flight of NASA's Constellation Program's Ares I crew launch vehicle. Ares I is a two stage to orbit launch vehicle that provides crew access to low Earth orbit for NASA's future manned exploration missions. The Ares I first stage consists of a Shuttle solid rocket motor (SRM) modified to include an additional propellant segment and a liquid propellant upper stage with an Apollo J2X engine modified to increase its thrust capability. The modified propulsion systems were not available for the first test flight, thus the test had to be conducted with an existing Shuttle 4 segment reusable solid rocket motor (RSRM) and an inert Upper Stage. The test flight's primary objective was to demonstrate controllability of an Ares I vehicle during first stage boost and the ability to perform a successful separation. In order to demonstrate controllability, the Ares I-X ascent control algorithms had to maintain stable flight throughout a flight environment equivalent to Ares I. The goal of the test flight reference trajectory development was to design a boost trajectory using the existing RSRM that results in a flight environment equivalent to Ares I. A trajectory similarity metric was defined as the integrated difference between the Ares I and Ares I-X Mach versus dynamic pressure relationships. Optimization analyses were performed that minimized the metric by adjusting the inert upper stage weight and the ascent steering profile. The sensitivity of the optimal upper stage weight and steering profile to launch month was also investigated. A response surface approach was used to verify the optimization results. The analyses successfully defined monthly ascent trajectories that matched the Ares I reference trajectory dynamic pressure versus Mach number relationship to within 10% through Mach 3.5. The upper stage weight required to achieve the match was found to be feasible and varied less than 5% throughout the year. The paper will discuss the flight

  10. 32 CFR 2003.9 - Reports to the President (Article IX).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reports to the President (Article IX). 2003.9... PANEL (ISCAP) BYLAWS, RULES, AND APPEAL PROCEDURES Bylaws § 2003.9 Reports to the President (Article IX... President of the United States. The Panel also includes such information in any reports it may make to...

  11. Not Second-Class: Title IX, Equity, and Girls' High School Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stader, David L.; Surface, Jeanne L.

    2014-01-01

    Title IX is designed to protect students from discrimination based on sex in any educational institution that receives financial assistance. This article focuses on Title IX as it applies to high school athletic programs by considering the trial of a high school district in California. A federal court found considerable inequalities between boys…

  12. 46 CFR 57.02-2 - Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. 57.02-2 Section 57.02-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING WELDING... accordance with section IX of the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Code, as limited,...

  13. 46 CFR 57.02-2 - Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. 57.02-2 Section 57.02-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING WELDING... accordance with section IX of the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Code, as limited,...

  14. 46 CFR 57.02-2 - Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. 57.02-2 Section 57.02-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING WELDING... accordance with section IX of the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) Code, as limited,...

  15. Sex Discrimination Against Students: Implications of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkle, Margaret C.; Sandler, Bernice

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 mandates that sex discrimination be eliminated in federally assisted education programs. Title IX has significant implications for a variety of issues including recruiting, admissions, financial aid, student rules and regulations, housing rules, health care and insurance benefits, student employment,…

  16. Almost As Fairly: The First Year of Title IX Implementation in Six Southern States. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Friends Service Committee, Columbia, SC. Southeastern Public Education Program.

    Volunteers from community organizations in six southern states monitored 21 school districts to find their districts' initial answer to Title IX, federal legislation barring sex discrimination. The actual monitoring of the 21 districts was completed in the late spring of 1976, with data covering the first year of Title IX implementation. The…

  17. "What Do I Think about Title IX?" Voices from a University Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paule-Koba, Amanda L.; Harris, Othello; Freysinger, Valeria J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the apparent benefits of Title IX, the implementation of the law remains controversial, and there are divergent beliefs regarding its impact on collegiate sport. The purpose of this study was to examine how members of a university community, whose intercollegiate sport programs have changed, perceive and make sense of Title IX and the…

  18. The Impact of Implementing Title IX in a Predominantly Black Public University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Gertrude L.

    Information on the impact of implementing Title IX of the 1972 Education Amendments at Florida A and M University, a predominantly Black public university, is presented. Title IX assures everyone regardless of sex an equal opportunity to learn a skill, choose a course of study, advance in status, participate in a sport, receive a scholarship, or…

  19. Critical Issue Bibliography (CRIB) Sheet: Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education, Washington, DC.

    This CRitical Issue Bibliography (CRIB) Sheet cites resources that give an overview of Title IX legislation and offer information about compliance, litigation, and related issues. Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects individuals from gender-based discrimination in education programs or activities that receive federal financial…

  20. A Place on the Team: The Triumph and Tragedy of Title IX

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggs, Welch

    2006-01-01

    "A Place on the Team" is the inside story of how Title IX revolutionized American sports. The federal law guaranteeing women's rights in education, Title IX opened gymnasiums and playing fields to millions of young women previously locked out. Journalist Welch Suggs chronicles both the law's successes and failures-the exciting opportunities for…

  1. Derivation of a triple mosaic adenovirus based on modification of the minor capsid protein IX

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Yizhe; Le, Long P.; Matthews, Qiana L.; Han Tie; Wu Hongju; Curiel, David T.

    2008-08-01

    Adenoviral capsid protein IX (pIX) has been shown to be a potential locale to insert targeting, imaging-related and therapeutic modalities by genetic modification. Recent evidences suggested that capsid protein mosaicism could be a promising strategy for improving the utility of Ad vector. In this study, we explored a method to genetically generate triple pIX mosaic Ad serotype 5 (Ad5) displaying three types of pIX on a single virion. pIXs were modified at their carboxy termini with a Flag sequence, a hexahistidine sequence (His{sub 6}) or a monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1), respectively. Western blotting analysis and fluorescence microscopy of the purified recombinant viruses indicated that all three modified pIXs were incorporated into the viral particles. Immuno-gold electron microscopy (EM) further confirmed that three types of pIX indeed co-existed on an individual virion. These results firstly validated a triple mosaic capsid configuration on pIX, and demonstrated the possibility of further radical design.

  2. Ongoing advances in quantitative PpIX fluorescence guided intracranial tumor resection (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Jonathan D.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Bravo, Jaime J.; Roberts, David W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2016-03-01

    Aminolevulinc-acid induced protoporphyrin IX (ALA-PpIX) is being investigated as a biomarker to guide neurosurgical resection of brain tumors. ALA-PpIX fluorescence can be observed visually in the surgical field; however, raw fluorescence emissions can be distorted by factors other than the fluorophore concentration. Specifically, fluorescence emissions are mixed with autofluorescence and attenuated by background absorption and scattering properties of the tissue. Recent work at Dartmouth has developed advanced fluorescence detection approaches that return quantitative assessments of PpIX concentration, which are independent of background optical properties. The quantitative fluorescence imaging (qFI) approach has increased sensitivity to residual disease within the resection cavity at the end of surgery that was not visible to the naked eye through the operating microscope. This presentation outlines clinical observations made during an ongoing investigation of ALA-PpIX based guidance of tumor resection. PpIX fluorescence measurements made in a wide-field hyperspectral imaging approach are co-registered with point-assessment using a fiber optic probe. Data show variations in the measured PpIX accumulation among different clinical tumor grades (i.e. high grade glioma, low grade glioma), types (i.e. primary tumors. metastases) and normal structures of interest (e.g. normal cortex, hippocampus). These results highlight the contrast enhancement and underscore the potential clinical benefit offered from quantitative measurements of PpIX concentration during resection of intracranial tumors.

  3. Plasma protoporphyrin IX following administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid as a potential tumor marker

    PubMed Central

    OTA, URARA; FUKUHARA, HIDEO; ISHIZUKA, MASAHIRO; ABE, FUMINORI; KAWADA, CHIAKI; TAMURA, KENJI; TANAKA, TOHRU; INOUE, KEIJI; OGURA, SHUN-ICHIRO; SHUIN, TARO

    2015-01-01

    Exogenously administered 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is metabolized to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), which specifically accumulates in cancer cells and emits red fluorescence by blue light irradiation. These phenomena are applied for the intraoperative diagnosis of cancer. Based on the fact that accumulated PpIX in cancer cells is exported extracellularly via the ATP-binding cassette transporter G2, we hypothesized that the measurement of plasma PpIX concentrations could be applied as a tumor marker for cancer screening. In the present study, the use of plasma samples from bladder cancer patients were evaluated as a tumor marker. ALA, 1.0 g, was orally administered to bladder cancer patients and healthy adults. The plasma concentration of PpIX was measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography system. The plasma PpIX concentration following ALA administration was significantly higher in bladder cancer patients than that in the healthy adults, suggesting the effectiveness of plasma PpIX analysis following ALA administration for cancer screening. Additionally, 4 h after ALA administration, plasma PpIX showed high sensitivity (94.4%) and high specificity (80.0%). PMID:26171183

  4. Perceptions of Women's Teams Coaches Regarding Gender Equity and Title IX Compliance in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Cynthia A.

    2013-01-01

    Title IX was enacted over 40 years ago, and although there have been marked increases in the number of girls and women participating in athletics at every level, gender equity in athletics continues to be a concern. This is especially evident at the community college level. Title IX requires equity in the areas of opportunities for participation,…

  5. Discovery and characterization of novel selective inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase IX.

    PubMed

    Dudutienė, Virginija; Matulienė, Jurgita; Smirnov, Alexey; Timm, David D; Zubrienė, Asta; Baranauskienė, Lina; Morkūnaite, Vaida; Smirnovienė, Joana; Michailovienė, Vilma; Juozapaitienė, Vaida; Mickevičiūtė, Aurelija; Kazokaitė, Justina; Bakšytė, Sandra; Kasiliauskaitė, Aistė; Jachno, Jelena; Revuckienė, Jurgita; Kišonaitė, Miglė; Pilipuitytė, Vilma; Ivanauskaitė, Eglė; Milinavičiūtė, Goda; Smirnovas, Vytautas; Petrikaitė, Vilma; Kairys, Visvaldas; Petrauskas, Vytautas; Norvaišas, Povilas; Lingė, Darius; Gibieža, Paulius; Capkauskaitė, Edita; Zakšauskas, Audrius; Kazlauskas, Egidijus; Manakova, Elena; Gražulis, Saulius; Ladbury, John E; Matulis, Daumantas

    2014-11-26

    Human carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is highly expressed in tumor tissues, and its selective inhibition provides a potential target for the treatment of numerous cancers. Development of potent, highly selective inhibitors against this target remains an unmet need in anticancer therapeutics. A series of fluorinated benzenesulfonamides with substituents on the benzene ring was designed and synthesized. Several of these exhibited a highly potent and selective inhibition profile against CA IX. Three fluorine atoms significantly increased the affinity by withdrawing electrons and lowering the pKa of the benzenesulfonamide group. The bulky ortho substituents, such as cyclooctyl or even cyclododecyl groups, fit into the hydrophobic pocket in the active site of CA IX but not CA II, as shown by the compound's co-crystal structure with chimeric CA IX. The strongest inhibitor of recombinant human CA IX's catalytic domain in human cells achieved an affinity of 50 pM. However, the high affinity diminished the selectivity. The most selective compound for CA IX exhibited 10 nM affinity. The compound that showed the best balance between affinity and selectivity bound with 1 nM affinity. The inhibitors described in this work provide the basis for novel anticancer therapeutics targeting CA IX. PMID:25358084

  6. Title IX Compliance at Two-Year Colleges: An Analysis of Perceived Barriers and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Causby, Cory Scott

    2010-01-01

    Although Title IX legislation has been in effect since 1972 and has created unprecedented positive change on intercollegiate athletics, educational institutions have still had difficulty meeting the basic requirements set forth by Title IX and ensuring gender equity in their athletic programs. Additionally, specific research has been largely…

  7. Title IX and Employment Discrimination: A Wrong in Search of a Remedy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Rosemary C.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the litigation challenging the authority of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare to promulgate regulations governing employment discrimination pursuant to Title IX. Despite compelling challenges, interest in Title IX continues because its penalties are more extensive than those available under Title VII. (IRT)

  8. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 266 - Methods Manual for Compliance With the BIF Regulations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 266—Methods Manual... Protection Agency regulations for boilers and industrial furnaces (BIFs) burning hazardous waste (see 40...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 266 - Methods Manual for Compliance With the BIF Regulations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 266—Methods Manual... Protection Agency regulations for boilers and industrial furnaces (BIFs) burning hazardous waste (see 40...

  10. Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools and Its Impact on Title IX Enforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargyas, Ellen J.

    1993-01-01

    A court decision allowing monetary damages for intentional violations of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 is seen as dramatically changing enforcement of the principal federal law against sex discrimination. Its treatment of sexual harassment is also considered. Implications for Title IX enforcement in colleges and universities are…

  11. Sexual Harassment and Student Rights: The Supreme Court Expands Title IX Remedies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Ruling in "Franklin," the Supreme Court found in favor of a high school student who alleged that she had been subjected to sexual harassment in violation of Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972. Inquires about the nature and scope of damages available under Title IX. Concludes with policy considerations for administrators. (MLF)

  12. Atomic Data and Spectral Line Intensities for Ca IX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landi, E.; Bhatia, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    Electron impact collision strengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Ca IX. We include in the calculations the 33 lowest configurations in the n = 3, 4, 5 complexes, corresponding to 283 fine structure levels in the 3l3l ', 3l4l'' and 3l4l''' configurations, where l,l' = s, p, d, l '' = s, p, d, f and l''' = s, p, d, f, g. Collision strengths are calculated at five incident energies for all transitions: 5.8, 13.6, 24.2, 38.6 and 57.9 Ry above the threshold of each transition. An additional energy, very close to the transition threshold, has been added, whose value is between 0.0055 Ry and 0.23 Ry depending on the levels involved. Calculations have been carried out using the Flexible Atomic Code and the distorted wave approximation. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated as a function of electron temperature by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative transition rates calculated in the present work, statistical equilibrium equations for level populations are solved at electron densities covering the 10(exp 8)-10(exp 14)/cubic cm range and at an electron temperature of log T(sub e)(K)=5.8, corresponding to the maximum abundance of Ca IX. Spectral line intensities are calculated, and their diagnostic relevance is discussed.

  13. Ares I-X Separation and Reentry Trajectory Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tartabini, Paul V.; Starr, Brett R.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle was launched on October 28, 2009 and was the first and only test flight of NASA s two-stage Ares I launch vehicle design. The launch was successful and the flight test met all of its primary and secondary objectives. This paper discusses the stage separation and reentry trajectory analysis that was performed in support of the Ares I-X test flight. Pre-flight analyses were conducted to assess the risk of stage recontact during separation, to evaluate the first stage flight dynamics during reentry, and to define the range safety impact ellipses of both stages. The results of these pre-flight analyses were compared with available flight data. On-board video taken during flight showed that the flight test vehicle successfully separated without any recontact. Reconstructed trajectory data also showed that first stage flight dynamics were well characterized by pre-flight Monte Carlo results. In addition, comparisons with flight data indicated that the complex interference aerodynamic models employed in the reentry simulation were effective in capturing the flight dynamics during separation. Finally, the splash-down locations of both stages were well within predicted impact ellipses.

  14. Anisotropic cosmology and inflation from a tilted Bianchi IX model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundell, P.; Koivisto, T.

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of the tilted axisymmetric Bianchi IX cosmological models are explored allowing energy flux in the source fluid. The Einstein equations and the continuity equation are presented treating the equation of state w and the tilt angle of the fluid λ as time-dependent functions, but when analyzing the phase space w and λ are considered free parameters and the shear, the vorticity and the curvature of the spacetime span a three-dimensional phase space that contains seven fixed points. One of them is an attractor that inflates the universe anisotropically, thus providing a counterexample to the cosmic no-hair conjecture. Also, examples of realistic though fine-tuned cosmologies are presented wherein the rotation can become significant towards the present epoch but the shear stays within the observational bounds. The examples suggest that the model used here can explain the parity-violating anomalies of the cosmic microwave background. The result significantly differs from an earlier study, where a nonaxisymmetric Bianchi IX type model with a tilted perfect dust source was found to induce too much shear for observationally significant vorticity.

  15. Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator Residual Stress Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, Ivatury S.; Brust, Frederick W.; Phillips, Dawn R.; Cheston, Derrick

    2008-01-01

    The structural analyses described in the present report were performed in support of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Critical Initial Flaw Size (CIFS) assessment for the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS) common shell segment. An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). The Ares system of space launch vehicles is the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration s plan for replacement of the aging space shuttle. The new Ares space launch system is somewhat of a combination of the space shuttle system and the Saturn launch vehicles used prior to the shuttle. Here, a series of weld analyses are performed to determine the residual stresses in a critical region of the USS. Weld residual stresses both increase constraint and mean stress thereby having an important effect on fatigue and fracture life. The results of this effort served as one of the critical load inputs required to perform a CIFS assessment of the same segment.

  16. Radio non-detection of Aql X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudose, V.; Paragi, Z.; Altamirano, D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Garrett, M.; Fender, R.; Rushton, A.; Spencer, R.; Maitra, D.

    2010-10-01

    The neutron star X-ray binary Aql X-1 is on the decaying phase of a major outburst that peaked at optical and X-ray bands in mid-September (ATEL #2850, #2871, #2891, #2902). We observed the object at 5 GHz with the European VLBI Network (EVN) in the e-VLBI mode on 2010 October 4th between 18:20-22:09 UT. The participating stations were Cambridge, Effelsberg, Jodrell Bank (MkII), Hartebeesthoek, Medicina, Onsala, Torun, Westerbork and Yebes.

  17. A radio nebula associated with Circinus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, R. F.; Komesaroff, M. M.; Jauncey, D. L.; Caswell, J. L.; Milne, D. K.; Kesteven, M. J.; Wellington, K. J.; Preston, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation of the variable source Circinus X-1 is reported that reveals that this eccentric double-star system is embedded in a nebula of steady radio emission extending over several parsecs, orders of magnitude larger than the binary stellar system responsible for the fluctuating component of emission. This is in marked constrast to most X-ray binaries, where an envelope of radio emission in conspicuously absent. There are difficulties in explaining the emission, but analogies with SS433 and the Crab nebula suggest possible models.

  18. Short time transient periodicities from Cyg X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auriemma, G.; Cardini, D.; Costa, E.; Giovannelli, F.; Ranieri, M.

    1976-01-01

    The temporal behavior of three new events of modulated optical emission from Cyg X1, detected in July 1975, is presented. Short time periodicities in the optical band are investigated. Single photon pulses from the photomultiplier are recorded on magnetic tape together with a very accurate 1 kHz reference frequency. During playback of the tape, the reference signal gives a 1 ms timing to a scaler interfaced with a small processor and the number of photon per millisecond is recorded on a digital tape.

  19. Pilot Joe Walker with the X-1E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    A photo of the nose section of the X-1E with pilot Joe Walker suited for a flight at the NASA High-Speed Flight Station, Edwards, California. The dice and Little Joe are prominently displayed under the cockpit area. NASA employees and the crew chief of the plane worked long hours preparing a craft for flight. A break from the tedious task was a welcome reprieve at times; hence the private joke between a crew and their pilot evolved. If you know the craps game you've figured it out! (Little Joe is a dice player's slang term for two deuces.)

  20. "What do I think about Title IX?" Voices from a university community.

    PubMed

    Paule-Koba, Amanda L; Harris, Othello; Freysinger, Valeria J

    2013-03-01

    Despite the apparent benefits of Title IX, the implementation of the law remains controversial, and there are divergent beliefs regarding its impact on collegiate sport. The purpose of this study was to examine how members of a university community, whose intercollegiate sport programs have changed, perceive and make sense of Title IX and the changes it incurred. Using a gendered lens (Birrell, 2000) and qualitative interviews with 13 individuals connected to the university community, insight was gained into their perceptions of Title IX and women's and men's athletic opportunities. The theme of opportunity gained and lost was central to how these individuals perceive Title IX and resonates with the liberal (feminist) concerns out of which Title IX was born. PMID:23611015

  1. Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle: Stack 5 Modal Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Templeton, Justin D.; Reaves, Mercedes C.; Horta, Lucas G.; Gaspar, James L.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Parks, Russel A.; Lazor, Danel R.

    2010-01-01

    Ares I-X was the first flight test vehicle used in the development of NASA's Ares I crew launch vehicle. The Ares I-X used a 4-segment reusable solid rocket booster from the Space Shuttle heritage with mass simulators for the 5th segment, upper stage, crew module and launch abort system. Three modal tests were defined to verify the dynamic finite element model of the Ares I-X flight test vehicle. Test configurations included two partial stacks and the full Ares I-X flight test vehicle on the Mobile Launcher Platform. This report focuses on the first modal test that was performed on the top section of the vehicle referred to as Stack 5, which consisted of the spacecraft adapter, service module, crew module and launch abort system simulators. This report describes the test requirements, constraints, pre-test analysis, test operations and data analysis for the Ares I-X Stack 5 modal test.

  2. Evidence for a prevalent dimorphism in the activation peptide of human coagulation factor IX.

    PubMed Central

    McGraw, R A; Davis, L M; Noyes, C M; Lundblad, R L; Roberts, H R; Graham, J B; Stafford, D W

    1985-01-01

    We have independently isolated and characterized cDNA and genomic clones for the human coagulation factor IX. Sequence analysis in both cases indicates that threonine is encoded by the triplet ACT as the third residue of the activation peptide. This is in agreement with some earlier reports but in disagreement with others that show the alanine triplet GCT at this position. The discrepancy can thus be accounted for by natural variation of a single nucleotide in the normal population. Amino acid sequence analyses of activated factor IX from plasma samples of four individuals yielded two cases of alanine and two cases of threonine at the third position of the activation peptide. In factor IX from pooled plasma and in factor IX from a heterozygous individual, however, both alanine and threonine were found. Taken together, the findings show that a prevalent nondeleterious dimorphism exists in the activation peptide of human coagulation factor IX. PMID:3857619

  3. Collagen type IX from human cartilage: a structural profile of intermolecular cross-linking sites.

    PubMed Central

    Diab, M; Wu, J J; Eyre, D R

    1996-01-01

    Type IX collagen, a quantitatively minor collagenous component of cartilage, is known to be associated with and covalently cross-linked to type II collagen fibrils in chick and bovine cartilage. Type IX collagen molecules have also been shown to form covalent cross-links with each other in bovine cartilage. In the present study we demonstrate by structural analysis and location of cross-linking sites that, in human cartilage, type IX collagen is covalently cross-linked to type II collagen and to other molecules of type IX collagen. We also present evidence that, if the proteoglycan form of type IX collagen is present in human cartilage, it can only be a minor component of the matrix, similar to findings with bovine cartilage. PMID:8660302

  4. Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle:Stack 1 Modal Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Templeton, Justin D.; Reaves, Mercedes C.; Horta, Lucas G.; Gaspar, James L.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Parks, Russel A.; Lazor, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    Ares I-X was the first flight test vehicle used in the development of NASA s Ares I crew launch vehicle. The Ares I-X used a 4-segment reusable solid rocket booster from the Space Shuttle heritage with mass simulators for the 5th segment, upper stage, crew module and launch abort system. Three modal tests were defined to verify the dynamic finite element model of the Ares I-X flight test vehicle. Test configurations included two partial stacks and the full Ares I-X flight test vehicle on the Mobile Launcher Platform. This report focuses on the second modal test that was performed on the middle section of the vehicle referred to as Stack 1, which consisted of the subassembly from the 5th segment simulator through the interstage. This report describes the test requirements, constraints, pre-test analysis, test operations and data analysis for the Ares I-X Stack 1 modal test.

  5. 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Induced Protoporphyrin IX Fluorescence in Meningioma: Qualitative and Quantitative Measurements In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Valdes, Pablo A.; Bekelis, Kimon; Harris, Brent T.; Wilson, Brian C.; Leblond, Frederic; Kim, Anthony; Simmons, Nathan E.; Erkmen, Kadir; Paulsen, Keith D.; Roberts, David W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The use of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence has shown promise as a surgical adjunct for maximizing the extent of surgical resection in gliomas. To date, the clinical utility of 5-ALA in meningiomas is not fully understood, with most descriptive studies using qualitative approaches to 5-ALA-PpIX. OBJECTIVE To assess the diagnostic performance of 5-ALA-PpIX fluorescence during surgical resection of meningioma. METHODS ALA was administered to 15 patients with meningioma undergoing PpIX fluorescence-guided surgery at our institution. At various points during the procedure, the surgeon performed qualitative, visual assessments of fluorescence by using the surgical microscope, followed by a quantitative fluorescence measurement by using an intra-operative probe. Specimens were collected at each point for subsequent neuropathological analysis. Clustered data analysis of variance was used to ascertain a difference between groups, and receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed to assess diagnostic capabilities. RESULTS Red-pink fluorescence was observed in 80% (12/15) of patients, with visible fluorescence generally demonstrating a strong, homogenous character. Quantitative fluorescence measured diagnostically significant PpIX concentrations (CPpIx) in both visibly and nonvisibly fluorescent tissues, with significantly higher CPpIx in both visibly fluorescent (P < .001) and tumor tissue (P = .002). Receiver operating characteristic analyses also showed diagnostic accuracies up to 90% for differentiating tumor from normal dura. CONCLUSION ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence guidance is a potential and promising adjunct in accurately detecting neoplastic tissue during meningioma resective surgery. These results suggest a broader reach for PpIX as a biomarker for meningiomas than was previously noted in the literature. PMID:23887194

  6. Supreme Court Says Title IX Covers Employment but Raises a Serious Question about the Future Impact of the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flygare, Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    The Supreme Court recently decided that Title IX covers employment practices in schools and colleges; however, portions of the Court's decision (whether Title IX provides "institutionwide" or "program-specific" coverage) raise serious questions about the future of Title IX as a force for sex equity in education. (Author/MLF)

  7. 12 CFR 900.3 - Terms relating to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX. 900.3 Section 900.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD... to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX. As used throughout this chapter, the following terms relating to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX have...

  8. 12 CFR 900.3 - Terms relating to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX. 900.3 Section 900.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD... to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX. As used throughout this chapter, the following terms relating to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX have...

  9. 12 CFR 900.3 - Terms relating to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX. 900.3 Section 900.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD... to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX. As used throughout this chapter, the following terms relating to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX have...

  10. 12 CFR 900.3 - Terms relating to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX. 900.3 Section 900.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD... to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX. As used throughout this chapter, the following terms relating to other entities and concepts used throughout 12 CFR chapter IX have...

  11. The Mass Donor of Scorpius X-1 Revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steeghs, D.; Casares, J.

    2002-03-01

    We present the first detection of the mass donor star in the prototype X-ray binary Scorpius X-1. Phase-resolved spectroscopy revealed narrow emission line components from the irradiated secondary star. Radial velocity fits to the Bowen blend emission are used to establish an absolute orbital ephemeris and derive an accurate value for the systemic velocity, γ=-113.8+/-0.6 km s-1. Emission from the irradiated front side of the secondary leads to solid limits to the radial velocity of the mass donor of 87<~K2<~148 km s-1. In conjunction with an upper limit to the velocity of the primary K1<=53 km s-1, we derive a firm limit on the mass ratio of Sco X-1 of q<~0.61. A likely set of system parameters satisfying the various constraints as well as the recent inclination estimate by Fomalont, Geldzahler, & Bradshaw (2001) is K1=40 km s-1, K2=133 km s-1, q=0.30 corresponding to component masses of M1=1.4Msolar and M2=0.42Msolar for an orbital inclination of 38°.

  12. Broad-Band Spectroscopy of Hercules X-1 with Suzaku

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asami, Fumi; Enoto, Teruaki; Iwakiri, Wataru; Yamada, Shin'ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Mihara, Tatehiro; Nagase, Fumiaki

    2014-01-01

    Hercules X-1 was observed with Suzaku in the main-on state from 2005 to 2010. The 0.4- 100 keV wide-band spectra obtained in four observations showed a broad hump around 4-9 keV in addition to narrow Fe lines at 6.4 and 6.7 keV. The hump was seen in all the four observations regardless of the selection of the continuum models. Thus it is considered a stable and intrinsic spectral feature in Her X-1. The broad hump lacked a sharp structure like an absorption edge. Thus it was represented by two different spectral models: an ionized partial covering or an additional broad line at 6.5 keV. The former required a persistently existing ionized absorber, whose origin was unclear. In the latter case, the Gaussian fitting of the 6.5-keV line needs a large width of sigma = 1.0-1.5 keV and a large equivalent width of 400-900 eV. If the broad line originates from Fe fluorescence of accreting matter, its large width may be explained by the Doppler broadening in the accretion flow. However, the large equivalent width may be inconsistent with a simple accretion geometry.

  13. The Variable Superorbital Modulation of Cygnus X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rico, Javier

    2008-08-01

    We study the superorbital modulation present in the Cygnus X-1 X-ray data, usually attributed to the precession of the accretion disk and relativistic jets. We find a new, strong, 326 ± 2 day period modulation starting in 2005, in Swift BAT and RXTE ASM light curves (LCs). We also investigate Vela 5B ASM and Ariel 5 ASM archival data and confirm the previously reported ~290 day periodic modulation, therefore confirming that the superorbital period is not constant. Finally, we study RXTE ASM LC before 2005 and find that the previously reported ~150 day period is most likely an artifact due to the use of a Fourier-power-based analysis under the assumption that the modulation has a constant period along the whole data sample. Instead, we find strong indications of several discrete changes of the precession period, happening in coincidence with soft and failed state transition episodes. We also find a hint of correlation between the period and the amplitude of the modulation. The detection of gamma rays above 100 GeV with MAGIC in 2006 September happened in coincidence with a maximum of the superorbital modulation. The next maximum will happen between 2008 July 2 and 14, when the observational conditions of Cygnus X-1 with ground-based Cerenkov telescopes, such as MAGIC and VERITAS, are optimal.

  14. Shell-shocked: the interstellar medium near Cygnus X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sell, P. H.; Heinz, S.; Richards, E.; Maccarone, T. J.; Russell, D. M.; Gallo, E.; Fender, R.; Markoff, S.; Nowak, M.

    2015-02-01

    We conduct a detailed case study of the interstellar shell near the high-mass X-ray binary, Cygnus X-1. We present new WIYN optical spectroscopic and Chandra X-ray observations of this region, which we compare with detailed MAPPINGS III shock models, to investigate the outflow powering the shell. Our analysis places improved, physically motivated constraints on the nature of the shock wave and the interstellar medium (ISM) it is plowing through. We find that the shock is travelling at less than a few hundred km s-1 through a low-density ISM (<5 cm-3). We calculate a robust, 3σ upper limit to the total, time-averaged power needed to drive the shock wave and inflate the bubble, <2 × 1038 erg s-1. We then review possible origins of the shock wave. We find that a supernova origin to the shock wave is unlikely and that the black hole jet and/or O-star wind can both be central drivers of the shock wave. We conclude that the source of the Cygnus X-1 shock wave is far from solved.

  15. RXTE observation of Cygnus X-1: spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dove, J. B.; Wilms, Jörn; Nowak, M. A.; Vaughan, B. A.; Begelman, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    We present the results of the analysis of the broad-band spectrum of Cygnus X-1 from 3.0 to 200keV, using data from a 10ksec observation by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. Although the spectrum can be well described phenomenologically by an exponentially cut-off power law (photon index Γ=1.45+0.01-0.02, e-folding energy Ef=162+9-8keV, plus a deviation from a power law that formally can be modeled as a thermal blackbody with temperature kTBB=1.2+0.0-0.1keV), the inclusion of a reflection component does not improve the fit. As a physical description of this system, we apply the accretion disc corona (ADC0 models of Dove, Wilms & Begelman [1]). A slab-geometry ADC model is unable to describe the data. However, a spherical corona, with a total optical depth τ=1.6+/-0.1 and an average temperature kTC=87+/-5keV, surrounded by an exterior cold disc, does provide a good description of the data (χ2red=1.55). These models deviate from the data by up to 7% in the 5-10keV range. However, considering how successfully the spherical corona reproduces the 10-200keV data, such ``photon-starved'' coronal geometries seem very promising for explaining the accretion processes of Cygnus X-1.

  16. Circinus X-1 - X-ray observations with SAS 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dower, R. G.; Bradt, H. V.; Morgan, E. H.

    1982-01-01

    Eight observations of Cir X-1 with SAS 3, each lasting 1-6 days, have yielded a variety of new phenomena, viz., a luminous state of steady emission, rapid large-intensity dips, an extremely rapid X-ray transition, and bright flares. Through searches for periodic X-ray pulsations were carried out on data trains of duration up to 6 days; upper limits for pulsations with periods greater than 250 microsec range down to 0.3%. Aperiodic variability with characteristic times of 0.4-1.0 sec was observed but is not well characterized by a simple shot noise model. No millisecond bursts were observed during 40,000 sec in three separate observations. Spectral parameters derived before and after several X-ray transitions indicate that the transitions are not due to absorption of X-rays by intervening gas. Models previously proposed for the Cir X-1 system do not easily provide explanations for all the complex phenomena reported herein.

  17. Mass transfer and magnetic braking in Sco X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovskii, K.; Ivanova, N.

    2016-02-01

    Sco X-1 is a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) that has one of the most precisely determined set of binary parameters such as the mass accretion rate, companions mass ratio and the orbital period. For this system, as well as for a large fraction of other well-studied LMXBs, the observationally-inferred mass accretion rate is known to strongly exceed the theoretically expected mass transfer (MT) rate. We suggest that this discrepancy can be solved by applying a modified magnetic braking prescription, which accounts for increased wind mass-loss in evolved stars compared to main sequence stars. Using our MT framework based on MESA, we explore a large range of binaries at the onset of the MT. We identify the subset of binaries for which the MT tracks cross the Sco X-1 values for the mass ratio and the orbital period. We confirm that no solution can be found for which the standard magnetic braking can provide the observed accretion rates, while wind-boosted magnetic braking can provide the observed accretion rates for many progenitor binaries that evolve to the observed orbital period and mass ratio.

  18. The nature of the companion star in Circinus X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Helen M.; Soria, Roberto; Gibson, Joel

    2016-02-01

    We present optical spectra and images of the X-ray binary Circinus X-1. The optical light curve of Cir X-1 is strongly variable, changing in brightness by 1.2 mag in the space of four days. The shape of the light curve is consistent with that seen in the 1980s, when the X-ray and radio counterparts of the source were at least ten times as bright as they are currently. We detect strong, variable H α emission lines, consisting of multiple components which vary with orbital phase. We estimate the extinction to the source from the strength of the diffuse interstellar bands and the Balmer decrement; the two methods give AV = 7.6 ± 0.6 mag and AV > 9.1 mag, respectively. The optical light curve can be modelled as arising from irradiation of the companion star by the central X-ray source, where a low-temperature star fills its Roche lobe in an orbit of moderate eccentricity (e ˜ 0.4). We suggest that the companion star is overluminous and underdense, due to the impact of the supernova which occurred less than 5000 yr ago.

  19. The showerfront time-structure of anomalous muon'' events associated with Hercules X-1. [Her X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandreas, D.E. ); Berley, D.; Biller, S.D.; Burman, R.L.; Cady, D.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Dingus, B.L.; Dion, C.; Dion, G.M.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Goodman, J.A.; Haines, T.J.; Hoffman, C.M.; Krakauer, D.A.; Kwok, P.W.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Lu, X.; Nagle, D.E.; Potter, M.E.; Sandberg, V.D.; Stark, M.J.; Vishwanath, P.R.; Yodh, G.B.; Zhang, W.P. The University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4111 Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 The University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030-4444 Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, 60439-4843 ); Presented by S. Biller

    1991-04-05

    The 11 in-phase'' source events from the 1986 muon-rich bursts associated with Hercules X-1 (previously reported by this group) have been studied for indications of further anomalous behavior. The most significant effect observed resulted from an analysis of the showerfront time-structures of these events. This analysis was then applied {ital a} {ital priori} to the rest of the source day, where an additional {similar to}9 signal events are expected to remain. The same effect was observed at a chance probability level of {similar to}0.1%.

  20. Discovery of Orbital Decay in SMC X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, A.; Rappaport, S.; Deeter, J. E.; Boynton, P. E.; Nagase, F.

    1993-01-01

    We report on the results of three observations of the binary X-ray pulsar SMC X-1 with the Ginga satellite. Timing analyses of the 0.71 s X-ray pulsations yield Doppler delay curves which, in turn, enable the most accurate determination of the SMC X-1 orbital parameters available to date. Epochs of phase zero for the 3.9 day orbit were determined for 1987 May, 1988 August, and 1989 August with accuracies of 13, 0.6, and 3 s, respectively. These epochs are combined with two previous determinations of the orbital epoch to yield the rate of change in the orbital period dot-P(orb)/P(orb) = ( 3.36 +/- 0.02) x 10(exp -6) yr(exp -1). An interpretation of the orbital decay is made in the context of tidal evolution, with consideration of the influence of the increasing moment of inertia of the companion star due to its nuclear evolution. We find that, while the orbital decay is probably driven by tidal interactions, the asynchronism between the orbit and the rotation of the companion star is most likely maintained by the evolutionary expansion of the companion star (Sk 160) rather than via the Darwin instability. In this case Sk 160 is likely to be in the hydrogen shell burning phase of its evolution. Finally, a discussion is presented of the relation among the time scales for stellar evolution (less than 10(exp 7) yr), orbital decay (3 x 10(exp 5) yr), and neutron-star spin-up in the SMC X-1 system (2000 yr). In particular, we present the result of a self-consistent calculation for the histories of the spin of the neutron star and the mass transfer in this system. A plausible case can be made for the spin-up time scale being directly related to the lifetime of the luminous X-ray phase which will end in a common-envelope phase within a time of less than approx. 10(exp 4) yr.

  1. A fluorescent approach for identifying P2X1 ligands

    PubMed Central

    Ruepp, Marc-David; Brozik, James A.; de Esch, Iwan J.P.; Farndale, Richard W.; Murrell-Lagnado, Ruth D.; Thompson, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    There are no commercially available, small, receptor-specific P2X1 ligands. There are several synthetic derivatives of the natural agonist ATP and some structurally-complex antagonists including compounds such as PPADS, NTP-ATP, suramin and its derivatives (e.g. NF279, NF449). NF449 is the most potent and selective ligand, but potencies of many others are not particularly high and they can also act at other P2X, P2Y and non-purinergic receptors. While there is clearly scope for further work on P2X1 receptor pharmacology, screening can be difficult owing to rapid receptor desensitisation. To reduce desensitisation substitutions can be made within the N-terminus of the P2X1 receptor, but these could also affect ligand properties. An alternative is the use of fluorescent voltage-sensitive dyes that respond to membrane potential changes resulting from channel opening. Here we utilised this approach in conjunction with fragment-based drug-discovery. Using a single concentration (300 μM) we identified 46 novel leads from a library of 1443 fragments (hit rate = 3.2%). These hits were independently validated by measuring concentration-dependence with the same voltage-sensitive dye, and by visualising the competition of hits with an Alexa-647-ATP fluorophore using confocal microscopy; confocal yielded kon (1.142 × 106 M−1 s−1) and koff (0.136 s−1) for Alexa-647-ATP (Kd = 119 nM). The identified hit fragments had promising structural diversity. In summary, the measurement of functional responses using voltage-sensitive dyes was flexible and cost-effective because labelled competitors were not needed, effects were independent of a specific binding site, and both agonist and antagonist actions were probed in a single assay. The method is widely applicable and could be applied to all P2X family members, as well as other voltage-gated and ligand-gated ion channels. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled ‘Fluorescent Tools in Neuropharmacology

  2. Long-acting recombinant coagulation factor IX albumin fusion protein (rIX-FP) in hemophilia B: results of a phase 3 trial

    PubMed Central

    Martinowitz, Uri; Lissitchkov, Toshko; Pan-Petesch, Brigitte; Hanabusa, Hideji; Oldenburg, Johannes; Boggio, Lisa; Negrier, Claude; Pabinger, Ingrid; von Depka Prondzinski, Mario; Altisent, Carmen; Castaman, Giancarlo; Yamamoto, Koji; Álvarez-Roman, Maria-Teresa; Voigt, Christine; Blackman, Nicole; Jacobs, Iris

    2016-01-01

    A global phase 3 study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of recombinant fusion protein linking coagulation factor IX with albumin (rIX-FP) in 63 previously treated male patients (12-61 years) with severe hemophilia B (factor IX [FIX] activity ≤2%). The study included 2 groups: group 1 patients received routine prophylaxis once every 7 days for 26 weeks, followed by either 7-, 10-, or 14-day prophylaxis regimen for a mean of 50, 38, or 51 weeks, respectively; group 2 patients received on-demand treatment of bleeding episodes for 26 weeks and then switched to a 7-day prophylaxis regimen for a mean of 45 weeks. The mean terminal half-life of rIX-FP was 102 hours, 4.3-fold longer than previous FIX treatment. Patients maintained a mean trough of 20 and 12 IU/dL FIX activity on prophylaxis with rIX-FP 40 IU/kg weekly and 75 IU/kg every 2 weeks, respectively. There was 100% reduction in median annualized spontaneous bleeding rate (AsBR) and 100% resolution of target joints when subjects switched from on-demand to prophylaxis treatment with rIX-FP (P < .0001). The median AsBR was 0.00 for all prophylaxis regimens. Overall, 98.6% of bleeding episodes were treated successfully, including 93.6% that were treated with a single injection. No patient developed an inhibitor, and no safety concerns were identified. These results indicate rIX-FP is safe and effective for preventing and treating bleeding episodes in patients with hemophilia B at dosing regimens of 40 IU/kg weekly and 75 IU/kg every 2 weeks. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT0101496274. PMID:26755710

  3. Long-acting recombinant coagulation factor IX albumin fusion protein (rIX-FP) in hemophilia B: results of a phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Santagostino, Elena; Martinowitz, Uri; Lissitchkov, Toshko; Pan-Petesch, Brigitte; Hanabusa, Hideji; Oldenburg, Johannes; Boggio, Lisa; Negrier, Claude; Pabinger, Ingrid; von Depka Prondzinski, Mario; Altisent, Carmen; Castaman, Giancarlo; Yamamoto, Koji; Álvarez-Roman, Maria-Teresa; Voigt, Christine; Blackman, Nicole; Jacobs, Iris

    2016-04-01

    A global phase 3 study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of recombinant fusion protein linking coagulation factor IX with albumin (rIX-FP) in 63 previously treated male patients (12-61 years) with severe hemophilia B (factor IX [FIX] activity ≤2%). The study included 2 groups: group 1 patients received routine prophylaxis once every 7 days for 26 weeks, followed by either 7-, 10-, or 14-day prophylaxis regimen for a mean of 50, 38, or 51 weeks, respectively; group 2 patients received on-demand treatment of bleeding episodes for 26 weeks and then switched to a 7-day prophylaxis regimen for a mean of 45 weeks. The mean terminal half-life of rIX-FP was 102 hours, 4.3-fold longer than previous FIX treatment. Patients maintained a mean trough of 20 and 12 IU/dL FIX activity on prophylaxis with rIX-FP 40 IU/kg weekly and 75 IU/kg every 2 weeks, respectively. There was 100% reduction in median annualized spontaneous bleeding rate (AsBR) and 100% resolution of target joints when subjects switched from on-demand to prophylaxis treatment with rIX-FP (P< .0001). The median AsBR was 0.00 for all prophylaxis regimens. Overall, 98.6% of bleeding episodes were treated successfully, including 93.6% that were treated with a single injection. No patient developed an inhibitor, and no safety concerns were identified. These results indicate rIX-FP is safe and effective for preventing and treating bleeding episodes in patients with hemophilia B at dosing regimens of 40 IU/kg weekly and 75 IU/kg every 2 weeks. This trial was registered atwww.clinicaltrials.govas #NCT0101496274. PMID:26755710

  4. Recent Developments in Targeting Carbonic Anhydrase IX for Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Paul C.; Winum, Jean-Yves; Supuran, Claudiu T.; Dedhar, Shoukat

    2012-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a hypoxia-inducible enzyme that is overexpressed by cancer cells from many tumor types, and is a component of the pH regulatory system invoked by these cells to combat the deleterious effects of a high rate of glycolytic metabolism. CAIX functions to help produce and maintain an intracellular pH (pHi) favorable for tumor cell growth and survival, while at the same time participating in the generation of an increasingly acidic extracellular space, facilitating tumor cell invasiveness. Pharmacologic interference of CAIX catalytic activity using monoclonal antibodies or CAIX-specific small molecule inhibitors, consequently disrupting pH regulation by cancer cells, has been shown recently to impair primary tumor growth and metastasis. Many of these agents are in preclinical or clinical development and constitute a novel, targeted strategy for cancer therapy. PMID:22289741

  5. Photodynamic action of protoporphyrin IX derivatives on Trichophyton rubrum*

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Rogério Rodrigo; Kozusny-Andreani, Dora Inês; Fernandes, Adjaci Uchôa; Baptista, Mauricio da Silva

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dermatophytes are filamentous keratinophilic fungi. Trichophyton rubrum is a prevalent infectious agent in tineas and other skin diseases. Drug therapy is considered to be limited in the treatment of such infections, mainly due to low accessibility of the drug to the tissue attacked and development of antifungal resistance in these microorganisms. In this context, Photodynamic Therapy is presented as an alternative. OBJECTIVE Evaluate, in vitro, the photodynamic activity of four derivatives of Protoporphyrin IX by irradiation with LED 400 nm in T. rubrum. METHOD Assays were subjected to irradiation by twelve cycles of ten minutes at five minute intervals. RESULT Photodynamic action appeared as effective with total elimination of UFCs from the second irradiation cycle. CONCLUSION Studies show that the photodynamic activity on Trichophyton rubrum relates to a suitable embodiment of the photosensitizer, which can be maximized by functionalization of peripheral groups of the porphyrinic ring. PMID:27192510

  6. Quantum Bianchi Type IX Cosmology in K-Essence Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza-García, Abraham; Socorro, J.; Pimentel, Luis O.

    2014-09-01

    We use one of the simplest forms of the K-essence theory and apply it to the anisotropic Bianchi type IX cosmological model, with a barotropic perfect fluid modeling the usual matter content. We show that the most important contribution of the scalar field occurs during a stiff matter phase. Also, we present a canonical quantization procedure of the theory which can be simplified by reinterpreting the scalar field as an exotic part of the total matter content. The solutions to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation were found using the Bohmian formulation Bohm (Phys. Rev. 85(2):166, 1952) of quantum mechanics, employing the amplitude-real-phase approach Moncrief and Ryan (Phys. Rev. D 44:2375, 1991), where the ansatz for the wave function is of the form Ψ( ℓ μ )= χ( ϕ) W( ℓ μ ), where S is the superpotential function, which plays an important role in solving the Hamilton-Jacobi equation.

  7. Latex carrier for improving protoporphyrin IX for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Bui, Brian; Liu, Li; Chen, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Attachment of Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) to poly (styrene-co-4-vinylpyridine) (PS4VP) nanobeads was carried out to improve its properties in aqueous solutions. After using an oil-in-water heated emulsion polymerization technique to synthesize PS4VP, PPIX was bonded to the particles via the carboxylic acid of PPIX hydrogen-bonding to the nitrogen at the surface of PS4VP, thereby preventing self-reactions between the carboxyl groups and the porphyrin core. Refraining the two parts from interacting while attached to the nanobeads prevented PPIX from aggregating, which then increased water solubility, enhanced luminescence and singlet oxygen production. Attachment also improved cell uptake and cell destruction by photodynamic activity. This shows that PS4VP-PPIX may help improve aspects of photodynamic therapy for the treatment of cancer. PMID:27020668

  8. Protoporphyrin IX: the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.

    PubMed

    Sachar, Madhav; Anderson, Karl E; Ma, Xiaochao

    2016-02-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) is ubiquitously present in all living cells in small amounts as a precursor of heme. PPIX has some biologic functions of its own, and PPIX-based strategies have been used for cancer diagnosis and treatment (the good). PPIX serves as the substrate for ferrochelatase, the final enzyme in heme biosynthesis, and its homeostasis is tightly regulated during heme synthesis. Accumulation of PPIX in human porphyrias can cause skin photosensitivity, biliary stones, hepatobiliary damage, and even liver failure (the bad and the ugly). In this work, we review the mechanisms that are associated with the broad aspects of PPIX. Because PPIX is a hydrophobic molecule, its disposition is by hepatic rather than renal excretion. Large amounts of PPIX are toxic to the liver and can cause cholestatic liver injury. Application of PPIX in cancer diagnosis and treatment is based on its photodynamic effects. PMID:26588930

  9. Gamma-ray observations of Cygnus X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassani, L.; Di Cocco, G.; Stephen, J. B.; Dean, A. J.; Perotti, F.

    1989-08-01

    The results of gamma-ray observations of the Galactic black hole candidate Cygnus X-1 are presented. The recent HEAO 3 results reported by Ling et al. (1987) on this source are confirmed: (1) the detection in 1979 of a gamma-ray excess of comparable flux; and (2) a spectral variation above about 25 keV going from 1979 to 1980, which implies and anticorrelation between hard X-ray and gamma-ray luminosities with a pivot point in the 200-400 keV band. A comparison of all the data available at gamma-ray energies gives further support to the existence of this anticorrelation, although its statistical significance is low. The hard X-ray/gamma-ray 1979 spectrum, which is well fitted by a power law with photon index alpha = 1.7, can be interpreted as thermal Comptonization of soft photons or in terms of nonthermal models with copious photon-photon absorption.

  10. Understanding accretion beyond the Eddington limit: NGC 5204 X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    It has been suggested that ULXs are in a new super-Eddington `ultraluminous' accretion state, and that they progress through a sequence of three spectral regimes with increasing accretion rate. However, our recent results (Sutton et al. 2013) indicate that inclination is also critical in determining the observed X-ray properties. These properties can broadly be explained by a massive radiatively-driven wind that emerges as the Eddington limit is exceeded, and forms a funnel around the black hole axis. Previous observations show NGC 5204 X-1 straddling the boundary between two ultraluminous regimes, marking it as a critical source in testing this scenario. Here we propose to obtain a further four 20 ks XMM-Newton EPIC observations, which will allow us to probe the validity of the proposed model.

  11. TIMESCALE-RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY OF Cyg X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y. X.; Li, T. P.; Belloni, T. M.; Wang, T. S.; Liu, H.

    2009-04-20

    We propose the timescale-resolved spectroscopy (TRS) as a new method to combine the timing and spectral study. The TRS is based on the time domain power spectrum and reflects the variable amplitudes of spectral components on different timescales. We produce the TRS with the RXTE PCA data for Cyg X-1 and study the spectral parameters (the power-law photon index and the equivalent width of the iron fluorescent line) as a function of timescale. The results of TRS and frequency-resolved spectra have been compared, and similarities have been found for the two methods with the identical motivations. We also discover the correspondences between the evolution of photon index with timescale and the evolution of the equivalent width with timescale. The observations can be divided into three types according to the correspondences and different type is connected with different spectral state.

  12. Energy dependence of normal branch oscillations in Scorpius X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Chang, H.-K.; Liu, C.-Y.

    2012-11-01

    We report the energy dependence of normal branch oscillations (NBOs) in Scorpius X-1, a low-mass X-ray binary Z-source. Three characteristic quantities (centroid frequency, quality factor, and fractional root-mean-squared (rms) amplitude) of a quasi-periodic oscillation signal as functions of photon energy are investigated. We found that, although it is not yet statistically well established, there is a signature indicating that the NBO centroid frequency decreases with increasing photon energy when it is below 6-8 keV, which turns out to be positively correlated with the photon energy at the higher energy side. In addition, the rms amplitude increases significantly with the photon energy below 13 keV and then decreases in the energy band of 13-20 keV. There is no clear dependence on photon energy for the quality factor. Based on these results, we suggest that the NBO originates mainly in the transition layer.

  13. Discovery of orbital decay in SMC X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, A.; Rappaport, S.; Deeter, J. E.; Boynton, P. E.; Nagase, F.

    1993-01-01

    Three observations of the binary X-ray pulsar SMC X-1 with the Ginga satellite, conducted on 3 days in 1987 May, 8.4 days in 1988 August-September, and 4 days in 1989 July-August, are reported. Based on the three observation epochs, the rate of change in the orbital period is estimated at (-3.36 +/- 0.02) x 10 exp -6/yr. An interpretation of the orbital decay is made in the context of tidal evolution with allowance for the effect of the increasing moment of inertia of the companion star due to its nuclear evolution. While the orbital decay is thought to be driven by tidal interactions, it is suggested that the asynchronism between the orbit and the rotation of the companion star is most likely maintained by the evolutionary expansion of the companion star (Sk 160) rather than via the Darwin instability.

  14. Joe Walker in pressure suit with X-1E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    Joe Walker in a pressure suit beside the X-1E at the NASA High-Speed Flight Station, Edwards,California. The dice and 'Little Joe' are prominently displayed under the cockpit area. (Little Joe is a dice players slang term for two deuces.) Walker is shown in the photo wearing an early Air Force partial pressure suit. This protected the pilot if cockpit pressure was lost above 50,000 feet. Similar suits were used in such aircraft as B-47s, B-52s, F-104s, U-2s, and the X-2 and D-558-II research aircraft. Five years later, Walker reached 354,200 feet in the X-15. Similar artwork - reading 'Little Joe the II' - was applied for the record flight. These cases are two of the few times that research aircraft carried such nose art.

  15. The Extreme Spin of the Black Hole Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gou, Lijun; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Reid, Mark J.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Steiner, James F.; Narayan, Ramesh; Xiang, Jingen; Remillard, Ronald A.; Arnaud, Keith A.; Davis, Shane W.

    2011-01-01

    Remarkably, an astronomical black hole is completely described by the two numbers that specify its mass and its spin. Knowledge of spin is crucial for understanding how, for example, black holes produce relativistic jets. Recently, it has become possible to measure the spins of black holes by focusing on the very inner region of an accreting disk of hot gas orbiting the black hole. According to General Relativity (GR), this disk is truncated at an inner radius 1 that depends only on the mass and spin of the black hole. We measure the radius of the inner edge of this disk by fitting its continuum X-ray spectrum to a fully relativistic model. Using our measurement of this radius, we deduce that the spin of Cygnus X-1 exceeds 97% of the maximum value allowed by GR.

  16. Reconstitution of Platelet Glycoprotein Ib-IX Complex in Phospholipid Bilayer Nanodiscs†

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Rong; Mo, Xi; Paredes, Angel M.; Dai, Kesheng; Lanza, Francois; Cruz, Miguel A.; Li, Renhao

    2012-01-01

    Glycoprotein (GP)Ib-IX complex expressed on platelet plasma membrane is involved in thrombosis and hemostasis by initiating platelet adhesion to von Willebrand factor (VWF) exposed at the injured vessel wall. While most of the knowledge for GPIb-IX is obtained from studies on platelets and transfected mammalian cells expressing GPIb-IX, there is not an in vitro membrane system that allows systematic analysis of this receptor. The phospholipid bilayer Nanodisc composed of a patch of phospholipid surrounded by membrane scaffold protein is an attractive tool for membrane protein study. We show here that GPIb-IX purified from human platelets has been reconstituted into the Nanodisc. Nanodisc-reconstituted GPIb-IX was able to bind various conformation-sensitive monoclonal antibodies. Furthermore, it bound to VWF in the presence of botrocetin with an apparent Kd of 0.73 ± 0.07 nM. The binding to VWF was inhibited by anti-GPIbα antibodies with epitopes overlapping with the VWF-binding site, but not by anti-GPIbβ monoclonal antibody RAM.1. Finally, Nanodisc-reconstituted GPIb-IX exhibited similar ligand-binding activity as the isolated extracellular domain of GPIbα. In conclusion, GPIb-IX in Nanodiscs adopts native-like conformation and possesses the ability to bind its natural ligands, thus making Nanodisc a suitable in vitro platform for further investigation on this hemostatically important receptor complex. PMID:22080766

  17. Sonodynamic therapy induces apoptosis of human leukemia HL-60 cells in the presence of protoporphyrin IX.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaomin; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Kun; Yang, Shuang; Liu, Quanhong; Leung, Albert W; Xu, Chuanshan; Wang, Pan

    2016-04-01

    Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) is expected to be a novel therapeutic strategy for tumor. The protoporphyrin IX disodium salt (PpIX), a photosensitizer, can be activated by ultrasound. The present study aims to investigate apoptosis of HL-60 cells induced by PpIX-mediated SDT. 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was adopted to examine cell toxicity. Apoptosis was detected using Annexin V-PE/7-amino-actinomycin D (7-AAD) double staining. Detection of apoptotic bodies was examined by Hoechst33342 (HO) staining. Western blotting was used to analyze the protein of caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected by a flow cytometer after exposures. Compared with PpIX alone and ultrasound alone groups, the synergistic cytotoxicity of PpIX plus ultrasound were significantly boosted. In addition, as determined by Annexin V-PE/7-AAD staining, SDT significantly induced HL-60 cell apoptosis, the obvious nuclear condensation was also found with HO staining at 4 hours post-SDT treatment. Furthermore, Western blotting showed visible enhancement of caspase-3 and PARP cleavage in this process. Besides, intracellular ROS production was significantly enhanced after SDT. Our findings demonstrate that PpIX-mediated SDT could induce apoptosis on HL-60 cells, suggesting that apoptosis is an important mechanism of cell death induced by PpIX-mediated SDT. PMID:26891272

  18. Catalytic activity of human carbonic anhydrase isoform IX is displayed both extra- and intracellularly.

    PubMed

    Klier, Michael; Jamali, Somayeh; Ames, Samantha; Schneider, Hans-Peter; Becker, Holger M; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2016-01-01

    Most carbonic anhydrases catalyse the reversible conversion of carbon dioxide to protons and bicarbonate, either as soluble cytosolic enzymes, in or at intracellular organelles, or at the extracellular face of the cell membrane as membrane-anchored proteins. Carbonic anhydrase isoform IX (CA IX), a membrane-bound enzyme with catalytic activity at the extracellular membrane surface, has come to prominence in recent years because of its association with hypoxic tissue, particularly tumours, often indicating poor prognosis. We have evaluated the catalytic activity of CA IX heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes by measuring the amplitude and rate of cytosolic pH changes as well as pH changes at the outer membrane surface (pHs ) during addition and removal of 5% CO2 /25 mm HCO3-, and by mass spectrometry. Our results indicate both extracellular and intracellular catalytic activity of CA IX. Reduced rates of CO2 -dependent intracellular pH changes after knockdown of CA IX confirmed these findings in two breast cancer cell lines: MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Our results demonstrate a new function of CA IX that may be important in the search for therapeutic cancer drugs targeting CA IX. PMID:26470855

  19. Characterization and standardization of tissue-simulating protoporphyrin IX optical phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marois, Mikael; Bravo, Jaime; Davis, Scott C.; Kanick, Stephen Chad

    2016-03-01

    Optical devices for measuring protoporphryin IX (PpIX) fluorescence in tissue are routinely validated by measurements in optical phantoms. Yet there exists limited data to form a consensus on the recipe for phantoms that both mimic the optical properties found in tissue and yield a reliable and stable relationship between PpIX concentration and the fluorescence remission intensity. This study characterizes the influence of multiple phantom components on PpIX fluorescence emission intensity, using Intralipid as the scattering source, bovine whole blood as the background absorber, and Tween as a surfactant to prevent PpIX aggregation. Optical measurements showed a linear proportionality (r>0.99) between fluorescence intensity and PpIX concentration (0.1 to 10 μg/mL) over a range of Intralipid (1 to 2%) and whole blood (0.5 to 3%) for phantoms containing low surfactant (≤0.1%), with fluorescence intensities and scattering and absorption properties stable for 5 h after mixing. The role of surfactant in PpIX phantoms was found to be complex, as aggregation was evident in aqueous nonturbid phantoms with no surfactant (0% Tween), and avoided in phantoms containing Intralipid as the scattering source with no additional or low amounts of added surfactant (≤0.1% Tween). Conversely, phantoms containing higher surfactant content (>0.1% Tween) and whole blood showed interactions that distorted the fluorescence emissions.

  20. 10 microsecond time resolution studies of Cygnus X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, H.C.

    1997-06-01

    Time variability analyses have been applied to data composed of event times of X-rays emitted from the binary system Cygnus X-1 to search for unique black hole signatures. The X-ray data analyzed was collected at ten microsecond time resolution or better from two instruments, the High Energy Astrophysical Observatory (HEAO) A-1 detector and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) Proportional Counter Array (PCA). HEAO A-1 and RXTE/PCA collected data from 1977--79 and from 1996 on with energy sensitivity from 1--25 keV and 2--60 keV, respectively. Variability characteristics predicted by various models of an accretion disk around a black hole have been searched for in the data. Drop-offs or quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the Fourier power spectra are expected from some of these models. The Fourier spectral technique was applied to the HEAO A-1 and RXTE/PCA data with careful consideration given for correcting the Poisson noise floor for instrumental effects. Evidence for a drop-off may be interpreted from the faster fall off in variability at frequencies greater than the observed breaks. Both breaks occur within the range of Keplerian frequencies associated with the inner edge radii of advection-dominated accretion disks predicted for Cyg X-1. The break between 10--20 Hz is also near the sharp rollover predicted by Nowak and Wagoner`s model of accretion disk turbulence. No QPOs were observed in the data for quality factors Q > 9 with a 95% confidence level upper limit for the fractional rms amplitude at 1.2% for a 16 M{sub {circle_dot}} black hole.

  1. RXTE Observation of Cygnus X-1. Report 2; TIming Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Michael A.; Vaughan, Brian A.; Wilms, Joern; Dove, James B.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1998-01-01

    We present timing analysis for a Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observation of Cygnus X-1 in its hard/low state. This was the first RXTE observation of Cyg X-1 taken after it transited back to this state from its soft/high state. RXTE's large effective area, superior timing capabilities, and ability to obtain long, uninterrupted observations have allowed us to obtain measurements of the power spectral density (PSD), coherence function, and Fourier time lags to a decade lower in frequency and half a decade higher in frequency than typically was achieved with previous instruments. Notable aspects of our observations include a weak 0.005 Hz feature in the PSD coincident with a coherence recovery; a 'hardening' of the high-frequency PSD with increasing energy; a broad frequency range measurement of the coherence function, revealing rollovers from unity coherence at both low and high frequency; and an accurate determination of the Fourier time lags over two and a half decades in frequency. As has been noted in previous similar observations, the time delay is approximately proportional to f(exp -0.7), and at a fixed Fourier frequency the time delay of the hard X-rays compared to the softest energy channel tends to increase logarithmically with energy. Curiously, the 0.01-0.2 Hz coherence between the highest and lowest energy bands is actually slightly greater than the coherence between the second highest and lowest energy bands. We carefully describe all of the analysis techniques used in this paper, and we make comparisons of the data to general theoretical expectations. In a companion paper, we make specific comparisons to a Compton corona model that we have successfully used to describe the energy spectral data from this observation.

  2. RXTE Observation of Cygnus X-1 Spectral Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dove, J. B.; Wilms, Joern; Nowak, M. A.; Vaughan, B. A.; Begelman, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of the analysis of the broad-band spectrum of Cygnus X-1 from 3.0 to 200 keV, using data from a 10 ksec observation by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. Although the spectrum can be well described phenomenologically by an exponentially cut-off power law (photon index Gamma = 1.45+0.01 -0.02 , e-folding energy e(sub f) = 162+9 -8 keV, plus a deviation from a power law that formally can be modeled as a thermal blackbody, with temperature kT(sub BB) = 1.2 +0.0 -0.1 keV), the inclusion of a reflection component does not improve the fit. As a physical description of this system, we apply the accretion disc corona (ADC) models. A slab-geometry ADC model is unable to describe the data. However, a spherical corona, with a total optical depth tau- = 1.6 + or - 0.1 and an average temperature kTc = 87 + or - 5 keV, surrounded by an exterior cold disc, does provide a good description of the data (X red (exp 2) = 1.55). These models deviate from the data bv up to 7% in the 5-10 keV range. However, considering how successfully the spherical corona reproduces the 10-200 keV data, such "photon-starved" coronal geometries seem very promising for explaining the accretion processes of Cygnus X-1.

  3. RXTE observation of Cygnus X-1 - I. Spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dove, James B.; Wilms, Jörn; Nowak, Michael A.; Vaughan, Brian A.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1998-08-01

    We present the results of the analysis of the broad-band spectrum of Cygnus X-1 from 3.0 to 200keV, using data from a 10-ks observation by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The spectrum can be well described phenomenologically by an exponentially cut-off power law with a photon index Γ=1.45+0.01-0.02 (a value considerably harder than is typically found), e-folding energy Ef=162+9-8keV, plus a deviation from a power law that formally can be modelled as a thermal blackbody with temperature kTbb=1.2+0.0-0.1keV. Although the 3-30 keV portion of the spectrum can be fitted with a reflected power law with Γ=1.81+/-0.01 and covering fraction f=0.35+/-0.02, the quality of the fit is significantly reduced when the HEXTE data in the 30-100 keV range are included, as there is no observed softening in the power law within this energy range. As a physical description of this system, we apply the accretion disc corona models of Dove, Wilms &38 Begelman, in which the temperature of the corona is determined self-consistently. A spherical corona with a total optical depth τ=1.6+/-0.1 and an average temperature kTc=87+/-5keV, surrounded by an exterior cold disc, does provide a good description of the data (χ2red=1.55). These models deviate from the data by up to 7 per cent in the 5-10keV range, and we discuss possible reasons for these discrepancies. However, considering how successfully the spherical corona reproduces the 10-200keV data, such `photon-starved' coronal geometries seem very promising for explaining the accretion processes of Cygnus X-1.

  4. VELA X-1: how to produce asymmetric eclipses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldmeier, A.; Anzer, U.; Boerner, G.; Nagase, F.

    1996-07-01

    Light curves of the X-ray pulsar Vela X-1 obtained with the ASCA satellite show a strong asymmetry in the hard energy band during the eclipse of the X-ray source: a steep drop at ingress is followed by a gradual decline, whereas only a steep increase is observed at egress. X-ray scattering off the dense accretion wake trailing the neutron star cannot explain the gradual decline because of the long persistence of the latter ({DELTA}φ=0.11). Instead we propose that scattering in an extended photoionization wake is responsible. This wake is caused by the switch-off of the radiative force that drives the B supergiant wind during the passage through the highly ionized Stroemgren region surrounding the X-ray source. The stalled gas then trails the neutron star, which moves relative to the B star surface (no corotation). A model for the Vela X-1 system which assumes that the B star does not rotate gives too large a phase extent for the dense wake and can be ruled out. Including the B star rotation in an approximate way, the relative azimuthal motion of the neutron star is slower and the wake covers a smaller phase interval. Finally, we assume that the Stroemgren sphere does not reach too deep into the wind accelerating region. The wind can then reach a certain fraction of the terminal velocity before the radiative force is switched off. This elongates the photoionization wake further and both its phase extent and its scattering efficiency match the observations.

  5. Atomic data and spectral line intensities for Ca IX

    SciTech Connect

    Landi, E.; Bhatia, A.K.

    2014-11-15

    Electron impact collision strengths, energy levels, oscillator strengths, and spontaneous radiative decay rates are calculated for Ca IX. We include in the calculations the 33 lowest configurations in the n=3,4, and 5 complexes, corresponding to 283 fine-structure levels in the 3l3l{sup ′}, 3l4l{sup ″}, and 3l5l{sup ‴} configurations, where l,l{sup ′}=s,p,d, l{sup ″}=s,p,d,f and l{sup ‴}=s,p,d,f,g. Collision strengths are calculated at five incident energies for all transitions: 5.8, 13.6, 24.2, 38.6, and 57.9 Ry above the threshold of each transition. An additional energy, very close to the transition threshold, has been added, whose value is between 0.0055 Ry and 0.23 Ry depending on the levels involved. Calculations have been carried out using the Flexible Atomic Code and the distorted wave approximation. Excitation rate coefficients are calculated as a function of electron temperature by assuming a Maxwellian electron velocity distribution. Using the excitation rate coefficients and the radiative transition rates calculated in the present work, statistical equilibrium equations for level populations are solved at electron densities covering the range of 10{sup 8}–10{sup 14}  cm{sup −3} and at an electron temperature of logT{sub e}(K)=5.8, corresponding to the maximum abundance of Ca IX. Spectral line intensities are calculated, and their diagnostic relevance is discussed.

  6. Ares I-X Range Safety Flight Envelope Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, Brett R.; Olds, Aaron D.; Craig, Anthony S.

    2011-01-01

    Ares I-X was the first test flight of NASA's Constellation Program's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle designed to provide manned access to low Earth orbit. As a one-time test flight, the Air Force's 45th Space Wing required a series of Range Safety analysis data products to be developed for the specified launch date and mission trajectory prior to granting flight approval on the Eastern Range. The range safety data package is required to ensure that the public, launch area, and launch complex personnel and resources are provided with an acceptable level of safety and that all aspects of prelaunch and launch operations adhere to applicable public laws. The analysis data products, defined in the Air Force Space Command Manual 91-710, Volume 2, consisted of a nominal trajectory, three sigma trajectory envelopes, stage impact footprints, acoustic intensity contours, trajectory turn angles resulting from potential vehicle malfunctions (including flight software failures), characterization of potential debris, and debris impact footprints. These data products were developed under the auspices of the Constellation's Program Launch Constellation Range Safety Panel and its Range Safety Trajectory Working Group with the intent of beginning the framework for the operational vehicle data products and providing programmatic review and oversight. A multi-center NASA team in conjunction with the 45th Space Wing, collaborated within the Trajectory Working Group forum to define the data product development processes, performed the analyses necessary to generate the data products, and performed independent verification and validation of the data products. This paper outlines the Range Safety data requirements and provides an overview of the processes established to develop both the data products and the individual analyses used to develop the data products, and it summarizes the results of the analyses required for the Ares I-X launch.

  7. Ares I-X Range Safety Analyses Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, Brett R.; Gowan, John W., Jr.; Thompson, Brian G.; Tarpley, Ashley W.

    2011-01-01

    Ares I-X was the first test flight of NASA's Constellation Program's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle designed to provide manned access to low Earth orbit. As a one-time test flight, the Air Force's 45th Space Wing required a series of Range Safety analysis data products to be developed for the specified launch date and mission trajectory prior to granting flight approval on the Eastern Range. The range safety data package is required to ensure that the public, launch area, and launch complex personnel and resources are provided with an acceptable level of safety and that all aspects of prelaunch and launch operations adhere to applicable public laws. The analysis data products, defined in the Air Force Space Command Manual 91-710, Volume 2, consisted of a nominal trajectory, three sigma trajectory envelopes, stage impact footprints, acoustic intensity contours, trajectory turn angles resulting from potential vehicle malfunctions (including flight software failures), characterization of potential debris, and debris impact footprints. These data products were developed under the auspices of the Constellation's Program Launch Constellation Range Safety Panel and its Range Safety Trajectory Working Group with the intent of beginning the framework for the operational vehicle data products and providing programmatic review and oversight. A multi-center NASA team in conjunction with the 45th Space Wing, collaborated within the Trajectory Working Group forum to define the data product development processes, performed the analyses necessary to generate the data products, and performed independent verification and validation of the data products. This paper outlines the Range Safety data requirements and provides an overview of the processes established to develop both the data products and the individual analyses used to develop the data products, and it summarizes the results of the analyses required for the Ares I-X launch.

  8. Lessons Learned in Launching Ares I-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.; Askins, Bruce R.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I-X flight test, scheduled for 2009, is the first opportunity for the Constellation Program and Ares Projects to obtain important data on the in-flight loads, first stage recovery, and ground-handling characteristics of the Ares I crew launch vehicle. The flight test vehicle will incorporate a mix of flight and mockup hardware, reflecting an acceptable representation of the mass and outer mold line characteristics of the operational Ares I vehicle. It will be powered by a four-segment solid rocket motor from the Space Shuttle inventory and will include a fifth, inert spacer segment and new forward structures to make it the same shape as the Ares I first stage. The vehicle also includes mass simulators for the upper stage, Orion crew module, and launch abort system to match the outer mold line of Ares I; an active roll control system; and avionics derived from Shuttle and Atlas hardware. This suborbital mission will take the flight test vehicle from stacking in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) through liftoff, maximum dynamic pressure, first stage separation, and recovery. Ares I-X presented NASA with unique project management challenges. This presentation will address those unique challenges, including managing a virtual nationwide team under a constrained timeline; designing and building the launch vehicle and ground systems; working concurrently with Space Shuttle activities; and integrating technical and management functions. It also will identify key data collected and lessons learned from the flight that will be applied to future exploration missions.

  9. Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle Similitude to the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Smith, R. Marshall; Campbell, John R.; Taylor, Terry L.

    2009-01-01

    The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle is the first in a series of flight test vehicles that will take the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle design from development to operational capability. Ares I-X is scheduled for a 2009 flight date, early enough in the Ares I design and development process so that data obtained from the flight can impact the design of Ares I before its Critical Design Review. Decisions on Ares I-X scope, flight test objectives, and FTV fidelity were made prior to the Ares I systems requirements being baselined. This was necessary in order to achieve a development flight test to impact the Ares I design. Differences between the Ares I-X and the Ares I configurations are artifacts of formulating this experimental project at an early stage and the natural maturation of the Ares I design process. This paper describes the similarities and differences between the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle and the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle. Areas of comparison include the outer mold line geometry, aerosciences, trajectory, structural modes, flight control architecture, separation sequence, and relevant element differences. Most of the outer mold line differences present between Ares I and Ares I-X are minor and will not have a significant effect on overall vehicle performance. The most significant impacts are related to the geometric differences in Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle at the forward end of the stack. These physical differences will cause differences in the flow physics in these areas. Even with these differences, the Ares I-X flight test is poised to meet all five primary objectives and six secondary objectives. Knowledge of what the Ares I-X flight test will provide in similitude to Ares I - as well as what the test will not provide - is important in the continued execution of the Ares I-X mission leading to its flight and the continued design and development of Ares I.

  10. Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle similitude to the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Smith, R. Marshall; Campbell, John R.; Taylor, Terry L.

    2009-12-01

    The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle is the first in a series of flight test vehicles that will take the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle design from development to operational capability. Ares I-X is scheduled for a 2009 flight date, early enough in the Ares I design and development process so that data obtained from the flight can impact the design of Ares I before its Critical Design Review. Decisions on Ares I-X scope, flight test objectives, and FTV fidelity were made prior to the Ares I systems requirements being baselined. This was necessary in order to achieve a development flight test to impact the Ares I design. Differences between the Ares I-X and the Ares I configurations are artifacts of formulating this experimental project at an early stage and the natural maturation of the Ares I design process. This paper describes the similarities and differences between the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle and the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle. Areas of comparison include the outer mold line geometry, aerosciences, trajectory, structural modes, flight control architecture, separation sequence, and relevant element differences. Most of the outer mold line differences present between Ares I and Ares I-X are minor and will not have a significant effect on overall vehicle performance. The most significant impacts are related to the geometric differences in Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle at the forward end of the stack. These physical differences will cause differences in the flow physics in these areas. Even with these differences, the Ares I-X flight test is poised to meet all five primary objectives and six secondary objectives. Knowledge of what the Ares I-X flight test will provide in similitude to Ares I—as well as what the test will not provide—is important in the continued execution of the Ares I-X mission leading to its flight and the continued design and development of Ares I.

  11. Evaluation of ALA-induced PpIX as a photosensitizer for PDT in cats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucroy, Michael D.; Edwards, Benjamin F.; Peavy, George M.; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Griffey, Stephen M.; Madewell, Bruce R.

    1998-07-01

    Given exogenously, ALA defeats intrinsic regulatory feedback mechanisms allowing intracellular accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), a highly efficient photosensitizer. In vivo, PpIX synthesis in neoplastic mammary tissues averages 20-fold higher than in normal mammary tissues. PpIX is retained intracellularly, unlike perivascular localization of other photosensitizers, and it is then cleared quickly from the body. In vitro, ALA induced PpIX production in our laboratory in 6 cell lines tested, including an established feline kidney cell line and dermal fibroblasts from primary skin biopsy explant, resulting in photosensitization. Fluorescent microscopy confirmed PpIX production in skin adnexae following ALA administration in a normal cat. To evaluate toxicity, three cats were treated with a single i.v. dose of ALA (either 100, 200, of 400 mg/kg) and followed for 7 days. Cats receiving 100 or 200 mg/kg ALA i.v. had elevated liver enzymes and bilirubin within 24 hours. Histopathology revealed hydropic changes in the liver and renal fibrosis. The cat receiving 400 mg/kg ALA intravenously had cutaneous flush, bradycardia and apnea associated with ALA administration; within 24 hours the cat was lethargic, anorectic and icteric. ALT, AST and bilirubin concentrations had increased significantly. At necropsy the liver had a prominent lobular pattern; histopathology revealed severe periportal hepatitis and splenic necrosis. Systemically administered ALA induces PpIX production, but toxicity may preclude its clinical application in the cat. PpIX levels seem to be more time dependent than those dependent at these three ALA doses and they are well beyond the saturation point for adequate PpIX conversion. The literature is scant regarding toxicity associated with parenteral administration of ALA.

  12. Hardware and Programmatic Progress on the Ares I-X Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.

    2008-01-01

    In less than two years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will execute the Ares I-X mission. This will be the first flight of the Ares I crew launch vehicle; which, together with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle (Figure 1), will eventually send humans to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. As the countdown to this first Ares mission continues, personnel from across the Ares I-X Mission Management Office (MMO) are finalizing designs and, in some cases, already fabricating vehicle hardware in preparation for an April 2009 launch. This paper will discuss the hardware and programmatic progress of the Ares I-X mission.

  13. Fixing human factor IX (fIX): correction of a cryptic RNA splice enables the production of biologically active fIX in the mammary gland of transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Yull, F; Harold, G; Wallace, R; Cowper, A; Percy, J; Cottingham, I; Clark, A J

    1995-01-01

    Transgenic mice and sheep secrete only low levels of human factor IX in their milk because of an aberrant splicing of the transgene RNA in the mammary gland. Removal of the cryptic 3' splice site prevents this splicing and leads to the production of relatively high levels of factor IX. The purified protein is fully active showing that the mammary gland is capable of the efficient post-translational modification of this protein and that transgenic animals are a suitable means of its production. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7479906

  14. RXTE Observation of Cygnus X-1. 1; Spectral Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dove, James B.; Wilms, Joern; Nowak, Michael A.; Vaughan, Brian A.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of the analysis of the broad-band spectrum of Cygnus X-1 from 3.0 to 200 keV, using data from a 10 ksec observation by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. The spectrum can be well described phenomenologically by an exponentially cut-off power law with a photon index Gamma = 1.45(+0.01 -0.02) (a value considerably harder 0.02 than typically found), e-folding energy E(sub f) = 162(+9 -8) keV, plus a deviation from a power law that formally can be modeled as a thermal blackbody with temperature kT(sub bb) = 1.2(+0.0 -0.1) keV. Although the 3-30 keV portion of the spectrum can be fit with a reflected power law with Gamma = 1.81 + or - 0.01 and covering fraction f = 0.35 + or - 0.02, the quality of the fit is significantly reduced when the HEXTE data in the 30-100 keV range is included, as there is no observed hardening in the power law within this energy range. As a physical description of this system, we apply the accretion disc corona models of Dove, Wilms & Begelman (1997a) - where the temperature of the corona is determined self-consistently. A spherical corona with a total optical depth pi = 1.6 + or - 0.1 and an average temperature kT(sub c) = 87 + or - 5 keV, surrounded by an exterior cold disc, does provide a good description of the data (X(exp 2 sub red) = 1.55). These models deviate from red the data by up to 7% in the 5 - 10 keV range, and we discuss possible reasons for these discrepancies. However, considering bow successfully the spherical corona reproduces the 10 - 200 keV data, such "pboton-starved" coronal geometries seem very promising for explaining the accretion processes of Cygnus X-1.

  15. SUPERORBITAL PHASE-RESOLVED ANALYSIS OF SMC X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Chin-Ping; Chou, Yi; Yang, Ting-Chang; Su, Yi-Hao E-mail: yichou@astro.ncu.edu.tw

    2013-08-10

    The high-mass X-ray binary SMC X-1 is an eclipsing binary with an orbital period of 3.89 days. This system exhibits a superorbital modulation with a period varying between {approx}40 days and {approx}65 days. The instantaneous frequency and the corresponding phase of the superorbital modulation can be obtained by a recently developed time-frequency analysis technique, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT). We present a phase-resolved analysis of both the spectra and the orbital profiles with the superorbital phase derived from the HHT. The X-ray spectra observed by the Proportional Counter Array on board the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer are fitted well by a blackbody plus a Comptonized component. The plasma optical depth, which is a good indicator of the distribution of material along the line of sight, is significantly anti-correlated with the flux detected at 2.5-25 keV. However, the relationship between the plasma optical depth and the equivalent width of the iron line is not monotonic. There is no significant correlation for fluxes higher than {approx}35 mCrab but clear positive correlation when the intensity is lower than {approx}20 mCrab. This indicates that the iron line production is dominated by different regions of this binary system in different superorbital phases. To study the dependence of the orbital profile on the superorbital phase, we obtained the eclipse profiles by folding the All Sky Monitor light curve with the orbital period for different superorbital states. A dip feature, similar to the pre-eclipse dip in Her X-1, lying at orbital phase {approx}0.6-0.85, was discovered during the superorbital transition state. This indicates that the accretion disk has a bulge that absorbs considerable X-ray emission in the stream-disk interaction region. The dip width is anti-correlated with the flux, and this relation can be interpreted by the precessing tilted accretion disk scenario.

  16. Quasi-Periodic Variability in NGC 5408 X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Winter, Lisa; Soria, Roberto; Uttley, Phil; Cropper, Mark

    2007-01-01

    We report the discovery with XMM-Newton of quasiperiodic variability in the 0.2 - 10 keV X-ray flux from the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5408 X-1. The average power spectrum of all EPIC-pn data reveals a strong 20 mHz QPO with an average amplitude (rms) of 9%, and a coherence, Q identical with nu(sub 0)/sigma approximately equal to 6. In a 33 ksec time interval when the 20 mHz QPO is strongest we also find evidence for a 2nd QPO peak at 15 mHz, the first indication for a close pair of QPOs in a ULX source. Interestingly, the frequency ratio of this QPO pair is inconsistent with 3:2 at the 3 sigma level, but is consistent with a 4:3 ratio. A powerlaw noise component with slope near 1.5 is also present below 0.1 Hz with evidence for a break to a flatter slope at about 3 mHz. The source shows substantial broadband variability, with a total amplitude (rms) of about 30% in the 0.1 - 100 mHz frequency band, and there is strong energy dependence to the variability. The power spectrum of hard X-ray photons (greater than 2 keV) shows a "classic" flat-topped continuum breaking to a power law with index 1.5 - 2. Both the break and 20 mHz QPO are detected in the hard band, and the 20 mHz QPO is essentially at the break. The QPO is both strong and narrow in this band, having an amplitude (rms) of 15%, and Q approx. equal to 25. The energy spectrum is well fit by three components, a "cool" disk with kT = 0.15 keV, a steep power law with index 2.56, and a thermal plasma at kT = 0.87 keV. The disk, power law, and thermal plasma components contribute 35, 60, and 5% of the 0.3 - 10 keV flux, respectively. Both the timing and spectral properties of NGC 5408 X-1 are strikingly reminiscent of Galactic black hole systems at high inferred accretion rates, but with its characteristic frequencies (QPO and break frequencies) scaled down by a factor of 10 - 100. We discuss the implications of these findings in the context of models for ULXs, and their implications for the object's mass.

  17. Infrared CO line for the X 1 Sigma(+) state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goorvitch, D.

    1994-01-01

    A complete line list with improved accuracy for all the rotation-vibration transitions of the fundamental, first, and second overtone bands up to v = 20 and J = 149 of the gradual state X 1 Sigma(+) of the seven CO isotopes -- (12)C(16)O, (13)C(16)O, (12)C(17)O, (12)C(18)O, (13)C(18)O, (14)C(16)O, and (13)c(17)O -- is made available to the astronomical community. A line list of the pure rotational transitions up to v = 5 and J = 60 is also made available for these seven isotopes. This line list contains the transition frequency, the lower state energy, the Einstein A-value, the g f-value, the transition strength at 3000 K or 1000 K for the pure rotational transitions, the expectation value of the effective dipole moment operator, and the quantum numbers of each transition. Individual partition functions are reported in the temperature range of 500 to 10,000 K. This line list is available as four text files from the author using an anonymous file transfer protocol (ftp) transfer and in computer-readable form in the AAS CD-ROM Series, Vol. 3.

  18. RXTE Observation of Cygnus X-1: Spectra and Timing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilms, J.; Dove, J.; Nowak, M.; Vaughan, B. A.

    1997-01-01

    We present first results from the analysis of an RXTE observation of Cyg X-1 in its low state, taken about two months after the end of the high state. With Gamma approx. equal to 1.45 the spectrum is considerably harder than previous low-state measurements. The observed spectrum can be explained by a Comptonization spectrum as that emitted from a spherical corona surrounded by a cold accretion disk. The optical depth of the corona is between 2 and 2.5 and the temperature is between 60 and 80 keV. Temporal analysis shows a typical Root Mean Square (RMS) noise of approximately 25%. The Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) can be described as consisting of a flat component followed by an 1/f power-law, followed by an f(sup -1.6) power-law. The lag of the hard photons with respect to the soft photons is consistent with prior observations. The coherence function is remarkably close to unity from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz.

  19. FUSE observations of a full orbit of Scorpius X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Boroson, Bram; Vrtilek, Saeqa Dil; Raymond, John E-mail: svrtilek@cfa.harvard.edu

    2014-09-20

    We obtained UV spectra of X-ray binary Scorpius X-1 in the 900-1200 Å range with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer over the full 0.79 day binary orbit. The strongest emission lines are the doublet of O VI at 1032,1038 Å and the C III complex at 1175 Å. The spectrum is affected by a multitude of narrow interstellar absorption lines, both atomic and molecular. Examination of line variability and Doppler tomograms suggests emission from both the neighborhood of the donor star and the accretion disk. Models of turbulence and Doppler broadened Keplerian disk lines Doppler shifted with the orbit of the neutron star added to narrow Gaussian emission lines with undetermined Doppler shift fit the data with consistent values of disk radius, inclination, and radial line brightness profile. The Doppler shift of the narrow component with the orbit suggests an association with the donor star. We test our line models with previously analyzed near UV spectra obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph and archival spectra obtained with the HST Cosmic Origins Spectrograph.

  20. Hard X-ray spectrum of Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolan, P. L.; Gruber, D. E.; Knight, F. K.; Matteson, J. L.; Rothschild, R. E.; Marshall, F. E.; Levine, A. M.; Primini, F. A.

    1981-01-01

    Long-term measurements of the hard X-ray spectrum from 3 keV to 8 MeV of the black-hole candidate Cygnus X-1 in its low state are reported. Observations were made from October 26 to November 18, 1977 with the A2 (Cosmic X-ray) and A4 (Hard X-ray and Low-Energy Gamma-Ray) experiments on board HEAO 1 in the spacecraft's scanning mode. The measured spectrum below 200 keV is found to agree well with previous spectra which have been fit by a model of the Compton scattering of optical or UV photons in a very hot plasma of electron temperature 32.4 keV and optical depth 3.9 or 1.6 for spherical or disk geometry, respectively. At energies above 300 keV, however, flux excess is observed which may be accounted for by a distribution of electron temperatures from 15 to about 100 keV.

  1. The Lukewarm Absorber in the Microquasar Cir X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Norbert S.; Galloway, D. K.; Brandt, W. N.

    2006-09-01

    Through many observations in the last decades the extreme and violent X-ray binary Cir X-1 has been classified as a microquasar, Z-source, X-ray burster, and accreting neutron star exhibiting ultrarelativistic jets. Since the launch of Chandra the source underwent a dramatic change from a high flux (1.5 Crab) source to a rather low persistent flux ( 30 mCrab) in the last year. Spectra from Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) taken during this transformation have revealed many details besides the large overall flux change ranging from blue-shifted absorption lines indicating high-velocity (< 2000 km/s) outflows during high flux, persistently bright lines emission throughout all phases to some form of warm absorption in the low flux phase. Newly released atomic data allows us to analyse specifically the Fe K line region with unprecedented detail for all flux phases observed so far. We also compare these new results with recently released findings of warm absorbers and outflow signatures observed in other microqasars such as GX 339+4, GRS J1655-40, and GRS1915+115.

  2. Analysis of cell line variation in biochemical production of protoporphyrin IX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Summer L.; Chen, Bin; O'Hara, Julia A.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2006-02-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is produced via the heme synthesis pathway by the cell following administration of aminolevulinic acid (ALA). ALA synthase, the enzyme that produces ALA in the cell from glycine and succinyl-coenzyme A, is inhibited in a feedback mechanism by heme and thus is the rate limiting enzyme in the heme synthesis pathway. Since ALA is administered systemically, the rate limiting step that naturally exists in the cells is bypassed, however it is currently unclear why cells have different rate limiting steps in the ALA-PpIX synthesis pathway, and more specifically which types of cancer cells are most productive. It has been determined that when the same amount of ALA is administered to a wide panel of cancer cells in vitro that vastly differing amounts of PpIX are produced. The steps for the ALA-PpIX pathway occur in and around the mitochondria of the cell, but interestingly no correlation is seen between PpIX production and mitochondrial content of the cell, following ALA administration. However, total cell area shows positive correlation with PpIX production. Administration of the iron chelator, 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-4-pyridone (L1) in combination with ALA allows the final step in the heme synthesis pathway, conversion of PpIX to heme, to be delayed and thus increases the detectable amount of PpIX in each cell line. The cell lines that have the lowest PpIX production following administration of ALA alone show the largest increase in production following the combined administration of ALA and L1. PpIX fluorescence is thought to be a measure of cellular activity and the goal of the current study was to determine which cell lines would be the most promising targets for fluorescence detection or monitoring response to therapy. The results indicate that the cells with larger size and larger numbers of mitochondria may be good potential targets for this therapy. While this conclusion may appear obvious, it is not universally true, and cellular specific

  3. Absorption dips at low X-ray energies in Cygnus X-1. [observed with Copernicus satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murdin, P. G.

    1976-01-01

    Absorbing material in Cygnus X-1 jitters near the line joining the two stars, out of the orbital plane is described. Three looks with the Copernicus satellite at Cygnus X-1 have produced four examples of absorption dips (decreases in the 2 to 7 keV flux from Cygnus X-1 with an increase of spectral hardness consistent with photoelectric absorption).

  4. 46 CFR 57.02-2 - Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. 57.02-2 Section 57.02-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING WELDING AND BRAZING General Requirements § 57.02-2 Adoption of section IX of the ASME Code. (a) The qualifications for all types of welders and brazers,...

  5. Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle Similitude to the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Smith, R. Marshall; Campbell, John R., Jr.; Taylor, Terry L.

    2008-01-01

    The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle is the first in a series of flight test vehicles that will take the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle design from development to operational capability. The test flight is scheduled for April 2009, relatively early in the Ares I design process so that data obtained from the flight can impact the design of Ares I before its Critical Design Review. Because of the short time frame (relative to new launch vehicle development) before the Ares I-X flight, decisions about the flight test vehicle design had to be made in order to complete analysis and testing in time to manufacture the Ares I-X vehicle hardware elements. This paper describes the similarities and differences between the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle and the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle. Areas of comparison include the outer mold line geometry, aerosciences, trajectory, structural modes, flight control architecture, separation sequence, and relevant element differences. Most of the outer mold line differences present between Ares I and Ares I-X are minor and will not have a significant effect on overall vehicle performance. The most significant impacts are related to the geometric differences in Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle at the forward end of the stack. These physical differences will cause differences in the flow physics in these areas. Even with these differences, the Ares I-X flight test is poised to meet all five primary objectives and six secondary objectives. Knowledge of what the Ares I-X flight test will provide in similitude to Ares I as well as what the test will not provide is important in the continued execution of the Ares I-X mission leading to its flight and the continued design and development of Ares I.

  6. Signaling-mediated cooperativity between glycoprotein Ib-IX and protease-activated receptors in thrombin-induced platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Estevez, Brian; Kim, Kyungho; Delaney, M Keegan; Stojanovic-Terpo, Aleksandra; Shen, Bo; Ruan, Changgeng; Cho, Jaehyung; Ruggeri, Zaverio M; Du, Xiaoping

    2016-02-01

    Thrombin-induced cellular response in platelets not only requires protease-activated receptors (PARs), but also involves another thrombin receptor, the glycoprotein Ib-IX complex (GPIb-IX). It remains controversial how thrombin binding to GPIb-IX stimulates platelet responses. It was proposed that GPIb-IX serves as a dock that facilitates thrombin cleavage of protease-activated receptors, but there are also reports suggesting that thrombin binding to GPIb-IX induces platelet activation independent of PARs. Here we show that GPIb is neither a passive thrombin dock nor a PAR-independent signaling receptor. We demonstrate a novel signaling-mediated cooperativity between PARs and GPIb-IX. Low-dose thrombin-induced PAR-dependent cell responses require the cooperativity of GPIb-IX signaling, and conversely, thrombin-induced GPIb-IX signaling requires cooperativity of PARs. This mutually dependent cooperativity requires a GPIb-IX-specific 14-3-3-Rac1-LIMK1 signaling pathway, and activation of this pathway also requires PAR signaling. The cooperativity between GPIb-IX signaling and PAR signaling thus drives platelet activation at low concentrations of thrombin, which are important for in vivo thrombosis. PMID:26585954

  7. Comparative effectiveness of clinically used light sources for cutaneous protoporphyrin IX-based photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Sayre, Robert M; Dowdy, John C; Gottschalk, Ronald W

    2011-04-01

    This report documents the optical characteristics of a number of photodynamic therapy (PDT) light sources of varied types, measured and indexed relative to estimated effectiveness for activation of the PDT chromaphore protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). PDT sources in use at several clinics, including intense pulsed light (IPL) sources, lasers, and continuous wave (CW) light sources, were spectroradiometrically measured and indexed relative to their overlap to an absorption spectrum of PpIX. The sources were highly disparate, varying in power from irradiance in the mW/cm(2) range for the CW sources up to ∼30 J/cm(2) per flash for the IPL sources. Our PpIX Index ranged by a factor of nearly 100 (0.008-0.630) in estimated PpIX PDT effectiveness following the distinct spectral characteristics of the light sources surveyed. Application of this PpIX Index, tempered with an understanding of the biology of the lesion being treated and effective spectrum of the light source reaching the lesion requiring therapy, provides a rational algorithm to approximate equivalent light doses prior to clinical protocols to establish equivalent patient outcomes employing alternative PDT light sources. PMID:21401379

  8. New selective carbonic anhydrase IX inhibitors: synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of diarylpyrazole-benzenesulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Rogez-Florent, Tiphaine; Meignan, Samuel; Foulon, Catherine; Six, Perrine; Gros, Abigaëlle; Bal-Mahieu, Christine; Supuran, Claudiu T; Scozzafava, Andrea; Frédérick, Raphaël; Masereel, Bernard; Depreux, Patrick; Lansiaux, Amélie; Goossens, Jean-François; Gluszok, Sébastien; Goossens, Laurence

    2013-03-15

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX expression is increased upon hypoxia and has been proposed as a therapeutic target since it has been associated with poor prognosis, tumor progression and pH regulation. We report the synthesis and the pharmacological evaluation of a new class of human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) inhibitors, 4-(5-aryl-2-hydroxymethyl-pyrazol-1-yl)-benzenesulfonamides. A molecular modeling study was conducted in order to simulate the binding mode of this new family of enzyme inhibitors within the active site of hCA IX. Pharmacological studies revealed high hCA IX inhibitory potency in the parameters nanomolar range. This study showed that the position of sulfonamide group in meta of the 1-phenylpyrazole increase a selectivity hCA IX versus hCA II of our compounds. An in vitro antiproliferative screening has been performed on the breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell using doxorubicin as cytotoxic agent and in presence of selected CA IX inhibitor. The results shown that the cytotoxic efficiency of doxorubicin in an hypoxic environment, expressed in IC50 value, is restored at 20% level with 1μM CA IX inhibitor. PMID:23168081

  9. A Perspective on Development Flight Instrumentation and Flight Test Analysis Plans for Ares I-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Richards, James S.; Brunty, Joseph A.; Smith, R. Marshall; Trombetta, Dominic R.

    2009-01-01

    NASA. s Constellation Program will take a significant step toward completion of the Ares I crew launch vehicle with the flight test of Ares I-X and completion of the Ares I-X post-flight evaluation. The Ares I-X flight test vehicle is an ascent development flight test that will acquire flight data early enough to impact the design and development of the Ares I. As the primary customer for flight data from the Ares I-X mission, Ares I has been the major driver in the definition of the Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI). This paper focuses on the DFI development process and the plans for post-flight evaluation of the resulting data to impact the Ares I design. Efforts for determining the DFI for Ares I-X began in the fall of 2005, and significant effort to refine and implement the Ares I-X DFI has been expended since that time. This paper will present a perspective in the development and implementation of the DFI. Emphasis will be placed on the process by which the list was established and changes were made to that list due to imposed constraints. The paper will also discuss the plans for the analysis of the DFI data following the flight and a summary of flight evaluation tasks to be performed in support of tools and models validation for design and development.

  10. Identification of a juxtamembrane mechanosensitive domain in the platelet mechanosensor glycoprotein Ib-IX complex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Deng, Wei; Zhou, Liang; Xu, Yan; Yang, Wenjun; Liang, Xin; Wang, Yizhen; Kulman, John D; Zhang, X Frank; Li, Renhao

    2015-01-15

    How glycoprotein (GP)Ib-IX complex on the platelet surface senses the blood flow through its binding to the plasma protein von Willebrand factor (VWF) and transmits a signal into the platelet remains unclear. Here we show that optical tweezer-controlled pulling of the A1 domain of VWF (VWF-A1) on GPIb-IX captured by its cytoplasmic domain induced unfolding of a hitherto unidentified structural domain before the dissociation of VWF-A1 from GPIb-IX. Additional studies using recombinant proteins and mutant complexes confirmed its existence in GPIb-IX and enabled localization of this quasi-stable mechanosensitive domain of ∼60 residues between the macroglycopeptide region and the transmembrane helix of the GPIbα subunit. These results suggest that VWF-mediated pulling under fluid shear induces unfolding of the mechanosensitive domain in GPIb-IX, which may possibly contribute to platelet mechanosensing and/or shear resistance of VWF-platelet interaction. The identification of the mechanosensitive domain in GPIb-IX has significant implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of related blood diseases. PMID:25359992

  11. The Variable Warm Absorber in Circinus X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, N. S.; Kallman, T. E.; Galloway, D. K.; Brandt, W. N.

    2008-01-01

    We observed Circinus X-1 twice during a newly reached low-flux phase near zero orbital phase using the High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) onboard Chandra. In both observations the source did not show the P Cygni lines we observed during the high-flux phases of the source in 2000 and 2001. During the prezero phase the source did not exhibit significant variability but did exhibit an emission-line spectrum rich in H- and He-like lines from high-Z elements such as Si, S, Ar, and Ca. The light curve in the postdip observation showed quiescent and flaring episodes. Only in these flaring episodes was the source luminosity significantly higher than observed during the prezero phase. We analyzed all high-resolution X-ray spectra by fitting photoionization and absorption models from the most recent version of the XSTAR code. The prezero-phase spectrum could be fully modeled with a very hot photoionized plasma with an ionization parameter of log ξ = 3.0, down from log ξ = 4.0 in the high-flux state. The ionization balances we measure from the spectra during the postzero-phase episodes are significantly different. Both episodes feature absorbers with variable high columns, ionization parameters, and luminosity. While cold absorption remains at levels quite similar to that observed in previous years, the new observations show unprecedented levels of variable warm absorption. The line emissivities also indicate that the observed low source luminosity is inconsistent with a static hot accretion disk corona (ADC), an effect that seems common to other near-edge-on ADC sources as well. We conclude that unless there exists some means of coronal heating other than X-rays, the true source luminosity is likely much higher, and we observe obscuration in analogy to the extragalactic Seyfert 2 sources. We discuss possible consequences and relate cold, lukewarm, warm, and hot absorbers to dynamic accretion scenarios.

  12. The Photoionized Accretion Disk in Her X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, L.; Schulz, N.; Nowak, M.; Marshall, H. L.; Kallman, T.

    2009-08-01

    We present an analysis of several high-resolution Chandra grating observations of the X-ray binary pulsar Her X-1. With a total exposure of 170 ks, the observations are separated by years and cover three combinations of orbital and superorbital phases. Our goal is to determine distinct properties of the photoionized emission and its dependence on phase-dependent variations of the continuum. We find that the continua can be described by a partial covering model which above 2 keV is consistent with recent results from Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer studies and at low energies is consistent with recent XMM-Newton and BeppoSAX studies. Besides a power law with fixed index, an additional thermal blackbody of 114 eV is required to fit wavelengths above 12 Å (~1 keV). We find that likely all the variability is caused by highly variable absorption columns in the range (1-3) × 1023 cm-2. Strong Fe K line fluorescence in almost all observations reveals that dense, cool material is present not only in the outer regions of the disk but interspersed throughout the disk. Most spectra show strong line emission stemming from a photoionized accretion disk corona (ADC). We model the line emission with generic thermal plasma models as well as with the photoionization code XSTAR and investigate changes of the ionization balance with orbital and superorbital phases. Most accretion disk coronal properties such as disk radii, temperatures, and plasma densities are consistent with previous findings for the low state. We find that these properties change negligibly with respect to orbital and superorbital phases. A couple of the higher energy lines exhibit emissivities that are significantly in excess of expectations from a static ADC.

  13. A study of reported factor IX use around the world.

    PubMed

    Stonebraker, J S; Bolton-Maggs, P H B; Brooker, M; Farrugia, A; Srivastava, A

    2011-05-01

    Replacement therapy has significantly improved the life expectancy and lifestyle of people with haemophilia. The objectives of this article were to study the reported factor IX (FIX) use on a country-by-country basis and address the following question: Does the reported FIX use vary by national economies? We obtained data on the reported number of international units (IUs) of FIX used for 90 countries from the Marketing Research Bureau and the World Federation of Hemophilia. Results show that the reported FIX use varies considerably across national economies, even among the wealthiest of countries.Trends suggest that the reported FIX usage increases with increasing economic capacity and has been increasing over time. Trends also suggest that consumption of FIX has been increasing at a greater rate in high income countries. Given these trends, there will likely be an overall increase in the amount of FIX concentrates used in the treatment of haemophilia B. We also found that FIX use both in terms of IUs per capita and IUs per person provide a complete picture of the level of haemophilia care within a country. Such information is critical for planning efforts of national healthcare agencies to determine realistic budget priorities and pharmaceutical manufacturers to determine adequate production levels of FIX concentrates. By improving the data collection and surveillance of FIX use for the treatment of people with haemophilia B, we can identify trends and needs of patients and highlight best treatment practices among countries. PMID:21299742

  14. Finite Element Model Calibration Approach for Ares I-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horta, Lucas G.; Reaves, Mercedes C.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Templeton, Justin D.; Lazor, Daniel R.; Gaspar, James L.; Parks, Russel A.; Bartolotta, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Ares I-X is a pathfinder vehicle concept under development by NASA to demonstrate a new class of launch vehicles. Although this vehicle is essentially a shell of what the Ares I vehicle will be, efforts are underway to model and calibrate the analytical models before its maiden flight. Work reported in this document will summarize the model calibration approach used including uncertainty quantification of vehicle responses and the use of nonconventional boundary conditions during component testing. Since finite element modeling is the primary modeling tool, the calibration process uses these models, often developed by different groups, to assess model deficiencies and to update parameters to reconcile test with predictions. Data for two major component tests and the flight vehicle are presented along with the calibration results. For calibration, sensitivity analysis is conducted using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). To reduce the computational burden associated with ANOVA calculations, response surface models are used in lieu of computationally intensive finite element solutions. From the sensitivity studies, parameter importance is assessed as a function of frequency. In addition, the work presents an approach to evaluate the probability that a parameter set exists to reconcile test with analysis. Comparisons of pre-test predictions of frequency response uncertainty bounds with measured data, results from the variance-based sensitivity analysis, and results from component test models with calibrated boundary stiffness models are all presented.

  15. Finite Element Model Calibration Approach for Area I-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horta, Lucas G.; Reaves, Mercedes C.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Templeton, Justin D.; Gaspar, James L.; Lazor, Daniel R.; Parks, Russell A.; Bartolotta, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Ares I-X is a pathfinder vehicle concept under development by NASA to demonstrate a new class of launch vehicles. Although this vehicle is essentially a shell of what the Ares I vehicle will be, efforts are underway to model and calibrate the analytical models before its maiden flight. Work reported in this document will summarize the model calibration approach used including uncertainty quantification of vehicle responses and the use of non-conventional boundary conditions during component testing. Since finite element modeling is the primary modeling tool, the calibration process uses these models, often developed by different groups, to assess model deficiencies and to update parameters to reconcile test with predictions. Data for two major component tests and the flight vehicle are presented along with the calibration results. For calibration, sensitivity analysis is conducted using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). To reduce the computational burden associated with ANOVA calculations, response surface models are used in lieu of computationally intensive finite element solutions. From the sensitivity studies, parameter importance is assessed as a function of frequency. In addition, the work presents an approach to evaluate the probability that a parameter set exists to reconcile test with analysis. Comparisons of pretest predictions of frequency response uncertainty bounds with measured data, results from the variance-based sensitivity analysis, and results from component test models with calibrated boundary stiffness models are all presented.

  16. Circulating Carbonic Anhydrase IX and Antiangiogenic Therapy in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brown-Glaberman, Ursa; Marron, Marilyn; Chalasani, Pavani; Livingston, Robert; Iannone, Maria; Specht, Jennifer; Stopeck, Alison T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a hypoxia regulated metalloenzyme integral to maintaining cellular pH. Increased CAIX expression is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer. To explore CAIX as a biomarker for breast cancer therapies, we measured plasma CAIX levels in healthy control subjects and in breast cancer patients. Methods. In control subjects we evaluated plasma CAIX stability via commercially available ELISA. We then similarly quantified plasma CAIX levels in (1) locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) patients treated with neoadjuvant paclitaxel + sunitinib (T + S) followed by doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC); (2) metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients treated with systemic chemotherapy. Results. Plasma CAIX levels were stable at room temperature for at least 48 hours in control subjects. Mean baseline plasma CAIX levels were lower in controls compared to patients with LABC or MBC. In LABC, CAIX levels rose significantly in response to administration of antiangiogenic therapy (T + S) (p = 0.02) but not AC (p = 0.37). In patients with MBC treated without an antiangiogenic agent CAIX levels did not change with therapy. Conclusions. Our results suggest that CAIX may be an easily obtained, stable measure of tumor associated hypoxia as well as a useful pharmacodynamic biomarker for antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:26941473

  17. Thermal Model Development for Ares I-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.; DelCorso, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Thermal analysis for the Ares I-X vehicle has involved extensive thermal model integration, since thermal models of vehicle elements came from several different NASA and industry organizations. Many valuable lessons were learned in terms of model integration and validation. Modeling practices such as submodel, analysis group and symbol naming were standardized to facilitate the later model integration. Upfront coordination of coordinate systems, timelines, units, symbols and case scenarios was very helpful in minimizing integration rework. A process for model integration was developed that included pre-integration runs and basic checks of both models, and a step-by-step process to efficiently integrate one model into another. Extensive use of model logic was used to create scenarios and timelines for avionics and air flow activation. Efficient methods of model restart between case scenarios were developed. Standardization of software version and even compiler version between organizations was found to be essential. An automated method for applying aeroheating to the full integrated vehicle model, including submodels developed by other organizations, was developed.

  18. Recombinant Human Factor IX Produced from Transgenic Porcine Milk

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Meng-Hwan; Lin, Yin-Shen; Tu, Ching-Fu; Yen, Chon-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Production of biopharmaceuticals from transgenic animal milk is a cost-effective method for highly complex proteins that cannot be efficiently produced using conventional systems such as microorganisms or animal cells. Yields of recombinant human factor IX (rhFIX) produced from transgenic porcine milk under the control of the bovine α-lactalbumin promoter reached 0.25 mg/mL. The rhFIX protein was purified from transgenic porcine milk using a three-column purification scheme after a precipitation step to remove casein. The purified protein had high specific activity and a low ratio of the active form (FIXa). The purified rhFIX had 11.9 γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues/mol protein, which approached full occupancy of the 12 potential sites in the Gla domain. The rhFIX was shown to have a higher isoelectric point and lower sialic acid content than plasma-derived FIX (pdFIX). The rhFIX had the same N-glycosylation sites and phosphorylation sites as pdFIX, but had a higher specific activity. These results suggest that rhFIX produced from porcine milk is physiologically active and they support the use of transgenic animals as bioreactors for industrial scale production in milk. PMID:24955355

  19. Ares I-X In-Flight Modal Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartkowicz, Theodore J.; James, George H., III

    2011-01-01

    Operational modal analysis is a procedure that allows the extraction of modal parameters of a structure in its operating environment. It is based on the idealized premise that input to the structure is white noise. In some cases, when free decay responses are corrupted by unmeasured random disturbances, the response data can be processed into cross-correlation functions that approximate free decay responses. Modal parameters can be computed from these functions by time domain identification methods such as the Eigenvalue Realization Algorithm (ERA). The extracted modal parameters have the same characteristics as impulse response functions of the original system. Operational modal analysis is performed on Ares I-X in-flight data. Since the dynamic system is not stationary due to propellant mass loss, modal identification is only possible by analyzing the system as a series of linearized models over short periods of time via a sliding time-window of short time intervals. A time-domain zooming technique was also employed to enhance the modal parameter extraction. Results of this study demonstrate that free-decay time domain modal identification methods can be successfully employed for in-flight launch vehicle modal extraction.

  20. Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence for enhanced photodynamic diagnosis and photodynamic therapy in murine models of skin and breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollakanti, Kishore Reddy

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is a photosensitizing agent derived from aminolevulinic acid. PpIX accumulates specifically within target cancer cells, where it fluoresces and produces cytotoxic reactive oxygen species. Our aims were to employ PpIX fluorescence to detect squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin (Photodynamic diagnosis, PDD), and to improve treatment efficacy (Photodynamic therapy, PDT) for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and cutaneous breast cancer. Hyperspectral imaging and a spectrometer based dosimeter system were used to detect very early SCC in UVB-irradiated murine skin, using PpIX fluorescence. Regarding PDT, we showed that low non-toxic doses of vitamin D, given before ALA application, increase tumor specific PpIX accumulation and sensitize BCC and breast cancer cells to ALA-PDT. These optical imaging methods and the combination therapy regimen (vitamin D and ALA-PDT) are promising tools for effective management of skin and breast cancer.

  1. Subsurface PpIX imaging in vivo with ultrasound-guided tomographic spectroscopy: reconstruction vs. born-normalized data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Brendan P.; D'Souza, Alisha V.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Maytin, Edward; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-03-01

    Aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX)-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective treatment for skin cancers including basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Topically applied ALA promotes PpIX production preferentially in tumors, and many strategies have been developed to increase PpIX distribution and PDT treatment efficacy at depths > 1mm is not fully understood. While surface imaging techniques provide useful diagnosis, dosimetry, and efficacy information for superficial tumors, these methods cannot interrogate deeper tumors to provide in situ insight into spatial PpIX distributions. We have developed an ultrasound-guided, white-light-informed, tomographics spectroscopy system for the spatial measurement of subsurface PpIX. Detailed imaging system specifications, methodology, and optical-phantom-based characterization will be presented separately. Here we evaluate preliminary in vivo results using both full tomographic reconstruction and by plotting individual tomographic source-detector pair data against US images.

  2. Radio observations of comet C/2012 X1 LINEAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovell, A.; Howell, E.

    2014-07-01

    We obtained radio OH spectra of comet C/2012 X1 LINEAR between 03 November 2013 and 13 January 2014 with the 305-m Gordon Telescope at Arecibo Observatory. Spectra at 1667 and 1665 MHz (18-cm wavelength) were obtained with an on-sky beam size of 2.9' and spectral resolution of 0.1 km s^{-1}, on most occasions mapping 7 positions of the OH coma within 4' of the nucleus. The observation range spans heliocentric distances from 2.2 au down to 1.7 au pre-perihelion, and geocentric distances ranging from 2.8-2.2 au, yielding a resolution of 300-400,000 km at the comet. Radio OH spectra are seen via a λ-doublet, with the excitation of the lines depending on the heliocentric velocity of the comet, changing the relative velocity of the cometary gas with respect to the UV spectrum of the Sun. We interpret the spectra via a vectorial Monte Carlo model, taking into account the OH inversion predictions of Despois et al. [1] as well as Schleicher & A'Hearn [2]. In highly productive comets, larger coma densities thermalize the line excitation, reducing the observed line strength near the nucleus. We treat this collisional quenching following that outlined by Schloerb [3] and Gérard [4]. Mapping observations can directly constrain the radius within which quenching is active, and thus yield a more accurate estimate of the gas production rate. Radio observations at high spectral resolution place excellent constraints on the gas outflow velocity in cometary comae. Best-fit models for these observations, processed based on spectra binned to a resolution of 0.34 km s^{-1}, yield gas outflow velocity of 0.78 ± 0.03 km s^{-1}, typical for comets outside 1 au heliocentric distance, and consistent with those of Tseng et al. [5]. Gas production rates differ by 20-30 percent for the two inversion models, but range between 2 × 10^{28} and 4 × 10^{28} mol s^{-1}, also similar to other comets observed at these heliocentric distances. We will present spectral line maps for these

  3. The Complete ``Z'' Track of Circinus X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirey, Robert E.; Bradt, Hale V.; Levine, Alan M.

    1999-05-01

    We carried out an extensive Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer campaign, in 1997 June, to study Circinus X-1 during the active portion of its 16.55 day intensity cycle. The observations spanned 10 days, including 56% coverage for 7 days, and allowed us to find time segments that clearly demonstrate continuous evolution along the horizontal, normal, and flaring branches (HB/NB/FB) of a Z-source low-mass X-ray binary. These results confirm and extend the behavior we inferred from earlier observations. Here we study the continuous evolution of the Fourier power spectra and the energy spectra around the complete hardness-intensity track. A narrow quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) peak, previously observed in the power spectra at 1.3-32 Hz, increases in frequency from 12 Hz to 25 Hz moving down a vertical extension of the horizontal branch in the hardness-intensity diagram. These horizontal branch QPOs (HBOs) occur near 30 Hz and fade in strength on the horizontal portion of the HB, while a broad peak in the power spectrum arises near 4 Hz. This peak becomes much more prominent along the normal branch and remains near 4 Hz (the normal branch QPOs, or NBOs). On the flaring branch, neither QPO is present and the power spectrum is dominated by very low frequency noise. We also found that each branch of the spectral track is associated with a specific type of evolution of the energy spectrum. We explored various models for the energy spectrum and parameterized the evolution of the spectrum in terms of a two-component model consisting of a multitemperature ``disk blackbody'' and a higher temperature (~2 keV) blackbody. We also show that an unusual line- or edgelike feature occurs at about 10 keV in energy spectra from the flaring branch and lower normal branch. This unusual feature is very similar to one seen on the FB and lower NB of the Z source GX 5-1.

  4. Title IX and Pregnancy Discrimination in Higher Education: The New Frontier.

    PubMed

    Mason, Mary Ann; Younger, Jaclyn

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy discrimination is a little known area covered by Title IX. According to the Title IX regulations, areas of prohibited discrimination include: admissions; hiring; coursework accommodations and completion; pregnancy leave policies and status protection upon return from leave; and health insurance coverage. These regulations will soon get more attention as the Obama Administration insists on Title IX dissemination and compliance in an effort to stop the leaky pipeline for women in the STEM fields. Research shows that pregnancy and childbirth are the major reasons why women drop out of research science in much greater numbers than men; this dropout is most likely to occur among graduate students and postdoctoral fellows who are in their peak childbearing years. A similar pattern of dropout can be seen in all fields, including related professional schools. Research also reveals that there are currently few established policies in higher education which adequately address pregnancy and childbirth in formal policies for students. This article will address new efforts by the United States Department of Education and the federal agencies to begin to seek compliance relating to Title IX and pregnancy discrimination in educational institutions. It will discuss the recent successful efforts of the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights in investigating and settling pregnancy discrimination claims as well as the lessons learned in private action lawsuits under Title IX. Title IX private action suits have transformed athletics for women, and more recently Title IX has been applied in sexual harassment cases. Pregnancy discrimination is now the new frontier. PMID:26793820

  5. Ares I-X Flight Test - On the Fast Track to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2008-01-01

    In less than two years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will launch the Ares I-X mission. This will be the first flight of the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which, together with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, will send humans to the Moon and beyond. Personnel from the Ares I-X Mission Management Office (MMO) are finalizing designs and fabricating vehicle hardware for an April 2009 launch. Ares I-X will be a suborbital development flight test that will gather critical data about the flight dynamics of the integrated launch vehicle stack; understand how to control its roll during flight; better characterize the severe stage separation environments that the upper stage engine will experience during future flights; and demonstrate the first stage recovery system. NASA also will modify the launch infrastructure and ground and mission operations. The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle (FTV) will incorporate flight and mockup hardware similar in mass and weight to the operational vehicle. It will be powered by a four-segment Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), which is currently in Shuttle inventory, and will include a fifth spacer segment and new forward structures to make the booster approximately the same size and weight as the five-segment SRB. The Ares I-X flight profile will closely approximate the flight conditions that the Ares I will experience through Mach 4.5, up to approximately130,OOO feet and through maximum dynamic pressure ("Max Q") of approximately 800 pounds per square foot. Data from the Ares I-X flight will support the Ares I Critical Design Review (CDR), scheduled for 2010. Work continues on Ares I-X design and hardware fabrication. All of the individual elements are undergoing CDRs, followed by an integrated vehicle CDR in March 2008. The various hardware elements are on schedule to begin deliveries to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in early September 2008.

  6. The novel CA IX inhibition antibody chKM4927 shows anti-tumor efficacy in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Ayami; Usami, Katsuaki; Shimabe, Munetake; Hasegawa, Kazumasa; Asada, Masao; Motoki, Kazuhiro; Tahara, Tomoyuki; Masuda, Kazuhiro

    2015-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is an attractive target for cancer therapy. Many anti-CA IX antibodies have been reported but few have been shown to possess inhibition activity. Furthermore, effective use of CA IX-inhibition antibodies for cancer immunotherapy has not been well-validated since data are mainly limited to in vitro assays. In this study, we established that chKM4927, an anti-CA IX chimeric antibody, recognizes CA IX and has CA IX-specific inhibition activity. ChKM4927 also retains antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity against CA IX-expressing cancer cells. Compared to controls, chKM4927 treatment (10 mg/kg) showed anti-tumor activity in the VMRC-RCW xenograft model in vivo. ChKM4927-attenuated ADCC activity showed equally effective anti-tumor activity. These results suggest that the CA IX-inhibition antibody chKM4927 has an anti-tumor effect in the VMRC-RCW xenograft model via an ADCC-independent mechanism. PMID:25862852

  7. Carnosine inhibits carbonic anhydrase IX-mediated extracellular acidosis and suppresses growth of HeLa tumor xenografts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a transmembrane enzyme that is present in many types of solid tumors. Expression of CA IX is driven predominantly by the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway and helps to maintain intracellular pH homeostasis under hypoxic conditions, resulting in acidification of the tumor microenvironment. Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is an anti-tumorigenic agent that inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the role of CA IX in carnosine-mediated antitumor activity and whether the underlying mechanism involves transcriptional and translational modulation of HIF-1α and CA IX and/or altered CA IX function. Methods The effect of carnosine was studied using two-dimensional cell monolayers of several cell lines with endogenous CA IX expression as well as Madin Darby canine kidney transfectants, three-dimensional HeLa spheroids, and an in vivo model of HeLa xenografts in nude mice. mRNA and protein expression and protein localization were analyzed by real-time PCR, western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. Cell viability was measured by a flow cytometric assay. Expression of HIF-1α and CA IX in tumors was assessed by immunohistochemical staining. Real-time measurement of pH was performed using a sensor dish reader. Binding of CA IX to specific antibodies and metabolon partners was investigated by competitive ELISA and proximity ligation assays, respectively. Results Carnosine increased the expression levels of HIF-1α and HIF targets and increased the extracellular pH, suggesting an inhibitory effect on CA IX-mediated acidosis. Moreover, carnosine significantly inhibited the growth of three-dimensional spheroids and tumor xenografts compared with untreated controls. Competitive ELISA showed that carnosine disrupted binding between CA IX and antibodies specific for its catalytic domain. This finding was supported by reduced formation of the functional metabolon of CA IX

  8. Ares I-X Roll Control System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unger, Ronald J.; Massey, Edmund C.

    2009-01-01

    Project Managers often face challenging technical, schedule and budget issues. This presentation will explore how the Ares I-X Roll Control System Integrated Product Team (IPT) mitigated challenges such as concurrent engineering requirements and environments and evolving program processes, while successfully managing an aggressive project schedule and tight budget. IPT challenges also included communications and negotiations among inter- and intra-government agencies, including the US Air Force, NASA/MSFC Propulsion Engineering, LaRC, GRC, KSC, WSTF, and the Constellation Program. In order to successfully meet these challenges it was essential that the IPT define those items that most affected the schedule critical path, define early mitigation strategies to reduce technical, schedule, and budget risks, and maintain the end-product focus of an "unmanned test flight" context for the flight hardware. The makeup of the IPT and how it would function were also important considerations. The IPT consisted of NASA/MSFC (project management, engineering, and safety/quality) and contractors (Teledyne Brown Engineering and Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne, who supplied heritage hardware experience). The early decision to have a small focused IPT working "badgelessly" across functional lines to eliminate functional stove-piping allowed for many more tasks to be done by fewer people. It also enhanced a sense of ownership of the products, while still being able to revert back to traditional roles in order to provide the required technical independence in design reviews and verification closures. This presentation will highlight several prominent issues and discuss how they were mitigated and the resulting Lessons Learned that might benefit other projects.

  9. Serotype IX, a Proposed New Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype.

    PubMed

    Slotved, Hans-Christian; Kong, Fanrong; Lambertsen, Lotte; Sauer, Susanne; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

    2007-09-01

    We identified three isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]), of human origin, which failed to react with antisera against any of the nine known GBS serotypes. Polyclonal rabbit antisera raised against these isolates and standard GBS typing sera were used in capillary precipitation and Ouchterlony tests to compare the strains with known GBS serotype reference strains. All three previously nontypeable isolates reacted with all three new antisera, producing lines of identity in the Ouchterlony test. Weak cross-reactions with antisera against several GBS serotypes were observed but were removed by absorption with corresponding antigens. The new antisera were used to test 227 GBS isolates that had been nontypeable or difficult to type using standard antisera. Of these, five reacted with the new antisera. These results suggested that all eight isolates belong to the previously unrecognized GBS serotype. They were tested by Western blotting for the Calpha and Cbeta proteins and by PCR to identify molecular serotypes and surface protein antigen genes. Two segments of the cps gene cluster (3' end of cpsE-cpsF and 5' end of cpsG, approximately 700 bp; 3' end of cpsH and 5' end of cpsM, approximately 560 bp) were sequenced. All eight isolates expressed Calpha, and seven expressing the Cbeta protein and the corresponding genes, bca and bac, respectively, were identified. They all share the same, unique partial cps sequence. These results indicate that these eight isolates represent a new S. agalactiae serotype, which we propose should be designated serotype IX. PMID:17634306

  10. Protoporphyrin IX Content Correlates with Activity of Photobleaching Herbicides

    PubMed Central

    Becerril, Jose M.; Duke, Stephen O.

    1989-01-01

    Several laboratories have demonstrated recently that photobleaching herbicides such as acifluorfen and oxadiazon cause accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), a photodynamic pigment capable of herbicidal activity. We investigated, in acifluorfen-treated tissues, the in vivo stability of PPIX, the kinetics of accumulation, and the correlation between concentration of PPIX and herbicidal damage. During a 20 hour dark period, PPIX levels rose from barely detectable concentrations to 1 to 2 nanomoles per 50 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledon discs treated with 10 micromolar acifluorfen. When placed in 500 micromoles per square meter per second PAR, PPIX levels decayed logarithmically, with an initial half-life of about 2.5 hours. PPIX levels at each time after exposure to light correlated positively with the cellular damage that occurred during the following 1 hour in both green and yellow (tentoxin-treated) cucumber cotyledon tissues. PPIX levels in discs incubated for 20 hours in darkness correlated positively with the acifluorfen concentration in which they were incubated. In cucumber, the level of herbicidal damage caused by several p-nitrodiphenyl other herbicides, a p-chlorodiphenylether herbicide, and oxadiazon correlated positively with the amount of PPIX induced to accumulate by each of the herbicide treatments. Similar results were obtained with acifluorfen-treated pigweed and velvetleaf primary leaf tissues. In cucumber, PPIX levels increased within 15 and 30 minutes after exposure of discs to 10 micromolar acifluorfen in the dark and light, respectively. These data strengthen the view that PPIX is responsible for all or a major part of the photobleaching activity of acifluorfen and related herbicides. PMID:16666869

  11. Characterization of the clotting activities of structurally different forms of activated factor IX. Enzymatic properties of normal human factor IXa alpha, factor IXa beta, and activated factor IX Chapel Hill.

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, M J; Breitkreutz, L; Trapp, H; Briet, E; Noyes, C M; Lundblad, R L; Roberts, H R

    1985-01-01

    Two structurally different forms of activated human Factor IX (Factor IXa alpha and IXa beta) have been previously reported to have essentially identical clotting activity in vitro. Although it has been shown that activated Factor IX Chapel Hill, an abnormal Factor IX isolated from the plasma of a patient with mild hemophilia B, and normal Factor IXa alpha are structurally very similar, the clotting activity of activated Factor IX Chapel Hill is much lower (approximately fivefold) than that of normal Factor IXa beta. In the present study we have prepared activated Factor IX by incubating human Factor IX with calcium and Russell's viper venom covalently bound to agarose. Fractionation of the activated Factor IX by high-performance liquid chromatography demonstrated the presence of both Factors IXa alpha and IXa beta. On the basis of active site concentration, determined by titration with antithrombin III, the clotting activities of activated Factor IX Chapel Hill and IXa alpha were similar, but both activities were less than 20% of the clotting activity of Factor IXa beta. Activated Factor IX activity was also measured in the absence of calcium, phospholipid, and Factor VIII, by determination of the rate of Factor X activation in the presence of polylysine. In the presence of polylysine, the rates of Factor X activation by activated Factor IX Chapel Hill, Factor IXa alpha, and Factor IXa beta were essentially identical. We conclude that the clotting activity of activated Factor IX Chapel Hill is reduced when compared with that of Factor IXa beta but essentially normal when compared with that of Factor IXa alpha. PMID:3871202

  12. Sco X-1 - A galactic radio source with an extragalactic radio morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geldzahler, B. J.; Corey, B. E.; Fomalont, E. B.; Hilldrup, K.

    1981-01-01

    VLA observations of radio emissions at 1465 and 4885 MHz, of Sco X-1 confirm the existence of a colinear triple structure. Evidence that the three components of Sco X-1 are physically associated is presented, including the morphology, spectrum, variability, volume emissivity and magnetic field strength. The possibility of a physical phenomenon occurring in Sco X-1 similar to that occurring in extragalactic radio sources is discussed, and two galactic sources are found having extended emission similar to that in extragalactic objects. The extended structure of Sco X-1 is also observed to be similar to that of the hot spots in luminous extragalactic sources, and a radio source 20 arcmin from Sco X-1 is found to lie nearly along the radio axis formed by the components of Sco X-1.

  13. Techniques for fluorescence detection of protoporphyrin IX in skin cancers associated with photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rollakanti, Kishore R.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Davis, Scott C.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality that uses a specific photosensitizing agent, molecular oxygen, and light of a particular wavelength to kill cells targeted by the therapy. Topically administered aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is widely used to effectively treat cancerous and precancerous skin lesions, resulting in targeted tissue damage and little to no scarring. The targeting aspect of the treatment arises from the fact that ALA is preferentially converted into protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in neoplastic cells. To monitor the amount of PpIX in tissues, techniques have been developed to measure PpIX-specific fluorescence, which provides information useful for monitoring the abundance and location of the photosensitizer before and during the illumination phase of PDT. This review summarizes the current state of these fluorescence detection techniques. Non-invasive devices are available for point measurements, or for wide-field optical imaging, to enable monitoring of PpIX in superficial tissues. To gain access to information at greater tissue depths, multi-modal techniques are being developed which combine fluorescent measurements with ultrasound or optical coherence tomography, or with microscopic techniques such as confocal or multiphoton approaches. The tools available at present, and newer devices under development, offer the promise of better enabling clinicians to inform and guide PDT treatment planning, thereby optimizing therapeutic outcomes for patients. PMID:25599015

  14. Enhanced cellular uptake of protoporphyrine IX/linolenic acid-conjugated spherical nanohybrids for photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-In; Kim, Young-Jin

    2016-06-01

    Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) has wide applications in photodynamic diagnosis and photodynamic therapy (PDT) in many human diseases. However, poor water solubility and cancer cell localization limit its direct application for PDT. We improved the water-solubility and cellular internalization of PpIX to enhance PDT efficacy by developing biocompatible PpIX/linolenic acid-conjugated polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (PPLA) nanohybrids. The resulting PPLA nanohybrids exhibited a quasi-spherical shape with a size of <200nm. (1)H NMR analysis confirmed the synthesis of PPLA. The singlet oxygen formation of PPLA nanohybrids on laser irradiation was detected by photoluminescence emission. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis displayed higher cellular internalization of PPLA compared with free PpIX. In addition, PPLA nanohybrids exhibited significantly reduced dark-toxicity and a high phototoxicity mostly because of apoptotic cell death against human gastric cancer cells. These results imply that the PPLA nanohybrid system may be applicable in PDT. PMID:26954084

  15. The Conundrum of "Warfarin Hypersensitivity": Prolonged Partial Thromboplastin Time From Factor IX Propeptide Mutation.

    PubMed

    Sekhri, Arunabh; Lisinschi, Adriana; Furqan, Muhammad; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Mukhi, Nikhil; Gupta, Ridhi; Nelson, John C

    2016-01-01

    Carboxylation of glutamic acid residues of vitamin K dependent clotting factors (II, VII, IX, and X) is essential to their biological functioning. Binding of these factors to γ-glutamyl carboxylase enzyme for carboxylation reaction is mediated by wild-type propeptide, a small sequence of amino acids that precede the actual polypeptide. Missense mutations at certain residue severely decrease the affinity of mutated propeptide for the enzyme. Such mutations are reported to occur at codon-10 of factor IX propeptide, a clinically silent metabolic event in normal conditions. However in the presence of warfarin, such mutations and resultant decrease affinity of factor IX propeptide for the enzyme that causes severe selective decrease in factor IX activity. This can potentially leads to life-threatening bleeding complications and known as one of the causes of warfarin hypersensitivity. It is imperative to recognize such cases early on to avoid additional warfarin therapy. Recurrent bleeding episodes, subtherapeutic to therapeutic range international normalized ratio values with relatively prolong partial thromboplastin time should raise the suspicion of underlying factor IX propeptide mutations. PMID:24832385

  16. White light-informed optical properties improve ultrasound-guided fluorescence tomography of photoactive protoporphyrin IX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Brendan P.; DSouza, Alisha V.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Davis, Scott C.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-04-01

    Subsurface fluorescence imaging is desirable for medical applications, including protoporphyrin-IX (PpIX)-based skin tumor diagnosis, surgical guidance, and dosimetry in photodynamic therapy. While tissue optical properties and heterogeneities make true subsurface fluorescence mapping an ill-posed problem, ultrasound-guided fluorescence-tomography (USFT) provides regional fluorescence mapping. Here USFT is implemented with spectroscopic decoupling of fluorescence signals (auto-fluorescence, PpIX, photoproducts), and white light spectroscopy-determined bulk optical properties. Segmented US images provide a priori spatial information for fluorescence reconstruction using region-based, diffuse FT. The method was tested in simulations, tissue homogeneous and inclusion phantoms, and an injected-inclusion animal model. Reconstructed fluorescence yield was linear with PpIX concentration, including the lowest concentration used, 0.025 μg/ml. White light spectroscopy informed optical properties, which improved fluorescence reconstruction accuracy compared to the use of fixed, literature-based optical properties, reduced reconstruction error and reconstructed fluorescence standard deviation by factors of 8.9 and 2.0, respectively. Recovered contrast-to-background error was 25% and 74% for inclusion phantoms without and with a 2-mm skin-like layer, respectively. Preliminary mouse-model imaging demonstrated system feasibility for subsurface fluorescence measurement in vivo. These data suggest that this implementation of USFT is capable of regional PpIX mapping in human skin tumors during photodynamic therapy, to be used in dosimetric evaluations.

  17. Molecular analysis of PinX1 in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Oh, Bong-Kyeong; Chae, Kwang Jo; Park, Chanil; Park, Young Nyun

    2004-10-01

    PinX1 is located at 8p23, a region with frequent loss of heterozygosity in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Overexpression of PinX1 is known to inhibit telomerase activity, shorten telomeres and induce crisis while its depletion increases tumorigenesis in nude mice. These results suggest that PinX1 might be critical for hepatocarcinogenesis. In this study, we assessed transcript expression of PinX1, the correlation between PinX1 mRNA level and telomere length and telomerase activity, as well as sequence alteration, in 24 HCCs and their adjacent non-HCC tissues from patients with B viral chronic hepatitis/cirrhosis. There was no significant difference between the levels of PinX1 mRNA in HCCs and those in non-HCCs. The PinX1 mRNA tended to increase as the telomere shortened in the HCCs (p=0.067, R(2)=0.166), but no correlation was found in non-HCCs. The PinX1 level revealed no significant relationship with telomerase activity in HCCs and non-HCCs. The missense mutations of PinX1, at the 254 and 265 residues, were found in 17% of the HCCs and their adjacent non-HCCs. The mutations were located in the non-conserved region and revealed no relation with PinX1 expression, telomere length and telomerase activity, suggesting that they are likely polymorphisms. Our findings suggest that PinX1 may not play a major role in hepatocarcinogenesis as a target tumor suppressor gene. PinX1, however, might be involved in the telomere length regulation of HCCs. PMID:15375513

  18. Clearance of protoporphyrin IX induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid from WiDr human colon carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Kaliszewski, Miron; Bugaj, Andrzej; Moan, Johan

    2009-06-01

    5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is the most widely practiced form of PDT in dermatology. One of the advantages of ALA-PDT is that undesirable photosensitization lasts only for 24-48 h. In order to optimize ALA-PDT it is necessary to understand the mechanisms controlling intracellular PpIX clearance (efflux and transformation into heme) in order to decrease protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) clearance rates in the early stages of its production. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors controlling the clearance of intracellular PpIX. Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to study PpIX kinetics in WiDr cells initially treated with ALA. The clearance rate of PpIX in WiDr cells was faster after application of a low concentration of ALA (0.1 mM) than after application of high concentration of ALA (1 mM). PpIX was cleared faster from cells which initially were seeded at low densities than cells seeded at higher densities. The presence of the iron chelator deferoxamine reduced the clearance rate of PpIX, while the presence of ferrous sulfate acted oppositely. The decay rate of PpIX in WiDr cells was faster at higher temperature than at lower. The ferrochelatase activity at pH 7.2 was significantly greater than that at pH 6.7. ALA concentration, application time, cell density, temperature, pH, intracellular iron content, intracellular amount and localization of PpIX are factors controlling PpIX clearance.

  19. Loop quantum cosmology of Bianchi IX: Inclusion of inverse triad corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Karami, Asieh

    2016-06-01

    We consider the loop quantization of the (diagonal) Bianchi type IX cosmological model. We explore different quantization prescriptions that extend the work of Wilson-Ewing and Singh. In particular, we study two different ways of implementing the so-called inverse triad corrections. We construct the corresponding Hamiltonian constraint operators and show that the singularity is formally resolved. We find the effective equations associated with the different quantization prescriptions, and study the relation with the isotropic k = 1 model that, classically, is contained within the Bianchi IX model. Somewhat surprisingly, we find the most natural quantization does not reduce to the k = 1 model. We use geometrically defined scalar observables to explore the physical implications of each of these theories. This is the first part in a series of papers analyzing different aspects of the Bianchi IX model, with inverse corrections, within loop quantum cosmology (LQC).

  20. Materials for Electroactive Ion-Exchange (EaIX) Separations of Pertechnetate Ion

    SciTech Connect

    Stender, Matthias; Hubler, Timothy L.; Alhoshan, Mansour; Smyrl, William H.

    2004-03-29

    Many contaminants of interest to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) exist as anions (e.g. chromate, pertechnetate and nitrate). The objective of this study is to develop Electroactive Ion-Exchange (EaIX) materials. Such materials can be used to separate pertechnetate ion from radioactive wastes located at DOE sites while limiting the amount of secondary wastes generated. We have developed a synthetic strategy to prepare vinyl-bipyridyl and -terpyridyl ligands which allow incorporation of ion-selective architectures with a polymerizable handle. Fe complexes formed with these ligands provide the working core of the electroactive polymers. The polymers can be directly used as materials for EaIX or they can be incorporated into porous composite materials that are then used for EaIX.

  1. The role of polymorphisms of genes encoding collagen IX and XI in lumbar disc disease.

    PubMed

    Janeczko, Łukasz; Janeczko, Magdalena; Chrzanowski, Robert; Zieliński, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    The intervertebral disc disease (IDD) is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders. A number of environment and anthropometric risk factors may contribute to it. The recent reports have suggested the importance of genetic factors, especially these which encode collagen types IX and XI. The allelic variants in the collagen IX genes - COL9A2 (Trp2) and COL9A3 (Trp3) have been identified as genetic risk factors for IDD, because they interfere the cross-linking between collagen types II, IX and XI and result in decreased stability of intervertebral discs. Type XI collagen is a minor component of cartilage collagen fibrils, but it is present in the annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus of intervertebral discs. Some studies have shown the association between gene COL11A1 polymorphism c.4603C>T and IDD. The frequency of 4603T allele was significantly higher in the patients with IDD than in the healthy controls. PMID:24636772

  2. Interactions between collagen IX and biglycan measured by atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.-H.; Yeh, M.-L.; Geyer, Mark; Wang, Gwo-Jaw; Huang, M.-H.; Heggeness, Michael H.; Hoeoek, Magnus; Luo, Z.-P. . E-mail: luo@bcm.tmc.edu

    2006-01-06

    The stability of the lattice-like type II collagen architecture of articular cartilage is paramount to its optimal function. Such stability not only depends on the rigidity of collagen fibrils themselves, but more importantly, on their interconnections. One known interconnection is through type IX and biglycan molecules. However, the mechanical properties of this interaction and its role in the overall stability remain unrevealed. Using atomic force microscopy, this study directly measured the mechanical strength (or the rupture force) of a single bond between collagen IX and biglycan. The results demonstrated that the rupture force of this single bond was 15 pN, which was significantly smaller than those of other known molecule interactions to date. This result suggested that type IX collagen and biglycan interaction may be the weak link in the cartilage collagen architecture, vulnerable to abnormal joint force and associated with disorders such as osteoarthritis.

  3. Separation of type IX collagen from other cartilage collagens by hydrophobic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Macek, J; Lichý, A; Tesarová, E; Adam, M

    1988-12-30

    Collagen type IX was separated from other cartilage collagens (types II and XI) by hydrophobic interaction chromatography on a 25 cm X 8 mm I.D. stainless-steel column packed with Separon HEMA 1000 Bio. The mobile phase was 0.84 M ammonium sulphate with 0.1 M potassium dihydrogenphosphate (pH 6.5). Under these conditions only collagen type IX was eluted from the column; it could be monitored with UV detection (218 nm) or selectively with fluorescence detection (excitation 330 nm, emission filter 389 nm). The method can be used for the isolation and quantitation of collagen type IX. The assay was linear in the range 0-10 micrograms, the correlation coefficient was 0.99, precision 5.5% and accuracy 13%. The detection limit was about 0.6 microgram. PMID:3246532

  4. PREFACE: The IX Mexican Workshop on Particles and Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amore, Paolo; Aranda, Alfredo; Bashir, Adnan; Mondragón, Myriam; Raya, Alfredo

    2006-05-01

    The IX Mexican Workshop on Particles and Fields was held in the beautiful city of Colima, in the South-West of Mexico, from 17-22 November 2003. The proceedings of the Workshop were delayed due to problems with a previous publisher, we are very grateful that Journal of Physics: Conference Series kindly agreed to publish the proceedings rapidly at this late stage. The Workshop aimed to cover, through invited lectures delivered by internationally known experts, the most recent developments in the field. There was also a series of short seminars as well as a poster session, which allowed the whole community to participate with their most recent research results. A special session was dedicated to awarding the Division Medal to Professor Benjamin Grinstein, from The University of California, San Diego, for his outstanding contributions to the field. This volume contains the written version of the material presented at the Workshop. The Workshop was attended by more than 100 participants, including faculty members, postdocs and graduate students. It was organized by the Particles and Fields Division of the Mexican Physical Society, and generously sponsored by several institutions: Universidad de Colima, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV), Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (Conacyt). The Local Organizing Committee was integrated by Paolo Amore, Alfredo Aranda, Carlos Moisés Hernóndez Suórez (Director of the Physics Faculty), Arturo Gonzólez Larios, Enrique Farías Martínez, and Myriam Cruz Calvario, all from the University of Colima. The members of the National Organizing Committee were Adnan Bashir (IFM-UMSHN), Jens Erler (IF-UNAM), Heriberto Castilla Valdés (CINVESTAV-U.Zacatenco), Gabriel López Castro (CINVESTAV-U.Zacatenco), Myriam Mondragón (IF-UNAM) and Luis Villaseñ or (IFM-UMSHN). We gratefully acknowledge the help given by

  5. An intraoperative spectroscopic imaging system for quantification of Protoporphyrin IX during glioma surgery (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo-Rodríguez, Leticia M.; Laurence, Audrey; Jermyn, Michael; Sheehy, Guillaume; Sibai, Mira; Petrecca, Kevin; Roberts, David W.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Wilson, Brian C.; Leblond, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Cancer tissue often remains after brain tumor resection due to the inability to detect the full extent of cancer during surgery, particularly near tumor boundaries. Commercial systems are available for intra-operative real-time aminolevulenic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence imaging. These are standard white-light neurosurgical microscopes adapted with optical components for fluorescence excitation and detection. However, these instruments lack sensitivity and specificity, which limits the ability to detect low levels of PpIX and distinguish it from tissue auto-fluorescence. Current systems also cannot provide repeatable and un-biased quantitative fluorophore concentration values because of the unknown and highly variable light attenuation by tissue. We present a highly sensitive spectroscopic fluorescence imaging system that is seamlessly integrated onto a neurosurgical microscope. Hardware and software were developed to achieve through-microscope spatially-modulated illumination for 3D profilometry and to use this information to extract tissue optical properties to correct for the effects of tissue light attenuation. This gives pixel-by-pixel quantified fluorescence values and improves detection of low PpIX concentrations. This is achieved using a high-sensitivity Electron Multiplying Charge Coupled Device (EMCCD) with a Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter (LCTF) whereby spectral bands are acquired sequentially; and a snapshot camera system with simultaneous acquisition of all bands is used for profilometry and optical property recovery. Sensitivity and specificity to PpIX is demonstrated using brain tissue phantoms and intraoperative human data acquired in an on-going clinical study using PpIX fluorescence to guide glioma resection.

  6. Glycoprotein Ib-IX-V Complex Transmits Cytoskeletal Forces That Enhance Platelet Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Feghhi, Shirin; Munday, Adam D; Tooley, Wes W; Rajsekar, Shreya; Fura, Adriane M; Kulman, John D; López, Jose A; Sniadecki, Nathan J

    2016-08-01

    Platelets bind to exposed vascular matrix at a wound site through a highly specialized surface receptor, glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX-V complex, which recognizes von Willebrand factor (VWF) in the matrix. GPIb-IX-V is a catch bond for it becomes more stable as force is applied to it. After attaching to the wound site, platelets generate cytoskeletal forces to compact and reinforce the hemostatic plug. Here, we evaluated the role of the GPIb-IX-V complex in the transmission of cytoskeletal forces. We used arrays of flexible, silicone nanoposts to measure the contractility of individual platelets on VWF. We found that a significant proportion of cytoskeletal forces were transmitted to VWF through GPIb-IX-V, an unexpected finding given the widely held notion that platelet forces are transmitted exclusively through its integrins. In particular, we found that the interaction between GPIbα and the A1 domain of VWF mediates this force transmission. We also demonstrate that the binding interaction between GPIbα and filamin A is involved in force transmission. Furthermore, our studies suggest that cytoskeletal forces acting through GPIbα are involved in maintaining platelet adhesion when external forces are absent. Thus, the GPIb-IX-V/VWF bond is able to transmit force, and uses this force to strengthen the bond through a catch-bond mechanism. This finding expands our understanding of how platelets attach to sites of vascular injury, describing a new, to the best of our knowledge, mechanism in which the catch bonds of GPIb-IX-V/VWF can be supported by internal forces produced by cytoskeletal tension. PMID:27508443

  7. Initial Assessment of the Ares I-X Launch Vehicle Upper Stage to Vibroacoustic Flight Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larko, Jeffrey M.; Hughes, William O.

    2008-01-01

    The Ares I launch vehicle will be NASA s first new launch vehicle since 1981. Currently in design, it will replace the Space Shuttle in taking astronauts to the International Space Station, and will eventually play a major role in humankind s return to the Moon and eventually to Mars. Prior to any manned flight of this vehicle, unmanned test readiness flights will be flown. The first of these readiness flights, named Ares I-X, is scheduled to be launched in April 2009. The NASA Glenn Research Center is responsible for the design, manufacture, test and analysis of the Ares I-X upper stage simulator (USS) element. As part of the design effort, the structural dynamic response of the Ares I-X launch vehicle to its vibroacoustic flight environments must be analyzed. The launch vehicle will be exposed to extremely high acoustic pressures during its lift-off and aerodynamic stages of flight. This in turn will cause high levels of random vibration on the vehicle's outer surface that will be transmitted to its interior. Critical flight equipment, such as its avionics and flight guidance components are susceptible to damage from this excitation. This study addresses the modelling, analysis and predictions from examining the structural dynamic response of the Ares I-X upper stage to its vibroacoustic excitations. A statistical energy analysis (SEA) model was used to predict the high frequency response of the vehicle at locations of interest. Key to this study was the definition of the excitation fields corresponding to lift off acoustics and the unsteady aerodynamic pressure fluctuations during flight. The predicted results will be used by the Ares I-X Project to verify the flight qualification status of the Ares I-X upper stage components.

  8. Improved Induction of Immune Tolerance to Factor IX by Hepatic AAV-8 Gene Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Mario; Nayak, Sushrusha; Hoffman, Brad E.; Terhorst, Cox; Cao, Ou

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Gene therapy for hemophilia B has been shown to result in long-term expression and immune tolerance to factor IX (F.IX) after in vivo transduction of hepatocytes with adeno-associated viral (AAV-2) vectors in experimental animals. An optimized protocol was effective in several strains of mice with a factor 9 gene deletion (F9−/−). However, immune responses against F.IX were repeatedly observed in C3H/HeJ F9−/− mice. We sought to establish a gene transfer protocol that results in sustained expression without a requirement for additional manipulation of the immune system. Compared with AAV-2, AAV-8 was more efficient in transgene expression and induction of tolerance to F.IX in three different strains of wild-type mice. At equal vector doses, AAV-8 induced transgene product-specific regulatory CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T cells at significantly higher frequency. Moreover, sustained correction of hemophilia B in C3H/HeJ F9−/− mice without antibody formation was documented in all animals treated with ≥4 × 1011 vector genomes (VG)/kg and in 80% of mice treated with 8 × 1010 VG/kg. Therefore, it is possible to develop a gene transfer protocol that reliably induces tolerance to F.IX largely independent of genetic factors. A comparison with other studies suggests that additional parameters besides plateau levels of F.IX expression contributed to the improved success rate of tolerance induction. PMID:19309290

  9. Clearance of protoporphyrin IX from mouse skin after topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid and its methyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juzenas, Petras; Sorensen, Roar; Iani, Vladimir; Moan, Johan

    1999-02-01

    The clearance of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) from the skin of hairless BALB/c mice after topical application of 5- aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and its methyl ester (ALA-Me) was investigated. Creams containing 2 or 20% of ALA or ALA-Me were topically applied on spots of approximately 1 cm2 for 12 hours. The PpIX fluorescence was detected by the means of a Perkin Elmer LS50B luminescence spectrometer equipped with a fiber-optic probe. The emission spectrum was identical with that of cell-bound PpIX. After 12 hours application of ALA and ALA-Me similar amounts of PpIX were found. After creme removal the ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence decayed with a half-life of about 20 hours (20% ALA cream). The ALA-Me-induced PpIX was faster cleared from the skin than ALA-induced PpIX, and had a half-life of about 7 hours (20% ALA-Me cream).

  10. 77 FR 34033 - American River Power IX, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ...--Hydroelectric Water Power Project (Peoria Dam Project or project) to be located at the U.S. Army Corps of... Energy Regulatory Commission American River Power IX, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, American River Power IX, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section...

  11. 78 FR 79498 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Open-IX Association

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Open-IX... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. Sec. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Open-IX... performance and common and uniform specifications for incoming and outgoing data, as well as...

  12. Human monoclonal antibodies targeting carbonic anhydrase IX for the molecular imaging of hypoxic regions in solid tumours

    PubMed Central

    Ahlskog, J K J; Schliemann, C; Mårlind, J; Qureshi, U; Ammar, A; Pedley, R B; Neri, D

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hypoxia, which is commonly observed in areas of primary tumours and of metastases, influences response to treatment. However, its characterisation has so far mainly been restricted to the ex vivo analysis of tumour sections using monoclonal antibodies specific to carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) or by pimonidazole staining, after the intravenous administration of this 2-nitroimidazole compound in experimental animal models. Methods: In this study, we describe the generation of high-affinity human monoclonal antibodies (A3 and CC7) specific to human CA IX, using phage technology. Results: These antibodies were able to stain CA IX ex vivo and to target the cognate antigen in vivo. In one of the two animal models of colorectal cancer studied (LS174T), CA IX imaging closely matched pimonidazole staining, with a preferential staining of tumour areas characterised by little vascularity and low perfusion. In contrast, in a second animal model (SW1222), distinct staining patterns were observed for pimonidazole and CA IX targeting. We observed a complementary pattern of tumour regions targeted in vivo by the clinical-stage vascular-targeting antibody L19 and the anti-CA IX antibody A3, indicating that a homogenous pattern of in vivo tumour targeting could be achieved by a combination of the two antibodies. Conclusion: The new human anti-CA IX antibodies are expected to be non-immunogenic in patients with cancer and may serve as broadly applicable reagents for the non-invasive imaging of hypoxia and for pharmacodelivery applications. PMID:19623173

  13. Achieving Gender Equity: A Basic Guide to Title IX and Gender Equity in Athletics for Colleges and Universities. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collegiate Athletic Association, Overland Park, KS.

    This guide is designed to help college athletic administrators obtain a basic and working knowledge of the Title IX Education Amendments of 1972 in order to ensure that athletics programs are in compliance with the law. Separate sections of the report cover: (1) Title IX basics, outlining the components of the amendment and offering examples of…

  14. Title IX Program Evaluation: Corresponding with FY 98 Application for Grants. Albuquerque Public Schools, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mearns, Curt

    Title IX and Johnson O'Malley services were provided to 1,495 Native American students at 10 Albuquerque (New Mexico) elementary, middle, and high schools and the Homework Center during the 1997-98 school year. The five goals of the Title IX program were to provide: (1) intervention assistance for students, in which students, parents, and staff…

  15. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity.... 268, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 268—Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural... Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” EPA Publication SW-846, as incorporated by reference in § 260.11...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix Ix to Part 268 - Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural Integrity Test (Method 1310B)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity.... 268, App. IX Appendix IX to Part 268—Extraction Procedure (EP) Toxicity Test Method and Structural... Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” EPA Publication SW-846, as incorporated by reference in § 260.11...

  17. Somatic mosaicism and female-to-female transmission in a kindred with hemophilia B (factor IX deficiency)

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.A.M.; Deugau, K.V.; Lillicrap, D.P. )

    1991-01-01

    Studies have shown that hemophilia B (Christmas disease; factor IX deficiency) results from many different mutations in the factor IX gene, of which {gt}95% are single nulceotide substitutions. This study has identified a previously unreported form of hemophilia B in a patient who was a somatic mosaic for a guanine-to-cytosine transversion at nucleotide 31,170 in the factor IX gene. This point mutation changes the codon for residue 350 in the catalytic domain of factor IX from a cysteine to a serine. The authors used differential termination of primer extension to confirm and measure the degree of mosaicism. The study shows that a varying proportion of cells from hepatic, renal, smooth muscle, and hematopoietic populations possessed normal as well as mutant factor IX sequences. These results indicate that the mutation in this patient occurred either as an uncorrected half-chromatid mutation in the female gamete or as a replication or postreplication error in the initial mitotic divisions of the zygote preceding implantation. In addition, this kindred also contains two females in successive generations who have moderately severe factor IX deficiency. The molecular pathogenesis of this latter phenomenon has been studied and seems to relate to the unaccompanied expression of the mutant factor IX gene consequent upon a second, as yet undefined, genetic event that has prevented inactivation of sequences including the mutant factor IX gene on the X chromosome inherited from the affected male.

  18. In-flight motor torque estimates for the second-stage Strypi IX launch vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Edmunds, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper documents the results of a study to determine the character of body fixed torques generated by the Anteres IIA motor, during second-stage burn of the Strypi IX launch vehicle. The Strypi IX is a two-stage spin-stabilized solid-propellant launch vehicle designed to boost a variety of payloads to reentry environment conditions. The torque estimates were determined from postflight analysis of Euler angle telemetry data. Principal axis misalignments, and thrust misalignments were also estimated. Data was analyzed from two separate launches; a Precursor and a Prime flight. 21 figs.

  19. Concurrent acquired inhibitors to factor VIII and IX, a laboratory artifact: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Doma, Saša Anžej; Hillarp, Andreas; Pajič, Tadej; Andoljšek, Dušan; Černelč, Peter; Preldžnik Zupan, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Acquired inhibitors to coagulation factors other than factor VIII are extremely rare. We describe a case of a 59-year-old woman with abnormal bleeding, diagnosed with concurrent inhibitor antibodies to factor VIII and IX by Bethesda testing. We demonstrate that anti-FVIII antibodies of a very high titre are capable of disturbing the aPTT-based Bethesda assay, resulting in falsely-positive antibodies to factor IX. The case also illustrates the usefulness of the immunological assay (ELISA) in complementing the inhibitor diagnosis. PMID:27346976

  20. Ares I-X Flight Test--The Future Begins Here

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2008-01-01

    In less than one year, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) will launch the Ares I-X mission. This will be the first flight of the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which, together with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, will send humans to the Moon and beyond. Personnel from the Ares I-X Mission Management Office (MMO) are finalizing designs and fabricating vehicle hardware for a 2009 launch. Ares I-X will be a suborbital development flight test that will gather critical data about the flight dynamics of the integrated launch vehicle stack; understand how to control its roll during flight; better characterize the severe stage separation environments that the upper stage engine will experience during future flights; and demonstrate the first stage recovery system. NASA also will modify the launch infrastructure and ground and mission operations. The Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle (FTV) will incorporate flight and mockup hardware similar in mass and weight to the operational vehicle. It will be powered by a four-segment Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), which is currently in Shuttle inventory, and will include a fifth spacer segment and new forward structures to make the booster approximately the same size and weight as the five-segment SRB. The Ares I-X flight profile will closely approximate the flight conditions that the Ares I will experience through Mach 4.5, up to approximately 130,000 feet (39,600 meters (m)) and through maximum dynamic pressure ('Max Q') of approximately 800 pounds per square foot (38.3 kilopascals (kPa)). Data from the Ares I-X flight will support the Ares I Critical Design Review (CDR), scheduled for 2010. Work continues on Ares I-X design and hardware fabrication. All of the individual elements are undergoing CDRs, followed by a two-part integrated vehicle CDR in March and July 2008. The various hardware elements are on schedule to begin deliveries to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in early September 2008. Ares I-X is the first step in

  1. Manic depressive illness not linked to factor IX region in an independent series of pedigrees.

    PubMed

    Gejman, P V; Detera-Wadleigh, S; Martinez, M M; Berrettini, W H; Goldin, L R; Gelernter, J; Hsieh, W T; Gershon, E S

    1990-12-01

    We studied seven informative kindreds segregating for manic depressive illness (MDI), consistent with X-chromosome transmission of the trait (families do not show affective disease in both a father and a son), using markers mapped to the region of Xq27-Xq28. The lod scores were consistently below -2 in the region extending from about 10 cM centromeric from the Factor IX locus (F9) to the colorblindness region. This study does not replicate previous reports of linkage of MDI to Factor IX (Xq27) and colorblindness region (Xq28) chromosomal markers in other kindreds. PMID:1980485

  2. A direct and simultaneous detection of zinc protoporphyrin IX, free protoporphyrin IX, and fluorescent heme degradation product in red blood cell hemolysates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiuying; Hirsch, Rhoda Elison

    2006-03-01

    Fluorescence emission of free protoporphyrin IX (PPIX, em. approximately 626 nm), zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZPP, em. approximately 594 nm) and fluorescent heme degradation product (FHDP, em. approximately 466 nm) are identified and simultaneously detected in mouse and human red cell hemolysates, when excited at 365 nm. A novel method is established for comparing relative FHDP, PPIX and ZPP levels in hemolysates without performing red cell porphyrin extractions. The ZPP fluorescence directly measured in hemolysates (F(365/594)) correlates with the ZPP fluorescence obtained from acetone/water extraction (R(2) = 0.9515, P < 0.0001). The relative total porphyrin (ZPP and PPIX) fluorescence obtained from direct hemolysate fluorescence measurements also correlates with red blood cell total porphyrins determined by ethyl acetate extraction (Piomelli extraction, R(2) = 0.88, P < 0.0001). These fluorescent species serves as biomarkers for alterations in Hb synthesis and Hb stability. PMID:16484045

  3. X-1-2 on ramp with pilots Robert Champine and Herb Hoover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1949-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-2 and two of the NACA pilots that flew the aircraft. The one on the viewer's left is Robert Champine with the other being Herbert Hoover. Champine made a total of 13 flights in the X-1, plus 9 in the D-558-1 and 12 in the D-558-2. Hoover made 14 flights in the X-1. On March 10, 1948, he reached Mach 1.065, becoming the first NACA pilot to fly faster than the speed of sound. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on Jan. 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946. On Oct. 14, 1947, the X-1-1, piloted by Air Force Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager, became the first aircraft

  4. Long-Term X-Ray Variability of Circinus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Tournear, D. M.; Bloom, E. D.; Focke, W. B.; Reilly, K. T.

    2003-01-01

    We present an analysis of long term X-ray monitoring observations of Circinus X-1 (Cir X-1) made with four different instruments: Vela 5B, Ariel V ASM, Ginga ASM, and RXTE ASM, over the course of more than 30 years. We use Lomb-Scargle periodograms to search for the approx. 16.5 day orbital period of Cir X-1 in each of these data sets and from this derive a new orbital ephemeris based solely on X-ray measurements, which we compare to the previous ephemerides obtained from radio observations. We also use the Phase Dispersion Minimization (PDM) technique, as well as FFT analysis, to verify the periods obtained from periodograms. We obtain dynamic periodograms (both Lomb-Scargle and PDM) of Cir X-1 during the RXTE era, showing the period evolution of Cir X-1, and also displaying some unexplained discrete jumps in the location of the peak power.

  5. Improved muscle-derived expression of human coagulation factor IX from a skeletal actin/CMV hybrid enhancer/promoter.

    PubMed

    Hagstrom, J N; Couto, L B; Scallan, C; Burton, M; McCleland, M L; Fields, P A; Arruda, V R; Herzog, R W; High, K A

    2000-04-15

    Hemophilia B is caused by the absence of functional coagulation factor IX (F.IX) and represents an important model for treatment of genetic diseases by gene therapy. Recent studies have shown that intramuscular injection of an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector into mice and hemophilia B dogs results in vector dose-dependent, long-term expression of biologically active F.IX at therapeutic levels. In this study, we demonstrate that levels of expression of approximately 300 ng/mL (6% of normal human F.IX levels) can be reached by intramuscular injection of mice using a 2- to 4-fold lower vector dose (1 x 10(11) vector genomes/mouse, injected into 4 intramuscular sites) than previously described. This was accomplished through the use of an improved expression cassette that uses the cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate early enhancer/promoter in combination with a 1.2-kilobase portion of human skeletal actin promoter. These results correlated with enhanced levels of F.IX transcript and secreted F.IX protein in transduced murine C2C12 myotubes. Systemic F.IX expression from constructs containing the CMV enhancer/promoter alone was 120 to 200 ng/mL in mice injected with 1 x 10(11) vector genomes. Muscle-specific promoters performed poorly for F.IX transgene expression in vitro and in vivo. However, the incorporation of a sequence from the alpha-skeletal actin promoter containing at least 1 muscle-specific enhancer and 1 enhancer-like element further improved muscle-derived expression of F.IX from a CMV enhancer/promoter-driven expression cassette over previously published results. These findings will allow the design of a clinical protocol for therapeutic levels of F.IX expression with lower vector doses, thus enhancing efficacy and safety of the protocol. (Blood. 2000;95:2536-2542) PMID:10753832

  6. A novel mouse PKC{delta} splice variant, PKC{delta}IX, inhibits etoposide-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jung D.; Seo, Kwang W.; Lee, Eun A.; Quang, Nguyen N.; Cho, Hong R.; Kwon, Byungsuk

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: {yields} A novel PKC{delta} isoform, named PKC{delta}IX, that lacks the C1 domain and the ATP-binding site is ubiquitously expressed. {yields} PKC{delta}IX inhibits etoposide-induced apoptosis. {yields} PKC{delta}IX may function as an endogenous dominant negative isoform for PKC{delta}. -- Abstract: Protein kinase C (PKC) {delta} plays an important role in cellular proliferation and apoptosis. The catalytic fragment of PKC{delta} generated by caspase-dependent cleavage is essential for the initiation of etoposide-induced apoptosis. In this study, we identified a novel mouse PKC{delta} isoform named PKC{delta}IX (Genebank Accession No. (HQ840432)). PKC{delta}IX is generated by alternative splicing and is ubiquitously expressed, as seen in its full-length PKC{delta}. PKC{delta}IX lacks the C1 domain, the caspase 3 cleavage site, and the ATP binding site but preserves an almost intact c-terminal catalytic domain and a nuclear localization signal (NLS). The structural characteristics of PKC{delta}IX provided a possibility that this PKC{delta} isozyme functions as a novel dominant-negative form for PKC{delta} due to its lack of the ATP-binding domain that is required for the kinase activity of PKC{delta}. Indeed, overexpression of PKC{delta}IX significantly inhibited etoposide-induced apoptosis in NIH3T3 cells. In addition, an in vitro kinase assay showed that recombinant PKC{delta}IX protein could competitively inhibit the kinase activity of PKC{delta}. We conclude that PKC{delta}IX can function as a natural dominant-negative inhibitor of PKC{delta}in vivo.

  7. Athletics and Equality: How to Comply with Title IX Without Tearing Down the Stadium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Noue, George R.

    1976-01-01

    A major source of the controversy over Title IX and athletics is the meaning of equality, which may be measured in terms of opportunities, procedures, or results. Problems with coed teams, spending, intramural sports, spectator-oriented sports, quotas, scholarship policy, and recruiting are discussed. (LBH)

  8. Decision Making in Intercollegiate Athletics: One Institution's Journey to Maintain Title IX Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, John W.

    2012-01-01

    The allocation of resources and participation opportunities in intercollegiate athletics has been a debate among researchers for nearly 40 years. Title IX and traditionally male-dominated budgeting practices continue to be opposing forces that shape the financial and gender makeup of university athletic departments. In fact, the need to be Title…

  9. 45 CFR 83.5 - Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. 83.5 Section 83.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION REGULATION FOR THE ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF SECTIONS 799A AND 845 OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT Purposes; Definitions; Coverage §...

  10. Secondary Athletic Administrators' Perceptions of Title IX Policy Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Gabriel Grawe

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate North Dakota's Normal Competitive Region (NDNCR) high school athletic administrators' perceptions of 2010 Title IX policy changes respective to their athletic programs. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected to investigate the perceptions. Quantitatively, perception data were…

  11. Einstein-Weyl field equations in a Bianchi type-IX space-time

    SciTech Connect

    Kolassis, C.A.; Le Denmat, G.

    1984-07-15

    It is proved that there exists no solution of the combined gravitational-neutrino field equations in general relativity if the space-time metric admits a group of isometries of Bianchi type IX and the neutrino field has geodesic and shearfree rays.

  12. DISTRIBUTION OF MERCURY IN USEPA REGION IX R-EMAP STUDY AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury distribution within U .S. EP A Region IX Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (R-EMAP) study units is associated with geology and land-use practices. Stream water and sediment data indicate mercury is mobilized from weathering of ore bearing rock, and ...

  13. Ares I-X Launch Vehicle Modal Test Measurements and Data Quality Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Templeton, Justin D.; Buehrle, Ralph D.; Gaspar, James L.; Parks, Russell A.; Lazor, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I-X modal test program consisted of three modal tests conducted at the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA s Kennedy Space Center. The first test was performed on the 71-foot 53,000-pound top segment of the Ares I-X launch vehicle known as Super Stack 5 and the second test was performed on the 66-foot 146,000- pound middle segment known as Super Stack 1. For these tests, two 250 lb-peak electro-dynamic shakers were used to excite bending and shell modes with the test articles resting on the floor. The third modal test was performed on the 327-foot 1,800,000-pound Ares I-X launch vehicle mounted to the Mobile Launcher Platform. The excitation for this test consisted of four 1000+ lb-peak hydraulic shakers arranged to excite the vehicle s cantilevered bending modes. Because the frequencies of interest for these modal tests ranged from 0.02 to 30 Hz, high sensitivity capacitive accelerometers were used. Excitation techniques included impact, burst random, pure random, and force controlled sine sweep. This paper provides the test details for the companion papers covering the Ares I-X finite element model calibration process. Topics to be discussed include test setups, procedures, measurements, data quality assessments, and consistency of modal parameter estimates.

  14. Title IX and Retaliation: The Impact of "Jackson v. Birmingham Board of Education" on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melear, Kerry Brian

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the United States Supreme Court rendered a closely divided opinion that extends the protections against discrimination provided by Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 to include a private cause of action for retaliation in "Jackson v. Birmingham Board of Education." Therefore, "whistleblowers," or employees who report allegedly…

  15. Flavobacterium columnare type IX secretion system mutations result in defects in gliding motility and virulence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The gliding bacterium Flavobacterium columnare causes columnaris disease in wild and aquaculture-reared freshwater fish. The mechanisms responsible for columnaris disease are not known. The related bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae uses a type IX secretion system (T9SS) to secrete enzy...

  16. Isatin-pyrazole benzenesulfonamide hybrids potently inhibit tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase isoforms IX and XII.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Hany S; Abou-Seri, Sahar M; Tanc, Muhammet; Elaasser, Mahmoud M; Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2015-10-20

    New series of benzenesulfonamide derivatives incorporating pyrazole and isatin moieties were prepared using celecoxib as lead molecule. Biological evaluation of the target compounds was performed against the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) and more precisely against the human isoforms hCA I, II (cytosolic), IX and XII (transmembrane, tumor-associated enzymes). Most of the tested compounds efficiently inhibited hCA I, II and IX, with KIs of 2.5-102 nM, being more effective than the reference drug acetazolamide. Compounds 11e, 11f, 16e and 16f were found to inhibit hCA XII with Ki of 3.7, 6.5, 5.4 and 7.2 nM, respectively. Compounds 11e and 16e, with 5-NO2 substitution on the isatin ring, were found to be selective inhibitors of hCA IX and hCA XII. Docking studies revealed that the NO2 group of both compounds participate in interactions with Asp132 within the hCA IX active site, and with residues Lys67 and Asp130 in hCA XII, respectively. PMID:26408817

  17. More than Title IX: How Equity in Education Has Shaped the Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Katherine; Guilfoy, Vivian; Pillai, Sarita

    2009-01-01

    Women in America have come a long way in the last hundred years, from lacking the right to vote to holding some of the highest profile positions in the country. But this change has not come without struggle. "More Than Title IX" highlights the impact of one of the most powerful instruments of change--education. The book takes readers behind the…

  18. Title IX, Girls' Sports Participation, and Adult Female Physical Activity and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaestner, Robert; Xu, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Arguably, the most important school-based intervention to increase physical activity was Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which led to a 600% increase in girls' sports participation between 1972 and 1978. We studied the effect of this increase in sports participation and athletic opportunities while young on the physical activity and…

  19. The Promise of Title IX: Longitudinal Study of Gender in Urban School Administration, 1972 to 2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Norma T.

    2006-01-01

    Using statistical data collected during a 30-year period, the article reports on the significant movement of females into all of the line administrative positions in the largest school districts in the country (by student population) since the passage of Title IX with one notable exception, that of superintendent. The position of superintendent…

  20. Title IX Athletics Policies: Issues and Data for Education Decision Makers. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education.

    In 2002, the U.S. Department of Education established the Commission on Opportunity in Athletics to collect information, analyze issues, and obtain public input related to improving the application of current standards for measuring equal opportunity for boys and girls to participate in athletics under Title IX. The National Coalition of Woman and…

  1. Teachers May Sue for Retaliation when They Challenge Title IX Sex Discrimination Practices in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex, Nathan L.

    2005-01-01

    In a stunning 5-4 decision, the U.S. Supreme Court has held that teachers and coaches who suffer reprisals for raising complaints regarding illegal sex discrimination against their students can sue their school districts for damages. This ruling is unprecedented with respect to Title IX enforcement and will likely alter how school officials handle…

  2. OATYC Journal, Vol. IX, Nos. 1-2, Autumn 1983-Spring 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullen, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    "OATYC Journal," which is published by the Ohio Association of Two-Year Colleges, is designed as a forum for the exchange of concepts, methods, and findings relevant to the two-year college classroom. Along with commentaries and letters of reaction from the readership, the two issues of volume IX present the following major articles: (1) "Focus:…

  3. Syntheses of protoporphyrin-IX derivatives bearing extended propionate side-chains.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Robert T; Lu, Jianming; Mwakwari, Celinah; Smith, Kevin M

    2009-05-29

    In order to investigate the relationship between depth within membranes of singlet oxygen generation and effectiveness of photodynamic therapy of tumors, analogs of protoporphyrin-IX 1 bearing five 4 and seven 5 carbon atoms (in place of the 3-carbon atom chain in 1) were synthesized from monopyrrole precursors. PMID:20161404

  4. User's Guide to Developing Student Interest Surveys Under Title IX. NCES 2005-173

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a guide for conducting a survey of student interest in order to satisfy Part 3 the Three-Part Test established in the 1979 Policy Interpretation of the intercollegiate athletic provisions of Title IX of the Higher Education Act of 1972. To lay the foundation for the guide, NISS conducted an historical…

  5. 45 CFR 83.5 - Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effect of title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. 83.5 Section 83.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION REGULATION FOR THE ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT OF SECTIONS 799A AND 845 OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE ACT Purposes; Definitions; Coverage §...

  6. Ares I-X Flight Evaluation Tasks in Support of Ares I Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huebner, Lawrence D.; Richards, James S.; Coates, Ralph H., III; Cruit, Wendy D.; Ramsey, Matthew N.

    2010-01-01

    NASA s Constellation Program successfully launched the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle on October 28, 2009. The Ares I-X flight was a development flight test that offered a unique opportunity for early engineering data to impact the design and development of the Ares I crew launch vehicle. As the primary customer for flight data from the Ares I-X mission, the Ares Projects Office established a set of 33 flight evaluation tasks to correlate fight results with prospective design assumptions and models. Included within these tasks were direct comparisons of flight data with pre-flight predictions and post-flight assessments utilizing models and modeling techniques being applied to design and develop Ares I. A discussion of the similarities and differences in those comparisons and the need for discipline-level model updates based upon those comparisons form the substance of this paper. The benefits of development flight testing were made evident by implementing these tasks that used Ares I-X data to partially validate tools and methodologies in technical disciplines that will ultimately influence the design and development of Ares I and future launch vehicles. The areas in which partial validation from the flight test was most significant included flight control system algorithms to predict liftoff clearance, ascent, and stage separation; structural models from rollout to separation; thermal models that have been updated based on these data; pyroshock attenuation; and the ability to predict complex flow fields during time-varying conditions including plume interactions.

  7. Effectiveness of CAI Package on Achievement in Physics of IX Standard Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maheswari, I. Uma; Ramakrishnan, N.

    2015-01-01

    The present study is an experimental one in nature, to find out the effectiveness of CAI package on in Physics of IX std. students. For this purpose a CAI package was developed and validated. The validated CAI package formed an independent variable of this study. The dependent variable is students' achievements in physics content. In order to find…

  8. Flourescence analysis of ALA-induced Protoporphyrin IX in psoriatic plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stringer, Mark R.; Robinson, Dominic J.; Collins, P.

    1996-01-01

    The success reported for the treatment of superficial skin carcinomas by photodynamic therapy (PDT), following topical application of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA), has therapeutic implications for the treatment of other skin disorders. This presentation describes the accumulation of the photosensitizing agent protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in areas of psoriatic plaque, by monitoring the fluorescence emission induced by low-intensity laser excitation at 488 nm. We present the results from 15 patients, with a total of 42 plaques. These results show that PpIX fluorescence increases in intensity within the 6 hour period following application of ALA, which implies there is a potential for PDT. The emission is localized to the area of ALA application and the effect of occlusion appears insignificant. Also, the rate of increase, and maximum intensity of fluorescence emission, is not directly related to the applied quantity of ALA. The variability of the fluorescence intensity is as great between plaques at different sites on the same patient as between different patients. We also present measurements of the depletion in intensity of fluorescence emission during PDT treatment, using white light, at an irradiance of 25 mW cm-2, that is a consequence of the molecular photo-oxidation of PpIX. The use of fluorescence measurements in predicting the therapeutic effect of treating plaque psoriasis by ALA-PDT is discussed.

  9. Dunham coefficients for the X1Σ+ ground state of BH and BD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayesteh, Alireza; Ghazizadeh, Ehsan

    2015-06-01

    All available spectroscopic data for the X1Σ+, A1Π and B1Σ+ states of BH and BD have been combined in a multi-isotopologue fit to obtain Dunham coefficients for the X1Σ+ ground state. With no vibration-rotation data available for BD, the only way to determine the v = 1 ← 0 interval in the X1Σ+ ground state of BD was to use the 1-1 and 1-0 bands of the B1Σ+ - X1Σ+ system. An incorrect J assignment was found in the published data of the 1-0 band of the B1Σ+ - X1Σ+ system of BD, making them inconsistent with the more accurate data from the A1Π - X1Σ+ system. With the correct J assignment, the v = 1 ← 0 interval in the X1Σ+, A1Π and B1Σ+ states of 11BD were determined to be 1690.773, 1581.095 and 1687.90 cm-1, respectively. The values listed in Huber and Herzberg's book differ from the above values by ∼2B, because they are based on an incorrect J assignment.

  10. IX Ophiuchi: A High-Velocity Star Near a Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbig, G. H.

    2005-08-01

    The molecular cloud Barnard 59 is probably an outlier of the Upper Sco/ρ Oph complex. B59 contains several T Tauri stars (TTSs), but outside its northwestern edge are three other Hα-emission objects whose nature has been unclear: IX, KK, and V359 Oph. This paper is a discussion of all three and of a nearby Be star (HD 154851), based largely on Keck HIRES spectrograms obtained in 2004. KK Oph is a close (1.6") double. The brighter component is an HAeBe star, and the fainter is a K-type TTS. The complex BVR variations of the unresolved pair require both components to be variable. V359 Oph is a conventional TTS. Thus, these pre-main-sequence stars continue to be recognizable as such well outside the boundary of their parent cloud. IX Oph is quite different. Its absorption spectrum is about type G, with many peculiarities: all lines are narrow but abnormally weak, with structures that depend on ion and excitation level and that vary in detail from month to month. It could be a spectroscopic binary of small amplitude. Hα and Hβ are the only prominent emission lines. They are broad, with variable central reversals. However, the most unusual characteristic of IX Oph is the very high (heliocentric) radial velocity: about -310 km s-1, common to all spectrograms, and very different from the radial velocity of B59, about -7 km s-1. There is no detectable Li I λ6707 line. There is reason to believe that IX Oph is actually a background object, only aligned with B59. Several conceivable interpretations are discussed: (1) It is unlikely that it is a high-velocity ejectee from the Upper Sco or Upper Cen-Lup associations (the lack of detectable λ6707 shows that it is not the product of a very recent event, and the proper motion points in the wrong direction) or that it was born in or ejected from one of the distant high-velocity CO clouds at this longitude (l=357deg). (2) A stronger possibility is that it is simply a metal-poor high-velocity G- or K-type giant (but such stars

  11. Long-term studies with the Ariel-5 asm. 1: Her X-1, Vela X-1 and Cen X-3. [periodic variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Kaluzienski, L. J.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1978-01-01

    Twelve hundred days of 3-6 keV X-ray data from Her X-1, Vela X-1 and Cen X-3 accumulated with the Ariel-5 all-sky monitor are interrogated. The binary periodicities of all three can be clearly observed, as can the approximately 35-d variation of Her X-1, for which we can refine the period to 34.875 plus or minus .030-d. No such longer-term periodicity less than 200-d is observed from Vela X-1. The 26.6-d low-state recurrence period for Cen X-3 previously suggested is not observed, but a 43.0-d candidate periodicity is found which may be consistent with the precession of an accretion disk in that system. The present results are illustrative of the long-term studies which can be performed on approximately 50 sources over a temporal base which will ultimately extend to at least 1800 days.

  12. Evidence for an approx. 300 day period in Cygnus X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Priedhorsky, W.C.; Terrell, J.; Holt, S.S.

    1983-07-01

    We present the time history of X-ray emission from Cyg X-1 over an 11 year period, with 10 day resolution. The data were obtained by experiments on the Vela 5B (1969--1979) and Ariel 5 (1974--1980) satellites. Cyg X-1 varies by approx.25% with a 294 +- 4 day period. This modulation is apparently unrelated to the known transitions between the source high and low states. Flux minima occur at 1974.05+nP. The observed period is within the possible range for the precession period of an accretion disk, or of the companion star HDE 226868, in the Cyg X-1 system.

  13. Discovery of the binary nature of SMC X-1 from Uhuru.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreier, E.; Giacconi, R.; Gursky, H.; Kellogg, E.; Tananbaum, H.

    1972-01-01

    The X-ray source in the Small Magellanic Cloud SMC X-1 was observed by Uhuru on numerous occasions from December 1970 through April 1972. As previously reported by Leong et al. (1971), the source was seen to be variable. It was found that SMC X-1 occults with a period of 3.8927 days. The energy spectrum is cut off at low energies and flat. There is no large-amplitude periodic pulsation. The luminosity observed makes the binary source SMC X-1 comparable in strength to both the stronger galactic sources and the discrete sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  14. Hierarchical coassembly of DNA–triptycene hybrid molecular building blocks and zinc protoporphyrin IX

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Rina; Singh, Sumit; Monisha, Mohan; Bhowmick, Sourav; Roy, Anindya

    2016-01-01

    Summary Herein, we describe the successful construction of composite DNA nanostructures by the self-assembly of complementary symmetrical 2,6,14-triptycenetripropiolic acid (TPA)–DNA building blocks and zinc protoporphyrin IX (Zn PpIX). DNA–organic molecule scaffolds for the composite DNA nanostructure were constructed through covalent conjugation of TPA with 5′-C12-amine-terminated modified single strand DNA (ssDNA) and its complementary strand. The repeated covalent conjugation of TPA with DNA was confirmed by using denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF). The biologically relevant photosensitizer Zn PpIX was used to direct the hybridization-mediated self-assembly of DNA–TPA molecular building blocks as well as a model guest molecule within the DNA–TPA supramolecular self-assembly. The formation of fiber-like composite DNA nanostructures was observed. Native PAGE, circular dichroism (CD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been utilized for analyzing the formation of DNA nanofibers after the coassembly. Computational methods were applied to discern the theoretical dimension of the DNA–TPA molecular building block of the nanofibers. A notable change in photocatalytic efficiency of Zn PpIX was observed when it was inside the TPA–DNA scaffold. The significant increase in ROS generation by Zn PpIX when trapped in this biocompatible DNA–TPA hybrid nanofiber may be an effective tool to explore photodynamic therapy (PDT) applications as well as photocatalytic reactions. PMID:27335759

  15. Ares I-X Flight Test Development Challenges and Success Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askins, Bruce; Davis, Steve; Olsen, Ronald; Taylor, James

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program's Ares I-X rocket launched successfully on October 28, 2009 collecting valuable data and providing risk reduction for the Ares I project. The Ares I-X mission was formulated and implemented in less than four years commencing with the Exploration Systems Architecture Study in 2005. The test configuration was founded upon assets and processes from other rocket programs including Space Shuttle, Atlas, and Peacekeeper. For example, the test vehicle's propulsion element was a Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor. The Ares I-X rocket comprised a motor assembly, mass and outer mold line simulators of the Ares I Upper Stage, Orion Spacecraft and Launch Abort System, a roll control system, avionics, and other miscellaneous components. The vehicle was 327 feet tall and weighed approximately 1,800,000 pounds. During flight the rocket reached a maximum speed of Mach 4.8 and an altitude of 150,000 feet. The vehicle demonstrated staging at 130,000 feet, tested parachutes for recovery of the motor, and utilized approximately 900 sensors for data collection. Developing a new launch system and preparing for a safe flight presented many challenges. Specific challenges included designing a system to withstand the environments, manufacturing large structures, and re-qualifying heritage hardware. These and other challenges, if not mitigated, may have resulted in test cancellation. Ares I-X succeeded because the mission was founded on carefully derived objectives, led by decisive and flexible management, implemented by an exceptionally talented and dedicated workforce, and supported by a thorough independent review team. Other major success factors include the use of proven heritage hardware, a robust System Integration Laboratory, multi-NASA center and contractor team, concurrent operations, efficient vehicle assembly, effective risk management, and decentralized element development with a centralized control board. Ares I-X was a technically complex test that

  16. CLVTOPS Liftoff and Separation Analysis Validation Using Ares I-X Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, Ben; Schwarz, Kristina; Kim, Young

    2011-01-01

    CLVTOPS is a multi-body time domain flight dynamics simulation tool developed by NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for a space launch vehicle and is based on the TREETOPS simulation tool. CLVTOPS is currently used to simulate the flight dynamics and separation/jettison events of the Ares I launch vehicle including liftoff and staging separation. In order for CLVTOPS to become an accredited tool, validation against other independent simulations and real world data is needed. The launch of the Ares I-X vehicle (first Ares I test flight) on October 28, 2009 presented a great opportunity to provide validation evidence for CLVTOPS. In order to simulate the Ares I-X flight, specific models were implemented into CLVTOPS. These models include the flight day environment, reconstructed thrust, reconstructed mass properties, aerodynamics, and the Ares I-X guidance, navigation and control models. The resulting simulation output was compared to Ares I-X flight data. During the liftoff region of flight, trajectory states from the simulation and flight data were compared. The CLVTOPS results were used to make a semi-transparent animation of the vehicle that was overlaid directly on top of the flight video to provide a qualitative measure of the agreement between the simulation and the actual flight. During ascent, the trajectory states of the vehicle were compared with flight data. For the stage separation event, the trajectory states of the two stages were compared to available flight data. Since no quantitative rotational state data for the upper stage was available, the CLVTOPS results were used to make an animation of the two stages to show a side-by-side comparison with flight video. All of the comparisons between CLVTOPS and the flight data show good agreement. This paper documents comparisons between CLVTOPS and Ares I-X flight data which serve as validation evidence for the eventual accreditation of CLVTOPS.

  17. Time Domain Tool Validation Using ARES I-X Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hough, Steven; Compton, James; Hannan, Mike; Brandon, Jay

    2011-01-01

    The ARES I-X vehicle was launched from NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on October 28, 2009 at approximately 11:30 EDT. ARES I-X was the first test flight for NASA s ARES I launch vehicle, and it was the first non-Shuttle launch vehicle designed and flown by NASA since Saturn. The ARES I-X had a 4-segment solid rocket booster (SRB) first stage and a dummy upper stage (US) to emulate the properties of the ARES I US. During ARES I-X pre-flight modeling and analysis, six (6) independent time domain simulation tools were developed and cross validated. Each tool represents an independent implementation of a common set of models and parameters in a different simulation framework and architecture. Post flight data and reconstructed models provide the means to validate a subset of the simulations against actual flight data and to assess the accuracy of pre-flight dispersion analysis. Post flight data consists of telemetered Operational Flight Instrumentation (OFI) data primarily focused on flight computer outputs and sensor measurements as well as Best Estimated Trajectory (BET) data that estimates vehicle state information from all available measurement sources. While pre-flight models were found to provide a reasonable prediction of the vehicle flight, reconstructed models were generated to better represent and simulate the ARES I-X flight. Post flight reconstructed models include: SRB propulsion model, thrust vector bias models, mass properties, base aerodynamics, and Meteorological Estimated Trajectory (wind and atmospheric data). The result of the effort is a set of independently developed, high fidelity, time-domain simulation tools that have been cross validated and validated against flight data. This paper presents the process and results of high fidelity aerospace modeling, simulation, analysis and tool validation in the time domain.

  18. Measurement and modelling of protoporphyrin IX photo-oxidation during superficial PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Dominic J.; Stringer, Mark R.; Crum, William R.; Collins, P.

    1996-12-01

    The oxidation of photosensitizers during photodynamic therapy (PDT) has important implications for their therapeutic and diagnostic potential. The reduction in sensitizer concentration during illumination progressively reduces the effectiveness of therapy and, ultimately, limits the destruction of the host tissue. In the course of our studies of the effects of PDT upon superficial skin disorders, following topical application of 5- aminolaevulinic acid (ALA), we routinely record the surface fluorescence emission of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) before, during, and after therapy, in order to monitor the sensitizer photo-oxidation. It is important, therefore, to establish that measurements made in this way are representative of the variation in sensitizer concentration throughout the illuminated volume. We have developed a time- dependent Monte-Carlo model to simulate PpIX photo-oxidation during either low intensity laser (488 nm) or white light irradiation of plaque psoriasis. We have assessed the effect of differences in the optical properties of tissue at sites on different patients prior to treatment, and the effect of these variations on the surface fluorescence signal detected during treatment, at sites within the same plaque. The results show that the PpIX fluorescence intensity recorded from plaque psoriasis is an accurate indicator of the relative concentration of the sensitizer and can be used as a direct comparison between different sites and different patients. Also, the reduction in fluorescence emission during PDT is an effective measure of the depletion in sensitizer concentration throughout the illuminated volume. These results illustrate that the light dose required to achieve significant PpIX photo-oxidation is significantly lower than that often adopted for the treatment of superficial skin conditions.

  19. Zinc protoporphyrin IX enhances chemotherapeutic response of hepatoma cells to cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang-Sui; Li, Huan-Song; Qi, Dun-Feng; Zhang, Jun; Jiang, Xin-Chun; Shi, Kui; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Xin-Hui

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of zinc protoporphyrin IX on the response of hepatoma cells to cisplatin and the possible mechanism involved. METHODS: Cytotoxicity was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Apoptosis was determined by a flow cytometric assay. Western blotting was used to measure protein expression. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 activity was measured by determining the level of bilirubin generated in isolated microsomes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored by flow cytometry. Caspase-3 activity was measured with a colorimetric assay kit. Mice were inoculated with 1 × 107 tumor cells subcutaneously into the right flanks. All mice were sacrificed 6 wk after the first treatment and tumors were weighed and measured. RESULTS: Overexpression of HO-1 in HepG2 cell line was associated with increased chemoresistance to cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin; CDDP) compared to other cell lines in vitro. Inhibition of HO-1 expression or activity by zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP IX) markedly augmented CDDP-mediated cytotoxicity towards all liver cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, induction of HO-1 with hemin increased resistance of tumor cells to CDDP-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, cells treated with ZnPP IX plus CDDP exhibited marked production of intracellular ROS and caspase-3 activity, which paralleled the incidence of cell apoptosis, whereas hemin decreased cellular ROS and caspase-3 activity induced by CDDP. CONCLUSION: ZnPP IX increases cellular sensitivity and susceptibility of liver cancer cell lines to CDDP and this may represent a mechanism of increasing ROS. PMID:25024611

  20. Expression of human factor IX in rat capillary endothelial cells: Toward somatic gene therapy for hemophilia B

    SciTech Connect

    Shounan Yao; Wilson, J.M.; Nabel, E.G.; Kurachi, Sumiko; Hachiya, H.L.; Kurachi, Kotoku )

    1991-09-15

    In aiming to develop a gene therapy approach for hemophilia B, the authors expressed and characterized human factor IX in rat capillary endothelial cells (CECs). Moloney murine leukemia virus-derived retrovirus vectors that contain human factor IX cDNA linked to heterologous promoters and the neomycin-resistant gene were constructed and employed to prepare recombinant retroviruses. Rat CECs and NIH 3T3 cells infected with these viruses were selected with the neomycin analogue, G418 sulfate, and tested for expression of factor IX. A construct with the factor IX cDNA under direct control by long terminal repeat gave the highest level of expression as quantitated by immunoassays as well as clotting activity assays. A single RNA transcript of 4.4 kilobases predicted by the construct and a recombinant factor IX were found. The recombinant human factor IX produced showed full clotting activity, demonstrating that CECs have an efficient mechanism for posttranslational modifications, including {gamma}-carboxylation, essential for its biological activity. These results, in addition to other properties of the endothelium, including large number of cells, accessibility, and direct contact with the circulating blood, suggest that CECs can serve as an efficient drug delivery vehicle producing factor IX in a somatic gene therapy for hemophilia B.

  1. Use of Cre/loxP recombination to swap cell binding motifs on the adenoviral capsid protein IX

    SciTech Connect

    Poulin, Kathy L.; Tong, Grace; Vorobyova, Olga; Pool, Madeline; Kothary, Rashmi; Parks, Robin J.

    2011-11-25

    We used Cre/loxP recombination to swap targeting ligands present on the adenoviral capsid protein IX (pIX). A loxP-flanked sequence encoding poly-lysine (pK-binds heparan sulfate proteoglycans) was engineered onto the 3'-terminus of pIX, and the resulting fusion protein allowed for routine virus propagation. Growth of this virus on Cre-expressing cells removed the pK coding sequence, generating virus that could only infect through alternative ligands, such as a tyrosine kinase receptor A (TrkA)-binding motif engineered into the capsid fibre protein for enhanced infection of neuronal cells. We used a similar approach to swap the pK motif on pIX for a sequence encoding a single-domain antibody directed towards CD66c for targeted infection of cancer cells; Cre-mediated removal of the pK-coding sequence simultaneously placed the single-domain antibody coding sequence in frame with pIX. Thus, we have developed a simple method to propagate virus lacking native viral tropism but containing cell-specific binding ligands. - Highlights: > We describe a method to grow virus lacking native tropism but containing novel cell-binding ligands. > Cre/loxP recombination was used to modify the adenovirus genome. > A targeting ligand present on capsid protein IX was removed or replaced using recombination. > Cre-loxP was also used to 'swap' the identity of the targeting ligand present on pIX.

  2. Assessment of carbonic anhydrase IX expression and extracellular pH in B-cell lymphoma cell line models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liu Qi; Howison, Christine M; Spier, Catherine; Stopeck, Alison T; Malm, Scott W; Pagel, Mark D; Baker, Amanda F

    2015-05-01

    The expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) and its relationship to acidosis in lymphomas has not been widely studied. We investigated the protein expression of CA IX in a human B-cell lymphoma tissue microarray, and in Raji, Ramos and Granta 519 lymphoma cell lines and tumor models, while also investigating the relationship with hypoxia. An imaging method, acidoCEST magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), was used to estimate lymphoma xenograft extracellular pH (pHe). Our results showed that clinical lymphoma tissues and cell line models in vitro and in vivo had moderate CA IX expression. Although in vitro studies showed that CA IX expression was induced by hypoxia, in vivo studies did not show this correlation. Untreated lymphoma xenograft tumor pHe had acidic fractions, and an acidity score was qualitatively correlated with CA IX expression. Therefore, CA IX is expressed in B-cell lymphomas and is qualitatively correlated with extracellular acidosis in xenograft tumor models. PMID:25130478

  3. X-ray time lags and non-linear variability in the ultraluminous X-ray sources NGC 5408 X-1 and NGC 6946 X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-García, L.; Vaughan, S.; Roberts, T. P.; Middleton, M.

    2015-11-01

    We present our analysis of the X-ray variability of two ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) based on multiple XMM-Newton observations. We show that the linear rms-flux relation is present in eight observations of NGC 5408 X-1 and also in three observations of NGC 6946 X-1, but data from other ULXs are generally not sufficient to constrain any rms-flux relation. The presence of this relation was previously reported in only two observations of NGC 5408 X-1; our results show that this is a persistent property of the variability of NGC 5408 X-1 and extends to at least one other variable ULX. We speculate this is a ubiquitous property of ULX variability, as it is for X-ray variability in other luminous accreting sources. We also recover the time delay between hard and soft bands in NGC 5408 X-1, with the soft band (<1 keV) delayed with respect to the hard band (>1 keV) by up to ˜10 s (˜0.2 rad) at frequencies above ˜few mHz. For the first time, we extend the lag analysis to lower frequencies and find some evidence for a reversal of the lag, a hard lag of ˜1 ks at frequencies of ˜0.1 mHz. Our energy-resolved analysis shows that the time delays are energy dependent. We argue that the lag is unlikely to be a result of reflection from an accretion disc (`reverberation') based on the lack of reflection features in the spectra, and the large size of the reflector inferred from the magnitude of the lag. We also argue that associating the soft lag with a quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in these ULXs - and drawing an analogy between soft lags in ULXs and soft lags seen in some low-frequency QPOs of Galactic X-ray binaries - is premature.

  4. Enhancement and optimization of PpIX-based photodynamic therapy of skin cancer: translational studies from bench to clinic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maytin, Edward V.; Anand, Sanjay; Baran, Christine; Honari, Golara; Lohser, Sara; Kyei, Angela; Bailin, Philip; Pogue, Brian W.

    2009-02-01

    Nonmelanoma skin carcinomas are the most common of all human cancers. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) has been used to treat these tumors, but has shown variable results. We are pursuing a multifaceted approach toward optimizing tumor responsiveness. First, a new paradigm is being developed in which tumors are pretreated with differentiation-inducing agents, e.g. methotrexate or Vitamin D, to enhance synthesis of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and improve tumor cell killing upon exposure to 635 nm light. This principle was first elucidated in cell culture studies, and has now been shown to hold true for murine skin tumors, and for a human subcutaneous tumor model (A431 cells injected in nude mice). Clinical trials to test methotrexate and Vitamin D as augmenting agents for ALA-PDT of nonmelanoma skin cancer are being designed. Second, better methods to measure PpIX in patients' skin tumors in real time are being developed. In a clinical study to measure PpIX in patients with dysplastic skin lesions, in vivo fluorescence dosimetry was used to measure the accumulation of PpIX over time, and revealed that intralesional PpIX may reach clinically-useful levels earlier than previously thought for the treatment of actinic keratoses. In a second clinical study to examine depth of PpIX production in nonmelanoma skin cancer, the depth of PpIX within BCC tumors was found at relatively deep levels (>1 mm) in some tumor nests, but not in others. Production of PpIX in deep squamous cell carcinoma was very low. In summary, molecular approaches such as differentiation therapy to enhance ALA-PDT for individual patients may ultimately be needed to help to improve skin cancer responses to this modality.

  5. Timing and Spectral Studies of the Peculiar X-ray Binary Circinus X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Saz Parkinson, Pablo M.

    2003-08-26

    Circinus X-1 (Cir X-1) is an X-ray binary displaying an array of phenomena which makes it unique in our Galaxy. Despite several decades of observation, controversy surrounds even the most basic facts about this system. It is generally classified as a Neutron Star (NS) Low Mass X-ray Binary (LMXB),though this classification is based primarily on the observation of Type I X-ray Bursts by EXOSAT in 1985. It is believed to be in a very eccentric {approx} 16.5 day orbit, displaying periodic outbursts in the radio and other frequency bands (including optical and IR) which reinforce the notion that this is in fact the orbital period. Cir X-1 lies in the plane of the Galaxy, where optical identification of the companion is made difficult due to dust obscuration. The companion is thought to be a low mass star, though a high mass companion has not currently been ruled out. In this work, the author analyzes recent observations of Cir X-1 made with the Unconventional Stellar Aspect (USA) experiment, as well as archival observations of Cir X-1 made by a variety of instruments, from as early as 1969. The fast (< 1 s) timing properties of Cir X-1 are studied by performing FFT analyses of the USA data. Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) in the 1-50 Hz range are found and discussed in the context of recent correlations which question the leading models invoked for their generation. The energy dependence of the QPOs (rms increasing with energy) argues against them being generated in the disk and favors models in which the QPOs are related to a higher energy Comptonizing component. The power spectrum of Cir X-1 in its soft state is compared to that of Cygnus X-1 (Cyg X-1), the prototypical black hole candidate. Using scaling arguments the author argues that the mass of Cir X-1 could exceed significantly the canonical 1.4 M{circle_dot} mass of a neutron star, possibly partly explaining why this object appears so different to other neutron stars. The spectral evolution of Cir X-1 is

  6. Multiple Views of X1.4 Solar Flare on July 12, 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows the July 12, 2012 X1.4 class solar flare in a variety of wavelength; 131- Teal colored, 335 - blue colored, 171 - yellow colored and finally a combined wavelength view. All video w...

  7. X1.6 Class Solar Flare on Sept. 10, 2014

    NASA Video Gallery

    An X1.6 class solar flare flashes in the middle of the sun on Sept. 10, 2014. These images were captured by NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory. It first shows the flare in the 171 Angstrom wavelengt...

  8. N-β-glycosyl sulfamides are selective inhibitors of the cancer associated carbonic anhydrase isoforms IX and XII.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Oscar M; Maresca, Alfonso; Témpera, Carlos A; Bravo, Rodolfo D; Colinas, Pedro A; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2011-08-01

    The transmembrane isoforms of carbonic anhydrase (CA IX and XII) have been shown to be linked to carcinogenesis and their inhibition to arrest primary tumor and metastases growth. In this Letter, we present a series of peracetylated and deprotected N-β-glycosyl sulfamides that were tested for the inhibition of 4 carbonic anhydrase isoforms: the cytosolic hCA I and hCA II and transmembrane tumor-associated IX and XII. Compounds 1-4 and 6-8 selectively target cancer-associated CAs (IX and XII) with K(I)s in the low nanomolar range. PMID:21723123

  9. Monitoring ALA-induced PpIX photodynamic therapy in the rat esophagus using fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kruijt, Bastiaan; de Bruijn, Henriette S; van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel, Angelique; de Bruin, Ron W F; Sterenborg, Henricus J C M; Amelink, Arjen; Robinson, Dominic J

    2008-01-01

    The presence of phased protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) bleach kinetics has been shown to correlate with esophageal response to 5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) in animal models. Here we confirm the existence of phased PpIX photobleaching by increasing the temporal resolution of the fluorescence measurements using the therapeutic illumination and long wavelength fluorescence detection. Furthermore fluorescence differential pathlength spectroscopy (FDPS) was incorporated to provide information on the effects of PpIX and tissue oxygenation distribution on the PpIX bleach kinetics during illumination. ALA at a dose of 200 mg kg(-1) was orally administered to 15 rats, five rats served as control animals. PDT was performed at an in situ measured fluence rate of 75 mW cm(-2) using a total fluence of 54 J cm(-2). Forty-eight hours after PDT the esophagus was excised and histologically examined for PDT-induced damage. Fluence rate and PpIX photobleaching at 705 nm were monitored during therapeutic illumination with the same isotropic probe. A new method, FDPS, was used for superficial measurement on saturation, blood volume, scattering characteristics and PpIX fluorescence. Results showed two-phased PpIX photobleaching that was not related to a (systematic) change in esophageal oxygenation but was associated with an increase in average blood volume. PpIX fluorescence photobleaching measured using FDPS, in which fluorescence signals are only acquired from the superficial layers of the esophagus, showed lower rates of photobleaching and no distinct phases. No clear correlation between two-phased photobleaching and histologic tissue response was found. This study demonstrates the feasibility of measuring fluence rate, PpIX fluorescence and FDPS during PDT in the esophagus. We conclude that the spatial distribution of PpIX significantly influences the kinetics of photobleaching and that there is a complex interrelationship between the distribution of PpIX and

  10. An unusual complication in a gravida with factor IX deficiency: case report with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Guy, G P; Baxi, L V; Hurlet-Jensen, A; Chao, C R

    1992-09-01

    Factor IX deficiency (hemophilia B, Christmas disease) is an X-linked recessive coagulation disorder. It occurs in one out of every 25,000-30,000 male births and requires even rarer genetic circumstances for phenotypic expression in females. We report the occurrence of a large, late-trimester subchorionic hematoma in a gravida with factor IX deficiency and with laboratory evidence of consumptive coagulopathy during treatment. The patient was managed conservatively and had a successful outcome at term. The only four reported cases of antepartum management of factor IX deficiency in the English literature are reviewed. PMID:1495722

  11. Observation of the X-ray source Sco X-1 from Skylab. [radiant flux density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    An attempt to observe the discrete X-ray source Sco X-1 on 20 September 1973 between 0856 and 0920 UT is reported. Data obtained with the ATM/S-056 X-ray event analyzer, in particular the flux observed with the 1.71 to 4.96 KeV counter, is analyzed. No photographic image of the source was obtained because Sco X-1 was outside the field of view of the X-ray telescope.

  12. What is special about Cygnus X-1?. [evidence for a black hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Rothschild, R. E.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    The X-ray evidence from several experiments is reviewed, with special emphasis on those characteristics which appear to distinguish Cygnus X-1 from other compact X-ray emitting objects. Data are examined within the context of a model in which millisecond bursts are superposed upon shot-noise fluctuations arising from events of durations on the order of a second. Possible spectral-temporal correlations are investigated which provide additional evidence that Cygnus X-1 is very likely a black hole.

  13. Reduced vas deferens contraction and male infertility in mice lacking P2X1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Mulryan, K; Gitterman, D P; Lewis, C J; Vial, C; Leckie, B J; Cobb, A L; Brown, J E; Conley, E C; Buell, G; Pritchard, C A; Evans, R J

    2000-01-01

    P2X1 receptors for ATP are ligand-gated cation channels, present on many excitable cells including vas deferens smooth muscle cells. A substantial component of the contractile response of the vas deferens to sympathetic nerve stimulation, which propels sperm into the ejaculate, is mediated through P2X receptors. Here we show that male fertility is reduced by approximately 90% in mice with a targeted deletion of the P2X1 receptor gene. Male mice copulate normally--reduced fertility results from a reduction of sperm in the ejaculate and not from sperm dysfunction. Female mice and heterozygote mice are unaffected. In P2X1-receptor-deficient mice, contraction of the vas deferens to sympathetic nerve stimulation is reduced by up to 60% and responses to P2X receptor agonists are abolished. These results show that P2X1 receptors are essential for normal male reproductive function and suggest that the development of selective P2X1 receptor antagonists may provide an effective non-hormonal male contraceptive pill. Also, agents that potentiate the actions of ATP at P2X1 receptors may be useful in the treatment of male infertility. PMID:10638758

  14. Ares I-X: First Step in a New Era of Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2005, NASA's Constellation Program has been designing, building, and testing the next generation of launch and space vehicles to carry humans beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). On October 28, 2009, the Ares Projects successfully launched the first suborbital development flight test of the Ares I crew launch vehicle, Ares I-X, from Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Although the final Constellation Program architecture is under review, data and lessons obtained from Ares I-X can be applied to any launch vehicle. This presentation will discuss the mission background and future impacts of the flight. Ares I is designed to carry up to four astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS). It also can be used with the Ares V cargo launch vehicle for a variety of missions beyond LEO. The Ares I-X development flight test was conceived in 2006 to acquire early engineering, operations, and environment data during liftoff, ascent, and first stage recovery. Engineers are using the test flight data to improve the Ares I design before its critical design review the final review before manufacturing of the flight vehicle begins. The Ares I-X flight test vehicle incorporated a mix of flight and mockup hardware, reflecting a similar length and mass to the operational vehicle. It was powered by a four-segment SRB from the Space Shuttle inventory, and was modified to include a fifth, spacer segment that made the booster approximately the same size as the five-segment SRB. The Ares I-X flight closely approximated flight conditions the Ares I will experience through Mach 4.5, performing a first stage separation at an altitude of 125,000 feet and reaching a maximum dynamic pressure ("Max Q") of approximately 850 pounds per square foot. The Ares I-X Mission Management Office (MMO) was organized functionally to address all the major test elements, including: first stage, avionics, and roll control (Marshall Space Flight Center); upper stage simulator (Glenn Research Center); crew module

  15. Novel sulfonamide bearing coumarin scaffolds as selective inhibitors of tumor associated carbonic anhydrase isoforms IX and XII.

    PubMed

    Chandak, Navneet; Ceruso, Mariangela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Sharma, Pawan K

    2016-07-01

    Four novel scaffolds consisting of total 24 compounds (1a-1o, 2a-2c, 3a-3c and 4a-4c) bearing aromatic sulfonamide and coumarin moieties connected through various linkers were synthesized in order to synergize the inhibition potential of both the moieties against four selected human carbonic anhydrase isoforms (hCA I, II, IX & XII). All compounds were found to be potent inhibitors of tumor associated hCA IX & XII while at the same time required large amounts to inhibit off-targeted housekeeping hCA I & II. Selectivity was more pronounced against hCA II over I, and hCA XII over IX. Results were compared with antitumor drug acetazolamide. One derivative 2b of series 2 was found to be a better selective inhibitor of hCA IX and XII. PMID:27137360

  16. Spectroscopy of Thorium Monoxide, ThO; E(O+),F(O+),-X 1Σ+ Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang; Steimle, Timothy C.; Heaven, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Thorium monoxide, ThO, has recently attracted interest as a possible venue for the determination of the electric dipole moment of the electron, DE. Here we report on the results of an optical Stark study of the E(O+)-X1Σ+(1,0) band and the field-free study of the F(O+)-X1Σ+(0,0) band. A supersonic molecular beam of ThO was generated using a laser ablation technique and probed using laser excitation spectroscopy. The determined values for the permanent electric dipole moments, μEl, for the E(O+)(v=1) and X1Σ+(v=0) vibronic states were determined to be 3.534±0.010 D and 2.782±0.012 D, respectively. The dispersed laser induced fluorescence resulting from the excitation of the E(O+)-X1Σ+(1,0) and F(O+)-X1Σ+(0,0) bands have been recorded and the results are compared to Franck-Condon predictions. The radiative lifetimes for the E(O+)-X1Σ+(1,0) band F(O+)-X1Σ+(0,0) bands were determined. A. C. Vutha, W. C. Campbell, Y. V. Gurevich, N. R. Hutzler, M. Parsons, D. Patterson, E. Petrik, B. Spaun, J. M. Doyle, G. Gabrielse, and D. DeMille, J. Phys. B: At., Mol. Opt. Phys., 43, 074007/1 2010. G. Edvinsson and A. Lagerqvist, Physica Scripta, 32, 602, 1985. F. Wang, T. C. Steimle and M.C. Heaven, J. Chem. Phys.,{134

  17. Theoretical intensity ratios for the UV lines of Mg VII, Si IX and S XI. [observation of solar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, H. E.; Bhatia, A. K.

    1978-01-01

    Energy levels, oscillator strengths, and electron collision strengths have been computed for the configurations 2s2 2p2, 2s 2p3, 2p4 of Mg VII, Si IX, and S XI. Level populations for the ground configuration and theoretical intensity ratios for the UV lines are tabulated for electron densities and temperatures appropriate to the solar atmosphere. The identification of the Mg VII, Si IX, and S XI UV lines is discussed.

  18. Effect of continuous and multiple doses of 5-aminolevulinic acid on protoporphyrin IX concentrations in the rat uterus.

    PubMed

    Roy, B N; Van Vugt, D A; Weagle, G E; Pottier, R H; Reid, R L

    1997-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine if the concentration of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in the rat endometrium could be increased by administering 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in multiple doses or by continuous infusion. The effect of pH, temperature and time in solution on the stability of ALA were also investigated. Estrogen-filled silastic capsules were implanted subcutaneously into ovary intact female rats (200-225 g) (n = 66). On the third day of hormonal priming, ALA (10 mg or 25 mg) dissolved in saline and adjusted to a pH of 5-5.5 was administered intrauterine either as a single bolus or as two injections 3 hours apart (n = 10). A fifth group of rats was infused with 25 mg ALA over a 12 hour period using an osmotic minipump (n = 6). In a second experiment, ALA (25 mg) was injected immediately after being dissolved in saline (pH 2) (n = 16) or after incubation at 37 degrees C for 12 hour (pH 2) (n = 7). PpIX was then extracted from the endometrium and myometrium using a 1:1 methanol/perchloric acid solution and quantified spectrofluorometrically. A dose-response relationship was observed between 10 and 25 mg of ALA and endometrial PpIX concentrations. However, no differences in endometrial PpIX concentrations were detected between rats administered ALA either as a single bolus or as two doses. Continuous infusion of 25 mg of ALA resulted in statistically lower endometrial PpIX concentrations compared to 25 mg ALA injected either as a single bolus or as two injections. Neither pH, temperature, nor time in solution affected ALA-induced PpIX accumulation. We conclude that the simplest way of achieving the highest PpIX concentration in the rat endometrium in vivo is to administer a bolus injection of 25 mg of ALA. PMID:9440319

  19. Carbonic anhydrase IX, a hypoxia-induced catalytic component of the pH regulating machinery in tumors.

    PubMed

    Sedlakova, Olga; Svastova, Eliska; Takacova, Martina; Kopacek, Juraj; Pastorek, Jaromir; Pastorekova, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Acidic tissue microenvironment contributes to tumor progression via multiple effects including the activation of angiogenic factors and proteases, reduced cell-cell adhesion, increased migration and invasion, etc. In addition, intratumoral acidosis can influence the uptake of anticancer drugs and modulate the response of tumors to conventional therapy. Acidification of the tumor microenvironment often develops due to hypoxia-triggered oncogenic metabolism, which leads to the extensive production of lactate, protons, and carbon dioxide. In order to avoid intracellular accumulation of the acidic metabolic products, which is incompatible with the survival and proliferation, tumor cells activate molecular machinery that regulates pH by driving transmembrane inside-out and outside-in ion fluxes. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a hypoxia-induced catalytic component of the bicarbonate import arm of this machinery. Through its catalytic activity, CA IX directly participates in many acidosis-induced features of tumor phenotype as demonstrated by manipulating its expression and/or by in vitro mutagenesis. CA IX can function as a survival factor protecting tumor cells from hypoxia and acidosis, as a pro-migratory factor facilitating cell movement and invasion, as a signaling molecule transducing extracellular signals to intracellular pathways (including major signaling and metabolic cascades) and converting intracellular signals to extracellular effects on adhesion, proteolysis, and other processes. These functional implications of CA IX in cancer are supported by numerous clinical studies demonstrating the association of CA IX with various clinical correlates and markers of aggressive tumor behavior. Although our understanding of the many faces of CA IX is still incomplete, existing knowledge supports the view that CA IX is a biologically and clinically relevant molecule, exploitable in anticancer strategies aimed at targeting adaptive responses to hypoxia and/or acidosis

  20. Carbonic anhydrase IX, a hypoxia-induced catalytic component of the pH regulating machinery in tumors

    PubMed Central

    Sedlakova, Olga; Svastova, Eliska; Takacova, Martina; Kopacek, Juraj; Pastorek, Jaromir; Pastorekova, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Acidic tissue microenvironment contributes to tumor progression via multiple effects including the activation of angiogenic factors and proteases, reduced cell-cell adhesion, increased migration and invasion, etc. In addition, intratumoral acidosis can influence the uptake of anticancer drugs and modulate the response of tumors to conventional therapy. Acidification of the tumor microenvironment often develops due to hypoxia-triggered oncogenic metabolism, which leads to the extensive production of lactate, protons, and carbon dioxide. In order to avoid intracellular accumulation of the acidic metabolic products, which is incompatible with the survival and proliferation, tumor cells activate molecular machinery that regulates pH by driving transmembrane inside-out and outside-in ion fluxes. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a hypoxia-induced catalytic component of the bicarbonate import arm of this machinery. Through its catalytic activity, CA IX directly participates in many acidosis-induced features of tumor phenotype as demonstrated by manipulating its expression and/or by in vitro mutagenesis. CA IX can function as a survival factor protecting tumor cells from hypoxia and acidosis, as a pro-migratory factor facilitating cell movement and invasion, as a signaling molecule transducing extracellular signals to intracellular pathways (including major signaling and metabolic cascades) and converting intracellular signals to extracellular effects on adhesion, proteolysis, and other processes. These functional implications of CA IX in cancer are supported by numerous clinical studies demonstrating the association of CA IX with various clinical correlates and markers of aggressive tumor behavior. Although our understanding of the many faces of CA IX is still incomplete, existing knowledge supports the view that CA IX is a biologically and clinically relevant molecule, exploitable in anticancer strategies aimed at targeting adaptive responses to hypoxia and/or acidosis

  1. Upper Atmospheric Monitoring for Ares I-X Ascent Loads and Trajectory Evaluation on the Day-of-Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry C.; McGrath, Kevin; Starr, Brett; Brandon, Jay

    2009-01-01

    During the launch countdown of the Ares I-X test vehicle, engineers from Langley Research Center will use profiles of atmospheric density and winds in evaluating vehicle ascent loads and controllability. A schedule for the release of balloons to measure atmospheric density and winds has been developed by the Natural Environments Branch at Marshall Space Flight Center to help ensure timely evaluation of the vehicle ascent loads and controllability parameters and support a successful launch of the Ares I-X vehicle.

  2. Assessment of ALA-induced PpIX production in porcine skin pretreated with microneedles.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Phamilla Gracielli Sousa; Campos de Menezes, Priscila Fernanda; Fujita, Alessandra Keiko Lima; Escobar, André; Barboza de Nardi, Andrigo; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S

    2015-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used for skin treatments of premalignant and cancer lesions and recognized as a non-invasive technique that combines tissue photosensitization and subsequent exposure to light to induce cell death. However, it is limited to the treatment of superficial lesions, mainly due to the low cream penetration. Therefore, the improvement of transdermal distribution of aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is needed. In this study, the kinetics and homogeneity of production of ALA-induced PpIX after the skin pre-treatment with microneedles rollers of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mm length were investigated. An improvement in homogeneity and production of PpIX was shown in a porcine model. Widefield fluorescence imaging three hours after the topical application of ALA-cream in the combined treatment with microeedles rollers. PMID:25319567

  3. Genetic algorithm prediction of crystal structure of metastable Si-IX phase

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Yangang; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2013-12-14

    We performed genetic algorithm search for the atomic structure of the long Lime unsolved Si-IX phase. We found two new structures with space groups of P4(2)/m and P-4, respectively, which have lattice parameters in excellent agreement with the experimental data. The phonon calculations showed that the P4(2)/m structure exhibits a soft phonon mode, while the P-4 structure is dynamically stable. Our calculation also showed that the P-4 structure is a meta-stable structure in a pressure range from 0 to 40 GPa, The Si-IX phase could be a mixed phase consisting of the P4(2)/m and the P-4 structures. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Title IX, girls' sports participation, and adult female physical activity and weight.

    PubMed

    Kaestner, Robert; Xin Xu

    2010-02-01

    Arguably, the most important school-based intervention to increase physical activity was Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which led to a 600% increase in girls' sports participation between 1972 and 1978. We studied the effect of this increase in sports participation and athletic opportunities while young on the physical activity and weight of adult women some 20-25 years later. Our results indicate that adult women who were affected by Title IX and had greater opportunity to participate in athletics while young had lower body mass index (BMI) and lower rates of obesity and reported being more physically active than women who were not afforded these opportunities. However, effect sizes were quite modest. PMID:20130236

  5. Effects of Title IX and sports participation on girls' physical activity and weight.

    PubMed

    Kaestner, Robert; Xu, Xin

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we examined the association between girls' participation in high school sports and the physical activity, weight, body mass, and body composition of adolescent females during the 1970s when girls' sports participation was dramatically increasing as a result of Title IX. We found that increases in girls' participation in high school sports, a proxy for expanded athletic opportunities for adolescent females, were associated with an increase in physical activity and an improvement in weight and body mass among girls. In contrast, adolescent boys experienced a decline in physical activity and an increase in weight and body mass during the period when girls' athletic opportunities were expanding. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that Title IX and the increase in athletic opportunities among adolescent females it engendered had a beneficial effect on the health of adolescent girls. PMID:19548549

  6. In Vivo Gene Therapy of Hemophilia B: Sustained Partial Correction in Factor IX-Deficient Dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Mark A.; Rothenberg, Steven; Landen, Charles N.; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Leland, Frances; Toman, Carol; Finegold, Milton; Thompson, Arthur R.; Read, M. S.; Brinkhous, Kenneth M.; Woo, Savio L. C.

    1993-10-01

    The liver represents a model organ for gene therapy. A method has been developed for hepatic gene transfer in vivo by the direct infusion of recombinant retroviral vectors into the portal vasculature, which results in the persistent expression of exogenous genes. To determine if these technologies are applicable for the treatment of hemophilia B patients, preclinical efficacy studies were done in a hemophilia B dog model. When the canine factor IX complementary DNA was transduced directly into the hepatocytes of affected dogs in vivo, the animals constitutively expressed low levels of canine factor IX for more than 5 months. Persistent expression of the clotting. factor resulted in reductions of whole blood clotting and partial thromboplastin times of the treated animals. Thus, long-term treatment of hemophilia B patients may be feasible by direct hepatic gene therapy in vivo.

  7. Operational Lessons Learned from the Ares I-X Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Stephan R.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I-X flight test, launched in 2009, is the first test of the Ares I crew launch vehicle. This development flight test evaluated the flight dynamics, roll control, and separation events, but also provided early insights into logistical, stacking, launch, and recovery operations for Ares I. Operational lessons will be especially important for NASA as the agency makes the transition from the Space Shuttle to the Constellation Program, which is designed to be less labor-intensive. The mission team itself comprised only 700 individuals over the life of the project compared to the thousands involved in Shuttle and Apollo missions; while missions to and beyond low-Earth orbit obviously will require additional personnel, this lean approach will serve as a model for future Constellation missions. To prepare for Ares I-X, vehicle stacking and launch infrastructure had to be modified at Kennedy Space Center's Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) as well as Launch Complex (LC) 39B. In the VAB, several platforms and other structures designed for the Shuttle s configuration had to be removed to accommodate the in-line, much taller Ares I-X. Vehicle preparation activities resulted in delays, but also in lessons learned for ground operations personnel, including hardware deliveries, cable routing, transferred work and custodial paperwork. Ares I-X also proved to be a resource challenge, as individuals and ground service equipment (GSE) supporting the mission also were required for Shuttle or Atlas V operations at LC 40/41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. At LC 39B, several Shuttle-specific access arms were removed and others were added to accommodate the in-line Ares vehicle. Ground command, control, and communication (GC3) hardware was incorporated into the Mobile Launcher Platform (MLP). The lightning protection system at LC 39B was replaced by a trio of 600-foot-tall towers connected by a catenary wire to account for the much greater height of the vehicle. Like Shuttle

  8. Ares I-X Best Estimated Trajectory and Comparison with Pre-Flight Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.; Beck, Roger E.; Derry, Stephen D.; Brandon, Jay M.; Starr, Brett R.; Tartabini, Paul V.; Olds, Aaron D.

    2011-01-01

    The Ares I-X trajectory reconstruction produced best estimated trajectories of the flight test vehicle ascent through stage separation, and of the first and upper stage entries after separation. The trajectory reconstruction process combines on-board, ground-based, and atmospheric measurements to produce the trajectory estimates. The Ares I-X vehicle had a number of on-board and ground based sensors that were available, including inertial measurement units, radar, air- data, and weather balloons. However, due to problems with calibrations and/or data, not all of the sensor data were used. The trajectory estimate was generated using an Iterative Extended Kalman Filter algorithm, which is an industry standard processing algorithm for filtering and estimation applications. This paper describes the methodology and results of the trajectory reconstruction process, including flight data preprocessing and input uncertainties, trajectory estimation algorithms, output transformations, and comparisons with preflight predictions.

  9. ARES I-X: The First Test Flight of a New Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. Marshall; Davis, Stephan R.; Bryant, Richard Barry; Cook, Steve

    2010-01-01

    On October 28th, 2009, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched the Ares I-X Flight Test Vehicle (FTV) from pad 39B, providing the first set of flight test data for NASA's Ares I vehicle design team. This test was critical in providing insight into areas were significant design challenges existed. This paper discusses the objectives of the mission and how they were satisfied. It discusses the overall results of the flight test and look at the data retrieved from the flight. Ares I-X was highly instrumented with over 700 channels of Developmental Flight Instrumentation (DFI). Significant insight was gained in the areas of thrust oscillation, vibro-acoustics, predicting jet interactions and slag ejection from solid rocket systems with submerged nozzles. The paper outlines results from the Guidance Navigation & Control (GN&C), Thermal, Vibro-acoustic, Structures, Aero, Aero-Acoustic and Trajectory teams.

  10. Ares I-X First Stage Internal Aft Skirt Re-Entry Heating Data and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Craig P.; Tashakkor, Scott B.

    2011-01-01

    The CLVSTATE engineering code is being used to predict Ares-I launch vehicle first stage reentry aerodynamic heating. An engineering analysis is developed which yields reasonable predictions for the timing of the first stage aft skirt thermal curtain failure and the resulting internal gas temperatures. The analysis is based on correlations of the Ares I-X internal aft skirt gas temperatures and has been implemented into CLVSTATE. Validation of the thermal curtain opening models has been accomplished using additional Ares I-X thermocouple, calorimeter and pressure flight data. In addition, a technique which accounts for radiation losses at high altitudes has been developed which improves the gas temperature measurements obtained by the gas temperature probes (GTP). Updates to the CLVSTATE models are shown to improve the accuracy of the internal aft skirt heating predictions which will result in increased confidence in future vehicle designs

  11. Dual-channel red/blue fluorescence dosimetry with broadband reflectance spectroscopic correction measures protoporphyrin IX production during photodynamic therapy of actinic keratosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanick, Stephen Chad; Davis, Scott C.; Zhao, Yan; Hasan, Tayyaba; Maytin, Edward V.; Pogue, Brian W.; Chapman, M. Shane

    2014-07-01

    Dosimetry for aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) photodynamic therapy of actinic keratosis was examined with an optimized fluorescence dosimeter to measure PpIX during treatment. While insufficient PpIX generation may be an indicator of incomplete response, there exists no standardized method to quantitate PpIX production at depths in the skin during clinical treatments. In this study, a spectrometer-based point probe dosimeter system was used to sample PpIX fluorescence from superficial (blue wavelength excitation) and deeper (red wavelength excitation) tissue layers. Broadband white light spectroscopy (WLS) was used to monitor aspects of vascular physiology and inform a correction of fluorescence for the background optical properties. Measurements in tissue phantoms showed accurate recovery of blood volume fraction and reduced scattering coefficient from WLS, and a linear response of PpIX fluorescence versus concentration down to 1.95 and 250 nM for blue and red excitations, respectively. A pilot clinical study of 19 patients receiving 1-h ALA incubation before treatment showed high intrinsic variance in PpIX fluorescence with a standard deviation/mean ratio of >0.9. PpIX fluorescence was significantly higher in patients reporting higher pain levels on a visual analog scale. These pilot data suggest that patient-specific PpIX quantitation may predict outcome response.

  12. A sucrose-binding site provides a lead towards an isoform-specific inhibitor of the cancer-associated enzyme carbonic anhydrase IX.

    PubMed

    Pinard, Melissa A; Aggarwal, Mayank; Mahon, Brian P; Tu, Chingkuang; McKenna, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Human carbonic anhydrase (CA; EC 4.2.1.1) isoform IX (CA IX) is an extracellular zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO2 to HCO3(-), thereby playing a role in pH regulation. The majority of normal functioning cells exhibit low-level expression of CA IX. However, in cancer cells CA IX is upregulated as a consequence of a metabolic transition known as the Warburg effect. The upregulation of CA IX for cancer progression has drawn interest in it being a potential therapeutic target. CA IX is a transmembrane protein, and its purification, yield and crystallization have proven challenging to structure-based drug design, whereas the closely related cytosolic soluble isoform CA II can be expressed and crystallized with ease. Therefore, we have utilized structural alignments and site-directed mutagenesis to engineer a CA II that mimics the active site of CA IX. In this paper, the X-ray crystal structure of this CA IX mimic in complex with sucrose is presented and has been refined to a resolution of 1.5 Å, an Rcryst of 18.0% and an Rfree of 21.2%. The binding of sucrose at the entrance to the active site of the CA IX mimic, and not CA II, in a non-inhibitory mechanism provides a novel carbohydrate moiety binding site that could be further exploited to design isoform-specific inhibitors of CA IX. PMID:26457530

  13. Timing and spectral studies of the peculiar x-ray binary Circinus X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, Pablo Miguel Saz

    Cir X-1 is a unique Galactic X-ray binary which was initially classified as a black hole candidate but later reclassified as a neutron star due primarily to the observation of Type I X-ray Bursts by EXOSAT in 1985. In this work, I examine the timing and spectral properties of Cir X-1. FFT analyses are used to study the short (<1 s) timescales while Lomb-Scargle and Phase Dispersion Minimization periodograms are computed to study longer timing properties. I analyze Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (QPO) in the 1-50 Hz range and divide them into lower frequency (˜3--20 Hz) and higher frequency ones (˜15--50 Hz). The high frequency QPOs decrease in strength (% rms) with increasing frequency, while the lower frequency ones stay constant. The energy dependence of the QPOs implies the frequency is not representative of different locations in the disk. The power spectrum of Cir X-1 in its softest state is compared to Cyg X-1. Both show breaks. By using scaling arguments, I hypothesize that Cir X-1 has a mass of ˜3 M⊙ , greater than the canonical 1.4 M⊙ mass of a neutron star. I study the energy spectrum evolution of Cir X-1 by constructing both instrument-independent and model-independent color-color diagrams. Spectral fits were performed on USA data, from which physical parameters were derived. The spectral parameters indicate that a two-component model is valid for describing the Cir X-1 spectrum: a multicolor blackbody emission from an accretion disk and a Comptonized emission from a hot plasma (boundary layer or corona). The temperature of the disk remains constant, while there is an indication that the Comptonizing component increases in temperature with orbital phase. From the relative contribution of the disk I infer the neutron star is spinning very rapidly (>1 kHz). The long-term variability of Cir X-1 is studied using data from instruments going back over thirty years. I derive an X-ray ephemeris based showing that the period of Cir X-1 decreases rapidly (P

  14. FUNDAMENTALS OF AMHARIC (REVISED EDITION), UNITS VIII-IX. DIALOGUES FOR CONVERSATION, AMHARIC SCRIPT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARTON, DONALD K.; AND OTHERS

    THIS IS THE THIRD AND FINAL VOLUME OF A NINE-UNIT COURSE IN BASIC AMHARIC. VOLUMES ONE AND TWO DEAL WITH THE PROBLEMS OF PRONUNCIATION AND THE ORAL-AURAL MASTERY OF BASIC GRAMMATICAL CONSTRUCTIONS. AT THE END OF EACH VOLUME ARE APPENDED ENGLISH-AMHARIC AND AMHARIC-ENGLISH GLOSSARIES. VOLUME THREE (UNITS VIII-IX) IS DIVIDED INTO TWO PARTS. PART I…

  15. Bianchi Type-IX Dust Filled Universe with Ideal Fluid Distribution in Creation Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, V. R.; Bolke, P. A.; Bayaskar, N. S.

    2014-12-01

    We have investigated Bianchi type-IX dust filled universe for ideal fluid distribution in creation field in which creation field is a function of time t only. To get deterministic cosmological model, we have assumed a supplementary condition a = b n , where a and b are metric potential and n is constant. Also, we have study the physical and geometrical parameters of the said cosmological model.

  16. A New Resin Glycoside, Muricatin IX, from the Seeds of Ipomoea muricata.

    PubMed

    Ono, Masateru; Taketomi, Saki; Kakiki, Yuichi; Yasuda, Shin; Okawa, Masafumi; Kinjo, Junei; Yoshimitsu, Hitoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    A new resin glycoside, named muricatin IX (1), was isolated from the seeds of Ipomoea muricata (L.) JACQ. (Convolvulaceae). The structure of 1 was determined on the basis of spectroscopic data as well as chemical evidence. Compound 1 is the first representative of resin glycosides in which an organic acid connects the sugar moiety and the aglycone moiety to form macrocyclic ester ring. PMID:27581646

  17. Calibration and Flight Results for the Ares I-X 5-Hole Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Brandon, Jay M.

    2011-01-01

    Flight and calibration results are presented for the Ares I-X 5-hole probe. The probe is calibrated by using a combination of wind tunnel, CFD, and other numerical modeling techniques. This is then applied to the probe flight data and comparisons are made between the vanes and 5-hole probe. Using this and other data it is shown the probe was corrupted by water rendering that measurement unreliable.

  18. Formation of protoporphyrin IX in mouse skin after topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid and its methyl esther

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, Roar; Juzenas, Petras; Iani, Vladimir; Moan, Johan

    1999-02-01

    Normal skin of nude mice (Balb/c) was treated topically with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and its methyl ester (ALA-Me) for 24 hours. Approximately 0.1 gram of freshly prepared cream was applied to a spot of 1 cm2 on the flank of the mice, which was then covered with a transparent dressing. The ALA induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) was studied by means of a noninvasive fiber-optic fluorescence probe connected to a luminescence spectrometer. The excitation wavelength was 407 nm, and the emission wavelength was 637 nm. For the first hour a slight lag in PpIX production was observed for the mice treated with ALA-Me compared to the mice treated with ALA. After approximately 12 hours the ALA and the ALA-Me treated mice showed the same PpIX fluorescence intensity. From 12 hours until 24 hours the PpIX fluorescence intensity decreased for both treatment modalities, even though ALA and ALA-Me were continuously present. At 24 hours ALA-Me-treated mice had less than half the amount of PpIX in their skin compared with ALA- treated mice.

  19. Assessment of carbonic anhydrase IX expression and extracellular pH in B-cell lymphoma cell line models

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liu Qi; Howison, Christine M.; Spier, Catherine; Stopeck, Alison T.; Malm, Scott W.; Pagel, Mark D.; Baker, Amanda F.

    2015-01-01

    The expression of carbonic anhydrase (CA IX) and it’s relation to acidosis in lymphomas has not been widely studied. We investigated the protein expression of CA IX in a human B-cell lymphoma tissue microarray, and in Raji, Ramos, and Granta 519 lymphoma cell lines and tumor models, while also investigating the relation with hypoxia. An imaging method, acidoCEST MRI, was used to estimate lymphoma xenograft extracellular pH (pHe). Our results showed that clinical lymphoma tissues and cell line models in vitro and in vivo had moderate CA IX expression. Although in vitro studies showed that CA IX expression was induced by hypoxia, in vivo studies did not show this correlation. Untreated lymphoma xenograft tumor pHe had acidic fractions, and an Acidity Score was qualitatively correlated with CA IX expression. Therefore, CA IX is expressed in B-cell lymphomas and is qualitatively correlated with extracellular acidosis in xenograft tumor models. PMID:25130478

  20. G244E in the canine factor IX gene leads to severe haemophilia B in Rhodesian Ridgebacks.

    PubMed

    Mischke, R; Kühnlein, P; Kehl, A; Langbein-Detsch, I; Steudle, F; Schmid, A; Dandekar, T; Czwalinna, A; Müller, E

    2011-01-01

    Haemophilia B in Rhodesian Ridgebacks is currently the most important canine haemophilia in Germany. The aim of this study was to define the underlying genetic defect. Genetic studies were performed including six phenotypically affected male dogs (factor IX activity: approximately 1%), four suspected carriers (factor IX activity 48-69%, one confirmed by affected offspring), and 12 healthy dogs. Comparison of the entire coding region of the canine factor IX DNA sequences and exon-intron junctions from affected dogs with the wild type canine factor IX DNA revealed a G-A missense mutation in exon 7. This mutation results in a glycine (GGA) to glutamic acid (GAA) exchange in the catalytic domain of the haemophilic factor IX. All affected dogs were hemizygous for the detected mutation and carriers were heterozygous, whereas none of the Rhodesian Ridgebacks with normal factor IX activity showed the mutation. No further alterations in the sequences between affected dogs and the healthy control group could be observed. None of the Rhodesian Ridgebacks with undefined haemophilia B status (n=30) and no individual of three other dog breeds (Doberman Pinscher: n=20; German Wire haired Pointer: n=20; Labrador: n=25) showed the presence of the mutation. Amino acid sequence alignment and protein structural modelling analysis indicate that the detected mutation causes a relevant functional defect. The results of this study suggest that the detected mutation is responsible for a severe form of haemophilia B in Rhodesian Ridgebacks. PMID:20303304

  1. Factor IX Amagasaki: A new mutation in the catalytic domain resulting in the loss of both coagulant and esterase activities

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Toshiyuki; Iwanaga, Sadaaki ); Sakai, Toshiyuki; Sugimoto, Mitsuhiko; Naka, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kazukuni; Yoshioka, Akira; Fukui, Hiromu ); Mitsui, Kotoko; Kamiya, Kensyu; Umeyama, Hideaki )

    1991-11-26

    Factor IX Amagasaki (AMG) is a naturally occurring mutant of factor IX having essentially no coagulant activity, even though normal levels of antigen are detected in plasma. Factor IX AMG was purified from the patient's plasma by immunoaffinity chromatography with an anti-factor IX monoclonal antibody column. Factor IX AMG was cleaved normally by factor VIIa-tissue factor complex, yielding a two-chain factor IXa. Amino acid composition and sequence analysis of one of the tryptic peptides isolated from factor IX AMG revealed that Gly-311 had been replaced by Glu. The authors identified a one-base substitution of guanine to adenine in exon VIII by amplifying exon VIII using the polymerase chain reaction method and sequencing the product. This base mutation also supported the replacement of Gly-311 by Glu. In the purified system, factor IXa AMG did not activate for factor X in the presence of factor VIII, phospholipids, and Ca{sup 2+}, and no esterase activity toward Z-Arg-p-nitrobenzyl ester was observed. The model building of the serine protease domain of factor IXa suggests that the Gly-311 {yields} Glu exchange would disrupt the specific conformational state in the active site environment, resulting in the substrate binding site not forming properly. This is the first report to show the experimental evidence for importance of a highly conserved Gly-142 (chymotrypsinogen numbering) located in the catalytic site of mammalian serine proteases so far known.

  2. Construction and radiolabeling of adenovirus variants that incorporate human metallothionein into protein IX for analysis of biodistribution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Rogers, Buck E; Aladyshkina, Natalia; Cheng, Bing; Lokitz, Stephen J; Curiel, David T; Mathis, J Michael

    2014-01-01

    Using adenovirus (Ad)-based vectors is a promising strategy for novel cancer treatments; however, current tracking approaches in vivo are limited. The C-terminus of the Ad minor capsid protein IX (pIX) can incorporate heterologous reporters to monitor biodistribution. We incorporated metallothionein (MT), a low-molecular-weight metal-binding protein, as a fusion to pIX. We previously demonstrated 99mTc binding in vitro to a pIX-MT fusion on the Ad capsid. We investigated different fusions of MT within pIX to optimize functional display. We identified a dimeric MT construct fused to pIX that showed significantly increased radiolabeling capacity. After Ad radiolabeling, we characterized metal binding in vitro. We explored biodistribution in vivo in control mice, mice pretreated with warfarin, mice preimmunized with wild-type Ad, and mice that received both warfarin pretreatment and Ad preimmunization. Localization of activity to liver and bladder was seen, with activity detected in spleen, intestine, and kidneys. Afterwards, the mice were euthanized and selected organs were dissected for further analysis. Similar to the imaging results, most of the radioactivity was found in the liver, spleen, kidneys, and bladder, with significant differences between the groups observed in the liver. These results demonstrate this platform application for following Ad dissemination in vivo. PMID:25060486

  3. Optimization of protoporphyrin IX skin delivery for topical photodynamic therapy: Nanodispersions of liquid-crystalline phase as nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Fábia Cristina; Depieri, Lívia Vieira; Praça, Fabíola Garcia; Del Ciampo, José Orestes; Fantini, Márcia C A; Pierre, Maria Bernadete Riemma; Tedesco, Antônio Cláudio; Bentley, Maria Vitória Lopes Badra

    2016-02-15

    Nanodispersions of liquid-crystalline phases (NLPs) composed of monoolein and oleic acid were chosen as nanocarriers to improve the topical retention of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and thereby optimize photodynamic therapy (PDT) using this photosensitizer. The nanodispersions were characterized by polarized light microscopy, small-angle X-ray diffraction and dynamic light scattering. The stability and encapsulation efficiency (EE%) of the nanodispersions were also evaluated. In vitro and in vivo skin penetration studies were performed to determine the potential of the nanodispersions for cutaneous application. In addition, skin penetration and skin irritancy (in an animal model) after in vivo application were visualized by fluorescence light microscopy. The nanodispersion obtained was characterized as a monodisperse system (~150.0nm) of hexagonal liquid-crystalline phase, which provided a high encapsulation efficiency of PpIX (~88%) that remained stable over 90days of investigation. Skin penetration studies demonstrated that the nanodispersion enhanced PpIX skin uptake 11.8- and 3.3-fold (in vitro) and 23.6- and 20.8-fold (in vivo) compared to the PpIX skin uptake of control formulations, respectively. In addition, the hexagonal phase nanodispersion did not cause skin irritation after application for two consecutive days. Overall, the results show that the nanocarrier developed is suitable for use in topical PDT with PpIX. PMID:26657201

  4. Physiological role for P2X1 receptors in renal microvascular autoregulatory behavior

    PubMed Central

    Inscho, Edward W.; Cook, Anthony K.; Imig, John D.; Vial, Catherine; Evans, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that P2X1 receptors mediate pressure-induced afferent arteriolar autoregulatory responses. Afferent arterioles from rats and P2X1 KO mice were examined using the juxtamedullary nephron technique. Arteriolar diameter was measured in response to step increases in renal perfusion pressure (RPP). Autoregulatory adjustments in diameter were measured before and during P2X receptor blockade with NF279 or A1 receptor blockade with 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX). Acute papillectomy or furosemide perfusion was performed to interrupt distal tubular fluid flow past the macula densa, thus minimizing tubuloglomerular feedback–dependent influences on afferent arteriolar function. Under control conditions, arteriolar diameter decreased by 17% and 29% at RPP of 130 and 160 mmHg, respectively. Blockade of P2X1 receptors with NF279 blocked pressure-mediated vasoconstriction, reflecting an attenuated autoregulatory response. The A1 receptor blocker DPCPX did not alter autoregulatory behavior or the response to ATP. Deletion of P2X1 receptors in KO mice significantly blunted autoregulatory responses induced by an increase in RPP, and this response was not further impaired by papillectomy or furosemide. WT control mice exhibited typical RPP-dependent vasoconstriction that was significantly attenuated by papillectomy. These data provide compelling new evidence indicating that tubuloglomerular feedback signals are coupled to autoregulatory preglomerular vasoconstriction through ATP-mediated activation of P2X1 receptors. PMID:14679185

  5. Correlations between X-Ray Spectral Characteristics and Quasi-Periodic Oscillations in Scorpius X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Charles F.; Titarchuk, Lev; Kuznetsov, Sergey

    2007-07-01

    Correlations between 1-10 Hz quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) and spectral power-law index have been reported for black hole (BH) candidate sources and one neutron star source, 4U 1728-34. An examination of QPO frequency and index relationships in Sco X-1 is reported here. We discover that Sco X-1, representing Z-source groups, can be adequately modeled by a simple two-component model of Compton up-scattering with a soft photon electron temperature of about 0.4 keV, plus an Iron K line. The results show a strong correlation between spectral power-law index and kHz QPOs. Because Sco X-1 radiates near the Eddington limit, one can infer that the geometrical configuration of the Compton cloud (CC) is quasi-spherical from high radiation pressure in the CC. Thus, we conclude that the high Thomson optical depth of the Compton cloud, in the range of ~5-6 from the best-fit model parameters, is consistent with the neutron star's surface being obscured by material. Moreover, a spin frequency of Sco X-1 is likely suppressed due to photon scattering off CC electrons. In addition, we demonstrate how the power spectrum evolves when Sco X-1 transitions from the horizontal branch to the normal branch.

  6. A LIKELY MICRO-QUASAR IN THE SHADOW OF M82 X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xiao-jie; Liu, Jifeng; Liu, Jiren E-mail: jfliu@nao.cas.cn

    2015-02-01

    The ultra-luminous X-ray source M82 X-1 is one of the most promising intermediate mass black hole candidates in the local universe based on its high X-ray luminosities (10{sup 40}–10{sup 41} erg s{sup −1}) and quasi-periodic oscillations, and is possibly associated with a radio flare source. In this work, applying the sub-pixel technique to the 120 ks Chandra observation (ID: 10543) of M82 X-1, we split M82 X-1 into two sources separated by 1.″1. The secondary source is not detected in other M82 observations. The radio flare source is not found to associate with M82 X-1, but is instead associated with the nearby transient source S1 with an outburst luminosity of ∼10{sup 39} erg s{sup −1}. With X-ray outburst and radio flare activities analogous to the recently discovered micro-quasar in M31, S1 is likely to be a micro-quasar hidden in the shadow of M82 X-1.

  7. A Likely Micro-Quasar in the Shadow of M82 X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao-jie; Liu, Jifeng; Liu, Jiren

    2015-02-01

    The ultra-luminous X-ray source M82 X-1 is one of the most promising intermediate mass black hole candidates in the local universe based on its high X-ray luminosities (1040-1041 erg s-1) and quasi-periodic oscillations, and is possibly associated with a radio flare source. In this work, applying the sub-pixel technique to the 120 ks Chandra observation (ID: 10543) of M82 X-1, we split M82 X-1 into two sources separated by 1.″1. The secondary source is not detected in other M82 observations. The radio flare source is not found to associate with M82 X-1, but is instead associated with the nearby transient source S1 with an outburst luminosity of ˜1039 erg s-1. With X-ray outburst and radio flare activities analogous to the recently discovered micro-quasar in M31, S1 is likely to be a micro-quasar hidden in the shadow of M82 X-1.

  8. Correlations between X-ray Spectra and kHz QPOS in Sco X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Charles F.; Titarchuk, Lev; Kuznetsov, Sergey

    2008-05-01

    Recent analysis of the RXTE X-ray spectra of Sco X-1 discovered that Sco X-1 can be adequately modeled by a simple two-component model of Compton up-scattering with a soft photon electron temperature of about 0.4 keV, plus an Iron K-line. The results show a strong correlation between spectral power law index and kHz QPOs. Sco X-1 is the prototypical Z-source low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) system radiating near the Eddington limit. This radiation produces a high radiation pressure in its Compton cloud. We infer that the radiation pressure produces a geometrical configuration of the cloud that is quasi-spherical. We conclude that the high Thomson optical depth of the Compton cloud, in the range of 5-6 from the best-fit model parameters, is consistent with the neutron star's surface being obscured by material, which would likely suppress a spin frequency of Sco X-1 due to photon scattering off cloud electrons. We also demonstrate the evolution of its power spectrum when Sco X-1 transitions from the horizontal branch to the normal branch.

  9. Selection and maturation of antibodies by phage display through fusion to pIX.

    PubMed

    Tornetta, Mark; Reddy, Ramachandra; Wheeler, John C

    2012-09-01

    Antibody discovery and optimization by M13 phage display have evolved significantly over the past twenty years. Multiple methods of antibody display and selection have been developed - direct display on pIII or indirect display through a Cysteine disulfide linkage or a coiled-coil adapter protein. Here we describe display of Fab libraries on the smaller pIX protein at the opposite end of the virion and its application to discovery of novel antibodies from naive libraries. Antibody selection based on pIX-mediated display produces results comparable to other in vitro methods and uses an efficient direct infection of antigen-bound phages, eliminating any chemical dissociation step(s). Additionally, some evidence suggests that pIX-mediated display can be more efficient than pIII-mediated display in affinity selections. Functional assessment of phage-derived antibodies can be hindered by insufficient affinities or lack of epitopic diversity. Here we describe an approach to managing primary hits from our Fab phage libraries into epitope bins and subsequent high-throughput maturation of clones to isolate epitope- and sequence-diverse panels of high affinity binders. Use of the Octet biosensor was done to examine Fab binding in a facile label-free method and determine epitope competition groups. A receptor extracellular domain and chemokine were subjected to this method of binning and affinity maturation. Parental clones demonstrated improvement in affinity from 1-100nM to 10-500pM. PMID:22841960

  10. Coronal survey in X-rays of O VII and Ne IX.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, L. W.; Catura, R. C.; Wolfson, C. J.; Culhane, J. L.; Meyerott, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    Results of a rocket experiment flown on Apr. 29, 1971, in which a survey of the solar corona was carried out with a pair of collimated Bragg spectrometers to study the resonance, intersystem, and forbidden line emission from the helium-like ions O vii (22 A) and Ne ix (13 A). The observed X-ray emission came from the general corona, seven plage regions, and one dynamic feature - the late stage of a small flare. From the intensity of the O vii and Ne ix resonance lines the electron temperature and emission measure of the individual emitting regions are derived on the basis of two models, one in which the region is assumed to be isothermal and another in which the emission measure decreases exponentially with increasing temperature. The latter model, which is the most adequate of the two, yields for the electron temperature of the time-varying feature 2,000,000 to 3,000,000 K, for the other active regions 1,500,000 to 2,500,000 K, and for the general corona 1,300,000 to 1,700,000 K. The Ne ix emitting regions are about 1.5 times as hot as the O vii regions.

  11. K-shell energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in Si ix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, H. G.; Shi, J. R.; Wang, F. L.; Zhong, J. Y.; Liang, G. Y.; Zhao, G.

    2014-06-01

    Context. Accurate atomic data are needed to analyze the Si ix K-shell features in astrophysical X-ray spectra. Relative large discrepancies in the existing atomic data have impeded this progress. Aims: We present the accurate Si ix K-shell transition data, including K-shell energy levels, wavelengths, radiative rates, and oscillator strengths. Methods: The flexible atomic code (FAC), which is a fully relativistic atomic code with configuration interaction (CI) included, was employed to calculate these data. To investigate the CI effects, calculations with different configurations included were carried out. Results: The K-shell atomic data of Si ix transitions between 1s22s22p2, 1s22s2p3, 1s22p4, 1s2s22p3, 1s2s2p4, and 1s2p5 are reported. The accuracy of our data is demonstrated by comparing them with the available experimental measurements and theoretical calculations. The energy levels are accurate to 3.5 eV, the wavelengths to within 15 mÅ. For most transitions, the radiative rates an accuracy of 20%. The effects of CI from high-energy configurations were investigated as well. Full Tables 3 and 4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/566/A105

  12. Why does the human factor IX gene have a G + C content of 40%?

    PubMed Central

    Bottema, C D; Bottema, M J; Ketterling, R P; Yoon, H S; Janco, R L; Phillips, J A; Sommer, S S

    1991-01-01

    The factor IX gene has a G + C content of approximately 40% in all mammalian species examined. In human factor IX, C----T and G----A transitions at the dinucleotide CpG are elevated at least 24-fold relative to other transitions. Can the G + C content be explained solely by this hot spot of mutation? Using our mathematical model, we show that the elevation of mutation at CpG cannot alone lower the G + C content below 45%. To search for other hot spots of mutation that might contribute to the reduction of G + C content, we assessed the relative rates of base substitution in our sample of 160 families with hemophilia B. Seventeen independent single-base substitutions are reported herein for a total of 96 independent point mutations in our sample. The following conclusions emerge from the analysis of our data and, where appropriate, the data of others: (1) Transversions at CpG are elevated an estimated 7.7-fold relative to other transversions. (2) The mutation rates at non-CpG dinucleotides are remarkably uniform; none of the observed rates are either more than twofold above the median for transitions or more than threefold above the median for transversions. (3) The pattern of recent mutation is compatible with the pattern during mammalian evolution that has maintained the G + C content of the factor IX gene at approximately 40%. PMID:1897528

  13. [Geriatric rehabilitation from the perspective of Book 9 of the German social code, SGB IX].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, H

    2007-10-01

    The legal foundations for provision and realization of geriatric rehabilitation benefits are contained in particular in Book 9 of the German social code, SGB IX (covering rehabilitation and participation of people with disabilities). This paper discusses claims foundations and benefit prerequisites of geriatric rehabilitation taking into consideration the relations between Book 5 (on health insurance) and Book 9 of the social code. The article includes a definition of "geriatric rehabilitation" in light of the SGB IX, describes the benefit carriers' obligations as well as the procedure in place for determining geriatric rehab need, in this context appraising the designation as "geriatric patient" in terms of its appropriateness as an identifying criterion in determining need. Provision of geriatric rehab benefits is contingent on a potential for attaining rehab goals as specified by SGB IX as well as on fulfillment of the benefit prerequisites. Responsibility for the content, extent and quality of geriatric rehabilitation lies with the benefit carriers, as is the case for the obligation to secure availability of the required numbers and quality of rehabilitation facilities and services. The article specifies the legal foundations of the various benefit types (ambulatory, mobile rehab, under a Personal Budget, integrated benefit provision, or early rehab), and discusses geriatric rehabilitation in the framework of an insurance-based medical care system as well as of activating care. PMID:17955397

  14. Role of enhanced half-life factor VIII and IX in the treatment of haemophilia.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, Ali J; Obaji, Samya G; Collins, Peter W

    2015-06-01

    Treatment of congenital haemophilia with factor VIII and IX concentrates often requires frequent infusions. This has obvious implications in establishing effective administration strategies and, in turn, adherence. To overcome these issues, three main technologies--polyethylene-glycol, Fc-neonatal IgG1 and albumin fusion products--have emerged into various stages of clinical development. Published data indicates an approximately 1·5- and fivefold increase in half-life of factor VIII and IX, respectively, compared to standard recombinant concentrates. Studies into efficacy and safety are starting to be published. Monitoring and optimal use of these new concentrates remains unknown. Weekly factor IX prophylaxis appears to be a feasible prophylactic regimen in haemophilia B patients. Weekly longer-acting FVIII is unlikely to provide adequate prophylaxis in most patients with haemophilia A but may reduce the frequency of infusions. Ongoing clinical trials and real life experience will help shape how these products can be used in practice and their cost effectiveness. The drive for convenience however should not overshadow the ultimate goal of prophylaxis, namely, preventing bleeding and arthropathy. PMID:25754016

  15. Leishmania major possesses a unique HemG-type protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Zwerschke, Dagmar; Karrie, Simone; Jahn, Dieter; Jahn, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Leishmania major was proposed to either utilize haem from its host or partially synthesize the tetrapyrrole from host provided precursors. However, only indirect evidence was available for this partial late haem biosynthetic pathway. Here, we demonstrate that the LMJF_06_1280 gene of L. major encodes a HemG-type PPO (protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase) catalysing the oxidation of protoporphyrinogen IX to protoporphyrin IX. Interestingly, trypanosomatids are currently the only known eukaryotes possessing HemG-type enzymes. The LMJF_06_1280 gene forms a potential transcriptional unit with LMJF_06_1270 encoding CPO (coproporphyrinogen III oxidase) and with LMJF_06_1290 for a cytochrome b5. In vivo function of the L. major hemG gene was shown by the functional complementation of the Escherichia coli ΔhemG strain LG285. Restored haem formation in E. coli was observed using HPLC analyses. Purified recombinant L. major HemG revealed PPO activity in vitro using different ubiquinones and triphenyltetrazolium as electron acceptors. FMN was identified as the L. major HemG cofactor. Active site residues were found to be essential for HemG catalysis. These data in combination with the solved crystal structures of L. major CPO and the physiological proof of a ferrochelatase activity provide clear-cut evidence for a partial haem biosynthetic pathway in L. major. PMID:24962471

  16. Comparison between two portable devices for widefield PpIX fluorescence during cervical intraepithelial neoplasia treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbinatto, Fernanda M.; Inada, Natalia Mayumi; Lombardi, Welington; Cossetin, Natália Fernandez; Varoto, Cinthia; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2015-06-01

    The use of portable electronic devices, in particular mobile phones such as smartphones is increasing not only for all known applications, but also for diagnosis of diseases and monitoring treatments like topical Photodynamic Therapy. The aim of the study is to evaluate the production of the photosensitizer Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) after topical application of a cream containing methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) in the cervix with diagnosis of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) through the fluorescence images captured after one and three hours and compare the images using two devices (a Sony Xperia® mobile and an Apple Ipod®. Was observed an increasing fluorescence intensity of the cervix three hours after cream application, in both portable electronic devices. However, because was used a specific program for the treatment of images using the Ipod® device, these images presented better resolution than observed by the Sony cell phone without a specific program. One hour after cream application presented a more selective fluorescence than the group of three hours. In conclusion, the use of portable devices to obtain images of PpIX fluorescence shown to be an effective tool and is necessary the improvement of programs for achievement of better results.

  17. M82 X-1 ---The Hyper Luminous X-Ray Source---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuru, T. G.; Matsumoto, H.; Inui, T.; Matsushita, S.; Kawabe, R.; Harashima, T.; Maihara, T.; Iwamuro, F.

    By using ASCA and Chandra, we discovered a bright X-ray source M82 X-1 in the starburst galaxy M82. The peak luminosity of ˜ 1× 1041 ergs sec-1 and the location of off-center position of M82 in the starburst galaxy M82 suggest that M82 X-1 is a new type of black hole, intermediate massive black hole (IMBH). We also found an expanding molecular super bubble (EMSB) surrounding the IMBH. We propose a hypothesis that the IMBH was formed in the starburst activity 10^6˜ 10^7 yrs ago. We review the course of the discovery and show recent progress on studies of the X-ray spectrum and the position of M82 X-1.

  18. Systems analysis and engineering of the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Rochau, G.E.; Hands, J.A.; Raglin, P.S.; Ramirez, J.J.

    1998-10-01

    The X-1 Advanced Radiation Source, which will produce {approximately} 16 MJ in x-rays, represents the next step in providing US Department of Energy`s Stockpile Stewardship program with the high-energy, large volume, laboratory x-ray sources needed for the Radiation Effects Science and Simulation (RES), Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), and Weapon Physics (WP) Programs. Advances in fast pulsed power technology and in z-pinch hohlraums on Sandia National Laboratories` Z Accelerator in 1997 provide sufficient basis for pursuing the development of X-1. This paper will introduce the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source Facility Project, describe the systems analysis and engineering approach being used, and identify critical technology areas being researched.

  19. New results from long-term observations of Cyg X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Kaluzienski, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    Observations of Cyg X-1 between October 1974 and July 1975 reveal a persistent 5.6 day modulation of the 3 to 6 keV X-ray intensity, having a minimum in phase with superior conjunction of the HDE 226868 binary system. The modulation is found to be most pronounced just prior to the April-May 1975 increase of Cyg X-1, after which both the modulation and intensity are at their lowest values for the entire duration of the observations. These data imply that the X-ray emission from Cyg X-1 arises from the compact member of HDE 226868, and that the increase of April-May 1975 may have represented the depletion of accreting material which was not mixed into a cylindrically symmetric accretion disk about the compact member.

  20. New results from long-term observations of Cygnus X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Kaluzienski, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Observations of Cyg X-1 between October 1974 and July 1975 reveal a persistent 5.6-day modulation of the 3-6 keV X-ray intensity, having a minimum in phase with superior conjunction of the HDE 226868 binary system. The modulation is found to be most pronounced just prior to the April-May 1975 increase of Cyg X-1, after which both the modulation and intensity are at their lowest values for the entire duration of the observations. These data imply that the X-ray emission from Cyg X-1 arises from the compact member of HDE 226868, and that the increase of April-May 1975 may have represented the depletion of accreting material which had not yet been mixed into a cylindrically symmetric accretion disk about the compact member.

  1. New results from long-term observations of Cyg X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Kaluzienski, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Observations of Cyg X-1 between October 1974 and July 1975 reveal a persistent 5.6 day modulation of the 3-6 keV X-ray intensity, having a minimum in phase with superior conjunction of the HDE 226868 binary system. The modulation is found to be most pronounced just prior to the April-May 1975 increase of Cyg X-1, after which both the modulation and intensity are at their lowest values for the entire duration of the observations. These data imply that the X-ray emission from Cyg X-1 arises from the compact member of HDE 226868, and that the increase of April-May 1975 may have represented the depletion of accreting material which had not yet been mixed into a cylindrically symmetric accretion disk about the compact member.

  2. Long-Term Evolution of the Correlated Spectral and Timing Properties of CIR X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirey, Robert

    Our previous RXTE results demonstrate that at the baseline intensity level of 1.0 Crab, Cir X-1 exhibits Z-source behavior, but with QPOs which shift to lower than usual frequencies. In contrast, EXOSAT observations at lower baseline intensity showed behavior that resembled that of atoll sources. Recent RXTE ASM observations show that the baseline intensity of Cir X-1 has decreased to below 750 mCrab in the most recent few 16.55-d cycles. In order to monitor the evolution of the timing and spectral properties of Cir X-1 and to search for type-1 bursts as its baseline intensity evolves, we propose observations at several intensity trigger levels. We also propose observations if radio flares (which are now faint) return to the high intensities of the 1970's and early 1980's.

  3. Evolution of the Correlated Spectral and Timing Properties of Circinus X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirey, Robert

    Circinus X-1 has maintained a bright 1-Crab baseline during the entire RXTE mission to date, and shows absorption dips and flares near phase zero of its 16.55-d orbital cycle. Our recent RXTE PCA results demonstrate that Cir X-1 currently exhibits Z-source behavior, i.e., 1.3-35 Hz QPOs on the horizontal branch, a 4-Hz QPO on the normal branch, and only VLFN on the flaring branch. However, EXOSAT observations at lower intensity showed behavior that resembled that of atoll sources. In order to search for such an unprecedented switch in behavior, we propose TOO observations of Cir X-1 if the baseline intensity level returns to the previously observed low levels. We also propose observations if radio flares (which are now faint), return to the high intensities of the 1970s and early 1980s.

  4. Scaling of the F_2 structure function in nuclei and quark distributions at x>1

    SciTech Connect

    Fomin, N; Arrington, J; Gaskell, D; Daniel, A; Seely, J; Asaturyan, R; Benmokhtar, F; Boeglin, W; Boillat, B; Bosted, P; Bruell, A; Bukhari, M.H.S.; Christy, M E; Chudakov, E; Clasie, B; Connell, S H; Dalton, M M; Dutta, D; Ent, R; El Fassi, L; Fenker, H; Filippone, B W; Garrow, K; Hill, C; Holt, R J; Horn, T; Jones, M K; Jourdan, J; Kalantarians, N; Keppel, C E; Kiselev, D; Kotulla, M; Lindgren, R; Lung, A F; Malace, S; Markowitz, P; McKee, P; Meekins, D G; Miyoshi, T; Mkrtchyan, H; Navasardyan, T; Niculescu, G; Okayasu, Y; Opper, A K; Perdrisat, C; Potterveld, D H; Punjabi, V; Qian, X; Reimer, P E; Roche, J; Rodriguez, V M; Rondon, O; Schulte, E; Segbefia, E; Slifer, K; Smith, G R; Solvignon, P; Tadevosyan, V; Tajima, S; Tang, L; Testa, G; Tvaskis, V; Vulcan, W F; Wasko, C; Wesselmann, F R; Wood, S A; Wright, J; Zheng, X

    2010-11-01

    We present new data on electron scattering from a range of nuclei taken in Hall C at Jefferson Lab. For heavy nuclei, we observe a rapid falloff in the cross section for $x>1$, which is sensitive to short range contributions to the nuclear wave-function, and in deep inelastic scattering corresponds to probing extremely high momentum quarks. This result agrees with higher energy muon scattering measurements, but is in sharp contrast to neutrino scattering measurements which suggested a dramatic enhancement in the distribution of the `super-fast' quarks probed at x>1. The falloff at x>1 is noticeably stronger in ^2H and ^3He, but nearly identical for all heavier nuclei.

  5. The Behavior of the Optical and X-Ray Emission from Scorpius X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, B. J.; Harrison, T. E.; Zavala, R. T.; Galvan, Eduardo; Galvan, Javier; Jarvis, T.; Killgore, GeeAnn; Mireles, O. R.; Olivares, D.; Rodriquez, B. A.; Sanchez, M.; Silva, Allison L.; Silva, Andrea L.; Silva-Velarde, E.; Templeton, M. R.

    2003-03-01

    In 1970, Hiltner & Mook reported the results of the first multiyear study of the optical emission from Sco X-1. They found that the Sco X-1 B-magnitude histograms changed from year to year. Subsequent multiwavelength campaigns confirmed the variable nature of these optical histograms and also found that the X-ray and optical emissions were only correlated when Sco X-1 was brighter than about B=12.6. Models had suggested that the optical emission from this source arose from X-rays reprocessed in an accretion disk surrounding the central neutron star. It was therefore difficult to explain why the optical and X-ray fluxes were not more closely correlated. In 1994 and 1995, two new simultaneous optical and X-ray campaigns on Sco X-1 were conducted with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory and the 1 m Yale telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. Using these data and models by Psaltis, Lamb, & Miller, it is now possible to provide a qualitative picture of how the X-ray and optical emissions from Sco X-1 are related. Differences in the B-magnitude histograms are caused by variations in the mass accretion rate and the relatively short time period typically covered by optical investigations. The tilted-Γ pattern seen in plots of the simultaneous X-ray and optical emission from Sco X-1 arises from (1) the nearly linear relation between the optical B magnitude and the mass accretion rate in the range 13.3>=B>=12.3 and an asymptotic behavior in the B magnitude outside this range, and (2) a double-valued relation between the X-ray emission and mass accretion rate along the normal branch and lower flaring branch of this source.

  6. EPISODIC TRANSIENT GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE MICROQUASAR CYGNUS X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Sabatini, S.; Tavani, M.; Vittorini, V.; Piano, G.; Del Monte, E.; Feroci, M.; Argan, A.; D'Ammando, F.; Costa, E.; De Paris, G.; Bulgarelli, A.; Trifoglio, M.; Gianotti, F.; Di Cocco, G.; Barbiellini, G.; Caraveo, P.; Chen, A. W.

    2010-03-20

    Cygnus X-1 (Cyg X-1) is the archetypal black hole binary system in our Galaxy. We report the main results of an extensive search for transient gamma-ray emission from Cygnus X-1 carried out in the energy range 100 MeV-3 GeV by the AGILE satellite, during the period 2007 July-2009 October. The total exposure time is about 300 days, during which the source was in the 'hard' X-ray spectral state. We divided the observing intervals in 2-4 week periods, and searched for transient and persistent emission. We report an episode of significant transient gamma-ray emission detected on 2009 October 16 in a position compatible with Cyg X-1 optical position. This episode, which occurred during a hard spectral state of Cyg X-1, shows that a 1-2 day time variable emission above 100 MeV can be produced during hard spectral states, having important theoretical implications for current Comptonization models for Cyg X-1 and other microquasars. Except for this one short timescale episode, no significant gamma-ray emission was detected by AGILE. By integrating all available data, we obtain a 2{sigma} upper limit for the total integrated flux of F {sub {gamma}}{sub ,U.L.} = 3 x 10{sup -8} ph cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the energy range 100 MeV-3 GeV. We then clearly establish the existence of a spectral cutoff in the energy range 1-100 MeV that applies to the typical hard state outside the flaring period and that confirms the historically known spectral cutoff above 1 MeV.

  7. Purinergic control of inflammation and thrombosis: Role of P2X1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Oury, Cécile; Lecut, Christelle; Hego, Alexandre; Wéra, Odile; Delierneux, Céline

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation shifts the hemostatic mechanisms in favor of thrombosis. Upon tissue damage or infection, a sudden increase of extracellular ATP occurs, that might contribute to the crosstalk between inflammation and thrombosis. On platelets, P2X1 receptors act to amplify platelet activation and aggregation induced by other platelet agonists. These receptors critically contribute to thrombus stability in small arteries. Besides platelets, studies by our group indicate that these receptors are expressed by neutrophils. They promote neutrophil chemotaxis, both in vitro and in vivo. In a laser-induced injury mouse model of thrombosis, it appears that neutrophils are required to initiate thrombus formation and coagulation activation on inflamed arteriolar endothelia. In this model, by using P2X1−/ − mice, we recently showed that P2X1 receptors, expressed on platelets and neutrophils, play a key role in thrombus growth and fibrin generation. Intriguingly, in a model of endotoxemia, P2X1−/ − mice exhibited aggravated oxidative tissue damage, along with exacerbated thrombocytopenia and increased activation of coagulation, which translated into higher susceptibility to septic shock. Thus, besides its ability to recruit neutrophils and platelets on inflamed endothelia, the P2X1 receptor also contributes to limit the activation of circulating neutrophils under systemic inflammatory conditions. Taken together, these data suggest that P2X1 receptors are involved in the interplay between platelets, neutrophils and thrombosis. We propose that activation of these receptors by ATP on neutrophils and platelets represents a new mechanism that regulates thrombo-inflammation. PMID:25709760

  8. Quantitative and qualitative 5-aminolevulinic acid–induced protoporphyrin IX fluorescence in skull base meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    Bekelis, Kimon; Valdés, Pablo A.; Erkmen, Kadir; Leblond, Frederic; Kim, Anthony; Wilson, Brian C.; Harris, Brent T.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Roberts, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Object Complete resection of skull base meningiomas provides patients with the best chance for a cure; however, surgery is frequently difficult given the proximity of lesions to vital structures, such as cranial nerves, major vessels, and venous sinuses. Accurate discrimination between tumor and normal tissue is crucial for optimal tumor resection. Qualitative assessment of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence following the exogenous administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) has demonstrated utility in malignant glioma resection but limited use in meningiomas. Here the authors demonstrate the use of ALA-induced PpIX fluorescence guidance in resecting a skull base meningioma and elaborate on the advantages and disadvantages provided by both quantitative and qualitative fluorescence methodologies in skull base meningioma resection. Methods A 52-year-old patient with a sphenoid wing WHO Grade I meningioma underwent tumor resection as part of an institutional review board–approved prospective study of fluorescence-guided resection. A surgical microscope modified for fluorescence imaging was used for the qualitative assessment of visible fluorescence, and an intraoperative probe for in situ fluorescence detection was utilized for quantitative measurements of PpIX. The authors assessed the detection capabilities of both the qualitative and quantitative fluorescence approaches. Results The patient harboring a sphenoid wing meningioma with intraorbital extension underwent radical resection of the tumor with both visibly and nonvisibly fluorescent regions. The patient underwent a complete resection without any complications. Some areas of the tumor demonstrated visible fluorescence. The quantitative probe detected neoplastic tissue better than the qualitative modified surgical microscope. The intraoperative probe was particularly useful in areas that did not reveal visible fluorescence, and tissue from these areas was confirmed as tumor following histopathological

  9. Inactivation and clearance of viruses during the manufacture of high purity factor IX.

    PubMed

    Johnston, A; Macgregor, A; Borovec, S; Hattarki, M; Stuckly, K; Anderson, D; Goss, N H; Oates, A; Uren, E

    2000-09-01

    Haemophilia is a bleeding disorder characterised by a deficiency in Factor IX. Replacement therapy in the form of a Factor IX concentrate is a widely accepted practice. In this paper we describe a double virus inactivated chromatographic process for producing a high purity Factor IX product, MonoFIX((R))-VF. The process involves separation of the prothrombin complex by cryoprecipitation, fraction I precipitation and DEAE-cellulose adsorption, further ion-exchange chromatography of crude Factor IX, followed by solvent/detergent treatment. Heparin affinity chromatography is then used to further purify Factor IX. Final nanofiltration is sequential through 35 nm then 15 nm membrane filters. The principal virus inactivation/removal steps are solvent/detergent treatment and nanofiltration and the partitioning of relevant and model viruses provides further reduction in virus load through the production process.Solvent/detergent treatment was shown to achieve log reduction factors of 4.5 for HIV-1, 5.1 for Sindbis virus, 6.1 for vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), 5.1 for bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and 5.3 for pseudorabies virus (PRV). BVDV is a model for hepatitis C virus (HCV), and pseudorabies virus (PRV), like hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped DNA virus. Using scaled down models of the production process, we have also demonstrated the neutralization/partitioning of at least 6 logs of hepatitis A virus (HAV) during cryoprecipitation, Fraction I precipitation, and the DEAE adsorption and elution step, and a further 1.6 log reduction in HAV load as a result of heparin affinity chromatography. The log reduction factors for HAV as a result of the second ion-exchange chromatography step and as a result of enhanced neutralisation associated with solvent/detergent treatment were not significant. Nanofiltration was shown to contribute a further log reduction factor of 6.7 for HAV and 5.8 for BVDV indicating that log reduction factors of this order would be obtained

  10. On the distance to Cygnus X-1. [extrapolation from nearby stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margon, B.; Bowyer, S.; Stone, R. P. S.

    1973-01-01

    Interstellar extinction of 50 stars in the immediate vicinity of Cyg X-1 is compared with color excess of HDE 226868. The fact that HDE 226868 has extinction drastically exceeding that of all stars in the field at less than 1 kpc is believed to be in conflict with the model of Trimble et al. (1973) in which the primary is a luminous undermassive star and with other similar models. Uniform extrapolation of the reddening yields a distance estimate of (2.5 plus or minus 0.4) kpc for Cygnus X-1, in agreement with the spectroscopic modulus for an O9 star.

  11. Long-term X-ray studies of Sco X-1. [emission spectra of constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Kaluzienski, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    No modulation of the 3-6 keV X-ray intensity of Sco X-1 at a level of excess of 1% was observed at the optical period of .787313d. Evidence is found for shot-noise character in a large fraction of the X-ray emission. Almost all of the Sco X-1 emission can be synthesized in terms of approximately 200 shots per day, each with a duration of approximately 1/3 day. A pinhole camera was used to obtain data and the data were statistically analyzed.

  12. Wavelet analysis of fast photometry on Cygnus X-1 with the AstraLux camera

    SciTech Connect

    Luque-Escamilla, P. L.; Marti, J.; Combi, Jorge A.; Arjonilla, Alvaro Munoz; Sanchez-Sutil, J. R.

    2008-10-08

    We present sub-second fast photometry for the high mass X-ray binary Cygnus X-1. We try to observe variability due to instabilities in the accretion process at optical wavelengths. The observations were carried out using the high speed AstraLux camera at the Calar Alto 2.2 m telescope, Spain, in November 2006 and August 2007. We report that the Cygnus X-1 system light curve sampled every 30 milli-second did not display strong enough evidence of any periodic component related to the source.

  13. Activities of X-ray binaries accompanied by a neutron star with weak magnetic field: Cir X-1, Aql X-1 and 4U 1608-52

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Masaru; Mihara, Tatehiro; Asai, Kazumi

    This paper is presented on X-ray activities of X-ray binaries accompanied by a neutron star with weak magnetic field. Neutron star low mass X-ray binaries (NS-LMXBs) have been well studied so far, but there are still unknown problems concerning activities of outbursts and X-ray spectral features. We can define the soft and hard states which show different spectra created from each disk structure. These states depend on the gas accretion rate causing viscosity change in the disk, whereas we have pointed out an importance of magnetic field in NS-LMXB for X-ray activities (Matsuoka & Asai 2013). Thus, we have obtained decay features occurred by a propeller effect for Aql X-1 and 4U1608-52, and thus, we have defined the propeller effect levels of these sources (Asai et al. 2013). A companion star of Cir X-1 is a star of B5~A0 type, but it has X-ray spectral feature similar to NS-LMXB as well as it produced type I X-ray bursts. A long history over 40 years of X-ray observations has provided that Cir X-1 X-ray intensities have many varieties from continuous variable fluxes with Z-type feature of NS-LMXB to recurrent outburst fluxes with Atoll-type feature on a time scale of years. Recent MAXI observations have revealed a strange sudden decay feature in some outbursts. It is difficult to explain this decay feature by the simple picture which causes by ordinary mechanisms known in NS-LMXB such as a state transition, a propeller effect and a brink due to disk irradiation (Powell et al. 2007). Therefore, we introduced new type of instability of the accretion disk in relation to stellar wind stripping effect (Asai et al. 2014) which may be common to a system consisting of a compact star and an ordinary massive star.

  14. The serological relationship between Brucella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica serotype IX and Salmonella serotypes of Kauffmann-White group N.

    PubMed Central

    Corbell, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    The serological relationship between Brucella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica IX, and the group N salmonella serotypes S. godesberg, S. landau, S. morehead, S. neusdorf, S. soerenga and S. urbana was examined using agglutination, antiglobulin, complement fixation, immunodiffusion and fluorescent antibody methods. Antisera to the group N salmonella serotypes all reacted to significant titres in agglutination and complement fixation, but not antiglobulin or immunodiffusion tests with smooth brucella antigens. These antisera also reacted in agglutination, but not antiglobulin, tests with Y. enterocolitica IX. They did not react significantly in any tests with rough brucella antigens. Conversely, antisera to smooth Brucella spp. agglutinated group N salmonellas to low titre and Y. enterocolitica IX to titres similar to those given against the homologous strain. Antiserum to Y. enterocolitica IX on the other hand reacted with smooth brucella antigens to high titre in agglutination, complement fixation and antiglobulin tests, and with the group N salmonella antigens to substantial titres in agglutination tests. In direct fluorescent antibody tests, smooth Brucella strains and Y. enterocolitica IX reacted strongly with FITC-labelled antibody to Br. abortus whereas the group N salmonella strains reacted weakly. In tests with monospecific antisera to the A and M determinants of Br. abortus and Br. melitensis respectively, Y. enterocolitica IX reacted only with the antiserum to the A determinant whereas group N salmonellas reacted to low titre with both A and M antisera. The results of cross-absorption tests confirmed this relationship and suggested that the O30 antigens of group N salmonella serotypes contained antigenic determinants similar to, but not identical with, the antigenic structure shared by smooth Brucella spp. and Y. enterocolitica IX. PMID:807618

  15. Quantitative fluorescence in intracranial tumor: implications for ALA-induced PpIX as an intraoperative biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, Pablo A.; Leblond, Frederic; Kim, Anthony; Harris, Brent T.; Wilson, Brian C.; Fan, Xiaoyao; Tosteson, Tor D.; Hartov, Alex; Ji, Songbai; Erkmen, Kadir; Simmons, Nathan E.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Roberts, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Object Accurate discrimination between tumor and normal tissue is crucial for optimal tumor resection. Qualitative fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), synthesized endogenously following δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) administration, has been used for this purpose in high-grade glioma (HGG). The authors show that diagnostically significant but visually imperceptible concentrations of PpIX can be quantitatively measured in vivo and used to discriminate normal from neoplastic brain tissue across a range of tumor histologies. Methods The authors studied 14 patients with diagnoses of low-grade glioma (LGG), HGG, meningioma, and metastasis under an institutional review board–approved protocol for fluorescence-guided resection. The primary aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic capabilities of a highly sensitive, spectrally resolved quantitative fluorescence approach to conventional fluorescence imaging for detection of neoplastic tissue in vivo. Results A significant difference in the quantitative measurements of PpIX concentration occurred in all tumor groups compared with normal brain tissue. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of PpIX concentration as a diagnostic variable for detection of neoplastic tissue yielded a classification efficiency of 87% (AUC = 0.95, specificity = 92%, sensitivity = 84%) compared with 66% (AUC = 0.73, specificity = 100%, sensitivity = 47%) for conventional fluorescence imaging (p < 0.0001). More than 81% (57 of 70) of the quantitative fluorescence measurements that were below the threshold of the surgeon's visual perception were classified correctly in an analysis of all tumors. Conclusions These findings are clinically profound because they demonstrate that ALA-induced PpIX is a targeting biomarker for a variety of intracranial tumors beyond HGGs. This study is the first to measure quantitative ALA-induced PpIX concentrations in vivo, and the results have broad implications for guidance during resection of

  16. A search for an X-ray scattering halo around Scorpius X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, Dennis; Cash, Webster; Green, James

    1995-01-01

    Results are presented of an experiment to detect the presence of X-ray scattering by interstellar dust grains in the form of a halo around Sco X-1. We utilize te principle that X-ray scattering off an optical is reduced by 1/sin theta for reflections out of the plane of incidence, thus reducing instrumental scattering off our moderate quality (1 arcminute) X-ray optic. We find an upper limit X-ray flux from Sco X-1 in the form of a halo at a mean energy of 0.69 keV of 7.6% of the point source flux at the 1 sigma confidence level. From this we derive an upper limit of E(B-V) = 0.12 towards Sco X-1. This is about half the value (E(B-V) approximately 0.3) derived toward Sco X-1 using the 2200 A interstellar absorption feature, indicating probable circumstellar origin to the 2200 A feature.

  17. SWIFT/BAT possible detection of a new outburst from Aql X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, A.; Riggio, A.; Pintore, F.; Altamirano, D.; Burderi, L.; Di Salvo, T.

    2016-07-01

    The Swift/BAT X-ray monitor observed significant X-ray activity from the direction of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar Aql X-1 starting on 2016 July 29 (MJD 57598), with a count rate of 0.0011 +/- 0.003 counts/s/cm^2.

  18. Swift/XRT confirms the new outburst of Aql X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, A.; Riggio, A.; Pintore, F.; Altamirano, D.; Burderi, L.; Di Salvo, T.

    2016-08-01

    Triggered by the X-ray enhancement observed by Swift/BAT on 2016 July 29 at a position compatible with the low mass X-ray binary Aql X-1 (Atel #9287), a 500 s observation with Swift/XRT was promptly carried out. Swift/XRT operating in Photon Counting mode detected a single bright X-ray source.

  19. Circinus X-1 revisited: Fast-timing properties in relation to spectral state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oosterbroek, T.; Van Der Klis, M.; Kuulkers, E.; Van Paradijs, J.; Lewin, W. H. G.

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the X-ray spectral and fast-timing variations of Cir X-1 by performing a homogenous analysis of all EXOSAT ME data on this source using X-ray hardness-intensity diagrams (HIDs), color-color diagrams (CDs), and power spectra. Cir X-1 exhibits a wide range of power spectral shapes and a large variety in X-ray spectral shapes. At different epochs the power spectra variously resemble those of an atoll source, a Z source, a black-hole candidate, or are unlike any of these. At some epochs one-dimensional connected-branch patterns are seen in HID and CD, and at other times more complex structures are found. We interpret the complex behavior of Cir X-1 in terms of a model where accretion rate, orbital phase and epoch are the main determinants of the source behavior, and where the unique properties of the source are due to two special circumstances: (1) the source is the only known atoll source (accreting neutron star with a very low magnetic field) that can reach the Eddington critical accretion rate, and (2) it has a unique, highly eccentric and probably precessing orbit. Property (1) makes Cir X-1 a very important source for our understanding of the similarities in the observable properties of neutron stars and black holes as it allows to separate out black hole signatures from properties that are merely due to the presence of accretion compact with a low magnetic field.

  20. THE RETURN OF THE BURSTS: THERMONUCLEAR FLASHES FROM CIRCINUS X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Linares, M.; Homan, J.; Chakrabarty, D.; Watts, A.; Altamirano, D.; Degenaar, N.; Yang, Y.; Wijnands, R.; Armas-Padilla, M.; Cavecchi, Y.; Kalamkar, M.; Kaur, R.; Patruno, A.; Van der Klis, M.; Soleri, P.; Casella, P.; Rea, N.

    2010-08-10

    We report the detection of 15 X-ray bursts with RXTE and Swift observations of the peculiar X-ray binary Circinus X-1 (Cir X-1) during its 2010 May X-ray re-brightening. These are the first X-ray bursts observed from the source after the initial discovery by Tennant and collaborators, 25 years ago. By studying their spectral evolution, we firmly identify nine of the bursts as type I (thermonuclear) X-ray bursts. We obtain an arcsecond location of the bursts that confirms once and for all the identification of Cir X-1 as a type I X-ray burst source, and therefore as a low magnetic field accreting neutron star. The first five bursts observed by RXTE are weak and show approximately symmetric light curves, without detectable signs of cooling along the burst decay. We discuss their possible nature. Finally, we explore a scenario to explain why Cir X-1 shows thermonuclear bursts now but not in the past, when it was extensively observed and accreting at a similar rate.