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Sample records for holothuria scabra collected

  1. The timing and reproductive output of the commercial sea cucumber Holothuria scabra on the Kenyan coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthiga, N. A.; Kawaka, J. A.; Ndirangu, S.

    2009-09-01

    The sea cucumber Holothuria scabra is a widely distributed and economically important species that has been harvested in Kenya for decades. No previous studies have been carried out on the reproduction of this species in Kenya. Standard gonad index methods were used to analyze reproductive patterns of individuals collected monthly in 1998-1999, 2000-2001 and 2006-2007. Morphological characteristics, gonad tubule lengths and fecundity were also measured. Mean monthly gonad indices were significantly correlated between males and females indicating synchronous gonad development between the sexes. Gonad indices showed a biannual pattern that was consistent in all three years with a minor spawning event occurring between August and September and a major spawning event between November and December. The pattern of gonad growth showed significant variability between years and between months. Temporal changes in gonad growth correlated significantly with gonad tubule length and absolute fecundity. Monthly gonad indices also correlated significantly with monthly measurements of air temperature and light suggesting a possible role for both factors in timing gametogenesis and spawning. There was a shift in sex ratio from unity in the 1998-1999 and 2000-2001 samples to significantly more males in the 2006-2007 samples, as well as a significant reduction in mean sizes (body wall weight) and reproductive output (gonad index) which suggests that the reproductive success of this species is potentially negatively affected by fishing.

  2. Heavy metal accumulation in tissues of two sea cucumbers, Holothuria leucospilota and Holothuria scabra in the northern part of Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Mohammadizadeh, Maria; Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Ehsanpour, Maryam; Afkhami, Majid; Mohammadizadeh, Flora; Esmaeilzadeh, Marjan

    2016-02-15

    The concentrations of some heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn andPb) were investigated in the sediments and the two species of sea cucumber (Holothuria leucospilota and Holothuria scabra) from northern part of Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf. The levels of Cu, Zn and Pb in sediment varied significantly among sampling sites (p<0.05). The highest levels of Zn and Pb in H. leucospilota were recorded in body wall whereas the highest contents of Zn and Pb in H. scabra were measured in respiratory tree organ, respectively. Cu and Cd were the most abundant elements in gonads of H. leucospilota while highest levels of Cd and Cu in H. scabra were measured in the gonad and derm, respectively. Cu and Zn concentrations were below permissible limits for human consumption while Cd and Pb were above permissible limits for human consumption. PMID:26769107

  3. Evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic effects of Holothuria scabra from the North Coast of the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Mohammadizadeh, F; Ehsanpor, M; Afkhami, M; Mokhlesi, A; Khazaali, A; Montazeri, S

    2013-12-01

    Bioactive compounds of the gonad, respiration tree, and body wall of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra collected from the North Coast of the Persian Gulf were extracted using ethyl acetate, methanol and water-methanol mixtures. Extracts were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The activity was determined using the disc diffusion test. Cytotoxic activities of the extracts were determined by brine shrimp lethality assay. Results showed the existence of an antifungal activity of all extracts against A. niger with MIC ranging from 3 to 9μg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was found in respiration tree (methanol) with an inhibition zone of about 50mm against A. niger at 18μg/mL extract concentration. Cytotoxic activity was obtained for methanolic extracts only. Methanol extract of the gonads showed the highest cytotoxic effect (LC50=50.5μg/mL) continuing with RT methanol extract (LC50=70μg/mL). PMID:24054089

  4. Acid-base physiology response to ocean acidification of two ecologically and economically important holothuroids from contrasting habitats, Holothuria scabra and Holothuria parva.

    PubMed

    Collard, Marie; Eeckhaut, Igor; Dehairs, Frank; Dubois, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    Sea cucumbers are dominant invertebrates in several ecosystems such as coral reefs, seagrass meadows and mangroves. As bioturbators, they have an important ecological role in making available calcium carbonate and nutrients to the rest of the community. However, due to their commercial value, they face overexploitation in the natural environment. On top of that, occurring ocean acidification could impact these organisms, considered sensitive as echinoderms are osmoconformers, high-magnesium calcite producers and have a low metabolism. As a first investigation of the impact of ocean acidification on sea cucumbers, we tested the impact of short-term (6 to 12 days) exposure to ocean acidification (seawater pH 7.7 and 7.4) on two sea cucumbers collected in SW Madagascar, Holothuria scabra, a high commercial value species living in the seagrass meadows, and H. parva, inhabiting the mangroves. The former lives in a habitat with moderate fluctuations of seawater chemistry (driven by day-night differences) while the second lives in a highly variable intertidal environment. In both species, pH of the coelomic fluid was significantly negatively affected by reduced seawater pH, with a pronounced extracellular acidosis in individuals maintained at pH 7.7 and 7.4. This acidosis was due to an increased dissolved inorganic carbon content and pCO2 of the coelomic fluid, indicating a limited diffusion of the CO2 towards the external medium. However, respiration and ammonium excretion rates were not affected. No evidence of accumulation of bicarbonate was observed to buffer the coelomic fluid pH. If this acidosis stays uncompensated for when facing long-term exposure, other processes could be affected in both species, eventually leading to impacts on their ecological role. PMID:25028324

  5. Kinetics and thermodynamics of glycans and glycoproteins binding to Holothuria scabra lectin: a fluorescence and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Nagaraj M; Gaikwad, Sushama M; Khan, M Islam

    2013-11-01

    Holothuria scabra produces a monomeric lectin (HSL) of 182 kDa. HSL showed strong antibacterial activity and induced bacterial agglutination under in vitro conditions, indicating its role in animals' innate immune responses. Very few lectins have been reported from echinoderms and none of these lectins have been explored in detail for their sugar-binding kinetics. Affinity, kinetics and thermodynamic analysis of glycans and glycoproteins binding to HSL were studied by fluorescence and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. Lectin binds with higher affinity to O-linked than N-linked asialo glycans, and the affinities were relatively higher than that for sialated glycans and glycoproteins. T-antigen α-methyl glycoside was the most potent ligand having the highest affinity (Ka 8.32 ×10(7) M(-1)). Thermodynamic and kinetic analysis indicated that the binding of galactosyl Tn-antigen and asialo glycans is accompanied by an enthalpic contribution in addition to higher association rate coupled by low activation energy for the association process. Presence of sialic acid or protein matrix inhibits binding. Higher affinity of HSL for O-glycans than N-glycans had biological implications; since HSL specifically recognizes bacteria, which have mucin or O-glycan cognate on their cell surfaces and play a major role in animal innate immunity. Since, HSL had higher affinity to T-antigen, makes it a useful tool for cancer diagnostic purpose. PMID:23736907

  6. T-antigen binding lectin with antibacterial activity from marine invertebrate, sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra): possible involvement in differential recognition of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Nagaraj M; Goswami, Usha; Khan, M Islam

    2008-10-01

    In invertebrates, cellular and humoral components are evolved to maintain their body immunity and integrity. Both these factors respond to different antigens such as microorganisms, vertebrate erythrocytes and foreign proteins. In this article, we report a study of a lectin (HSL) involved in immune response in the echinoderm, sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra). Correlative studies indicate that the expression of this defensive lectin is induced by bacterial challenge, wherein cell wall glycoconjugates of bacteria are involved in lectin induction. HSL showed strong broad spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Under in vitro conditions, purified HSL mediate agglutination of the test bacteria, there by indicating a possible mode of action in physiological situation. PMID:18501924

  7. Cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing activity of triterpene glycosides from Holothuria scabra and Cucumaria frondosa against HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juanjuan; Han, Hua; Chen, Xiangfeng; Yi, Yanghua; Sun, Hongxiang

    2014-08-01

    The cytotoxic effects of thirteen triterpene glycosides from Holothuria scabra Jaeger and Cucumaria frondosa Gunnerus (Holothuroidea) against four human cell lines were detected and their cytotoxicity-structure relationships were established. The apoptosis-inducing activity of a more potent glycoside echinoside A (1) in HepG2 cells was further investigated by determining its effect on the morphology, mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm) and mRNA expression levels of the apoptosis-related genes. The results showed that the number of glycosyl residues in sugar chains and the side chain of aglycone could affect their cytotoxicity towards tumor cells and selective cytotoxicity. 1 significantly inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. 1 also markedly decreased the Δψm and Bcl-2/Bax mRNA express ratio, and up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of Caspase-3, Caspase-8 and Caspase-9 in HepG2 cells. Therefore, 1 induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathway. These findings could potentially promote the usage of these glycosides as leading compounds for developing new antitumor drugs. PMID:25062508

  8. Cytotoxic and Apoptosis-Inducing Activity of Triterpene Glycosides from Holothuria scabra and Cucumaria frondosa against HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juanjuan; Han, Hua; Chen, Xiangfeng; Yi, Yanghua; Sun, Hongxiang

    2014-01-01

    The cytotoxic effects of thirteen triterpene glycosides from Holothuria scabra Jaeger and Cucumaria frondosa Gunnerus (Holothuroidea) against four human cell lines were detected and their cytotoxicity-structure relationships were established. The apoptosis-inducing activity of a more potent glycoside echinoside A (1) in HepG2 cells was further investigated by determining its effect on the morphology, mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm) and mRNA expression levels of the apoptosis-related genes. The results showed that the number of glycosyl residues in sugar chains and the side chain of aglycone could affect their cytotoxicity towards tumor cells and selective cytotoxicity. 1 significantly inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. 1 also markedly decreased the Δψm and Bcl-2/Bax mRNA express ratio, and up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of Caspase-3, Caspase-8 and Caspase-9 in HepG2 cells. Therefore, 1 induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathway. These findings could potentially promote the usage of these glycosides as leading compounds for developing new antitumor drugs. PMID:25062508

  9. Scabraside D Extracted from Holothuria scabra Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Growth of Human Cholangiocarcinoma Xenografts in Mice.

    PubMed

    Assawasuparerk, Kanjana; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Nobsathian, Saksit; Rawangchue, Thanakorn; Wittayachumnankul, Boonsirm

    2016-01-01

    Scabraside D, a sulfated triterpene glycoside extract from sea cucumber Holothulia scabra, shows various biological activities, but effects on human cholangiocarcinoma cells have not previously been reported. In the present study, we investigated the activity of scabraside D against human cholangiocarcinoma (HuCCA) both in vitro and for tumor growth inhibition in vivo using a xenograft model in nude mice. Scabraside D (12.5-100 μg/mL) significantly decreased the viability and the migration of the HuCCA cells in a dose-dependent manner, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 12.8 ± 0.05 μg/mL at 24 h. It induced signs of apoptotic cells, including shrinkage, pyknosis and karyorrhetic nuclei and DNA fragmentation on agarose gel electrophoresis. Moreover, by quantitative real-time PCR, scabraside D effectively decreased Bcl-2 while increasing Bax and Caspase-3 gene expression levels suggesting that the scabraside D could induce apoptosis in HuCCA cells. In vivo study demonstrated that scabraside D (1 mg/kg/day, i.p. for 21 days) significantly reduced growth of the HuCCA xenografts without adverse effects on the nude mice. Conclusively, scabraside D induced apoptosis in HuCCA cells and reduced the growth of HuCCA xenographs model. Therefore, scabraside D may have potential as a new therapeutic agent for cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:26925636

  10. Concurrent infection of enterocytes with Eimeria scabra and other enteropathogens in swine.

    PubMed

    Koudela, B; Vítovec, J; Stĕrba, J

    1990-02-01

    Bacteria were detected in the enterocytes of the distal jejunum in weaned pigs on Days 7 and 9 post-infection (DPI) with Eimeria scabra in addition to the developmental stages of the coccidia. Short rod-shaped bacteria were identified in approximately 60% of the enterocytes that contained developmental stages of E. scabra. No such bacteria were observed in cells where coccidia were absent. Gamonts of cryptosporidia were also observed within the microvillous zone of the enterocytes in the distal jejunum of weaned pigs on DPI 9 with E. scabra. Cryptosporidia were present only in enterocytes harbouring stages of E. scabra. Chlamydial particles were also found in the cytoplasm of enterocytes 7 DPI with E. scabra. The presence of other enteropathogens exclusively in the enterocytes containing developmental stages of coccidia suggests that the coccidium E. scabra facilitates the invasion and development of bacteria, cryptosporidia and chlamydia in the enterocytes. PMID:2343533

  11. Effects of seven diets on the population dynamics of laboratory cultured Tisbe holothuriae Humes (Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miliou, H.; Moraïtou-Apostolopoulou, M.

    1991-09-01

    The harpacticoid copepod Tisbe holothuriae was collected from Saronicos Gulf (Greece) and reared under constant laboratory conditions. In order to study the effects of food on the population dynamics, seven diets were tested: the seaweed Ulva; five artificial compound feeds: the liquid Fryfood® (Waterlife), a powder of Mytilus, yeast, soya and Spirulina, respectively; and a mixed diet consisting of Ulva and Fryfood. The life cycle parameters (mortality, sex ratio, generation time, offspring production) were measured, and the demographic variables [mean generation time (T), net reproductive rate (Ro), and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm)] were determined. As to their efficiency regarding population dynamics, the diets ranked as follows: (1) Ulva+Fryfood, (2), Ulva, (3) Fryfood, (4) Mytilus, (5) soya, (6) yeast, and (7) Spirulina. In this order they cause a progressive increase of both larval mortality and generation time, a progressive decrease of sex ratio, number of offspring per egg sac, number of egg sacs per female and, consequently, of Ro and rm. The observed differences between diets were most pronounced with respect to offspring production. Of the compound diets, those containing animal extracts were more efficient than those containing vegetable materials. Ulva plays an important role in the nutrition of T. holothuriae, favouring offspring production as well as larval survival, development and pigmentation. Ulva in combination with Fryfood led to a greater copepodid survival and offspring production. This mixed diet proved to be the most favourable for rearing the Greek population of t. holothuriae, resulting in an efficient intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm=0.304) of the population.

  12. Gentiana scabra Reduces SR-A Expression and Oxidized-LDL Uptake in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chin-Sheng; Liu, Pang-Yen; Lian, Chen-Hao; Lin, Ching-Heng; Lai, Jenn-Haung; Ho, Ling-Jun; Yang, Shih-Ping; Cheng, Shu-Meng

    2016-01-01

    Background Macrophages can imbibe low-density lipoprotein (LDL) through scavenger receptors to become foam cells, which is critical in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Mounting evidence suggests that the anti-inflammatory nature of Chinese herbs have the capacity to halt the complex mechanisms underlying atherosclerosis. This study examined the effects of Chinese herbs on foam cell formation. Methods Chinese herbs were obtained from the Sun Ten pharmaceutic company. Using oxidized LDL (OxLDL) uptake and a cell toxicity assay, we screened more than 30 types of Chinese herbs. Western blotting was used to determine expressions of scavenger receptors (SRs) and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activities. Results We found that Gentiana scabra reduced oxidized LDL uptake effectively in THP-1 macrophages (p < 0.05 vs. OxLDL treated control). Moreover, treatment with Gentiana scabra in THP-1 macrophages resulted in decreased expression of scavenger receptor- A (SR-A) (p < 0.05 vs. control). Molecular investigation revealed that Gentiana scabra inhibited SR-A protein expression, possibly by regulating ERK signaling pathways (p < 0.05 vs. control). Conclusions By regulating SR-A expression, Gentiana scabra reduced oxidized LDL uptake in human macrophages. These results support the potential use of Gentiana scabra in treating atherosclerosis. PMID:27471359

  13. Cytoprotective Effects of Lysophospholipids from Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Furukawa, Ayumi; Shiga, Ikumi; Muroi, Yoshikage; Ishii, Toshiaki; Hongo, Yayoi; Takahashi, Shunya; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Ohnishi, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Lysophospholipids are important signaling molecules in animals and metazoan cells. They are widely distributed among marine invertebrates, where their physiological roles are unknown. Sea cucumbers produce unique lysophospholipids. In this study, two lysophospholipids were detected in Holothuria atra for the first time, lyso-platelet activating factor and lysophosphatidylcholine, with nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometric analyses. The lipid fraction of H. atra contained lyso-platelet activating factor and lysophosphatidylcholine, and inhibited H2O2-induced apoptosis in the macrophage cell line J774A.1. The antioxidant activity of the lysophospholipid-containing lipid fraction of H. atra was confirmed with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. Our results suggest that the lysophospholipids from H. atra are potential therapeutic agents for the inflammation induced by oxidative stress. PMID:26275144

  14. Screening of microbial contamination and antimicrobial activity of sea cucumber Holothuria polii.

    PubMed

    Omran, Nahla E E; Allam, Nanis G

    2013-11-01

    Microbiological studies were carried out on microbial contamination and antimicrobial activity of sea cucumber Holothuria polii collected from Mediterranean Sea at Abu-kir shore of Alexandria, Egypt. The obtained results revealed the presence of isolates of five human Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, representing five genera were identified to species level, including, Esherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella sp. and Shigella sp. In addition, an yeast Candida albicans was isolated. The pathogenic bacteria were identified using API 20E strip system (BioMereux). All collected H. polii specimens were healthy with no external signs of infection. Histopathological study of the tegument, intestine and gonads showed no abnormal changes. The antimicrobial activity of two tegumental ethanol extracts (A and B, differ in the method of dehydration) were tested against wide range of pathogenic bacteria and fungi, including intestinal, skin and nosocomial pathogens and one plant fungal pathogen. The results revealed a remarkable antifungal activity of the extract B at 2.5 mg/ml MIC90, especially on Aspergillus niger, Scloretium sp, C. albicans, Aspergillus flavus and Malassezia furfur, and limited antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella choleraesuis ATCC 14028 and Aeromonas hydrophila). The domain of bacterial and limited fungal contamination confirms the results that showed strong antifungal activity of investigated extract. PMID:22653870

  15. Immune-related genes associated with intestinal tissue in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Gómez, Francisco; Ortíz-Pineda, Pablo A; Rojas-Cartagena, Carmencita; Suárez-Castillo, Edna C; García-Arrarás, José E; García-Ararrás, José E

    2008-01-01

    We have analyzed 5,173 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from three cDNA libraries of normal and regenerating intestinal tissue of the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima and found 22 putative immune-related genes. These sequences showed similarities (e-value approx 10(-8)) to genes involved in immune processes or expressed by immune cells. Sequences were analyzed using bioinformatic tools to determine a putative identity. In addition, phylogenetic analyses were performed to find relationships with similar proteins in other organisms. The mRNAs for ten sequences were detected in coelomocytes by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Moreover, five of them showed a significant increase in expression after an LPS challenge, while the other five showed no significant changes. These results show the variety of immune molecules that may be found in holothurians and support the idea that the invertebrate immune system is more than a collection of simple innate responses. Our study also provides new data of importance in deciphering the evolution and development of the immune system. PMID:18092157

  16. Effect of Holothuria leucospilota extracted saponin on maturation of mice oocyte and granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Fereshteh Delghandi; Baharara, Javad; Balanezhad, Saeedeh Zafar; Jalali, Mohsen; Amini, Elaheh

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers saponins are triterpenoid glycosides which exert beneficial biomedical effects. This study was performed to assess the effect of saponin extracted from sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota (H. leucospilota) on maturation of mice oocytes and granulosa cells. The germinal vesicles oocytes were collected from 6–8 weeks old Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice ovaries, randomly divided into untreated and four experimental groups and cultured In vitro. Maturation medium was supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 μg/ml saponin for 12 days. The rates of maturation were recorded through morphological observation by measurement of follicle diameter during treatment. After 4 days, the effects of saponin on granulosa cells were investigated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement, super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity, caspase assay and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) expression. The oocyte maturation rate was significantly higher in treated groups (1 μg/ml). The ROS and SOD assays demonstrated the antioxidant potential of saponin. The caspase assay exhibited that optimum concentrations of saponin (1, 2 μg/ml) reduced caspase activity in granulosa cells. Flow cytometry showed that optimum concentration of saponin promoted oocyte maturation via down regulation of TNF-α as follicular degenerative factor in nursing cells. These results proposed that maturation rate were obtained after the incorporation of 1 μg/ml sea cucumber saponin. Moreover, the extracted saponin at concentrations of 1, 2 μg/ml enhanced follicle growth which is accompanied by attenuating ROS formation, elevating SOD activity and reducing TNF-α expression in granulosa cells. But, further examinations are required to understand precise mechanisms of saponin action on oocyte and granulosa cells. PMID:27168752

  17. Effect of Holothuria leucospilota extracted saponin on maturation of mice oocyte and granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Fereshteh Delghandi; Baharara, Javad; Balanezhad, Saeedeh Zafar; Jalali, Mohsen; Amini, Elaheh

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers saponins are triterpenoid glycosides which exert beneficial biomedical effects. This study was performed to assess the effect of saponin extracted from sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota (H. leucospilota) on maturation of mice oocytes and granulosa cells. The germinal vesicles oocytes were collected from 6-8 weeks old Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice ovaries, randomly divided into untreated and four experimental groups and cultured In vitro. Maturation medium was supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 μg/ml saponin for 12 days. The rates of maturation were recorded through morphological observation by measurement of follicle diameter during treatment. After 4 days, the effects of saponin on granulosa cells were investigated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement, super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity, caspase assay and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) expression. The oocyte maturation rate was significantly higher in treated groups (1 μg/ml). The ROS and SOD assays demonstrated the antioxidant potential of saponin. The caspase assay exhibited that optimum concentrations of saponin (1, 2 μg/ml) reduced caspase activity in granulosa cells. Flow cytometry showed that optimum concentration of saponin promoted oocyte maturation via down regulation of TNF-α as follicular degenerative factor in nursing cells. These results proposed that maturation rate were obtained after the incorporation of 1 μg/ml sea cucumber saponin. Moreover, the extracted saponin at concentrations of 1, 2 μg/ml enhanced follicle growth which is accompanied by attenuating ROS formation, elevating SOD activity and reducing TNF-α expression in granulosa cells. But, further examinations are required to understand precise mechanisms of saponin action on oocyte and granulosa cells. PMID:27168752

  18. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Holothuria leucospilota Isolated From Persian Gulf and Oman Sea

    PubMed Central

    Adibpour, Neda; Nasr, Farhad; Nematpour, Fatemeh; Shakouri, Arash; Ameri, Abdolghani

    2014-01-01

    Background: Emergence of antimicrobial resistance toward a number of conventional antibiotics has triggered the search for antimicrobial agents from a variety of sources including the marine environment. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Holothuria leucospilota from Qeshm and Kharg Islands against some selected bacteria and fungi. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, sea cucumbers from two coastal cities of Persian Gulf were collected in March and May 2011 and identified by the scale method according to the food and agriculture organization of the United Nations. Antibacterial activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of the body wall, cuvierian organs and coelomic fluid, methanol, chloroform, and n-hexane extracts of the body wall were evaluated by the spot test. In addition, their antifungal activity was assessed by the broth dilution method. Results: The displayed effect was microbiostatic at concentrations of 1000 and 2000 µg/mL rather than microbicidal. The highest activity of hydroalcoholic extracts was exhibited by body wall, cuvierian organs and coelomic fluid against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, A. flavus and A. brasilensis. However, none of the methanol, chloroform and n-haxane extracts showed appreciable effects against Shigella dysenteriae, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus, S. epidermidis and Candida albicans. Moreover, cuvierian organs did not possess any antifungal potential. Conclusions: Our data indicated that water-methanol extracts from the body wall of H. leucospilota possess antibacterial and antifungal activity. However, additional and in-depth studies are required to isolate and identify the active component(s). PMID:25147657

  19. Changes in Sediment Fatty Acid Composition during Passage through the Gut of Deposit Feeding Holothurians: Holothuria atra (Jaeger, 1883) and Holothuria leucospilota (Brandt, 1835).

    PubMed

    Mfilinge, Prosper L; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers Holothuria atra and Holothuria leucospilota play an important role in the bioturbation of sediment in coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. This study investigated changes in sediment fatty acid (FA) composition during gut passage in H. atra and H. leucospilota. The FA composition did not differ significantly between species. Comparison of FA composition in ambient sediment (AS), foregut (FG), midgut (MG), hindgut (HG), and faecal pellets (FPs) indicated that marked changes in FA composition occurred during passage through the gut of H. atra and H. leucospilota. Saturated fatty acids (SAFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and branched fatty acids (BrFAs) were significantly higher in FG than in AS, suggesting that both species selectively ingested nutrient rich particles. Significant reduction of SAFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs, and BrFAs occurred in MD and HD, with complete elimination of most PUFAs in FPs. A decrease in PUFAs 20:5ω3, 18:4ω3, 22:5ω3, 22:6ω3, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3, 18:3ω6, odd-numbered BrFAs, and MUFA 18:1ω7 indicated that algal detritus and bacteria were important part of diet. These results have implications for the fate of specific dietary FAs, especially ω3 and ω6, and the contribution holothurian FPs make to the FA composition of coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. PMID:27042355

  20. Changes in Sediment Fatty Acid Composition during Passage through the Gut of Deposit Feeding Holothurians: Holothuria atra (Jaeger, 1883) and Holothuria leucospilota (Brandt, 1835)

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers Holothuria atra and Holothuria leucospilota play an important role in the bioturbation of sediment in coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. This study investigated changes in sediment fatty acid (FA) composition during gut passage in H. atra and H. leucospilota. The FA composition did not differ significantly between species. Comparison of FA composition in ambient sediment (AS), foregut (FG), midgut (MG), hindgut (HG), and faecal pellets (FPs) indicated that marked changes in FA composition occurred during passage through the gut of H. atra and H. leucospilota. Saturated fatty acids (SAFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and branched fatty acids (BrFAs) were significantly higher in FG than in AS, suggesting that both species selectively ingested nutrient rich particles. Significant reduction of SAFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs, and BrFAs occurred in MD and HD, with complete elimination of most PUFAs in FPs. A decrease in PUFAs 20:5ω3, 18:4ω3, 22:5ω3, 22:6ω3, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3, 18:3ω6, odd-numbered BrFAs, and MUFA 18:1ω7 indicated that algal detritus and bacteria were important part of diet. These results have implications for the fate of specific dietary FAs, especially ω3 and ω6, and the contribution holothurian FPs make to the FA composition of coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. PMID:27042355

  1. Purification, characterization and in vitro anticoagulant activity of polysaccharides from Gentiana scabra Bunge roots.

    PubMed

    Cai, Weirong; Xu, Huiling; Xie, Liangliang; Sun, Jian; Sun, Taotao; Wu, Xiaoyan; Fu, Qinbao

    2016-04-20

    Three water-soluble polysaccharide fractions (GSP-1, GSP-2 and GSP-3) were obtained from Gentiana scabra Bunge roots by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. Their chemical characterizations were determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC), high performance anion exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer. Moreover, their in vitro anticoagulant activities were evaluated by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and prothrombin time (PT) assays. GSP-1 and GSP-2 were composed of rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, glucose and galacturonic acid, while GSP-3 consisted of rhamnose, arabinose, galactose and galacturonic acid with a weight-average molecular weight of 5.8×10(4)Da. In comparison with the control group (saline), GSP, GSP-1, GSP-2 and GSP-3 could prolong APTT and TT, but not PT. Overall, GSP-3 exhibited potent anticoagulant activity and would be expected to be a potential source of anticoagulant. PMID:26876858

  2. Two new neolignans from Patrinia scabra with potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa and MNK-45 cells.

    PubMed

    Di, Lei; Yan, Guo-Qing; Wang, Ling-Yu; Ma, Wei; Wang, Kai-Jin; Li, Ning

    2013-10-01

    Two new neolignans, patrineolignan A (1) and patrineolignan B (2), together with seven known lignans, were isolated from the 90 % aqueous EtOH extract of the roots of Patrinia scabra. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data (HRESIMS, IR, 1D and 2D NMR) and comparison with literature data. The two new neolignans were evaluated in vitro for cytotoxic properties against human cervical carcinoma HeLa cell line and gastric carcinoma MNK-45 cell line using the microculture tetrazolium assay, and both 1 and 2 exhibited strongly cytotoxic activity against the two tumor cell lines. PMID:23737105

  3. Cytotoxic effect of Alpinia scabra (Blume) Náves extracts on human breast and ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alpinia scabra, locally known as 'Lengkuas raya’, is an aromatic, perennial and rhizomatous herb from the family Zingiberaceae. It is a wild species which grows largely on mountains at moderate elevations in Peninsular Malaysia, but it can also survive in the lowlands like in the states of Terengganu and Northern Johor. The present study reports the cytotoxic potential of A. scabra extracts from different parts of the plant. Methods The experimental approach in the present study was based on a bioassay-guided fractionation. The crude methanol and fractionated extracts (hexane, chloroform and water) from different parts of A. scabra (leaves, rhizomes, roots and pseudo stems) were prepared prior to the cytotoxicity evaluation against human ovarian (SKOV-3) and hormone-dependent breast (MCF7) carcinoma cells. The identified cytotoxic extracts were then subjected to chemical investigations in order to identify the active ingredients. A normal human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5) was used to determine the specificity for cancerous cells. The cytotoxic extracts and fractions were also subjected to morphological assessment, DNA fragmentation analysis and DAPI nuclear staining. Results The leaf (hexane and chloroform) and rhizome (chloroform) extracts showed high inhibitory effect against the tested cells. Ten fractions (LC1-LC10) were yielded after purification of the leaf chloroform extract. Fraction LC4 which showed excellent cytotoxic activity was further purified and resulted in 17 sub-fractions (VLC1-VLC17). Sub-fraction VLC9 showed excellent cytotoxicity against MCF7 and SKOV-3 cells but not toxic against normal MRC-5 cells. Meanwhile, eighteen fractions (RC1-RC18) were obtained after purification of the rhizome chloroform extract, of which fraction RC5 showed cytotoxicity against SKOV-3 cells with high selectivity index. There were marked morphological changes when observed using phase-contrast inverted microscope, DAPI nuclear staining and also DNA

  4. Identification of heat stress-responsive genes in heat-adapted thermal Agrostis scabra by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jiang; Belanger, Faith C; Huang, Bingru

    2009-04-01

    To gain insights into molecular mechanisms of grass tolerance to heat stress, we constructed a suppression subtractive cDNA library to identify heat-responsive genes for a C(3) grass species, thermal Agrostis scabra adapted to heat stress in geothermal areas in Yellowstone National Park. Plants were exposed to 20 degrees C (control) or 35 degrees C for 12d. The SSH analysis was performed with control samples as the driver and heat-stressed samples as the tester. Differentially expressed cDNA fragments were cloned to screen the heat up-regulated library. The SSH analysis identified 120 non-redundant putative heat-responsive cDNAs out of 1180 clones. Genes with homology to known proteins were categorized into six functional groups, with the largest group of genes involved in stress/defense, followed by the group of genes related to protein metabolism. Immunoblot analysis confirmed increases in transcripts of selected genes under heat stress. Transcripts of seven and eight genes were strongly enhanced or induced in shoots and roots, respectively, while two genes were only induced in roots under heat stress. The heat up-regulated genes in thermal A. scabra adapted to long-term heat stress are potential candidate genes for engineering stress-tolerant grasses and for revealing molecular mechanisms of grass adaptation to heat stress. PMID:18950897

  5. Diet of Littoraria scabra, while vertically migrating on mangrove trees: Gut content, fatty acid, and stable isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, Andrea C.

    2008-09-01

    The snail, Littoraria scabra, is a dominant grazer on tropical mangrove trees, and may play an important role in the food web dynamics of these ecosystems. Its daily vertical migration to avoid tidal submersion results in exposure to varying food types and abundances. A comprehensive diet analysis - gut contents, fatty acid profiles, and stable isotopes ( δ15N and δ13C) - was conducted on snails migrating along mangrove trees and snails maintained in non-tidal mesocosms at Nananu-i-ra, Fiji Islands. In addition, fatty acid profiles and stable isotope signatures were obtained from surface scrapings of mangrove roots, trunks, branches, and leaves. Results from this multi-technique study indicate that L. scabra is mainly a generalist herbivore, which easily shifts diets depending on food availability, and which also has the ability to ingest and assimilate zooplankton. Ingestion of greater quantities of diverse foods (i.e., microalgae, foliose/corticated macrophytes, filamentous algae, mangrove tissues, zooplankton) takes place in the bottom areas of mangrove trees (roots and trunks) during low tides, while top areas (branches and leaves) provide limited food resources for snails feeding during high tides. However, snails preferentially assimilate microalgae and bacteria, regardless of their feeding habitat (different areas within mangrove trees and non-tidal mesocosms). The daily vertical movements of this snail result in variable feeding times, ingestion of different food types and amounts, and different assimilations. These findings also suggest that organic matter derived from mangrove tissues may not be readily transferred to higher trophic levels through this grazing pathway.

  6. Population dynamics of Tisbe holothuriae (Copepoda; Harpacticoida) in exploited mass cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudy, R.; Guerin, J. P.

    Three cultures of Tisbe holothuriae in 101 tanks were harvested each 7 or 10 to 12 days at a rate of 50%. The most frequently harvested culture showed the highest yield. At lower exploitation rates a higher rate of sea water renewal resulted in a higher production. In the cultures, variations in sex ratio, ovigerous rate, and number of eggs per sac contributed to a stabilization of the egg production. More frequent harvesting favoured the ovigerous rate and a higher renewal rate of the medium resulted in more eggs per sac. The growth rate of the population was estimated from calculated values for birth rate and death rate, and this estimate was compared with the observed growth rate. The quality of the sea water medium in mass cultures was investigated and discussed in its effects on population dynamics.

  7. Self-assembly growth of alloyed NiPt nanocrystals with holothuria-like shape for oxygen evolution reaction with enhanced catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Tao; Wang, Wenliang; Zhou, Xiaoli; Zhang, Li; Wang, Chunde; Jiang, Jun; Yang, Weilai; Yang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembly growth of alloyed NiPt nanocrystals with holothuria-like wire shape has been achieved via a facile and moderate hydrothermal process at 120 °C for 1 h from the reaction of nickel nitrate and chloroplatinic acid in alkaline solution in the presence of ethanediamine and hydrazine hydrate. The holothuria-like alloyed NiPt wires are Ni-rich in composition (Ni23.6Pt) and uniform in diameter with many tiny tips outstretched from the wires surface. The holothuria-like wires are assembled from granular subunits with the assistance of capping molecular of ethanediamine and the wires display an improved oxygen evolution reaction catalytic activity.

  8. Temporal and spatial analysis of enteric nervous system regeneration in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima

    PubMed Central

    Tossas, Karen; Qi‐Huang, Sunny; Cuyar, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There is limited information on the regeneration of the enteric nervous system (ENS) following major reconstruction of the digestive tract. We have studied ENS regeneration in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima which undergoes an organogenic process forming a new digestive tract at the tip of the mesentery. Our results show that (1) a degeneration of nerve fibers occurs early in the regeneration process, prior to eventual regeneration; (2) nerve fibers that innervate the regenerating intestine are of extrinsic and intrinsic origin; (3) innervation by extrinsic fibers occurs in a gradient that begins in the proximal area of the regenerate; (4) late events include the appearance of nerve fibers that project from the serosa into the connective tissue and of nerve bundles in the mesothelial layer; (5) neurons and neuroendocrine cells appear early following the formation of the epithelial layers. Our results provide not only a comparative biological approach to study ENS regeneration but also an alternative point of view for the study of enteric neuropathologies and for the innervation of organs made in vitro.

  9. Primary structure and chain conformation of fucoidan extracted from sea cucumber Holothuria tubulosa.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yaoguang; Hu, Yanfang; Yu, Long; McClements, David Julian; Xu, Xiaoqi; Liu, Guanchen; Xue, Changhu

    2016-01-20

    Knowledge of the structure of polysaccharides is essential for understanding and controlling their functional properties. In this study, fucoidan was extracted from Holothuria tubulosa, a species of sea cucumber that has recently become commercially important. The primary structure of the H. tubulosa fucoidan was clarified using a combination of enzymatic degradation, methylation analysis, and NMR, and its chain conformation was further elucidated by utilizing high performance size exclusion chromatography combined with multiple angle laser light scattering and viscometry. The fucoidan was composed of a tetrafucose repeating unit [ → 3-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp2,4(OSO3(-))-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1 → ]. Its sulfate content was determined to be 31.2 ± 1.6% and the weight-average molecular mass was 1567.6 ± 34.1 kDa. The molecule adapted a random coil conformation in 0.15M NaCl solution (pH 7.4) at 25 °C, with a root-mean-square radius of 63.9 ± 1.8 nm and a hydrodynamic radius of 44.5 ± 4.5 nm. This is the first report on the chain conformation of sea cucumber fucoidan. PMID:26572451

  10. Spatial distribution patterns and movements of Holothuria arguinensis in the Ria Formosa (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegenthaler, Andjin; Cánovas, Fernando; González-Wangüemert, Mercedes

    2015-08-01

    Holothurian populations are under pressure worldwide because of increasing demand for beche-de-mer, mainly for Asian consumption. Importations to this area from new temperate fishing grounds provide economic opportunities but also raise concerns regarding future over-exploitation. Studies on the habitat preferences and movements of sea cucumbers are important for the management of sea cucumber stocks and sizing of no-take zones, but information on the ecology and behavior of temperate sea cucumbers is scarce. This study describes the small-scale distribution and movement patterns of Holothuria arguinensis in the intertidal zone of the Ria Formosa national park (Portugal). Mark/recapture studies were performed to record their movements over time on different habitats (sand and seagrass). H. arguinensis preferred seagrass habitats and did not show a size or life stage-related spatial segregation. Its density was 563 ind. ha- 1 and mean movement speed was 10 m per day. Movement speed did not differ between habitats and the direction of movement was offshore during the day and shoreward during the night. Median home range size was 35 m2 and overlap among home ranges was 84%. H. arguinensis' high abundance, close association with seagrass and easy catchability in the intertidal zone, indicate the importance of including intertidal lagoons in future studies on temperate sea cucumber ecology since those systems might require different management strategies than fully submerged habitats.

  11. Discovery of Novel Saponins from the Viscera of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Yadollah; Zhang, Wei; Franco, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, sometimes referred to as marine ginseng, produce numerous compounds with diverse functions and are potential sources of active ingredients for agricultural, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical products. We examined the viscera of an Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni Massin et al. 2009, for novel bioactive compounds, with an emphasis on the triterpene glycosides, saponins. The viscera were extracted with 70% ethanol, and this extract was purified by a liquid-liquid partition process and column chromatography, followed by isobutanol extraction. The isobutanol saponin-enriched mixture was further purified by high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC) with high purity and recovery. The resultant purified polar samples were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS)/MS and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)/MS to identify saponins and characterize their molecular structures. As a result, at least 39 new saponins were identified in the viscera of H. lessoni with a high structural diversity, and another 36 reported triterpene glycosides, containing different aglycones and sugar moieties. Viscera samples have provided a higher diversity and yield of compounds than observed from the body wall. The high structural diversity and novelty of saponins from H. lessoni with potential functional activities presents a great opportunity to exploit their applications for industrial, agricultural and pharmaceutical use. PMID:24821624

  12. Structural Elucidation of Novel Saponins in the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Yadollah; Zhang, Wei; Chataway, Tim; Franco, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumbers are prolific producers of a wide range of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to purify and characterize one class of compound, the saponins, from the viscera of the Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni. The saponins were obtained by ethanolic extraction of the viscera and enriched by a liquid-liquid partition process and adsorption column chromatography. A high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC) was applied to the saponin-enriched mixture to obtain saponins with high purity. The resultant purified saponins were profiled using MALDI-MS/MS and ESI-MS/MS which revealed the structure of isomeric saponins to contain multiple aglycones and/or sugar residues. We have elucidated the structure of five novel saponins, Holothurins D/E and Holothurinosides X/Y/Z, along with seven reported triterpene glycosides, including sulfated and non-sulfated saponins containing a range of aglycones and sugar moieties, from the viscera of H. lessoni. The abundance of novel compounds from this species holds promise for biotechnological applications. PMID:25110919

  13. Identification of proteins associated with adhesive prints from Holothuria dofleinii Cuvierian tubules.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yong Y; Glattauer, Veronica; Skewes, Timothy D; McDevitt, Andrew; Elvin, Christopher M; Werkmeister, Jerome A; Graham, Lloyd D; Ramshaw, John A M

    2014-12-01

    Cuvierian tubules are expelled as a defence mechanism against predators by various species within the family Holothuridae. When the tubules are expelled, they become sticky almost immediately and ensnare the predator. The mechanism of this rapid adhesion is not clear, but proteins on the surface of the expelled tubules are widely believed to be involved. This study has examined such proteins from Holothuria dofleinii, sourced from adhesive prints left on glass after the removal of adhered tubules. Gel electrophoresis showed that seven strongly staining protein bands were consistently present in all samples, with molecular masses ranging from 89 to 17 kDa. N-terminal sequence data was obtained from two bands, while others seemed blocked. Tandem mass spectrometry-based sequencing of tryptic peptides derived from individual protein bands indicated that the proteins were unlikely to be homopolymers. PCR primers designed using the peptide sequences enabled us to amplify, clone and sequence cDNA segments relating to four gel bands; for each, the predicted translation product contained other peptide sequences observed for that band that had not been used in primer design. Database searches using the peptide and cDNA-encoded sequences suggest that two of the seven proteins are novel and one is a C-type lectin, while-surprisingly-at least three of the other four are closely related to enzymes associated with the pentose phosphate cycle and glycolysis. We discuss precedents in which lectins and metabolic enzymes are involved in attachment and adhesion phenomena. PMID:25086572

  14. Neuroanatomy of the tube feet and tentacles in Holothuria glaberrima (Holothuroidea, Echinodermata)

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A.; Abreu-Arbelo, José E.

    2010-01-01

    Echinoderms are a key group in understanding the evolution of the nervous system in the Metazoa. Remarkably, little is known about echinoderm neurobiology. The echinoderm podia, which are unique echinoderm modifications and comprise structures responsible for locomotion and feeding, have been largely neglected in nervous system studies. Here, we have applied immunohistological approaches using different neuronal markers to describe the neuroanatomy of the holothurian podia and its relation to the muscular component. We show, using the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima (Selenka, 1867), the direct innervation of the podia by the ectoneural component of the nervous system, as well as the existence of a connection between the nervous system components in the main nerves, the muscle, and the connective tissue. These findings confirm the ectoneural origin of the tube feet’s main nervous system and demonstrate its neuroanatomic complexity. We also show the presence of fibers and neurons within the tube feet mesothelium and connective tissue. The study of these simple structures will help us elucidate the echinoderms’ neuromuscular circuit and their evolutionary relationships. PMID:20461218

  15. Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfates from the Body Wall of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria forskali

    PubMed Central

    Panagos, Charalampos G.; Thomson, Derek S.; Moss, Claire; Hughes, Adam D.; Kelly, Maeve S.; Liu, Yan; Chai, Wengang; Venkatasamy, Radhakrishnan; Spina, Domenico; Page, Clive P.; Hogwood, John; Woods, Robert J.; Mulloy, Barbara; Bavington, Charlie D.; Uhrín, Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) extracted from the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali is composed of the following repeating trisaccharide unit: →3)GalNAcβ4,6S(1→4) [FucαX(1→3)]GlcAβ(1→, where X stands for different sulfation patterns of fucose (X = 3,4S (46%), 2,4S (39%), and 4S (15%)). As revealed by NMR and molecular dynamics simulations, the fCS repeating unit adopts a conformation similar to that of the Lex blood group determinant, bringing several sulfate groups into close proximity and creating large negative patches distributed along the helical skeleton of the CS backbone. This may explain the high affinity of fCS oligosaccharides for L- and P-selectins as determined by microarray binding of fCS oligosaccharides prepared by Cu2+-catalyzed Fenton-type and photochemical depolymerization. No binding to E-selectin was observed. fCS poly- and oligosaccharides display low cytotoxicity in vitro, inhibit human neutrophil elastase activity, and inhibit the migration of neutrophils through an endothelial cell layer in vitro. Although the polysaccharide showed some anti-coagulant activity, small oligosaccharide fCS fragments had much reduced anticoagulant properties, with activity mainly via heparin cofactor II. The fCS polysaccharides showed prekallikrein activation comparable with dextran sulfate, whereas the fCS oligosaccharides caused almost no effect. The H. forskali fCS oligosaccharides were also tested in a mouse peritoneal inflammation model, where they caused a reduction in neutrophil infiltration. Overall, the data presented support the action of fCS as an inhibitor of selectin interactions, which play vital roles in inflammation and metastasis progression. Future studies of fCS-selectin interaction using fCS fragments or their mimetics may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25147180

  16. LPS-Induced Genes in Intestinal Tissue of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria glaberrima

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Gómez, Francisco; Ortiz-Pineda, Pablo A.; Rivera-Cardona, Gabriela; García-Arrarás, José E.

    2009-01-01

    Metazoan immunity is mainly associated with specialized cells that are directly involved with the immune response. Nevertheless, both in vertebrates and invertebrates other organs might respond to immune activation and participate either directly or indirectly in the ongoing immune process. However, most of what is known about invertebrate immunity has been restricted to immune effector cells and little information is available on the immune responses of other tissues or organs. We now focus on the immune reactions of the intestinal tissue of an echinoderm. Our study employs a non-conventional model, the echinoderm Holothuria glaberrima, to identify intestinal molecules expressed after an immune challenge presented by an intra-coelomic injection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The expression profiles of intestinal genes expressed differentially between LPS-injected animals and control sea water-injected animals were determined using a custom-made Agilent microarray with 7209 sea cucumber intestinal ESTs. Fifty (50) unique sequences were found to be differentially expressed in the intestine of LPS-treated sea cucumbers. Seven (7) of these sequences represented homologues of known proteins, while the remaining (43) had no significant similarity with any protein, EST or RNA database. The known sequences corresponded to cytoskeletal proteins (Actin and alpha-actinin), metabolic enzymes (GAPDH, Ahcy and Gnmt), metal ion transport/metabolism (major yolk protein) and defense/recognition (fibrinogen-like protein). The expression pattern of 11 genes was validated using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Nine of these corroborated the microarray results and the remaining two showed a similar trend but without statistical significance. Our results show some of the molecular events by which the holothurian intestine responds to an immune challenge and provide important information to the study of the evolution of the immune response. PMID:19584914

  17. Cytotoxic Activity of Holothuria leucospilota Extract against Leishmania infantum In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Khademvatan, Shahram; Eskandari, Alborz; Saki, Jasem; Foroutan-Rad, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a tropical parasitic infection. The resistance and toxicity issues are the major complications and remain significant consequences related to the treatment of leishmaniasis with the recent and classical drugs. Thus there is an immediate requirement to develop new compounds for the treatment of this protozoan disease. Sea cucumbers or holothurians are potentially presented as the marine sources of antimicrobial and cytotoxic compounds. The aim of this study was investigation of in vitro antileishmanial activity of methanol extract of body wall, coelomic fluid, and cuvierian organs of Holothuria leucospilota obtained from coastal parts of Persian Gulf against Leishmania infantum promastigotes and axenic amastigotes. The colorimetric MTT assay was used to determine L. infantum promastigotes and axenic amastigotes viability at different concentrations of the extracts and drug control (Glucantime®) at time dependent manner and the results are represented as IC50 (50% of inhibitory concentration). Coelomic fluid was the most active extract among the three different extracts of H. leucospilota against L. infantum promastigotes and axenic amastigotes with IC50s of 62.33 μg/mL and 22.4 μg/mL and 73 μg/mL and 46 μg/mL at 48 and 72 hours after treatment, respectively. Cuvierian organs extract showed less toxicity with IC50s more than 1000 μg/mL for both Leishmania infantum axenic amastigotes and promastigotes forms after 48 and 72 hours of exposure. Results acquired from the present study propose that the sea cucumber H. leucospilota may be a provoking source of antileishmanial compounds and could be a lead source in the development of the potent antileishmanial and cytotoxic drugs. PMID:27022392

  18. Instantaneous adhesion of Cuvierian tubules in the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali.

    PubMed

    Demeuldre, Mélanie; Chinh Ngo, Thi; Hennebert, Elise; Wattiez, Ruddy; Leclère, Philippe; Flammang, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The peculiar Cuvierian tubules of sea cucumbers function as a defense mechanism. They thwart attacks by creating a sticky network composed of elongated tubules within which the potential predator is entangled in a matter of seconds and thus immobilized. Cuvierian tubules are typical instantaneous adhesive organs in which tissue integrity is destroyed during the release of the adhesive secretion. However, very little information is available about this adhesion process. The adhesive epithelium-the mesothelium-and the sticky material it produces were studied in the species Holothuria forskali using different microscopy techniques (light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy). The mesothelium consists of two cell types-peritoneocytes and granular cells-organized in superimposed layers. In tubules before expulsion, peritoneocytes form an outer protective cell layer preventing adhesion when not needed. After expulsion, the elongation process removes this protective layer and allows granular cells to unfold and to become exposed at the tubule surface. At this stage, Cuvierian tubules are still not sticky. Upon contact with a surface, however, granular cells release their granule contents. Once released, this material changes in aspect, swells, and spreads readily on any type of substrate where it forms a thin homogeneous layer. After tubule peeling, this layer remains on the surface but is often contaminated with collagen fibers. Atomic force microscopy demonstrated the adhesive layer to be made up of globular nanostructures measuring about 70 nm in diameter and to be more adhesive than the collagen fibers left on it. The morphological organization of Cuvierian tubules therefore allows contact-dependent deposition of an adhesive material presenting a high affinity for various surfaces. It is certainly an adaptive advantage for a defense organ to be able to entangle different types of predators. PMID

  19. Cytotoxic Activity of Holothuria leucospilota Extract against Leishmania infantum In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Khademvatan, Shahram; Eskandari, Alborz; Saki, Jasem; Foroutan-Rad, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a tropical parasitic infection. The resistance and toxicity issues are the major complications and remain significant consequences related to the treatment of leishmaniasis with the recent and classical drugs. Thus there is an immediate requirement to develop new compounds for the treatment of this protozoan disease. Sea cucumbers or holothurians are potentially presented as the marine sources of antimicrobial and cytotoxic compounds. The aim of this study was investigation of in vitro antileishmanial activity of methanol extract of body wall, coelomic fluid, and cuvierian organs of Holothuria leucospilota obtained from coastal parts of Persian Gulf against Leishmania infantum promastigotes and axenic amastigotes. The colorimetric MTT assay was used to determine L. infantum promastigotes and axenic amastigotes viability at different concentrations of the extracts and drug control (Glucantime®) at time dependent manner and the results are represented as IC50 (50% of inhibitory concentration). Coelomic fluid was the most active extract among the three different extracts of H. leucospilota against L. infantum promastigotes and axenic amastigotes with IC50s of 62.33 μg/mL and 22.4 μg/mL and 73 μg/mL and 46 μg/mL at 48 and 72 hours after treatment, respectively. Cuvierian organs extract showed less toxicity with IC50s more than 1000 μg/mL for both Leishmania infantum axenic amastigotes and promastigotes forms after 48 and 72 hours of exposure. Results acquired from the present study propose that the sea cucumber H. leucospilota may be a provoking source of antileishmanial compounds and could be a lead source in the development of the potent antileishmanial and cytotoxic drugs. PMID:27022392

  20. Hemolytic and cytotoxic properties of saponin purified from Holothuria leucospilota sea cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Mozhgan; Parivar, Kazem; Baharara, Javad; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin; Asili, Javad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Holothuroids (sea cucumbers) are members of the phylum echinodermata, which produce saponins. Saponins exhibit a wide spectrum of pharmacological and biological activities. In this study, we isolated the crude saponins from the body wall of the dominant Iranian species of sea cucumber, Holothuria leucospilota (H. leucospilota). The purpose of this study was to confirm the presence of saponins in the Persian Gulf H. leucospilota and study the hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of these compounds. Methods: The body wall of sea cucumber was dried and powdered and the crude saponins were isolated using various solvents. The crude saponins were further purified by column chromatography using HP-20 resin. The foam test, Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), hemolytic assay, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of saponins. Cytotoxicity was analyzed using a 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. Results: The foam test, hemolytic assay, and TLC supported the presence of saponin compounds in the 80% ethanol fraction of H. leucospilota. The infrared (IR) spectrum of the extract showed hydroxyl (-OH), alkyl (C-H), ether (C-O) and ester (–C=O) absorption characteristic of teriterpenoid saponins. The C-O-C absorption indicated glycoside linkages to the sapogenins. The crude saponin extracted from sea cucumber was cytotoxic to A549 cells. Conclusion: The 80% ethanol fraction of saponin isolated from H. leucospilota exhibited hemolytic activity and offers promise as an anti-cancer candidate. PMID:26989736

  1. Morphological and Molecular Identification of Holothuria (Merthensiothuria) leucospilota and Stichopus horrens from Pangkor Island, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Rahim; Rehan, Maryam Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    This preliminary study aimed to identify a commercial gamat species, Stichopus horrens Selenka, 1867, and a timun laut species, Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota (Brandt, 1835), from Pangkor Island, Perak, Malaysia, employing morphological techniques based on the shape of the ossicles and molecular techniques based on the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene. In Malaysia, a gamat is defined as a sea cucumber species of the family Stichopodidae with medicinal value, and timun laut refers to non-gamat species. S. horrens is very popular on Pangkor Island as a main ingredient in the traditional production of air gamat and minyak gamat, while H. leucospilota is the most abundant species in Malaysia. In contrast to previous studies, internal body parts (the respiratory tree and gastrointestine) were examined in this study to obtain better inferences based on morphology. The results showed that there were no ossicles present in the gastrointestine of H. leucospilota, and this characteristic is suggested as a unique diagnostic marker for the timun laut species. In addition, the presence of Y-shaped rods in the respiratory tree of S. horrens subsequently supported the potential to use internal body parts to identify the gamat species. Phylogenetic analysis of the COI mtDNA gene of the sea cucumber specimens using the neighbour-joining method and maximum likelihood methods further confirmed the species status of H. leucospilota and S. horrens from Pangkor Island, Perak, Malaysia. The COI mtDNA gene sequences were registered with GenBank, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), US National Library of Medicine (GenBank accession no.: KC405565-KC405568). Although additional specimens from various localities will be required to produce more conclusive results, the current findings provide better insight into the importance of complementary approaches involving morphological and molecular techniques in the identification of the two

  2. LPS-induced genes in intestinal tissue of the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Gómez, Francisco; Ortiz-Pineda, Pablo A; Rivera-Cardona, Gabriela; García-Arrarás, José E

    2009-01-01

    Metazoan immunity is mainly associated with specialized cells that are directly involved with the immune response. Nevertheless, both in vertebrates and invertebrates other organs might respond to immune activation and participate either directly or indirectly in the ongoing immune process. However, most of what is known about invertebrate immunity has been restricted to immune effector cells and little information is available on the immune responses of other tissues or organs. We now focus on the immune reactions of the intestinal tissue of an echinoderm. Our study employs a non-conventional model, the echinoderm Holothuria glaberrima, to identify intestinal molecules expressed after an immune challenge presented by an intra-coelomic injection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The expression profiles of intestinal genes expressed differentially between LPS-injected animals and control sea water-injected animals were determined using a custom-made Agilent microarray with 7209 sea cucumber intestinal ESTs. Fifty (50) unique sequences were found to be differentially expressed in the intestine of LPS-treated sea cucumbers. Seven (7) of these sequences represented homologues of known proteins, while the remaining (43) had no significant similarity with any protein, EST or RNA database. The known sequences corresponded to cytoskeletal proteins (Actin and alpha-actinin), metabolic enzymes (GAPDH, Ahcy and Gnmt), metal ion transport/metabolism (major yolk protein) and defense/recognition (fibrinogen-like protein). The expression pattern of 11 genes was validated using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Nine of these corroborated the microarray results and the remaining two showed a similar trend but without statistical significance. Our results show some of the molecular events by which the holothurian intestine responds to an immune challenge and provide important information to the study of the evolution of the immune response. PMID:19584914

  3. Morphological and Molecular Identification of Holothuria (Merthensiothuria) leucospilota and Stichopus horrens from Pangkor Island, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Rahim; Rehan, Maryam Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    This preliminary study aimed to identify a commercial gamat species, Stichopus horrens Selenka, 1867, and a timun laut species, Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota (Brandt, 1835), from Pangkor Island, Perak, Malaysia, employing morphological techniques based on the shape of the ossicles and molecular techniques based on the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene. In Malaysia, a gamat is defined as a sea cucumber species of the family Stichopodidae with medicinal value, and timun laut refers to non-gamat species. S. horrens is very popular on Pangkor Island as a main ingredient in the traditional production of air gamat and minyak gamat, while H. leucospilota is the most abundant species in Malaysia. In contrast to previous studies, internal body parts (the respiratory tree and gastrointestine) were examined in this study to obtain better inferences based on morphology. The results showed that there were no ossicles present in the gastrointestine of H. leucospilota, and this characteristic is suggested as a unique diagnostic marker for the timun laut species. In addition, the presence of Y-shaped rods in the respiratory tree of S. horrens subsequently supported the potential to use internal body parts to identify the gamat species. Phylogenetic analysis of the COI mtDNA gene of the sea cucumber specimens using the neighbour-joining method and maximum likelihood methods further confirmed the species status of H. leucospilota and S. horrens from Pangkor Island, Perak, Malaysia. The COI mtDNA gene sequences were registered with GenBank, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), US National Library of Medicine (GenBank accession no.: KC405565-KC405568). Although additional specimens from various localities will be required to produce more conclusive results, the current findings provide better insight into the importance of complementary approaches involving morphological and molecular techniques in the identification of the two

  4. Identification of endocannabinoid system-modulating N-alkylamides from Heliopsis helianthoides var. scabra and Lepidium meyenii.

    PubMed

    Hajdu, Zsanett; Nicolussi, Simon; Rau, Mark; Lorántfy, László; Forgo, Peter; Hohmann, Judit; Csupor, Dezső; Gertsch, Jürg

    2014-07-25

    The discovery of the interaction of plant-derived N-alkylamides (NAAs) and the mammalian endocannabinoid system (ECS) and the existence of a plant endogenous N-acylethanolamine signaling system have led to the re-evaluation of this group of compounds. Herein, the isolation of seven NAAs and the assessment of their effects on major protein targets in the ECS network are reported. Four NAAs, octadeca-2E,4E,8E,10Z,14Z-pentaene-12-ynoic acid isobutylamide (1), octadeca-2E,4E,8E,10Z,14Z-pentaene-12-ynoic acid 2'-methylbutylamide (2), hexadeca-2E,4E,9Z-triene-12,14-diynoic acid isobutylamide (3), and hexadeca-2E,4E,9,12-tetraenoic acid 2'-methylbutylamide (4), were identified from Heliopsis helianthoides var. scabra. Compounds 2-4 are new natural products, while 1 was isolated for the first time from this species. The previously described macamides, N-(3-methoxybenzyl)-(9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadecatrienamide (5), N-benzyl-(9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadecatrienamide (6), and N-benzyl-(9Z,12Z)-octadecadienamide (7), were isolated from Lepidium meyenii (Maca). N-Methylbutylamide 4 and N-benzylamide 7 showed submicromolar and selective binding affinities for the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (Ki values of 0.31 and 0.48 μM, respectively). Notably, compound 7 also exhibited weak fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition (IC50 = 4 μM) and a potent inhibition of anandamide cellular uptake (IC50 = 0.67 μM) that was stronger than the inhibition obtained with the controls OMDM-2 and UCM707. The pronounced ECS polypharmacology of compound 7 highlights the potential involvement of the arachidonoyl-mimicking 9Z,12Z double-bond system in the linoleoyl group for the overall cannabimimetic action of NAAs. This study provides additional strong evidence of the endocannabinoid substrate mimicking of plant-derived NAAs and uncovers a direct and indirect cannabimimetic action of the Peruvian Maca root. PMID:24972328

  5. Antitumor and antifungal activities of organic extracts of seacucumber Holothuria atra from the southeast coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhinakaran, Devaraj Isaac; Lipton, Aaron Premnath

    2015-02-01

    In phylum Echinodermata, the family Holothuridae is distinguished by its capacity of bioactive compounds. Sea cucumber Holothuria atra is commonly known as the lollyfish. The antifungal activity was detected using agar well diffusion method against the various fungal strains such as Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavis, Candida albicans and Penicillium chrysogenum. Relatively high antifungal activity was seen against Candida albicans at 100 μL-1 concentration of extracts. Zone of inhibition was measured at 18 mm of diameter. The anti-tumor activities were detected against the Vero and Hep2 cell lines using MTT assay. The cells were treated with H. atra extract at concentrations 0.078-10mg mL-1. The extract showed high proliferative activity against the Hep2 cells. The body wall extracts of sea cucumber ( H. atra) showed effective antifungal and antitumor activities. All these findings suggest that the extracts could be used for the development of drugs.

  6. Influence of three bacteria strains on the population dynamics of Tisbe holothuriae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guérin, J.-P.; Rieper-Kirchner, M.

    1991-12-01

    The influence of three bacteria strains (Helgo 21, NCMB 308 and NCMB 13) on the life cycle of Tisbe holothuriae Humes 1957 was investigated under constant experimental conditions (19 20°C and 38‰ S). For each of the first six experiments, females (F1), whose life history was followed, were obtained from a common mother (F0). Experiment no 7 was carried out with adult females (F2) obtained during exp. 4. Females were bred in 50-ml dishes and transferred to a fresh container as soon as they produced a new egg-sac. Offspring (F2: exp. 1 6; F3: exp. 7) from successive egg-layings were counted as soon as they moulted into adults. Larval mortality was estimated by enumeration of the adults issuing from a known number of nauplii that had been fed different bacteria strains. Some difficulties arose in obtaining adults with NCMB 13: it appeared to be necessary to provide this first generation with a small quantity of TetraMin (commercial fish food) in order to initiate reproduction and obtain a second generation. However, in exp. 4, F2 adult females fed NCMB 13 became ovigerous and fertile without needing TetraMin. This result is interpreted as denoting an indispensable period of adaptation to the diet, which probably requires important changes at the enzymatic level. One experiment was carried out with Helgo 21; another one with NCMB 308; two with NCMB 13 (with a unique additional meal of TetraMin to allow reproduction), two with NCMB 13 during larval development, then only tetraMin during adult stage, and one with NCMB 13 alone (with females issued from exp. 4). Data obtained regarding longevity, duration of reproduction period, number of egg-sacs and number of adult descendants show an important variability between bacteria strains. Lower results were almost always obtained with Helgo 21 and NCMB 308. An interesting result lies in the maximum number of egg-sacs: low with Helgo 21 and NCMB 308 (5), but very ample with NCMB 13 (11 in one experiment). In experiment 7

  7. Protective and Curative Effects of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra Extract against DMBA-Induced Hepatorenal Diseases in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dakrory, Ahmed I.; Fahmy, Sohair R.; Soliman, Amel M.; Mohamed, Ayman S.; Amer, Sayed A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a common mechanism contributing to the initiation and progression of hepatic damage. Hence there is a great demand for the development of agents with potent antioxidant effect. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of Holothuria atra extract (HaE) as an antioxidant against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene- (DMBA-) induced hepatorenal dysfunction. Experimental animals were divided into two main groups: protective and curative. Each group was then divided into five subgroups pre- or posttreated either with distilled water (DMBA subgroups) or with HaE (200 mg/kg body weight) for seven and fourteen days. Single oral administration of DMBA (15 mg/kg body weight) to Wistar rats resulted in a significant increase in the serum liver enzymes and kidney function's parameters. DMBA increased level of liver malondialdehyde (MDA), decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) in the liver tissue, and induced liver histopathological alterations. Pre- or posttreatment with HaE orally for 14 days significantly reversed the hepatorenal alterations induced following DMBA administration. In conclusion, HaE exhibits good hepatoprotective, curative, and antioxidant potential against DMBA-induced hepatorenal dysfunction in rats that might be due to decreased free radical generation. PMID:25821811

  8. HGA-2, a novel galactoside-binding lectin from the sea cucumber Holothuria grisea binds to bacterial cells.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Arthur Alves; Carneiro, Rômulo Farias; de Melo Silva, Winnie; Moura, Raniere da Mata; Silva, Giselle Cristina; de Sousa, Oscarina Viana; de Sousa Saboya, Jefferson Pablo; Nascimento, Kyria Santiago do; Saker-Sampaio, Silvana; Nagano, Celso Shiniti; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Sampaio, Alexandre Holanda

    2014-03-01

    A novel lectin, HGA-2, was isolated from the sea cucumber Holothuria grisea. The protein was isolated by a single chromatographic step using a column of Guar Gum as affinity. HGA-2 showed an apparent molecular mass of 17 kDa and 34 kDa under reducing and nonreducing conditions, respectively. The hemagglutinating activity was specific for rabbit erythrocytes, showing no activity for human blood A, B and O. Its hemagglutinating activity was inhibited by carbohydrates containing galactose, with higher affinity for GalNAc and glycoprotein porcine stomach mucin (PSM). HGA-2 was stable at pH 6-10, significantly declining at pH 5 and a temperature of 40°C, with its activity being abolished at 100 °C. The HGA-2 protein was found to be Ca(2+)-dependent; it was highly toxic against Artemia nauplii and able to recognize and agglutinate cells of Escherichia coli. Amino acid sequences of tryptic peptides of HGA-2 strongly suggest that HGA-2 is a member of the C-type lectin family. PMID:24393613

  9. Ependymin, a gene involved in regeneration and neuroplasticity in vertebrates, is overexpressed during regeneration in the echinoderm Holothuria glaberrima.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Castillo, Edna C; Medina-Ortíz, Wanda E; Roig-López, José L; García-Arrarás, José E

    2004-06-01

    We report the characterization of an ependymin-related gene (EpenHg) from a regenerating intestine cDNA library of the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima. This finding is remarkable because no ependymin sequence has ever been reported from invertebrates. Database comparisons of the conceptual translation of the EpenHg gene reveal 63% similarity (47% identity) with mammalian ependymin-related proteins (MERPs) and close relationship with the frog and piscine ependymins. We also report the partial sequences of ependymin representatives from another species of sea cucumber and from a sea urchin species. Conventional and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCRs) show that the gene is expressed in several echinoderm tissues, including esophagus, mesenteries, gonads, respiratory trees, hemal system, tentacles and body wall. Moreover, the ependymin product in the intestine is overexpressed during sea cucumber intestinal regeneration. The discovery of ependymins in echinoderms, a group well known for their regenerative capacities, can give us an insight on the evolution and roles of ependymin molecules. PMID:15256263

  10. Elucidation of molecular diversity and body distribution of saponins in the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali (Echinodermata) by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Séverine; Gerbaux, Pascal; Flammang, Patrick

    2009-02-01

    Sea cucumbers contain triterpene glycosides called saponins. We investigated the complex saponin mixture extracted from the common Mediterranean species Holothuria forskali. Two different body components were analyzed separately: the body wall (which protects the animal and is moreover the most important organ in terms of surface and weight) and the Cuvierian tubules (a defensive organ that can be expelled on predators in response to an attack). MALDI/MS and MALDI/MS/MS were used to detect saponins and describe their molecular structures. As isomers have been found in the Cuvierian tubules, LC/MS and LC/MS/MS were performed to identify each saponin separately. Twelve saponins have been detected in the body wall and 26 in the Cuvierian tubules. All the saponins from the body wall are also present in the Cuvierian tubules but the latter also contain 14 specific saponins. The presence of isomeric saponins complicated structure elucidation for the whole set but 16 saponins have been described tentatively. Among these, 3 had already been reported in the literature as holothurinosides A and C, and desholothurin A. Molecular structures have been proposed for the 13 others which, in the present work, have been provisionally named holothurinosides E, F, G, H, I, A(1), C(1), E(1), F(1), G(1), H(1) and I(1) and desholothurin A(1). The diversity and organ specificity of the saponins described here are much higher than what had been reported to date in any sea cucumber species. PMID:19036349

  11. Immune mediators of sea-cucumber Holothuria tubulosa (Echinodermata) as source of novel antimicrobial and anti-staphylococcal biofilm agents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate coelomocytes, immune mediators cells in the echinoderm Holothuria tubulosa, as an unusual source of antimicrobial and antibiofilm agents. The activity of the 5kDa peptide fraction of the cytosol from H. tubulosa coelomocytes (5-HCC) was tested against a reference group of Gram-negative and Gram-positive human pathogens. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 125 to 500 mg/ml were determined against tested strains. The observed biological activity of 5-HCC could be due to two novel peptides, identified by capillary RP-HPLC/nESI-MS/MS, which present the common chemical-physical characteristics of antimicrobial peptides. Such peptides were chemically synthesized and their antimicrobial activity was tested. The synthetic peptides showed broad-spectrum activity at 12.5 mg/ml against the majority of the tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains, and they were also able to inhibit biofilm formation in a significant percentage at a concentration of 3.1 mg/ml against staphylococcal and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. The immune mediators in H. tubulosa are a source of novel antimicrobial peptides for the development of new agents against biofilm bacterial communities that are often intrinsically resistant to conventional antibiotics. PMID:23800329

  12. In vitro decondensation of the sperm chromatin in Holothuria tubulosa (sea cucumber) not affecting proteolysis of basic nuclear proteins.

    PubMed

    del Valle, Luis J

    2005-06-01

    Sea urchin and sea star oocyte extracts contain proteolytic activities that are active against sperm basic nuclear proteins (SNBP). This SNBP degradation has been related to the decondensation of sperm chromatin as a possible model to male pronuclei formation. We have studied the presence of this proteolytic activity in Holothuria tubulosa (sea cucumber) and its possible relationship with sperm nuclei decondensation. The mature oocyte extracts from H. tubulosa contain a proteolytic activity to SNBP located in the macromolecular fraction of the egg-jelly layer. SNBP degradation occurred both on sperm nuclei and on purified SNBP, histones being more easily degraded than protein Ø(o) (sperm-specific protein). SNBP degradation was found to be dependent on concentration, incubation time, presence of Ca(2+), pH, and this activity could be a serine-proteinase. Thermal denaturalization of the oocyte extracts (80 degrees C, 10-15 min) inactivates its proteolytic activity on SNBP but does not affect sperm nuclei decondensation. These results would suggest that sperm nuclei decondensation occurs by a mechanism different from SNBP degradation. Thus, the sperm nuclei decondensation occurs by a thermostable factor(s) and the removal of linker SNBP (H1 and protein Ø(o)) will be a first condition in the process of sperm chromatin remodeling. PMID:16026541

  13. Assessment of trace metal contamination in the sea cucumber (Holothuria tubulosa) and sediments from the Dardanelles Strait (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Turk Culha, Saniye; Dereli, Hakkı; Karaduman, Fatma Rabia; Culha, Mehmet

    2016-06-01

    This study was performed to determine the concentrations of some trace metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn, and Fe) in Holothuria tubuosa (Gmelin, 1788) belonging to Echinoderm species and in sediments that they live at three different stations (Gelibolu, Umur Bey/Lapseki, and Dardanos) on Dardanelles Strait between April 2013 and March 2014. The mean trace metal concentrations determined in H. tubulosa and sediment were as follows: Cd 0.18 mg/kg, Cu 2.43 mg/kg, Pb 2.09 mg/kg, Ni 14.58 mg/kg, Zn 16.86 mg/kg, and Fe 73.46 mg/kg and Cd 0.70 mg/kg, Cu 5.03 mg/kg, Pb 14.57 mg/kg, Ni 27.15 mg/kg, Zn 54.52 mg/kg, and Fe 3779.9 mg/kg, respectively. It was detected that the statistical difference between trace metals determined seasonally in muscle tissue of H. tubulosa was significant (p > 0.05). As a result of the study, it was detected that H. tubulosa is a bioindicator species in determining Ni trace metal in sediment. The results were compared to the limit values of National and International Food Safety, and it was detected that Cd and Ni concentrations measured in sediment were above LEL of Ni and Cd concentrations according to Sediment Quality Guidelines. PMID:26931662

  14. Apoptosis inducing capacity of Holothuria arenicola in CT26 colon carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Baharara, Javad; Amini, Elaheh; Afzali, Mahbubeh; Nikdel, Najme; Mostafapour, Asma; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Sea cucumber is one of the classes of echinoderms, which is considered as a health marine product and possess various biological characteristics with therapeutic application. The present investigation attempted to evaluate the potential of anti-cancer Persian Gulf sea cucumber species Holothuria arenicola (H. arenicola) aqueous extract on mice colon carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Materials and Methods: The CT26 carcinoma cells were treated with various concentrations of extract in 24 and 48 hr, and then its anti-proliferative effect was measured by MTT assay and morphological observations. The apoptotic effect was examined by fluorescence microscopy (DNA fragmentation assay), Flow cytometry, caspase-3 and -9 colorimetric assays. The in vivo anti-tumor efficacy of sea cucumber extract on CT26 tumor cells transplanted in BALB/c mice was also investigated. Results: The results showed that the water extract of sea cucumber revealed remarkable anti-proliferative effect on CT26 tumor cells with IC50= 31 µg/ml with recruitment of intrinsic apoptotic pathway in vitro. In addition, the colon tumor volume in treated groups remarkably reduced in homozygous mice. Histopathological examination elucidated that sea cucumber extract attenuated tumor size and volume along with apoptosis characteristics. Moreover, RT-PCR analysis revealed that sea cucumber extract induced intrinsic apoptosis in vivo through suppression of Bcl-2 expression. Conclusion: Our data confirmed this notion that sea cucumber administrates anti-cancer effect that can be used as complementary in preclinical experiments, so further characterization are recommended for detection sea cucumber metabolites and clinical application. PMID:27279978

  15. Discovery, structural characterization and functional analysis of alpha-2-macroglobulin, a novel immune-related molecule from Holothuria atra.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jing; Ren, Chunhua; Xia, Jianjun; Chen, Ting; Yu, Zonghe; Hu, Chaoqun

    2016-07-10

    The non-specific protease inhibitor alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) is a key macromolecular glycoprotein that involved in host immune defense against pathogens in vertebrates and invertebrates. However, no research regarding A2M has been developed in echinoderms to date. In this study, the full-length cDNA of A2M was cloned from the sea cucumber (Holothuria atra), which is a tropical species widely distributed along the coasts of the South China Sea and designated HaA2M. HaA2M possesses all three conserved functional domains of known A2M proteins, including the bait region domain, thioester domain and receptor-binding domain. Compared to fish and shrimp A2Ms, the histidine residue from the catalytical regions is well conserved in HaA2M. HaA2M mRNA was predominantly expressed in coelomocytes and, to a lesser extent, in the body wall, intestine and respiratory tree. A2M activity was detected in the coelomic fluids of H. atra. The mRNA expression and activity levels were investigated in the major immune tissues and coelomic fluids of H. atra after challenge with inactivated Vibrio alginolyticus or polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid [Poly (I: C)]. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of HaA2M resulted in a significant reduction of HaA2M gene transcript level (86%). RNAi-mediated silencing of HaA2M gene significantly decreased the A2M activity (38%) and increased the number of viable bacteria (2.8-fold) in the coelomic fluids of H. atra infected by V. alginolyticus. Our study, as a whole, supplied the evidences for HaA2M as an immune-relevant molecule and it might have multiple functions in the innate immune system of H. atra. PMID:27033585

  16. Putative mechanism for apoptosis-inducing properties of crude saponin isolated from sea cucumber (Holothuria leucospilota) as an antioxidant compound

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Mozhgan; Parivar, Kazem; Baharara, Javad; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin; Asili, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Marine organisms are known as a potential source of natural products, which contain bioactive substances with therapeutic properties. Sea cucumbers are prominent among marine organisms because of their dietary and therapeutic applications. In addition, they have capacity of synthesizing saponins molecules and other metabolites with therapeutic properties such as antitumor, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and pro-apoptotic effects of sea cucumber saponins (SCS) isolated from Holothuria leucospilota species. Materials and Methods: Evaluation of antioxidant activity of SCS was carried out by DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), power reducing and total antioxidant assays. The anti-proliferative effect was studied by MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Mechanisms leading to apoptosis were also evaluated by fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and real time PCR. Results: The results showed that the DPPH and ABTS activities increased in a dose dependent manner. The reducing capacity enhanced with increasing concentration of the saponin extract (0 to 2 mg/ml). The SCS exhibited moderate total antioxidant activity. Evaluation of anti-proliferative effect revealed that SCS with IC50 of about 6 μg/ml, can display a good cytotoxic activity in a dose dependent manner. Further apoptosis induction was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Sea cucumber saponin was also found to exert a pro-apoptotic effect by increasing the expression of Bax and decreasing the expression of Bcl2. Conclusion: These results indicate that the SCS may act as a natural antioxidant and antitumor agent. PMID:25810893

  17. Antiseptic effect of sea cucumber (Holothuria atra) against multi-organ failure induced by sepsis: Molecular and histopathological study

    PubMed Central

    SAAD, DALIA Y.; BAIOMY, AHMED A.; MANSOUR, AHMED A.

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection and severe sepsis patients can develop acute lung and liver injury. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of Holothuria atra methanolic body wall extract (HaE), as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent against induced sepsis in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) rat model. In total, 30 males albino rats were divided into three groups (n=10 each) as follows: Sham (Sh), which was used as negative control; sepsis (Se), which was used as a positive control and was subjected to CLP surgery; and Ho, which was subjected to CLP and fed with 200 mg/kg (body weight) of HaE, once daily for 7 days. Subsequently, the expression of various genes was detected by polymerase chain reaction, while liver and lung tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry. The expression of Caspase-3 was significantly reduced in liver and lung tissues in the Ho group, while the expression levels of Gsta2, Cat and Sod1 genes were slightly reduced in the Ho group, when compared with the Se group. In addition, expression levels of tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ, liver interleukin (IL)1b and lung IL1a were reduced in the Ho group compared with the Se group. Furthermore, histopathological changes were observed in liver tissues of the Se group, including congestion of hepatoportal blood vessel and focal hepatic necrosis, while lung tissues showed marked edema, hemorrhage and alveolar septal thickening. The Ho group showed apparent normal hepatic parenchyma and slight interstitial pneumonia. Immunohistochemical staining of caspase-3 in liver and lung tissues showed no expression in the Sh group, strong expression in the Se group and moderate expression in the Ho group. In conclusion, HaE demonstrated beneficial effect against induced sepsis, which may be attributed to its antioxidant and antiapoptotic activities. PMID:27347042

  18. Tensilin-like stiffening protein from Holothuria leucospilota does not induce the stiffest state of catch connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Tamori, Masaki; Yamada, Akira; Nishida, Naoto; Motobayashi, Yumiko; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Motokawa, Tatsuo

    2006-05-01

    The dermis of sea cucumbers is a catch connective tissue or mutable connective tissue that exhibits large changes in mechanical properties. A stiffening protein, tensilin, has been isolated from the sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa. We purified a similar protein, H-tensilin, from Holothuria leucospilota, which belongs to a different family to C. frondosa. H-tensilin appeared as a single band with an apparent molecular mass of 34 kDa on SDS-PAGE. No sugar chain was detected. Tryptic fragments of the protein had homology to known tensilin. H-tensilin aggregated isolated collagen fibrils in vitro in a buffer containing 0.5 mol l(-1) NaCl with or without 10 mmol l(-1) Ca(2+). The activity of H-tensilin was quantitatively studied by dynamic mechanical tests on the isolated dermis. H-tensilin increased stiffness of the dermis in the soft state, induced by Ca(2+)-free artificial seawater, to a level comparable to that of the standard state, which was the state found in the dermis rested in artificial seawater with normal ionic condition. H-tensilin decreased the energy dissipation ratio of the soft dermis to a level comparable to that of the standard state. When H-tensilin was applied on the dermis in the standard state, it did not alter stiffness nor dissipation ratio. The subsequent application of artificial seawater in which the potassium concentration was raised to 100 mmol l(-1) increased stiffness by one order of magnitude. These findings suggest that H-tensilin is involved in the changes from the soft state to the standard state and that some stiffening factors other than tensilin are necessary for the changes from the standard to the stiff state. PMID:16621940

  19. The effects of body temperature and mass on the postprandial metabolic responses of the African egg-eating snakes Dasypeltis scabra and Dasypeltis inornata.

    PubMed

    Greene, Sara; McConnachie, Suzanne; Secor, Stephen; Perrin, Mike

    2013-06-01

    African egg-eating snakes (Dasypeltis) feed only on freshly laid bird eggs which they perforate within their esophagus before swallowing the liquid contents and regurgitating the empty shell. Compared to a snake's typical intact meal, the liquid diet of Dasypeltis would expectedly generate a more moderate postprandial metabolic response and specific dynamic action (SDA). Free-ranging Dasypeltis feed over a range of ambient temperatures and thereby experience predicted temperature-dependent shifts in the duration and magnitude of their postprandial metabolic response. Such shifts would undoubtedly be shared among different species and age classes of Dasypeltis. To examine these expectations, we measured pre- and postprandial metabolic rates of adult Dasypeltis inornata and adult and neonate Dasypeltis scabra in response to liquid egg meals weighing 20% of snake body mass at 20, 25, 27, 30, and 32 °C. With an increase in body temperature, postprandial metabolic profiles of neonate and adult snakes became narrower and shorter in duration. Specific dynamic action varied among temperature treatments, increasing from 20 to 32 °C. Standard metabolic rate, postprandial peak metabolic rate, and SDA scaled with mass exponents that typically did not differ from 1.0. As expected, Dasypeltis digesting a liquid egg diet experienced a more modest postprandial response and SDA, expending on average only 10.6% of the meal's energy on the breakdown, absorption, and assimilation of the egg meal, whereas other colubrids consuming intact rodent or fish meals expend on average 16.3% of the meal's energy on digestion and assimilation. Actively foraging and feeding throughout the avian egg laying season enable Dasypeltis to survive when eggs are not available. The adaptive suite of traits that enable Dasypeltis to consume eggs of large relative size and ingest only the liquid contents may also be joined by physiological adaptations specific to their liquid diet and extended bouts of

  20. Baseline of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the surface sediment and sea cucumbers (Holothuria leucospilota and Stichopus hermanni) in the northern parts of Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Khazaali, Aida; Kunzmann, Andreas; Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Baniamam, Mehrnaz

    2016-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the surface sediments and in the sea cucumbers (Holothuria leucospilota and Stichopus hermanni) from around six Islands in the northern parts of Persian Gulf. The ranges of the average concentrations of PAHs in surface sediments, H. leucospilota and S. hermanni were 10.33-186.16ngg(-1) dw, 12.49-505.44ngg(-1) dw and 8.08-389.39ngg(-1) dw, respectively. The spatial distribution of PAHs reveals that pollutant concentration is relatively higher at the western parts of Persian Gulf. International sedimentary quality guidelines (TEL-PEL) indicated a low probability of harmful effects to benthic organisms. PAH source identification showed that the PAHs in the sediments come from pyrogenic and mixed origin. PMID:27216041

  1. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal extracts of Cibotium barometz, Gentiana scabra, Dioscorea batatas, Cassia tora, and Taxillus chinensis inhibit SARS-CoV replication

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Chih-Chun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Liang, Po-Huang; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2011-01-01

    Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix (龍膽 lóng dǎn; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra), Dioscoreae Rhizoma (山藥 shān yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas), Cassiae Semen (決明子 jué míng zǐ; the dried seed of Cassia tora) and Loranthi Ramus (桑寄生 sāng jì shēng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis) (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively), and two from Rhizoma Cibotii (狗脊 gǒu jǐ; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz) (designated as CBE and CBM), were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 μg/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50) and 50% of viral replication (EC50) were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI = CC50/EC50) of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were > 59.4, > 57.5, > 62.1, > 59.4, and > 92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 μg/ml and 44 μg/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics. Abbreviations SARS, severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV, coronavirus CPE, cytopathogenic effect TCM, traditional Chinese medicine PMID:24716104

  2. Transcriptional analysis of VEGF-D and TGFβ genes in MCF7 cells exposed to saponin isolated from Holothuria leucospilota (sea cucumber)

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Mozhgan; Parivar, Kazem; Baharara, Javad; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin; Asili, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Marine natural products contain a wide range of bioactive compounds with therapeutic properties that have revealed crucial properties in the treatment of some diseases. Some of these compounds have recently received considerable attention for drug discovery. In this study we examined the anti-angiogenic effect of saponin isolated from Holothuria leucospilota (sea cucumber) through evaluation of vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D) and transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) expression in a breast cancer cell line. Methods: To investigate the effect of SCS on VEGF-D and TGF-β expression in breast cancer cells, the cells were treated with various concentrations of sample. After 48 h the viability of the cells was evaluated by trypan blue staining, and VEGF-D and TGFβ mRNA expression was were evaluated by real time-PCR. Results: Our results revealed that SCS can suppress cell viability and VEGF-D and TGFβ mRNA expression in breast cancer cells. Sea cucumber saponin at a concentration of 12 μg/ml inhibited VEGF-D and TGFβ expression more than 90% compared with controls. Conclusion: Findings suggest that SCS could inhibit tumor growth via inhibition of angiogenesis. PMID:26989747

  3. Gene flow and population history in high dispersal marine invertebrates: mitochondrial DNA analysis of Holothuria nobilis (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) populations from the Indo-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Uthicke, S; Benzie, J A H

    2003-10-01

    The sea cucumber, Holothuria nobilis, has a long-lived planktotrophic larvae, and previous allozyme surveys have suggested that high dispersal is realized. In contrast, recent ecological studies indicate that dispersal is low. To reconcile these data, and to investigate the evolution of this Indo-Pacific species, we screened geographical variation in 559 bp of a mitochondrial gene (COI) in 360 samples from the Australasian region and La Réunion. Sequences from La Réunion differed by > 7% from others and may constitute another species. Haplotype diversity in other samples was high (0.942, SD = 0.007), but haplotypes were closely related (mean nucleotide diversity: 0.0075, SD = 0.0041). AMOVA, pairwise FST values and exact tests did not detect significant population structure. Nested clade analysis showed that one of two main clades was over-represented in west Australia, whereas the other was more common in the northern Great Barrier Reef. Isolation-by-distance was identified as the main determinant of population structure at several clade levels. Contiguous range expansion was inferred for evolutionary older clade levels and this may correspond to a late Pleistocene (88 000-193 000 years ago) population expansion inferred from haplotype mismatch distributions. Thus, the population genetic structures detected are likely to be formed prior to the last ice age, with some indications for high dispersal on shorter time scales. PMID:12969467

  4. Isolation of a Pigment-producing Strain of Staphylococcus kloosii from the Respiratory Tree of Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota (Brandt 1835) from Malaysian Waters

    PubMed Central

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Rahim; Ngah, Nurziana; Hamid, Tengku Haziyamin Tengku Abdul; Susanti, Deny

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus kloosii, an orange pigment-producing bacterium, was isolated from the respiratory tree of Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota (Brandt 1835) from Teluk Nipah, Pangkor Island, Perak, Malaysia. This report is the first documentation of this Gram-positive strain, referred to as Strain 68 in Malaysia. A partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence of the mesophilic strain has been registered with GenBank (National Center for Biotechnology Information, US National Library of Medicine) with accession number JX102547. Phylogenetic analysis using the neighbour-joining method further supported the identification of Strain 68 as S. kloosii. The circular strain produced orange pigments on tryptone glucose yeast extract agar (TGYEA) and in nutrient broth (NB) at approximately pH 7. The visible spectra of ethanolic and methanolic pigment extracts of the bacterial strain were considered identical with λmax at 426, 447 and 475 nm and λmax at 426, 445 and 473 nm, respectively. Both visible spectra resemble the visible spectra of lutein, which is a commercial carotenoid; however, further analyses are required to confirm the identity of this pigment. The methanolic extracts of the intracellular pigments comprised at least three pigment compounds: an orange pigment compound (major compound), a yellow pigment compound (the least polar) and a pink pigment compound (the most polar). These findings are the first documentation of the pigment composition of S. kloosii as no such record could be found to date. PMID:24575244

  5. Isolation of a Pigment-producing Strain of Staphylococcus kloosii from the Respiratory Tree of Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota () from Malaysian Waters.

    PubMed

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Rahim; Ngah, Nurziana; Hamid, Tengku Haziyamin Tengku Abdul; Susanti, Deny

    2013-08-01

    Staphylococcus kloosii, an orange pigment-producing bacterium, was isolated from the respiratory tree of Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota (Brandt 1835) from Teluk Nipah, Pangkor Island, Perak, Malaysia. This report is the first documentation of this Gram-positive strain, referred to as Strain 68 in Malaysia. A partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence of the mesophilic strain has been registered with GenBank (National Center for Biotechnology Information, US National Library of Medicine) with accession number JX102547. Phylogenetic analysis using the neighbour-joining method further supported the identification of Strain 68 as S. kloosii. The circular strain produced orange pigments on tryptone glucose yeast extract agar (TGYEA) and in nutrient broth (NB) at approximately pH 7. The visible spectra of ethanolic and methanolic pigment extracts of the bacterial strain were considered identical with λmax at 426, 447 and 475 nm and λmax at 426, 445 and 473 nm, respectively. Both visible spectra resemble the visible spectra of lutein, which is a commercial carotenoid; however, further analyses are required to confirm the identity of this pigment. The methanolic extracts of the intracellular pigments comprised at least three pigment compounds: an orange pigment compound (major compound), a yellow pigment compound (the least polar) and a pink pigment compound (the most polar). These findings are the first documentation of the pigment composition of S. kloosii as no such record could be found to date. PMID:24575244

  6. Calbindin-D32k Is Localized to a Subpopulation of Neurons in the Nervous System of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria glaberrima (Echinodermata)

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A.; Lázaro-Peña, María I.; García-Rivera, Enrique M.; González, Carlos I.; García-Arrarás, José E.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the calbindin subfamily serve as markers of subpopulations of neurons within the vertebrate nervous system. Although markers of these proteins are widely available and used, their application to invertebrate nervous systems has been very limited. In this study we investigated the presence and distribution of members of the calbindin subfamily in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima (Selenka, 1867). Immunohistological experiments with antibodies made against rat calbindin 1, parvalbumin, and calbindin 2, showed that these antibodies labeled cells and fibers within the nervous system of H. glaberrima. Most of the cells and fibers were co-labeled with the neural-specific marker RN1, showing their neural specificity. These were distributed throughout all of the nervous structures, including the connective tissue plexi of the body wall and podia. Bioinformatics analyses of the possible antigen recognized by these markers showed that a calbindin 2-like protein present in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, corresponded to the calbindin-D32k previously identified in other invertebrates. Western blots with anti-calbindin 1 and anti-parvalbumin showed that these markers recognized an antigen of approximately 32 kDa in homogenates of radial nerve cords of H. glaberrima and Lytechinus variegatus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity with anti-calbindin 1 and anti-parvalbumin was obtained to a fragment of calbindin-D32k of H. glaberrima. Our findings suggest that calbindin-D32k is present in invertebrates and its sequence is more similar to the vertebrate calbindin 2 than to calbindin 1. Thus, characterization of calbindin-D32k in echinoderms provides an important view of the evolution of this protein family and represents a valuable marker to study the nervous system of invertebrates. PMID:22412907

  7. Selective Toxicity of Persian Gulf Sea Cucumber (Holothuria parva) and Sponge (Haliclona oculata) Methanolic Extracts on Liver Mitochondria Isolated from an Animal Model of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Seydi, Enayatollah; Motallebi, Abbasali; Dastbaz, Maryam; Dehghan, Sahar; Salimi, Ahmad; Nazemi, Melika; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Natural products isolated from marine environments are well known for their pharmacodynamic potential in diverse disease treatments, such as for cancer or inflammatory conditions. Sea cucumbers are marine animals of the phylum Echinoderm and the class Holothuroidea, with leathery skin and gelatinous bodies. Sponges are important components of Persian Gulf animal communities, and the marine sponges of the genus Haliclona have been known to display broad-spectrum biological activity. Many studies have shown that sea cucumbers and sponges contain antioxidants and anti-cancer compounds. Objectives: This study was designed to determine the selective toxicity of Persian Gulf sea cucumber (Holothuria parva) and sponge (Haliclona oculata) methanolic extracts on liver mitochondria isolated from an animal model of hepatocellular carcinoma, as part of a national project that hopes to identify novel potential anticancer candidates among Iranian Persian Gulf flora and fauna. Materials and Methods: To induce hepatocarcinogenesis, rats were given diethylnitrosamine (DEN) injections (200 mg/kg i.p. by a single dose), and then the cancer was promoted with 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) (0.02 w/w) for two weeks. Histopathological evaluations were performed, and levels of liver injury markers and a specific liver cancer marker (alpha-fetoprotein), were determined for confirmation of hepatocellular carcinoma induction. Finally, mitochondria were isolated from cancerous and non-cancerous hepatocytes. Results: Our results showed that H. parva methanolic extracts (250, 500, and 1000 µg/mL) and H. oculata methanolic extracts (200, 400, and 800 µg/mL) increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial swelling, and cytochrome c release in the mitochondria obtained from cancerous hepatocytes, but not in mitochondria obtained from non-cancerous liver hepatocytes. These extracts also induced caspase-3 activation, which is

  8. Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Libraries in Canada, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Includes 21 articles that discuss collection development in Canadian school libraries. Topics include digital collections in school library media centers; print and electronic library resources; library collections; collaborative projects; print-disabled students; informing administrators of the importance of collection development; censorship;…

  9. Collecting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Charles P.

    1983-01-01

    An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air flowing therethrough.

  10. Collections Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCandido, Robert

    Collections conservation is an approach to the preservation treatment of books and book-like materials that is conceptualized and organized in terms of large groups of materials. This guide is intended to enable a library to evaluate its current collections conservation activities. The introduction describes collections conservation and gives…

  11. Collection Mapping and Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, William; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes the use of collection mapping to assess media collections of Aurora, Colorado, Public Schools. Case studies of elementary, middle, and high school media centers describe materials selection and weeding and identify philosophies that library collections should support school curriculum, and teacher-library media specialist cooperation in…

  12. Jay's Collectibles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappel, James J.; Gillman, Jason R., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in collectibles of many types, as indicated by the popularity of television programs such as the History Channel's "Pawn Stars" and "American Pickers" and the Public Broadcasting Service's "Antiques Road Show." The availability of online auction sites such as eBay has enabled many people to collect items of interest as a…

  13. Collecting Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Rachel M.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in rock collecting with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. Following a section examining the nature and formation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, the booklet gives suggestions for starting a rock collection and using…

  14. Collective Bargaining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    This chapter discusses litigation touching on collective bargaining issues. The chapter is organized to follow the collective bargaining process, from cases dealing with union organizing to cases involving arbitration. Issues covered also include determination of bargaining units, scope of bargaining, union security, and unfair labor practices in…

  15. Collective Enumeration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrami, Bahador; Didino, Daniele; Frith, Chris; Butterworth, Brian; Rees, Geraint

    2013-01-01

    Many joint decisions in everyday life (e.g., Which bar is less crowded?) depend on approximate enumeration, but very little is known about the psychological characteristics of counting together. Here we systematically investigated collective approximate enumeration. Pairs of participants made individual and collective enumeration judgments in a…

  16. Long Non-Coding RNAs (lncRNAs) of Sea Cucumber: Large-Scale Prediction, Expression Profiling, Non-Coding Network Construction, and lncRNA-microRNA-Gene Interaction Analysis of lncRNAs in Apostichopus japonicus and Holothuria glaberrima During LPS Challenge and Radial Organ Complex Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Mu, Chuang; Wang, Ruijia; Li, Tianqi; Li, Yuqiang; Tian, Meilin; Jiao, Wenqian; Huang, Xiaoting; Zhang, Lingling; Hu, Xiaoli; Wang, Shi; Bao, Zhenmin

    2016-08-01

    Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) structurally resembles mRNA but cannot be translated into protein. Although the systematic identification and characterization of lncRNAs have been increasingly reported in model species, information concerning non-model species is still lacking. Here, we report the first systematic identification and characterization of lncRNAs in two sea cucumber species: (1) Apostichopus japonicus during lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge and in heathy tissues and (2) Holothuria glaberrima during radial organ complex regeneration, using RNA-seq datasets and bioinformatics analysis. We identified A. japonicus and H. glaberrima lncRNAs that were differentially expressed during LPS challenge and radial organ complex regeneration, respectively. Notably, the predicted lncRNA-microRNA-gene trinities revealed that, in addition to targeting protein-coding transcripts, miRNAs might also target lncRNAs, thereby participating in a potential novel layer of regulatory interactions among non-coding RNA classes in echinoderms. Furthermore, the constructed coding-non-coding network implied the potential involvement of lncRNA-gene interactions during the regulation of several important genes (e.g., Toll-like receptor 1 [TLR1] and transglutaminase-1 [TGM1]) in response to LPS challenge and radial organ complex regeneration in sea cucumbers. Overall, this pioneer systematic identification, annotation, and characterization of lncRNAs in echinoderm pave the way for similar studies and future genetic, genomic, and evolutionary research in non-model species. PMID:27392411

  17. Culture collections.

    PubMed

    Smith, David

    2012-01-01

    Culture collections no matter their size, form, or institutional objectives play a role in underpinning microbiology, supplying the resources for study, innovation, and discovery. Their basic roles include providing a mechanism for ex situ conservation of organisms; they are repositories for strains subject to publication, taking in safe, confidential, and patent deposits from researchers. They supply strains for use; therefore, the microorganisms provided must be authentic and preserved well, and any associated information must be valid and sufficient to facilitate the confirmation of their identity and to facilitate their use. The organisms must be collected in compliance with international conventions, international and national legislation and distributed to users indicating clearly the terms and conditions under which they are received and can be used. Collections are harmonizing approaches and characterizing strains to meet user needs. No one single collection can carry out this task alone, and therefore, it is important that output and strategy are coordinated to ensure culture collections deliver the basic resources and services microbiological innovation requires. This chapter describes the types of collection and how they can implement quality management systems and operate to deliver their basic functions. The links to information sources given not only provide support for the practitioners within collections but also provide guidance to users on accessing the huge resource available and how they can help ensure microbiology has the resources and a solid platform for future development. PMID:22569518

  18. Collective Enumeration

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Bahador; Didino, Daniele; Frith, Chris; Butterworth, Brian; Rees, Geraint

    2012-01-01

    Many joint decisions in everyday life (e.g., Which bar is less crowded?) depend on approximate enumeration, but very little is known about the psychological characteristics of counting together. Here we systematically investigated collective approximate enumeration. Pairs of participants made individual and collective enumeration judgments in a 2-alternative forced-choice task and when in disagreement, they negotiated joint decisions via verbal communication and received feedback about accuracy at the end of each trial. The results showed that two people could collectively count better than either one alone, but not as well as expected by previous models of collective sensory decision making in more basic perceptual domains (e.g., luminance contrast). Moreover, such collective enumeration benefited from prior, noninteractive practice showing that social learning of how to combine shared information about enumeration required substantial individual experience. Finally, the collective context had a positive but transient impact on an individual's enumeration sensitivity. This transient social influence may be explained as a motivational factor arising from the fact that members of a collective must take responsibility for their individual decisions and face the consequences of their judgments. PMID:22889187

  19. Micrometeorite Collecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toubes, Joe; Hoff, Darrel

    1974-01-01

    Describes how to collect micrometeorites and suggests a number of related activities such as determining the number of meteors entering the atmosphere and determining the composition of the micrometeorites. (BR)

  20. Blood Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The method that is used for the collection, storage and real-time analysis of blood and other bodily fluids has been licensed to DBCD, Inc. by NASA. The result of this patent licensing agreement has been the development of a commercial product that can provide serum or plasma from whole blood volumes of 20 microliters to 4 milliliters. The device has a fibrous filter with a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture of mannitol and plasma fraction protein. The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber. The method used by this product is useful to NASA for blood analysis on manned space missions.

  1. Collection Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Richard W.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a systematic approach to the problem of security of library collections and facilities from theft and vandalism. Highlights include responses to losses, defining security needs, typical weaknesses of facilities, policies and procedures that weaken a library's security, conducting a security audit, cost of security, cost-effectiveness, and…

  2. Collecting Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Natalie

    2004-01-01

    Fresh out of college, the author had only a handful of items worthy of displaying, which included some fossils she had collected in her paleontology class. She had binders filled with great science information, but kids want to see "real" science, not paper science. Then it came to her: she could fill the shelves with science artifacts with the…

  3. Wastewater Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, Samar; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater collection systems and components. This review covers: (1) planning, (2) construction; (3) sewer system evaluation; (4) maintenance; (5) rehabilitation; (6) overview prevention; and (7) wastewater pumping. A list of 111 references is also presented. (HM)

  4. Collective Bargaining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldschmidt, Steven M.

    This chapter summarizes recent state supreme court and federal court decisions involving collective bargaining for employees of public educational institutions. The cases discussed are generally limited to those decided during 1975 and reported in the General Digest as of March 1976. In his discussion, the author attempts to integrate related…

  5. Collective Bargaining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldschmidt, Steven M.

    This chapter deals with the legal process by which employers and employee organizations discuss matters related to employment. The chapter is organized to reflect the initial sequence of events in the collective bargaining process. Cases are reported and analyzed in nine sections: obligation and authority to bargain; unit determination and…

  6. Collective Bargaining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    Higher education collective bargaining cases reviewed in this chapter follow the basic sequence of steps in the negotiation process, from issues of the rights of organization and negotiation through scope of bargaining, bargaining conduct, and union security to the ultimate problems of strikes and contract enforcement. Within this common outline,…

  7. Collective instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    K.Y. Ng

    2003-08-25

    The lecture covers mainly Sections 2.VIII and 3.VII of the book ''Accelerator Physics'' by S.Y. Lee, plus mode-coupling instabilities and chromaticity-driven head-tail instability. Besides giving more detailed derivation of many equations, simple interpretations of many collective instabilities are included with the intention that the phenomena can be understood more easily without going into too much mathematics. The notations of Lee's book as well as the e{sup jwt} convention are followed.

  8. Collective motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicsek, Tamás; Zafeiris, Anna

    2012-08-01

    We review the observations and the basic laws describing the essential aspects of collective motion - being one of the most common and spectacular manifestation of coordinated behavior. Our aim is to provide a balanced discussion of the various facets of this highly multidisciplinary field, including experiments, mathematical methods and models for simulations, so that readers with a variety of background could get both the basics and a broader, more detailed picture of the field. The observations we report on include systems consisting of units ranging from macromolecules through metallic rods and robots to groups of animals and people. Some emphasis is put on models that are simple and realistic enough to reproduce the numerous related observations and are useful for developing concepts for a better understanding of the complexity of systems consisting of many simultaneously moving entities. As such, these models allow the establishing of a few fundamental principles of flocking. In particular, it is demonstrated, that in spite of considerable differences, a number of deep analogies exist between equilibrium statistical physics systems and those made of self-propelled (in most cases living) units. In both cases only a few well defined macroscopic/collective states occur and the transitions between these states follow a similar scenario, involving discontinuity and algebraic divergences.

  9. Workforce Competitiveness Collection. "LINCS" Resource Collection News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Information and Communication System, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This edition of "'LINCS' Resource Collection News" features the Workforce Competitiveness Collection, covering the topics of workforce education, English language acquisition, and technology. Each month Collections News features one of the three "LINCS" (Literacy Information and Communication System) Resource Collections--Basic Skills, Program…

  10. Program Management Collection. "LINCS" Resource Collection News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Information and Communication System, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This edition of "'LINCS' Resource Collection News" features the Program Management Collection, which covers the topics of Assessment, Learning Disabilities, and Program Improvement. Each month Collections News features one of the three "LINCS" (Literacy Information and Communication System) Resource Collections--Basic Skills, Program Management,…

  11. Value, market preferences and trade of Beche-de-mer from Pacific Island sea cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Steven W

    2014-01-01

    Market preferences of natural resources contribute to shape their exploitation and production. Beche-de-mer, the product after gutting, cooking, salting and drying sea cucumbers, is exported worldwide to Asian dried seafood markets. A better understanding of the trade, value and market preferences of Pacific island beche-de-mer could identify critical postharvest processing techniques and management strategies for fisheries and aquaculture. Data were collected on export prices and trade of beche-de-mer from Kiribati, Fiji, Tonga and New Caledonia, and the selling prices, respective sizes and organoleptic properties of the products in stores in China. Export prices varied considerably within and among the four countries and low-value species were the most exported by volume. Most of the beche-de-mer from the four Pacific islands is exported to Hong Kong, where quality products are sold and others are distributed to mainland China. Prices of the beche-de-mer in Chinese stores varied up to ten-fold and were mostly influenced by species, body size and, to a lesser extent, physical damage to the products. Market prices across species (averaging US$15-385 kg-1) appear to have mostly increased six- to twelve-fold over the past decade. The data allude that fisheries for Holothuria scabra, H. lessoni, H. fuscogilva, H. whitmaei and Thelenota ananas should be most carefully managed because they were the highest-value species and under greatest demand. The relationships between size of beche-de-mer and sale price were species specific and highly varied. This study also highlights the need for better regulations and/or enforcement of minimum size limits in sea cucumber fisheries, which can help to maximise economic benefits of wild stocks. PMID:24736374

  12. Value, Market Preferences and Trade of Beche-De-Mer from Pacific Island Sea Cucumbers

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Market preferences of natural resources contribute to shape their exploitation and production. Beche-de-mer, the product after gutting, cooking, salting and drying sea cucumbers, is exported worldwide to Asian dried seafood markets. A better understanding of the trade, value and market preferences of Pacific island beche-de-mer could identify critical postharvest processing techniques and management strategies for fisheries and aquaculture. Data were collected on export prices and trade of beche-de-mer from Kiribati, Fiji, Tonga and New Caledonia, and the selling prices, respective sizes and organoleptic properties of the products in stores in China. Export prices varied considerably within and among the four countries and low-value species were the most exported by volume. Most of the beche-de-mer from the four Pacific islands is exported to Hong Kong, where quality products are sold and others are distributed to mainland China. Prices of the beche-de-mer in Chinese stores varied up to ten-fold and were mostly influenced by species, body size and, to a lesser extent, physical damage to the products. Market prices across species (averaging US$15–385 kg−1) appear to have mostly increased six- to twelve-fold over the past decade. The data allude that fisheries for Holothuria scabra, H. lessoni, H. fuscogilva, H. whitmaei and Thelenota ananas should be most carefully managed because they were the highest-value species and under greatest demand. The relationships between size of beche-de-mer and sale price were species specific and highly varied. This study also highlights the need for better regulations and/or enforcement of minimum size limits in sea cucumber fisheries, which can help to maximise economic benefits of wild stocks. PMID:24736374

  13. Collections Management, Collections Maintenance, and Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Museums, Washington, DC.

    This national survey of the state of the nation's museum collections investigates collection care policies and practices, conservation issues, and private sector and federal support for museum needs. It consists of two major projects and four additional information gathering projects. The Museum Collection Survey is designed to examine all major…

  14. Collection Directions: The Evolution of Library Collections and Collecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Lorcan; Malpas, Constance; Lavoie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This article takes a broad view of the evolution of collecting behaviors in a network environment and suggests some future directions based on various simple models. The authors look at the changing dynamics of print collections, at the greater engagement with research and learning behaviors, and at trends in scholarly communication. The goal is…

  15. Collection Mode Lens System

    DOEpatents

    Fletcher, Daniel A.; Kino, Gordon S.

    2002-11-05

    A lens system including a collection lens and a microlens spaced from the collection lens adjacent the region to be observed. The diameter of the observablel region depends substantially on the radius of the microlens.

  16. Improved collecting apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, C.P.

    1981-03-05

    An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air following therethrough.

  17. Guide to data collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines and recommendations are presented for the collection of software development data. Motivation and planning for, and implementation and management of, a data collection effort are discussed. Topics covered include types, sources, and availability of data; methods and costs of data collection; types of analyses supported; and warnings and suggestions based on software engineering laboratory (SEL) experiences. This document is intended as a practical guide for software managers and engineers, abstracted and generalized from 5 years of SEL data collection.

  18. The Undergraduate Library Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Rolland C.

    The development of undergraduate library collections is shown under two aspects: (1) the formation of the basic collection of the Undergraduate Library of the University of Michigan, and (2) the problems, practical and theoretial, encountered in the day-to-day effort to maintain the collection. The budget is the sire of all selection criteria.…

  19. Collection Assessment Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Blaine H.

    This manual is designed to help bibliographers, librarians, and other materials selectors plan and conduct systematic collection evaluations using both collection centered and client centered techniques. Topics covered in five chapters are: (1) planning the assessment; (2) collection-centered techniques, comprising the compilation of statistics,…

  20. Student Loan Collection Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    This manual on the collection of student loans is intended for the use of business officers and loan collection personnel of colleges and universities of all sizes. The introductory chapter is an overview of sound collection practices and procedures. It discusses the making of a loan, in-school servicing of the accounts, the exit interview, the…

  1. Seawater sampling and collection.

    PubMed

    Zaikova, Elena; Hawley, Alyse; Walsh, David A; Hallam, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    This video documents methods for collecting coastal marine water samples and processing them for various downstream applications including biomass concentration. nucleic acid purification, cell abundance, nutrient and trace gas analyses. For today's demonstration samples were collected from the deck of the HMS John Strickland operating in Saanich Inlet. An A-frame derrick, with a multi-purpose winch and cable system, is used in combination with Niskin or Go-Flo water sampling bottles. A Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth (CTD) sensor is also be used to sample the underlying water mass. To minimize outgassing, trace gas samples are collected first. Then, nutrients, chemistry, and cell counts are determined. Finally, waters are collected for biomass filtration. The set-up and collection time for a single cast is approximately 1.5 hours at a maximum depth of 215 meters. Therefore, a total of 6 hours is generally needed to complete the four-part collection series described here. PMID:19536065

  2. Solar energy collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An improved solar energy collection system, having enhanced energy collection and conversion capabilities, is delineated. The system is characterized by a plurality of receivers suspended above a heliostat field comprising a multiplicity of reflector surfaces, each being adapted to direct a concentrated beam of solar energy to illuminate a target surface for a given receiver. A magnitude of efficiency, suitable for effectively competing with systems employed in collecting and converting energy extracted from fossil fuels, is indicated.

  3. 77 FR 6573 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Collection of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Collection of Qualitative Feedback Through Focus Groups AGENCY: U.S. Citizenship... Generic Information Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Collection of Qualitative Feedback through Focus... Feedback through Focus Groups'' in the subject box. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Collection...

  4. ARS Culture Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The internationally recognized Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Culture Collection will be described to include the microorganisms maintained by the collection, preservation methods and worldwide distribution of cultures. The impact of the germplasm will be described to include discovery of the f...

  5. Profiling a Periodicals Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolgiano, Christina E.; King, Mary Kathryn

    1978-01-01

    Libraries need solid information upon which to base collection development decisions. Specific evaluative methods for determining scope, access, and usefullness are described. Approaches used for data collection include analysis of interlibrary loan requests, comparison with major bibliographies, and analysis of accessibility through available…

  6. Collecting Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedford, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    How many beginning teachers struggle to create new lessons despite the fact that experienced teachers have already designed effective lessons for the same content? Shulman (1987) used the term "collective amnesia" to describe the failure of school leaders to design professional development that included the collection of its best practices.…

  7. UNO's Afghanistan Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKernan, M. D.

    This paper explores the background history and sources of the Afghanistan collection at the University Library, University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO). Credit for the impetus behind the development of the collection is given to Chris Jung, a former UNO geography/geology faculty member; Ronald Roskens, then UNO chancellor; and the Afghanistan…

  8. Children's Collective Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrough, Jackie; And Others

    This children's collective manual describes a training program for parents and teachers of preschool children which is designed to encourage cooperative, community-oriented styles of group interaction in black preschool children. Developed by the Children's Collective of the Coordinated Child Care Council of South Los Angeles, the program is based…

  9. Urine collection device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

  10. Sweat collection capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaplaine, R. W.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Capsule, with filter paper insert, is used to collect sweat for rate monitoring, chromatographic analysis, or active sweat gland location within specified area. Construction of capsule allows change of inserts while device remains strapped in place.

  11. Weeding Your Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerby, Ramona

    2002-01-01

    Offers guidelines for weeding as part of school library collection development. Highlights include developing a weeding policy; and the CREW (Continuous Review Evaluation and Weeding) method, including reasons for weeding, scheduling, and guidelines for fiction and for nonfiction. (LRW)

  12. Vectorized garbage collection

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, A.W.; Bendiksen, A.

    1988-01-01

    Garbage collection can be done in vector mode on supercomputers like the Cray-2 and the Cyber 205. Both copying collection and mark-and-sweep can be expressed as breadth-first searches in which the queue can be processed in parallel. The authors have designed a copying garbage collector whose inner loop works entirely in vector mode. The only significant limitation of the algorithm is that if the size of the records is not constant, the implementation becomes much more complicated. The authors give performance measurements of the algorithm as implemented for Lisp CONS cells on the Cyber 205. Vector-mode garbage collection performs up to 9 times faster than scalar-mode collection.

  13. Sparse matrix test collections

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, I.

    1996-12-31

    This workshop will discuss plans for coordinating and developing sets of test matrices for the comparison and testing of sparse linear algebra software. We will talk of plans for the next release (Release 2) of the Harwell-Boeing Collection and recent work on improving the accessibility of this Collection and others through the World Wide Web. There will only be three talks of about 15 to 20 minutes followed by a discussion from the floor.

  14. Collective field accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Luce, John S.

    1978-01-01

    A collective field accelerator which operates with a vacuum diode and utilizes a grooved cathode and a dielectric anode that operates with a relativistic electron beam with a .nu./.gamma. of .about. 1, and a plurality of dielectric lenses having an axial magnetic field thereabout to focus the collectively accelerated electrons and ions which are ejected from the anode. The anode and lenses operate as unoptimized r-f cavities which modulate and focus the beam.

  15. Sweat collection capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Delaplaine, R. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A sweat collection capsule permitting quantitative collection of sweat is described. The device consists of a frame held immobile on the skin, a closure secured to the frame and absorbent material located next to the skin in a cavity formed by the frame and the closure. The absorbent material may be removed from the device by removing the closure from the frame while the frame is held immobile on the skin.

  16. A Survey of Collectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan; Wolpert, David

    2004-01-01

    Due to the increasing sophistication and miniaturization of computational components, complex, distributed systems of interacting agents are becoming ubiquitous. Such systems, where each agent aims to optimize its own performance, but where there is a well-defined set of system-level performance criteria, are called collectives. The fundamental problem in analyzing/designing such systems is in determining how the combined actions of self-interested agents leads to 'coordinated' behavior on a iarge scale. Examples of artificial systems which exhibit such behavior include packet routing across a data network, control of an array of communication satellites, coordination of multiple deployables, and dynamic job scheduling across a distributed computer grid. Examples of natural systems include ecosystems, economies, and the organelles within a living cell. No current scientific discipline provides a thorough understanding of the relation between the structure of collectives and how well they meet their overall performance criteria. Although still very young, research on collectives has resulted in successes both in understanding and designing such systems. It is eqected that as it matures and draws upon other disciplines related to collectives, this field will greatly expand the range of computationally addressable tasks. Moreover, in addition to drawing on them, such a fully developed field of collective intelligence may provide insight into already established scientific fields, such as mechanism design, economics, game theory, and population biology. This chapter provides a survey to the emerging science of collectives.

  17. Improving data collection strategies.

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, J L; Estrada, L

    1993-01-01

    The authors examined 21 major health data systems of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and concluded that data on Hispanics are not included in several Departmental national health data collection systems, and that even when collected, data on Hispanic subpopulations are found in few of the systems. Of the 21 data systems, 6 do not collect Hispanic population data, including the Medicare statistical system. Only the National Vital Statistics System was found to collect data for all major Hispanic subpopulation groups. Seventeen of the 21 data systems do not collect sample sizes adequate for analyzing any one of the four major Hispanic subpopulation groups. To address that lack, Hispanic health leadership agendas have recommended collecting data on Hispanics in all systems, where possible, to provide samples of a size adequate for detailed analysis of Hispanic subpopulation groups, for support of researchers and a Hispanic research infrastructure, and for broad dissemination of data findings, including dissemination in useful formats to Hispanic community-based organizations. PMID:8416111

  18. Theory of Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2003-01-01

    In this chapter an analysis of the behavior of an arbitrary (perhaps massive) collective of computational processes in terms of an associated "world" utility function is presented We concentrate on the situation where each process in the collective can be viewed as though it were striving to maximize its own private utility function. For such situations the central design issue is how to initialize/update the collective's structure, and in particular the private utility functions, so as to induce the overall collective to behave in a way that has large values of the world utility. Traditional "team game" approaches to this problem simply set each private utility function equal to the world utility function. The "Collective Intelligence" (COIN) framework is a semi-formal set of heuristics that recently have been used to construct private utility. functions that in many experiments have resulted in world utility values up to orders of magnitude superior to that ensuing from use of the team game utility. In this paper we introduce a formal mathematics for analyzing and designing collectives. We also use this mathematics to suggest new private utilities that should outperform the COIN heuristics in certain kinds of domains. In accompanying work we use that mathematics to explain previous experimental results concerning the superiority of COIN heuristics. In that accompanying work we also use the mathematics to make numerical predictions, some of which we then test. In this way these two papers establish the study of collectives as a proper science, involving theory, explanation of old experiments, prediction concerning new experiments, and engineering insights.

  19. The Geneva brain collection

    PubMed Central

    Kövari, Enikö; Hof, Patrick R.; Bouras, Constantin

    2011-01-01

    The University of Geneva brain collection was founded at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, it consists of 10,154 formaldehyde- or buffered formaldehyde–fixed brains obtained from the autopsies of the Department of Psychiatry and, since 1971, from the Department of Geriatrics as well. More than 100,000 paraffin-embedded blocks and 200,000 histological slides have also been collected since 1901. From the time of its creation, this collection has served as an important resource for pathological studies and clinicopathological correlations, primarily in the field of dementing illnesses and brain aging research. These materials have permitted a number of original neuropathological observations, such as the classification of Pick’s disease by Constantinidis, or the description of dyshoric angiopathy and laminar sclerosis by Morel. The large number of cases, including some very rare conditions, provides a unique resource and an opportunity for worldwide collaborations. PMID:21599692

  20. Curating Virtual Data Collections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris; Leon, Amanda; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram; Tsontos, Vardis; Shie, Chung-Lin; Liu, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    NASAs Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) contains a rich set of datasets and related services throughout its many elements. As a result, locating all the EOSDIS data and related resources relevant to particular science theme can be daunting. This is largely because EOSDIS data's organizing principle is affected more by the way they are produced than around the expected end use. Virtual collections oriented around science themes can overcome this by presenting collections of data and related resources that are organized around the user's interest, not around the way the data were produced. Virtual collections consist of annotated web addresses (URLs) that point to data and related resource addresses, thus avoiding the need to copy all of the relevant data to a single place. These URL addresses can be consumed by a variety of clients, ranging from basic URL downloaders (wget, curl) and web browsers to sophisticated data analysis programs such as the Integrated Data Viewer.

  1. Portable data collection device

    DOEpatents

    French, Patrick D.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a portable data collection device that has a variety of sensors that are interchangeable with a variety of input ports in the device. The various sensors include a data identification feature that provides information to the device regarding the type of physical data produced by each sensor and therefore the type of sensor itself. The data identification feature enables the device to locate the input port where the sensor is connected and self adjust when a sensor is removed or replaced. The device is able to collect physical data, whether or not a function of a time.

  2. Portable data collection device

    DOEpatents

    French, P.D.

    1996-06-11

    The present invention provides a portable data collection device that has a variety of sensors that are interchangeable with a variety of input ports in the device. The various sensors include a data identification feature that provides information to the device regarding the type of physical data produced by each sensor and therefore the type of sensor itself. The data identification feature enables the device to locate the input port where the sensor is connected and self adjust when a sensor is removed or replaced. The device is able to collect physical data, whether or not a function of a time. 7 figs.

  3. Octupole collectivity in nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, P. A.

    2016-07-01

    The experimental and theoretical evidence for octupole collectivity in nuclei is reviewed. Recent theoretical advances, covering a wide spectrum from mean-field theory to algebraic and cluster approaches, are discussed. The status of experimental data on the behaviour of energy levels and electric dipole and electric octupole transition moments is reviewed. Finally, an outlook is given on future prospects for this field.

  4. RIF and Collective Bargaining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    1994-01-01

    Focuses on the modern case-law intersection between state legislation for school districts that applies to reduction-in-force (RIF) and other state legislation that applies to collective bargaining. One conclusion is that the implementation of RIF is more likely to be negotiable and arbitrable than the reasons for RIF. (96 footnotes) (MLF)

  5. Television's New Humane Collectivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrag, Robert L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes "Taxi,""Barney Miller,""Lou Grant," and "M*A*S*H" in terms of three fantasy themes: the realization of significant others, the alliance in action, and membership into personhood. From these themes emerges a rhetorical vision of the new humane collectivity. (PD)

  6. Materials and Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinseth, Lois

    1978-01-01

    This discussion of collection development considers (1) special problems as they relate to specific types of institutions--nursing, long term residential, psychiatric and developmental; (2) acquisition; (3) organization--classification, cataloging, and physical arrangement; (4) use--circulation, special methods, and the role of librarians; and (5)…

  7. Charge collection spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.A.; McNulty, P.J.; Beauvais, W.J.; Roth, D.R. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)

    1993-12-01

    Monitoring pulses measured between the power pins of a microelectronic device exposed to high LET ions yields important information on the SEU response of the circuit. Analysis is complicated for p-well CMOS devices by the possibility of competition between unctions, but the results suggest that charge collection measurements are still sufficient to determine SEU parameters accurately.

  8. Quick Fixes: Collection Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabb, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    The Do It Yourself (DIY) section is an essential and well-used part of the public library's collection and must be kept up-to-date to remain valuable, since tools, materials, and building codes are always changing. Current economic decline has increased the topic's popularity as homeowners choose to remodel rather than buy, or attempt to make…

  9. Universities and Collective Bargaining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Donald C.

    1994-01-01

    Responds to David Cameron's "More than an Academic Question" and to the review by Barbara Anderson disagreeing with Cameron's suggestion that democratization and decentralization were a mistake, and arguing for collective bargaining. The paper counters Cameron's support of the continuation of mandatory retirement with reference to the United…

  10. The Fall Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDeman, Barry A.

    1984-01-01

    Presents ideas for collecting objects on the school grounds or in the surrounding neighborhood. Objects include feathers/fur, leaves, galls, seeds, shells, spiderwebs, and litter. Also presents procedures for making impressions of bark, leaves, fossils, flora, and shadows. All activities can be adopted for students in kindergarten through grade…

  11. A DIY Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Jenna

    2006-01-01

    Chris Dodge, a renowned alternative pressologist and the librarian at "Utne" magazine, has been known to say, "Every library should be a special library." In order to meet this challenge, the librarians at Barnard College decided to start a collection of underground publications known as zines. In this article, the author describes how librarians…

  12. Preparing for Collective Bargaining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner, Richard A.

    1976-01-01

    During collective bargaining negotiations at the Community College of Philadelphia, the board of trustees responded to external agents (i.e., legal counsel and professional negotiators), while ignoring the proposals of the administration. This resulted in stress in the authority system and in a closing-off of some of the available human resources…

  13. Deterritorializing Collective Biography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, Susanne; Walsh, Susan; Byers, Michele; Rajiva, Mythili

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new move in the methodological practice of collective biography, by provoking a shift beyond any remnant attachment to the speaking/writing subject towards her dispersal and displacement via textual interventions that stress multivocality. These include the use of photographs, drama, and various genres of writing. Using a…

  14. The Pyramid Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Gary

    2004-01-01

    In this article the author presents readers with some very useful activities, ideas and problems. He has used these at various times over the years and together they make a very interesting collection. These pieces have come together from different sources, but like a jigsaw, they complete the picture of understanding of the numbers inside the…

  15. Authentic Assessment: A Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Kay, Ed.

    The essays in this collection consider the meaning of authentic assessment and the implications of its use. "Section 1: Assessing Assessment" includes the following essays: (1) "The Nation's Report Card Goes Home: Good News and Bad about Trends in Achievement" (Robert L. Linn and Stephen B. Dunbar); (2) "Budgets, Politics, and Testing" (Chris…

  16. Digital Collections Inventory Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClung, Patricia A.

    This report is intended to inform and stimulate discussion on digital library programs as well as the potential usefulness, scope, and desired features of future inventories of online digital collections. It describes a joint project by the Commission on Preservation and Access and the Council on Library Resources to determine the extent to which…

  17. Collections Define Cataloging's Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Betsy

    2007-01-01

    The role of catalogers within academic libraries is evolving to meet new demands and cultivating a broader understanding of cataloging--one that focuses on collections, not the catalog, and applies cataloger expertise across metadata activities. Working collaboratively as never before, catalogers are reinventing their place within the library.

  18. Collection Development Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dianne H., Ed.

    This detailed written guide of the Valdosta State College Library coordinates the library's collection development policies with specific teaching and research needs of the college. It identifies subject subdivisions supporting the work of the departments, guides daily book selection, and provides guidance in the duplication of materials, location…

  19. Surface reference data collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Applications of remote sensing must define relationships between image data and conditions at corresponding points on the ground. Unfortunately, many published remote sensing reports focus on image processing techniques with little detail regarding the methods used for collecting ground truth data....

  20. Recommendations for Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesley, Threasa L.; Bratcher, Perry

    This document reports the work and conclusions of a task force appointed to plan for the reorganization of collection development at Steely Library, a primarily undergraduate library with 13 professional librarians on its staff located at Northern Kentucky University (NKU). Task force activities included a thorough review of the relevant…

  1. Genealogy Collection III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Libraries, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Identified and discussed are little known Illinois collections of ethnic and religious records valuable for genealogical research. Holdings and sources are described as well as problems in researching specific ethnic or religious groups. European, African, and religious immigrants' records are highlighted. (EA)

  2. Research using biocultural collections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this article is to provide a sampling of the wide breadth of research conducted with biocultural collections. Because of its breadth it is clearly not comprehensive, but rather a sampling simply meant to illustrate the variation and depth of the field and to illustrate reasons why it ...

  3. Collective Negotiations in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip

    1968-01-01

    This literature review examines current documents on collective negotiations in education that were processed by the Clearinghouse on Educational Administration. Principal topics discussed are negotiating procedures, the role of the superintendent, teacher organization-school administrator relations, causes of teacher militancy, negotiation laws,…

  4. Sports Reference: A Core Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2003-01-01

    Discusses reasons for including sports books in school library reference collections, explains why they should not be found only in public library collections, and provides six annotated bibliographies of sports books suitable for intermediate or middle school library collections. (LRW)

  5. 78 FR 7463 - Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA... to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as... INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional information or copies of the information collection...

  6. Collecting Passion with a Purpose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandergrift, Kay E.

    1986-01-01

    Explores collecting of children's books and discusses the motivations of collectors, various levels of collecting, bibliographic tools, sources of books, collection patterns, facsimiles, and cataloging. Lists of selected bibliographic tools and selected rare book dealers are included. (EM)

  7. Collectivity of 98Pd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fransen, C.; Blazhev, A.; Dewald, A.; Jolie, J.; Mü; cher, D.; Möller, O.; Pissulla, T.

    2009-01-01

    The N = 52 nucleus 98Pd was investigated at the Cologne TANDEM accelerator both with the Cologne plunger using the recoil distance Doppler-shift method (RDDS) and with the Cologne HORUS spectrometer for a γγ angular correlation experiment. For the first time lifetimes of yrast states and highly excited low-spin states were measured in 98Pd and the low-spin level scheme was extended. From our data we were able to interpret 98Pd as a nucleus that exhibits some collective features, but is obviously much less collective than the neighboring N = 52 isotones 94Mo and 96Ru due to its closeness to doubly-magic 100Sn.

  8. Collective network routing

    DOEpatents

    Hoenicke, Dirk

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a unified method and apparatus to classify, route, and process injected data packets into a network so as to belong to a plurality of logical networks, each implementing a specific flow of data on top of a common physical network. The method allows to locally identify collectives of packets for local processing, such as the computation of the sum, difference, maximum, minimum, or other logical operations among the identified packet collective. Packets are injected together with a class-attribute and an opcode attribute. Network routers, employing the described method, use the packet attributes to look-up the class-specific route information from a local route table, which contains the local incoming and outgoing directions as part of the specifically implemented global data flow of the particular virtual network.

  9. Collecting rare diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ekins, Sean

    2014-01-01

    This editorial introduces the F1000Research rare disease collection. It is common knowledge that for new treatments to be successful there has to be a partnership between the many interested parties such as the patient, advocate, disease foundations, the academic scientists, venture funding organizations, biotech companies, pharmaceutical companies, NIH, and the FDA. Our intention is to provide a forum for discussion and dissemination of any rare disease related topics that will advance scientific understanding and progress to treatments. PMID:25580231

  10. Wastewater Collection Systems.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Srinivas

    2016-10-01

    This chapter presents a review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to wastewater collection systems. It presents noteworthy advances in research and industry experiences selected from major literature sources. This review is divided into the following sections: sewer system planning; sewer condition assessment/rehabilitation; pump stations/force mains/ system design; operation and maintenance; asset management; and regulatory issues/ integrated planning. PMID:27620080

  11. Curating Virtual Data Collections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynnes, C.; Ramapriyan, H.; Leon, A.; Tsontos, V. M.; Liu, Z.; Shie, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) contains a rich set of datasets and related services throughout its many elements. As a result, locating all the EOSDIS data and related resources relevant to particular science theme can be daunting. This is largely because EOSDIS data's organizing principle is affected more by the way they are produced than around the expected end use.Virtual collections oriented around science themes can overcome this by presenting collections of data and related resources that are organized around the user's interest, not around the way the data were produced. Science themes can be: Specific applications (uses) of the data, e.g., landslide prediction Geophysical events (e.g., Hurricane Sandy) A specific science research problem Virtual collections consist of annotated web addresses (URLs) that point to data and related resource addresses, thus avoiding the need to copy all of the relevant data to a single place. These URL addresses can be consumed by a variety of clients, ranging from basic URL downloaders (wget, curl) and web browsers to sophisticated data analysis programs such as the Integrated Data Viewer. Eligible resources include anything accessible via URL: data files: data file URLs data subsets: OPeNDAP, webification or Web Coverage Service URLs data visualizations: Web Map Service data search results: OpenSearch Atom response custom analysis workflows: e.g., Giovanni analysis URL

  12. Collection of cometary dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lell, P.; Igenbergs, E.; Kuczera, H.; Pailer, N.

    Rendezvous Missions to Comets lead to low velocities at the nucleus of the comet. The resulting impact velocity of the cometary dust on a target will range between 10 and 400 m/s. The dust particle which impacts on a target can be collected for a subsequent in-situ analysis. The collection efficiency of a target depends in addition to obvious geometrical conditions upon the surface of the target. The surface characteristics can be divided into two groups: ``dirty'' surfaces, covered with silicate or hydrocarbon compounds (for example vacuum grease), ``clean'' surfaces, like gold (with additional sputtering). This paper deals with the experimental and theoretical investigation of the collection efficiency of ``clean'' targets. Laboratory experiments are described which were conducted at the Technische Universität München, Lehrstuhl für Raumfahrttechnik, and the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg. In both experiments an electromagnetic accelerator is used to accelerate different types of dust in vacuum to velocities between 10 and 400 m/s. The target is then examined under the microscope and a secondary ion mass spectrometer (which is a model of the laboratory carried on board of the spacecraft for ``in situ'' analysis). The adhesion of the dust grains at the target is evaluated experimentally in an ultracentrifuge.

  13. 77 FR 71640 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... BOARD Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection... a revised information collection from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under the Paperwork... before February 1, 2013. ADDRESSES: Submit written comments on the collection of information to William...

  14. Collective Intelligence. Chapter 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2003-01-01

    Many systems of self-interested agents have an associated performance criterion that rates the dynamic behavior of the overall system. This chapter presents an introduction to the science of such systems. Formally, collectives are defined as any system having the following two characteristics: First, the system must contain one or more agents each of which we view as trying to maximize an associated private utility; second, the system must have an associated world utility function that rates the possible behaviors of that overall system. In practice, collectives are often very large, distributed, and support little, if any, centralized communication and control, although those characteristics are not part of their formal definition. A naturally occurring example of a collective is a human economy. One can identify the agents and their private utilities as the human individuals in the economy and the associated personal rewards they are each trying to maximize. One could then identify the world utility as the time average of the gross domestic product. ("World utility" per se is not a construction internal to a human economy, but rather something defined from the outside.) To achieve high world utility it is necessary to avoid having the agents work at cross-purposes lest phenomena like liquidity traps or the Tragedy of the Commons (TOC) occur, in which agents' individually pursuing their private utilities lowers world utility. The obvious way to avoid such phenomena is by modifying the agents utility functions to be "aligned" with the world utility. This can be done via punitive legislation. A real-world example of an attempt to do this was the creation of antitrust regulations designed to prevent monopolistic practices.

  15. Portable liquid collection electrostatic precipitator

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Duane C.; DeGange, John J.; Halverson, Justin E.

    2005-10-18

    A portable liquid collection electrostatic collection precipitator for analyzing air is provided which is a relatively small, self-contained device. The device has a tubular collection electrode, a reservoir for a liquid, and a pump. The pump pumps the liquid into the collection electrode such that the liquid flows down the exterior of the collection electrode and is recirculated to the reservoir. An air intake is provided such that air to be analyzed flows through an ionization section to ionize analytes in the air, and then flows near the collection electrode where ionized analytes are collected. A portable power source is connected to the air intake and the collection electrode. Ionizable constituents in the air are ionized, attracted to the collection electrode, and precipitated in the liquid. The precipitator may also have an analyzer for the liquid and may have a transceiver allowing remote operation and data collection.

  16. Digitization of photographic collections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Franziska S.

    1997-04-01

    Almost every major institution is contemplating some kind of digital-imaging project, but sources of information and experience are few. Technical aspects of digital imaging present libraries and archives with very difficult and complex choices. There are as yet no codified technical standards for image capture, display, and output, all of which affect the image quality, the cost, and, ultimately, the success or failure of the entire undertaking. Even if a vendor will provide a finished 'turnkey' system, an institution must understand the nature of the digital- imaging product they are buying. They must know how much image quality and functionality can be expected from it, both now and in the future. New tools must be provided for collection managers to make that possible. Beyond these purely technical issues, institutions must be able to relate the digital-image database system to the fundamental collection activities of access and preservation. Despite all the possibilities for manipulating digital images, image quality choices made when files are first created have the same 'finality' that they have in conventional photography. They will have a profound effect on project cost and the value of the final project to the users. Image quality requirements therefore have to be established carefully before a digitization project starts.

  17. Partonic collectivity at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Shusu

    2009-10-01

    The measurement of event anisotropy, often called v2, provides a powerful tool for studying the properties of hot and dense medium created in high-energy nuclear collisions. The important discoveries of partonic collectivity and the brand-new process for hadronization - quark coalescence were obtained through a systematic analysis of the v2 for 200 GeV Au+Au collisions at RHIC [1]. However, early dynamic information might be masked by later hadronic rescatterings. Multistrange hadrons (φ, ξ and φ) with their large mass and presumably small hadronic cross sections should be less sensitive to hadronic rescattering in the later stage of the collisions and therefore a good probe of the early stage of the collision. We will present the measurement of v2 of π, p, KS^0, λ, ξ, φ and φ in heavy ion collisions. In minimum-bias Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV, a significant amount of elliptic flow, almost identical to other mesons and baryons, is observed for φ and φ. Experimental observations of pT dependence of v2 of identified particles at RHIC support partonic collectivity. [4pt] [1] B. I. Abelev et al., (STAR Collaboration), Phys. Rev. C 77, 054901 (2008).

  18. 76 FR 74812 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request New Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request New Collection; 2012 Census of Adult Probation Supervising Agencies ACTION: 60-Day notice of information collection under review. The Department...

  19. 75 FR 43989 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Sample Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Sample Collection Plan for Dogs Treated With SLENTROL AGENCY: Food and Drug... response to the notice. This notice solicits comments on the sample collection plan for dogs treated with... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Sample Collection Plan for Dogs Treated With...

  20. Confining collective motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolo, Denis; Bricard, Antoine; Caussin, Jean-Baptiste; Savoie, Charles; Das, Debasish; Chepizhko, Oleskar; Peruani, Fernando; Saintillan, David

    2014-11-01

    It is well established that geometrical confinement have a significant impact on the structure and the flow properties of complex fluids. Prominent examples include the formation of topological defects in liquid crystals, and the flow instabilities of viscoelastic fluids in curved geometries. In striking contrast very little is known about the macroscopic behavior of confined active fluids. In this talk we show how to motorize plastic colloidal beads and turn them into self-propelled particles. Using microfluidic geometries we demonstrate how confinement impacts their collective motion. Combining quantitative experiments, analytical theory and numerical simulations we show how a population of motile bodies interacting via alignement and repulsive interactions self-organizes into a single heterogeneous macroscopic vortex that lives on the verge of a phase separation.

  1. Solar energy collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A fixed, linear, ground-based primary reflector having an extended curved sawtooth-contoured surface covered with a metalized polymeric reflecting material, reflects solar energy to a movably supported collector that is kept at the concentrated line focus reflector primary. The primary reflector may be constructed by a process utilizing well known freeway paving machinery. The solar energy absorber is preferably a fluid transporting pipe. Efficient utilization leading to high temperatures from the reflected solar energy is obtained by cylindrical shaped secondary reflectors that direct off-angle energy to the absorber pipe. A seriatim arrangement of cylindrical secondary reflector stages and spot-forming reflector stages produces a high temperature solar energy collection system of greater efficiency.

  2. Modeling collective cell motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    Eukaryotic cells often move in groups, a critical aspect of many biological and medical processes including wound healing, morphogenesis and cancer metastasis. Modeling can provide useful insights into the fundamental mechanisms of collective cell motility. Constructing models that incorporate the physical properties of the cells, however, is challenging. Here, I discuss our efforts to build a comprehensive cell motility model that includes cell membrane properties, cell-substrate interactions, cell polarity, and cell-cell interaction. The model will be applied to a variety of systems, including motion on micropatterned substrates and the migration of border cells in Drosophila. This work was supported by NIH Grant No. P01 GM078586 and NSF Grant No. 1068869.

  3. Geoengineering as Collective Experimentation.

    PubMed

    Stilgoe, Jack

    2016-06-01

    Geoengineering is defined as the 'deliberate and large-scale intervention in the Earth's climatic system with the aim of reducing global warming'. The technological proposals for doing this are highly speculative. Research is at an early stage, but there is a strong consensus that technologies would, if realisable, have profound and surprising ramifications. Geoengineering would seem to be an archetype of technology as social experiment, blurring lines that separate research from deployment and scientific knowledge from technological artefacts. Looking into the experimental systems of geoengineering, we can see the negotiation of what is known and unknown. The paper argues that, in renegotiating such systems, we can approach a new mode of governance-collective experimentation. This has important ramifications not just for how we imagine future geoengineering technologies, but also for how we govern geoengineering experiments currently under discussion. PMID:25862639

  4. Data collection techniques.

    PubMed

    Morgan, G A; Harmon, R J

    2001-08-01

    We have provided an overview of techniques used to assess variables in the applied behavioral sciences. Most of the methods are used by both quantitative/positivist and qualitative/constructivist researchers but to different extents. Qualitative researchers prefer more open-ended, less structured data collection techniques than do quantitative researchers. Direct observation of participants is common in experimental and qualitative research; it is less common in so-called survey research, which tends to use self-report questionnaires. It is important that investigators use instruments that are reliable and valid for the population and purpose for which they will be used. Standardized instruments have manuals that provide norms and indexes of reliability and validity. However, if the populations and purpose on which these data are based are different from yours, it may be necessary for you to develop your own instrument or provide new evidence of reliability and validity. PMID:11501698

  5. 75 FR 66165 - Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... BUDGET Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Office of Management and Budget, Office of Federal Financial Management. ACTION: Notice; request for comments... accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act [75 FR 35507]. OMB Watch, Project on Government...

  6. 75 FR 22863 - Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... BUDGET Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Office of Management and Budget, Office of Federal Financial Management. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY... Pridgen, Office of Federal Financial Management, Office of Management and Budget, 725 17th Street,...

  7. 77 FR 5307 - Agency Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... Internal Revenue Service Agency Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection AGENCY: Internal... consideration. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to Yvette Lawrence, Internal Revenue Service, room 6129... additional information or copies of the regulations should be directed to R. Joseph Durbala at...

  8. Writing about and from Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Wendy

    1999-01-01

    Describes a writing assignment useful for high school and college students in which students ponder, discuss, and write about collecting, collectors, and the human impulse to collect. Includes some samples of student writing. (SR)

  9. Waste collection subsystem study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Practical ways were explored of improving waste compaction and of providing rapid turnaround between flights at essentially no cost for the space shuttle waste collection subsystem commode. Because of the possible application of a fully developed shuttle commode to the space station, means of providing waste treatment without overboard venting were also considered. Three basic schemes for compaction and rapid turnaround, each fully capable of meeting the objectives, were explored in sufficient depth to bring out the characteristic advantages and disadvantages of each. Tradeoff comparisons were very close between leading contenders and efforts were made to refine the design concepts sufficiently to justify a selection. The concept selected makes use of a sealed canister containing wastes that have been forcibly compacted, which is removable in flight. No selection was made between three superior non-venting treatment methods owing to the need for experimental evaluations of the processes involved. A system requirements definition document has been prepared to define the task for a test embodiment of the selected concept.

  10. The ARL Special Collections Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Joe A.; Panitch, Judith M.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) activities regarding special collections. Highlights include local and collaborative approaches; budget pressures; access to special collections; digitization programs; recruiting qualified staff; results of a survey of ARL special collections; and the need for ongoing statistics for special…

  11. [Collective Bargaining in Junior Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankin, Joseph N.; Angell, G. W.

    Two papers comprise this document: "Alternatives to Collective Bargaining" and "Collective Bargaining in Two-Year Colleges: Problems and Trends." The first paper, by Joseph N. Hankin, presents the thesis that there is no alternative to collective bargaining but that attention should be focused instead on who represents the faculty on which issues.…

  12. Collection Development Policy: Government Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazek, Dan

    Intended as a general guideline for selecting government documents at the University of Miami (Florida) Otto G. Richter Library, this collection development policy includes the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Mission Statement; (3) Selection Responsibility; (4) Subject Areas, Collection Intensity Levels and Collection Arrangement,…

  13. Houston Cole Library Collection Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, William Abbot, Ed.; McAbee, Sonja L., Ed.

    This document reports on an assessment of the Jacksonville State University's Houston Cole Library collection that employed a variety of methodologies and tools, including list-checking, direct collection examination, shelflist measurement and analysis, WLN (Washington Library Network) conspectus sheets, analysis of OCLC/AMIGOS Collection Analysis…

  14. Managing University Research Microdata Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfrey, Lynn; Fry, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the management of microdata collections in a university context. It is a cross-country analysis: Collection management at data services in Canada and South Africa are considered. The case studies are of two university sub-contexts: One collection is located in a library; the other at a Faculty-based Data Service. Stages in…

  15. Physician collective bargaining.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Anthony Hunter

    2009-11-01

    Current antitrust enforcement policy unduly restricts physician collaboration, especially among small physician practices. Among other matters, current enforcement policy has hindered the ability of physicians to implement efficient healthcare delivery innovations, such as the acquisition and implementation of health information technology (HIT). Furthermore, the Federal Trade Commission and Department of Justice have unevenly enforced the antitrust laws, thereby fostering an increasingly severe imbalance in the healthcare market in which dominant health insurers enjoy the benefit of largely unfettered consolidation at the cost of both consumers and providers. This article traces the history of antitrust enforcement in healthcare, describe the current marketplace, and suggest the problems that must be addressed to restore balance to the healthcare market and help to ensure an innovative and efficient healthcare system capable of meeting the demands of the 21st century. Specifically, the writer explains how innovative physician collaborations have been improperly stifled by the policies of the federal antitrust enforcement agencies, and recommend that these policies be relaxed to permit physicians more latitude to bargain collectively with health insurers in conjunction with procompetitive clinical integration efforts. The article also explains how the unbridled consolidation of the health insurance industry has resulted in higher premiums to consumers and lower compensation to physicians, and recommends that further consolidation be prohibited. Finally, the writer discusses how health insurers with market power are improperly undermining the physician-patient relationship, and recommend federal antitrust enforcement agencies take appropriate steps to protect patients and their physicians from this anticompetitive conduct. The article also suggests such steps will require changes in three areas: (1) health insurers must be prohibited from engaging in anticompetitive

  16. Gesammelte Werke / Collected Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzschild, Karl; Voigt, Hans-Heinrich

    Der bekannte Astronom Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916) gilt als der Begründer der Astrophysik und als hervorragender Forscher mit einer erstaunlichen Bandbreite seiner Interessen. Arbeiten zur Himmelsmechanik, Elektrodynamik und Relativitätstheorie weisen ihn als vorzüglichen Mathematiker und Physiker auf der Höhe seiner Zeit aus. Untersuchungen zur Photographischen Photometrie, Optik und Spektroskopie zeigen den versierten Beobachter, der sein Meßinstrumentarium beherrscht, und schließlich arbeitete Schwarzschild als Astrophysiker an Sternatmosphären, Kometen, Struktur und Dynamik von Sternsystemen. Die in seinem kurzen Leben entstandene Fülle an wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten ist in drei Bänden der Gesamtausgabe gesammelt, ergänzt durch biographisches Material, Annotationen von Fachleuten und einen Essay des Nobelpreisträgers S. Chandrasekhar. The well-known astronomer Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916) is regarded as the founder of astrophysics and as an exceptionally talented researcher whose interests spanned a remarkably broad spectrum. His work on celestial mechanics, electrodynamics, and relativity theory demonstrates his great abilities as a mathematician and physicist who significantly influenced the science of his times. His investigations of photographic photometry, optics, and spectroscopy display his strengths as an observer who knew his instruments. But above all Schwarzschild pursued questions of astrophysics, addressing in particular stellar atmospheres, comets, and the structure and dynamics of stellar systems. The host of scientific works that he authored in his short life is now collected in the form of this three-volume complete works; it is supplemented by biographical material, notes from some of todays experts, and an essay by the Nobel Laureate S. Chandrasekhar.

  17. 78 FR 70577 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection, Comments Requested, New Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection, Comments..., Federal Bureau of Investigation, Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division, Module E-3, 1000... Estimation General Clearance ACTION: 60-Day Notice. The Department of Justice, Federal Bureau......

  18. 78 FR 73565 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection, Comments Requested, New Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection, Comments... Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Criminal Justice Information Services Division will... instructions, should be directed to Mrs. Amy C. Blasher, Unit Chief, Federal Bureau of......

  19. 78 FR 2693 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Collection of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Collection of Laboratory Analysis Data on Drug Samples Tested by Non-Federal (State and Local) Crime Laboratories ACTION: 30-Day notice....

  20. Utilization of tall goldenrod by the tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the production of overwintering adults and as a possible winter food source

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), nymphs and adults were collected from tall goldenrod, Solidago canadensis L. var. scabra Torr. and Gray, in Washington County, MS during October and November 2008 and 2009. Adults were dissected to determine their reproductive status in o...

  1. Current Collection from Space Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra (Editor); Wright, K. H., Jr. (Editor); Stone, Nobie H. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The First Workshop on Current Collection from Space Plasmas was held at the Tom Bevil Center on the campus of The University of Alabama in Huntsville on April 24 to 25, 1989. The intent of the workshop was to assemble experts on various topics related to the problem of current collection for deliberations that would elucidate the present understanding of the overall current collection problem. Papers presented at the workshop are presented.

  2. Collective behavior of inanimate boats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suematsu, Nobuhiko J.; Nakata, Satoshi; Awazu, Akinori; Nishimori, Hiraku

    2010-05-01

    We propose an inanimate system composed of camphor boats in an annular water channel in order to understand the collective motions. The boats move on the water surface spontaneously and interact with one another through the concentration of the camphor molecules on the water. We observed several modes of collective motion, e.g., behaviors analogous to traffic flow or an ant trail. Our system provides a convenient experimental setup for the investigation of a variety of collective motions.

  3. The Ames Library: A Model for Collection Integration Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Julia B.; George, Sarah E.

    2005-01-01

    Illinois Wesleyan University's Ames Library opened in January 2002. The vision for this library focused on creating a user-centered arrangement of information regardless of format. Much of the library's collection was integrated during the move to the new building; however, several discrete collections remain separate. This article will discuss…

  4. 76 FR 40775 - Agency Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... Internal Revenue Service Agency Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Department of the...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning disclosure of tax return...

  5. 78 FR 28848 - Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... the database; and (3) Research data sets of individual- level and hospital-level de-identified data to... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, HHS....

  6. 77 FR 46527 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... April 30, 2012, MSPB sought public comments on this ICR pursuant to 5 CFR 1320.8(d). See 77 FR 25501... describes the nature of the information collection and its estimated burden and cost. DATE: Submit written... and recordkeeping burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 0.50 hours...

  7. 78 FR 20142 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Appeal Form 185 On December 3, 2012, MSPB published a 60-day notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 71640... BOARD Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection.... 3506 and 3507), the Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB or Board) announces that an...

  8. 77 FR 20820 - Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ..., 44 U.S.C. 3501-3521, AHRQ invites the public to comment on this proposed information collection...) approve, under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, AHRQ's collection of information for the Synthesis of... healthcareassociated infections (HAIs), both internally and through contracts and grants. AHRQ's grant- and...

  9. Tritium monitor and collection system

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, Gary L.; Meikrantz, David H.; Ely, Walter E.; Tuggle, Dale G.; Grafwallner, Ervin G.; Wickham, Keith L.; Maltrud, Herman R.; Baker, John D.

    1992-01-01

    This system measures tritium on-line and collects tritium from a flowing inert gas stream. It separates the tritium from other non-hydrogen isotope contaminating gases, whether radioactive or not. The collecting portion of the system is constructed of various zirconium alloys called getters. These alloys adsorb tritium in any of its forms at one temperature and at a higher temperature release it as a gas. The system consists of four on-line getters and heaters, two ion chamber detectors, two collection getters, and two guard getters. When the incoming gas stream is valved through the on-line getters, 99.9% of it is adsorbed and the remainder continues to the guard getter where traces of tritium not collected earlier are adsorbed. The inert gas stream then exits the system to the decay chamber. Once the on-line getter has collected tritium for a predetermined time, it is valved off and the next on-line getter is valved on. Simultaneously, the first getter is heated and a pure helium purge is employed to carry the tritium from the getter. The tritium loaded gas stream is then routed through an ion chamber which measures the tritium activity. The ion chamber effluent passes through a collection getter that readsorbs the tritium and is removable from the system once it is loaded and is then replaced with a clean getter. Prior to removal of the collection getter, the system switches to a parallel collection getter. The effluent from the collection getter passes through a guard getter to remove traces of tritium prior to exiting the system. The tritium loaded collection getter, once removed, is analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques. The entire sequence is under computer control except for the removal and analysis of the collection getter.

  10. Tritium monitor and collection system

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, G.L.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Ely, W.E.; Tuggle, D.G.; Grafwallner, E.G.; Wickham, K.L.; Maltrud, H.R.; Baker, J.D.

    1992-01-14

    This system measures tritium on-line and collects tritium from a flowing inert gas stream. It separates the tritium from other non-hydrogen isotope contaminating gases, whether radioactive or not. The collecting portion of the system is constructed of various zirconium alloys called getters. These alloys adsorb tritium in any of its forms at one temperature and at a higher temperature release it as a gas. The system consists of four on-line getters and heaters, two ion chamber detectors, two collection getters, and two guard getters. When the incoming gas stream is valved through the on-line getters, 99.9% of it is adsorbed and the remainder continues to the guard getter where traces of tritium not collected earlier are adsorbed. The inert gas stream then exits the system to the decay chamber. Once the on-line getter has collected tritium for a predetermined time, it is valved off and the next on-line getter is valved on. Simultaneously, the first getter is heated and a pure helium purge is employed to carry the tritium from the getter. The tritium loaded gas stream is then routed through an ion chamber which measures the tritium activity. The ion chamber effluent passes through a collection getter that readsorbs the tritium and is removable from the system once it is loaded and is then replaced with a clean getter. Prior to removal of the collection getter, the system switches to a parallel collection getter. The effluent from the collection getter passes through a guard getter to remove traces of tritium prior to exiting the system. The tritium loaded collection getter, once removed, is analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques. The entire sequence is under computer control except for the removal and analysis of the collection getter. 7 figs.

  11. Developing Collections to Empower Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Sue C.

    2014-01-01

    "Developing Collections to Empower Learners" examines collection development in the context of today's shifts toward digital resources while emphasizing the foundational beliefs of the school library profession. Writer Sue Kimmel includes practical advice about needs assessment, planning, selection, acquisitions, evaluation, and…

  12. Decisions about Data Collection Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, Eugene A.

    "Pure" academic research rules on data collection do not apply directly to operations research (OR). OR data collection should be viewed in terms of objective, cost, and effectiveness. For the model formulation objective, proper data strategies emphasize multiple views of the operating system to identify the "relatednesses" to be depicted. For the…

  13. Collective Bargaining: Impact on Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duryea, E. D.; Needy, John C.

    1977-01-01

    For colleges and universities, faculty unionism has evidenced the potential to change significantly the nature of institutional relationships. Collective bargaining has brought into the system a different philosophy than the traditional scholarly one of shared authority. As a result, collective bargaining has created a new dimension for governing…

  14. Microcomputers for Laboratory Data Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Jack D.; Esch, Harald E.

    1984-01-01

    Advantages of computerized data acquisition and three approaches to data collection are discussed. Interfacing techniques and use of microcomputers as physiological recorders are also discussed. Examples of computerized data acquisition are provided. These include computer monitoring of animal activity and collecting data from species distribution…

  15. The Duality of Collective Nouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celce, Marianne

    1970-01-01

    Defining a collective noun as "a noun that may operate as either a singular or plural noun--the number of the noun being determined by the verb of the sentence or main clause in which it occurs or by anaphoric reference," the author identifies three groups of collective nouns. (FWB)

  16. Folk Heritage Collections in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, DC.

    The American Folklore Society and the American Folklife Center at the Library of Congress collaborated on a conference, "Folk Heritage Collections in Crisis," held on December 1-2, 2000, and gathered experts to formulate recommendations for the preservation and access of America's folk heritage sound collections. To facilitate informed discussion…

  17. Collective Bargaining in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannix, Thomas M., Ed.

    The 1975 conference of the National Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education covered a wide range of topics. The proceedings included discussion of such areas as collective bargaining's impact on governance; the U.S. Congress and public employee legislation; federal legislation from a management perspective and from a…

  18. INFORMATION COLLECTION RULE INFORMATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:The Information Collection Rule (ICR) Information System was developed to store and distribute the information collected in the ICR for DBPs and microbiological research. It is a research database. The information system consists of our parts: laboratory...

  19. Fundamentals of Managing Reference Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Whether a library's reference collection is large or small, it needs constant attention. Singer's book offers information and insight on best practices for reference collection management, no matter the size, and shows why managing without a plan is a recipe for clutter and confusion. In this very practical guide, reference librarians will learn:…

  20. Understanding collective agency in bioethics.

    PubMed

    Beier, Katharina; Jordan, Isabella; Wiesemann, Claudia; Schicktanz, Silke

    2016-09-01

    Bioethicists tend to focus on the individual as the relevant moral subject. Yet, in highly complex and socially differentiated healthcare systems a number of social groups, each committed to a common cause, are involved in medical decisions and sometimes even try to influence bioethical discourses according to their own agenda. We argue that the significance of these collective actors is unjustifiably neglected in bioethics. The growing influence of collective actors in the fields of biopolitics and bioethics leads us to pursue the question as to how collective moral claims can be characterized and justified. We pay particular attention to elaborating the circumstances under which collective actors can claim 'collective agency.' Specifically, we develop four normative-practical criteria for collective agency in order to determine the conditions that must be given to reasonably speak of 'collective autonomy'. For this purpose, we analyze patient organizations and families, which represent two quite different kinds of groups and can both be conceived as collective actors of high relevance for bioethical practice. Finally, we discuss some practical implications and explain why the existence of a shared practice of trust is of immediate normative relevance in this respect. PMID:26948497

  1. Wide band data collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkiewicz, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The Incorporated Research Institutes for Seismology (IRIS) approached NASA Headquarters in 1986 about the need to collect data daily from seismic stations around the world as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. A typical IRIS Seismic Station generates 16 Megabytes of data per day when there is seismic activity. The Preliminary Design Parameters of the Wide Band Data Collection System are summarized.

  2. Collection Analysis Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dole, Wanda; And Others

    The Collection Analysis Project (CAP) was undertaken in response to one of the major recommendations of the University at Stony Brook Libraries' strategic plan. It is the first step in promoting the necessary change to bring collection management and development into conformity with accepted professional practice, and make it more responsive to…

  3. Collective acceleration in solar flares

    SciTech Connect

    Barletta, W.; Sessler, A.M.; Xie, M.; Gershtein, S.S.; Krishan, V.; Reiser, M.

    1993-11-01

    Solar flare data are examined with an eye to seeing if they suggest collective acceleration of ions. That, in fact, seems to be the case. The collective acceleration mechanism of Gershtein is reviewed and the possibilities of the mechanism are discussed.

  4. Collective neutrino oscillations in supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Huaiyu

    2014-06-24

    In a dense neutrino medium neutrinos can experience collective flavor transformation through the neutrino-neutrino forward scattering. In this talk we present some basic features of collective neutrino flavor transformation in the context in core-collapse supernovae. We also give some qualitative arguments for why and when this interesting phenomenon may occur and how it may affect supernova nucleosynthesis.

  5. Insuring the Academic Library Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cady, Susan A.

    1999-01-01

    Securing adequate insurance coverage is an important aspect of preserving library collections. Insurers determine rates, within an institution's limits of coverage, based on the library building's environment and the library's estimate of the collection's replacement cost. Methods of categorizing and projecting these costs are explored with…

  6. Leadership, collective personality, and performance.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, David A; Jones, Lisa M

    2005-05-01

    By viewing behavior regularities at the individual and collective level as functionally isomorphic, a referent-shift compositional model for the Big 5 personality dimensions is developed. On the basis of this compositional model, a common measure of Big 5 personality at the individual level is applied to the collective as a whole. Within this framework, it is also hypothesized that leadership (i.e., transformational, transactional, and passive) would predict collective personality and that collective personality would be significantly related to collective performance. The results supported these hypotheses using a sample of franchised units. On the basis of recent research at the individual level, several interactions among the various personality dimensions were hypothesized and supported. Implications are discussed. PMID:15910146

  7. Collective network for computer structures

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Coteus, Paul W.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Takken, Todd E.; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2011-08-16

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global collective communications among interconnected processing nodes. The global collective network optimally enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices ate included that interconnect the nodes of the network via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual network and class structures. The global collective network may be configured to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner. When implemented in a massively-parallel supercomputing structure, the global collective network is physically and logically partitionable according to needs of a processing algorithm.

  8. Collective network for computer structures

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A; Coteus, Paul W; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Giampapa, Mark E; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Takken, Todd E; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D; Vranas, Pavlos M

    2014-01-07

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global collective communications among interconnected processing nodes. The global collective network optimally enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices are included that interconnect the nodes of the network via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual network. The global collective network may be configured to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner. When implemented in a massively-parallel supercomputing structure, the global collective network is physically and logically partitionable according to the needs of a processing algorithm.

  9. 77 FR 21980 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Existing Collection; Reinstatement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY... Employment Opportunity Commission. ACTION: Notice of Information Collection--Reinstatement Without Change... Act, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC or Commission) announces that it submitted...

  10. Collection Directions: Some Reflections on the Future of Library Collections and Collecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Lorcan; Malpas, Constance; Lavoie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This article takes a broad view of the evolution of collecting behaviors in a network environment and suggests some future directions based on various simple models. The authors look at the changing dynamics of print collections, at the greater engagement with research and learning behaviors, and at trends in scholarly communication. The goal is…

  11. Growing Mathematical Understanding through Collective Image Making, Collective Image Having, and Collective Property Noticing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Lyndon C.; Towers, Jo

    2015-01-01

    In the research reported in this paper, we develop a theoretical perspective to describe and account for the growth of collective mathematical understanding. We discuss collective processes in mathematics, drawing in particular on theoretical work in the domains of improvisational jazz and theatre. Using examples of data from a study of elementary…

  12. 76 FR 23850 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Approval of a Revision in Information Collection(s...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ..., or a region. A 60-day Federal Register notice was published on February 15, 2011 (76 FR 8804). Since... 60-day Federal Register notice was published on February 15, 2011 (76 FR 8804). Since the publication... Collection(s); Comments Requested: National Infrastructure Investments Grant Program or ``TIGER...

  13. Schistosomiasis collection at NHM (SCAN)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Natural History Museum (NHM) is developing a repository for schistosomiasis-related material, the Schistosomiasis Collection at NHM (SCAN) as part of its existing Wolfson Wellcome Biomedical Laboratory (WWBL). This is timely because a major research and evaluation effort to understand control and move towards elimination of schistosomiasis in Africa has been initiated by the Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE), resulting in the collection of many important biological samples, including larval schistosomes and snails. SCAN will collaborate with a number of research groups and control teams and the repository will acquire samples relevant to both immediate and future research interest. The samples collected through ongoing research and field activities, WWBL’s existing collections, and other acquisitions will be maintained over the long term and made available to the global research community for approved research purposes. Goals include: · Consolidation of the existing NHM schistosome and snail collections and transfer of specimens into suitable long-term storage systems for DNA retrieval, · Long-term and stable storage of specimens collected as part of on going field programmes initially in Africa especially relating to the SCORE research programmes, · Provision of access to snail and schistosome collections for approved research activities. PMID:22943137

  14. eDPS Aerosol Collection

    SciTech Connect

    Venzie, J.

    2015-10-13

    The eDPS Aerosol Collection project studies the fundamental physics of electrostatic aerosol collection for national security applications. The interpretation of aerosol data requires understanding and correcting for biases introduced from particle genesis through collection and analysis. The research and development undertaken in this project provides the basis for both the statistical correction of existing equipment and techniques; as well as, the development of new collectors and analytical techniques designed to minimize unwanted biases while improving the efficiency of locating and measuring individual particles of interest.

  15. Collective cell migration in development

    PubMed Central

    Scarpa, Elena

    2016-01-01

    During embryonic development, tissues undergo major rearrangements that lead to germ layer positioning, patterning, and organ morphogenesis. Often these morphogenetic movements are accomplished by the coordinated and cooperative migration of the constituent cells, referred to as collective cell migration. The molecular and biomechanical mechanisms underlying collective migration of developing tissues have been investigated in a variety of models, including border cell migration, tracheal branching, blood vessel sprouting, and the migration of the lateral line primordium, neural crest cells, or head mesendoderm. Here we review recent advances in understanding collective migration in these developmental models, focusing on the interaction between cells and guidance cues presented by the microenvironment and on the role of cell–cell adhesion in mechanical and behavioral coupling of cells within the collective. PMID:26783298

  16. Wildflower Collecting: A Class Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sheila V.

    1976-01-01

    Advocates wildflower collecting as a class project, citing instances of interest in studies of soil composition, growing wildflowers, and increased student motivation toward the subject of botany as basis for the activity. (CP)

  17. Collective behaviour across animal species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M.; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.

  18. Collective Quartics from Simple Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, Anson; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    This article classifies Little Higgs models that have collective quartic couplings. There are two classes of collective quartics: Special Cosets and Special Quartics. After taking into account dangerous singlets, the smallest Special Coset models are SU(5)/SO(5) and SU(6)/Sp(6). The smallest Special Quartic model is SU(5)/SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) and has not previously been considered as a candidate Little Higgs model.

  19. Neurodynamical model of collective brain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    1992-01-01

    A dynamical system which mimics collective purposeful activities of a set of units of intelligence is introduced and discussed. A global control of the unit activities is replaced by the probabilistic correlations between them. These correlations are learned during a long term period of performing collective tasks, and are stored in the synaptic interconnections. The model is represented by a system of ordinary differential equations with terminal attractors and repellers, and does not contain any man-made digital devices.

  20. Remote application for spectral collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cone, Shelli R.; Steele, R. J.; Tzeng, Nigel H.; Firpi, Alexer H.; Rodriguez, Benjamin M.

    2016-05-01

    In the area of collecting field spectral data using a spectrometer, it is common to have the instrument over the material of interest. In certain instances it is beneficial to have the ability to remotely control the spectrometer. While several systems have the ability to use a form of connectivity to capture the measurement it is essential to have the ability to control the settings. Additionally, capturing reference information (metadata) about the setup, system configuration, collection, location, atmospheric conditions, and sample information is necessary for future analysis leading towards material discrimination and identification. This has the potential to lead to cumbersome field collection and a lack of necessary information for post processing and analysis. The method presented in this paper describes a capability to merge all parts of spectral collection from logging reference information to initial analysis as well as importing information into a web-hosted spectral database. This allows the simplification of collecting, processing, analyzing and storing field spectra for future analysis and comparisons. This concept is developed for field collection of thermal data using the Designs and Prototypes (D&P) Hand Portable FT-IR Spectrometer (Model 102). The remote control of the spectrometer is done with a customized Android application allowing the ability to capture reference information, process the collected data from radiance to emissivity using a temperature emissivity separation algorithm and store the data into a custom web-based service. The presented system of systems allows field collected spectra to be used for various applications by spectral analysts in the future.

  1. Atomic squeezing under collective emission

    SciTech Connect

    Yukalov, V.I.; Yukalova, E.P.

    2004-11-01

    Atomic squeezing is studied for the case of large systems of radiating atoms, when collective effects are well developed. All temporal stages are analyzed, starting with the quantum stage of spontaneous emission, passing through the coherent stage of superradiant emission, and going to the relaxation stage ending with stationary solutions. A method of governing the temporal behavior of the squeezing factor is suggested. The influence of a squeezed effective vacuum on the characteristics of collective emission is also investigated.

  2. Programmable data collection platform study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study incorporating microprocessors in data collection platforms in described. An introduction to microcomputer hardware and software concepts is provided. The influence of microprocessor technology on the design of programmable data collection platform hardware is discussed. A standard modular PDCP design capable of meeting the design goals is proposed, and the process of developing PDCP programs is examined. A description of design and construction of the UT PDCP development system is given.

  3. 75 FR 4054 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Agency Information Collection... of an information collection request with the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). DOE is now is... request, the Recovery Act Reviewer Web site information collection request, covers information...

  4. Collective Motion of Spherical Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rabani, Amit; Ariel, Gil; Be'er, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    A large variety of motile bacterial species exhibit collective motions while inhabiting liquids or colonizing surfaces. These collective motions are often characterized by coherent dynamic clusters, where hundreds of cells move in correlated whirls and jets. Previously, all species that were known to form such motion had a rod-shaped structure, which enhances the order through steric and hydrodynamic interactions. Here we show that the spherical motile bacteria Serratia marcescens exhibit robust collective dynamics and correlated coherent motion while grown in suspensions. As cells migrate to the upper surface of a drop, they form a monolayer, and move collectively in whirls and jets. At all concentrations, the distribution of the bacterial speed was approximately Rayleigh with an average that depends on concentration in a non-monotonic way. Other dynamical parameters such as vorticity and correlation functions are also analyzed and compared to rod-shaped bacteria from the same strain. Our results demonstrate that self-propelled spherical objects do form complex ordered collective motion. This opens a door for a new perspective on the role of cell aspect ratio and alignment of cells with regards to collective motion in nature. PMID:24376741

  5. Collective Behaviour without Collective Order in Wild Swarms of Midges

    PubMed Central

    Attanasi, Alessandro; Cavagna, Andrea; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Giardina, Irene; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Pohl, Oliver; Rossaro, Bruno; Shen, Edward; Silvestri, Edmondo; Viale, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    Collective behaviour is a widespread phenomenon in biology, cutting through a huge span of scales, from cell colonies up to bird flocks and fish schools. The most prominent trait of collective behaviour is the emergence of global order: individuals synchronize their states, giving the stunning impression that the group behaves as one. In many biological systems, though, it is unclear whether global order is present. A paradigmatic case is that of insect swarms, whose erratic movements seem to suggest that group formation is a mere epiphenomenon of the independent interaction of each individual with an external landmark. In these cases, whether or not the group behaves truly collectively is debated. Here, we experimentally study swarms of midges in the field and measure how much the change of direction of one midge affects that of other individuals. We discover that, despite the lack of collective order, swarms display very strong correlations, totally incompatible with models of non-interacting particles. We find that correlation increases sharply with the swarm's density, indicating that the interaction between midges is based on a metric perception mechanism. By means of numerical simulations we demonstrate that such growing correlation is typical of a system close to an ordering transition. Our findings suggest that correlation, rather than order, is the true hallmark of collective behaviour in biological systems. PMID:25057853

  6. Collection Metadata Solutions for Digital Library Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Linda L.; Janee, Greg; Dolin, Ron; Frew, James; Larsgaard, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Defines digital library collections and outlines two classes of collection metadata. Describes the Alexandria Digital Library (ADL) Project approach to collection metadata, including the ADL system architecture and collection guidelines and the format and use of the ADL collection metadata. Appendices include ADL collection metadata and example.…

  7. Electrostatic particle collection in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshar-Mohajer, Nima; Damit, Brian; Wu, Chang-Yu; Sorloaica-Hickman, Nicoleta

    2011-09-01

    Lunar grains accumulate charges due to solar-based ionizing radiations, and the repelling action of like-charged particles causes the levitation of lunar dust. The lunar dust deposit on sensitive and costly surfaces of investigative equipment is a serious concern in lunar explorations. Inspired by electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), the Electrostatic Lunar Dust Collector (ELDC) was proposed for collecting already charged lunar dust particles to prevent the lunar dust threat. As the conditions for terrestrial counterparts are not valid in the lunar environment, equations developed for terrestrial devices yield incorrect predictions in lunar application. Hence, a mathematical model was developed for the ELDC operating in vacuum to determine its collection efficiency. The ratios of electrical energy over potential energy, kinetic energy over potential energy and the ratio of ELDC dimensions were identified to be the key dimensionless parameters. Sensitivity analyses of the relevant parameters showed that depending on ELDC orientation, smaller particles would be collected more easily at vertical orientation, whereas larger particles were easier to collect in a horizontal ELDC configuration. In the worst case scenario, the electrostatic field needed to be 10 times stronger in the vertical mode in order to adequately collect larger particles. The collection efficiency was very sensitive to surface potential of lunar dust and it reached the maximum when surface potential was between 30 and 120 V. Except for regions of the lunar day side with surface potential close to zero, providing 1 kV ( E = 20 kV m -1) with the ELDC was more than enough for collecting all the particles in the most critical orientation. The needed field strength was about 4000 times less than that for repelling 1-μm size particles already settled on the surfaces. The analysis shows that the ELDC offers a viable solution for lunar dust control due to its effectiveness, ease of cleaning and low voltage

  8. Culture collections over the world.

    PubMed

    Smith, David

    2003-06-01

    Culture collections have the crucial role of providing the authenticated biological material upon which high quality research is based. Importantly, they serve as repositories for strains as part of patent deposits, providers of safe and confidential services to store key organisms for research and industry, and sources of organisms cited in scientific papers that can be used in the confirmation of results and for further study. The demands upon culture collections change as new technologies and uses of organisms are discovered. Many are becoming Biological Resource Centres, as defined by the OECD Biological Resource Centre (BRC) Initiative, in that they operate according to international quality criteria, carry out essential research, enhance the value and applications of strains and provide a vital information resource. In a changing international scientific environment, many collections are under threat of extinction because of inadequate funding, changing government support strategies and the cost of new technologies. We are also suffering a decline in the number of biosystematists, who are needed to form a sound base for molecular technologies and to aid in identifying, and characterizing microbial diversity. In this environment, collections must work together to make the best use of new technologies and to contribute to the description of the 1.4 million fungi yet to be discovered. At the current rate, this will take 700 years. New technologies and novel ways of funding this task must be engaged and, above all, scientists must collaborate. Common policies are necessary to address the regulatory demands on collections, to control access to dangerous organisms, and, in particular, to enforce the Convention on Biological Diversity. Countries that hold the majority of biodiversity require support in building the facilities required to explore their hidden resource. The World Federation for Culture Collections (WFCC) and, in Europe, the European Culture Collection

  9. Bohunice Simulator Data Collection Project

    SciTech Connect

    Cillik, Ivan; Prochaska, Jan

    2002-07-01

    The paper describes the way and results of human reliability data analysis collected as a part of the Bohunice Simulator Data Collection Project (BSDCP), which was performed by VUJE Trnava, Inc. with funding support from the U.S. DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration. The goal of the project was to create a methodology for simulator data collection and analysis to support activities in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) and human reliability assessment for Jaslovske Bohunice nuclear power plant consisting of two sets of twin units: two VVER 440/V-230 (V1) and two VVER 440/V-213 (V2) reactors. During the project training of V-2 control room crews was performed at VUJE-Trnava simulator. The simulator training and the data collection were done in parallel. The main goal of BSDCP was to collect suitable data of human errors under simulated conditions requiring the use of symptom-based emergency operating procedures (SBEOPs). The subjects of the data collection were scenario progress time data, operator errors, and real-time technological parameters. The paper contains three main parts. The first part presents preparatory work and semi-automatic computer-based methods used to collect data and to check technological parameters in order to find hidden errors of operators, to be able to retrace the course of each scenario for purposes of further analysis, and to document the whole training process. The first part gives also an overview of collected data scope, human error taxonomy, and state classifications for SBEOP instructions coding. The second part describes analytical work undertaken to describe time distribution necessary for execution of various kinds of instructions performed by operators according to the classification for coding of SBEOP instructions. It also presents the methods used for determination of probability distribution for different operator errors. Results from the data evaluation are presented in the last part of the paper. An overview of

  10. Innovation in the collective brain.

    PubMed

    Muthukrishna, Michael; Henrich, Joseph

    2016-03-19

    Innovation is often assumed to be the work of a talented few, whose products are passed on to the masses. Here, we argue that innovations are instead an emergent property of our species' cultural learning abilities, applied within our societies and social networks. Our societies and social networks act as collective brains. We outline how many human brains, which evolved primarily for the acquisition of culture, together beget a collective brain. Within these collective brains, the three main sources of innovation are serendipity, recombination and incremental improvement. We argue that rates of innovation are heavily influenced by (i) sociality, (ii) transmission fidelity, and (iii) cultural variance. We discuss some of the forces that affect these factors. These factors can also shape each other. For example, we provide preliminary evidence that transmission efficiency is affected by sociality--languages with more speakers are more efficient. We argue that collective brains can make each of their constituent cultural brains more innovative. This perspective sheds light on traits, such as IQ, that have been implicated in innovation. A collective brain perspective can help us understand otherwise puzzling findings in the IQ literature, including group differences, heritability differences and the dramatic increase in IQ test scores over time. PMID:26926282

  11. Digital data collection in paleoanthropology.

    PubMed

    Reed, Denné; Barr, W Andrew; Mcpherron, Shannon P; Bobe, René; Geraads, Denis; Wynn, Jonathan G; Alemseged, Zeresenay

    2015-01-01

    Understanding patterns of human evolution across space and time requires synthesizing data collected by independent research teams, and this effort is part of a larger trend to develop cyber infrastructure and e-science initiatives. At present, paleoanthropology cannot easily answer basic questions about the total number of fossils and artifacts that have been discovered, or exactly how those items were collected. In this paper, we examine the methodological challenges to data integration, with the hope that mitigating the technical obstacles will further promote data sharing. At a minimum, data integration efforts must document what data exist and how the data were collected (discovery), after which we can begin standardizing data collection practices with the aim of achieving combined analyses (synthesis). This paper outlines a digital data collection system for paleoanthropology. We review the relevant data management principles for a general audience and supplement this with technical details drawn from over 15 years of paleontological and archeological field experience in Africa and Europe. The system outlined here emphasizes free open-source software (FOSS) solutions that work on multiple computer platforms; it builds on recent advances in open-source geospatial software and mobile computing. PMID:26662947

  12. Distributed resource management: garbage collection

    SciTech Connect

    Bagherzadeh, N.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great interest in designing high-performance distributed symbolic-processing computers. These architectures have special needs for resource management and dynamic reclamation of unused memory cells and objects. The memory management or garbage-collection aspects of these architectures are studied. Also introduced is a synchronous distributed algorithm for garbage collection. A special data structure is defined to handle the distributed nature of the problem. The author formally expresses the algorithm and shows the results of a synchronous garbage-collection simulation and its effect on the interconnection-network message to traffic. He presents an asynchronous distributed garbage collection to handle the resource management for a system that does not require a global synchronization mechanism. The distributed data structure is modified to include the asynchronous aspects of the algorithm. This method is extended to a multiple-mutator scheme, and the problem of having several processors share portion of a cyclical graph is discussed. Two models for the analytical study of the garbage-collection algorithms discussed are provided.

  13. 75 FR 8995 - Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection, Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Requested ACTION: 30-day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: New collection; InfraGard Knowledge... information collection: New collection. (2) The title of the form/collection: InfraGard...

  14. 77 FR 29690 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection, Comments Requested; Status of COPS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection, Comments Requested; Status of COPS Grant... (DOJ) Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), has submitted the following information... Collection: Proposed collection; comments requested. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Status of COPS...

  15. Collection Development: Great Finds for Your Collectibles Shelf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Margarete

    1993-01-01

    Briefly reviews 41 books and periodicals about antiques and collectibles such as glassware, porcelain, dolls, buttons, ceramics, folk arts, furniture, jewelry, rugs, textiles, and woodenware. Books are arranged in the following topic areas: price guides; general surveys; out-of-print titles; trends; conservation and restoration; dealers; and…

  16. Faire preuve d'intelligence collective (To Display Collective Intelligence).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laferriere, Therese

    2000-01-01

    The need for lifelong learning is increasing as humanity transforms the planet into a global village. The growing number of people using the electronic infrastructure is creating new practices in which learning and work are intertwined. Professional educators must build the collective intelligence required for a knowledge-based society, and in…

  17. Learning the Collection: A New Librarian's Experience in Collection Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The author is a reference and instruction librarian at Iowa State University with collection development and liaison responsibilities for chemistry, biochemistry, entomology, and natural resource ecology. She recently came to librarianship with an education and three years' experience in biochemistry and biotechnology. During the last four years…

  18. 78 FR 48135 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ...The Food and Nutrition Service is correcting this notice, which invites the general public and other public agencies to comment on this proposed information collection. This notice was published in the Federal Register on July 26, 2013. This notice corrects where and to whom the comments are to be...

  19. 76 FR 33026 - Agency Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ...The Department of the Treasury, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, invites the general public and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C....

  20. Collective Design of an E-Textbook: Teachers' Collective Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gueudet, Ghislaine; Pepin, Birgit; Sabra, Hussein; Trouche, Luc

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated design processes in teacher collectives, which have been made possible by new "digital" opportunities: platforms, discussion lists, etc. The object of our study is the French Sésamath teacher association and its design of a grade 10 e-textbook, more precisely the design of the "functions" chapter.…

  1. A Comparison between Collective Teacher Efficacy and Collective Teacher Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Tiffany D.

    2015-01-01

    For decades, researchers have studied teacher efficacy. In the past decade or so, however, collective teacher efficacy has been at the forefront of educational research as an extension of teacher self-efficacy. Educational researchers have been studying this construct to determine its impact on student achievement, teacher quality, and school…

  2. Collective cognition in animal groups.

    PubMed

    Couzin, Iain D

    2009-01-01

    The remarkable collective action of organisms such as swarming ants, schooling fish and flocking birds has long captivated the attention of artists, naturalists, philosophers and scientists. Despite a long history of scientific investigation, only now are we beginning to decipher the relationship between individuals and group-level properties. This interdisciplinary effort is beginning to reveal the underlying principles of collective decision-making in animal groups, demonstrating how social interactions, individual state, environmental modification and processes of informational amplification and decay can all play a part in tuning adaptive response. It is proposed that important commonalities exist with the understanding of neuronal processes and that much could be learned by considering collective animal behavior in the framework of cognitive science. PMID:19058992

  3. [World Collections of Parasitic Worms].

    PubMed

    Zinovieva, S V; Butorina, N N; Udalova, Zh V; Khasanova, S; Filimonova, L V; Petrosyan, V G; Pel'gunov, A N

    2015-01-01

    This article provides information about the depositories of parasitic worms in the scientific institutes and museums in the United States, Japan, and Europe (the total number of samples and the availability of types of helminths from various classes), as well as information on the availability of electronic catalogues of the collections in the continental, national, and regional centers for collective use. The extent of this material has determined the necessity of creating digital collections and libraries that would represent a new form of storing, displaying, and exchanging information for scientific research. An analysis was performed of the current state of approaches and methods of development of the specialized information retrieval system (IRS) and databases (DBs) on the parasitic worms in Russia on the basis of a common conceptual data model, taking into account their local use (as desktop systems of database management) and access by scientists worldwide via the Internet. PMID:26852482

  4. The EMBRACE web service collection

    PubMed Central

    Pettifer, Steve; Ison, Jon; Kalaš, Matúš; Thorne, Dave; McDermott, Philip; Jonassen, Inge; Liaquat, Ali; Fernández, José M.; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Partners, INB-; Pisano, David G.; Blanchet, Christophe; Uludag, Mahmut; Rice, Peter; Bartaseviciute, Edita; Rapacki, Kristoffer; Hekkelman, Maarten; Sand, Olivier; Stockinger, Heinz; Clegg, Andrew B.; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Salzemann, Jean; Breton, Vincent; Attwood, Teresa K.; Cameron, Graham; Vriend, Gert

    2010-01-01

    The EMBRACE (European Model for Bioinformatics Research and Community Education) web service collection is the culmination of a 5-year project that set out to investigate issues involved in developing and deploying web services for use in the life sciences. The project concluded that in order for web services to achieve widespread adoption, standards must be defined for the choice of web service technology, for semantically annotating both service function and the data exchanged, and a mechanism for discovering services must be provided. Building on this, the project developed: EDAM, an ontology for describing life science web services; BioXSD, a schema for exchanging data between services; and a centralized registry (http://www.embraceregistry.net) that collects together around 1000 services developed by the consortium partners. This article presents the current status of the collection and its associated recommendations and standards definitions. PMID:20462862

  5. Distributed Control with Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Tumer, Kagan

    1998-01-01

    We consider systems of interacting reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms that do not work at cross purposes , in that their collective behavior maximizes a global utility function. We call such systems COllective INtelligences (COINs). We present the theory of designing COINs. Then we present experiments validating that theory in the context of two distributed control problems: We show that COINs perform near-optimally in a difficult variant of Arthur's bar problem [Arthur] (and in particular avoid the tragedy of the commons for that problem), and we also illustrate optimal performance in the master-slave problem.

  6. Collective behaviour across animal species

    PubMed Central

    DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M.; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment. PMID:24430561

  7. Improved multiprocessor garbage collection algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, I.A.; Stallard, R.P.; Woodward, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    Outlines the results of an investigation of existing multiprocessor garbage collection algorithms and introduces two new algorithms which significantly improve some aspects of the performance of their predecessors. The two algorithms arise from different starting assumptions. One considers the case where the algorithm will terminate successfully whatever list structure is being processed and assumes that the extra data space should be minimised. The other seeks a very fast garbage collection time for list structures that do not contain loops. Results of both theoretical and experimental investigations are given to demonstrate the efficacy of the algorithms. 7 references.

  8. The Cytoscape app article collection.

    PubMed

    Pico, Alexander R; Bader, Gary D; Demchak, Barry; Guitart Pla, Oriol; Hull, Timothy; Longabaugh, William; Lopes, Christian; Lotia, Samad; Molenaar, Piet; Montojo, Jason; Morris, John H; Ono, Keiichiro; Schwikowski, Benno; Welker, David; Ideker, Trey

    2014-01-01

    As a network visualization and analysis platform, Cytoscape relies on apps to provide domain-specific features and functions. There are many resources available to support Cytoscape app development and distribution, including the Cytoscape App Store and an online "cookbook" for app developers. This article collection is another resource to help researchers find out more about relevant Cytoscape apps and to provide app developers with useful implementation tips. The collection will grow over time as new Cytoscape apps are developed and published. PMID:25580224

  9. Stabilized dried blood spot collection.

    PubMed

    McMorran, Darren; Chung, Dwayne Chung Kim; Toth, Monika; Liew, Oi Wah; Muradoglu, Murat; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2016-08-01

    During the collection phase of the dried blood spot method, practitioners need to ensure that there is no smearing of the blood sample on the filter paper or else readings from it will be invalid. This can be difficult to accomplish in the field if there is relative motion between the site of blood discharge on the finger and the filter paper. In this article, a gyroscope stabilization method is introduced and demonstrated to provide consistent and improved dried blood spot collection within a circular guide region notwithstanding the presence of rocking. PMID:27156813

  10. Cloud water collection from aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Mohnen, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    The principal challenge is to collect sufficient and representative water samples from nonprecipitating warm, supercooled, or glaciated clouds. This has to be done with adequate spatial resolution and minimal sample contamination, using devices stationed on mountaintops or mounted on airborne platforms (balloons or airplanes). Cloud collectors are usually designed to use direct impaction or centrifugal force for the removal of cloud particles from the ambient airstream. Once the particles have been deflected and collected on a surface, several physical principles, such as gravity, further centrifugation, or capillary action, may be employed to enhance coalescence of individual droplets into the bulk water that constitutes the actual sample volume.