Science.gov

Sample records for holothuria scabra collected

  1. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra.

    PubMed

    Li, Z B; Dai, G; Shangguan, J B; Ning, Y F; Li, Y Y; Chen, R B; Huang, Y S; Yuan, Y

    2015-01-01

    The sea cucumber Holothuria scabra is an endangered species. In this study, nine new polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed and tested in 30 individuals. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 5, and the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.1200 to 0.7391 and from 0.2408 to 0.5983, respectively. No loci significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium af-ter a Bonferroni correction, and no significant linkage disequilibrium was found between pairs of loci. These polymorphic microsatellite loci will be useful in studying the genetic diversity of H. scabra and its conservation. PMID:26125857

  2. The timing and reproductive output of the commercial sea cucumber Holothuria scabra on the Kenyan coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthiga, N. A.; Kawaka, J. A.; Ndirangu, S.

    2009-09-01

    The sea cucumber Holothuria scabra is a widely distributed and economically important species that has been harvested in Kenya for decades. No previous studies have been carried out on the reproduction of this species in Kenya. Standard gonad index methods were used to analyze reproductive patterns of individuals collected monthly in 1998-1999, 2000-2001 and 2006-2007. Morphological characteristics, gonad tubule lengths and fecundity were also measured. Mean monthly gonad indices were significantly correlated between males and females indicating synchronous gonad development between the sexes. Gonad indices showed a biannual pattern that was consistent in all three years with a minor spawning event occurring between August and September and a major spawning event between November and December. The pattern of gonad growth showed significant variability between years and between months. Temporal changes in gonad growth correlated significantly with gonad tubule length and absolute fecundity. Monthly gonad indices also correlated significantly with monthly measurements of air temperature and light suggesting a possible role for both factors in timing gametogenesis and spawning. There was a shift in sex ratio from unity in the 1998-1999 and 2000-2001 samples to significantly more males in the 2006-2007 samples, as well as a significant reduction in mean sizes (body wall weight) and reproductive output (gonad index) which suggests that the reproductive success of this species is potentially negatively affected by fishing.

  3. Heavy metal accumulation in tissues of two sea cucumbers, Holothuria leucospilota and Holothuria scabra in the northern part of Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Mohammadizadeh, Maria; Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Ehsanpour, Maryam; Afkhami, Majid; Mohammadizadeh, Flora; Esmaeilzadeh, Marjan

    2016-02-15

    The concentrations of some heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn andPb) were investigated in the sediments and the two species of sea cucumber (Holothuria leucospilota and Holothuria scabra) from northern part of Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf. The levels of Cu, Zn and Pb in sediment varied significantly among sampling sites (p<0.05). The highest levels of Zn and Pb in H. leucospilota were recorded in body wall whereas the highest contents of Zn and Pb in H. scabra were measured in respiratory tree organ, respectively. Cu and Cd were the most abundant elements in gonads of H. leucospilota while highest levels of Cd and Cu in H. scabra were measured in the gonad and derm, respectively. Cu and Zn concentrations were below permissible limits for human consumption while Cd and Pb were above permissible limits for human consumption. PMID:26769107

  4. Evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic effects of Holothuria scabra from the North Coast of the Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Mohammadizadeh, F; Ehsanpor, M; Afkhami, M; Mokhlesi, A; Khazaali, A; Montazeri, S

    2013-12-01

    Bioactive compounds of the gonad, respiration tree, and body wall of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra collected from the North Coast of the Persian Gulf were extracted using ethyl acetate, methanol and water-methanol mixtures. Extracts were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The activity was determined using the disc diffusion test. Cytotoxic activities of the extracts were determined by brine shrimp lethality assay. Results showed the existence of an antifungal activity of all extracts against A. niger with MIC ranging from 3 to 9μg/mL. The highest antifungal activity was found in respiration tree (methanol) with an inhibition zone of about 50mm against A. niger at 18μg/mL extract concentration. Cytotoxic activity was obtained for methanolic extracts only. Methanol extract of the gonads showed the highest cytotoxic effect (LC50=50.5μg/mL) continuing with RT methanol extract (LC50=70μg/mL). PMID:24054089

  5. Acid-base physiology response to ocean acidification of two ecologically and economically important holothuroids from contrasting habitats, Holothuria scabra and Holothuria parva.

    PubMed

    Collard, Marie; Eeckhaut, Igor; Dehairs, Frank; Dubois, Philippe

    2014-12-01

    Sea cucumbers are dominant invertebrates in several ecosystems such as coral reefs, seagrass meadows and mangroves. As bioturbators, they have an important ecological role in making available calcium carbonate and nutrients to the rest of the community. However, due to their commercial value, they face overexploitation in the natural environment. On top of that, occurring ocean acidification could impact these organisms, considered sensitive as echinoderms are osmoconformers, high-magnesium calcite producers and have a low metabolism. As a first investigation of the impact of ocean acidification on sea cucumbers, we tested the impact of short-term (6 to 12 days) exposure to ocean acidification (seawater pH 7.7 and 7.4) on two sea cucumbers collected in SW Madagascar, Holothuria scabra, a high commercial value species living in the seagrass meadows, and H. parva, inhabiting the mangroves. The former lives in a habitat with moderate fluctuations of seawater chemistry (driven by day-night differences) while the second lives in a highly variable intertidal environment. In both species, pH of the coelomic fluid was significantly negatively affected by reduced seawater pH, with a pronounced extracellular acidosis in individuals maintained at pH 7.7 and 7.4. This acidosis was due to an increased dissolved inorganic carbon content and pCO2 of the coelomic fluid, indicating a limited diffusion of the CO2 towards the external medium. However, respiration and ammonium excretion rates were not affected. No evidence of accumulation of bicarbonate was observed to buffer the coelomic fluid pH. If this acidosis stays uncompensated for when facing long-term exposure, other processes could be affected in both species, eventually leading to impacts on their ecological role. PMID:25028324

  6. Cytotoxic and Apoptosis-Inducing Activity of Triterpene Glycosides from Holothuria scabra and Cucumaria frondosa against HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juanjuan; Han, Hua; Chen, Xiangfeng; Yi, Yanghua; Sun, Hongxiang

    2014-01-01

    The cytotoxic effects of thirteen triterpene glycosides from Holothuria scabra Jaeger and Cucumaria frondosa Gunnerus (Holothuroidea) against four human cell lines were detected and their cytotoxicity-structure relationships were established. The apoptosis-inducing activity of a more potent glycoside echinoside A (1) in HepG2 cells was further investigated by determining its effect on the morphology, mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm) and mRNA expression levels of the apoptosis-related genes. The results showed that the number of glycosyl residues in sugar chains and the side chain of aglycone could affect their cytotoxicity towards tumor cells and selective cytotoxicity. 1 significantly inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. 1 also markedly decreased the Δψm and Bcl-2/Bax mRNA express ratio, and up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of Caspase-3, Caspase-8 and Caspase-9 in HepG2 cells. Therefore, 1 induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathway. These findings could potentially promote the usage of these glycosides as leading compounds for developing new antitumor drugs. PMID:25062508

  7. Scabraside D Extracted from Holothuria scabra Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits Growth of Human Cholangiocarcinoma Xenografts in Mice.

    PubMed

    Assawasuparerk, Kanjana; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Nobsathian, Saksit; Rawangchue, Thanakorn; Wittayachumnankul, Boonsirm

    2016-01-01

    Scabraside D, a sulfated triterpene glycoside extract from sea cucumber Holothulia scabra, shows various biological activities, but effects on human cholangiocarcinoma cells have not previously been reported. In the present study, we investigated the activity of scabraside D against human cholangiocarcinoma (HuCCA) both in vitro and for tumor growth inhibition in vivo using a xenograft model in nude mice. Scabraside D (12.5-100 μg/mL) significantly decreased the viability and the migration of the HuCCA cells in a dose-dependent manner, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 12.8 ± 0.05 μg/mL at 24 h. It induced signs of apoptotic cells, including shrinkage, pyknosis and karyorrhetic nuclei and DNA fragmentation on agarose gel electrophoresis. Moreover, by quantitative real-time PCR, scabraside D effectively decreased Bcl-2 while increasing Bax and Caspase-3 gene expression levels suggesting that the scabraside D could induce apoptosis in HuCCA cells. In vivo study demonstrated that scabraside D (1 mg/kg/day, i.p. for 21 days) significantly reduced growth of the HuCCA xenografts without adverse effects on the nude mice. Conclusively, scabraside D induced apoptosis in HuCCA cells and reduced the growth of HuCCA xenographs model. Therefore, scabraside D may have potential as a new therapeutic agent for cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:26925636

  8. Lectin-Based Profiling of Coelomocytes in Holothuria scabra and Expression of Superoxide Dismutase in Purified Coelomocytes.

    PubMed

    Prompoon, Yanvit; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun; Wongprasert, Kanokpan; Asuvapongpatana, Somluk

    2015-08-01

    Coelomocytes are the first line of immune defense in marine animals. Their distributions are greatly variable even in the close animal species. In this study, we used lectin staining to aid in the classification and purification of these cells for further investigation of SOD distribution among coelomocytes of H. scraba. We classified coelomocytes into four types: type 1, lymphocytes; type 2, phagocytes; type 3, spherulocytes; and type 4, giant cells. Among four lectins used, Con A appeared to give a broad reactivity against most coelomocytes, except for giant cells. In addition, phagocytes usually engaged the highest fluorescent intensity with most lectins, with the exception of PNA, for which spherulocytes possessed the highest fluorescent intensity. Using FACS for fraction collection, it was found that F1 fraction contained the purest phagocyte population (> 95%), which was highly reactive with anti- superoxide dismutase (SOD) as revealed by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence staining, although some minor staining was also detected in spherulocytes. Our results thus provide a fundamental platform for comparing alterations that may happen to the population and SOD contents of coelomocytes when the sea cucumber is subjected to environmental changes that would activate their immune responses. PMID:26245221

  9. A novel sulfated holostane glycoside from sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota.

    PubMed

    Han, Hua; Zhang, Wen; Yi, Yang-Hua; Liu, Bao-Shu; Pan, Min-Xiang; Wang, Xiao-Hua

    2010-07-01

    A new sulfated holostane glycoside, leucospilotaside B (1), together with the two related structurally known compounds holothurin B(2) (2) and holothurin B (3), was isolated from sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota collected from the South China Sea. The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectral analysis (1H-, 13C-, and 2D-NMR, ESI-MS, and HR-ESI-MS) and chemical methods. The compounds 1-3 possess the same disaccharide moiety, but were different in the side chains of the triterpene aglycone. Compound 1 showed significant cytotoxicities against four human tumor cell lines, HL-60, MOLT-4, A-549, and BEL-7402. PMID:20658664

  10. Molecular and morphological discrimination between an invasive ascidian, Ascidiella aspersa, and its congener A. scabra (Urochordata: Ascidiacea).

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Teruaki; Oohara, Ichiro; Saitoh, Kenji; Shigenobu, Yuya; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Kanamori, Makoto; Baba, Katsuhisa; Turon, Xavier; Bishop, John D D

    2014-03-01

    The solitary ascidian Ascidiella aspersa (Müller, 1776) has sometimes been regarded as conspecific with A. scabra (Müller, 1776), although previous detailed morphological comparisons have indicated that the two are distinguishable by internal structures. Resolution of this taxonomic issue is important because A. aspersa has been known as a notoriously invasive ascidian, doing much damage to aquaculture e.g. in Hokkaido, Japan. We collected many specimens from European waters (including the Swedish coast, near the type localities of these two species) and Hokkaido, Japan (as an alien population) and made molecular phylogenetic analyses using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, and found that in terms of COI sequences all the analyzed specimens were clustered into two distinct groups, one of which is morphologically referable to A. aspersa and the other to A. scabra. Thus, these two species should be regarded as distinct from each other. PMID:24601780

  11. Identification of Diploid Stylosanthes seabrana accessions from existing germplasm of S. scabra utilizing genome-specific STS markers and flow cytometry, and their molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Amaresh; Kaushal, Pankaj

    2009-07-01

    Stylosanthes seabrana (Maass and 't Mannetje) (2n = 2x = 20), commonly known as Caatinga stylo, is an important tropical perennial forage legume. In nature, it largely co-exist with S. scabra, an allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 40) species, sharing a very high similarity for morphological traits like growth habit, perenniality, fruit shape and presence of small appendage at the base of the pod or loment. This makes the two species difficult to distinguish morphologically, leading to chances of contamination in respective germplasm collections. In present study, 10 S. seabrana accessions were discovered from the existing global germplasm stock of S. scabra represented by 48 diverse collections, utilizing sequence-tagged-sites (STS) genome-specific markers. All the newly identified S. seabrana accessions displayed STS phenotypes of typical diploid species. Earlier reports have conclusively indicated S. seabrana and S. viscosa as two diploid progenitors of allotetraploid S. scabra. With primer pairs SHST3F3/R3, all putative S. seabrana yielded single band of approximately 550 bp and S. viscosa of approximately 870 bp whereas both of these bands were observed in allotetraploid S. scabra. Since SHST3F3/R3 primer pairs are known to amplify single or no band with diploid and two bands with tetraploid species, the amplification patterns corroborated that all newly identified S. seabrana lines were diploid in nature. Flow cytometric measurement of DNA content of the species, along with distinguishing morphological traits such as flowering time and seedling vigour, which significantly differ from S. scabra, confirmed all identified lines as S. seabrana. These newly identified lines exhibited high level of similarity among themselves as revealed by RAPD and STS markers (>92% and 80% respectively). Along with the enrichment in genetic resources of Stylosanthes, these newly identified and characterized accessions of S. seabrana can be better exploited in breeding programs targeted to quality. PMID:19214807

  12. Effects of seven diets on the population dynamics of laboratory cultured Tisbe holothuriae Humes (Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miliou, H.; Moraïtou-Apostolopoulou, M.

    1991-09-01

    The harpacticoid copepod Tisbe holothuriae was collected from Saronicos Gulf (Greece) and reared under constant laboratory conditions. In order to study the effects of food on the population dynamics, seven diets were tested: the seaweed Ulva; five artificial compound feeds: the liquid Fryfood® (Waterlife), a powder of Mytilus, yeast, soya and Spirulina, respectively; and a mixed diet consisting of Ulva and Fryfood. The life cycle parameters (mortality, sex ratio, generation time, offspring production) were measured, and the demographic variables [mean generation time (T), net reproductive rate (Ro), and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm)] were determined. As to their efficiency regarding population dynamics, the diets ranked as follows: (1) Ulva+Fryfood, (2), Ulva, (3) Fryfood, (4) Mytilus, (5) soya, (6) yeast, and (7) Spirulina. In this order they cause a progressive increase of both larval mortality and generation time, a progressive decrease of sex ratio, number of offspring per egg sac, number of egg sacs per female and, consequently, of Ro and rm. The observed differences between diets were most pronounced with respect to offspring production. Of the compound diets, those containing animal extracts were more efficient than those containing vegetable materials. Ulva plays an important role in the nutrition of T. holothuriae, favouring offspring production as well as larval survival, development and pigmentation. Ulva in combination with Fryfood led to a greater copepodid survival and offspring production. This mixed diet proved to be the most favourable for rearing the Greek population of t. holothuriae, resulting in an efficient intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm=0.304) of the population.

  13. Better red than dead? Potential aposematism in a harpacticoid copepod, Metis holothuriae.

    PubMed

    Gilby, Ben L; Burfeind, Dana D; Tibbetts, Ian R

    2012-03-01

    The conspicuous, red harpacticoid Metis holothuriae grows to a large size (∼600 μm length) and accounts for 29.51% of the numerical meiofaunal abundance within blooms of the toxic, benthic cyanobacterium Lyngbya majuscula. Despite this, the meiobenthic juvenile trumpeter whiting, Sillago maculata, consume M. holothuriae at only 2.16% of numerical meiofaunal biomass within simulated blooms, despite their apparent ease of predation. We compared the predation rates of copepods that had been dyed red (primarily Canuellidae and not known to be toxic) to M. holothuriae by S. maculata, to assess whether avoidance by predators is possibly a response to an aposematic signal conveyed by the colouration of the copepods and reinforced by their potential toxicity from exposure to L. majuscula. M. holothuriae were again strongly avoided, with only 6.25% of M. holothuriae consumed, whereas dyed copepods were consumed with relative alacrity, indicating that predation was not deterred by colouration alone. M. holothuriae copepodites were consumed in preference to adult individuals, supporting the idea that toxin accumulation or other factors relating to maturation might explain avoidance by benthivorous fishes. PMID:22209520

  14. Cytoprotective Effects of Lysophospholipids from Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Furukawa, Ayumi; Shiga, Ikumi; Muroi, Yoshikage; Ishii, Toshiaki; Hongo, Yayoi; Takahashi, Shunya; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Koshino, Hiroyuki; Ohnishi, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Lysophospholipids are important signaling molecules in animals and metazoan cells. They are widely distributed among marine invertebrates, where their physiological roles are unknown. Sea cucumbers produce unique lysophospholipids. In this study, two lysophospholipids were detected in Holothuria atra for the first time, lyso-platelet activating factor and lysophosphatidylcholine, with nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometric analyses. The lipid fraction of H. atra contained lyso-platelet activating factor and lysophosphatidylcholine, and inhibited H2O2-induced apoptosis in the macrophage cell line J774A.1. The antioxidant activity of the lysophospholipid-containing lipid fraction of H. atra was confirmed with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. Our results suggest that the lysophospholipids from H. atra are potential therapeutic agents for the inflammation induced by oxidative stress. PMID:26275144

  15. Immune-related genes associated with intestinal tissue in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Gómez, Francisco; Ortíz-Pineda, Pablo A; Rojas-Cartagena, Carmencita; Suárez-Castillo, Edna C; García-Arrarás, José E; García-Ararrás, José E

    2008-01-01

    We have analyzed 5,173 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from three cDNA libraries of normal and regenerating intestinal tissue of the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima and found 22 putative immune-related genes. These sequences showed similarities (e-value approx 10(-8)) to genes involved in immune processes or expressed by immune cells. Sequences were analyzed using bioinformatic tools to determine a putative identity. In addition, phylogenetic analyses were performed to find relationships with similar proteins in other organisms. The mRNAs for ten sequences were detected in coelomocytes by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Moreover, five of them showed a significant increase in expression after an LPS challenge, while the other five showed no significant changes. These results show the variety of immune molecules that may be found in holothurians and support the idea that the invertebrate immune system is more than a collection of simple innate responses. Our study also provides new data of importance in deciphering the evolution and development of the immune system. PMID:18092157

  16. Sonhafouonic acid, a new cytotoxic and antifungal hopene-triterpenoid from Zehneria scabra camerunensis.

    PubMed

    Kongue, Michel D T; Talontsi, Ferdinand M; Lamshöft, Marc; Kenla, Timothee J N; Dittrich, Birger; Kapche, Gilbert D W F; Spiteller, Michael

    2013-03-01

    A new hopene-type triterpenoid, namely sonhafouonic acid 1a was isolated from Zehneria scabra camerunensis, together with eight known compounds. The structure of 1a was established by extensive NMR and high resolution MS techniques and confirmed by single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compound 1a exhibited inhibitory activity against mycelial growth of two peronosporomycete phytopathogens Pythium ultimum and Aphanomyces cochliodes and cytotoxicity towards brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina) at 10 μg/mL. PMID:23353655

  17. Bioactive sulfated saponins from sea cucumber Holothuria moebii.

    PubMed

    Yu, Siran; Ye, Xuewei; Huang, Haocai; Peng, Rui; Su, Zhenghua; Lian, Xiao-Yuan; Zhang, Zhizhen

    2015-01-01

    The bioactive ingredients of sea cucumber Holothuria moebii were investigated, and four sulfated saponins (1-4) and one desulfated saponin (3B) with an unusual 3,4-epoxy xylose were obtained from this study. Compound 2 is a new triterpenoid saponin and 3B is a new artificial compound. On the basis of the extensive NMR and HRESIMS data, their structures were assigned as 3-O-[β-D-quinovopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-4-sodium sulfato-β-D-xylopyranosyl]-25-acetoxy-22-oxo-9(11)-holostene-3β,12α,17α-triol (2) and 3-O-[β-D-quinovopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-3,4-epoxy-β-xylopyranosyl]-22,25-epoxy-9(11)-holostene-3β,12α,17α-triol (3B). Compounds 1-4 showed activity suppressing the proliferation of four different glioma cells with IC50 values ranging from 0.99 to 8.64 µM. New saponin 2 significantly induced apoptosis in human glioblastoma U87-MG cells and reduced the expression levels of several glioma metabolic enzymes of glycolysis and glutaminolysis. This study reveals for the first time that selectively targeting multiple glioma metabolic regulators of glycolysis and glutaminolysis might be one of the anti-glioma mechanisms of saponin 2. PMID:25626142

  18. Engagement of Polian vesicles during Holothuria polii response to erythrocyte injection.

    PubMed

    D'Ancona, G; Rizzuto, L; Canicattí, C

    1989-11-01

    The Holothuria polii Polian vesicles are organs of inflammatory responsiveness. Under antigenic provocation, they respond with remarkable structural modifications. They are also able to produce brown bodies that represent a survival strategy, used by the holothuroid, to rid the body of non-self material presented to it. PMID:2809251

  19. Effect of Holothuria leucospilota extracted saponin on maturation of mice oocyte and granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Fereshteh Delghandi; Baharara, Javad; Balanezhad, Saeedeh Zafar; Jalali, Mohsen; Amini, Elaheh

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers saponins are triterpenoid glycosides which exert beneficial biomedical effects. This study was performed to assess the effect of saponin extracted from sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota (H. leucospilota) on maturation of mice oocytes and granulosa cells. The germinal vesicles oocytes were collected from 6–8 weeks old Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice ovaries, randomly divided into untreated and four experimental groups and cultured In vitro. Maturation medium was supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 μg/ml saponin for 12 days. The rates of maturation were recorded through morphological observation by measurement of follicle diameter during treatment. After 4 days, the effects of saponin on granulosa cells were investigated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement, super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity, caspase assay and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) expression. The oocyte maturation rate was significantly higher in treated groups (1 μg/ml). The ROS and SOD assays demonstrated the antioxidant potential of saponin. The caspase assay exhibited that optimum concentrations of saponin (1, 2 μg/ml) reduced caspase activity in granulosa cells. Flow cytometry showed that optimum concentration of saponin promoted oocyte maturation via down regulation of TNF-α as follicular degenerative factor in nursing cells. These results proposed that maturation rate were obtained after the incorporation of 1 μg/ml sea cucumber saponin. Moreover, the extracted saponin at concentrations of 1, 2 μg/ml enhanced follicle growth which is accompanied by attenuating ROS formation, elevating SOD activity and reducing TNF-α expression in granulosa cells. But, further examinations are required to understand precise mechanisms of saponin action on oocyte and granulosa cells. PMID:27168752

  20. Partial replacements of Stylosanthes scabra forage for lucerne in total mixed ration diet of Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Mpanza, Thamsanqa Doctor Empire; Hassen, Abubeker

    2015-10-01

    The inclusion of Stylosanthes scabra cv. Seca forage in the total mixed ration (TMR) as partial replacement of lucerne (alfalfa) was evaluated for its effects on voluntary feed intake, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in Saanen goats. Three experimental diets were formulated having 0 % Seca (T1), 15 % Seca (T2) and 30 % Seca (T3) as partial replacement of lucerne forage in the TMR diet for goats. Eighteen Saanen goats of about 7 months old were divided into three groups of six animals per group. Each group was randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments in a complete randomised design, and the study lasted for a period of 21 days. There was an increase in fibre and mineral content of the diets as Seca inclusion increased, but this resulted in the decrease of crude protein contents and in vitro organic matter digestibility. Animals that were fed 15 % Seca recorded higher voluntary dry matter and nutrient (organic matter and fibres) intake, but the difference was not statistically significant (P?>?0.05) as compared to the other treatments. Nutrient digestibility as well as nitrogen balance was not significantly different across the three diets. The lack of significant differences in feed intake, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilisation following the inclusion of Seca in the TMR suggests that S. scabra forage can partially replace lucerne in the TMR diet of goats. PMID:26159675

  1. 76 FR 41454 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Scoping Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... Alpheaus armatus, Snapping shrimp Aiptasia tagetes, Pale anemone Astropecten spp., Sand stars Analcidometra... Holothuria spp., Sea cucumbers Hereractis lucida, Knobby anemone Lima spp., Fileclams Lima scabra,...

  2. Identification of causal relationships among traits related to drought resistance in Stylosanthes scabra using QTL analysis.

    PubMed

    Thumma, B R; Naidu, B P; Chandra, A; Cameron, D F; Bahnisch, L M; Liu, C

    2001-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that a negative relationship exists between transpiration efficiency (TE) and carbon isotope discrimination (Delta) and between TE and specific leaf area (SLA) in Stylosanthes scabra. A glasshouse experiment was conducted to confirm these relationships in an F(2) population and to study the causal nature of these relationships through quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. One hundred and twenty F(2) genotypes from a cross between two genotypes within S. scabra were used. Three replications for each genotype were maintained through vegetative propagation. Water stress was imposed by maintaining plants at 40% of field capacity for about 45 d. To facilitate QTL analysis, a genetic linkage map consisting of 151 RAPD markers was developed. Results from this study show that Delta was significantly and negatively correlated with TE and biomass production. Similarly, SLA showed significant negative correlation with TE and biomass production. Most of the QTL for TE and Delta were present on linkage groups 5 and 11. Similarly, QTL for SLA, transpiration and biomass productivity traits were clustered on linkage groups 13 and 24. One unlinked marker was also associated with these traits. There were several markers coincident between different traits. At all the coincident QTL, the direction of QTL effects was consistent with phenotypic data. At the coincident markers between TE and Delta, high alleles of TE were associated with low alleles of Delta. Similarly, low alleles of SLA were associated with high alleles of biomass productivity traits and transpiration. At the coincident markers between trans-4-hydroxy-N:-methyl proline (MHP) and relative water content (RWC), low alleles of MHP were associated with high alleles of RWC. This study suggests the causal nature of the relationship between TE and Delta. Phenotypic data and QTL data show that SLA was more closely associated with biomass production than with TE. This study also shows that a cause-effect relationship may exist between SLA and biomass production. PMID:11283164

  3. Changes in Sediment Fatty Acid Composition during Passage through the Gut of Deposit Feeding Holothurians: Holothuria atra (Jaeger, 1883) and Holothuria leucospilota (Brandt, 1835)

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers Holothuria atra and Holothuria leucospilota play an important role in the bioturbation of sediment in coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. This study investigated changes in sediment fatty acid (FA) composition during gut passage in H. atra and H. leucospilota. The FA composition did not differ significantly between species. Comparison of FA composition in ambient sediment (AS), foregut (FG), midgut (MG), hindgut (HG), and faecal pellets (FPs) indicated that marked changes in FA composition occurred during passage through the gut of H. atra and H. leucospilota. Saturated fatty acids (SAFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and branched fatty acids (BrFAs) were significantly higher in FG than in AS, suggesting that both species selectively ingested nutrient rich particles. Significant reduction of SAFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs, and BrFAs occurred in MD and HD, with complete elimination of most PUFAs in FPs. A decrease in PUFAs 20:5ω3, 18:4ω3, 22:5ω3, 22:6ω3, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3, 18:3ω6, odd-numbered BrFAs, and MUFA 18:1ω7 indicated that algal detritus and bacteria were important part of diet. These results have implications for the fate of specific dietary FAs, especially ω3 and ω6, and the contribution holothurian FPs make to the FA composition of coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. PMID:27042355

  4. Changes in Sediment Fatty Acid Composition during Passage through the Gut of Deposit Feeding Holothurians: Holothuria atra (Jaeger, 1883) and Holothuria leucospilota (Brandt, 1835).

    PubMed

    Mfilinge, Prosper L; Tsuchiya, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers Holothuria atra and Holothuria leucospilota play an important role in the bioturbation of sediment in coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. This study investigated changes in sediment fatty acid (FA) composition during gut passage in H. atra and H. leucospilota. The FA composition did not differ significantly between species. Comparison of FA composition in ambient sediment (AS), foregut (FG), midgut (MG), hindgut (HG), and faecal pellets (FPs) indicated that marked changes in FA composition occurred during passage through the gut of H. atra and H. leucospilota. Saturated fatty acids (SAFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and branched fatty acids (BrFAs) were significantly higher in FG than in AS, suggesting that both species selectively ingested nutrient rich particles. Significant reduction of SAFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs, and BrFAs occurred in MD and HD, with complete elimination of most PUFAs in FPs. A decrease in PUFAs 20:5ω3, 18:4ω3, 22:5ω3, 22:6ω3, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3, 18:3ω6, odd-numbered BrFAs, and MUFA 18:1ω7 indicated that algal detritus and bacteria were important part of diet. These results have implications for the fate of specific dietary FAs, especially ω3 and ω6, and the contribution holothurian FPs make to the FA composition of coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. PMID:27042355

  5. Application of quantitative 1H-NMR method to determination of gentiopicroside in Gentianae radix and Gentianae scabrae radix.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Rie; Hasebe, Yuko; Nagatsu, Akito

    2014-07-01

    A quantitative (1)H-NMR method (qHNMR) was used to measure gentiopicroside content in Gentianae radix and Gentianae scabrae radix. Gentiopicroside is a major component of Gentianae radix and Gentianae scabrae radix. The purity of gentiopicroside was calculated from the ratio of the intensity of the H-3 signal at δ 7.44 ppm or the H-8 signal at δ 5.78 ppm in methanol-d 4 of gentiopicroside to that of a hexamethyldisilane (HMD) signal at 0 ppm. The concentration of HMD was corrected with SI traceability by using potassium hydrogen phthalate of certified reference material (CRM) grade. As a result, the gentiopicroside content in two lots of Gentianae radix as determined by qHNMR was found to be 1.76 and 2.17 %, respectively. The gentiopicroside content in two lots of Gentianae scabrae radix was 2.73 and 3.99 %, respectively. We demonstrated that this method is useful for the quantitative analysis of crude drugs. PMID:24687868

  6. Molecular systematics of the genus Holothuria in the Mediterranean and Northeastern Atlantic and a molecular clock for the diversification of the Holothuriidae (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea).

    PubMed

    Borrero-Pérez, Giomar Helena; Gómez-Zurita, Jesús; González-Wangüemert, Mercedes; Marcos, Concepción; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel

    2010-11-01

    This work investigates the systematics of the genus Holothuria in the Mediterranean Sea and Northeastern Atlantic in the light of a wider molecular phylogenetic hypothesis of Holothuriidae, and it also provides a time-scale for the family diversification using mitochondrial markers and the molecular clock hypothesis. The subgenera Holothuria and Roweothuria are retrieved as paraphyletic. At least four separate lineages, with quite different time frameworks were identified. There are at least three species with an apparent long evolutionary history, H. forskali, H. sanctori and H. impatiens and six species belonging to Holothuria, Roweothuria and Vaneyothuria, which have diverged relatively recently. PMID:20813189

  7. Phylogeography of the Atlanto-Mediterranean sea cucumber Holothuria (Holothuria) mammata: the combined effects of historical processes and current oceanographical pattern.

    PubMed

    Borrero-Pérez, G H; González-Wangüemert, M; Marcos, C; Pérez-Ruzafa, A

    2011-05-01

    We assessed the genetic structure of populations of the widely distributed sea cucumber Holothuria (Holothuria) mammata Grube, 1840, and investigated the effects of marine barriers to gene flow and historical processes. Several potential genetic breaks were considered, which would separate the Atlantic and Mediterranean basins, the isolated Macaronesian Islands from the other locations analysed, and the Western Mediterranean and Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean). We analysed mitochondrial 16S and COI gene sequences from 177 individuals from four Atlantic locations and four Mediterranean locations. Haplotype diversity was high (H=0.9307 for 16S and 0.9203 for COI), and the haplotypes were closely related (π=0.0058 for 16S and 0.0071 for COI). The lowest genetic diversities were found in the Aegean Sea population. Our results showed that the COI gene was more variable and more useful for the detection of population structure than the 16S gene. The distribution of mtDNA haplotypes, the pairwise F(ST) values and the results of exact tests and amova revealed: (i) a significant genetic break between the population in the Aegean Sea and those in the other locations, as supported by both mitochondrial genes, and (ii) weak differentiation of the Canary and Azores Islands from the other populations; however, the populations from the Macaronesian Islands, Algarve and West Mediterranean could be considered to be a panmictic metapopulation. Isolation by distance was not identified in H. (H.) mammata. Historical events behind the observed findings, together with the current oceanographic patterns, were proposed and discussed as the main factors that determine the population structure and genetic signature of H. (H.) mammata. PMID:21463375

  8. Evaluation of lignans from Heliopsis helianthoides var. scabra for their potential antimetastatic effects in the brain.

    PubMed

    Hajdu, Zsanett; Haskó, János; Krizbai, István A; Wilhelm, Imola; Jedlinszki, Nikoletta; Fazakas, Csilla; Molnár, Judit; Forgo, Peter; Hohmann, Judit; Csupor, Dezső

    2014-12-26

    Two new arylbenzofuran-type neolignans, 1"-dehydroegonol 3"-methyl ether (1) and egonol 3"-methyl ether (2), and four known lignan derivatives, namely, helioxanthin (3), (7E)-7,8-dehydroheliobuphthalmin (4), heliobuphthalmin (5), and 7-acetoxyhinokinin (6), were isolated from a chloroform-soluble partition of the methanol extract of the fresh roots of Heliopsis helianthoides var. scabra. These six compounds were evaluated in vitro in terms of their ability to inhibit the various steps involved in brain tumor metastasis formation. Compounds 3 and 4 inhibited the migration of both melanoma and brain endothelial cells, and 3 also reduced the adhesion of melanoma cells to the brain endothelium. Furthermore, 3 and 4 additionally enhanced the barrier function of the blood-brain barrier and the expression of the tight junction protein ZO-1 at the junctions of the endothelial cells. These findings suggest that 3 and 4 may have the potential to interfere with different steps of brain metastasis formation and to enhance the barrier function of cerebral endothelial cells. PMID:25479041

  9. Production and dispersal of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides spores on Stylosanthes scabra under elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, S; Pangga, I B; Lupton, J; Hart, L; Room, P M; Yates, D

    2000-06-01

    This paper reports the effect of twice-ambient (700 ppm) atmospheric CO(2) concentration on infection, disease development, spore production and dispersal of the anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in susceptible (Fitzroy) and partially resistant (Seca) cultivars of the tropical pasture legume Stylosanthes scabra under controlled environment and field conditions. Reduction in plant height due to anthracnose was partially compensated for by growth enhancement at elevated CO(2) in Fitzroy but not in Seca. Anthracnose severity was reduced under elevated CO(2) although the reduction was only significant in Fitzroy. Delayed and reduced germination, germtube growth and appressoria production were partly responsible for the reduced severity. Despite an extended incubation period, C. gloeosporioides developed sporulating lesions faster and produced more spores per day within the same latent period at high CO(2) and ambient CO(2). When Fitzroy seedlings grown at 700 ppm CO(2) were exposed to pathogen inoculum under field conditions, they consistently developed more severe anthracnose with more lesions than seedlings grown at ambient CO(2). The environmental variable, which correlated most strongly with the dispersal and infection of C. gloeosporioides spores in the field, was relative humidity in plant canopy. We have shown that an enlarged Stylosanthes canopy under elevated CO(2) can trap more spores, which can lead to more severe anthracnose under favorable weather. The implications of these findings for perennial Stylosanthes pastures are discussed. PMID:15092933

  10. Purification, characterization and in vitro anticoagulant activity of polysaccharides from Gentiana scabra Bunge roots.

    PubMed

    Cai, Weirong; Xu, Huiling; Xie, Liangliang; Sun, Jian; Sun, Taotao; Wu, Xiaoyan; Fu, Qinbao

    2016-04-20

    Three water-soluble polysaccharide fractions (GSP-1, GSP-2 and GSP-3) were obtained from Gentiana scabra Bunge roots by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. Their chemical characterizations were determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC), high performance anion exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer. Moreover, their in vitro anticoagulant activities were evaluated by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and prothrombin time (PT) assays. GSP-1 and GSP-2 were composed of rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, glucose and galacturonic acid, while GSP-3 consisted of rhamnose, arabinose, galactose and galacturonic acid with a weight-average molecular weight of 5.8×10(4)Da. In comparison with the control group (saline), GSP, GSP-1, GSP-2 and GSP-3 could prolong APTT and TT, but not PT. Overall, GSP-3 exhibited potent anticoagulant activity and would be expected to be a potential source of anticoagulant. PMID:26876858

  11. Inheritance of spontaneous mutant homostyles in Turnera subulata x krapovickasii and in autotetraploid T. scabra (Turneraceae).

    PubMed

    Tamari, F; Khosravi, D; Hilliker, A J; Shore, J S

    2005-02-01

    To explore the genetic architecture of distyly in Turnera spp., we determined the inheritance and compatibility behaviour of two spontaneous homostyled mutants. A long-homostyled mutant shoot arose on an otherwise short-styled plant that was an artificial hybrid (Turnera subulata x T. krapovickasii) between two diploid distylous species. The mutation appears to be an allele, SH, of the distyly locus with the dominance relationships, S>SH>s, where S confers the short-styled phenotype, SH confers homostyly in SHSH and SHs genotypes, and ss genotypes are long-styled. Aberrant segregation ratios were observed among some crosses and might be the result of pollen competition. Compatibility relationships are consistent with the hypothesis that a gene complex determines distyly. Infrequently, revertant short-styled flowers have appeared on cuttings of the T. subulata x T. krapovickasii mutant and on occasion, short-styled progeny have appeared in crosses where none were expected. A second mutant homostyle was discovered in autotetraploid T. scabra. The mutation is inherited as above, however, tetrasomic inheritance occurs at the locus. This homostyled mutant carries two copies of the SH allele and has the duplex genotype SHSHss. Compatibility relationships were as observed above. The occurrence of homostyled mutants is consistent with the hypothesis that a linked gene complex underlies the inheritance of distyly in Turnera but we cannot discount the hypothesis that an allelic series is responsible. PMID:15483653

  12. Two new neolignans from Patrinia scabra with potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa and MNK-45 cells.

    PubMed

    Di, Lei; Yan, Guo-Qing; Wang, Ling-Yu; Ma, Wei; Wang, Kai-Jin; Li, Ning

    2013-10-01

    Two new neolignans, patrineolignan A (1) and patrineolignan B (2), together with seven known lignans, were isolated from the 90 % aqueous EtOH extract of the roots of Patrinia scabra. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data (HRESIMS, IR, 1D and 2D NMR) and comparison with literature data. The two new neolignans were evaluated in vitro for cytotoxic properties against human cervical carcinoma HeLa cell line and gastric carcinoma MNK-45 cell line using the microculture tetrazolium assay, and both 1 and 2 exhibited strongly cytotoxic activity against the two tumor cell lines. PMID:23737105

  13. Cytotoxic effect of Alpinia scabra (Blume) Náves extracts on human breast and ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alpinia scabra, locally known as 'Lengkuas raya’, is an aromatic, perennial and rhizomatous herb from the family Zingiberaceae. It is a wild species which grows largely on mountains at moderate elevations in Peninsular Malaysia, but it can also survive in the lowlands like in the states of Terengganu and Northern Johor. The present study reports the cytotoxic potential of A. scabra extracts from different parts of the plant. Methods The experimental approach in the present study was based on a bioassay-guided fractionation. The crude methanol and fractionated extracts (hexane, chloroform and water) from different parts of A. scabra (leaves, rhizomes, roots and pseudo stems) were prepared prior to the cytotoxicity evaluation against human ovarian (SKOV-3) and hormone-dependent breast (MCF7) carcinoma cells. The identified cytotoxic extracts were then subjected to chemical investigations in order to identify the active ingredients. A normal human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5) was used to determine the specificity for cancerous cells. The cytotoxic extracts and fractions were also subjected to morphological assessment, DNA fragmentation analysis and DAPI nuclear staining. Results The leaf (hexane and chloroform) and rhizome (chloroform) extracts showed high inhibitory effect against the tested cells. Ten fractions (LC1-LC10) were yielded after purification of the leaf chloroform extract. Fraction LC4 which showed excellent cytotoxic activity was further purified and resulted in 17 sub-fractions (VLC1-VLC17). Sub-fraction VLC9 showed excellent cytotoxicity against MCF7 and SKOV-3 cells but not toxic against normal MRC-5 cells. Meanwhile, eighteen fractions (RC1-RC18) were obtained after purification of the rhizome chloroform extract, of which fraction RC5 showed cytotoxicity against SKOV-3 cells with high selectivity index. There were marked morphological changes when observed using phase-contrast inverted microscope, DAPI nuclear staining and also DNA fragmentations in MCF7 and SKOV-3 cells after treatment with the cytotoxic extracts and fractions which were indicative of cell apoptosis. Methyl palmitate and methyl stearate were identified in the hexane leaf extract by GC-MS analysis. Conclusions The data obtained from the current study demonstrated that the cell death induced by cytotoxic extracts and fractions of A. scabra may be due to apoptosis induction which was characterized by apoptotic morphological changes and DNA fragmentation. The active ingredients in the leaf sub-fraction VLC9 and rhizome fraction RC5 may lead to valuable compounds that have the ability to kill cancer cells but not normal cells. PMID:24215354

  14. Canopy Size and Induced Resistance in Stylosanthes scabra Determine Anthracnose Severity at High CO(2).

    PubMed

    Pangga, I B; Chakraborty, S; Yates, D

    2004-03-01

    ABSTRACT This study examines the relative importance of canopy size and induced resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides at 350- and 700-ppm atmospheric CO(2) concentrations on susceptible Stylosanthes scabra 'Fitzroy' from two studies in a controlled environment facility (CEF) and in the field. Plants were grown at the two CO(2) concentrations in a repeated experiment in the CEF and inoculated at 6, 9, or 12 weeks of age. Although the physiological maturity of plants was at a similar stage for all three ages, the number of lesions per plant increased with increasing plant age at both CO(2) concentrations. At 350 ppm, the increase was associated with canopy size and increasing infection efficiency of the pathogen, but at 700 ppm, it was associated only with canopy size, because infection efficiency did not change with increasing age. A level of resistance was induced in plants at 700 ppm CO(2). In a second study, plants were raised for 12 to 14 weeks at the two CO(2) concentrations in the CEF and exposed to C. gloeosporioides inoculum in replicated field plots under ambient CO(2) over three successive years. Fitzroy developed a dense and enlarged canopy, with 28 to 46% more nodes, leaf area, and aboveground biomass at high CO(2) than at low CO(2). Up to twice as many lesions per plant were produced in the high CO(2) plants, because the enlarged canopy trapped many more pathogen spores. The transient induced resistance in high CO(2) plants failed to operate when exposed to pathogen inoculum under ambient CO(2) in the field. These results highlight the need to consider both canopy size and host resistance in assessing the influence of elevated CO(2) on plant disease. PMID:18943969

  15. Identification of heat stress-responsive genes in heat-adapted thermal Agrostis scabra by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jiang; Belanger, Faith C; Huang, Bingru

    2009-04-01

    To gain insights into molecular mechanisms of grass tolerance to heat stress, we constructed a suppression subtractive cDNA library to identify heat-responsive genes for a C(3) grass species, thermal Agrostis scabra adapted to heat stress in geothermal areas in Yellowstone National Park. Plants were exposed to 20 degrees C (control) or 35 degrees C for 12d. The SSH analysis was performed with control samples as the driver and heat-stressed samples as the tester. Differentially expressed cDNA fragments were cloned to screen the heat up-regulated library. The SSH analysis identified 120 non-redundant putative heat-responsive cDNAs out of 1180 clones. Genes with homology to known proteins were categorized into six functional groups, with the largest group of genes involved in stress/defense, followed by the group of genes related to protein metabolism. Immunoblot analysis confirmed increases in transcripts of selected genes under heat stress. Transcripts of seven and eight genes were strongly enhanced or induced in shoots and roots, respectively, while two genes were only induced in roots under heat stress. The heat up-regulated genes in thermal A. scabra adapted to long-term heat stress are potential candidate genes for engineering stress-tolerant grasses and for revealing molecular mechanisms of grass adaptation to heat stress. PMID:18950897

  16. Identification of Hox Gene Sequences in the Sea Cucumber Holothuria glaberrima Selenka (Holothuroidea: Echinodermata).

    PubMed

    Méndez, A T; Roig-López, J L; Santiago, P; Santiago, C; García-Arrarás, J E

    2000-05-01

    The Echinodermata is a unique animal group forming an early branch in the deuterostomes phylogenetic tree. In echinoids and asteroids a single Hox cluster with nine cognates of the vertebrate Hox paralogous groups has been reported, but no data are available from other echinoderm classes. We report here nine Hox-type sequences from the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima, a member of the class Holothuroidea. Partial homeodomain sequences were amplified by polymerase chain reaction from genomic DNA and from a regenerating gastrointestinal tract complementary DNA library. Sequence analyses suggest that the holothuroid cluster has at least three genes of the anterior, one of the medial, and five of the posterior groups. This is the first evidence of five posterior sequences in echinoderms. PMID:10852801

  17. Condensed tannin and saponin content of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, Desmodium uncinatum, Stylosanthes guianensis and Stylosanthes scabra grown in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Baloyi, J J; Ngongoni, N T; Topps, J H; Acamovic, T; Hamudikuwanda, H

    2001-02-01

    Samples of the tropical forage legumes Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (cowpea), Desmodium uncinatum (silverleaf desmodium), Stylosanthes guianensis (oxley fine stem stylo) and Stylosanthes scabra (fitzroy) and of natural pasture (veld) hay were analysed and ranked according to their proanthocyanidin (PA) and saponin content. Silverleaf desmodium and fitzroy leaf and stem samples of different ages were also separately analysed for the PA contents. All the samples analysed contained some PA but no saponins. High levels of PA were detected in silverleaf desmodium and very low levels in veld hay and cowpea. In all samples, more of the tannins were bound to protein or neutral detergent fibre (NDF) than were extractable, most being bound to proteins. The proportion of the unextractable PA was greater in younger than in mature materials. PMID:11234193

  18. Diet of Littoraria scabra, while vertically migrating on mangrove trees: Gut content, fatty acid, and stable isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, Andrea C.

    2008-09-01

    The snail, Littoraria scabra, is a dominant grazer on tropical mangrove trees, and may play an important role in the food web dynamics of these ecosystems. Its daily vertical migration to avoid tidal submersion results in exposure to varying food types and abundances. A comprehensive diet analysis - gut contents, fatty acid profiles, and stable isotopes ( δ15N and δ13C) - was conducted on snails migrating along mangrove trees and snails maintained in non-tidal mesocosms at Nananu-i-ra, Fiji Islands. In addition, fatty acid profiles and stable isotope signatures were obtained from surface scrapings of mangrove roots, trunks, branches, and leaves. Results from this multi-technique study indicate that L. scabra is mainly a generalist herbivore, which easily shifts diets depending on food availability, and which also has the ability to ingest and assimilate zooplankton. Ingestion of greater quantities of diverse foods (i.e., microalgae, foliose/corticated macrophytes, filamentous algae, mangrove tissues, zooplankton) takes place in the bottom areas of mangrove trees (roots and trunks) during low tides, while top areas (branches and leaves) provide limited food resources for snails feeding during high tides. However, snails preferentially assimilate microalgae and bacteria, regardless of their feeding habitat (different areas within mangrove trees and non-tidal mesocosms). The daily vertical movements of this snail result in variable feeding times, ingestion of different food types and amounts, and different assimilations. These findings also suggest that organic matter derived from mangrove tissues may not be readily transferred to higher trophic levels through this grazing pathway.

  19. Self-assembly growth of alloyed NiPt nanocrystals with holothuria-like shape for oxygen evolution reaction with enhanced catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Tao; Wang, Wenliang; Zhou, Xiaoli; Zhang, Li; Wang, Chunde; Jiang, Jun; Yang, Weilai; Yang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembly growth of alloyed NiPt nanocrystals with holothuria-like wire shape has been achieved via a facile and moderate hydrothermal process at 120 °C for 1 h from the reaction of nickel nitrate and chloroplatinic acid in alkaline solution in the presence of ethanediamine and hydrazine hydrate. The holothuria-like alloyed NiPt wires are Ni-rich in composition (Ni23.6Pt) and uniform in diameter with many tiny tips outstretched from the wires surface. The holothuria-like wires are assembled from granular subunits with the assistance of capping molecular of ethanediamine and the wires display an improved oxygen evolution reaction catalytic activity.

  20. Primary structure and chain conformation of fucoidan extracted from sea cucumber Holothuria tubulosa.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yaoguang; Hu, Yanfang; Yu, Long; McClements, David Julian; Xu, Xiaoqi; Liu, Guanchen; Xue, Changhu

    2016-01-20

    Knowledge of the structure of polysaccharides is essential for understanding and controlling their functional properties. In this study, fucoidan was extracted from Holothuria tubulosa, a species of sea cucumber that has recently become commercially important. The primary structure of the H. tubulosa fucoidan was clarified using a combination of enzymatic degradation, methylation analysis, and NMR, and its chain conformation was further elucidated by utilizing high performance size exclusion chromatography combined with multiple angle laser light scattering and viscometry. The fucoidan was composed of a tetrafucose repeating unit [ → 3-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp2,4(OSO3(-))-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp-1 → 3-α-L-Fucp2(OSO3(-))-1 → ]. Its sulfate content was determined to be 31.2 ± 1.6% and the weight-average molecular mass was 1567.6 ± 34.1 kDa. The molecule adapted a random coil conformation in 0.15M NaCl solution (pH 7.4) at 25 °C, with a root-mean-square radius of 63.9 ± 1.8 nm and a hydrodynamic radius of 44.5 ± 4.5 nm. This is the first report on the chain conformation of sea cucumber fucoidan. PMID:26572451

  1. Structural Elucidation of Novel Saponins in the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Yadollah; Zhang, Wei; Chataway, Tim; Franco, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumbers are prolific producers of a wide range of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to purify and characterize one class of compound, the saponins, from the viscera of the Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni. The saponins were obtained by ethanolic extraction of the viscera and enriched by a liquid-liquid partition process and adsorption column chromatography. A high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC) was applied to the saponin-enriched mixture to obtain saponins with high purity. The resultant purified saponins were profiled using MALDI-MS/MS and ESI-MS/MS which revealed the structure of isomeric saponins to contain multiple aglycones and/or sugar residues. We have elucidated the structure of five novel saponins, Holothurins D/E and Holothurinosides X/Y/Z, along with seven reported triterpene glycosides, including sulfated and non-sulfated saponins containing a range of aglycones and sugar moieties, from the viscera of H. lessoni. The abundance of novel compounds from this species holds promise for biotechnological applications. PMID:25110919

  2. Discovery of Novel Saponins from the Viscera of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria lessoni

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Yadollah; Zhang, Wei; Franco, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, sometimes referred to as marine ginseng, produce numerous compounds with diverse functions and are potential sources of active ingredients for agricultural, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical products. We examined the viscera of an Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni Massin et al. 2009, for novel bioactive compounds, with an emphasis on the triterpene glycosides, saponins. The viscera were extracted with 70% ethanol, and this extract was purified by a liquid-liquid partition process and column chromatography, followed by isobutanol extraction. The isobutanol saponin-enriched mixture was further purified by high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC) with high purity and recovery. The resultant purified polar samples were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS)/MS and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)/MS to identify saponins and characterize their molecular structures. As a result, at least 39 new saponins were identified in the viscera of H. lessoni with a high structural diversity, and another 36 reported triterpene glycosides, containing different aglycones and sugar moieties. Viscera samples have provided a higher diversity and yield of compounds than observed from the body wall. The high structural diversity and novelty of saponins from H. lessoni with potential functional activities presents a great opportunity to exploit their applications for industrial, agricultural and pharmaceutical use. PMID:24821624

  3. Screening and characterization of novel polymorphic microsatellite markers from sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota.

    PubMed

    Shangguan, J B; Li, Z B; Ning, Y F; Huang, Y S; Yuan, Y; Lu, J; Li, B B; Mao, X Q

    2015-01-01

    The sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota has high me-dicinal value and rich nutritional edible value, and thus is a commercially important aquatic product in China. Microsatellite loci were developed and screened using a fast isolation protocol and amplified fragment length polymorphism of sequences containing repeats. In this study, 16 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers in H. leucospilota were identified, and the relevant genetic variability index was assessed using 30 individu-als from a wild population. The polymorphic information content ranged from 0.183 to 0.668, and the number of alleles per locus varied from 3 to 5. The observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.0370-0.5000 and 0.0776-0.6250, respectively. With the exception of 3 loci (Y1-15, Y11-1, and Y28), the polymorphic loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.003125). These polymorphic microsatellite loci will contribute to studies of genetic diversity, the research of population structure, and the design of conservation strategies for H. leucospilota. PMID:26125861

  4. Spatial distribution patterns and movements of Holothuria arguinensis in the Ria Formosa (Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegenthaler, Andjin; Cánovas, Fernando; González-Wangüemert, Mercedes

    2015-08-01

    Holothurian populations are under pressure worldwide because of increasing demand for beche-de-mer, mainly for Asian consumption. Importations to this area from new temperate fishing grounds provide economic opportunities but also raise concerns regarding future over-exploitation. Studies on the habitat preferences and movements of sea cucumbers are important for the management of sea cucumber stocks and sizing of no-take zones, but information on the ecology and behavior of temperate sea cucumbers is scarce. This study describes the small-scale distribution and movement patterns of Holothuria arguinensis in the intertidal zone of the Ria Formosa national park (Portugal). Mark/recapture studies were performed to record their movements over time on different habitats (sand and seagrass). H. arguinensis preferred seagrass habitats and did not show a size or life stage-related spatial segregation. Its density was 563 ind. ha- 1 and mean movement speed was 10 m per day. Movement speed did not differ between habitats and the direction of movement was offshore during the day and shoreward during the night. Median home range size was 35 m2 and overlap among home ranges was 84%. H. arguinensis' high abundance, close association with seagrass and easy catchability in the intertidal zone, indicate the importance of including intertidal lagoons in future studies on temperate sea cucumber ecology since those systems might require different management strategies than fully submerged habitats.

  5. Spherulocytes in the echinoderm Holothuria glaberrima and their involvement in intestinal regeneration.

    PubMed

    García-Arrarás, José E; Schenk, Christian; Rodrígues-Ramírez, Roxanna; Torres, Irma I; Valentín, Griselle; Candelaria, Ann Ginette

    2006-12-01

    The holothuroid echinoderm Holothuria glaberrima can regenerate its intestine after a process of evisceration. Spherule-containing cells, the spherulocytes, appear to be associated with intestinal regeneration. We have used histochemistry and immunocytochemistry to characterize these cells and their role in the regeneration process. Spherulocytes are 10-20 microm in diameter with an acrocentric nucleus and spherule-like structures within their cytoplasm. They are found in the connective tissue of the intestine and mesentery of noneviscerated and regenerating animals. During the second week of regeneration, the number of spherulocytes in the regenerating intestine increases and a dramatic change in their morphology occurs. Together with the morphological change, the immunohistochemical labeling of the cells also changes; the antibodies not only recognize the spherule structures but also label the cellular cytoplasm in a more homogeneous pattern. Moreover, immunohistochemical labeling also appears to be dispersed within the extracellular matrix, suggesting that the cells are liberating their vesicular contents. Spherulocytes are found in other tissues of H. glaberrima, always associated with the connective tissue component. Our data strongly suggest that spherulocytes are involved in intestinal regeneration but their specific role remains undetermined. In summary, our data expand our knowledge of the cellular events associated with regeneration processes in echinoderms and provide for comparisons with similar processes in vertebrates. PMID:17061269

  6. Discovery of novel saponins from the viscera of the sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Yadollah; Zhang, Wei; Franco, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Sea cucumbers, sometimes referred to as marine ginseng, produce numerous compounds with diverse functions and are potential sources of active ingredients for agricultural, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical products. We examined the viscera of an Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni Massin et al. 2009, for novel bioactive compounds, with an emphasis on the triterpene glycosides, saponins. The viscera were extracted with 70% ethanol, and this extract was purified by a liquid-liquid partition process and column chromatography, followed by isobutanol extraction. The isobutanol saponin-enriched mixture was further purified by high performance centrifugal partition chromatography (HPCPC) with high purity and recovery. The resultant purified polar samples were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS)/MS and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)/MS to identify saponins and characterize their molecular structures. As a result, at least 39 new saponins were identified in the viscera of H. lessoni with a high structural diversity, and another 36 reported triterpene glycosides, containing different aglycones and sugar moieties. Viscera samples have provided a higher diversity and yield of compounds than observed from the body wall. The high structural diversity and novelty of saponins from H. lessoni with potential functional activities presents a great opportunity to exploit their applications for industrial, agricultural and pharmaceutical use. PMID:24821624

  7. Hemolytic and cytotoxic properties of saponin purified from Holothuria leucospilota sea cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Mozhgan; Parivar, Kazem; Baharara, Javad; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin; Asili, Javad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Holothuroids (sea cucumbers) are members of the phylum echinodermata, which produce saponins. Saponins exhibit a wide spectrum of pharmacological and biological activities. In this study, we isolated the crude saponins from the body wall of the dominant Iranian species of sea cucumber, Holothuria leucospilota (H. leucospilota). The purpose of this study was to confirm the presence of saponins in the Persian Gulf H. leucospilota and study the hemolytic and cytotoxic activities of these compounds. Methods: The body wall of sea cucumber was dried and powdered and the crude saponins were isolated using various solvents. The crude saponins were further purified by column chromatography using HP-20 resin. The foam test, Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), hemolytic assay, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the presence of saponins. Cytotoxicity was analyzed using a 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on A549 cells, a human lung cancer cell line. Results: The foam test, hemolytic assay, and TLC supported the presence of saponin compounds in the 80% ethanol fraction of H. leucospilota. The infrared (IR) spectrum of the extract showed hydroxyl (-OH), alkyl (C-H), ether (C-O) and ester (–C=O) absorption characteristic of teriterpenoid saponins. The C-O-C absorption indicated glycoside linkages to the sapogenins. The crude saponin extracted from sea cucumber was cytotoxic to A549 cells. Conclusion: The 80% ethanol fraction of saponin isolated from H. leucospilota exhibited hemolytic activity and offers promise as an anti-cancer candidate. PMID:26989736

  8. Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfates from the Body Wall of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria forskali

    PubMed Central

    Panagos, Charalampos G.; Thomson, Derek S.; Moss, Claire; Hughes, Adam D.; Kelly, Maeve S.; Liu, Yan; Chai, Wengang; Venkatasamy, Radhakrishnan; Spina, Domenico; Page, Clive P.; Hogwood, John; Woods, Robert J.; Mulloy, Barbara; Bavington, Charlie D.; Uhrn, Duan

    2014-01-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) extracted from the sea cucumber Holothuria forskali is composed of the following repeating trisaccharide unit: ?3)GalNAc?4,6S(1?4) [Fuc?X(1?3)]GlcA?(1?, where X stands for different sulfation patterns of fucose (X = 3,4S (46%), 2,4S (39%), and 4S (15%)). As revealed by NMR and molecular dynamics simulations, the fCS repeating unit adopts a conformation similar to that of the Lex blood group determinant, bringing several sulfate groups into close proximity and creating large negative patches distributed along the helical skeleton of the CS backbone. This may explain the high affinity of fCS oligosaccharides for L- and P-selectins as determined by microarray binding of fCS oligosaccharides prepared by Cu2+-catalyzed Fenton-type and photochemical depolymerization. No binding to E-selectin was observed. fCS poly- and oligosaccharides display low cytotoxicity in vitro, inhibit human neutrophil elastase activity, and inhibit the migration of neutrophils through an endothelial cell layer in vitro. Although the polysaccharide showed some anti-coagulant activity, small oligosaccharide fCS fragments had much reduced anticoagulant properties, with activity mainly via heparin cofactor II. The fCS polysaccharides showed prekallikrein activation comparable with dextran sulfate, whereas the fCS oligosaccharides caused almost no effect. The H. forskali fCS oligosaccharides were also tested in a mouse peritoneal inflammation model, where they caused a reduction in neutrophil infiltration. Overall, the data presented support the action of fCS as an inhibitor of selectin interactions, which play vital roles in inflammation and metastasis progression. Future studies of fCS-selectin interaction using fCS fragments or their mimetics may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25147180

  9. Morphological and Molecular Identification of Holothuria (Merthensiothuria) leucospilota and Stichopus horrens from Pangkor Island, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Rahim; Rehan, Maryam Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    This preliminary study aimed to identify a commercial gamat species, Stichopus horrens Selenka, 1867, and a timun laut species, Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota (Brandt, 1835), from Pangkor Island, Perak, Malaysia, employing morphological techniques based on the shape of the ossicles and molecular techniques based on the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene. In Malaysia, a gamat is defined as a sea cucumber species of the family Stichopodidae with medicinal value, and timun laut refers to non-gamat species. S. horrens is very popular on Pangkor Island as a main ingredient in the traditional production of air gamat and minyak gamat, while H. leucospilota is the most abundant species in Malaysia. In contrast to previous studies, internal body parts (the respiratory tree and gastrointestine) were examined in this study to obtain better inferences based on morphology. The results showed that there were no ossicles present in the gastrointestine of H. leucospilota, and this characteristic is suggested as a unique diagnostic marker for the timun laut species. In addition, the presence of Y-shaped rods in the respiratory tree of S. horrens subsequently supported the potential to use internal body parts to identify the gamat species. Phylogenetic analysis of the COI mtDNA gene of the sea cucumber specimens using the neighbour-joining method and maximum likelihood methods further confirmed the species status of H. leucospilota and S. horrens from Pangkor Island, Perak, Malaysia. The COI mtDNA gene sequences were registered with GenBank, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), US National Library of Medicine (GenBank accession no.: KC405565-KC405568). Although additional specimens from various localities will be required to produce more conclusive results, the current findings provide better insight into the importance of complementary approaches involving morphological and molecular techniques in the identification of the two Malaysian sea cucumber species. PMID:26868593

  10. Cytotoxic Activity of Holothuria leucospilota Extract against Leishmania infantum In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Khademvatan, Shahram; Eskandari, Alborz; Saki, Jasem; Foroutan-Rad, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a tropical parasitic infection. The resistance and toxicity issues are the major complications and remain significant consequences related to the treatment of leishmaniasis with the recent and classical drugs. Thus there is an immediate requirement to develop new compounds for the treatment of this protozoan disease. Sea cucumbers or holothurians are potentially presented as the marine sources of antimicrobial and cytotoxic compounds. The aim of this study was investigation of in vitro antileishmanial activity of methanol extract of body wall, coelomic fluid, and cuvierian organs of Holothuria leucospilota obtained from coastal parts of Persian Gulf against Leishmania infantum promastigotes and axenic amastigotes. The colorimetric MTT assay was used to determine L. infantum promastigotes and axenic amastigotes viability at different concentrations of the extracts and drug control (Glucantime®) at time dependent manner and the results are represented as IC50 (50% of inhibitory concentration). Coelomic fluid was the most active extract among the three different extracts of H. leucospilota against L. infantum promastigotes and axenic amastigotes with IC50s of 62.33 μg/mL and 22.4 μg/mL and 73 μg/mL and 46 μg/mL at 48 and 72 hours after treatment, respectively. Cuvierian organs extract showed less toxicity with IC50s more than 1000 μg/mL for both Leishmania infantum axenic amastigotes and promastigotes forms after 48 and 72 hours of exposure. Results acquired from the present study propose that the sea cucumber H. leucospilota may be a provoking source of antileishmanial compounds and could be a lead source in the development of the potent antileishmanial and cytotoxic drugs. PMID:27022392

  11. LPS-Induced Genes in Intestinal Tissue of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria glaberrima

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Gómez, Francisco; Ortiz-Pineda, Pablo A.; Rivera-Cardona, Gabriela; García-Arrarás, José E.

    2009-01-01

    Metazoan immunity is mainly associated with specialized cells that are directly involved with the immune response. Nevertheless, both in vertebrates and invertebrates other organs might respond to immune activation and participate either directly or indirectly in the ongoing immune process. However, most of what is known about invertebrate immunity has been restricted to immune effector cells and little information is available on the immune responses of other tissues or organs. We now focus on the immune reactions of the intestinal tissue of an echinoderm. Our study employs a non-conventional model, the echinoderm Holothuria glaberrima, to identify intestinal molecules expressed after an immune challenge presented by an intra-coelomic injection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The expression profiles of intestinal genes expressed differentially between LPS-injected animals and control sea water-injected animals were determined using a custom-made Agilent microarray with 7209 sea cucumber intestinal ESTs. Fifty (50) unique sequences were found to be differentially expressed in the intestine of LPS-treated sea cucumbers. Seven (7) of these sequences represented homologues of known proteins, while the remaining (43) had no significant similarity with any protein, EST or RNA database. The known sequences corresponded to cytoskeletal proteins (Actin and alpha-actinin), metabolic enzymes (GAPDH, Ahcy and Gnmt), metal ion transport/metabolism (major yolk protein) and defense/recognition (fibrinogen-like protein). The expression pattern of 11 genes was validated using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Nine of these corroborated the microarray results and the remaining two showed a similar trend but without statistical significance. Our results show some of the molecular events by which the holothurian intestine responds to an immune challenge and provide important information to the study of the evolution of the immune response. PMID:19584914

  12. Morphological and Molecular Identification of Holothuria (Merthensiothuria) leucospilota and Stichopus horrens from Pangkor Island, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Rahim; Rehan, Maryam Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    This preliminary study aimed to identify a commercial gamat species, Stichopus horrens Selenka, 1867, and a timun laut species, Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota (Brandt, 1835), from Pangkor Island, Perak, Malaysia, employing morphological techniques based on the shape of the ossicles and molecular techniques based on the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene. In Malaysia, a gamat is defined as a sea cucumber species of the family Stichopodidae with medicinal value, and timun laut refers to non-gamat species. S. horrens is very popular on Pangkor Island as a main ingredient in the traditional production of air gamat and minyak gamat, while H. leucospilota is the most abundant species in Malaysia. In contrast to previous studies, internal body parts (the respiratory tree and gastrointestine) were examined in this study to obtain better inferences based on morphology. The results showed that there were no ossicles present in the gastrointestine of H. leucospilota, and this characteristic is suggested as a unique diagnostic marker for the timun laut species. In addition, the presence of Y-shaped rods in the respiratory tree of S. horrens subsequently supported the potential to use internal body parts to identify the gamat species. Phylogenetic analysis of the COI mtDNA gene of the sea cucumber specimens using the neighbour-joining method and maximum likelihood methods further confirmed the species status of H. leucospilota and S. horrens from Pangkor Island, Perak, Malaysia. The COI mtDNA gene sequences were registered with GenBank, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), US National Library of Medicine (GenBank accession no.: KC405565-KC405568). Although additional specimens from various localities will be required to produce more conclusive results, the current findings provide better insight into the importance of complementary approaches involving morphological and molecular techniques in the identification of the two Malaysian sea cucumber species. PMID:26868593

  13. Distinct profiles of expressed sequence tags during intestinal regeneration in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Cartagena, Carmencita; Ortíz-Pineda, Pablo; Ramírez-Gómez, Francisco; Suárez-Castillo, Edna C.; Matos-Cruz, Vanessa; Rodríguez, Carlos; Ortíz-Zuazaga, Humberto; García-Arrarás, José E.

    2010-01-01

    Repair and regeneration are key processes for tissue maintenance, and their disruption may lead to disease states. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms that underline the repair and regeneration of the digestive tract. The sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima represents an excellent model to dissect and characterize the molecular events during intestinal regeneration. To study the gene expression profile, cDNA libraries were constructed from normal, 3-day, and 7-day regenerating intestines of H. glaberrima. Clones were randomly sequenced and queried against the nonredundant protein database at the National Center for Biotechnology Information. RT-PCR analyses were made of several genes to determine their expression profile during intestinal regeneration. A total of 5,173 sequences from three cDNA libraries were obtained. About 46.2, 35.6, and 26.2% of the sequences for the normal, 3-days, and 7-days cDNA libraries, respectively, shared significant similarity with known sequences in the protein database of GenBank but only present 10% of similarity among them. Analysis of the libraries in terms of functional processes, protein domains, and most common sequences suggests that a differential expression profile is taking place during the regeneration process. Further examination of the expressed sequence tag dataset revealed that 12 putative genes are differentially expressed at significant level (R > 6). Experimental validation by RT-PCR analysis reveals that at least three genes (unknown C-4677-1, melanotransferrin, and centaurin) present a differential expression during regeneration. These findings strongly suggest that the gene expression profile varies among regeneration stages and provide evidence for the existence of differential gene expression. PMID:17579180

  14. Antitumor and antifungal activities of organic extracts of seacucumber Holothuria atra from the southeast coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhinakaran, Devaraj Isaac; Lipton, Aaron Premnath

    2015-02-01

    In phylum Echinodermata, the family Holothuridae is distinguished by its capacity of bioactive compounds. Sea cucumber Holothuria atra is commonly known as the lollyfish. The antifungal activity was detected using agar well diffusion method against the various fungal strains such as Trichoderma viride, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavis, Candida albicans and Penicillium chrysogenum. Relatively high antifungal activity was seen against Candida albicans at 100 μL-1 concentration of extracts. Zone of inhibition was measured at 18 mm of diameter. The anti-tumor activities were detected against the Vero and Hep2 cell lines using MTT assay. The cells were treated with H. atra extract at concentrations 0.078-10mg mL-1. The extract showed high proliferative activity against the Hep2 cells. The body wall extracts of sea cucumber ( H. atra) showed effective antifungal and antitumor activities. All these findings suggest that the extracts could be used for the development of drugs.

  15. Influence of three bacteria strains on the population dynamics of Tisbe holothuriae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guérin, J.-P.; Rieper-Kirchner, M.

    1991-12-01

    The influence of three bacteria strains (Helgo 21, NCMB 308 and NCMB 13) on the life cycle of Tisbe holothuriae Humes 1957 was investigated under constant experimental conditions (19 20°C and 38‰ S). For each of the first six experiments, females (F1), whose life history was followed, were obtained from a common mother (F0). Experiment no 7 was carried out with adult females (F2) obtained during exp. 4. Females were bred in 50-ml dishes and transferred to a fresh container as soon as they produced a new egg-sac. Offspring (F2: exp. 1 6; F3: exp. 7) from successive egg-layings were counted as soon as they moulted into adults. Larval mortality was estimated by enumeration of the adults issuing from a known number of nauplii that had been fed different bacteria strains. Some difficulties arose in obtaining adults with NCMB 13: it appeared to be necessary to provide this first generation with a small quantity of TetraMin (commercial fish food) in order to initiate reproduction and obtain a second generation. However, in exp. 4, F2 adult females fed NCMB 13 became ovigerous and fertile without needing TetraMin. This result is interpreted as denoting an indispensable period of adaptation to the diet, which probably requires important changes at the enzymatic level. One experiment was carried out with Helgo 21; another one with NCMB 308; two with NCMB 13 (with a unique additional meal of TetraMin to allow reproduction), two with NCMB 13 during larval development, then only tetraMin during adult stage, and one with NCMB 13 alone (with females issued from exp. 4). Data obtained regarding longevity, duration of reproduction period, number of egg-sacs and number of adult descendants show an important variability between bacteria strains. Lower results were almost always obtained with Helgo 21 and NCMB 308. An interesting result lies in the maximum number of egg-sacs: low with Helgo 21 and NCMB 308 (5), but very ample with NCMB 13 (11 in one experiment). In experiment 7, carried out with animals bearing a large coefficient of inbreeding (0.375), the results concerning the maximum number of egg-sacs are good (10) as are the mean number of descendants per female (294: the highest number of the seven experiments). These results indicate that genetic factors involved in the reduction of descendants in ageing laboratory cultures can be suppressed to a certain extent by nutritional factors. The poor results obtained with Helgo 21 and NCMB 308 alone must be considered with caution: after a period of adaptation with an alimentary complement, these strains could perhaps permit an interesting production of copepods.

  16. Identification of endocannabinoid system-modulating N-alkylamides from Heliopsis helianthoides var. scabra and Lepidium meyenii.

    PubMed

    Hajdu, Zsanett; Nicolussi, Simon; Rau, Mark; Lorántfy, László; Forgo, Peter; Hohmann, Judit; Csupor, Dezső; Gertsch, Jürg

    2014-07-25

    The discovery of the interaction of plant-derived N-alkylamides (NAAs) and the mammalian endocannabinoid system (ECS) and the existence of a plant endogenous N-acylethanolamine signaling system have led to the re-evaluation of this group of compounds. Herein, the isolation of seven NAAs and the assessment of their effects on major protein targets in the ECS network are reported. Four NAAs, octadeca-2E,4E,8E,10Z,14Z-pentaene-12-ynoic acid isobutylamide (1), octadeca-2E,4E,8E,10Z,14Z-pentaene-12-ynoic acid 2'-methylbutylamide (2), hexadeca-2E,4E,9Z-triene-12,14-diynoic acid isobutylamide (3), and hexadeca-2E,4E,9,12-tetraenoic acid 2'-methylbutylamide (4), were identified from Heliopsis helianthoides var. scabra. Compounds 2-4 are new natural products, while 1 was isolated for the first time from this species. The previously described macamides, N-(3-methoxybenzyl)-(9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadecatrienamide (5), N-benzyl-(9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadecatrienamide (6), and N-benzyl-(9Z,12Z)-octadecadienamide (7), were isolated from Lepidium meyenii (Maca). N-Methylbutylamide 4 and N-benzylamide 7 showed submicromolar and selective binding affinities for the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (Ki values of 0.31 and 0.48 μM, respectively). Notably, compound 7 also exhibited weak fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition (IC50 = 4 μM) and a potent inhibition of anandamide cellular uptake (IC50 = 0.67 μM) that was stronger than the inhibition obtained with the controls OMDM-2 and UCM707. The pronounced ECS polypharmacology of compound 7 highlights the potential involvement of the arachidonoyl-mimicking 9Z,12Z double-bond system in the linoleoyl group for the overall cannabimimetic action of NAAs. This study provides additional strong evidence of the endocannabinoid substrate mimicking of plant-derived NAAs and uncovers a direct and indirect cannabimimetic action of the Peruvian Maca root. PMID:24972328

  17. Effect of density on larval development and female productivity of Tisbe holothuriae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) under laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; Uhlig, G.

    1993-06-01

    The harpacticoid copepod Tisbe holothuriae has been cultivated in the Helgoland laboratory for more than 20 years. The effects of density on the larval development and the female productivity were studied by comparing two culture systems: (1) enclosed system, and (2) running-water system. In both systems, a nutritious mixed diet of Dunaliella tertiolecta, Skeletonema costatum, and granulated Mytilus edulis was offered. Larval mortality, larval development and female productivity are found to be significantly dependent on both the population density and specificity of the culture system. Increasing density causes higher larval mortality, longer larval development time, and a reduction in female productivity. In comparison with the enclosed system, the running-water system shows decisive advantages: larval mortality is about 20% lower, the rate of larval development is about two days shorter, and there is a very high rate of nauplii production. The sex ratio exhibits high variations, but in general, there is no clear relationship between sex ratio and population density. Nevertheless, when reared in the running-water system, a relatively high percentage of females (>45%) was found at lower densities.

  18. Dry weight and chemical composition (CHN) in relation to population density of cultivated Tisbe holothuriae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; Uhlig, Gotram

    1993-06-01

    The harpacticoid copepod Tisbe holothuriae was cultivated at different densities in a running-water system. Dry weight and chemical composition (CHN) of both females and egg-sacs have been determined. Dry weight decreased significantly with increasing density from 3,48 to 1.94μg in egg-sacs, and from 10.80 to 6.58μg in females. Increasing density in both egg-sacs and females results in decrease of carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen contents, expressed as a percentage of dry weight of egg-sacs and females, respectively. Carbon decreases from 52.56 to 50.57% (egg-sacs) and 45.80 to 39.95% (⧫), nitrogen from 12.63 to 11.94% and 10.72 to 9.73% and hydrogen from 9.08 to 7.78% and 7.47 to 6.17%. The dry weight and elemental compositions of the egg-sacs varied in accordance with that of the females, however, a higher percentage of elemental content was observed in egg-sacs. The energy equivalents were calculated from the carbon content. This indicates that more energy was transferred from the maternal body into egg-sacs. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen did not show any marked variations; no clear relation appeared between C:N and density, indicating a relatively constant chemical composition in both females and egg-sacs.

  19. Ependymin, a gene involved in regeneration and neuroplasticity in vertebrates, is overexpressed during regeneration in the echinoderm Holothuria glaberrima.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Castillo, Edna C; Medina-Ortíz, Wanda E; Roig-López, José L; García-Arrarás, José E

    2004-06-01

    We report the characterization of an ependymin-related gene (EpenHg) from a regenerating intestine cDNA library of the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima. This finding is remarkable because no ependymin sequence has ever been reported from invertebrates. Database comparisons of the conceptual translation of the EpenHg gene reveal 63% similarity (47% identity) with mammalian ependymin-related proteins (MERPs) and close relationship with the frog and piscine ependymins. We also report the partial sequences of ependymin representatives from another species of sea cucumber and from a sea urchin species. Conventional and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCRs) show that the gene is expressed in several echinoderm tissues, including esophagus, mesenteries, gonads, respiratory trees, hemal system, tentacles and body wall. Moreover, the ependymin product in the intestine is overexpressed during sea cucumber intestinal regeneration. The discovery of ependymins in echinoderms, a group well known for their regenerative capacities, can give us an insight on the evolution and roles of ependymin molecules. PMID:15256263

  20. Protective and Curative Effects of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra Extract against DMBA-Induced Hepatorenal Diseases in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dakrory, Ahmed I.; Fahmy, Sohair R.; Soliman, Amel M.; Mohamed, Ayman S.; Amer, Sayed A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a common mechanism contributing to the initiation and progression of hepatic damage. Hence there is a great demand for the development of agents with potent antioxidant effect. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of Holothuria atra extract (HaE) as an antioxidant against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene- (DMBA-) induced hepatorenal dysfunction. Experimental animals were divided into two main groups: protective and curative. Each group was then divided into five subgroups pre- or posttreated either with distilled water (DMBA subgroups) or with HaE (200 mg/kg body weight) for seven and fourteen days. Single oral administration of DMBA (15 mg/kg body weight) to Wistar rats resulted in a significant increase in the serum liver enzymes and kidney function's parameters. DMBA increased level of liver malondialdehyde (MDA), decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) in the liver tissue, and induced liver histopathological alterations. Pre- or posttreatment with HaE orally for 14 days significantly reversed the hepatorenal alterations induced following DMBA administration. In conclusion, HaE exhibits good hepatoprotective, curative, and antioxidant potential against DMBA-induced hepatorenal dysfunction in rats that might be due to decreased free radical generation. PMID:25821811

  1. The triterpene glycosides of Holothuria forskali: usefulness and efficiency as a chemical defense mechanism against predatory fish.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Séverine; Caulier, Guillaume; Todesco, Maïté; Gerbaux, Pascal; Fournier, Isabelle; Wisztorski, Maxence; Flammang, Patrick

    2011-04-15

    More than 100 triterpene glycosides (saponins) have been characterized in holothuroids in the past several decades. In particular, Holothuria forskali contains 26 saponins in its Cuvierian tubules and 12 in its body wall. This high diversity could be linked to a chemical defense mechanism, the most commonly accepted biological role for these secondary metabolites. We performed an integrated study of the body-wall saponins of H. forskali. The saponins are mainly localized in the epidermis and in the mesothelium of the body wall and appear to be released when the holothuroid is stressed. Among the saponins present in the epidermis, one (holothurinoside G) was detected in the seawater surrounding non-stressed holothuroids and three others (holohurinosides C and F, and desholothurin A) were secreted when the animals were stressed. In addition, two new congeners (detected at m/z 1301 and 1317) were also present in the immediate surroundings of stressed holothuroids. These new saponins do not originate from the epidermis and could come from an internal organ. Quantities of secreted saponins were very low compared with the body wall and Cuvierian tubules concentrations. At natural concentrations, saponins do not represent a threat to the health of predatory fish. The deterrent effect of saponins seems therefore to act as an aposematic signal, warning potential predators of the unpalatability of the holothuroid tissues. PMID:21430212

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Adhesive Secretion from Cuvierian Tubules of Sea Cucumber Holothuria forskåli (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea)

    PubMed Central

    Baranowska, Malgorzata; Schloßmacher, Ute; McKenzie, J. Douglas; Müller, Werner E. G.; Schröder, Heinz C.

    2011-01-01

    The sea cucumber Holothuria forskåli possesses a specialized system called Cuvierian tubules. During mechanical stimulation white filaments (tubules) are expelled and become sticky upon contact with any object. We isolated a protein with adhesive properties from protein extracts of Cuvierian tubules from H. forskåli. This protein was identified by antibodies against recombinant precollagen D which is located in the byssal threads of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. To find out the optimal procedure for extraction and purification, the identified protein was isolated by several methods, including electroelution, binding to glass beads, immunoprecipitation, and gel filtration. Antibodies raised against the isolated protein were used for localization of the adhesive protein in Cuvierian tubules. Immunostaining and immunogold electron microscopical studies revealed the strongest immunoreactivity in the mesothelium; this tissue layer is involved in adhesion. Adhesion of Cuvierian tubule extracts was measured on the surface of various materials. The extracted protein showed the strongest adhesion to Teflon surface. Increased adhesion was observed in the presence of potassium and EDTA, while cadmium caused a decrease in adhesion. Addition of antibodies and trypsin abolished the adhesive properties of the extract. PMID:22013488

  3. Putative mechanism for apoptosis-inducing properties of crude saponin isolated from sea cucumber (Holothuria leucospilota) as an antioxidant compound

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Mozhgan; Parivar, Kazem; Baharara, Javad; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin; Asili, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Marine organisms are known as a potential source of natural products, which contain bioactive substances with therapeutic properties. Sea cucumbers are prominent among marine organisms because of their dietary and therapeutic applications. In addition, they have capacity of synthesizing saponins molecules and other metabolites with therapeutic properties such as antitumor, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and pro-apoptotic effects of sea cucumber saponins (SCS) isolated from Holothuria leucospilota species. Materials and Methods: Evaluation of antioxidant activity of SCS was carried out by DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), power reducing and total antioxidant assays. The anti-proliferative effect was studied by MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Mechanisms leading to apoptosis were also evaluated by fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and real time PCR. Results: The results showed that the DPPH and ABTS activities increased in a dose dependent manner. The reducing capacity enhanced with increasing concentration of the saponin extract (0 to 2 mg/ml). The SCS exhibited moderate total antioxidant activity. Evaluation of anti-proliferative effect revealed that SCS with IC50 of about 6 μg/ml, can display a good cytotoxic activity in a dose dependent manner. Further apoptosis induction was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Sea cucumber saponin was also found to exert a pro-apoptotic effect by increasing the expression of Bax and decreasing the expression of Bcl2. Conclusion: These results indicate that the SCS may act as a natural antioxidant and antitumor agent. PMID:25810893

  4. Discovery, structural characterization and functional analysis of alpha-2-macroglobulin, a novel immune-related molecule from Holothuria atra.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jing; Ren, Chunhua; Xia, Jianjun; Chen, Ting; Yu, Zonghe; Hu, Chaoqun

    2016-07-10

    The non-specific protease inhibitor alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) is a key macromolecular glycoprotein that involved in host immune defense against pathogens in vertebrates and invertebrates. However, no research regarding A2M has been developed in echinoderms to date. In this study, the full-length cDNA of A2M was cloned from the sea cucumber (Holothuria atra), which is a tropical species widely distributed along the coasts of the South China Sea and designated HaA2M. HaA2M possesses all three conserved functional domains of known A2M proteins, including the bait region domain, thioester domain and receptor-binding domain. Compared to fish and shrimp A2Ms, the histidine residue from the catalytical regions is well conserved in HaA2M. HaA2M mRNA was predominantly expressed in coelomocytes and, to a lesser extent, in the body wall, intestine and respiratory tree. A2M activity was detected in the coelomic fluids of H. atra. The mRNA expression and activity levels were investigated in the major immune tissues and coelomic fluids of H. atra after challenge with inactivated Vibrio alginolyticus or polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid [Poly (I: C)]. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of HaA2M resulted in a significant reduction of HaA2M gene transcript level (86%). RNAi-mediated silencing of HaA2M gene significantly decreased the A2M activity (38%) and increased the number of viable bacteria (2.8-fold) in the coelomic fluids of H. atra infected by V. alginolyticus. Our study, as a whole, supplied the evidences for HaA2M as an immune-relevant molecule and it might have multiple functions in the innate immune system of H. atra. PMID:27033585

  5. The effects of body temperature and mass on the postprandial metabolic responses of the African egg-eating snakes Dasypeltis scabra and Dasypeltis inornata.

    PubMed

    Greene, Sara; McConnachie, Suzanne; Secor, Stephen; Perrin, Mike

    2013-06-01

    African egg-eating snakes (Dasypeltis) feed only on freshly laid bird eggs which they perforate within their esophagus before swallowing the liquid contents and regurgitating the empty shell. Compared to a snake's typical intact meal, the liquid diet of Dasypeltis would expectedly generate a more moderate postprandial metabolic response and specific dynamic action (SDA). Free-ranging Dasypeltis feed over a range of ambient temperatures and thereby experience predicted temperature-dependent shifts in the duration and magnitude of their postprandial metabolic response. Such shifts would undoubtedly be shared among different species and age classes of Dasypeltis. To examine these expectations, we measured pre- and postprandial metabolic rates of adult Dasypeltis inornata and adult and neonate Dasypeltis scabra in response to liquid egg meals weighing 20% of snake body mass at 20, 25, 27, 30, and 32 °C. With an increase in body temperature, postprandial metabolic profiles of neonate and adult snakes became narrower and shorter in duration. Specific dynamic action varied among temperature treatments, increasing from 20 to 32 °C. Standard metabolic rate, postprandial peak metabolic rate, and SDA scaled with mass exponents that typically did not differ from 1.0. As expected, Dasypeltis digesting a liquid egg diet experienced a more modest postprandial response and SDA, expending on average only 10.6% of the meal's energy on the breakdown, absorption, and assimilation of the egg meal, whereas other colubrids consuming intact rodent or fish meals expend on average 16.3% of the meal's energy on digestion and assimilation. Actively foraging and feeding throughout the avian egg laying season enable Dasypeltis to survive when eggs are not available. The adaptive suite of traits that enable Dasypeltis to consume eggs of large relative size and ingest only the liquid contents may also be joined by physiological adaptations specific to their liquid diet and extended bouts of fasting. PMID:23454629

  6. Genetic diversity and connectivity remain high in Holothuria polii (Delle Chiaje 1823) across a coastal lagoon-open sea environmental gradient.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Chen, Carlos; González-Wangüemert, Mercedes; Marcos, Concepción; Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel

    2010-08-01

    Coastal lagoons represent habitats with widely heterogeneous environmental conditions, particularly as regards salinity and temperature, which fluctuate in both space and time. These characteristics suggest that physical and ecological factors could contribute to the genetic divergence among populations occurring in coastal lagoon and open-coast environments. This study investigates the genetic structure of Holothuria polii at a micro-geographic scale across the Mar Menor coastal lagoon and nearby marine areas, estimating the mitochondrial DNA variation in two gene fragments, cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and 16S rRNA (16S). Dataset of mitochondrial sequences was also used to test the influence of environmental differences between coastal lagoon and marine waters on population genetic structure. All sampled locations exhibited high levels of haplotype diversity and low values of nucleotide diversity. Both genes showed contrasting signals of genetic differentiation (non-significant differences using COI and slight differences using 16S, which could due to different mutation rates or to differential number of exclusive haplotypes. We detected an excess of recent mutations and exclusive haplotypes, which can be generated as a result of population growth. However, selective processes can be also acting on the gene markers used; highly significant generalized additive models have been obtained considering genetic data from 16S gene and independent variables such as temperature and salinity. PMID:20623364

  7. Transcriptional analysis of VEGF-D and TGFβ genes in MCF7 cells exposed to saponin isolated from Holothuria leucospilota (sea cucumber)

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Mozhgan; Parivar, Kazem; Baharara, Javad; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin; Asili, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Marine natural products contain a wide range of bioactive compounds with therapeutic properties that have revealed crucial properties in the treatment of some diseases. Some of these compounds have recently received considerable attention for drug discovery. In this study we examined the anti-angiogenic effect of saponin isolated from Holothuria leucospilota (sea cucumber) through evaluation of vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D) and transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) expression in a breast cancer cell line. Methods: To investigate the effect of SCS on VEGF-D and TGF-β expression in breast cancer cells, the cells were treated with various concentrations of sample. After 48 h the viability of the cells was evaluated by trypan blue staining, and VEGF-D and TGFβ mRNA expression was were evaluated by real time-PCR. Results: Our results revealed that SCS can suppress cell viability and VEGF-D and TGFβ mRNA expression in breast cancer cells. Sea cucumber saponin at a concentration of 12 μg/ml inhibited VEGF-D and TGFβ expression more than 90% compared with controls. Conclusion: Findings suggest that SCS could inhibit tumor growth via inhibition of angiogenesis. PMID:26989747

  8. Serum amyloid A protein in an echinoderm: its primary structure and expression during intestinal regeneration in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima.

    PubMed

    Santiago, P; Roig-López, J L; Santiago, C; García-Arrarás, J E

    2000-12-15

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) proteins comprise a family of highly conserved apolipoproteins found in all mammals thus far investigated, and also in ducks and salmonid fishes. However, no invertebrate SAA homologues have been detected to date. Here we report the characterization of the first SAA homologue in a nonvertebrate deuterostome, the echinoderm Holothuria glaberrima. A 971-base-pair cDNA was obtained from a regenerating intestine cDNA library. The clone contains a 369-nucleotide open reading frame corresponding to a 122-amino-acid protein exhibiting a high degree of homology to members of the SAA superfamily. Sequence alignments of the holothuroid and vertebrate SAA proteins make evident a remarkable degree of conservation, even between phylogenetically disparate groups. Northern blots and immunohistochemistry show that SAA expression increases during regeneration of the holothuroid digestive tract as compared with normal nonregenerating tissue, and that the SAA protein is expressed by cells of the coelomic epithelium of the regenerating intestine. While SAA expression during the initial wound healing stage of regeneration is minimal, it increases during subsequent stages, peaking at day 15 of regeneration, concomitantly with lumen formation and the organization of the muscular layers of the regenerating digestive tract. Although in vertebrates SAA proteins may be part of a well-conserved anti-inflammatory mechanism, their exact biological function remains obscure. Our results suggest the possibility that SAA proteins, although structurally conserved, may possess enough functional diversity to participate in processes other than anti-inflammatory responses. PMID:11144282

  9. Isolation of a Pigment-producing Strain of Staphylococcus kloosii from the Respiratory Tree of Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota (Brandt 1835) from Malaysian Waters

    PubMed Central

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Rahim; Ngah, Nurziana; Hamid, Tengku Haziyamin Tengku Abdul; Susanti, Deny

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus kloosii, an orange pigment-producing bacterium, was isolated from the respiratory tree of Holothuria (Mertensiothuria) leucospilota (Brandt 1835) from Teluk Nipah, Pangkor Island, Perak, Malaysia. This report is the first documentation of this Gram-positive strain, referred to as Strain 68 in Malaysia. A partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence of the mesophilic strain has been registered with GenBank (National Center for Biotechnology Information, US National Library of Medicine) with accession number JX102547. Phylogenetic analysis using the neighbour-joining method further supported the identification of Strain 68 as S. kloosii. The circular strain produced orange pigments on tryptone glucose yeast extract agar (TGYEA) and in nutrient broth (NB) at approximately pH 7. The visible spectra of ethanolic and methanolic pigment extracts of the bacterial strain were considered identical with λmax at 426, 447 and 475 nm and λmax at 426, 445 and 473 nm, respectively. Both visible spectra resemble the visible spectra of lutein, which is a commercial carotenoid; however, further analyses are required to confirm the identity of this pigment. The methanolic extracts of the intracellular pigments comprised at least three pigment compounds: an orange pigment compound (major compound), a yellow pigment compound (the least polar) and a pink pigment compound (the most polar). These findings are the first documentation of the pigment composition of S. kloosii as no such record could be found to date. PMID:24575244

  10. Calbindin-D32k Is Localized to a Subpopulation of Neurons in the Nervous System of the Sea Cucumber Holothuria glaberrima (Echinodermata)

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Balzac, Carlos A.; Lázaro-Peña, María I.; García-Rivera, Enrique M.; González, Carlos I.; García-Arrarás, José E.

    2012-01-01

    Members of the calbindin subfamily serve as markers of subpopulations of neurons within the vertebrate nervous system. Although markers of these proteins are widely available and used, their application to invertebrate nervous systems has been very limited. In this study we investigated the presence and distribution of members of the calbindin subfamily in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima (Selenka, 1867). Immunohistological experiments with antibodies made against rat calbindin 1, parvalbumin, and calbindin 2, showed that these antibodies labeled cells and fibers within the nervous system of H. glaberrima. Most of the cells and fibers were co-labeled with the neural-specific marker RN1, showing their neural specificity. These were distributed throughout all of the nervous structures, including the connective tissue plexi of the body wall and podia. Bioinformatics analyses of the possible antigen recognized by these markers showed that a calbindin 2-like protein present in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, corresponded to the calbindin-D32k previously identified in other invertebrates. Western blots with anti-calbindin 1 and anti-parvalbumin showed that these markers recognized an antigen of approximately 32 kDa in homogenates of radial nerve cords of H. glaberrima and Lytechinus variegatus. Furthermore, immunoreactivity with anti-calbindin 1 and anti-parvalbumin was obtained to a fragment of calbindin-D32k of H. glaberrima. Our findings suggest that calbindin-D32k is present in invertebrates and its sequence is more similar to the vertebrate calbindin 2 than to calbindin 1. Thus, characterization of calbindin-D32k in echinoderms provides an important view of the evolution of this protein family and represents a valuable marker to study the nervous system of invertebrates. PMID:22412907

  11. Selective Toxicity of Persian Gulf Sea Cucumber (Holothuria parva) and Sponge (Haliclona oculata) Methanolic Extracts on Liver Mitochondria Isolated from an Animal Model of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Seydi, Enayatollah; Motallebi, Abbasali; Dastbaz, Maryam; Dehghan, Sahar; Salimi, Ahmad; Nazemi, Melika; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Natural products isolated from marine environments are well known for their pharmacodynamic potential in diverse disease treatments, such as for cancer or inflammatory conditions. Sea cucumbers are marine animals of the phylum Echinoderm and the class Holothuroidea, with leathery skin and gelatinous bodies. Sponges are important components of Persian Gulf animal communities, and the marine sponges of the genus Haliclona have been known to display broad-spectrum biological activity. Many studies have shown that sea cucumbers and sponges contain antioxidants and anti-cancer compounds. Objectives: This study was designed to determine the selective toxicity of Persian Gulf sea cucumber (Holothuria parva) and sponge (Haliclona oculata) methanolic extracts on liver mitochondria isolated from an animal model of hepatocellular carcinoma, as part of a national project that hopes to identify novel potential anticancer candidates among Iranian Persian Gulf flora and fauna. Materials and Methods: To induce hepatocarcinogenesis, rats were given diethylnitrosamine (DEN) injections (200 mg/kg i.p. by a single dose), and then the cancer was promoted with 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) (0.02 w/w) for two weeks. Histopathological evaluations were performed, and levels of liver injury markers and a specific liver cancer marker (alpha-fetoprotein), were determined for confirmation of hepatocellular carcinoma induction. Finally, mitochondria were isolated from cancerous and non-cancerous hepatocytes. Results: Our results showed that H. parva methanolic extracts (250, 500, and 1000 µg/mL) and H. oculata methanolic extracts (200, 400, and 800 µg/mL) increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial swelling, and cytochrome c release in the mitochondria obtained from cancerous hepatocytes, but not in mitochondria obtained from non-cancerous liver hepatocytes. These extracts also induced caspase-3 activation, which is known as a final mediator of apoptosis, in the hepatocytes obtained only from cancerous, not non-cancerous, rat livers. Conclusions: Our results suggest that H. parva and H. oculata may be promising therapeutic candidates for the treatment of HCC, following further confirmatory in vivo experiments and clinical trials. PMID:26977167

  12. Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Libraries in Canada, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Includes 21 articles that discuss collection development in Canadian school libraries. Topics include digital collections in school library media centers; print and electronic library resources; library collections; collaborative projects; print-disabled students; informing administrators of the importance of collection development; censorship;…

  13. Collecting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Charles P.

    1983-01-01

    An improved collecting apparatus for small aquatic or airborne organisms such as plankton, larval fish, insects, etc. The improvement constitutes an apertured removal container within which is retained a collecting bag, and which is secured at the apex of a conical collecting net. Such collectors are towed behind a vessel or vehicle with the open end of the conical net facing forward for trapping the aquatic or airborne organisms within the collecting bag, while allowing the water or air to pass through the apertures in the container. The container is readily removable from the collecting net whereby the collecting bag can be quickly removed and replaced for further sample collection. The collecting bag is provided with means for preventing the bag from being pulled into the container by the water or air flowing therethrough.

  14. Collections Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCandido, Robert

    Collections conservation is an approach to the preservation treatment of books and book-like materials that is conceptualized and organized in terms of large groups of materials. This guide is intended to enable a library to evaluate its current collections conservation activities. The introduction describes collections conservation and gives…

  15. Collection Mapping and Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, William; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes the use of collection mapping to assess media collections of Aurora, Colorado, Public Schools. Case studies of elementary, middle, and high school media centers describe materials selection and weeding and identify philosophies that library collections should support school curriculum, and teacher-library media specialist cooperation in…

  16. Collective Enumeration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahrami, Bahador; Didino, Daniele; Frith, Chris; Butterworth, Brian; Rees, Geraint

    2013-01-01

    Many joint decisions in everyday life (e.g., Which bar is less crowded?) depend on approximate enumeration, but very little is known about the psychological characteristics of counting together. Here we systematically investigated collective approximate enumeration. Pairs of participants made individual and collective enumeration judgments in a…

  17. Collecting Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Rachel M.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in rock collecting with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. Following a section examining the nature and formation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, the booklet gives suggestions for starting a rock collection and using…

  18. Data Collection

    A view of the various systems that are used for navigation, logging, and data collection during the trip. The USGS returned from a seafloor data mapping mission offshore of the Delmarva Peninsula (Ocean City, MD) on July 25th, 2014. The data collected is foundational to our continued understanding ...

  19. Jay's Collectibles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappel, James J.; Gillman, Jason R., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in collectibles of many types, as indicated by the popularity of television programs such as the History Channel's "Pawn Stars" and "American Pickers" and the Public Broadcasting Service's "Antiques Road Show." The availability of online auction sites such as eBay has enabled many people to collect items of interest as a…

  20. Collective Enumeration

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Bahador; Didino, Daniele; Frith, Chris; Butterworth, Brian; Rees, Geraint

    2012-01-01

    Many joint decisions in everyday life (e.g., Which bar is less crowded?) depend on approximate enumeration, but very little is known about the psychological characteristics of counting together. Here we systematically investigated collective approximate enumeration. Pairs of participants made individual and collective enumeration judgments in a 2-alternative forced-choice task and when in disagreement, they negotiated joint decisions via verbal communication and received feedback about accuracy at the end of each trial. The results showed that two people could collectively count better than either one alone, but not as well as expected by previous models of collective sensory decision making in more basic perceptual domains (e.g., luminance contrast). Moreover, such collective enumeration benefited from prior, noninteractive practice showing that social learning of how to combine shared information about enumeration required substantial individual experience. Finally, the collective context had a positive but transient impact on an individual's enumeration sensitivity. This transient social influence may be explained as a motivational factor arising from the fact that members of a collective must take responsibility for their individual decisions and face the consequences of their judgments. PMID:22889187

  1. Micrometeorite Collecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toubes, Joe; Hoff, Darrel

    1974-01-01

    Describes how to collect micrometeorites and suggests a number of related activities such as determining the number of meteors entering the atmosphere and determining the composition of the micrometeorites. (BR)

  2. Blood Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The method that is used for the collection, storage and real-time analysis of blood and other bodily fluids has been licensed to DBCD, Inc. by NASA. The result of this patent licensing agreement has been the development of a commercial product that can provide serum or plasma from whole blood volumes of 20 microliters to 4 milliliters. The device has a fibrous filter with a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture of mannitol and plasma fraction protein. The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber. The method used by this product is useful to NASA for blood analysis on manned space missions.

  3. Collecting Samples

    Collecting Samples at Embden 3. Embden 3 is a 60-degree V trapezoidal flume in a bured concreate culvert located on the other side of the north-south road east of the large data shelter. The flow is measured and sampled from the V flume underground and periodic QW grab samples are taken form the blu...

  4. Collectible Aesthetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, David

    1989-01-01

    Shows how the advertisement copy for "collectible art" can be used to develop a definition of art. Suggests that middle and high school students should look at the criteria for art offered in the advertisements. Recommends they analyze the terminology used to convince the lay person that the object is "genuine" art. (LS)

  5. Wastewater Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, Samar; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater collection systems and components. This review covers: (1) planning, (2) construction; (3) sewer system evaluation; (4) maintenance; (5) rehabilitation; (6) overview prevention; and (7) wastewater pumping. A list of 111 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Collecting Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Natalie

    2004-01-01

    Fresh out of college, the author had only a handful of items worthy of displaying, which included some fossils she had collected in her paleontology class. She had binders filled with great science information, but kids want to see "real" science, not paper science. Then it came to her: she could fill the shelves with science artifacts with the…

  7. Collective instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    K.Y. Ng

    2003-08-25

    The lecture covers mainly Sections 2.VIII and 3.VII of the book ''Accelerator Physics'' by S.Y. Lee, plus mode-coupling instabilities and chromaticity-driven head-tail instability. Besides giving more detailed derivation of many equations, simple interpretations of many collective instabilities are included with the intention that the phenomena can be understood more easily without going into too much mathematics. The notations of Lee's book as well as the e{sup jwt} convention are followed.

  8. Workforce Competitiveness Collection. "LINCS" Resource Collection News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Information and Communication System, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This edition of "'LINCS' Resource Collection News" features the Workforce Competitiveness Collection, covering the topics of workforce education, English language acquisition, and technology. Each month Collections News features one of the three "LINCS" (Literacy Information and Communication System) Resource Collections--Basic Skills, Program…

  9. Program Management Collection. "LINCS" Resource Collection News

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Information and Communication System, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This edition of "'LINCS' Resource Collection News" features the Program Management Collection, which covers the topics of Assessment, Learning Disabilities, and Program Improvement. Each month Collections News features one of the three "LINCS" (Literacy Information and Communication System) Resource Collections--Basic Skills, Program Management,…

  10. Value, Market Preferences and Trade of Beche-De-Mer from Pacific Island Sea Cucumbers

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Market preferences of natural resources contribute to shape their exploitation and production. Beche-de-mer, the product after gutting, cooking, salting and drying sea cucumbers, is exported worldwide to Asian dried seafood markets. A better understanding of the trade, value and market preferences of Pacific island beche-de-mer could identify critical postharvest processing techniques and management strategies for fisheries and aquaculture. Data were collected on export prices and trade of beche-de-mer from Kiribati, Fiji, Tonga and New Caledonia, and the selling prices, respective sizes and organoleptic properties of the products in stores in China. Export prices varied considerably within and among the four countries and low-value species were the most exported by volume. Most of the beche-de-mer from the four Pacific islands is exported to Hong Kong, where quality products are sold and others are distributed to mainland China. Prices of the beche-de-mer in Chinese stores varied up to ten-fold and were mostly influenced by species, body size and, to a lesser extent, physical damage to the products. Market prices across species (averaging US$15–385 kg−1) appear to have mostly increased six- to twelve-fold over the past decade. The data allude that fisheries for Holothuria scabra, H. lessoni, H. fuscogilva, H. whitmaei and Thelenota ananas should be most carefully managed because they were the highest-value species and under greatest demand. The relationships between size of beche-de-mer and sale price were species specific and highly varied. This study also highlights the need for better regulations and/or enforcement of minimum size limits in sea cucumber fisheries, which can help to maximise economic benefits of wild stocks. PMID:24736374

  11. Value, market preferences and trade of Beche-de-mer from Pacific Island sea cucumbers.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Steven W

    2014-01-01

    Market preferences of natural resources contribute to shape their exploitation and production. Beche-de-mer, the product after gutting, cooking, salting and drying sea cucumbers, is exported worldwide to Asian dried seafood markets. A better understanding of the trade, value and market preferences of Pacific island beche-de-mer could identify critical postharvest processing techniques and management strategies for fisheries and aquaculture. Data were collected on export prices and trade of beche-de-mer from Kiribati, Fiji, Tonga and New Caledonia, and the selling prices, respective sizes and organoleptic properties of the products in stores in China. Export prices varied considerably within and among the four countries and low-value species were the most exported by volume. Most of the beche-de-mer from the four Pacific islands is exported to Hong Kong, where quality products are sold and others are distributed to mainland China. Prices of the beche-de-mer in Chinese stores varied up to ten-fold and were mostly influenced by species, body size and, to a lesser extent, physical damage to the products. Market prices across species (averaging US$15-385 kg-1) appear to have mostly increased six- to twelve-fold over the past decade. The data allude that fisheries for Holothuria scabra, H. lessoni, H. fuscogilva, H. whitmaei and Thelenota ananas should be most carefully managed because they were the highest-value species and under greatest demand. The relationships between size of beche-de-mer and sale price were species specific and highly varied. This study also highlights the need for better regulations and/or enforcement of minimum size limits in sea cucumber fisheries, which can help to maximise economic benefits of wild stocks. PMID:24736374

  12. Collection Directions: The Evolution of Library Collections and Collecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Lorcan; Malpas, Constance; Lavoie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This article takes a broad view of the evolution of collecting behaviors in a network environment and suggests some future directions based on various simple models. The authors look at the changing dynamics of print collections, at the greater engagement with research and learning behaviors, and at trends in scholarly communication. The goal is…

  13. Collection Directions: The Evolution of Library Collections and Collecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Lorcan; Malpas, Constance; Lavoie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This article takes a broad view of the evolution of collecting behaviors in a network environment and suggests some future directions based on various simple models. The authors look at the changing dynamics of print collections, at the greater engagement with research and learning behaviors, and at trends in scholarly communication. The goal is

  14. Collection Mode Lens System

    DOEpatents

    Fletcher, Daniel A.; Kino, Gordon S.

    2002-11-05

    A lens system including a collection lens and a microlens spaced from the collection lens adjacent the region to be observed. The diameter of the observablel region depends substantially on the radius of the microlens.

  15. Guide to data collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines and recommendations are presented for the collection of software development data. Motivation and planning for, and implementation and management of, a data collection effort are discussed. Topics covered include types, sources, and availability of data; methods and costs of data collection; types of analyses supported; and warnings and suggestions based on software engineering laboratory (SEL) experiences. This document is intended as a practical guide for software managers and engineers, abstracted and generalized from 5 years of SEL data collection.

  16. Alaska Collection Development Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Barbara; And Others

    Written to guide librarians and staff in all types of libraries, this manual describes steps in the processes of writing collection development statements and assessing library collections. The first section focuses on the collection development policy--the benefits of a written policy, who should write the statement, and elements to be included.…

  17. Student Loan Collection Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    This manual on the collection of student loans is intended for the use of business officers and loan collection personnel of colleges and universities of all sizes. The introductory chapter is an overview of sound collection practices and procedures. It discusses the making of a loan, in-school servicing of the accounts, the exit interview, the…

  18. Seawater sampling and collection.

    PubMed

    Zaikova, Elena; Hawley, Alyse; Walsh, David A; Hallam, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    This video documents methods for collecting coastal marine water samples and processing them for various downstream applications including biomass concentration. nucleic acid purification, cell abundance, nutrient and trace gas analyses. For today's demonstration samples were collected from the deck of the HMS John Strickland operating in Saanich Inlet. An A-frame derrick, with a multi-purpose winch and cable system, is used in combination with Niskin or Go-Flo water sampling bottles. A Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth (CTD) sensor is also be used to sample the underlying water mass. To minimize outgassing, trace gas samples are collected first. Then, nutrients, chemistry, and cell counts are determined. Finally, waters are collected for biomass filtration. The set-up and collection time for a single cast is approximately 1.5 hours at a maximum depth of 215 meters. Therefore, a total of 6 hours is generally needed to complete the four-part collection series described here. PMID:19536065

  19. Solar energy collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An improved solar energy collection system, having enhanced energy collection and conversion capabilities, is delineated. The system is characterized by a plurality of receivers suspended above a heliostat field comprising a multiplicity of reflector surfaces, each being adapted to direct a concentrated beam of solar energy to illuminate a target surface for a given receiver. A magnitude of efficiency, suitable for effectively competing with systems employed in collecting and converting energy extracted from fossil fuels, is indicated.

  20. Collecting Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedford, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    How many beginning teachers struggle to create new lessons despite the fact that experienced teachers have already designed effective lessons for the same content? Shulman (1987) used the term "collective amnesia" to describe the failure of school leaders to design professional development that included the collection of its best practices.…

  1. Collecting Volcanic Gas Samples

    Steven Ingebritsen (lower right, in blue hat) kneels in the warm mud as he collects samples of the gases emitted from the fumaroles on the north side of Crater Rock on Mount Hood. The samples are taken back to the laboratory for an analysis of the gases' chemical composition. By routinely collecting...

  2. Collection Development Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Law Library, St. Paul.

    This collection development plan of the Minnesota State Law Library includes detailed information on policies and annotations. After an overview of the Library's collection, general policy guidelines on the following are discussed: material selection; principles of selection; exclusions; gifts; interlibrary loan; cooperation; replacements;…

  3. ARS Culture Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The internationally recognized Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Culture Collection will be described to include the microorganisms maintained by the collection, preservation methods and worldwide distribution of cultures. The impact of the germplasm will be described to include discovery of the f...

  4. Urine collection device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

  5. Weeding Your Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerby, Ramona

    2002-01-01

    Offers guidelines for weeding as part of school library collection development. Highlights include developing a weeding policy; and the CREW (Continuous Review Evaluation and Weeding) method, including reasons for weeding, scheduling, and guidelines for fiction and for nonfiction. (LRW)

  6. Vectorized garbage collection

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, A.W.; Bendiksen, A.

    1988-01-01

    Garbage collection can be done in vector mode on supercomputers like the Cray-2 and the Cyber 205. Both copying collection and mark-and-sweep can be expressed as breadth-first searches in which the queue can be processed in parallel. The authors have designed a copying garbage collector whose inner loop works entirely in vector mode. The only significant limitation of the algorithm is that if the size of the records is not constant, the implementation becomes much more complicated. The authors give performance measurements of the algorithm as implemented for Lisp CONS cells on the Cyber 205. Vector-mode garbage collection performs up to 9 times faster than scalar-mode collection.

  7. Sweat collection capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaplaine, R. W.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Capsule, with filter paper insert, is used to collect sweat for rate monitoring, chromatographic analysis, or active sweat gland location within specified area. Construction of capsule allows change of inserts while device remains strapped in place.

  8. Collecting Grab Samples

    Bill Damschen(USGS) collecting a grab sample after a rain event from the outflow pipe drain tiles, at the North Dakota Discoery Farms Embden Farm located in southeast Cass County about 8 miles south of Embden, North Dakota....

  9. Collective field accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Luce, John S.

    1978-01-01

    A collective field accelerator which operates with a vacuum diode and utilizes a grooved cathode and a dielectric anode that operates with a relativistic electron beam with a .nu./.gamma. of .about. 1, and a plurality of dielectric lenses having an axial magnetic field thereabout to focus the collectively accelerated electrons and ions which are ejected from the anode. The anode and lenses operate as unoptimized r-f cavities which modulate and focus the beam.

  10. Sweat collection capsule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Delaplaine, R. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A sweat collection capsule permitting quantitative collection of sweat is described. The device consists of a frame held immobile on the skin, a closure secured to the frame and absorbent material located next to the skin in a cavity formed by the frame and the closure. The absorbent material may be removed from the device by removing the closure from the frame while the frame is held immobile on the skin.

  11. Sparse matrix test collections

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, I.

    1996-12-31

    This workshop will discuss plans for coordinating and developing sets of test matrices for the comparison and testing of sparse linear algebra software. We will talk of plans for the next release (Release 2) of the Harwell-Boeing Collection and recent work on improving the accessibility of this Collection and others through the World Wide Web. There will only be three talks of about 15 to 20 minutes followed by a discussion from the floor.

  12. A Survey of Collectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan; Wolpert, David

    2004-01-01

    Due to the increasing sophistication and miniaturization of computational components, complex, distributed systems of interacting agents are becoming ubiquitous. Such systems, where each agent aims to optimize its own performance, but where there is a well-defined set of system-level performance criteria, are called collectives. The fundamental problem in analyzing/designing such systems is in determining how the combined actions of self-interested agents leads to 'coordinated' behavior on a iarge scale. Examples of artificial systems which exhibit such behavior include packet routing across a data network, control of an array of communication satellites, coordination of multiple deployables, and dynamic job scheduling across a distributed computer grid. Examples of natural systems include ecosystems, economies, and the organelles within a living cell. No current scientific discipline provides a thorough understanding of the relation between the structure of collectives and how well they meet their overall performance criteria. Although still very young, research on collectives has resulted in successes both in understanding and designing such systems. It is eqected that as it matures and draws upon other disciplines related to collectives, this field will greatly expand the range of computationally addressable tasks. Moreover, in addition to drawing on them, such a fully developed field of collective intelligence may provide insight into already established scientific fields, such as mechanism design, economics, game theory, and population biology. This chapter provides a survey to the emerging science of collectives.

  13. Theory of Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2003-01-01

    In this chapter an analysis of the behavior of an arbitrary (perhaps massive) collective of computational processes in terms of an associated "world" utility function is presented We concentrate on the situation where each process in the collective can be viewed as though it were striving to maximize its own private utility function. For such situations the central design issue is how to initialize/update the collective's structure, and in particular the private utility functions, so as to induce the overall collective to behave in a way that has large values of the world utility. Traditional "team game" approaches to this problem simply set each private utility function equal to the world utility function. The "Collective Intelligence" (COIN) framework is a semi-formal set of heuristics that recently have been used to construct private utility. functions that in many experiments have resulted in world utility values up to orders of magnitude superior to that ensuing from use of the team game utility. In this paper we introduce a formal mathematics for analyzing and designing collectives. We also use this mathematics to suggest new private utilities that should outperform the COIN heuristics in certain kinds of domains. In accompanying work we use that mathematics to explain previous experimental results concerning the superiority of COIN heuristics. In that accompanying work we also use the mathematics to make numerical predictions, some of which we then test. In this way these two papers establish the study of collectives as a proper science, involving theory, explanation of old experiments, prediction concerning new experiments, and engineering insights.

  14. Curating Virtual Data Collections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnes, Chris; Leon, Amanda; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram; Tsontos, Vardis; Shie, Chung-Lin; Liu, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    NASAs Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) contains a rich set of datasets and related services throughout its many elements. As a result, locating all the EOSDIS data and related resources relevant to particular science theme can be daunting. This is largely because EOSDIS data's organizing principle is affected more by the way they are produced than around the expected end use. Virtual collections oriented around science themes can overcome this by presenting collections of data and related resources that are organized around the user's interest, not around the way the data were produced. Virtual collections consist of annotated web addresses (URLs) that point to data and related resource addresses, thus avoiding the need to copy all of the relevant data to a single place. These URL addresses can be consumed by a variety of clients, ranging from basic URL downloaders (wget, curl) and web browsers to sophisticated data analysis programs such as the Integrated Data Viewer.

  15. Heat collection system

    SciTech Connect

    Ramlow, B.L.; Steele, R.R.

    1982-04-06

    A heat collection system is disclosed which is capable of collecting heat from an animal husbandry enclosures such as a dairy barn, and transferring the heat into a home. Animal husbandry enclosures, such as dairy barns, tend to have excess heat, even in winter, the excess heat normally being wasted. The heat is collected by a pair of evaporators located in the dairy barn, with the evaporators being oversized to limit the amount of cooling taking place in the barn. Fluid from the evaporators is compressed by compressors after which it passes through a condenser from which heat may be extracted into the home. Pressure regulating valves are provided to insure that the compressors are not overloaded and to insure that a maximum heating effect is achieved. A thermostatically controlled fan is provided to drive air across the condenser so that heat is introduced into the home.

  16. Quantifying collective effervescence

    PubMed Central

    Konvalinka, Ivana; Bulbulia, Joseph; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Collective rituals are ubiquitous and resilient features of all known human cultures. They are also functionally opaque, costly, and sometimes dangerous. Social scientists have speculated that collective rituals generate benefits in excess of their costs by reinforcing social bonding and group solidarity, yet quantitative evidence for these conjectures is scarce. Our recent study measured the physiological effects of a highly arousing Spanish fire-walking ritual, revealing shared patterns in heart-rate dynamics between participants and related spectators. We briefly describe our results, and consider their implications. PMID:22446541

  17. Portable data collection device

    DOEpatents

    French, P.D.

    1996-06-11

    The present invention provides a portable data collection device that has a variety of sensors that are interchangeable with a variety of input ports in the device. The various sensors include a data identification feature that provides information to the device regarding the type of physical data produced by each sensor and therefore the type of sensor itself. The data identification feature enables the device to locate the input port where the sensor is connected and self adjust when a sensor is removed or replaced. The device is able to collect physical data, whether or not a function of a time. 7 figs.

  18. Portable data collection device

    DOEpatents

    French, Patrick D.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a portable data collection device that has a variety of sensors that are interchangeable with a variety of input ports in the device. The various sensors include a data identification feature that provides information to the device regarding the type of physical data produced by each sensor and therefore the type of sensor itself. The data identification feature enables the device to locate the input port where the sensor is connected and self adjust when a sensor is removed or replaced. The device is able to collect physical data, whether or not a function of a time.

  19. Teachers and Collective Bargaining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Donald B.

    The current structure of schools allows teachers to obtain a relatively high degree of personal satisfaction from the work of teaching itself. However, collective bargaining must be concerned almost exclusively with pressing for higher salaries and related issues. With each round of bargaining, higher teacher salaries will be gradually traded off…

  20. Test Collection Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Eleanor V., Ed.

    1971-01-01

    This bulletin contains annotated bibliographies of new acquisitions, test announcements received, and new references. Additional information ranges from news concerning the special Head Start Test Collection, and a listing of 1971-1972 testing programs, to test review publications, tests no longer available, new publishers and new addresses, and…

  1. Surface reference data collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Applications of remote sensing must define relationships between image data and conditions at corresponding points on the ground. Unfortunately, many published remote sensing reports focus on image processing techniques with little detail regarding the methods used for collecting ground truth data....

  2. Television's New Humane Collectivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrag, Robert L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes "Taxi,""Barney Miller,""Lou Grant," and "M*A*S*H" in terms of three fantasy themes: the realization of significant others, the alliance in action, and membership into personhood. From these themes emerges a rhetorical vision of the new humane collectivity. (PD)

  3. Research using biocultural collections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this article is to provide a sampling of the wide breadth of research conducted with biocultural collections. Because of its breadth it is clearly not comprehensive, but rather a sampling simply meant to illustrate the variation and depth of the field and to illustrate reasons why it ...

  4. Genealogy Collection III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Libraries, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Identified and discussed are little known Illinois collections of ethnic and religious records valuable for genealogical research. Holdings and sources are described as well as problems in researching specific ethnic or religious groups. European, African, and religious immigrants' records are highlighted. (EA)

  5. Federal Library Research Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Mildred; Welsh, William J.

    1970-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the 676 page report entitled A Study of Resources and Major Subject Holdings Available in U. S. Federal Libraries Maintaining Extensive or Unique Collections of Research Materials." the report is available, and is cited in Research in Education (RIE) under LI 002 141. (MF).

  6. The Pyramid Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Gary

    2004-01-01

    In this article the author presents readers with some very useful activities, ideas and problems. He has used these at various times over the years and together they make a very interesting collection. These pieces have come together from different sources, but like a jigsaw, they complete the picture of understanding of the numbers inside the…

  7. Reference Collection Development Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ., Kearney.

    The purpose of this policy is to outline those principles that guide the development of the Reference Collection at the Calvin T. Ryan Library, University of Nebraska at Kearney. It clarifies, records, and makes public the basic principles that the members of the Reference Department believe should be applied in adding items to or withdrawing…

  8. Authentic Assessment: A Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Kay, Ed.

    The essays in this collection consider the meaning of authentic assessment and the implications of its use. "Section 1: Assessing Assessment" includes the following essays: (1) "The Nation's Report Card Goes Home: Good News and Bad about Trends in Achievement" (Robert L. Linn and Stephen B. Dunbar); (2) "Budgets, Politics, and Testing" (Chris…

  9. Cooperative Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulos, Angela

    Cooperative collection development is discussed as a method of coping with rising prices for expensive and little used library materials. The experiences of institutions which have had success in overcoming difficulties associated with cooperative ventures are presented, and a program of 12 recommendations is suggested. Twenty references are…

  10. Collecting Water Nutrient Data

    A Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources scientist collects water quality data to better understand nutrients' role in the overabundance of duckweed and algae.  Too much nitrogen and phosphorus in water could lead to an overgrowth of free-floating plants such as duckweed and filamentous alg...

  11. Photographic Collections Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Joanna

    1994-01-01

    Provides information to help historical organizations, archives, and libraries organize, evaluate, and preserve photographic records. Discusses the identification and dating of photographic processes, motion picture film, videotape, and enclosures; reviews storage environments, collection policies, appraisal and access issues; and presents a list…

  12. Universities and Collective Bargaining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Donald C.

    1994-01-01

    Responds to David Cameron's "More than an Academic Question" and to the review by Barbara Anderson disagreeing with Cameron's suggestion that democratization and decentralization were a mistake, and arguing for collective bargaining. The paper counters Cameron's support of the continuation of mandatory retirement with reference to the United…

  13. Recommendations for Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesley, Threasa L.; Bratcher, Perry

    This document reports the work and conclusions of a task force appointed to plan for the reorganization of collection development at Steely Library, a primarily undergraduate library with 13 professional librarians on its staff located at Northern Kentucky University (NKU). Task force activities included a thorough review of the relevant…

  14. Deterritorializing Collective Biography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, Susanne; Walsh, Susan; Byers, Michele; Rajiva, Mythili

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new move in the methodological practice of collective biography, by provoking a shift beyond any remnant attachment to the speaking/writing subject towards her dispersal and displacement via textual interventions that stress multivocality. These include the use of photographs, drama, and various genres of writing. Using a…

  15. Collection Access Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiste, David A.

    Focusing on cataloging operations contingent upon public catalog usage, this article identifies necessary components of a collection access policy, discusses representative samples of policies that can be adapted to individual library practices, and provides guidelines for the development and implementation of a statement useful for planning…

  16. Rock Collection in Montana

    Rocks are collected from the Stillwater Mine in Nye, Montana to be used for making lunar regolith simulant. __________ The USGS has created man-made moon dirt, or regolith, to help NASA prepare for upcoming moon explorations. Four tons of the simulant is expected to be made by this summer of 2009 ...

  17. The Fall Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDeman, Barry A.

    1984-01-01

    Presents ideas for collecting objects on the school grounds or in the surrounding neighborhood. Objects include feathers/fur, leaves, galls, seeds, shells, spiderwebs, and litter. Also presents procedures for making impressions of bark, leaves, fossils, flora, and shadows. All activities can be adopted for students in kindergarten through grade…

  18. Collection Maintenance and Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Sherry

    This resource guide provides information about the range of activities that can be implemented to maintain and improve the condition of research collections to ensure that they remain usable as long as possible. After an introduction that describes the major activities and a review of an investigation process that gives an overview of good

  19. A DIY Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Jenna

    2006-01-01

    Chris Dodge, a renowned alternative pressologist and the librarian at "Utne" magazine, has been known to say, "Every library should be a special library." In order to meet this challenge, the librarians at Barnard College decided to start a collection of underground publications known as zines. In this article, the author describes how librarians…

  20. Collection Development Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dole, Wanda V.; And Others

    This document is an overall policy statement for library collection development for the State University of New York at Stony Brook. Part 1 comprises the library mission statement and a list of ongoing objectives. The second part provides some background information about the university environment and campus libraries. It also gives instructions…

  1. Career Materials Collection List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for Academic and Career Education, Pendleton, SC.

    This publication lists 76 career materials in the Partnership for Academic and Career Education (PACE) collection that are available for loan to interested teachers, counselors, and others in Anderson, Oconee, and Pickens Counties, South Carolina, schools. The list cites 40 books, 7 videos, 12 periodicals or other professionally developed…

  2. Microcomputer Software Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demas, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    Presents overview of special considerations in developing microcomputer software collections, review of standardized cataloging practices, and discussion of problems of selection and acquisition of software. Policies governing loan procedures for microcomputer software which involve four types of copy protection (patent, trade secret, contract,…

  3. Cloacal Swab Collection

    Bird Banding Station - Master bird bander, David Mitchell, collects a cloacal swab sample from a gray catbird during a capture-recapture study at a Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program bird banding station. The sample will be tested for avian influenza and other diseases....

  4. Quick Fixes: Collection Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabb, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    The Do It Yourself (DIY) section is an essential and well-used part of the public library's collection and must be kept up-to-date to remain valuable, since tools, materials, and building codes are always changing. Current economic decline has increased the topic's popularity as homeowners choose to remodel rather than buy, or attempt to make…

  5. Digital Collections Inventory Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClung, Patricia A.

    This report is intended to inform and stimulate discussion on digital library programs as well as the potential usefulness, scope, and desired features of future inventories of online digital collections. It describes a joint project by the Commission on Preservation and Access and the Council on Library Resources to determine the extent to which…

  6. Collection Management, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wortman, William A.

    1987-01-01

    The 1986 literature on collection management is reviewed under six major headings: (1) general overview; (2) materials; (3) kinds of users and libraries; (4) evaluation and cooperation; (5) selection, acquisitions, and allocation; and (6) access, weeding, and preservation. A list of 251 references is provided. (MES)

  7. 78 FR 7463 - Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA... to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as... INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional information or copies of the information collection...

  8. 78 FR 7463 - Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA... to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as...: Requests for additional information or copies of the information collection instrument(s) and...

  9. 76 FR 55742 - Proposed Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION... to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as... approved collection. Affected Public: Business or other for-profit organizations. Estimated Number...

  10. Collective network routing

    DOEpatents

    Hoenicke, Dirk

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a unified method and apparatus to classify, route, and process injected data packets into a network so as to belong to a plurality of logical networks, each implementing a specific flow of data on top of a common physical network. The method allows to locally identify collectives of packets for local processing, such as the computation of the sum, difference, maximum, minimum, or other logical operations among the identified packet collective. Packets are injected together with a class-attribute and an opcode attribute. Network routers, employing the described method, use the packet attributes to look-up the class-specific route information from a local route table, which contains the local incoming and outgoing directions as part of the specifically implemented global data flow of the particular virtual network.

  11. Collecting rare diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ekins, Sean

    2014-01-01

    This editorial introduces the F1000Research rare disease collection. It is common knowledge that for new treatments to be successful there has to be a partnership between the many interested parties such as the patient, advocate, disease foundations, the academic scientists, venture funding organizations, biotech companies, pharmaceutical companies, NIH, and the FDA. Our intention is to provide a forum for discussion and dissemination of any rare disease related topics that will advance scientific understanding and progress to treatments. PMID:25580231

  12. Collection Development Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    2005-01-01

    If someone has something to say, they have never had it so good. People can get their word out by posting to a blog, by editing a wiki or a web site, or even by using cost-effective print-on-demand book production services. In other words, collection development librarians now live in a world of hurt. All these methods, as well as a number of…

  13. 77 FR 34461 - Agency Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Internal Revenue Service Agency Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection AGENCY: Internal... information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506... income under Code section 108. The collection of information is required for a taxpayer to elect...

  14. 76 FR 72505 - Agency Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... Internal Revenue Service Agency Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection AGENCY: Internal... information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506... this existing regulation. Type of Review: Extension of a currently approved collection. Affected...

  15. 77 FR 25501 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... BOARD Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection... extension of an Information Collection Request (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Before... proposed information collection as described below. DATES: Written comments must be received on or...

  16. 77 FR 71640 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-03

    ... BOARD Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection... a revised information collection from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under the Paperwork... before February 1, 2013. ADDRESSES: Submit written comments on the collection of information to William...

  17. 76 FR 74812 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request New Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... criminal justice statistics. No other collection series provides these data. (5) An estimate of the total... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment...

  18. Collective Intelligence. Chapter 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2003-01-01

    Many systems of self-interested agents have an associated performance criterion that rates the dynamic behavior of the overall system. This chapter presents an introduction to the science of such systems. Formally, collectives are defined as any system having the following two characteristics: First, the system must contain one or more agents each of which we view as trying to maximize an associated private utility; second, the system must have an associated world utility function that rates the possible behaviors of that overall system. In practice, collectives are often very large, distributed, and support little, if any, centralized communication and control, although those characteristics are not part of their formal definition. A naturally occurring example of a collective is a human economy. One can identify the agents and their private utilities as the human individuals in the economy and the associated personal rewards they are each trying to maximize. One could then identify the world utility as the time average of the gross domestic product. ("World utility" per se is not a construction internal to a human economy, but rather something defined from the outside.) To achieve high world utility it is necessary to avoid having the agents work at cross-purposes lest phenomena like liquidity traps or the Tragedy of the Commons (TOC) occur, in which agents' individually pursuing their private utilities lowers world utility. The obvious way to avoid such phenomena is by modifying the agents utility functions to be "aligned" with the world utility. This can be done via punitive legislation. A real-world example of an attempt to do this was the creation of antitrust regulations designed to prevent monopolistic practices.

  19. 75 FR 68956 - Debt Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ...The Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) is issuing an interim final rule with request for comments on Debt Collection. The interim final rule sets forth procedures for use by FHFA in collecting debts owed to the Federal Government. Agencies are required by law to issue a regulation on their debt collection procedures. The interim final rule includes procedures for collection of debts through......

  20. Portable liquid collection electrostatic precipitator

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Duane C.; DeGange, John J.; Halverson, Justin E.

    2005-10-18

    A portable liquid collection electrostatic collection precipitator for analyzing air is provided which is a relatively small, self-contained device. The device has a tubular collection electrode, a reservoir for a liquid, and a pump. The pump pumps the liquid into the collection electrode such that the liquid flows down the exterior of the collection electrode and is recirculated to the reservoir. An air intake is provided such that air to be analyzed flows through an ionization section to ionize analytes in the air, and then flows near the collection electrode where ionized analytes are collected. A portable power source is connected to the air intake and the collection electrode. Ionizable constituents in the air are ionized, attracted to the collection electrode, and precipitated in the liquid. The precipitator may also have an analyzer for the liquid and may have a transceiver allowing remote operation and data collection.

  1. 77 FR 6573 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Collection of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Collection of Qualitative Feedback Through Focus Groups AGENCY: U.S. Citizenship... Government-wide effort to streamline the process to seek feedback from the public on service delivery, the... Generic Information Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Collection of Qualitative Feedback through...

  2. Modeling collective cell motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    Eukaryotic cells often move in groups, a critical aspect of many biological and medical processes including wound healing, morphogenesis and cancer metastasis. Modeling can provide useful insights into the fundamental mechanisms of collective cell motility. Constructing models that incorporate the physical properties of the cells, however, is challenging. Here, I discuss our efforts to build a comprehensive cell motility model that includes cell membrane properties, cell-substrate interactions, cell polarity, and cell-cell interaction. The model will be applied to a variety of systems, including motion on micropatterned substrates and the migration of border cells in Drosophila. This work was supported by NIH Grant No. P01 GM078586 and NSF Grant No. 1068869.

  3. Solar energy collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephens, J. B. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A fixed, linear, ground-based primary reflector having an extended curved sawtooth-contoured surface covered with a metalized polymeric reflecting material, reflects solar energy to a movably supported collector that is kept at the concentrated line focus reflector primary. The primary reflector may be constructed by a process utilizing well known freeway paving machinery. The solar energy absorber is preferably a fluid transporting pipe. Efficient utilization leading to high temperatures from the reflected solar energy is obtained by cylindrical shaped secondary reflectors that direct off-angle energy to the absorber pipe. A seriatim arrangement of cylindrical secondary reflector stages and spot-forming reflector stages produces a high temperature solar energy collection system of greater efficiency.

  4. 75 FR 18551 - Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... in the Federal Register (66 FR 46739) implementing certain of these statutory amendments. The rule... Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: National Science Foundation... proposed information collection. DATES: Written comments on this notice must be received by June 11,...

  5. Microcomputer Software in Library Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paskoff, Beth M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes issues relating to the introduction of microcomputer software into library collections. Topics discussed include collection development policies; selection criteria; library publications that review software; cataloging and classification; storage; circulation policies; copyright protection, including ownership and copying; and future…

  6. Waste collection subsystem study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Practical ways were explored of improving waste compaction and of providing rapid turnaround between flights at essentially no cost for the space shuttle waste collection subsystem commode. Because of the possible application of a fully developed shuttle commode to the space station, means of providing waste treatment without overboard venting were also considered. Three basic schemes for compaction and rapid turnaround, each fully capable of meeting the objectives, were explored in sufficient depth to bring out the characteristic advantages and disadvantages of each. Tradeoff comparisons were very close between leading contenders and efforts were made to refine the design concepts sufficiently to justify a selection. The concept selected makes use of a sealed canister containing wastes that have been forcibly compacted, which is removable in flight. No selection was made between three superior non-venting treatment methods owing to the need for experimental evaluations of the processes involved. A system requirements definition document has been prepared to define the task for a test embodiment of the selected concept.

  7. [Collective Bargaining in Junior Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankin, Joseph N.; Angell, G. W.

    Two papers comprise this document: "Alternatives to Collective Bargaining" and "Collective Bargaining in Two-Year Colleges: Problems and Trends." The first paper, by Joseph N. Hankin, presents the thesis that there is no alternative to collective bargaining but that attention should be focused instead on who represents the faculty on which issues.…

  8. What Will Collection Developers Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckland, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Discusses changes in the role of collection development staff based upon emerging library networking technologies. Addresses the role of library collections, book selection theories, and networked electronic resources in library collection development. Presents eight ways networked resources will change the procedures of library collection…

  9. Managing University Research Microdata Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfrey, Lynn; Fry, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the management of microdata collections in a university context. It is a cross-country analysis: Collection management at data services in Canada and South Africa are considered. The case studies are of two university sub-contexts: One collection is located in a library; the other at a Faculty-based Data Service. Stages in…

  10. Houston Cole Library Collection Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, William Abbot, Ed.; McAbee, Sonja L., Ed.

    This document reports on an assessment of the Jacksonville State University's Houston Cole Library collection that employed a variety of methodologies and tools, including list-checking, direct collection examination, shelflist measurement and analysis, WLN (Washington Library Network) conspectus sheets, analysis of OCLC/AMIGOS Collection Analysis…

  11. The ARL Special Collections Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Joe A.; Panitch, Judith M.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) activities regarding special collections. Highlights include local and collaborative approaches; budget pressures; access to special collections; digitization programs; recruiting qualified staff; results of a survey of ARL special collections; and the need for ongoing statistics for special…

  12. Gesammelte Werke / Collected Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzschild, Karl; Voigt, Hans-Heinrich

    Der bekannte Astronom Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916) gilt als der Begründer der Astrophysik und als hervorragender Forscher mit einer erstaunlichen Bandbreite seiner Interessen. Arbeiten zur Himmelsmechanik, Elektrodynamik und Relativitätstheorie weisen ihn als vorzüglichen Mathematiker und Physiker auf der Höhe seiner Zeit aus. Untersuchungen zur Photographischen Photometrie, Optik und Spektroskopie zeigen den versierten Beobachter, der sein Meßinstrumentarium beherrscht, und schließlich arbeitete Schwarzschild als Astrophysiker an Sternatmosphären, Kometen, Struktur und Dynamik von Sternsystemen. Die in seinem kurzen Leben entstandene Fülle an wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten ist in drei Bänden der Gesamtausgabe gesammelt, ergänzt durch biographisches Material, Annotationen von Fachleuten und einen Essay des Nobelpreisträgers S. Chandrasekhar. The well-known astronomer Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916) is regarded as the founder of astrophysics and as an exceptionally talented researcher whose interests spanned a remarkably broad spectrum. His work on celestial mechanics, electrodynamics, and relativity theory demonstrates his great abilities as a mathematician and physicist who significantly influenced the science of his times. His investigations of photographic photometry, optics, and spectroscopy display his strengths as an observer who knew his instruments. But above all Schwarzschild pursued questions of astrophysics, addressing in particular stellar atmospheres, comets, and the structure and dynamics of stellar systems. The host of scientific works that he authored in his short life is now collected in the form of this three-volume complete works; it is supplemented by biographical material, notes from some of todays experts, and an essay by the Nobel Laureate S. Chandrasekhar.

  13. 78 FR 54482 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Collection of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Collection of Information on Claims of U.S. Nationals Referred to the Commission by the Department of State Pursuant to the International Claims Settlement Act of 1949,...

  14. Current Collection from Space Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra (Editor); Wright, K. H., Jr. (Editor); Stone, Nobie H. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The First Workshop on Current Collection from Space Plasmas was held at the Tom Bevil Center on the campus of The University of Alabama in Huntsville on April 24 to 25, 1989. The intent of the workshop was to assemble experts on various topics related to the problem of current collection for deliberations that would elucidate the present understanding of the overall current collection problem. Papers presented at the workshop are presented.

  15. Transmitter data collection using Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conroy, B. L.

    1988-01-01

    A data collection system installed on the 400 kilowatt X-band transmitter of the Goldstone Solar System Radar is described. The data collection system is built around the off-the-shelf IEEE 488 instrumentation, linked with fiber optics, controlled by an inexpensive computer, and uses software written in the Ada language. The speed and accuracy of the system is discussed, along with programming techniques used for both data collection and reduction.

  16. 77 FR 46527 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... April 30, 2012, MSPB sought public comments on this ICR pursuant to 5 CFR 1320.8(d). See 77 FR 25501... describes the nature of the information collection and its estimated burden and cost. DATE: Submit written... and recordkeeping burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 0.50 hours...

  17. The Ames Library: A Model for Collection Integration Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Julia B.; George, Sarah E.

    2005-01-01

    Illinois Wesleyan University's Ames Library opened in January 2002. The vision for this library focused on creating a user-centered arrangement of information regardless of format. Much of the library's collection was integrated during the move to the new building; however, several discrete collections remain separate. This article will discuss…

  18. 78 FR 20142 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Appeal Form 185 On December 3, 2012, MSPB published a 60-day notice in the Federal Register (77 FR 71640... BOARD Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection.... 3506 and 3507), the Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB or Board) announces that an...

  19. 77 FR 20820 - Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... collection project: ``Synthesis of AHRQ-Funded HAI Projects.'' In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act....hhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Proposed Project Synthesis of AHRQ-Funded HAI Projects The Agency...) approve, under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, AHRQ's collection of information for the Synthesis...

  20. 75 FR 22863 - Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... BUDGET Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Office of Management and Budget, Office of Federal Financial Management. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY... Budget (OMB) invites the general public and Federal agencies to comment on the renewal without change...

  1. On the psychodynamics of collecting.

    PubMed

    Subkowski, Peter

    2006-04-01

    The urge to collect is a ubiquitous phenomenon which has anthropological, sociobiological and individual psychodynamic roots, but occurs far more frequently among men than women. The author examines the reasons for this gender difference and defines systematic collecting to distinguish it from addictive, obsessive and messy collecting, and from related phenomena such as perversion. The mode of collecting and choice of object are important indicators as to the unconscious psychodynamics of a collector and offer opportunity to describe his structural level. Collecting ranges across a broad spectrum, from an ego-syntonic integrated mode, i.e. sublimation, to a neurotic defence against pre-oedipal or oedipal traumas and conflicts. Alongside this drive-theoretical approach, object and Kleinian theory are also applied to the understanding of collecting. Collecting represents a specific form of object relating and way of handling primary loss trauma, which is different from addiction, compulsion, or perversion. Under certain circumstances collecting can also result in a successful Gestalt or way of life. The paper concludes with a case study showing how collecting develops from a pre-oedipal to a more integrated oedipal mode during the course of the analysis, which is reflected in changes in the transference. PMID:16581582

  2. Tritium monitor and collection system

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, G.L.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Ely, W.E.; Tuggle, D.G.; Grafwallner, E.G.; Wickham, K.L.; Maltrud, H.R.; Baker, J.D.

    1992-01-14

    This system measures tritium on-line and collects tritium from a flowing inert gas stream. It separates the tritium from other non-hydrogen isotope contaminating gases, whether radioactive or not. The collecting portion of the system is constructed of various zirconium alloys called getters. These alloys adsorb tritium in any of its forms at one temperature and at a higher temperature release it as a gas. The system consists of four on-line getters and heaters, two ion chamber detectors, two collection getters, and two guard getters. When the incoming gas stream is valved through the on-line getters, 99.9% of it is adsorbed and the remainder continues to the guard getter where traces of tritium not collected earlier are adsorbed. The inert gas stream then exits the system to the decay chamber. Once the on-line getter has collected tritium for a predetermined time, it is valved off and the next on-line getter is valved on. Simultaneously, the first getter is heated and a pure helium purge is employed to carry the tritium from the getter. The tritium loaded gas stream is then routed through an ion chamber which measures the tritium activity. The ion chamber effluent passes through a collection getter that readsorbs the tritium and is removable from the system once it is loaded and is then replaced with a clean getter. Prior to removal of the collection getter, the system switches to a parallel collection getter. The effluent from the collection getter passes through a guard getter to remove traces of tritium prior to exiting the system. The tritium loaded collection getter, once removed, is analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques. The entire sequence is under computer control except for the removal and analysis of the collection getter. 7 figs.

  3. Tritium monitor and collection system

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, Gary L.; Meikrantz, David H.; Ely, Walter E.; Tuggle, Dale G.; Grafwallner, Ervin G.; Wickham, Keith L.; Maltrud, Herman R.; Baker, John D.

    1992-01-01

    This system measures tritium on-line and collects tritium from a flowing inert gas stream. It separates the tritium from other non-hydrogen isotope contaminating gases, whether radioactive or not. The collecting portion of the system is constructed of various zirconium alloys called getters. These alloys adsorb tritium in any of its forms at one temperature and at a higher temperature release it as a gas. The system consists of four on-line getters and heaters, two ion chamber detectors, two collection getters, and two guard getters. When the incoming gas stream is valved through the on-line getters, 99.9% of it is adsorbed and the remainder continues to the guard getter where traces of tritium not collected earlier are adsorbed. The inert gas stream then exits the system to the decay chamber. Once the on-line getter has collected tritium for a predetermined time, it is valved off and the next on-line getter is valved on. Simultaneously, the first getter is heated and a pure helium purge is employed to carry the tritium from the getter. The tritium loaded gas stream is then routed through an ion chamber which measures the tritium activity. The ion chamber effluent passes through a collection getter that readsorbs the tritium and is removable from the system once it is loaded and is then replaced with a clean getter. Prior to removal of the collection getter, the system switches to a parallel collection getter. The effluent from the collection getter passes through a guard getter to remove traces of tritium prior to exiting the system. The tritium loaded collection getter, once removed, is analyzed by liquid scintillation techniques. The entire sequence is under computer control except for the removal and analysis of the collection getter.

  4. Fundamentals of Managing Reference Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Whether a library's reference collection is large or small, it needs constant attention. Singer's book offers information and insight on best practices for reference collection management, no matter the size, and shows why managing without a plan is a recipe for clutter and confusion. In this very practical guide, reference librarians will learn:

  5. Collective neutrino oscillations in supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Huaiyu

    2014-06-24

    In a dense neutrino medium neutrinos can experience collective flavor transformation through the neutrino-neutrino forward scattering. In this talk we present some basic features of collective neutrino flavor transformation in the context in core-collapse supernovae. We also give some qualitative arguments for why and when this interesting phenomenon may occur and how it may affect supernova nucleosynthesis.

  6. Improving potato germplasm collecting technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is ample advice about the best way to sample genetic diversity in a wild population. But the practical limitation is often the fact that sufficient collectable propagules are not available. In the case of potato collecting in the USA, this limitation is manifest in at least three important way...

  7. Folk Heritage Collections in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Library and Information Resources, Washington, DC.

    The American Folklore Society and the American Folklife Center at the Library of Congress collaborated on a conference, "Folk Heritage Collections in Crisis," held on December 1-2, 2000, and gathered experts to formulate recommendations for the preservation and access of America's folk heritage sound collections. To facilitate informed discussion…

  8. Wide band data collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkiewicz, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The Incorporated Research Institutes for Seismology (IRIS) approached NASA Headquarters in 1986 about the need to collect data daily from seismic stations around the world as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. A typical IRIS Seismic Station generates 16 Megabytes of data per day when there is seismic activity. The Preliminary Design Parameters of the Wide Band Data Collection System are summarized.

  9. Fundamentals of Managing Reference Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Whether a library's reference collection is large or small, it needs constant attention. Singer's book offers information and insight on best practices for reference collection management, no matter the size, and shows why managing without a plan is a recipe for clutter and confusion. In this very practical guide, reference librarians will learn:…

  10. INFORMATION COLLECTION RULE INFORMATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:The Information Collection Rule (ICR) Information System was developed to store and distribute the information collected in the ICR for DBPs and microbiological research. It is a research database. The information system consists of our parts: laboratory...

  11. Developing Collections to Empower Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Sue C.

    2014-01-01

    "Developing Collections to Empower Learners" examines collection development in the context of today's shifts toward digital resources while emphasizing the foundational beliefs of the school library profession. Writer Sue Kimmel includes practical advice about needs assessment, planning, selection, acquisitions, evaluation, and…

  12. Decisions about Data Collection Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, Eugene A.

    "Pure" academic research rules on data collection do not apply directly to operations research (OR). OR data collection should be viewed in terms of objective, cost, and effectiveness. For the model formulation objective, proper data strategies emphasize multiple views of the operating system to identify the "relatednesses" to be depicted. For the…

  13. Modelling fuel consumption in kerbside source segregated food waste collection: separate collection and co-collection.

    PubMed

    Chu, T W; Heaven, S; Gredmaier, L

    2015-01-01

    Source separated food waste is a valuable feedstock for renewable energy production through anaerobic digestion, and a variety of collection schemes for this material have recently been introduced. The aim of this study was to identify options that maximize collection efficiency and reduce fuel consumption as part of the overall energy balance. A mechanistic model was developed to calculate the fuel consumption of kerbside collection of source segregated food waste, co-mingled dry recyclables and residual waste. A hypothetical city of 20,000 households was considered and nine scenarios were tested with different combinations of collection frequencies, vehicle types and waste types. The results showed that the potential fuel savings from weekly and fortnightly co-collection of household waste range from 7.4% to 22.4% and 1.8% to 26.6%, respectively, when compared to separate collection. A compartmentalized vehicle split 30:70 always performed better than one with two compartments of equal size. Weekly food waste collection with alternate weekly collection of the recyclables and residual waste by two-compartment collection vehicles was the best option to reduce the overall fuel consumption. PMID:25363802

  14. Ways to maximize effective collections.

    PubMed

    Spears, Tracy L

    2009-01-01

    Medical practices across the country face a variety of collection challenges, especially when considering the condition of today's economy. It is now more important than ever for a practice to establish proactive collection procedures and learn the keys to minimizing collection problems. This starts with educating patients about your payment terms prior to appointments and educating your staff to be aware of early warning signs when an account could become a problem. Taking steps that lead to quick resolution, while retaining patients, is a vital component to increased cash flow and fewer aging accounts in receivables. Careful review of your practice's policies on billing and collections can lead to a greater knowledge on how healthy the practice really is. This article provides key strategies that will help streamline your billing and collections process and recover money owed to you while maintaining those ever so important patient relationships. PMID:19663368

  15. Leadership, collective personality, and performance.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, David A; Jones, Lisa M

    2005-05-01

    By viewing behavior regularities at the individual and collective level as functionally isomorphic, a referent-shift compositional model for the Big 5 personality dimensions is developed. On the basis of this compositional model, a common measure of Big 5 personality at the individual level is applied to the collective as a whole. Within this framework, it is also hypothesized that leadership (i.e., transformational, transactional, and passive) would predict collective personality and that collective personality would be significantly related to collective performance. The results supported these hypotheses using a sample of franchised units. On the basis of recent research at the individual level, several interactions among the various personality dimensions were hypothesized and supported. Implications are discussed. PMID:15910146

  16. Collective network for computer structures

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A; Coteus, Paul W; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Giampapa, Mark E; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Takken, Todd E; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D; Vranas, Pavlos M

    2014-01-07

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global collective communications among interconnected processing nodes. The global collective network optimally enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices are included that interconnect the nodes of the network via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual network. The global collective network may be configured to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner. When implemented in a massively-parallel supercomputing structure, the global collective network is physically and logically partitionable according to the needs of a processing algorithm.

  17. Collective network for computer structures

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Coteus, Paul W.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Takken, Todd E.; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2011-08-16

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global collective communications among interconnected processing nodes. The global collective network optimally enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices ate included that interconnect the nodes of the network via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual network and class structures. The global collective network may be configured to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner. When implemented in a massively-parallel supercomputing structure, the global collective network is physically and logically partitionable according to needs of a processing algorithm.

  18. Utilization of tall goldenrod by the tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the production of overwintering adults and as a possible winter food source

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), nymphs and adults were collected from tall goldenrod, Solidago canadensis L. var. scabra Torr. and Gray, in Washington County, MS during October and November 2008 and 2009. Adults were dissected to determine their reproductive status in o...

  19. 78 FR 28848 - Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ...) Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture Comparative Database.'' In accordance with the Paperwork... for Healthcare Research and Quality's (AHRQ) Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture Comparative... 1995, AHRQ's collection of information for the AHRQ Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture...

  20. 77 FR 21980 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Existing Collection; Reinstatement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY... Employment Opportunity Commission. ACTION: Notice of Information Collection--Reinstatement Without Change... Act, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC or Commission) announces that it submitted...

  1. [Effect of dust deposition collection methods on collection efficiency].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng-Cai; Dong, Zhi-Bao

    2013-02-01

    There are lots of dust deposition collection methods on dust deposition, but there is no standard field observation method. At present, researchers have studied dust deposition using different methods in this issue, but due to the different observation method and collection efficiency, the research results are incomparable. The efficiency of the standard dust deposition gauge including dry, wet, net, net and glass ball and slowing speed methods was studied in the Tengger Desert. The amount of the dry method collected material was only about 5% to 62% of the wet method, the net method was only about 43% to 89% of the wet method, the net and glass ball method was only about 40% to 80% of the wet method. Wind speed obviously affected the dust deposition efficiency in all observation methods, the dust deposition efficiency decreased with increasing wind speed when the wind speed was smaller than 2.5 m.s-1, but the dust deposition efficiency had no clear trend with wind speed when the wind speed was larger than 2.5 m.s-1. The particle size of collected material by wet method was the smallest, followed by the slowing speed method, the net and glass ball method, the wet method and the dry method. There are relationships between the averaged wind speed, the averaged larger than 5 m.s-1 wind speed and the amount of dust deposition collected by the wet and the slowing speed methods, which can be expressed as exponential function. There are also linear relationships between the amount of collected material by the wet and dry, net, net and glass ball and slowing speed methods. The wet method is the best dust deposition collecting method, followed by the slow wind speed method. Therefore, in the arid and semi-arid regions, the slowing wind speed method can be used to replace the wet method to collect dust deposition. PMID:23668115

  2. Growing Mathematical Understanding through Collective Image Making, Collective Image Having, and Collective Property Noticing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Lyndon C.; Towers, Jo

    2015-01-01

    In the research reported in this paper, we develop a theoretical perspective to describe and account for the growth of collective mathematical understanding. We discuss collective processes in mathematics, drawing in particular on theoretical work in the domains of improvisational jazz and theatre. Using examples of data from a study of elementary…

  3. Collection Directions: Some Reflections on the Future of Library Collections and Collecting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Lorcan; Malpas, Constance; Lavoie, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This article takes a broad view of the evolution of collecting behaviors in a network environment and suggests some future directions based on various simple models. The authors look at the changing dynamics of print collections, at the greater engagement with research and learning behaviors, and at trends in scholarly communication. The goal is…

  4. Schistosomiasis collection at NHM (SCAN)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Natural History Museum (NHM) is developing a repository for schistosomiasis-related material, the Schistosomiasis Collection at NHM (SCAN) as part of its existing Wolfson Wellcome Biomedical Laboratory (WWBL). This is timely because a major research and evaluation effort to understand control and move towards elimination of schistosomiasis in Africa has been initiated by the Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE), resulting in the collection of many important biological samples, including larval schistosomes and snails. SCAN will collaborate with a number of research groups and control teams and the repository will acquire samples relevant to both immediate and future research interest. The samples collected through ongoing research and field activities, WWBL’s existing collections, and other acquisitions will be maintained over the long term and made available to the global research community for approved research purposes. Goals include: · Consolidation of the existing NHM schistosome and snail collections and transfer of specimens into suitable long-term storage systems for DNA retrieval, · Long-term and stable storage of specimens collected as part of on going field programmes initially in Africa especially relating to the SCORE research programmes, · Provision of access to snail and schistosome collections for approved research activities. PMID:22943137

  5. The ecology of collective behavior.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Deborah M

    2014-03-01

    Similar patterns of interaction, such as network motifs and feedback loops, are used in many natural collective processes, probably because they have evolved independently under similar pressures. Here I consider how three environmental constraints may shape the evolution of collective behavior: the patchiness of resources, the operating costs of maintaining the interaction network that produces collective behavior, and the threat of rupture of the network. The ants are a large and successful taxon that have evolved in very diverse environments. Examples from ants provide a starting point for examining more generally the fit between the particular pattern of interaction that regulates activity, and the environment in which it functions. PMID:24618695

  6. eDPS Aerosol Collection

    SciTech Connect

    Venzie, J.

    2015-10-13

    The eDPS Aerosol Collection project studies the fundamental physics of electrostatic aerosol collection for national security applications. The interpretation of aerosol data requires understanding and correcting for biases introduced from particle genesis through collection and analysis. The research and development undertaken in this project provides the basis for both the statistical correction of existing equipment and techniques; as well as, the development of new collectors and analytical techniques designed to minimize unwanted biases while improving the efficiency of locating and measuring individual particles of interest.

  7. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) collection

    MedlinePlus

    ... guide the needle into position. This is called fluoroscopy. Lumbar puncture with fluid collection may also be ... the brain stem. It is always done with fluoroscopy. Ventricular puncture may be recommended in people with ...

  8. Legal Aspects of Collective Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobakin, V. K.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the operating principals and history of the United Nations Security Council. Examines the concept of collective security and the means by which it is pursued. Concludes by listing a four-point doctrine designed to increase international security. (JDH)

  9. Collectis automated boar collection technology.

    PubMed

    Aneas, S Barrabes; Gary, B G; Bouvier, B P

    2008-11-01

    The challenge of employee management, the difficulty to find adequate labor, and constant pressure on production costs, have been major challenges for boar stud managers worldwide. Since the early 1990s, equipment suppliers have been offering multiple solutions for automation for semen collection and processing. Most of these have centered around the laboratory, but a few have addressed semen collection, as it is one of the more labor-intensive aspects of a boar center. In 2000, Genes Diffusion (Douai, France) developed an automatic boar collection system (Collectis). The system was first tested and implemented in France, and subsequently tested in other countries over the last 3 years. In the present study, we provide a large data set related to the use of Collectis. It was noteworthy that Collectis had no impact on semen output (number of doses/boar), but had a significant impact on labor, increasing the number of collections per employee per hour by 90%. PMID:18774599

  10. Employee Relations Without Collective Bargaining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borland, David T.

    1976-01-01

    While administrative personnel in many institutions are interested in specific bargaining techniques or validated grievance procedures, the author suggests that the vast majority need current information about personnel matters before collective bargaining becomes a reality on their campuses. (LBH)

  11. Wildflower Collecting: A Class Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sheila V.

    1976-01-01

    Advocates wildflower collecting as a class project, citing instances of interest in studies of soil composition, growing wildflowers, and increased student motivation toward the subject of botany as basis for the activity. (CP)

  12. Programmable data collection platform study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study incorporating microprocessors in data collection platforms in described. An introduction to microcomputer hardware and software concepts is provided. The influence of microprocessor technology on the design of programmable data collection platform hardware is discussed. A standard modular PDCP design capable of meeting the design goals is proposed, and the process of developing PDCP programs is examined. A description of design and construction of the UT PDCP development system is given.

  13. Atomic squeezing under collective emission

    SciTech Connect

    Yukalov, V.I.; Yukalova, E.P.

    2004-11-01

    Atomic squeezing is studied for the case of large systems of radiating atoms, when collective effects are well developed. All temporal stages are analyzed, starting with the quantum stage of spontaneous emission, passing through the coherent stage of superradiant emission, and going to the relaxation stage ending with stationary solutions. A method of governing the temporal behavior of the squeezing factor is suggested. The influence of a squeezed effective vacuum on the characteristics of collective emission is also investigated.

  14. Collective Quartics from Simple Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, Anson; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    This article classifies Little Higgs models that have collective quartic couplings. There are two classes of collective quartics: Special Cosets and Special Quartics. After taking into account dangerous singlets, the smallest Special Coset models are SU(5)/SO(5) and SU(6)/Sp(6). The smallest Special Quartic model is SU(5)/SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) and has not previously been considered as a candidate Little Higgs model.

  15. Collective behaviour across animal species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M.; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.

  16. Neurodynamical model of collective brain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    1992-01-01

    A dynamical system which mimics collective purposeful activities of a set of units of intelligence is introduced and discussed. A global control of the unit activities is replaced by the probabilistic correlations between them. These correlations are learned during a long term period of performing collective tasks, and are stored in the synaptic interconnections. The model is represented by a system of ordinary differential equations with terminal attractors and repellers, and does not contain any man-made digital devices.

  17. Curvature Interaction in Collective Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Richard

    2012-12-01

    For the Riemannian space, built from the collective coordinates used within nuclear models, an additional interaction with the metric is investigated, using the collective equivalent to Einstein's curvature scalar. The coupling strength is determined using a fit with the AME2003 ground state masses. An extended finite-range droplet model including curvature is introduced, which generates significant improvements for light nuclei and nuclei in the trans-fermium region.

  18. 75 FR 4054 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Agency Information Collection... of an information collection request with the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). DOE is now is... request, the Recovery Act Reviewer Web site information collection request, covers information...

  19. Collective behaviour without collective order in wild swarms of midges.

    PubMed

    Attanasi, Alessandro; Cavagna, Andrea; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Giardina, Irene; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Pohl, Oliver; Rossaro, Bruno; Shen, Edward; Silvestri, Edmondo; Viale, Massimiliano

    2014-07-01

    Collective behaviour is a widespread phenomenon in biology, cutting through a huge span of scales, from cell colonies up to bird flocks and fish schools. The most prominent trait of collective behaviour is the emergence of global order: individuals synchronize their states, giving the stunning impression that the group behaves as one. In many biological systems, though, it is unclear whether global order is present. A paradigmatic case is that of insect swarms, whose erratic movements seem to suggest that group formation is a mere epiphenomenon of the independent interaction of each individual with an external landmark. In these cases, whether or not the group behaves truly collectively is debated. Here, we experimentally study swarms of midges in the field and measure how much the change of direction of one midge affects that of other individuals. We discover that, despite the lack of collective order, swarms display very strong correlations, totally incompatible with models of non-interacting particles. We find that correlation increases sharply with the swarm's density, indicating that the interaction between midges is based on a metric perception mechanism. By means of numerical simulations we demonstrate that such growing correlation is typical of a system close to an ordering transition. Our findings suggest that correlation, rather than order, is the true hallmark of collective behaviour in biological systems. PMID:25057853

  20. Collective Behaviour without Collective Order in Wild Swarms of Midges

    PubMed Central

    Attanasi, Alessandro; Cavagna, Andrea; Del Castello, Lorenzo; Giardina, Irene; Melillo, Stefania; Parisi, Leonardo; Pohl, Oliver; Rossaro, Bruno; Shen, Edward; Silvestri, Edmondo; Viale, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    Collective behaviour is a widespread phenomenon in biology, cutting through a huge span of scales, from cell colonies up to bird flocks and fish schools. The most prominent trait of collective behaviour is the emergence of global order: individuals synchronize their states, giving the stunning impression that the group behaves as one. In many biological systems, though, it is unclear whether global order is present. A paradigmatic case is that of insect swarms, whose erratic movements seem to suggest that group formation is a mere epiphenomenon of the independent interaction of each individual with an external landmark. In these cases, whether or not the group behaves truly collectively is debated. Here, we experimentally study swarms of midges in the field and measure how much the change of direction of one midge affects that of other individuals. We discover that, despite the lack of collective order, swarms display very strong correlations, totally incompatible with models of non-interacting particles. We find that correlation increases sharply with the swarm's density, indicating that the interaction between midges is based on a metric perception mechanism. By means of numerical simulations we demonstrate that such growing correlation is typical of a system close to an ordering transition. Our findings suggest that correlation, rather than order, is the true hallmark of collective behaviour in biological systems. PMID:25057853

  1. 78 FR 2693 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Collection of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ...: Collection of Laboratory Analysis Data on Drug Samples Tested by Non-Federal (State and Local) Crime... Laboratory Analysis Data on Drug Samples Tested by Non-Federal (State and Local Government)...

  2. 78 FR 70577 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection, Comments Requested, New Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Investigation, Criminal Justice Information Services Division will be submitting the following information..., Federal Bureau of Investigation, Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Division, Module E-3, 1000... department sponsoring the collection: Criminal Justice Information Services Division, Federal Bureau...

  3. Electrostatic particle collection in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshar-Mohajer, Nima; Damit, Brian; Wu, Chang-Yu; Sorloaica-Hickman, Nicoleta

    2011-09-01

    Lunar grains accumulate charges due to solar-based ionizing radiations, and the repelling action of like-charged particles causes the levitation of lunar dust. The lunar dust deposit on sensitive and costly surfaces of investigative equipment is a serious concern in lunar explorations. Inspired by electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), the Electrostatic Lunar Dust Collector (ELDC) was proposed for collecting already charged lunar dust particles to prevent the lunar dust threat. As the conditions for terrestrial counterparts are not valid in the lunar environment, equations developed for terrestrial devices yield incorrect predictions in lunar application. Hence, a mathematical model was developed for the ELDC operating in vacuum to determine its collection efficiency. The ratios of electrical energy over potential energy, kinetic energy over potential energy and the ratio of ELDC dimensions were identified to be the key dimensionless parameters. Sensitivity analyses of the relevant parameters showed that depending on ELDC orientation, smaller particles would be collected more easily at vertical orientation, whereas larger particles were easier to collect in a horizontal ELDC configuration. In the worst case scenario, the electrostatic field needed to be 10 times stronger in the vertical mode in order to adequately collect larger particles. The collection efficiency was very sensitive to surface potential of lunar dust and it reached the maximum when surface potential was between 30 and 120 V. Except for regions of the lunar day side with surface potential close to zero, providing 1 kV ( E = 20 kV m -1) with the ELDC was more than enough for collecting all the particles in the most critical orientation. The needed field strength was about 4000 times less than that for repelling 1-μm size particles already settled on the surfaces. The analysis shows that the ELDC offers a viable solution for lunar dust control due to its effectiveness, ease of cleaning and low voltage requirements.

  4. Culture collections over the world.

    PubMed

    Smith, David

    2003-06-01

    Culture collections have the crucial role of providing the authenticated biological material upon which high quality research is based. Importantly, they serve as repositories for strains as part of patent deposits, providers of safe and confidential services to store key organisms for research and industry, and sources of organisms cited in scientific papers that can be used in the confirmation of results and for further study. The demands upon culture collections change as new technologies and uses of organisms are discovered. Many are becoming Biological Resource Centres, as defined by the OECD Biological Resource Centre (BRC) Initiative, in that they operate according to international quality criteria, carry out essential research, enhance the value and applications of strains and provide a vital information resource. In a changing international scientific environment, many collections are under threat of extinction because of inadequate funding, changing government support strategies and the cost of new technologies. We are also suffering a decline in the number of biosystematists, who are needed to form a sound base for molecular technologies and to aid in identifying, and characterizing microbial diversity. In this environment, collections must work together to make the best use of new technologies and to contribute to the description of the 1.4 million fungi yet to be discovered. At the current rate, this will take 700 years. New technologies and novel ways of funding this task must be engaged and, above all, scientists must collaborate. Common policies are necessary to address the regulatory demands on collections, to control access to dangerous organisms, and, in particular, to enforce the Convention on Biological Diversity. Countries that hold the majority of biodiversity require support in building the facilities required to explore their hidden resource. The World Federation for Culture Collections (WFCC) and, in Europe, the European Culture Collection Organisation (ECCO) have a key role to play. The world must benefit from its microbial diversity, which is crucial to solving increasing problems in food provision, public health and poverty alleviation. PMID:12748880

  5. Bohunice Simulator Data Collection Project

    SciTech Connect

    Cillik, Ivan; Prochaska, Jan

    2002-07-01

    The paper describes the way and results of human reliability data analysis collected as a part of the Bohunice Simulator Data Collection Project (BSDCP), which was performed by VUJE Trnava, Inc. with funding support from the U.S. DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration. The goal of the project was to create a methodology for simulator data collection and analysis to support activities in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) and human reliability assessment for Jaslovske Bohunice nuclear power plant consisting of two sets of twin units: two VVER 440/V-230 (V1) and two VVER 440/V-213 (V2) reactors. During the project training of V-2 control room crews was performed at VUJE-Trnava simulator. The simulator training and the data collection were done in parallel. The main goal of BSDCP was to collect suitable data of human errors under simulated conditions requiring the use of symptom-based emergency operating procedures (SBEOPs). The subjects of the data collection were scenario progress time data, operator errors, and real-time technological parameters. The paper contains three main parts. The first part presents preparatory work and semi-automatic computer-based methods used to collect data and to check technological parameters in order to find hidden errors of operators, to be able to retrace the course of each scenario for purposes of further analysis, and to document the whole training process. The first part gives also an overview of collected data scope, human error taxonomy, and state classifications for SBEOP instructions coding. The second part describes analytical work undertaken to describe time distribution necessary for execution of various kinds of instructions performed by operators according to the classification for coding of SBEOP instructions. It also presents the methods used for determination of probability distribution for different operator errors. Results from the data evaluation are presented in the last part of the paper. An overview of observed human error probabilities (HEP) according to the developed taxonomy is given. HEP observed during training process were used as reference input data for HRA (Human Reliability Assesment) within existing PSAs performed by VUJE. Observing two different training seasons offered an opportunity to compare a progress achieved through the training process. This paper shows us how it is possible to make this kind of comparison in order to establish an objective measure of training quality and to determine training weaknesses. Results gained during the project-evoked interest of different NPPs (Nuclear Power Plant) in Slovak Republic to collect and process simulator data for further improvement of human factor safety, operational procedures, training process, etc. (authors)

  6. Distributed resource management: garbage collection

    SciTech Connect

    Bagherzadeh, N.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great interest in designing high-performance distributed symbolic-processing computers. These architectures have special needs for resource management and dynamic reclamation of unused memory cells and objects. The memory management or garbage-collection aspects of these architectures are studied. Also introduced is a synchronous distributed algorithm for garbage collection. A special data structure is defined to handle the distributed nature of the problem. The author formally expresses the algorithm and shows the results of a synchronous garbage-collection simulation and its effect on the interconnection-network message to traffic. He presents an asynchronous distributed garbage collection to handle the resource management for a system that does not require a global synchronization mechanism. The distributed data structure is modified to include the asynchronous aspects of the algorithm. This method is extended to a multiple-mutator scheme, and the problem of having several processors share portion of a cyclical graph is discussed. Two models for the analytical study of the garbage-collection algorithms discussed are provided.

  7. Digital data collection in paleoanthropology.

    PubMed

    Reed, Denné; Barr, W Andrew; Mcpherron, Shannon P; Bobe, René; Geraads, Denis; Wynn, Jonathan G; Alemseged, Zeresenay

    2015-01-01

    Understanding patterns of human evolution across space and time requires synthesizing data collected by independent research teams, and this effort is part of a larger trend to develop cyber infrastructure and e-science initiatives. At present, paleoanthropology cannot easily answer basic questions about the total number of fossils and artifacts that have been discovered, or exactly how those items were collected. In this paper, we examine the methodological challenges to data integration, with the hope that mitigating the technical obstacles will further promote data sharing. At a minimum, data integration efforts must document what data exist and how the data were collected (discovery), after which we can begin standardizing data collection practices with the aim of achieving combined analyses (synthesis). This paper outlines a digital data collection system for paleoanthropology. We review the relevant data management principles for a general audience and supplement this with technical details drawn from over 15 years of paleontological and archeological field experience in Africa and Europe. The system outlined here emphasizes free open-source software (FOSS) solutions that work on multiple computer platforms; it builds on recent advances in open-source geospatial software and mobile computing. PMID:26662947

  8. Innovation in the collective brain.

    PubMed

    Muthukrishna, Michael; Henrich, Joseph

    2016-03-19

    Innovation is often assumed to be the work of a talented few, whose products are passed on to the masses. Here, we argue that innovations are instead an emergent property of our species' cultural learning abilities, applied within our societies and social networks. Our societies and social networks act as collective brains. We outline how many human brains, which evolved primarily for the acquisition of culture, together beget a collective brain. Within these collective brains, the three main sources of innovation are serendipity, recombination and incremental improvement. We argue that rates of innovation are heavily influenced by (i) sociality, (ii) transmission fidelity, and (iii) cultural variance. We discuss some of the forces that affect these factors. These factors can also shape each other. For example, we provide preliminary evidence that transmission efficiency is affected by sociality-languages with more speakers are more efficient. We argue that collective brains can make each of their constituent cultural brains more innovative. This perspective sheds light on traits, such as IQ, that have been implicated in innovation. A collective brain perspective can help us understand otherwise puzzling findings in the IQ literature, including group differences, heritability differences and the dramatic increase in IQ test scores over time. PMID:26926282

  9. Learning Wisdom through Collectivity: The Women Writing Women Collective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Luanne; Bickel, Barbara; Fels, Lynn; Gerhard, Gillian; Hoy, Alyson; Jordan, Nané; Nielsen, Wendy; Smith, Annie; Stubbs, Jeannie; Triggs, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    The Women Writing Women Collective was a collegial and collaborative response to the isolation that is often experienced by women scholars as they pursue their academic careers. For 5 years, a group of women gathered on a monthly basis to share their writing. In doing so, the group members provided a sounding board for each other as they engaged…

  10. Collective Design of an E-Textbook: Teachers' Collective Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gueudet, Ghislaine; Pepin, Birgit; Sabra, Hussein; Trouche, Luc

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated design processes in teacher collectives, which have been made possible by new "digital" opportunities: platforms, discussion lists, etc. The object of our study is the French Sésamath teacher association and its design of a grade 10 e-textbook, more precisely the design of the "functions" chapter.…

  11. Learning the Collection: A New Librarian's Experience in Collection Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The author is a reference and instruction librarian at Iowa State University with collection development and liaison responsibilities for chemistry, biochemistry, entomology, and natural resource ecology. She recently came to librarianship with an education and three years' experience in biochemistry and biotechnology. During the last four years…

  12. 76 FR 33026 - Agency Information Collection Activity; Proposed Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ...-final). Abstract: This document contains final regulations under section 3121(v)(2) of the Internal... the Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA). Section 3121(v)(2), relating to treatment of certain... information displays a valid OMB control number. Books or records relating to a collection of information...

  13. Collection Development: Great Finds for Your Collectibles Shelf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Margarete

    1993-01-01

    Briefly reviews 41 books and periodicals about antiques and collectibles such as glassware, porcelain, dolls, buttons, ceramics, folk arts, furniture, jewelry, rugs, textiles, and woodenware. Books are arranged in the following topic areas: price guides; general surveys; out-of-print titles; trends; conservation and restoration; dealers; and

  14. 7 CFR 1250.349 - Collecting handlers and collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Expenses and Assessments § 1250.349 Collecting... by producers and who grades, cartons, breaks, or otherwise performs a function of a handler...

  15. 76 FR 45299 - Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    .... Both forms are used in reporting financial information under grants and cooperative agreements. DATES... information and increasing its usefulness regardless of how the ] financial information is reported (form... Time per Response: 60 minutes. Needs and Uses: The SF-425 is used to collect financial information...

  16. 76 FR 72446 - Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... as ``the FFR''). The FFR is used in reporting financial information under grants and cooperative... of Information and Regulatory Affairs. OMB Control No.: 0348-0061. Title: Federal Financial Report.... Estimated Time per Response: 60 minutes. Needs and Uses: The SF-425 is used to collect financial...

  17. Collection Development: Great Finds for Your Collectibles Shelf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Margarete

    1993-01-01

    Briefly reviews 41 books and periodicals about antiques and collectibles such as glassware, porcelain, dolls, buttons, ceramics, folk arts, furniture, jewelry, rugs, textiles, and woodenware. Books are arranged in the following topic areas: price guides; general surveys; out-of-print titles; trends; conservation and restoration; dealers; and…

  18. Controlling Collective Behaviors of Dictyostelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, David; Mehta, Pankaj; Gregor, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    We study the collective dynamics of a population of Dictyostelium cells, focusing on how single cell dynamics influence, and give rise to, the behavior of the aggregate. Through analysis of quantitative single cell experiments, we develop a simple model of the single cell response to time-dependent pulses of the extracellular signaling molecule cAMP, characterized by a particular type of excitable system. We then use this model to study collective multicellular dynamics mediated by diffusion coupling. We first consider the mean-field case where we find an intriguing ``dynamical quorum sensing'' transition in which all cells simultaneously transition from quiescent to oscillating across the phase boundary. Then we include spatial dynamics and study pattern formation, both with and without the cells capable of chemotactic response to signal gradients. Finally, we highlight how modification of single cells can alter the collective dynamics.

  19. The EMBRACE web service collection

    PubMed Central

    Pettifer, Steve; Ison, Jon; Kalaš, Matúš; Thorne, Dave; McDermott, Philip; Jonassen, Inge; Liaquat, Ali; Fernández, José M.; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Partners, INB-; Pisano, David G.; Blanchet, Christophe; Uludag, Mahmut; Rice, Peter; Bartaseviciute, Edita; Rapacki, Kristoffer; Hekkelman, Maarten; Sand, Olivier; Stockinger, Heinz; Clegg, Andrew B.; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Salzemann, Jean; Breton, Vincent; Attwood, Teresa K.; Cameron, Graham; Vriend, Gert

    2010-01-01

    The EMBRACE (European Model for Bioinformatics Research and Community Education) web service collection is the culmination of a 5-year project that set out to investigate issues involved in developing and deploying web services for use in the life sciences. The project concluded that in order for web services to achieve widespread adoption, standards must be defined for the choice of web service technology, for semantically annotating both service function and the data exchanged, and a mechanism for discovering services must be provided. Building on this, the project developed: EDAM, an ontology for describing life science web services; BioXSD, a schema for exchanging data between services; and a centralized registry (http://www.embraceregistry.net) that collects together around 1000 services developed by the consortium partners. This article presents the current status of the collection and its associated recommendations and standards definitions. PMID:20462862

  20. [World Collections of Parasitic Worms].

    PubMed

    Zinovieva, S V; Butorina, N N; Udalova, Zh V; Khasanova, S; Filimonova, L V; Petrosyan, V G; Pel'gunov, A N

    2015-01-01

    This article provides information about the depositories of parasitic worms in the scientific institutes and museums in the United States, Japan, and Europe (the total number of samples and the availability of types of helminths from various classes), as well as information on the availability of electronic catalogues of the collections in the continental, national, and regional centers for collective use. The extent of this material has determined the necessity of creating digital collections and libraries that would represent a new form of storing, displaying, and exchanging information for scientific research. An analysis was performed of the current state of approaches and methods of development of the specialized information retrieval system (IRS) and databases (DBs) on the parasitic worms in Russia on the basis of a common conceptual data model, taking into account their local use (as desktop systems of database management) and access by scientists worldwide via the Internet. PMID:26852482

  1. Collective dynamics from stochastic thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasa, Shin-ichi

    2015-04-01

    From a viewpoint of stochastic thermodynamics, we derive equations that describe the collective dynamics near the order-disorder transition in the globally coupled XY model and near the synchronization-desynchronization transition in the Kuramoto model. A new way of thinking is to interpret the deterministic time evolution of a macroscopic variable as an external operation to a thermodynamic system. We then find that the irreversible work determines the equation for the collective dynamics. When analyzing the Kuramoto model, we employ a generalized concept of irreversible work which originates from a non-equilibrium identity associated with steady state thermodynamics.

  2. Improved multiprocessor garbage collection algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, I.A.; Stallard, R.P.; Woodward, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    Outlines the results of an investigation of existing multiprocessor garbage collection algorithms and introduces two new algorithms which significantly improve some aspects of the performance of their predecessors. The two algorithms arise from different starting assumptions. One considers the case where the algorithm will terminate successfully whatever list structure is being processed and assumes that the extra data space should be minimised. The other seeks a very fast garbage collection time for list structures that do not contain loops. Results of both theoretical and experimental investigations are given to demonstrate the efficacy of the algorithms. 7 references.

  3. Collective behaviour across animal species

    PubMed Central

    DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M.; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment. PMID:24430561

  4. Distributed Control with Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Tumer, Kagan

    1998-01-01

    We consider systems of interacting reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms that do not work at cross purposes , in that their collective behavior maximizes a global utility function. We call such systems COllective INtelligences (COINs). We present the theory of designing COINs. Then we present experiments validating that theory in the context of two distributed control problems: We show that COINs perform near-optimally in a difficult variant of Arthur's bar problem [Arthur] (and in particular avoid the tragedy of the commons for that problem), and we also illustrate optimal performance in the master-slave problem.

  5. Integrating the Curricula: A Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Robin, Ed.

    In response to the search for ways to create forms of schooling that are more holistic and natural, and more integrated and interwoven, this collection of articles pulls together elements of the multifaceted concept of curriculum integration. Divided into six sections, the chapters explore the reasons and rationale for moving toward more holistic…

  6. Collected Wisdom: American Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Linda Miller; Peacock, Thomas D.

    Based on interviews and classroom observation, this book presents the "collected wisdom" of 60 teachers of American Indian students in all parts of the United States, as well as teachers of indigenous students in Australia and Costa Rica. Chapter 1, "Introduction: The Teacher as Learner" presents the authors' backgrounds, the study's emerging…

  7. Equal Potential: A Collective Fraud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfredson, Linda S.

    2000-01-01

    Critiques the College Board's report, "Reaching the Top," asserting that it illustrates collective fraud in the social sciences, which sustains an egalitarian fiction that intelligence is clustered equally across all human populations. Suggests that while the report omits certain popular falsehoods, it also omits crucial truths about educational

  8. Records Inventory Data Collection Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-03-01

    DATALINK was created to provide an easy to use data collection program for records management software products. It provides several useful tools for capturing and validating record index data in the field. It also allows users to easily create a comma delimited, ASCII text file for data export into most records management software products.

  9. Collective Labor Supply with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blundell, Richard; Chiappori, Pierre-Andre; Meghir, Costas

    2005-01-01

    We extend the collective model of household behavior to allow for the existence of public consumption. We show how this model allows the analysis of welfare consequences of policies aimed at changing the distribution of power within the household. Our setting provides a conceptual framework for addressing issues linked to the "targeting" of…

  10. Collecting and Using Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Marcia Muth

    The local history collection should contain: county histories; city and village histories; state and regional histories; anniversary booklets; company histories; local newspapers; local magazines; genealogies; family albums; diaries; journals, and letters; account books; club yearbooks; school annuals; telephone books, city directories and local…

  11. Indigenous Empowerment through Collective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enn, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to an indigenous community that lives in the periphery of Taiwan. The Dao on Orchid Island have had to face serious abuse of their human rights in terms of ecological exploitation and environmental injustice. The article highlights the empowerment of the indigenous group through collective

  12. 76 FR 17331 - Debt Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... Federal Register at 75 FR 68956. This final rule adopts, without change, that interim final rule that set... removing 12 CFR part 1704 that was published in the Federal Register at 75 FR 68956 on November 10, 2010... RIN 2590-AA15 Debt Collection AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency; Office of Federal...

  13. Collections Security: The Preservation Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patkus, Beth L.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the basic elements of library security and preservation programs as a background for an exploration of security/preservation issues, problems, and policies. Discusses environmental control, disaster preparedness, fire protection, storage and handling, and controlling access to collections. (AEF)

  14. QR Codes: Taking Collections Further

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahearn, Caitlin

    2014-01-01

    With some thought and direction, QR (quick response) codes are a great tool to use in school libraries to enhance access to information. From March through April 2013, Caitlin Ahearn interned at Sanborn Regional High School (SRHS) under the supervision of Pam Harland. As a result of Harland's un-Deweying of the nonfiction collection at SRHS,…

  15. The Mosque Project: Collective Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Douglas B.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching the author's fifth-graders about Islam through art was a challenge. Remembering a colleague's "Collective Architecture" project, he reworked the concept using mosque architecture as the basis for a new project. The goal was to introduce Islam and its basic tenets using the visual arts, with the hope of enhancing cultural tolerance and…

  16. Journalistic Uses of Collective Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edy, Jill A.

    1999-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on journalism and history by exploring the ways journalists use and reconstitute the past. Uses mediated collective memory of the 1965 Watts riots in Los Angeles to identify a typology of ways journalists use public past: commemorations, historical analogies, and historical contexts. Speculates about how narratives of…

  17. Composite collective decision-making.

    PubMed

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Czaczkes, Benjamin; Iglhaut, Carolin; Heinze, Jürgen

    2015-06-22

    Individual animals are adept at making decisions and have cognitive abilities, such as memory, which allow them to hone their decisions. Social animals can also share information. This allows social animals to make adaptive group-level decisions. Both individual and collective decision-making systems also have drawbacks and limitations, and while both are well studied, the interaction between them is still poorly understood. Here, we study how individual and collective decision-making interact during ant foraging. We first gathered empirical data on memory-based foraging persistence in the ant Lasius niger. We used these data to create an agent-based model where ants may use social information (trail pheromones), private information (memories) or both to make foraging decisions. The combined use of social and private information by individuals results in greater efficiency at the group level than when either information source was used alone. The modelled ants couple consensus decision-making, allowing them to quickly exploit high-quality food sources, and combined decision-making, allowing different individuals to specialize in exploiting different resource patches. Such a composite collective decision-making system reaps the benefits of both its constituent parts. Exploiting such insights into composite collective decision-making may lead to improved decision-making algorithms. PMID:26019155

  18. Business Sustainability and Collective Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze to which point collective intelligence (CI) concepts and ideas, as applied to organizations, can contribute to enlarge the conceptual basis for business sustainability (BS). Design/methodology/approach: The paper is written from an engineer-minded, systemic and cybernetic perspective. It begins by…

  19. Conservation of Photographic Print Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Alice

    1981-01-01

    Provides specific information on varying photographic materials and processes to aid archivists and curators in preserving photograph collections. Preservation problems related to major types of silver prints on paper (salt, albumen, collodion, gelatin) and to the silver image (oxidation, silver sulfide) are covered. Twenty references are cited.…

  20. Collective Bargaining in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soberman, Daniel A.; And Others

    Papers are presented from a seminar on collective bargaining in higher education sponsored by the Center for Educational Management Studies of the University of Hawaii. The seminar was designed to address the similarities and differences among various countries and to draw on the experiences of Canada and Europe as they may relate to collective…

  1. The power of collective ambition.

    PubMed

    Ready, Douglas A; Truelove, Emily

    2011-12-01

    In the past few years, some companies have not just weathered the economic storm: They've emerged stronger than ever. How did such players as Four Seasons, Sephora, and Standard Chartered Bank defy conventional logic? Instead of pursuing a single ambition, such as profits, employees defined a collective ambition. As a result, those organizations deepened their engagement with employees and other stakeholders and became sustainably profitable. Purpose, a company's reason for existence, is the central element of collective ambition. The other elements--vision, targets and milestones, strategic and operational priorities, brand promise, core values, and leader behaviors--must be aligned to serve the company's purpose. Articulating the elements of collective ambition can give everyone in the organization a better sense of the company's purpose and how they can contribute to it. Purpose does not have to be about saving the world; providing excellent entertainment or banking services is just as meaningful a purpose as improving health care in emerging economies--as long as it is an authentic representation of why the company exists. To shape and then achieve a collective ambition, companies must strengthen their organizational glue (the collaborative engagement that creates a unified culture) and grease (the disciplined execution that enterprisewide change initiatives require). PMID:22250354

  2. The Multiage Classroom: A Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Robin, Ed.

    Noting that the recent call for holistic models of schooling dictates a thorough investigation of more natural groupings of students, this collection of articles reviews available literature on multiage, nongraded, continuous progress classrooms. Divided into six sections, the chapters explore the overriding concerns and the pros and cons of such…

  3. Beyond Unions and Collective Bargaining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troy, Leo

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the reasons for decline of union representation to 9% of private sector workers. Suggests that workplace conditions and labor legislation designed to foster collective voice also sustain the individual system of representation, which is consistent with the philosophy of an open society. (SK)

  4. 75 FR 68203 - Debt Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Margaret E. Drake, Attorney, Office of the General Counsel, Pension Benefit Guaranty... to PBGC being collected through recoupment under subpart E of part 4022 of this chapter. Benefits... by a debtor (e.g., in connection with government contractual obligations) be offset by...

  5. Powder collection apparatus/method

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, I.E.; Terpstra, R.L.; Moore, J.A.

    1994-01-11

    Device for separating and collecting ultrafine atomized powder from the gas stream of a gas atomizing apparatus comprises a housing having an interior wall oriented at an angle relative to horizontal so as to form a downwardly converging, conical expansion chamber, an inlet conduit communicated to the expansion chamber proximate an upper region thereof for receiving the gas stream, and an outlet proximate a lower region of the expansion chamber. The inlet conduit is oriented at a compound inclined angle (with respect to horizontal) selected to promote separation and collection of powder from the gas stream in the expansion chamber. The compound angle comprises a first entrance angle that is greater than the angle of repose of the powder on the housing interior wall such that any powder accumulation in the inlet conduit tends to flow down the wall toward the outlet. The second angle is selected generally equal to the angle of the housing interior wall measured from the same horizontal plane so as to direct the gas stream into the expansion chamber generally tangent to the housing interior wall to establish a downward swirling gas stream flow in the expansion chamber. A powder collection container is communicated to the outlet of the expansion chamber to collect the powder for further processing. 4 figures.

  6. Powder collection apparatus/method

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iver E.; Terpstra, Robert L.; Moore, Jeffery A.

    1994-01-11

    Device for separating and collecting ultrafine atomized powder from the gas stream of a gas atomizing apparatus comprises a housing having an interior wall oriented at an angle relative to horizontal so as to form a downwardly converging, conical expansion chamber, an inlet conduit communicated to the expansion chamber proximate an upper region thereof for receiving the gas stream, and an outlet proximate a lower region of the expansion chamber. The inlet conduit is oriented at a compound inclined angle (with respect to horizontal) selected to promote separation and collection of powder from the gas stream in the expansion chamber. The compound angle comprises a first entrance angle that is greater than the angle of repose of the powder on the housing interior wall such that any powder accumulation in the inlet conduit tends to flow down the wall toward the outlet. The second angle is selected generally equal to the angle of the housing interior wall measured from the same horizontal plane so as to direct the gas stream into the expansion chamber generally tangent to the housing interior wall to establish a downward swirling gas stream flow in the expansion chamber. A powder collection container is communicated to the outlet of the expansion chamber to collect the powder for further processing.

  7. Radioactive Decay: Audio Data Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struthers, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Many phenomena generate interesting audible time series. This data can be collected and processed using audio software. The free software package "Audacity" is used to demonstrate the process by recording, processing, and extracting click times from an inexpensive radiation detector. The high quality of the data is demonstrated with a simple

  8. Information Epidemics and Science Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabah, Albert N.

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of scientific literature growth focuses on implications for library collection development. Information epidemics, or dramatic points of growth, are examined in "Physics Abstracts"; a case study from the superconductivity literature is presented; and the distribution between the growth of journal articles, conference papers, and other…

  9. Collecting Disability Data from Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Jill; Daniels, Harry; Feiler, Anthony; Georgeson, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the development and national trial of a methodology for collecting disability data directly from parents, enabling schools and local authorities to meet their obligations under the "Disability Discrimination Act" (DDA; 2005) to promote equality of opportunity for all children. It illustrates the complexities around…

  10. Family Histories: Collecting, Connecting, Celebrating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damkoehler, Dee; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes an integrated curriculum for grade two at Metcalf Laboratory School, Normal, Illinois, that celebrates family histories and American immigration. Reports that the journey begins with the teachers sharing their own family backgrounds, followed by story reading, sharing the family history project with parents, collecting oral histories,…

  11. The Process Manager Collective Library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-02-26

    The PMGR_COLLECTIVE library provides an interface that MPI implemenataions may call to initialize ranks in a scalable way. It was developed to reduce the startup time MPI appkications, however, other tools such as debugger infrastructures have also found use cases for it. When first developed, it reduced the startup time from 15 minutes to 10 seconds on as 8192-node cluster.

  12. Collective Labor Supply with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blundell, Richard; Chiappori, Pierre-Andre; Meghir, Costas

    2005-01-01

    We extend the collective model of household behavior to allow for the existence of public consumption. We show how this model allows the analysis of welfare consequences of policies aimed at changing the distribution of power within the household. Our setting provides a conceptual framework for addressing issues linked to the "targeting" of

  13. COLLECTION OF UNDISTURBED SURFACE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Resource Council identified the need for a capability to collect undisturbed surface sediments. Surface sediments are an important source for most exposure of fish to polychlorinated biphenyls via direct uptake from water in contact with sediments. An innovative sedi...

  14. Collective Bargaining in Ontario, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drory, Asher; Badgley, Susan

    This report highlights negotiations and trends occurring in the major collective bargaining in the province of Ontario, Canada in 1972. Bargaining during the year was centered primarily on non-manufacturing industries and in the public sector. Major issues negotiated were wages, improved working conditions, job security, and length of work week.…

  15. Radioactive Decay: Audio Data Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struthers, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Many phenomena generate interesting audible time series. This data can be collected and processed using audio software. The free software package "Audacity" is used to demonstrate the process by recording, processing, and extracting click times from an inexpensive radiation detector. The high quality of the data is demonstrated with a simple…

  16. Frame of Reference: Special Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetsch, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Rare, distinctive, unique--academic libraries are exploring new ways to describe and define what they've traditionally called special collections: incunabula, manuscripts, rare books, cultural artifacts and more. These valuable, historically important, and often one-of-a-kind artifacts can be a treasure trove for scholars and students. Technology…

  17. 5 CFR 1215.25 - Collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collection. 1215.25 Section 1215.25... Collection § 1215.25 Collection. (a) The MSPB will take aggressive action to collect debts and reduce delinquencies. Collection efforts shall include sending to the debtor's last known address a total of...

  18. 5 CFR 1215.30 - Collection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collection services. 1215.30 Section 1215... MANAGEMENT Claims Collection § 1215.30 Collection services. (a) The MSPB may contract for collection services to recover outstanding debts. The MSPB may refer delinquent debts to private collection...

  19. 45 CFR 1177.5 - Collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collection. 1177.5 Section 1177.5 Public Welfare... ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION § 1177.5 Collection. (a) The Endowment will take aggressive action to collect debts and reduce delinquencies. Collection efforts shall include sending to the...

  20. 14 CFR 158.53 - Collection compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Collection, Handling, and Remittance of PFC's § 158.53 Collection compensation. (a) As compensation for collecting, handling, and remitting the PFC revenue, the collecting air carrier is entitled to: (1) $0.11 of each PFC collected. (2) Any interest or other...

  1. 14 CFR 158.53 - Collection compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Collection, Handling, and Remittance of PFC's § 158.53 Collection compensation. (a) As compensation for collecting, handling, and remitting the PFC revenue, the collecting air carrier is entitled to: (1) $0.11 of each PFC collected. (2) Any interest or other...

  2. 14 CFR 158.53 - Collection compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Collection, Handling, and Remittance of PFC's § 158.53 Collection compensation. (a) As compensation for collecting, handling, and remitting the PFC revenue, the collecting air carrier is entitled to: (1) $0.11 of each PFC collected. (2) Any interest or other...

  3. 14 CFR 158.53 - Collection compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Collection, Handling, and Remittance of PFC's § 158.53 Collection compensation. (a) As compensation for collecting, handling, and remitting the PFC revenue, the collecting air carrier is entitled to: (1) $0.11 of each PFC collected. (2) Any interest or other...

  4. 14 CFR 158.53 - Collection compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Collection, Handling, and Remittance of PFC's § 158.53 Collection compensation. (a) As compensation for collecting, handling, and remitting the PFC revenue, the collecting air carrier is entitled to: (1) $0.11 of each PFC collected. (2) Any interest or other...

  5. 40 CFR 13.8 - Collection rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection rule. 13.8 Section 13.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Collection § 13.8 Collection rule. (a) The Administrator takes action to collect all debts owed the United...

  6. 40 CFR 13.8 - Collection rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Collection rule. 13.8 Section 13.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Collection § 13.8 Collection rule. (a) The Administrator takes action to collect all debts owed the United...

  7. 17 CFR 204.75 - Collection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Collection services. 204.75... DEBT COLLECTION Miscellaneous: Credit Bureau Reporting, Collection Services § 204.75 Collection services. Section 13 of the Debt Collection Act (31 U.S.C. 3718) authorizes agencies to enter...

  8. 75 FR 43989 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Sample Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... involves the use of genome-wide analyses to identify genes with altered expression or activation as a... variations associated with the ADEs reported. If this project identifies definite genotype mutations... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities;...

  9. 75 FR 13575 - Agency Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Agency Information Collection Activities ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Revision of a currently approved collection; Bulletproof Vest Partnership....

  10. 77 FR 37907 - Information Collection; Service Contracting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Information Collection... (OMB) a request to review and approve an extension of a currently approved information collection... collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of functions of the Federal...

  11. 77 FR 17464 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    .... Energy Information Administration Agency Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. ACTION: Agency Information Collection Activities: Information...) Whether the proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions...

  12. 77 FR 43080 - Information Collection; Payments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Information Collection... to review and approve an extension of a previously approved information collection requirement concerning Payments. Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether this collection of information...

  13. 78 FR 46002 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Proposed Collection; Comment Request ACTION: Notice and... this opportunity to comment on proposed information collections, as required by the Paperwork Reduction... changes being made to this collection. Type of Review: Extension of a currently approved...

  14. 77 FR 34415 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Collection; Comment Request Upon Written Request, Copies Available From: U.S. Securities... Exchange Commission (``Commission'') is soliciting comments on the existing collection of information... et seq.) (``Exchange Act''). The Commission plans to submit this existing collection of...

  15. 77 FR 36296 - Proposed Collection, Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... of Labor Statistics Proposed Collection, Comment Request ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of... comment on proposed and/or continuing collections of information in accordance with the Paperwork... desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is minimized, collection instruments...

  16. 78 FR 56759 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Collection; Comment Request Upon Written Request, Copies Available From: Securities and... Exchange Commission (``Commission'') is soliciting comments on the existing collection of information... seq.). The Commission plans to submit this existing collection of information to the Office...

  17. 78 FR 64293 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS... agencies to take this opportunity to comment on proposed and/or continuing information collections, as... Review: Extension of a currently approved collection. Affected Public: Business or other...

  18. 76 FR 15999 - Proposed Collection, Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical, or other technological collection techniques or other forms of... of Labor Statistics Proposed Collection, Comment Request ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of... comment on proposed and/or continuing collections of information in accordance with the...

  19. 77 FR 75196 - Proposed Collection, Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... of Labor Statistics Proposed Collection, Comment Request ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of... comment on proposed and/or continuing collections of information in accordance with the Paperwork... desired format, reporting burden (time and financial resources) is minimized, collection instruments...

  20. 77 FR 43366 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Voluntary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... Collection; Comments Requested: Voluntary Magazine Questionnaire for Agencies/ Entities Who Store Explosives... collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Voluntary Magazine Questionnaire for Agencies/Entities...

  1. Overcoming Communication Restrictions in Collectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian K.

    2004-01-01

    Many large distributed system are characterized by having a large number of components (eg., agents, neurons) whose actions and interactions determine a %orld utility which rates the performance of the overall system. Such collectives are often subject to communication restrictions, making it difficult for components which try to optimize their own private utilities, to take actions that also help optimize the world utility. In this article we address that coordination problem and derive four utility functions which present different compromises between how aligned a component s private utility is with the world utility and how readily that component can determine the actions that optimize its utility. The results show that the utility functions specifically derived to operate under communication restrictions outperform both traditional methods and previous collective-based methods by up to 75%.

  2. Students Collecting Real time Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, P.

    2006-05-01

    Students Collecting Real-Time Data The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary has created opportunities for middle and high school students to become Student Researchers and to be involved in real-time marine data collection. It is important that we expose students to different fields of science and encourage them to enter scientific fields of study. The Humpback Whale Sanctuary has an education visitor center in Kihei, Maui. Located right on the beach, the site has become a living classroom facility. There is a traditional Hawaiian fishpond fronting the property. The fishpond wall is being restored, using traditional methods. The site has the incredible opportunity of incorporating Hawaiian cultural practices with scientific studies. The Sanctuary offers opportunities for students to get involved in monitoring and data collection studies. Invasive Seaweed Study: Students are collecting data on invasive seaweed for the University of Hawaii. They pull a large net through the shallow waters. Seaweed is sorted, identified and weighed. The invasive seaweeds are removed. The data is recorded and sent to UH. Remote controlled monitoring boats: The sanctuary has 6 boogie board sized remote controlled boats used to monitor reefs. Boats have a camera with lights on the underside. The boats have water quality monitoring devices and GPS units. The video from the underwater camera is transmitted via a wireless transmission. Students are able to monitor the fish, limu and invertebrate populations on the reef and collect water quality data via television monitors or computers. The boat can also pull a small plankton tow net. Data is being compiled into data bases. Artificial Reef Modules: The Sanctuary has a scientific permit from the state to build and deploy artificial reef modules. High school students are designing and building modules. These are deployed out in the Fishpond fronting the Sanctuary site and students are monitoring them on a weekly basis. Students are also building traditional Hawaiian modules, these being piles of rocks and attaching seaweeds to the rocks with natural fibers. The purpose of all these is to help restore habitat to the fishpond. Monitoring the Fishpond; The fishpond wall is presently being rebuilt. The new wall stands about eight feet high and twelve feet wide. The rocks to rebuild the wall are all being located underwater where the old wall stood. The state has required different information collected as the wall is reconstructed. Students GPS mapped the rock edges of the fallen wall, and will continue to map the progress of the new wall. Other students are monitoring the erosion of the sand dunes that front the edges of the wall and are also looking at the new deposition of sand in the pond. Students are snorkeling, running transects and collecting data on the changing populations of fish, invertebrates and seaweeds in the pond. The wall is only about a forth built and already we are seeing growth in the populations. Students and teachers work with the sanctuary staff to develop projects. The sanctuary loans the equipment to the students and the students collect the data for the sanctuary. It is a great partnership with the schools. The Sanctuary has been given a Congressional Earmark this year to develop marine curriculum for the Department of Education. Projects listed above are part of this curriculum with hopes of many more to be developed. By 2008, all seniors must participate in some type of research project to graduate. The goal is to offer opportunities for many of these projects to become marine science related projects and thus develop a budding new group of marine scientists.

  3. Collective Motion of Magnetotactic Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkley, Solomon; Fradin, Cecile; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari

    2014-03-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria produce magnetic crystals that align the cells with an external magnetic field. Due to the field these bacteria preferentially swim along magnetic field lines in a behaviour known as magnetotaxis. Previous work has focused on bacteria in isolation, with investigations into the degree of orientation with the magnetic field as well as the response to magnetic field reversal. However, the motion of a cell in isolation cannot be extended to a cell with many neighbours, where collisions and collective effects cannot be ignored. The increased interaction between magnetotactic bacteria at very high concentrations alters the ability of any individual cell to align with an applied magnetic field. We will present experiments on the interplay between magnetotaxis and collectivity and the effects on the spatial and temporal organization of cells.

  4. Urine collection apparatus. [feminine hygiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females comprises an interface body with an interface surface for engagement with the user's body. The interface body comprises a forward portion defining a urine-receiving bore which has an inlet in the interface surface adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. The interface body also has a rear portion integrally adjoining the forward portion and a non-invasive vaginal seal on the interface surface for sealing the vagina of the user from communication with the urine-receiving bore. An absorbent pad is removably supported on the interface body and extends laterally therefrom. A garment for supporting the urine collection is also disclosed.

  5. Collective accelerator for electron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, R.J.

    1985-05-13

    A recent concept for collective acceleration and focusing of a high energy electron bunch is discussed, in the context of its possible applicability to large linear colliders in the TeV range. The scheme can be considered to be a member of the general class of two-beam accelerators, where a high current, low voltage beam produces the acceleration fields for a trailing high energy bunch.

  6. Mars Image Collection Mosaic Builder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plesea, Lucian; Hare, Trent

    2008-01-01

    A computer program assembles images from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Observer Camera Narrow Angle (MOCNA) collection to generate a uniform-high-resolution, georeferenced, uncontrolled mosaic image of the Martian surface. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the mosaic covered 7 percent of the Martian surface and contained data from more than 50,000 source images acquired under various light conditions at various resolutions.

  7. Current collection in a magnetoplasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laframboise, Jim G.; Sonmor, L. J.

    1990-12-01

    The authors present a survey of a very incomplete subject, current collection in a magnetoplasma. The best-developed and simplest theories for current collection are steady-state collisionless theories, and these must be understood before departures from them can be analyzed usefully. Thus, the authors begin with a review of them. The authors include some recent numerical results which indicate that steady-state collisionless Laplace-limit currents remain substantially below the Parker-Murphy (1967) canonical upper bound out to very large electrode potentials, and approach it as a limit only very slowly if at all. Attempts to correct this theory for space-charge effects lead to potential disturbances which extend to infinite distance along the electrode's magnetic shadow, unless collisional effects are also taken into account. However, even a small amount of relative plasma drift motion, such as that involved in a typical rocket experiment, can change this conclusion fundamentally. It is widely believed that time-averaged current collection may be increased by effects of plasma turbulence, and the authors review the available evidence for and against this contention. Steady-state collisionless particle dynamics predicts the existence of a toroidal region of trapped orbits which surrounds the electrode. Light emissions from this region have been photographed, indicating that collisional ionization may also occur there, and this, and/or scattering by collisions or possibly turbulent fluctuations in this region, may also increase current collection by the electrode. The authors also discuss effects on particle motions near the electrode, associated with breakdown of magnetic insulation in the region of large electric fields near it.

  8. Electrospray Collection of Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dziekan, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A report describes ElectroSpray Ionization based Electrostatic Precipitation (ESIEP) for collecting lunar dust particles. While some HEPA filtration processes may remove a higher fraction (>99.9 percent) of the particles, the high efficiency may not be appropriate from an overall system standpoint, especially in light of the relatively large power requirement that such systems demand. The new electrospray particle capture technology is described as a variant of electrostatic precipitation that eliminates the current drawbacks of electrostatic precipitation. The new approach replaces corona prone field with a mist of highly charged micro-droplets generated by electrospray ionization (ESI) as the mechanism by which incoming particles are attracted and captured. In electrospray, a miniscule flow rate (microliters/minute) of liquid (typically water and a small amount of salt to enhance conductivity) is fed from the tip of a needle held at a high voltage potential relative to an opposite counter electrode. At sufficient field strength, a sharp liquid meniscus forms , which emits a jet of highly charged droplets that drift through the surrounding gas and are collected on the walls of a conductive tube. Particles in the gas have a high probability of contact with the droplets either by adhering to the droplets or otherwise acquiring a high level of charge, causing them to be captured on the collecting electrode as well. The spray acts as a filtration material that is continuously introduced and removed from the gas flow, and thus can never become clogged.

  9. 76 FR 6498 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... the proposed information collection described below. The proposed information collection will be sent... before April 5, 2011. ADDRESSES: Send comments to Ms. Susan Daisey, Director, Office of Grant...

  10. Introducing the Atmospheric Visualization Collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, C. M.; Andrew, K.; Mace, G. G.; McCollum, T.; Gobble, T.

    2002-12-01

    The Atmospheric Visualization Collection is a digital library collection, a section in the NSF's National Science Digital Library. The collection has two essential components. The first is an archive of images based on data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The second is a collection of educational material based on atmospheric science concepts that use these data images. The data image archive focuses on the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, which has the largest collection of ground-based remote-sensing atmospheric instruments. Our visualization tools are automated to create the data images for both archival and real-time uses. ARM instrument mentors and ARM scientist as well as other scientists involved in campaigns at the ARM SGP site review our visualization work for scientific quality. While the archive of weather images was initially created for scientists, collaboration with teachers has identified many of the barriers to educational use. This revealed the need for more educationally friendly interfaces into our weather images and the need for greater documentation. One of the results is our geophysical focus area interface, allowing teachers and students to access these data images. The visualization tools used to produce these data images are available through an open source repository. Testing with undergraduate students has demonstrated the usability of these tools with data from the ARM Archive for class projects. While the task of reviewing and improving user interfaces continues, we have reached a stage where educators and students can easily access our atmospheric data images. An initial set of peer reviewed lesson plans based on these data images has been the basis for workshops to introduce teachers to the AVC. To further involve these teachers a Lesson Plan Sandbox. The Lesson Plan Sandbox allows teachers to submit their lesson plans to share with others, to review lesson plans submitted by other teachers, and to add improvements to existing lesson plans while keeping a copy of the previous version. All of this is done using only a browser. The most recent development is a lesson plan interface that lets users search lesson plans by the appropriate National Science Education Standard level or by keywords. The AVC seeks to provide research data in an accessible manner to both the research and educational communities. Currently the AVC averages 250-300 unique users per week with visitors from over 50 countries. While some users are from the scientific community, many of the users are students and teachers who are independently pursuing their scientific interests in atmospheric science.

  11. Collection Metadata Solutions for Digital Library Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Linda L.; Janee, Greg; Dolin, Ron; Frew, James; Larsgaard, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Within a digital library, collections may range from an ad hoc set of objects that serve a temporary purpose to established library collections intended to persist through time. The objects in these collections vary widely, from library and data center holdings to pointers to real-world objects, such as geographic places, and the various metadata schemas that describe them. The key to integrated use of such a variety of collections in a digital library is collection metadata that represents the inherent and contextual characteristics of a collection. The Alexandria Digital Library (ADL) Project has designed and implemented collection metadata for several purposes: in XML form, the collection metadata "registers" the collection with the user interface client; in HTML form, it is used for user documentation; eventually, it will be used to describe the collection to network search agents; and it is used for internal collection management, including mapping the object metadata attributes to the common search parameters of the system.

  12. 76 FR 16778 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... techniques to improve AHRQ's current data collection and estimation procedures, (2) develop new collections... techniques to simplify data collection and estimation procedures, reduce respondent burden, and improve... staff. AHRQ believes that developing, testing, and evaluating data collection and estimation...

  13. 78 FR 77167 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Supplemental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... Collection; Comments Requested: Supplemental Information on Water Quality Considerations ACTION: 60-day... (1) Type of Information Collection: Extension of a currently approved collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Supplemental Information on Water Quality Considerations. (3) Agency form number,...

  14. 76 FR 31988 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ...; Comments Requested ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection under Review: COPS Police and...) Type of Information Collection: New collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: COPS Police...

  15. 75 FR 33319 - Agency Information Collection Activities: New Information Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities: New Information Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 60-Day Notice of New Information Collection; ICE Mutual...) Title of the Form/Collection: ICE Mutual Agreement between Government and Employers (IMAGE)...

  16. 75 FR 71718 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request, OMB No. 1660-0011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Collection Financial Statement. SUMMARY: The Federal Emergency Management Agency, as part of its continuing... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request, OMB No. 1660-0011; Debt Collection Financial Statement AGENCY: Federal...

  17. 78 FR 9453 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Information Collection Tools

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Information Collection Tools AGENCY... INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional information or copies of the collection tools should be directed... INFORMATION: Currently, the IRS is seeking comments concerning the following information collection...

  18. 78 FR 7858 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Information Collection tools.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Information Collection tools. AGENCY... collection tools should be directed to R. Joseph Durbala, Internal Revenue Service, room 6129, 1111... information collection tools, reporting, and record-keeping requirements: (1) Title: Determination of...

  19. 76 FR 24057 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; ARCOS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; ARCOS Transaction Reporting DEA...), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) will be submitting the following information collection request... Department of Justice sponsoring the collection: Form Number: DEA Form 333. Office of Diversion Control,...

  20. 78 FR 1250 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed New Collection; Comments Requested; Stress...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... Information Collection Activities: Proposed New Collection; Comments Requested; Stress Resiliency Study... Form/Collection: Stress Resiliency Study Questionnaires for Milwaukee Police Department. (3) Agency... MPD. These surveys will be used to collect data on MPD officers' perceived stress, responses...

  1. 78 FR 13057 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Information Collection; IT Dashboard Feedback Mechanism

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Information Collection; IT Dashboard Feedback Mechanism... to review and approve a previously approved information collection requirement regarding IT Dashboard... identified by Information Collection 3090- 0285, IT Dashboard Feedback Mechanism, by any of the...

  2. 75 FR 46899 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-In-Depth Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... proposed collection is for ``In-Depth Case Studies of Advanced Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program... approved data collection. Abstract: The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) (formerly known as... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection;...

  3. 78 FR 39704 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Revision of Approved Information Collection; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Revision of Approved Information Collection; Comment Request--Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP): Federal Collection of State... revision of a currently approved collection for State agency Supplemental Nutrition Assistance...

  4. 78 FR 16536 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed New Collection; Comments Requested: Stress...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... Information Collection Activities; Proposed New Collection; Comments Requested: Stress Resiliency Study... new collection; comments requested. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Stress Resiliency Study... MPD officers' perceived stress, responses to stressful experiences, stress and its relationship...

  5. 76 FR 68787 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Extension of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Collection; Claim for Damage, Injury, or Death ACTION: 60-Day notice of information collection under review... approved collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Claim for Damage, Injury, or Death. (3) Agency...

  6. 76 FR 66325 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection, Comments Requested; E-FOIA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection, Comments..., Federal Bureau of Investigation, Records Management Division Record Information Dissemination Section.... Overview of This Information Collection: (1) Type of information collection: Revision of a...

  7. 76 FR 20043 - Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection, Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection, Comments... Department of Justice (DOJ), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Criminal Justice Information Services... responses. Overview of This Information Collection (1) Type of information collection: Approval of...

  8. 76 FR 70123 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Information Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request. SUMMARY: The EIA is...

  9. Collective sensing and collective responses in quorum-sensing bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Popat, R.; Cornforth, D. M.; McNally, L.; Brown, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria often face fluctuating environments, and in response many species have evolved complex decision-making mechanisms to match their behaviour to the prevailing conditions. Some environmental cues provide direct and reliable information (such as nutrient concentrations) and can be responded to individually. Other environmental parameters are harder to infer and require a collective mechanism of sensing. In addition, some environmental challenges are best faced by a group of cells rather than an individual. In this review, we discuss how bacteria sense and overcome environmental challenges as a group using collective mechanisms of sensing, known as ‘quorum sensing’ (QS). QS is characterized by the release and detection of small molecules, potentially allowing individuals to infer environmental parameters such as density and mass transfer. While a great deal of the molecular mechanisms of QS have been described, there is still controversy over its functional role. We discuss what QS senses and how, what it controls and why, and how social dilemmas shape its evolution. Finally, there is a growing focus on the use of QS inhibitors as antibacterial chemotherapy. We discuss the claim that such a strategy could overcome the evolution of resistance. By linking existing theoretical approaches to data, we hope this review will spur greater collaboration between experimental and theoretical researchers. PMID:25505130

  10. Invariants of collective neutrino oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pehlivan, Y.; Balantekin, A. B.; Kajino, Toshitaka; Yoshida, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    We consider the flavor evolution of a dense neutrino gas by taking into account both vacuum oscillations and self-interactions of neutrinos. We examine the system from a many-body perspective as well as from the point of view of an effective one-body description formulated in terms of the neutrino polarization vectors. We show that, in the single angle approximation, both the many-body picture and the effective one-particle picture possess several constants of motion. We write down these constants of motion explicitly in terms of the neutrino isospin operators for the many-body case and in terms of the polarization vectors for the effective one-body case. The existence of these constants of motion is a direct consequence of the fact that the collective neutrino oscillation Hamiltonian belongs to the class of Gaudin Hamiltonians. This class of Hamiltonians also includes the (reduced) BCS pairing Hamiltonian describing superconductivity. We point out the similarity between the collective neutrino oscillation Hamiltonian and the BCS pairing Hamiltonian. The constants of motion manifest the exact solvability of the system. Borrowing the well established techniques of calculating the exact BCS spectrum, we present exact eigenstates and eigenvalues of both the many-body and the effective one-particle Hamiltonians describing the collective neutrino oscillations. For the effective one-body case, we show that spectral splits of neutrinos can be understood in terms of the adiabatic evolution of some quasiparticle degrees of freedom from a high-density region where they coincide with flavor eigenstates to the vacuum where they coincide with mass eigenstates. We write down the most general consistency equations which should be satisfied by the effective one-body eigenstates and show that they reduce to the spectral split consistency equations for the appropriate initial conditions.

  11. 78 FR 29777 - Agency Information Collection Activities: New Collection; Survey of Supervised Visitation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... Information Collection Activities: New Collection; Survey of Supervised Visitation and Safe Exchange Programs... Collection (1) Type of Information Collection: New collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Survey of... former grant partners) approximately 30 minutes to complete the survey. The survey will include...

  12. 77 FR 76062 - Agency Information Collection Activities: E-Verify Program Data Collections. New Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... Program Data Collections. New Information Collection; Comment Request. ACTION: 60-Day notice... Information Collection: New information collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: E-Verify Program Data.... The E- Verify Data Collections evaluation is necessary in order for USCIS to obtain data...

  13. 78 FR 41795 - Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-11

    ... of information on the respondents, including the use of automated collection techniques or other... COMMISSION Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission... collection(s). Comments are requested concerning: ] whether the proposed collection of information...

  14. Collective organization in aerotactic motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazza, Marco G.

    Some bacteria exhibit interesting behavior in the presence of an oxygen concentration. They perform an aerotactic motion along the gradient until they reach their optimal oxygen concentration. But they often organize collectively by forming dense regions, called 'bands', that travel towards the oxygen source. We have developed a model of swimmers with stochastic interaction rules moving in proximity of an air bubble. We perform molecular dynamics simulations and also solve advection-diffusion equations that reproduce the aerotactic behavior of mono-flagellated, facultative anaerobic bacteria. If the oxygen concentration in the system sinks locally below a threshold value, the formation of a migrating aerotactic band toward the bubble can be observed.

  15. The neurobiology of collective action.

    PubMed

    Zak, Paul J; Barraza, Jorge A

    2013-01-01

    This essay introduces a neurologically-informed mathematical model of collective action (CA) that reveals the role for empathy and distress in motivating costly helping behaviors. We report three direct tests of model with a key focus on the neuropeptide oxytocin as well as a variety of indirect tests. These studies, from our lab and other researchers, show support for the model. Our findings indicate that empathic concern, via the brain's release of oxytocin, is a trigger for CA. We discuss the implications from this model for our understanding why human beings engage in costly CA. PMID:24311995

  16. Collective superlubricity of graphene flakes.

    PubMed

    van Wijk, Merel M; de Wijn, Astrid S; Fasolino, Annalisa

    2016-04-01

    We investigate solid lubrication of graphene and graphene flakes using atomistic molecular-dynamics simulations. We find that graphene flakes yield lower friction than graphene as a result of a collective mechanism that emerges from the independent behaviour of the flakes. By freezing out different degrees of freedom of the flakes, we are able to attribute the low friction to non-simultaneous slipping of the individual flakes. We also compare the results of the atomistic simulations to those of a simplified two-dimensional model and find that the behaviour of the latter is strongly dependent on parameters, which emerge naturally from the atomistic simulations. PMID:26934115

  17. Collective superlubricity of graphene flakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijk, Merel M.; de Wijn, Astrid S.; Fasolino, Annalisa

    2016-04-01

    We investigate solid lubrication of graphene and graphene flakes using atomistic molecular-dynamics simulations. We find that graphene flakes yield lower friction than graphene as a result of a collective mechanism that emerges from the independent behaviour of the flakes. By freezing out different degrees of freedom of the flakes, we are able to attribute the low friction to non-simultaneous slipping of the individual flakes. We also compare the results of the atomistic simulations to those of a simplified two-dimensional model and find that the behaviour of the latter is strongly dependent on parameters, which emerge naturally from the atomistic simulations.

  18. The neurobiology of collective action

    PubMed Central

    Zak, Paul J.; Barraza, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    This essay introduces a neurologically-informed mathematical model of collective action (CA) that reveals the role for empathy and distress in motivating costly helping behaviors. We report three direct tests of model with a key focus on the neuropeptide oxytocin as well as a variety of indirect tests. These studies, from our lab and other researchers, show support for the model. Our findings indicate that empathic concern, via the brain's release of oxytocin, is a trigger for CA. We discuss the implications from this model for our understanding why human beings engage in costly CA. PMID:24311995

  19. 36 CFR 1.8 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 1.8... PROVISIONS § 1.8 Information collection. The information collection requirements contained in §§ 1.5, 2.4, 2... 1024-0026. This information is being collected to provide superintendents data necessary to...

  20. 36 CFR 72.71 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 72.71... Information collection. The information collection requirements contained in § 72.72 have been approved by the... information is being collected to determine whether to approve a grant recipient's request to convert...

  1. 30 CFR 707.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Information collection. Since the information collection requirement contained in 30 CFR 707.12 consists only of expenditures on information collection activities that would be incurred by persons in the normal... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 707.10 Section...

  2. 30 CFR 840.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 840.10 Section 840.10... ENFORCEMENT § 840.10 Information collection. (a) The collections of information contained in part 840 have... clearance number 1029-0051. The information is being collected by States for use in assessing penalties...

  3. 36 CFR 12.12 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 12.12... NATIONAL CEMETERY REGULATIONS § 12.12 Information collection. The information collection requirements... U.S.C. 3501 et seq., and assigned clearance number 1024-0026. The information is being collected...

  4. 30 CFR 822.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 822.10 Section 822.10... ALLUVIAL VALLEY FLOORS § 822.10 Information collection. The information collection requirements contained... assigned clearance number 1029-0049. The information is being collected to meet the requirements...

  5. 30 CFR 850.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 850.10 Section 850.10... FOR CERTIFICATION OF BLASTERS § 850.10 Information collection. The information collection requirements... assigned clearance number 1029-0080. The information is being collected to meet the requirements...

  6. 30 CFR 773.3 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information collection. 773.3 Section 773.3... REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMITS AND PERMIT PROCESSING § 773.3 Information collection. The collections of information.... and assigned clearance number 1029-0115. The information collected will be used by the...

  7. 77 FR 44602 - Agency Information Collection Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Information Collection Extension AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Submission for Office of... information collection request to OMB for extension under the provisions of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. The information collection requests a three-year extension of its Labor Relations collection....

  8. Politicized Collective Identity: A Social Psychological Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Bernd; Klandermans, Bert

    2001-01-01

    Develops a social psychological model of politicized collective identity that revolves around three conceptual themes (collective identity, the struggle for power, and the wider societal context of that power struggle). Discusses how collective identity has been politicized, showing that politicized collective identity has important consequences…

  9. 30 CFR 795.4 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information collection. 795.4 Section 795.4... collection. The collections of information contained in part 795 have been approved by the Office of... completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or...

  10. 30 CFR 840.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information collection. 840.10 Section 840.10... ENFORCEMENT § 840.10 Information collection. (a) The collections of information contained in part 840 have... collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of...

  11. 26 CFR 601.104 - Collection functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collection functions. 601.104 Section 601.104... STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES General Procedural Rules § 601.104 Collection functions. (a) Collection... assessment. Upon assessment, the district director is required to effect collection of any amounts...

  12. 29 CFR 20.84 - Collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Collections. 20.84 Section 20.84 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION Salary Offset § 20.84 Collections. (a) Whenever feasible, and... 15 percent of disposable pay for an officially established pay interval, collection must be made...

  13. 30 CFR 705.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information collection. 705.10 Section 705.10... RESTRICTION ON FINANCIAL INTERESTS OF STATE EMPLOYEES § 705.10 Information collection. The collections of... maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send...

  14. 45 CFR 1177.10 - Collection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collection services. 1177.10 Section 1177.10... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION § 1177.10 Collection services. (a) The Endowment may contract for collection services to recover outstanding debts. The Endowment may...

  15. 30 CFR 822.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information collection. 822.10 Section 822.10... ALLUVIAL VALLEY FLOORS § 822.10 Information collection. The information collection requirements contained... sections 510(b)(5) and 515(b)(10)(F) of the Act which provide the information collection requirements...

  16. 12 CFR 313.22 - Collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... determine that the proposed offset is within the scope of this remedy, as set forth in 31 CFR 901.3(a... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collection. 313.22 Section 313.22 Banks and... DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Offset § 313.22 Collection. (a) The Director may collect a claim from...

  17. 42 CFR 401.607 - Claims collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Claims collection. 401.607 Section 401.607 Public... PROVISIONS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Claims Collection and Compromise § 401.607 Claims collection... appropriate, by— (1) Direct collections in lump sums or in installments; or (2) Offsets against monies owed...

  18. 22 CFR 309.11 - Collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accordance with 31 CFR 901.3. These may be funds under the control of Peace Corps or other Federal agencies... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Collection. 309.11 Section 309.11 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS DEBT COLLECTION Collection Actions § 309.11 Collection. Upon final determination...

  19. 77 FR 16870 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... Proposed Collection; Comment Request Summary: In accordance with the requirement of Section 3506 (c)(2)(A... revised data collections, the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB) will publish periodic summaries of proposed data collections. Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the proposed information collection is...

  20. 30 CFR 707.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Information collection. Since the information collection requirement contained in 30 CFR 707.12 consists only of expenditures on information collection activities that would be incurred by persons in the normal... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information collection. 707.10 Section...

  1. 32 CFR 204.6 - Collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collections. 204.6 Section 204.6 National... USER FEES § 204.6 Collections. (a) Collections of fees will be made in advance or simultaneously with..., and managing cash and debt collections. (b) Unless a statute provides otherwise, user fee...

  2. 30 CFR 710.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information collection. 710.10 Section 710.10... PROGRAM REGULATIONS INITIAL REGULATORY PROGRAM § 710.10 Information collection. The collections of... accordance with 30 U.S.C. 1201 et seq. Public reporting burden for this collection of information...

  3. 49 CFR 241.19 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information collection. 241.19 Section 241.19... OPERATIONS § 241.19 Information collection. (a) The information collection requirements of this part are... (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.). (b) The information collection requirements are found in the...

  4. 38 CFR 14.619 - Collection action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection action. 14.619..., GENERAL COUNSEL, AND MISCELLANEOUS CLAIMS Claims for Cost of Medical Care and Services § 14.619 Collection... collect, compromise, suspend, or terminate collection activity on any such claim as is authorized...

  5. H. W. Wilson "Nonbook Materials Core Collection"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Meghan

    2009-01-01

    The "Nonbook Materials Core Collection" is one of H. W. Wilson's new subscription-based electronic core collection development databases. It is a new addition to the five-volume core collection series formerly known as the "Standard Catalog Series." Other titles in this series have long been staples of collection development resources for both…

  6. 28 CFR 115.387 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Data collection. 115.387 Section 115.387... Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.387 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at facilities under its direct...

  7. 15 CFR 990.43 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Data collection. 990.43 Section 990.43... DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Preassessment Phase § 990.43 Data collection. Trustees may conduct data collection and analyses that are reasonably related to Preassessment Phase activities. Data collection and analysis...

  8. 28 CFR 115.187 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Data collection. 115.187 Section 115.187... Standards for Lockups Data Collection and Review § 115.187 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at lockups under its direct control using...

  9. 28 CFR 115.287 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Data collection. 115.287 Section 115.287... Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.287 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at facilities under...

  10. 28 CFR 115.87 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data collection. 115.87 Section 115.87... Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.87 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at facilities under its...

  11. 28 CFR 115.87 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data collection. 115.87 Section 115.87... Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.87 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at facilities under its...

  12. 15 CFR 990.43 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Data collection. 990.43 Section 990.43... DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Preassessment Phase § 990.43 Data collection. Trustees may conduct data collection and analyses that are reasonably related to Preassessment Phase activities. Data collection and analysis...

  13. 28 CFR 115.387 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data collection. 115.387 Section 115.387... Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.387 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at facilities under its direct...

  14. 15 CFR 990.43 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Data collection. 990.43 Section 990.43... DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Preassessment Phase § 990.43 Data collection. Trustees may conduct data collection and analyses that are reasonably related to Preassessment Phase activities. Data collection and analysis...

  15. 28 CFR 115.187 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data collection. 115.187 Section 115.187... Standards for Lockups Data Collection and Review § 115.187 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at lockups under its direct control using...

  16. 28 CFR 115.187 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data collection. 115.187 Section 115.187... Standards for Lockups Data Collection and Review § 115.187 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at lockups under its direct control using...

  17. 28 CFR 115.287 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data collection. 115.287 Section 115.287... Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.287 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at facilities under...

  18. 28 CFR 115.287 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data collection. 115.287 Section 115.287... Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.287 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at facilities under...

  19. 28 CFR 115.387 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data collection. 115.387 Section 115.387... Standards for Juvenile Facilities Data Collection and Review § 115.387 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at facilities under its direct...

  20. 28 CFR 115.87 - Data collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Data collection. 115.87 Section 115.87... Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Data Collection and Review § 115.87 Data collection. (a) The agency shall collect accurate, uniform data for every allegation of sexual abuse at facilities under its...

  1. 25 CFR 175.32 - Collections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collections. 175.32 Section 175.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Billing, Payments, and Collections § 175.32 Collections. The utility shall attempt collection on checks returned...

  2. 76 FR 54812 - Proposed Collections; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ...In accordance with the requirement of Section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 which provides opportunity for public comment on new or revised data collections, the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB) publishes periodic summaries of proposed data collections. Comments are invited on: (a) Whether the proposed information collection(s) is necessary for the proper performance of......

  3. 10 CFR 26.87 - Collection sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collection sites. 26.87 Section 26.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.87 Collection sites. (a) Each FFD program must have one or more designated collection sites that have all necessary...

  4. 10 CFR 26.87 - Collection sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collection sites. 26.87 Section 26.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.87 Collection sites. (a) Each FFD program must have one or more designated collection sites that have all necessary...

  5. 10 CFR 26.87 - Collection sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collection sites. 26.87 Section 26.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.87 Collection sites. (a) Each FFD program must have one or more designated collection sites that have all necessary...

  6. 10 CFR 26.87 - Collection sites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collection sites. 26.87 Section 26.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.87 Collection sites. (a) Each FFD program must have one or more designated collection sites that have all necessary...

  7. 30 CFR 850.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Information collection. 850.10 Section 850.10... FOR CERTIFICATION OF BLASTERS § 850.10 Information collection. The information collection requirements... assigned clearance number 1029-0080. The information is being collected to meet the requirements...

  8. 43 CFR 29.14 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FUND § 29.14 Information collection. The information collection requirements contained in 43 CFR 29.9... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Information collection. 29.14 Section 29... approval No. 1084-0026. The information being collected is the information required to substantiate...

  9. 30 CFR 877.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Information collection. 877.10 Section 877.10... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION RIGHTS OF ENTRY § 877.10 Information collection. The information collection...) under 44 U.S.C. 3507 and assigned clearance number 1029-0055. This information is being collected...

  10. 30 CFR 840.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Information collection. 840.10 Section 840.10... ENFORCEMENT § 840.10 Information collection. (a) The collections of information contained in part 840 have... clearance number 1029-0051. The information is being collected by States for use in assessing penalties...

  11. 30 CFR 822.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Information collection. 822.10 Section 822.10... ALLUVIAL VALLEY FLOORS § 822.10 Information collection. The information collection requirements contained... assigned clearance number 1029-0049. The information is being collected to meet the requirements...

  12. 30 CFR 707.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Information collection. Since the information collection requirement contained in 30 CFR 707.12 consists only of expenditures on information collection activities that would be incurred by persons in the normal... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Information collection. 707.10 Section...

  13. Curriculum Materials Center Collection Development Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Coll. and Research Libraries, Chicago, IL.

    This model collection development policy was designed to aid curriculum materials center (CMC) librarians in defining their collection development programs and to provide guidance to personnel in building and maintaining the materials and equipment collections. A CMC collection provides print and audiovisual media designed to support the

  14. The Art of Reference Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattendorf, Lynn C.

    This paper argues that the first order of the day in reference collection development is to cope with the problems that developing user-responsive, client-centered reference collections always incur. It is suggested that the responsiveness of reference collections can be measured largely by the currency of the materials in the collection and by…

  15. 30 CFR 773.3 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Information collection. 773.3 Section 773.3... REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMITS AND PERMIT PROCESSING § 773.3 Information collection. The collections of information.... and assigned clearance number 1029-0115. The information collected will be used by the...

  16. 34 CFR 674.45 - Collection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Engage a collection firm to collect the account. (b)(1) An institution must report to any national credit... information reported on the loan. (c)(1) If the institution, or the firm it engages, pursues collection... own personnel, it shall refer the account to a collection firm. (B) If the institution first...

  17. 34 CFR 674.45 - Collection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Engage a collection firm to collect the account. (b)(1) An institution must report to any national credit... information reported on the loan. (c)(1) If the institution, or the firm it engages, pursues collection... own personnel, it shall refer the account to a collection firm. (B) If the institution first...

  18. 30 CFR 773.3 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information collection. 773.3 Section 773.3... REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMITS AND PERMIT PROCESSING § 773.3 Information collection. The collections of information.... and assigned clearance number 1029-0115. The information collected will be used by the...

  19. 7 CFR 1260.106 - Collecting person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collecting person. 1260.106 Section 1260.106... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.106 Collecting person. Collecting person means the person making payment to a producer for cattle, or any other person who is responsible for collecting...

  20. 45 CFR 1177.10 - Collection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Collection services. 1177.10 Section 1177.10... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION § 1177.10 Collection services. (a) The Endowment may contract for collection services to recover outstanding debts. The Endowment may...

  1. Sensorized waste collection container for content estimation and collection optimization.

    PubMed

    Vicentini, F; Giusti, A; Rovetta, A; Fan, X; He, Q; Zhu, M; Liu, B

    2009-05-01

    The concurrent effects of a fast national growth rate, of a large and dense residential area and a pressing demand for urban environmental protection create a challenging framework for waste management in Pudong New Area, Shanghai. The complexity of context and procedures is indeed a primary concern of local municipal authorities due to problems related to the collection, transportation and processing of residential solid waste. In order to design and implement a suitable urban solid waste system, the first task is to forecast the quantity and variance of solid waste as it relates to residential population, consumer index, season, etc. The system here discussed addresses exactly these issues, by means of an intelligent, sensorized container. The container has been prepared and tested in the Pudong New Area, Shanghai. PMID:19103480

  2. Statistical analysis in MSW collection performance assessment.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Carlos Afonso; Avelino, Catarina; Ferreira, Fátima; Bentes, Isabel

    2014-09-01

    The increase of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generated over the last years forces waste managers pursuing more effective collection schemes, technically viable, environmentally effective and economically sustainable. The assessment of MSW services using performance indicators plays a crucial role for improving service quality. In this work, we focus on the relevance of regular system monitoring as a service assessment tool. In particular, we select and test a core-set of MSW collection performance indicators (effective collection distance, effective collection time and effective fuel consumption) that highlights collection system strengths and weaknesses and supports pro-active management decision-making and strategic planning. A statistical analysis was conducted with data collected in mixed collection system of Oporto Municipality, Portugal, during one year, a week per month. This analysis provides collection circuits' operational assessment and supports effective short-term municipality collection strategies at the level of, e.g., collection frequency and timetables, and type of containers. PMID:24863624

  3. Human collective reactions to threat.

    PubMed

    Dezecache, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    A common assumption regarding mass emergency situations is that individuals in such contexts behave in a way that maximizes their likelihood to escape, at the expense, or with little concern for, the welfare and survival of their neighbors. Doing so, they might even compromise the effectiveness of group evacuation. This conception follows the views of early works on crowd psychology, a tradition born with Gustave Le Bon's The Crowd: a study of the Popular Mind, first published in 1895, and which has had a tremendous impact on scientific representations of people's behavior in mass emergency contexts. Indeed, this work has greatly contributed to the idea that, in such situations, people revert to a primitive, impulsive, irrational, and antisocial nature, causing the breakdown of social order. However, more empirically oriented studies have consistently reported little collective panic, as well as a great deal of solidarity and pro-social behavior during mass emergency situations. Because of institutional barriers, such views have remained largely unknown to cognitive psychologists. Yet these are important results in that they show that human individual and collective reactions to threat are primarily affiliative. Indeed, far from leading to the breakdown of the social fabrics, the presence of a common threat can strengthen social bonds. PMID:26263225

  4. Collective credit allocation in science.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-08-26

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, because the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors' contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability to accurately measure the relative credit of researchers could affect many aspects of credit allocation in science, potentially impacting hiring, funding, and promotion decisions. PMID:25114238

  5. Collective credit allocation in science

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, because the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors’ contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability to accurately measure the relative credit of researchers could affect many aspects of credit allocation in science, potentially impacting hiring, funding, and promotion decisions. PMID:25114238

  6. Collective specification of cellular development.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Tsvi

    2003-09-01

    Studies of chimeras and in vivo development demonstrate that cell lineages are often quite variable, apparently in response to chance perturbations. This points to an apparent contradiction: although individual cells are the units of genetic information and differentiation, not all cellular events need be precise for the development of functional organisms. The social organization of ants can serve as a metaphor that helps understand the mechanisms that underlie such development. Ants suggest that continued cellular interactions and environmental conditions could specify the proportion and general location of specialized units. Leaf venation is used as a concrete example of this general principle. A signal produced continuously by all cells specifies a requirement for vein differentiation. The cells that respond by differentiation then transport the signal away from the leaf; this removal acting as a feedback indicating that the requirement is being met. Because transport increases during vein differentiation, early initiation occurs in excess and vein 'competition' for the signal assures an acceptable outcome. Such specification would be robust since it does not depend on events in any single cell, and chance events, rather than being corrected or reversed, may be built upon in reaching an expected, collective phenotype. The absence of detailed information preceding development distinguishes this hypothesis from the common alternatives of a program or blueprint. Collective specification would have important implications for developmental plasticity and evolution. PMID:12938179

  7. Selective altruism in collective games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappalà, Dario A.; Pluchino, Alessandro; Rapisarda, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    We study the emergence of altruistic behaviour in collective games. In particular, we take into account Toral's version of collective Parrondo's paradoxical games, in which the redistribution of capital between agents, who can play different strategies, creates a positive trend of increasing capital. In this framework, we insert two categories of players, altruistic and selfish ones, and see how they interact and how their capital evolves. More in detail, we analyse the positive effects of altruistic behaviour, but we also point out how selfish players take advantage of that situation. The general result is that altruistic behaviour is discouraged, because selfish players get richer while altruistic ones get poorer. We also consider a smarter way of being altruistic, based on reputation, called "selective altruism", which prevents selfish players from taking advantage of altruistic ones. In this new situation it is altruism, and not selfishness, to be encouraged and stabilized. Finally, we introduce a mechanism of imitation between players and study how it influences the composition of the population of both altruistic and selfish players as a function of time for different initial conditions and network topologies adopted.

  8. Subsurface Samples: Collection and Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Philip E.; Griffin, W. Timothy; Phelps, Tommy J.

    2002-12-01

    Microbiological data, interpretation, and conclusions from subsurface samples ultimately depend on the quality and representative character of the samples. Subsurface samples for environmental microbiology ideally contain only the microbial community and geochemical properties that are representative of the subsurface environment from which the sample was taken. To that end, sample contamination by exogenous microorganisms or chemical constituents must be eliminated or minimized, and sample analyses need to begin before changes in the microbial community or geochemical characteristics occur. This article presents sampling methods and sample processing techniques for collecting representative samples from a range of subsurface environments. Factors that should be considered when developing a subsurface sampling program are discussed, including potential benefits, costs, and limitations enabling researchers to evaluate the techniques that are presented and match them to their project requirements. Methods and protocols to address coring, sampling, processing and quality assessment issues are presented.

  9. Infering Networks From Collective Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timme, Marc

    How can we infer direct physical interactions between pairs of units from only knowing the units' time series? Here we present a dynamical systems' view on collective network dynamics, and propose the concept of a dynamics' space to reveal interaction networks from time series. We present two examples: one, where the time series stem from standard ordinary differential equations, and a second, more abstract, where the time series exhibits only partial information about the units' states. We apply the latter to neural circuit dynamics where the observables are spike timing data, i.e. only a discrete, state-dependent outputs of the neurons. These results may help revealing network structure for systems where direct access to dynamics is simpler than to connectivity, cf.. This is work with Jose Casadiego, Srinivas Gorur Shandilya, Mor Nitzan, Hauke Haehne and Dimitra Maoutsa. Supported by Grants of the BMBF (Future Compliant Power Grids - CoNDyNet) and by the Max Planck Society to MT.

  10. Fleet Assignment Using Collective Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, Nicolas E.; Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Product distribution theory is a new collective intelligence-based framework for analyzing and controlling distributed systems. Its usefulness in distributed stochastic optimization is illustrated here through an airline fleet assignment problem. This problem involves the allocation of aircraft to a set of flights legs in order to meet passenger demand, while satisfying a variety of linear and non-linear constraints. Over the course of the day, the routing of each aircraft is determined in order to minimize the number of required flights for a given fleet. The associated flow continuity and aircraft count constraints have led researchers to focus on obtaining quasi-optimal solutions, especially at larger scales. In this paper, the authors propose the application of this new stochastic optimization algorithm to a non-linear objective cold start fleet assignment problem. Results show that the optimizer can successfully solve such highly-constrained problems (130 variables, 184 constraints).

  11. Collective Functionality through Bacterial Individuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, Martin

    According to the conventional view, the properties of an organism are a product of nature and nurture - of its genes and the environment it lives in. Recent experiments with unicellular organisms have challenged this view: several molecular mechanisms generate phenotypic variation independently of environmental signals, leading to variation in clonal groups. My presentation will focus on the causes and consequences of this microbial individuality. Using examples from bacterial genetic model systems, I will first discuss different molecular and cellular mechanisms that give rise to bacterial individuality. Then, I will discuss the consequences of individuality, and focus on how phenotypic variation in clonal populations of bacteria can promote interactions between individuals, lead to the division of labor, and allow clonal groups of bacteria to cope with environmental uncertainty. Variation between individuals thus provides clonal groups with collective functionality.

  12. Devices for collecting chemical compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Jill R; Groenewold, Gary S

    2013-12-24

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from a fixed surface so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  13. Experiment S012: Micrometeorite collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemenway, C. L.; Hallgren, D. S.; Coon, R. E.; Bourdillon, L. A.; Hotchin, J.; Lorenz, P.

    1971-01-01

    The micrometeorite activity in a near-earth environment and the effect of the environment on microorganisms were studied by exposure of polished metal and plastic surfaces to the environment outside the Gemini spacecraft. Preliminary results are summarized as follows: (1) The cumulative influx rate in the size ranges from 10 to the minus 15th power to 10 to the minus 14th power gram was approximately 2 particles/ sq m/sec, as determined on the Gemini 12 mission; (2) The cumulative influx rate in the same mass range, as determined by the data from the Gemini 9 mission was almost 200 particles/ sq m/sec; and (3) The large particle cumulative influx rate was about 3 x 0.00001 particle/ sq m/sec, with a mass of the order of 10 to the minus 7th power gram. No living organisms could be found on the sterile collecting surfaces after recovery and handling.

  14. MAD data collection - current trends.

    SciTech Connect

    Dementieva, I.; Evans, G.; Joachimiak, A.; Sanishvili, R.; Walsh, M. A.

    1999-09-20

    The multi-wavelength anomalous diffraction, or MAD, method of determining protein structure is becoming routine in protein crystallography. An increase in the number of tuneable synchrotrons beamlines coupled with the widespread availability position-sensitive X-ray detectors based on charged-coupled devices and having fast readout raised MAD structure determination to a new and exciting level. Ultra-fast MAD data collection is now possible. Recognition of the value of selenium for phasing protein structures and improvement of methods for incorporating selenium into proteins in the form of selenomethionine have attracted greater interest in the MAD method. Recent developments in crystallographic software are complimenting the above advances, paving the way for rapid protein structure determination. An overview of a typical MAD experiment is described here, with emphasis on the rates and quality of data acquisition now achievable at beamlines developed at third-generation synchrotrons sources.

  15. Control of collective network chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Wagemakers, Alexandre Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.

    2014-06-01

    Under certain conditions, the collective behavior of a large globally-coupled heterogeneous network of coupled oscillators, as quantified by the macroscopic mean field or order parameter, can exhibit low-dimensional chaotic behavior. Recent advances describe how a small set of “reduced” ordinary differential equations can be derived that captures this mean field behavior. Here, we show that chaos control algorithms designed using the reduced equations can be successfully applied to imperfect realizations of the full network. To systematically study the effectiveness of this technique, we measure the quality of control as we relax conditions that are required for the strict accuracy of the reduced equations, and hence, the controller. Although the effects are network-dependent, we show that the method is effective for surprisingly small networks, for modest departures from global coupling, and even with mild inaccuracy in the estimate of network heterogeneity.

  16. Collective dynamics during cell division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapperi, Stefano; Bertalan, Zsolt; Budrikis, Zoe; La Porta, Caterina A. M.

    In order to correctly divide, cells have to move all their chromosomes at the center, a process known as congression. This task is performed by the combined action of molecular motors and randomly growing and shrinking microtubules. Chromosomes are captured by growing microtubules and transported by motors using the same microtubules as tracks. Coherent motion occurs as a result of a large collection of random and deterministic dynamical events. Understanding this process is important since a failure in chromosome segregation can lead to chromosomal instability one of the hallmarks of cancer. We describe this complex process in a three dimensional computational model involving thousands of microtubules. The results show that coherent and robust chromosome congression can only happen if the total number of microtubules is neither too small, nor too large. Our results allow for a coherent interpretation a variety of biological factors already associated in the past with chromosomal instability and related pathological conditions.

  17. Collective motion in animal groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couzin, Iain

    2004-03-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the relationship between individual behavior and population-level properties in animal groups. One of the fundamental problems is related to spatial scale; how do interactions over a local range result in population properties at larger, averaged, scales, and how can we integrate the properties of aggregates over these scales? Many group-living animals exhibit complex, and coordinated, spatio-temporal patterns which despite their ubiquity and ecological importance are very poorly understood. This is largely due to the difficulties associated with quantifying the motion of, and interactions among, many animals simultaneously. It is on how these behaviors scale to collective behaviors that I will focus here. Using a combined empirical approach (using novel computer vision techniques) and individual-based computer models, I investigate pattern formation in both invertebrate and vertebrate systems, including - Collective memory and self-organized group structure in vertebrate groups (Couzin, I.D., Krause, J., James, R., Ruxton, G.D. & Franks, N.R. (2002) Journal of Theoretical Biology 218, 1-11. (2) Couzin, I.D. & Krause, J. (2003) Advances in the Study of Behavior 32, 1-75. (3) Hoare, D.J., Couzin, I.D. Godin, J.-G. & Krause, J. (2003) Animal Behaviour, in press.) - Self-organized lane formation and optimized traffic flow in army ants (Couzin, I.D. & Franks, N.R. (2003) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 270, 139-146) - Leadership and information transfer in flocks, schools and swarms. - Why do hoppers hop? Hopping and the generation of long-range order in some of the largest animal groups in nature, locust hopper bands.

  18. On the cultural constitution of collective memory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi

    2008-04-01

    The study of collective memory needs to take into consideration the cultural context in which the remembering takes place. In this article, I analyse how functional variations of collective memory across cultures may influence the processes, practices, and outcomes of collective remembering. I then discuss the transitory nature of culture in affecting collective memory across an individual's lifespan as well as across time and generations. I borrow recent findings from cross-cultural research on autobiographical memory to illustrate the cultural effects, and propose a new approach to studying collective memory in which the individual, the collective, and the culture are treated as a single unit of analysis. PMID:18324554

  19. 77 FR 39241 - Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission, Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... COMMISSION Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission, Comments... and other Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on the following information collection(s). Comments are requested concerning: whether the proposed collection of information is...

  20. 76 FR 50496 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Supplemental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... Collection; Comments Requested; Supplemental Information on Water Quality Considerations ACTION: 60-Day.... Summary of Collection (1) Type of Information Collection: Extension of a currently approved collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Supplemental Information on Water Quality Considerations. (3) Agency...

  1. 78 FR 79448 - Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission... Reduction Act (PRA) of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501-3520), the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) invites the... collection(s). Comments are requested concerning: whether the proposed collection of information is...

  2. 75 FR 18885 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... Collection; Comments Requested ACTION: 30-Day notice of information collection under review: Police check... Collection: Extension of a currently approved collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Police Check... information is necessary to permit ATF to complete and/or initiate a police check inquiry consisting...

  3. 78 FR 40175 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed New Collection; Comments Requested: Police-Led...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... Information Collection Activities; Proposed New Collection; Comments Requested: Police-Led Diversion Programs... Collection: Proposed new collection; comments requested (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Police-Led... information to determine the national prevalence of police-led diversion programs and provide a portrait...

  4. 78 FR 43917 - Agency Information Collection Activities; New Collection; Comments Requested: Survey of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... Information Collection Activities; New Collection; Comments Requested: Survey of Supervised Visitation and...) Type of Information Collection: New collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Survey of Supervised...) approximately 30 minutes to complete the survey. The survey will include 10 questions that will...

  5. 76 FR 64377 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Alien's Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Alien's Change of Address Forms... Collection: Revision of a currently approved collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Alien's Change of... any decisions in an alien's case. (5) An estimate of the total number of respondents and the amount...

  6. 76 FR 80403 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed collection; Comments Request: Alien's Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Information Collection Activities; Proposed collection; Comments Request: Alien's Change of Address Form: 33... Collection: Revision of a Currently Approved Collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Alien's Change of... any decisions in an alien's case. (5) An estimate of the total number of respondents and the amount...

  7. 76 FR 62445 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Extension of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Information Collection; Claims Filed Under the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA) ACTION: 30-Day... Collection (1) Type of Information Collection: Extension of a currently approved collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Claims Filed Under the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA). (3) Agency...

  8. 77 FR 71018 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Extension of a Currently Approved Collection; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... of a Currently Approved Collection; Comment Request: National Youth Gang Survey AGENCY: Office of... Collection: Extension of a currently approved collection. 2. Title of the Form/Collection: National Youth... agencies. Other: None. Abstract: This collection will gather information related to youth and...

  9. 75 FR 70030 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Extension of a Currently Approved Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Collection ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Survey of Sexual Violence (SSV) The... Collection: Existing data collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Survey of Sexual Violence. (3) Agency... prevalence of sexual assault within correctional facilities, as well as characteristics of...

  10. 76 FR 40935 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection Comments Requested Race and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Collection Comments Requested Race and National Origin Identification ACTION: 30-Day notice. The Department... information collection is used to maintain Race and National Origin data on all employees and new hires to... Information Collection: Extension of a currently approved collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection:...

  11. 76 FR 27350 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed collection comments requested Race and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... collection comments requested Race and National Origin Identification ACTION: 60-Day Notice. The Department... a currently approved collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Race and National Origin... or households. Other: None. Need for Collection The information collection is used to maintain...

  12. 77 FR 22346 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Leased/Charter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Leased/Charter Flight Personnel... Collection: New collection. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Leased/Charter Flight Personnel Expedited... to be completed by people applying to become contract flight crew members. It is required so...

  13. 76 FR 2113 - Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... confidentiality with this collection of information. Needs and Uses: 47 CFR Section 73.1250(e) requires that... COMMISSION Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission... Federal agencies to take this opportunity to comment on the following information collection(s),...

  14. 77 FR 22345 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Body Armor in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Body Armor in Correctional... approval of collection. (2) Title of Form/Collection: Body Armor in Correctional Institutions Survey. The collections include the forms Body Armor Administrative Agency-Level Survey and Body Armor...

  15. 77 FR 32136 - Agency Information Collection Activities:

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed collection; comments requested; Notification to Fire Safety Authority of Storage of Explosive...

  16. 78 FR 31522 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... of the Secretary Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency..., the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency announces a proposed public information collection and... Corporate Application Branch, User Access Services Division, National Geospatial- Intelligence Agency,...

  17. 28 CFR 812.4 - Collection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COLUMBIA COLLECTION AND USE OF DNA INFORMATION § 812.4 Collection procedures. (a) DNA samples will be... misdemeanor pursuant to section 4(a)(5) of the DNA Analysis Backlog Elimination Act of 2000 (42 U.S.C....

  18. 28 CFR 812.4 - Collection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COLUMBIA COLLECTION AND USE OF DNA INFORMATION § 812.4 Collection procedures. (a) DNA samples will be... misdemeanor pursuant to section 4(a)(5) of the DNA Analysis Backlog Elimination Act of 2000 (42 U.S.C....

  19. 28 CFR 812.4 - Collection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COLUMBIA COLLECTION AND USE OF DNA INFORMATION § 812.4 Collection procedures. (a) DNA samples will be... misdemeanor pursuant to section 4(a)(5) of the DNA Analysis Backlog Elimination Act of 2000 (42 U.S.C....

  20. 28 CFR 812.4 - Collection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COLUMBIA COLLECTION AND USE OF DNA INFORMATION § 812.4 Collection procedures. (a) DNA samples will be... misdemeanor pursuant to section 4(a)(5) of the DNA Analysis Backlog Elimination Act of 2000 (42 U.S.C....

  1. 28 CFR 812.4 - Collection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COLUMBIA COLLECTION AND USE OF DNA INFORMATION § 812.4 Collection procedures. (a) DNA samples will be... misdemeanor pursuant to section 4(a)(5) of the DNA Analysis Backlog Elimination Act of 2000 (42 U.S.C....

  2. Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Municipal sanitary sewer collection systems play a critical role in protecting public health in our municipalities. They are designed to convey wastewater from their sources to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Collection systems consist of house service laterals, sewers, pu...

  3. 75 FR 80080 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and Space... publication. ADDRESSES: All comments should be addressed to Lori Parker, National Aeronautics and...

  4. 76 FR 24066 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... practical utility; (b) the accuracy of the RRB's estimate of the burden of the collection of the information; (c) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and...

  5. 75 FR 41557 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... practical utility; (b) the accuracy of the RRB's estimate of the burden of the collection of the information; (c) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and...

  6. 25 CFR 13.2 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CHILD CUSTODY PROCEEDINGS Purpose § 13.2 Information collection. The information collection requirement... tribes request reassumption of jurisdiction over child custody proceedings. The information will be used to determine if reassumption of jurisdiction over Indian child custody proceedings is...

  7. 25 CFR 13.2 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CHILD CUSTODY PROCEEDINGS Purpose § 13.2 Information collection. The information collection requirement... tribes request reassumption of jurisdiction over child custody proceedings. The information will be used to determine if reassumption of jurisdiction over Indian child custody proceedings is...

  8. 25 CFR 13.2 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CHILD CUSTODY PROCEEDINGS Purpose § 13.2 Information collection. The information collection requirement... tribes request reassumption of jurisdiction over child custody proceedings. The information will be used to determine if reassumption of jurisdiction over Indian child custody proceedings is...

  9. 25 CFR 13.2 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CHILD CUSTODY PROCEEDINGS Purpose § 13.2 Information collection. The information collection requirement... tribes request reassumption of jurisdiction over child custody proceedings. The information will be used to determine if reassumption of jurisdiction over Indian child custody proceedings is...

  10. 25 CFR 13.2 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CHILD CUSTODY PROCEEDINGS Purpose § 13.2 Information collection. The information collection requirement... tribes request reassumption of jurisdiction over child custody proceedings. The information will be used to determine if reassumption of jurisdiction over Indian child custody proceedings is...

  11. 77 FR 39518 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and Space... of Respondents: 1,200. Estimated Time per Response: 20 minutes. Estimated Total Annual Burden...

  12. 75 FR 61777 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and Space... publication. ADDRESSES: All comments should be addressed to Lori Parker, National Aeronautics and...

  13. 77 FR 10782 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... proposed information collection will be sent to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as... collection must be submitted on or before April 23, 2012. ADDRESSES: Send comments to Ms. Susan...

  14. 75 FR 77006 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    .... Affected Public: Business or other for-profit and not-for-profit institutions. Estimated Number of... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  15. 75 FR 15431 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ] ACTION: 60-Day... Finance Agency (FHFA) is seeking public comments concerning the information collection known as...

  16. 78 FR 39293 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: 60-day Notice... Finance Agency (FHFA) is seeking public comments concerning the information collection known as...

  17. 78 FR 39292 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: 60-day Notice... Finance Agency (FHFA) is seeking public comments concerning the information collection known as...

  18. 78 FR 52215 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and Space... instructions should be addressed to Ms. Frances Teel, JF000, National Aeronautics and Space...

  19. 75 FR 62433 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... intended to provide students with career exploration under the mentorship of a Kennedy Space Center (KSC... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  20. 75 FR 75702 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... intended to provide students with career exploration under the mentorship of a Kennedy Space Center (KSC... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  1. 78 FR 34408 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... responsible for selecting astronauts for the various United States Space Exploration programs. In evaluating... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  2. 76 FR 12135 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and Space... publication. ADDRESSES: All comments should be addressed to Lori Parker, National Aeronautics and...

  3. Beverage Cans Used for Sediment Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studlick, Joseph R. J.; Trautman, Timothy A.

    1979-01-01

    Beverage cans are well suited for sediment collection and storage containers. Advantages include being free, readily available, and the correct size for many samples. Instruction for selection, preparation, and use of cans in sediment collection and storage is provided. (RE)

  4. 77 FR 77048 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... this information is not collected. Affected Public: College students who apply to join Air Force ROTC... Collection Respondents are college students desiring to join the Air Force ROTC program. AFROTC Form...

  5. 75 FR 3940 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and Space... publication. ADDRESSES: All comments should be addressed to Mrs. Lori Parker, National Aeronautics and...

  6. 75 FR 65670 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and Space... publication. ADDRESSES: All comments should be addressed to Lori Parker, National Aeronautics and...

  7. 75 FR 77006 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and Space... publication. ADDRESSES: All comments should be addressed to Lori Parker, National Aeronautics and...

  8. 49 CFR 227.15 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE General § 227.15 Information collection. (a) The information collection requirements of this part were reviewed by the Office of Management and Budget...

  9. Collective memory: conceptual foundations and theoretical approaches.

    PubMed

    Wertsch, James V; Roediger, Henry L

    2008-04-01

    In order to outline the conceptual landscape that frames discussions of collective memory, three oppositions are proposed: collective memory versus collective remembering; history versus collective memory; and individual memory versus collective remembering. From this perspective collective remembering is viewed as an active process that often involves contention and contestation among people rather than a static body of knowledge that they possess. Collective remembering is also viewed as privileging identity formation and contestation over the sort of objective representation of the past that is the aspiration of formal historical analysis. And finally, while collective remembering involves individual minds, it also suggests something more in the form of socially situated individuals, a claim that can usefully be formulated in terms of how members of a groups share a common set of cultural tools (e.g., narrative forms) and similar content. PMID:18324555

  10. Measuring collections effort improves cash performance.

    PubMed

    Shutts, Joe

    2009-09-01

    Having a satisfied work force can lead to an improved collections effort. Hiring the right people and training them ensures employee engagement. Measuring collections effort and offering incentives is key to revenue cycle success. PMID:19743655

  11. 75 FR 80079 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... of information technology. Comments submitted in response to this notice will be summarized and... Clearance for data collection to integrate program planning, program accountability, management, and... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and...

  12. 75 FR 13312 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... of information technology. Brenda Maxwell, NASA PRA Clearance Officer. BILLING CODE P ...: Extension of a currently approved collection. Affected Public: Business or other for-profit; Not-for-profit... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and...

  13. 75 FR 13311 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... collection. Affected Public: Business or other for-profit; Not-for-profit institutions; and State, Local or... technology. Brenda Maxwell, NASA PRA Clearance Officer. BILLING CODE P ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and...

  14. 75 FR 27005 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... approved collection. Affected Public: Business or other for-profit; Not-for-profit institutions; and State... technology. Brenda Maxwell, NASA PRA Clearance Officer. BILLING CODE P ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and...

  15. 75 FR 13311 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... of information technology. Brenda Maxwell, NASA PRA Clearance Officer. BILLING CODE P ... currently approved collection. Affected Public: Business or other for-profit; Not-for-profit institutions... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and...

  16. 75 FR 48645 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... viewing on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov as they are received without change, including any...: Summary of Information Collection The primary objective of the information collection is to determine...

  17. 45 CFR 1177.5 - Collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION 1177.5 Collection. (a) The Endowment will take aggressive... repayment of the debt, and to inform the debtor of his or her rights and the effect of nonpayment or...

  18. 45 CFR 1177.5 - Collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION 1177.5 Collection. (a) The Endowment will take aggressive... repayment of the debt, and to inform the debtor of his or her rights and the effect of nonpayment or...

  19. 45 CFR 1177.5 - Collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION 1177.5 Collection. (a) The Endowment will take aggressive... repayment of the debt, and to inform the debtor of his or her rights and the effect of nonpayment or...

  20. 45 CFR 1177.5 - Collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES CLAIMS COLLECTION 1177.5 Collection. (a) The Endowment will take aggressive... repayment of the debt, and to inform the debtor of his or her rights and the effect of nonpayment or...

  1. 75 FR 65671 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  2. 75 FR 63205 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  3. 75 FR 63206 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  4. 75 FR 66800 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  5. 75 FR 63205 - Notice of Information Collection.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection. AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  6. 75 FR 65672 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and...

  7. 30 CFR 707.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EXEMPTION FOR COAL EXTRACTION INCIDENT TO GOVERNMENT-FINANCED HIGHWAY OR OTHER CONSTRUCTION 707.10 Information collection. Since the information collection requirement contained in 30 CFR 707.12 consists...

  8. 30 CFR 707.10 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EXEMPTION FOR COAL EXTRACTION INCIDENT TO GOVERNMENT-FINANCED HIGHWAY OR OTHER CONSTRUCTION 707.10 Information collection. Since the information collection requirement contained in 30 CFR 707.12 consists...

  9. 78 FR 13671 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... comments on renewal of this information collection on December 26, 2012. See 78 FR 76037. No comments were... information collection requirements are found in FHFA's Data Reporting Manual (DRM).\\6\\ \\6\\ See...

  10. 77 FR 6091 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... burden of the information collection on respondents, including through the use of automated collection.... Specifically, the system will be a warehouse of sexual assault case information; have the ability to...

  11. 75 FR 38088 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... of the Secretary Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Defense Finance and Accounting Service... of 1995, the Defense Finance and Accounting Service proposes to extend a public information... associated collection instruments, please write to the Defense Finance and Accounting Service, Attn:...

  12. 76 FR 59741 - Proposed Collection, Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... of Labor Statistics Proposed Collection, Comment Request ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of... Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is soliciting comments concerning the proposed extension of the ``Local Area Unemployment Statistics (LAUS) Program.'' A copy of the proposed information collection...

  13. 75 FR 77007 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and Space... publication. ADDRESSES: All comments should be addressed to Lori Parker, National Aeronautics and...

  14. 75 FR 63207 - Notice of Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Notice of Information Collection AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of information collection. SUMMARY: The National Aeronautics and Space... publication. ADDRESSES: All comments should be addressed to Lori Parker, National Aeronautics and...

  15. 77 FR 47069 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Submission of Information Collection for Approval From the Office of Management and...

  16. Collected radiochemical and geochemical procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinberg, J

    1990-05-01

    This revision of LA-1721, 4th Ed., Collected Radiochemical Procedures, reflects the activities of two groups in the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory: INC-11, Nuclear and radiochemistry; and INC-7, Isotope Geochemistry. The procedures fall into five categories: I. Separation of Radionuclides from Uranium, Fission-Product Solutions, and Nuclear Debris; II. Separation of Products from Irradiated Targets; III. Preparation of Samples for Mass Spectrometric Analysis; IV. Dissolution Procedures; and V. Geochemical Procedures. With one exception, the first category of procedures is ordered by the positions of the elements in the Periodic Table, with separate parts on the Representative Elements (the A groups); the d-Transition Elements (the B groups and the Transition Triads); and the Lanthanides (Rare Earths) and Actinides (the 4f- and 5f-Transition Elements). The members of Group IIIB-- scandium, yttrium, and lanthanum--are included with the lanthanides, elements they resemble closely in chemistry and with which they occur in nature. The procedures dealing with the isolation of products from irradiated targets are arranged by target element.

  17. Sample collection, processing and storage.

    PubMed

    Landi, M T; Caporaso, N

    1997-01-01

    We review issues related to the inclusion of biospecimens in epidemiological studies. Technical advances and the revolution in molecular biology have rendered the use of biomarkers increasingly feasible in epidemiological investigations, however the cost and complexity require interdisciplinary expertise and careful attention to methodological detail in order to ensure validity. The widespread banking of biospecimens for long-term (cohort) studies requires special attention to be paid to these issues. Blood, urine and tumour tissue are in common use in medicine and at least some aspects of sample handling derives directly from this clinical experience, although special considerations apply in the epidemiological setting. An increasingly broad array of biospecimen types have been studied, including exhaled air, nail clippings, buccal cells, saliva, semen, faeces and breast milk. Relevant issues in the processing, storage, shipping, timing of collection and safety procedures are examined in terms of their potential to distort results. The role of carefully developed quality control protocols is emphasized. In order to take full advantage of the opportunities afforded by the use of biomarkers in epidemiological studies, careful attention to biospecimen processing, the stability of the biomarker and the precautions to be taken during transportation and storage of samples is necessary. PMID:9354922

  18. Collective dynamics of social annotation.

    PubMed

    Cattuto, Ciro; Barrat, Alain; Baldassarri, Andrea; Schehr, Gregory; Loreto, Vittorio

    2009-06-30

    The enormous increase of popularity and use of the worldwide web has led in the recent years to important changes in the ways people communicate. An interesting example of this fact is provided by the now very popular social annotation systems, through which users annotate resources (such as web pages or digital photographs) with keywords known as "tags." Understanding the rich emergent structures resulting from the uncoordinated actions of users calls for an interdisciplinary effort. In particular concepts borrowed from statistical physics, such as random walks (RWs), and complex networks theory, can effectively contribute to the mathematical modeling of social annotation systems. Here, we show that the process of social annotation can be seen as a collective but uncoordinated exploration of an underlying semantic space, pictured as a graph, through a series of RWs. This modeling framework reproduces several aspects, thus far unexplained, of social annotation, among which are the peculiar growth of the size of the vocabulary used by the community and its complex network structure that represents an externalization of semantic structures grounded in cognition and that are typically hard to access. PMID:19506244

  19. Collective antibiotic treatment of trachoma

    PubMed Central

    Reinhards, J.; Weber, A.; Maxwell-Lyons, F.

    1959-01-01

    By the early 1950's, it was clear from numerous independent reports that certain of the broad-spectrum antibiotics were effective against the agent of trachoma. It seemed, however, that treatment had to be continued over long periods to effect a cure of the average case. With the assistance of WHO, comparative trials on a scale hitherto unprecedented in the disease—involving more than 9000 schoolchildren with active trachoma—have been conducted in Morocco since 1953 in order to assess the value of local treatment of trachoma with chlortetracycline and to develop simple and economic methods of treatment, for which there was a pressing need. Local application of 1% chlortetracycline ointment two or three times daily for 60 days gave almost 80% cures under reasonably favourable conditions and nearly 100% cures after re-treatment of cases not cured by the first course. Equally good results followed intermittent short-term treatment over longer periods. Relapse and reinfection rates were low. Collective mass treatment with antibiotics is clearly a valuable method of trachoma control. The use of intermittent treatment allows for a great economy both in antibiotics and in staff and other campaign expenses and makes possible the wide expansion of mass treatment programmes. PMID:14437176

  20. Collective complexes--total perspectives.

    PubMed

    Alho, Päivi Marjaana

    2006-11-01

    A much greater part of our identity than we generally believe is collectively determined. Awareness of the causal link between identity, its connected values and the influence exerted by these values on perception is therefore crucial. In the implicit personality model of Peabody and Goldberg (1989), the apparent wide variety of human characteristics is broken down into three broad dimensions: general evaluation, impulse control and assertiveness. My hypothesis is that the regulation of impulses can be equated with the Jungian concept of the mother and father complexes, and assertiveness with the relation between individualism and collectivism. I have utilized Montgomery's perspective theory and Jung's concepts of the union of opposites, the complex and the shadow in order to provide an alternative interpretation of the implicit personality model. According to my interpretation, the traditional values of any culture can be read against these three dimensions. These values can be seen as the greatest treasure of a culture but, at the same time, they can also be devastating if they become complex-like. PMID:17064335