This paper explores why young people leave home and become homeless. Drawing on life history interviews conducted with 50 homeless youth in Los Angeles, explanations provided by participants for becoming homelessness and how they understand their experiences are presented. In professional discourses, homeless young people are often portrayed as…
Shelton, Katherine H.; van den Bree, Marianne B.?M.; Los, Férenc J.
Understanding mental health issues faced by young homeless persons is instrumental to the development of successful targeted interventions. No systematic review of recent published literature on psychopathology in this group has been completed. We conducted a systematic review of published research examining the prevalence of psychiatric problems among young homeless people. We examined the temporal relationship between homelessness and psychopathology. We collated 46 articles according to the PRISMA Statement. All studies that used a full psychiatric assessment consistently reported a prevalence of any psychiatric disorder from 48% to 98%. Although there was a lack of longitudinal studies of the temporal relationship between psychiatric disorders and homelessness, findings suggested a reciprocal link. Supporting young people at risk for homelessness could reduce homelessness incidence and improve mental health. PMID:23597340
This article explores the implementation of the Victorian Youth Employment, Education and Training Initiative (YEETI). This statewide initiative delivered brokerage funds to homeless young people through their housing advocates. One of the findings of the project was that the main barrier to young people achieving a stable continuum in their lives…
This guide shows how "Foyers" (safe residences for working/learning youth) and other organizations provide routes back into learning for young people. Chapter 1, "Young People and the Current Learning Agenda," provides a summary of encouraging developments from government, ushering in new learning opportunities for young people. Chapter 2,…
Wilson, Allison B.; Squires, Jane
The increasing prevalence of homelessness among young children and families in the United States is described, as is the developmental impact on young children and cost to society. Although services are mandated for this population under the McKinney-Vento Act, Education of Homeless Children and Youth Program, and the Individuals With…
Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.
Though research has examined risk factors associated with street victimization among homeless young people, little is known about dating violence experiences among this group. Given homeless youths' elevated rates of child maltreatment, it is likely that they are at high risk for dating violence. As such, the current study examined the association…
Prepared by the US Department of Housing and Urban Development, "Evaluations of Continuums of Care for Homeless People" is a comprehensive study that examines the continuums of care for homeless people throughout the United States. Critiquing the agenda of the Continuum of Care (CoC), a system designed to help homeless people as well as those at imminent risk of becoming homeless, this 216-page report examines their development, current structure, and possible future. Users should note that this report defaults to small font and may be more easily readable if printed.
Christoph Lauber; Barbara Lay; Wulf Rössler
Questions under study: This study addresses socio-demographic and clinical characteristics among homeless people in Switzerland admitted to inpatient care, the use of and pathways to inpa- tient care by this group and, the extent to which psychiatric disorders contribute to the risk of homelessness. Methods: Based on data of a psychiatric case register we analysed 16 247 people consecutively referred
This article seeks to explore gendered experiences of homelessness through an examination of survival sex. Survival sex is usually understood to be the exchange of sex for material support, however, this research found a greater complexity in the intimate relationships being undertaken by young women experiencing homelessness. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 young women aged 18–25 years living in
Hamid, W A; McCarthy, M
Data about 'homeless' and 'home-based' clients referred to and recorded by community psychiatric nurses (CPNs) in Bloomsbury, an inner London health district, in 1985 and 1986 were reviewed. Of the 974 people seen, 642 were home-based and 322, homeless at time of referral. The homeless were more commonly under 65-years-of-age, living alone and unemployed. Two thirds of both groups had a psychiatric history, with half also having been admitted to a mental hospital. CPNs identified mental health problems in both groups with equal frequency, but homeless people were more likely to express their main problem as related to housing, finance or unemployment. Four out of five home-based clients were referred by statutory services compared with only two out of five homeless clients. The latter were less likely to receive supportive care from the CPN service and were more often referred to other agencies; these differences remained after controlling for the presenting problems. One in three people referred to this service were homeless. The social aspects of their problems, and their lack of contact with statutory services, suggest that homeless people need a multi-disciplinary approach for mental health care. PMID:10295815
Hwang, Stephen W; Burns, Tom
Homelessness has serious implications for the health of individuals and populations. Primary health-care programmes specifically tailored to homeless individuals might be more effective than standard primary health care. Standard case management, assertive community treatment, and critical time intervention are effective models of mental health-care delivery. Housing First, with immediate provision of housing in independent units with support, improves outcomes for individuals with serious mental illnesses. Many different types of interventions, including case management, are effective in the reduction of substance misuse. Interventions that provide case management and supportive housing have the greatest effect when they target individuals who are the most intensive users of services. Medical respite programmes are an effective intervention for homeless patients leaving the hospital. Although the scientific literature provides guidance on interventions to improve the health of homeless individuals, health-care providers should also seek to address social policies and structural factors that result in homelessness. PMID:25390579
Crawford, Devan M; Trotter, Emily C; Hartshorn, Kelley J Sittner; Whitbeck, Les B
Pregnancy rates among young women who are homeless are significantly higher than rates among housed young women in the United States (J. M. Greene & C. L. Ringwalt, 1998). Yet, little research has addressed mental health or risk and resilience among young mothers who are homeless. Based on a sample from the Midwest Longitudinal Study of Homeless Adolescents, this study explores pregnancy and motherhood in unaccompanied homeless young women over a period of 3 years. The data are supplemented by in-depth interviews with a subset of young women. Results show that almost half (46.4%) of sexually active young women who are homeless (n=222, M age = 17.2) had been pregnant at baseline. Among those who stated they had children between Waves 2 and 13 (n=90), only half reported caring for their children consistently over time, and one fifth reported never seeing their children. Of the participants with children in their care at the last interview (Wave 13), almost one third met criteria for lifetime major depressive episode, lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder, and lifetime drug abuse, and half met criteria for lifetime antisocial personality disorder. Twelve-month diagnoses are also reported. The impacts of homelessness on maternal and child outcomes are discussed. PMID:21486259
Tweed, Roger G.; Biswas-Diener, Robert; Lehman, Darrin R.
This study examined self-perceived strengths among 116 people who were homeless. Those who had experienced a longer period of current homelessness tended to report fewer personal strengths (r = ?0.23). Nonetheless, in spite of their marginalized position in society, the vast majority of participants (114 out of 116) perceived personal strengths. A prior diagnosis with mental illness was not associated with the number of strengths reported, but self-perception of strengths was associated with altruistic orientation. The Values in Action (VIA) taxonomy of character strengths captured many of the responses generated by this population. The most frequently mentioned character categories included social intelligence, kindness, persistence, authenticity and humour. The most frequently mentioned other strengths included personal skills (e.g. music, sports), job skills, intelligence and education. The results have relevance for efforts to build self-perceptions that facilitate escape from homelessness. PMID:23173008
Ruttan, Lia; Laboucane-Benson, Patricia; Munro, Brenda
Homeless young women experience high levels of stress, challenges to mental health, substance use and abuse, and a lack of housing or of secure housing. This article explores one of the findings from a longitudinal qualitative study designed to follow homeless young women for a 2-year period as they make efforts to transition out of homelessness.…
Swick, Kevin James
Violence is one of the most prevalent elements in the lives of homeless families with young children. This violence may come in various forms: domestic violence, street violence, violence in one's childhood, witnessing violence, and other avenues and modes. Violence disrupts the normal bonding between parent and child. It isolates and degrades…
Gargiulo, Richard M.
Homelessness is a growing social problem in the United States. Especially vulnerable to this phenomenon are young children because homelessness is viewed as a breeding ground for disabilities. Despite federal legislation ensuring educational opportunities, the educational needs of children who are homeless are frequently unfulfilled. This article…
Ferguson, Kristin M.
This article explores the psychosocial and behavioral adjustment outcomes associated with verbal, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse among homeless young adults as well as the associations among abuse types. Convenience sampling was used to select 28 homeless young adults (ages 18 to 24) from one drop-in center. Overall, subjects experienced…
He, Yinghua; O’Flaherty, Brendan; Rosenheck, Robert A.
Most single adults share housing with other adults, and living alone is considerably more expensive than living with someone else. Yet policies that discourage shared housing for formerly homeless people or people at risk of becoming homeless are common, and those that encourage it are rare. This would be understandable if such housing adversely affected its users in some way. We ask whether shared housing produces adverse effects. Our provisional answer is no. For the most part, whether a person lives alone or shares housing seems to make no difference to the outcomes we studied although shared housing is associated with reduced psychotic symptomology. We use data from ACCESS, a 5-year, 18-site demonstration project with over 6,000 formerly homeless individuals as participants. PMID:20440383
Holdsworth, Louise; Tiyce, Margaret
People with gambling problems are now recognised among those at increased risk of homelessness, and the link between housing and gambling problems has been identified as an area requiring further research. This paper discusses the findings of a qualitative study that explored the relationship between gambling problems and homelessness. Interviews…
Van Straaten, Barbara; Schrijvers, Carola T. M.; Van der Laan, Jorien; Boersma, Sandra N.; Rodenburg, Gerda; Wolf, Judith R. L. M.; Van de Mheen, Dike
Background There is a higher prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) among homeless people than in the general population. However, little is known about the additional psychosocial problems faced by homeless people with ID. We describe the prevalence of ID in a cohort of homeless people in the Netherlands, and report relationships between ID and psychosocial problems in terms of psychological distress, substance (mis)use and dependence, as well as demographic characteristics in this cohort. Methods This cross-sectional study is part of a cohort study among homeless people in the four major cities of the Netherlands. Data were derived from 387 homeless people who were interviewed and screened for ID six months after the baseline measurement. Multivariate logistic regression analyses and ?2 tests were performed to analyze relationships between ID, psychosocial problems and demographic characteristics. Findings Of all cohort members, 29.5% had a suspected ID. Participants with a suspected ID had a higher mean age, were more likely to be male and to fall in the lowest category of education than participants without a suspected ID. Having a suspected ID was related to general psychological distress (OR ?=?1.56, p<0.05), somatization (OR ?=?1.84, p<0.01), depression (OR ?=?1.58, p<0.05) and substance dependence (OR ?=?1.88, p<0.05). No relationships were found between a suspected ID and anxiety, regular substance use, substance misuse and primary substance of use. Conclusion The prevalence of ID among Dutch homeless people is higher than in the general population, and is related to more psychosocial problems than among homeless people without ID. Homeless people with a suspected ID appear to be a vulnerable subgroup within the homeless population. This endorses the importance of the extra attention required for this subgroup. PMID:24465905
Drug abuse is a serious public health problem.It affects almost every community and family in some way. Drug abuse in children and teenagers may pose a ... of young people may be more susceptible to drug abuse and addiction than adult brains. Abused drugs ...
Panadero, Sonia; Guillén, Ana Isabel; Vázquez, José Juan
This article tests a hypothesized model of overall happiness among homeless people in Spain. The research was conducted based on a representative sample of homeless people in Madrid (n = 235), all adults, who had spent the night before the interview in a shelter for homeless people, on the street or in other places not initially designed for sleeping, or who were in supervised accommodation for homeless people at the time of the interview. Information was gathered using a structured interview. The results obtained show that around half of the homeless people in Madrid said that they were happy. A positive meta-stereotype and a better perceived general health were associated with a higher overall happiness, while feelings of loneliness were associated with a lower overall happiness. Happiness also showed a significant effect on future expectations. Disabilities and handicaps had a significant effect on perceived general health, which was in turn associated with overall happiness among homeless people. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26167804
Keogh, Anna Fiona; Halpenny, Ann Marie; Gilligan, Robbie
The article explores how homelessness may impact on the educational participation of children and young people in families living in emergency accommodation in Dublin. Many difficulties arise in terms of maintaining consistent schooling for children when they are part of a homeless family, including problems getting to and from school if living at…
James McGuire; Robert Rosenheck; Craig Burnette
Enhancing interagency services integration for homeless people has been advocated as an approach for improving service delivery to this population. In contrast to system-level “top-down” interventions, this study examines the association of expanded funding of client-level homeless services, a “bottom-up” approach, with strengthening of interorganizational relationships. We compared Veterans Affairs\\/non-Veterans Affairs interagency relationships at VA facilities supporting community-oriented programs (N=72),
Wright, Nat MJ; Tompkins, Charlotte NE
Background Homelessness affects many people in contemporary society with consequences for individuals and the wider community. Homeless people experience poorer levels of general physical and mental health than the general population and there is a substantial international evidence base which documents multiple morbidity. Despite this, they often have problems in obtaining suitable health care. Aim To critically examine the international literature pertaining to the health care of homeless people and discuss the effectiveness of treatment interventions. Design of study Review and synthesis of current evidence. Method Medline (1966–2003), EMBASE (1980–2003), PsycINFO (1985–2003), CINAHL (1982–2003), Web of Science (1981–2003) and the Cochrane Library (Evidence Based Health) databases were reviewed using key terms relating to homelessness, intervention studies, drug misuse, alcohol misuse and mental health. The review was not limited to publications in English. It included searching the internet using key terms, and grey literature was also accessed through discussion with experts. Results Internationally, there are differing models and services aimed at providing health care for homeless people. Effective interventions for drug dependence include adequate oral opiate maintenance therapy, hepatitis A, B and tetanus immunisation, safer injecting advice and access to needle exchange programmes. There is emerging evidence for the effectiveness of supervised injecting rooms for homeless injecting drug users and for the peer distribution of take home naloxone in reducing drug-related deaths. There is some evidence that assertive outreach programmes for those with mental ill health, supportive programmes to aid those with motivation to address alcohol dependence and informal programmes to promote sexual health can lead to lasting health gain. Conclusions As multiple morbidity is common among homeless people, accessible and available primary health care is a pre-requisite for effective health interventions. This requires addressing barriers to provision and multi-agency working so that homeless people can access the full range of health and social care services. There are examples of best practice in the treatment and retention of homeless people in health and social care and such models can inform future provision. PMID:16611519
Fazel, Seena; Geddes, John R; Kushel, Margot
In the European Union, more than 400,000 individuals are homeless on any one night and more than 600,000 are homeless in the USA. The causes of homelessness are an interaction between individual and structural factors. Individual factors include poverty, family problems, and mental health and substance misuse problems. The availability of low-cost housing is thought to be the most important structural determinant for homelessness. Homeless people have higher rates of premature mortality than the rest of the population, especially from suicide and unintentional injuries, and an increased prevalence of a range of infectious diseases, mental disorders, and substance misuse. High rates of non-communicable diseases have also been described with evidence of accelerated ageing. Although engagement with health services and adherence to treatments is often compromised, homeless people typically attend the emergency department more often than non-homeless people. We discuss several recommendations to improve the surveillance of morbidity and mortality in homeless people. Programmes focused on high-risk groups, such as individuals leaving prisons, psychiatric hospitals, and the child welfare system, and the introduction of national and state-wide plans that target homeless people are likely to improve outcomes. PMID:25390578
Harrison, Roger, Ed.; Benjamin, Cathy, Ed.; Curran, Sheila, Ed.; Hunter, Rob, Ed.
"Leading Work with Young People" provides a selection of writing from a complex and dynamic field of work. The editors bring together key readings and newly commissioned material to present a variety of theoretical and practical perspectives on leading and managing work with young people. The book will equip students with the knowledge, skills,…
Considers young peoples' views of infinity prior to instruction in the methods mathematicians use in addressing the subject of infinity. Presents a partially historical account of studies examining young peoples' ideas of infinity. Four sections address potential pitfalls for research in this area and the work of Piaget, issues concerning the…
Doan Thi Tien
The role of the Vietnam Youth Union (21 million members) is to educate the youth aged 14-28 years about the movement at the grassroots level. Since 1995, it has been entrusted with information, education, and communication (IEC) activities (implemented through the Educational Center for Population, Health, and Development) concerning family planning, the environment, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Mass media, direct communication, Youth Union leading staff, Youth Union cultural and arts activities, and advertisement have been used. 16 newspapers and magazines, a radio program, and a TV program disseminate information for the group. 1000 motivators' groups, 1370 Youth Clubs, and Youth Villages at the commune level work to enhance awareness and to change biased attitudes and habits. Leading staff speak at conferences and seminars that are attended by target groups. Art troupes perform at special local events; plays are organized and videos are shown. The HIV/AIDS information and prevention campaign is of great importance because research findings indicate that many young people believe that only prostitutes and drug addicts can be infected, and that condoms are bad and only for use with prostitutes. There are about 2300 persons infected with HIV in 14 provinces, mostly in the south and central regions. 131 are reported to have developed AIDS. PMID:12320323
Christian, Julie; Armitage, Christopher J
The theory of planned behaviour (TPB: Ajzen, 1988, 1991) was used as a framework to investigate homeless people's participation in outreach service programmes. In total, 104 homeless people from South Wales were interviewed using a schedule based on the TPB. Congruent with previous research on the TPB, attitude was the dominant predictor of behavioural intentions, and intention and perceived behavioural control were predictive of behaviour. Contrary to predictions, subjective norms also exerted a direct effect on behaviour. The discussion focuses on two issues: first, the utility of social cognition models in explaining the relationship between demographic variables and behaviour in homelessness research; second, the direct effects of norms on behaviour and the extent to which work on social groups might usefully extend research on models such as the TPB to aid understanding of behaviour amongst stigmatized populations. PMID:12133225
Nyamathi, Adeline; Branson, Catherine M.; Idemundia, Faith E.; Reback, Cathy J.; Shoptaw, Steve; Marfisee, Mary; Keenan, Colleen; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Liu, Yihang; Yadav, Kartik
Homeless gay and bisexual (G/B) men are at risk for reporting suicide attempts and have high risk of depressed mood, defined as elevated level of depressive symptoms. This study describes baseline socio-demographic, cognitive, psychosocial and health- and drug-related correlates of depressed mood in 267 stimulant-using homeless G/B young men who entered a study designed to reduce drug use. G/B men without social support were 11 times more likely to be experience depressed mood than their counterparts who had support while persons who reported severe body pain were almost 6 times more likely to report depressed mood than those without pain. Other factors that increased risk of depressed mood included being homeless in the last four months, injecting drugs, reporting poor or fair health status and high levels of internalized homophobia. This study is one of the first to draw a link between pain experienced and depressed mood in homeless young G/B men. Understanding the correlates of depressed mood among homeless G/B young men can help service providers design more targeted treatment plans and more appropriate referrals to ancillary care services. PMID:23017039
This paper discusses different issues regarding the impact of AIDS on young people's lives, as well as implications for policies and programs to support them. It is noted that of the 30 million people that are HIV/AIDS infected, young people aged 10-24 years account for at least one-third. Reasons for this include inaccessibility to youth-friendly health services where they can discuss questions related to sexual health; susceptibility of young women; and sexual abuse and exploitation such as prostitution. Compounding these challenges, in the name of morality, culture or religion, young people are often denied their right to education regarding the health risks of sexual and other risk behavior, and the important tools and services for protection. In response, the Force for Change: World AIDS Campaign, culminating in World AIDS Day, promotes young people's genuine participation regarding the impact of the epidemic and promotes policies for health and development using human rights framework. Moreover, the Commonwealth Youth Forum of 1997 endorsed sexual and reproductive rights for all young people worldwide. PMID:12222346
N. Eugene Walls; Stephanie Bell
Using a sample of 1,625 homeless youth and young adults aged 10 to 25 from 28 different states in the United States, this study examines the correlates of having engaged in survival sex. Findings suggest that differences exist based on demographic variables (gender, age, race, and sexual orientation), lifetime drug use (inhalants, Valium™, crack cocaine, alcohol, Coricidin™, and morphine), recent
Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.
This study investigated risk factors for discrepant reporting of physical and sexual abuse among 172 homeless young adults. Discrepant reporting includes situations in which a respondent denies experiencing abuse in general but reports being a victim of specific forms of maltreatment. The results revealed that discrepant reporting rates tended to…
Tyler, Kimberly A.; Cauce, Ana Mari; Whitbeck, Les
Objective: To examine family risk factors associated with dissociative symptoms among homeless and runaway youth. Method: Three hundred and twenty-eight homeless and runaway youth were interviewed using a systematic sampling strategy in metropolitan Seattle. Homeless young people were interviewed on the streets and in shelters by outreach workers…
Kevin James Swick; Reginald Harrison Williams
Despite the pervasiveness of homelessness among young families, few early childhood professionals realize the exacerbated\\u000a stresses that push them into their circumstances. This chapter seeks to explore the etiology of risk factors (especially substances\\u000a abuse and illiteracy), elaborate on how they affect the lives of young families, highlight ways that they respond to these\\u000a factors, and detail possible avenues that
Jean-Pierre Bonin; Louise Fournier; Régis Blais
The aim of this study is to describe distinct typologies among mentally ill users of resources for homeless people, in order\\u000a to inform the targeted development of mental health services to address their varied needs. Data came from a survey of clientele\\u000a of resources for homeless persons in Montreal and Quebec (N = 757) and this study includes the 369 people from
... Strengthening At Risk and Homeless Young Mothers and Children START With Kids Healing Hearts, Promoting Health Domestic Violence and Homelessness TA America's Youngest Outcasts Veterans Veterans ...
L Malmauret; JCh Leblanc; I Cuvelier; Ph Verger
Objective: To determine nutritional intake and vitamin status in a sample of homeless people who had been on the streets of Paris for more than 2 y.Design: The nutritional status was evaluated by a 24 h recall questionnaire and by assay of circulating levels of vitamins A, B1, B6, B12, C and E.Setting: The study was conducted in four accommodation
Daley, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Chris
To help explain why some young people move from recreational drug use to substance abuse, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with young people who had experienced problematic substance use. The data were supplemented by statistical data on 111 young people. The researchers found a variety of "structural" factors that help explain young…
THE DISTRESSING rise in the number of young people attending emergency departments for self-harm or attempted suicide over the past few years is evident to anyone who has worked in or around the area, but it has also made the national news ( Kotecha 2014 ). PMID:25854727
Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Santeler, Stefan; Stelzig-Schöler, Renate; Kemmler, Georg; Steinmayr-Gensluckner, Maria; Hinterhuber, Hartmann
Various studies show a high prevalence of mental disorders among homeless people. So far most of these studies deal solely with single men, mainly affected by homelessness. Few data exist for women, children, adolescents and whole families that are more and more affected by poverty and homelessness. This study, conducted in Innsbruck/Austria, determined the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among homeless adolescents. The adolescents were recruited in a counselling centre and homeless shelter specifically founded for homeless youth. Mental disorders were diagnosed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SKID-I). 40 adolescents and young adults ranging from 14-23 years (mean 17.9 years) were included in the study. The results show that 58% of the homeless adolescents were exposed to continuous violence in their families and that violence was a major reason for them to leave home. The overall prevalence of diagnosed psychiatric disorders was 80% in the whole sample; the leading disorder was substance abuse/dependence (65%), followed by mood disorders (42.5%), anxiety disorders (17.5%) and eating disorders (17.5%). 57.5% of the adolescents had a history of self-harm and 25% reported at least one suicide attempt. Duration of homelessness had the greatest influence on the prevalence of mental disorders. Longer duration of homelessness was associated with a higher risk of psychiatric disorder or self-harm. These results demonstrate the urgent need for early psychosocial and psychiatric help for homeless adolescents. PMID:18826872
Clatts, Michael C.; Goldsamt, Lloyd; Yi, Huso; Gwadz, Marya Viorst
The objective of this paper is to profile the role of homelessness in drug and sexual risk in a population of young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Data are from a cross-sectional survey collected between 2000 and 2001 in New York City (N=569). With the goal of examining the import of homelessness in increased risk for the onset of drug and…
This study examines service utilization patterns among a socially vulnerable population of homeless people living with HIV\\/AIDS and who have a history of chemi- cal dependence, as they are engaged through outreach services. CitiWide Harm Reduction collaborates with Montefiore Medical Center to connect homeless people with health care through harm reduction outreach and low threshold medical services. Analysis of two
Joseph R. Ferrari; Michelle M. Loftus; Julia Pesek
In the present study, young (n = 34) and older(n = 70) adult volunteers at either animal (n= 48) or human (n = 56) homeless shelters were asked to complete measures of caregiver stress\\/satisfaction, volunteer motives, and social desirability. Young compared to older volunteers assisting animals, but not humans, reported a significantly higher caseload and spending significantly more time per
Furlong, Andy; Cartmel, Fred; Powney, Janet; Hall, Stuart
This report presents the results of an 18-month research project that studied the effectiveness of youth work with vulnerable young people. The research, representing six distinct geographical areas of Scotland characterized by disadvantage, focused on young people aged 13 to 16. In each neighborhood, the project examined the experiences of young…
Educating Young People About Water is a website for obtaining materials designed to help develop a community based, water education program that targets youth and links key community members. There are three guidebooks: A Guide to Program Planning and Evaluation, A Guide to Unique Program Strategies, and A Guide to Goals and Resources. The last guide is searchable on-line with more than 100 curricula summaries and checklists by grade level or topic. The guidebooks are five dollars each or can be downloaded from the site, and the 100 curricula materials are generally low cost or free. There is also a video available for eleven dollars that illustrates concepts explored in workshops where participants learn to design a community-based, youth water program. The video comes with a Program Leader Workshop Guide that explains how to conduct a workshop and use the materials in local planning session.
Heald, Dorothy, Ed.
One of five annotated bibliographies that describe books about certain regions of the United States, this compilation focuses on books about the Southeast. The stated purposes of these regional bibliographies are: (1) to introduce young people living in the subject region to books dealing with their cultural heritage, (2) to help young people of…
Fran Klodawsky; Tim Aubry; Susan Farrell
Socio-spatial insights from feminist theories of care are examined in relation to the complex, difficult lives of some homeless youth in Ottawa, and their embeddedness within multiple scales of public policy construction and implementation. As lengthy interviews with 78 female and 78 male homeless youth in Ottawa revealed, both care and self-sufficiency figure strongly in these young peoples' lives. It
Cybulski, Mateusz; Krajewska-Ku?ak, El?bieta; Sowa, Pawe?; Orzechowska, Magda; Van Damme-Ostapowicz, Katarzyna; Rozwadowska, Emilia; Guzowski, Andrzej
Abstract Background Aging is becoming a more noticeable phenomenon in Poland and Europe. We analysed the perception of youth by elderly and compared attitudes of students of the University of the Third Age (SU3A) with nursing homes residents (NHR) to young people. Methods Our questionnaire was distributed to 140 people over the age of 50 (70 SU3A and 70 NHR). Results 85.0% of all respondents answered positively to the question “Do you enjoy contact with young people?”, even though their contacts are usually limited and mostly confined to a few s a year. Vast majority of NHR (62.9%) and almost half SU3A (48.6%) believe that there is a need to integrate seniors and youth to achieve mutual benefits. Conclusion Young people would benefit from the life experience of the elderly; the elderly could become more active in many areas of life.
Basic Skills Agency, 2012
Most young people look forward to the day when they can leave school or college behind and start work. If you are starting work for the first time, or even going on your first work placement, you are probably feeling pretty excited. There's a lot to learn, a lot of new people to meet--a chance to be more independent. But maybe you feel a bit…
Zvonovskii, V.; Belousova, R.
The phrase "secondary employment" has been familiar to the majority of Russians since back in the Soviet era, and can reasonably be viewed as part of a broader process of adaptation to new economic conditions since the end of the late 1980s. With young people, however, this approach to the phenomenon of secondary employment is not entirely…
Two music programs were developed specifically to meet therapeutic objectives for newly arrived immigrant and refugee students and for adolescent boys in a residential care facility. The author's observations justify further research to establish whether music can support and nurture the social, physical and mental wellbeing of young people,…
Cohen, Anjalee; Medlow, Sharon; Kelk, Norm; Hickie, Ian; Whitwell, Bradley
Fifteen in-depth interviews were conducted to explore young people's experiences of mental health care in Australia with the aim of informing the headspace National Youth Mental Health Foundation. The interviews revealed that significant numbers of respondents had been aware of their mental health problems for several years before seeking help and…
Helen Battellino; Julie Gee; Pamela Sayers
This paper reports on a project which was conducted for a consortium of four Community Transport groups in South West Sydney. The project's aim was to identify the transport needs and travel patterns of young people with disabilities (YPWD) across the 7 local government areas of Bankstown, Camden, Campbelltown, Fairfield, Liverpool, Wingecarribee and Wollondilly. This is an area with a
Though it is being widely argued that expanding young people's capacity to learn is a viable and desirable goal of education, it it not always clear what this means, how it is to be achieved, and how the effectiveness of interventions is to be assessed. It is argued that the capacity to learn should be interpreted as a portmanteau term that…
In this research, 300 doctors in Victoria were asked to make decisions about a hypothetical patient's competence and confidentiality. It appears that assumptions embedded in relevant law, the vague nature of existing legal criteria and the diversity in assessment practices all have the potential to act as obstacles to young people's claim to…
Haus, Amy, Ed.
The ad hoc network of shelters and related services that has been developed in an effort to meet the most critical needs of the homeless population is staffed by a wide spectrum of professionals and volunteers. Many of these individuals lack easy access to information, training, or resource materials to help them with their social services work.…
Olga Acosta; Paul A. Toro
A probability sample of 301 homeless adults from Buffalo, NY, was followed over 6 months to document the utilization of a variety of community services, examine services desired, and identify factors associated with service utilization, preference, and satisfaction. The following needs were all rated as at least equally important as the need for affordable housing: safety, education, transportation, medical\\/dental treatment,
Wasem, Ruth Ellen
This report discusses the nature of homelessness and the homeless in America, recent programs that have been implemented to help the homeless, and issues concerning the Federal government's role in helping these people. The following topics concerning the characteristics of the homeless and the causes of homelessness are covered: (1) "Mental…
This latest offering from the Data and Program Library Service (DPLS) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison provides data from interviews with over 1,300 single college and non-student young people. "Information was collected on the social aspects of premarital sexuality, current sexual behavior, and contraceptive knowledge and use." Users can view the survey code books in .pdf format and, after free registration, download the data in .tar or .zip formats. Downloading guidelines are provided.
This article explores the contradictions and complexities of young people's management of their health and wellbeing. It argues that it is important to understand how young people actively produce health outcomes, drawing substantially on themes developed in my recent book on young people and wellbeing (Wyn, 2009). The background to this…
Eynon, Rebecca; Malmberg, Lars-Erik
Using data from a nationally representative survey of over a 1000 young people in the UK this paper proposes a typology of the ways young people are using the Internet outside formal educational settings; and examines the individual and contextual factors that help to explain why young people are using the Internet in this way. Specifically, this…
There has been no such study to date to investigate the residential origin of the varying categories of homeless. This study investigates the spatial distribution of residential origins of the varying categories of homeless and the factors that contribute to the vulnerability of individuals to become homeless. The study categorizes homeless people based on gender, family status, the occurrence of
Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; Inniss-Richter, Zipporah M.; Lee, Rebecca; Bernard, Amy; King, Keith
Diabetes disproportionately affects individuals with lower income in the U.S. (CDC, 2012). Specifically the control of diabetes through self-management has been found to be sub-par and an important contributor to complications (Seligman, Davis, Schillinger, & Wolf, 2010). People experiencing homelessness also experience barriers. One such…
National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2010
Attending school and securing lawful status in the United States are two keys to safety and security for undocumented unaccompanied homeless youth. This brief is designed to provide young people, immigration attorneys and advocates, McKinney-Vento liaisons and educators with basic information to help them access these keys. After describing some…
National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2007
Unaccompanied homeless youth are young people who lack safe, stable housing and who are not in the care of a parent or guardian. They may have run away from home or been forced to leave by their parents. Unaccompanied youth live in a variety of temporary situations, including shelters, the homes of friends or relatives, cars, campgrounds, public…
Lee, Barrett A; Greif, Meredith J
We employ data from the National Survey of Homeless Assistance Providers and Clients to examine the character and correlates of hunger among homeless people. Our analysis, couched in an adaptation framework, finds more support for the differentiation hypothesis than for the leveling hypothesis: Complex patterns of food insecurity exist at the individual level, and they vary with the resources available (e.g., higher monthly income, regular shelter use) and obstacles faced (e.g., alcohol, drug, and physical and mental health problems). The chronically homeless, who suffer from multiple deficits, appear particularly food-insecure, a finding that favors the desperation hypothesis over its street-wisdom alternative. We conclude that hunger is not uniformly experienced by members of the homeless population. Rather, some individuals are better situated than others to cope with the stressful nature of homelessness when addressing their sustenance needs. PMID:18418982
Crane, Phil; Livock, Cheryl
Young people seen as "at risk" are a substantial focus across a wide range of policy and practice fields in national and international contexts. This article addresses two of those fields, youth homelessness and young people failing to obtain a basic education that will give them access to employment and full community participation. By comparing…
Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.
Although previous research documents high rates of child abuse, street victimization, and substance use among homeless youth, few studies have investigated these three constructs simultaneously, and thus little is known about how various forms of victimization are uniquely associated with substance use among this population. The purpose of this…
Tyler, Kimberly A.; Melander, Lisa A.
Although homeless youth with and without foster care histories both face adverse life circumstances, little is known about how these two groups compare in terms of their early histories and whether they face similar outcomes. As such, we compared those with and without a history of foster care placement to determine if the associations between a…
Collins, Susan E.; Saxon, Andrew J.; Duncan, Mark H.; Smart, Brian F.; Merrill, Joseph O.; Malone, Daniel K.; Jackson, T. Ron; Clifasefi, Seema L.; Joesch, Jutta; Ries, Richard K.
Background Interventions requiring abstinence from alcohol are neither preferred by nor shown to be highly effective with many homeless individuals with alcohol dependence. It is therefore important to develop lower-threshold, patient-centered interventions for this multimorbid and high-utilizing population. Harm-reduction counseling requires neither abstinence nor use reduction and pairs a compassionate style with patient-driven goal-setting. Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX), a monthly injectable formulation of an opioid receptor antagonist, reduces craving and may support achievement of harm-reduction goals. Together, harm-reduction counseling and XR-NTX may support alcohol harm reduction and quality-of-life improvement. Aims Study aims include testing: a) the relative efficacy of XR-NTX and harm-reduction counseling compared to a community-based, supportive-services-as-usual control, b) theory-based mediators of treatment effects, and c) treatment effects on publicly funded service costs. Methods This RCT involves four arms: a) XR-NTX+harm-reduction counseling, b) placebo+harm-reduction counseling, c) harm-reduction counseling only, and d) community-based, supportive-services-as-usual control conditions. Participants are currently/formerly homeless, alcohol dependent individuals (N=300). Outcomes include alcohol variables (i.e., craving, quantity/frequency, problems and biomarkers), health-related quality of life, and publicly funded service utilization and associated costs. Mediators include 10-point motivation rulers and the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale. XR-NTX and harm-reduction counseling are administered every 4 weeks over the 12-week treatment course. Follow-up assessments are conducted at weeks 24 and 36. Discussion If found efficacious, XR-NTX and harm-reduction counseling will be well-positioned to support reductions in alcohol-related harm, decreases in costs associated with publicly funded service utilization, and increases in quality of life among homeless, alcohol-dependent individuals. PMID:24846619
The paper presents an analysis of young people's orientations, and expectations for the future, as they relate to family context and socio-economic background. It draws on data from both the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England and from "Young Lives and Times", part of the ESRC National Centre for Research Methods. The latter study has…
Matthews, Susan; Sykes, Susie
Care-leavers are considered amongst the most vulnerable and disadvantaged group of young people with worse health outcomes than their peers. However, there is limited evidence to suggest how this can be improved, particularly from the perspective of the young people themselves. The aim of this study was to explore the health priorities of young…
... People in the ER, Especially Young Males Synthetic Marijuana Lands Thousands of Young People in the ER, ... on the scene a few years ago, synthetic marijuana (MJ)—often called “Spice” or “K2”—has become ...
Fortin, Rebecca; Jackson, Suzanne F; Maher, Jessica; Moravac, Catherine
Inspired by Photovoice, a participatory research methodology, I WAS HERE was a photoblogging workshop in Toronto, Canada, for young mothers who, when they joined, were either homeless or had past experience of homelessness. A participatory qualitative analysis process was developed to support workshop participants in collectively conducting qualitative analysis on a selection of their photoblogs exploring how they view their lives. Five mothers engaged in the participatory qualitative analysis process to categorize their photoblogs into themes. Participants selected over 70 of their personal photoblogs, discussed the meaning of their photoblogs, and categorized them into qualitative themes. One of the mothers continued work on the research by contributing to the write-up of the themes for publication. Participants, through the reflective dialogue, developed nine themes from the photoblogs that describe how they experience motherhood. The resulting nine themes were as follows: 'Family', 'Reality Check', 'Sacrifice for Positive Change', 'Support', 'Guidance', 'Growth and Transition', 'Proud of Becoming/Being a Mother', 'Passing on/Teaching Values' and 'Cherished Moments/Reward for Being a Mother'. These themes illustrate the satisfaction that comes from motherhood, strengths and goals for the future, and the desire for support and guidance. The themes developed from this participatory analysis illustrate that young mothers have a positive view of themselves and their ability to be mothers. This constructive view of young mothers provides an alternative to the negative stereotypes commonly attributed to them. This paper also discusses the strengths and challenges of using a participatory analysis approach. As a research methodology, incorporating procedures for participatory qualitative analysis into the Photovoice process provides an effective mechanism to meaningfully engage participants in qualitative analysis. From a health promotion perspective, using the participatory analysis process expanded the Photovoice methodology to facilitate self-reflection and an empowering collective dialogue among a group of women whose strengths and assets are rarely showcased. PMID:24830441
Kimberly A. TylerLisa; Lisa A. Melander
Although homeless youth with and without foster care histories both face adverse life circumstances, little is known about\\u000a how these two groups compare in terms of their early histories and whether they face similar outcomes. As such, we compared\\u000a those with and without a history of foster care placement to determine if the associations between a history of poor parenting
Street Kids--Homeless and Runaway Youth. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Children, Family, Drugs and Alcoholism of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate. One Hundred First Congress, Second Session.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.
This hearing was the second in a series examining the impact of homelessness and dislocation on young people in America. This session focused on the problems of homeless and runaway adolescents. Witnesses described the need for multiple services for this population, for effective provision of services, and for greater coordination and planning.…
Torchalla, Iris; Li, Kathy; Strehlau, Verena; Linden, Isabelle Aube; Krausz, Michael
This study examined religious behaviors in 380 homeless individuals. We hypothesized that higher frequency of religious attendance is associated with lower rates of use of all substances, lower rates of drug and alcohol dependence, and lower psychological distress. Individuals attending religious ceremonies at least weekly ("frequent attendees") were compared to infrequent attendees. Participants also provided qualitative information about their faith. In univariate analyses, frequent attendees had significantly lower rates of alcohol, cocaine, and opioid use than infrequent attendees. They also had lower rates of alcohol and drug dependence, lifetime suicide attempts, and psychological distress, but these differences were not significant. In multivariate analyses, religious attendance remained significantly associated with alcohol use and opioid use. Researchers need to examine how spiritual and religious practices can be effectively incorporated as a part of substance abuse treatment. PMID:24504535
Heerde, Jessica A; Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A
Homeless youth commonly report engaging in sexual risk behaviors. These vulnerable young people also frequently report being sexually victimized. This systematic review collates, summarizes, and appraises published studies of youth investigating relationships between homelessness, perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior. A systematic search of seventeen psychology, health, and social science electronic databases was conducted. Search terms included "homeless*," "youth," "offend*," "victimization," "crime," "rape," "victim*," and "sex crimes." Thirty-eight studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Findings showed homeless youth commonly report being raped and sexually assaulted, fear being sexually victimized, and engage in street prostitution and survival sex. Rates of victimization and sexual risk behavior were generally higher for females. Given the paucity of longitudinal studies and limitations of current studies, it is unclear whether homelessness is prospectively associated with sexual victimization or engagement in sexual risk behavior, and whether such associations vary cross nationally and as a function of time and place. Future prospective research examining the influence of the situational context of homelessness is necessary to develop a better understanding of how homelessness influences the perpetration of sexual offenses, experience of sexual victimization, and engagement in sexual risk behavior among homeless youth. PMID:25411128
Zorkaia, Nataliia; Diuk, Nadia M.
Numerous surveys by the Russian Center for Public-Opinion Research [VTsIOM] have shown that young people, in contrast to members of the middle and, especially, the older generations, typically have a high degree of satisfaction with their lives: more than three-fifths of young people (66 percent) are satisfied, just over one-quarter (27 percent)…
Allen, Kim; Mendick, Heather
In this article, we explore the question of how celebrity operates in young people's everyday lives, thus contributing to the urgent need to address celebrity's social function. Drawing on data from three studies in England on young people's perspectives on their educational and work futures, we show how celebrity operates as a classed and…
Despina M. Rothì; Gerard Leavey
In the United Kingdom, the issue of health and social care of young people is now a major concern for the government. Thus, a recent government green paper has insisted on the provision of early and appropriate interventions for young peoples' mental health difficulties and that their views must be incorporated into the design of mental health services. More recently,
Hartas, Dimitra; Lindsay, Geoff
This study examined young people's decision making on issues that affect their lives: bullying in different contexts (e.g., family, peer groups, school) and their involvement in evaluating the availability and effectiveness of support services (e.g., disability, care). Key aims of this study were to offer young people a platform to evaluate…
Wallmyr, Gudrun; Welin, Catharina
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of and attitudes among young people toward pornography and their sources of information about sexuality. Eight hundred and seventy-six young people ages 15-25 years (555 females and 321 males) who visited a youth center in Sweden for a period of 1 year answered a questionnaire about their use of…
Batchelor, S. A.; Kitzinger, J.; Burtney, E.
This paper reports findings from a content analysis of the main messages about sexuality in media outlets consumed by young people. It examines how sexuality is represented and the level of sexual health information provided in some UK magazines and TV programmes targeted at young people. Our findings show that such outlets included a vast range…
The changing context of schooling is examined in this paper in terms of global changes and what impact these are having on the skills young people need to have. In particular, the way work is changing, and the skills and education young people need to have to maximise their economic opportunities is explored. The key issues are that high skill
Robert van de Walle; Charles Picavet; Willy van Berlo; Arnoud Verhoeff
In recent years, the subject of transactional sex among young Dutch people has generated a heated social debate in the Netherlands. However, accurate data on this phenomenon are scarce. This article describes the findings of a qualitative study on young Dutch people's experiences of having sex in return for money or a material reward. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with
The article deals with the formation of the social biographies of young people through the interplay of structure and agency. The aim is to provide a grounded typology of patterns of young people's agency within the process of shaping social biographies. The structural context addressed in the article consists of family resources and habitus. The…
This article presents the key findings of a recent study investigating young people's knowledge and understanding of Jesus and demonstrates how young people today appear to be experiencing the same difficulties when engaging with the figure of Jesus in the religious education classroom as they did almost 40 years ago. It concludes by suggesting…
China's reform and opening up have been implemented for more than thirty years now. The "fifth generation" of young people, born between 1978 and 1988, has gradually grown up to become a backbone force for the advancement of social development. This article takes young people living or working in the Xuhui district as a sample and uses statistical…
1 Wales Observatory on Human Rights of Children and Young People Arsyllfa Cymru ar Hawliau Dynol 2012 Introduction The Wales Observatory on Human Rights of Children and Young People provides a forum. The Observatory vision is to ensure that the highest quality knowledge, expertise and best practice is targeted
This paper presents youth’s situation at the labour market in Bulgaria and existing opportunities for transition to employment. The attention is focussed on increased vulnerability of youth employment in the current period of the crisis and the specific problems faced by young people. From this point of view, the author examines social protection of young people in the field of
The position of the young people on the Bulgarian labour market is presented in details, together with the possibilities for easy transfers to their first jobs. The stress is put on the increasing vulnerability of the youth employment in the period of recent crisis and on its specific problems in Bulgaria. The social protection of the young people in the
Hayley Fitzgerald; Annette Stride
This article focuses on young people with disabilities and mainstream physical education in England. Within this context there have been unprecedented levels of funding and resources directed towards physical education in order to support more inclusive physical education experiences for all young people, including those with disabilities. Physical education holds a unique place within the school curriculum; it is a
This paper asks, what more can we think in relation to debates around young people's use of mobile phones at school? Rather than attempting to answer the question of whether mobile phones are "good" or "bad" for young people, this paper recasts the debate's ontological underpinnings. To do this feminist appropriations…
Le Surf, Anne; Lynch, Gordon
Presents findings from a qualitative study exploring young people's perceptions about the provision of a youth-counseling service. Study reveals factors that hinder willingness to seek counseling and factors that encourage young people to make use of counseling. (Author/GCP)
Svensson, Maria; Zetterqvist, Ann; Ingerman, Ake
Immersed in a technologically complex world, young people make sense of a multi-faceted set of events in everyday life. This article investigates the variation in how Swedish young people experience technological systems and is based on interviews focusing three systems concerning transport, energy and communication--contextualised in relation to…
Tony C. Lee; John G. Hanlon; Jessica Ben-David; Gillian L. Booth; Warren J. Cantor; Philip W. Connelly; Stephen W. Hwang
Background—Homeless people represent an extremely disadvantaged group in North America. Among older homeless men, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death. The objective of this study was to examine cardiovascular risk factors in a representative sample of homeless adults and identify opportunities for improved risk factor modification. Methods and Results—Homeless persons were randomly selected at shelters for single
Sanders, Bill; Lankenau, Stephen E.; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer; Hathaz, Dodi S.
Research indicates a link between drug use and offending, particularly amongst high-risk individuals, such as homeless youth. The extent to which such youth interpret their offending as being related to their drug use, though, is understudied. This manuscript investigates the interpretations of drug-related offenses offered by 151 primarily white, male, homeless IDUs aged 16–29 years. Youth were asked specific questions about their drug-related offenses during in-depth interviews as part of a larger study investigating health risks surrounding drug injection between 2004 and 2006. The first section of the manuscript outlines offenses youth revealed committing either in pursuit of or after using a variety of substances. The second part of the manuscript examines the overall context (motivation, environment), and provides a seven-tiered typology of drug-related offending based on youth's interpretations, linking certain drugs to specific offenses within particular contexts. From here, some theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21423855
Dean, Linda; Black, Sharon
This paper reports on a study of experiences of young people aged 14 to 18 years who were nursed on acute adult hospital wards in NHS hospitals in England. In spite of British government guidelines, young people from 14 years of age continue to be admitted to adult wards in the UK. Although much has been written about the transition of the young person to adult services, there is little research about the experiences of young people who are nursed on adult wards. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to explore the lived experiences of eight young people who had been nursed on adult wards between 2004 and 2010. Data were collected in 2010. In-depth interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using Colaizzi's framework ( Colaizzi, 1978 ). Themes explored included expectations of what the experience may be like, young people's first impressions of the ward environment, the feelings of the young person while in hospital, the attitudes of people towards them including, both staff and other patients, and future admissions and how they would cope with readmissions. Better provision needs to be made for young people including appropriately trained staff, adolescent-friendly environments and areas in adult wards that are dedicated to adolescents. PMID:25723268
Jennifer B. Unger; Michele D. Kipke; Thomas R. Simon; Susanne B. Montgomery; Christine J. Johnson
Although understanding of the subsistence patterns, service utilization, and HIV-risk behaviors of homeless youths and young adults is increasing, relatively little is known about the epidemiology of mental health problems in this group or the relationships between mental health problems and substance use. This study measured symptoms of depression, low self-esteem, ADHD, suicidality, self-injurious behavior (SIB), and drug and alcohol
Background Medical students’ attitudes and beliefs about homeless people may be shaped by the attitudes of their teachers and one of the most common sites for learning about homeless patients is the emergency department. The objective of this study was to determine if medical students in the preclinical and clinical years and emergency medicine faculty and residents have different attitudes and beliefs about homeless people. Methods The Health Professional Attitudes Toward the Homeless Inventory (HPATHI), was administered to all medical students, and emergency medicine physicians and residents at a large academic health sciences center in Canada. The HPATHI examines attitudes, interest and confidence on a 5-point Likert scale. Differences among groups were examined using the Kruskal Wallis test and Pearson’s chi-square test. Results The HPATHI was completed by 371 individuals, for an overall response rate of 55%. Analysis of dichotomized median and percentage results revealed 5/18 statements were significant by both methods. On the attitudes subscales physicians and residents as a group were more negative for 2/9 statements and on the confidence subscale more positive for 1/4 statements. The interest subscale achieved overall statistical significance with decreased positive responses among physicians and residents compared to medical students in 2/5 statements. Conclusion This study revealed divergences in attitudes, interests and beliefs among medical students and emergency medicine physicians and residents. We offer strategies for training interventions and systemic support of emergency faculty. Emergency medicine physicians can examine their role in the development of medical students through both formal and informal teaching in the emergency department. PMID:23968336
Kalachikova, O. N.
Research on reproductive preferences of young people in Russia shows that their attitudes regarding the number of children they may have differs by gender and by urban-rural origins. (Contains 4 tables, 1 figure, and 1 note.)
This paper aims to investigate the effects of sin-gle-parent families on the health of young peo-ple. Database is the 2010 HBSC survey as well as the 2002 and 2006 data for trend analysis. Findings show that there is a weak but significant effect of single-parent families on the health and health-behaviour of young people. There has been little change in the findings between 2002 and 2010. PMID:22836895
Jane Harvey; Anne Webb; Harry Mallinson
ObjectivesTo evaluate the acceptability to young people of proactive Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) information and urine test. To discover the extent of CT infection and the practical implications for completing treatment and partner notification.DesignProspective screening with sexual health questionnaire.SettingThree family planning clinics for young people in Liverpool and South Sefton.ParticipantsNine hundred and five women and 53 men had urine tests and
te Riele, Kitty
In the context of international consensus that the knowledge economy requires more highly educated people, the Australian federal, state and territory governments agreed on a set of policies and targets for lifting the minimum level of educational attainment of young people, which are analysed in Part 1 of this paper. This "Compact with young…
New Hampshire, University of
Youth Suicide Fast Facts · More young people in the United States between the ages of 15-24 die from suicide than from cancer, heart disease, AIDS, birth defects, stroke, and chronic lung disease combined.1 · Adolescent and young adult males are more than four times more likely to die from suicide than
Emmanuel Kuntsche; Ronald Knibbe; Gerhard Gmel; Rutger Engels
This article reviews evidence of adolescent and young adult drinking motives and their relation to possible consequences over the last 15 years. To this end, a computer-assisted search of relevant articles was conducted. Results revealed that most young people reported drinking for social motives, some indicated enhancement motives, and only a few reported coping motives. Social motives appear to be
Cherednichenko, G. A.
Young Russians are facing a work career that is very different from that of previous generations, and matching education with the job market is especially difficult. Their chances of finding a job are very affected by the factor of unemployment. In spite of a relatively high level of unemployment, young people in Russia are being flexible in their…
Clark, Christina; Dugdale, George
Writing is an important issue in the UK today. While children's and young people's writing standards steadily improved until 2006, levels have not increased in recent years. Writing is much more than just an educational issue--it is an essential skill that allows people to participate fully in today's society and to contribute to the economy.…
Radchenko, O R
The paper presents the preliminary results of estimating reproductive potential in young people. Gender characteristics have been revealed in the sexual behavior (the young men start a sexual life at significantly earlier age; different attitudes towards contraception) and reproductive aims (children rank fourth among family values; a low proportion of persons who wish to have two children or more) of the youth in the Republic of Tatarstan. Certain risk factors influencing reproductive health impairments are identified. Differential forms of prophylactic work, which are aimed at promoting reproductive health for young people, are proposed. PMID:21899107
Foster, Helen E.; McDonagh, Janet E.; Thompson, Ben; Kay, Lesley; Myers, Andrea; Rapley, Tim
Objectives. Young people with inflammatory arthritis can have severe disease warranting biologic therapy. They face complex treatment decisions, with profound consequences. This study aimed to explore the influence of individuals outside the care team (trusted others) on the treatment decisions made by young people, in particular their decisions about biologic therapies. Methods. Young people (16–25 years of age) with inflammatory arthritis and experience of treatment decision making were recruited from three NHS Hospital Trusts. Twenty-five were interviewed, plus 11 trusted others identified by young people as being involved in their decision making, as well as 6 health professionals. The data were analysed using coding, memoing and mapping techniques and the findings were tested through a series of focus groups. Results. Young people initially emphasized their decisional autonomy, typically describing people other than health professionals as limited in influence. However, discussions revealed the involvement—in deliberation and enactment—of a range of other people. This cast of trusted others was small and largely consistent; mothers played a particularly prominent role, providing cognitive, practical and emotional support. Members of the wider cast of trusted others were involved in more limited but still significant ways. Conclusion. Young people claim autonomy but other people enable this. The network of relationships in which they are embedded is distinctive and evolving. Mothers play a supporting role well into early adulthood; in contrast, partners are involved in far more limited ways. As such, the applicability of adult models of decision making is unclear. This must be taken into account if the support provided by professionals is to be optimally tailored to young people’s needs. PMID:25661469
Background Addressing the Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) needs of young people remains a big challenge. This study explored experiences and perceptions of young people in Kenya aged 10–24 with regard to their SRH needs and whether these are met by the available healthcare services. Methods 18 focus group discussions and 39 in-depth interviews were conducted at health care facilities and youth centres across selected urban and rural settings in Kenya. All interviews were tape recorded and transcribed. Data was analysed using the thematic framework approach. Results Young people’s perceptions are not uniform and show variation between boys and girls as well as for type of service delivery. Girls seeking antenatal care and family planning services at health facilities characterise the available services as good and staff as helpful. However, boys perceive services at health facilities as designed for women and children, and therefore feel uncomfortable seeking services. At youth centres, young people value the non-health benefits including availability of recreational facilities, prevention of idleness, building of confidence, improving interpersonal communication skills, vocational training and facilitation of career progression. Conclusion Providing young people with SRH information and services through the existing healthcare system, presents an opportunity that should be further optimised. Providing recreational activities via youth centres is reported by young people themselves to not lead to increased uptake of SRH healthcare services. There is need for more research to evaluate how perceived non-health benefits young people do gain from youth centres could lead to improved SRH of young people. PMID:24731733
Lorena Arranz; Aída de Vicente; Manuel Muñoz; Mónica De la Fuente
Objective: Homeless people suffer high levels of psychological distress. The aim of the present work was to study the immune function in a group of homeless people with stress-related disorders and compare it with that of healthy non-homeless controls. Methods: We included in the study 40 homeless persons and 40 housed controls recruited from the population of Madrid and matched
Gans, Curtis; And Others
Discusses several reasons for decreasing voter participation in the United States, specifically focusing on lack of voter participation by youth. Highlights recommendations for increasing young voter turnout. Presents three voting activity lesson plans for middle school students and three activities entitled "Increasing Participation in Democracy"…
Deborah K. Padgett; Leyla Gulcur; Sam Tsemberis
The literature on homeless adults with severe mental illness is generally silent on a critical issue surrounding service delivery—the contrast between housing first and treatment first program philosophies. This study draws on data from a longitudinal experiment contrasting a housing first program (which offers immediate permanent housing without requiring treatment compliance or abstinence) and treatment first (standard care) programs for
Whiting, Lisa; Caldwell, Chris; Donnelly, Mary; Martin, Debbie; Whiting, Mark
Aim To assess the preparation required to ensure a workforce of nurses who can provide high quality out-of-hospital services for children and young people. Methods Using mixed methods, questionnaires were sent to young people and community children's nursing teams, interviews were conducted with academic staff and clinical nurses, and focus groups were undertaken with pre-registration children's nursing students. Findings Nurses' communication skills and clinical abilities were most important to young people. There is a range of opinions about optimum out-of-hospital clinical experience. Pre- and post-qualification education and recruitment in this area, therefore, need attention. Conclusion Out-of-hospital care presents problems, but is developing rapidly. Adequate, updated training, supervision and resources are needed. PMID:26059588
Elsley, Susan; McMellon, Christina
This briefing highlights the findings from a consultation which was undertaken with specific groups of children and young people in order to inform the NHS Health Scotland draft framework for children and young people’s mental health indicators...
Gerking, Shelby; Khaddaria, Raman
Using the Annenberg Perception of Tobacco Risk Survey 2, this paper finds that perceived risk deters smoking among persons aged 14-22 years who think that it is relatively difficult to quit smoking and that onset of deleterious health effects occurs relatively quickly. Perceived health risk, however, does not affect the smoking status of young people who hold the opposite beliefs. These results are consistent with predictions of rational addiction models and suggest that young people, who view smoking as more addictive and health effects as more immediate, may have greater incentive to consider long-term health effects in their decision to smoke. PMID:21796724
Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are a major health problem in Uganda. However, since many STDs are not treated within the formal health sector, accurate data on the extent of the problem nationwide are lacking. A 1991 Ministry of Health survey nonetheless found that approximately 20% of hospital outpatient visits could be attributed to STDs. Ugandans, especially young people, who suspect they are infected with a STD often ask drug store proprietors, traditional healers, or family and friends for advice on diagnosis and care. They either delay or never seek care in the formal health sector. This behavior is due in part to the social stigmatization in Uganda of the discussion of sexuality and sexual health related problems. Young people may be too embarrassed to seek clinical care. The often high cost of treatment and the low quality of clinic counseling also discourage people from going to STD clinics. Many young people attending such clinics receive judgmental counseling and conflicting diagnoses which leave them more confused than before seeking care. The author stresses the need for community-based STD education and treatment networks which include the schools, mass media, the national health care system, and youth organizations. Young people need more than just random information and a pharmacist's prescription. PMID:12291848
... of permanent supportive housing. Use existing targeted and mainstream resources to create permanent supportive housing Through incentives ... Abandon the Line Housing First: a movement goes mainstream News The President’s 2016 Budget makes investments to ...
Walker, Melanie; Mkwananzi, Faith
This paper sketches an innovative conceptualisation of disadvantaged youth, shaped dialogically by the interactions of theorising and data from a case study at Orange Farm informal settlement in South Africa in 2013. The study focused on the challenges for the young people in this area in accessing higher education. Drawing on Sen's and Nussbaum's…
This practical guide demonstrates how to sponsor a successful, student-led book club for grades K through 12 that is fun, easy-to-implement, and encourages reading. Establishing a book club for children and young people that's self-sustaining and successful long-term is a challenge that this book addresses and conquers. According to recent…
Ayre, Patrick; Barrett, David
Examines some reasons for the failure to protect young people in England and Wales from sexual abuse inherent in prostitution. Identifies characteristics of the child protection system which fit poorly for work with these youth. Argues that lasting improvement of these children's well-being depends on the creation of "joined-up," integrated,…
Bell, Stephen; Aggleton, Peter
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of social context on young people's sexual lives and sexual health, and to highlight the need for HIV prevention and sexual health programmes which better take into account these contextual influences. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on findings from a multi-method,…
Herne, Steve; Adams, Jeff; Atkinson, Dennis; Dash, Paul; Jessel, John
The "Future Something Project" ("FSP"), a two-year action research project, was devised to nurture the creative and technological talent of small groups of young people at risk by creating a structured network, mentored and driven by creative professionals exploring innovative ways for the two distinct target groups to work together. The project…
Bigger, Stephen; Webb, Jean
This article explores the extent to which stories for young people encourage environmental engagement and a sense of agency. Our discussion is informed by the work of Paul Ricoeur (on hermeneutics and narrative), John Dewey (on primacy of experience) and John Macmurray (on personal agency in society). We understand fiction reading about place as…
Wight, Daniel; Williamson, Lisa; Henderson, Marion
Both family structure and processes have been associated with young people's sexual behaviour, but most studies are cross-sectional and focus on only one outcome: age at first intercourse. This paper uses longitudinal data from a survey of Scottish teenagers (N=5041) to show how low parental monitoring predicts early sexual activity for both sexes…
Savelsberg, Harry Joseph; Martin-Giles, Bonnie Mercedes
Drawing upon empirical data from four research projects undertaken in Adelaide, South Australia, we examine the cumulative effects of deprivation on the lives of young people. Utilising a social exclusion framework for analysis we demonstrate the dynamic interplay between the various dimensions of social exclusion. We present the experiences and…
Children & Society, 2004
This paper was prepared collectively by participants of the third seminar in a series with the title Challenging ""Social Inclusion": Perspectives for and from Children and Young People". Three 3-day seminars took place at the Universities of Edinburgh, Glasgow and Stirling in 2002-3 attended by academics, professionals from voluntary sector…
Provides the text for United States Conference of Catholic Bishops Charter for the Protection of Children and Young People. This document is part of a special collection of resources in the journal that address sexual abuse and the growing number of both confirmed and alleged cases of pedophilia and sexual abuse within the Catholic Church. (RC)
Cherednichenko, G. A.
The dynamism of social processes, the development of technologies, and the modernization of industrial production require raising the education and qualifications of blue-collar workers, particularly working young people. This accounts for the focus on problems of that group's formation, their integration into society, their acquisition and…
There are counter-narratives of youth as at risk and as buoyant and agentive. The article maps the conceptual terrain concerning resilience, well-being, buoyancy, enjoyment and happiness and selects factors related to the successful navigation of schooling. It analyses data from a subset of a national data set, from 65 young people considered to…
Allen, Phyllis G.; Miller, A.
The Building Research Station has embarked on a series of case-studies on the provision of living accommodations for single young people in the 15 to 24 age group in England who live away from home because of education, training or employment. An exploratory review of the existing literature on the subject was made. Discussed are some of the…
Paul Thomas; Tom Henri
This article explores effective approaches against racism in work with young people, and the relevance of new policy agendas in the UK. Since the 2001 disturbances, the UK has controversially prioritised ‘Community Cohesion’, with the accusation that this new direction represents the ‘death of multiculturalism’. Drawing on empirical evidence from a project established to work with the racist views of
Wales Observatory on Human Rights of Children and Young People Rights Here: Right Now! A conference about children's human rights 11th and 12th September 2014 Swansea University Rights Here: Right Now! .... a major international conference, and Precongress to the VI World Congress on Children's Rights (La Puebla
Voloskov, I. V.
Owing to the absence of clear-cut moral and ethical guidelines and ideas about what type of individual is in demand in present-day Russian society, to a large extent the value orientations of young people are being developed in a haphazard way. They are under the contradictory influence of on the one hand, the traditions of the folk culture, and,…
Amanda Amos; Yvonne Bostock
Smoking among young people has become increasingly gendered. In several countries, smoking among adolescent girls is now higher than among adolescent boys. However, we have only a limited understanding of the reasons behind these gender patterns. This paper re- ports the findings from a qualitative study which used single-sex focus groups to explore the gendered nature of the meaning and
Renton, Zoe; Butcher, Joanne
This article outlines why sustainable development matters for children and young people, and explores the relevant policy context in England and the UK. It asks whether enough is being carried out by central government to secure a more sustainable future for, and with, today's children. More is needed at the national policy level to: embed…
This paper introduces the context for young people in the United Kingdom today, identifies some of the key factors associated with well-being, and then focuses on ways spiritual well-being can be promoted through informal education. Informal education is the widely acknowledged primary pedagogical approach for professional youth workers. Using…
Nuksunova, A. M.
In the past 10 years, there has been a tendency in Kalmykia to drift away from traditional culture, the foundation of which has been the Buddhist teaching adopted by the Kalmyks in the 17th century, and also, most directly, the Kalmyk language, which has lost its definitive importance in Kalmyk society. Young people of Kalmykia today express…
McCrystal, Patrick; Winning, Kerry
Drug misuse in Northern Ireland, like many parts of the world, is becoming one of the major issues facing society today. A first stage to addressing this problem is effective drugs education and prevention strategies to school-aged young people. A survey of a range of education providers including mainstream and special needs schools, and school…
Phoenix, Ann; Pattman, Rob; Croghan, Rosaleen; Griffin, Christine
Gender inequalities in schools have implications for life chances, emotional well-being and educational policies and practices, but are apparently resistant to change. This paper employs Judith Butler's conceptualisation of performativity in a study of young people and consumption to provide insights into gendered inequities. It argues that…
C. Ricardo; V. Fonseca
Entre Nós (“Between Us”) is an innovative multi-media campaign to engage Brazilian youth in critical reflections on rigid ideas about gender and how they influence their lives and relationships. Gender is central to understanding vulnerabilities of young people, particularly in terms of sexuality and health in Brazil. Rigid ideas and expectations of how men and women should behave and relate
The introduction of mentoring approaches into local career guidance strategies could represent an important method of helping disengaged young people achieve a new sense of direction. The aim of Britain's Mentoring Action Project (MAP) initiative has been to create the opportunity to explore the potential for one-to-one mentoring in career…
This article highlights the lack of human rights recognition for arguably one of the most vulnerable groups in our society, children and young people in the care of the state. Currently under New Zealand legislation and policy frameworks these children do not have their rights upheld, as per New Zealand's obligations under the United Nations…
The book was designed to be a reference material as part of a comprehensive sex education program or as a family resource book. The language and syntax of the book as well as the line drawing illustrations are geared specifically for hearing impaired young people and others whose need for information on human sexuality may be more advanced than…
Holligan, Christopher Peter; Deuchar, Ross
This paper presents the results of an exploratory, small-scale qualitative research enquiry into the perceptions and experiences of young people in communities afflicted by deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland's largest city. The context within which we address this focus contains a culture reputed to involve sectarianism, territoriality and gangs.…
Cruz, Bettylu Rasmussen; San Martin, Alfredo Hidalgo; Gutierrez, Bertha Lidia Nuno; Farias, Martha Villasenor; Mora, Iliana Sahagun
Examined needs expressed by young people in Guadalajara in Jalisco, Mexico, during phone calls to the Mexican Social Security Institute. Differences were significant by gender and age. Findings point to the need for more programs that reinforce good health practices, including avoiding risky behaviors. (BF)
Leslie J. Francis; Mandy Robbins; Romil Santosh; Savita Bhanot
The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between mental health and attitude toward their religious tradition among a sample of 330 young people attending the Hindu Youth Festival in London. The participants completed the Santosh–Francis Scale of Attitude toward Hinduism together with the abbreviated form of the Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire which provides measures of neuroticism and
Melanie Jane Ackers
The topic of cyberbullying is raising international debate and concern. Through the development and dissemination of a questionnaire 12 student researchers were supported in surveying 325 UK students across Years 7, 8 and 9 to gain further knowledge of this area, in relation to children and young people. Results were analysed and comparisons made between gender and age, allowing conclusions
MPH Adam J. Gordon
Homeless veterans have numerous medical and behavioral health problems. Grouping homeless people based on comorbidity patterns may assist in determining severity of illness and triaging health care more effectively. We sought to determine if a finite number of profiles could be identified related to demographic characteristics, living situation, length of homelessness, and referral areas using interview data from 2,733 veterans
Idenfors, Hans; Kullgren, Gunnar; Salander Renberg, Ellinor
Background Deliberate self-harm (DSH) is increasingly common among young people. At the same time, treatment and support after DSH are often hampered by low compliance. Aim To explore young people’s perceptions of care and support during a 6-month period following their first contact for DSH. Methods We conducted nine semistructured interviews with young people aged 16–24 years 6 months after their first contact for DSH. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Three main themes were extracted from the interviews. “Am I really in good hands?” describes whether the participants felt they were being listened to and taken seriously and whether they could rely on the competence of the professionals and the appropriateness of treatment, including keeping agreements and communication with other relevant agencies. “Help should match life circumstances” comprises how basic practicalities such as travel possibilities affect treatment and concomitant assistance in everyday living. Financial matters and jobseeking were perceived as necessary for optimal treatment and well-being. “Making yourself better” includes participants’ efforts to manage on their own, through realizing their own responsibility to be engaged and actively take part in treatment planning. Conclusion Flexibility and responsiveness to young people’s own views and specific needs in treatment arrangements are of crucial importance. The significance of basic practical help cannot be underestimated and should not be overlooked. PMID:25670889
Fantuzzo, John W.; LeBoeuf, Whitney A.; Chen, Chin-Chih; Rouse, Heather L.; Culhane, Dennis P.
This study examined the unique and combined associations of homelessness and school mobility with educational well-being indicators, as well as the mediating effect of absenteeism, for an entire cohort of third-grade students in Philadelphia. Using integrated archival administrative data from the public school district and the municipal Office of…
Williams, M; Restieaux, N; Low, C
Myocardial infarction occurring in young people with angiographically normal coronary arteries is well described but the pathophysiology of this condition remains unknown. Coronary artery spasm in association with thrombus formation and minimal atheromatous disease or spontaneous coronary artery dissection are possible causes. Two young men presented with severe chest pain after acute alcohol intoxication and each sustained an extensive anterior myocardial infarction. Investigations including intravascular ultrasound showed no evidence of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Coronary artery spasm associated with acute alcohol intoxication as well as a prothrombotic state and endothelial damage related to cigarette smoking may be mechanisms leading to acute myocardial infarction in these cases. Acute myocardial infarction occurs in young persons with normal coronary arteries and the diagnosis should be considered in young patients presenting with severe chest pain, particularly those abusing cocaine or alcohol, so that reperfusion therapy can be initiated promptly.?? Keywords: myocardial infarction; coronary vasospasm; alcohol; intravascular ultrasound PMID:9538315
Chan, Dara V; Helfrich, Christine A; Hursh, Norman C; Sally Rogers, E; Gopal, Sucharita
Measures of community integration rely on self-report assessments that often quantify physical or social participation, but fail to capture the individual?s spatial presence in the community. The current study documents the activity space, or area of daily experiences, of 37 individuals who were once homeless through participatory mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Contrary to expectations, there was no significant relationship between activity space size and community integration measures, except a negative association with physical integration. Further analysis revealed, however, that continued use of homeless services, geographically spread throughout the city, was associated with larger activity space size, but may be counterproductive to social and psychological integration efforts. Analysis of the types of locations identified revealed high importance given to leisure locations and ongoing involvement with medical and mental health locations. Finally, community integration outcomes did not differ significantly by demographics or housing type, but rather degree of family involvement and feeling like home, factors that may have more potential for change. PMID:24589632
Harriet Dismore; Richard Bailey
Fun and enjoyment are recurring themes in physical education literature, although there has been some debate concerning the distinction between the two concepts. Whereas enjoyment is generally regarded as helpful in fostering positive attitudes towards physical education, fun has not always been considered an appropriate outcome of physical education. This paper seeks to explore further the meanings young people give
Brown, S W; Jadresic, E
The parents of 41 young people with epilepsy who were living in the same household as the patients were interviewed using the Camberwell Family Interview, and ratings of expressed emotion (EE) carried out according to standard criteria. The presence of any seizures in the 6 months prior to interview was found to be a predictor of EE (p= 0. 0017). Absolute seizure frequency, as well as presence or absence of seizures was also found to vary with the EE score. Fathers may exhibit high EE by critical comments, mothers by emotional over involvement. Although it is unclear whether high EE is the result of seizures, or whether high EE makes seizures more likely to occur, an intervention study aimed at assessing the effect of lowering parental EE levels on young people's seizure frequency might be worth pursuing. PMID:10880284
This year’s Women Deliver conference made a strong call for investing in the health and development of adolescents and young people. It highlighted the unique problems faced by adolescent girls and young women–some of the most vulnerable and neglected individuals in the world–and stressed the importance of addressing their needs and rights, not only for their individual benefit, but also to achieve global goals such as reducing maternal mortality and HIV infection. In response to an invitation from the editors of Reproductive Health, we-the sixteen coauthors of this commentary–put together key themes that reverberated throughout the conference, on the health and development needs of adolescents and young people, and promising solutions to meet them. 1. Investing in adolescents and young people is crucial for ensuring health, creating prosperity and fulfilling human rights. 2. Gender inequality contributes to many health and social problems. Adolescent girls and boys, and their families and communities, should be challenged and supported to change inequitable gender norms. –?Child marriage utterly disempowers girls. It is one of the most devastating manifestations of gender discrimination. –?Negative social and cultural attitudes towards menstruation constrain the lives of millions of girls. This may well establish the foundation for lifelong discomfort felt by girls about their bodies and reticence in seeking help when problems arise. 3. Adolescents need comprehensive, accurate and developmentally appropriate sexuality education. This will provide the bedrock for attitude formation and decision making. 4. Adolescent-centered health services can prevent sexual and reproductive health problems and detect and treat them if and when they occur. 5. National governments have the authority and the responsibility to address social and cultural barriers to the provision of sexual and reproductive health education and services for adolescents and young people. 6. Adolescents should be involved more meaningfully in national and local actions intended to meet their needs and respond to their problems. 7. The time to act is now. We know more now than ever before about the health and development needs of adolescents and young people, as well as the solutions to meeting those needs. PMID:24041149
Jamshid Beheshti; Andrew Large
\\u000a The exploratory study investigates a virtual reality interface for opportunistic discovery for young people. We recruited\\u000a ten volunteer students, who performed a pre-assigned information search task in a VR library which consists of about 1500\\u000a web sites depicted as books organized on the shelves. We calculated a metric for opportunistic discovery of information (ODI)\\u000a based on the distance of books
Ambrose Leung; Cheryl Kier
We aimed to find patterns among young people's music preferences in relation to their attitudes towards saving or spending money. Previous research found that certain music genres (e.g. rap and dance) are associated with impulsive behaviour and a pleasure-seeking lifestyle. Other music genres (e.g. classical and oldies) are associated with more adult-approved lifestyles, such as doing well in school. Our
In the UK, young carers are defined as people under the age of 18 who give regular and ongoing care to a family member, beyond that normally expected of a child ( Phelps 2012 ). They can be doubly burdened by the demands of caring itself and by the effect on development, health and education. Often these problems are compounded by secrecy with children and families often afraid to ask for help ( Smyth et al 2010 ). PMID:25487392
Russian Education and Society, 2007
This article presents a roundtable discussion on the risk in the education of young people in Russia. Participants were as follows: (1) Iu.A. Zubok; (2) A.I. Kovaleva; (3) D.L. Konstantinovskii; (4) V.A. Lukov; (5) V.Ia. Nechaev; (6) N.L. Smakotina; (7) V.I. Chuprov; (8) V.I. Zubkov; (9) Iu.V. Goliusova; (10) E.G. Panteleev; (11) I.A. Seleznev;…
This paper discusses three related methodological problems from the point of view of a researcher interested in studying young people’s leisure experiences. The first part of the paper makes a moral argument for why we should attempt to listen to young people. The second part of the paper uses an example from research with young footballers to explain how a
18,141 young people aged 8 to 17 participated in this online survey in November/December 2010. While the survey focuses on young people's attitudes towards reading, writing, communication skills as well as technology use, this report focuses exclusively on the reading aspect of the survey. More specifically, it explores how much young people enjoy…
With the recognition that improving access to advice and support on sex and relationships is vital in helping young people make positive healthy choices, the present paper explores how young people gain such information and advice. Drawing on the analysis of questionnaire and interview data collected for a local study of 401 young people from…
With the recognition that improving access to advice and support on sex and relationships is vital in helping young people make positive healthy choices, the present paper explores how young people gain such information and advice. Drawing on the analysis of questionnaire and interview data collected for a local study of 401 young people from Cardiff, aged between 12 and
This article examines the perspectives of Caribbean young people in Britain in order to examine the issue of friendship networks. The research shows that the young people interviewed have a vast array of friendship networks across diverse ethnic groups. However, the majority of the Caribbean young people in the study acknowledged that their three…
Daniunaite, Akvile; Ahmad Ali, Zenib; Cooper, Mick
The aim of this article is to explore self-healing processes in young people, and to develop an understanding of the effects of school-based counselling (SBC), by analysing changes in young people who did not receive this intervention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 young people on a waiting list for SBC. Participants…
Bellis, M; Hughes, K; Thomson, R; Bennett, A
Background/objectives: Increasingly, young people travel abroad to experience nightlife in international resorts. Although media coverage of such resorts suggests high levels of sexual activity, little empirical data are currently available. We have measured: 3 year trends in sexual behaviour of young people visiting Ibiza, levels of sexual risk taking, and their relation to substance use. Additionally, in 2002 we identified levels of homosexual sex and sexual interactions between UK residents and individuals from other countries. Methods: Data were collected from visitors to Ibiza between 2000 and 2002 just before they left the island. Information on sexual health was surveyed using a short anonymous questionnaire. Results: Over half of individuals (56.0%) visiting Ibiza had sex with at least one person, with 26.2% of males and 14.5% of females having sex with more than one individual. However, of those arriving without sexual partners (75.5%) just under half (47.5%) have sex in Ibiza and most of these (62.4%) always used condoms. Having any sex abroad was associated with using illicit drugs and having more sexual partners in the 6 months before visiting Ibiza. However, having unprotected sex or sex with more than one person was associated with smoking as well as having higher numbers of sexual partners before their visit. Overall, 8.6% of individuals had sex with a non-UK resident in Ibiza although such individuals were no more likely to have sex without condoms. Conclusions: Substantial numbers of individuals visiting international nightlife resorts have unprotected sex with people they meet while abroad. This poses an increasing threat to the sexual health of UK residents but as yet little attention has been paid to developing interventions that might reduce sexual risk taking among young people holidaying abroad. PMID:14755035
Chiu, Shirley; Redelmeier, Donald A.; Tolomiczenko, George; Kiss, Alex; Hwang, Stephen W.
Background This study examined the association between immigrant status and current health in a representative sample of 1,189 homeless people in Toronto, Canada. Methods Multivariate regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between immigrant status and current health status (assessed using the SF-12) among homeless recent immigrants (?10 years since immigration), non-recent immigrants (>10 years since immigration), and Canadian-born individuals recruited at shelters and meal programs (response rate 73%). Results After adjusting for demographic characteristics and lifetime duration of homelessness, recent immigrants were significantly less likely to have chronic conditions (RR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.9), mental health problems (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.7), alcohol problems (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.5), and drug problems (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.4) compared to non-recent immigrants and Canadian-born individuals. Recent immigrants were also more likely to have better mental health status (+3.4 points, SE ±1.6) and physical health status (+2.2 points, SE ±1.3) on scales with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10 in the general population. Conclusion Homeless recent immigrants are a distinct group who are generally healthier and may have very different service needs compared to other homeless people. PMID:19654122
Miller, Pamela; Donahue, Peter; Este, Dave; Hofer, Marvin
A qualitative study was undertaken with four groups -- immigrants, youths, Aboriginal people, and landlords -- in order to explore, compare, and contrast diversity issues among the homeless population and those at risk of homelessness in a larger Canadian city (Calgary, Alberta) with a smaller city (Lethbridge, Alberta), to better understand their…
Sexuality and sexual function are important to persons with disabilities just as they are to their able-bodied counterparts, but knowledge about sexual and reproductive health (SRH) among persons with disabilities is frequently inadequate. Adolescents and young adults with physical disabilities are less active socially, and have difficulties in developing intimate relationships. Thus, despite greater needs for SRH education and service delivery than persons without disabilities, dedicated services regarding sexuality and physical disabilities are scantly reported. Together with a literature survey on sexuality and disability in adolescents, a unique comprehensive SRH service for young people with physical disabilities is described in this review. Despite being interdisciplinary, the utilization of the service was limited due to difficulties in transportation to the clinic and in finding escort for aid in accessibility to public transportation. Health authorities should provide the resources for the development of accessible comprehensive multidisciplinary SRH services dedicated to young people with disabilities, and thus fulfill the United Nations General Assembly declaration on the rights of persons with disabilities. PMID:23045416
McChesney, Kay Young
The welfare of American families improved steadily for over 20 years after World War II. After the War on Poverty of the 1960s, the number of people living in poverty fell, reaching its lowest point in 1973. During the 1980s, homeless families, including those living in the streets, in cars, and in shelters seemingly appeared out of nowhere. As…
This paper reviews mounting evidence linking foster care and homelessness and considers new ap- proaches for intervention. Although there is no causal evidence that family homelessness leads to foster care or vice versa, the association no longer originates solely from samples of homeless people, but also from samples of people with childhood histories of foster care. Many programs work with
Matter, Rebecca; Kline, Susan; Cook, Karon F.; Amtmann, Dagmar
Purpose The primary objective of this study was to inform the development of measures of pain impact appropriate for all respondents, including homeless individuals, so that they can be used in clinical research and practice. The secondary objective was to increase understanding about the unique experience of homeless people with pain. Methods Seventeen homeless individuals with chronic health conditions (often associated with pain) participated in cognitive interviews to test the functioning of 56 pain measurement items and provided information about their experience living with and accessing treatment for pain. Results The most common problems identified with items were that they lacked clarity or were irrelevant in the context of homelessness. Items that were unclear, irrelevant and/or had other identified problems made it difficult for participants to respond. Participants also described multiple ways in which their pain was exacerbated by conditions of homelessness and identified barriers to accessing appropriate treatment. Conclusions Results suggested that the majority of items were problematic for the homeless and require substantial modifications to make the pain impact bank relevant to this population. Additional recommendations include involving homeless in future item bank development, conducting research on the topic of pain and homelessness, and using cognitive interviewing in other types of health disparities research. PMID:19582592
Felson, Richard B; Cundiff, Patrick R
Evidence based on almost 300,000 sexual assaults from the National Incident-Based Reporting System showed that the modal age of victims was 15 years, regardless of the age of the offender, the gender of the offender, or the gender of the victim. We suggest that adolescents have the highest risk of victimization because of their sexual attractiveness, vulnerability, and exposure to motivated offenders. As a result of these factors, sexual assault is as much an offense against young people as it is against women. The sexual attractiveness of young people also has implications for the age of offenders. Older men have much higher rates of offending than one would expect, given the age-desistance relationship. Thus, we found that older men have much higher rates of sexual assault than physical assault. Finally, evidence suggested that homosexual men were at least as likely as heterosexual men to commit sexual assault. The pattern suggests that the tendency for sexual assaults to involve male offenders and female victims reflects male sexuality rather than attitudes toward women. PMID:23720138
Heard, Emma; Auvaa, Leveti; Pickering, Charlotte
Issues addressed This project addressed the sexual health and well being of youth in Samoa; a key at-risk group experiencing high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and alienation from sexual health services. Methods Love Bugs included a health promotion event held at the National University of Samoa (NUS), exposing young people to sexual health information and developing personal skills and building self-efficacy around healthy relationships, communication and safer sex. A survey provided insights into participants' knowledge and perceptions of sexual health, STIs and healthy relationships. In response to survey results, six free condom dispensers were installed at NUS. Results Love Bugs exposed over 500 Samoan youth to positive sexual health information and provided an opportunity for personal skill development with regard to protecting sexual health and well being. Condom dispensers were developed and installed on the university campus for the ongoing access by students without concern of cost or embarrassment. Strong partnerships were built between key community and government stakeholders that encouraged collaborative action towards protecting sexual health and well being of Samoan youth. Conclusions Love Bugs was a successful initiative which addressed sexual health and well being of young people in Samoa. A comprehensive evaluation should be undertaken. So what? Love Bugs highlighted creative and culturally-appropriate ways to address sexual health in the Pacific. Rates of STIs and unplanned pregnancies, particularly for youth, could be reduced through investment in the implementation and evaluation of such initiatives. PMID:25436987
Constantino, R.; Dicelis, G.; Molina, E. C.
This study aims to identify the tools available to disseminate the Earth sciences to young people in Brazil and to propose new techniques that may help in the teaching of such subjects. The use of scientific dissemination can be a great tool for the consolidation of a scientific culture, especially for a public of young students. The starting point of this study is an important characteristic that is present in virtually all the children: curiosity. The young public tries to understand how the world is and how it works. The use of scientific dissemination and some educational experiences have shown that these students have a great ability to learn and deal with various topics within the Earth Sciences. Another relevant point is the possibility to show that the Earth sciences, e.g., geophysics, oceanography, meteorology, geology and geography, can be an educational attractive option. Several ways of disseminating Earth sciences are commonly used with the purpose of attracting and mainly teaching these subjects, such as websites, interactive museums and cultural and educational spaces. The objectives of this work are: i) Investigate the role of science centers as motivators in disseminating the scientific knowledge by examining the communication resources that are being employed, the acceptance, reaction, and interest of children to these means, and ii) From this analysis, to list suggestions of contents and new tools that could be used for obtaining better results.
Gray, Nicola J; Smith, Felicity J; McDonagh, Janet E
Background The development of services that are responsive to the needs of users is a health policy priority. Finding ways of engaging young people in research to gain insights into their particular experiences, perspectives, and needs is vital but challenging. These data are critical to improving services in ways that meet the needs of young people. Objective Our aim was to evaluate Web-based blogging as a viable method for understanding the daily experiences and condition management strategies of young people with juvenile arthritis. Methods To meet the objectives of the study, a qualitative approach was required to gather information on the experiences and perspectives of young people regarding the management of their condition and its daily impact. In collaboration with a group of young people with arthritis, a custom website was developed. This website provided the opportunity for young people (aged 11-19) with arthritis from a United Kingdom pediatric hospital to contribute blogs. It was designed so that young people were free to write about whatever was important to them, but the site also included some structure and prompts to facilitate the writing of blogs. Qualitative analytical procedures were employed, supported by NVivo software. Results Engagement in the study by young people was variable in terms of their participation rates, frequency of website visits, and the length of their blogs. Young people used the site in different ways, some responding to the website categories and prompts that the team created, while others used it as a diary to record their experiences and thoughts. In line with principles of qualitative inquiry, the data collection was participant-led. Young people were in control of what, how much, and how often they wrote. However, some young people expressed difficulty regarding knowing what they should blog about. For a number of reasons, discussed here, the blogs may also not be fully reflective of experiences and perspectives of the participants. However, the data obtained provided insights into young people’s experiences of living with arthritis and their use of medicines in the context of their daily lives. Conclusions Web-based research with young people presents opportunities and challenges for researchers. Web-based blogging methodology has the potential to give young people and parents the space and empowerment to express their own ideas and concerns. However, this project suggests that it might not be the best way to engage a large diverse group of young people and might most effectively be combined with other approaches. Despite these limitations, the study provided valuable data about the experience and impact of living with a long-term condition from the perspectives of young people with arthritis. PMID:25749691
Many initiatives relating to young people's sexual health have focused on under 16s. Yet, most young people become sexually active between the ages of 16 and 19 and 80 per cent of under-18 conceptions are to 16- and 17-year-olds. The shift from school to further education marks a time of transition in young people's lives. It is a time when…
Noel Smith; Ruth Lister; Sue Middleton; Lynne Cox
Based on a major qualitative study, this article examines young people's status as citizens. It argues that UK social policy assumes that young people lack citizenship—and so need interventions to develop their citizenship—but that this assumption is not based on concepts of citizenship, but on how youth is (mis)perceived. The research found that the young people prescribed to a number
This research was funded by law firm Slaughter and May and carried out with 21,000 children and young people across the UK. One of its key findings is that children and young people are reading less as their lives get more crowded. In 2005 the researchers found that four young people in 10 read daily outside of class. This research carried out at…
Ibabe, Izaskun; Stein, Judith A; Nyamathi, Adeline; Bentler, Peter M
The current study focuses on the relationships among a trauma history, a substance use history, chronic homelessness, and the mediating role of recent emotional distress in predicting drug treatment participation among adult homeless people. We explored the predictors of participation in substance abuse treatment because enrolling and retaining clients in substance abuse treatment programs is always a challenge particularly among homeless people. Participants were 853 homeless adults from Los Angeles, California. Using structural equation models, findings indicated that trauma history, substance use history and chronicity of homelessness were associated, and were significant predictors of greater recent emotional distress. The most notable result was that recent emotional distress predicted less participation in current substance abuse treatment (both formal and self-help) whereas a substance use history alone predicted significantly more participation in treatment. Implications concerning treatment engagement and difficulties in obtaining appropriate dual-diagnosis services for homeless mentally distressed individuals are discussed. PMID:24238716
May, J M
Forty-three subjects from secondary school took part in a correlation study investigating the nature of cognitive processes involved in the presentation of violent behaviour. Measures of violence were scores on "aggression items" of a self-report questionnaire. The experimental procedure involved binocular tachistoscopic presentation of neutral and violent slide pairs. Descriptions of the composite stimuli were scored for violent content. The main finding was that subjects who had reported more involvement in violent acts also reported seeing more violence in the stimulus array. This association held irrespective of age, IQ, socio-economic status and starting mood. It is argued that these findings indicate a perceptual, rather than a response, bias. A role for this bias as a possible maintaining condition in the presentation of aggressive behaviour is presented. The implications of the present findings for interventions with young people are discussed. It is suggested that cognitive techniques may prove more effective than traditional behavioural programmes. PMID:3700777
This paper is based on a recently published book, Educating Against Extremism (Davies, Educating Against Extremism, 2008), which explores the potential role of schools in averting the more negative and violent forms of extremism in a country. It examines the nature of extremism; identity formation and radicalisation; religious belief, faith schools and the myth of equal value; justice, revenge and honour; and free speech, humour and satire. The paper argues that religious fundamentalism, as well as state terrorism, needs to be addressed in schools. The argument in the book is for a greater politicisation of young people through the forging of critical (dis)respect and the use of a secular basis of human rights. Specific forms of citizenship education are needed, which provide skills to analyse the media and political or religious messages, but also enable critical idealism to be fostered.
Tarrant, Mark; Khan, Sammyh S; Qin, Qi
We examined the effects of making salient different norm referents on young people's dietary orientation. Participants were exposed to a referent who was either of similar age to themselves or older before reporting their normative beliefs, attitudes and intentions concerning dietary behavior. As predicted, exposure to the older referent was associated with stronger perceptions that eating five portions of fruit and vegetables each day was normative. Compared to those exposed to the same-age referent, participants exposed to the older referent reported more positive attitudes towards eating "five-a-day" and stronger intentions to do so over the coming week. Referent salience was also associated with a behavioral outcome, with those participants exposed to the older referent more likely to take a piece of fruit upon completion of the study (OR: 4.97, 95% CI: 1.39-17.82). The implications of these findings for norms-based interventions for changing dietary behavior are discussed. PMID:25447012
Kumar, Shankar; Bogle, Richard; Banerjee, Debasish
Cardiovascular disease poses the greatest risk of premature death seen among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Up to 50% of mortality risk in the dialysis population is attributable to cardiovascular disease and the largest relative excess mortality is observed in younger patients. In early CKD, occlusive thrombotic coronary disease is common, but those who survive to reach end-stage renal failure requiring dialysis are more prone to sudden death attributable mostly to sudden arrhythmic events and heart failure related to left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary vascular calcification and electrolyte disturbances. In this review, we discuss the basis of the interaction of traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease with various pathological processes such as endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, low grade chronic inflammation, neurohormonal changes and vascular calcification and stiffness which account for the structural and functional cardiac changes that predispose to excess morbidity and mortality in young people with CKD. PMID:25374808
This article addresses the challenges faced by youth in developing countries. Using India as an example of a fast-globalizing country, this article highlights the experience and challenges faced by adolescents and emerging adults as they search for their interpersonal and professional identities. The difficulties of defining identity in the context of rapid globalization where people are exposed to diverse cultural forces that may conflict with each other are particularly salient when dealing with anger. Anger frequently results from thwarted wants and needs. In globalizing developing economies, young people often face inequitable access and opportunities that may be cause for distress-anger and depression. However, the skills to deal with anger are frequently culturally determined and may not be effective in situations where multiple cultural rules are operational. For example, India being a collectivist culture traditionally encourages the suppression of anger. However, situations and rules of conduct in a global economic order require the assertive expression of anger and the confrontation of conflict. Research that is methodologically and culturally appropriate is needed in exploring these issues and ameliorating distress associated with inequity, conflicts, and challenges. PMID:25732018
Gao, Y; Lu, Z Z; Shi, R; Sun, X Y; Cai, Y
Although China has had a rich sexual culture for thousands of years, Chinese people are usually unwilling to openly discuss issues of sex. Some parents are quite ignorant of the change in their children's sexual attitude and behaviour. In China today, adolescents are becoming much more sexually liberated. Premarital sex and unplanned pregnancies among teenagers are increasing. Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) including HIV/AIDS are also spreading rapidly. However, young people lack basic information on AIDS/STD and do not know how to protect themselves from these diseases or how to avoid unintended pregnancies. Several major youth peer education programmes in China are mentioned in this paper. Among them, a four-year programme entitled the Australian-Chinese AIDS/STD/Safer Sex Peer Education Programme for Youth, is discussed in some detail. The programme has so far reached over 40000 university and school students. Evaluation results show that the programme is effective in both significantly increasing students' knowledge about AIDS/STDs and changing their attitude towards AIDS patients. In addition, the programme is highly praised by the students. PMID:11999327
Castellow, Jennifer; Kloos, Bret; Townley, Greg
This paper argues that the experience of homelessness is inherently traumatic and thus has the potential to affect the manifestation of mental illness. The experiences related to being homeless might act as specific and unique sources of vulnerability. This study included 424 people diagnosed with serious mental illnesses living in supported housing programs in South Carolina. Three hierarchical regression analyses measuring the impact of homelessness on three types of outcomes revealed the following: (1) ever experiencing homelessness as well as the amount of time spent homeless were related to higher levels of psychiatric distress, (2) ever experiencing homelessness was related to higher levels of reported alcohol use, and (3) total amount of time spent homeless was related to lower perceived recovery from mental illness. These findings suggest that experiencing homelessness might contribute to psychosocial vulnerability to negative mental health outcomes. Future investigations examining this concept of risk and vulnerability as a result of homelessness are in order. PMID:25566947
Tompsett, Carolyn J.; Toro, Paul A.
Parental deviance, parental monitoring, and deviant peers were examined as predictors of overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Homeless (N=231) and housed (N=143) adolescents were assessed in adolescence and again in early adulthood. Homelessness predicted both types of antisocial behaviors, and effects persisted in young adulthood. Parental…
Homeless Youth: The Saga of "Pushouts" and "Throwaways" in America. Report of the Subcommittee on the Constitution of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.
This report of the Senate Subcommittee on the Constitution examines the phenomenon of homeless youth, including the population, their families, survival tactics, the availability of services, and future outlooks. A section reviewing the legal constraints imposed on young people which affect their ability to live on their own is followed by a…
Curtis, Marah A; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E
We exploited an exogenous health shock-namely, the birth of a child with a severe health condition-to investigate the effect of a life shock on homelessness in large cities in the United States as well as the interactive effects of the shock with housing market characteristics. We considered a traditional measure of homelessness, two measures of housing instability thought to be precursors to homelessness, and a combined measure that approximates the broadened conceptualization of homelessness under the 2009 Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing Act (2010). We found that the shock substantially increases the likelihood of family homelessness, particularly in cities with high housing costs. The findings are consistent with the economic theory of homelessness, which posits that homelessness results from a conjunction of adverse circumstances in which housing markets and individual characteristics collide. PMID:23868747
Senior, Kate; Helmer, Janet; Chenhall, Richard; Burbank, Victoria
This paper examines young people's perceived vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and their efforts to create a sense of personal safety within an environment in which risks may be high and where STIs are highly stigmatised. The paper reports on findings from research involving both Indigenous and non-Indigenous 16- to 25-year-olds from remote, rural and regional Australia, including communities in the Northern Territory, Western Australia and South Australia. The study used qualitative methods, including body mapping and scenario based interviewing, to explore how young people made decisions about potential sexual partners and how STIs were understood within the context of young people's everyday social worlds. The paper has important implications for the design and implementation of sexual-health education programmes by documenting the stigmatisation of young people with STIs and the protective mechanisms peer groups employ to create perceptions of personal safety. PMID:24592872
Craig, Gary; Stanley, Nicky
Teenage pregnancy has become a major policy issue, for which young people are often publicly held solely responsible. However, a combination of factors substantially increases the risks of conception faced by young people engaging in early sexual activity. This article reports the main findings of a study of teenage pregnancy in linked seaside and…
This essay is an attempt to come to terms with the Young Lords' popular liberation rhetoric in the church offensive. Building from Michael Calvin McGee's observation that ""the people" are more process than phenomenon," I explore the ways in which the Young Lords' craft "the people's repertory of convictions" from diverse rhetorical resources in…
Leigh, Lauraine, Ed.; Gersch, Irvine, Ed.; Dix, Ann, Ed.; Haythorne, Deborah, Ed.
"Dramatherapy with Children, Young People and Schools" is the first book to specifically evaluate the unique value of dramatherapy in the educational environment. A variety of highly experienced dramatherapists, educational psychologists and childhood experts discuss the benefits to the children and young people, and also in relation to the…
J. Shepherd; A. Harden; R. Rees; G. Brunton; J. Garcia; S. Oliver; A. Oakley
A systematic review was conducted to examine the barriers to, and facilitators of, healthy eating among young people (11-16 years). The review focused on the wider determinants of health, examining community- and society-level interventions. Seven outcome evaluations and eight studies of young people's views were included. The effectiveness of the interventions was mixed, with improvements in knowledge and increases in
Jocey Quinn; Robert Lawy; Kim Diment
Young people who are in ‘jobs without training’ (JWT) are commonly seen as ‘dead end kids in dead end jobs’. They have been identified as a problem group who need to be encouraged back into formal education and training. Following the Leitch report and the new policy goal to involve all young people in education and training up to the
Lora L. Passetti; William L. White
Participation of young people in recovery support meetings is a promising yet largely understudied area. This article reviews the history of youth involvement in meetings, summarizes current research, and discusses issues to consider when making referrals. Professionals may want to research local meetings, help young people structure time before and after meetings, become familiar with group customs, investigate a variety
This article outlines the evidence upon which best practice guidelines for transition to adulthood for young people with physical and developmental disabilities were developed in Ontario, Canada, through consensus activities. Evidence was gathered from published and unpublished literature and focus groups with young people, parents, community…
Ellis, Katie; France, Alan
Research from the Economic and Social Research Council programme on Pathways Into and Out of Crime prioritised young people's "voices" in exploring experiences of crime and a range of intervention services. Drawing on data from interviews with 110 young people, this paper explores their perspectives of professional assessment. Embedded within…
The first stage of research into the impact of part-time employment on young people in full-time education analyzed questionnaires from 555 young people aged 14-19 in 7 secondary schools and in 7 further education sector colleges in Britain. A literature review focused on issues involved in combining part-time employment and full-time education.…
Debbie Epstein; Heather Mendick; Marie-Pierre Moreau
This paper makes both a critical analysis of some popular cultural texts about mathematics and mathematicians, and explores the ways in which young people deploy the discourses produced in these texts. We argue that there are particular (and sometimes contradictory) meanings and discourses about mathematics that circulate in popular culture, that young people use these as resources in identity making
Twenty young people with a history of incarceration, substance abuse and disconnection provided Whitelion with insight into "what worked" in changing their at-risk behaviours. The answer was obvious--state support beyond 18 years of age, perhaps until the mid-twenties. These young people require specialised intervention, and help accessing…
Niens, Ulrike; Mawhinney, Alison; Richardson, Norman; Chiba, Yuko
This paper aims to explore the relationship between religious identity, acculturation strategies and perceptions of acculturation orientation in the school context amongst young people from minority belief backgrounds. Based on a qualitative study including interviews with 26 young people from religious minority belief backgrounds in Northern…
Furlong, John; Davies, Chris
The paper presents findings from a large-scale mixed methods study of young people's uses of new technologies at home to address a number of key conceptual issues in understanding the home as context for learning. First it is argued that young people's engagement with new technologies is fundamentally bound up with their own identity. It then goes…
Dezuanni, Michael Luigi; Miles, Prue
The 5th World Summit on Media for Children and Youth held in Karlstad, Sweden in June 2010 provided a unique media literacy experience for approximately thirty young people from diverse backgrounds through participation in the Global Youth Media Council. This article focuses on the Summit's aim to give young people a "voice" through intercultural…
Almond, Louise; Giles, Susan
The study examines 102 young people with Learning Disabilities (n = 51) and without a learning disability (NLD; n = 51) to explore ways in which LD young people with harmful sexual behaviours (HSB) should be recognized as a subgroup requiring specialized treatment and intervention. Throughout this comparison of perpetrator, victim and abuse…
Humphrey, Neil; Kalambouka, Afroditi; Wigelsworth, Michael; Lendrum, Ann; Deighton, Jessica; Wolpert, Miranda
This study presents the findings of a systematic review of measures of social and emotional skills for children and young people. The growing attention to this area in recent years has resulted in the development of a large number of measures to aid in the assessment of children and young people. These measures vary on a number of variables…
This paper summarizes evidence from the Scottish Young People's Survey (SYPS) on the labor market problems of young people in Scotland. The discussion focuses largely on youth unemployment. Other indicators of disadvantage, such as quality of employment and wages, are either difficult to measure or are of doubtful validity for this age group.…
Michelmore, Lisa; Hindley, Peter
There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that only a minority of young people experiencing suicidal thoughts or self-harm present to any health services. This is of concern given that young people with suicidal thoughts or self-harm often require treatment for mental illness as well as to reduce their risk of completed suicide. We reviewed…
The characteristics, experiences and long-term prospects of young people outside the labour market and education have attracted widespread international attention in recent decades, and the specific category of young people not in education, employment or training (NEET) has been a policy concern for the UK Government since 1997. This paper…
Ben Light; Marie Griffiths; Siân Lincoln
Dominant discourses around young people and social networking in the mass media are littered with negative connotations and moral panics. While some scholars challenge this negativity, their focus has predominantly been upon the formation of friendships, the construction of identity and the presentation of the self online. We argue that as well as engaging in such areas, young people are
Morgan, Kirsten; Schlumpp, Arianne
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander young people are substantially over-represented in the juvenile justice system in Australia, and this over-representation is highest in the most serious processes and outcomes--particularly in detention. This bulletin examines the numbers and characteristics of Indigenous young people in the juvenile justice…
Faust, Hannah; Scior, Katrina
Background: Young people with intellectual disabilities seem to be at increased risk of developing mental health problems. The present study set out to examine the impact such difficulties can have on parents. Method: Semi-structured in-depth interviews were carried out with 13 parents and one adult sibling of 11 young people with intellectual…
Bourke, Lisa; Geldens, Paula
Wellbeing is a well-used but ill-defined term in youth research. This paper describes research that explored the ways in which young people and youth workers define wellbeing. The findings suggest that both groups agreed that wellbeing was a multidimensional concept; however, the young people were more likely to consider wellbeing to be influenced…
Janssen, Marty; Davis, Jackie
Sexual health promotion is of primary importance for young people in Australia, especially for vulnerable and at-risk young people. The authors first identify the important role of youth workers in engaging clients proactively around a broad range of sexual health issues, and then discuss real and perceived barriers that youth workers face in…
Since assuming power in May 2010, the UK's Coalition government has devoted considerable energy to formulating its policies with respect to young people. Evidence of this can be found in "Positive for youth: a new approach to cross-government policy for young people aged 13-19", a policy text that outlines a wide range of measures to be…
Mitchell, Kirstin; Wellings, Kaye
Interviews young people about their first sexual intercourse. Main findings show communication plays a central role mediating between the degree of anticipation and the degree to which first intercourse is wanted, protected, and enjoyed. First intercourse tends to be silent. Where young people are ambivalent, verbal and non-verbal communication…
Counselling is increasingly seen as a way of addressing the psychological needs of young people with emotional, behavioural and academic problems. This paper explores the existing counselling landscape regarding inclusion of young people with learning disabilities in counselling. The research findings are based on data collected from an empirical…
This report only outlines findings that relate to writing, taken from the author's second annual literacy survey, which she conducted in November/December 2011. Nearly 21,000 young people aged 8 to 16 participated. Writing is an important issue in the UK today. While children's and young people's writing standards had plateaued between 2006 and…
Selwyn, Neil; Powell, Eryl
Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to investigate how young people are using school-based sources of sex and relationships education (SRE) to obtain information and advice. Design/methodology/approach: The paper shows how anonymous self-completion questionnaires were administered to young people aged between 12 and 19 years in three secondary…
Bannerman, Anne Morris
This paper describes the laying of a foundation for transformation of the inner world and the emergence of "self" in young people using the Conversational Model. The author works with young people in a technical college in a remote part of Victoria Australia. Some of the clients have experienced extreme trauma as children and live in an ongoing…
Shepherd, J.; Harden, A.; Rees, R.; Brunton, G.; Garcia, J.; Oliver, S.; Oakley, A.
A systematic review was conducted to examine the barriers to, and facilitators of, healthy eating among young people (11-16 years). The review focused on the wider determinants of health, examining community- and society-level interventions. Seven outcome evaluations and eight studies of young people's views were included. The effectiveness of the…
McLaughlin, Colleen; Swartz, Sharlene
Despite recent progress in meeting the goals of the Education for All agenda, certain groups of young people are particularly vulnerable to exclusion and underachievement, including children with HIV/AIDS, children living in poverty, and children with disabilities. HIV/AIDS has reduced many young people's rights to access education, to live a full…
Wilson, Kimberley; Stemp, Kellie; McGinty, Sue
Alternative education programs are one way of responding to the disengagement of young people from mainstream schools. While there are a great variety of programs, those where young people experience success have incorporated a number of elements of best practice (Mills & McGregor 2010). This article reviews the attributes of effective alternative…
Di Ceglie, Domenico
Gender identity disorders (GID) in young people are complex and often distressing conditions. The paper starts by examining the experience of the professional worker resulting from the interaction with this group of young people and their families. This is frequently characterised by a sense of being under pressure and in danger. The view put…
Arweck, Elisabeth; Nesbitt, Eleanor
On the basis of a recent ethnographic study at the University of Warwick of the religious identity formation of young people in "mixed-faith" families, this article focuses on their (and their parents') experiences and perceptions of religious education (RE) and of religious nurture in the community. The young people's experience of RE differed…
Developing interpersonal communication skills is a key component in HIV prevention. Understanding the contexts and content of communication about HIV and AIDS among young people is important for the development of effective programmes and interventions. The aim of this paper is to build on study findings suggesting that significant differences exist between young people in- and out-of-school in exposure to
This paper examines the sexual and social practices of young people in contemporary Iran. Young people in urban areas live under the rubric of a fundamentalist, Islamist regime which restricts social freedoms such as premarital heterosexual contact, homosexual encounters, dancing, alcohol consumption and large group gatherings. Drawing on close focus research and individual and group inteviews, this paper seeks to analyse young people's responses to these constraints. Findings suggest that many young adults use their 'rebellious' social behaviour to make political statements against a regime that dissatisfies them; saying, in their own words, that they are enacting and bringing about a 'sexual revolution'. PMID:17687671
Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Harrisburg.
The Center for Rural Pennsylvania analyzed data from the Pennsylvania Department of Public Welfare concerning rural homelessness for fiscal years 1997 through 1999. Findings indicate that rural Pennsylvania has a homeless population and it is growing. In 1999, more than 21,700 clients received homeless assistance in rural areas, 44 percent of whom…
Doganay, Selim; Gocmen, Hayrettin; Yikilmaz, Ali; Coskun, Abdulhakim
Objective: Occupational lung disease due to silica dust is one of the most common work-related injuries. In denim sandblasting, workers are exposed to silica that may cause immediate mortality, especially in young people. The aim of this study was to assess the multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) findings of silicosis in denim sandblasters and to better define the role of MDCT in the early detection of silicosis. Materials and Methods: The study included 12 consecutive male patients who were admitted to a pulmonary outpatient clinic between April 2009 and December 2009. All patients had been working as sandblasters for at least one year. All patients underwent chest CT examinations for suspected silicosis. Two radiologists independently assessed the images for the presence and distribution of airspace consolidation, ground-glass opacity, nodules, interlobular septal thickening, parenchymal bands, fibrosis, masses, traction bronchiectasis, honeycombing, lobular low-attenuation areas, emphysema, pleural effusion or thickening, and mediastinal or hilar adenopathy. Results: MDCT detected parenchymal abnormalities in the lungs in eight (67%) of the twelve patients. The most common MDCT finding was ground glass opacity (58%). Other common findings were parencyhmal nodules and interlobular septal thickening, predominantly in the upper zones. Nodules were detected in six (50%) of the twelve patients. In four cases (67%), the nodules were numerous (>10), were predominantly smaller than 10 mm, and were centrilobular in distribution. In five (42%) of the 12 patients, interlobular septal thickening was detected. Only one (8%) patient presented with airspace consolidation; this was bilateral in the upper zones and associated with air bronchograms. In one (8%) patient there were several traction bronchiectases in the upper zones. None of the patients presented with pleural effusion, thickening, or honeycombing. Enlarged mediastinal nodes were identified in half of the patients, predominantly in the precarinal, paratracheal, and prevascular regions. No egg-shell calcification was detected. One (8%) patient presented with punctate calcification in the hilar region. Conclusions: Early detection of silicosis is important because it may cause immediate mortality, especially in young people. Enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes, centrilobular nodules, interlobular septal thickening, and patchy ground glass opacity may be early MDCT findings of silicosis. Thus, MDCT plays an important role in the early detection of silicosis in denim sandblasters. PMID:25610113
Hjartarson, Helgi; Arnarson, Eiríkur Oern
Objective: The Red Cross House (RCH) is a 24-hour emergency shelter in Reykjavik, Iceland for adolescents. On the occasion of its 10th anniversary it was decided to analyse the data collected since inauguration. Material and methods: During the first 10 years of running 475 adolescents, age 10-18, (grouped into runaways, throwaways and homeless adolescents) registered 927 visits. The admission records of the RCH were used for collecting data for subsequent analysis. Results: The runaways and throwaways were more alike one another than the homeless. Most of the parents were living apart suggesting that conflicts were more likely to take place in stepfamilies and single parent families and the situation at home had enforced one parent to leave home. Many of the guests were school-dropouts particularly those coming from the country. A majority had been in contact with the social services, and many boys had been dealt with by the police. Prior use of alcohol, tobacco and drugs was common. Conflicts within the family was the most usual reason for the runaways and throwaways seeking assistance. The most common reason for the homeless visiting was having nowhere to stay, alcohol or drug abuse. Conclusions: The plight of the homeless was more serious than that of the runaways and throwaways. The homeless usually had a prior history of having run away or been throwaways from home. The preventive work of the RCH is reflected in keeping young people off the streets and offering assistance before it is too late. PMID:17018908
Harris, Laurie Lanzen, Ed.; Abbey, Cherie D., Ed.
This is the ninth volume of a series designed and written for young readers ages 9 and above. It contains three issues and profiles individuals whom young people want to know about most: entertainers, athletes, writers, illustrators, cartoonists, and political leaders. The publication was created to appeal to young readers in a format they can…
This paper describes findings from an in-depth case study of young people's sexuality and learning about sex. Focus groups and unstructured interviews were conducted with young women and young men aged 15-16 years in a school in the north of England. Analysis focused on disjunctions between reported sexual behaviour in a park and in a bedsitting room, and the content
Harris, Laurie Lanzen, Ed.; Abbey, Cherie D., Ed.
This document is the eighth volume of a series designed and written for the young reader aged 9 and above. It contains three issues and covers individuals whom young people want to know about most: entertainers, athletes, writers, illustrators, cartoonists, and political leaders. The publication was created to appeal to young readers in a format…
National Coalition for the Homeless, Washington, DC.
This paper analyzes the Bush Administration's budget request for homelessness programs, and argues that it promised little to alleviate the suffering of homeless people. The paper asserts that the proposal is the weakest in years, with overall spending down by 7 percent when adjusted for inflation. Programs hardest hit are new funding to increase…
Naomi Dachner; Valerie Tarasuk
Current knowledge about food insecurity in North America is largely based on research with low-income households. Much less is known about the food experiences of homeless people, a group who are particularly vulnerable to food insecurity. This study explored the food experiences of street youth, one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in Canada. To gain an
Page, Andrea; McDonnell, Andrew
Physical holds are used to help children and young people receive clinical care in situations where their behaviour may limit the ability of nurses and allied professionals to deliver treatment effectively. This article provides an overview of a qualitative study of 11 nurses and allied professionals who were interviewed with semi-structured questions. The major findings suggest there is a lack of clear and agreed terminology and nurses and allied professionals are guessing at how to describe the practice. As a result, there was no discussion or documentation of the practices of holding (whether successful or unsuccessful) within the clinical area. For the last decade, professional opinion was that this is an 'uncontested practice'. It can therefore be questioned whether this practice has moved from being 'uncontested' to 'indifferent'. Nurses and allied professionals need to revive a common definition of 'good' around the actions of holding, which can hopefully lead to holding skills being more clearly defined and evidence-based. PMID:24225549
Deakin, Julia; Lennox, Belinda
There is a worse prognosis for psychosis and schizophrenia when onset is in childhood or adolescence. However, outcomes are improved with early detection and treatment. Psychotic symptoms can be associated with a variety of disorders including schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, drug-induced psychosis, personality disorder, epilepsy and autistic spectrum disorder. Positive symptoms include hallucinations and delusions. Negative symptoms include apathy, lack of drive, poverty of speech, social withdrawal and self-neglect. The DSM IV criteria for schizophrenia include two or more of the following: hallucinations, delusions, disorganised speech, grossly disorganised or catatonic behaviour and negative symptoms. Adults may raise concerns about social withdrawal, bizarre ideas, a change in behaviour or a decline in achievement. Most children and young people with psychotic symptoms will not go on to develop psychosis or schizophrenia. Direct enquiry may be needed to elicit suspected unusual beliefs or hallucinations. To distinguish unusual ideas from delusions the ideas should be tested for fixity. For example by asking: 'Are you sure? Could there be another explanation?' Mood and anxiety symptoms should be explored. The assessment should include a developmental history with particular attention to premorbid functioning. Failure to make expected progress whether personal, social or academic is significant. Better outcomes in terms of symptoms and social function are associated with a shorter duration of untreated psychosis. The detection of psychotic symptoms in primary care therefore warrants an urgent referral to secondary care mental health services for assessment and treatment. PMID:23634636
Fergie, Gillian; Hunt, Kate; Hilton, Shona
The growth of the Internet as an information source about health, particularly amongst young people, is well established. The aim of this study was to explore young people's perceptions and experiences of engaging with health-related online content, particularly through social media websites. Between February and July 2011 nine focus groups were facilitated across Scotland with young people aged between 14 and 18 years. Health-related user-generated content seems to be appreciated by young people as a useful, if not always trustworthy, source of accounts of other people's experiences. The reliability and quality of both user-generated content and official factual content about health appear to be concerns for young people, and they employ specialised strategies for negotiating both areas of the online environment. Young people's engagement with health online is a dynamic area for research. Their perceptions and experiences of health-related content seem based on their wider familiarity with the online environment and, as the online environment develops, so too do young people's strategies and conventions for accessing it. PMID:24748849
Pennbridge, J; Mackenzie, R G; Swofford, A
Pregnant homeless young women have special service needs. This article examine those needs by comparing the risk profiles of 55 pregnant homeless youths and 85 pregnant youths who live with their families. These young women were seen in a primary health care clinic and underwent extensive lifestyle interviews during their physical examinations. Clinical social workers provided social services and follow-up. The homeless pregnant youths were younger, primarily white, and from outside Los Angeles County. They were more likely to be diagnosed as depressed, to have previously attempted suicide, to have histories of sexual and physical abuse, and to be diagnosed as drug abusing. Review of pregnancy outcomes showed the difficulty of serving homeless pregnant youth and the lack of services for them. Following this study, the clinic instituted new monitoring procedures and established a team case management approach to serving homeless pregnant teens and youths. PMID:1772891
Fantuzzo, John; Leboeuf, Whitney; Brumley, Benjamin; Perlman, Staci
Child homelessness and educational well-being is an area of national research that requires more precise investigation to address mixed findings. The aim of this study was to extend the investigation of the relations between homelessness and educational well-being by determining if timing and frequency of homeless episodes are differentially associated with children's academic and classroom engagement outcomes. This investigation used a comprehensive research model to study the effects of these homeless episode characteristics within a large urban student cohort. Additionally, this study accounted for co-occurring early risk factors. Findings indicated that having a first homeless episode in early childhood was associated with non-proficiency in mathematics and academic engagement problems. Also more frequent homeless episodes were related to truancy in third grade. These results stress the importance of early intervention for homeless children and underscore the need to further understand the variation in young children's homeless experiences. PMID:24072948
Bentley, Sarah; Nicholls, Rickie; Price, Maxine; Wilkinson, Aaron; Purcell, Matthew; Woodhall, Martin; Walmsley, Jan
We are five young people with learning disabilities who found out about the history of hospitals for people with learning disabilities in our area, and made a film about the project. The project taught us what life had been like for some people with learning disabilities only 30 years ago. It was very different to our lives; we have more choice,…
Carswell, Kenneth; Murray, Elizabeth; Free, Caroline; Stevenson, Fiona; Bailey, Julia V
Background Sexual health education in the United Kingdom is of variable quality, typically focusing on the biological aspects of sex rather than on communication, relationships, and sexual pleasure. The Internet offers a unique opportunity to provide sexual health education to young people, since they can be difficult to engage but frequently use the Internet as a health information resource. Objectives To explore through qualitative research young people’s views on what elements of a sexual health website would be appealing and engaging, and their views on the content, design, and interactive features of the Sexunzipped intervention website. Methods We recruited 67 young people aged 16–22 years in London, UK. We held 21 focus groups and 6 one-to-one interviews to establish sexual health priorities, views on website look and feel, and what features of a sexual heath website would attract and engage them. Two researchers facilitated the focus groups, using a semistructured topic guide to lead the discussions and asking open questions to elicit a range of views. The discussions and interviews were audio recorded and detailed notes were made on key topics from the audio recording. Young people’s views influenced design templates for the content and interactive features of Sexunzipped. Results Young people particularly wanted straightforward information on sexual pleasure, sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy, how to communicate with partners, how to develop skills in giving pleasure, and emotions involved in sex and relationships. Focus group participants wanted social interaction with other young people online and wanted to see themselves reflected in some way such as through images or videos. Conclusions While it is challenging to meet all of young people’s technological and design requirements, consultation with the target audience is valuable and necessary in developing an online sexual health intervention. Young people are willing to talk about sensitive issues, enjoy the discussions, and can offer key insights that influence intervention development. PMID:23060424
Lees, Janet; Horwath, Jan
Challenging some of the current predominantly negative representations of the effects of religion on young people requires further research into faith and family life, particularly from the perspective of young people themselves. This article presents a preliminary report of a study of 40 young people, mostly Christians and Muslims, aged 13-15…
Clark, Christina; Hawkins, Lucy
This paper presents additional information from the 2009 survey of young people's reading and writing; for more information see the full report "Young People's Reading and Writing Today", to be published July 2010. This paper explores the types of resources young people have at home that support literacy and how this differs according to…
McCrystal, Patrick; McAloney, Kareena
Young people living in the state care system are often reported to experience poorer levels of mental health and wellbeing. Government policy encourages a holistic approach to the assessment of all aspects of health and wellbeing of these young people. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a mental health screener for young people…
Kime, Nicola; McKenna, Jim; Webster, Liz
The poor outcomes of young people with chronic health conditions indicate that current services and self-care programmes are not meeting the needs of young people. How young people self-manage their condition impacts on long-term health outcomes, but there is little published evidence that details the development of self-care programmes and their…
Wales Observatory on Human Rights of Children and Young People Arsyllfa Cymru ar Hawliau Dynol and young people in Wales. The Observatory vision is to ensure that the highest quality knowledge, expertise for Wales and the #12;Wales Observatory on Human Rights of Children and Young People Arsyllfa Cymru ar
However much the recession might be receding, the effects remain deep and cruel to families living in poverty. Many have fallen through their communities' social safety nets. Today, families with young children comprise 41% of the nation's homeless population. According to the Institute of Children and Poverty, more than 1.35 million kids in the…
The future of the world is greatly depends on space. Through space sciences education programs with the main focus is on young people, the society, as a whole will gain in the years to come. The Weizmann Institute of Science is the leading scientific research center in Israel. After the need for science education programs for young students was recognized, the institute established its Youth Activities Section, which serves as the institute's outreach for the general population of school children nation-wide. The youth activities section holds courses, seminars, science camps etc. for almost 40 years. As an instructor in the youth activities section since 1990, my focus is space sciences programs, such as rocketry courses, planetarium demonstrations, astronomical observations and special events - all in the creed of bringing the space science to everyone, in a enjoyable, innovative and creative way. Two of the courses conducted combines' scientific knowledge, hands-on experience and a glimpse into the work of space programs: the rocketry courses offered a unique chance of design, build and fly actual rockets, to height of about 800 meters. The students conduct research on the rockets, such as aerial photography, environmental measurements and aerodynamic research - using student built wind tunnel. The space engineering course extend the high frontier of the students into space: the objective of a two year course is to design, build an launch an experiments package to space, using one of NASA's GAS programs. These courses, combined with special guest lectures by Weizmann institute's senior researchers, tours to facilities like satellite control center, clean rooms, the aeronautical industry, give the students a chance to meet with "the real world" of space sciences applications and industry, and this - in turn - will have payback effect on the society as a whole in years to come. The activities of space sciences education include two portable planetariums, 4 telescopes and special "mobile science" project, which travel to hundreds of school annually, and bring to them mini exhibitions, scientific activities and lectures. Special events are held when something unique happened: in the last years we have had the Galileo special event when the spacecraft arrived at Jupiter; SL-9 event; Mars Pathfinder special event; Mir re- entry event - to name a few. For 11 years, on July 20 we have the Apollo memorial lecture, and a meteors observation night on August 11. The 12 years of experience I have in teaching space sciences subjects to k-12 students, university students and adults, combines with three years as a director of interactive science museum, allowed me to implement my vision of promoting the general knowledge about space and to move a little more in the direction of creating a space oriented, open and globally interacted society in Israel.
Chaloupka, F.; Pacula, R. L.
OBJECTIVE—To determine if there are differences in young people's responsiveness to price and tobacco control policies for population subgroups and to examine whether or not these differences, if they exist, can explain sex and racial differences in trends in the prevalence of smoking in young people in the United States.?DESIGN—Use cross-sectional and intertemporal variation in local and state tobacco control policies and prices to calculate demand responses to these policies using regression analysis techniques.?SUBJECTS—A nationally representative sample of American eighth grade (ages 13-14 years), 10th grade (15-16 years) and 12th grade (17-18 years) students obtained from the 1992-1994 Monitoring the Future surveys.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE—Thirty-day smoking prevalence.?RESULTS—Young men are much more responsive to changes in the price of cigarettes than young women. The prevalence elasticity for young men is almost twice as large as that for young women. Smoking rates of young black men are significantly more responsive to changes in price than young white men. Significant differences in responsiveness to particular tobacco control policies also exist. These differences, however, explain relatively little of the differences in smoking prevalence among young population subgroups.?CONCLUSIONS—Policymakers need to keep in mind that there is not a "one-size fits all" strategy for discouraging smoking among young people.???Keywords: adolescents; tobacco control policies; price; sex differences; racial differences PMID:10629242
Backett-Milburn, Kathryn; Ogilvie-Whyte, Sharon
The last decade has seen increasing efforts by central and local government to target sexual health services and initiatives at young people in order to improve their sexual health. In order that the Sexual Health Strategy ...
Alpatov, A. P.; Zevako, V. S.; Pylypenko, O. V.; Khorolskii, P. P.; Khutornyi, V. V.
We present the objective, principles of formation and realization of the scientific and educational program for involving Ukraine's young people in space research as well as the structure and content of the constituents of this program.
White, Naomi Rosh
Examined young adults' experiences living at home for extended periods. Interview data indicated that the concept of home was a core organizing symbol in the discourse about coresidence with parents, linking social, emotional, and physical dimensions of the domestic environment with the young person's developing sense of self. The meaning of home…
National Cancer Inst. (NIH), Bethesda, MD.
This book informs parents and families of children and young adults with cancer about the most common types of cancer in the young, treatments and their side effects, and common issues that arise with a cancer diagnosis. Aspects of the disease, including characteristics of leukemia and solid tumors, are described. Treatment issues discussed…
This article reports the findings of a study examining the gender differences in perceived self-determination among Russian young adults. The study was participated in by 1,000 young men and women from fourteen to thirty years of age in the city of Toliatti in April and May 2002. Findings of the study reveal the following: (1) An "uncomfortable…
B. Watson; C. Edmonston; E. O'Connor
While huge inroads have been made into the drink driving problem in Queensland, the prevalence of alcohol-related pedestrian crashes has been steadily increasing. Young people (17-29 years) are over-represented in these pedestrian crashes. An exploratory study of 78 young people was conducted to examine the issue of drink walking (walking at Blood Alcohol Concentration levels greater than .05mg\\/ml) as part
Callery, Peter; Milnes, Linda; Verduyn, Chrissie; Couriel, Jonathan
BACKGROUND: Asthma continues to be a common childhood chronic illness managed principally in primary care. Self-management requires co-ordinated efforts of young people, carers and health professionals. Non-compliance occurs even when parents are supervising care, suggesting that decisions are made on the basis of beliefs that contrast with professional advice. Health professionals therefore need to understand the views of parents (or other carers) and patients to promote good self-management. Little attention has been given to carers' and young people's perspectives on asthma. AIM: To gain insights into the beliefs of a group of 25 young people aged nine to 16 years old and their carers about asthma and its management. DESIGN OF STUDY: Qualitative study using conversational-style interviews. SETTING: Generally deprived urban areas of Greater Manchester. METHOD: Interviews were conducted with 25 young people with asthma and separately with their carers. The interviews were analysed using the principles and procedures of grounded theory. RESULTS: Carers reported assessing asthma symptoms through observed effects on the child and other family members, including emotions and behaviours that disrupted family life. Young people emphasised the effect of asthma on their everyday lives and in particular the extent to which they appeared different to their peers. Some young people reported continuing symptoms and restrictions of activity that differed widely from the reports of their carers. CONCLUSION: Differences between young people's and carers' criteria for assessment suggest explanations for some 'non-compliant' behaviour. Carers' assessment of asthma severity through the absence of acute attacks is consistent with managing asthma as intermittent acute episodes. Professionals should take account of differences between young people's, carers' and professionals' perceptions of asthma. PMID:14694693
Rony E. Duncan; Lynn Gillam; Julian Savulescu; Robert Williamson; John G. Rogers; Martin B. Delatycki
Predictive genetic tests for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) are routinely offered to young people during early adolescence.\\u000a While this is not controversial, due to the medical benefit conferred by the test, it is nonetheless challenging as a consequence\\u000a of the stage of life of the young people, and the simultaneous involvement of multiple family members. Despite these challenges,\\u000a it is
Neil Selwyn; Eryl Powell
Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to investigate how young people are using school-based sources of sex and relationships education (SRE) to obtain information and advice. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper shows how anonymous self-completion questionnaires were administered to young people aged between 12 and 19 years in three secondary school and six out-of-school youth settings (n=401). Follow-up focus
Esben Agerbo; Merete Nordentoft; Preben Bo Mortensen
Objective To estimate the risk of suicide in young people related to family and individual psychiatric and socioeconomic factors. Design Population based nested case›control study. Setting Data from longitudinal Danish registers. Cases and controls 496 young people aged 10›21 years who had committed suicide during 1981›97 in Denmark and 24 800 controls matched for sex, age, and time. Main outcome
M. L. Randi; F. Fabris; A. Girolami
Summary Over the past 13 years 57 cases of primary thrombocytosis in young people have been studied. Only patients with a platelet count over 500×109\\/liter and a follow-up longer than 2 years were considered. Thrombocytosis in young people represents approximately 25% of total cases referred to our department during this period. The most common causes are essential thrombocythemia (20 cases)
Potentially life-threatening food allergies are increasing among children in the Western world. Informed by childhood studies, this article explores young people's management of food allergy risk and highlights their agency in relation to food, eating and place. Drawing on individual interviews with 10 young people who took part in a larger multi-method study of young people's experiences of food allergies, the findings demonstrate that the management of health risks means, to some extent, trying to control the uncontrollable. A reaction can occur at any time and to experience a severe reaction entails a temporarily loss of control. The strategies the young people develop to avoid allergic reactions can be understood both as responses to this uncertainty and as manifestations of their agency. Their risk experiences vary with place; at school and in other public places they face social as well as health risks. What we see is not agency as a voluntary choice but that young people with food allergies experience tensions between their own competence to manage different types of risks and their dependence on others to adjust to their needs. Thus, the relational aspects of young people's agency come to the fore. PMID:25683001
This article is based on a small study undertaken in 2001, which examined the experiences of and responses to sexual harassment and bullying adopted by different professionals (teachers, education social workers, youth workers and a school nurse) and by young people (12 to 25-year-olds). It draws together some of the literature relating to young…
Iudin, V. V.
In the past twenty years a generation has grown up that, unlike previous generations, was not the object of atheistic upbringing. In this article, based on sociological surveys of young people in Mogilev and Mogilev Oblast conducted in 2002 and 2004, the author examines the religious behavior of young believers and analyze the level and degree of…
Mather, Julie; Archbold, Sue; Gregory, Sue
A semi-structured interview format was used to explore the experiences and attitudes of twelve parents and twelve teachers of young people, aged 11-18 years, who had received sequential bilateral cochlear implants. The parents stressed the importance of involving the young person in the decision to go ahead with the second implant. Although all…
Major, Jae; Wilkinson, Jane; Langat, Kip; Santoro, Ninetta
This article discusses literature pertaining to the settlement of African refugees in regional and rural Australia, particularly focusing on the specific challenges and opportunities faced by Sudanese young people of refugee background in education. Drawing on a pilot study of the out-of-school resources of regionally located young Sudanese…
This article seeks to explore how the myth of the "rural idyll" can be detrimental to those who currently experience some of the greatest social exclusion in rural areas--children and young people. The research explores the views and experiences of the young residents of a small town in the south-west of England (n = 157, ages 12-18 years). The…
The Health Education Trust (HET) was created to promote the development of health education for young people in the UK through work with young adults and children to encourage the growth of healthy lifestyles. This paper reviews the work of the HET Web site, www.healthedtrust.com The Trust has recently developed its Web site with the aim of facilitating easy access
Eynon, R.; Malmberg, L.-E.
Information seeking is one of the most popular online activities for young people and can provide an additional information channel, which may enhance learning. In this study, we propose and test a model that adds to the existing literature by examining the ways in which parents, schools, and friends (what we call networks of support) effect young…
Waliser, Duane E.
1 Charles Bolden, NASA Administrator Blastoff: Encouraging Young People to Enter and Stay's competitive edge. #12;4 He has specifically charged the Jobs Council with increasing the number of young. That is why STEM education is the foundation of NASA's learning initiatives. At NASA, our needs for workers
Annabel Boys; John Marsden; John Strang
This study uses a functional perspective to examine the reasons young people cite for using psychoactive substances. The study sample comprised 364 young poly-drug users recruited using snowball-sampling methods. Data on life- time and recent frequency and intensity of use for alcohol, cannabis, amphetamines, ecstasy, LSD and cocaine are presented. A majority of the participants had used at least one
Cherednichenko, G. A.
The younger generation of Russians is entering adult life at a time in which the information society is being formed, where education, knowledge, and the possession of information are coming to be key resources to ensure success. As previous studies have shown, most young people place a high value on getting a good education. Young Russians also…
Butterworth, Thomas W.; Hodge, M. Antoinette; Sofronoff, Kate; Beaumont, Renae; Gray, Kylie M.; Roberts, Jacqueline; Horstead, Siân K.; Clarke, Kristina S.; Howlin, Patricia; Taffe, John R.; Einfeld, Stewart L.
The current study aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Emotion Regulation and Social Skills Questionnaire (ERSSQ), a rating scale designed specifically to assess the social skills of young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The participants were 84 children and young adolescents with ASD, aged between 7.97 and 14.16 years…
Yankelovich, Skelly and White, Inc., New York, NY.
Although newspaper reading has declined for the entire population in recent years, the decline has been particularly precipitous among young adults approximately 18 to 24 years old. This first part of a two-part report discusses an investigation dealing with young people and newspapers, which involved collecting data on reading habits,…
Harris, Laurie Lanzen, Ed.; Abbey, Cherie D., Ed.
Comprising the sixth volume of a series, this document contains short biographies written for the young reader aged 9 and older. The series covers individuals who are of particular interest to young people: entertainers, athletes, authors, cartoonists, and political leaders. Each issue contains 10 to 12 entries that include photographs and…
Why are some young people actively involved in political parties, community groups, or associations? What do they have in common? These are some of the questions that underlie a qualitative research project on involvement carried out among 50 young Canadian activists residing in the province of Quebec. In this article, the author discusses the…
Price, Megan; Dalgleish, John
Cyberbullying impacts on the wellbeing, schooling, family and peer relationships of many young people. The current study of 548 young Australians revealed that cyberbullying is a group phenomenon most prevalent during the transitional ages between primary and secondary school. It takes on many forms and shows an overlap in roles between "bully"…
Eighty-seven homeless families served by the emergency shelter of the Coalition on Temporary Shelter in Detroit during the first quarter of 1987 were studies through a review of admission data. Most of the families were black and contained an adult female with one or two minor children. Most of the mothers were young, did not have a high school diploma, and had no income. Some had histories of psychiatric disorders or substance abuse. Many had been in a dependent living situation before becoming homeless. Children accounted for more than one-fourth of admissions during the study period. Policies should address prevention of homelessness through income support programs, provision of low-income housing, basic living skill training programs, and mental health service delivery. When available resources fail in prevention, programming should address the effects of homelessness on children, because these effects perpetuate a cycle that will increase the homeless population in future generations. PMID:10296495
Harrison, Jeremy; McLeish, Henry
Written for practitioners rather than policymakers, this document is intended for those who seek to relate educational and training opportunities to local and individual needs; use fresh approaches to integrated services for young people trapped by unemployment, social and economic change, and poor living conditions; and achieve high quality…
Chen, Chih-Hsuan; Shu, Bih-Ching
Background: There is a dearth of studies about the causes of stigmatization in people with intellectual disability. This study is aimed at gaining an understanding of how feelings of stigmatization are formed and perceived among young people with intellectual disability in Taiwanese cultural and social contexts. Materials and Methods: Fourteen…
Jamieson, Margaret; Peterson, John
For a number of years, studies have reported that people with disabilities have lower work force participation rates than the general public. One factor may be a lack of transitional, vocational programs for young people with disabilities. This digest describes "Thresholds," a career development program created with a basis on the unique…
Eid, Fatima H.
Preparing young people to be active citizens has to be a core value of schools and higher education institutions. Thus, education for citizenship is important because every society needs people who can contribute effectively to the future health of their communities locally, nationally and globally. The field of citizenship education is one that…
Khrienko, Andrei Pavlovich
In spite of the renaissance of the religious worldview, practical experience provides evidence that the level of morality and spiritual life in society is not rising. Quite the contrary, in fact: people are witnessing the extensive spread of various forms of deviant behavior, especially among young people. In the sociology of religion a great deal…
Radoniewicz-Chagowska, Anna; Tchórz, Micha?; Kujawa, Anna; Szponar, Jaros?aw; Drelich, Grzegorz
These days young people use internet as a source of information. Internet offers knowledge that can be used not only for school education but also to obtain information about usage and effects of psychoactive substances. Recent research shows that young people more often use internet websites and chat rooms to exchange knowledge and experience with chemicals and everyday products used as intoxicants, for example: nutmeg, nonprescription medications, metal cleaning liquid or feminine hygiene products. This article shows the extend of knowledge young people can gain from popular internet websites. Information on the web is presented as appealing, attractive and encouraging. From a toxicologist point of view it is extremely important to be familiar with those new threats because more and more often we have to treat young patients with a serious poisoning from usage of experimental intoxicating substances. PMID:23243952
This booklet presents information concerning homelessness and the education of homeless children nationwide and in Illinois. Estimates of the number of homeless children vary widely. Reasons for homeless children's failure to attend school include school residency requirements, delays in transfer of documents, and lack of transportation. The…
de Castro, Ignacio Fernandez; de Elejabeitia, Carmen
A study examined the need for vocational counseling among two target groups of young people under the age of 28 years in Spain: young women whose chief activity is domestic work in their own homes in Madrid and young people of both sexes affected by industrial reconversion who were living on the left bank of the Bilbao Estuary. Their vocational…
Ziebertz, Hans-Georg; Kalbheim, Boris; Riegel, Ulrich
Issues like faith and Church, religion and religiousness are not valued particularly highly among the young. At the same time a search for the meaning of life and an orientation in one's own behaviour still seem to be significant and transcendent focal points are being sought to deal with these issues. This article questions the value that…
National Cancer Inst. (NIH), Bethesda, MD.
The book presents information for parents of children and young adults with cancer. The first section outlines aspects of the disease itself and considers characteristics of leukemia and solid tumors. Hospitalization and such treatments as chemotherapy and radiation are considered. Common health issues (including diet, dental care, bleeding, and…
It has been reported that professional baseball players whose first names begin with the letter "D" tend to die relatively young (E. L. Abel & M. L. Kruger, 2010). However, the statistical evidence for this claim is based on selective data and a statistical test that ignores important confounding influences. A valid test applied to more…
Yankelovich, Skelly and White, Inc., New York, NY.
This second part of a two-part report is based on preliminary findings of an investigation into the recent decline in newspaper reading among young adults approximately 18 to 24 years old. It presents more then 50 hypotheses for the decline, derived from the findings of the investigation, documents them with verbatim quotes from members of the…
Sussex, University of
Ricerca Sociale Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca University of Sussex, 25th November 2013 #12;2 The aim of this presentation is to understand some aspects of the concept of "SOCIAL EXCLUSION to the NEET category; - Concept of "social exclusion"; - Examples of young men NEET (from the Italian context
Tam, Kai Yung; Heng, Mary Anne; Bullock, Lyndal M.
In this article, the authors address correctional education and juvenile delinquency. The authors examined the case files of 54 juvenile offenders incarcerated in the Kaki Bukit Center Prison School in Singapore to analyze the antecedents that provoked these young offenders to commit the offenses. The juveniles reported that peer influence and…
George C Patton; Carolyn Coffey; John B Carlin; Louisa Degenhardt; Michael Lynskey; Wayne Hall
Objective To determine whether cannabis use in adolescence predisposes to higher rates of depression and anxiety in young adulthood. Design Seven wave cohort study over six years. Setting 44 schools in the Australian state of Victoria. Participants A statewide secondary school sample of 1601 students aged 14›15 followed for seven years. Main outcome measure Interview measure of depression and anxiety
Background Existing studies concerning the health care use of homeless people describe higher utilisation rates for hospital-based care and emergency care, and lower rates for primary care by homeless people compared to the general population. Homeless people are importantly hindered and/or steered in their health care use by barriers directly related to the organisation of care. Our goal is to describe the accessibility of primary health care services, secondary care and emergency care for homeless people living in an area with a universal primary health care system and active guidance towards this unique system. Methods Observational, cross-sectional study design. Data from the Belgian National health survey were merged with comparable data collected by means of a face-to-face interview from homeless people in Ghent. 122 homeless people who made use of homeless centres and shelters in Ghent were interviewed using a reduced version of the Belgian National Health survey over a period of 5 months. 2-dimensional crosstabs were built in order to study the bivariate relationship between health care use (primary health care, secondary and emergency care) and being homeless. To determine the independent association, a logistic model was constructed adjusting for age and sex. Results and Discussion Homeless people have a higher likelihood to consult a GP than the non-homeless people in Ghent, even after adjusting for age and sex. The same trend is demonstrated for secondary and emergency care. Conclusions Homeless people in Ghent do find the way to primary health care and make use of it. It seems that the universal primary health care system in Ghent with an active guidance by social workers contributes to easier GP access. PMID:20723222
Karen McMillan; Heather Worth
Young people are a key group for HIV prevention in the Pacific region where levels of STIs are high and condom use is low. During 2008, 62 in-depth interviews were conducted with people aged between 18 and 25 years in Tonga and Vanuatu. The research was aimed at understanding factors impacting on young peoples’ condom use in two Pacific Island
Dyson, Simon M; Atkin, Karl; Culley, Lorraine A; Dyson, Sue E; Evans, Hala
The experiences of young people living with a sickle cell disorder in schools in England are reported through a thematic analysis of forty interviews, using Bourdieu’s notions of field, capital and habitus. Young people with sickle cell are found to be habitually dys-positioned between the demands of the clinic for health maintenance through self-care and the field of the school, with its emphases on routines, consistent attendance and contextual demands for active and passive pupil behaviour. The tactics or dispositions that young people living with sickle cell can then employ, during strategy and struggle at school, are therefore fragile: they work only contingently, transiently or have the unintended consequences of displacing other valued social relations. The dispositions of the young people with sickle cell are framed by other social struggles: innovations in school procedures merely address aspects of sickle cell in isolation and are not consolidated into comprehensive policies; mothers inform, liaise, negotiate and advocate in support of a child with sickle cell but with limited success. Reactions of teachers and peers to sickle cell have the enduring potential to drain the somatic, cultural and social capital of young people living with sickle cell. PMID:21375541
Mangan, Cheryl; Sanci, Lena
Background Young people regularly use online services to seek help and look for information about mental health problems. Yet little is known about the effects that online services have on mental health and whether these services facilitate help-seeking in young people. Objective This systematic review investigates the effectiveness of online services in facilitating mental health help-seeking in young people. Methods Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, literature searches were conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane library. Out of 608 publications identified, 18 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria of investigating online mental health services and help-seeking in young people aged 14-25 years. Results Two qualitative, 12 cross-sectional, one quasi-experimental, and three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were reviewed. There was no change in help-seeking behavior found in the RCTs, while the quasi-experimental study found a slight but significant increase in help-seeking. The cross-sectional studies reported that online services facilitated seeking help from a professional source for an average of 35% of users. The majority of the studies included small sample sizes and a high proportion of young women. Help-seeking was often a secondary outcome, with only 22% (4/18) of studies using adequate measures of help-seeking. The majority of studies identified in this review were of low quality and likely to be biased. Across all studies, young people regularly used and were generally satisfied with online mental health resources. Facilitators and barriers to help-seeking were also identified. Conclusions Few studies examine the effects of online services on mental health help-seeking. Further research is needed to determine whether online mental health services effectively facilitate help-seeking for young people. PMID:24594922
This paper reviews the role of black experience in worldwide literature, focusing primarily on particular texts from the viewpoint of colonial whites in South Africa. Black people were represented as savages, comic buffoons, or faithful servants and slaves; all three representations dehumanized, rationalized, and justified the oppression of black…
Samsonova, Ekaterina Anatol'evna; Iudina, Ekaterina Iur'evna
In the ethnosociological literature, the term "ethnic tolerance" is interpreted as a specific trait of the national character of some particular people, its mentality, a trait that is oriented toward tolerance, harmony, and a willingness to deal constructively with any problems that arise in interethnic relations. The variegated processes of…
Sheffield, Caroline C.; Cruz, Barbara C.
Using literature in the social studies classroom is a useful pedagogy that is particularly well-suited in human rights education. Literature can give voice to people who cannot speak for themselves and gives students an opportunity to consider perspectives that are often foreign to them. When used with delicacy and care, these literary…
Oliver, Vanessa; Flicker, Sarah; Danforth, Jessica; Konsmo, Erin; Wilson, Ciann; Jackson, Randy; Restoule, Jean-Paul; Prentice, Tracey; Larkin, June; Mitchell, Claudia
Focusing on gender, race and colonialism, this paper foregrounds the voices of Indigenous young people, their histories of oppression, their legacies of resistance and the continuing strengths rooted in Indigenous peoples, their cultures and their communities. Exploring the relationship between gender and colonialism, the paper speaks to the lived realities of young people from Indigenous communities across Canada. Over 85 young people participated in six different Indigenous community workshops to create artistic pieces that explored the connections between HIV, individual risk and structural inequalities. In the course of the research, Indigenous young people, and young Indigenous women in particular, talked about how gender intersects with race and colonisation to create experiences that are, at times, especially difficult for them. In this paper, young people discuss the ways in which colonialism has demeaned women's roles and degraded women's sexuality, and how continuing cultural erasure and assimilationist policies impact on their lives and on their bodies. PMID:25702802
Wallsten, S M
The homeless elderly are vulnerable, silent, and fearful. Their trajectory into homelessness more often than not precludes recovery and takes them on a course toward early death or nursing home placement. Psychiatric nurses who work in community or acute care settings are in key positions to recognize elderly victims of homelessness, assess their needs, match them to services, start them on the road to recovery, and become their advocates. The definition of a homeless person as agreed on in the Report of the Federal Task Force on Homelessness and Severe Mental Illness (1992) is the one used in the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act (Public Law 100-77). A homeless person is someone "who lacks a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence" and whose main nighttime residence is a "supervised public or private shelter designed to provide temporary living accommodations; an institution that provides a temporary residence for individuals intended to be institutionalized; or a public or private place not designed for, or ordinarily used as, a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings." This definition, then, excludes those individuals living on the "fringes" in substandard or condemned housing, a condition that warrants attention in general and particularly among the elderly. PMID:1404012
Undie, Chi-Chi; Crichton, Joanna; Zulu, Eliya
This paper explores how young people in Malawi conceptualize sex and sexual relations through an analysis of their personal narratives about these phenomena. Eleven focus group discussions were conducted with 114 youth aged 14–19 years. Participants were asked to describe behaviors, attitudes, and motivations to reduce unplanned pregnancies and the spread of HIV/AIDS, with appropriate probes to illuminate their sexual world-views. The various metaphors that emanated from the discussions suggest that young people in this study take a utilitarian approach to sex, and conceive it as a natural and routine activity of which pleasure and passion are essential components. Future research and prevention efforts (around sexuality education in particular) would do well to incorporate adolescents’ language in programming as this can enhance understanding of the world of young people as well as the effectiveness of interventions addressing problems related to early sexual behavior. PMID:18458743
Nicholas F Taylor; Karen J Dodd; Helen McBurney; H. Kerr Graham
Background and purpose There is evidence that strength training can be beneficial for young people with cerebral palsy. To successfully implement a strength-training programme the physiotherapist should consider factors that can affect adherence. This study explored factors that influence adherence to a home-based strength-training programme for young people with cerebral palsy.Methods Eleven young people with cerebral palsy and their parents
Bradford, Sally; Rickwood, Debra
Adolescence and young adulthood are often turbulent periods in a person’s life. There are high rates of accidental deaths, suicide, mental health concerns, substance use, and sexual experimentation. Health care professionals need to conduct holistic assessments of clients in these developmental life stages to identify psychosocial risks and provide targeted early intervention and implement prevention strategies. The most useful psychosocial assessments for most health care professionals are those that can provide a complete picture of the young person’s life and circumstances. This article identifies psychosocial assessment instruments that can be used as an initial assessment and engagement tool with the general population of young people presenting for health care. We review the psychometric properties of each of the instruments, determining what type of instrument is most acceptable to young people, whether any can increase disclosure and improve engagement between young people and health professionals, and whether they have predictive utility. The search strategy complied with the relevant sections of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. A total of 89 published articles were identified, covering 31 different assessment instruments. Results indicated that those that were self-administered were most acceptable to young people, although it is unclear whether pen-and-paper or computer formats were preferred. Most psychosocial assessments can improve rates of disclosure and enhance engagement between young people and health professionals; however, worryingly, we found evidence that clinicians did not always respond to some of the most serious identified risks. Only for one instrument was there any mention of predictive utility. Future research should employ longitudinal approaches to determine the predictive utility of psychosocial assessments and focus on whether the use of new technologies can improve rates of disclosure. PMID:24600292
Janine Dermody; Stuart Hanmer-Lloyd; Richard Scullion
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of trust, cynicism and efficacy on young peoples' (non)voting behaviour during the 2005 British general election. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Survey data were gathered from 1,134 interviewer-administered questionnaires with young first-time voters during the three-week period following the British general election in May 2005. Validated attitudes statements were used to
Villar, Feliciano; Faba, Josep
The goal of this study was to explore stereotypes of older people as expressed in drawings by a sample of primary school children. Sixty children from fourth to sixth grades (30 boys and 30 girls aged 9 to 12 years) were asked to draw a young man, a young woman, an old man, and an old woman. The drawings were content analyzed. Children in our…
Macafee, Timothy; De Simone, J J
In spring 2011, thousands of Wisconsin residents protested a controversial bill spearheaded by Governor Scott Walker. Protest engagement via social media was popular, especially among young people. The current study examines the relationship between young people's informational and expressive uses of four social media-Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, and Blogs-and their offline protest engagement. Survey results reveal that although college students used these social media to obtain information about the budget repair bill protests, only expressive uses related to offline protest engagement. We move research forward by examining the implications of multiple uses of political social media surrounding a compelling case study. PMID:23002983
Harris, Jennifer L.; Graff, Samantha K.
In the United States, one third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, yet food and beverage companies continue to target them with advertising for products that contribute to this obesity crisis. When government restrictions on such advertising are proposed, the constitutional commercial speech doctrine is often invoked as a barrier to action. We explore incongruities between the legal justifications for the commercial speech doctrine and the psychological research on how food advertising affects young people. A proper interpretation of the First Amendment should leave room for regulations to protect young people from advertising featuring calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages. PMID:22390435
Nguyen, Hoa Ngan; Liamputtong, Pranee; Murphy, Gregory
In this article, we examine knowledge of contraceptives and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and contraceptive practices amongst young Vietnamese people. We conducted a qualitative study on sexuality and abortion with young people in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Twelve female and 4 male young people were individually interviewed using an in-depth interview technique. We found that condoms and pills were contraceptives known by almost all young people, but their knowledge of condoms and pills was still inadequate. Fears of side effects of taking pills and rumors and beliefs regarding condoms were quite common among young people. The limitations in young people's knowledge of contraceptives and STDs were a reflection of limited sources of their knowledge. Sexual education provided by educational institutions and within families was very basic. It did not provide clear knowledge on the sensitive topics such as contraceptive methods, and other issues related to sexuality for unmarried people. From a gender perspective, there are two points to note here: While sex issues were discussed openly among unmarried men, most unmarried women felt uncomfortable or expressed difficulty when talking about these issues; and the passiveness of unmarried women in making the decision of using condoms as well as contraceptives was marked. Amongst young people, the use of contraceptives was based mainly on ineffective methods including withdrawal and periodic abstinence. Further, young people's understanding of these methods was neither clear nor adequate. For the young people who did not use any contraceptives, sexual relations occurred unexpectedly. We conclude that creating a climate in which sexual issues can be discussed openly is an important step for the improvement of sexual health for young people. This will inevitably improve knowledge and understanding of contraceptives and STDs and may lead to a safer sexual life among this group of young people. PMID:16877291
Alcohol, tobacco and other drugs (ATOD) abuse and addiction are serious problems among Lebanese youth. Peer education on ATOD abuse in several settings has been found to be an effective way of prevention. This paper describes a collaborative project which trained 30 young activists to lead awareness campaigns in the Lebanon about ATOD abuse and healthy alternatives for relieving stress. The project was initiated by the Armenian Relief Cross in Lebanon (ARCL), funded by the Oxfam Canadian Fund for Social Development and implemented in collaboration with stakeholders in the Armenian community and Oum El Nour organization. Following training, the activists offered awareness sessions to a total audience of 5200:1250 secondary students, 50 university students, 1050 scouts, 300 working adolescents, 50 policemen and 2500 parents. Workshop objectives were met and awareness campaigns evaluated positively by the activists, parents of young people, ARCL and other stakeholders: leaders of Armenian institutions dealing with adolescents and the mayor of Bourj Hammoud. Resource constraints precluded seeking feedback from the young people who participated. Collaboration was deemed to have enhanced the capacity of ARCL, Oum El Nour, and the stakeholders in training young trainees to offer awareness campaigns. The author recommends continuing the project; offering another workshop to support the trainees and building in ways to evaluate the impact of the awareness campaigns on knowledge, attitude and behaviors of the young people taking part. To this effect, evaluation of the impact of the awareness campaigns is already started among school students with the use of control/comparison group design. PMID:19705321
Kiesler, C A
Public policy issues related to homelessness and their priorities are reviewed. It is argued that the three most important policy issues are housing, income, and health. Cutting across these priority areas are the special problems of homeless children and youth, both in families and alone. Alcohol, drug abuse, and mental health services, although needed and effective, will neither stop nor slow the rate of increase in homelessness experienced in recent years. Psychologists, in emphasizing aspects of homelessness that they are expert in, are deflected from variables determining the prevalence and incidence of homelessness. The latter variables must be regarded as the priority policy issues in homelessness. PMID:1772163
Foundation for People with Learning Disabilities (NJ1), 2007
The Foundation for People with Learning Disabilities was fortunate to receive a legacy to improve the lives of people with Down's syndrome. The foundation looked at recent research and talked to people with Down's syndrome, their family members and professionals. One of their greatest concerns was what happens to young people when they leave…
Banyard, V L; Graham-Bermann, S A
Self-reported strengths and goals of a sample of 64 mothers of young children residing in a temporary shelter for homeless families, were documented. The strengths most frequently reported included ability to take action, parental competence, and determination in the face of stress. Program and policy implications of these positive attributes of homeless mothers are discussed. PMID:8561182
Singhal, Vibha; Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne
Purpose of review Anorexia nervosa is among the most prevalent chronic medical conditions in young adults. It has acute as well as long-term consequences, some of which, such as low bone mineral density (BMD), are not completely reversible even after weight restoration. This review discusses our current understanding of endocrine consequences of anorexia nervosa. Recent findings Anorexia nervosa is characterized by changes in multiple neuroendocrine axes including acquired hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, growth hormone resistance with low insulin-like growth factor-1 (likely mediated by fibroblast growth factor-1), relative hypercortisolemia, alterations in adipokines such as leptin, adiponectin and resistin, and gut peptides including ghrelin, PYY and amylin. These changes in turn contribute to low BMD. Studies in anorexia nervosa have demonstrated abnormalities in bone microarchitecture and strength, and an association between increased marrow fat and decreased BMD. One study in adolescents reported an improvement in BMD following physiologic estrogen replacement, and another in adults demonstrated improved BMD following risedronate administration. Brown adipose tissue is reduced in anorexia nervosa, consistent with an adaptive response to the energy deficit state. Summary Anorexia nervosa is associated with widespread physiologic adaptations to the underlying state of undernutrition. Hormonal changes in anorexia nervosa affect BMD adversely. Further investigation is underway to optimize therapeutic strategies for low BMD. PMID:24275621
Dimmock, Margaret; Grieves, Sue; Place, Maurice
There has been an increasing pattern of young people seeking to cope with the stresses of modern life by acts of self-harm. The frequency of this has been estimated by one review as between one in 12 and one in 15 across the UK. In this article, Margaret Dimmock, family therapist, Sue Grieves, community psychiatric nurse, both of whom work for the…
This paper uses Bourdieu's concept of field to analyse findings from an ethnographic study of Entry to Employment (E2E) programmes in England. Entry to Employment is a work-based learning programme which aims to re-engage young people with "barriers to learning" inhibiting access to further education, training or employment. The paper examines…
Global policy attention has begun to focus on young people in developing countries and much of the discourse is framed around notions of "transition to adulthood" based on the idea that individuals develop in linear ways, separate from family and community. This idea has already been widely critiqued in western contexts. This article explores the…
Coyle, Karin K.; Anderson, Pamela M.; Franks, Heather M.; Glassman, Jill; Walker, James D.; Charles, Vignetta Eugenia
Romantic relationships are central in the lives of young people. This paper uses data on romantic relationships from urban youth in the USA to illustrate how using a relationships perspective in HIV/STI and pregnancy prevention programmes broadens the skills and content covered, and contextualises the learning to enhance relevance and use.…
Francis, Leslie J.; Croft, Jennifer S.; Pyke, Alice; Robbins, Mandy
This essay discusses the design of the quantitative component of the "Young People's Attitudes to Religious Diversity" project, conceived by Professor Robert Jackson within the Warwick Religions and Education Research Unit, and presents some preliminary findings from the data. The quantitative component followed and built on the qualitative…
The presence of young people in public spaces and the types of activities in which they engage have generated considerable debate and discussion in Australia in recent years. This guide provides brief descriptions of a range of public space projects that have been undertaken in Australia. The aim is to outline the key elements of a youth-friendly…
Hatton, Sue; Tector, Angie
Finding suitable curriculum materials for Sexuality and Relationship Education for young people with autistic spectrum disorder can be a challenge for teaching staff. In this article, Sue Hatton and Angie Tector who both formerly worked at Coddington Court School discuss findings from their research project asking pupils with autistic spectrum…
Demirok, Mukaddes; Ozdamli, Fezile; Hursen, Cigdem; Ozcinar, Zehra; Kutguner, Muge; Uzunboylu, Huseyin
Playing computer games is a routine activity for most young people today. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of time spent playing computer games, the violence of the game, and self-reported anger of students in North Cyprus. Four hundred participants between the ages of 15-18 completed the State-Trait Anger and the Anger…
The aim of the paper is to examine current and evolving supply side transition policy initiatives in the light of (a) particular demand side needs of urban young people classified as those most disadvantaged and potentially marginalized; and (b) the emerging realities of accessing and operating within particular examples of high value?added knowledge work arenas of the new urban economies
The aim of the paper is to examine current and evolving supply side transition policy initiatives in the light of (a) particular demand side needs of urban young people classified as those most disadvantaged and potentially marginalized; and (b) the emerging realities of accessing and operating within particular examples of high value-added…
Kayitsinga, Jean; Villarruel, Francisco A.; Tanner, Paul E., Jr.
In today's changing economy and global competition, the demand for a better educated workforce has been increasing. Since the 1970's, new structures of work have emerged that require a highly skilled labor force. What do Michigan residents think about future educational needs of young people? What level of education do they expect their children…
Bachman, Jerald G.; And Others
Based on large-scale surveys of high school seniors in the classes of 1975 through 1984, this paper presents findings which have a bearing on the quality of life of young people. Most seniors planned and hoped for marriage, children, and material well-being; however, the last few graduating classes showed increased concern about attaining those…
Following the collapse of the US investment bank Lehmann Brothers in September 2008, the world economy began a downward spiral, with many countries falling into recession. Australia experienced significant stock market losses and unemployment rates began to climb. This briefing paper considers how young people fared in previous downturns and…
Agosto, Denise E.
Investigated behavioral decision-making theories of bounded rationality and satisficing in relation to young people's decision making in the World Wide Web and considered the role of personal preferences. Results of this study of ninth- and tenth-grade females consider time constraints, information overload, physical constraints, reduction…
Franc Cankar; Marina Trampus; Tomi Deutsch
The paper presents the scope of innovation and entrepreneurship development in terms of invention – innovation processes that young people receive in the educational process. We are processing the idea of Secondary Catering School of Ljubljana female attendants to whom an idea occurred while taking a walk through the streets of Ljubljana. Students were looking at a small group of
Karvonen, Sakari; Vikat, Andres; Rimpela, Matti
According to biological indicators trends in young people's health appear favourable, but the psychosocial aspects suggest a different pattern. We studied the differences across schools in common health complaints and in three groups of factors behind them: pupils' individual characteristics, family related factors and school-related factors.…
Describes two meetings on youth development in the new millennium, held in Oxford (England) in November 1998: a workshop to plan youth conferences and trainer training courses related to the contributions of adventure and outdoor experiences to young people's cultural, moral, and spiritual development; and an international conference, sponsored by…
Randler, Christoph; Frech, Daniela
During puberty, young people shift their time-of-day preferences from morningness to eveningness. One of the main problems seems to be early school-start times, which force adolescents to start working at a given time that may be too early for them; and this, in turn, negatively affects school functioning. Here, we ask whether…
Marc Galanter; Helen Dermatis; Courtney Santucci
Empirical findings characterizing long-term, committed AA members are limited, particularly among younger members. We studied a sample of 266 highly committed attendees (mean age 27) at an annual conference of Young People in AA, whose first encounter with AA was 6 years previously. Most (72%) had abused drugs as well as alcohol, and 36% had never received substance abuse treatment.
The research described in this paper concerns the acquaintance of student teachers with the educational and wider pastoral experiences of children and young people who are or have been ‘looked after’ and who they may well teach at some point, together with the familiarisation of student teachers with the ‘looked after’ system in the UK. We discuss an exploratory awareness?raising
Vannier, Sarah A.; O'Sullivan, Lucia F.
Surprisingly little is known about oral sex experiences among emerging adults, including the motives behind their participation in this sexual activity. The current study examined the characteristics of emerging adults' most recent oral sex experience. A total of 431 young people (M age = 21.7 years; 71.7% female) completed an on-line survey…
by their perception that the effects of climate change would be felt elsewhere, their optimism that scienceResearch Summary Wood you believe it? Children's and young people's perceptions of climate change, woods and forests for preventing, mitigating and adapting to climate change. This research contributes
Epstein, Debbie; Mendick, Heather; Moreau, Marie-Pierre
This paper makes both a critical analysis of some popular cultural texts about mathematics and mathematicians, and explores the ways in which young people deploy the discourses produced in these texts. We argue that there are particular (and sometimes contradictory) meanings and discourses about mathematics that circulate in popular culture, that…
Zubok, Iu. A.; Chuprov, V. I.
The study of the legal culture of young people in the interaction between subjective factors and objective conditions characterizing the transformation of societies in the post-Soviet space makes it possible not only to assess the current state of that culture, but also to map out ways to improve it. In this article, the authors examine the…
Coad, Jane; Evans, Ruth
This article reflects on key methodological issues emerging from children and young people's involvement in data analysis processes. We outline a pragmatic framework illustrating different approaches to engaging children, using two case studies of children's experiences of participating in data analysis. The article highlights methods of…
Darragh, Janine Julianna
This intervention study examined the impact of reading young adult novels that portray people with disabilities on the attitudes of 229 eighth grade students. Students' beliefs and intentions to interact with peers with disabilities were measured on three occasions utilizing the Shared Activities Questionnaire (Morgan, Walker, Bieberich & Bell,…
Fenaughty, John; Harre, Niki
Electronic harassment is a pervasive phenomenon among young people, however relatively little is known about actions that targets of harassment may undertake to manage such abuse, and whether particular actions and personal characteristics are associated with successful resolution of such harassment. This mixed methods research identified whether…
Mendick, Heather; Allen, Kim; Harvey, Laura
Drawing on 24 group interviews on celebrity with 148 students aged 14-17 across six schools, we show that "hard work" is valued by young people in England. We argue that we should not simply celebrate this investment in hard work. While it opens up successful subjectivities to previously excluded groups, it reproduces neoliberal…
Kathy Danton; Louise Misselke; Rob Bacon; John Done
Objective Currently there is a public welfare debate about the acute effects of cannabis and risk of motor vehicle accidents. This study sought to disclose young people's attitudes, values, and willingness to drive after smoking cannabis, and their awareness of the potential risks.Design Focus group interviews which contrasted attitudes and beliefs about drinking and driving with those about smoking cannabis
Amos, A; Gray, D; Currie, C; Elton, R
Recent research indicates that there is an important, though complex, relationship between the social image of smoking and young people's self- and aspirational images. This study explored how young people see themselves (self-image), how they would like to be (ideal image), and whether these differ according to age, gender and smoking status. Focus groups were used to elicit attributes which young people use to describe smoking and non-smoking images taken from fashion pages in youth magazines. These attributes were incorporated into a self-completion questionnaire which was administered to 897 young people from three age groups (12-13 years, 15-16 years and 18-19 years). The respondents rated their self- and ideal images on each of these attributes. Overall, there were few differences between the rank order of attributes by age, sex or smoking status. However, there were differences in the trait scores, with males and smokers tending to rate themselves more positively. The two traits which most clearly differentiated smokers and non-smokers were druggy/takes drugs (self- and ideal image) and healthy (self-image). It appears that smokers in general, and male smokers in particular, embraced certain dimensions of self- and aspirational image of which druggy, tough and tarty are signifiers. In contrast, the differences between female smokers and non-smokers were less consistent and differed with age. The implications for health promotion are discussed. PMID:9255917
Wilson, Kimberley Luanne; Boldeman, Suzi Ursula
The Edmund Rice Education Australia (EREA) Flexible Learning Centres aim to provide a supportive learning environment for young people who find themselves outside of the mainstream secondary schooling system. Drawing on twenty first Century learning principles, the Centres aim to deliver a personalised learning experience with an emphasis on…
Frey, Andreas; Balzer, Lars; Ruppert, Jean-Jacques
This paper examines whether the subjective beliefs on their competences of 409 trainees in machinery, sales, and logistics constitute a reliable and valid way to measure transferable competences. The analysis of results attributes satisfactory to good reliability values to the assessment procedure. Furthermore, it could be shown that young people…
Helen Roberts; Mark Petticrew
In a range of settings in health, education, social care, housing and justice, policy makers are urged to make decisions based on research evidence. At present, those seeking sound research evidence to underpin interventions with children and young people will frequently find the evidence cupboard disappointingly bare. This article signposts resources pointing to networks producing research evidence for policy and
Anisimova, S. G.
There is a persistent opinion that the spread of narcotics abuse is taking in more and more young people and having an impact on the economic, political, and cultural development of society. Data obtained by sociologists and criminologists make it possible to single out the factors, conditions, and channels of the spread of psychoactive substances…
Staroverova, Irina Vladimirovna
The intensive rise of deviant consciousness and behavior in the population (including consciousness and behavior conducive to crime) has been classified rightly as one of the most dangerous "social disorders" of Russian society. Especially salient is the epidemic of "deviancy in regard to the law" in the consciousness and behavior of young people,…
The "Adelaide Declaration on National Goals for Schooling in the Twenty-First Century" provides a mandate for discussion of the spiritual within secular state schooling, but this discussion has never occurred. This is a serious omission given what could be called an "undercurrent of concern" for the ways in which young people today frame and make…
Although many young people think climate change is an important societal issue, studies indicate that pessimism is quite common. Finding ways to instill hope could therefore be seen as vital. However, is hope positively related to engagement or is it only a sign of illusory optimism? The aim of the study was to explore if hope concerning climate change has
Helbig, Alethea K.; Perkins, Agnes Regan
This book covers works of fiction, oral tradition, and poetry published from 1994 through 1999, and is deemed suitable for young people from preschool through high school. The book deals with four major ethnic groups within the United States: African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native-American Indians. It contains 561…
Schmidt, Sandra J.
Same-sex marriage is part of a global civil rights struggle for LGBQ rights. How this movement is framed, advanced, and critiqued across the globe can be linked to how young people in schools are prepared to deliberate social issues in the political sphere. This article examines national history books as cultural artifacts that present what is…
This article describes the misery and frustration of young people for whom the external reality of the body is at odds with their gender identity. As hormonal and surgical treatments to alter the sexual body increase in sophistication, clinicians may be under pressure to provide this treatment to the under-18s – if only for the postponement of puberty. This pressure
This article analyzes how peer and extended networks provide young people with support and resources for dealing with disadvantage. Centering girls' accounts of growing up in the Glebe public housing estate, the difficulties they face, their critiques and aspirations are interpreted as resilience, supported by the social capital of their networks.…
Mather, Julie; Gregory, Sue; Archbold, Sue
Fifteen young people who had received sequential bilateral cochlear implants were interviewed about their experiences. The majority had become full-time users, and all found improvements in listening with the second implant, including those who did not continue to wear it. All would recommend sequential bilateral implantation to their peers. For…
Weiss, Eduardo; Ramirez, Irene Guerra; Salinas, Elsa Guerrero; Hernandez, Joaquin Gonzalez; Martinez, Olga Grijalva; Romero, Job Avalos
This article is based on the finding that for many students, high school is a place for young people's life and living together, a place for subjectivisation. The process of subjectivisation is approached through a discussion that questions conceptions of students as strategists of their school trajectory, as well as conceptions of youth life as…
Aaron Sefi; Terry Hanley
As mental health services for young people develop, the need for evaluation and audit to justify expenditure follows suit. Counselling is being provided in more and more schools and community settings across the country, and there is an increasing focus on evidence-based funding. Practice-based evidence has an important role to play in fulfilling this requirement, and there are calls for
Buhi, Eric R.; Daley, Ellen M.; Fuhrmann, Hollie J.; Smith, Sarah A.
Little is known about the quality of online sexual health information, how young people access the Internet to answer their sexual health questions, or an individual's ability to sort through myriad sources for accurate information. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine how college students search for online sexual health…
Kang, Melissa; Quine, Susan
This paper describes a novel qualitative study that identified the concerns of young people about sex through a talk-back segment from 2002 to 2004 on an Australian national radio popular music programme targeting 15-24 year olds. Two hundred and thirty-one unsolicited callers (150 female and 81 male) went to air over the study period, and 212…
Lambe, Catherine I.; Hoare, Karen J.
Skin infections are a major cause of preventable hospitalization, with young people being particularly susceptible. Community-associated methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (CA-MRSA) infection typically presents as skin infection. CA-MRSA infection rates have increased rapidly in the past decade. Exploration of literature…
Zola N. Mannie; Catherine J. Harmer; Philip J. Cowen
Objective: Cortisol hypersecretion is one of the most reliable biological abnormali- ties in major depression, but it is uncer- tain if it represents an illness marker or a trait vulnerability to mood disorder. The present study sought to answer this ques- tion by measuring waking salivary cortisol levels in young people at familial risk of depression but with no personal
Health promotion and community building strategies are increasingly using the arts as a basis for engaging young people. Through involvement in arts activity, participants have been shown to develop supportive social networks and report increased feelings of well-being (Jermyn, 2001). In particular, drama strategies and programs have been used as…
Hutchison, Paul; Fox, Edward; Laas, Anna Maria; Matharu, Jasmin; Urzi, Serena
A cross-sectional study (N = 61) investigated the relationship between young people's previous experiences of intergenerational contact and their willingness to engage in future contact with the elderly. Regression analyses confirmed that frequent positive intergenerational contact predicted more positive outcome expectancies, less intergroup…
Coe, Anna-Britt; Goicolea, Isabel; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastian, Miguel
While social movement research employs "tactical repertoire" to emphasize protest tactics directed at the state, literature on youth activism globally indicates that young people do politics outside the realm of formal political spheres. Youth activism on body politics in Latin America offers evidence that enhances conceptual tools…
Nduna, Mzikazi; Jewkes, Rachel
A qualitative study was conducted in Butterworth, in the rural Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, to explore sources of distress for young people. Semi-structured, individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 16 men and 24 women aged 16-22 years. The findings revealed interconnections between structural factors such as death, poverty,…
Shaw, Ashley; Krug, Don
This research was conducted as part of a project designed to offer guidance on the development of a youth oriented online space for a popular Canadian museum of heritage and immigration. This space would allow young people to learn about heritage, ethnicity, and cultural identity, and, ideally, aid in the development of a positive ethnic identity.…
This paper examines the quality of the working alliance in online counseling relationships with young people. A mixed method approach has been adopted which combines the completion of a self-report quantitative measure (the "Therapeutic Alliance Quality Scale") and qualitative interviews with service users of a UK-based service (Kooth.com).…
Fairclough, S.; Stratton, G.
The purpose of this study was to assess physical activity levels during high school physical education lessons. The data were considered in relation to recommended levels of physical activity to ascertain whether or not physical education can be effective in helping young people meet health-related goals. Sixty-two boys and 60 girls (aged 11-14…
Physical activity is a complex behaviour and the accurate assessment of young people's physical activity patterns is extremely difficult. Ideally, a combination of different techniques should be used. For example, the simultaneous use of doubly labelled water, heart rate monitoring and structured observation would yield information on total energy expenditure, patterns of relative physiological load (intensity) on the cardiopulmonary system,
Antle, Beverley J.
Having a positive sense of self is associated with success for children and adults, with and without disabilities. This article reports on a cross-sectional study examining the correlates of global self-worth for 85 young people (ages eight to 23) with spina bifida (a condition present at birth) or spinal cord injury (an acquired condition).…
Drawing upon a case-study of the students and teaching staff of an Advanced Vocational Certificate of Education (AVCE) in Travel and Tourism, this paper examines the effects of the institutional habitus of a Further and Higher Education (FHE) college upon the higher education choices of a group of ethnically-mixed, working-class young people. The…
This paper has two aims. It considers what social inclusion could offer young people and the youth sector in Australia, and it reflects on how social inclusion has shaped the youth policy environment in Australia. It is argued that in order to consider these issues, it is necessary to understand social inclusion's history. Using a methodology of…
Wright, Jan, Ed.; Macdonald, Doune, Ed.
Despite society's current preoccupation with interrelated issues such as obesity, increasingly sedentary lifestyles and children's health, there has until now been little published research that directly addresses the place and meaning of physical activity in young people's lives. In this important new collection, leading international scholars…
Tsolidis, Georgina; Pollard, Vikki
The Greek community in Melbourne, Australia, is large and has a long history in the city. It is diverse and associated with a range of cultural, social and political structures. It has strong transnational links and in many ways exemplifies "diasporic" in contradistinction to "migrant". This paper focuses on young people from this community,…
This paper considers the contribution of sociological theory to the academic study of young people, education and digital technology. First it discusses the shortcomings of the technological and socially determinist views of technology and education that prevail in current academic and policy discussions. Against this background the paper outlines…
Carroll, Annemaree; Ashman, Adrian; Bower, Julie; Hemingway, Francene
Readiness for change (or treatment readiness) is a core concept of many rehabilitation programs for adult and juvenile offenders. The present study examined the experiences of six young people aged 13 to 17 years who participated in Mindfields[R], a 6-week self-regulatory intervention aimed at enhancing life skills and goal setting among youths…
Clark, Christina; Foster, Amelia
This report, based on a recent survey of over 8,000 primary and secondary pupils in England, explores why some pupils choose to read and others do not. The research literature shows that reading for pleasure benefits children in numerous ways. Yet, research also shows that young people's reading enjoyment may be declining. Given current political…
Lindstrøm, Maia; Filges, Trine; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint
Purpose: This review evaluates the evidence on the effects of brief strategic family therapy (BSFT) on drug use reduction for young people in treatment for nonopioid drug use. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review and ultimately located three studies for final analysis and interpretation. Results: The results…
Cathy Howieson; Cristina Iannelli
A common concern among policy makers in Europe is the low level of qualifications of some school leavers and the possible consequences of this for their life chances and for countries' economic prosperity. This article considers the impact of young people's low levels of educational attainment on their later life chances, especially on labour market participation. It identifies the long?term
Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin
Purpose: This study examined the postschool educational and employment experiences of young people with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Nineteen-year-olds with (n = 50) and without (n = 50) SLI were interviewed on their education and employment experiences since finishing compulsory secondary education. Results: On average,…
This article presents an interview with Jon Scieszka, author of "The Stinky Cheese Man and Other Fairly Stupid Tales" who is tapped by the "Children's Book Council" and the Library of Congress's "Center for the Book" as the first National Ambassador for Young People's Literature. A former grade-school teacher, Scieszka is also the creator of Guys…
Cahill, Helen; Coffey, Julia
This article discusses research which explored the impact of the Learning Partnerships program on young people's attitudes to help-seeking. The Learning Partnerships program brings classes of high school students into universities to teach pre-service teachers and doctors how to communicate effectively with adolescents about sensitive issues such…
Volz, Chloe; Heyman, Isobel
This article presents a previously unreported symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder. The young people reported describe a fear of turning into someone or something else or taking on unwanted characteristics. We have called this transformation obsession. The bizarre nature of this obsession had led to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatments in…
Tenkorang, Eric Y.; Adjei, Jones K.
There is abundant research on the links between family and household structure and young people's sexual risk-taking behaviours, but this scholarship although emerging in sub-Saharan Africa is largely limited to the West. Using data from the 2004 National Adolescent Survey conducted among 12-19 year olds in Ghana, and applying discrete time…
McElvaney, Rosaleen; Greene, Sheila; Hogan, Diane
The aim was to understand the factors influencing informal disclosure of child sexual abuse experiences, taking account of dynamics operating prior to, during, and following disclosure. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 young people who experienced child sexual abuse and 14 parents. Grounded theory methodology informed the study. The key factors identified as influencing the disclosure process included being believed, being asked, shame/self-blame, concern for self and others, and peer influence. Many young people both wanted to tell and did not want to tell. Fear of not being believed; being asked questions about their well-being; feeling ashamed of what happened and blaming themselves for the abuse, for not telling, and for the consequences of disclosure; concern for how both disclosure and nondisclosure would impact on themselves and others; and being supported by and yet pressurized by peers to tell an adult, all illustrate the complex intrapersonal and interpersonal dynamics reflecting the conflict inherent in the disclosure process. These findings build on previous studies that emphasize the dialogic and interpersonal dynamics in the disclosure process. Both intrapersonal and interpersonal influencing factors need to be taken account of in designing interventions aimed at helping children tell. The importance of asking young people about their psychological well-being and the role of peer relationships are highlighted as key to how we can help young people tell. PMID:24288188
Gibbs, Lisa; Snowdon, Elyse; Block, Karen; Gallagher, Hugh Colin; MacDougall, Colin; Ireton, Greg; Pirrone-Savona, Alana; Forbes, David; Richardson, John; Harms, Louise; Waters, Elizabeth
The impact of disasters on the mental health, well-being and social inclusion of children and young people is well established. However, there is very limited evidence about effective community-based interventions to support positive outcomes. In this paper, we review the empirical and theoretical evidence and propose a conceptual framework to…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.
This report on smoking and health, the twenty-third in a series that was begun in 1964, is the first in this series to focus on young people. It underscores the seriousness of tobacco use and its relationship to other adolescent problem behaviors. Examined here are the past few decades' scientific literature on the factors that influence the onset…
Biesta, Gert; Lawy, Robert; Kelly, Narcie
In this article we present insights from research which has sought to deepen understanding of the ways in which young people (aged 13-21) learn democratic citizenship through their participation in a range of different formal and informal practices and communities. Based on the research, we suggest that such understanding should focus on the…
Woolfson, Richard C.; Harker, Michael; Lowe, Dorothy; Sheilds, Mary; Mackintosh, Hilary
The Education (Disability Strategies and Pupils' Educational Records) (Scotland) Act 2002 requires local authorities to prepare and implement an accessibility strategy to improve access to education for young people with disabilities. In this article, Dr. Richard Woolfson, Principal Psychologist, Michael Harker, Depute Principal Psychologist,…
Harris, Jonathan M.; Best, Catherine S.; Moffat, Vivien J.; Spencer, Michael D.; Philip, Ruth C. M.; Power, Michael J.; Johnstone, Eve C.
Cognitive performance and the relationship between theory of mind (TOM), weak central coherence and executive function were investigated in a cohort of young people with additional learning needs. Participants were categorized by social communication questionnaire score into groups of 10 individuals within the autistic spectrum disorder (ASD)…
In this article, the author describes how middle schools can prepare young people for the challenges and opportunities of the 21st century. Integrating 21st century skills deliberately and systematically into middle school education will empower educators to accomplish many of the elusive goals they have tried to reach for years. Twenty-first…
Wilson, Kimberley Luanne; Boldeman, Suzi Ursula
The Edmund Rice Education Australia (EREA) Flexible Learning Centres aim to provide a supportive learning environment for young people who find themselves outside of the mainstream secondary schooling system. Drawing on twenty first Century learning principles, the Centres aim to deliver a personalised learning experience with an emphasis on flexibility and individual choice. Provision of a comprehensive curriculum enables young people to make positive future life choices and successfully transition into employment and further training. The aim of this research project has been to work with teaching staff at a Flexible Learning Centre in North Queensland, Australia, to explore the value of integrating ICT in the form of Web 2.0 technologies to enhance young people's engagement with the subject of science. The findings of this case study suggest that ICT integration is effective in revitalising science education interest for disengaged young people. This may have wider implications in relation to general concerns of declining student interest and participation in science in the secondary years of schooling.
Although many young people think climate change is an important societal issue, studies indicate that pessimism is quite common. Finding ways to instill hope could therefore be seen as vital. However, is hope positively related to engagement or is it only a sign of illusory optimism? The aim of the study was to explore if hope concerning climate…
Spencer, Grace; Doull, Marion; Shoveller, Jean A.
Concepts of choice are often drawn upon within sexual health promotion discourses to encourage young people to take "responsibility" for and promote their own sexual health and reproductive control. A systematic literature search using predefined inclusion criteria identified peer-reviewed articles focusing on sexual health interventions…
Peacock, Alan; Pratt, Nick
This article focuses on educational enterprises outside the formal sector, such as museums, botanical gardens and interactive science centres. International research is drawn on to illuminate how design, culture, educational strategies and settings combine to affect the way in which young people respond to experiences on offer, leading to analysis…
Kavanagh, Josephine; Oakley, Ann; Harden, Angela; Trouton, Alex; Powell, Chloe
Objective: To examine the impact of single or dual component incentive schemes on health and social behaviours, in young people. Design: A systematic review. Method: Systematic and comprehensive cross-disciplinary searches were conducted to identify research. Following screening for relevance, included studies were quality assessed and data…
At the 1994 United Nations International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), women's rights advocates fundamentally shifted the way the global development community views poverty, gender equality and reproductive rights. While the ICPD's call to action led to a marked improvement in reproductive health, more remains to be done to secure the sexual and reproductive rights and health of all, particularly for young people. As we approach the 20-year anniversary of Cairo, several global processes are happening concurrently that have implications for the future of the sexual and reproductive health and rights agenda, including the 20-year review of progress towards achieving the Cairo Programme of Action, the review of the Millennium Development Goals, and the open group discussions about the sustainable development goals and the new development agenda post-2015. There are five key areas of action where significant investment is needed moving forward to ensure young people's access and safeguard their rights: repeal outdated laws and create new policies that safeguard young people's health and rights; provide youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services; guarantee young people's access to information and education; end gender discrimination and ensure government accountability. PMID:24922347
Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Marcus, Steven C.; Olfson, Mark
Objective: Little is known about the mental health care received by young people after an episode of deliberate self-harm. This study examined predictors of emergency department (ED) discharge, mental health assessments in the ED, and follow-up outpatient mental health care for Medicaid-covered youth with deliberate self-harm. Method: A…
Buseh, Aaron G.; Park, Chang Gi; Stevens, Patricia E.; McElmurry, Beverly J.; Kelber, Sheryl T.
A major shortcoming to the understanding and development of HIV/AIDS programs to mitigate social stigma is the paucity of research pertaining to how young people in sub-Saharan African countries perceive those infected with HIV, and how these stigmatizing attitudes are formed, projected and reinforced. The purpose of this study was to examine…
Timmins, Claire; Cleland, Joanne; Wood, Sara E.; Hardcastle, William J.; Wishart, Jennifer G.
Speech production in young people with Down's syndrome has been found to be variable and inconsistent. Errors tend to be more in the production of sounds that typically develop later, for example, fricatives and affricates, rather than stops and nasals. It has been suggested that inconsistency in production is a result of a motor speech deficit.…
Timmins, Claire; Hardcastle, William J.; Wood, Sara; Cleland, Joanne
Many studies have pointed to impaired speech intelligibility in young people with Down's syndrome (DS). Some have attributed these problems to delayed phonological development, while others have identified disordered speech patterns, which could be related to a dyspraxic element in their speech. This study uses electropalatography (EPG) to examine…
Coleman, L.; Testa, A.
This paper reports sex education preferences from an ethnically diverse sample of 3007 15-18 year olds. Findings are presented on preferred topics, where and from whom young people would like to receive this information. Preferences were centred around learning more about sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in particular,…
Graham Currie; Alexa Delbosc; Sarah Mahmoud
This paper aims to explore how perceptions of safety relate to actual experience in the context of urban public transport. It presents the results of an empirical analysis of links between perceptions of personal safety on public transport and compares these with actual experience of travellers. The focus of the work is a survey of young people using public transport
Graham Currie; Alexa Delbosc; Sarah Mahmoud
This paper aims to explore how perceptions of safety relate to actual experience in the context of urban public transport. It presents the results of an empirical analysis of links between perceptions of personal safety on public transport and compares these with actual experience of travellers. The focus of the work is a survey of young people using public transport
Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce
This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…
France, Alan; Bottrell, Dorothy; Haddon, Edward
This article draws on material from the ESRC funded "Pathways into and out of crime" research programme (Grant number L330253001) to explore how a group of educationally disaffected young people negotiate and try to manage their desistance from offending. We argue that the ability to be reflexive represents a form of embodied cultural…
Tsvetkova, I. V.
Starting in the mid-twentieth century, Tolyatti became a city that developed on the basis of the implementation of three projects: the hydroelectric power station, chemical plants, and the motor vehicle plant (AVTOVAZ). During that period of time, young people came to the Stavropol and Tolyatti area from various regions of the country to take part…
Dallas Swendeman; Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus; Scott Comulada; Robert Weiss; Maria Elena Ramos
Enacted and perceived HIV stigma was examined among substance-using young people living with HIV (YPLH) in Los Angeles, San Francisco, and New York City (N = 147). Almost all YPLH (89%) reported perceived stigma, and 31% reported enacted experiences in the past 3 months; 64% reported experiences during their lifetime. The HIV stigma questions were characterized by factors of avoidance,
Hutton, Linda; Whyte, Bill
Despite a growing awareness and acknowledgement of the incidence of sexually harmful behaviour by children and young people, research on this group remains limited. A number of recent publications have reviewed UK systems and practice and suggest that the issue is better appreciated than a decade ago. To date, however, there is no published…
Martin, Graham; Clark, Shelia; Beckinsale, Paul; Stacey, Kathleen; Skene, Clive
This manual is a ready reference guide to audio-visual resources of the "Keep Yourself Alive" program. It provides information for use with patients and clients as well as for personal professional development. Issues covered can be upsetting, and this material is not intended for direct use by children and young people. The "Keep Yourself Alive"…
Alexander, Shona; Brown, Neil; Farmer, Kait; Fraser-Smith, Jenny; McClatchey, Kirstie; McKeown, Vibeke; Sangster, Ali; Shaver, Isabel; Templeton, Jenny
This paper describes the process employed by a psychological service to gather the views of children and young people using guided discussion groups and questionnaires. Pupils in the guided discussion groups were asked to identify issues that affect them and how adults could help. This information was analysed using thematic analysis. Seven themes…
Scandroglio, Barbara; Lopez-Martinez, Jorge; San Jose, M. Carmen
This work presents different lines of intervention in the local, group, family and educational contexts aimed at prevention of some deviant behaviors--such as violence, theft and certain patterns of trafficking and use of legal and illegal substances--as practiced by a minority of young people and youth sub-culture groups. These interventions are…
San, Hong Ka
This paper attempts to investigate Chinese-English code-switching behaviour present in blogs (a kind of computer-mediated communication) belonging to young people in Macao. The first goal of this study is to describe the patterns of Chinese...
The Partners for Change project aimed to encourage disadvantaged young people aged 11–19 in the South West region of England to get involved in making decisions about public libraries. The project was developed using an action research approach and took place between May 2005 and June 2007. An action research approach was used so that learning from the project could
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
This annotated list of educational materials on environmental issues includes a wide range from workbooks and lesson plans to newsletters, films and software intended for young people. Educational materials are listed alphabetically following the name of the sponsoring agency or group. A separate list includes materials available from the U.S.…
Clyde, Laurel A.; Lobban, Marjorie
Describes how well libraries meet the needs of lesbian, gay, and bisexual young people. Highlights include fiction resources of school and public libraries; mechanisms used to identify and locate relevant novels and picture books; research on patterns of fiction holdings; and the effects of censorship and legislative pressures. (Contains 56…
Anderson, Jeffrey A.; Wright, Eric R.; Kelley, Ken; Kooreman, Harold
Few studies have examined the longitudinal impact that systems of care (SOCs) have on the clinical functioning of young people. This study investigated patterns of clinical improvement over time in an SOC and explored the degree to which demographic characteristics and referral source affected those patterns. Data were gathered at the time of…
Wilson, Kimberley; Stemp, Kellie
Edmund Rice Education Australia Flexible Learning Centres (EREAFLCs) operate within a social inclusion framework to "walk with" young people who have disengaged from the traditional schooling system. Students attending the centres face multiple stressors in their everyday lives, as well as significant barriers to achieving success in the classroom…
David M. Fergusson; L. John Horwood; Annette L. Beautrais
Background: This study examines the extent to which gay, lesbian, and bisexual young people are at increased risk of psychiatric disorder and suicidal behaviors using data gathered on a New Zealand birth cohort studied to age 21 years. Methods: Data were gathered during the course of the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 21-year longitudinal study of a birth cohort
Nadine Dittert; Heidi Schelhowe
Physical Education as a school subject is usually not connected to theoretical analysis and cognitive skills, even though the formal description of movements can support good performance. In this paper, we present an approach whereby construction of new and technologically enhanced equipment for sports allows young people to gain an insight into the theoretical side of specific body movements. The
Wasiak, Edwin B.
This study explored alternative approaches to young people's concerts aimed at extending musical appreciations and cultural understandings while promoting interest in concert attendance among upper elementary students. The project, an artistic and cross-cultural collaboration grounded in a spirit of mutual respect, consisted of three components:…
Lindsay, Geoff; Dockrell, Julie; Desforges, Martin; Law, James; Peacey, Nick
Background: The UK government set up a review of provision for children and young people with the full range of speech, language and communication needs led by a Member of Parliament, John Bercow. A research study was commissioned to provide empirical evidence to inform the Bercow Review. Aims: To examine the efficiency and effectiveness of…
Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce
Objective: This study considers the physical activity (PA) and dietary habits of British young people according to socio-economic status (SES). Methods: The PA and dietary habits of 98 boys and 101 girls (12.9 0.3 years) from two Welsh secondary schools (school 1 and school 2) were examined. Free school meal eligibility and Census 2001 data were…
Wyn, Johanna; Stokes, Helen; Stafford, John
This report examines the challenges facing young people living in rural Australia in relation to their health and well-being and explores the relevance of personal resilience to offset these challenges. Specifically, the report synthesizes the literature on rural Australian youth and the results of focus groups undertaken in five rural…
Rowe, Paula; Savelsberg, Harry
Little consideration has been given to the influence of housing tenure on young people's developmental pathways. This paper draws on empirical findings from research conducted in the northern suburbs of Adelaide in 2009 to highlight how secure and quality housing tenure, when combined with familial support and positive relationships with teachers…
Rickwood, Debra; George, Amanda; Parker, Rhian; Mikhailovich, Katja
Young people at university are more likely to consume alcohol at harmful levels than their same-age peers who are not at university, and harmful alcohol use affects many aspects of campus life. This study aimed to investigate alcohol use and alcohol-related harms, both experienced and witnessed, among students at an Australian university. An…
Stokes, Helen; Wyn, Johanna
Young people growing up in rural and isolated areas of Australia face particular challenges because structural change to the rural economy has dramatically affected their communities. Structural challenges include limited transportation, health and community services that are difficult to access and not confidential, scarcity of affordable…
Grever, Maria; Haydn, Terry; Ribbens, Kees
The article presents the findings from a survey of over 400 young people in metropolitan areas in the Netherlands and England concerning their views on identity and school history. The research explored pupils' ideas about which facets of history were of interest to them, what history they believed should be taught in schools, and their views on…
Wilson, Kimberley; Alloway, Todd
The issue of limited engagement with science for young people from Indigenous, minority and lower socio-economic groups in Australia appears to have been sidelined from the mainstream debate around falling rates of engagement with science at the secondary schooling level. The "closing the gap" mantra of education policy in Australia has seen an…
Anderson, Jan; Hurst, Margaret; Marques, Ana; Millar, David; Moya, Sue; Pover, Lesley; Stewart, Sue
A qualitative psychoanalytic clinical research project using a post-Kleinian contemporary approach was undertaken by a team of seven qualified and experienced child psychotherapists working in community Tier 3 Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). A number of referred young people who deliberately harmed themselves or attempted…
This article reviews the existing British literature on the micro-social details of young people's heterosexual encounters, emphasizing the cultural factors which impede the adoption of health education advice. Most of the findings cited come from qualitative projects that relied primarily on detailed interviews or group discussions. Six issues are highlighted: difficulties in talking about sex; the gender-role expectations brought to
Kelly, Peter; Hickey, Chris; Cormack, Sue; Harrison, Lyn; Lindsay, Jo
The paper reports on key findings of a research project that examined the roles that community-based sporting clubs in the Australian state of Victoria play in shaping young people's understandings and uses of alcohol. Our research imagined clubs as community hubs that are located in complex networks that impact on the ways that clubs understand…
Pasovets, Iu. M.
Survey data on young people in Russia show that there is a weak relationship between their assessment of where they are in the system of stratification and their position according to material indicators. Young people are in general optimistic about improving their position and see upward mobility as possible for those willing to work hard.…
Clark, Christina; Woodley, Jane; Lewis, Fiona
The authors' research has consistently highlighted the link between reading for pleasure and reading attainment. Worryingly, they have found that the number of children and young people who say that they own a book seems to be rapidly decreasing. In 2005, 1 in 10 of the children and young people they surveyed said they did not have a book of their…
Elena Fumagalli; Laura Fumagalli
The paper studies the impact of ethnic diversity on social participation of young people. We first propose a theoretical model in which the agents choose between structured and unstructured social activities by taking into account the ethnic composition of the groups they join. We test our predictions using English census data together with the `Longitudinal Survey of Young People in
Elena Fumagalli; laura Fumagalli
The paper studies the impact of ethnic diversity on social participation of young people. We first propose a theoretical model in which the agents choose between structured and unstructured social activities by taking into account the ethnic composition of the groups they join. We test our predictions using English census data together with the “Longitudinal Survey of Young People in
Antle, Beverley J.; Montgomery, Gert; Stapleford, Christine
Young people with physical disabilities experience greater difficulty than their able-bodied peers in many psychosocial domains as they transition toward adulthood. However, firsthand knowledge of the dimensions of social support that young people with physical disabilities find useful during this stage is lacking. This qualitative study involved…
EPIC is an independent voluntary organisation in the Republic of Ireland that advocates for the rights of children in care and young people who have care experience. One aspect of EPIC's work is the Aftercare Advocacy and Support Service, which provides confidential advice and support to young people who are preparing to leave care, those in…
In recent years, there has been increasing concern over rising levels of alcohol and cannabis use among young people. This paper reports findings from a qualitative investigation of young people's cannabis-related beliefs and behaviour. Fifty-nine boys and girls aged 13 to 15 years were interviewed, mostly in self-selected friendship pairs, in six…
This paper defines "adventure-based intervention,""young people," and "trouble and risk" in light of the therapeutic work done at Bryn Melyn Community (Bala, Wales), a therapeutic treatment center. Bryn Melyn provides intensive individualized therapy to young people, aged 15-18, who are in the care of social services departments. Each teenager has…
Smith, Andrew; Green, Ken
This exploratory paper seeks, first, to offer some critical sociological comments on the common-sense, or rather ideological, claims surrounding two supposedly emerging "crises": namely, the alleged poor health and declining sport and physical activity participation levels of young people. In this regard, it is suggested that while young people…
Clark, Christina; Douglas, Jonathan
At the end of 2009 the National Literacy Trust surveyed 17,000 children and young people online in the United Kingdom's largest ever study of young people's attitudes to literacy and literate behaviour. This survey was of special interest as it repeated questions asked by the National Literacy Trust in a survey of attitudes and reading behaviour…
There were 18,141 young people aged eight to 17 who participated in this online survey in November and December 2010. While the survey focuses on young people's attitudes towards reading, writing and communication skills as well as technology use, this report centers exclusively on the writing aspect of the survey. More specifically, it explores…
Khotkina, Z. A.
Survey data comparing the life aspirations of three generations of Russians show an increase from the level of the Soviet generation of young people to the perestroika generation, followed by a decline in the generation of young people who were born and grew up in today's "market" Russia. One chief cause of the downward dynamic of…
Suter, Sarah; McCracken, Wendy; Calam, Rachel
The purpose of this survey study was to explore the views of young deaf and hearing people (16-25 years old) on school and home sex and relationships education (SRE). The study addressed a critical knowledge gap in the research literature on deaf youth's perception of SRE. The small-scale study explored young deaf people's experiences of SRE and…
Mkumbo, Kitila A. K.
It is very important that sex and relationships education (SRE) programme developers attempt to elicit, understand and incorporate young people's views in the SRE development and implementation processes. This paper reports the findings of a study that sought to identify young people's self-identified learning needs and priorities regarding sexual…
Dan I Lubman; Leanne Hides; Anthony F Jorm
Objective: To ascertain the beliefs of young people and their parents about the role of alcohol, tobacco and marijuana in the prevention and treatment of mental disorders. Design, setting and participants: Between May and August 2006, a national computer-assisted telephone survey was conducted on a representative sample of Australian youths aged 12-25 years. 3746 young people and 2005 of their
Joyce Wamoyi; Angela Fenwick; Mark Urassa; Basia Zaba; William Stones
BACKGROUND: Many programmes on young people and HIV\\/AIDS prevention have focused on the in-school and channeled sexual and reproductive health messages through schools with limited activities for the young people's families. The assumption has been that parents in African families do not talk about sexual and reproductive health (SRH) with their children. These approach has had limited success because of
In order to know the trend of TB incidence among people younger than 30 years of age, and to clarify the problem of TB control among them, the author used the surveillance data, the vital statistics, the annual reports of health center activities and others for the past 20 years. While the stagnation of the decline of TB incidence rate has been observed since early 1980s, the speed of decline among young people has been greater than that among people older than 30 years. However, at the same time it is worth attention that the incidence rate of the 20s is higher than that of those aged 30-39 years, and the slowing off more remarkable, during the last several years. It was shown that the recent increase of young immigrants from high prevalence countries is affecting the incidence of young age group (age 20-29) in Tokyo and the surrounding prefectures with higher proportion of these immigrant population. On the other hand, the high incidence in the young people observed in Osaka and the surrounding prefectures may be attributed to some other social risks. The BCG coverage for children aged 0-4 years has been increasing and reached to 90% in 1991. The tuberculin test results of children in an area seems to reflect the technical level of the testing and the age of children to be tested, rather than the TB prevalence of the area. The frequency of the young people under chemoprophylaxis is widely variable among prefectures. There is poor correlation between this frequency of chemoprophylaxis of prefectures and the incidence rate of sputum positive TB, which may be caused by disparity in recognition of the necessity of the chemoprophylaxis and the lack of efforts for the quality control of the services, such as tuberculin testing. PMID:8523859
Many people have fond memories of spending time in their neighborhood park or town center, and for young people, these places can have a special importance. This recent report from the Demos organization looks at the everyday experiences of children in public through six case studies. The 67-page report contains three sections: "What's Next?", "Making the Case", and "Spaces, Stories, and Shaping Places". Drawing on detailed ethnographies and observation, the report looks at several different spaces used by young people in the United Kingdom. While offering a number of important suggestions for future directions, the report also notes, "We need a paradigm shift in the way we think about the built environment-one which addresses the deepening segregation between generations."
Judith A. Stein; Ronald M. Andersen; Marjorie Robertson; Lillian Gelberg
Objective: Homeless people have disproportionately high rates of viral hepatitis. The Gelberg-Andersen Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations (predisposing, enabling, and need variables) was expanded to predict prevalence and awareness of hepatitis B (HBV) or hepatitis C (HCV) infection, as well as health services utilization (HSU) among homeless adults using structural equation modeling. Design: A population-based sample of 534 homeless adults
Alexandrescu, R; Tuchendria, E
Family planning was for a long time prohibited in Romania. This has reduced the demand for contraceptives. Even though contraceptives were made accessible and their use promoted since the beginning of December 1989, abortion has still been the preferred form of fertility regulation, as the people of Romania are unaware of the advantages of contraception. The purpose of the present survey was to assess the level of sexual knowledge, attitudes and practice of teenagers and young people from urban areas of Romania and to identify if there was any significant difference in terms of age, education and sexual activity. A baseline examination was undertaken in which data were collected from 279 students who attended five high schools and six post high schools from the Moldavia cities, Iassy, Piatra-Neamt and Bîrlad. Students were asked to complete a self administered questionnaire, and a 97.5% response rate for the whole survey was achieved. Difference between answers were tested using chi-square test from 2x2 table and median test, average. A P-value <0.05 was considered to be significant. The study established that knowledge, attitudes and practice vary by age (adolescents (< or =19y) vs young people (>19y)) and education (high school vs post high school) in some regards. At the aggregate level, regarding knowledge, a statistically significant difference was found between adolescents and young people; but no statistically significant difference was found between high school and post high school students. Apart from lack of basic knowledge the study confirmed that many false beliefs regarding contraceptives are held by the survey participants. People who were sexually active were no better informed than the rest of survey participants, but they had a significantly higher percentage of positive attitudes regarding effectiveness of pills and withdrawal. Both, the knowledge and attitudes of students necessarily required appropriate sex education which, ideally should be introduced before young people become sexually active. PMID:10557115
There are no visible signs of homelessness in Malta similar to what can be seen on the streets of many North American or European cities, yet there are few hundred homeless who stay in shelters and another few thousand households that are at risk of being homeless. Malta has a comparatively sizeable social housing sector (9000–10,000) and approximately 3300 households
Depp, Colin A; Vella, Lea; Orff, Henry J; Twamley, Elizabeth W
Homeless people experience elevated rates of risk factors for cognitive impairment. We reviewed available peer-reviewed studies reporting data from objective measures of cognition in samples identified as homeless. Pooled sample-weighted estimates of global cognitive screening measures, full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ), and premorbid IQ were calculated, in addition to pooled sample characteristics, to understand the representativeness of available studies. A total of 24 unique studies were identified, with 2969 subjects. The pooled estimate for the frequency of cognitive impairment was 25%, and the mean full-scale IQ score was 85, 1 standard deviation below the mean of the normal population. Cognitive impairment was found to be common among homeless adults and may be a transdiagnostic problem that impedes rehabilitative efforts in this population. Comparatively little data are available about cognition in homeless women and unsheltered persons. PMID:25594792
Kanis, Rebecca; McCannon, Joe; Craig, Catherine; Mergl, Kara A
Across the nation communities are rapidly identifying and housing their most vulnerable people experiencing homelessness. Building on these examples, Community Solutions and the Institute for Healthcare Improvement have launched the 100,000 Homes Campaign, an historic effort to eliminate chronic homelessness by July 2014. PMID:22643479
Sheridan, Joel; Scior, Katrina
Research with South Asian families of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) suggests an increased fear of stigma and isolation from the community. Evidence on attitudes towards ID among the wider community is very limited and was the focus of the present study. Responses were collected from 737 college students aged 16-19 using the Community Living Attitudes Scale-ID version. Results indicated that British South Asians (n=355) were less in favour of the social inclusion of people with ID than White British young people (n=382). British South Asian adolescents were more likely to hold the view that people with ID should be sheltered and not empowered. It is proposed that future inclusion policies integrate ethnic minority views whose religious and cultural values do not always conform to the core values of social inclusion policies. It is also proposed that culturally specific school based interventions could be introduced with the aims of decreasing stigma and fostering attitudes in line with the aims of normalisation. PMID:23417129
Dagmar M. Haller; Lena A. Sanci; George C. Patton; Susan M. Sawyer
Background The World Health Organization encourages the development of youth friendly services, yet little is known on how youth currently\\u000a present in general practice.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective To describe the perspectives, expectations, and service receipt of young people presenting to family doctors to inform the\\u000a development of youth friendly services.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design Cross-sectional survey.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Participants and measurements Consecutive young people attending 26 randomly selected practices were recruited
Timmins, Claire; Hardcastle, William J; Wood, Sara; Cleland, Joanne
Many studies have pointed to impaired speech intelligibility in young people with Down's syndrome (DS). Some have attributed these problems to delayed phonological development, while others have identified disordered speech patterns, which could be related to a dyspraxic element in their speech. This study uses electropalatography (EPG) to examine the speech of 25 young people with DS, focusing on their production of the obstruent /t/. For the EPG analysis, participants produced the target obstruent in the word 'toe', repeated 10 times. An investigative analysis was carried out. A new descriptive taxonomy of EPG error patterns was developed and these errors were related to perceptually based transcriptions. The measures are discussed in relation to current knowledge of the anatomical and physiological characteristics of DS. PMID:22106892
Carpenter, Joanne S; Robillard, Rébecca; Lee, Rico S C; Hermens, Daniel F; Naismith, Sharon L; White, Django; Whitwell, Bradley; Scott, Elizabeth M; Hickie, Ian B
Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disorders and examine associations between these profiles and cognitive performance. Actigraphy monitoring was completed in 152 young people (16-30 years; 66% female) with primary diagnoses of affective disorders, and 69 healthy controls (18-30 years; 57% female). Patients also underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment. Actigraphy data were processed to estimate both sleep and circadian parameters. Overall neuropsychological performance in patients was poor on tasks relating to mental flexibility and visual memory. Two hierarchical cluster analyses identified three distinct patient groups based on sleep variables and three based on circadian variables. Sleep clusters included a 'long sleep' cluster, a 'disrupted sleep' cluster, and a 'delayed and disrupted sleep' cluster. Circadian clusters included a 'strong circadian' cluster, a 'weak circadian' cluster, and a 'delayed circadian' cluster. Medication use differed between clusters. The 'long sleep' cluster displayed significantly worse visual memory performance compared to the 'disrupted sleep' cluster. No other cognitive functions differed between clusters. These results highlight the heterogeneity of sleep and circadian profiles in young people with affective disorders, and provide preliminary evidence in support of a relationship between sleep and visual memory, which may be mediated by use of antipsychotic medication. These findings have implications for the personalisation of treatments and improvement of functioning in young adults early in the course of affective illness. PMID:25898321
P C Goold; M Ward; E M Carlin
ObjectivesTo assess Internet use amongst young people to determine whether it would be a practical way to provide sex education and information.MethodsYear 10 students (aged 14-15 years) from North Nottinghamshire schools were asked to participate in focus groups to discuss the Internet. A series of predefined questions were directed to the whole group to generate debate. Areas explored included: Internet
The realization that well designed graphs and clearly worded summaries were not enough to spur the public and policy makers towards an appropriate understanding of our planet encouraged me to search for other ways to share climate stories with the general public. After co-authoring a popular book on food and climate change and giving many talks to the general public, it struck me that young people were largely missing from the dialogue, and little meaningful progress was being made to design effective solutions. I then started working with faculty and students from the Film and Animation Departments at San Jose State University to develop stories about climate change that would be engaging to younger audiences. The result was the Green Ninja Project, based around the Green Ninja, a superhero who focuses on solutions to climate change using humor and silliness to soften what can be a somewhat challenging topic. The Project includes a) The Green Ninja Show - a series of YouTube videos (over 1,000,000 views) highlighting actions young people can take to reduce climate change, b) The Green Ninja Film Festival where students tell their own climate solutions stories, and c) a collection of educational resources that help teachers bring climate science topics into their classroom using hands-on activities. A key component to this work is promoting social action experiences, so that young people can understand how their actions can make a difference. Based on these experiences, I will provide my own reflections on the challenges and opportunities of communicating climate change with young people.
Timmins, Claire; Cleland, Joanne; Wood, Sara E; Hardcastle, William J; Wishart, Jennifer G
Speech production in young people with Down's syndrome has been found to be variable and inconsistent. Errors tend to be more in the production of sounds that typically develop later, for example, fricatives and affricates, rather than stops and nasals. It has been suggested that inconsistency in production is a result of a motor speech deficit. Late acquired fricatives such as /s/ and /integral/ are complex articulations, which may require more precise motor programming and may therefore show highly inconsistent productions. Other factors potentially affecting speech production in this population are abnormal palatal structure, hearing loss, and hypotonia. A group of 20 young people with Down's syndrome were recorded using Electropalatography (EPG), reading a wordlist containing the phrase 'a sheep'. The wordlist contained seven other phrases and was repeated 10 times. Eight typically developing, cognitively matched children and eight adults were also recorded producing the same data set. Articulatory (EPG pattern analysis) and perceptual analyses of the 10 productions of /integral/ were carried out. /integral/ production was found to be inconsistent in the young people with Down's syndrome, with more errors both in the auditory analysis and articulatory analysis than in the typical sample, which may be due to a motor programming or motor control problem. There were a greater number of errors in the EPG analysis than in the perceptual analysis. This suggests that some young people with DS were able to produce perceptually acceptable /integral/ with atypical EPG patterns. The use of typical, adult-modelled /integral/ EPG patterns in therapy may be inappropriate for some children with DS who present with atypical palatal structures. PMID:20001307
Nguyen, T.; Goodwin, L.; Talley, D. M.
There is a critical need to build students' scientific understanding and prepare them to fill the roles of future decision-makers and the scientific workforce. In particular, efforts are needed to reach the underserved communities, which represent the greatest untapped talent pool in the sciences. In order to build future leadership in this arena, we must employ innovative approaches that generate young peoples' interest and develop their capabilities early in their education so that an increased number will enter college interested in and prepared to pursue careers in scientific fields. Partnerships between early and informal education providers and scientists from academia, industry, and government agencies are essential to generate a pipeline of students able to and interested in making this transition. Ocean Discovery Institute's partnership model uses authentic scientific discovery to generate the spark that makes young people, from the most urban and diverse backgrounds, eager to learn. As these young people work alongside science mentors to discover the world around them, they discover themselves and their future as scientific leaders. The success of this model includes increasing students' science performance, attendance in college, selection of science and conservation majors, and contributions directly to the field of geoscience. Content assessments, surveys, interviews, and tracking data demonstrate 73% of student graduates declaring majors in science and conservation fields, higher scores on standardized tests relative to their peers, and contributions to science research including 10 publications and more than 30 scientific presentations. In addition, robust and long-term partnerships have been established with institutions including the University of San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Sempra Energy, and the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration. We will share lessons learned from over ten years of experience in partnering with scientists to prepare young people, from urban and diverse backgrounds for higher education in the sciences, describe the best practices tested, successful approaches, and the challenges still underway.
Yagudina, E. I.
The club of cosmonaut for young people (pupils of 7-11 classes of Russian state school) was created 45 years ago In St. Petersburg. In the paper brief story of the club and special programme of astronomy are presented. The main principles of work and organization of the club are shown. The peculiarity this organization and special courses of instruction during three years studying in club are described.
Gains for lesbian and gay adults demanding the rights to privacy and marriage that they consider their due as U.S. citizens\\u000a do not hold the same promise for young people. Both the 2003 Lawrence v. Texas Supreme Court decision and 2004 successes of the same-sex marriage movement in the United States fail to alter the oppressive\\u000a social conditions in which
E. Harkess-Murphy; J. MacDonald; J. Ramsay
Children and young people who are classed as “looked after” and “looked after and accommodated”, have been identified as being especially at risk of self-harm, however there is little research that has assessed self-harm among these groups. This study investigates self-harm rates, distinguishing between cognitions and behaviours with non-suicidal and suicidal intent among the looked after and looked after and
Bailey, S; Boddy, K; Briscoe, S; Morris, C
Children and young people can be valuable partners in research, giving their unique perspectives on what and how research should be done. However, disabled children are less commonly involved in research than their non-disabled peers. This review investigated how disabled children have been involved as research partners; specifically how they have been recruited, the practicalities and challenges of involvement and how these have been overcome, and impacts of involvement for research, and disabled children and young people. The INVOLVE definition of involvement and the Equality and Human Rights Commission definition of disability were used. Relevant bibliographic databases were searched. Websites were searched for grey literature. Included studies had involved disabled children and young people aged 5-25 years in any study design. Reviews, guidelines, reports and other documents from the grey literature were eligible for inclusion. Twenty-two papers were included: seven reviews, eight original research papers, three reports, three guidelines and one webpage. Nine examples of involvement were identified. Recommendations included developing effective communication techniques, using flexible methods that can be adapted to needs and preferences, and ensuring that sufficient support and funding is available for researchers undertaking involvement. Positive impacts of involvement for disabled children included increased confidence, self-esteem and independence. Positive impacts for research were identified. Involving disabled children in research can present challenges; many of these can be overcome with sufficient time, planning and resources. More needs to be done to find ways to involve those with non-verbal communication. Generally, few details were reported about disabled children and young people's involvement in studies, and the quality of evidence was low. Although a range of positive impacts were identified, the majority of these were authors' opinions rather than data. There remains scope for methodological research to inform appropriate approaches to public and patient involvement in childhood disability research. PMID:25323964
S. Fairclough; G. Stratton
The purpose of this study was to assess physical activity levels during high school physical education lessons. The data were considered in relation to recommended levels of physical activity to ascertain whether or not physical education can be effective in helping young people meet health-related goals. Sixty-two boys and 60 girls (aged 11-14 years) wore heart rate telemeters during physical
Barry P. Katz; J. Dennis Fortenberry; Gregory D. Zimet; Margaret J. Blythe; Donald P. Orr
This study describes associations of partner?specific relationship characteristics with consistent condom use among 297 young people (ages 13–24) with sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Relationship?specific variables were relationship quality, reasons for sex, relationship duration, duration of sexual relationship, coital frequency, “established” versus “new” sexual partner, cohabitation, children, sexual coercion, and drug or alcohol use associated with coitus. Relationship characteristics associated with
Daniel Wight; Mary L. Plummer; Gerry Mshana; Joyce Wamoyi; Zachayo S. Shigongo; David A. Ross
There has been a long-running debate as to whether sexual cultures in sub-Saharan Africa are permissive or characterised by restrictive rules, rituals and self-restraint. This paper, based on participant observation data, outlines the main features of sexual culture in rural northern Tanzania and highlights both permissive and restrictive norms and expectations for young people. It also illustrates how sexual beliefs
van Zwieten, Anita; Meyer, Johanna; Hermens, Daniel F.; Hickie, Ian B.; Hawes, David J.; Glozier, Nicholas; Naismith, Sharon L.; Scott, Elizabeth M.; Lee, Rico S. C.; Guastella, Adam J.
Antisocial behaviours and psychopathic traits place an individual at risk for criminality, mental illness, substance dependence, and psychosocial dysfunction. Social cognition deficits appear to be associated with psychopathic traits and are believed to contribute to interpersonal dysfunction. Most research investigating the relationship of these traits with social cognition has been conducted either in children or adult forensic settings. We investigated whether psychopathic traits were associated with social cognition in 91 young people presenting for mental healthcare (aged between 15 and 25 years). Participants completed symptom severity measures, neuropsychological tests, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test of social cognition (RMET), and the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) to assess psychopathic personality traits. Correlation analyses showed poorer social cognition was associated with greater psychopathic traits (r?=??.36, p?=?.01). Interestingly, social cognition performance predicted unique variance in concurrent psychopathic personality traits above gender, IQ sustained attention, and working memory performance. These findings suggest that social cognitive impairments are associated with psychopathic tendencies in young people presenting for community mental healthcare. Research is needed to establish the directionality of this relationship and to determine whether social cognition training is an effective treatment amongst young people with psychopathic tendencies. PMID:23861799
MacFadyen, Lynn; Hastings, Gerard; MacKintosh, Anne Marie
Objectives To examine young people's awareness of and involvement with tobacco marketing and to determine the association, if any, between this and their smoking behaviour. Design Cross sectional, quantitative survey, part interview and part self completion, administered in respondents' homes. Setting North east England. Participants Stratified random sample of 629 young people aged 15 and 16 years who had “opted in” to research through a postal consent procedure. Results There was a high level of awareness of and involvement in tobacco marketing among the 15-16 year olds sampled in the study: around 95% were aware of advertising and all were aware of some method of point of sale marketing. Awareness of and involvement with tobacco marketing were both significantly associated with being a smoker: for example, 30% (55/185) of smokers had received free gifts through coupons in cigarette packs, compared with 11% (21/199) of non-smokers (P<0.001). When other factors known to be linked with teenage smoking were held constant, awareness of coupon schemes, brand stretching, and tobacco marketing in general were all independently associated with current smoking status. Conclusions Teenagers are aware of, and are participating in, many forms of tobacco marketing, and both awareness and participation are associated with current smoking status. This suggests that the current voluntary regulations designed to protect young people from smoking are not working, and that statutory regulations are required. PMID:11230063
Background. Shame has been associated with a range of maladaptive behaviours, including substance use. Young people may be particularly vulnerable to heightened shame sensitivity, and substance use is a significant problem amongst UK adolescents. Although there appears to be a relationship between shame and substance use, the direction of the relationship remains unclear. Aim. The purpose of this study was to undertake a systematic review of the literature relating to shame and substance use in young people. Method. Five electronic databases were searched for articles containing terms related to ‘adolescence,’ ‘shame’ and ‘substance use.’ Six articles were included in the final analyses. Results. Adverse early experiences, particularly sexual abuse, predict shame-proneness, and substance use is a mechanism by which some individuals cope with negative feelings. In general, there is a dearth of literature investigating the shame-substance use relationship in adolescent samples. The available literature associates shame-proneness with poorer functioning and suggests that it may potentially lead to psychopathology and early-onset substance use. Scant attention has been paid to the cognitive and emotional processes implicated. Further research is required to ascertain the strength of the shame-substance use relationship in young people and to develop appropriate interventions for this population. PMID:25649509
Background Substance abuse puts a burden on the physical and mental health and well-being of individuals and their families, particularly parents. Parents of substance-abusing young people are in need of professional or informal support and information. Potential and easy accessible sources are support groups. We explored the experiences of parents of substance-abusing young people attending support groups regarding several topics related to the substance-abuse of their son or daughter, the impact on their lives and their views on social support. Methods In this small-scale qualitative study based on in-depth interviews, we interviewed parents of substance-abusing young people focusing on their experiences concerning having a substance-abusing relative and attending the support group. Results All parents displayed feelings of stress and strain. They appeared to be highly satisfied with their participation in a support group. The expert status and knowledge of the facilitator and the provision of accurate information in the support group was also much appreciated. They were however dissatisfied by the attitude and knowledge of their GP. Conclusions Our findings suggest that parents benefit from joining support groups, particularly in terms of emotional and social support and the practical information they received. PMID:22958797
Wu, Y. P.; Hilliard, M. E.; Rausch, J.; Dolan, L. M.; Hood, K. K.
Aims In young people with Type 1 diabetes, depressive symptoms and shared responsibility for management of diabetes impact upon diabetes management and control. However, the simultaneous effects of both depressive symptoms and parental involvement on diabetes self-care and glycaemic control have not been examined. Thus, the aim of the current study was to examine the relationships between parental involvement and adolescent depressive symptoms in predicting blood glucose monitoring and glycaemic control. Methods One hundred and fifty young people with Type 1 diabetes (mean age 15.3 years) and their parents completed responsibility sharing and depressive symptom assessments, meter assessment of blood glucose monitoring and HbA1c at baseline and then 6, 12 and 18 months. Results Parental involvement affected HbA1c through blood glucose monitoring only at low levels of adolescent depressive symptoms (score ? 6), which made up only 20% of the sample. In the presence of more depressive symptoms, parental involvement no longer was related to HbA1c through blood glucose monitoring. This was the relationship in the majority of the sample (80%). Conclusions While most young people in this sample are not showing evidence of high levels of depressive symptoms, even modest levels of distress interfere with parental involvement in diabetes management. By addressing adolescent depressive symptoms, interventions promoting parental involvement in these families may be more effective. PMID:23320523
Goldman-Mellor, Sidra J.; Caspi, Avshalom; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.
Importance Suicidal behavior has increased since the onset of the global recession, a trend that may have long-term health and social implications. Objective To test whether suicide attempts among young people signal increased risk for later poor health and social functioning, above and beyond pre-existing psychiatric disorder. Design We followed a cohort of young people and assessed multiple aspects of their health and social functioning as they approached midlife. Outcomes among individuals who had self-reported a suicide attempt up through age 24 (young suicide attempters) were compared to those who reported no attempt through age 24 (non-attempters). Psychiatric history and social class were controlled. Setting The population-representative Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Participants A total of 1,037 birth cohort members, comprising 91 young suicide attempters and 946 non-attempters, 95% of whom were followed to age 38. Main Outcome Measures Outcomes were selected to represent significant individual and societal costs: mental health, physical health, harm towards others, and need for support. Results As adults approaching midlife, young suicide attempters were significantly more likely to have persistent mental health problems (e.g., depression, substance dependence, additional suicide attempts) when compared to non-attempters. They were also more likely to have physical health problems (e.g., metabolic syndrome, elevated inflammation). They engaged in more violence (e.g., violent crime, intimate partner abuse) and needed more social support (e.g., long-term welfare receipt, unemployment). Furthermore, they reported being lonelier and less satisfied with their lives. These associations remained after adjustment for youth psychiatric diagnoses and social class. Conclusions Many young suicide attempters remain vulnerable to costly health and social problems into midlife. As rates of suicidal behavior rise with the continuing global recession, additional suicide prevention efforts and long-term monitoring and after-care services are needed. PMID:24306041
Drake, Robert E.; And Others
Reviews recent research on the epidemiology, subject characteristics, and service needs of the homeless population who are dually diagnosed to suffer both severe mental illness and substance abuse disorders. Discusses evolving approaches to providing social services, various treatments, system and legal issues, and problems with current research.…
Matuszowicz, Peter F.
Researchers have documented links between a number of behavioral issues and homelessness, including the following: limited/no social networks; social isolation; proneness of victimization; history of emotional, physical, sexual, and substance abuse; lack of education; and anxiety resulting from inadequate physical space. The possible benefits of…
Woods, Cyndy Jones
The Thomas J. Pappas Regional Education Center in Phoenix, Arizona, is a magnet school for homeless students from unorganized territories, military installations, Indian reservations, and national forest lands. This "accommodation" school, supported by federal grants, in-kind business donations, and committed volunteer mentors from the local…
Julie Mooney-Somers; Anna Olsen; Wani Erick; Robert Scott; Angie Akee; John Kaldor; Lisa Maher
The Indigenous Resilience Project is an Australian community-based participatory research project using qualitative methods to explore young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people's views of blood-borne viral and sexually transmitted infections (BBV\\/STI) affecting their communities. In this paper we present an analysis of narratives from young people who had a previous BBV\\/STI diagnosis to explore how they actively negotiate the
Gorrette Nalwadda; Nazarius M. Tumwesigye; Elisabeth Faxelid; Josaphat Byamugisha; Florence Mirembe
BackgroundLow and inconsistent use of contraceptives by young people contributes to unintended pregnancies. This study assessed quality of contraceptive services for young people aged 15–24 in two rural districts in Uganda.MethodsFive female and two male simulated clients (SCs) interacted with 128 providers at public, private not-for-profit (PNFP), and private for profit (PFP) health facilities. After consultations, SCs were interviewed using
Thompson, Kate; Dyson, Gavin; Holland, Lucy; Joubert, Lynette
Awareness about the specific needs of Adolescents and Young Adults (AYA) aged 15-25 with a diagnosis of cancer has grown rapidly over the past 10 years. To improve outcomes for these patients it is essential that services are developed within youth friendly models. This requires awareness by healthcare professionals of unique biological, genetic, epidemiological, psychological, social, and cultural factors that affect the AYA population. This study sought to explore oncology professionals understanding of the healthcare preferences of AYAs with cancer receiving treatment at a specialist cancer centre. Participants comprised 60 professionals in allied health (n = 15); nursing (n = 32); oncology (n = 6) and those from the Victorian AYA Cancer Service (n = 7). A questionnaire, developed from pilot work, collected demographic information, investigated professionals' top five perceived issues for AYAs, and examined perceptions in the areas of communication; information provision; environment; services; education, employment and social life, fertility and sexuality; support and survivorship. Results illustrate that, with a strong focus on survival and physical wellbeing, professionals significantly underestimate the breadth of AYA psychosocial concerns. The findings further indicate: that young people report different healthcare preferences compared to those reported by professionals; there are varying levels of professional skill, experience and confidence; there are significant workforce development and support needs for professionals; and AYA models of care require rigorous evaluation to ensure the improvement of outcomes for young people living with cancer. PMID:23521383
Montalcini, Tiziana; Migliaccio, Valeria; Yvelise, Ferro; Rotundo, Stefania; Mazza, Elisa; Liberato, Alessandra; Pujia, Arturo
The handgrip strength is considered an excellent predictor of morbidity and mortality for acute and long term outcomes. In fact, several studies showed that the reduced handgrip strength is correlated to all-cause mortality in both middle aged and elderly subjects. Nevertheless, defined reference values of handgrip strength are not available, especially from young and healthy populations. The aim of this study was to determine the reference values for handgrip strength from a healthy population of young volunteers. A secondary objective was to derivate a muscle function T score useful for adults and elderly individuals. We enrolled 335 healthy university students (157 men and 178 females) aged 19-25 years. The handgrip strength was measured using a hydraulic hand dynamometer by trained dietitians. The mean handgrip strength value was 27.70 ± 4.3 kg for female and 44.77 ± 6.6 kg for male. We showed statistical difference between sexes. We also found the lower T score in community-dwelling elderly individuals in comparison to the young people. The muscle strength loss is a multi-factorial process influenced by age and hormonal factors. The availability of the reference values in both sexes might open the way to the diffusion of the handgrip strength assessment for more clinical use, and it might be useful to identify people who could benefit from early nutritional or pharmacological programs. PMID:22752930
At least one-third of the world's 30 million HIV-infected persons are young people 10-24 years of age. Sexually transmitted diseases are further exposing young people, especially females, to HIV. The vulnerability of youth to AIDS is due, in part, to social issues such as denial of access to education, employment, skills, health care, shelter, and protection from abuse. Children are vulnerable to violence, abuse, exploitation, and drug use--ideal conditions for HIV acquisition. The theme for the UNAIDS 1998 campaign is youth. This initiative seeks to transform the environment in which youth live to a supportive setting in which they will have more control over their lives. Such a transformation can be achieved by convincing governments and community groups to take responsibility for their young through interventions such as sex education, condom provision, facilitation of parent-child communication, and life skills training. Particular emphasis is being placed on HIV in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Moldova, and the Ukraine where the increase in intravenous drug use is the major risk factor. A campaign folder, released in Moscow, Russia, in April 1998, contains five documents related to the UNAIDS youth campaign. PMID:12294320
Mathe, Kristin S.
American cities have a combination of policies that both provide emergency services and restrict the movements and activities of homeless people. These policies are the product of active public debates that construct narratives that explain...
While substantial research has examined the effects of pornography on young people in developed societies, existing studies fall short in addressing how sexually-explicit material affects young people in developing countries. The importance of such knowledge increases as the globalising effects of technology expand young peoples' access and exposure to pornography. During the summer of 2012, a study was undertaken in Sierra Leone examining factors affecting young peoples' sexual and reproductive health. The research assessed the influence of HIV knowledge, communication about sex, civil war and contraception myths on sexual behaviours, while remaining open to unanticipated factors. During data collection, respondents identified pornography, also called blues, as an influential factor, detailing its newfound accessibility driven by improved access to information and communication technologies in the country. Respondents also addressed several presumed ways in which pornography impacts young peoples' decisions about sexual health. The following study examines perceived effects of young peoples' exposure to pornography based on existing literature. It then outlines the findings of research conducted in Sierra Leone, drawing on primary data from the respondents and relevant published literature and concludes with proposals for addressing its negative effects. PMID:24387328
Barnes, Grace M.; Welte, John W.; Hoffman, Joseph H.; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile O.
Objective: Gambling and alcohol use were compared for college and noncollege young adults in the US population. Participants: Participants were 1,000 respondents aged 18 to 21. Methods: Data were analyzed from a representative household sample of US young people aged 14 to 21 years old. Telephone interviews were conducted between August 2005 and…
Patterson, William P.
MANNING INNOVATION AWARDS 2008 It takes many people and many talents to build a nation. For a young.manningawards.ca YOUNG CANADIAN INNOVATION AWARDS: $4,000 EACH Friends and Laureates of the Foundation The Arthur J. E BRUNSWICK ShapeAccelArray (SAA) SPONSORED BY MANNING INNOVATION AWARD $10,000 Arnold Hennessy and Phil
Pallotta-Chiarolli, Maria; Martin, Erik
This qualitative study explored the mental health of Australian bisexual-identifying and/or behaving adolescents and young people. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 adolescents and young adults, and 15 youth health/community service providers. The health implications of misrepresentation, marginalization, and exclusion from a…
Marston, C; Lewis, R
Objective To explore expectations, experiences and circumstances of anal sex among young people. Design Qualitative, longitudinal study using individual and group interviews. Participants 130 men and women aged 16–18 from diverse social backgrounds. Setting 3 contrasting sites in England (London, a northern industrial city, rural southwest). Results Anal heterosex often appeared to be painful, risky and coercive, particularly for women. Interviewees frequently cited pornography as the ‘explanation’ for anal sex, yet their accounts revealed a complex context with availability of pornography being only one element. Other key elements included competition between men; the claim that ‘people must like it if they do it’ (made alongside the seemingly contradictory expectation that it will be painful for women); and, crucially, normalisation of coercion and ‘accidental’ penetration. It seemed that men were expected to persuade or coerce reluctant partners. Conclusions Young people's narratives normalised coercive, painful and unsafe anal heterosex. This study suggests an urgent need for harm reduction efforts targeting anal sex to help encourage discussion about mutuality and consent, reduce risky and painful techniques and challenge views that normalise coercion. PMID:25122073
The Dongcheng District Family Planning Association was commissioned by the Beijing Family Planning Association to survey youths undergoing premarital medical examinations at the Dongsi Maternity and Child Care Center between June 1993 and April 1994 on their sex-related knowledge, attitudes, and experience. Findings are based upon answers to questionnaires provided by 1477 men and 1557 women, all randomly sampled. 27.52% became interested in sex in junior high school and 29.76% in senior high school. 60.48%, 19.84%, and 15.00% obtained their sexual knowledge from publications, school, and other people, respectively. 45.52% of the respondents had experienced premarital sex; 76.14% of the sole proprietors, 60.87% of the unemployed, 45.34% of workers, 41.23% of civil servants, and 38.24% of military personnel. 83.88% of respondents find premarital sex to be understandable, while 8.44% believe that it should be banned. Better educated respondents were found to be more knowledgeable about sex. More than 91% of the unmarried young people see premarital sex education as unnecessary. The author discusses the importance of providing knowledge about sex and contraception to unmarried young people, sexual values among youth, sex education, and premarital sex education for certain special groups such as sole proprietors and the unemployed. PMID:12293117
Background Homelessness is a critical social issue, both a product of, and contributing to, poor mental and physical health. Over 150,000 young Canadians live on the streets. Homeless youth experience a high incidence of infectious diseases, many of which are vaccine preventable. Early departure from school and limited access to public health services makes them a particularly vulnerable high-risk group. This study explores challenges to obtaining essential vaccines experienced by homeless youth. Methods A qualitative research study to explore knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and experiences surrounding immunization of hard-to-reach homeless youth was designed. Participants were recruited for focus groups from Phoenix House and Shelter, a non-profit, community-based organization assisting homeless youth in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. An experienced facilitator guided the recorded discussions. Transcripts of audiotapes were analyzed using a constant comparative method until data revealed a set of exemplars and themes that best captured participants’ knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences surrounding immunization and infectious diseases. Results Important themes emerged from our analysis. Considerable variability in knowledge about immunization and vaccine preventable diseases was found. The homeless youth in the study had limited awareness of meningitis in contrast to a greater knowledge about sexually transmitted infections and influenza, gained during the H1N1/09 public health campaign. They recognized their poverty as a risk for contracting infectious diseases, along with their inability to always employ known strategies to prevent infectious diseases, due to circumstances. They showed considerable insight into the detrimental effects of poor hygiene, sleeping locations and risk behaviour. Interviewed homeless youth regarded themselves as good compliers of health professional advice and offered valuable suggestions to improve immunization in their population. Conclusions To provide effective public health interventions, it is necessary to consider the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and experiences of hard to reach, high risk groups. Our study shows that homeless youth are interested and capable in discussing immunization. Active targeting of homeless youth for public health immunization programs is needed. Working collaboratively with non-profit organizations that assist homeless youth provides an opportunity to increase their knowledge of infectious risks and to improve immunization strategies in this vulnerable group. PMID:22568937